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Sample records for motor links nr1

  1. A non-muscle myosin II motor links NR1 to retrograde trafficking and proteasomal degradation in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Vazhappilly, Rema; Wee, Karen Siaw-Ling; Sucher, Nikolaus J; Low, Chian-Ming

    2010-03-01

    Rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells have been shown to lack functional NMDA receptors; yet, these cells express NR1 subunits of the NMDA receptor. The reason for the lack of functional receptors has been attributed to the absence of significant levels of NR2 subunits to co-assemble with NR1. It is known that PC12 expresses very low levels of NR2C, with complete absence of other types of NR2 subunits. The purpose of the present study is to describe the molecular mechanism of trafficking and degradation of unassembled NR1 subunits in PC12 cells. The localization of NR1 subunits in PC12 cells were evaluated by immunofluorescence and co-immunoprecipitation, which showed that NR1 was present in the endoplasmic reticulum and cis-middle compartments of the Golgi apparatus. Upon treatment with a proteasome inhibitor, MG132, the ubiquitinylated species of NR1 subunit were detected, suggesting that NR1 is being targeted for endoplasmic reticulum-associated proteasomal degradation. Our previous studies suggest that NR1 subunits from the Golgi do not proceed to trans-Golgi, hence they will require re-routing to the endoplasmic reticulum for degradation. Further investigations on the factors involved in the trafficking of NR1 from Golgi to endoplasmic reticulum were performed using co-immunoprecipitation and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. These revealed the co-association of NR1 with non-muscle myosin heavy chain II isoforms A and B. We also demonstrate the functional significance of this interaction through the use of a myosin inhibitor, blebbistatin, to disrupt brefeldin A-induced Golgi-to-endoplasmic reticulum trafficking of NR1. In conclusion, our results suggest that non-muscle myosin II is involved in the retrograde trafficking of NR1 subunits from the cis/middle-Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum for proteasomal degradation in PC12.

  2. ALS-linked protein disulfide isomerase variants cause motor dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Woehlbier, Ute; Colombo, Alicia; Saaranen, Mirva J; Pérez, Viviana; Ojeda, Jorge; Bustos, Fernando J; Andreu, Catherine I; Torres, Mauricio; Valenzuela, Vicente; Medinas, Danilo B; Rozas, Pablo; Vidal, Rene L; Lopez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Salameh, Johnny; Fernandez-Collemann, Sara; Muñoz, Natalia; Matus, Soledad; Armisen, Ricardo; Sagredo, Alfredo; Palma, Karina; Irrazabal, Thergiory; Almeida, Sandra; Gonzalez-Perez, Paloma; Campero, Mario; Gao, Fen-Biao; Henny, Pablo; van Zundert, Brigitte; Ruddock, Lloyd W; Concha, Miguel L; Henriquez, Juan P; Brown, Robert H; Hetz, Claudio

    2016-04-15

    Disturbance of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteostasis is a common feature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs) areERfoldases identified as possibleALSbiomarkers, as well as neuroprotective factors. However, no functional studies have addressed their impact on the disease process. Here, we functionally characterized fourALS-linked mutations recently identified in two majorPDIgenes,PDIA1 andPDIA3/ERp57. Phenotypic screening in zebrafish revealed that the expression of thesePDIvariants induce motor defects associated with a disruption of motoneuron connectivity. Similarly, the expression of mutantPDIs impaired dendritic outgrowth in motoneuron cell culture models. Cellular and biochemical studies identified distinct molecular defects underlying the pathogenicity of thesePDImutants. Finally, targetingERp57 in the nervous system led to severe motor dysfunction in mice associated with a loss of neuromuscular synapses. This study identifiesERproteostasis imbalance as a risk factor forALS, driving initial stages of the disease.

  3. Cerebellum: links between development, developmental disorders and motor learning

    PubMed Central

    Manto, Mario U.; Jissendi, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    The study of the links and interactions between development and motor learning has noticeable implications for the understanding and management of neurodevelopmental disorders. This is particularly relevant for the cerebellum which is critical for sensorimotor learning. The olivocerebellar pathway is a key pathway contributing to learning of motor skills. Its developmental maturation and remodeling are being unraveled. Advances in genetics have led to major improvements in our appraisal of the genes involved in cerebellar development, especially studies in mutant mice. Cerebellar neurogenesis is compartmentalized in relationship with neurotransmitter fate. The Engrailed-2 gene is a major actor of the specification of cerebellar cell types and late embryogenic morphogenesis. Math1, expressed by the rhombic lip, is required for the genesis of glutamatergic neurons. Mutants deficient for the transcription factor Ptf1a display a lack of Purkinje cells and gabaergic interneurons. Rora gene contributes to the developmental signaling between granule cells and Purkinje neurons. The expression profile of sonic hedgehog in postnatal stages determines the final size/shape of the cerebellum. Genes affecting the development impact upon the physiological properties of the cerebellar circuits. For instance, receptors are developmentally regulated and their action interferes directly with developmental processes. Another field of research which is expanding relates to very preterm neonates. They are at risk for cerebellar lesions, which may themselves impair the developmental events. Very preterm neonates often show sensori-motor deficits, highlighting another major link between impaired developments and learning deficiencies. Pathways playing a critical role in cerebellar development are likely to become therapeutical targets for several neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:22291620

  4. Cerebellum: links between development, developmental disorders and motor learning.

    PubMed

    Manto, Mario U; Jissendi, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    The study of the links and interactions between development and motor learning has noticeable implications for the understanding and management of neurodevelopmental disorders. This is particularly relevant for the cerebellum which is critical for sensorimotor learning. The olivocerebellar pathway is a key pathway contributing to learning of motor skills. Its developmental maturation and remodeling are being unraveled. Advances in genetics have led to major improvements in our appraisal of the genes involved in cerebellar development, especially studies in mutant mice. Cerebellar neurogenesis is compartmentalized in relationship with neurotransmitter fate. The Engrailed-2 gene is a major actor of the specification of cerebellar cell types and late embryogenic morphogenesis. Math1, expressed by the rhombic lip, is required for the genesis of glutamatergic neurons. Mutants deficient for the transcription factor Ptf1a display a lack of Purkinje cells and gabaergic interneurons. Rora gene contributes to the developmental signaling between granule cells and Purkinje neurons. The expression profile of sonic hedgehog in postnatal stages determines the final size/shape of the cerebellum. Genes affecting the development impact upon the physiological properties of the cerebellar circuits. For instance, receptors are developmentally regulated and their action interferes directly with developmental processes. Another field of research which is expanding relates to very preterm neonates. They are at risk for cerebellar lesions, which may themselves impair the developmental events. Very preterm neonates often show sensori-motor deficits, highlighting another major link between impaired developments and learning deficiencies. Pathways playing a critical role in cerebellar development are likely to become therapeutical targets for several neurodevelopmental disorders.

  5. Supralinear potentiation of NR1/NR3A excitatory glycine receptors by Zn2+ and NR1 antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Madry, Christian; Betz, Heinrich; Geiger, Jörg R. P.; Laube, Bodo

    2008-01-01

    Coassembly of the glycine-binding NMDA receptor subunits NR1 and NR3A results in excitatory glycine receptors of low efficacy. Here, we report that micromolar concentrations of the divalent cation Zn2+ produce a 10-fold potentiation of NR1/NR3A receptor responses, which resembles that seen upon antagonizing glycine binding to the NR1 subunit. Coapplication of both Zn2+ and NR1 antagonist caused a supralinear potentiation, resulting in a >120-fold increase of glycine-activated currents. At concentrations >50 μM, Zn2+ alone generated receptor currents with similar efficacy as glycine, implying that NR1/NR3A receptors can be activated by different agonists. Point mutations in the NR1 and NR3A glycine-binding sites revealed that both the potentiating and agonistic effects of Zn2+ are mediated by the ligand-binding domain of the NR1 subunit. In conclusion, Zn2+ acts as a potent positive modulator and agonist at the NR1 subunit of NR1/NR3A receptors. Our results suggest that this unconventional member of the NMDA receptor family may in vivo be gated by the combined action of glycine and Zn2+ or a yet unknown second ligand. PMID:18711142

  6. Focal dystonia in musicians: linking motor symptoms to somatosensory dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Konczak, Jürgen; Abbruzzese, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Musician's dystonia (MD) is a neurological motor disorder characterized by involuntary contractions of those muscles involved in the play of a musical instrument. It is task-specific and initially only impairs the voluntary control of highly practiced musical motor skills. MD can lead to a severe decrement in a musician's ability to perform. While the etiology and the neurological pathomechanism of the disease remain unknown, it is known that MD like others forms of focal dystonia is associated with somatosensory deficits, specifically a decreased precision of tactile and proprioceptive perception. The sensory component of the disease becomes also evident by the patients' use of "sensory tricks" such as touching dystonic muscles to alleviate motor symptoms. The central premise of this paper is that the motor symptoms of MD have a somatosensory origin and are not fully explained as a problem of motor execution. We outline how altered proprioceptive feedback ultimately leads to a loss of voluntary motor control and propose two scenarios that explain why sensory tricks are effective. They are effective, because the sensorimotor system either recruits neural resources normally involved in tactile-proprioceptive (sensory) integration, or utilizes a fully functioning motor efference copy mechanism to align experienced with expected sensory feedback. We argue that an enhanced understanding of how a primary sensory deficit interacts with mechanisms of sensorimotor integration in MD provides helpful insights for the design of more effective behavioral therapies.

  7. Focal dystonia in musicians: linking motor symptoms to somatosensory dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Konczak, Jürgen; Abbruzzese, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Musician's dystonia (MD) is a neurological motor disorder characterized by involuntary contractions of those muscles involved in the play of a musical instrument. It is task-specific and initially only impairs the voluntary control of highly practiced musical motor skills. MD can lead to a severe decrement in a musician's ability to perform. While the etiology and the neurological pathomechanism of the disease remain unknown, it is known that MD like others forms of focal dystonia is associated with somatosensory deficits, specifically a decreased precision of tactile and proprioceptive perception. The sensory component of the disease becomes also evident by the patients' use of “sensory tricks” such as touching dystonic muscles to alleviate motor symptoms. The central premise of this paper is that the motor symptoms of MD have a somatosensory origin and are not fully explained as a problem of motor execution. We outline how altered proprioceptive feedback ultimately leads to a loss of voluntary motor control and propose two scenarios that explain why sensory tricks are effective. They are effective, because the sensorimotor system either recruits neural resources normally involved in tactile-proprioceptive (sensory) integration, or utilizes a fully functioning motor efference copy mechanism to align experienced with expected sensory feedback. We argue that an enhanced understanding of how a primary sensory deficit interacts with mechanisms of sensorimotor integration in MD provides helpful insights for the design of more effective behavioral therapies. PMID:23805090

  8. Body side and predominant motor features at the onset of Parkinson's disease are linked to motor and nonmotor progression.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Christian R; Held, Ulrike; Valko, Philipp O; Wienecke, Miriam; Waldvogel, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease most often have asymmetric motor features at onset, and specific motor signs (ie, tremor versus bradykinesia and rigidity) frequently characterize the first few years of disease evolution. Some previous clinical evidence has suggested that body side and a predominance of motor manifestations at disease onset are linked to long-term evolution and disease progression. We prospectively analyzed 206 patients with Parkinson's disease according to the most affected side and predominant motor signs at onset. Patients were divided into left-side rigid-akinetic (n = 71), right-side rigid-akinetic (n = 59), left-side tremor (n = 41), and right-side tremor (n = 35) subgroups. These subgroups were compared in terms of motor and cognitive functions, mean motor deterioration per year (calculated as the motor score divided by disease duration), total equivalent doses of dopaminergic drugs, and the presence of hallucinations and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. Disease duration was similar in all groups. Motor fluctuations were more likely to occur in rigid-akinetic patients. In a multiple model analysis adjusted for potential confounders, faster disease progression was associated with right-side (P = 0.045) and rigid-akinetic onset (P = 0.001). With respect to nonmotor symptoms, the rigid-akinetic type was associated with increased risk of cognitive decline (P = 0.004) compared with the tremor type. A trend was noticed toward an increased risk of developing visual hallucinations in rigid-akinetic patients and toward an increased frequency of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in those who had left-sided onset of symptoms. Our findings corroborate that body side and type of motor signs at the time of diagnosis affect the evolution of motor severity and may also have an impact on some nonmotor manifestations.

  9. Spinal NMDA NR1 Subunit Expression Following Transient TNBS Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, QiQi; Price, Donald D.; Caudle, Robert M.; Verne, G. Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    Background: N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors play an important role in the development of hypersensitivity to visceral and somatic stimuli following inflammation or tissue injury. Our objective was to investigate the role of NMDA NR1 receptors in the spinal cord (T10-L1; L4-S1) of a subset of rats that remain hypersensitive following histological resolution of TNBS-induced colitis compared to saline treated rats and rats that had recovered both behaviorally and histologically. We hypothesized that NMDA NR1 subunit expression mediates hypersensitivity following transient TNBS colitis. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (150g-250g) received 20mg/rat intracolonic trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in 50% ethanol or saline. Animals underwent nociceptive visceral/somatic pain testing 16 weeks after resolution of TNBS colitis. Animals were sacrificed and their spinal cord (T10-L1; L4-S1) was retrieved and 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunohistocytochemistry techniques were used to investigate spinal-NMDA receptor expression. Results: NR1001 was the only NMDA NR1 receptor subunit that was expressed in recovered and control rats, whereas hypersensitive animals expressed NR1011 and NR1111 as well as NR1001 subunits. Immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated increased expression of NMDA NR1-N1, C1, and C2-plus expression in lamina I & II of the spinal cord (T10-L1; L4-S1) in hypersensitive rats but not in recovered/control rats. Conclusions: Selective increases in the expression of the NMDA NR1 splice variants occur in hypersensitive rats following resolution of TNBS colitis. This suggests that the NMDA NR1 receptor play an important role in the development of neuronal plasticity and central sensitization. The recombination of NR1 splice variants may serve as a key functional protein that maintains hypersensitivity following resolution of TNBS colitis. PMID:19406112

  10. Adaptive control of rigid-link electrically-driven robots actuated with brushless DC motors

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, M.M.; Dawson, D.M.

    1994-12-31

    In this paper, we extend the work of [1] and [2] to design an adaptive controller for rigid-link electrically-driven (RLED) robot manipulators specifically actuated with Brushless Direct Current (BLDC) motors. In particular the adaptive controller presented is tailored to handle the multi-link dynamics of a rigid-link robot as opposed to a simple inertial load. Furthermore, the linear electrical dynamics of brushed DC motors used in the development of [1], are replaced with the multiple input nonlinear dynamics of BLDC motors. The result is an adaptive controller that guarantees globally asymptotic convergence of the link position tracking error in spite of parametric uncertainty throughout the entire electro-mechanical model.

  11. Nuclear receptor NR1H3 in familial multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhe; Sadovnick, A. Dessa; Traboulsee, Anthony L.; Ross, Jay P.; Bernales, Cecily Q.; Encarnacion, Mary; Yee, Irene M.; de Lemos, Madonna; Greenwood, Talitha; Lee, Joshua D.; Wright, Galen; Ross, Colin J.; Zhang, Si; Song, Weihong; Vilariño-Güell, Carles

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease characterized by myelin loss and neuronal dysfunction. Despite the aggregation observed in some families, pathogenic mutations have remained elusive. In this study we describe the identification of NR1H3 p.Arg415Gln in seven MS patients from two multi-incident families presenting severe and progressive disease, with an average age at onset of 34 years. Additionally, association analysis of common variants in NR1H3 identified rs2279238 conferring a 1.35-fold increased risk of developing progressive MS. The p.Arg415Gln position is highly conserved in orthologs and paralogs, and disrupts NR1H3 heterodimerization and transcriptional activation of target genes. Protein expression analysis revealed that mutant NR1H3 (LXRA) alters gene expression profiles, suggesting a disruption in transcriptional regulation as one of the mechanisms underlying MS pathogenesis. Our study indicates that pharmacological activation of LXRA or its targets may lead to effective treatments for the highly debilitating and currently untreatable progressive phase of MS. PMID:27253448

  12. A study of glutamate levels, NR1, NR2A, NR2B receptors and oxidative stress in rat model of Japanese encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Prashant Singh; Misra, Usha Kant; Kalita, Jayantee

    2017-03-15

    There is paucity of studies on the role of glutamate excitotoxicity in cell damage in Japanese encephalitis. In this study the glutamate levels and its NMDA receptors, and oxidative stress markers in different brain regions have been evaluated and correlated with neurobehavioral changes at different time points. Twelve day old Wistar rats were inoculated with 3×10(6)pfu/ml intracerebrally. The neurobehavioral effects were evaluated by spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA), grip strength and rota rod test on 10, 33 and 48days post inoculation (dpi). Glutamate level was evaluated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, mRNA gene expression of ionotropic glutamate receptors N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor 1, 2A and 2B (NR1, NR2A and NR2B) were evaluated by real time PCR. Malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels were measured by spectrophotometer in different brain regions of JEV infected rats on 10, 33 and 48dpi. There was significant increase in motor deficit, grip strength and decreased locomotor activity on 10 and 33dpi. Glutamate levels were increased in thalamus, midbrain, frontal cortex, striatum and cerebellum on 10 and 33dpi and were followed by a recovery on 48dpi. Glutamate NMDR receptors NR1, NR2A and NR2B were reduced in thalamus, midbrain, frontal cortex, striatum and cerebellum on 10dpi which was followed by recovery after 33dpi. A significant increase in MDA level in thalamus, midbrain, frontal cortex, striatum and cerebellum was noted on 10 and 33dpi. The antioxidant GSH and GPx were significantly reduced in these brain regions on 10 and 33dpi. Glutamate, MDA, GSH and GPx correlated in different brain regions as the disease progress. Increased Glutamate level may be related to oxidative stress and may be responsible for behavioral alterations in rat model of Japanese encephalitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Multilevel DC Link Inverter for Brushless Permanent Magnet Motors with Very Low Inductance

    SciTech Connect

    Su, G.J.

    2001-10-29

    Due to their long effective air gaps, permanent magnet motors tend to have low inductance. The use of ironless stator structure in present high power PM motors (several tens of kWs) reduces the inductance even further (< 100 {micro}H). This low inductance imposes stringent current regulation demands for the inverter to obtain acceptable current ripple. An analysis of the current ripple for these low inductance brushless PM motors shows that a standard inverter with the most commonly used IGBT switching devices cannot meet the current regulation demands and will produce unacceptable current ripples due to the IGBT's limited switching frequency. This paper introduces a new multilevel dc link inverter, which can dramatically reduce the current ripple for brushless PM motor drives. The operating principle and design guidelines are included.

  14. Exome Sequencing Links Corticospinal Motor Neuron Disease to Common Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hofree, Matan; Silhavy, Jennifer L.; Heiberg, Andrew D.; Abdellateef, Mostafa; Rosti, Basak; Scott, Eric; Mansour, Lobna; Masri, Amira; Kayserili, Hulya; Al-Aama, Jumana Y.; Abdel-Salam, Ghada M. H.; Karminejad, Ariana; Kara, Majdi; Kara, Bulent; Bozorgmehri, Bita; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg; Mojahedi, Faezeh; El Din Mahmoud, Iman Gamal; Bouslam, Naima; Bouhouche, Ahmed; Benomar, Ali; Hanein, Sylvain; Raymond, Laure; Forlani, Sylvie; Mascaro, Massimo; Selim, Laila; Shehata, Nabil; Al-Allawi, Nasir; Bindu, P.S.; Azam, Matloob; Gunel, Murat; Caglayan, Ahmet; Bilguvar, Kaya; Tolun, Aslihan; Issa, Mahmoud Y.; Schroth, Jana; Spencer, Emily G.; Rosti, Rasim O.; Akizu, Naiara; Vaux, Keith K.; Johansen, Anide; Koh, Alice A.; Megahed, Hisham; Durr, Alexandra; Brice, Alexis; Stevanin, Giovanni; Gabriel, Stacy B.; Ideker, Trey; Gleeson, Joseph G.

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are neurodegenerative motor neuron diseases characterized by progressive age-dependent loss of corticospinal motor tract function. Although the genetic basis is partly understood, only a fraction of cases can receive a genetic diagnosis, and a global view of HSP is lacking. By using whole-exome sequencing in combination with network analysis, we identified 18 previously unknown putative HSP genes and validated nearly all of these genes functionally or genetically. The pathways highlighted by these mutations link HSP to cellular transport, nucleotide metabolism, and synapse and axon development. Network analysis revealed a host of further candidate genes, of which three were mutated in our cohort. Our analysis links HSP to other neurodegenerative disorders and can facilitate gene discovery and mechanistic understanding of disease. PMID:24482476

  15. Structural determinants of D-cycloserine efficacy at the NR1/NR2C NMDA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Dravid, Shashank M.; Burger, Pieter B.; Prakash, Anand; Geballe, Matthew T.; Yadav, Roopali; Le, Phuong; Vellano, Kimberly; Snyder, James P.; Traynelis, Stephen F.

    2010-01-01

    We have studied relative efficacies of NR1 agonists glycine and D-cycloserine (DCS), and found efficacy to be dependent on the NR2 subunit. DCS shows partial agonism at NR1/NR2B but has higher relative efficacy than glycine at NR1/NR2C receptor. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the NR1/NR2B and NR1/NR2C agonist binding domain dimer suggest only subtle differences in the interactions of DCS with NR1 binding site residues relative to glycine. The most pronounced differences were observed in the NR1/NR2C simulation between the orientation of helix F and G of the NR1 subunit. Interestingly, Helix F was previously proposed to influence receptor gating and to adopt an orientation depending on agonist efficacy. MD simulations and site-directed mutagenesis further suggest a role for residues at the agonist binding domain dimer interface in regulating DCS efficacy. To relate the structural rearrangements to receptor gating, we recorded single-channel currents from outside-out patches containing a single active NR1/NR2C receptor. DCS increased the mean open time and open probability of NR1/NR2C receptors in comparison to glycine. Maximum likelihood fitting of a gating model for NR1/NR2C receptor activation to the single channel data suggests that DCS specifically accelerates the rate constant governing a fast gating step and reduces the closing rate. These changes appear to reflect a decreased activation energy for a pregating step and increased stability of the open states. We suggest that the higher efficacy of DCS at NR1/NR2C receptors involves structural rearrangements at the dimer interface and an effect on NR1/NR2C receptor pre-gating conformational changes. PMID:20164358

  16. Active force generation in cross-linked filament bundles without motor proteins.

    PubMed

    Walcott, Sam; Sun, Sean X

    2010-11-01

    Cytoskeletal filaments often interact laterally through cross-linking proteins, contributing to passive cellular viscoelasticity and, perhaps surprisingly, active force generation. We present a theory, based on the formation and rupture of cross-linker bonds, that relates molecular properties of those interactions to the macroscale mechanics of filament bundles. Computing the force-velocity relation for such a bundle, we demonstrate significant contractile forces in the absence of molecular motors. This theory provides insight into cytokinesis, cytoskeletal mechanics, and stress-fiber contraction.

  17. Finger-Based Numerical Skills Link Fine Motor Skills to Numerical Development in Preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Suggate, Sebastian; Stoeger, Heidrun; Fischer, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies investigating the association between fine-motor skills (FMS) and mathematical skills have lacked specificity. In this study, we test whether an FMS link to numerical skills is due to the involvement of finger representations in early mathematics. We gave 81 pre-schoolers (mean age of 4 years, 9 months) a set of FMS measures and numerical tasks with and without a specific finger focus. Additionally, we used receptive vocabulary and chronological age as control measures. FMS linked more closely to finger-based than to nonfinger-based numerical skills even after accounting for the control variables. Moreover, the relationship between FMS and numerical skill was entirely mediated by finger-based numerical skills. We concluded that FMS are closely related to early numerical skill development through finger-based numerical counting that aids the acquisition of mathematical mental representations.

  18. Efficiency consideration of DC link soft-switching inverters for motor drive applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, J.S.; Young, R.W.; McKeever, J.W.

    1994-12-31

    This paper critically evaluates efficiency of soft switching inverters including an actively clamped resonant dc link inverter and a clamped-mode resonant pole inverter. An analytical approach to evaluating efficiency of the clamped-mode soft switching inverter has been developed. The evaluation results are compared with that of the standard pulse-width-modulation (PWM) inverter. A 50-kW induction motor is used as the variable load, and the inverter efficiency is evaluated under different speed and torque conditions. The clamped-mode soft-switching inverter, although eliminating the switching loss, shows poor efficiency over the entire load range. Under low load conditions, the efficiency profile is even worse. The actively clamped resonant dc link inverter shows highest efficiency over the entire speed and torque range. However, its energy saving over the standard PWM inverter is marginal under full load or high speed conditions.

  19. An RNAi screen identifies metabolic regulators NR1D1 and PBP as novel survival factors for breast cancer cells with the ERBB2 signature

    PubMed Central

    Kourtidis, Antonis; Jain, Ritu; Carkner, Richard D.; Eifert, Cheryl; Brosnan, M. Julia; Conklin, Douglas S.

    2010-01-01

    Overexpression of the adverse prognostic marker ERBB2 occurs in 30% of breast cancers, however, therapies targeting this gene have not proven to be as effective as was initially hoped. Transcriptional profiling meta-analyses have shown that there are approximately 150 genes co-overexpressed with ERBB2, suggesting that these genes may represent alternative factors influencing ERBB2-positive tumors. Here we describe an RNA interference-based analysis of these genes that identifies transcriptional regulators of fat synthesis and storage as being critical for the survival of these cells. These transcription factors, NR1D1 and PBP, both reside on ERBB2-containing 17q12-21 amplicons and are part of the ERBB2 expression signature. We show that NR1D1 and PBP act through a common pathway in upregulating several genes in the de novo fatty acid synthesis network that is highly active in ERBB2-positive breast cancer cells. MDH1 and ME1, enzymes that link glycolysis and fatty acid synthesis, are also regulated by NR1D1. The resulting high-level fat production from increased expression of these genes likely contributes to an abnormal cellular energy metabolism based on aerobic glycolysis. Together, these results demonstrate that the cells of this aggressive form of breast cancer are genetically preprogrammed to depend on NR1D1 and PBP for the energy production necessary for survival. PMID:20160030

  20. Single-Phase Drive Ultrasonic Linear Motor Using a Linked Twin Square Plate Vibrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Keiji; Tamura, Hideki; Masuda, Kentaro; Takano, Takehiro

    2013-07-01

    A novel linear motion ultrasonic motor, which uses a single resonance mode driven by a single phase and has the same motor characteristics for operation in reverse directions, is developed. An in-plane breathing mode in the square plate is strongly driven by the transverse effect of a piezoelectric ceramic. A stator resonator consists of twin square plates linked by V-shaped beams. Only one side of the square plate can be excited by the resonance of the breathing mode, when the other passive side plate is electrically opened so that the effective elasticities and the resonant frequencies between both plates are different; as a result, the friction edge of the resonator vibrates in a slant locus to move a load slider. The reverse operation is easily obtained by switching the driving side of the square plates. We designed the stator resonator by FEM analysis and fabricated a prototype for our experiment. The prototype motor showed good characteristics, for example, a moving slider velocity of 100 mm/s, a thrust force of 3.5 N, and an efficiency of 30% when the preload was 10 N, the input effective voltage was 5 V, and the input power was 1.2 W.

  1. A method for linking motor vehicle victim and collision data collected by multiple county agencies.

    PubMed

    Papa, Linda; Mendes, Matthew E; Benton, Tom; Issa, R Raymond; Schmalz, Mark S; Bugnacki, Kristine; Garavaglia, Jan C

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed roadside and bedside factors associated with early mortality following motor vehicle trauma. This retrospective cohort study evaluated motor vehicle crashes in Orange County Florida in 2009 that became medical examiner cases. Data from the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles (DHSMV), emergency medical services (EMS), a level I trauma center, and the medical examiner were integrated for the analysis. The primary outcome measure was early death, defined by death within 48 hours of a motor vehicle trauma. Both traditional and nontraditional predictors of early mortality were assessed. The most significant factors associated with early mortality were as follows: (1) From autopsy: hemothorax (odds ratio [OR] = 8.26, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.83-37.3) and liver injury (OR = 4.26, 95% CI: 1.70-15.6); (2) from hospital data: systolic blood pressure (OR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.96-0.99) and having cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performed in the emergency department (OR = 13.4, 95% CI: 1.51-118.72); and (3) from DHSMV: involvement of drugs and/or alcohol (OR = 4.27, 95% CI: 1.33-13.6), total fatalities (OR = 6.07, 95% CI: 1.57-23.5), speed of vehicle (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02-1.09), and number of lanes at the crash scene (OR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.13-2.20). These results were made possible by integrating 4 distinct data sources. As future research in traffic-related injury moves toward prevention, it will be critical to evaluate new preventative strategies quickly and effectively. A unique number that is both patient and event specific that could be incorporated into each of these databases would make such integration seamless. Successful methods for linking data collected by the multiple agencies involved in motor vehicle collisions will ultimately provide invaluable information for medical personnel, researchers, engineers, planners, and policy makers at the local, state, and national levels to identify safety priorities to reduce crash

  2. Deep-brain photoreception links luminance detection to motor output in Xenopus frog tadpoles

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Stephen P.; Doherty, Gayle H.; Sillar, Keith T.

    2016-01-01

    Nonvisual photoreceptors are widely distributed in the retina and brain, but their roles in animal behavior remain poorly understood. Here we document a previously unidentified form of deep-brain photoreception in Xenopus laevis frog tadpoles. The isolated nervous system retains sensitivity to light even when devoid of input from classical eye and pineal photoreceptors. These preparations produce regular bouts of rhythmic swimming activity in ambient light but fall silent in the dark. This sensitivity is tuned to short-wavelength UV light; illumination at 400 nm initiates motor activity over a broad range of intensities, whereas longer wavelengths do not cause a response. The photosensitive tissue is located in a small region of caudal diencephalon—this region is necessary to retain responses to illumination, whereas its focal illumination is sufficient to drive them. We present evidence for photoreception via the light-sensitive proteins opsin (OPN)5 and/or cryptochrome 1, because populations of OPN5-positive and cryptochrome-positive cells reside within the caudal diencephalon. This discovery represents a hitherto undescribed vertebrate pathway that links luminance detection to motor output. The pathway provides a simple mechanism for light avoidance and/or may reinforce classical circadian systems. PMID:27166423

  3. Binge drinking affects brain oscillations linked to motor inhibition and execution.

    PubMed

    López-Caneda, Eduardo; Rodríguez Holguín, Socorro; Correas, Ángeles; Carbia, Carina; González-Villar, Alberto; Maestú, Fernando; Cadaveira, Fernando

    2017-07-01

    Neurofunctional studies have shown that binge drinking patterns of alcohol consumption during adolescence and youth are associated with anomalies in brain functioning. Recent evidence suggests that event-related oscillations may be an appropriate index of neurofunctional damage associated with alcoholism. However, there is no study to date that has evaluated the effects of binge drinking on oscillatory brain responses related to task performance. The purpose of the present study was to examine brain oscillations linked to motor inhibition and execution in young binge drinkers (BDs) compared with age-matched controls. Electroencephalographic activity was recorded from 64 electrodes while 72 university students (36 controls and 36 BDs) performed a visual Go/NoGo task. Event-related oscillations along with the Go-P3 and NoGo-P3 event-related potential components were analysed. While no significant differences between groups were observed regarding event-related potentials, event-related oscillation analysis showed that BDs displayed a lower oscillatory response than controls in delta and theta frequency ranges during Go and NoGo conditions. Findings are congruent with event-related oscillation studies showing reduced delta and/or theta oscillations in alcoholics during Go/NoGo tasks. Thus, BDs appear to show disruptions in neural oscillations linked to motor inhibition and execution similar to those observed in alcohol-dependent subjects. Finally, these results are the first to evidence that oscillatory brain activity may be a sensitive indicator of underlying brain anomalies in young BDs, which could complement standard event-related potential measures.

  4. Escape from harm: linking affective vision and motor responses during active avoidance.

    PubMed

    Miskovic, Vladimir; Keil, Andreas

    2014-12-01

    When organisms confront unpleasant objects in their natural environments, they engage in behaviors that allow them to avoid aversive outcomes. Here, we linked visual processing of threat to its behavioral consequences by including a motor response that terminated exposure to an aversive event. Dense-array steady-state visual evoked potentials were recorded in response to conditioned threat and safety signals viewed in active or passive behavioral contexts. The amplitude of neuronal responses in visual cortex increased additively, as a function of emotional value and action relevance. The gain in local cortical population activity for threat relative to safety cues persisted when aversive reinforcement was behaviorally terminated, suggesting a lingering emotionally based response amplification within the visual system. Distinct patterns of long-range neural synchrony emerged between the visual cortex and extravisual regions. Increased coupling between visual and higher-order structures was observed specifically during active perception of threat, consistent with a reorganization of neuronal populations involved in linking sensory processing to action preparation. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Comparison between NOx Evolution Mechanisms of Wild-Type and nr1 Mutant Soybean Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Klepper, Lowell

    1990-01-01

    The nr1 soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) mutant does not contain the two constitutive nitrate reductases, one of which is responsible for enzymic conversion of nitrite to NOx (NO + NO2). It was tested for possible nonenzymic NOx formation and evolution because of known chemical reactions between NO2− and plant metabolites and the instability of nitrous acid. It did not evolve NOx during the in vivo NR assay, but intact leaves did evolve small amounts of NOx under dark, anaerobic conditions. Experiments were conducted to compare NO3− reduction, NO2− accumulation, and the NOx evolution processes of the wild type (cv Williams) and the nr1 mutant. In vivo NR assays showed that wild-type leaves had three times more NO3− reducing capacity than the nr1 mutant. NOx evolution from intact, anerobic nr1 leaves was approximately 10 to 20% that from wild-type leaves. Nitrite content of the nr1 mutant leaves was usually higher than wild type due to low NOx evolution. Lag times and threshold NO2− concentrations for NOx evolution were similar for the two genotypes. While only 1 to 2% of NOx from wild type is NO2, the nr1 mutant evolved 15 to 30% NO2. The kinetic patterns of NOx evolution with time weré completely different for the mutant and wild type. Comparisons of light and heat treatments also gave very different results. It is generally accepted that the NOx evolution by wild type is primarily an enzymic conversion of NO2− to NO. However, this report concludes that NOx evolution by the nr1 mutant was due to nonenzymic, chemical reactions between plant metabolites and accumulated NO2− and/or decomposition of nitrous acid. Nonenzymic NOx evolution probably also occurs in wild type to a degree but could be easily masked by high rates of the enzymic process. PMID:16667445

  6. Getting back on the beat: links between auditory-motor integration and precise auditory processing at fast time scales.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Adam; Kraus, Nina

    2016-03-01

    The auditory system is unique in its ability to precisely detect the timing of perceptual events and use this information to update motor plans, a skill that is crucial for language. However, the characteristics of the auditory system that enable this temporal precision are only beginning to be understood. Previous work has shown that participants who can tap consistently to a metronome have neural responses to sound with greater phase coherence from trial to trial. We hypothesized that this relationship is driven by a link between the updating of motor output by auditory feedback and neural precision. Moreover, we hypothesized that neural phase coherence at both fast time scales (reflecting subcortical processing) and slow time scales (reflecting cortical processing) would be linked to auditory-motor timing integration. To test these hypotheses, we asked participants to synchronize to a pacing stimulus, and then changed either the tempo or the timing of the stimulus to assess whether they could rapidly adapt. Participants who could rapidly and accurately resume synchronization had neural responses to sound with greater phase coherence. However, this precise timing was limited to the time scale of 10 ms (100 Hz) or faster; neural phase coherence at slower time scales was unrelated to performance on this task. Auditory-motor adaptation therefore specifically depends upon consistent auditory processing at fast, but not slow, time scales. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. X-linked spinal muscular atrophy in mice caused by autonomous loss of ATP7A in the motor neuron

    PubMed Central

    Hodgkinson, Victoria L.; Dale, Jeffery M.; Garcia, Michael L.; Weisman, Gary A.; Lee, Jaekwon; Gitlin, Jonathan D.; Petris, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    ATP7A is a copper transporting P-type ATPase that is essential for cellular copper homeostasis. Loss-of-function mutations in the ATP7A gene result in Menkes disease, a fatal neurodegenerative disorder resulting in seizures, hypotonia, and failure to thrive due to systemic copper deficiency. Most recently, rare missense mutations in ATP7A that do not impact systemic copper homeostasis have been shown to cause X-linked Spinal Muscular Atrophy type 3 (SMAX3), a distal hereditary motor neuropathy. An understanding of the mechanistic and pathophysiological basis of SMAX3 is currently lacking, in part because the disease-causing mutations have been shown to confer both loss- and gain-of-function properties to ATP7A, and because there is currently no animal model of the disease. In this study, the Atp7a gene was specifically deleted in the motor neurons of mice resulting in a degenerative phenotype consistent with the clinical features in affected patients with SMAX3, including the progressive deterioration of gait, age-dependent muscle atrophy, denervation of neuromuscular junctions, and a loss of motor neuron cell bodies. Taken together these data reveal autonomous requirements for ATP7A that reveal essential roles for copper in the maintenance and function of the motor neuron, and suggest that SMAX3 is caused by a loss of ATP7A function that specifically impacts in the spinal motor neuron. PMID:25639447

  8. X-linked spinal muscular atrophy in mice caused by autonomous loss of ATP7A in the motor neuron.

    PubMed

    Hodgkinson, Victoria L; Dale, Jeffery M; Garcia, Michael L; Weisman, Gary A; Lee, Jaekwon; Gitlin, Jonathan D; Petris, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    ATP7A is a copper-transporting P-type ATPase that is essential for cellular copper homeostasis. Loss-of-function mutations in the ATP7A gene result in Menkes disease, a fatal neurodegenerative disorder resulting in seizures, hypotonia and failure to thrive, due to systemic copper deficiency. Most recently, rare missense mutations in ATP7A that do not impact systemic copper homeostasis have been shown to cause X-linked spinal muscular atrophy type 3 (SMAX3), a distal hereditary motor neuropathy. An understanding of the mechanistic and pathophysiological basis of SMAX3 is currently lacking, in part because the disease-causing mutations have been shown to confer both loss- and gain-of-function properties to ATP7A, and because there is currently no animal model of the disease. In this study, the Atp7a gene was specifically deleted in the motor neurons of mice, resulting in a degenerative phenotype consistent with the clinical features in affected patients with SMAX3, including the progressive deterioration of gait, age-dependent muscle atrophy, denervation of neuromuscular junctions and a loss of motor neuron cell bodies. Taken together, these data reveal autonomous requirements for ATP7A that reveal essential roles for copper in the maintenance and function of the motor neuron, and suggest that SMAX3 is caused by a loss of ATP7A function that specifically impacts the spinal motor neuron.

  9. Mental representation and mental practice: experimental investigation on the functional links between motor memory and motor imagery.

    PubMed

    Frank, Cornelia; Land, William M; Popp, Carmen; Schack, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on mental representation of complex action has revealed distinct differences in the structure of representational frameworks between experts and novices. More recently, research on the development of mental representation structure has elicited functional changes in novices' representations as a result of practice. However, research investigating if and how mental practice adds to this adaptation process is lacking. In the present study, we examined the influence of mental practice (i.e., motor imagery rehearsal) on both putting performance and the development of one's representation of the golf putt during early skill acquisition. Novice golfers (N = 52) practiced the task of golf putting under one of four different practice conditions: mental, physical, mental-physical combined, and no practice. Participants were tested prior to and after a practice phase, as well as after a three day retention interval. Mental representation structures of the putt were measured, using the structural dimensional analysis of mental representation. This method provides psychometric data on the distances and groupings of basic action concepts in long-term memory. Additionally, putting accuracy and putting consistency were measured using two-dimensional error scores of each putt. Findings revealed significant performance improvements over the course of practice together with functional adaptations in mental representation structure. Interestingly, after three days of practice, the mental representations of participants who incorporated mental practice into their practice regime displayed representation structures that were more similar to a functional structure than did participants who did not incorporate mental practice. The findings of the present study suggest that mental practice promotes the cognitive adaptation process during motor learning, leading to more elaborate representations than physical practice only.

  10. Mental Representation and Mental Practice: Experimental Investigation on the Functional Links between Motor Memory and Motor Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Cornelia; Land, William M.; Popp, Carmen; Schack, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on mental representation of complex action has revealed distinct differences in the structure of representational frameworks between experts and novices. More recently, research on the development of mental representation structure has elicited functional changes in novices' representations as a result of practice. However, research investigating if and how mental practice adds to this adaptation process is lacking. In the present study, we examined the influence of mental practice (i.e., motor imagery rehearsal) on both putting performance and the development of one's representation of the golf putt during early skill acquisition. Novice golfers (N = 52) practiced the task of golf putting under one of four different practice conditions: mental, physical, mental-physical combined, and no practice. Participants were tested prior to and after a practice phase, as well as after a three day retention interval. Mental representation structures of the putt were measured, using the structural dimensional analysis of mental representation. This method provides psychometric data on the distances and groupings of basic action concepts in long-term memory. Additionally, putting accuracy and putting consistency were measured using two-dimensional error scores of each putt. Findings revealed significant performance improvements over the course of practice together with functional adaptations in mental representation structure. Interestingly, after three days of practice, the mental representations of participants who incorporated mental practice into their practice regime displayed representation structures that were more similar to a functional structure than did participants who did not incorporate mental practice. The findings of the present study suggest that mental practice promotes the cognitive adaptation process during motor learning, leading to more elaborate representations than physical practice only. PMID:24743576

  11. Links between motor control and classroom behaviors: Moderation by low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Razza, Rachel A; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2016-08-01

    It is unclear from past research on effortful control whether one of its components, motor control, independently contributes to adaptive classroom behaviors. The goal of this study was to identify associations between early motor control, measured by the walk-a-line task at age 3, and teacher-reported learning-related behaviors (approaches to learning and attention problems) and behavior problems in kindergarten classrooms. Models tested whether children who were vulnerable to poorer learning behaviors and more behavior problems due to having been born low birth weight benefited more, less, or the same as other children from better motor control. Data were drawn from the national Fragile Families and Child-Wellbeing Study (n = 751). Regression models indicated that motor control was significantly associated with better approaches to learning and fewer behavior problems. Children who were low birth weight benefitted more than normal birth weight children from better motor control with respect to their approaches to learning, but equally with respect to behavior problems. Additionally, for low but not normal birth weight children, better motor control predicted fewer attention problems. These findings suggest that motor control follows a compensatory model of development for low birth weight children and classroom behaviors.

  12. Links between motor control and classroom behaviors: Moderation by low birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Razza, Rachel A.; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear from past research on effortful control whether one of its components, motor control, independently contributes to adaptive classroom behaviors. The goal of this study was to identify associations between early motor control, measured by the walk-a-line task at age 3, and teacher-reported learning-related behaviors (approaches to learning and attention problems) and behavior problems in kindergarten classrooms. Models tested whether children who were vulnerable to poorer learning behaviors and more behavior problems due to having been born low birth weight benefited more, less, or the same as other children from better motor control. Data were drawn from the national Fragile Families and Child-Wellbeing Study (n = 751). Regression models indicated that motor control was significantly associated with better approaches to learning and fewer behavior problems. Children who were low birth weight benefitted more than normal birth weight children from better motor control with respect to their approaches to learning, but equally with respect to behavior problems. Additionally, for low but not normal birth weight children, better motor control predicted fewer attention problems. These findings suggest that motor control follows a compensatory model of development for low birth weight children and classroom behaviors. PMID:27594776

  13. Aerospace induction motor actuators driven from a 20-kHz power link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1990-01-01

    Aerospace electromechanical actuators utilizing induction motors are under development in sizes up to 40 kW. While these actuators have immediate application to the Advanced Launch System (ALS) program, several potential applications are currently under study including the Advanced Aircraft Program. Several recent advances developed for the Space Station Freedom have allowed induction motors to be selected as a first choice for such applications. Among these technologies are bi-directional electronics and high frequency power distribution techniques. Each of these technologies are discussed with emphasis on their impact upon induction motor operation.

  14. Manipulation gesture effect in visual and auditory presentations: the link between tools in perceptual and motor tasks

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Amandine E.; Roche, Kévin; Versace, Rémy; Chainay, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    There is much behavioral and neurophysiological evidence in support of the idea that seeing a tool activates motor components of action related to the perceived object (e.g., grasping, use manipulation). However, the question remains as to whether the processing of the motor components associated with the tool is automatic or depends on the situation, including the task and the modality of tool presentation. The present study investigated whether the activation of motor components involved in tool use in response to the simple perception of a tool is influenced by the link between prime and target tools, as well as by the modality of presentation, in perceptual or motor tasks. To explore this issue, we manipulated the similarity of gesture involved in the use of the prime and target (identical, similar, different) with two tool presentation modalities of the presentation tool (visual or auditory) in perceptual and motor tasks. Across the experiments, we also manipulated the relevance of the prime (i.e., associated or not with the current task). The participants saw a first tool (or heard the sound it makes), which was immediately followed by a second tool on which they had to perform a perceptual task (i.e., indicate whether the second tool was identical to or different from the first tool) or a motor task (i.e., manipulate the second tool as if it were the first tool). In both tasks, the similarity between the gestures employed for the first and the second tool was manipulated (Identical, Similar or Different gestures). The results showed that responses were faster when the manipulation gestures for the two tools were identical or similar, but only in the motor task. This effect was observed irrespective of the modality of presentation of the first tool, i.e., visual or auditory. We suggest that the influence of manipulation gesture on response time depends on the relevance of the first tool in motor tasks. We discuss these motor activation results in terms of the

  15. Inferior frontal gyrus links visual and motor cortices during a visuomotor precision grip force task.

    PubMed

    Papadelis, Christos; Arfeller, Carola; Erla, Silvia; Nollo, Giandomenico; Cattaneo, Luigi; Braun, Christoph

    2016-11-01

    Coordination between vision and action relies on a fronto-parietal network that receives visual and proprioceptive sensory input in order to compute motor control signals. Here, we investigated with magnetoencephalography (MEG) which cortical areas are functionally coupled on the basis of synchronization during visuomotor integration. MEG signals were recorded from twelve healthy adults while performing a unimanual visuomotor (VM) task and control conditions. The VM task required the integration of pinch motor commands with visual sensory feedback. By using a beamformer, we localized the neural activity in the frequency range of 1-30Hz during the VM compared to rest. Virtual sensors were estimated at the active locations. A multivariate autoregressive model was used to estimate the power and coherence of estimated activity at the virtual sensors. Event-related desynchronisation (ERD) during VM was observed in early visual areas, the rostral part of the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), the right IFG, the superior parietal lobules, and the left hand motor cortex (M1). Functional coupling in the alpha frequency band bridged the regional activities observed in motor and visual cortices (the start and the end points in the visuomotor loop) through the left or right IFG. Coherence between the left IFG and left M1 correlated inversely with the task performance. Our results indicate that an occipital-prefrontal-motor functional network facilitates the modulation of instructed motor responses to visual cues. This network may supplement the mechanism for guiding actions that is fully incorporated into the dorsal visual stream.

  16. Individual differences in the perception of biological motion: links to social cognition and motor imagery.

    PubMed

    Miller, Luke E; Saygin, Ayse P

    2013-08-01

    Biological motion perception is often claimed to support social cognition, and to rely upon embodied representations and motor imagery. Are people with higher levels of social traits or more vivid motor imagery better at biological motion perception? We administered four experiments measuring sensitivity in using (global) form and (local) motion cues in biological motion, plus well-established measures of social cognition (e.g., empathy) and motor imagery (e.g., kinesthetic motor imagery). This first systematic investigation of individual variability in biological motion processing demonstrated significant relationships between these domains, along with a dissociation. Sensitivity for using form cues in biological motion processing was correlated with social (and not the imagery) measures; sensitivity for using motion cues was correlated with motor imagery (and not the social) measures. These results could not be explained by performance on non-biological control stimuli. We thus show that although both social cognition and motor imagery predict sensitivity to biological motion, these skills likely tap into different aspects of perception. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mental imagery of speech: linking motor and perceptual systems through internal simulation and estimation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xing; Poeppel, David

    2012-01-01

    The neural basis of mental imagery has been investigated by localizing the underlying neural networks, mostly in motor and perceptual systems, separately. However, how modality-specific representations are top-down induced and how the action and perception systems interact in the context of mental imagery is not well understood. Imagined speech production ("articulation imagery"), which induces the kinesthetic feeling of articulator movement and its auditory consequences, provides a new angle because of the concurrent involvement of motor and perceptual systems. On the basis of previous findings in mental imagery of speech, we argue for the following regarding the induction mechanisms of mental imagery and the interaction between motor and perceptual systems: (1) Two distinct top-down mechanisms, memory retrieval and motor simulation, exist to induce estimation in perceptual systems. (2) Motor simulation is sufficient to internally induce the representation of perceptual changes that would be caused by actual movement (perceptual associations); however, this simulation process only has modulatory effects on the perception of external stimuli, which critically depends on context and task demands. Considering the proposed simulation-estimation processes as common mechanisms for interaction between motor and perceptual systems, we outline how mental imagery (of speech) relates to perception and production, and how these hypothesized mechanisms might underpin certain neural disorders.

  18. Mental imagery of speech: linking motor and perceptual systems through internal simulation and estimation

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xing; Poeppel, David

    2012-01-01

    The neural basis of mental imagery has been investigated by localizing the underlying neural networks, mostly in motor and perceptual systems, separately. However, how modality-specific representations are top-down induced and how the action and perception systems interact in the context of mental imagery is not well understood. Imagined speech production (“articulation imagery”), which induces the kinesthetic feeling of articulator movement and its auditory consequences, provides a new angle because of the concurrent involvement of motor and perceptual systems. On the basis of previous findings in mental imagery of speech, we argue for the following regarding the induction mechanisms of mental imagery and the interaction between motor and perceptual systems: (1) Two distinct top-down mechanisms, memory retrieval and motor simulation, exist to induce estimation in perceptual systems. (2) Motor simulation is sufficient to internally induce the representation of perceptual changes that would be caused by actual movement (perceptual associations); however, this simulation process only has modulatory effects on the perception of external stimuli, which critically depends on context and task demands. Considering the proposed simulation-estimation processes as common mechanisms for interaction between motor and perceptual systems, we outline how mental imagery (of speech) relates to perception and production, and how these hypothesized mechanisms might underpin certain neural disorders. PMID:23226121

  19. Integrative proteomic analysis of the NMDA NR1 knockdown mouse model reveals effects on central and peripheral pathways associated with schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    found only in the frontal cortex and abnormalities of proteins involved in the purinergic system were found exclusively in the hippocampus. Conclusions Taken together, this multi-platform profiling study has identified peripheral changes which are potentially linked to central alterations in synaptic plasticity and neuronal function associated with NMDAR-NR1 hypofunction. Therefore, the reported proteomic changes may be useful as translational biomarkers in human and rodent model drug discovery efforts. PMID:25061506

  20. From action representation to action execution: exploring the links between cognitive and biomechanical levels of motor control

    PubMed Central

    Land, William M.; Volchenkov, Dima; Bläsing, Bettina E.; Schack, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Along with superior performance, research indicates that expertise is associated with a number of mediating cognitive adaptations. To this extent, extensive practice is associated with the development of general and task-specific mental representations, which play an important role in the organization and control of action. Recently, new experimental methods have been developed, which allow for investigating the organization and structure of these representations, along with the functional structure of the movement kinematics. In the current article, we present a new approach for examining the overlap between skill representations and motor output. In doing so, we first present an architecture model, which addresses links between biomechanical and cognitive levels of motor control. Next, we review the state of the art in assessing memory structures underlying complex action. Following we present a new spatio-temporal decomposition method for illuminating the functional structure of movement kinematics, and finally, we apply these methods to investigate the overlap between the structure of motor representations in memory and their corresponding kinematic structures. Our aim is to understand the extent to which the output at a kinematic level is governed by representations at a cognitive level of motor control. PMID:24065915

  1. Motor neuron disease, TDP-43 pathology, and memory deficits in mice expressing ALS-FTD-linked UBQLN2 mutations.

    PubMed

    Le, Nhat T T; Chang, Lydia; Kovlyagina, Irina; Georgiou, Polymnia; Safren, Nathaniel; Braunstein, Kerstin E; Kvarta, Mark D; Van Dyke, Adam M; LeGates, Tara A; Philips, Thomas; Morrison, Brett M; Thompson, Scott M; Puche, Adam C; Gould, Todd D; Rothstein, Jeffrey D; Wong, Philip C; Monteiro, Mervyn J

    2016-11-22

    Missense mutations in ubiquilin 2 (UBQLN2) cause ALS with frontotemporal dementia (ALS-FTD). Animal models of ALS are useful for understanding the mechanisms of pathogenesis and for preclinical investigations. However, previous rodent models carrying UBQLN2 mutations failed to manifest any sign of motor neuron disease. Here, we show that lines of mice expressing either the ALS-FTD-linked P497S or P506T UBQLN2 mutations have cognitive deficits, shortened lifespans, and develop motor neuron disease, mimicking the human disease. Neuropathologic analysis of the mice with end-stage disease revealed the accumulation of ubiquitinated inclusions in the brain and spinal cord, astrocytosis, a reduction in the number of hippocampal neurons, and reduced staining of TAR-DNA binding protein 43 in the nucleus, with concomitant formation of ubiquitin(+) inclusions in the cytoplasm of spinal motor neurons. Moreover, both lines displayed denervation muscle atrophy and age-dependent loss of motor neurons that correlated with a reduction in the number of large-caliber axons. By contrast, two mouse lines expressing WT UBQLN2 were mostly devoid of clinical and pathological signs of disease. These UBQLN2 mouse models provide valuable tools for identifying the mechanisms underlying ALS-FTD pathogenesis and for investigating therapeutic strategies to halt disease.

  2. Missense Mutations in the Copper Transporter Gene ATP7A Cause X-Linked Distal Hereditary Motor Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Kennerson, Marina L.; Nicholson, Garth A.; Kaler, Stephen G.; Kowalski, Bartosz; Mercer, Julian F.B.; Tang, Jingrong; Llanos, Roxana M.; Chu, Shannon; Takata, Reinaldo I.; Speck-Martins, Carlos E.; Baets, Jonathan; Almeida-Souza, Leonardo; Fischer, Dirk; Timmerman, Vincent; Taylor, Philip E.; Scherer, Steven S.; Ferguson, Toby A.; Bird, Thomas D.; De Jonghe, Peter; Feely, Shawna M.E.; Shy, Michael E.; Garbern, James Y.

    2010-01-01

    Distal hereditary motor neuropathies comprise a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders. We recently mapped an X-linked form of this condition to chromosome Xq13.1-q21 in two large unrelated families. The region of genetic linkage included ATP7A, which encodes a copper-transporting P-type ATPase mutated in patients with Menkes disease, a severe infantile-onset neurodegenerative condition. We identified two unique ATP7A missense mutations (p.P1386S and p.T994I) in males with distal motor neuropathy in two families. These molecular alterations impact highly conserved amino acids in the carboxyl half of ATP7A and do not directly involve the copper transporter's known critical functional domains. Studies of p.P1386S revealed normal ATP7A mRNA and protein levels, a defect in ATP7A trafficking, and partial rescue of a S. cerevisiae copper transport knockout. Although ATP7A mutations are typically associated with severe Menkes disease or its milder allelic variant, occipital horn syndrome, we demonstrate here that certain missense mutations at this locus can cause a syndrome restricted to progressive distal motor neuropathy without overt signs of systemic copper deficiency. This previously unrecognized genotype-phenotype correlation suggests an important role of the ATP7A copper transporter in motor-neuron maintenance and function. PMID:20170900

  3. Effective Connectivity Hierarchically Links Temporoparietal and Frontal Areas of the Auditory Dorsal Stream with the Motor Cortex Lip Area during Speech Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murakami, Takenobu; Restle, Julia; Ziemann, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    A left-hemispheric cortico-cortical network involving areas of the temporoparietal junction (Tpj) and the posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG) is thought to support sensorimotor integration of speech perception into articulatory motor activation, but how this network links with the lip area of the primary motor cortex (M1) during speech…

  4. Effective Connectivity Hierarchically Links Temporoparietal and Frontal Areas of the Auditory Dorsal Stream with the Motor Cortex Lip Area during Speech Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murakami, Takenobu; Restle, Julia; Ziemann, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    A left-hemispheric cortico-cortical network involving areas of the temporoparietal junction (Tpj) and the posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG) is thought to support sensorimotor integration of speech perception into articulatory motor activation, but how this network links with the lip area of the primary motor cortex (M1) during speech…

  5. Tryptophan hydroxylase 2 aggregates through disulfide cross-linking upon oxidation: Possible link to serotonin deficits and non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Donald M.; Sykes, Catherine E.; Geddes, Timothy J.; Jaunarajs, Karen L. Eskow; Bishop, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of dopamine neurons of the nigrostriatal system, resulting in severe motor disturbances. Although much less appreciated, non-motor symptoms are also very common in PD and many can be traced to serotonin neuronal deficits. Tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2), the rate-limiting enzyme in the serotonin biosynthesis, is a phenotypic marker for serotonin neurons and is known to be extremely labile to oxidation. Therefore, the oxidative processes that prevail in PD could cause TPH2 misfolding and modify 5HT neuronal function much as is seen in dopamine neurons. Oxidation of TPH2 inhibits enzyme activity and leads to the formation of high molecular weight aggregates in a dithiothreitol-reversible manner. Cysteine-scanning mutagenesis shows that as long as a single cysteine residue (out of a total of 13 per monomer) remains in TPH2, it cross-links upon oxidation and only cysteine-less mutants are resistant to this effect. The effects of oxidants on TPH2 catalytic function and cross-linking are also observed in intact TPH2-expressing HEK293 cells. Oxidation shifts TPH2 from the soluble compartment into membrane fractions and large inclusion bodies. Sequential non-reducing/reducing two-dimensional SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting confirmed that TPH2 was one of a small number of cytosolic proteins that form disulfide-bonded aggregates. The propensity of TPH2 to misfold upon oxidation of its cysteine residues is responsible for its catalytic lability and may be related to loss of serotonin neuronal function in PD and the emergence of non-motor (psychiatric) symptoms. PMID:21105877

  6. The DREAM protein negatively regulates the NMDA receptor through interaction with the NR1 subunit.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Su, Ping; Liang, Ping; Liu, Tao; Liu, Xu; Liu, Xin-Ying; Zhang, Bo; Han, Tao; Zhu, Yan-Bing; Yin, Dong-Min; Li, Junfa; Zhou, Zhuan; Wang, Ke-Wei; Wang, Yun

    2010-06-02

    Glutamate-induced excitotoxicity has been implicated in the etiology of stroke, epilepsy, and neurodegenerative diseases. NMDA receptors (NMDARs) play a pivotal role in excitotoxic injury; however, clinical trials testing NMDAR antagonists as neuroprotectants have been discouraging. The development of novel neuroprotectant molecules is being vigorously pursued. Here, we report that downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM) significantly inhibits surface expression of NMDARs and NMDAR-mediated current. Overexpression of DREAM showed neuroprotection against excitotoxic neuronal injury, whereas knockdown of DREAM enhanced NMDA-induced toxicity. DREAM could directly bind to the C0 domain of the NR1 subunit. Although DREAM contains multiple binding sites for the NR1 subunit, residues 21-40 of the N terminus are the main binding site for the NR1 subunit. Thus, 21-40 residues might relieve the autoinhibition conferred by residues 1-50 and derepress the DREAM core domain by a competitive mechanism. Intriguingly, the cell-permeable TAT-21-40 peptide, constructed according to the critical binding site of DREAM to the NR1 subunit, inhibits NMDAR-mediated currents in primary cultured hippocampal neurons and has a neuroprotective effect on in vitro neuronal excitotoxic injury and in vivo ischemic brain damage. Moreover, both pretreatment and posttreatment of TAT-21-40 is effective against excitotoxicity. In summary, this work reveals a novel, negative regulator of NMDARs and provides an attractive candidate for the treatment of excitotoxicity-related disease.

  7. Generalization of perceptual and motor learning: a causal link with memory encoding and consolidation?

    PubMed Central

    Censor, Nitzan

    2013-01-01

    In both perceptual and motor learning, numerous studies have shown specificity of learning to the trained eye or hand and to the physical features of the task. However, generalization of learning is possible in both perceptual and motor domains. Here, I review evidence for perceptual and motor learning generalization, suggesting that generalization patterns are affected by the way in which the original memory is encoded and consolidated. Generalization may be facilitated during fast learning, with possible engagement of higher-order brain areas recurrently interacting with the primary visual or motor cortices encoding the stimuli or movements memories. Such generalization may be supported by sleep, involving functional interactions between low and higher-order brain areas. Repeated exposure to the task may alter generalization patterns of learning and overall offline learning. Development of unifying frameworks across learning modalities and better understanding of the conditions under which learning can generalize may enable to gain insight regarding the neural mechanisms underlying procedural learning and have useful clinical implications. PMID:23850685

  8. Motor Difficulties in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Linking Symptom Severity and Postural Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travers, Brittany G.; Powell, Patrick S.; Klinger, Laura G.; Klinger, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Postural stability is a fundamental aspect of motor ability that allows individuals to sustain and maintain the desired physical position of one's body. The present study examined postural stability in average-IQ adolescents and adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Twenty-six individuals with ASD and 26 age-and-IQ-matched individuals…

  9. Motor Difficulties in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Linking Symptom Severity and Postural Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travers, Brittany G.; Powell, Patrick S.; Klinger, Laura G.; Klinger, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Postural stability is a fundamental aspect of motor ability that allows individuals to sustain and maintain the desired physical position of one's body. The present study examined postural stability in average-IQ adolescents and adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Twenty-six individuals with ASD and 26 age-and-IQ-matched individuals…

  10. Association of NR1I2 gene polymorphisms and time of progression to AIDS

    PubMed Central

    de Medeiros, Rúbia Marília; Menti, Carolina Fialho; Benelli, Jéssica Louise; Matte, Maria Cristina Cotta; de Melo, Marineide Gonçalves; Almeida, Sabrina Esteves de Matos; Fiegenbaum, Marilu

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND The time of progression towards AIDS can vary greatly among seropositive patients, and may be associated with host genetic variation. The NR1I2 (PXR) gene, a ligand-activated transcription factor, regulates the transcription immune pathway genes and can therefore be targets of viral replication mechanisms influencing time of progression to AIDS. OBJECTIVE To verify the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs3814057, rs6785049, rs7643645, and rs2461817 in the NR1I2 (PXR) gene with progression to AIDS in HIV-1 infected patients. METHODS Blood samples were obtained from 96 HIV-1 positive individuals following informed consent. DNA was isolated and genotyped through real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of SNPs in the NR1I2. Questionnaires on socio-demographic features and behaviors were answered and time of progression to AIDS was estimated based on medical chart analysis. FINDINGS Patients with the GG genotype for rs7643645 were shown to be related with a more rapid disease progression when compared to GA and AA genotypes. This result was maintained by the Multivariate Cox Regression considering sex, ethnicity, and presence of HLA-B*57, HLA-B*27, and CCR5del32 polymorphisms. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Recent studies reported the expression of the nuclear receptors in T-Lymphocytes, suggesting their possible role in the immune response. In addition, nuclear receptors have been shown to inhibit the HIV replication, although no such mechanism has been thoroughly elucidated to date. This is the first time an association between NR1I2 polymorphism and time of progression to AIDS is reported and supports an apparent relationship between the gene in the immune response and identifies another genetic factor influencing AIDS progression. PMID:28327790

  11. MMP-7 cleaves the NR1 NMDA receptor subunit and modifies NMDA receptor function

    PubMed Central

    Szklarczyk, Arek; Ewaleifoh, Osefame; Beique, Jean-Claude; Wang, Yue; Knorr, David; Haughey, Norman; Malpica, Tanya; Mattson, Mark P.; Huganir, Richard; Conant, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-dependent enzymes that play a role in the inflammatory response. These enzymes have been well studied in the context of cancer biology and inflammation. Recent studies, however, suggest that these enzymes also play roles in brain development and neurodegenerative disease. Select MMPs can target proteins critical to synaptic structure and neuronal survival, including integrins and cadherins. Here, we show that one member of the MMP family, MMP-7, which may be released from cells, including microglia, can target a protein critical to synaptic function. Through analysis of extracts from murine cortical slice preparations, we show that MMP-7 cleaves the NR1 subunit of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor to generate an N-terminal fragment of ∼65 kDa. Moreover, studies with recombinant protein show that MMP-7-mediated cleavage of NR1 occurs at amino acid 517, which is extracellular and just distal to the first transmembrane domain. Data suggest that NR2A, which shares sequence homology with NR1, is also cleaved following treatment of slices with MMP-7, while select AMPA receptor subunits are not. Consistent with a potential effect of MMP-7 on ligand binding, additional experiments demonstrate that NMDA-mediated calcium flux is significantly diminished by MMP-7 pretreatment of cultures. In addition, the AMPA/NMDA ratio is increased by MMP-7 pretreatment. These data suggest that synaptic function may be altered in neurological conditions associated with increased levels of MMP-7.—Szklarczyk, A., Ewaleifoh, O., Beique, J.-C., Wang, Y., Knorr, D., Haughey, N., Malpica, T., Mattson, M. P., Huganir, R., Conant, K. MMP-7 cleaves the NR1 NMDA receptor subunit and modifies NMDA receptor function. PMID:18644839

  12. Trouble at Tsavo: The Tale of the Black Rhino. BrainLink: Motor Highways.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Grace

    The BrainLink project offers educational materials that focus on current neuroscience issues with the goal of promoting a deeper understanding of how the nervous system works and why the brain makes each individual special while conveying the excitement of "doing science" among upper elementary and middle school students. Project materials engage…

  13. Voltage-dependent gating of NR1/2B NMDA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Richard J; Johnson, Jon W

    2008-01-01

    Ligand-gated ion channels are activated by agonist binding, but may also be modulated by membrane voltage. N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) exhibit especially strong voltage dependence due to channel block by external Mg2+ (Mgo2+). Here we demonstrate that activity of NMDARs composed of NR1 and NR2B subunits (NR1/2B receptors) is enhanced by depolarization even in 0 Mgo2+, causing slow current relaxations in response to rapid voltage changes. We present a kinetic model of receptor activation that incorporates voltage-dependent gating-associated NR2B subunit conformational changes. The model accurately reproduces current relaxations during depolarizations and subsequent repolarizations in 0 Mgo2+. Model simulations in physiological Mgo2+ concentrations show that voltage-dependent receptor gating also underlies the slow component of Mgo2+ unblock, a phenomenon that previously was shown to influence Mgo2+ unblock kinetics during dendritic spikes. We propose that voltage-dependent gating of NR1/2B receptors confers enhanced voltage and time dependence on NMDAR-mediated signalling. PMID:18936081

  14. Relationships linking emotional, motor, cognitive and GABAergic dysfunctions in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Vaillend, Cyrille; Chaussenot, Rémi

    2017-03-15

    Alterations in the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene have been associated with enhanced stress reactivity in vertebrate species, suggesting a role for brain dystrophin in fear-related behavioral and cognitive processes. Because the loss of dystrophin (Dp427) reduces clustering of central γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptors, it is suspected that local inhibitory tuning and modulation of neuronal excitability are perturbed in a distributed brain circuit that normally controls such critical behavioral functions. In this study, we undertook a large-scale behavioral study to evaluate fear-related behavioral disturbances in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. We first characterized the behavioral determinants of the enhanced fearfulness displayed by mdx mice following mild acute stress and its association with increased anxiety and altered fear memories. We further demonstrated that this enhanced fearfulness induces long-lasting motor inhibition, suggesting that neurobehavioral dysfunctions significantly influence motor outcome measures in this model. We also found that mdx mice are more sensitive to the sedative and hypnotic effects of 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol hydrochlorid (THIP), a selective pharmacological activator of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors involved in central tonic inhibition. Our results highlight that information on the emotional aspects of mdx mice are important to better understand the bases of intellectual and neuropsychiatric defects in DMD and to better define valuable functional readouts for preclinical studies. Our data also support the hypothesis that altered spatial localization of GABAA receptors due to Dp427 loss is a pathological mechanism associated with brain dysfunction in DMD, suggesting that extrasynaptic GABAA receptors might be candidate targets for future therapeutic developments. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The link between motor and cognitive development in children born preterm and/or with low birth weight: A review of current evidence.

    PubMed

    Oudgenoeg-Paz, Ora; Mulder, Hanna; Jongmans, Marian J; van der Ham, Ineke J M; Van der Stigchel, Stefan

    2017-06-19

    The current review focuses on evidence for a link between early motor development and later cognitive skills in children born preterm or with Low Birth Weight (LBW). Studies with term born children consistently show such a link. Motor and cognitive impairments or delays are often seen in children born preterm or with LBW throughout childhood and studies have established a cross-sectional association between the two. However, it is not yet clear if, and if so, how, motor and cognitive skills are longitudinally interrelated in these children. Longitudinal studies with this population including measures of motor development during the first year of life and cognitive measures at later measurement points were included. The 17 studies included usually show a link between level and/or quality of motor development during the first year of life and later cognitive skills in children born preterm and/or with LBW. However, given the small number of studies, and a possible effect of early interaction between motor and cognitive skills affecting this relation, more work is clearly needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. IL-1ra alleviates inflammatory hyperalgesia through preventing phosphorylation of NMDA receptor NR-1 subunit in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui-Xin; Li, Aihui; Liu, Bing; Wang, Linbo; Ren, Ke; Zhang, Haiqing; Berman, Brian M; Lao, Lixing

    2008-04-01

    Although it has been shown that pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) facilitate perception of noxious inputs at the spinal level, the mechanisms have not been understood. This study determined the cell type that produces IL-1beta, the co-localization of IL-1 receptor type I (IL-1RI) and Fos and NR1 in the spinal cord, and the effects of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) on NR1 phosphorylation and hyperalgesia in a rat model of inflammatory pain. Phosphorylation of NR1, an essential subunit of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR), is known to modulate NMDAR activity and facilitate pain. Hyperalgesia was induced by injecting complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA, 0.08ml, 40microg Mycobacterium tuberculosis) into one hind paw of each rat. Paw withdrawal latency (PWL) was tested before CFA (-48h) for baseline and 2 and 24h after CFA to assess hyperalgesia. IL-1ra was given (i.t.) 24h before CFA to block the action of basal IL-1beta and 2h prior to each of two PWL tests to block CFA-induced IL-1beta. Spinal cords were removed for double immunostaining of IL-1beta/neuronal marker and IL-1beta/glial cell markers, IL-1RI/Fos and IL-1RI/NR1, and for Western blot to measure NR1 phosphorylation. The data showed that: (1) astrocytes produce IL-1beta, (2) IL-1RI is localized in Fos- and NR1-immunoreactive neurons within the spinal dorsal horn, and (3) IL-1ra at 0.01mg/rat significantly increased PWL (P<0.05) and inhibited NR1 phosphorylation compared to saline control. The results suggest that spinal IL-1beta is produced by astrocytes and enhances NR1 phosphorylation to facilitate inflammatory pain.

  17. The NMDA Receptor NR1 C1 Region Bound to Calmodulin: Structural Insights into Functional Differences between Homologous Domains

    SciTech Connect

    Ataman, Zeynep Akyol; Gakhar, Lokesh; Sorensen, Brenda R.; Hell, Johannes W.; Shea, Madeline A.

    2008-09-17

    Calmodulin (CaM) regulates tetrameric N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) by binding tightly to the C0 and C1 regions of its NR1 subunit. A crystal structure (2HQW; 1.96 {angstrom}) of calcium-saturated CaM bound to NR1C1 (peptide spanning 875-898) showed that NR1 S890, whose phosphorylation regulates membrane localization, was solvent protected, whereas the endoplasmic reticulum retention motif was solvent exposed. NR1 F880 filled the CaM C-domain pocket, whereas T886 was closest to the N-domain pocket. This 1-7 pattern was most similar to that in the CaM-MARCKS complex. Comparison of CaM-ligand wrap-around conformations identified a core tetrad of CaM C-domain residues (FLMM{sub C}) that contacted all ligands consistently. An identical tetrad of N-domain residues (FLMM{sub N}) made variable sets of contacts with ligands. This CaM-NR1C1 structure provides a foundation for designing mutants to test the role of CaM in NR1 trafficking as well as insights into how the homologous CaM domains have different roles in molecular recognition.

  18. Increased Motor Activity During REM Sleep Is Linked with Dopamine Function in Idiopathic REM Sleep Behavior Disorder and Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zoetmulder, Marielle; Nikolic, Miki; Biernat, Heidi; Korbo, Lise; Friberg, Lars; Jennum, Poul

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep, and dream-enacting behavior. RBD is especially associated with α-synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson disease (PD). Follow-up studies have shown that patients with idiopathic RBD (iRBD) have an increased risk of developing an α-synucleinopathy in later life. Although abundant studies have shown that degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system is associated with daytime motor function in Parkinson disease, only few studies have investigated the relation between this system and electromyographic (EMG) activity during sleep. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the nigrostriatal dopamine system and muscle activity during sleep in iRBD and PD. Methods: 10 iRBD patients, 10 PD patients with PD, 10 PD patients without RBD, and 10 healthy controls were included and assessed with (123)I-N-omega-fluoropropyl-2-beta-carboxymethoxy-3beta-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane ((123)I-FP-CIT) Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scanning (123I-FP-CIT SPECT), neurological examination, and polysomnography. Results: iRBD patients and PD patients with RBD had increased EMG-activity compared to healthy controls. 123I-FP-CIT uptake in the putamen-region was highest in controls, followed by iRBD patients, and lowest in PD patients. In iRBD patients, EMG-activity in the mentalis muscle was correlated to 123I-FP-CIT uptake in the putamen. In PD patients, EMG-activity was correlated to anti-Parkinson medication. Conclusions: Our results support the hypothesis that increased EMG-activity during REM sleep is at least partly linked to the nigrostriatal dopamine system in iRBD, and with dopamine function in PD. Citation: Zoetmulder M, Nikolic M, Biernat H, Korbo L, Friberg L, Jennum P. Increased motor activity during rem sleep is linked with dopamine function in idiopathic REM sleep behavior

  19. Inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate-activated current by bis(7)-tacrine in HEK-293 cells expressing NR1/NR2A or NR1/NR2B receptors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuwei; Li, Chaoying

    2012-12-01

    In normal rat forebrain, the NR1/NR2A and NR1/NR2B dimmers are the main constitutional forms of NMDA receptors. The present study was carried out to determine the functional properties of the heteromeric NMDA receptor subunits and their inhibition by bis(7)-tacrine (B7T). Rat NR1, NR2A and NR2B cDNAs were transfected into human embryonic kidney 293 cells (HEK-293). The inhibition of NMDA-activated currents by B7T was detected in HEK-293 cell expressing NR1/NR2A or NR1/NR2B receptors by using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. The results showed that in HEK-293 cells expressing NR1/NR2A receptor, 1 μmol/L B7T inhibited 30 μmol/L NMDA- and 1000 μmol/L NMDA-activated steady-state currents by 46% and 40%, respectively (P>0.05; n=5), suggesting that the inhibition of B7T on NR1/NR2A receptor doesn't depend on NMDA concentration, which is consistent with a non-competitive mechanism of inhibition. But for the NR1/NR2B receptor, 1 μmol/L B7T inhibited 30 μmol/L NMDA- and 1000 μmol/L NMDA-activated steady-state currents by 61% and 13%, respectively (P<0.05; n=6), showing that B7T appears to be competitive with NMDA. In addition, simultaneous application of 1 μmol/L B7T and 1000 μmol/L NMDA produced a moderate inhibition of peak NMDA-activated current, followed by a gradual decline of the current to a steady state. However, the gradual onset of inhibition produced by B7T applied simultaneously with NMDA was eliminated when B7T was given 5 s before NMDA. These results suggested that B7T inhibition of NMDA current mediated by NR1/NR2B receptor was slow onset, and it did not depend on the presence of the agonist. With holding potentials ranging from -50 to +50 mV, the B7T inhibition rate of NMDA currents didn't change significantly, and neither did the reversal potential. We are led to conclude that the NR1/NR2B recombinant receptor can serve as a very useful model for studying the molecular mechanism of NMDA receptor inhibition by B7T.

  20. Neurochemical and motor changes in mice with combined mutations linked to Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xiang; Wey, Margaret Chia-Ying; Martinez, Paul Anthony; Shi, Chao; Fernandez, Elizabeth; Strong, Randy

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Considerable evidence suggests that oxidative stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD), the most prevalent neurodegenerative movement disorder. Reduced expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 (ALDH1) and glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX1), enzymes that function to detoxify aldehydes and hydroxyl radicals, respectively, has been reported in the substantia nigra of patients who died with PD. To determine whether deficiency in these two genes contributes to the pathogenesis of PD, mice were generated with homozygous null mutations of both Aldh1a1 (the murine homolog of ALDH1) and Gpx1 genes [knockout (KO) mice]. At 6 and 18 months of age, KO mice showed a significantly decreased latency to fall in the automated accelerating rotarod test and increased time to complete the pole test opamine levels were not altered; however, the dopamine metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and the DOPAC/dopamine ratio were significantly reduced at 18 months of age. Proteins adducted with 4-hydroxynonenal, the end-product of lipid peroxidation, were increased in the. midbrain and striatum of KO mice at 6 and 18 months. In conclusion, dual mutations in Gpx1 and Aldh1a1 genes are associated with motor deficits and increased lipid peroxidation in adult mice. PMID:28326165

  1. The link between texting and motor vehicle collision frequency in the orthopaedic trauma population.

    PubMed

    Issar, Neil M; Kadakia, Rishin J; Tsahakis, James M; Yoneda, Zachary T; Sethi, Manish K; Mir, Hassan R; Archer, Kristin; Obremskey, William T; Jahangir, Amir A

    2013-07-01

    This study will evaluate whether or not texting frequency while driving and/or texting frequency in general are associated with an increased risk of incurring a motor vehicle collision (MVC) resulting in orthopaedic trauma injuries. All patients who presented to the Vanderbilt University Medical Center Orthopaedic Trauma Clinic were administered a questionnaire to determine background information, mean phone use, texting frequency, texting frequency while driving, and whether or not the injury was the result of an MVC in which the patient was driving. 237 questionnaires were collected. 60 were excluded due to incomplete date, leaving 57 questionnaires in the MVC group and 120 from patients with non-MVC injuries. Patients who sent more than 30 texts per week ("heavy texters") were 2.22 times more likely to be involved in an MVC than those who texted less frequently. 84% of respondents claimed to never text while driving. Dividing the sample into subsets on the basis of age (25 years of age or below considered "young adult," and above 25 years of age considered "adult"),young, heavy texters were 6.76 times more likely to be involved in an MVC than adult non-heavy texters (p = 0.000). Similarly, young adult, non-heavy texters were 6.65 (p = 0.005) times more likely to be involved in an MVC, and adult, heavy texters were 1.72 (p = 0.186) times more likely to be involved in an MVC. Patients injured in an MVC sent more text messages per week than non-MVC patients. Additionally, controlling for age demonstrated that young age and heavy general texting frequency combined had the highest increase in MVC risk, with the former being the variable of greatest effect.

  2. The link between texting and motor vehicle collision frequency in the orthopaedic trauma population

    PubMed Central

    Issar, Neil M.; Kadakia, Rishin J.; Tsahakis, James M.; Yoneda, Zachary T.; Sethi, Manish K.; Mir, Hassan R.; Archer, Kristin; Obremskey, William T.; Jahangir, Amir A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Background: This study will evaluate whether or not texting frequency while driving and/or texting frequency in general are associated with an increased risk of incurring a motor vehicle collision (MVC) resulting in orthopaedic trauma injuries. Methods: All patients who presented to the Vanderbilt University Medical Center Orthopaedic Trauma Clinic were administered a questionnaire to determine background information, mean phone use, texting frequency, texting frequency while driving, and whether or not the injury was the result of an MVC in which the patient was driving. Results: 237 questionnaires were collected. 60 were excluded due to incomplete date, leaving 57 questionnaires in the MVC group and 120 from patients with non-MVC injuries. Patients who sent more than 30 texts per week (“heavy texters”) were 2.22 times more likely to be involved in an MVC than those who texted less frequently. 84% of respondents claimed to never text while driving. Dividing the sample into subsets on the basis of age (25 years of age or below considered “young adult,” and above 25 years of age considered “adult”),young, heavy texters were 6.76 times more likely to be involved in an MVC than adult non-heavy texters (p = 0.000). Similarly, young adult, non-heavy texters were 6.65 (p = 0.005) times more likely to be involved in an MVC, and adult, heavy texters were 1.72 (p = 0.186) times more likely to be involved in an MVC. Conclusions: Patients injured in an MVC sent more text messages per week than non-MVC patients. Additionally, controlling for age demonstrated that young age and heavy general texting frequency combined had the highest increase in MVC risk, with the former being the variable of greatest effect. PMID:23416747

  3. Link between the enzymatic kinetics and mechanical behavior in an actomyosin motor.

    PubMed Central

    Amitani, I; Sakamoto, T; Ando, T

    2001-01-01

    We have attempted to link the solution actomyosin ATPase with the mechanical properties of in vitro actin filament sliding over heavy meromyosin. To accomplish this we perturbed the system by altering the substrate with various NTPs and divalent cations, and by altering ionic strength. A wide variety of enzymatic and mechanical measurements were made under very similar solution conditions. Excellent correlations between the mechanical and enzymatic quantities were revealed. Analysis of these correlations based on a force-balance model led us to two fundamental equations, which can be described approximately as follows: the maximum sliding velocity is proportional to square root of V(max)K(m)(A), where K(m)(A) is the actin concentration at which the substrate turnover rate is half of its maximum (V(max)). The active force generated by a cross-bridge under no external load or under a small external load is proportional to square root of V(max)/K(m)(A). The equations successfully accounted for the correlations observed in the present study and observations in other laboratories. PMID:11159410

  4. AmeriFlux US-NR1 Niwot Ridge Forest (LTER NWT1)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Blanken, Peter [University of Colorado

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-NR1 Niwot Ridge Forest (LTER NWT1). Site Description - The Niwot Ridge AmeriFlux site is located in a subalpine forest ecosystem just below the Continental Divide near Nederland, CO. The site is located at 3050 m elevation, within 600m of the NOAA C1 long-term monitoring station, approximately 8 km east of the Continental Divide. The surrounding subalpine forest is ~97 years old and in a state of aggradation, having recovered from early twentieth century logging (Monson, et al. Global Change Biology (2002), 8 459-478).

  5. Gene copy number effects in the mer operon of plasmid NR1.

    PubMed Central

    Nakahara, H; Kinscherf, T G; Silver, S; Miki, T; Easton, A M; Rownd, R H

    1979-01-01

    The level of resistance to Hg2+ determined by the inducible mer operon of plasmid NR1 was essentially the same for three gene copy number variants in Escherichia coli, less in Proteus mirabilis, and intermediate in P. mirabilis "transitioned" to a high r-determinant gene copy number. Cell-free volatilization rates of radioactive mercury indicated increasing levels of intracellular mercuric reductase enzyme from low- to high-gene copy number forms in P. mirabilis and from low- to high-copy number forms in E. coli, but the additional enzyme in E. coli was effectively cryptic. PMID:374374

  6. Role of a circadian-relevant gene NR1D1 in brain development: possible involvement in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Masahide; Mizuno, Makoto; Matsumoto, Ayumi; Yang, Zhiliang; Jimbo, Eriko F.; Tabata, Hidenori; Yamagata, Takanori; Nagata, Koh-ichi

    2017-01-01

    In our previous study, we screened autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients with and without sleep disorders for mutations in the coding regions of circadian-relevant genes, and detected mutations in several clock genes including NR1D1. Here, we further screened ASD patients for NR1D1 mutations and identified three novel mutations including a de novo heterozygous one c.1499 G > A (p.R500H). We then analyzed the role of Nr1d1 in the development of the cerebral cortex in mice. Acute knockdown of mouse Nr1d1 with in utero electroporation caused abnormal positioning of cortical neurons during corticogenesis. This aberrant phenotype was rescued by wild type Nr1d1, but not by the c.1499 G > A mutant. Time-lapse imaging revealed characteristic abnormal migration phenotypes in Nr1d1-deficient cortical neurons. When Nr1d1 was knocked down, axon extension and dendritic arbor formation of cortical neurons were also suppressed while proliferation of neuronal progenitors and stem cells at the ventricular zone was not affected. Taken together, Nr1d1 was found to play a pivotal role in corticogenesis via regulation of excitatory neuron migration and synaptic network formation. These results suggest that functional defects in NR1D1 may be related to ASD etiology and pathophysiology. PMID:28262759

  7. Immunolocalization of NR1, NR2A, and PSD-95 in rat hippocampal subregions during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Ling, Wei; Chang, Lirong; Song, Yizhi; Lu, Tao; Jiang, Yuhua; Li, Youxiang; Wu, Yan

    2012-05-01

    Although the expression of NMDARs and synaptic-associated proteins has been widely studied, the temporospatial distribution of NMDAR subunits and synaptic proteins in different hippocampal subregions during postnatal development still lacks detailed information, and the relationship between NR1 or NR2 subunits and PSD-95 family proteins is controversial. In this study, we used immunofluorescent staining to assess NR1 or NR2A and PSD-95 expressions and the relationship between them in CA1, CA3, and DG of rat hippocampus on postnatal (P) days: P0, P4, P7, P10, P14, P21, P28, P56. The results showed that from P0 to P56, NR1, NR2A, and PSD-95 expressions increased gradually, and the time points of their expression peak differed in CA1, CA3, and DG during postnatal development. Interestingly, although the expression of PSD-95 was positively correlated to both NR1 and NR2A, the NR1 and PSD-95 coexpressed puncta were greatest in CA3, while NR2A and PSD-95 coexpressed puncta were greatest in CA1, compared to other subregions. Surprisingly, at P21, among different strata of CA1, the area of highest expression of NR2A was dramatically changed from stratum pyramidale to stratum polymorphum and stratum moleculare, and returned to stratum pyramidale gradually on the later observed days again, indicating that P21 may be one critical timepoint during postnatal development in CA1. The specific temporospatial distribution pattern of NR1, NR2A, and PSD-95 might be related to the different physiological functions during postnatal development. Discovering the alteration of the relationship between PSD-95 and NMDAR subunits expression may be helpful for understanding mechanisms and therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. IMMUNOREACTIVITY FOR THE NMDA NR1 SUBUNIT IN BULBOSPINAL CATECHOLAMINE AND SEROTONIN NEURONS OF RAT VENTRAL MEDULLA

    PubMed Central

    Llewellyn-Smith, Ida J.; Mueller, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Bulbospinal neurons in the ventral medulla play important roles in the regulation of sympathetic outflow. Physiological evidence suggests that these neurons are activated by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA subtypes of glutamate receptors. In this study, we examined bulbospinal neurons in the ventral medulla for the presence of immunoreactivity for the NMDA NR1 subunit, which is essential for NMDA receptor function. Rats received bilateral injections of cholera toxin B into the tenth thoracic spinal segment to label bulbospinal neurons. Triple immunofluorescent labelling was used to detect cholera toxin B with a blue fluorophore, NR1 with a red fluorophore and either tyrosine hydroxylase or tryptophan hydroxylase with a green fluorophore. In the rostral ventrolateral medulla, NR1 occurred in all bulbospinal tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons and 96% of bulbospinal tyrosine hydroxylase-negative neurons, which were more common in sections containing the facial nucleus. In raphé pallidus, the parapyramidal region and the marginal layer, 98% of bulbospinal tryptophan hydroxylase-positive neurons contained NR1-immunoreactivity. NR1 was also present in all of the bulbospinal tryptophan hydroxylase-negative neurons, which comprised 20% of bulbospinal neurons in raphé pallidus and the parapyramidal region. These results show that virtually all bulbospinal tyrosine hydroxylase and non-tyrosine hydroxylase neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla and virtually all bulbospinal serotonin and non-serotonin neurons in raphé pallidus and the parapyramidal region express NR1, the obligatory subunit of the NMDA receptor. NMDA receptors on bulbospinal neurons in the rostral ventral medulla likely influence sympathoexcitation in normal and pathological conditions. PMID:23562375

  9. Expression and characterization of a glycine-binding fragment of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR1.

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, J; Nakanishi, S; Jingami, H

    1999-01-01

    N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor channels are composed of an NR1 subunit and at least one of the NR2 subunits (NR2A-D). Activation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor requires the co-agonists glycine and glutamate. It has been proposed that the NR1 subunit possesses a glycine-binding site. We have expressed a soluble form of the NR1 subunit, which was produced by connecting the N-terminal extracellular region with the extracellular loop between the third and fourth membrane segments, by a baculovirus system along with full-length and truncated membrane-bound forms. The soluble NR1 receptor was efficiently secreted into the culture medium and showed a high affinity for ligands. The Kd of a glycine-site antagonist, [3H]MDL 105,519 [(E)-3-(2-phenyl-2-carboxyethenyl)-4, 6-dichloro-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid], for the soluble receptor was 3.89+/-0.97 nM, which was comparable to the Kd of 4.47+/-1.39 nM for the membrane-bound full-length form. These values were close to the values reported previously with the use of rat brain membranes and Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the full-length form of the NR1 subunit. The Ki values of other glycine-site antagonists, L-689,560 (trans-2-carboxy-5,7-dichloro - 4 - phenylaminocarbonylamino - 1,2,3,4 - tetrahydroquinoline), 5, 7-dichlorokynurenate and 5,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione, for the soluble receptor were also similar to those for the full-length form of NR1. [3H]MDL 105,519 binding was also inhibited by the agonists glycine and d-serine. Thus the affinity and selectivity of ligand-binding characteristics of the NR1 subunit is conferred on the soluble form of the NR1 subunit. This soluble receptor provides a good experimental tool for initiating a biophysical analysis of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor channel protein. PMID:10359652

  10. Molecular dynamics simulations and cross-link analysis of the rotary molecular motor F(o) of ATP synthase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanchanawarin, Chalermpol

    The protein F1Fo ATP synthase is responsible for the generation of the molecule adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP). It consists of two coupled rotary motors, F1 and Fo. ATP is generated via a rotary mechanism that couples the synthesis of ATP in F1 to the proton translocation across Fo which is driven by the electrochemical proton gradient across the membrane. F1 consists of three different subunits in the stoichiometry a1b2c10. So far, only the structure of the c-subunit and a partial structure of the b-subunit have been solved at atomic level detail. However, enough biochemical and structural information is available to construct an atomic model of Fo. There are still many open questions about Fo operation ranging from the subunit arrangement to the proton pathway and proton conduction mechanism to the rotary mechanism that couples the proton conduction to the rotation of its rotor. In this thesis study, I investigated the following four aspects of Fo: the proton pathway in Fo; the motion of F o subunits during its rotation; the rotation of the C-terminal helix of the c-subunit induced by a pH change; the forced rotation of a c10 ring in a membrane. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, I was able to identify a proton pathway formed as two half proton channels in F o, i.e., a proton entrance channel and a proton exit channel. This is in good agreement with experiment. Furthermore, based on the diagramatic cross-link analysis, I propose a new Fo rotary mechanism which shows the cooperative movement of helices in Fo during proton transport and can explain experimental results which could not be explained by previous models. The investigation of the C-terminal helix rotation by NM simulations showed no pH induced rotation of the helix of the c-subunit. Finally, using steered MD simulations, I found that the c10 ring is mechanically robust against forced rotation in vacuum but not in a membrane on the MD time scale. Overall, structural information combined with my

  11. Aquatic studies at the 100-HR-3 and 100-NR-1 operable units

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, C.E.

    1993-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a program to characterize selected aquatic biological populations to determine (1) existing levels of inorganic chemical and radionuclide contamination, and (2) the populations` suitability as indicators of chemical releases during cleanup activities at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. Following work plans for the ground-water operable units, lower trophic levels in the aquatic habitat (periphyton and caddisfly larvae) were evaluated for contaminants at the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit and 100-NR-1 Operable Unit. The results were evaluated to determine the need for further sampling. If the results showed no significant contamination compared to upriver levels, sampling would be discontinued. The periphyton community appears to be suitable for determining contamination levels. Baseline concentrations for stable chromium were established and will be useful for comparing samples collected when contaminant release is expected. Concentrations of {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs in periphyton were essentially below detectable limits, which will also make this community useful in detecting potential releases of radionuclides during cleanup activities. Levels for both stable chromium and radionuclides were essentially below detection limits for caddisfly larvae. Thus, these organisms may be used to monitor suspected contaminant releases from cleanup activities; if concentrations exceed detection limits, they may be related to these activities. Two candidate threatened and endangered species of molluscs occur in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. These are the shortface lanx (Fisherola nuttalli), which is a Washington State candidate species, and the Columbia pebblesnail (Fluminicola columbiana), which is both a state and federal candidate species. Specimens of the shortface lanx were observed in the vicinity of N Springs (100-NR-1 Operable Unit); they likely occur throughout this area.

  12. Aquatic studies at the 100-HR-3 and 100-NR-1 operable units

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, C.E.

    1993-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a program to characterize selected aquatic biological populations to determine (1) existing levels of inorganic chemical and radionuclide contamination, and (2) the populations' suitability as indicators of chemical releases during cleanup activities at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Following work plans for the ground-water operable units, lower trophic levels in the aquatic habitat (periphyton and caddisfly larvae) were evaluated for contaminants at the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit and 100-NR-1 Operable Unit. The results were evaluated to determine the need for further sampling. If the results showed no significant contamination compared to upriver levels, sampling would be discontinued. The periphyton community appears to be suitable for determining contamination levels. Baseline concentrations for stable chromium were established and will be useful for comparing samples collected when contaminant release is expected. Concentrations of [sup 60]Co, [sup 90]Sr, and [sup 137]Cs in periphyton were essentially below detectable limits, which will also make this community useful in detecting potential releases of radionuclides during cleanup activities. Levels for both stable chromium and radionuclides were essentially below detection limits for caddisfly larvae. Thus, these organisms may be used to monitor suspected contaminant releases from cleanup activities; if concentrations exceed detection limits, they may be related to these activities. Two candidate threatened and endangered species of molluscs occur in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. These are the shortface lanx (Fisherola nuttalli), which is a Washington State candidate species, and the Columbia pebblesnail (Fluminicola columbiana), which is both a state and federal candidate species. Specimens of the shortface lanx were observed in the vicinity of N Springs (100-NR-1 Operable Unit); they likely occur throughout this area.

  13. A mollusk VDR/PXR/CAR-like (NR1J) nuclear receptor provides insight into ancient detoxification mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cruzeiro, Catarina; Lopes-Marques, Mónica; Ruivo, Raquel; Rodrigues-Oliveira, Nádia; Santos, Miguel M; Rocha, Maria João; Rocha, Eduardo; Castro, L Filipe C

    2016-05-01

    The origin and diversification of the metazoan endocrine systems represents a fundamental research issue in biology. Nuclear receptors are critical components of these systems. A particular group named VDR/PXR/CAR (NR1I/J) is central in the mediation of detoxification responses. While orthologues have been thoroughly characterized in vertebrates, a sparse representation is currently available for invertebrates. Here, we provide the first isolation and characterization of a lophotrochozoan protostome VDR/PXR/CAR nuclear receptor (NR1J), in the estuarine bivalve the peppery furrow shell (Scrobicularia plana). Using a reporter gene assay, we evaluated the xenobiotic receptor plasticity comparing the human PXR with the S. plana NR1Jβ. Our results show that the molluscan receptor responds to a natural toxin (okadaic acid) in a similar fashion to that reported for other invertebrates. In contrast, the pesticide esfenvalerate displayed a unique response, since it down regulated transactivation at higher concentrations, while for triclosan no response was observed. Additionally, we uncovered lineage specific gene duplications and gene loss in the gene group encoding NRs in protostomes with likely impacts on the complexity of detoxification mechanisms across different phyla. Our findings pave the way for the development of multi-specific sensor tools to screen xenobiotic compounds acting via the NR1I/J group.

  14. A potential psychological mechanism linking disaster-related prenatal maternal stress with child cognitive and motor development at 16 months: The QF2011 Queensland Flood Study.

    PubMed

    Moss, Katrina M; Simcock, Gabrielle; Cobham, Vanessa; Kildea, Sue; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Laplante, David P; King, Suzanne

    2017-04-01

    Fetal exposure to prenatal maternal stress can have lifelong consequences, with different types of maternal stress associated with different areas of child development. Fewer studies have focused on motor skills, even though they are strongly predictive of later development across a range of domains. Research on mechanisms of transmission has identified biological cascades of stress reactions, yet links between psychological stress reactions are rarely studied. This study investigates the relationship between different aspects of disaster-related prenatal maternal stress and child cognitive and motor development, and proposes a cascade of stress reactions as a potential mechanism of transmission. Mothers in the Queensland Flood Study (QF2011) exposed to a major flood during pregnancy completed questionnaires assessing flood exposure, symptoms of peritraumatic distress, dissociation, and posttraumatic stress (PTSD), and cognitive appraisal of the overall flood consequences. At 16 months post-partum, children's (N = 145) cognitive and motor development was assessed using the Bayley-III. Flood exposure predicted child cognitive development and maternal PTSD symptoms and negative cognitive appraisal were significantly negatively related to child motor development, with all relationships moderated by timing of exposure. Together, a cascade of stress reactions linked maternal flood exposure to poorer fine motor development. These findings suggest that the way stress reactions operate together is as important as the way they operate in isolation, and identifies a potential psychological mechanism of transmission for the effects of prenatal stress. Results have implications for conceptualizing prenatal stress research and optimizing child development in the wake of natural disasters. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. Two distinct interneuron circuits in human motor cortex are linked to different subsets of physiological and behavioral plasticity.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Masashi; Galea, Joseph M; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Mazzone, Paolo; Ziemann, Ulf; Rothwell, John C

    2014-09-17

    How does a single brain region participate in multiple behaviors? Here we argue that two separate interneuron circuits in the primary motor cortex (M1) contribute differently to two varieties of physiological and behavioral plasticity. To test this in human brain noninvasively, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of M1 hand area to activate two independent sets of synaptic inputs to corticospinal neurons by changing the direction of current induced in the brain: posterior-to-anterior current (PA inputs) and anterior-to-posterior current (AP inputs). We demonstrate that excitability changes produced by repetitive activation of AP inputs depend on cerebellar activity and selectively alter model-based motor learning. In contrast, the changes observed with repetitive stimulation of PA inputs are independent of cerebellar activity and specifically modulate model-free motor learning. The findings are highly suggestive that separate circuits in M1 subserve different forms of motor learning.

  16. ALS-linked TDP-43 mutations produce aberrant RNA splicing and adult-onset motor neuron disease without aggregation or loss of nuclear TDP-43.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Eveline S; Ling, Shuo-Chien; Huelga, Stephanie C; Lagier-Tourenne, Clotilde; Polymenidou, Magdalini; Ditsworth, Dara; Kordasiewicz, Holly B; McAlonis-Downes, Melissa; Platoshyn, Oleksandr; Parone, Philippe A; Da Cruz, Sandrine; Clutario, Kevin M; Swing, Debbie; Tessarollo, Lino; Marsala, Martin; Shaw, Christopher E; Yeo, Gene W; Cleveland, Don W

    2013-02-19

    Transactivating response region DNA binding protein (TDP-43) is the major protein component of ubiquitinated inclusions found in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with ubiquitinated inclusions. Two ALS-causing mutants (TDP-43(Q331K) and TDP-43(M337V)), but not wild-type human TDP-43, are shown here to provoke age-dependent, mutant-dependent, progressive motor axon degeneration and motor neuron death when expressed in mice at levels and in a cell type-selective pattern similar to endogenous TDP-43. Mutant TDP-43-dependent degeneration of lower motor neurons occurs without: (i) loss of TDP-43 from the corresponding nuclei, (ii) accumulation of TDP-43 aggregates, and (iii) accumulation of insoluble TDP-43. Computational analysis using splicing-sensitive microarrays demonstrates alterations of endogenous TDP-43-dependent alternative splicing events conferred by both human wild-type and mutant TDP-43(Q331K), but with high levels of mutant TDP-43 preferentially enhancing exon exclusion of some target pre-mRNAs affecting genes involved in neurological transmission and function. Comparison with splicing alterations following TDP-43 depletion demonstrates that TDP-43(Q331K) enhances normal TDP-43 splicing function for some RNA targets but loss-of-function for others. Thus, adult-onset motor neuron disease does not require aggregation or loss of nuclear TDP-43, with ALS-linked mutants producing loss and gain of splicing function of selected RNA targets at an early disease stage.

  17. Activation of Steroid and Xenobiotic Receptor (SXR, NR1I2) and Its Orthologs in Laboratory, Toxicologic, and Genome Model Species

    PubMed Central

    Milnes, Matthew R.; Garcia, Adriana; Grossman, Emily; Grün, Felix; Shiotsugu, Jason; Tabb, Michelle M.; Kawashima, Yukio; Katsu, Yoshinao; Watanabe, Hajime; Iguchi, Taisen; Blumberg, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Background Nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 2 (NR1I2), commonly known as steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR) in humans, is a key ligand-dependent transcription factor responsible for the regulation of xenobiotic, steroid, and bile acid metabolism. The ligand-binding domain is principally responsible for species-specific activation of NR1I2 in response to xenobiotic exposure. Objectives Our objective in this study was to create a common framework for screening NR1I2 orthologs from a variety of model species against environmentally relevant xenobiotics and to evaluate the results in light of using these species as predictors of xenobiotic disposition and for assessment of environmental health risk. Methods Sixteen chimeric fusion plasmid vectors expressing the Gal4 DNA-binding domain and species-specific NR1I2 ligand-binding domain were screened for activation against a spectrum of 27 xenobiotic compounds using a standardized cotransfection receptor activation assay. Results NR1I2 orthologs were activated by various ligands in a dose-dependent manner. Closely related species show broadly similar patterns of activation; however, considerable variation to individual compounds exists, even among species varying in only a few amino acid residues. Conclusions Interspecies variation in NR1I2 activation by various ligands can be screened through the use of in vitro NR1I2 activation assays and should be taken into account when choosing appropriate animal models for assessing environmental health risk. PMID:18629309

  18. Nuclear receptor Rev-erb alpha (Nr1d1) functions in concert with Nr2e3 to regulate transcriptional networks in the retina.

    PubMed

    Mollema, Nissa J; Yuan, Yang; Jelcick, Austin S; Sachs, Andrew J; von Alpen, Désirée; Schorderet, Daniel; Escher, Pascal; Haider, Neena B

    2011-03-08

    The majority of diseases in the retina are caused by genetic mutations affecting the development and function of photoreceptor cells. The transcriptional networks directing these processes are regulated by genes such as nuclear hormone receptors. The nuclear hormone receptor gene Rev-erb alpha/Nr1d1 has been widely studied for its role in the circadian cycle and cell metabolism, however its role in the retina is unknown. In order to understand the role of Rev-erb alpha/Nr1d1 in the retina, we evaluated the effects of loss of Nr1d1 to the developing retina and its co-regulation with the photoreceptor-specific nuclear receptor gene Nr2e3 in the developing and mature retina. Knock-down of Nr1d1 expression in the developing retina results in pan-retinal spotting and reduced retinal function by electroretinogram. Our studies show that NR1D1 protein is co-expressed with NR2E3 in the outer neuroblastic layer of the developing mouse retina. In the adult retina, NR1D1 is expressed in the ganglion cell layer and is co-expressed with NR2E3 in the outer nuclear layer, within rods and cones. Several genes co-targeted by NR2E3 and NR1D1 were identified that include: Nr2c1, Recoverin, Rgr, Rarres2, Pde8a, and Nupr1. We examined the cyclic expression of Nr1d1 and Nr2e3 over a twenty-four hour period and observed that both nuclear receptors cycle in a similar manner. Taken together, these studies reveal a novel role for Nr1d1, in conjunction with its cofactor Nr2e3, in regulating transcriptional networks critical for photoreceptor development and function.

  19. Motor impairment in very preterm-born children: links with other developmental deficits at 5 years of age.

    PubMed

    Van Hus, Janeline W; Potharst, Eva S; Jeukens-Visser, Martine; Kok, Joke H; Van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G

    2014-06-01

    To elucidate the relation between motor impairment and other developmental deficits in very preterm-born children without disabling cerebral palsy and term-born comparison children at 5 years of (corrected) age. In a prospective cohort study, 165 children (81 very preterm-born and 84 term-born)were assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children - 2nd edition, Touwen’s neurological examination, the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, processing speed and visuomotor coordination tasks of the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Motor impairment (≤15th centile) occurred in 32% of the very preterm-born children compared with 11% of their term-born peers (p=0.001). Of the very preterm-born children with motor impairment, 58% had complex minor neurological dysfunctions, 54% had low IQ, 69% had slow processing speed, 58% had visuomotor coordination problems, and 27%, 50%,and 46% had conduct, emotional, and hyperactivity problems respectively. Neurological outcome (odds ratio [OR]=41.7, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 7.5–232.5) and Full-scale IQ(OR=7.3, 95% CI 1.9–27.3) were significantly and independently associated with motor impairment. Processing speed (OR=4.6, 95% CI 1.8–11.6) and attention (OR=3.2, 95% CI1.3–7.9) were additional variables associated with impaired manual dexterity. These four developmental deficits mediated the relation between preterm birth and motor impairment. Complex minor neurological dysfunctions, low IQ, slow processing speed,and hyperactivity/inattention should be taken into account when very preterm-born children are referred for motor impairment.

  20. The effects of rTMS over the primary motor cortex: the link between action and language.

    PubMed

    Repetto, Claudia; Colombo, Barbara; Cipresso, Pietro; Riva, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Is the primary motor cortex (M1) necessary for language comprehension? The present study investigates the role of the primary motor cortex during verbs comprehension, within the framework of the embodied theories of language. We applied rTMS over the right and left hand portion of M1 and tested the effects of the stimulation toward the processing of hand-related action verbs versus abstract verbs. Results underlined a specific inhibition effect following left stimulation, only with hand-related action verbs. These findings seem to corroborate the hypothesis of a functional role of M1 in action verbs comprehension.

  1. A reconsideration of the link between the energetics of water and of ATP hydrolysis energy in the power strokes of molecular motors in protein structures.

    PubMed

    Widdas, Wilfred F

    2008-09-01

    Mechanical energy from oxygen metabolism by mammalian tissues has been studied since 1837. The production of heat by mechanical work was studied by Fick in about 1860. Prior to Fick's work, energetics were revised by Joule's experiments which founded the First Law of Thermodynamics. Fenn in 1923/24 found that frog muscle contractions generated extra heat proportional to the amount of work done in shortening the muscle. This was fully consistent with the Joule, Helmholtz concept used for the First Law of Thermodynamics. The link between the energetics of water and ATP hydrolysis in molecular motors is recommended for reconsideration.

  2. A Reconsideration of the Link between the Energetics of Water and of ATP Hydrolysis Energy in the Power Strokes of Molecular Motors in Protein Structures

    PubMed Central

    Widdas, Wilfred F.

    2008-01-01

    Mechanical energy from oxygen metabolism by mammalian tissues has been studied since 1837. The production of heat by mechanical work was studied by Fick in about 1860. Prior to Fick’s work, energetics were revised by Joule’s experiments which founded the First Law of Thermodynamics. Fenn in 1923/24 found that frog muscle contractions generated extra heat proportional to the amount of work done in shortening the muscle. This was fully consistent with the Joule, Helmholtz concept used for the First Law of Thermodynamics. The link between the energetics of water and ATP hydrolysis in molecular motors is recommended for reconsideration. PMID:19325829

  3. Bestrahlungsinduziertes kriechen und schwellen des austenitischen werkstoffes NR. 1.4981 zwischen 400 und 500°C (RIPCEX I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herschbach, K.; Schneider, W.; Ehrlich, K.

    1981-10-01

    ZusammenfassungFür den Werkstoff Nr. 1.4981 wurde das bestrahlungsinduzierte Volumenschwellen und Kriechen im Temperaturbereich 400 bis 500°C bis zu einer Dosis von max. 63 dpa mittels nichtzerstörender und zerstörender Nachuntersuchungen bestimmt. Dabei zeigte sich eine deutliche Beeinflussung des Volumenschwellens durch eine angelegte Spannung. Das bestrahlungsinduzierte Kriechen wird für den Stahl Nr. 1.4981 durch mindestens zwei Prozesse hervorgerufen, einmal durch den sog. SIPA-Prozess, der auf bevorzugter Absorption von Zwischengitteratomen beruht, zum anderen durch das sog. I-Creep, einem Prozess, der erst nach Einsetzen des Volumenschwellens zum Tragen kommen kann. Für höhere Dosen liefert letzterer Vorgang den dominierenden Beitrag zum Kriechen.

  4. High resolution melting analysis of the NR1I3 genetic variants: Is there an association with neonatal hyperbilirubinemia?

    PubMed

    Cheung, Tian Pei; Van Rostenberghe, Hans; Ismail, Rosliza; Nawawi, Noor Namirah; Abdullah, Nurul Amierah; Ramli, Noraida; Ibrahim, Nor Rosidah; Hj Abd Majid, Noorizan; Mohd Yusoff, Narazah; Nishio, Hisahide; Yusoff, Surini

    2015-12-01

    Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) encoded by the nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 3 (NR1I3) gene regulates the elimination of bilirubin through activating the components of the bilirubin clearance pathway. Hence, NR1I3 genetic variants may affect bilirubin metabolism and result in neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Thus far, research which investigates the association between NR1I3 variants and neonatal hyperbilirubinemia has not been undertaken in any population. The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of MPJ6_1I3008 (rs10157822), IVS8+116T>G (rs4073054) and 540A>G (rs2307424) on neonatal hyperbilirubinemia development in the Malay population. Buccal swabs were collected from 232 hyperbilirubinemia and 277 control term newborns with gestational age ≥37weeks and birth weight ≥2500g. The NR1I3 variants were genotyped by using high resolution melting (HRM) assays and verified by DNA sequencing. Gender, mode of delivery and birth weight did not differ between hyperbilirubinemia and control groups. The genotypic and allelic frequencies of MPJ6_1I3008, IVS8+116T>G and 540A>G were not significantly different between the groups. However, stratification by gender revealed a significant inverse association between homozygous variant genotype of MPJ6_1I3008 and risk of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in the females (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.20-0.95; p=0.034). This study demonstrates that the homozygous variant genotype of MPJ6_1I3008 was associated with a significant reduced risk of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in the females. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Receptor to glutamate NMDA-type: the functional diversity of the nr1 isoforms and pharmacological properties.

    PubMed

    Flores-Soto, Mario Eduardo; Chaparro-Huerta, Verónica; Escoto-Delgadillo, Martha; Ureña-Guerrero, Mónica Elisa; Camins, Antoni; Beas-Zarate, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Glutamic acid (Glu) is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and interacts with two classes of receptor: metabotropic and ionotropic receptors. Ionotropic receptors are divided according to the affinity of their specific agonists: Nmethyl- D-aspartate (NMDA), amino acid-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole acid (AMPA) and kainic acid (KA). NMDA receptors (NMDA-R) are macromolecular structures that are formed by different combinations of subunits: NMDAR1 (NR1), NMDAR2 (NR2) and NMDAR3 (NR3). The study of this receptor has aroused great interest, partly due to its role in synaptic plasticity but mainly because of its permeability to the Ca(2+) ion. This review examines the molecular composition of NMDA-R and the variants of NR1 subunit editing in association with NR2 subunit dimers, which form the main components of this receptor. Their composition, structure, function and distinct temporal and spatial expression patterns demonstrate the versatility and diversity of functionally different isoforms of NR1 subunits and the various pharmacological properties of the NR2 subunit. Finally, the involvement of NMDA-R in the excitotoxicity phenomenon, as well as, its expression changes under these conditions as neuronal response are also discussed.

  6. Effective connectivity hierarchically links temporoparietal and frontal areas of the auditory dorsal stream with the motor cortex lip area during speech perception.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Takenobu; Restle, Julia; Ziemann, Ulf

    2012-09-01

    A left-hemispheric cortico-cortical network involving areas of the temporoparietal junction (Tpj) and the posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG) is thought to support sensorimotor integration of speech perception into articulatory motor activation, but how this network links with the lip area of the primary motor cortex (M1) during speech perception is unclear. Using paired-coil focal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in healthy subjects, we demonstrate that Tpj→M1 and pIFG→M1 effective connectivity increased when listening to speech compared to white noise. A virtual lesion induced by continuous theta-burst TMS (cTBS) of the pIFG abolished the task-dependent increase in pIFG→M1 but not Tpj→M1 effective connectivity during speech perception, whereas cTBS of Tpj abolished the task-dependent increase of both effective connectivities. We conclude that speech perception enhances effective connectivity between areas of the auditory dorsal stream and M1. Tpj is situated at a hierarchically high level, integrating speech perception into motor activation through the pIFG.

  7. Cloning and characterization of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR1 gene from chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta (Walbaum, 1792).

    PubMed

    Yu, Jeong-Nam; Ham, Seung Hyub; Lee, Seung Il; Jin, Hyung-Joo; Ueda, Hiroshi; Jin, Deuk-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the information about molecular and expression characterization of NR1 gene in chum salmon for the first time. The complete NR1 subunit showed a large open-reading frame of 2844 bp in the total length of 3193 bp, and this cDNA contained a coding region encoding 948 amino acids and a stop codon. The organization of the NR1 subunit of chum salmon were similar of most other fishes, except C' terminal. The expression of NR1 subunit was to show higher in the natal river near to the hatchery than near to the coast. We expect that the information reported herein may facilitate further investigations on the relationship between memory factors of natal rivers and homing mechanisms in Salmonidae.

  8. ALS-linked TDP-43 mutations produce aberrant RNA splicing and adult-onset motor neuron disease without aggregation or loss of nuclear TDP-43

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Eveline S.; Ling, Shuo-Chien; Huelga, Stephanie C.; Lagier-Tourenne, Clotilde; Polymenidou, Magdalini; Ditsworth, Dara; Kordasiewicz, Holly B.; McAlonis-Downes, Melissa; Platoshyn, Oleksandr; Parone, Philippe A.; Da Cruz, Sandrine; Clutario, Kevin M.; Swing, Debbie; Tessarollo, Lino; Marsala, Martin; Shaw, Christopher E.; Yeo, Gene W.; Cleveland, Don W.

    2013-01-01

    Transactivating response region DNA binding protein (TDP-43) is the major protein component of ubiquitinated inclusions found in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with ubiquitinated inclusions. Two ALS-causing mutants (TDP-43Q331K and TDP-43M337V), but not wild-type human TDP-43, are shown here to provoke age-dependent, mutant-dependent, progressive motor axon degeneration and motor neuron death when expressed in mice at levels and in a cell type-selective pattern similar to endogenous TDP-43. Mutant TDP-43-dependent degeneration of lower motor neurons occurs without: (i) loss of TDP-43 from the corresponding nuclei, (ii) accumulation of TDP-43 aggregates, and (iii) accumulation of insoluble TDP-43. Computational analysis using splicing-sensitive microarrays demonstrates alterations of endogenous TDP-43–dependent alternative splicing events conferred by both human wild-type and mutant TDP-43Q331K, but with high levels of mutant TDP-43 preferentially enhancing exon exclusion of some target pre-mRNAs affecting genes involved in neurological transmission and function. Comparison with splicing alterations following TDP-43 depletion demonstrates that TDP-43Q331K enhances normal TDP-43 splicing function for some RNA targets but loss-of-function for others. Thus, adult-onset motor neuron disease does not require aggregation or loss of nuclear TDP-43, with ALS-linked mutants producing loss and gain of splicing function of selected RNA targets at an early disease stage. PMID:23382207

  9. DISPLACEMENT OF α-ACTININ FROM THE NMDA RECEPTOR NR1 C0 DOMAIN BY Ca2+/CALMODULIN PROMOTES CAMKII BINDING

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Michelle A.; Malik, Zulfiqar; Akyol, Zeynep; Bartos, Jason A.; Leonard, A. Soren; Hudmon, Andy; Shea, Madeline A.; Hell, Johannes W.

    2008-01-01

    Ca2+ influx through the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor triggers activation and postsynaptic accumulation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII). CaMKII, calmodulin, and α-actinin directly bind to the short membrane proximal C0 domain of the C-terminal region of the NMDA receptor NR1 subunit. In a negative feedback loop, calmodulin mediates Ca2+-dependent inactivation of the NMDA receptor by displacing α-actinin from NR1 C0 upon Ca2+ influx. We show that Ca2+-depleted calmodulin and α-actinin simultaneously bind to NR1 C0. Upon addition of Ca2+, calmodulin dislodges α-actinin. Either the N- or C-terminal half of calmodulin is sufficient for Ca2+-induced displacement of α-actinin. While α-actinin directly antagonizes CaMKII binding to NR1 C0, the addition of Ca2+/calmodulin shifts binding of NR1 C0 toward CaMKII by displacing α-actinin. Displacement of α-actinin results in the simultaneous binding of calmodulin and CaMKII to NR1 C0. Our results reveal an intricate mechanism whereby Ca2+ functions to govern the complex interactions between the two most prevalent signaling molecules in synaptic plasticity, the NMDA receptor and CaMKII. PMID:17602661

  10. Protons trap NR1/NR2B NMDA receptors in a nonconducting state.

    PubMed

    Banke, Tue G; Dravid, Shashank M; Traynelis, Stephen F

    2005-01-05

    NMDA receptors are highly expressed in the CNS and are involved in excitatory synaptic transmission, as well as synaptic plasticity. Given that overstimulation of NMDA receptors can cause cell death, it is not surprising that these channels are under tight control by a series of inhibitory extracellular ions, including zinc, magnesium, and H+. We studied the inhibition by extracellular protons of recombinant NMDA receptor NR1/NR2B single-channel and macroscopic responses in transiently transfected human embryonic kidney HEK 293 cells using patch-clamp techniques. We report that proton inhibition proceeds identically in the absence or presence of agonist, which rules out the possibility that protonation inhibits receptors by altering coagonist binding. The response of macroscopic currents in excised patches to rapid jumps in pH was used to estimate the microscopic association and dissociation rates for protons, which were 1.4 x 10(9) m(-1) sec(-1) and 110-196 sec(-1), respectively (K(d) corresponds to pH 7.2). Protons reduce the open probability without altering the time course of desensitization or deactivation. Protons appear to slow at least one time constant describing the intra-activation shut-time histogram and modestly reduce channel open time, which we interpret to reflect a reduction in the overall channel activation rate and possible proton-induced termination of openings. This is consistent with a modest proton-dependent slowing of the macroscopic response rise time. From these data, we propose a physical model of proton inhibition that can describe macroscopic and single-channel properties of NMDA receptor function over a range of pH values.

  11. Metagenomics of Water Column Microbes Near Brine Pool NR1 and adjacent regions of the Northern Gulf of Mexico Collected in Fall 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, A. M.; Goodwin, K. D.; Brami, D.; Schwartz, A.; Toledo, G.

    2012-12-01

    High-throughput sequencing was applied to eight water column samples collected from the Gulf of Mexico in 2009 in regions SW and west of the 2010 Macondo oil spill. Samples were collected by Niskin-equipped CTD (~200 and ~650 m depths) at two locations, including a site over a methane brine pool (Brine Pool NR1). In addition, seawater was collected ~3m lateral of the pool (649m depth) via Niskin bottle equipped on the Johnson-Sea-Link submersible. Unassembled reads were submitted to the Synthetic Genomics bioinformatics pipeline for taxonomic analysis. The distribution of Bacteria (56-73%), Archae (7-16%), Eukaryotes (12-23%), and unclassified sequences (6-10%) were similar for all samples. However, certain taxonomic classifications were relatively more abundant in deeper samples, and differences were noted for samples collected by submersible. For example, Methylophaga was classified as 38% of the order Thiotrichales for the Niskin/submersible sample compared to 0% in the 200m-depth samples and 3-11% in the 650m samples. Methylophaga is a genus of indigenous methylotrophs reported to respond during the Deepwater Horizon event of 2010. In contrast, sequence abundance for Oceanospirillales, also reported to respond during the event, was similar for all samples (6-9% of the gamma-proteobacteria).

  12. Novel dynein DYNC1H1 neck and motor domain mutations link distal SMA and abnormal cortical development

    PubMed Central

    Fiorillo, Chiara; Moro, Francesca; Yi, Julie; Weil, Sarah; Brisca, Giacomo; Astrea, Guja; Severino, Mariasavina; Romano, Alessandro; Battini, Roberta; Rossi, Andrea; Minetti, Carlo; Bruno, Claudio; Santorelli, Filippo M.; Vallee, Richard

    2014-01-01

    DYNC1H1 encodes the heavy chain of cytoplasmic dynein 1, a motor protein complex implicated in retrograde axonal transport, neuronal migration, and other intracellular motility functions. Mutations in DYNC1H1 have been described in autosomal dominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2 and in families with distal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) predominantly affecting the legs (SMA-LED). Recently, defects of cytoplasmic dynein 1 were also associated with a form of mental retardation and neuronal migration disorders. Here we describe two unrelated patients presenting a combined phenotype of congenital motor neuron disease associated with focal areas of cortical malformation. In each patient we identified a novel de novo mutation in DYNC1H1: c.3581A>G (p.Gln1194Arg) in one case and c.9142G>A (p.Glu3048Lys) in the other. The mutations lie in different domains of the dynein heavy chain, and are deleterious to protein function as indicated by assays for Golgi recovery after nocodazole washout in patient fibroblasts. Our results expand the set of pathological mutations in DYNC1H1, reinforce the role of cytoplasmic dynein in disorders of neuronal migration and provide evidence for a syndrome including spinal nerve degeneration and brain developmental problems. PMID:24307404

  13. Neuroprotective effects of the Sigma-1 receptor (S1R) agonist PRE-084, in a mouse model of motor neuron disease not linked to SOD1 mutation.

    PubMed

    Peviani, Marco; Salvaneschi, Eleonora; Bontempi, Leonardo; Petese, Alessandro; Manzo, Antonio; Rossi, Daniela; Salmona, Mario; Collina, Simona; Bigini, Paolo; Curti, Daniela

    2014-02-01

    The identification of novel molecular targets crucially involved in motor neuron degeneration/survival is a necessary step for the development of hopefully more effective therapeutic strategies for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. In this view, S1R, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident receptor with chaperone-like activity, has recently attracted great interest. S1R is involved in several processes leading to acute and chronic neurodegeneration, including ALS pathology. Treatment with the S1R agonist PRE-084 improves locomotor function and motor neuron survival in presymptomatic and early symptomatic mutant SOD1-G93A ALS mice. Here, we tested the efficacy of PRE-084 in a model of spontaneous motor neuron degeneration, the wobbler mouse (wr) as a proof of concept that S1R may be regarded as a key therapeutic target also for ALS cases not linked to SOD1 mutation. Increased staining for S1R was detectable in morphologically spared cervical spinal cord motor neurons of wr mice both at early (6th week) and late (12th week) phases of clinical progression. S1R signal was also detectable in hypertrophic astrocytes and reactive microglia of wr mice. Chronic treatment with PRE-084 (three times a week, for 8weeks), starting at symptom onset, significantly increased the levels of BDNF in the gray matter, improved motor neuron survival and ameliorated paw abnormality and grip strength performance. In addition, the treatment significantly reduced the number of reactive astrocytes whereas, that of CD11b+ microglial cells was increased. A deeper evaluation of microglial markers revealed significant increased number of cells positive for the pan-macrophage marker CD68 and of CD206+ cells, involved in tissue restoration, in the white matter of PRE-084-treated mice. The mRNA levels of TNF-α and IL-1β were not affected by PRE-084 treatment. Thus, our results support pharmacological manipulation of S1R as a promising strategy to cure ALS and point to increased

  14. Motor dysfunction in the tottering mouse is linked to cerebellar spontaneous low frequency oscillations revealed by flavoprotein autofluorescence optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gang; Popa, Laurentiu S.; Wang, Xinming; Gao, Wangcai; Barnes, Justin; Hendrix, Claudia M.; Hess, Ellen J.; Ebner, Timothy J.

    2009-02-01

    Flavoprotein autofluorescence optical imaging is developing into a powerful research tool to study neural activity, particularly in vivo. In this study we used this imaging technique to investigate the neuronal mechanism underlying the episodic movement disorder that is characteristic of the tottering (tg) mouse, a model of episodic ataxia type 2. Both EA2 and the tg mouse are caused by mutations in the gene encoding Cav2.1 (P/Q-type) voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. These mutations result in a reduction in P/Q Ca2+ channel function. Both EA2 patients and tg mice have a characteristic phenotype consisting of transient motor attacks triggered by stress, caffeine or ethanol. The neural events underlying these episodes of dystonia are unknown. Flavoprotein autofluorescence optical imaging revealed spontaneous, transient, low frequency oscillations in the cerebellar cortex of the tg mouse. Lasting from 30 - 120 minutes, the oscillations originate in one area then spread to surrounding regions over 30 - 60 minutes. The oscillations are reduced by removing extracellular Ca2+ and blocking Cav 1.2/1.3 (L-type) Ca2+ channels. The oscillations are not affected by blocking AMPA receptors or by electrical stimulation of the parallel fiber - Purkinje cell circuit, suggesting the oscillations are generated intrinsically in the cerebellar cortex. Conversely, L-type Ca2+ agonists generate oscillations with similar properties. In the awake tg mouse, transcranial flavoprotein imaging revealed low frequency oscillations that are accentuated during caffeine induced attacks of dystonia. The oscillations increase during the attacks of dystonia and are coupled to oscillations in face and hindlimb EMG activity. These transient oscillations and the associated cerebellar dysfunction provide a novel mechanism by which an ion channel disorder results in episodic motor dysfunction.

  15. Deletion of the NMDA-NR1 receptor subunit gene in the mouse nucleus accumbens attenuates apomorphine-induced dopamine D1 receptor trafficking and acoustic startle behavior

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Michael J.; Robinson, Danielle C.; Waters, Elizabeth; Pickel, Virginia M.

    2013-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens (Acb) contains subpopulations of neurons defined by their receptor content and potential involvement in sensorimotor gating and other behaviors that are dysfunctional in schizophrenia. In Acb neurons, the NMDA NR1 (NR1) subunit is co-expressed not only with the dopamine D1 receptor (D1R), but also with the μ-opioid receptor (μ-OR), which mediates certain behaviors that are adversely impacted by schizophrenia. The NMDA-NR1 subunit has been suggested to play a role in the D1R trafficking and behavioral dysfunctions resulting from systemic administration of apomorphine, a D1R and dopamine D2 receptor agonist that impacts prepulse inhibition (PPI) to auditory-evoked startle (AS). Together, this evidence suggests that the NMDA receptor may regulate D1R trafficking in Acb neurons, including those expressing μ-OR, in animals exposed to auditory startle and apomorphine. We tested this hypothesis by combining spatial-temporal gene deletion technology, dual labeling immunocytochemistry, and behavioral analysis. Deleting NR1 in Acb neurons prevented the increase in the dendritic density of plasma membrane D1Rs in single D1R and dual (D1R and μ-OR) labeled dendrites in the Acb in response to apomorphine and AS. Deleting NR1 also attenuated the decrease in AS induced by apomorphine. In the absence of apomorphine and startle, deletion of Acb NR1 diminished social interaction, without affecting novel object recognition, or open field activity. These results suggest that NR1 expression in the Acb is essential for apomorphine-induced D1R surface trafficking and reduction in AS, but also plays an independent role in controling social behaviors that are impaired in multiple psychiatric disorders. PMID:23345061

  16. Deletion of the NMDA-NR1 receptor subunit gene in the mouse nucleus accumbens attenuates apomorphine-induced dopamine D1 receptor trafficking and acoustic startle behavior.

    PubMed

    Glass, Michael J; Robinson, Danielle C; Waters, Elizabeth; Pickel, Virginia M

    2013-06-01

    The nucleus accumbens (Acb) contains subpopulations of neurons defined by their receptor content and potential involvement in sensorimotor gating and other behaviors that are dysfunctional in schizophrenia. In Acb neurons, the NMDA NR1 (NR1) subunit is coexpressed not only with the dopamine D1 receptor (D1R), but also with the µ-opioid receptor (µ-OR), which mediates certain behaviors that are adversely impacted by schizophrenia. The NMDA-NR1 subunit has been suggested to play a role in the D1R trafficking and behavioral dysfunctions resulting from systemic administration of apomorphine, a D1R and dopamine D2 receptor agonist that impacts prepulse inhibition to auditory-evoked startle (AS). Together, this evidence suggests that the NMDA receptor may regulate D1R trafficking in Acb neurons, including those expressing µ-OR, in animals exposed to auditory startle and apomorphine. We tested this hypothesis by combining spatial-temporal gene deletion technology, dual labeling immunocytochemistry, and behavioral analysis. Deleting NR1 in Acb neurons prevented the increase in the dendritic density of plasma membrane D1Rs in single D1R and dual (D1R and µ-OR) labeled dendrites in the Acb in response to apomorphine and AS. Deleting NR1 also attenuated the decrease in AS induced by apomorphine. In the absence of apomorphine and startle, deletion of Acb NR1 diminished social interaction, without affecting novel object recognition, or open field activity. These results suggest that NR1 expression in the Acb is essential for apomorphine-induced D1R surface trafficking, as well as auditory startle and social behaviors that are impaired in multiple psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Postsynaptic density levels of the NMDA receptor NR1 subunit and PSD-95 protein in prefrontal cortex from people with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Catts, Vibeke Sørensen; Derminio, Dominique Suzanne; Hahn, Chang-Gyu; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is converging evidence of involvement of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor hypofunction in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Our group recently identified a decrease in total NR1 mRNA and protein expression in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in a case-control study of individuals with schizophrenia (n=37/group). The NR1 subunit is critical to NMDA receptor function at the postsynaptic density, a cellular structure rich in the scaffolding protein, PSD-95. The extent to which the NMDA receptor NR1 subunit is altered at the site of action, in the postsynaptic density, is not clear. Aims: To extend our previous results by measuring levels of NR1 and PSD-95 protein in postsynaptic density-enriched fractions of prefrontal cortex from the same individuals in the case-control study noted above. Methods: Postsynaptic density-enriched fractions were isolated from fresh-frozen prefrontal cortex (BA10) and subjected to western blot analysis for NR1 and PSD-95. Results: We found a 20% decrease in NR1 protein (t(66)=−2.874, P=0.006) and a 30% decrease in PSD-95 protein (t(63)=−2.668, P=0.010) in postsynaptic density-enriched fractions from individuals with schizophrenia relative to unaffected controls. Conclusions: Individuals with schizophrenia have less NR1 protein, and therefore potentially fewer functional NMDA receptors, at the postsynaptic density. The associated decrease in PSD-95 protein at the postsynaptic density suggests that not only are glutamate receptors compromised in individuals with schizophrenia, but the overall spine architecture and downstream signaling supported by PSD-95 may also be deficient. PMID:27336043

  18. Postsynaptic density levels of the NMDA receptor NR1 subunit and PSD-95 protein in prefrontal cortex from people with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Catts, Vibeke Sørensen; Derminio, Dominique Suzanne; Hahn, Chang-Gyu; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon

    2015-01-01

    There is converging evidence of involvement of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor hypofunction in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Our group recently identified a decrease in total NR1 mRNA and protein expression in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in a case-control study of individuals with schizophrenia (n=37/group). The NR1 subunit is critical to NMDA receptor function at the postsynaptic density, a cellular structure rich in the scaffolding protein, PSD-95. The extent to which the NMDA receptor NR1 subunit is altered at the site of action, in the postsynaptic density, is not clear. To extend our previous results by measuring levels of NR1 and PSD-95 protein in postsynaptic density-enriched fractions of prefrontal cortex from the same individuals in the case-control study noted above. Postsynaptic density-enriched fractions were isolated from fresh-frozen prefrontal cortex (BA10) and subjected to western blot analysis for NR1 and PSD-95. We found a 20% decrease in NR1 protein (t(66)=-2.874, P=0.006) and a 30% decrease in PSD-95 protein (t(63)=-2.668, P=0.010) in postsynaptic density-enriched fractions from individuals with schizophrenia relative to unaffected controls. Individuals with schizophrenia have less NR1 protein, and therefore potentially fewer functional NMDA receptors, at the postsynaptic density. The associated decrease in PSD-95 protein at the postsynaptic density suggests that not only are glutamate receptors compromised in individuals with schizophrenia, but the overall spine architecture and downstream signaling supported by PSD-95 may also be deficient.

  19. Study of the generator/motor operation of induction machines in a high frequency link space power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipo, Thomas A.; Sood, Pradeep K.

    1987-01-01

    Static power conversion systems have traditionally utilized dc current or voltage source links for converting power from one ac or dc form to another since it readily achieves the temporary energy storage required to decouple the input from the output. Such links, however, result in bulky dc capacitors and/or inductors and lead to relatively high losses in the converters due to stresses on the semiconductor switches. The feasibility of utilizing a high frequency sinusoidal voltage link to accomplish the energy storage and decoupling function is examined. In particular, a type of resonant six pulse bridge interface converter is proposed which utilizes zero voltage switching principles to minimize switching losses and uses an easy to implement technique for pulse density modulation to control the amplitude, frequency, and the waveshape of the synthesized low frequency voltage or current. Adaptation of the proposed topology for power conversion to single-phase ac and dc voltage or current outputs is shown to be straight forward. The feasibility of the proposed power circuit and control technique for both active and passive loads are verified by means of simulation and experiment.

  20. Transition of deletion mutants of the composite resistance plasmid NR1 in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed Central

    Huffman, G A; Rownd, R H

    1984-01-01

    Derivatives of the composite R plasmid NR1 from which a portion of the resistance determinants (r-determinants) component had been deleted were found to undergo amplification of the remaining r-determinants region in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. The wild-type NR1 plasmid does not amplify in these genera, although all of these plasmids undergo amplification in Proteus mirabilis. The deletion mutants retained the mercuric ion resistance operon (mer) but conferred a much lower level of sulfonamide resistance than NR1. The remaining r-determinants region, which is bounded by direct repeats of the insertion element IS1, formed multiple tandem duplications in E. coli, S. typhimurium, and P. mirabilis after subculturing the host cells in medium containing high concentrations of sulfonamide. Gene amplification was characterized by restriction endonuclease analysis, analytical buoyant density centrifugation, DNA-DNA hybridization, and sedimentation in sucrose gradients. The tandem repeats remained attached to the resistance transfer factor component of the plasmid in at least part of the plasmid population; autonomous tandem repeats of r-determinants were probably also present. Amplification did not occur in host recA mutants. Amplified strains subcultured in drug-free medium lost the amplified r-determinants. By using a strain temperature sensitive for the recA gene, it was possible to obtain gene amplification at the permissive temperature. Loss of r-determinants took place at the permissive temperature, but not at the nonpermissive temperature. The termini of the deletions of several independent mutants which conferred low sulfonamide resistance were found to be located within the adjacent streptomycin-spectinomycin resistance gene. Images PMID:6086573

  1. NR1H3 Expression is a Prognostic Factor of Overall Survival for Patients with Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Junlong; Wan, Fangning; Sheng, Haoyue; Shi, Guohai; Shen, Yijun; Lin, Guowen; Dai, Bo; Zhu, Yiping; Ye, Dingwei

    2017-01-01

    Background: Nuclear receptors (NRs) are a class of transcription factors that regulate many cellular functions through manipulation of gene expression and also play important roles in tumorigenesis, proliferation, progression and prognosis in various kinds of cancers according to recent studies. This work aimed to determine the predictive ability of NRs in muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). Patients and methods: A total of 308 MIBC patients with complete clinicopathological and RNASeq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort were collected for filtration. Genes showed clear correlations with overall survival (OS) and recurrence free survival (RFS) were further validated in 123 MIBC patients recruited consecutively from 2008 to 2012 in Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (FUSCC) cohort. Cox proportional hazards regression model and Kaplan-Meier plot were used to assess the relative factors. Results: In TCGA cohort, we found that high NR1H3 (HR=0.779, 95% CI: 0.634 - 0.957), NR2C1 (HR=0.673, 95% CI: 0.458 - 0.989) and NR2F6 (HR=0.750, 95% CI: 0.574 - 0.980) expressions were independent factors of favorable OS, while only low NR1H3 (log-rank test, P=0.0076) and NR2F6 (log-rank test, P=0.0395) expressions had the ability to predict poor prognosis for RFS. Further, in FUSCC validating cohort, we confirmed that low NR1H3 expression level was independent factor of poor OS (HR=1.295, 95% CI: 1.064 - 1.576) and it had the ability to predict poor RFS (log-rank test, P=0.0059). Conclusions: Low NR1H3 expression level is an independent prognostic factor of poor OS, and can also predict worse RFS in MIBC patients. Our “TCGA filtrating and local database validating” model can help reveal more prognostic biomarkers and cast a new light in understanding certain gene function in MIBC. PMID:28382148

  2. NR1H4 analysis in patients with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, drug-induced cholestasis or intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy unrelated to ATP8B1, ABCB11 and ABCB4 mutations.

    PubMed

    Davit-Spraul, Anne; Gonzales, Emmanuel; Jacquemin, Emmanuel

    2012-12-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR, NR1H4) controls bile acid homeostasis. NR1H4 variants may predispose to intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). We report on NR1H4 analysis in eight patients with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) and in eight women with either ICP and/or drug-induced cholestasis (DIC) in whom no disease causing mutation in ATP8B1, ABCB11 and/or ABCB4 were found. No NR1H4 mutation was found in PFIC patients. In one woman with ICP/DIC, a NR1H4 heterozygous variant (c.-1G>T) was found. This suggests that a NR1H4 mutation is not or rarely involved in hepatocellular cholestasis of unknown cause.

  3. Elasticity of a semiflexible filament with a discontinuous tension due to a cross-link or a molecular motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razbin, Mohammadhosein; Benetatos, Panayotis; Zippelius, Annette

    2016-05-01

    We analyze the stretching elasticity of a wormlike chain with a tension discontinuity resulting from a Hookean spring connecting its backbone to a fixed point. The elasticity of isolated semiflexible filaments has been the subject in a significant body of literature, primarily because of its relevance to the mechanics of biological matter. In real systems, however, these filaments are usually part of supramolecular structures involving cross-linkers or molecular motors, which cause tension discontinuities. Our model is intended as a minimal structural element incorporating such a discontinuity. We obtain analytical results in the weakly bending limit of the filament, concerning its force-extension relation and the response of the two parts in which the filament is divided by the spring. For a small tension discontinuity, the linear response of the filament extension to this discontinuity strongly depends on the external tension. For large external tension f , the spring force contributes a subdominant correction ˜1 /f3 /2 to the well-known ˜1 /√{f } -dependence of the end-to-end extension.

  4. Differential contribution of the NR1- and NR2A-subunits to the selectivity filter of recombinant NMDA receptor channels.

    PubMed Central

    Wollmuth, L P; Kuner, T; Seeburg, P H; Sakmann, B

    1996-01-01

    1. The molecular determinants for the narrow constriction of recombinant N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor channels composed of wild-type and mutant NR1- and NR2A-subunits were studied in Xenopus oocytes. 2. The relative permeability of differently sized organic cations was used as an indicator of the size of the narrow constriction. From measured reversal potentials under bi-ionic conditions with K+ as the reference solution, permeability ratios were calculated with the Lewis equation. 3. For wild-type NMDA receptor channels, five organic cations showed clear reversal potentials, with permeability ratios (PX/PK): ammonium, 1.28; methylammonium, 0.48; dimethylammonium (DMA), 0.20; diethylammonium, 0.07; and dimethylethanol-ammonium, 0.02. 4. Mutation of the N-site asparagine (N) to glutamine (Q) at homologous positions in either NR1 (position 598) or NR2A (position 595) increased the permeability of DMA relative to wild-type channels about equally. However, for larger sized organic cations, the NR1(N598Q) mutation had stronger effects on increasing their permeability whereas the NR2A(N595Q) mutation was without effect. These changes in organic cation permeability suggest that the NR1(N598Q) mutation increases the pore size while the NR2A(N595Q) mutation does not. 5. Channels in which the NR1 N-site asparagine was replaced by the smaller glycine (G), NR1(N598G)-NR2A, showed the largest increase in pore size of all sites examined in either subunit. In contrast, in the NR2A-subunit the same N-site substitution to glycine produced only small effects on pore size. 6. For the NR2A-subunit, an asparagine residue (position 596) on the C-terminal side of the N-site, when mutated to larger or smaller sized amino acids, produced large, volume-specific effects on pore size. The mutant channel NR1-NR2A(N596G) had the largest increase in pore size of all sites examined in the NR2A-subunit. In contrast, mutation of the homologous position in the NR1-subunit had no effect on

  5. The hsp90-FKBP52 Complex Links the Mineralocorticoid Receptor to Motor Proteins and Persists Bound to the Receptor in Early Nuclear Events▿

    PubMed Central

    Galigniana, Mario D.; Erlejman, Alejandra G.; Monte, Martín; Gomez-Sanchez, Celso; Piwien-Pilipuk, Graciela

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate that the subcellular localization of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is regulated by tetratricopeptide domain (TPR) proteins. The high-molecular-weight immunophilin (IMM) FKBP52 links the MR-hsp90 complex to dynein/dynactin motors favoring the cytoplasmic transport of MR to the nucleus. Replacement of this hsp90-binding IMM by FKBP51 or the TPR peptide favored the cytoplasmic localization of MR. The complete movement machinery, including dynein and tubulin, could be recovered from paclitaxel/GTP-stabilized cytosol and was fully reassembled on stripped MR immune pellets. The whole MR-hsp90-based heterocomplex was transiently recovered in the soluble fraction of the nucleus after 10 min of incubation with aldosterone. Moreover, cross-linked MR-hsp90 heterocomplexes accumulated in the nucleus in a hormone-dependent manner, demonstrating that the heterocomplex can pass undissociated through the nuclear pore. On the other hand, a peptide that comprises the DNA-binding domain of MR impaired the nuclear export of MR, suggesting the involvement of this domain in the process. This study represents the first report describing the entire molecular system that commands MR nucleocytoplasmic trafficking and proposes that the MR-hsp90-TPR protein heterocomplex is dissociated in the nucleus rather than in the cytoplasm. PMID:20038533

  6. Changes in oxygenated hemoglobin link freezing of gait to frontal activation in patients with Parkinson disease: an fNIRS study of transient motor-cognitive failures.

    PubMed

    Maidan, Inbal; Bernad-Elazari, Hagar; Gazit, Eran; Giladi, Nir; Hausdorff, Jeffery M; Mirelman, Anat

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that deficits in executive function contribute to freezing of gait (FOG), an episodic disturbance common among patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). To date, most findings provide only indirect evidence of this relationship. Here, we evaluated a more direct link between FOG and frontal lobe dysfunction. Functional, near infrared spectroscopy measured frontal activation, i.e., oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2) levels in Brodmann area 10 before and during FOG. Eleven patients with PD and eleven healthy older adults were studied. Changes in frontal lobe activation before and during FOG that occurred during turns were determined. Altogether, 49 FOG episodes were observed-28 occurred during turns that were anticipated (i.e., the patient knew in advance that the turn was coming), 21 during unanticipated turns that were performed "abruptly", according to the examiner's request. During anticipated turns, HbO2 increased by 0.22 ± 0.08 µM (p = 0.004) before FOG and by an additional 0.19 ± 0.13 µM (p = 0.072) during FOG. In contrast, during unanticipated turns, HbO2 did not increase before or during FOG. HbO2 decreased by 0.32 ± 0.08 µM (p = 0.004) during turns without FOG; in healthy controls HbO2 did not change during turns. These findings support the existence of an association between FOG episodes and changes in frontal lobe HbO2. Increased activation in Brodmann area 10 before FOG, specifically during anticipated turns, highlights the connections between motor planning, information processing, and FOG. These results support the idea that alterations in executive control play a role in this debilitating motor disturbance.

  7. Improvement of mitochondrial NAD(+)/FAD(+)-linked state-3 respiration by caffeine attenuates quinolinic acid induced motor impairment in rats: implications in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Jitendriya; Kumar, Anil

    2014-12-01

    Chronic quinolinic acid (QA) lesions in rats closely resemble Huntington's disease like conditions. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have long been implicated in the neurotoxic effects of QA acting through N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Reports suggest that inhibition of adenosine A2A receptor function elicits neuroprotective effect in QA induced neurotoxicity in rats. Caffeine, a preferential A2A receptor antagonist imitates antioxidant like actions and exerts neuroprotective effects in various neurodegenerative conditions. Thus, the present study was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of caffeine against QA induced neurotoxicity in rats. In the present study, QA (200nmol/2μl saline) has been administered bilaterally to the striatum of rats followed by chronic caffeine (10, 20 and 40mg/kg) administration for 21 days. Motor performance of the animals was evaluated in weekly intervals and subsequently after 21 days, the animals were sacrificed and measurement of mitochondrial complexes activity, respiration rate and endogenous antioxidant levels were carried out in the striatal region. Single intrastriatal QA administration resulted in drastic reduction in body weight, marked motor impairment (decreased total locomotor activity in actophotometer and impaired grip strength in rotarod), increased oxidative stress, impaired mitochondrial complexes activities and decreased state 3 respiration (NAD(+)/FAD(+)-linked) in rats. However, chronic treatment of caffeine for 21 days significantly attenuated the QA induced behavioural, biochemical and mitochondrial alterations displaying neuroprotective efficacy. The study highlights the possible involvement of A2A receptor antagonism in the neuroprotective effect of caffeine against QA induced mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in rats. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  8. Reduced Levels of NR1 and NR2A with Depression-Like Behavior in Different Brain Regions in Prenatally Stressed Juvenile Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hongli; Guan, Lixia; Zhu, Zhongliang; Li, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of continued brain maturation, particularly in limbic and cortical regions, which undoubtedly plays a role in the physiological and emotional changes. Juvenile rats repeatedly exposed to prenatal stress (PS) exhibit behavioral features often observed in neuropsychiatric disorders including depression. However, to date the underlying neurological mechanisms are still unclear. In the current study, juvenile offspring rats whose mothers were exposed to PS were evaluated for depression-related behaviors in open field and sucrose preference test. NMDA receptor subunits NR1 and NR2A in the hippocampus, frontal cortex and striatum were assayed by western blotting. The results indicated that PS resulted in several behavioral anomalies in the OFT and sucrose preference test. Moreover, reduced levels of NMDA receptor subunits NR1 and NR2A in the hippocampus, and NR1 in prefrontal cortex and striatum of prenatally stressed juvenile offspring were found. Treatment with MK-801 to pregnant dams could prevent all those changes in the juvenile offspring. Collectivity, these data support the argument that PS to pregnant dams could induce depression-like behavior, which may be involved with abnormal expression of NR1 and NR2A in specific brain regions, and MK-801 may have antidepressant-like effects on the juvenile offspring. PMID:24278457

  9. Role of a novel dual flavin reductase (NR1) and an associated histidine triad protein (DCS-1) in menadione-induced cytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Kwasnicka-Crawford, Dorota A.; Vincent, Steven R. . E-mail: svincent@interchg.ubc.ca

    2005-10-21

    Microsomal cytochrome P450 reductase catalyzes the one-electron transfer from NADPH via FAD and FMN to various electron acceptors, such as cytochrome P450s or to some anti-cancer quinone drugs. This results in generation of free radicals and toxic oxygen metabolites, which can contribute to the cytotoxicity of these compounds. Recently, a cytosolic NADPH-dependent flavin reductase, NR1, has been described which is highly homologous to the microsomal cytochrome P450 reductase. In this study, we show that over-expression of NR1 in human embryonic kidney cells enhances the cytotoxic action of the model quinone, menadione. Furthermore, we show that a novel human histidine triad protein DCS-1, which is expressed together with NR1 in many tissues, can significantly reduce menadione-induced cytotoxicity in these cells. We also show that DCS-1 binds NF1 and directly modulates its activity. These results suggest that NR1 may play a role in carcinogenicity and cell death associated with one-electron reductions.

  10. Introduction to ultrasonic motors

    SciTech Connect

    Sashida, Toshiiku; Kenjo, Takashi.

    1993-01-01

    The ultrasonic motor, invented in 1980, utilizes the piezoelectric effect in the ultrasonic frequency range to provide the motive force. (In conventional electric motors the motive force is electromagnetic.) The result is a motor with unusually good low-speed high-torque and power-to-weight characteristics. It has already found applications in camera autofocus mechanisms, medical equipment subject to high magnetic fields, and motorized car accessories. Its applications will increase as designers become more familiar with its unique characteristics. This book is the result of a collaboration between the inventor and an expert in conventional electric motors: the result is an introduction to the general theory presented in a way that links it to conventional motor theory. It will be invaluable both to motor designers and to those who design with and use electric motors as an introduction to this important new invention.

  11. The HR97 (NR1L) Group of Nuclear Receptors: A New Group up of Nuclear Receptors Discovered in Daphnia species

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yangchun; Ginjupalli, Gautam K.; Baldwin, William S.

    2014-01-01

    The recently sequenced Daphnia pulex genome revealed the NR1L nuclear receptor group consisting of three novel receptors. Phylogenetic studies show that this group is related to the NR1I group (CAR/PXR/VDR) and the NR1J group (HR96), and were subsequently named HR97a/b/g. Each of the HR97 paralogs from Daphnia magna, a commonly used crustacean in toxicity testing, was cloned, sequenced, and partially characterized. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the HR97 receptors are present in primitive arthropods such as the chelicerates but lost in insects. qPCR and immunohistochemistry demonstrate that each of the receptors is expressed near or at reproductive maturity, and that HR97g, the most ancient of the HR97 receptors, is primarily expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, mandibular region, and ovaries, consistent with a role in reproduction. Transactivation assays using an HR97a/b/g-GAL4 chimera indicate that unlike Daphnia HR96 that is promiscuous with respect to ligand recognition, the HR97 receptors do not respond to many of the ligands that activate CAR/PXR/HR96 nuclear receptors. Only three putative ligands of HR97 receptors were identified in this study: pyriproxyfen, methyl farnesoate, and arachidonic acid. Only arachidonic acid, which acts as an inverse agonist, alters HR97g activity at concentrations that would be considered within physiologically relevant ranges. Overall, this study demonstrates that, although closely related to the promiscuous receptors in the NR1I and NR1J groups, the HR97 receptors are mostly likely not multi-xenobiotic sensors, but rather may perform physiological functions, potentially in reproduction, unique to crustaceans and other non-insect arthropod groups. PMID:25092536

  12. Evolution and Function of the NR1I Nuclear Hormone Receptor Subfamily (VDR, PXR, and CAR) with Respect to Metabolism of Xenobiotics and Endogenous Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Reschly, E.J.; Krasowski, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    The NR1I subfamily of nuclear hormone receptors includes the 1,25-(OH)2-vitamin D3 receptor (VDR; NR1I1), pregnane X receptor (PXR; NR1I2), and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR; NR1I3). PXR and VDR are found in diverse vertebrates from fish to mammals while CAR is restricted to mammals. Current evidence suggests that the CAR gene arose from a duplication of an ancestral PXR gene, and that PXR and VDR arose from duplication of an ancestral gene, represented now by a single gene in the invertebrate Ciona intestinalis. Aside from the high-affinity effects of 1,25-(OH)2-vitamin D3 on VDRs, the NR1I subfamily members are functionally united by the ability to bind potentially toxic endogenous compounds with low affinity and initiate changes in gene expression that lead to enhanced metabolism and elimination (e.g., induction of cytochrome P450 3A4 expression in humans). The detoxification role of VDR seems limited to sensing high concentrations of certain toxic bile salts, such as lithocholic acid, whereas PXR and CAR have the ability to recognize structurally diverse compounds. PXR and CAR show the highest degree of cross-species variation in the ligand-binding domain of the entire vertebrate nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, suggesting adaptation to species-specific ligands. This review examines the insights that phylogenetic and experimental studies provide into the function of VDR, PXR, and CAR, and how the functions of these receptors have expanded to evolutionary advantage in humans and other animals. PMID:16724925

  13. Environmental contaminants activate human and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) pregnane X receptors (PXR, NR1I2) differently.

    PubMed

    Lille-Langøy, Roger; Goldstone, Jared V; Rusten, Marte; Milnes, Matthew R; Male, Rune; Stegeman, John J; Blumberg, Bruce; Goksøyr, Anders

    2015-04-01

    Many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) accumulate readily in polar bears because of their position as apex predators in Arctic food webs. The pregnane X receptor (PXR, formally NR1I2, here proposed to be named promiscuous xenobiotic receptor) is a xenobiotic sensor that is directly involved in metabolizing pathways of a wide range of environmental contaminants. In the present study, we comparably assess the ability of 51 selected pharmaceuticals, pesticides and emerging contaminants to activate PXRs from polar bears and humans using an in vitro luciferase reporter gene assay. We found that polar bear PXR is activated by a wide range of our test compounds (68%) but has a slightly more narrow ligand specificity than human PXR that was activated by 86% of the 51 test compounds. The majority of the agonists identified (70%) produces a stronger induction of the reporter gene via human PXR than via polar bear PXR, however with some notable and environmentally relevant exceptions. Due to the observed differences in activation of polar bear and human PXRs, exposure of each species to environmental agents is likely to induce biotransformation differently in the two species. Bioinformatics analyses and structural modeling studies suggest that amino acids that are not part of the ligand-binding domain and do not interact with the ligand can modulate receptor activation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Description of work vadose drilling at the 1301-N and 1325-N facilities, 100-NR-1 operable unit

    SciTech Connect

    1994-08-01

    This description of work (DOW) details the field activities associated with the sampling of the vadose zone soils beneath the 1301-N and 1325-N cribs and trenches and will serve as a field guide for those performing the work. These activities are undertaken pursuant to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al., 1994a) Milestone M-16-94-01H-Tl and the June 30, 1994 Milestone Change Request M-16-94-02 (Ecology et al., 1994b). Three vadose zone borings, 1301-N-1, 1301-N-2, and 1325-N-1, will be constructed to investigate the vertical and horizontal distribution of radionuclide contamination in sediments beneath the cribs and trenches. The boreholes are also intended to intersect subsurface areas that may have been contaminated by dangerous wastes, i.e., metals, in effluent disposed during past operation of the facilities. This limited field investigation will provide data for the evaluation of remedial alternatives. Data from the investigation are expected to confirm that the cribs and trenches are high priority sites in the 100-NR-1 operable unit. Data, from the investigation will be used to evaluate alternatives for closure of the 1301-N and 1325-N sites. The contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) for the 1301-N/1325-N limited field investigation are presented in Table 1.

  15. Environmental contaminants activate human and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) pregnane X receptors (PXR, NR1I2) differently

    PubMed Central

    Roger, Lille-Langøy; V, Goldstone Jared; Marte, Rusten; R, Milnes Matthew; Rune, Male; J, Stegeman John; Bruce, Blumberg; Anders, Goksøyr

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) accumulate readily in polar bears because of their position as apex predators in Arctic food webs. The pregnane X receptor (PXR, formally NR1I2, here proposed to be named promiscuous xenobiotic receptor) is a xenobiotic sensor that is directly involved in metabolizing pathways of a wide range of environmental contaminants. OBJECTIVES In the present study, we comparably assess the ability of 51 selected pharmaceuticals, pesticides and emerging contaminants to activate PXRs from polar bears and humans using an in vitro luciferase reporter gene assay. RESULTS We found that polar bear PXR is activated by a wide range of our test compounds (68%) but has a slightly more narrow ligand specificity than human PXR that was activated by 86% of the 51 test compounds. The majority of the agonists identified (70%) produces a stronger induction of the reporter gene via human PXR than via polar bear PXR, however with some notable and environmentally relevant exceptions. CONCLUSIONS Due to the observed differences in activation of polar bear and human PXRs, exposure of each species to environmental agents is likely to induce biotransformation differently in the two species. Bioinformatics analyses and structural modelling studies suggests that amino acids that are not part of the ligand-binding domain and do not interact with the ligand can modulate receptor activation. PMID:25680588

  16. Involvement of NR1, NR2A different expression in brain regions in anxiety-like behavior of prenatally stressed offspring.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongli; Jia, Ning; Guan, Lixia; Su, Qing; Wang, Dan; Li, Hui; Zhu, Zhongliang

    2013-11-15

    Prenatal stress (PS) has been shown to be associated with anxiety. However, the underlying neurological mechanisms are not well understood. To determine the effects of PS on anxiety-like behavior in the adult offspring, we evaluated anxiety-like behavior using open field test (OFT) and elevated plus maze (EPM) in the 3-month offspring. Both male and female offspring showed a significant reduction of crossing counts in the center, total crossing counts, rearing counts and time spent in the center in the OFT, and only male offspring showed a decreased percentage of open-arm entries and open-arm time in open arms in the EPM. Additionally, expression of NR1 and NR2A subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) in the hippocampus (HIP), prefrontal cortex (PFC) and striatum (STR) was studied. Our results showed that PS reduced NR1 and NR2A expression in the HIP, NR2A expression in the PFC and STR in the offspring. The altered NR1 and NR2A could have potential impact on anxiety-like behavior in the adult offspring exposed to PS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Soluble factors from IL-1β-stimulated astrocytes activate NR1a/NR2B receptors: implications for HIV-1-induced neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Jing, Tao; Wu, Li; Borgmann, Kathleen; Surendran, Sankar; Ghorpade, Anuja; Liu, Jianuo; Xiong, Huangui

    2010-11-12

    Astrocytes play an important role in astrocyte-neuron homeostasis. In HIV-1-infected brain, interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) activation of astrocytes contributes to neurodegeneration. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying IL-1β-activated-astrocytes-induced neurodegeneration in HIV-1-infected brain are largely unknown. We hypothesize that secretory factors from the activated astrocytes affect N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, a major pathway implicated in HIV-1-associated neurodegeneration. To test this hypothesis, we studied effects of IL-1β-stimulated astrocyte conditioned medium (ACM+) for its ability to activate NR1a/NR2B receptors expressed on Xenopus oocytes. Astrocytes treated with IL-1β 20ng/ml for 24h induced CXCL8, CCL2, MMP1 and MMP7. Pressure ejection of the ACM(+) produced an inward current in NR1a/NR2B-expressing oocytes. The inward current produced by ACM(+) was blocked by NMDA receptor antagonist, APV but not by non-NMDA receptor antagonist, CNQX. These results suggest that IL-1β stimulated astrocytes activate NR1a/NR2B receptors which may have implications in HIV-1-associated neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evolutionary selection across the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily with a focus on the NR1I subfamily (vitamin D, pregnane X, and constitutive androstane receptors)

    PubMed Central

    Krasowski, Matthew D; Yasuda, Kazuto; Hagey, Lee R; Schuetz, Erin G

    2005-01-01

    Background The nuclear hormone receptor (NR) superfamily complement in humans is composed of 48 genes with diverse roles in metabolic homeostasis, development, and detoxification. In general, NRs are strongly conserved between vertebrate species, and few examples of molecular adaptation (positive selection) within this superfamily have been demonstrated. Previous studies utilizing two-species comparisons reveal strong purifying (negative) selection of most NR genes, with two possible exceptions being the ligand-binding domains (LBDs) of the pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2) and the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3), two proteins involved in the regulation of toxic compound metabolism and elimination. The aim of this study was to apply detailed phylogenetic analysis using maximum likelihood methods to the entire complement of genes in the vertebrate NR superfamily. Analyses were carried out both across all vertebrates and limited to mammals and also separately for the two major domains of NRs, the DNA-binding domain (DBD) and LBD, in addition to the full-length sequences. Additional functional data is also reported for activation of PXR and the vitamin D receptor (VDR; NR1I1) to gain further insight into the evolution of the NR1I subfamily. Results The NR genes appear to be subject to strong purifying selection, particularly in the DBDs. Estimates of the ratio of the non-synonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitution rates (the ω ratio) revealed that only the PXR LBD had a sub-population of codons with an estimated ω ratio greater than 1. CAR was also unusual in showing high relative ω ratios in both the DBD and LBD, a finding that may relate to the recent appearance of the CAR gene (presumably by duplication of a pre-mammalian PXR gene) just prior to the evolution of mammals. Functional analyses of the NR1I subfamily show that human and zebrafish PXRs show similar activation by steroid hormones and early bile salts, properties not shared by sea

  19. Environmental contaminants activate human and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) pregnane X receptors (PXR, NR1I2) differently

    SciTech Connect

    Lille-Langøy, Roger; Goldstone, Jared V.; Rusten, Marte; Milnes, Matthew R.; Male, Rune; Stegeman, John J.; Blumberg, Bruce; Goksøyr, Anders

    2015-04-01

    Background: Many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) accumulate readily in polar bears because of their position as apex predators in Arctic food webs. The pregnane X receptor (PXR, formally NR1I2, here proposed to be named promiscuous xenobiotic receptor) is a xenobiotic sensor that is directly involved in metabolizing pathways of a wide range of environmental contaminants. Objectives: In the present study, we comparably assess the ability of 51 selected pharmaceuticals, pesticides and emerging contaminants to activate PXRs from polar bears and humans using an in vitro luciferase reporter gene assay. Results: We found that polar bear PXR is activated by a wide range of our test compounds (68%) but has a slightly more narrow ligand specificity than human PXR that was activated by 86% of the 51 test compounds. The majority of the agonists identified (70%) produces a stronger induction of the reporter gene via human PXR than via polar bear PXR, however with some notable and environmentally relevant exceptions. Conclusions: Due to the observed differences in activation of polar bear and human PXRs, exposure of each species to environmental agents is likely to induce biotransformation differently in the two species. Bioinformatics analyses and structural modeling studies suggest that amino acids that are not part of the ligand-binding domain and do not interact with the ligand can modulate receptor activation. - Highlights: • Comparative study of ligand activation of human and polar bear PXRs. • Polar bear PXR is a promiscuous ligand-activated nuclear receptor but less so than human PXR. • Environmental contaminants activate human and polar bear PXRs differently. • Expression and ligand promiscuity indicate that PXR is a xenosensor in polar bears.

  20. The orphan nuclear receptor DAX-1 functions as a potent corepressor of the constitutive androstane receptor (NR1I3).

    PubMed

    Laurenzana, Elizabeth M; Chen, Tao; Kannuswamy, Malavika; Sell, Brian E; Strom, Stephen C; Li, Yong; Omiecinski, Curtis J

    2012-11-01

    Regulation of gene transcription is controlled in part by nuclear receptors that function coordinately with coregulator proteins. The human constitutive androstane receptor (CAR; NR1I3) is expressed primarily in liver and regulates the expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism as well as hormone, energy, and lipid homeostasis. In this report, DAX-1, a nuclear receptor family member with corepressor properties, was identified as a potent CAR regulator. Results of transaction and mutational studies demonstrated that both DAX-1's downstream LXXLL and its PCFQVLP motifs were critical contributors to DAX-1's corepression activities, although two other LXXM/LL motifs located nearer the N terminus had no impact on the CAR functional interaction. Deletion of DAX-1's C-terminal transcription silencing domain restored CAR1 transactivation activity in reporter assays to approximately 90% of control, demonstrating its critical function in mediating the CAR repression activities. Furthermore, results obtained from mammalian two-hybrid experiments assessing various domain configurations of the respective receptors showed that full-length DAX-1 inhibited the CAR-SRC1 interaction by approximately 50%, whereas the same interaction was restored to 90% of control when the DAX-1 transcription silencing domain was deleted. Direct interaction between CAR and DAX-1 was demonstrated with both alpha-screen and coimmunoprecipitation experiments, and this interaction was enhanced in the presence of the CAR activator 6-(4-chlorophenyl)imidazo[2,1-b]thiazole-5-carbaldehyde O-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)oxime (CITCO). Results obtained in primary human hepatocytes further demonstrated DAX-1 inhibition of CAR-mediated CITCO induction of the CYP2B6 target gene. The results of this investigation identify DAX-1 as a novel and potent CAR corepressor and suggest that DAX-1 functions as a coordinate hepatic regulator of CAR's biological function.

  1. The Orphan Nuclear Receptor DAX-1 Functions as a Potent Corepressor of the Constitutive Androstane Receptor (NR1I3)

    PubMed Central

    Laurenzana, Elizabeth M.; Chen, Tao; Kannuswamy, Malavika; Sell, Brian E.; Strom, Stephen C.; Li, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Regulation of gene transcription is controlled in part by nuclear receptors that function coordinately with coregulator proteins. The human constitutive androstane receptor (CAR; NR1I3) is expressed primarily in liver and regulates the expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism as well as hormone, energy, and lipid homeostasis. In this report, DAX-1, a nuclear receptor family member with corepressor properties, was identified as a potent CAR regulator. Results of transaction and mutational studies demonstrated that both DAX-1's downstream LXXLL and its PCFQVLP motifs were critical contributors to DAX-1's corepression activities, although two other LXXM/LL motifs located nearer the N terminus had no impact on the CAR functional interaction. Deletion of DAX-1's C-terminal transcription silencing domain restored CAR1 transactivation activity in reporter assays to approximately 90% of control, demonstrating its critical function in mediating the CAR repression activities. Furthermore, results obtained from mammalian two-hybrid experiments assessing various domain configurations of the respective receptors showed that full-length DAX-1 inhibited the CAR-SRC1 interaction by approximately 50%, whereas the same interaction was restored to 90% of control when the DAX-1 transcription silencing domain was deleted. Direct interaction between CAR and DAX-1 was demonstrated with both alpha-screen and coimmunoprecipitation experiments, and this interaction was enhanced in the presence of the CAR activator 6-(4-chlorophenyl)imidazo[2,1-b]thiazole-5-carbaldehyde O-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)oxime (CITCO). Results obtained in primary human hepatocytes further demonstrated DAX-1 inhibition of CAR-mediated CITCO induction of the CYP2B6 target gene. The results of this investigation identify DAX-1 as a novel and potent CAR corepressor and suggest that DAX-1 functions as a coordinate hepatic regulator of CAR's biological function. PMID:22896671

  2. A Potential Psychological Mechanism Linking Disaster-Related Prenatal Maternal Stress with Child Cognitive and Motor Development at 16 Months: The QF2011 Queensland Flood Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Katrina M.; Simcock, Gabrielle; Cobham, Vanessa; Kildea, Sue; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Laplante, David P.; King, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Fetal exposure to prenatal maternal stress can have lifelong consequences, with different types of maternal stress associated with different areas of child development. Fewer studies have focused on motor skills, even though they are strongly predictive of later development across a range of domains. Research on mechanisms of transmission has…

  3. Severity of infantile nystagmus syndrome-like ocular motor phenotype is linked to the extent of the underlying optic nerve projection defect in zebrafish belladonna mutant.

    PubMed

    Huber-Reggi, Sabina P; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Grimm, Lea; Straumann, Dominik; Neuhauss, Stephan C F; Huang, Melody Ying-Yu

    2012-12-12

    Infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS), formerly known as congenital nystagmus, is an ocular motor disorder in humans characterized by spontaneous eye oscillations (SOs) and, in several cases, reversed optokinetic response (OKR). Its etiology and pathomechanism is largely unknown, but misrouting of the optic nerve has been observed in some patients. Likewise, optic nerve misrouting, a reversed OKR and SOs with INS-like waveforms are observed in zebrafish belladonna (bel) mutants. We aimed to investigate whether and how misrouting of the optic nerve correlates with the ocular motor behaviors in bel larvae. OKR and SOs were quantified and subsequently the optic nerve fibers were stained with fluorescent lipophilic dyes. Eye velocity during OKR was reduced in larvae with few misprojecting optic nerve fibers and reversed in larvae with a substantial fraction of misprojecting fibers. All larvae with reversed OKR also displayed SOs. A stronger reversed OKR correlated with more frequent SOs. Since we did not find a correlation between additional retinal defects and ocular motor behavior, we suggest that axon misrouting is in fact origin of INS in the zebrafish animal model. Depending on the ratio between misprojecting ipsilateral and correctly projecting contralateral fibers, the negative feedback loop normally regulating OKR can turn into a positive loop, resulting in an increase in retinal slip. Our data not only give new insights into the etiology of INS but may also be of interest for studies on how the brain deals with and adapts to conflicting inputs.

  4. 4-Hydroxy-1-[2-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)ethyl]-4-(4-methylbenzyl)piperidine: a novel, potent, and selective NR1/2B NMDA receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Z L; Cai, S X; Whittemore, E R; Konkoy, C S; Espitia, S A; Tran, M; Rock, D M; Coughenour, L L; Hawkinson, J E; Boxer, P A; Bigge, C F; Wise, L D; Weber, E; Woodward, R M; Keana, J F

    1999-07-29

    A structure-based search and screen of our compound library identified N-(2-phenoxyethyl)-4-benzylpiperidine (8) as a novel N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that has high selectivity for the NR1/2B subunit combination (IC(50) = 0.63 microM). We report on the optimization of this lead compound in terms of potency, side effect liability, and in vivo activity. Potency was assayed by electrical recordings in Xenopus oocytes expressing cloned rat NMDA receptors. Side effect liability was assessed by measuring affinity for alpha(1)-adrenergic receptors and inhibition of neuronal K(+) channels. Central bioavailability was gauged indirectly by determining anticonvulsant activity in a mouse maximal electroshock (MES) assay. Making progressive modifications to 8, a hydroxyl substituent on the phenyl ring para to the oxyethyl tether (10a) resulted in a approximately 25-fold increase in NR1A/2B potency (IC(50) = 0.025 microM). p-Methyl substitution on the benzyl ring (10b) produced a approximately 3-fold increase in MES activity (ED(50) = 0.7 mg/kg iv). Introduction of a second hydroxyl group into the C-4 position on the piperidine ring (10e) resulted in a substantial decrease in affinity for alpha(1) receptors and reduction in inhibition of K(+) channels with only a modest decrease in NR1A/2B and MES potencies. Among the compounds described, 10e (4-hydroxy-N-[2-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)ethyl]-4-(4-methylbenzyl)piperid ine, Co 101244/PD 174494) had the optimum pharmacological profile and was selected for further biological evaluation.

  5. Modifier genes as therapeutics: the nuclear hormone receptor Rev Erb alpha (Nr1d1) rescues Nr2e3 associated retinal disease.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Nelly M; Yuan, Yang; Leehy, Barrett D; Baid, Rinku; Kompella, Uday; DeAngelis, Margaret M; Escher, Pascal; Haider, Neena B

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear hormone receptors play a major role in many important biological processes. Most nuclear hormone receptors are ubiquitously expressed and regulate processes such as metabolism, circadian function, and development. They function in these processes to maintain homeostasis through modulation of transcriptional gene networks. In this study we evaluate the effectiveness of a nuclear hormone receptor gene to modulate retinal degeneration and restore the integrity of the retina. Currently, there are no effective treatment options for retinal degenerative diseases leading to progressive and irreversible blindness. In this study we demonstrate that the nuclear hormone receptor gene Nr1d1 (Rev-Erbα) rescues Nr2e3-associated retinal degeneration in the rd7 mouse, which lacks a functional Nr2e3 gene. Mutations in human NR2E3 are associated with several retinal degenerations including enhanced S cone syndrome and retinitis pigmentosa. The rd7 mouse, lacking Nr2e3, exhibits an increase in S cones and slow, progressive retinal degeneration. A traditional genetic mapping approach previously identified candidate modifier loci. Here, we demonstrate that in vivo delivery of the candidate modifier gene, Nr1d1 rescues Nr2e3 associated retinal degeneration. We observed clinical, histological, functional, and molecular restoration of the rd7 retina. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the mechanism of rescue at the molecular and functional level is through the re-regulation of key genes within the Nr2e3-directed transcriptional network. Together, these findings reveal the potency of nuclear receptors as modulators of disease and specifically of NR1D1 as a novel therapeutic for retinal degenerations.

  6. Loss of ULK1 increases RPS6KB1-NCOR1 repression of NR1H/LXR-mediated Scd1 transcription and augments lipotoxicity in hepatic cells

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Rohit Anthony; Singh, Brijesh K.; Zhou, Jin; Xie, Sherwin; Farah, Benjamin L.; Lesmana, Ronny; Ohba, Kenji; Tripathi, Madhulika; Ghosh, Sujoy; Hollenberg, Anthony N.; Yen, Paul M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lipotoxicity caused by saturated fatty acids (SFAs) induces tissue damage and inflammation in metabolic disorders. SCD1 (stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1) converts SFAs to mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) that are incorporated into triglycerides and stored in lipid droplets. SCD1 thus helps protect hepatocytes from lipotoxicity and its reduced expression is associated with increased lipotoxic injury in cultured hepatic cells and mouse models. To further understand the role of SCD1 in lipotoxicity, we examined the regulation of Scd1 in hepatic cells treated with palmitate, and found that NR1H/LXR (nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group H) ligand, GW3965, induced Scd1 expression and lipid droplet formation to improve cell survival. Surprisingly, ULK1/ATG1 (unc-51 like kinase) played a critical role in protecting hepatic cells from SFA-induced lipotoxicity via a novel mechanism that did not involve macroautophagy/autophagy. Specific loss of Ulk1 blocked the induction of Scd1 gene transcription by GW3965, decreased lipid droplet formation, and increased apoptosis in hepatic cells exposed to palmitate. Knockdown of ULK1 increased RPS6KB1 (ribosomal protein S6 kinase, polypeptide 1) signaling that, in turn, induced NCOR1 (nuclear receptor co-repressor 1) nuclear uptake, interaction with NR1H/LXR, and recruitment to the Scd1 promoter. These events abrogated the stimulation of Scd1 gene expression by GW3965, and increased lipotoxicity in hepatic cells. In summary, we have identified a novel autophagy-independent role of ULK1 that regulates NR1H/LXR signaling, Scd1 expression, and intracellular lipid homeostasis in hepatic cells exposed to a lipotoxic environment. PMID:27846372

  7. Absent anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor NR1a antibodies in herpes simplex virus encephalitis and varicella zoster virus infections.

    PubMed

    Berger, Benjamin; Pytlik, Maximilian; Hottenrott, Tilman; Stich, Oliver

    2017-02-01

    A 2012 report and subsequent case series described anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antibodies in patients during the acute phase and relapse of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) encephalitis (HSV1E). However, the prevalence of this phenomenon is unknown and systematic studies on other viral infections of the nervous system are missing. We retrospectively analyzed serial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples of consecutive patients treated for neurological HSV1, HSV2 and varicella zoster virus (VZV) infections in our tertiary care university hospital between 2003 and 2013 for the presence of antibodies directed against the NR1a subunit of the NMDAR using indirect immunofluorescence. In total, 88 patients with the following infections were identified through an electronic database search: HSV1 (24 with encephalitis), HSV2 (6 with meningitis, 3 with encephalitis and 1 with myelitis), or VZV (3 with meningitis, 33 with encephalitis, 17 with radiculitis and 1 with myelitis). Two patients with HSV1E and HSV2E, respectively, experienced a clinical relapse. Clinical follow-up was for up to 85 months, and repetitive serum and CSF analyses for up to 43 months. However, at no time did any of the 88 patients exhibit anti-NMDAR NR1a antibodies. In this study, we did not detect anti-NMDAR NR1a antibodies in serial CSF and serum samples of HSV1E patients or patients with other viral infections (HSV2 and VZV). However, the presence of antibodies directed against other epitopes of the NMDAR and other neuronal cell surface antigens cannot be excluded, necessitating further studies.

  8. Influence of a threonine residue in the S2 ligand binding domain in determining agonist potency and deactivation rate of recombinant NR1a/NR2D NMDA receptors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Philip E; Johnston, Alexander R; Mok, M H Selina; Schoepfer, Ralf; Wyllie, David J A

    2004-07-01

    NR1/NR2D NMDA receptors display unusually slow deactivation kinetics which may be critical for their role as extrasynaptic receptors. A threonine to alanine point mutation has been inserted at amino acid position 692 of the NR2D subunit (T692A). Recombinant NR1a/NR2D(T692A) NMDA receptors have been expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and their pharmacological and single-channel properties examined using two-electrode voltage-clamp and patch-clamp recording techniques. Glutamate dose-response curves from NR1a/NR2D(T692A) receptor channels produced an approximately 1600-fold reduction in glutamate potency compared to wild-type NR1a/NR2D receptors. There was no change in Hill slopes or gross reduction in mean maximal currents recorded in oocytes expressing either wild-type or mutant receptors. The mutation did not affect the potency of the co-agonist glycine. The shifts in potency produced by NR2D(T692A) containing receptors when activated by other glutamate-site agonists such as aspartate or NMDA were 30- to 60-fold compared to wild-type. Single-channel conductance levels of NR1a/NR2D(T692A) mutant receptors were indistinguishable from wild-type NR2D-containing channels. Additionally NR1a/NR2D(T692A) receptors showed the transitional asymmetry that is characteristic of NR2D-containing NMDA receptors. Rapid applications of glutamate on outside-out patches containing NR1a/NR2D(T692A) receptors produced macroscopic current deactivations that were about 60-fold faster than wild-type NR1a/NR2D receptors. Our results suggest that this conserved threonine residue plays a crucial role in ligand binding to NMDA NR2 receptor subunits and supports the idea that the slow decay kinetics associated with NR1a/NR2D NMDA receptors can be explained by the slow dissociation of glutamate from this NMDA receptor subtype.

  9. Understanding the Goals of Everyday Instrumental Actions Is Primarily Linked to Object, Not Motor-Kinematic, Information: Evidence from fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Toby; Roser, Matt; Bach, Patric

    2017-01-01

    Prior research conceptualised action understanding primarily as a kinematic matching of observed actions to own motor representations but has ignored the role of object information. The current study utilized fMRI to identify (a) regions uniquely involved in encoding the goal of others’ actions, and (b) to test whether these goal understanding processes draw more strongly on regions involved in encoding object semantics or movement kinematics. Participants watched sequences of instrumental actions while attending to either the actions’ goal (goal task), the movements performed (movement task) or the objects used (object task). The results confirmed, first, a unique role of the inferior frontal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus and medial frontal gyrus in action goal understanding. Second, they show for the first time that activation in the goal task overlaps directly with object- but not movement-related activation. Moreover, subsequent parametric analyses revealed that movement-related regions become activated only when goals are unclear, or observers have little action experience. In contrast to motor theories of action understanding, these data suggest that objects—rather than movement kinematics—carry the key information about others’ actions. Kinematic information is additionally recruited when goals are ambiguous or unfamiliar. PMID:28081175

  10. Long-term changes in cyclosporine pharmacokinetics after renal transplantation in children: evidence for saturable presystemic metabolism and effect of NR1I2 polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Fanta, Samuel; Jönsson, Siv; Karlsson, Mats O; Niemi, Mikko; Holmberg, Christer; Hoppu, Kalle; Backman, Janne T

    2010-05-01

    To improve cyclosporine dose individualization, the authors carried out a comprehensive analysis of the effects of clinical and genetic factors on cyclosporine pharmacokinetics in 176 children before and up to 16 years after renal transplantation. Pretransplantation test doses of cyclosporine were given intravenously and orally, followed by blood sampling for 24 hours. After transplantation, cyclosporine was quantified at trough, 2 hours postdose, or with dose-interval curves. A 3-compartment population pharmacokinetic model was used to describe the data. Cyclosporine oral bioavailability increased more than 1.5-fold in the first month after transplantation, returning thereafter gradually to its initial value in 1 to 1.5 years. Moreover, older children receiving cyclosporine twice daily as the gelatin capsule microemulsion formulation had an about 1.25 to 1.3 times higher bioavailability than did the younger children receiving the liquid formulation thrice daily. In 91 children with genetic data after transplantation, patients carrying the NR1I2 g.-25385C-g.-24381A-g.-205_-200GAGAAG-g.7635G-g.8055C haplotype had about one-tenth lower bioavailability, per allele, than did noncarriers (P = .039). The significance of the NR1I2 genotype warrants further study. In conclusion, by accounting for the effects of developmental factors (body weight), time after transplantation, and cyclosporine dosing frequency/formulation, it may be possible to improve individualization of cyclosporine dosing in children.

  11. Sensory Plasticity in Human Motor Learning.

    PubMed

    Ostry, David J; Gribble, Paul L

    2016-02-01

    There is accumulating evidence from behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging studies that the acquisition of motor skills involves both perceptual and motor learning. Perceptual learning alters movements, motor learning, and motor networks of the brain. Motor learning changes perceptual function and the sensory circuits of the brain. Here, we review studies of both human limb movement and speech that indicate that plasticity in sensory and motor systems is reciprocally linked. Taken together, this points to an approach to motor learning in which perceptual learning and sensory plasticity have a fundamental role.

  12. Sensory plasticity in human motor learning

    PubMed Central

    Ostry, David J; Gribble, Paul L

    2015-01-01

    Summary There is accumulating evidence from behavioural, neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies that the acquisition of motor skills involves both perceptual and motor learning. Perceptual learning alters movements, motor learning and motor networks of the brain. Motor learning changes perceptual function and the brain’s sensory circuits. Here we review studies of both human limb movement and speech which indicate that plasticity in sensory and motor systems is reciprocally linked. Taken together, this points to an approach to motor learning in which perceptual learning and sensory plasticity play a fundamental role. PMID:26774345

  13. Association between Community Ambulation Walking Patterns and Cognitive Function in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Further Insights into Motor-Cognitive Links.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Aner; Herman, Talia; Giladi, Nir; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    Background. Cognitive function is generally evaluated based on testing in the clinic, but this may not always reflect real-life function. We tested whether parameters derived from long-term, continuous monitoring of gait are associated with cognitive function in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods. 107 patients with PD (age: 64.9 ± 9.3 yrs; UPDRS motor sum "off": 40.4 ± 13.2; 25.23% women) wore a 3D accelerometer on their lower back for 3 days. Computerized measures of global cognitive function, executive function, attention, and nonverbal memory were assessed. Three-day acceleration derived measures included cadence, variability, bilateral coordination, and dynamic postural control. Associations between the acceleration derived measures and cognitive function were determined. Results. Linear regression showed associations between vertical gait variability and cadence and between global cognitive score, attention, and executive function (p ≤ 0.048). Dynamic postural control was associated with global cognitive score and attention (p ≤ 0.027). Nonverbal memory was not associated with the acceleration-derived measures. Conclusions. These findings suggest that metrics derived from a 3-day worn body-fixed sensor reflect cognitive function, further supporting the idea that the gait pattern may be altered as cognition declines and that gait provides a window into cognitive function in patients with PD.

  14. Association between Community Ambulation Walking Patterns and Cognitive Function in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Further Insights into Motor-Cognitive Links

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Aner; Herman, Talia; Giladi, Nir; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Cognitive function is generally evaluated based on testing in the clinic, but this may not always reflect real-life function. We tested whether parameters derived from long-term, continuous monitoring of gait are associated with cognitive function in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods. 107 patients with PD (age: 64.9 ± 9.3 yrs; UPDRS motor sum “off”: 40.4 ± 13.2; 25.23% women) wore a 3D accelerometer on their lower back for 3 days. Computerized measures of global cognitive function, executive function, attention, and nonverbal memory were assessed. Three-day acceleration derived measures included cadence, variability, bilateral coordination, and dynamic postural control. Associations between the acceleration derived measures and cognitive function were determined. Results. Linear regression showed associations between vertical gait variability and cadence and between global cognitive score, attention, and executive function (p ≤ 0.048). Dynamic postural control was associated with global cognitive score and attention (p ≤ 0.027). Nonverbal memory was not associated with the acceleration-derived measures. Conclusions. These findings suggest that metrics derived from a 3-day worn body-fixed sensor reflect cognitive function, further supporting the idea that the gait pattern may be altered as cognition declines and that gait provides a window into cognitive function in patients with PD. PMID:26605103

  15. Association Between Performance on Timed Up and Go Subtasks and Mild Cognitive Impairment: Further Insights into the Links Between Cognitive and Motor Function

    PubMed Central

    Mirelman, Anat; Weiss, Aner; Buchman, Aron S.; Bennett, David A.; Giladi, Nir; Hausdorff, Jefferey M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Time to complete the Timed Up and Go (TUG), a test of mobility and fall risk, was recently associated with cognitive function. Objectives To assess whether different TUG subtasks are preferentially affected among older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and are specific to different cognitive abilities. Design Cross sectional study Setting Community and home setting Participants 347 older adults without dementia (mean 83.6±3.5yrs, 75% females, 19.3% MCI) participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Measurements Subjects wore a small, light-weight sensor that measured acceleration and angular velocity while they performed the instrumented TUG (iTUG). Measures of iTUG were derived from 4 subtasks: walking, turning, sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit and compared between participants with no cognitive impairment (NCI) versus MCI. Results NCI and MCI did not differ in age, sex, years of education (p>0.44) or time to complete the TUG (NCI:7.6±3.7sec vs. MCI:8.4±3.7sec;p=0.12). MCI had less walking consistency (p=0.0091), smaller pitch range during transitions (p=0.005), lower angular velocity during turning, and required more time to complete the turn-to-walk (p=0.042). Gait consistency was correlated with perceptual speed (p=0.012) and turning was correlated with perceptual speed (p=0.024) and visual-spatial abilities (p=0.049). Conclusions MCI is associated with impaired performance on iTUG subtasks that cannot be identified when simply measuring overall duration of performance. Distinctive iTUG tasks were related to particular cognitive domains, demonstrating the specificity of motor-cognitive interactions. Using a single body worn sensor for quantify of mobility may facilitate our understanding of late-life gait impairments and their inter-relationship with cognitive decline. PMID:24635699

  16. PPARalpha-dependent induction of the energy homeostasis-regulating nuclear receptor NR1i3 (CAR) in rat hepatocytes: potential role in starvation adaptation.

    PubMed

    Wieneke, Nadine; Hirsch-Ernst, Karen I; Kuna, Manuela; Kersten, Sander; Püschel, Gerhard P

    2007-12-11

    A tight hormonal control of energy homeostasis is of pivotal relevance for animals. Recent evidence suggests an involvement of the nuclear receptor NR1i3 (CAR). Fasting induces CAR by largely unknown mechanisms and CAR-deficient mice are defective in fasting adaptation. In rat hepatocytes CAR was induced by WY14643, a PPARalpha-agonist. A DR1 motif in the CAR promoter was necessary and sufficient for this control. The PPARalpha-dependent increase in CAR potentiated the phenobarbital-induced transcription of the prototypical CAR-dependent gene CYP2B1. Since free fatty acids are natural ligands for PPARalpha, a fasting-induced increase in free fatty acids might induce CAR. In accordance with this hypothesis, CAR induction by fasting was abrogated in PPARalpha-deficient mice.

  17. Expression of NMDA receptor NR1, NR2A and NR2B subunit mRNAs during development of the human hippocampal formation.

    PubMed

    Law, Amanda J; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon; Webster, Maree J; Herman, Mary M; Kleinman, Joel E; Harrison, Paul J

    2003-09-01

    The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor plays a critical role in the formation and maintenance of synapses during brain development. In the rodent, changes in subunit expression and assembly of the heteromeric receptor complex accompany these maturational processes. However, little is known about N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit expression during human brain development. We used in situ hybridization to examine the distribution and relative abundance of NR1, NR2A and NR2B subunit messenger ribonucleic acids in the hippocampal formation and adjacent cortex of 34 human subjects at five stages of life (neonate, infant, adolescent, young adult and adult). At all ages, the three messenger ribonucleic acids were expressed in all subfields, predominantly by pyramidal neurons, granule cells and polymorphic hilar cells. However, their abundance varied across ontogeny. Levels of NR1 messenger ribonucleic acid in CA4, CA3 and CA2 subfields were significantly lower in the neonate than all other age groups. In the dentate gyrus, subiculum and parahippocampal gyrus, NR2B messenger ribonucleic acid levels were higher in the neonate than in older age groups. NR2A messenger ribonucleic acid levels remained constant, leading to an age-related increase in NR2A/2B transcript ratio. We conclude that N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit messenger ribonucleic acids are differentially expressed during postnatal development of the human hippocampus, with a pattern similar but not identical to that seen in the rodent. Changes in subunit composition may thus contribute to maturational differences in human hippocampal N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor function, and to their role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and other neurodevelopmental disorders.

  18. Activity-dependent anchoring of importin α at the synapse involves regulated binding to the cytoplasmic tail of the NR1-1a subunit of the NMDA receptor

    PubMed Central

    Jeffrey, Rachel A.; Ch'ng, Toh Hean; O'Dell, Thomas J.; Martin, Kelsey C.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Synaptic plasticity, the capacity of neurons to change the strength of their connections with experience, provides a mechanism for learning and memory in the brain. Long-term plasticity requires new transcription, indicating that synaptically generated signals must be transported to the nucleus. Previous studies have described a role for importin nuclear transport adaptors in mediating the retrograde transport of signals from synapse to nucleus during plasticity. Here, we investigated the possibility that stimulus-induced translocation of importins from synapse to nucleus involves activity-dependent anchoring of importins at the synapse. We show that importin a binds to a nuclear localization signal (NLS) present in the cytoplasmic tail of NR1-1a. This interaction is disrupted by activation of NMDA receptors in cultured neurons and by stimuli that trigger late-phase, but not early phase LTP, of CA3-CA1 synapses in acute hippocampal slices. In vitro PKC phosphorylation of GST-NR1-1a abolishes its ability to bind importin α in brain lysates, and the interaction of importin α and NR1 in neurons is modulated by PKC activity. Together, our results indicate that importin α is tethered at the PSD by binding to the NLS present in NR1-1a. This interaction is activity dependent, with importin α being released following NMDA receptor and phosphorylation rendering it available to bind soluble cargoes and transport them to the nucleus during transcription-dependent forms of neuronal plasticity. PMID:20016075

  19. Mechanisms responsible for the effect of median nerve electrical stimulation on traumatic brain injury-induced coma: orexin-A-mediated N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR1 upregulation

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Zhen; Du, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of the median nerve is a noninvasive technique that facilitates awakening from coma. In rats with traumatic brain injury-induced coma, median nerve stimulation markedly enhances prefrontal cortex expression of orexin-A and its receptor, orexin receptor 1. To further understand the mechanism underlying wakefulness mediated by electrical stimulation of the median nerve, we evaluated its effects on the expression of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR1 in the prefrontal cortex in rat models of traumatic brain injury-induced coma, using immunohistochemistry and western blot assays. In rats with traumatic brain injury, NR1 expression increased with time after injury. Rats that underwent electrical stimulation of the median nerve (30 Hz, 0.5 ms, 1.0 mA for 15 minutes) showed elevated NR1 expression and greater recovery of consciousness than those without stimulation. These effects were reduced by intracerebroventricular injection of the orexin receptor 1 antagonist SB334867. Our results indicate that electrical stimulation of the median nerve promotes recovery from traumatic brain injury-induced coma by increasing prefrontal cortex NR1 expression via an orexin-A-mediated pathway. PMID:27482224

  20. Mechanisms responsible for the effect of median nerve electrical stimulation on traumatic brain injury-induced coma: orexin-A-mediated N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR1 upregulation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhen; Du, Qing

    2016-06-01

    Electrical stimulation of the median nerve is a noninvasive technique that facilitates awakening from coma. In rats with traumatic brain injury-induced coma, median nerve stimulation markedly enhances prefrontal cortex expression of orexin-A and its receptor, orexin receptor 1. To further understand the mechanism underlying wakefulness mediated by electrical stimulation of the median nerve, we evaluated its effects on the expression of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR1 in the prefrontal cortex in rat models of traumatic brain injury-induced coma, using immunohistochemistry and western blot assays. In rats with traumatic brain injury, NR1 expression increased with time after injury. Rats that underwent electrical stimulation of the median nerve (30 Hz, 0.5 ms, 1.0 mA for 15 minutes) showed elevated NR1 expression and greater recovery of consciousness than those without stimulation. These effects were reduced by intracerebroventricular injection of the orexin receptor 1 antagonist SB334867. Our results indicate that electrical stimulation of the median nerve promotes recovery from traumatic brain injury-induced coma by increasing prefrontal cortex NR1 expression via an orexin-A-mediated pathway.

  1. The circadian clock regulates autophagy directly through the nuclear hormone receptor Nr1d1/Rev-erbα and indirectly via Cebpb/(C/ebpβ) in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guodong; Zhang, Fanmiao; Ye, Qiang; Wang, Han

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Autophagy is a highly conserved intracellular degradation system, and recently was shown to display circadian rhythms in mice. The mechanisms underlying circadian regulation of autophagy, however, are still unclear. Here, we observed that numbers of autophagosomes and autolysosomes exhibit daily rhythms in the zebrafish liver, and cebpb/(c/ebpβ) and various autophagy genes are rhythmically expressed in zebrafish larvae but significantly upregulated in per1b and TALEN-generated nr1d1/rev-erbα mutant fish, indicating that both Per1b and Nr1d1 play critical roles in autophagy rhythms. Luciferase reporter and ChIP assays show that the circadian clock directly regulates autophagy genes through Nr1d1, and also regulates transcription of cebpb through Per1b. We also found that fasting leads to altered expression of both circadian clock genes and autophagy genes in zebrafish adult peripheral organs. Further, transcriptome analysis reveals multiple functions of Nr1d1 in zebrafish. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for how the circadian clock regulates autophagy, imply that nutritional signaling affects both circadian regulation and autophagy activities in peripheral organs, and shed light on how circadian gene mutations act through autophagy to contribute to common metabolic diseases such as obesity. PMID:27171500

  2. Characterisation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-specific [(3)H]Ifenprodil binding to recombinant human NR1a/NR2B receptors compared with native receptors in rodent brain membranes.

    PubMed

    Grimwood, S; Richards, P; Murray, F; Harrison, N; Wingrove, P B; Hutson, P H

    2000-12-01

    We have performed [(3)H]ifenprodil binding experiments under NMDA receptor-specific assay conditions to provide the first detailed characterisation of the pharmacology of the ifenprodil site on NMDA NR1/NR2B receptors, using recombinant human NR1a/NR2B receptors stably expressed in L(tk-) cells, in comparison with rat cortex/hippocampus membranes. [(3)H]Ifenprodil bound to a single, saturable site on both human recombinant NR1a/NR2B receptors and native rat receptors with B:(max) values of 1.83 and 2.45 pmol/mg of protein, respectively, and K:(D) values of 33.5 and 24.8 nM:, respectively. The affinity of various ifenprodil site ligands-eliprodil, (R:(*), R:(*))-4-hydroxy-alpha-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-beta-methyl-4-pehnyl-1-pi per idineethanol [(+/-)-CP-101,606], cis-3-[4-(4-fluorophenyl)-4-hydroxy-1-piperidinyl]-3, 4-dihydro-2H:-1-benzopyran-4,7-diol [(+/-)-CP-283,097], and (R:(*), S:(*))-alpha-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-beta-methyl-4-(phenylmethyl)-1-piperid inepropanol [(+/-)-Ro 25-6981] was very similar for inhibition of [(3)H]ifenprodil binding to recombinant human NR1a/NR2B and native rat receptors, whereas allosteric inhibition of [(3)H]ifenprodil binding by polyamine site ligands (spermine, spermidine, and arcaine) showed approximately twofold lower affinity for recombinant receptors compared with native receptors. Glutamate site ligands were less effective at modulating [(3)H]ifenprodil binding to recombinant NR1a/NR2B receptors compared with native rat receptors. The NMDA receptor-specific [(3)H]ifenprodil binding conditions described were also applied to ex vivo experiments to determine the receptor occupancy of ifenprodil site ligands [ifenprodil, (+/-)-CP-101,606, (+/-)-CP-283,097, and (+/-)-Ro 25-6981] given systemically.

  3. Motor syndromes.

    PubMed

    Corea, Francesco; Micheli, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Motor disturbances alone or associated with other focal deficits are the most common symptoms suggesting a neurovascular event. An appropriate clinical assessment of these signs and symptoms may help physicians to better diagnose and to both better treat and predict outcome. In this paper the main clinical features of motor deficit are described together with other motor-related events such as ataxia and movement disturbances.

  4. Molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allemand, Jean François Desbiolles, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    How do we move? More precisely, what are the molecular mechanisms that can explain that our muscles, made of very small components can move at a osopic scale? To answer these questions we must introduce molecular motors. Those motors are proteins, or small protein assemblies that, in our cells, transform chemical energy into mechanical work. Then, like we could do for a oscopic motor, used in a car or in a fan, we are going to study the basic behavior of these molecular machines, present what are their energy sources, calculate their power, their yield. If molecular motors are crucial for our oscopic movements, we are going to see that they are also essential to cellular transport and that considering the activity of some enzymes as molecular motors bring some interesting new insights on their activity.

  5. Associations of ABCB1, NFKB1, CYP3A, and NR1I2 polymorphisms with cyclosporine trough concentrations in Chinese renal transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Li, Jia-li; Fu, Qian; Wang, Xue-ding; Liu, Long-shan; Wang, Chang-xi; Xie, Wen; Chen, Zhuo-jia; Shu, Wen-ying; Huang, Min

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Cyclosporine requires close therapeutic drug monitoring because of its narrow therapeutic index and marked inter-individual pharmacokinetic variation. In this study, we investigated the associations of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, ABCB1, NFKB1, and NR1I2 polymorphisms with cyclosporine concentrations in Chinese renal transplant recipients in the early period after renal transplantation. Methods: A total of 101 renal transplant recipients receiving cyclosporine were genotyped for CYP3A4*1G, CYP3A5*3, ABCB1 C1236T, G2677T/A, C3435T, NFKB1 −94 ins/del ATTG, and NR1I2 polymorphisms. Cyclosporine whole blood levels were measured by a fluorescence polarization immunoassay. Trough concentrations of cyclosporine were determined for days 7-18 following transplantation. Results: The dose-adjusted trough concentration (C0) of cyclosporine in ABCB1 2677 TT carriers was significantly higher than that in GG carriers together with GT carriers [90.4±24.5 vs 67.8±26.8 (ng/mL)/(mg/kg), P=0.001]. ABCB1 3435 TT carriers had a significantly higher dose-adjusted C0 of cyclosporine than CC carriers together with CT carriers [92.0±24.0 vs 68.4±26.5 (ng/mL)/(mg/kg), P=0.002]. Carriers of the ABCB1 1236TT-2677TT-3435TT haplotype had a considerably higher CsA C0/D than carriers of other genotypes [97.2±21.8 vs 68.7±26.9 (ng/mL)/(mg/kg), P=0.001]. Among non-carriers of the ABCB1 2677 TT and 3435 TT genotypes, patients with the NFKB1 −94 ATTG ins/ins genotype had a significantly higher dose-adjusted C0 than those with the −94 ATTG del/del genotype [75.9±32.9 vs 55.1±15.1 (ng/mL)/(mg/kg), P=0.026]. Conclusion: These results illustrate that the ABCB1 and NFKB1 genotypes are closely correlated with cyclosporine trough concentrations, suggesting that these SNPs are useful for determining the appropriate dose of cyclosporine. PMID:23503472

  6. Associations of ABCB1, NFKB1, CYP3A, and NR1I2 polymorphisms with cyclosporine trough concentrations in Chinese renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Li, Jia-li; Fu, Qian; Wang, Xue-ding; Liu, Long-shan; Wang, Chang-xi; Xie, Wen; Chen, Zhuo-jia; Shu, Wen-ying; Huang, Min

    2013-04-01

    Cyclosporine requires close therapeutic drug monitoring because of its narrow therapeutic index and marked inter-individual pharmacokinetic variation. In this study, we investigated the associations of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, ABCB1, NFKB1, and NR1I2 polymorphisms with cyclosporine concentrations in Chinese renal transplant recipients in the early period after renal transplantation. A total of 101 renal transplant recipients receiving cyclosporine were genotyped for CYP3A4(*)1G, CYP3A5(*)3, ABCB1 C1236T, G2677T/A, C3435T, NFKB1 -94 ins/del ATTG, and NR1I2 polymorphisms. Cyclosporine whole blood levels were measured by a fluorescence polarization immunoassay. Trough concentrations of cyclosporine were determined for days 7-18 following transplantation. The dose-adjusted trough concentration (C0) of cyclosporine in ABCB1 2677 TT carriers was significantly higher than that in GG carriers together with GT carriers [90.4±24.5 vs 67.8±26.8 (ng/mL)/(mg/kg), P=0.001]. ABCB1 3435 TT carriers had a significantly higher dose-adjusted C0 of cyclosporine than CC carriers together with CT carriers [92.0±24.0 vs 68.4±26.5 (ng/mL)/(mg/kg), P=0.002]. Carriers of the ABCB1 1236TT-2677TT-3435TT haplotype had a considerably higher CsA C0/D than carriers of other genotypes [97.2±21.8 vs 68.7±26.9 (ng/mL)/(mg/kg), P=0.001]. Among non-carriers of the ABCB1 2677 TT and 3435 TT genotypes, patients with the NFKB1 -94 ATTG ins/ins genotype had a significantly higher dose-adjusted C0 than those with the -94 ATTG del/del genotype [75.9±32.9 vs 55.1±15.1 (ng/mL)/(mg/kg), P=0.026]. These results illustrate that the ABCB1 and NFKB1 genotypes are closely correlated with cyclosporine trough concentrations, suggesting that these SNPs are useful for determining the appropriate dose of cyclosporine.

  7. Stepper motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dekramer, Cornelis

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the more commonly used permanent magnet stepper motors for spaceflight. It will discuss the mechanical and electrical aspects of the devices, their torque behavior, those parameters which need to be controlled and measured, and test methods to be employed. It will also discuss torque margins, compare these to the existing margin requirements, and determine the applicability of these requirements. Finally it will attempt to generate a set of requirements which will be used in any stepper motor procurement and will fully characterize the stepper motor behavior in a consistent and repeatable fashion.

  8. The Niwot Ridge Subalpine Forest US-NR1 AmeriFlux site - Part 1: Data acquisition and site record-keeping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Sean P.; Maclean, Gordon D.; Blanken, Peter D.; Oncley, Steven P.; Semmer, Steven R.; Monson, Russell K.

    2016-09-01

    The Niwot Ridge Subalpine Forest AmeriFlux site (US-NR1) has been measuring eddy-covariance ecosystem fluxes of carbon dioxide, heat, and water vapor since 1 November 1998. Throughout this 17-year period there have been changes to the instrumentation and improvements to the data acquisition system. Here, in Part 1 of this three-part series of papers, we describe the hardware and software used for data-collection and metadata documentation. We made changes to the data acquisition system that aimed to reduce the system complexity, increase redundancy, and be as independent as possible from any network outages. Changes to facilitate these improvements were (1) switching to a PC/104-based computer running the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) In-Situ Data Acquisition Software (NIDAS) that saves the high-frequency data locally and over the network, and (2) time-tagging individual 10 Hz serial data samples using network time protocol (NTP) coupled to a GPS-based clock, providing a network-independent, accurate time base. Since making these improvements almost 2 years ago, the successful capture of high-rate data has been better than 99.98 %. We also provide philosophical concepts that shaped our design of the data system and are applicable to many different types of environmental data collection.

  9. The Niwot Ridge Subalpine Forest US-NR1 AmeriFlux site – Part 1: Data acquisition and site record-keeping

    DOE PAGES

    Burns, Sean P.; Maclean, Gordon D.; Blanken, Peter D.; ...

    2016-09-29

    The Niwot Ridge Subalpine Forest AmeriFlux site (US-NR1) has been measuring eddy-covariance ecosystem fluxes of carbon dioxide, heat, and water vapor since 1 November 1998. Throughout this 17-year period there have been changes to the instrumentation and improvements to the data acquisition system. Here, in Part 1 of this three-part series of papers, we describe the hardware and software used for data-collection and metadata documentation. We made changes to the data acquisition system that aimed to reduce the system complexity, increase redundancy, and be as independent as possible from any network outages. Changes to facilitate these improvements were (1) switching to a PC/104-based computer runningmore » the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) In-Situ Data Acquisition Software (NIDAS) that saves the high-frequency data locally and over the network, and (2) time-tagging individual 10 Hz serial data samples using network time protocol (NTP) coupled to a GPS-based clock, providing a network-independent, accurate time base. Since making these improvements almost 2 years ago, the successful capture of high-rate data has been better than 99.98 %. We also provide philosophical concepts that shaped our design of the data system and are applicable to many different types of environmental data collection.« less

  10. Sigma-1 Receptor Antagonist BD1047 Reduces Mechanical Allodynia in a Rat Model of Bone Cancer Pain through the Inhibition of Spinal NR1 Phosphorylation and Microglia Activation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shanshan; Wang, Chenchen; Han, Yuan; Song, Chao; Hu, Xueming; Liu, Yannan

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that sigma-1 receptor plays important roles in the induction phase of rodent neuropathic pain; however, whether it is involved in bone cancer pain (BCP) and the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. The aim of this study was to examine the potential role of the spinal sigma-1 receptor in the development of bone cancer pain. Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cells were implanted into the intramedullary space of the right tibia of Sprague-Dawley rats to induce ongoing bone cancer-related pain behaviors; our findings indicated that, on days 7, 10, 14, and 21 after operation, the expression of sigma-1 receptor in the spinal cord was higher in BCP rats compared to the sham rats. Furthermore, intrathecal injection of 120 nmol of sigma-1 receptor antagonist BD1047 on days 5, 6, and 7 after operation attenuated mechanical allodynia as well as the associated induction of c-Fos and activation of microglial cells, NR1, and the subsequent Ca2+-dependent signals of BCP rats. These results suggest that sigma-1 receptor is involved in the development of bone cancer pain and that targeting sigma-1 receptor may be a new strategy for the treatment of bone cancer pain. PMID:26696751

  11. Population pharmacokinetic approach to evaluate the effect of CYP2D6, CYP3A, ABCB1, POR and NR1I2 genotypes on donepezil clearance.

    PubMed

    Noetzli, Muriel; Guidi, Monia; Ebbing, Karsten; Eyer, Stephan; Wilhelm, Laurence; Michon, Agnès; Thomazic, Valérie; Stancu, Ioana; Alnawaqil, Abdel-Messieh; Bula, Christophe; Zumbach, Serge; Gaillard, Michel; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; von Gunten, Armin; Csajka, Chantal; Eap, Chin B

    2014-07-01

    A large interindividual variability in plasma concentrations has been reported in patients treated with donepezil, the most frequently prescribed antidementia drug. We aimed to evaluate clinical and genetic factors influencing donepezil disposition in a patient population recruited from a naturalistic setting. A population pharmacokinetic study was performed including data from 129 older patients treated with donepezil. The patients were genotyped for common polymorphisms in the metabolic enzymes CYP2D6 and CYP3A, in the electron transferring protein POR and the nuclear factor NR1I2 involved in CYP activity and expression, and in the drug transporter ABCB1. The average donepezil clearance was 7.3 l h(-1) with a 30% interindividual variability. Gender markedly influenced donepezil clearance (P < 0.01). Functional alleles of CYP2D6 were identified as unique significant genetic covariate for donepezil clearance (P < 0.01), with poor metabolizers and ultrarapid metabolizers demonstrating, respectively, a 32% slower and a 67% faster donepezil elimination compared with extensive metabolizers. The pharmacokinetic parameters of donepezil were well described by the developed population model. Functional alleles of CYP2D6 significantly contributed to the variability in donepezil disposition in the patient population and should be further investigated in the context of individual dose optimization to improve clinical outcome and tolerability of the treatment. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  12. The Niwot Ridge Subalpine Forest US-NR1 AmeriFlux site – Part 1: Data acquisition and site record-keeping

    DOE PAGES

    Burns, Sean P.; Maclean, Gordon D.; Blanken, Peter D.; ...

    2016-09-29

    The Niwot Ridge Subalpine Forest AmeriFlux site (US-NR1) has been measuring eddy-covariance ecosystem fluxes of carbon dioxide, heat, and water vapor since 1 November 1998. Throughout this 17-year period there have been changes to the instrumentation and improvements to the data acquisition system. Here, in Part 1 of this three-part series of papers, we describe the hardware and software used for data-collection and metadata documentation. We made changes to the data acquisition system that aimed to reduce the system complexity, increase redundancy, and be as independent as possible from any network outages. Changes to facilitate these improvements were (1) switching to a PC/104-based computer runningmore » the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) In-Situ Data Acquisition Software (NIDAS) that saves the high-frequency data locally and over the network, and (2) time-tagging individual 10 Hz serial data samples using network time protocol (NTP) coupled to a GPS-based clock, providing a network-independent, accurate time base. Since making these improvements almost 2 years ago, the successful capture of high-rate data has been better than 99.98 %. Here, we also provide philosophical concepts that shaped our design of the data system and are applicable to many different types of environmental data collection.« less

  13. Genome-wide identification of nuclear receptor (NR) genes and the evolutionary significance of the NR1O subfamily in the monogonont rotifer Brachionus spp.

    PubMed

    Kim, Duck-Hyun; Kim, Hui-Su; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Kim, Hee-Jin; Hagiwara, Atsushi; Lee, Jae-Seong; Jeong, Chang-Bum

    2017-10-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are a large family of transcription factors that are involved in many fundamental biological processes. NRs are considered to have originated from a common ancestor, and are highly conserved throughout the whole animal taxa. Therefore, the genome-wide identification of NR genes in an animal taxon can provide insight into the evolutionary tendencies of NRs. Here, we identified all the NR genes in the monogonont rotifer Brachionus spp., which are considered an ecologically key species due to their abundance and world-wide distribution. The NR family was composed of 40, 32, 29, and 32 genes in the genomes of the rotifers B. calyciflorus, B. koreanus, B. plicatilis, and B. rotundiformis, respectively, which were classified into seven distinct subfamilies. The composition of each subfamily was highly conserved between species, except for NR1O genes, suggesting that they have undergone sporadic evolutionary processes for adaptation to their different environmental pressures. In addition, despite the dynamics of NR evolution, the significance of the conserved endocrine system, particularly for estrogen receptor (ER)-signaling, in rotifers was discussed on the basis of phylogenetic analyses. The results of this study may help provide a better understanding the evolution of NRs, and expand our knowledge of rotifer endocrine systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sigma-1 Receptor Antagonist BD1047 Reduces Mechanical Allodynia in a Rat Model of Bone Cancer Pain through the Inhibition of Spinal NR1 Phosphorylation and Microglia Activation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shanshan; Wang, Chenchen; Han, Yuan; Song, Chao; Hu, Xueming; Liu, Yannan

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that sigma-1 receptor plays important roles in the induction phase of rodent neuropathic pain; however, whether it is involved in bone cancer pain (BCP) and the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. The aim of this study was to examine the potential role of the spinal sigma-1 receptor in the development of bone cancer pain. Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cells were implanted into the intramedullary space of the right tibia of Sprague-Dawley rats to induce ongoing bone cancer-related pain behaviors; our findings indicated that, on days 7, 10, 14, and 21 after operation, the expression of sigma-1 receptor in the spinal cord was higher in BCP rats compared to the sham rats. Furthermore, intrathecal injection of 120 nmol of sigma-1 receptor antagonist BD1047 on days 5, 6, and 7 after operation attenuated mechanical allodynia as well as the associated induction of c-Fos and activation of microglial cells, NR1, and the subsequent Ca(2+)-dependent signals of BCP rats. These results suggest that sigma-1 receptor is involved in the development of bone cancer pain and that targeting sigma-1 receptor may be a new strategy for the treatment of bone cancer pain.

  15. Ultrasonic Motors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-01

    Nakamura, M. K. Kurosawa , and S. Ueha, "Characteristics of a Hybrid Transducer-Type Ultrasonic Motor," IEEE Trans. Ultrason.Ferroelec. Freq., vol. 44...pp. 823-828, 1997. [12] M. K. Kurosawa , T. Morita, and T. Higuchi, "A Cylindrical Ultrasonic Micromotor Based on PZT Thin Film," IEEE Ultrasonics...Symposium, vol. 1, pp. 549-552, 1994. [13] T. Morita, M. K. Kurosawa , and T. Higuchi, "A Cylindrical Micro Ultrasonic Motor Using PZT Thin Film

  16. Game Changer: Linked Learning Detroit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ConnectEd: The California Center for College and Career, 2016

    2016-01-01

    JP Morgan Chase joins the Skillman Foundation, the Ford Foundation, and the Ford Motor Company Fund, whose grants total $7 million and will connect 10,000 Detroit high school students to career education and work experiences over the next three years through Linked Learning Detroit. Learn about Linked Learning Detroit through interviews with…

  17. Game Changer: Linked Learning Detroit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ConnectEd: The California Center for College and Career, 2016

    2016-01-01

    JP Morgan Chase joins the Skillman Foundation, the Ford Foundation, and the Ford Motor Company Fund, whose grants total $7 million and will connect 10,000 Detroit high school students to career education and work experiences over the next three years through Linked Learning Detroit. Learn about Linked Learning Detroit through interviews with…

  18. Interaction of ApoA-IV with NR4A1 and NR1D1 Represses G6Pase and PEPCK Transcription: Nuclear Receptor-Mediated Downregulation of Hepatic Gluconeogenesis in Mice and a Human Hepatocyte Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoming; Xu, Min; Wang, Fei; Ji, Yong; DavidsoN, W. Sean; Li, Zongfang; Tso, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that the nuclear receptor, NR1D1, is a cofactor in ApoA-IV-mediated downregulation of gluconeogenesis. Nuclear receptor, NR4A1, is involved in the transcriptional regulation of various genes involved in inflammation, apoptosis, and glucose metabolism. We investigated whether NR4A1 influences the effect of ApoA-IV on hepatic glucose metabolism. Our in situ proximity ligation assays and coimmunoprecipitation experiments indicated that ApoA-IV colocalized with NR4A1 in human liver (HepG2) and kidney (HEK-293) cell lines. The chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments and luciferase reporter assays indicated that the ApoA-IV and NR4A1 colocalized at the RORα response element of the human G6Pase promoter, reducing its transcriptional activity. Our RNA interference experiments showed that knocking down the expression of NR4A1 in primary mouse hepatocytes treated with ApoA-IV increased the expression of NR1D1, G6Pase, and PEPCK, and that knocking down NR1D1 expression increased the level of NR4A1. We also found that ApoA-IV induced the expression of endogenous NR4A1 in both cultured primary mouse hepatocytes and in the mouse liver, and decreased glucose production in primary mouse hepatocytes. Our findings showed that ApoA-IV colocalizes with NR4A1, which suppresses G6Pase and PEPCK gene expression at the transcriptional level, reducing hepatic glucose output and lowering blood glucose. The ApoA-IV-induced increase in NR4A1 expression in hepatocytes mediates further repression of gluconeogenesis. Our findings suggest that NR1D1 and NR4A1 serve similar or complementary functions in the ApoA-IV-mediated regulation of gluconeogenesis. PMID:26556724

  19. Interaction of ApoA-IV with NR4A1 and NR1D1 Represses G6Pase and PEPCK Transcription: Nuclear Receptor-Mediated Downregulation of Hepatic Gluconeogenesis in Mice and a Human Hepatocyte Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoming; Xu, Min; Wang, Fei; Ji, Yong; DavidsoN, W Sean; Li, Zongfang; Tso, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that the nuclear receptor, NR1D1, is a cofactor in ApoA-IV-mediated downregulation of gluconeogenesis. Nuclear receptor, NR4A1, is involved in the transcriptional regulation of various genes involved in inflammation, apoptosis, and glucose metabolism. We investigated whether NR4A1 influences the effect of ApoA-IV on hepatic glucose metabolism. Our in situ proximity ligation assays and coimmunoprecipitation experiments indicated that ApoA-IV colocalized with NR4A1 in human liver (HepG2) and kidney (HEK-293) cell lines. The chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments and luciferase reporter assays indicated that the ApoA-IV and NR4A1 colocalized at the RORα response element of the human G6Pase promoter, reducing its transcriptional activity. Our RNA interference experiments showed that knocking down the expression of NR4A1 in primary mouse hepatocytes treated with ApoA-IV increased the expression of NR1D1, G6Pase, and PEPCK, and that knocking down NR1D1 expression increased the level of NR4A1. We also found that ApoA-IV induced the expression of endogenous NR4A1 in both cultured primary mouse hepatocytes and in the mouse liver, and decreased glucose production in primary mouse hepatocytes. Our findings showed that ApoA-IV colocalizes with NR4A1, which suppresses G6Pase and PEPCK gene expression at the transcriptional level, reducing hepatic glucose output and lowering blood glucose. The ApoA-IV-induced increase in NR4A1 expression in hepatocytes mediates further repression of gluconeogenesis. Our findings suggest that NR1D1 and NR4A1 serve similar or complementary functions in the ApoA-IV-mediated regulation of gluconeogenesis.

  20. Advanced Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Knoth, Edward A; Chelluri, Bhanumathi; Schumaker, Edward J

    2012-12-14

    vProject Summary Transportation energy usage is predicted to increase substantially by 2020. Hybrid vehicles and fuel cell powered vehicles are destined to become more prominent as fuel prices rise with the demand. Hybrid and fuel cell vehicle platforms are both dependent on high performance electric motors. Electric motors for transportation duty will require sizeable low-speed torque to accelerate the vehicle. As motor speed increases, the torque requirement decreases which results in a nearly constant power motor output. Interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM) are well suited for this duty. , , These rotor geometries are configured in straight lines and semi circular arc shapes. These designs are of limited configurations because of the lack of availability of permanent magnets of any other shapes at present. We propose to fabricate rotors via a novel processing approach where we start with magnet powders and compact them into a net shape rotor in a single step. Using this approach, widely different rotor designs can be implemented for efficiency. The current limitation on magnet shape and thickness will be eliminated. This is accomplished by co-filling magnet and soft iron powders at specified locations in intricate shapes using specially designed dies and automatic powder filling station. The process fundamentals for accomplishing occurred under a previous Applied Technology Program titled, Motors and Generators for the 21st Century. New efficient motor designs that are not currently possible (or cost prohibitive) can be accomplished by this approach. Such an approach to motor fabrication opens up a new dimension in motor design. Feasibility Results We were able to optimize a IPMSM rotor to take advantage of the powder co-filling and DMC compaction processing methods. The minimum low speed torque requirement of 5 N-m can be met through an optimized design with magnet material having a Br capability of 0.2 T. This level of magnetic performance can

  1. Motor Planning.

    PubMed

    Wong, Aaron L; Haith, Adrian M; Krakauer, John W

    2015-08-01

    Motor planning colloquially refers to any process related to the preparation of a movement that occurs during the reaction time prior to movement onset. However, this broad definition encompasses processes that are not strictly motor-related, such as decision-making about the identity of task-relevant stimuli in the environment. Furthermore, the assumption that all motor-planning processes require processing time, and can therefore be studied behaviorally by measuring changes in the reaction time, needs to be reexamined. In this review, we take a critical look at the processes leading from perception to action and suggest a definition of motor planning that encompasses only those processes necessary for a movement to be executed-that is, processes that are strictly movement related. These processes resolve the ambiguity inherent in an abstract goal by defining a specific movement to achieve it. We propose that the majority of processes that meet this definition can be completed nearly instantaneously, which means that motor planning itself in fact consumes only a small fraction of the reaction time. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Brownian motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänggi, P.; Marchesoni, F.; Nori, F.

    2005-02-01

    In systems possessing a spatial or dynamical symmetry breaking, thermal Brownian motion combined with unbiased, non-equilibrium noise gives rise to a channelling of chance that can be used to exercise control over systems at the micro- and even on the nano-scale. This theme is known as the Brownian motor concept. The constructive role of (the generally overdamped) Brownian motion is exemplified for a noise-induced transport of particles within various set-ups. We first present the working principles and characteristics with a proof-of-principle device, a diffusive temperature Brownian motor. Next, we consider very recent applications based on the phenomenon of signal mixing. The latter is particularly simple to implement experimentally in order to optimize and selectively control a rich variety of directed transport behaviors. The subtleties and also the potential for Brownian motors operating in the quantum regime are outlined and some state-of-the-art applications, together with future roadways, are presented.

  3. [Motor rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Doménech, J; García-Aymerich, V; Juste, J; Ortiz, A

    2002-02-01

    The child's rehabilitation objectives are the same of the early intervention. The early intervention include motor approaches to facilitate the unique way of the newborn's expression: the movement and with it his holistic development. The motor approach is a classic aspect of early intervention but it is not itself early intervention. When the treatment objective is a term or preterm newborn or neonate the motor approach may be the principal method to facilitate perceptions experiences and basic habits. This intervention is not made with a specific physiotherapeutic technique. It is a sequential stimulation or development, without forget that the child must be taken as a whole. This point of view has special importance the first days of life and must be included in perinatal approach routines. In this paper we expose the work method of a Child Rehabilitation Team liked to a Newborn Unit.

  4. Thr176 regulates the activity of the mouse nuclear receptor CAR and is conserved in the NR1I subfamily members PXR and VDR.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Akiko; Matsui, Kenji; Yamamoto, Yukio; Pedersen, Lars C; Sueyoshi, Tatsuya; Negishi, Masahiko

    2005-06-01

    The mouse nuclear receptor CAR (constitutively active receptor) is a transcription factor that is activated by phenobarbital-type inducers such as TCPOBOP {1,4 bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene} in liver in vivo. However, CAR is constitutively active in cell-based transfection assays, the molecular mechanism for which has not been elucidated yet. In the model structure of CAR, Thr176 constitutes a part of the ligand-binding surface, but its side chain is not directed toward the surface, instead it forms a hydrogen bond with Thr350 in the AF2 (activation function 2) domain of CAR. Thr350 is known to regulate CAR activity [Ueda, Kakizaki, Negishi, and Sueyoshi (2002) Mol. Pharmacol. 61, 1284-1288]. Thr176 was mutated to various amino acids to examine whether this interaction played a role in conferring the constitutive activity. Hydrophobic and positively charged amino acids at position 176 abrogated the constitutive activity, whereas polar and negatively charged amino acids retained it. When one of the small hydrophobic amino acids, such as alanine or valine, was substituted for threonine, the mutants were fully activated by TCPOBOP. The co-activator SRC-1 (steroid receptor co-activator-1) regulated the activity changes associated with the mutations. Thr248 and Ser230 are the Thr176-corresponding residues in human pregnane X receptor and mouse vitamin D3 receptor respectively, interacting directly with the conserved threonine in the AF2 domains. Thr248 and Ser230 also regulated the ligand-dependent activity of these receptors by augmenting binding of the receptors to SRC-1. Thr176, Thr248 and Ser230 are conserved residues in the NR1I (nuclear receptor 1I) subfamily members and determine their activity.

  5. Multilevel DC link inverter

    DOEpatents

    Su, Gui-Jia

    2003-06-10

    A multilevel DC link inverter and method for improving torque response and current regulation in permanent magnet motors and switched reluctance motors having a low inductance includes a plurality of voltage controlled cells connected in series for applying a resulting dc voltage comprised of one or more incremental dc voltages. The cells are provided with switches for increasing the resulting applied dc voltage as speed and back EMF increase, while limiting the voltage that is applied to the commutation switches to perform PWM or dc voltage stepping functions, so as to limit current ripple in the stator windings below an acceptable level, typically 5%. Several embodiments are disclosed including inverters using IGBT's, inverters using thyristors. All of the inverters are operable in both motoring and regenerating modes.

  6. Motor Dynamics of Embodied Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sarah Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Predominant theories of cognition have previously emphasized the modularity of processing, in which individual isolated modules process information free from the influence of other types of information. However, more recent theories suggest that cognition is much more linked to motor and sensory processes than modular theories suggest. In this…

  7. Motor Dynamics of Embodied Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sarah Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Predominant theories of cognition have previously emphasized the modularity of processing, in which individual isolated modules process information free from the influence of other types of information. However, more recent theories suggest that cognition is much more linked to motor and sensory processes than modular theories suggest. In this…

  8. Motor Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Kollmorgen Corporation's Mermaid II two person submersible is propeller-driven by a system of five DC brushless motors with new electronic controllers that originated in work performed in a NASA/DOE project managed by Lewis Research Center. A key feature of the system is electric commutation rather than mechanical commutation for converting AC current to DC.

  9. Therma motor

    DOEpatents

    Kandarian, R.

    The disclosure is directed to a thermal motor utilizing two tapered prestressed parallel adjacent cylinders lengthwise disposed about one third in a coolant. Heat is applied to contacting portions of the cylinders outside the coolant to cause them to deform and turn. Heat sources such as industrial waste heat, geothermal hot water, solar radiation, etc. can be used.

  10. The link in Linking

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Jane C; Chiale, Pablo A; Gonzalez, Mario D; Baranchuk, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    We present 2 cases of the slow-fast form of AVNRT with initially narrow QRS complexes followed by sudden unexpected transition to persistently wide QRS complexes due to aberrant intraventricular conduction. Introduction of a properly timed extrastimulus in one case and critical oscillations in cycle length due to short-long coupling in the second case set the stage for the initial bundle branch block. However, persistence of the aberrancy pattern once the initial event abated was maintained by the "linking" phenomenon. Delayed, retrograde concealed activation from the contralateral bundle branch perpetuated the initial bundle branch block. PMID:23840106

  11. The link in Linking.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Jane C; Chiale, Pablo A; Gonzalez, Mario D; Baranchuk, Adrian

    2013-05-01

    We present 2 cases of the slow-fast form of AVNRT with initially narrow QRS complexes followed by sudden unexpected transition to persistently wide QRS complexes due to aberrant intraventricular conduction. Introduction of a properly timed extrastimulus in one case and critical oscillations in cycle length due to short-long coupling in the second case set the stage for the initial bundle branch block. However, persistence of the aberrancy pattern once the initial event abated was maintained by the "linking" phenomenon. Delayed, retrograde concealed activation from the contralateral bundle branch perpetuated the initial bundle branch block.

  12. The Development of Oral Motor Control and Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcock, Katie

    2006-01-01

    Motor control has long been associated with language skill, in deficits, both acquired and developmental, and in typical development. Most evidence comes from limb praxis however; the link between oral motor control and speech and language has been neglected, despite the fact that most language users talk with their mouths. Oral motor control is…

  13. Composite Ceramic Superconducting Wires for Electric Motor Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-10

    on several approaches to overcome weak link behavio. by melt texturing. Design was completed for the first generation HTSC motor , a drum DC homopolar ...29 3.2 Homopolar Motor ....................................................... 29 3.3 Testing...35 3.3.3 Homopolar Tests............................................. 35 3.4 Other Motors

  14. 10 CFR 431.383 - Enforcement process for electric motors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Enforcement process for electric motors. 431.383 Section... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Enforcement for Electric Motors § 431.383 Enforcement process for electric motors. Link to an amendment published at 78 FR 75995, Dec. 13, 2013. (a) Test notice. Upon...

  15. Motor Proficiency Predicts Cognitive Ability in Four-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Amanda Martinez; Caçola, Priscila

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown links between motor proficiency and cognition in school-age children, however, few have explored earlier ages. We aimed to determine the association between motor proficiency and cognitive ability in four-year-olds. Motor and cognitive skills were examined in 32 (15 males, 17 females) four-year-olds (±5.59 months) using the…

  16. Motor Proficiency Predicts Cognitive Ability in Four-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Amanda Martinez; Caçola, Priscila

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown links between motor proficiency and cognition in school-age children, however, few have explored earlier ages. We aimed to determine the association between motor proficiency and cognitive ability in four-year-olds. Motor and cognitive skills were examined in 32 (15 males, 17 females) four-year-olds (±5.59 months) using the…

  17. The Development of Oral Motor Control and Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcock, Katie

    2006-01-01

    Motor control has long been associated with language skill, in deficits, both acquired and developmental, and in typical development. Most evidence comes from limb praxis however; the link between oral motor control and speech and language has been neglected, despite the fact that most language users talk with their mouths. Oral motor control is…

  18. Disruption of neurofilament network with aggregation of light neurofilament protein: a common pathway leading to motor neuron degeneration due to Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease-linked mutations in NFL and HSPB1.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Jinbin; Lin, Hong; Julien, Jean-Pierre; Schlaepfer, William W

    2007-12-15

    Mutations in neurofilament light (NFL) subunit and small heat-shock protein B1 (HSPB1) cause autosomal-dominant axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2E (CMT2E) and type 2F (CMT2F). Previous studies have shown that CMT mutations in NFL and HSPB1 disrupt NF assembly and cause aggregation of NFL protein. In this study, we investigate the role of aggregation of NFL protein in the neurotoxicity of CMT mutant NFL and CMT mutant HSPB1 in motor neurons. We find that expression of CMT mutant NFL leads to progressive degeneration and loss of neuronal viability of cultured motor neurons. Degenerating motor neurons show fragmentation and loss of neuritic processes associated with disruption of NF network and aggregation of NFL protein. Co-expression of wild-type HSPB1 diminishes aggregation of CMT mutant NFL, induces reversal of CMT mutant NFL aggregates and reduces CMT mutant NFL-induced loss of motor neuron viability. Like CMT mutant NFL, expression of S135F CMT mutant HSPB1 also leads to progressive degeneration of motor neurons with disruption of NF network and aggregation of NFL protein. Further studies show that wild-type and S135F mutant HSPB1 associate with wild-type and CMT mutant NFL and that S135F mutant HSPB1 has dominant effect on disruption of NF assembly and aggregation of NFL protein. Finally, we show that deletion of NFL markedly reduces degeneration and loss of motor neuron viability induced by S135F mutant HSPB1. Together, our data support the view that disruption of NF network with aggregation of NFL is a common triggering event of motor neuron degeneration in CMT2E and CMT2F disease.

  19. Modeling an electric motor in 1-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Thomas G.

    1991-01-01

    Quite often the dynamicist will be faced with having an electric drive motor as a link in the elastic path of a structure such that the motor's characteristics must be taken into account to properly represent the dynamics of the primary structure. He does not want to model it so accurately that he could get detailed stress and displacements in the motor proper, but just sufficiently to represent its inertia loading and elastic behavior from its mounting bolts to its drive coupling. Described here is how the rotor and stator of such a motor can be adequately modeled as a colinear pair of beams.

  20. Motor actuated vacuum door

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanagud, A. V.

    1986-10-01

    Doors that allow scientific instruments to record and retrieve the observed data are often required to be designed and installed as a part of sounding rocket hardware. The motor-actuated vacuum door was designed to maintain a medium vacuum of the order of 0.0001 torr or better while closed, and to provide an opening 15 inches long x 8.5 inches wide while open for cameras to image Halley's comet. When the electric motor receives the instruction to open the door through the payload battery, timer, and relay circuit, the first operation is to unlock the door. After unlatching, the torque transmitted by the motor to the main shaft through the links opens the door. A microswitch actuator, which rides on the linear motion conversion mechanism, is adjusted to trip the limit switch at the end of the travel. The process is repeated in the reverse order to close the door. 'O' rings are designed to maintain the seal. Door mechanisms similar to the one described have flown on Aerobee 17.018 and Black Brant 27.047 payloads.

  1. Chemistry in motion: tiny synthetic motors.

    PubMed

    Colberg, Peter H; Reigh, Shang Yik; Robertson, Bryan; Kapral, Raymond

    2014-12-16

    of the dynamics of chemically powered motors are illustrated by presenting the results of particle-based simulations of sphere-dimer motors constructed from linked catalytic and noncatalytic spheres. The geometries of both Janus and sphere-dimer motors with asymmetric catalytic activity support the formation of concentration gradients around the motors. Because directed motion can occur only when the system is not in equilibrium, the nature of the environment and the role it plays in motor dynamics are described. Rotational Brownian motion also acts to limit directed motion, and it has especially strong effects for very small motors. We address the following question: how small can motors be and still exhibit effects due to propulsion, even if only to enhance diffusion? Synthetic motors have the potential to transform the manner in which chemical dynamical processes are carried out for a wide range of applications.

  2. Sensory change following motor learning.

    PubMed

    Mattar, Andrew A G; Nasir, Sazzad M; Darainy, Mohammad; Ostry, David J

    2011-01-01

    Here we describe two studies linking perceptual change with motor learning. In the first, we document persistent changes in somatosensory perception that occur following force field learning. Subjects learned to control a robotic device that applied forces to the hand during arm movements. This led to a change in the sensed position of the limb that lasted at least 24 h. Control experiments revealed that the sensory change depended on motor learning. In the second study, we describe changes in the perception of speech sounds that occur following speech motor learning. Subjects adapted control of speech movements to compensate for loads applied to the jaw by a robot. Perception of speech sounds was measured before and after motor learning. Adapted subjects showed a consistent shift in perception. In contrast, no consistent shift was seen in control subjects and subjects that did not adapt to the load. These studies suggest that motor learning changes both sensory and motor function. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Link direction for link prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Ke-ke; Small, Michael; Yan, Wei-sheng

    2017-03-01

    Almost all previous studies on link prediction have focused on using the properties of the network to predict the existence of links between pairs of nodes. Unfortunately, previous methods rarely consider the role of link direction for link prediction. In fact, many real-world complex networks are directed and ignoring the link direction will mean overlooking important information. In this study, we propose a phase-dynamic algorithm of the directed network nodes to analyse the role of link directions and demonstrate that the bi-directional links and the one-directional links have different roles in link prediction and network structure formation. From this, we propose new directional prediction methods and use six real networks to test our algorithms. In real networks, we find that compared to a pair of nodes which are connected by a one-directional link, a pair of nodes which are connected by a bi-directional link always have higher probabilities to connect to the common neighbours with only bi-directional links (or conversely by one-directional links). We suggest that, in the real networks, the bi-directional links will generally be more informative for link prediction and network structure formation. In addition, we propose a new directional randomized algorithm to demonstrate that the direction of the links plays a significant role in link prediction and network structure formation.

  4. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Motor Impairment.

    PubMed

    Goulardins, Juliana B; Marques, Juliana C B; De Oliveira, Jorge A

    2017-04-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurobehavioral disorder during childhood, affecting approximately 3-6% of school-aged children; its cardinal symptoms of high activity, impulsivity, and behavioral distractibility might be assumed to have close relationships to interferences with motor skills. A separate body of literature attests to ways that motor problems can severely impact children's daily lives, as motor problems may occur in 30-50% of children with ADHD. This article critically reviews research on motor impairment in children with ADHD, notable differences in motor performance of individuals with ADHD compared with age-matched controls, and possible neural underpinnings of this impairment. We discuss the highly prevalent link between ADHD and developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and the lack of a clear research consensus about motor difficulties in ADHD. Despite increasing evidence and diagnostic classifications that define DCD by motor impairment, the role of ADHD symptoms in DCD has not been delineated. Similarly, while ADHD may predispose children to motor problems, it is unclear whether any such motor difficulties observed in this population are inherent to ADHD or are mediated by comorbid DCD. Future research should address the exact nature and long-term consequences of motor impairment in children with ADHD and elucidate effective treatment strategies for these disorders together and apart.

  5. 49 CFR 385.303 - How does a motor carrier register with the FMCSA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How does a motor carrier register with the FMCSA... register with the FMCSA? Link to an amendment published at 78 FR 52649, Aug. 23, 2013. A motor carrier may... motor carrier register with the FMCSA? A motor carrier registers with FMCSA by completing Form...

  6. The glycine binding site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR1: identification of novel determinants of co-agonist potentiation in the extracellular M3-M4 loop region.

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, H; Kirsch, J; Laube, B; Betz, H; Kuhse, J

    1996-01-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptors is a heterooligomeric membrane protein composed of homologous subunits. Here, the contribution of the M3-M4 loop of the NR1 subunit to the binding of glutamate and the co-agonist glycine was investigated by site-directed mutagenesis. Substitution of the phenylalanine residues at positions 735 or 736 of the M3-M4 loop produced a 15- to 30-fold reduction in apparent glycine affinity without affecting the binding of glutamate and the competitive glycine antagonist 7-chlorokynurenic acid; mutation of both residues caused a >100-fold decrease in glycine affinity. These residues are found in a C-terminal region of the M3-M4 loop that shows significant sequence similarity to bacterial amino acid-binding proteins. Epitope tagging revealed both the N-terminus and the M3-M4 loop to be exposed extracellularly, whereas a C-terminal epitope was localized intracellularly. These results indicate that the M3-M4 loop is part of the ligand-binding pocket of the NR1 subunit and provide the basis for a refined model of the glycine-binding site of the NMDA receptor. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8650214

  7. Apraxia and Motor Dysfunction in Corticobasal Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Burrell, James R.; Hornberger, Michael; Vucic, Steve; Kiernan, Matthew C.; Hodges, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Corticobasal syndrome (CBS) is characterized by multifaceted motor system dysfunction and cognitive disturbance; distinctive clinical features include limb apraxia and visuospatial dysfunction. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used to study motor system dysfunction in CBS, but the relationship of TMS parameters to clinical features has not been studied. The present study explored several hypotheses; firstly, that limb apraxia may be partly due to visuospatial impairment in CBS. Secondly, that motor system dysfunction can be demonstrated in CBS, using threshold-tracking TMS, and is linked to limb apraxia. Finally, that atrophy of the primary motor cortex, studied using voxel-based morphometry analysis (VBM), is associated with motor system dysfunction and limb apraxia in CBS. Methods Imitation of meaningful and meaningless hand gestures was graded to assess limb apraxia, while cognitive performance was assessed using the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination – Revised (ACE-R), with particular emphasis placed on the visuospatial subtask. Patients underwent TMS, to assess cortical function, and VBM. Results In total, 17 patients with CBS (7 male, 10 female; mean age 64.4+/− 6.6 years) were studied and compared to 17 matched control subjects. Of the CBS patients, 23.5% had a relatively inexcitable motor cortex, with evidence of cortical dysfunction in the remaining 76.5% patients. Reduced resting motor threshold, and visuospatial performance, correlated with limb apraxia. Patients with a resting motor threshold <50% performed significantly worse on the visuospatial sub-task of the ACE-R than other CBS patients. Cortical function correlated with atrophy of the primary and pre-motor cortices, and the thalamus, while apraxia correlated with atrophy of the pre-motor and parietal cortices. Conclusions Cortical dysfunction appears to underlie the core clinical features of CBS, and is associated with atrophy of the primary motor and pre-motor

  8. Apraxia and motor dysfunction in corticobasal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Burrell, James R; Hornberger, Michael; Vucic, Steve; Kiernan, Matthew C; Hodges, John R

    2014-01-01

    Corticobasal syndrome (CBS) is characterized by multifaceted motor system dysfunction and cognitive disturbance; distinctive clinical features include limb apraxia and visuospatial dysfunction. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used to study motor system dysfunction in CBS, but the relationship of TMS parameters to clinical features has not been studied. The present study explored several hypotheses; firstly, that limb apraxia may be partly due to visuospatial impairment in CBS. Secondly, that motor system dysfunction can be demonstrated in CBS, using threshold-tracking TMS, and is linked to limb apraxia. Finally, that atrophy of the primary motor cortex, studied using voxel-based morphometry analysis (VBM), is associated with motor system dysfunction and limb apraxia in CBS. Imitation of meaningful and meaningless hand gestures was graded to assess limb apraxia, while cognitive performance was assessed using the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination - Revised (ACE-R), with particular emphasis placed on the visuospatial subtask. Patients underwent TMS, to assess cortical function, and VBM. In total, 17 patients with CBS (7 male, 10 female; mean age 64.4+/- 6.6 years) were studied and compared to 17 matched control subjects. Of the CBS patients, 23.5% had a relatively inexcitable motor cortex, with evidence of cortical dysfunction in the remaining 76.5% patients. Reduced resting motor threshold, and visuospatial performance, correlated with limb apraxia. Patients with a resting motor threshold <50% performed significantly worse on the visuospatial sub-task of the ACE-R than other CBS patients. Cortical function correlated with atrophy of the primary and pre-motor cortices, and the thalamus, while apraxia correlated with atrophy of the pre-motor and parietal cortices. Cortical dysfunction appears to underlie the core clinical features of CBS, and is associated with atrophy of the primary motor and pre-motor cortices, as well as the thalamus, while

  9. Forging Links.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewig, John Warren

    Blacksmiths and their craft have changed with the times, and as times change for teachers, they too should be forgers of links. Teacher-to-teacher links should extend beyond the faculty lounge to support systems and active groups of individuals concerned about each other. Another personal link can be made by developing a grade level, system-wide…

  10. Starting motor

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, T.; Hamano, I

    1989-05-23

    This patent describes a starting motor having a housing, planetary reduction gears including an internal gear in the housing. The improvement consists of an elastic member having a first annular portion mounted in engagement with a fixed annular member of the housing and a plurality of protruding axially extending elastic portions providing a corrugated surface pressed into engagement with an end portion of the internal gear, the elastic member being sandwiched between the internal gear and the housing member, the protruding axially extending elastic portions providing resilient means which flex and incline circumferentially under turning force from the internal gear and exert reactive thrust on the internal gear elastically so that the frictional force at the abutting surfaces of the protruding portions holds the internal gear in resilient engagement with the elastic member and the resilient means acts as a buffer to absorb rotary impact force developing in the planetary reduction gears.

  11. Gross motor control

    MedlinePlus

    Gross motor control is the ability to make large, general movements (such as waving an arm or lifting a ... Gross motor control is a milestone in the development of an infant. Infants develop gross motor control before they ...

  12. Motor control for a brushless DC motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, William J. (Inventor); Faulkner, Dennis T. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to a motor control system for a brushless DC motor having an inverter responsively coupled to the motor control system and in power transmitting relationship to the motor. The motor control system includes a motor rotor speed detecting unit that provides a pulsed waveform signal proportional to rotor speed. This pulsed waveform signal is delivered to the inverter to thereby cause an inverter fundamental current waveform output to the motor to be switched at a rate proportional to said rotor speed. In addition, the fundamental current waveform is also pulse width modulated at a rate proportional to the rotor speed. A fundamental current waveform phase advance circuit is controllingly coupled to the inverter. The phase advance circuit is coupled to receive the pulsed waveform signal from the motor rotor speed detecting unit and phase advance the pulsed waveform signal as a predetermined function of motor speed to thereby cause the fundamental current waveform to be advanced and thereby compensate for fundamental current waveform lag due to motor winding reactance which allows the motor to operate at higher speeds than the motor is rated while providing optimal torque and therefore increased efficiency.

  13. Na+-driven bacterial flagellar motors.

    PubMed

    Imae, Y; Atsumi, T

    1989-12-01

    Bacterial flagellar motors are the reversible rotary engine which propels the cell by rotating a helical flagellar filament as a screw propeller. The motors are embedded in the cytoplasmic membrane, and the energy for rotation is supplied by the electrochemical potential of specific ions across the membrane. Thus, the analysis of motor rotation at the molecular level is linked to an understanding of how the living system converts chemical energy into mechanical work. Based on the coupling ions, the motors are divided into two types; one is the H+-driven type found in neutrophiles such as Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli and the other is the Na+-driven type found in alkalophilic Bacillus and marine Vibrio. In this review, we summarize the current status of research on the rotation mechanism of the Na+-driven flagellar motors, which introduces several new aspects in the analysis.

  14. Corticospinal circuit plasticity in motor rehabilitation from spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Serradj, Najet; Agger, Sydney F; Hollis, Edmund R

    2016-12-06

    Restoring corticospinal function after spinal cord injury is a significant challenge as the corticospinal tract elicits no substantive, spontaneous regeneration, and its interruption leaves a permanent deficit. The corticospinal circuit serves multiple motor and sensory functions within the mammalian nervous system as the direct link between isocortex and spinal cord. Maturation of the corticospinal circuit involves the refinement of projections within the spinal cord and a subsequent refinement of motor maps within the cortex. The plasticity of these cortical motor maps mirrors the acquisition of skilled motor learning, and both the maps and motor skills are disrupted following injury to the corticospinal tract. The motor cortex exhibits the capacity to incorporate changes in corticospinal projections induced by both spontaneous and therapeutic-mediated plasticity of corticospinal axons through appropriate rehabilitation. An understanding of the mechanisms of corticospinal plasticity in motor learning will undoubtedly help inform strategies to improve motor rehabilitation after spinal cord injury.

  15. Motor unit recruitment by size does not provide functional advantages for motor performance

    PubMed Central

    Dideriksen, Jakob L; Farina, Dario

    2013-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that the orderly recruitment of motor units by size provides a functional advantage for the performance of movements compared with a random recruitment order. On the other hand, the excitability of a motor neuron depends on its size and this is intrinsically linked to its innervation number. A range of innervation numbers among motor neurons corresponds to a range of sizes and thus to a range of excitabilities ordered by size. Therefore, if the excitation drive is similar among motor neurons, the recruitment by size is inevitably due to the intrinsic properties of motor neurons and may not have arisen to meet functional demands. In this view, we tested the assumption that orderly recruitment is necessarily beneficial by determining if this type of recruitment produces optimal motor output. Using evolutionary algorithms and without any a priori assumptions, the parameters of neuromuscular models were optimized with respect to several criteria for motor performance. Interestingly, the optimized model parameters matched well known neuromuscular properties, but none of the optimization criteria determined a consistent recruitment order by size unless this was imposed by an association between motor neuron size and excitability. Further, when the association between size and excitability was imposed, the resultant model of recruitment did not improve the motor performance with respect to the absence of orderly recruitment. A consistent observation was that optimal solutions for a variety of criteria of motor performance always required a broad range of innervation numbers in the population of motor neurons, skewed towards the small values. These results indicate that orderly recruitment of motor units in itself does not provide substantial functional advantages for motor control. Rather, the reason for its near-universal presence in human movements is that motor functions are optimized by a broad range of innervation numbers. PMID:24144879

  16. Motor vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Furukawa, Y.; Sano, S.

    1986-04-15

    An improvement in a motor vehicle is described including: a vehicle body; a front road wheel disposed in the front part of the vehicle body; a rear road wheel disposed in the rear part of the vehicle body; an engine for driving at least either of the front and rear road wheels; and a steering wheel for steering at least either of the front and rear road wheels; comprising: detection means connected to the vehicle for detecting the transverse sliding angle of the vehicle body; and display means connected to the detection means for visually displaying the moving direction of the vehicle body on the basis of an output of the detection means; and the detection means comprises a first sensor for detecting the advancing speed of the vehicle, a second sensor for detecting the transverse acceleration of the vehicle, a third sensor for detecting the yawing velocity of the vehicle, and a processor for calculating the transverse sliding angle on the basis of the advancing speed, the transverse acceleration and the yawing velocity.

  17. Wind motor

    SciTech Connect

    Biscomb, L. I.

    1985-07-09

    A spider-like carrier having at least three generally horizontal arms has a hub mounted to the vertical, rotary-axis input shaft of a load. Each arm has at least one horizontal cross-arm secured to it near its radially outer end, which is supported from the ground by a low-friction support device such as a wheel or set of wheels. Mounted on each arm at the cross-arm or cross-arms is at least one sail, vane, airfoil or similar working member which is erected or spread generally normally to the wind when the respective arm is located for the working member to be blown downwind and is feathered or headed to the wind when the respective arm is located for the working member to be driven upwind. Horizontal axis and vertical axis journalling options for the working members and various sail shapes are shown, including a concave/convex sail and motor-oriented airfoil shape which provides lift when being driven upwind are shown.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of tritium labeled N-((R)-1-((S)-4-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-hydroxy-3,3-dimethylpiperidin-1-yl)-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-3-sulfamoylbenzamide.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yang; Hynes, John; Tian, Yuan; Balasubramanian, Balu; Bonacorsi, Samuel

    2015-08-01

    N-((R)-1-((S)-4-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-hydroxy-3,3-dimethylpiperidin-1-yl)-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-3-sulfamoylbenzamide is a potent C-C chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1) antagonist. The compound, possessing benzamide functionality, successfully underwent tritium/hydrogen (T/H) exchange with an organoiridium catalyst (Crabtree's catalyst). The labeling pattern in the product was studied with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and (3) H-NMR. Overall, multiple labeled species were identified. In addition to the anticipated incorporation of tritium in the benzamide moiety, tritium labeling was observed in the valine portion of the molecule including substitution at its chiral carbon. Using authentic standards, liquid chromatography analysis of the labeled compound showed complete retention of stereochemical configuration.

  19. Effect of polymorphisms in CYP3A4, PPARA, NR1I2, NFKB1, ABCG2 and SLCO1B1 on the pharmacokinetics of lovastatin in healthy Chinese volunteers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guilian; Liu, Mei; Wu, Xiujun; Li, Guofei; Qiu, Feng; Gu, Jingkai; Zhao, Limei

    2017-01-01

    This study examined whether gene polymorphisms (CYP3A4, ABCG2, SLCO1B1, NR1I2, PPARA and NFKB1) influenced the pharmacokinetics of lovastatin in Chinese healthy subjects. Plasma concentrations of lovastatin and lovastatin acid were quantified using LC/MS/MS. PPARA c.208+3819 G allele carriers had approximately twofold higher AUC0-∞ and Cmax of lovastatin than wild-type (PPARA c.208+3819 AA) subjects. After adjustment for the PPARA variants, subjects with the SLCO1B1 521TT genotype had approximately 50% lower AUC0-∞ of lovastatin acid than those with 521TC/CC genotypes, while the AUC0-∞ of lovastatin lactone in NFKB1-94 DD wild-type carriers was twofold higher than in mutant homozygotes carriers. Gene polymorphisms of PPARA, SLCO1B1 and NFKB1 affected the pharmacokinetics of lovastatin.

  20. Motor neuropathies and lower motor neuron syndromes.

    PubMed

    Verschueren, A

    2017-05-01

    Motor or motor-predominant neuropathies may arise from disease processes affecting the motor axon and/or its surrounding myelin. Lower motor neuron syndrome (LMNS) arises from a disease process affecting the spinal motor neuron itself. The term LMNS is more generally used, rather than motor neuronopathy, although both entities are clinically similar. Common features are muscle weakness (distal or proximal) with atrophy and hyporeflexia, but no sensory involvement. They can be acquired or hereditary. Immune-mediated neuropathies (multifocal motor neuropathy, motor-predominant chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy) are important to identify, as effective treatments are available. Other acquired neuropathies, such as infectious, paraneoplastic and radiation-induced neuropathies are also well known. Focal LMNS is an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-mimicking syndrome especially affecting young adults. The main hereditary LMNSs in adulthood are Kennedy's disease, late-onset spinal muscular atrophy and distal hereditary motor neuropathies. Motor neuropathies and LMNS are all clinical entities that should be better known, despite being rare diseases. They can sometimes be difficult to differentially diagnose from other diseases, particularly from the more frequent ALS in its pure LMN form. Nevertheless, correct identification of these syndromes is important because their treatment and prognoses are definitely different. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Eye movements may cause motor contagion effects.

    PubMed

    Constable, Merryn D; de Grosbois, John; Lung, Tiffany; Tremblay, Luc; Pratt, Jay; Welsh, Timothy N

    2016-10-26

    When a person executes a movement, the movement is more errorful while observing another person's actions that are incongruent rather than congruent with the executed action. This effect is known as "motor contagion". Accounts of this effect are often grounded in simulation mechanisms: increased movement error emerges because the motor codes associated with observed actions compete with motor codes of the goal action. It is also possible, however, that the increased movement error is linked to eye movements that are executed simultaneously with the hand movement because oculomotor and manual-motor systems are highly interconnected. In the present study, participants performed a motor contagion task in which they executed horizontal arm movements while observing a model making either vertical (incongruent) or horizontal (congruent) movements under three conditions: no instruction, maintain central fixation, or track the model's hand with the eyes. A significant motor contagion-like effect was only found in the 'track' condition. Thus, 'motor contagion' in the present task may be an artifact of simultaneously executed incongruent eye movements. These data are discussed in the context of stimulation and associative learning theories, and raise eye movements as a critical methodological consideration for future work on motor contagion.

  2. Antibody-mediated targeted gene transfer to NMDA NR1-containing neurons in rat neocortex by helper virus-free HSV-1 vector particles containing a chimeric HSV-1 glycoprotein C-staphylococcus A protein.

    PubMed

    Cao, Haiyan; Zhang, Guo-Rong; Geller, Alfred I

    2010-09-10

    Because of the heterogeneous cellular composition of the brain, and especially the forebrain, cell type-specific expression will benefit many potential applications of direct gene transfer. The two prevalent approaches for achieving cell type-specific expression are using a cell type-specific promoter or targeting gene transfer to a specific cell type. Targeted gene transfer with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-1) vectors modifies glycoprotein C (gC) to replace the heparin binding domain, which binds to many cell types, with a binding activity for a specific cell surface protein. We previously reported targeted gene transfer to nigrostriatal neurons using chimeric gC-glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor or gC-brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein. Unfortunately, this approach is limited to cells that express the cognate receptor for either neurotrophic factor. Thus, a general strategy for targeting gene transfer to many different types of neurons is desirable. Antibody-mediated targeted gene transfer has been developed for targeting specific virus vectors to specific peripheral cell types; a specific vector particle protein is modified to contain the Staphylococcus A protein ZZ domain, which binds immunoglobulin (Ig) G. Here, we report antibody-mediated targeted gene transfer of HSV-1 vectors to a specific type of forebrain neuron. We constructed a chimeric gC-ZZ protein, and showed this protein is incorporated into vector particles and binds Ig G. Complexes of these vector particles and an antibody to the NMDA receptor NR1 subunit supported targeted gene transfer to NR1-containing neocortical neurons in the rat brain, with long-term (2 months) expression.

  3. Resources and Fact Sheets on Servicing Motor Vehicle Air Conditioners (Summary Page)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Page provides links to resources that can assist motor vehicle air-conditioning system technicians in understanding system servicing requirements and best practices, and learn about alternative refrigerants.

  4. Cloning of SmNCoA-62, a novel nuclear receptor co-activator from Schistosoma mansoni: assembly of a complex with a SmRXR1/SmNR1 heterodimer, SmGCN5 and SmCBP1.

    PubMed

    Fantappié, Marcelo Rosado; Bastos de Oliveira, Francisco Meirelles; de Moraes Maciel, Renata; Rumjanek, Franklin David; Wu, Wenjie; Loverde, Philip T

    2008-08-01

    The Schistosoma mansoni nuclear receptors (NR) SmRXR1 and SmNR1 have recently been shown to form a heterodimer and to bind to canonic hormone response DNA elements. Recruitment of co-regulatory proteins to NRs is required for their transcriptional and biological activities. Here, we cloned a novel S. mansoni NR co-activator, SmNCoA-62. SmNCoA-62 is highly homologous to the human Vitamin D receptor co-activator NCoA62/SKIP. SmNCoA-62 contains the SNW nuclear receptor interaction domain and a putative C-terminus transactivation domain. By using in vitro pull-down assays, we fully mapped the interaction domains of S. mansoni NR co-activators, SmNCoA-62, SmGCN5 and SmCBP1 with SmRXR1 and SmNR1, as well as the domains that mediate interactions amongst the co-activators themselves. By mutagenesis analysis, we showed that SmCBP1 LxxLL motif 2 and LxxLL motif 3, but not LxxLL motif 1, were essential to mediate the interactions of SmCBP1 with the EF domains of SmRXR1 and SmNR1. Histone acetyltransferases SmGCN5 and SmCBP1 specifically acetylated the C/D domains of SmRXR1 and SmNR1. In addition, two acetylation sites of SmNR1 were identified. SmGCN5 and SmCBP1 also acetylated SmNCoA-62 but with significant differences in their acetylation activities. Using gel shift analysis, we were able to demonstrate, in vitro, the assembly of the co-activators on the SmRXR1/SmNR1 heterodimer bound to DNA. LxxLL motifs 2 and 3 of SmCBP1 seemed to play a crucial role for the assembly of the co-activators to the DNA-bound SmRXR1/SmNR1 heterodimer.

  5. Community Links

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Mary

    1975-01-01

    At Moraine Valley Community College (Illinois), a chain of events, programs, activities, and services has linked the college and community in such areas as fine arts, ethnic groups, public services, community action, community service, and community education. (Author/NHM)

  6. Link Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donoho, Steve

    Link analysis is a collection of techniques that operate on data that can be represented as nodes and links. This chapter surveys a variety of techniques including subgraph matching, finding cliques and K-plexes, maximizing spread of influence, visualization, finding hubs and authorities, and combining with traditional techniques (classification, clustering, etc). It also surveys applications including social network analysis, viral marketing, Internet search, fraud detection, and crime prevention.

  7. The influence of direct motor-motor interaction in models for cargo transport by a single team of motors.

    PubMed

    Bouzat, Sebastián; Falo, Fernando

    2010-11-22

    We analyze theoretically the effects of excluded-volume interactions between motors on the dynamics of a cargo driven by multiple motors. The model considered shares much in common with others recently proposed in the literature, with the addition of direct interaction between motors and motor back steps. The cargo is assumed to follow a continuum Langevin dynamics, while individual motors evolve following a Monte Carlo algorithm based on experimentally accessible probabilities for discrete forward and backward jumps, and attachment and detachment rates. The links between cargo and motors are considered as nonlinear springs. By means of numerical simulations we compute the relevant quantities characterizing the dynamical properties of the system, and we compare the results to those for noninteracting motors. We find that interactions lead to quite relevant changes in the force-velocity relation for cargo, with a considerable reduction of the stall force, and also cause a notable decrease of the run length. These effects are mainly due to traffic-like phenomena in the microtubule. The consideration of several parallel tracks for motors reduces such effects. However, we find that for realistic values of the number of motors and the number of tracks, the influence of interactions on the global parameters of transport of cargo are far from being negligible. Our studies also provide an analysis of the relevance of motor back steps on the modeling, and of the influence of different assumptions for the detachment rates. In particular, we discuss these two aspects in connection with the possibility of observing processive back motion of cargo at large load forces.

  8. Directed flux motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A directed flux motor described utilizes the directed magnetic flux of at least one magnet through ferrous material to drive different planetary gear sets to achieve capabilities in six actuated shafts that are grouped three to a side of the motor. The flux motor also utilizes an interwoven magnet configuration which reduces the overall size of the motor. The motor allows for simple changes to modify the torque to speed ratio of the gearing contained within the motor as well as simple configurations for any number of output shafts up to six. The changes allow for improved manufacturability and reliability within the design.

  9. Directed flux motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A directed flux motor described utilizes the directed magnetic flux of at least one magnet through ferrous material to drive different planetary gear sets to achieve capabilities in six actuated shafts that are grouped three to a side of the motor. The flux motor also utilizes an interwoven magnet configuration which reduces the overall size of the motor. The motor allows for simple changes to modify the torque to speed ratio of the gearing contained within the motor as well as simple configurations for any number of output shafts up to six. The changes allow for improved manufacturability and reliability within the design.

  10. Relations between Playing Activities and Fine Motor Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suggate, Sebastian; Stoeger, Heidrun; Pufke, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Children's fine motor skills (FMS) are being increasingly recognized as an important aspect of preschool development; yet, we know very little about the experiences that foster their development. We utilized a parent-administered children's fine and gross motor activities questionnaire (MAQ) to investigate links with FMS. We recruited a sample of…

  11. Simple motor drive system operates heavy hinged door

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitkin, R. G.

    1966-01-01

    Motor drive system remotely operates heavy steel radiation shielding doors. The drive consists of a standard motor reducer unit which is mounted on the door. This reducer drives a sprocket which is linked by chain to a fixed sprocket of the same size on the door jamb.

  12. Molecular motors: thermodynamics and the random walk.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, N.; Imafuku, Y.; Tawada, K.

    2001-01-01

    The biochemical cycle of a molecular motor provides the essential link between its thermodynamics and kinetics. The thermodynamics of the cycle determine the motor's ability to perform mechanical work, whilst the kinetics of the cycle govern its stochastic behaviour. We concentrate here on tightly coupled, processive molecular motors, such as kinesin and myosin V, which hydrolyse one molecule of ATP per forward step. Thermodynamics require that, when such a motor pulls against a constant load f, the ratio of the forward and backward products of the rate constants for its cycle is exp [-(DeltaG + u(0)f)/kT], where -DeltaG is the free energy available from ATP hydrolysis and u(0) is the motor's step size. A hypothetical one-state motor can therefore act as a chemically driven ratchet executing a biased random walk. Treating this random walk as a diffusion problem, we calculate the forward velocity v and the diffusion coefficient D and we find that its randomness parameter r is determined solely by thermodynamics. However, real molecular motors pass through several states at each attachment site. They satisfy a modified diffusion equation that follows directly from the rate equations for the biochemical cycle and their effective diffusion coefficient is reduced to D-v(2)tau, where tau is the time-constant for the motor to reach the steady state. Hence, the randomness of multistate motors is reduced compared with the one-state case and can be used for determining tau. Our analysis therefore demonstrates the intimate relationship between the biochemical cycle, the force-velocity relation and the random motion of molecular motors. PMID:11600075

  13. Teamwork in microtubule motors.

    PubMed

    Mallik, Roop; Rai, Arpan K; Barak, Pradeep; Rai, Ashim; Kunwar, Ambarish

    2013-11-01

    Diverse cellular processes are driven by the collective force from multiple motor proteins. Disease-causing mutations cause aberrant function of motors, but the impact is observed at a cellular level and beyond, therefore necessitating an understanding of cell mechanics at the level of motor molecules. One way to do this is by measuring the force generated by ensembles of motors in vivo at single-motor resolution. This has been possible for microtubule motor teams that transport intracellular organelles, revealing unexpected differences between collective and single-molecule function. Here we review how the biophysical properties of single motors, and differences therein, may translate into collective motor function during organelle transport and perhaps in other processes outside transport. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Chronic motor tic disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic vocal tic disorder; Tic - chronic motor tic disorder ... Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start ...

  15. Energy efficient motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-01-01

    This TechData Sheet is intended to help activity personnel identify cost effective energy projects for energy efficient motors. With this guide an energy manager can identify when an energy efficient induction motor should be used.

  16. Piezoelectric ultrasonic motors

    SciTech Connect

    Wallaschek, J.

    1994-12-31

    Piezoelectric ultrasonic motors are a new type of actuator. They are characterized by high torque at low rotational speed, simple mechanical design and good controllability. They also provide a high holding torque even if no power is applied. Compared to electromagnetic actuators the torque per volume ratio of piezoelectric ultrasonic motors can be higher by an order of magnitude. Recently various types of piezoelectric ultrasonic motors have been developed for industrial applications. This paper describes several types of piezoelectric ultrasonic motors.

  17. Smart motor technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, D.; Schmitt, D.

    1984-01-01

    Current spacecraft design relies upon microprocessor control; however, motors usually require extensive additional electronic circuitry to interface with these microprocessor controls. An improved control technique that allows a smart brushless motor to connect directly to a microprocessor control system is described. An actuator with smart motors receives a spacecraft command directly and responds in a closed loop control mode. In fact, two or more smart motors can be controlled for synchronous operation.

  18. Motor patterns during active electrosensory acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Volker; Geurten, Bart R. H.; Sanguinetti-Scheck, Juan I.; Gómez-Sena, Leonel; Engelmann, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Motor patterns displayed during active electrosensory acquisition of information seem to be an essential part of a sensory strategy by which weakly electric fish actively generate and shape sensory flow. These active sensing strategies are expected to adaptively optimize ongoing behavior with respect to either motor efficiency or sensory information gained. The tight link between the motor domain and sensory perception in active electrolocation make weakly electric fish like Gnathonemus petersii an ideal system for studying sensory-motor interactions in the form of active sensing strategies. Analyzing the movements and electric signals of solitary fish during unrestrained exploration of objects in the dark, we here present the first formal quantification of motor patterns used by fish during electrolocation. Based on a cluster analysis of the kinematic values we categorized the basic units of motion. These were then analyzed for their associative grouping to identify and extract short coherent chains of behavior. This enabled the description of sensory behavior on different levels of complexity: from single movements, over short behaviors to more complex behavioral sequences during which the kinematics alter between different behaviors. We present detailed data for three classified patterns and provide evidence that these can be considered as motor components of active sensing strategies. In accordance with the idea of active sensing strategies, we found categorical motor patterns to be modified by the sensory context. In addition these motor patterns were linked with changes in the temporal sampling in form of differing electric organ discharge frequencies and differing spatial distributions. The ability to detect such strategies quantitatively will allow future research to investigate the impact of such behaviors on sensing. PMID:24904337

  19. A quantitative review of the postmortem evidence for decreased cortical N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor expression levels in schizophrenia: How can we link molecular abnormalities to mismatch negativity deficits?

    PubMed

    Catts, Vibeke S; Lai, Yan Ling; Weickert, Cyndi Shannon; Weickert, Thomas W; Catts, Stanley V

    2016-04-01

    Evidence suggests that anomalous mismatch negativity (MMN) in schizophrenia is related to glutamatergic abnormalities, possibly involving N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Decreased cortical expressions of NMDA receptor subunits have been observed in schizophrenia, though not consistently. To aid with integration and interpretation of previous work, we performed a meta-analysis of effect sizes of mRNA or protein levels of the obligatory NR1 subunit in prefrontal cortex from people with schizophrenia. In schizophrenia compared to unaffected controls the pooled effect size was -0.64 (95% confidence interval: -1.08 to -0.20) for NR1 mRNA reduction and -0.44 (95% confidence interval: -0.80 to -0.07) for NR1 protein reduction. These results represent the first step to a deeper understanding of the region-specific, cell-specific, and stage-specific NMDA receptor hypofunction in schizophrenia, which could be linked to mismatch negativity deficits via transgenic and pharmacological animal models. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Behaviorally Selective Engagement of Short-Latency Effector Pathways by Motor Cortex.

    PubMed

    Miri, Andrew; Warriner, Claire L; Seely, Jeffrey S; Elsayed, Gamaleldin F; Cunningham, John P; Churchland, Mark M; Jessell, Thomas M

    2017-08-02

    Blocking motor cortical output with lesions or pharmacological inactivation has identified movements that require motor cortex. Yet, when and how motor cortex influences muscle activity during movement execution remains unresolved. We addressed this ambiguity using measurement and perturbation of motor cortical activity together with electromyography in mice during two forelimb movements that differ in their requirement for cortical involvement. Rapid optogenetic silencing and electrical stimulation indicated that short-latency pathways linking motor cortex with spinal motor neurons are selectively activated during one behavior. Analysis of motor cortical activity revealed a dramatic change between behaviors in the coordination of firing patterns across neurons that could account for this differential influence. Thus, our results suggest that changes in motor cortical output patterns enable a behaviorally selective engagement of short-latency effector pathways. The model of motor cortical influence implied by our findings helps reconcile previous observations on the function of motor cortex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Motor learning in animal models of Parkinson's disease: Aberrant synaptic plasticity in the motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tonghui; Wang, Shaofang; Lalchandani, Rupa R; Ding, Jun B

    2017-03-25

    In Parkinson's disease (PD), dopamine depletion causes major changes in the brain, resulting in the typical cardinal motor features of the disease. PD neuropathology has been restricted to postmortem examinations, which are limited to only a single time of PD progression. Models of PD in which dopamine tone in the brain is chemically or physically disrupted are valuable tools in understanding the mechanisms of the disease. The basal ganglia have been well studied in the context of PD, and circuit changes in response to dopamine loss have been linked to the motor dysfunctions in PD. However, the etiology of the cognitive dysfunctions that are comorbid in PD patients has remained unclear until now. In this article, we review recent studies exploring how dopamine depletion affects the motor cortex at the synaptic level. In particular, we highlight our recent findings on abnormal spine dynamics in the motor cortex of PD mouse models through in vivo time-lapse imaging and motor skill behavior assays. In combination with previous studies, a role of the motor cortex in skill learning and the impairment of this ability with the loss of dopamine are becoming more apparent. Taken together, we conclude with a discussion on the potential role for the motor cortex in PD, with the possibility of targeting the motor cortex for future PD therapeutics. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  2. Adiabatic quantum motors.

    PubMed

    Bustos-Marún, Raúl; Refael, Gil; von Oppen, Felix

    2013-08-09

    When parameters are varied periodically, charge can be pumped through a mesoscopic conductor without applied bias. Here, we consider the inverse effect in which a transport current drives a periodic variation of an adiabatic degree of freedom. This provides a general operating principle for adiabatic quantum motors which we discuss here in general terms. We relate the work performed per cycle on the motor degree of freedom to characteristics of the underlying quantum pump and discuss the motors' efficiency. Quantum motors based on chaotic quantum dots operate solely due to quantum interference, and motors based on Thouless pumps have ideal efficiency.

  3. A Reconfigurable Stepping Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Charles; Selvaggi, Richard

    2009-04-01

    Multiphase brushless actuators, commonly known as the stepper motors, are ubiquitous for many precision control applications. Developments in the microelectronics have lead to their use as efficient drive motors for modern electric vehicles. Understanding the physics and the control logic for interfacing these transducers continues to be important for scientists and engineers. An overview of the stepping motor principles and interfacing requirements is presented and a simple working model used to teach the concepts of stepper motors is described and demonstrated. This model was used to design a much larger stepper motor required to precisely rotate a massive optical system in the undergraduate advanced physics laboratory.

  4. Motor/generator

    DOEpatents

    Hickam, Christopher Dale [Glasford, IL

    2008-05-13

    A motor/generator is provided for connecting between a transmission input shaft and an output shaft of a prime mover. The motor/generator may include a motor/generator housing, a stator mounted to the motor/generator housing, a rotor mounted at least partially within the motor/generator housing and rotatable about a rotor rotation axis, and a transmission-shaft coupler drivingly coupled to the rotor. The transmission-shaft coupler may include a clamp, which may include a base attached to the rotor and a plurality of adjustable jaws.

  5. Solid propellant motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, J. I.; Marsh, H. E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A case bonded end burning solid propellant rocket motor is described. A propellant with sufficiently low modulus to avoid chamber buckling on cooling from cure and sufficiently high elongation to sustain the stresses induced without cracking is used. The propellant is zone cured within the motor case at high pressures equal to or approaching the pressure at which the motor will operate during combustion. A solid propellant motor with a burning time long enough that its spacecraft would be limited to a maximum acceleration of less than 1 g is provided by one version of the case bonded end burning solid propellant motor of the invention.

  6. Collective dynamics of self-propelled sphere-dimer motors.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Snigdha; Kapral, Raymond

    2012-02-01

    The collective dynamics of ensembles of chemically powered sphere dimer motors is investigated. Sphere dimers are self-propelled nanomotors built from linked catalytic and noncatalytic spheres. They consume fuel in the environment and utilize the resulting self-generated concentration gradients to produce directed motion along their internuclear axes. In collections of such motors, the individual motors interact through forces that arise from concentration gradients, hydrodynamic coupling, and direct intermolecular forces. Under nonequilibrium conditions it is found that the sphere dimer motors self-assemble into transient aggregates with distinctive structural correlations and exhibit swarming where the aggregates propagate through the system. The mean square displacement of a dimer motor in the ensemble displays short-time ballistic and long-time diffusive regimes and, for ensembles containing many motors, an increasingly prominent intermediate regime. The self-diffusion coefficient of a motor in a many-motor system behaves differently from that of an isolated motor, and the decay of orientational correlations is a nonmonotonic function of the number of motors. The results presented here illustrate the phenomena to be expected in applications, such as cargo transport, where many motors may act in consort.

  7. Transcriptome profile analysis of young floral buds of fertile and sterile plants from the self-pollinated offspring of the hybrid between novel restorer line NR1 and Nsa CMS line in Brassica napus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The fertile and sterile plants were derived from the self-pollinated offspring of the F1 hybrid between the novel restorer line NR1 and the Nsa CMS line in Brassica napus. To elucidate gene expression and regulation caused by the A and C subgenomes of B. napus, as well as the alien chromosome and cytoplasm from Sinapis arvensis during the development of young floral buds, we performed a genome-wide high-throughput transcriptomic sequencing for young floral buds of sterile and fertile plants. Results In this study, equal amounts of total RNAs taken from young floral buds of sterile and fertile plants were sequenced using the Illumina/Solexa platform. After filtered out low quality data, a total of 2,760,574 and 2,714,441 clean tags were remained in the two libraries, from which 242,163 (Ste) and 253,507 (Fer) distinct tags were obtained. All distinct sequencing tags were annotated using all possible CATG+17-nt sequences of the genome and transcriptome of Brassica rapa and those of Brassica oleracea as the reference sequences, respectively. In total, 3231 genes of B. rapa and 3371 genes of B. oleracea were detected with significant differential expression levels. GO and pathway-based analyses were performed to determine and further to understand the biological functions of those differentially expressed genes (DEGs). In addition, there were 1089 specially expressed unknown tags in Fer, which were neither mapped to B. oleracea nor to B. rapa, and these unique tags were presumed to arise basically from the added alien chromosome of S. arvensis. Fifteen genes were randomly selected and their expression levels were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR, and fourteen of them showed consistent expression patterns with the digital gene expression (DGE) data. Conclusions A number of genes were differentially expressed between the young floral buds of sterile and fertile plants. Some of these genes may be candidates for future research on CMS in Nsa line, fertility

  8. Transcriptome profile analysis of young floral buds of fertile and sterile plants from the self-pollinated offspring of the hybrid between novel restorer line NR1 and Nsa CMS line in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaohong; Dong, Caihua; Yu, Jingyin; Liu, Wanghui; Jiang, Chenghong; Liu, Jia; Hu, Qiong; Fang, Xiaoping; Wei, Wenhui

    2013-01-16

    The fertile and sterile plants were derived from the self-pollinated offspring of the F1 hybrid between the novel restorer line NR1 and the Nsa CMS line in Brassica napus. To elucidate gene expression and regulation caused by the A and C subgenomes of B. napus, as well as the alien chromosome and cytoplasm from Sinapis arvensis during the development of young floral buds, we performed a genome-wide high-throughput transcriptomic sequencing for young floral buds of sterile and fertile plants. In this study, equal amounts of total RNAs taken from young floral buds of sterile and fertile plants were sequenced using the Illumina/Solexa platform. After filtered out low quality data, a total of 2,760,574 and 2,714,441 clean tags were remained in the two libraries, from which 242,163 (Ste) and 253,507 (Fer) distinct tags were obtained. All distinct sequencing tags were annotated using all possible CATG+17-nt sequences of the genome and transcriptome of Brassica rapa and those of Brassica oleracea as the reference sequences, respectively. In total, 3231 genes of B. rapa and 3371 genes of B. oleracea were detected with significant differential expression levels. GO and pathway-based analyses were performed to determine and further to understand the biological functions of those differentially expressed genes (DEGs). In addition, there were 1089 specially expressed unknown tags in Fer, which were neither mapped to B. oleracea nor to B. rapa, and these unique tags were presumed to arise basically from the added alien chromosome of S. arvensis. Fifteen genes were randomly selected and their expression levels were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR, and fourteen of them showed consistent expression patterns with the digital gene expression (DGE) data. A number of genes were differentially expressed between the young floral buds of sterile and fertile plants. Some of these genes may be candidates for future research on CMS in Nsa line, fertility restoration and improved agronomic

  9. Piezoceramic Ultrasonic Motor Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Burden, J.S.

    1999-02-24

    The objective of this project was to team Aerotech and AlliedSignal FM and T (AS) to develop a cost-efficient process for small-batch, high performance PZT motor production. Aerotech would acquire the basic process expertise in motor fabrication, assembly, and testing from AS. Together, Aerotech and AS were to identify appropriate process improvements, focusing on raw material quality, manufacturing processes, and durability assessment. Aerotech would then design and build a motor in consultation with AS. Aerotech engineering observed motor manufacturing in the AS piezo lab and worked side by side with AS personnel to build and test a prototype motor to facilitate learning the technology. Using information from AS and hands-on experience with the AS motor drive system enabled Aerotech to design and build its own laboratory drive system to operate motors. The team compiled information to establish a potential piezo motor users' list, and an intellectual property search was conducted to understand current patent and IP (intellectual property) status of motor design. Work was initiated to identify and develop an American source for piezo motor elements; however, due to manpower restraints created by the resignation of the AS Ph.D. ceramist responsible for these tasks, the project schedule slipped. The project was subsequently terminated before significant activities were accomplished. AS did, however, provide Aerotech with contacts in Japanese industry that are willing and capable of supplying them with special design motor elements.

  10. Motorized support jack

    SciTech Connect

    Haney, Steven J.; Herron, Donald Joe

    2003-05-13

    A compact, vacuum compatible motorized jack for supporting heavy loads and adjusting their positions is provided. The motorized jack includes: (a) a housing having a base; (b) a first roller device that provides a first slidable surface and that is secured to the base; (c) a second roller device that provides a second slidable surface and that has an upper surface; (d) a wedge that is slidably positioned between the first roller device and the second roller device so that the wedge is in contact with the first slidable surface and the second slidable surface; (e) a motor; and (d) a drive mechanism that connects the motor and the wedge to cause the motor to controllably move the wedge forwards or backwards. Individual motorized jacks can support and lift of an object at an angle. Two or more motorized jacks can provide tip, tilt and vertical position adjustment capabilities.

  11. Motorized support jack

    SciTech Connect

    Haney, Steven J.; Herron, Donald Joe

    2001-01-01

    A compact, vacuum compatible motorized jack for supporting heavy loads and adjusting their positions is provided. The motorized jack includes: (a) a housing having a base; (b) a first roller device that provides a first slidable surface and that is secured to the base; (c) a second roller device that provides a second slidable surface and that has an upper surface; (d) a wedge that is slidably positioned between the first roller device and the second roller device so that the wedge is in contact with the first slidable surface and the second slidable surface; (e) a motor; and (d) a drive mechanism that connects the motor and the wedge to cause the motor to controllably move the wedge forwards or backwards. Individual motorized jacks can support and lift of an object at an angle. Two or more motorized jacks can provide tip, tilt and vertical position adjustment capabilities.

  12. Motor degradation prediction methods

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.

    1996-12-01

    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor`s duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures.

  13. Dissociating motor cortex from the motor

    PubMed Central

    Schieber, Marc H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract During closed-loop control of a brain–computer interface, neurons in the primary motor cortex can be intensely active even though the subject may be making no detectable movement or muscle contraction. How can neural activity in the primary motor cortex become dissociated from the movements and muscles of the native limb that it normally controls? Here we examine circumstances in which motor cortex activity is known to dissociate from movement – including mental imagery, visuo-motor dissociation and instructed delay. Many such motor cortex neurons may be related to muscle activity only indirectly. Furthermore, the integration of thousands of synaptic inputs by individual α-motoneurons means that under certain circumstances even cortico-motoneuronal cells, which make monosynaptic connections to α-motoneurons, can become dissociated from muscle activity. The natural ability of motor cortex neurons under voluntarily control to become dissociated from bodily movement may underlie the utility of this cortical area for controlling brain–computer interfaces. PMID:22005673

  14. Measuring collective transport by defined numbers of processive and nonprocessive kinesin motors

    PubMed Central

    Furuta, Ken’ya; Furuta, Akane; Toyoshima, Yoko Y.; Amino, Misako; Oiwa, Kazuhiro; Kojima, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Intracellular transport is thought to be achieved by teams of motor proteins bound to a cargo. However, the coordination within a team remains poorly understood as a result of the experimental difficulty in controlling the number and composition of motors. Here, we developed an experimental system that links together defined numbers of motors with defined spacing on a DNA scaffold. By using this system, we linked multiple molecules of two different types of kinesin motors, processive kinesin-1 or nonprocessive Ncd (kinesin-14), in vitro. Both types of kinesins markedly increased their processivities with motor number. Remarkably, despite the poor processivity of individual Ncd motors, the coupling of two Ncd motors enables processive movement for more than 1 μm along microtubules (MTs). This improvement was further enhanced with decreasing spacing between motors. Force measurements revealed that the force generated by groups of Ncd is additive when two to four Ncd motors work together, which is much larger than that generated by single motors. By contrast, the force of multiple kinesin-1s depends only weakly on motor number. Numerical simulations and single-molecule unbinding measurements suggest that this additive nature of the force exerted by Ncd relies on fast MT binding kinetics and the large drag force of individual Ncd motors. These features would enable small groups of Ncd motors to crosslink MTs while rapidly modulating their force by forming clusters. Thus, our experimental system may provide a platform to study the collective behavior of motor proteins from the bottom up. PMID:23267076

  15. Measuring collective transport by defined numbers of processive and nonprocessive kinesin motors.

    PubMed

    Furuta, Ken'ya; Furuta, Akane; Toyoshima, Yoko Y; Amino, Misako; Oiwa, Kazuhiro; Kojima, Hiroaki

    2013-01-08

    Intracellular transport is thought to be achieved by teams of motor proteins bound to a cargo. However, the coordination within a team remains poorly understood as a result of the experimental difficulty in controlling the number and composition of motors. Here, we developed an experimental system that links together defined numbers of motors with defined spacing on a DNA scaffold. By using this system, we linked multiple molecules of two different types of kinesin motors, processive kinesin-1 or nonprocessive Ncd (kinesin-14), in vitro. Both types of kinesins markedly increased their processivities with motor number. Remarkably, despite the poor processivity of individual Ncd motors, the coupling of two Ncd motors enables processive movement for more than 1 μm along microtubules (MTs). This improvement was further enhanced with decreasing spacing between motors. Force measurements revealed that the force generated by groups of Ncd is additive when two to four Ncd motors work together, which is much larger than that generated by single motors. By contrast, the force of multiple kinesin-1s depends only weakly on motor number. Numerical simulations and single-molecule unbinding measurements suggest that this additive nature of the force exerted by Ncd relies on fast MT binding kinetics and the large drag force of individual Ncd motors. These features would enable small groups of Ncd motors to crosslink MTs while rapidly modulating their force by forming clusters. Thus, our experimental system may provide a platform to study the collective behavior of motor proteins from the bottom up.

  16. Brain-Computer Link Restores Some Movement to Quadraplegic Man

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164322.html Brain-Computer Link Restores Some Movement to Quadraplegic Man ... aspirin -- in the motor cortex area of his brain. That's the brain region responsible for hand movement. ...

  17. Enhanced thyroid hormone breakdown in hepatocytes by mutual induction of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) and arylhydrocarbon receptor by benzo[a]pyrene and phenobarbital.

    PubMed

    Schraplau, Anne; Schewe, Bettina; Neuschäfer-Rube, Frank; Ringel, Sebastian; Neuber, Corinna; Kleuser, Burkhard; Püschel, Gerhard P

    2015-02-03

    Xenobiotics may interfere with the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid endocrine axis by inducing enzymes that inactivate thyroid hormones and thereby reduce the metabolic rate. This induction results from an activation of xeno-sensing nuclear receptors. The current study shows that benzo[a]pyrene, a frequent contaminant of processed food and activator of the arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activated the promoter and induced the transcription of the nuclear receptor constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) in rat hepatocytes. Likewise, phenobarbital induced the AhR transcription. This mutual induction of the nuclear receptors enhanced the phenobarbital-dependent induction of the prototypic CAR target gene Cyp2b1 as well as the AhR-dependent induction of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases. In both cases, the induction by the combination of both xenobiotics was more than the sum of the induction by either substance alone. By inducing the AhR, phenobarbital enhanced the benzo[a]pyrene-dependent reduction of thyroid hormone half-life and the benzo[a]pyrene-dependent increase in the rate of thyroid hormone glucuronide formation in hepatocyte cultures. CAR ligands might thus augment the endocrine disrupting potential of AhR activators by an induction of the AhR. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Sensory-motor transformations for speech occur bilaterally.

    PubMed

    Cogan, Gregory B; Thesen, Thomas; Carlson, Chad; Doyle, Werner; Devinsky, Orrin; Pesaran, Bijan

    2014-03-06

    Historically, the study of speech processing has emphasized a strong link between auditory perceptual input and motor production output. A kind of 'parity' is essential, as both perception- and production-based representations must form a unified interface to facilitate access to higher-order language processes such as syntax and semantics, believed to be computed in the dominant, typically left hemisphere. Although various theories have been proposed to unite perception and production, the underlying neural mechanisms are unclear. Early models of speech and language processing proposed that perceptual processing occurred in the left posterior superior temporal gyrus (Wernicke's area) and motor production processes occurred in the left inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area). Sensory activity was proposed to link to production activity through connecting fibre tracts, forming the left lateralized speech sensory-motor system. Although recent evidence indicates that speech perception occurs bilaterally, prevailing models maintain that the speech sensory-motor system is left lateralized and facilitates the transformation from sensory-based auditory representations to motor-based production representations. However, evidence for the lateralized computation of sensory-motor speech transformations is indirect and primarily comes from stroke patients that have speech repetition deficits (conduction aphasia) and studies using covert speech and haemodynamic functional imaging. Whether the speech sensory-motor system is lateralized, like higher-order language processes, or bilateral, like speech perception, is controversial. Here we use direct neural recordings in subjects performing sensory-motor tasks involving overt speech production to show that sensory-motor transformations occur bilaterally. We demonstrate that electrodes over bilateral inferior frontal, inferior parietal, superior temporal, premotor and somatosensory cortices exhibit robust sensory-motor neural

  19. Modularity for Motor Control and Motor Learning.

    PubMed

    d'Avella, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    How the central nervous system (CNS) overcomes the complexity of multi-joint and multi-muscle control and how it acquires or adapts motor skills are fundamental and open questions in neuroscience. A modular architecture may simplify control by embedding features of both the dynamic behavior of the musculoskeletal system and of the task into a small number of modules and by directly mapping task goals into module combination parameters. Several studies of the electromyographic (EMG) activity recorded from many muscles during the performance of different tasks have shown that motor commands are generated by the combination of a small number of muscle synergies, coordinated recruitment of groups of muscles with specific amplitude balances or activation waveforms, thus supporting a modular organization of motor control. Modularity may also help understanding motor learning. In a modular architecture, acquisition of a new motor skill or adaptation of an existing skill after a perturbation may occur at the level of modules or at the level of module combinations. As learning or adapting an existing skill through recombination of modules is likely faster than learning or adapting a skill by acquiring new modules, compatibility with the modules predicts learning difficulty. A recent study in which human subjects used myoelectric control to move a mass in a virtual environment has tested this prediction. By altering the mapping between recorded muscle activity and simulated force applied on the mass, as in a complex surgical rearrangement of the tendons, it has been possible to show that it is easier to adapt to a perturbation that is compatible with the muscle synergies used to generate hand force than to a similar but incompatible perturbation. This result provides direct support for a modular organization of motor control and motor learning.

  20. Piezoelectric Motors and Transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchino, K.

    Piezoelectric ceramics forms a new field between electronic and structural ceramics [1-4]. Application fields are classified into three categories: positioners, motors, and vibration suppressors. From the market research result for 80 Japanese component industries in 1992, tiny motors in the range of 5-8 mm are required in large numbers for office and portable equipment; the conventional electromagnetic (EM) motors are rather difficult to produce in this size with sufficient energy efficiency, while Silicon MEMS actuators are too small to be used in practice. Piezoelectric ultrasonic motors whose efficiency is insensitive to size are superior in the millimeter motor area. The manufacturing precision of optical instruments such as lasers and cameras, and the positioning accuracy for fabricating semiconductor chips are of the order of 0.1μm which is much smaller than the backlash of the EM motors. Vibration suppression in space structures and military vehicles also require compact but mighty piezoelectric actuators.

  1. Collective Dynamics of Elastically Coupled Myosin V Motors*

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hailong; Efremov, Artem K.; Bookwalter, Carol S.; Krementsova, Elena B.; Driver, Jonathan W.; Trybus, Kathleen M.; Diehl, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of the collective behaviors of different classes of processive motor proteins has become increasingly important to understand various intracellular trafficking and transport processes. This work examines the dynamics of structurally-defined motor complexes containing two myosin Va (myoVa) motors that are linked together via a molecular scaffold formed from a single duplex of DNA. Dynamic changes in the filament-bound configuration of these complexes due to motor binding, stepping, and detachment were monitored by tracking the positions of different color quantum dots that report the position of one head of each myoVa motor on actin. As in studies of multiple kinesins, the run lengths produced by two myosins are only slightly larger than those of single motor molecules. This suggests that internal strain within the complexes, due to asynchronous motor stepping and the resultant stretching of motor linkages, yields net negative cooperative behaviors. In contrast to multiple kinesins, multiple myosin complexes move with appreciably lower velocities than a single-myosin molecule. Although similar trends are predicted by a discrete state stochastic model of collective motor dynamics, these analyses also suggest that multiple myosin velocities and run lengths depend on both the compliance and the effective size of their cargo. Moreover, it is proposed that this unique collective behavior occurs because the large step size and relatively small stalling force of myoVa leads to a high sensitivity of motor stepping rates to strain. PMID:22718762

  2. Collective dynamics of elastically coupled myosin V motors.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hailong; Efremov, Artem K; Bookwalter, Carol S; Krementsova, Elena B; Driver, Jonathan W; Trybus, Kathleen M; Diehl, Michael R

    2012-08-10

    Characterization of the collective behaviors of different classes of processive motor proteins has become increasingly important to understand various intracellular trafficking and transport processes. This work examines the dynamics of structurally-defined motor complexes containing two myosin Va (myoVa) motors that are linked together via a molecular scaffold formed from a single duplex of DNA. Dynamic changes in the filament-bound configuration of these complexes due to motor binding, stepping, and detachment were monitored by tracking the positions of different color quantum dots that report the position of one head of each myoVa motor on actin. As in studies of multiple kinesins, the run lengths produced by two myosins are only slightly larger than those of single motor molecules. This suggests that internal strain within the complexes, due to asynchronous motor stepping and the resultant stretching of motor linkages, yields net negative cooperative behaviors. In contrast to multiple kinesins, multiple myosin complexes move with appreciably lower velocities than a single-myosin molecule. Although similar trends are predicted by a discrete state stochastic model of collective motor dynamics, these analyses also suggest that multiple myosin velocities and run lengths depend on both the compliance and the effective size of their cargo. Moreover, it is proposed that this unique collective behavior occurs because the large step size and relatively small stalling force of myoVa leads to a high sensitivity of motor stepping rates to strain.

  3. Auditory-Perceptual Learning Improves Speech Motor Adaptation in Children

    PubMed Central

    Shiller, Douglas M.; Rochon, Marie-Lyne

    2015-01-01

    Auditory feedback plays an important role in children’s speech development by providing the child with information about speech outcomes that is used to learn and fine-tune speech motor plans. The use of auditory feedback in speech motor learning has been extensively studied in adults by examining oral motor responses to manipulations of auditory feedback during speech production. Children are also capable of adapting speech motor patterns to perceived changes in auditory feedback, however it is not known whether their capacity for motor learning is limited by immature auditory-perceptual abilities. Here, the link between speech perceptual ability and the capacity for motor learning was explored in two groups of 5–7-year-old children who underwent a period of auditory perceptual training followed by tests of speech motor adaptation to altered auditory feedback. One group received perceptual training on a speech acoustic property relevant to the motor task while a control group received perceptual training on an irrelevant speech contrast. Learned perceptual improvements led to an enhancement in speech motor adaptation (proportional to the perceptual change) only for the experimental group. The results indicate that children’s ability to perceive relevant speech acoustic properties has a direct influence on their capacity for sensory-based speech motor adaptation. PMID:24842067

  4. Auditory-perceptual learning improves speech motor adaptation in children.

    PubMed

    Shiller, Douglas M; Rochon, Marie-Lyne

    2014-08-01

    Auditory feedback plays an important role in children's speech development by providing the child with information about speech outcomes that is used to learn and fine-tune speech motor plans. The use of auditory feedback in speech motor learning has been extensively studied in adults by examining oral motor responses to manipulations of auditory feedback during speech production. Children are also capable of adapting speech motor patterns to perceived changes in auditory feedback; however, it is not known whether their capacity for motor learning is limited by immature auditory-perceptual abilities. Here, the link between speech perceptual ability and the capacity for motor learning was explored in two groups of 5- to 7-year-old children who underwent a period of auditory perceptual training followed by tests of speech motor adaptation to altered auditory feedback. One group received perceptual training on a speech acoustic property relevant to the motor task while a control group received perceptual training on an irrelevant speech contrast. Learned perceptual improvements led to an enhancement in speech motor adaptation (proportional to the perceptual change) only for the experimental group. The results indicate that children's ability to perceive relevant speech acoustic properties has a direct influence on their capacity for sensory-based speech motor adaptation.

  5. Maladaptive Plasticity for Motor Recovery after Stroke: Mechanisms and Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Naoyuki; Izumi, Shin-Ichi

    2012-01-01

    Many studies in human and animal models have shown that neural plasticity compensates for the loss of motor function after stroke. However, neural plasticity concerning compensatory movement, activated ipsilateral motor projections and competitive interaction after stroke contributes to maladaptive plasticity, which negatively affects motor recovery. Compensatory movement on the less-affected side helps to perform self-sustaining activity but also creates an inappropriate movement pattern and ultimately limits the normal motor pattern. The activated ipsilateral motor projections after stroke are unable to sufficiently support the disruption of the corticospinal motor projections and induce the abnormal movement linked to poor motor ability. The competitive interaction between both hemispheres induces abnormal interhemispheric inhibition that weakens motor function in stroke patients. Moreover, widespread disinhibition increases the risk of competitive interaction between the hand and the proximal arm, which results in an incomplete motor recovery. To minimize this maladaptive plasticity, rehabilitation programs should be selected according to the motor impairment of stroke patients. Noninvasive brain stimulation might also be useful for correcting maladaptive plasticity after stroke. Here, we review the underlying mechanisms of maladaptive plasticity after stroke and propose rehabilitation approaches for appropriate cortical reorganization. PMID:22792492

  6. Sensorless, online motor diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Kliman, G.B.; Premerlani, W.J.; Yazici, B.; Koegl, R.A.; Mazereeuw, J.

    1997-04-01

    Electric motors play a very important role in the safe and efficient running of any industrial plant. Early detection of abnormalities in the motors will help avoid expensive failures. Motor current signature analysis (MCSA) implemented in a computer-based motor monitor can contribute to such condition-based maintenance functions. Such a system may also detect an abnormality in the process as well as the motor. Extensive online monitoring of the motors can lead to greater plant availability, extended plant life, higher quality product, and smoother plant operation. With advances in digital technology over the last several years, adequate data processing capability is now available on cost-effective, microprocessor-based, protective-relay platforms to monitor motors for a variety of abnormalities in addition to the normal protection functions. Such multifunction monitors, first introduced by Multilin, are displacing the multiplicity of electromechanical devices commonly applied for many years. Following some background information on motor monitoring, this article features recent developments in providing tools for the diagnosis of faults or incipient faults in electric motor drives: Sensorless torque measurement, direct detection of turn-to-turn short circuits, detection of cracked or broken rotor bars, and detection of bearing deterioration.

  7. Artificial molecular motors.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Salma; van Leeuwen, Thomas; Lubbe, Anouk S; Wilson, Miriam R; Feringa, Ben L; Leigh, David A

    2017-05-09

    Motor proteins are nature's solution for directing movement at the molecular level. The field of artificial molecular motors takes inspiration from these tiny but powerful machines. Although directional motion on the nanoscale performed by synthetic molecular machines is a relatively new development, significant advances have been made. In this review an overview is given of the principal designs of artificial molecular motors and their modes of operation. Although synthetic molecular motors have also found widespread application as (multistate) switches, we focus on the control of directional movement, both at the molecular scale and at larger magnitudes. We identify some key challenges remaining in the field.

  8. Cryogenic Electric Motor Tested

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.

    2004-01-01

    Technology for pollution-free "electric flight" is being evaluated in a number of NASA Glenn Research Center programs. One approach is to drive propulsive fans or propellers with electric motors powered by fuel cells running on hydrogen. For large transport aircraft, conventional electric motors are far too heavy to be feasible. However, since hydrogen fuel would almost surely be carried as liquid, a propulsive electric motor could be cooled to near liquid hydrogen temperature (-423 F) by using the fuel for cooling before it goes to the fuel cells. Motor windings could be either superconducting or high purity normal copper or aluminum. The electrical resistance of pure metals can drop to 1/100th or less of their room-temperature resistance at liquid hydrogen temperature. In either case, super or normal, much higher current density is possible in motor windings. This leads to more compact motors that are projected to produce 20 hp/lb or more in large sizes, in comparison to on the order of 2 hp/lb for large conventional motors. High power density is the major goal. To support cryogenic motor development, we have designed and built in-house a small motor (7-in. outside diameter) for operation in liquid nitrogen.

  9. Hybrid vehicle motor alignment

    DOEpatents

    Levin, Michael Benjamin

    2001-07-03

    A rotor of an electric motor for a motor vehicle is aligned to an axis of rotation for a crankshaft of an internal combustion engine having an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A locator is provided on the crankshaft, a piloting tool is located radially by the first locator to the crankshaft. A stator of the electric motor is aligned to a second locator provided on the piloting tool. The stator is secured to the engine block. The rotor is aligned to the crankshaft and secured thereto.

  10. High-intensity Interval Exercise Promotes Motor Cortex Disinhibition and Early Motor Skill Consolidation.

    PubMed

    Stavrinos, Ellen L; Coxon, James P

    2017-04-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) inhibition shapes motor cortex output, gates synaptic plasticity in the form of long-term potentiation, and plays an important role in motor learning. Remarkably, recent studies have shown that acute cardiovascular exercise can improve motor memory, but the cortical mechanisms are not completely understood. We investigated whether an acute bout of lower-limb high-intensity interval (HIT) exercise could promote motor memory formation in humans through changes in cortical inhibition within the hand region of the primary motor cortex. We used TMS to assess the input-output relationship, along with inhibition involving GABAA and GABAB receptors. Measures were obtained before and after a 20-min session of HIT cycling (exercise group) or rest (control group). We then had the same participants learn a new visuomotor skill and perform a retention test 5 hr later in the absence of sleep. No differences were found in corticomotor excitability or GABAB inhibition; however, synaptic GABAA inhibition was significantly reduced for the exercise group but not the control group. HIT exercise was found to enhance motor skill consolidation. These findings link modification of GABA to improved motor memory consolidation after HIT exercise and suggest that the beneficial effects of exercise on consolidation might not be dependent on sleep.

  11. A genetic link between discriminative fear coding by the lateral amygdala, dopamine, and fear generalization.

    PubMed

    Jones, Graham L; Soden, Marta E; Knakal, Cerise R; Lee, Heather; Chung, Amanda S; Merriam, Elliott B; Zweifel, Larry S

    2015-09-24

    The lateral amygdala (LA) acquires differential coding of predictive and non-predictive fear stimuli that is critical for proper fear memory assignment. The neurotransmitter dopamine is an important modulator of LA activity and facilitates fear memory formation, but whether dopamine neurons aid in the establishment of discriminative fear coding by the LA is unknown. NMDA-type glutamate receptors in dopamine neurons are critical for the prevention of generalized fear following an aversive experience, suggesting a potential link between a cell autonomous function of NMDAR in dopamine neurons and fear coding by the LA. Here, we utilized mice with a selective genetic inactivation functional NMDARs in dopamine neurons (DAT-NR1 KO mice) combined with behavior, in vivo electrophysiology, and ex vivo electrophysiology in LA neurons to demonstrate that plasticity underlying differential fear coding in the LA is regulated by NMDAR signaling in dopamine neurons and alterations in this plasticity is associated non-discriminative cued-fear responses.

  12. Transatlantic link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    (left) European Geophysical Society (EGS) President Rolf Meissner at AGU Headquarters with (center) Executive Director Fred Spilhaus and (right) Foreign Secretary Juan Roederer. Meissner attended the meeting of AGU's Committee on International Participation (CIP) on February 26, 1988. At that meeting, specific ways of fostering close links between AGU and EGS were discussed.A few weeks later, Roederer and AGU staff, working with EGS Secretary-General Arne Richter at the EGS meeting in Bologna, Italy, March 21-25, planned details of the establishment of an AGU office in Europe. The Copernicus Gesellschaft, a new entity located on the premises of the Max Planck Institute for Aeronomy in Lindau, Federal Republic of Germany, will provide the administrative staff and handle logistics.

  13. Applying torque to the Escherichia coli flagellar motor using magnetic tweezers.

    PubMed

    van Oene, Maarten M; Dickinson, Laura E; Cross, Bronwen; Pedaci, Francesco; Lipfert, Jan; Dekker, Nynke H

    2017-03-07

    The bacterial flagellar motor of Escherichia coli is a nanoscale rotary engine essential for bacterial propulsion. Studies on the power output of single motors rely on the measurement of motor torque and rotation under external load. Here, we investigate the use of magnetic tweezers, which in principle allow the application and active control of a calibrated load torque, to study single flagellar motors in Escherichia coli. We manipulate the external load on the motor by adjusting the magnetic field experienced by a magnetic bead linked to the motor, and we probe the motor's response. A simple model describes the average motor speed over the entire range of applied fields. We extract the motor torque at stall and find it to be similar to the motor torque at drag-limited speed. In addition, use of the magnetic tweezers allows us to force motor rotation in both forward and backward directions. We monitor the motor's performance before and after periods of forced rotation and observe no destructive effects on the motor. Our experiments show how magnetic tweezers can provide active and fast control of the external load while also exposing remaining challenges in calibration. Through their non-invasive character and straightforward parallelization, magnetic tweezers provide an attractive platform to study nanoscale rotary motors at the single-motor level.

  14. A catalytic oligomeric motor that walks along a filament track

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Mu-Jie Kapral, Raymond

    2015-06-28

    Most biological motors in the cell execute chemically powered conformational changes as they walk on biopolymer filaments in order to carry out directed transport functions. Synthetic motors that operate in a similar manner are being studied since they have the potential to perform similar tasks in a variety of applications. In this paper, a synthetic nanomotor that moves along a filament track, without invoking motor conformational changes, is constructed and its properties are studied in detail. The motor is an oligomer comprising three linked beads with specific binding properties. The filament track is a stiff polymer chain, also described by a linear chain of linked coarse-grained molecular groups modeled as beads. Reactions on the filament that are catalyzed by a motor bead and use fuel in the environment, in conjunction within the binding affinities of the motor beads to the filament beads, lead to directed motion. The system operates out of equilibrium due to the state of the filament and supply of fuel. The motor, filament, and surrounding medium are all described at microscopic level that permits a full analysis of the motor motion. A stochastic model that captures the main trends seen in the simulations is also presented. The results of this study point to some of the key features that could be used to construct nanomotors that undergo biased walks powered by chemical reactions on filaments.

  15. Discrete motor coordinates for vowel production.

    PubMed

    Assaneo, María Florencia; Trevisan, Marcos A; Mindlin, Gabriel B

    2013-01-01

    Current models of human vocal production that capture peripheral dynamics in speech require large dimensional measurements of the neural activity, which are mapped into equally complex motor gestures. In this work we present a motor description for vowels as points in a discrete low-dimensional space. We monitor the dynamics of 3 points at the oral cavity using Hall-effect transducers and magnets, describing the resulting signals during normal utterances in terms of active/inactive patterns that allow a robust vowel classification in an abstract binary space. We use simple matrix algebra to link this representation to the anatomy of the vocal tract and to recent reports of highly tuned neuronal activations for vowel production, suggesting a plausible global strategy for vowel codification and motor production.

  16. A computational model of motor neuron degeneration.

    PubMed

    Le Masson, Gwendal; Przedborski, Serge; Abbott, L F

    2014-08-20

    To explore the link between bioenergetics and motor neuron degeneration, we used a computational model in which detailed morphology and ion conductance are paired with intracellular ATP production and consumption. We found that reduced ATP availability increases the metabolic cost of a single action potential and disrupts K+/Na+ homeostasis, resulting in a chronic depolarization. The magnitude of the ATP shortage at which this ionic instability occurs depends on the morphology and intrinsic conductance characteristic of the neuron. If ATP shortage is confined to the distal part of the axon, the ensuing local ionic instability eventually spreads to the whole neuron and involves fasciculation-like spiking events. A shortage of ATP also causes a rise in intracellular calcium. Our modeling work supports the notion that mitochondrial dysfunction can account for salient features of the paralytic disorder amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, including motor neuron hyperexcitability, fasciculation, and differential vulnerability of motor neuron subpopulations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A COMPUTATIONAL MODEL OF MOTOR NEURON DEGENERATION

    PubMed Central

    Le Masson, Gwendal; Przedborski, Serge; Abbott, L.F.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY To explore the link between bioenergetics and motor neuron degeneration, we used a computational model in which detailed morphology and ion conductance are paired with intracellular ATP production and consumption. We found that reduced ATP availability increases the metabolic cost of a single action potential and disrupts K+/Na+ homeostasis, resulting in a chronic depolarization. The magnitude of the ATP shortage at which this ionic instability occurs depends on the morphology and intrinsic conductance characteristic of the neuron. If ATP shortage is confined to the distal part of the axon, the ensuing local ionic instability eventually spreads to the whole neuron and involves fasciculation-like spiking events. A shortage of ATP also causes a rise in intracellular calcium. Our modeling work supports the notion that mitochondrial dysfunction can account for salient features of the paralytic disorder amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, including motor neuron hyperexcitability, fasciculation, and differential vulnerability of motor neuron subpopulations. PMID:25088365

  18. Discrete Motor Coordinates for Vowel Production

    PubMed Central

    Assaneo, María Florencia; Trevisan, Marcos A.; Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2013-01-01

    Current models of human vocal production that capture peripheral dynamics in speech require large dimensional measurements of the neural activity, which are mapped into equally complex motor gestures. In this work we present a motor description for vowels as points in a discrete low-dimensional space. We monitor the dynamics of 3 points at the oral cavity using Hall-effect transducers and magnets, describing the resulting signals during normal utterances in terms of active/inactive patterns that allow a robust vowel classification in an abstract binary space. We use simple matrix algebra to link this representation to the anatomy of the vocal tract and to recent reports of highly tuned neuronal activations for vowel production, suggesting a plausible global strategy for vowel codification and motor production. PMID:24244681

  19. Heritability of motor control and motor learning

    PubMed Central

    Missitzi, Julia; Gentner, Reinhard; Misitzi, Angelica; Geladas, Nickos; Politis, Panagiotis; Klissouras, Vassilis; Classen, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to elucidate the relative contribution of genes and environment on individual differences in motor control and acquisition of a force control task, in view of recent association studies showing that several candidate polymorphisms may have an effect on them. Forty‐four healthy female twins performed brisk isometric abductions with their right thumb. Force was recorded by a transducer and fed back to the subject on a computer screen. The task was to place the tracing of the peak force in a force window defined between 30% and 40% of the subject's maximum force, as determined beforehand. The initial level of proficiency was defined as the number of attempts reaching the force window criterion within the first 100 trials. The difference between the number of successful trials within the last and the first 100 trials was taken as a measure of motor learning. For motor control, defined by the initial level of proficiency, the intrapair differences in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins were 6.8 ± 7.8 and 13.8 ± 8.4, and the intrapair correlations 0.77 and 0.39, respectively. Heritability was estimated at 0.68. Likewise for motor learning intrapair differences in the increment of the number of successful trials in MZ and DZ twins were 5.4 ± 5.2 and 12.8 ± 7, and the intrapair correlations 0.58 and 0.19. Heritability reached 0.70. The present findings suggest that heredity accounts for a major part of existing differences in motor control and motor learning, but uncertainty remains which gene polymorphisms may be responsible. PMID:24744865

  20. Obesity Leads to Declines in Motor Skills across Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jessica; East, Patricia; Blanco, Estela; Sim, Eastern Kang; Castillo, Marcela; Lozoff, Betsy; Gahagan, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Background Poor motor skills have been consistently linked with a higher body weight in childhood, but the causal direction of this association is not fully understood. This study investigated the temporal ordering between children’s motor skills and weight status at 5 and 10 years. Methods Participants were 668 children (54% male) who were studied from infancy as part of an iron-deficiency anemia preventive trial and follow-up study in Santiago, Chile. All were healthy, full term, and weighing 3 kg or more at birth. Cross-lagged panel modeling was conducted to understand the temporal precedence between children’s weight status and motor proficiency. Analyses also examined differences in gross and fine motor skills among healthy weight, overweight, and obese children. Results A higher BMI at 5 years contributed to declines in motor proficiency from 5 to 10 years. There was no support for the reverse; that is, poor motor skills at 5 years did not predict increases in relative weight from 5 to 10 years. Obesity at 5 years also predicted declines in motor proficiency. When compared to normal weight children, obese children had significantly poorer total and gross motor skills at both 5 and 10 years. Overweight children had poorer total and gross motor skills at 10 years only. The differences in total and gross motor skills among normal-weight, overweight, and obese children appear to increase with age. There were small differences in fine motor skill between obese and non-obese children at 5 years only. Conclusions Obesity preceded declines in motor skills and not the reverse. Study findings suggest that early childhood obesity intervention efforts might help prevent declines in motor proficiency which, in turn, may positively impact children’s physical activity and overall fitness levels. PMID:27059409

  1. "Pure" motor hemiplegia.

    PubMed Central

    Chokroverty, S; Rubino, F A

    1975-01-01

    Attenuation of cerebral evoked responses after stimulation of the median nerve in the hemiplegic limbs suggested that an apparently pure motor hemiplegia in some patients may not have pure involvement of the corticospinal system. Frontoparietal metastasis, infarction in basis pontis and medullary pyramid, and occlusion of internal carotid artery in the neck resulted in pure motor hemiplegia in some individuals. Images PMID:1185228

  2. Information on stepping motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fongarland, G.

    1982-04-01

    The principles of the stepping motors which are often used in servomechanisms are reviewed. Variable reluctance as well as permanent magnet stepping motors are considered. Their operation is explained which includes permanent rotation, starting, stopping, and resonance effects. Several application examples, drawn from problems in automation, are outlined.

  3. Stepping motor controller

    DOEpatents

    Bourret, S.C.; Swansen, J.E.

    1982-07-02

    A stepping motor is microprocessor controlled by digital circuitry which monitors the output of a shaft encoder adjustably secured to the stepping motor and generates a subsequent stepping pulse only after the preceding step has occurred and a fixed delay has expired. The fixed delay is variable on a real-time basis to provide for smooth and controlled deceleration.

  4. Stepping motor controller

    DOEpatents

    Bourret, Steven C.; Swansen, James E.

    1984-01-01

    A stepping motor is microprocessingly controlled by digital circuitry which monitors the output of a shaft encoder adjustably secured to the stepping motor and generates a subsequent stepping pulse only after the preceding step has occurred and a fixed delay has expired. The fixed delay is variable on a real-time basis to provide for smooth and controlled deceleration.

  5. Induction motor control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly ultilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilized induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high-frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high-frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

  6. Induction motor control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1990-01-01

    Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly ultilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilized induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high-frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high-frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

  7. Induction motor control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1990-01-01

    Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly utilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilizes induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

  8. Induction motor control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1990-01-01

    Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly ultilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilized induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high-frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high-frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

  9. Increased prevalence of diverse N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor antibodies in patients with an initial diagnosis of schizophrenia: specific relevance of IgG NR1a antibodies for distinction from N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Johann; Walter, Martin; Glanz, Wenzel; Sarnyai, Zoltán; Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Vielhaber, Stefan; Kästner, Andrea; Skalej, Martin; Jordan, Wolfgang; Schiltz, Kolja; Klingbeil, Christine; Wandinger, Klaus-Peter; Bogerts, Bernhard; Stoecker, Winfried

    2013-03-01

    Evidence for symptomatic convergence of schizophrenia and N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDA-R) encephalitis highlights the need for an assessment of antibody prevalence and specificity for distinct disease mechanisms in patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia among glutamatergic pathophysiologic abnormalities in psychiatric disorders. To compare the specificity and prevalence of NMDA-R antibodies in schizophrenia (DSM-IV criteria) with those of other psychiatric diagnoses and to determine whether antibody subtypes characterize overlap with and distinction from those in NMDA-R encephalitis. Serum from 459 patients admitted with acute schizophrenia, major depression (MD), and borderline personality disorder (BLPD) or individuals serving as matched controls was obtained from our scientific blood bank. To explore epitope specificity and antibody subtype, IgA/IgG/IgM NMDA-R (NR1a or NR1a/NR2b) and α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptors (AMPA-R) (GluR1/GluR2) serum antibodies were determined. Two hundred thirty matched healthy controls were compared with patients (unmedicated for at least 6 weeks) with schizophrenia (n = 121), MD (n = 70), or BLPD (n = 38). The primary outcome was the overall number of seropositive cases for NMDA-R and AMPA-R antibodies; the secondary outcome was disease specificity of IgA/IgG/IgM antibodies and epitope specificity for clinical subgroups. Diverse NMDA-R antibodies were identified in 15 subjects, primarily those with an initial schizophrenia diagnosis (9.9%), opposed to MD (2.8%), BLPD (0), and controls (0.4%). Retrospectively, 2 patients initially classified as having catatonic or disorganized schizophrenia were reclassified as having misdiagnosed NMDA-R encephalitis (presence of specific serum and cerebrospinal fluid IgG NR1a antibodies). In all other seropositive cases, the antibodies consisted of classes IgA and/or IgM or were directed against NR1a/NR2b (not against NR1a alone). None of the

  10. The nuclear receptor constitutive androstane receptor/NR1I3 enhances the profibrotic effects of transforming growth factor β and contributes to the development of experimental dermal fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Avouac, Jérôme; Palumbo-Zerr, Katrin; Ruzehaji, Nadira; Tomcik, Michal; Zerr, Pawel; Dees, Clara; Distler, Alfiya; Beyer, Christian; Schneider, Holm; Distler, Oliver; Schett, Georg; Allanore, Yannick; Distler, Jörg H W

    2014-11-01

    Nuclear receptors regulate cell growth, differentiation, and homeostasis. Selective nuclear receptors promote fibroblast activation, which leads to tissue fibrosis, the hallmark of systemic sclerosis (SSc). This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of constitutive androstane receptor (CAR)/NR1I3, an orphan nuclear receptor, on fibroblast activation and experimental dermal fibrosis. CAR expression was quantified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. CAR expression was modulated by small molecules, small interfering RNA, forced overexpression, and site-directed mutagenesis. The effects of CAR activation were analyzed in cultured fibroblasts, in bleomycin-induced dermal fibrosis, and in mice overexpressing a constitutively active transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) receptor type I (TβRI-CA). Up-regulation of CAR was detected in the skin and in dermal fibroblasts in SSc patients. Stimulation of healthy fibroblasts with TGFβ induced the expression of CAR messenger RNA and protein in a Smad-dependent manner. Pharmacologic activation or overexpression of CAR in healthy fibroblasts significantly increased the stimulatory effects of TGFβ on collagen synthesis and myofibroblast differentiation, and amplified the stimulatory effects of TGFβ on COL1A2 transcription activity. Treatment with CAR agonist increased the activation of canonical TGFβ signaling in murine models of SSc and exacerbated bleomycin-induced and TβRI-CA-induced fibrosis with increased dermal thickening, myofibroblast counts, and collagen accumulation. Our findings indicate that CAR is up-regulated in SSc and regulates TGFβ signaling. Activation of CAR increases the profibrotic effects of TGFβ in cultured fibroblasts and in different preclinical models of SSc. Thus, inactivation of CAR might be a novel approach to target aberrant TGFβ signaling in SSc and in other fibrotic diseases. Copyright © 2014 by the American

  11. Does intrinsic motivation enhance motor cortex excitability?

    PubMed

    Radel, Rémi; Pjevac, Dusan; Davranche, Karen; d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne; Colson, Serge S; Lapole, Thomas; Gruet, Mathieu

    2016-11-01

    Intrinsic motivation (IM) is often viewed as a spontaneous tendency for action. Recent behavioral and neuroimaging evidence indicate that IM, in comparison to extrinsic motivation (EM), solicits the motor system. Accordingly, we tested whether IM leads to greater excitability of the motor cortex than EM. To test this hypothesis, we used two different tasks to induce the motivational orientation using either words representing each motivational orientation or pictures previously linked to each motivational orientation through associative learning. Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation over the motor cortex was applied when viewing the stimuli. Electromyographic activity was recorded on the contracted first dorsal interosseous muscle. Two indexes of corticospinal excitability (the amplitude of motor-evoked potential and the length of cortical silent period) were obtained through unbiased automatic detection and analyzed using a mixed model that provided both statistical power and a high level of control over all important individual, task, and stimuli characteristics. Across the two tasks and the two indices of corticospinal excitability, the exposure to IM-related stimuli did not lead to a greater corticospinal excitability than EM-related stimuli or than stimuli with no motivational valence (ps > .20). While these results tend to dismiss the advantage of IM at activating the motor cortex, we suggest alternative hypotheses to explain this lack of effect, which deserves further research.

  12. Linear summation of cat motor cortex outputs.

    PubMed

    Ethier, Christian; Brizzi, Laurent; Darling, Warren G; Capaday, Charles

    2006-05-17

    Recruitment of movement-related muscle synergies involves the functional linking of motor cortical points. We asked how the outputs of two simultaneously stimulated motor cortical points would interact. To this end, experiments were done in ketamine-anesthetized cats. When prolonged (e.g., 500 ms) trains of intracortical microstimulation were applied in the primary motor cortex, stimulus currents as low as 10-20 microA evoked coordinated movements of the contralateral forelimb. Paw kinematics in three dimensions and the electromyographic (EMG) activity of eight muscles were simultaneously recorded. We show that the EMG outputs of two cortical points simultaneously stimulated are additive. The movements were represented as displacement vectors pointing from initial to final paw position. The displacement vectors resulting from simultaneous stimulation of two cortical points pointed in nearly the same direction as the algebraic resultant vector. Linear summation of outputs was also found when inhibition at one of the cortical points was reduced by GABAA receptor antagonists. A simple principle emerges from these results. Notwithstanding the underlying complex neuronal circuitry, motor cortex outputs combine nearly linearly in terms of movement direction and muscle activation patterns. Importantly, simultaneous activation does not change the nature of the output at each point. An additional implication is that not all possible movements need be explicitly represented in the motor cortex; a large number of different movements may be synthesized from a smaller repertoire.

  13. Negative emotion can enhance human motor cortical plasticity.

    PubMed

    Koganemaru, Satoko; Domen, Kazuhisa; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Mima, Tatsuya

    2012-05-01

    Although emotion often primes us for action, its effects on the human motor system are not well understood. The relationship between emotion and motor plasticity also remains unclear, despite the close link between emotion and memory formation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that emotion modulates the plasticity of the human primary motor cortex, using the International Affective Picture System and transcranial magnetic stimulation. Intermittent theta-burst stimulation was applied to the primary motor cortex to produce long-term potentiation-like changes in normal volunteers experimentally. Primary motor cortex plasticity was enhanced and sustained in both excitatory and inhibitory systems only when intermittent theta-burst stimulation was combined with the presentation of pictures that induced negative, but not positive or neutral, emotion. Moreover, negative emotion was found to enhance the inhibitory networks within the primary motor cortex, and to improve motor behavior during the choice reaction-time task. Our findings indicate that negative emotion can increase primary motor cortex plasticity by modulating the intracortical GABAergic system, as well as N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor-dependent changes. These findings could help to explain the physiological basis of abnormal motor symptoms in psychogenic movement disorders following emotional events. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Improve Motor System Efficiency for a Broad Range of Motors with MotorMaster+ International

    SciTech Connect

    2005-05-01

    Available at no charge, MotorMaster+ International is designed to support motor systems improvement planning at industrial facilities by identifying the most cost-effective choice when deciding to repair or replace older motor models.

  15. ISRO's solid rocket motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagappa, R.; Kurup, M. R.; Muthunayagam, A. E.

    1989-08-01

    Solid rocket motors have been the mainstay of ISRO's sounding rockets and the first generation satellite launch vehicles. For the new launch vehicle under development also, the solid rocket motors contribute significantly to the vehicle's total propulsive power. The rocket motors in use and under development have been developed for a variety of applications and range in size from 30 mm dia employing 450 g of solid propellant—employed for providing a spin to the apogee motors—to the giant 2.8 m dia motor employing nearly 130 tonnes of solid propellant. The initial development, undertaken in 1967 was of small calibre motor of 75 mm dia using a double base charge. The development was essentially to understand the technological elements. Extruded aluminium tubes were used as a rocket motor casing. The fore and aft closures were machined from aluminium rods. The grain was a seven-pointed star with an enlargement of the port at the aft end and was charged into the chamber using a polyester resin system. The nozzle was a metallic heat sink type with graphite throat insert. The motor was ignited with a black powder charge and fired for 2.0 s. Subsequent to this, further developmental activities were undertaken using PVC plastisol based propellants. A class of sounding rockets ranging from 125 to 560 mm calibre were realized. These rocket motors employed improved designs and had delivered lsp ranging from 2060 to 2256 Ns/kg. Case bonding could not be adopted due to the higher cure temperatures of the plastisol propellants but improvements were made in the grain charging techniques and in the design of the igniters and the nozzle. Ablative nozzles based on asbestos phenolic and silica phenolic with graphite inserts were used. For the larger calibre rocket motors, the lsp could be improved by metallic additives. In the early 1970s designs were evolved for larger and more efficient motors. A series of 4 motors for the country's first satellite launch vehicle SLV-3 were

  16. High Working Memory Load Increases Intracortical Inhibition in Primary Motor Cortex and Diminishes the Motor Affordance Effect.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Scott M; Itthipuripat, Sirawaj; Aron, Adam R

    2016-05-18

    of the motor affordance while working memory load was varied. We observed a typical motor affordance signature when working memory load was low; however, it was abolished when load was high. Further, there was increased intracortical inhibition in primary motor cortex under high working memory load. This suggests that being in a state of high cognitive load "sets" the motor system to be imperturbable to distracting motor influences. This makes a novel link between working memory load and the balance of excitatory/inhibitory activity in the motor cortex and potentially has implications for disorders of impulsivity. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/365544-12$15.00/0.

  17. Motor Priming in Neurorehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Stoykov, Mary Ellen; Madhavan, Sangeetha

    2014-01-01

    Priming is a type of implicit learning wherein a stimulus prompts a change in behavior. Priming has been long studied in the field of psychology. More recently, rehabilitation researchers have studied motor priming as a possible way to facilitate motor learning. For example, priming of the motor cortex is associated with changes in neuroplasticity that are associated with improvements in motor performance. Of the numerous motor priming paradigms under investigation, only a few are practical for the current clinical environment, and the optimal priming modalities for specific clinical presentations are not known. Accordingly, developing an understanding of the various types of motor priming paradigms and their underlying neural mechanisms is an important step for therapists in neurorehabilitation. Most importantly, an understanding of the methods and their underlying mechanisms is essential for optimizing rehabilitation outcomes. The future of neurorehabilitation is likely to include these priming methods, which are delivered prior to or in conjunction with primary neurorehabilitation therapies. In this Special Interest article we discuss those priming paradigms that are supported by the greatest amount of evidence including: (i) stimulation-based priming, (ii) motor imagery and action observation, (iii) sensory priming, (iv) movement-based priming, and (v) pharmacological priming. PMID:25415551

  18. Multiple dynamic representations in the motor cortex during sensorimotor learning.

    PubMed

    Huber, D; Gutnisky, D A; Peron, S; O'Connor, D H; Wiegert, J S; Tian, L; Oertner, T G; Looger, L L; Svoboda, K

    2012-04-25

    The mechanisms linking sensation and action during learning are poorly understood. Layer 2/3 neurons in the motor cortex might participate in sensorimotor integration and learning; they receive input from sensory cortex and excite deep layer neurons, which control movement. Here we imaged activity in the same set of layer 2/3 neurons in the motor cortex over weeks, while mice learned to detect objects with their whiskers and report detection with licking. Spatially intermingled neurons represented sensory (touch) and motor behaviours (whisker movements and licking). With learning, the population-level representation of task-related licking strengthened. In trained mice, population-level representations were redundant and stable, despite dynamism of single-neuron representations. The activity of a subpopulation of neurons was consistent with touch driving licking behaviour. Our results suggest that ensembles of motor cortex neurons couple sensory input to multiple, related motor programs during learning.

  19. Neural plasticity during motor learning with motor imagery practice: Review and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ruffino, Célia; Papaxanthis, Charalambos; Lebon, Florent

    2017-01-26

    In the last decade, many studies confirmed the benefits of mental practice with motor imagery. In this review we first aimed to compile data issued from fundamental and clinical investigations and to provide the key-components for the optimization of motor imagery strategy. We focused on transcranial magnetic stimulation studies, supported by brain imaging research, that sustain the current hypothesis of a functional link between cortical reorganization and behavioral improvement. As perspectives, we suggest a model of neural adaptation following mental practice, in which synapse conductivity and inhibitory mechanisms at the spinal level may also play an important role. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Miniature laser ignited bellows motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renfro, Steven L.; Beckman, Tom M.

    1994-01-01

    A miniature optically ignited actuation device has been demonstrated using a laser diode as an ignition source. This pyrotechnic driven motor provides between 4 and 6 lbs of linear force across a 0.090 inch diameter surface. The physical envelope of the device is 1/2 inch long and 1/8 inch diameter. This unique application of optical energy can be used as a mechanical link in optical arming systems or other applications where low shock actuation is desired and space is limited. An analysis was performed to determine pyrotechnic materials suitable to actuate a bellows device constructed of aluminum or stainless steel. The aluminum bellows was chosen for further development and several candidate pyrotechnics were evaluated. The velocity profile and delivered force were quantified using an non-intrusive optical motion sensor.

  1. Disrupting the ipsilateral motor cortex interferes with training of a complex motor task in older adults.

    PubMed

    Zimerman, Máximo; Heise, Kirstin-F; Gerloff, Christian; Cohen, Leonardo G; Hummel, Friedhelm C

    2014-04-01

    Performance of unimanual movements is associated with bihemispheric activity in the motor cortex in old adults. However, the causal functional role of the ipsilateral MC (iMC) for motor control is still not completely known. Here, the behavioral consequences of interference of the iMC during training of a complex motor skill were tested. Healthy old (58-85 years) and young volunteers (22-35 years) were tested in a double-blind, cross-over, sham-controlled design. Participants attended 2 different study arms with either cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (ctDCS) or sham concurrent with training. Motor performance was evaluated before, during, 90 min, and 24 h after training. During training, a reduced slope of performance with ctDCS relative to sham was observed in old compared with young (F = 5.8, P = 0.02), with a decrease of correctly rehearsed sequences, an effect that was evident even after 2 consecutive retraining periods without intervention. Furthermore, the older the subject, the more prominent was the disruptive effect of ctDCS (R(2) = 0.50, P = 0.01). These data provide direct evidence for a causal functional link between the iMC and motor skill acquisition in old subjects pointing toward the concept that the recruitment of iMC in old is an adaptive process in response to age-related declines in motor functions.

  2. Optimizing Word Learning via Links to Perceptual and Motoric Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hald, Lea A.; de Nooijer, Jacqueline; van Gog, Tamara; Bekkering, Harold

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to consider how current vocabulary training methods could be optimized by considering recent scientific insights in how the brain represents conceptual knowledge. We outline the findings from several methods of vocabulary training. In each case, we consider how taking an embodied cognition perspective could impact word…

  3. Optimizing Word Learning via Links to Perceptual and Motoric Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hald, Lea A.; de Nooijer, Jacqueline; van Gog, Tamara; Bekkering, Harold

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to consider how current vocabulary training methods could be optimized by considering recent scientific insights in how the brain represents conceptual knowledge. We outline the findings from several methods of vocabulary training. In each case, we consider how taking an embodied cognition perspective could impact word…

  4. Tug of War in Motor Protein Ensembles Revealed with a Programmable DNA Origami Scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Derr, N. D.; Goodman, B. S.; Jungmann, R.; Leschziner, A. E.; Shih, W. M.; Reck-Peterson, S. L.

    2013-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein and kinesin-1 are opposite-polarity, microtubule-based motors that transport a wide variety of cargo in eukaryotic cells. Many cellular cargos demonstrate bi-directional movement due to the presence of ensembles of dynein and kinesin, but are ultimately sorted with spatial and temporal precision. To investigate the mechanisms that coordinate motor ensemble behavior, we built a programmable synthetic cargo using three-dimensional DNA origami to which varying numbers of DNA oligonucleotide-linked motors could be attached, allowing control of motor type, number, spacing, and orientation in vitro. In ensembles of 1–7 identical-polarity motors, motor number had minimal affect on directional velocity, while ensembles of opposite-polarity motors engaged in a tug of war resolvable by disengaging one motor species. PMID:23065903

  5. Relations among motor, social, and cognitive skills in pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Kim, Helyn; Carlson, Abby G; Curby, Timothy W; Winsler, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Despite the comorbidity between motor difficulties and certain disabilities, limited research has examined links between early motor, cognitive, and social skills in preschool-aged children with developmental disabilities. The present study examined the relative contributions of gross motor and fine motor skills to the prediction of improvements in children's cognitive and social skills among 2,027 pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities, including specific learning disorder, speech/language impairment, intellectual disability, and autism spectrum disorder. Results indicated that for pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities, fine motor skills, but not gross motor skills, were predictive of improvements in cognitive and social skills, even after controlling for demographic information and initial skill levels. Moreover, depending on the type of developmental disability, the pattern of prediction of gross motor and fine motor skills to improvements in children's cognitive and social skills differed. Implications are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Time Processing and Motor Control in Movement Disorders.

    PubMed

    Avanzino, Laura; Pelosin, Elisa; Vicario, Carmelo M; Lagravinese, Giovanna; Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Martino, Davide

    2016-01-01

    cerebral networks including cortical areas, cerebellum, and other subcortical structures (Ivry and Spencer, 2004; Coull and Nobre, 2008). Timing is an essential component of motor control primarily within two types of motor tasks: (i) when producing sequential rhythmic movements or sustained movements of a definite duration (explicit timing); (ii) when the temporal information is used implicitly, such as when coordinating our movements to those of moving objects or individuals within the external environment (implicit timing). In this review, we will provide a brief description of the neural network supporting motor timing focusing only on instrumental information to explain the link between timing and motor control in movement disorders. Then we will review available data on motor timing in Parkinson's disease, dystonia, Huntington's disease, and Tourette syndrome, and discuss how this body of evidence integrates with the available information on the pathophysiology of these movement disorders. Finally, we will discuss the translational aspects of the explored neural mechanisms with respect to future rehabilitation strategies.

  7. Time Processing and Motor Control in Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Avanzino, Laura; Pelosin, Elisa; Vicario, Carmelo M.; Lagravinese, Giovanna; Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Martino, Davide

    2016-01-01

    diffuse cerebral networks including cortical areas, cerebellum, and other subcortical structures (Ivry and Spencer, 2004; Coull and Nobre, 2008). Timing is an essential component of motor control primarily within two types of motor tasks: (i) when producing sequential rhythmic movements or sustained movements of a definite duration (explicit timing); (ii) when the temporal information is used implicitly, such as when coordinating our movements to those of moving objects or individuals within the external environment (implicit timing). In this review, we will provide a brief description of the neural network supporting motor timing focusing only on instrumental information to explain the link between timing and motor control in movement disorders. Then we will review available data on motor timing in Parkinson's disease, dystonia, Huntington's disease, and Tourette syndrome, and discuss how this body of evidence integrates with the available information on the pathophysiology of these movement disorders. Finally, we will discuss the translational aspects of the explored neural mechanisms with respect to future rehabilitation strategies. PMID:28018198

  8. Role of the motor system in language knowledge.

    PubMed

    Berent, Iris; Brem, Anna-Katharine; Zhao, Xu; Seligson, Erica; Pan, Hong; Epstein, Jane; Stern, Emily; Galaburda, Albert M; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2015-02-17

    All spoken languages express words by sound patterns, and certain patterns (e.g., blog) are systematically preferred to others (e.g., lbog). What principles account for such preferences: does the language system encode abstract rules banning syllables like lbog, or does their dislike reflect the increased motor demands associated with speech production? More generally, we ask whether linguistic knowledge is fully embodied or whether some linguistic principles could potentially be abstract. To address this question, here we gauge the sensitivity of English speakers to the putative universal syllable hierarchy (e.g., blif ≻ bnif ≻ bdif ≻ lbif) while undergoing transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the cortical motor representation of the left orbicularis oris muscle. If syllable preferences reflect motor simulation, then worse-formed syllables (e.g., lbif) should (i) elicit more errors; (ii) engage more strongly motor brain areas; and (iii) elicit stronger effects of TMS on these motor regions. In line with the motor account, we found that repetitive TMS pulses impaired participants' global sensitivity to the number of syllables, and functional MRI confirmed that the cortical stimulation site was sensitive to the syllable hierarchy. Contrary to the motor account, however, ill-formed syllables were least likely to engage the lip sensorimotor area and they were least impaired by TMS. Results suggest that speech perception automatically triggers motor action, but this effect is not causally linked to the computation of linguistic structure. We conclude that the language and motor systems are intimately linked, yet distinct. Language is designed to optimize motor action, but its knowledge includes principles that are disembodied and potentially abstract.

  9. Advanced motor and motor control development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuertz, Kenneth L.; Beauchamp, Edward D.

    1988-08-01

    The capability of operating a high speed permanent magnet brushless dc motor with electronic controller over a wide load and speed range was demonstrated. A centrifugal pump was used as the loading mechanism and hydraulic fluid was pumped in simulation of an aircraft engine fuel pump requirement. A motor speed of 45,000 rpm was reached and a maximum output of 68.5 hp was demonstrated. The response of the system to step commands for speed change was established. Reduction of size and weight of electronic control was established as a primary future goal. The program system concept with minor rotating machine improvements is viable for high speed drive applications up to 100-hp level.

  10. System and method for motor parameter estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Luhrs, Bin; Yan, Ting

    2014-03-18

    A system and method for determining unknown values of certain motor parameters includes a motor input device connectable to an electric motor having associated therewith values for known motor parameters and an unknown value of at least one motor parameter. The motor input device includes a processing unit that receives a first input from the electric motor comprising values for the known motor parameters for the electric motor and receive a second input comprising motor data on a plurality of reference motors, including values for motor parameters corresponding to the known motor parameters of the electric motor and values for motor parameters corresponding to the at least one unknown motor parameter value of the electric motor. The processor determines the unknown value of the at least one motor parameter from the first input and the second input and determines a motor management strategy for the electric motor based thereon.

  11. Motor Vehicle Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... these crashes is one part of motor vehicle safety. Here are some things you can do to ... speed or drive aggressively Don't drive impaired Safety also involves being aware of others. Share the ...

  12. MotorWeek

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    In 2008, PBS's MotorWeek, television's original automotive magazine, visited Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center "to learn what it really takes to make clean power sources a viable reality."

  13. Booster separation motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The design, development, fabrication, testing, evaluation and flight qualification of the space shuttle booster separation motor is discussed. Delivery of flight hardware to support the research and development flights of the space shuttle is discussed.

  14. Fine motor control

    MedlinePlus

    ... with Parkinson disease have trouble speaking, eating, and writing because they have lost fine motor control. The ... Drawing lines or circles Folding clothes Holding and writing with a pencil Stacking blocks Zipping a zipper

  15. General Motors Goes Metric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Ted

    1976-01-01

    Describes the program to convert to the metric system all of General Motors Corporation products. Steps include establishing policy regarding employee-owned tools, setting up training plans, and making arrangements with suppliers. (MF)

  16. Piezoelectric Rotary Tube Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Charles D.; Badescu, Mircea; Braun, David F.; Culhane, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A custom rotary SQUIGGLE(Registered TradeMark) motor has been developed that sets new benchmarks for small motor size, high position resolution, and high torque without gear reduction. Its capabilities cannot be achieved with conventional electromagnetic motors. It consists of piezoelectric plates mounted on a square flexible tube. The plates are actuated via voltage waveforms 90 out of phase at the resonant frequency of the device to create rotary motion. The motors were incorporated into a two-axis postioner that was designed for fiber-fed spectroscopy for ground-based and space-based projects. The positioner enables large-scale celestial object surveys to take place in a practical amount of time.

  17. Molecular Motors from DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turberfield, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    DNA is a wonderful material for nanoscale construction: its self-assembly can be programmed by making use of its information-carrying capability and its hybridization or hydrolysis can be used as to provide energy for synthetic molecular machinery. With DNA it is possible to design and build three-dimensional scaffolds, to attach molecular components to them with sub-nanometre precision-and then to make them move. I shall describe our work on autonomous, biomimetic molecular motors powered by chemical fuels and the use of synthetic molecular machinery to control covalent chemical synthesis. I shall demonstrate bipedal motors whose operation depends on the coordination of the chemomechanical cycles of two separate catalytic centres and burnt bridges motors that can be programmed to navigate networks of tracks. I shall also discuss the use of kinesin motor proteins to power synthetic devices.

  18. MotorWeek

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, PBS's MotorWeek, television's original automotive magazine, visited Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center "to learn what it really takes to make clean power sources a viable reality."

  19. Disentangling Fine Motor Skills' Relations to Academic Achievement: The Relative Contributions of Visual-Spatial Integration and Visual-Motor Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Abby G.; Rowe, Ellen; Curby, Timothy W.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has established a connection between children's fine motor skills and their academic performance. Previous research has focused on fine motor skills measured prior to elementary school, while the present sample included children ages 5-18 years old, making it possible to examine whether this link remains relevant throughout…

  20. Disentangling Fine Motor Skills' Relations to Academic Achievement: The Relative Contributions of Visual-Spatial Integration and Visual-Motor Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Abby G.; Rowe, Ellen; Curby, Timothy W.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has established a connection between children's fine motor skills and their academic performance. Previous research has focused on fine motor skills measured prior to elementary school, while the present sample included children ages 5-18 years old, making it possible to examine whether this link remains relevant throughout…

  1. High Power Density Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    With the growing concerns of global warming, the need for pollution-free vehicles is ever increasing. Pollution-free flight is one of NASA's goals for the 21" Century. , One method of approaching that goal is hydrogen-fueled aircraft that use fuel cells or turbo- generators to develop electric power that can drive electric motors that turn the aircraft's propulsive fans or propellers. Hydrogen fuel would likely be carried as a liquid, stored in tanks at its boiling point of 20.5 K (-422.5 F). Conventional electric motors, however, are far too heavy (for a given horsepower) to use on aircraft. Fortunately the liquid hydrogen fuel can provide essentially free refrigeration that can be used to cool the windings of motors before the hydrogen is used for fuel. Either High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) or high purity metals such as copper or aluminum may be used in the motor windings. Superconductors have essentially zero electrical resistance to steady current. The electrical resistance of high purity aluminum or copper near liquid hydrogen temperature can be l/lOO* or less of the room temperature resistance. These conductors could provide higher motor efficiency than normal room-temperature motors achieve. But much more importantly, these conductors can carry ten to a hundred times more current than copper conductors do in normal motors operating at room temperature. This is a consequence of the low electrical resistance and of good heat transfer coefficients in boiling LH2. Thus the conductors can produce higher magnetic field strengths and consequently higher motor torque and power. Designs, analysis and actual cryogenic motor tests show that such cryogenic motors could produce three or more times as much power per unit weight as turbine engines can, whereas conventional motors produce only 1/5 as much power per weight as turbine engines. This summer work has been done with Litz wire to maximize the current density. The current is limited by the amount of heat it

  2. High Power Density Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    With the growing concerns of global warming, the need for pollution-free vehicles is ever increasing. Pollution-free flight is one of NASA's goals for the 21" Century. , One method of approaching that goal is hydrogen-fueled aircraft that use fuel cells or turbo- generators to develop electric power that can drive electric motors that turn the aircraft's propulsive fans or propellers. Hydrogen fuel would likely be carried as a liquid, stored in tanks at its boiling point of 20.5 K (-422.5 F). Conventional electric motors, however, are far too heavy (for a given horsepower) to use on aircraft. Fortunately the liquid hydrogen fuel can provide essentially free refrigeration that can be used to cool the windings of motors before the hydrogen is used for fuel. Either High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) or high purity metals such as copper or aluminum may be used in the motor windings. Superconductors have essentially zero electrical resistance to steady current. The electrical resistance of high purity aluminum or copper near liquid hydrogen temperature can be l/lOO* or less of the room temperature resistance. These conductors could provide higher motor efficiency than normal room-temperature motors achieve. But much more importantly, these conductors can carry ten to a hundred times more current than copper conductors do in normal motors operating at room temperature. This is a consequence of the low electrical resistance and of good heat transfer coefficients in boiling LH2. Thus the conductors can produce higher magnetic field strengths and consequently higher motor torque and power. Designs, analysis and actual cryogenic motor tests show that such cryogenic motors could produce three or more times as much power per unit weight as turbine engines can, whereas conventional motors produce only 1/5 as much power per weight as turbine engines. This summer work has been done with Litz wire to maximize the current density. The current is limited by the amount of heat it

  3. Motor Energy Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Metzger, Jesse Dean

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple motor inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: High Efficiency Motor retrofit and Cogged V-belts retrofit. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  4. Rocket Motor Microphone Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilkey, Debbie; Herrera, Eric; Gee, Kent L.; Giraud, Jerom H.; Young, Devin J.

    2010-01-01

    At ATK's facility in Utah, large full-scale solid rocket motors are tested. The largest is a five-segment version of the reusable solid rocket motor, which is for use on the Ares I launch vehicle. As a continuous improvement project, ATK and BYU investigated the use of microphones on these static tests, the vibration and temperature to which the instruments are subjected, and in particular the use of vent tubes and the effects these vents have at low frequencies.

  5. Development Motor-8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    One of the key tests in the effort to return the Space Shuttle to flight following the Challenger accident was testing the development Motor-8 (DM-8). The 126-foot long, 1.2-million-pound motor, designated DM-8, underwent a full-duration horizontal test firing for two minutes at the Thiokol test facility in Utah. It was fitted with more than 500 instruments to measure such things as acceleration, pressure, deflection thrust, strain, temperature, and electrical properties.

  6. Maintaining Motor Skill Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-18

    trials eacb--ac--yIecon- ,, :;. - taed p- --d-t-trias,--P-t- rilk --r. expermenter-difie-d- ovementu con- strained by the stop. The distance between...processing in motor control-i ... and -laIg- e-rr--’- cae -clrsj--98 I Y. ag.L., K. A., & D5oWe-l, M. R. Serial-position effects in motor short-! term

  7. Motor maps and synergies.

    PubMed

    Neilson, Peter D; Neilson, Megan D

    2005-01-01

    Consider the process of raising and lowering the arm in the sagittal plane. Different parts of different muscles operate over different sectors of the angular range. How and why does the nervous system implement this differential muscle activation according to joint angle? We contend that such control depends on the adaptive formation of motor maps. These solve the problem of redundancy in the musculoskeletal system by connecting a relatively small number of cortical columns in the motor cortex to a large number of alpha motor neuron pools. We argue that motor maps are formed such that each functional muscle is activated in proportion to its moment arm about the movement. Because of this the required agonist and antagonist turning forces are generated with a minimum demand for metabolic energy. We know from biomechanical principles that, at any given posture, those muscle fibres that change length most in response to a small joint-angle change are those with the greatest moment arm. Likewise those that change least have the smallest. By establishing a model of the polynomial relationships between the lengths of functional muscles l and the corresponding changes in joint angles theta, the nervous system can generate signals partial differentiallj/ partial differentialthetai (where lj is the length of the jth functional muscle and thetai is the magnitude of the ith elemental movement). These signals create motor maps by modulating the gains of descending motor pathways. As a result, functional muscles are activated in proportion to their moment arms. This reduces the demand for metabolic energy to a minimum. Since moment arms change with joint angle, it also accounts for the experimental observations above. Such motor mapping effectively provides a minimum energy "wired-in" synergy. Established in utero, motor maps are the first stage of synergy formation and provide the basis for the development of subsequent task-dependent synergies.

  8. Development Motor-8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    One of the key tests in the effort to return the Space Shuttle to flight following the Challenger accident was testing the development Motor-8 (DM-8). The 126-foot long, 1.2-million-pound motor, designated DM-8, underwent a full-duration horizontal test firing for two minutes at the Thiokol test facility in Utah. It was fitted with more than 500 instruments to measure such things as acceleration, pressure, deflection thrust, strain, temperature, and electrical properties.

  9. Electric vehicle motors and controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    Improved and advanced components being developed include electronically commutated permanent magnet motors of both drum and disk configuration, an unconventional brush commutated motor, and ac induction motors and various controllers. Test results on developmental motors, controllers, and combinations thereof indicate that efficiencies of 90% and higher for individual components, and 80% to 90% for motor/controller combinations can be obtained at rated power. The simplicity of the developmental motors and the potential for ultimately low cost electronics indicate that one or more of these approaches to electric vehicle propulsion may eventually displace presently used controllers and brush commutated dc motors.

  10. Cargo Transport by Two Coupled Myosin Va Motors on Actin Filaments and Bundles.

    PubMed

    Ali, M Yusuf; Vilfan, Andrej; Trybus, Kathleen M; Warshaw, David M

    2016-11-15

    Myosin Va (myoVa) is a processive, actin-based molecular motor essential for intracellular cargo transport. When a cargo is transported by an ensemble of myoVa motors, each motor faces significant physical barriers and directional challenges created by the complex actin cytoskeleton, a network of actin filaments and actin bundles. The principles that govern the interaction of multiple motors attached to the same cargo are still poorly understood. To understand the mechanical interactions between multiple motors, we developed a simple in vitro model in which two individual myoVa motors labeled with different-colored Qdots are linked via a third Qdot that acts as a cargo. The velocity of this two-motor complex was reduced by 27% as compared to a single motor, whereas run length was increased by only 37%, much less than expected from multimotor transport models. Therefore, at low ATP, which allowed us to identify individual motor steps, we investigated the intermotor dynamics within the two-motor complex. The randomness of stepping leads to a buildup of tension in the linkage between motors-which in turn slows down the leading motor-and increases the frequency of backward steps and the detachment rate. We establish a direct relationship between the velocity reduction and the distribution of intermotor distances. The analysis of run lengths and dwell times for the two-motor complex, which has only one motor engaged with the actin track, reveals that half of the runs are terminated by almost simultaneous detachment of both motors. This finding challenges the assumptions of conventional multimotor models based on consecutive motor detachment. Similar, but even more drastic, results were observed with two-motor complexes on actin bundles, which showed a run length that was even shorter than that of a single motor.

  11. Engineering applications of biomolecular motors.

    PubMed

    Hess, Henry

    2011-08-15

    Biomolecular motors, in particular motor proteins from the kinesin and myosin families, can be used to explore engineering applications of molecular motors in general. Their outstanding performance enables the experimental study of hybrid systems, where bio-inspired functions such as sensing, actuation, and transport rely on the nanoscale generation of mechanical force. Scaling laws and theoretical studies demonstrate the optimality of biomolecular motor designs and inform the development of synthetic molecular motors.

  12. Motor Memory Deficits Contribute to Motor Impairments in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Neely, Kristina A; Mohanty, Suman; Schmitt, Lauren M; Wang, Zheng; Sweeney, John A; Mosconi, Matthew W

    2016-05-07

    Sensorimotor abnormalities are common in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, the processes underlying these deficits remain unclear. This study examined force production with and without visual feedback to determine if individuals with ASD can utilize internal representations to guide sustained force. Individuals with ASD showed a faster rate of force decay in the absence of visual feedback. Comparison of force output and tests of social and verbal abilities demonstrated a link between motor memory impairment and social and verbal deficits in individuals with ASD. This finding suggests that deficits in storage or retrieval of motor memories contribute to sensorimotor deficits and implicates frontoparietal networks involved in short-term consolidation of action dynamics used to optimize ongoing motor output.

  13. Competing neural ensembles in motor cortex gate goal-directed motor output

    PubMed Central

    Zagha, Edward; Ge, Xinxin; McCormick, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Unit recordings in behaving animals have revealed the transformation of sensory to motor representations in cortical neurons. However, we still lack basic insights into the mechanisms by which neurons interact to generate such transformations. Here, we study cortical circuits related to behavioral control in mice engaged in a sensory detection task. We recorded neural activity using extracellular and intracellular techniques and analyzed the task-related neural dynamics to reveal underlying circuit processes. Within motor cortex, we find two populations of neurons that have opposing spiking patterns in anticipation of movement. From correlation analyses and circuit modeling, we suggest that these dynamics reflect neural ensembles engaged in a competition. Furthermore, we demonstrate how this competitive circuit may convert a transient, sensory stimulus into a motor command. Together, these data reveal cellular and circuit processes underlying behavioral control, and establish an essential framework for future studies linking cellular activity to behavior. PMID:26593093

  14. Robust transport by multiple motors with nonlinear force-velocity relations and stochastic load sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunwar, Ambarish; Mogilner, Alexander

    2010-03-01

    Transport by processive molecular motors plays an important role in many cell biological phenomena. In many cases, motors work together to transport cargos in the cell, so it is important to understand the mechanics of the multiple motors. Based on earlier modeling efforts, here we study effects of nonlinear force-velocity relations and stochastic load sharing on multiple motor transport. We find that when two or three motors transport the cargo, then the nonlinear and stochastic effects compensate so that the mechanical properties of the transport are robust. Similarly, the transport is insensitive to compliance of the cargo-motor links. Furthermore, the rate of movement against moderate loads is not improved by increasing the small number of motors. When the motor number is greater than 4, correlations between the motors become negligible, and the earlier analytical mean-field theory of the multiple motor transport holds. We predict that the effective diffusion of the cargo driven by the multiple motors under load increases by an order of magnitude compared to that for the single motor. Finally, our simulations predict that the stochastic effects are responsible for a significant dispersion of velocities generated by the 'tug-of-war' of the multiple opposing motors.

  15. Productive Cooperation among Processive Motors Depends Inversely on Their Mechanochemical Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Driver, Jonathan W.; Jamison, D. Kenneth; Uppulury, Karthik; Rogers, Arthur R.; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.; Diehl, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Subcellular cargos are often transported by teams of processive molecular motors, which raises questions regarding the role of motor cooperation in intracellular transport. Although our ability to characterize the transport behaviors of multiple-motor systems has improved substantially, many aspects of multiple-motor dynamics are poorly understood. This work describes a transition rate model that predicts the load-dependent transport behaviors of multiple-motor complexes from detailed measurements of a single motor's elastic and mechanochemical properties. Transition rates are parameterized via analyses of single-motor stepping behaviors, load-rate-dependent motor-filament detachment kinetics, and strain-induced stiffening of motor-cargo linkages. The model reproduces key signatures found in optical trapping studies of structurally defined complexes composed of two kinesin motors, and predicts that multiple kinesins generally have difficulties in cooperating together. Although such behavior is influenced by the spatiotemporal dependence of the applied load, it appears to be directly linked to the efficiency of kinesin's stepping mechanism, and other types of less efficient and weaker processive motors are predicted to cooperate more productively. Thus, the mechanochemical efficiencies of different motor types may determine how effectively they cooperate together, and hence how motor copy number contributes to the regulation of cargo motion. PMID:21767491

  16. Robust transport by multiple motors with nonlinear force-velocity relations and stochastic load sharing.

    PubMed

    Kunwar, Ambarish; Mogilner, Alexander

    2010-02-10

    Transport by processive molecular motors plays an important role in many cell biological phenomena. In many cases, motors work together to transport cargos in the cell, so it is important to understand the mechanics of the multiple motors. Based on earlier modeling efforts, here we study effects of nonlinear force-velocity relations and stochastic load sharing on multiple motor transport. We find that when two or three motors transport the cargo, then the nonlinear and stochastic effects compensate so that the mechanical properties of the transport are robust. Similarly, the transport is insensitive to compliance of the cargo-motor links. Furthermore, the rate of movement against moderate loads is not improved by increasing the small number of motors. When the motor number is greater than 4, correlations between the motors become negligible, and the earlier analytical mean-field theory of the multiple motor transport holds. We predict that the effective diffusion of the cargo driven by the multiple motors under load increases by an order of magnitude compared to that for the single motor. Finally, our simulations predict that the stochastic effects are responsible for a significant dispersion of velocities generated by the 'tug-of-war' of the multiple opposing motors.

  17. External forces influence the elastic coupling effects during cargo transport by molecular motors.

    PubMed

    Berger, Florian; Keller, Corina; Klumpp, Stefan; Lipowsky, Reinhard

    2015-02-01

    Cellular transport is achieved by the cooperative action of molecular motors which are elastically linked to a common cargo. When the motors pull on the cargo at the same time, they experience fluctuating elastic strain forces induced by the stepping of the other motors. These elastic coupling forces can influence the motors' stepping and unbinding behavior and thereby the ability to transport cargos. Based on a generic single motor description, we introduce a framework that explains the response of two identical molecular motors to a constant external force. In particular, we relate the single motor parameters, the coupling strength and the external load force to the dynamics of the motor pair. We derive four distinct transport regimes and determine how the crossover lines between the regimes depend on the load force. Our description of the overall cargo dynamics takes into account relaxational displacements of the cargo caused by the unbinding of one motor. For large forces and weak elastic coupling these back-shifts dominate the displacements. To develop an intuitive understanding about motor cooperativity during cargo transport, we introduce a time scale for load sharing. This time scale allows us to predict how the regulation of single motor parameters influences the cooperativity. As an example, we show that up-regulating the single motor processivity enhances load sharing of the motor pair.

  18. Applying torque to the Escherichia coli flagellar motor using magnetic tweezers

    PubMed Central

    van Oene, Maarten M.; Dickinson, Laura E.; Cross, Bronwen; Pedaci, Francesco; Lipfert, Jan; Dekker, Nynke H.

    2017-01-01

    The bacterial flagellar motor of Escherichia coli is a nanoscale rotary engine essential for bacterial propulsion. Studies on the power output of single motors rely on the measurement of motor torque and rotation under external load. Here, we investigate the use of magnetic tweezers, which in principle allow the application and active control of a calibrated load torque, to study single flagellar motors in Escherichia coli. We manipulate the external load on the motor by adjusting the magnetic field experienced by a magnetic bead linked to the motor, and we probe the motor’s response. A simple model describes the average motor speed over the entire range of applied fields. We extract the motor torque at stall and find it to be similar to the motor torque at drag-limited speed. In addition, use of the magnetic tweezers allows us to force motor rotation in both forward and backward directions. We monitor the motor’s performance before and after periods of forced rotation and observe no destructive effects on the motor. Our experiments show how magnetic tweezers can provide active and fast control of the external load while also exposing remaining challenges in calibration. Through their non-invasive character and straightforward parallelization, magnetic tweezers provide an attractive platform to study nanoscale rotary motors at the single-motor level. PMID:28266562

  19. Productive cooperation among processive motors depends inversely on their mechanochemical efficiency.

    PubMed

    Driver, Jonathan W; Jamison, D Kenneth; Uppulury, Karthik; Rogers, Arthur R; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B; Diehl, Michael R

    2011-07-20

    Subcellular cargos are often transported by teams of processive molecular motors, which raises questions regarding the role of motor cooperation in intracellular transport. Although our ability to characterize the transport behaviors of multiple-motor systems has improved substantially, many aspects of multiple-motor dynamics are poorly understood. This work describes a transition rate model that predicts the load-dependent transport behaviors of multiple-motor complexes from detailed measurements of a single motor's elastic and mechanochemical properties. Transition rates are parameterized via analyses of single-motor stepping behaviors, load-rate-dependent motor-filament detachment kinetics, and strain-induced stiffening of motor-cargo linkages. The model reproduces key signatures found in optical trapping studies of structurally defined complexes composed of two kinesin motors, and predicts that multiple kinesins generally have difficulties in cooperating together. Although such behavior is influenced by the spatiotemporal dependence of the applied load, it appears to be directly linked to the efficiency of kinesin's stepping mechanism, and other types of less efficient and weaker processive motors are predicted to cooperate more productively. Thus, the mechanochemical efficiencies of different motor types may determine how effectively they cooperate together, and hence how motor copy number contributes to the regulation of cargo motion.

  20. Robust transport by multiple motors with nonlinear force–velocity relations and stochastic load sharing

    PubMed Central

    Kunwar, Ambarish; Mogilner, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Transport by processive molecular motors plays an important role in many cell biological phenomena. In many cases, motors work together to transport cargos in the cell, so it is important to understand the mechanics of the multiple motors. Based on earlier modeling efforts, here we study effects of nonlinear force–velocity relations and stochastic load sharing on multiple motor transport. We find that when two or three motors transport the cargo, then the nonlinear and stochastic effects compensate so that the mechanical properties of the transport are robust. Similarly, the transport is insensitive to compliance of the cargo-motor links. Furthermore, the rate of movement against moderate loads is not improved by increasing the small number of motors. When the motor number is greater than 4, correlations between the motors become negligible, and the earlier analytical mean-field theory of the multiple motor transport holds. We predict that the effective diffusion of the cargo driven by the multiple motors under load increases by an order of magnitude compared to that for the single motor. Finally, our simulations predict that the stochastic effects are responsible for a significant dispersion of velocities generated by the ‘tug-of-war’ of the multiple opposing motors. PMID:20147778

  1. Sensory-motor problems in Autism.

    PubMed

    Whyatt, Caroline; Craig, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Despite being largely characterized as a social and cognitive disorder, strong evidence indicates the presence of significant sensory-motor problems in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This paper outlines our progression from initial, broad assessment using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to subsequent targeted kinematic assessment. In particular, pronounced ASD impairment seen in the broad categories of manual dexterity and ball skills was found to be routed in specific difficulties on isolated tasks, which were translated into focused experimental assessment. Kinematic results from both subsequent studies highlight impaired use of perception-action coupling to guide, adapt and tailor movement to task demands, resulting in inflexible and rigid motor profiles. In particular difficulties with the use of temporal adaption are shown, with "hyperdexterity" witnessed in ballistic movement profiles, often at the cost of spatial accuracy and task performance. By linearly progressing from the use of a standardized assessment tool to targeted kinematic assessment, clear and defined links are drawn between measureable difficulties and underlying sensory-motor assessment. Results are specifically viewed in-light of perception-action coupling and its role in early infant development suggesting that rather than being "secondary" level impairment, sensory-motor problems may be fundamental in the progression of ASD. This logical and systematic process thus allows a further understanding into the potential root of observable motor problems in ASD; a vital step if underlying motor problems are to be considered a fundamental aspect of autism and allow a route of non-invasive preliminary diagnosis.

  2. Seeing fearful body language rapidly freezes the observer's motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Borgomaneri, Sara; Vitale, Francesca; Gazzola, Valeria; Avenanti, Alessio

    2015-04-01

    Fearful body language is a salient signal alerting the observer to the presence of a potential threat in the surrounding environment. Although detecting potential threats may trigger an immediate reduction of motor output in animals (i.e., freezing behavior), it is unclear at what point in time similar reductions occur in the human motor cortex and whether they originate from excitatory or inhibitory processes. Using single-pulse and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), here we tested the hypothesis that the observer's motor cortex implements extremely fast suppression of motor readiness when seeing emotional bodies - and fearful body expressions in particular. Participants observed pictures of body postures and categorized them as happy, fearful or neutral while receiving TMS over the right or left motor cortex at 100-125 msec after picture onset. In three different sessions, we assessed corticospinal excitability, short intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF). Independently of the stimulated hemisphere and the time of the stimulation, watching fearful bodies suppressed ICF relative to happy and neutral body expressions. Moreover, happy expressions reduced ICF relative to neutral actions. No changes in corticospinal excitability or SICI were found during the task. These findings show extremely rapid bilateral modulation of the motor cortices when seeing emotional bodies, with stronger suppression of motor readiness when seeing fearful bodies. Our results provide neurophysiological support for the evolutionary notions that emotion perception is inherently linked to action systems and that fear-related cues induce an urgent mobilization of motor reactions.

  3. Motor system evolution and the emergence of high cognitive functions.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Germán; Merchant, Hugo

    2014-11-01

    In human and nonhuman primates, the cortical motor system comprises a collection of brain areas primarily related to motor control. Existing evidence suggests that no other mammalian group has the number, extension, and complexity of motor-related areas observed in the frontal lobe of primates. Such diversity is probably related to the wide behavioral flexibility that primates display. Indeed, recent comparative anatomical, psychophysical, and neurophysiological studies suggest that the evolution of the motor cortical areas closely correlates with the emergence of high cognitive abilities. Advances in understanding the cortical motor system have shown that these areas are also related to functions previously linked to higher-order associative areas. In addition, experimental observations have shown that the classical distinction between perceptual and motor functions is not strictly followed across cortical areas. In this paper, we review evidence suggesting that evolution of the motor system had a role in the shaping of different cognitive functions in primates. We argue that the increase in the complexity of the motor system has contributed to the emergence of new abilities observed in human and nonhuman primates, including the recognition and imitation of the actions of others, speech perception and production, and the execution and appreciation of the rhythmic structure of music. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Obsessive-compulsive disorder: a "sensory-motor" problem?

    PubMed

    Russo, M; Naro, A; Mastroeni, C; Morgante, F; Terranova, C; Muscatello, M R; Zoccali, R; Calabrò, R S; Quartarone, A

    2014-05-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a clinically heterogeneous condition. Although its pathophysiology is not completely understood, neurophysiologic and neuroimaging data have disclosed functional abnormalities in the networks linking frontal cortex, supplementary motor and premotor areas, striatum, globus pallidus, and thalamus (CSPT circuits). By means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) it is possible to test inhibitory and excitatory circuits within motor cortex. Previous studies on OCD patients under medication have demonstrated altered cortical inhibitory circuits as tested by TMS. On the other hand there is growing evidence suggesting an alteration of sensory-motor integration. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate sensory-motor integration (SAI and LAI), intracortical inhibition, and facilitation in drug-naïve OCD patients, using TMS. In our sample, we have demonstrated a significant SAI reduction in OCD patients when compared to a cohort of healthy individuals. SAI abnormalities may be related to a dysfunction of CSPT circuits which are involved in sensory-motor integration processes. Thus, it can be speculated that hypofunctioning of such system might impair the ability of OCD patients to suppress internally triggered intrusive and repetitive movements and thoughts. In conclusion, our data suggest that OCD may be considered as a sensory motor disorder where a dysfunction of sensory-motor integration may play an important role in the release of motor compulsions.

  5. Regaining motor control in musician's dystonia by restoring sensorimotor organization.

    PubMed

    Rosenkranz, Karin; Butler, Katherine; Williamon, Aaron; Rothwell, John C

    2009-11-18

    Professional musicians are an excellent model of long-term motor learning effects on structure and function of the sensorimotor system. However, intensive motor skill training has been associated with task-specific deficiency in hand motor control, which has a higher prevalence among musicians (musician's dystonia) than in the general population. Using a transcranial magnetic stimulation paradigm, we previously found an expanded spatial integration of proprioceptive input into the hand motor cortex [sensorimotor organization (SMO)] in healthy musicians. In musician's dystonia, however, this expansion was even larger. Whereas motor skills of musicians are likely to be supported by a spatially expanded SMO, we hypothesized that in musician's dystonia this might have developed too far and now disrupts rather than assists task-specific motor control. If so, motor control should be regained by reversing the excessive reorganization in musician's dystonia. Here, we test this hypothesis and show that a 15 min intervention with proprioceptive input (proprioceptive training) restored SMO in pianists with musician's dystonia to the pattern seen in healthy pianists. Crucially, task-specific motor control improved significantly and objectively as measured with a MIDI (musical instrument digital interface) piano, and the amount of behavioral improvement was significantly correlated to the degree of sensorimotor reorganization. In healthy pianists and nonmusicians, the SMO and motor performance remained essentially unchanged. These findings suggest that the differentiation of SMO in the hand motor cortex and the degree of motor control of intensively practiced tasks are significantly linked and finely balanced. Proprioceptive training restored this balance in musician's dystonia to the behaviorally beneficial level of healthy musicians.

  6. A New Type of Motor: Pneumatic Step Motor

    PubMed Central

    Stoianovici, Dan; Patriciu, Alexandru; Petrisor, Doru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Kavoussi, Louis

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new type of pneumatic motor, a pneumatic step motor (PneuStep). Directional rotary motion of discrete displacement is achieved by sequentially pressurizing the three ports of the motor. Pulsed pressure waves are generated by a remote pneumatic distributor. The motor assembly includes a motor, gearhead, and incremental position encoder in a compact, central bore construction. A special electronic driver is used to control the new motor with electric stepper indexers and standard motion control cards. The motor accepts open-loop step operation as well as closed-loop control with position feedback from the enclosed sensor. A special control feature is implemented to adapt classic control algorithms to the new motor, and is experimentally validated. The speed performance of the motor degrades with the length of the pneumatic hoses between the distributor and motor. Experimental results are presented to reveal this behavior and set the expectation level. Nevertheless, the stepper achieves easily controllable precise motion unlike other pneumatic motors. The motor was designed to be compatible with magnetic resonance medical imaging equipment, for actuating an image-guided intervention robot, for medical applications. For this reason, the motors were entirely made of nonmagnetic and dielectric materials such as plastics, ceramics, and rubbers. Encoding was performed with fiber optics, so that the motors are electricity free, exclusively using pressure and light. PneuStep is readily applicable to other pneumatic or hydraulic precision-motion applications. PMID:21528106

  7. Improvement in precision grip force control with self-modulation of primary motor cortex during motor imagery.

    PubMed

    Blefari, Maria L; Sulzer, James; Hepp-Reymond, Marie-Claude; Kollias, Spyros; Gassert, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Motor imagery (MI) has shown effectiveness in enhancing motor performance. This may be due to the common neural mechanisms underlying MI and motor execution (ME). The main region of the ME network, the primary motor cortex (M1), has been consistently linked to motor performance. However, the activation of M1 during motor imagery is controversial, which may account for inconsistent rehabilitation therapy outcomes using MI. Here, we examined the relationship between contralateral M1 (cM1) activation during MI and changes in sensorimotor performance. To aid cM1 activity modulation during MI, we used real-time fMRI neurofeedback-guided MI based on cM1 hand area blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in healthy subjects, performing kinesthetic MI of pinching. We used multiple regression analysis to examine the correlation between cM1 BOLD signal and changes in motor performance during an isometric pinching task of those subjects who were able to activate cM1 during motor imagery. Activities in premotor and parietal regions were used as covariates. We found that cM1 activity was positively correlated to improvements in accuracy as well as overall performance improvements, whereas other regions in the sensorimotor network were not. The association between cM1 activation during MI with performance changes indicates that subjects with stronger cM1 activation during MI may benefit more from MI training, with implications toward targeted neurotherapy.

  8. A versatile stepping motor controller for systems with many motors

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, S.K.; Siddons, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    A versatile system for controlling beamlines or complex experimental setups is described. The system as currently configured can control up to 32 motors, with all motors capable of full speed operation concurrently. There are 2 limit switch inputs for each motor, and a further input to accept a reference position marker. The motors can be controlled via a front panel keyboard with display, or by a host computer over an IEEE-488 interface. Both methods can be used together if required. There is an emergency stop'' key on the front panel keyboard to stop the motion of all motors without losing track of the motors' position. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Magnetostrictive direct drive motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naik, Dipak; Dehoff, P. H.

    1991-01-01

    Highly magnetostrictive materials such as Tb.3Dy.7Fe2, commercially known as TERFENOL-D, have been used to date in a variety of devices such as high power actuators and linear motors. The larger magnetostriction available in twinned single crystal TERFENOL-D, approx. 2000 ppm at moderate magnetic field strengths, makes possible a new generation of magnetomechanical devices. NASA researchers are studying the potential of this material as the basis for a direct microstepping rotary motor with torque densities on the order of industrial hydraulics and five times greater than that of the most efficient, high power electric motors. Such a motor would be a micro-radian stepper, capable of precision movements and self-braking in the power-off state. Innovative mechanical engineering techniques are juxtaposed on proper magnetic circuit design to reduce losses in structural flexures, inertias, thermal expansions, eddy currents, and magneto-mechanical coupling, thus optimizing motor performance and efficiency. Mathematical models are presented, including magnetic, structural, and both linear and nonlinear dynamic calculations and simulations. In addition, test results on prototypes are presented.

  10. Sensory-motor integration in focal dystonia.

    PubMed

    Avanzino, Laura; Tinazzi, Michele; Ionta, Silvio; Fiorio, Mirta

    2015-12-01

    Traditional definitions of focal dystonia point to its motor component, mainly affecting planning and execution of voluntary movements. However, focal dystonia is tightly linked also to sensory dysfunction. Accurate motor control requires an optimal processing of afferent inputs from different sensory systems, in particular visual and somatosensory (e.g., touch and proprioception). Several experimental studies indicate that sensory-motor integration - the process through which sensory information is used to plan, execute, and monitor movements - is impaired in focal dystonia. The neural degenerations associated with these alterations affect not only the basal ganglia-thalamic-frontal cortex loop, but also the parietal cortex and cerebellum. The present review outlines the experimental studies describing impaired sensory-motor integration in focal dystonia, establishes their relationship with changes in specific neural mechanisms, and provides new insight towards the implementation of novel intervention protocols. Based on the reviewed state-of-the-art evidence, the theoretical framework summarized in the present article will not only result in a better understanding of the pathophysiology of dystonia, but it will also lead to the development of new rehabilitation strategies.

  11. Genetic deficiency of GABA differentially regulates respiratory and non-respiratory motor neuron development.

    PubMed

    Fogarty, Matthew J; Smallcombe, Karen L; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Obata, Kunihiko; Bellingham, Mark C; Noakes, Peter G

    2013-01-01

    Central nervous system GABAergic and glycinergic synaptic activity switches from postsynaptic excitation to inhibition during the stage when motor neuron numbers are being reduced, and when synaptic connections are being established onto and by motor neurons. In mice this occurs between embryonic (E) day 13 and birth (postnatal day 0). Our previous work on mice lacking glycinergic transmission suggested that altered motor neuron activity levels correspondingly regulated motor neuron survival and muscle innervation for all respiratory and non respiratory motor neuron pools, during this period of development [1]. To determine if GABAergic transmission plays a similar role, we quantified motor neuron number and the extent of muscle innervation in four distinct regions of the brain stem and spinal cord; hypoglossal, phrenic, brachial and lumbar motor pools, in mice lacking the enzyme GAD67. These mice display a 90% drop in CNS GABA levels ( [2]; this study). For respiratory-based motor neurons (hypoglossal and phrenic motor pools), we have observed significant drops in motor neuron number (17% decline for hypoglossal and 23% decline for phrenic) and muscle innervations (55% decrease). By contrast for non-respiratory motor neurons of the brachial lateral motor column, we have observed an increase in motor neuron number (43% increase) and muscle innervations (99% increase); however for more caudally located motor neurons within the lumbar lateral motor column, we observed no change in either neuron number or muscle innervation. These results show in mice lacking physiological levels of GABA, there are distinct regional changes in motor neuron number and muscle innervation, which appear to be linked to their physiological function and to their rostral-caudal position within the developing spinal cord. Our results also suggest that for more caudal (lumbar) regions of the spinal cord, the effect of GABA is less influential on motor neuron development compared to that of

  12. Micromachine Wedge Stepping Motor

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J.J.; Schriner, H.K.

    1998-11-04

    A wedge stepping motor, which will index a mechanism, has been designed and fabricated in the surface rnicromachine SUMMiT process. This device has demonstrated the ability to index one gear tooth at a time with speeds up to 205 teeth/see. The wedge stepper motor has the following features, whi:h will be useful in a number of applications. o The ability to precisely position mechanical components. . Simple pulse signals can be used for operation. o Only 2 drive signals are requixed for operation. o Torque and precision capabilities increase with device size . The device to be indexed is restrained at all times by the wedge shaped tooth that is used for actuation. This paper will discuss the theory of operation and desi=m of the wedge stepping motor. The fabrication and testing of I he device will also be presented.

  13. Magnetostrictive direct drive motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naik, Dipak; Dehoff, P. H.

    1990-01-01

    Developing magnetostrictive direct drive research motors to power robot joints is discussed. These type motors are expected to produce extraordinary torque density, to be able to perform microradian incremental steps and to be self-braking and safe with the power off. Several types of motor designs have been attempted using magnetostrictive materials. One of the candidate approaches (the magnetostrictive roller drive) is described. The method in which the design will function is described as is the reason why this approach is inherently superior to the other approaches. Following this, the design will be modelled and its expected performance predicted. This particular candidate design is currently undergoing detailed engineering with prototype construction and testing scheduled for mid 1991.

  14. Bent shaft motor

    DOEpatents

    Benavides, Gilbert L.

    1998-01-01

    A nonelectromagnetic motor comprising a base, a bent shaft which is rotable relative to the base wherein the bent shaft comprises a straight portion aligned with a main axis and an offset portion that is offset with respect to the main axis; and a drive means for driving the offset portion of the bent shaft along a generally circular path in a plane perpendicular to the main axis to rotate the bent shaft. The bent shaft and drive means for driving the bent shaft can be selected from piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, rheological and shape memory alloys. The drive means of the nonelectromagnetic motor can additionally comprise a shell which shell surrounds and houses the bent shaft and precesses or gyrates which in turn causes the bent drive shaft to rotate. The nonelectromagnetic motor does not rely on friction for the application of torque upon a rotor.

  15. Bent shaft motor

    DOEpatents

    Benavides, G.L.

    1998-05-05

    A nonelectromagnetic motor comprising a base, a bent shaft which is rotatable relative to the base wherein the bent shaft comprises a straight portion aligned with a main axis and an offset portion that is offset with respect to the main axis; and a drive means for driving the offset portion of the bent shaft along a generally circular path in a plane perpendicular to the main axis to rotate the bent shaft. The bent shaft and drive means for driving the bent shaft can be selected from piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, rheological and shape memory alloys. The drive means of the nonelectromagnetic motor can additionally comprise a shell which shell surrounds and houses the bent shaft and precesses or gyrates which in turn causes the bent drive shaft to rotate. The nonelectromagnetic motor does not rely on friction for the application of torque upon a rotor. 11 figs.

  16. Motor stereotypy disorders.

    PubMed

    Muthugovindan, Deivasumathy; Singer, Harvey

    2009-04-01

    This review highlights recent advances in understanding the clinical features, prevalence, and outcomes of motor stereotypy disorders in typically developing children. Longitudinal data indicate that stereotypies in children with normal intelligence show an early age of onset, chronicity, and high prevalence of comorbid difficulties, including tics, obsessive-compulsive behaviors, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The underlying abnormality remains unknown, but there is increasing evidence for Mendelian inheritance and a neurobiological mechanism. Primary motor stereotypies are relatively common in childhood and can be subdivided into three groups (common, head nodding, and complex motor). Movements are similar to those seen in children with autistic spectrum disorders, mental retardation, and sensory deprivation. The role of pharmacotherapy is not established and behavioral therapy can be beneficial.

  17. Damage to Fronto-Parietal Networks Impairs Motor Imagery Ability after Stroke: A Voxel-Based Lesion Symptom Mapping Study

    PubMed Central

    Oostra, Kristine M.; Van Bladel, Anke; Vanhoonacker, Ann C. L.; Vingerhoets, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mental practice with motor imagery has been shown to promote motor skill acquisition in healthy subjects and patients. Although lesions of the common motor imagery and motor execution neural network are expected to impair motor imagery ability, functional equivalence appears to be at least partially preserved in stroke patients. Aim: To identify brain regions that are mandatory for preserved motor imagery ability after stroke. Method: Thirty-seven patients with hemiplegia after a first time stroke participated. Motor imagery ability was measured using a Motor Imagery questionnaire and temporal congruence test. A voxelwise lesion symptom mapping approach was used to identify neural correlates of motor imagery in this cohort within the first year post-stroke. Results: Poor motor imagery vividness was associated with lesions in the left putamen, left ventral premotor cortex and long association fibers linking parieto-occipital regions with the dorsolateral premotor and prefrontal areas. Poor temporal congruence was otherwise linked to lesions in the more rostrally located white matter of the superior corona radiata. Conclusion: This voxel-based lesion symptom mapping study confirms the association between white matter tract lesions and impaired motor imagery ability, thus emphasizing the importance of an intact fronto-parietal network for motor imagery. Our results further highlight the crucial role of the basal ganglia and premotor cortex when performing motor imagery tasks. PMID:26869894

  18. An Examination of the Relationship between Motor Coordination and Executive Functions in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigoli, Daniela; Piek, Jan P.; Kane, Robert; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Research suggests important links between motor coordination and executive functions. The current study examined whether motor coordination predicts working memory, inhibition, and switching performance, extending previous research by accounting for attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology and other confounding factors,…

  19. An Examination of the Relationship between Motor Coordination and Executive Functions in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigoli, Daniela; Piek, Jan P.; Kane, Robert; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Research suggests important links between motor coordination and executive functions. The current study examined whether motor coordination predicts working memory, inhibition, and switching performance, extending previous research by accounting for attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology and other confounding factors,…

  20. Effects of Dispositional Mindfulness on the Self-Controlled Learning of a Novel Motor Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kee, Ying Hwa; Liu, Yeou-Teh

    2011-01-01

    Current literature suggests that mindful learning is beneficial to learning but its links with motor learning is seldom examined. In the present study, we examine the effects of learners' mindfulness disposition on the self-controlled learning of a novel motor task. Thirty-two participants undertook five practice sessions, in addition to a pre-,…

  1. Effects of Dispositional Mindfulness on the Self-Controlled Learning of a Novel Motor Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kee, Ying Hwa; Liu, Yeou-Teh

    2011-01-01

    Current literature suggests that mindful learning is beneficial to learning but its links with motor learning is seldom examined. In the present study, we examine the effects of learners' mindfulness disposition on the self-controlled learning of a novel motor task. Thirty-two participants undertook five practice sessions, in addition to a pre-,…

  2. Peregrine Sustainer Motor Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodell, Chuck; Franklin, Philip

    2015-01-01

    The Peregrine sounding rocket is an in-house NASA design that provides approximately 15 percent better performance than the motor it replaces. The design utilizes common materials and well-characterized architecture to reduce flight issues encountered with the current motors. It engages NASA design, analysts, test engineers and technicians, ballisticians, and systems engineers. The in-house work and collaboration within the government provides flexibility to efficiently accommodate design and program changes as the design matures and enhances the ability to meet schedule milestones. It provides a valuable tool to compare industry costs, develop contracts, and it develops foundational knowledge for the next generation of NASA engineers.

  3. ac bidirectional motor controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiner, K.

    1988-01-01

    Test data are presented and the design of a high-efficiency motor/generator controller at NASA-Lewis for use with the Space Station power system testbed is described. The bidirectional motor driver is a 20 kHz to variable frequency three-phase ac converter that operates from the high-frequency ac bus being designed for the Space Station. A zero-voltage-switching pulse-density-modulation technique is used in the converter to shape the low-frequency output waveform.

  4. ac bidirectional motor controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiner, K.

    1988-01-01

    Test data are presented and the design of a high-efficiency motor/generator controller at NASA-Lewis for use with the Space Station power system testbed is described. The bidirectional motor driver is a 20 kHz to variable frequency three-phase ac converter that operates from the high-frequency ac bus being designed for the Space Station. A zero-voltage-switching pulse-density-modulation technique is used in the converter to shape the low-frequency output waveform.

  5. The functional alterations associated with motor imagery training: a comparison between motor execution and motor imagery of sequential finger tapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hang; Yao, Li; Long, Zhiying

    2011-03-01

    Motor imagery training, as an effective strategy, has been more and more applied to mental disorders rehabilitation and motor skill learning. Studies on the neural mechanism underlying motor imagery have suggested that such effectiveness may be related to the functional congruence between motor execution and motor imagery. However, as compared to the studies on motor imagery, the studies on motor imagery training are much fewer. The functional alterations associated with motor imagery training and the effectiveness of motor imagery training on motor performance improvement still needs further investigation. Using fMRI, we employed a sequential finger tapping paradigm to explore the functional alterations associated with motor imagery training in both motor execution and motor imagery task. We hypothesized through 14 consecutive days motor imagery training, the motor performance could be improved and the functional congruence between motor execution and motor imagery would be sustained form pre-training phase to post-training phase. Our results confirmed the effectiveness of motor imagery training in improving motor performance and demonstrated in both pre and post-training phases, motor imagery and motor execution consistently sustained the congruence in functional neuroanatomy, including SMA (supplementary motor cortex), PMA (premotor area); M1( primary motor cortex) and cerebellum. Moreover, for both execution and imagery tasks, a similar functional alteration was observed in fusiform through motor imagery training. These findings provided an insight into the effectiveness of motor imagery training and suggested its potential therapeutic value in motor rehabilitation.

  6. Tuning Multiple Motor Travel Via Single Motor Velocity

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jing; Shu, Zhanyong; King, Stephen J.; Gross, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    Microtubule-based molecular motors often work in small groups to transport cargos in cells. A key question in understanding transport (and its regulation in vivo) is to identify the sensitivity of multiple-motor-based motion to various single molecule properties. Whereas both single-motor travel distance and microtubule binding rate have been demonstrated to contribute to cargo travel, the role of single-motor velocity is yet to be explored. Here, we recast a previous theoretical study, and make explicit a potential contribution of velocity to cargo travel. We test this possibility experimentally, and demonstrate a strong negative correlation between single-motor velocity and cargo travel for transport driven by two motors. Our study thus discovers a previously unappreciated role of single-motor velocity in regulating multiple-motor transport. PMID:22672518

  7. Motor current signature analysis method for diagnosing motor operated devices

    DOEpatents

    Haynes, Howard D.; Eissenberg, David M.

    1990-01-01

    A motor current noise signature analysis method and apparatus for remotely monitoring the operating characteristics of an electric motor-operated device such as a motor-operated valve. Frequency domain signal analysis techniques are applied to a conditioned motor current signal to distinctly identify various operating parameters of the motor driven device from the motor current signature. The signature may be recorded and compared with subsequent signatures to detect operating abnormalities and degradation of the device. This diagnostic method does not require special equipment to be installed on the motor-operated device, and the current sensing may be performed at remote control locations, e.g., where the motor-operated devices are used in accessible or hostile environments.

  8. A SMN-Dependent U12 Splicing Event Essential for Motor Circuit Function

    PubMed Central

    Lotti, Francesco; Imlach, Wendy L.; Saieva, Luciano; Beck, Erin S.; Hao, Le T.; Li, Darrick K.; Jiao, Wei; Mentis, George Z.; Beattie, Christine E.; McCabe, Brian D.; Pellizzoni, Livio

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a motor neuron disease caused by deficiency of the ubiquitous survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. To define the mechanisms of selective neuronal dysfunction in SMA, we investigated the role of SMN-dependent U12 splicing events in the regulation of motor circuit activity. We show that SMN deficiency perturbs splicing and decreases the expression of a subset of U12 intron-containing genes in mammalian cells and Drosophila larvae. Analysis of these SMN target genes identifies Stasimon as a novel protein required for motor circuit function. Restoration of Stasimon expression in the motor circuit corrects defects in neuromuscular junction transmission and muscle growth in Drosophila SMN mutants and aberrant motor neuron development in SMN-deficient zebrafish. These findings directly link defective splicing of critical neuronal genes induced by SMN deficiency to motor circuit dysfunction, establishing a molecular framework for the selective pathology of SMA. PMID:23063131

  9. Disentangling fine motor skills' relations to academic achievement: the relative contributions of visual-spatial integration and visual-motor coordination.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Abby G; Rowe, Ellen; Curby, Timothy W

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has established a connection between children's fine motor skills and their academic performance. Previous research has focused on fine motor skills measured prior to elementary school, while the present sample included children ages 5-18 years old, making it possible to examine whether this link remains relevant throughout childhood and adolescence. Furthermore, the majority of research linking fine motor skills and academic achievement has not determined which specific components of fine motor skill are driving this relation. The few studies that have looked at associations of separate fine motor tasks with achievement suggest that copying tasks that tap visual-spatial integration skills are most closely related to achievement. The present study examined two separate elements of fine motor skills--visual-motor coordination and visual-spatial integration--and their associations with various measures of academic achievement. Visual-motor coordination was measured using tracing tasks, while visual-spatial integration was measured using copy-a-figure tasks. After controlling for gender, socioeconomic status, IQ, and visual-motor coordination, and visual-spatial integration explained significant variance in children's math and written expression achievement. Knowing that visual-spatial integration skills are associated with these two achievement domains suggests potential avenues for targeted math and writing interventions for children of all ages.

  10. The neural correlates of speech motor sequence learning

    PubMed Central

    Segawa, Jennifer A.; Tourville, Jason A.; Beal, Deryk S.; Guenther, Frank H.

    2014-01-01

    Speech is perhaps the most sophisticated example of a species-wide movement capability in the animal kingdom, requiring split-second sequencing of approximately 100 muscles in the respiratory, laryngeal, and oral movement systems. Despite the unique role speech plays in human interaction and the debilitating impact of its disruption, little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying speech motor learning. Here, we studied the behavioral and neural correlates of learning new speech motor sequences. Subjects repeatedly produced novel, meaningless syllables comprising illegal consonant clusters (e.g. GVAZF) over two days of practice. Following practice, subjects produced the sequences with fewer errors and shorter durations, indicative of motor learning. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared brain activity during production of the learned illegal sequences and novel illegal sequences. Greater activity was noted during production of novel sequences in brain regions linked to non-speech motor sequence learning, including the basal ganglia and pre-supplementary motor area. Activity during novel sequence production was also greater in brain regions associated with learning and maintaining speech motor programs, including lateral premotor cortex, frontal operculum, and posterior superior temporal cortex. Measures of learning success correlated positively with activity in left frontal operculum and white matter integrity under left posterior superior temporal sulcus. These findings indicate speech motor sequence learning relies not only on brain areas involved generally in motor sequencing learning but also those associated with feedback-based speech motor learning. Furthermore, learning success is modulated by the integrity of structural connectivity between these motor and sensory brain regions. PMID:25313656

  11. 46 CFR 169.684 - Overcurrent protection for motors and motor branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Overcurrent protection for motors and motor branch... motors and motor branch circuits. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, each motor... motor that is responsive to motor current or to both motor current and temperature may be used. (b) The...

  12. 46 CFR 169.684 - Overcurrent protection for motors and motor branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Overcurrent protection for motors and motor branch... motors and motor branch circuits. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, each motor... motor that is responsive to motor current or to both motor current and temperature may be used. (b) The...

  13. 46 CFR 169.684 - Overcurrent protection for motors and motor branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Overcurrent protection for motors and motor branch... motors and motor branch circuits. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, each motor... motor that is responsive to motor current or to both motor current and temperature may be used. (b) The...

  14. 46 CFR 169.684 - Overcurrent protection for motors and motor branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Overcurrent protection for motors and motor branch... motors and motor branch circuits. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, each motor... motor that is responsive to motor current or to both motor current and temperature may be used. (b)...

  15. 46 CFR 169.684 - Overcurrent protection for motors and motor branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Overcurrent protection for motors and motor branch... motors and motor branch circuits. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, each motor... motor that is responsive to motor current or to both motor current and temperature may be used. (b)...

  16. Multiscale Polar Theory of Microtubule and Motor-Protein Assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Tong; Blackwell, Robert; Glaser, Matthew A.; Betterton, M. D.; Shelley, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Microtubules and motor proteins are building blocks of self-organized subcellular biological structures such as the mitotic spindle and the centrosomal microtubule array. These same ingredients can form new “bioactive” liquid-crystalline fluids that are intrinsically out of equilibrium and which display complex flows and defect dynamics. It is not yet well understood how microscopic activity, which involves polarity-dependent interactions between motor proteins and microtubules, yields such larger-scale dynamical structures. In our multiscale theory, Brownian dynamics simulations of polar microtubule ensembles driven by cross-linking motors allow us to study microscopic organization and stresses. Polarity sorting and cross-link relaxation emerge as two polar-specific sources of active destabilizing stress. On larger length scales, our continuum Doi-Onsager theory captures the hydrodynamic flows generated by polarity-dependent active stresses. The results connect local polar structure to flow structures and defect dynamics. PMID:25679909

  17. Multiscale polar theory of microtubule and motor-protein assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Tong; Blackwell, Robert; Glaser, Matthew A.; Betterton, Meredith D.; Shelley, Michael J.

    2015-01-27

    Microtubules and motor proteins are building blocks of self-organized subcellular biological structures such as the mitotic spindle and the centrosomal microtubule array. These same ingredients can form new “bioactive” liquid-crystalline fluids that are intrinsically out of equilibrium and which display complex flows and defect dynamics. It is not yet well understood how microscopic activity, which involves polarity-dependent interactions between motor proteins and microtubules, yields such larger-scale dynamical structures. In our multiscale theory, Brownian dynamics simulations of polar microtubule ensembles driven by cross-linking motors allow us to study microscopic organization and stresses. Polarity sorting and cross-link relaxation emerge as two polar-specific sources of active destabilizing stress. On larger length scales, our continuum Doi-Onsager theory captures the hydrodynamic flows generated by polarity-dependent active stresses. Finally, the results connect local polar structure to flow structures and defect dynamics.

  18. Multiscale polar theory of microtubule and motor-protein assemblies

    DOE PAGES

    Gao, Tong; Blackwell, Robert; Glaser, Matthew A.; ...

    2015-01-27

    Microtubules and motor proteins are building blocks of self-organized subcellular biological structures such as the mitotic spindle and the centrosomal microtubule array. These same ingredients can form new “bioactive” liquid-crystalline fluids that are intrinsically out of equilibrium and which display complex flows and defect dynamics. It is not yet well understood how microscopic activity, which involves polarity-dependent interactions between motor proteins and microtubules, yields such larger-scale dynamical structures. In our multiscale theory, Brownian dynamics simulations of polar microtubule ensembles driven by cross-linking motors allow us to study microscopic organization and stresses. Polarity sorting and cross-link relaxation emerge as two polar-specificmore » sources of active destabilizing stress. On larger length scales, our continuum Doi-Onsager theory captures the hydrodynamic flows generated by polarity-dependent active stresses. Finally, the results connect local polar structure to flow structures and defect dynamics.« less

  19. Multiscale polar theory of microtubule and motor-protein assemblies.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tong; Blackwell, Robert; Glaser, Matthew A; Betterton, M D; Shelley, Michael J

    2015-01-30

    Microtubules and motor proteins are building blocks of self-organized subcellular biological structures such as the mitotic spindle and the centrosomal microtubule array. These same ingredients can form new "bioactive" liquid-crystalline fluids that are intrinsically out of equilibrium and which display complex flows and defect dynamics. It is not yet well understood how microscopic activity, which involves polarity-dependent interactions between motor proteins and microtubules, yields such larger-scale dynamical structures. In our multiscale theory, Brownian dynamics simulations of polar microtubule ensembles driven by cross-linking motors allow us to study microscopic organization and stresses. Polarity sorting and cross-link relaxation emerge as two polar-specific sources of active destabilizing stress. On larger length scales, our continuum Doi-Onsager theory captures the hydrodynamic flows generated by polarity-dependent active stresses. The results connect local polar structure to flow structures and defect dynamics.

  20. Multiscale Polar Theory of Microtubule and Motor-Protein Assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Tong; Blackwell, Robert; Glaser, Matthew A.; Betterton, M. D.; Shelley, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Microtubules and motor proteins are building blocks of self-organized subcellular biological structures such as the mitotic spindle and the centrosomal microtubule array. These same ingredients can form new "bioactive" liquid-crystalline fluids that are intrinsically out of equilibrium and which display complex flows and defect dynamics. It is not yet well understood how microscopic activity, which involves polarity-dependent interactions between motor proteins and microtubules, yields such larger-scale dynamical structures. In our multiscale theory, Brownian dynamics simulations of polar microtubule ensembles driven by cross-linking motors allow us to study microscopic organization and stresses. Polarity sorting and cross-link relaxation emerge as two polar-specific sources of active destabilizing stress. On larger length scales, our continuum Doi-Onsager theory captures the hydrodynamic flows generated by polarity-dependent active stresses. The results connect local polar structure to flow structures and defect dynamics.

  1. Magnetically Coupled Adjustable Speed Motor Drives - Motor Tip Sheet #13

    SciTech Connect

    2008-07-01

    Alternating current electric motors rotate at a nearly constant speed that is determined by motor design and line frequency. Energy savings of 50% or more may be available when fixed speed systems are modified to allow the motor speed to match variable load requirements of a centrifugal fan or pump.

  2. Method for assessing motor insulation on operating motors

    DOEpatents

    Kueck, J.D.; Otaduy, P.J.

    1997-03-18

    A method for monitoring the condition of electrical-motor-driven devices is disclosed. The method is achieved by monitoring electrical variables associated with the functioning of an operating motor, applying these electrical variables to a three phase equivalent circuit and determining non-symmetrical faults in the operating motor based upon symmetrical components analysis techniques. 15 figs.

  3. Method for assessing motor insulation on operating motors

    DOEpatents

    Kueck, John D.; Otaduy, Pedro J.

    1997-01-01

    A method for monitoring the condition of electrical-motor-driven devices. The method is achieved by monitoring electrical variables associated with the functioning of an operating motor, applying these electrical variables to a three phase equivalent circuit and determining non-symmetrical faults in the operating motor based upon symmetrical components analysis techniques.

  4. Self-organization of dynein motors generates meiotic nuclear oscillations.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Sven K; Pavin, Nenad; Maghelli, Nicola; Jülicher, Frank; Tolić-Nørrelykke, Iva M

    2009-04-21

    Meiotic nuclear oscillations in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe are crucial for proper chromosome pairing and recombination. We report a mechanism of these oscillations on the basis of collective behavior of dynein motors linking the cell cortex and dynamic microtubules that extend from the spindle pole body in opposite directions. By combining quantitative live cell imaging and laser ablation with a theoretical description, we show that dynein dynamically redistributes in the cell in response to load forces, resulting in more dynein attached to the leading than to the trailing microtubules. The redistribution of motors introduces an asymmetry of motor forces pulling in opposite directions, leading to the generation of oscillations. Our work provides the first direct in vivo observation of self-organized dynamic dynein distributions, which, owing to the intrinsic motor properties, generate regular large-scale movements in the cell.

  5. The St. Louis Motor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The St. Louis Motor, invented in 1909, is unique among physics apparatus for being named for a geographical place rather than a physicist. The sturdy little device (Fig. 1) has never been out of production. Any older school or physics department that has not done a catastrophic housecleaning in the last 20 years will certainly have a small flock…

  6. Perceptual-Motor Dysfunction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyfer, Jean L.

    Discussed are theoretical and treatment aspects of perceptual motor dysfunction and rehabilitation in 4- to 12-year-old academically failing children involved in a 3-year investigation at the University of Kansas. The program is said to stress increasing the amount of stimulation received by sensory receptors of the vestibular, reflex, and haptic…

  7. Solid rocket motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Ronn L.

    1993-01-01

    Structural requirements, materials and, especially, processing are critical issues that will pace the introduction of new types of solid rocket motors. Designers must recognize and understand the drivers associated with each of the following considerations: (1) cost; (2) energy density; (3) long term storage with use on demand; (4) reliability; (5) safety of processing and handling; (6) operability; and (7) environmental acceptance.

  8. Motorized recreation in Pennsylvania

    Treesearch

    Bruce E. Lord

    2007-01-01

    Pennsylvania's Department of Conservation and Natural Resources (DCNR) has been developing management plans to deal with the growing popularity of motorized recreation in the Commonwealth. Two important segments of off-highway vehicle use in Pennsylvania involve all-terrain vehicles and snowmobile riding. A pair of needs studies for these recreationists provides a...

  9. Spherically Actuated Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peeples, Steven

    2015-01-01

    A three degree of freedom (DOF) spherical actuator is proposed that will replace functions requiring three single DOF actuators in robotic manipulators providing space and weight savings while reducing the overall failure rate. Exploration satellites, Space Station payload manipulators, and rovers requiring pan, tilt, and rotate movements need an actuator for each function. Not only does each actuator introduce additional failure modes and require bulky mechanical gimbals, each contains many moving parts, decreasing mean time to failure. A conventional robotic manipulator is shown in figure 1. Spherical motors perform all three actuation functions, i.e., three DOF, with only one moving part. Given a standard three actuator system whose actuators have a given failure rate compared to a spherical motor with an equal failure rate, the three actuator system is three times as likely to fail over the latter. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory reliability studies of NASA robotic spacecraft have shown that mechanical hardware/mechanism failures are more frequent and more likely to significantly affect mission success than are electronic failures. Unfortunately, previously designed spherical motors have been unable to provide the performance needed by space missions. This inadequacy is also why they are unavailable commercially. An improved patentable spherically actuated motor (SAM) is proposed to provide the performance and versatility required by NASA missions.

  10. Motor Learning and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, Hartmut

    Two recent conferences on the science of sport have focused on the topic of sports for older people. Investigations have been made on the special demand in motor learning, in table-tennis, family-tennis, gymnastics, and dancing. This paper summarizes some experiences and conclusions drawn from these studies, including special notes on isolated…

  11. The St. Louis Motor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The St. Louis Motor, invented in 1909, is unique among physics apparatus for being named for a geographical place rather than a physicist. The sturdy little device (Fig. 1) has never been out of production. Any older school or physics department that has not done a catastrophic housecleaning in the last 20 years will certainly have a small flock…

  12. Thiokol Solid Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on thiokol solid rocket motors. The topics include: 1) Communications; 2) Military and government intelligence; 3) Positioning satellites; 4) Remote sensing; 5) Space burial; 6) Science; 7) Space manufacturing; 8) Advertising; 9) Space rescue space debris management; 10) Space tourism; 11) Space settlements; 12) Hazardous waste disposal; 13) Extraterrestrial resources; 14) Fast package delivery; and 15) Space utilities.

  13. Reciprocating Linear Electric Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldowsky, M. P.

    1984-01-01

    Features include structural simplicity and good force/displacement characteristics. Reciprocating motor has simple, rugged construction, relatively low reciprocating weight, improved power delivery, and improved force control. Wear reduced by use of magnetic bearings. Intended to provide drivers for long-lived Stirling-cycle cryogenic refrigerators, concept has less exotic applications, such as fuel pumps.

  14. Thiokol Solid Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on thiokol solid rocket motors. The topics include: 1) Communications; 2) Military and government intelligence; 3) Positioning satellites; 4) Remote sensing; 5) Space burial; 6) Science; 7) Space manufacturing; 8) Advertising; 9) Space rescue space debris management; 10) Space tourism; 11) Space settlements; 12) Hazardous waste disposal; 13) Extraterrestrial resources; 14) Fast package delivery; and 15) Space utilities.

  15. Reciprocating Linear Electric Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldowsky, M. P.

    1984-01-01

    Features include structural simplicity and good force/displacement characteristics. Reciprocating motor has simple, rugged construction, relatively low reciprocating weight, improved power delivery, and improved force control. Wear reduced by use of magnetic bearings. Intended to provide drivers for long-lived Stirling-cycle cryogenic refrigerators, concept has less exotic applications, such as fuel pumps.

  16. Electric motor model repair specifications

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    These model repair specifications list the minimum requirements for repair and overhaul of polyphase AC squireel cage induction motors. All power ranges, voltages, and speeds of squirrel cage motors are covered.

  17. Tandem motors reduce well costs

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, M.; Daigle, C.; Crowe, R.

    1995-10-01

    The new generation of tandem mud motors that recently appeared on the drilling scene is significantly affecting drilling efficiency worldwide. These motors provide drillers with increased horsepower at the bit, higher torque, and faster rates of penetration (ROP). With advanced engineering and more durable materials, motor life is being extended, thereby increasing the time between bit trips and reducing drilling costs. This article reviews the performance, design, and operation of these motors.

  18. Load-Responsive Motor Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edge, T. M.

    1982-01-01

    New circuit controls voltage applied to a three-phase induction motor in response to magnitude of current, so as to reduce power consumption when the motor is idling or operating at less than full load. Control circuit decreases rms applied voltage to match decreases in motor load over entire torque range. This considerably decreases power consumption in motors operating at a fraction of their rated torques.

  19. Mechanochemistry of Molecular Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, Zev

    2008-03-01

    Molecular motors lie at the heart of biological processes from DNA replication to vesicle transport. We seek to understand the physical mechanisms by which these nanoscale machines convert chemical energy into mechanical work. I will overview our ongoing use of single molecule tracking and manipulation techniques to observe and perturb substeps in the mechanochemical cycles of individual motors, before concentrating on our recent efforts to dissect the structural basis of a ``reverse gear'' in myosin VI. The basic actomyosin motor has been embellished, altered, and re-used many times through the evolution of diverse members of the myosin superfamily. Class VI myosins are highly specialized (-) end directed motors involved in a growing list of functions in animal cells, including endocytosis, cell migration, and maintenance of stereociliar membrane tension. How does myosin VI achieve reverse directionality, despite sharing extensive sequence and structural conservation with (+) end directed myosins? We generated a series of truncated myosin VI constructs and characterized the size and direction of the power stroke for each construct using dual-labeled gliding filament assays and optical trapping. Motors truncated near the end of the converter domain generate (+) end directed motion, whereas longer constructs move toward the (-) end, confirming the importance of a class-specific insert that redirects the lever arm. Our quantitative results suggest a surprising model in which the lever arm rotates ˜180^o during the power stroke. We are currently studying the behavior of engineered myosin VI constructs with artificial lever arms, in order to further challenge and refine our power stroke model.

  20. Changes in visual and sensory-motor resting-state functional connectivity support motor learning by observing

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Heather R.

    2015-01-01

    Motor learning occurs not only through direct first-hand experience but also through observation (Mattar AA, Gribble PL. Neuron 46: 153–160, 2005). When observing the actions of others, we activate many of the same brain regions involved in performing those actions ourselves (Malfait N, Valyear KF, Culham JC, Anton JL, Brown LE, Gribble PL. J Cogn Neurosci 22: 1493–1503, 2010). Links between neural systems for vision and action have been reported in neurophysiological (Strafella AP, Paus T. Neuroreport 11: 2289–2292, 2000; Watkins KE, Strafella AP, Paus T. Neuropsychologia 41: 989–994, 2003), brain imaging (Buccino G, Binkofski F, Fink GR, Fadiga L, Fogassi L, Gallese V, Seitz RJ, Zilles K, Rizzolatti G, Freund HJ. Eur J Neurosci 13: 400–404, 2001; Iacoboni M, Woods RP, Brass M, Bekkering H, Mazziotta JC, Rizzolatti G. Science 286: 2526–2528, 1999), and eye tracking (Flanagan JR, Johansson RS. Nature 424: 769–771, 2003) studies. Here we used a force field learning paradigm coupled with resting-state fMRI to investigate the brain areas involved in motor learning by observing. We examined changes in resting-state functional connectivity (FC) after an observational learning task and found a network consisting of V5/MT, cerebellum, and primary motor and somatosensory cortices in which changes in FC were correlated with the amount of motor learning achieved through observation, as assessed behaviorally after resting-state fMRI scans. The observed FC changes in this network are not due to visual attention to motion or observation of movement errors but rather are specifically linked to motor learning. These results support the idea that brain networks linking action observation and motor control also facilitate motor learning. PMID:25995349

  1. Changes in visual and sensory-motor resting-state functional connectivity support motor learning by observing.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Heather R; Gribble, Paul L

    2015-07-01

    Motor learning occurs not only through direct first-hand experience but also through observation (Mattar AA, Gribble PL. Neuron 46: 153-160, 2005). When observing the actions of others, we activate many of the same brain regions involved in performing those actions ourselves (Malfait N, Valyear KF, Culham JC, Anton JL, Brown LE, Gribble PL. J Cogn Neurosci 22: 1493-1503, 2010). Links between neural systems for vision and action have been reported in neurophysiological (Strafella AP, Paus T. Neuroreport 11: 2289-2292, 2000; Watkins KE, Strafella AP, Paus T. Neuropsychologia 41: 989-994, 2003), brain imaging (Buccino G, Binkofski F, Fink GR, Fadiga L, Fogassi L, Gallese V, Seitz RJ, Zilles K, Rizzolatti G, Freund HJ. Eur J Neurosci 13: 400-404, 2001; Iacoboni M, Woods RP, Brass M, Bekkering H, Mazziotta JC, Rizzolatti G. Science 286: 2526-2528, 1999), and eye tracking (Flanagan JR, Johansson RS. Nature 424: 769-771, 2003) studies. Here we used a force field learning paradigm coupled with resting-state fMRI to investigate the brain areas involved in motor learning by observing. We examined changes in resting-state functional connectivity (FC) after an observational learning task and found a network consisting of V5/MT, cerebellum, and primary motor and somatosensory cortices in which changes in FC were correlated with the amount of motor learning achieved through observation, as assessed behaviorally after resting-state fMRI scans. The observed FC changes in this network are not due to visual attention to motion or observation of movement errors but rather are specifically linked to motor learning. These results support the idea that brain networks linking action observation and motor control also facilitate motor learning. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Motor Vehicle Theft. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlow, Caroline Wolf

    Thirteen years of data from the National Crime Survey were analyzed to examine the characteristics of motor vehicle theft, to identify trends during the past 13 years, and to determine who are most likely to be victims of motor vehicle theft. All motor vehicle thefts reported to the National Crime Survey from 1973 through 1985 were examined.…

  3. Speed control for synchronous motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, H.; Schott, J.

    1981-01-01

    Feedback circuit controls fluctuations in speed of synchronous ac motor. Voltage proportional to phase angle is developed by phase detector, rectified, amplified, compared to threshold, and reapplied positively or negatively to motor excitation circuit. Speed control reduces wow and flutter of audio turntables and tape recorders, and enhances hunting in gyroscope motors.

  4. Rehabilitation following motor nerve transfers.

    PubMed

    Novak, Christine B

    2008-11-01

    Cortical mapping and relearning are key factors in optimizing patient outcome following motor nerve transfers. To maximize function following nerve transfers, the rehabilitation program must include motor reeducation to initiate recruitment of the weak reinnervated muscles and to establish new motor patterns and cortical mapping. Patient education and a home program are essential to obtain the optimal functional result.

  5. Speed control for synchronous motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, H.; Schott, J.

    1981-01-01

    Feedback circuit controls fluctuations in speed of synchronous ac motor. Voltage proportional to phase angle is developed by phase detector, rectified, amplified, compared to threshold, and reapplied positively or negatively to motor excitation circuit. Speed control reduces wow and flutter of audio turntables and tape recorders, and enhances hunting in gyroscope motors.

  6. Motor Education: Educational Development Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tansley, A. E.

    This booklet presents educational programs and activities focusing on motor skills for 5- to 9-year-old children and older children with learning problems. The premise of the activities is that the acquisition of motor skills is essential to basic learning. The role of language as a mediator and controller of motor development is emphasized. The…

  7. Brushless direct-current motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahm, E. J.

    1970-01-01

    Survey results are presented on the use of unconventional motor windings and switching sequences to optimize performance of brushless dc motors. A motor was built, each coil terminal having a separate, accessible lead. With the shaft and all electronics excluded, length and outside diameter measured 1.25 and 0.75 in., respectively.

  8. Motor Education: Educational Development Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tansley, A. E.

    This booklet presents educational programs and activities focusing on motor skills for 5- to 9-year-old children and older children with learning problems. The premise of the activities is that the acquisition of motor skills is essential to basic learning. The role of language as a mediator and controller of motor development is emphasized. The…

  9. Experiments with a DC Motor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2010-01-01

    Experiments with an electric motor provide good opportunity to demonstrate some basic laws of electricity and magnetism. The aim of the experiments with a low-power dc motor is to show how the motor approaches its steady rotation and how its torque, mechanical power and efficiency depend on the rotation velocity. The tight relationship between the…

  10. Experiments with a DC Motor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2010-01-01

    Experiments with an electric motor provide good opportunity to demonstrate some basic laws of electricity and magnetism. The aim of the experiments with a low-power dc motor is to show how the motor approaches its steady rotation and how its torque, mechanical power and efficiency depend on the rotation velocity. The tight relationship between the…

  11. Multiple stage miniature stepping motor

    DOEpatents

    Niven, William A.; Shikany, S. David; Shira, Michael L.

    1981-01-01

    A stepping motor comprising a plurality of stages which may be selectively activated to effect stepping movement of the motor, and which are mounted along a common rotor shaft to achieve considerable reduction in motor size and minimum diameter, whereby sequential activation of the stages results in successive rotor steps with direction being determined by the particular activating sequence followed.

  12. Linking Brain, Mind and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Makeig, Scott; Gramann, Klaus; Jung, Tzyy-Ping; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Poizner, Howard

    2009-01-01

    Cortical brain areas and dynamics evolved to organize motor behavior in our three-dimensional environment also support more general human cognitive processes. Yet traditional brain imaging paradigms typically allow and record only minimal participant behavior, then reduce the recorded data to single map features of averaged responses. To more fully investigate the complex links between distributed brain dynamics and motivated natural behavior, we propose development of wearable mobile brain/body imaging (MoBI) systems to continuously capture the wearer’s high-density electrical brain and muscle signals, three-dimensional body movements, audiovisual scene and point of regard, plus new data-driven analysis methods to model their interrelationships. The new imaging modality should allow new insights into how spatially distributed brain dynamics support natural human cognition and agency. PMID:19414039

  13. Toward a new theory of motor synergies.

    PubMed

    Latash, Mark L; Scholz, John P; Schöner, Gregor

    2007-07-01

    Driven by recent empirical studies, we offer a new understanding of the degrees of freedom problem, and propose a refined concept of synergy as a neural organization that ensures a one-to-many mapping of variables providing for both stability of important performance variables and flexibility of motor patterns to deal with possible perturbations and/or secondary tasks. Empirical evidence is reviewed, including a discussion of the operationalization of stability/flexibility through the method of the uncontrolled manifold. We show how this concept establishes links between the various accounts for how movement is organized in redundant effector systems.

  14. Motor sequence learning and motor adaptation in primary cervical dystonia.

    PubMed

    Katschnig-Winter, Petra; Schwingenschuh, Petra; Davare, Marco; Sadnicka, Anna; Schmidt, Reinhold; Rothwell, John C; Bhatia, Kailash P; Edwards, Mark J

    2014-06-01

    Motor sequence learning and motor adaptation rely on overlapping circuits predominantly involving the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Given the importance of these brain regions to the pathophysiology of primary dystonia, and the previous finding of abnormal motor sequence learning in DYT1 gene carriers, we explored motor sequence learning and motor adaptation in patients with primary cervical dystonia. We recruited 12 patients with cervical dystonia and 11 healthy controls matched for age. Subjects used a joystick to move a cursor from a central starting point to radial targets as fast and accurately as possible. Using this device, we recorded baseline motor performance, motor sequence learning and a visuomotor adaptation task. Patients with cervical dystonia had a significantly higher peak velocity than controls. Baseline performance with random target presentation was otherwise normal. Patients and controls had similar levels of motor sequence learning and motor adaptation. Our patients had significantly higher peak velocity compared to controls, with similar movement times, implying a different performance strategy. The preservation of motor sequence learning in cervical dystonia patients contrasts with the previously observed deficit seen in patients with DYT1 gene mutations, supporting the hypothesis of differing pathophysiology in different forms of primary dystonia. Normal motor adaptation is an interesting finding. With our paradigm we did not find evidence that the previously documented cerebellar abnormalities in cervical dystonia have a behavioral correlate, and thus could be compensatory or reflect "contamination" rather than being directly pathological. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Coordinated switching of bacterial flagellar motors: evidence for direct motor-motor coupling?

    PubMed

    Hu, Bo; Tu, Yuhai

    2013-04-12

    The swimming of Escherichia coli is powered by its multiple flagellar motors. Each motor spins either clockwise or counterclockwise, under the control of an intracellular regulator, CheY-P. There can be two mechanisms (extrinsic and intrinsic) to coordinate the switching of bacterial motors. The extrinsic one arises from the fact that different motors in the same cell sense a common input (CheY-P) which fluctuates near the motors' response threshold. An alternative, intrinsic mechanism is direct motor-motor coupling which makes synchronized switching energetically favorable. Here, we develop simple models for both mechanisms and uncover their different hallmarks. A quantitative comparison to the recent experiments suggests that the direct coupling mechanism may be accountable for the observed sharp correlation between motors in a single Escherichia coli. Possible origins of this coupling (e.g., hydrodynamic interaction) are discussed.

  16. Brief Report: Children with ADHD without Co-Morbid Autism Do Not Have Impaired Motor Proficiency on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Nicole; Rinehart, Nicole; Bradshaw, John L.; McGinley, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Motor proficiency was investigated in a sample of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder-Combined type (ADHD-CT) without autism. Accounting for the influence of co-morbid autistic symptoms in ADHD motor studies is vital given that motor impairment has been linked to social-communication symptoms in children who have co-morbid ADHD…

  17. The Associations among Motor Ability, Social-Communication Skills, and Participation in Daily Life Activities in Children with Low-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Limor; Moran, Adva; Bart, Orit

    2017-01-01

    Decreased motor ability is a common feature in autism, leading to the proposal of a motor-social link in autism. The purpose of the study was to assess the contribution of motor abilities and social-communication skills to children's participation in daily activities, among children with low-functioning autism spectrum disorder (LFASD).…

  18. Brief Report: Children with ADHD without Co-Morbid Autism Do Not Have Impaired Motor Proficiency on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Nicole; Rinehart, Nicole; Bradshaw, John L.; McGinley, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Motor proficiency was investigated in a sample of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder-Combined type (ADHD-CT) without autism. Accounting for the influence of co-morbid autistic symptoms in ADHD motor studies is vital given that motor impairment has been linked to social-communication symptoms in children who have co-morbid ADHD…

  19. Variation in motor output and motor performance in a centrally generated motor pattern.

    PubMed

    Wenning, Angela; Norris, Brian J; Doloc-Mihu, Anca; Calabrese, Ronald L

    2014-07-01

    Central pattern generators (CPGs) produce motor patterns that ultimately drive motor outputs. We studied how functional motor performance is achieved, specifically, whether the variation seen in motor patterns is reflected in motor performance and whether fictive motor patterns differ from those in vivo. We used the leech heartbeat system in which a bilaterally symmetrical CPG coordinates segmental heart motor neurons and two segmented heart tubes into two mutually exclusive coordination modes: rear-to-front peristaltic on one side and nearly synchronous on the other, with regular side-to-side switches. We assessed individual variability of the motor pattern and the beat pattern in vivo. To quantify the beat pattern we imaged intact adults. To quantify the phase relations between motor neurons and heart constrictions we recorded extracellularly from two heart motor neurons and movement from the corresponding heart segments in minimally dissected leeches. Variation in the motor pattern was reflected in motor performance only in the peristaltic mode, where larger intersegmental phase differences in the motor neurons resulted in larger phase differences between heart constrictions. Fictive motor patterns differed from those in vivo only in the synchronous mode, where intersegmental phase differences in vivo had a larger front-to-rear bias and were more constrained. Additionally, load-influenced constriction timing might explain the amplification of the phase differences between heart segments in the peristaltic mode and the higher variability in motor output due to body shape assumed in this soft-bodied animal. The motor pattern determines the beat pattern, peristaltic or synchronous, but heart mechanics influence the phase relations achieved.

  20. Variation in motor output and motor performance in a centrally generated motor pattern

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Brian J.; Doloc-Mihu, Anca; Calabrese, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    Central pattern generators (CPGs) produce motor patterns that ultimately drive motor outputs. We studied how functional motor performance is achieved, specifically, whether the variation seen in motor patterns is reflected in motor performance and whether fictive motor patterns differ from those in vivo. We used the leech heartbeat system in which a bilaterally symmetrical CPG coordinates segmental heart motor neurons and two segmented heart tubes into two mutually exclusive coordination modes: rear-to-front peristaltic on one side and nearly synchronous on the other, with regular side-to-side switches. We assessed individual variability of the motor pattern and the beat pattern in vivo. To quantify the beat pattern we imaged intact adults. To quantify the phase relations between motor neurons and heart constrictions we recorded extracellularly from two heart motor neurons and movement from the corresponding heart segments in minimally dissected leeches. Variation in the motor pattern was reflected in motor performance only in the peristaltic mode, where larger intersegmental phase differences in the motor neurons resulted in larger phase differences between heart constrictions. Fictive motor patterns differed from those in vivo only in the synchronous mode, where intersegmental phase differences in vivo had a larger front-to-rear bias and were more constrained. Additionally, load-influenced constriction timing might explain the amplification of the phase differences between heart segments in the peristaltic mode and the higher variability in motor output due to body shape assumed in this soft-bodied animal. The motor pattern determines the beat pattern, peristaltic or synchronous, but heart mechanics influence the phase relations achieved. PMID:24717348

  1. Motor technology for mining applications advances

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2009-08-15

    AC motors are steadily replacing DC motors in mining and mineral processing equipment, requiring less maintenance. The permanent magnet rotor, or the synchronous motor, has enabled Blador to introduce a line of cooling tower motors. Synchronous motors are soon likely to take over from the induction motor. 1 photo.

  2. Molecular Motors and Stochastic Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipowsky, Reinhard

    The behavior of single molecular motors such as kinesin or myosin V, which move on linear filaments, involves a nontrivial coupling between the biochemical motor cycle and the stochastic movement. This coupling can be studied in the framework of nonuniform ratchet models which are characterized by spatially localized transition rates between the different internal states of the motor. These models can be classified according to their functional relationships between the motor velocity and the concentration of the fuel molecules. The simplest such relationship applies to two subclasses of models for dimeric kinesin and agrees with experimental observations on this molecular motor.

  3. Big Savings from Smart Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Chesebrough-Pond's operates 32 plants across the nation and in those plants are more than 10,000 electric motors. In an effort to cut down on waste of electrical power used by these motors, Chesebrough organized a Corporate Advanced Technology Group to devise ways of improving productivity and cut manufacturing costs. Chesebrough used NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center's Power Factor Controller technology as a departure point for development of their own computerized motor controller that enables motors to operate at maximum efficiency regardless of the motor's applications or operating condition.

  4. Five-site model for a motor protein walking on a bead-spring substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paudyal, Nabina; Adeli Koudehi, Maral; Luettmer-Strathmann, Jutta

    2014-03-01

    Motor proteins play an important role in many biological processes. For example, kinesin molecules are responsible for the transport of vesicles in nerve cells and their malfunction has been linked to neurodegenerative diseases. Motor proteins are also responsible for the unique mechanical properties of active matter. To study non-equilibrium aspects of motor-substrate systems, biological chain molecules interacting with motor proteins have been investigated in single-chain pulling experiments. Unfortunately, the complexity of motor proteins and their environment makes it difficult to model the detailed dynamics of molecular motors over long time scales. In this work, we develop a simple coarse-grained model for a motor protein on a bead-spring substrate under tension. In our model, different pair potentials describe interactions between substrate and motor, motor components and substrate components. The movement of motor proteins entails ATP hydrolysis, which is modeled in terms of mechano-chemical states that couple positional and chemical degrees of freedom. The goal of this work is to simulate cargo transport in confined geometries and to investigate the mechanical response of a single chain interacting with motor proteins.

  5. Dynamic Re-wiring of Neural Circuits in the Motor Cortex in Mouse Models of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lalchandani, Rupa R.; Cui, Yuting; Shu, Yu; Xu, Tonghui; Ding, Jun B.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Dynamic adaptations in synaptic plasticity are critical for learning new motor skills and maintaining memory throughout life, which rapidly decline with Parkinson's disease (PD). Plasticity in the motor cortex is important for acquisition and maintenance of novel motor skills, but how the loss of dopamine in PD leads to disrupted structural and functional plasticity in the motor cortex is not well understood. Here, we utilized mouse models of PD and 2-photon imaging to show that dopamine depletion resulted in structural changes in the motor cortex. We further discovered that dopamine D1 and D2 receptor signaling were linked to selectively and distinctly regulating these aberrant changes in structural and functional plasticity. Our findings suggest that both D1 and D2 receptor signaling regulate motor cortex plasticity, and loss of dopamine results in atypical synaptic adaptations that may contribute to the impairment of motor performance and motor memory observed in PD. PMID:26237365

  6. Influence of pain on motor preparation in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Postorino, Martina; May, Elisabeth S; Nickel, Moritz M; Tiemann, Laura; Ploner, Markus

    2017-10-01

    The protective function of pain depends on appropriate motor responses to avoid injury and promote recovery. The preparation and execution of motor responses is thus an essential part of pain. However, it is not yet fully understood how pain and motor processes interact in the brain. Here we used electroencephalography to investigate the effects of pain on motor preparation in the human brain. Twenty healthy human participants performed a motor task in which they performed button presses to stop increasingly painful thermal stimuli when they became intolerable. In another condition, participants performed button presses without concurrent stimulation. The results show that the amplitudes of preparatory event-related desynchronizations at alpha and beta frequencies did not differ between conditions. In contrast, the amplitude of the preparatory readiness potential was reduced when a button press was performed to stop a painful stimulus compared with a button press without concomitant pain. A control experiment with nonpainful thermal stimuli showed a similar reduction of the readiness potential when a button press was performed to stop a nonpainful thermal stimulus. Together, these findings indicate that painful and nonpainful thermal stimuli can similarly influence motor preparation in the human brain. Pain-specific effects on motor preparation in the human brain remain to be demonstrated.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Pain is inherently linked to motor processes, but the interactions between pain and motor processes in the human brain are not yet fully understood. Using electroencephalography, we show that pain reduces movement-preparatory brain activity. Further results indicate that this effect is not pain specific but independent of the modality of stimulation. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  7. The neural correlates of speech motor sequence learning.

    PubMed

    Segawa, Jennifer A; Tourville, Jason A; Beal, Deryk S; Guenther, Frank H

    2015-04-01

    Speech is perhaps the most sophisticated example of a species-wide movement capability in the animal kingdom, requiring split-second sequencing of approximately 100 muscles in the respiratory, laryngeal, and oral movement systems. Despite the unique role speech plays in human interaction and the debilitating impact of its disruption, little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying speech motor learning. Here, we studied the behavioral and neural correlates of learning new speech motor sequences. Participants repeatedly produced novel, meaningless syllables comprising illegal consonant clusters (e.g., GVAZF) over 2 days of practice. Following practice, participants produced the sequences with fewer errors and shorter durations, indicative of motor learning. Using fMRI, we compared brain activity during production of the learned illegal sequences and novel illegal sequences. Greater activity was noted during production of novel sequences in brain regions linked to non-speech motor sequence learning, including the BG and pre-SMA. Activity during novel sequence production was also greater in brain regions associated with learning and maintaining speech motor programs, including lateral premotor cortex, frontal operculum, and posterior superior temporal cortex. Measures of learning success correlated positively with activity in left frontal operculum and white matter integrity under left posterior superior temporal sulcus. These findings indicate speech motor sequence learning relies not only on brain areas involved generally in motor sequencing learning but also those associated with feedback-based speech motor learning. Furthermore, learning success is modulated by the integrity of structural connectivity between these motor and sensory brain regions.

  8. Advanced Motor Drives Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehsani, M.; Tchamdjou, A.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents an evaluation of advanced motor drive systems as a replacement for the hydrazine fueled APU units. The replacement technology must meet several requirements which are particular to the space applications and the Orbiter in general. Some of these requirements are high efficiency, small size, high power density. In the first part of the study several motors are compared, based on their characteristics and in light of the Orbiter requirements. The best candidate, the brushless DC is chosen because of its particularly good performance with regards to efficiency. Several power electronics drive technologies including the conventional three-phase hard switched and several soft-switched inverters are then presented. In the last part of the study, a soft-switched inverter is analyzed and compared to its conventional hard-switched counterpart. Optimal efficiency is a basic requirement for space applications and the soft-switched technology represents an unavoidable trend for the future.

  9. Ironless armature torque motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Four iron-less armature torque motors, four Hall device position sensor assemblies, and two test fixtures were fabricated. The design approach utilized samarium cobalt permanent magnets, a large airgap, and a three-phase winding in a stationary ironless armature. Hall devices were employed to sense rotor position. An ironless armature torque motor having an outer diameter of 4.25 inches was developed to produce a torque constant of 65 ounce-inches per ampere with a resistance of 20.5 ohms. The total weight, including structural elements, was 1.58 pounds. Test results indicated that all specifications were met except for generated voltage waveform. It is recommended that investigations be made concerning the generated voltage waveform to determine if it may be improved.

  10. Magnetostrictive direct drive motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naik, Dipak; Dehoff, P. H.

    1992-01-01

    A new rare earth alloy, Terfenol-D, combines low frequency operation and extremely high energy density with high magnetostriction. Its material properties make it suitable as a drive element for actuators requiring high output torque. The high strains, the high forces and the high controllability of Terfenol alloys provide a powerful and challenging basis for new ways to generate motion in actuators. Two prototypes of motors using Terfenol-D rods were developed at NASA Goddard. The basic principles of operation are provided of the motor along with other relevant details. A conceptual design of a torque limiting safety clutch/brake under development is illustrated. Also, preliminary design drawings of a linear actuator using Terfenol-D is shown.

  11. Dynamically Timed Electric Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, Ann M. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A brushless DC motor including a housing having an end cap secured thereto. The housing encloses a rotor. a stator and a rotationally displaceable commutation board having sensors secured thereon and spaced around the periphery of the rotor. An external rotational force is applied to the commutation board for displacement of the sensors to various positions whereby varying feedback signals are generated by the positioning of the sensors relative to the rotating rotor. The commutation board is secured in a fixed position in response to feedback signals indicative of optimum sensor position being determined. The rotation of the commutation board and the securing of the sensors in the desired fixed position is accomplished without requiring the removal of the end cap and with the DC motor operating.

  12. Dynamically timed electric motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, Ann M. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention disclosed in this document is a brushless DC motor including a housing having an end cap secured thereto. The housing encloses a rotor, a stator and a rotationally displaceable commutation board having 5 sensors secured thereon and spaced around the periphery of the rotor. An external rotational force is applied to the commutation board for displacement of the sensors to various positions whereby varying feedback signals are generated by the positioning of the sensors relative to the rotating rotor. The commutation board is secured in a fixed position in response to feedback signals indicative of optimum sensor position being determined. The rotation of the commutation board and the securing of the sensors in the desired fixed position is accomplished without requiring the removal of the 5 end cap and with the DC motor operating.

  13. Prospective errors determine motor learning

    PubMed Central

    Takiyama, Ken; Hirashima, Masaya; Nozaki, Daichi

    2015-01-01

    Diverse features of motor learning have been reported by numerous studies, but no single theoretical framework concurrently accounts for these features. Here, we propose a model for motor learning to explain these features in a unified way by extending a motor primitive framework. The model assumes that the recruitment pattern of motor primitives is determined by the predicted movement error of an upcoming movement (prospective error). To validate this idea, we perform a behavioural experiment to examine the model’s novel prediction: after experiencing an environment in which the movement error is more easily predictable, subsequent motor learning should become faster. The experimental results support our prediction, suggesting that the prospective error might be encoded in the motor primitives. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this model has a strong explanatory power to reproduce a wide variety of motor-learning-related phenomena that have been separately explained by different computational models. PMID:25635628

  14. Energy efficient motors reference guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadanandan, N. D.; Eltom, A. H.

    1992-03-01

    The motor reference guide is the result of data and information collected and organized by the Industrial and Large Commercial staff of the Tennessee Valley Authority. The information was collected over several months from motor manufacturers, technical papers, textbooks, and files of former TVA engineers. Additionally, computer simulations were performed to develop data not currently available in literature. The guide is not intended to be a textbook on motors, but a quick and ready reference for the TVA field staff to assist in the technical and economic evaluation of energy-efficient motors versus standard motors. However, chapters on motor related topics such as rotating fields, power factor correction, and impact of power quality on motor performances have also been included to complement the text.

  15. The Relationship between Social and Motor Cognition in Primary School Age-Children

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, Lorcan; Hill, Elisabeth; Hamilton, Antonia F. de C.

    2016-01-01

    There is increased interest in the relationship between motor skills and social skills in child development, with evidence that the mechanisms underlying these behaviors may be linked. We took a cognitive approach to this problem, and examined the relationship between four specific cognitive domains: theory of mind, motor skill, action understanding, and imitation. Neuroimaging and adult research suggest that action understanding and imitation are closely linked, but are somewhat independent of theory of mind and low-level motor control. Here, we test if a similar pattern is shown in child development. A sample of 101 primary school aged children with a wide ability range completed tests of IQ (Raven’s matrices), theory of mind, motor skill, action understanding, and imitation. Parents reported on their children’s social, motor and attention performance as well as developmental concerns. The results showed that action understanding and imitation correlate, with the latter having a weak link to motor control. Theory of mind was independent of the other tasks. These results imply that independent cognitive processes for social interaction (theory of mind) and for motor control can be identified in primary school age children, and challenge approaches that link all these domains together. PMID:26941685

  16. Sexual motivation is reflected by stimulus-dependent motor cortex excitability.

    PubMed

    Schecklmann, Martin; Engelhardt, Kristina; Konzok, Julian; Rupprecht, Rainer; Greenlee, Mark W; Mokros, Andreas; Langguth, Berthold; Poeppl, Timm B

    2015-08-01

    Sexual behavior involves motivational processes. Findings from both animal models and neuroimaging in humans suggest that the recruitment of neural motor networks is an integral part of the sexual response. However, no study so far has directly linked sexual motivation to physiologically measurable changes in cerebral motor systems in humans. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation in hetero- and homosexual men, we here show that sexual motivation modulates cortical excitability. More specifically, our results demonstrate that visual sexual stimuli corresponding with one's sexual orientation, compared with non-corresponding visual sexual stimuli, increase the excitability of the motor cortex. The reflection of sexual motivation in motor cortex excitability provides evidence for motor preparation processes in sexual behavior in humans. Moreover, such interrelationship links theoretical models and previous neuroimaging findings of sexual behavior.

  17. Sexual motivation is reflected by stimulus-dependent motor cortex excitability

    PubMed Central

    Schecklmann, Martin; Engelhardt, Kristina; Konzok, Julian; Rupprecht, Rainer; Greenlee, Mark W.; Mokros, Andreas; Langguth, Berthold

    2015-01-01

    Sexual behavior involves motivational processes. Findings from both animal models and neuroimaging in humans suggest that the recruitment of neural motor networks is an integral part of the sexual response. However, no study so far has directly linked sexual motivation to physiologically measurable changes in cerebral motor systems in humans. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation in hetero- and homosexual men, we here show that sexual motivation modulates cortical excitability. More specifically, our results demonstrate that visual sexual stimuli corresponding with one’s sexual orientation, compared with non-corresponding visual sexual stimuli, increase the excitability of the motor cortex. The reflection of sexual motivation in motor cortex excitability provides evidence for motor preparation processes in sexual behavior in humans. Moreover, such interrelationship links theoretical models and previous neuroimaging findings of sexual behavior. PMID:25556214

  18. Quantifying Motor Experience in the Infant Brain: EEG Power, Coherence, and Mu Desynchronization

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Sandy L.; Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C.; Nelson, Eliza L.

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of new motor skills, such as reaching and walking, dramatically changes how infants engage with the world socially and cognitively. Several examples of how motor experience can cascade into cognitive and social development have been documented, yet a significant knowledge gap remains in our understanding of whether these observed behavioral changes are accompanied by underlying neural changes. We propose that electroencephalography (EEG) measures such as power, coherence, and mu desynchronization are optimal tools to quantify motor experience in the infant brain. In this mini-review, we will summarize existing infant research that has separately assessed the relation between motor, cognitive, or social development with coherence, power, or mu desynchronization. We will discuss how the reviewed neural changes seen in seemingly separate developmental domains may be linked based on existing behavioral evidence. We will further propose that power, coherence, and mu desynchronization be used in research exploring the links between motor experience and cognitive and social development. PMID:26925022

  19. EPDM rocket motor insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillot, David G. (Inventor); Harvey, Albert R. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A novel and improved EPDM formulation for a solid propellant rocket motor is described wherein hexadiene EPDM monomer components are replaced by alkylidene norbornene components, and, with appropriate adjustment of curing and other additives, functionally required rheological and physical characteristics are achieved with the desired compatibility with any one of a plurality of solid filler materials, e.g., powder silica, carbon fibers or aramid fibers, and with appropriate adhesion and extended storage or shelf-life characteristics.

  20. EPDM rocket motor insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillot, David G. (Inventor); Harvey, Albert R. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A novel and improved EPDM formulation for a solid propellant rocket motor is described wherein hexadiene EPDM monomer components are replaced by alkylidene norbornene components and with appropriate adjustment of curing and other additives functionally-required rheological and physical characteristics are achieved with the desired compatibility with any one of a plurality of solid filler materials, e.g. powder silica, carbon fibers or aramid fibers, and with appropriate adhesion and extended storage or shelf life characteristics.

  1. EPDM rocket motor insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillot, David G. (Inventor); Harvey, Albert R. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A novel and improved EPDM formulation for a solid propellant rocket motor is described wherein hexadiene EPDM monomer components are replaced by alkylidene norbornene components, and, with appropriate adjustment of curing and other additives, functionally required rheological and physical characteristics are achieved with the desired compatibility with any one of a plurality of solid filler materials, e.g., powder silica, carbon fibers or aramid fibers, and with appropriate adhesion and extended storage or shelf-life characteristics.

  2. Motor neurone disease.

    PubMed

    2016-03-23

    Essential facts Motor neurone disease describes a group of related diseases, affecting the neurones in the brain and spinal cord. Progressive, incurable and life-limiting, MND is rare, with about 1,100 people developing it each year in the UK and up to 5,000 people affected at any one time. One third of people will die within a year of diagnosis and more than half within two years. About 5% to 10% are alive at ten years.

  3. Libert-E Motor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieloff, Susan F.; Kinnunen, Raymond; Chevarley, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Kei Yun Wong has big dreams. She has been entrusted with the United States launch of Libert-E Motor, a new line of Chinese-manufactured electric scooters. With only $750,000 of her original budget of $3 million left, she needs to make sure that the launch succeeds, as it represents the initial step in her desire to create the first Chinese global…

  4. Libert-E Motor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieloff, Susan F.; Kinnunen, Raymond; Chevarley, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Kei Yun Wong has big dreams. She has been entrusted with the United States launch of Libert-E Motor, a new line of Chinese-manufactured electric scooters. With only $750,000 of her original budget of $3 million left, she needs to make sure that the launch succeeds, as it represents the initial step in her desire to create the first Chinese global…

  5. The St. Louis Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2011-10-01

    The St. Louis Motor, invented in 1909, is unique among physics apparatus for being named for a geographical place rather than a physicist. The sturdy little device (Fig. 1) has never been out of production. Any older school or physics department that has not done a catastrophic housecleaning in the last 20 years will certainly have a small flock of them in the back room.

  6. Motor Fuel Excise Taxes

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-01

    A new report from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) explores the role of alternative fuels and energy efficient vehicles in motor fuel taxes. Throughout the United States, it is common practice for federal, state, and local governments to tax motor fuels on a per gallon basis to fund construction and maintenance of our transportation infrastructure. In recent years, however, expenses have outpaced revenues creating substantial funding shortfalls that have required supplemental funding sources. While rising infrastructure costs and the decreasing purchasing power of the gas tax are significant factors contributing to the shortfall, the increased use of alternative fuels and more stringent fuel economy standards are also exacerbating revenue shortfalls. The current dynamic places vehicle efficiency and petroleum use reduction polices at direct odds with policies promoting robust transportation infrastructure. Understanding the energy, transportation, and environmental tradeoffs of motor fuel tax policies can be complicated, but recent experiences at the state level are helping policymakers align their energy and environmental priorities with highway funding requirements.

  7. Dyspraxia, motor function and visual-motor integration in autism.

    PubMed

    Miller, M; Chukoskie, L; Zinni, M; Townsend, J; Trauner, D

    2014-08-01

    This project assessed dyspraxia in high-functioning school aged children with autism with a focus on Ideational Praxis. We examined the association of specific underlying motor function including eye movement with ideational dyspraxia (sequences of skilled movements) as well as the possible role of visual-motor integration in dyspraxia. We found that compared to IQ-, sex- and age-matched typically developing children, the children with autism performed significantly worse on: Ideational and Buccofacial praxis; a broad range of motor tests, including measures of simple motor skill, timing and accuracy of saccadic eye movements and motor coordination; and tests of visual-motor integration. Impairments in individual children with autism were heterogeneous in nature, although when we examined the praxis data as a function of a qualitative measure representing motor timing, we found that children with poor motor timing performed worse on all praxis categories and had slower and less accurate eye movements while those with regular timing performed as well as typical children on those same tasks. Our data provide evidence that both motor function and visual-motor integration contribute to dyspraxia. We suggest that dyspraxia in autism involves cerebellar mechanisms of movement control and the integration of these mechanisms with cortical networks implicated in praxis.

  8. Dyspraxia, Motor Function and Visual-Motor Integration in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Miller, M.; Chukoskie, L.; Zinni, M.; Townsend, J.; Trauner, D.

    2014-01-01

    This project assessed dyspraxia in high-functioning school aged children with autism with a focus on Ideational Praxis. We examined the association of specific underlying motor function including eye movement with ideational dyspraxia (sequences of skilled movements) as well as the possible role of visual-motor integration in dyspraxia. We found that compared to IQ-, sex- and age-matched typically developing children, the children with autism performed significantly worse on: Ideational and Buccofacial praxis; a broad range of motor tests, including measures of simple motor skill, timing and accuracy of saccadic eye movements and motor coordination; and tests of visual-motor integration. Impairments in individual children with autism were heterogeneous in nature, although when we examined the praxis data as a function of a qualitative measure representing motor timing, we found that children with poor motor timing performed worse on all praxis categories and had slower and less accurate eye movements while those with regular timing performed as well as typical children on those same tasks. Our data provide evidence that both motor function and visual-motor integration contribute to dyspraxia. We suggest that dyspraxia in autism involves cerebellar mechanisms of movement control and the integration of these mechanisms with cortical networks implicated in praxis. PMID:24742861

  9. A universal computer control system for motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szakaly, Zoltan F. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A control system for a multi-motor system such as a space telerobot, having a remote computational node and a local computational node interconnected with one another by a high speed data link is described. A Universal Computer Control System (UCCS) for the telerobot is located at each node. Each node is provided with a multibus computer system which is characterized by a plurality of processors with all processors being connected to a common bus, and including at least one command processor. The command processor communicates over the bus with a plurality of joint controller cards. A plurality of direct current torque motors, of the type used in telerobot joints and telerobot hand-held controllers, are connected to the controller cards and responds to digital control signals from the command processor. Essential motor operating parameters are sensed by analog sensing circuits and the sensed analog signals are converted to digital signals for storage at the controller cards where such signals can be read during an address read/write cycle of the command processing processor.

  10. A universal computer control system for motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szakaly, Zoltan F.

    1991-09-01

    A control system for a multi-motor system such as a space telerobot, having a remote computational node and a local computational node interconnected with one another by a high speed data link is described. A Universal Computer Control System (UCCS) for the telerobot is located at each node. Each node is provided with a multibus computer system which is characterized by a plurality of processors with all processors being connected to a common bus, and including at least one command processor. The command processor communicates over the bus with a plurality of joint controller cards. A plurality of direct current torque motors, of the type used in telerobot joints and telerobot hand-held controllers, are connected to the controller cards and responds to digital control signals from the command processor. Essential motor operating parameters are sensed by analog sensing circuits and the sensed analog signals are converted to digital signals for storage at the controller cards where such signals can be read during an address read/write cycle of the command processing processor.

  11. 46 CFR 111.70-3 - Motor controllers and motor-control centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Motor controllers and motor-control centers. 111.70-3... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Motor Circuits, Controllers, and Protection § 111.70-3 Motor controllers and motor-control centers. (a) General. The enclosure for each motor controller or motor-control...

  12. 46 CFR 111.70-3 - Motor controllers and motor-control centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Motor controllers and motor-control centers. 111.70-3... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Motor Circuits, Controllers, and Protection § 111.70-3 Motor controllers and motor-control centers. (a) General. The enclosure for each motor controller or motor-control...

  13. 46 CFR 111.70-3 - Motor controllers and motor-control centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Motor controllers and motor-control centers. 111.70-3... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Motor Circuits, Controllers, and Protection § 111.70-3 Motor controllers and motor-control centers. (a) General. The enclosure for each motor controller or motor-control...

  14. 46 CFR 111.70-3 - Motor controllers and motor-control centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor controllers and motor-control centers. 111.70-3... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Motor Circuits, Controllers, and Protection § 111.70-3 Motor controllers and motor-control centers. (a) General. The enclosure for each motor controller or motor-control...

  15. Coordinated Switching of Bacterial Flagellar Motors: Evidence for Direct Motor-Motor Coupling?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bo; Tu, Yuhai

    2013-04-01

    The swimming of Escherichia coli is powered by its multiple flagellar motors. Each motor spins either clockwise or counterclockwise, under the control of an intracellular regulator, CheY-P. There can be two mechanisms (extrinsic and intrinsic) to coordinate the switching of bacterial motors. The extrinsic one arises from the fact that different motors in the same cell sense a common input (CheY-P) which fluctuates near the motors’ response threshold. An alternative, intrinsic mechanism is direct motor-motor coupling which makes synchronized switching energetically favorable. Here, we develop simple models for both mechanisms and uncover their different hallmarks. A quantitative comparison to the recent experiments suggests that the direct coupling mechanism may be accountable for the observed sharp correlation between motors in a single Escherichia coli. Possible origins of this coupling (e.g., hydrodynamic interaction) are discussed.

  16. Infant motor and cognitive abilities and subsequent executive function.

    PubMed

    Wu, Meng; Liang, Xi; Lu, Shan; Wang, Zhengyan

    2017-09-23

    Although executive function (EF) is widely considered crucial to several aspects of life, the mechanisms underlying EF development remain largely unexplored, especially for infants. From a behavioral or neurodevelopmental perspective, motor and general cognitive abilities are linked with EF. EF development is a multistage process that starts with sensorimotor interactive behaviors, which become basic cognitive abilities and, in turn, mature EF. This study aims to examine how infant motor and general cognitive abilities are linked with their EF at 3 years of age. This work also aims to explore the potential processes of EF development from early movement. A longitudinal study was conducted with 96 infants (55 girls and 41 boys). The infants' motor and general cognitive abilities were assessed at 1 and 2 years of age with Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Second and Third Editions, respectively. Infants' EFs were assessed at 3 years of age with Working Memory Span task, Day-Night task, and Wrapped Gift task. Children with higher scores for cognitive ability at 2 years of age performed better in working memory, and children with higher scores for gross motor ability at 2 years performed better in cognitive inhibitory control (IC). Motor ability at 1year and fine/gross motor ability at 2 years indirectly affected cognitive IC via general cognitive ability at 2 years and working memory. EF development is a multistage process that originates from physical movement to simple cognitive function, and then to complex cognitive function. Infants and toddlers can undergo targeted motor training to promote EF development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Kinesin-12 motors cooperate to suppress microtubule catastrophes and drive the formation of parallel microtubule bundles

    PubMed Central

    Drechsler, Hauke; McAinsh, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Human Kinesin-12 (hKif15) plays a crucial role in assembly and maintenance of the mitotic spindle. These functions of hKif15 are partially redundant with Kinesin-5 (Eg5), which can cross-link and drive the extensile sliding of antiparallel microtubules. Although both motors are known to be tetramers, the functional properties of hKif15 are less well understood. Here we reveal how single or multiple Kif15 motors can cross-link, transport, and focus the plus-ends of intersecting microtubules. During transport, Kif15 motors step simultaneously along both microtubules with relative microtubule transport driven by a velocity differential between motor domain pairs. Remarkably, this differential is affected by the underlying intersection geometry: the differential is low on parallel and extreme on antiparallel microtubules where one motor domain pair becomes immobile. As a result, when intersecting microtubules are antiparallel, canonical transport of one microtubule along the other is allowed because one motor is firmly attached to one microtubule while it is stepping on the other. When intersecting microtubules are parallel, however, Kif15 motors can drive (biased) parallel sliding because the motor simultaneously steps on both microtubules that it cross-links. These microtubule rearrangements will focus microtubule plus-ends and finally lead to the formation of parallel bundles. At the same time, Kif15 motors cooperate to suppress catastrophe events at polymerizing microtubule plus-ends, raising the possibility that Kif15 motors may synchronize the dynamics of bundles that they have assembled. Thus, Kif15 is adapted to operate on parallel microtubule substrates, a property that clearly distinguishes it from the other tetrameric spindle motor, Eg5. PMID:26969727

  18. Kinesin-12 motors cooperate to suppress microtubule catastrophes and drive the formation of parallel microtubule bundles.

    PubMed

    Drechsler, Hauke; McAinsh, Andrew D

    2016-03-22

    Human Kinesin-12 (hKif15) plays a crucial role in assembly and maintenance of the mitotic spindle. These functions of hKif15 are partially redundant with Kinesin-5 (Eg5), which can cross-link and drive the extensile sliding of antiparallel microtubules. Although both motors are known to be tetramers, the functional properties of hKif15 are less well understood. Here we reveal how single or multiple Kif15 motors can cross-link, transport, and focus the plus-ends of intersecting microtubules. During transport, Kif15 motors step simultaneously along both microtubules with relative microtubule transport driven by a velocity differential between motor domain pairs. Remarkably, this differential is affected by the underlying intersection geometry: the differential is low on parallel and extreme on antiparallel microtubules where one motor domain pair becomes immobile. As a result, when intersecting microtubules are antiparallel, canonical transport of one microtubule along the other is allowed because one motor is firmly attached to one microtubule while it is stepping on the other. When intersecting microtubules are parallel, however, Kif15 motors can drive (biased) parallel sliding because the motor simultaneously steps on both microtubules that it cross-links. These microtubule rearrangements will focus microtubule plus-ends and finally lead to the formation of parallel bundles. At the same time, Kif15 motors cooperate to suppress catastrophe events at polymerizing microtubule plus-ends, raising the possibility that Kif15 motors may synchronize the dynamics of bundles that they have assembled. Thus, Kif15 is adapted to operate on parallel microtubule substrates, a property that clearly distinguishes it from the other tetrameric spindle motor, Eg5.

  19. Analog Optical Links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Charles H., III

    2004-05-01

    Unlike books that focus on the devices used in links, such as lasers and photodiodes, among others, this text focuses on the next level. It covers the collection of devices that form a link, how the individual device performance affects the link performance, or the reverse. Analog links are used for the distribution of cable TV signals, and in conveying the signals to and from antennas (so called antenna remoting). The design of analog links differs significantly from digital links which are primarily used in telecommunications.

  20. Wind motor applications for transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Lysenko, G.P.; Grigoriev, B.V.; Karpin, K.B.

    1996-12-31

    Motion equation for a vehicle equipped with a wind motor allows, taking into account the drag coefficients, to determine the optimal wind drag velocity in the wind motor`s plane, and hence, obtain all the necessary data for the wind wheel blades geometrical parameters definition. This optimal drag velocity significantly differs from the flow drag velocity which determines the maximum wind motor power. Solution of the motion equation with low drag coefficients indicates that the vehicle speed against the wind may be twice as the wind speed. One of possible transportation wind motor applications is its use on various ships. A ship with such a wind motor may be substantially easier to steer, and if certain devices are available, may proceed in autonomous control mode. Besides, it is capable of moving within narrow fairways. The cruise speed of a sailing boat and wind-motored ship were compared provided that the wind velocity direction changes along a harmonic law with regard to the motion direction. Mean dimensionless speed of the wind-motored ship appears to be by 20--25% higher than that of a sailing boat. There was analyzed a possibility of using the wind motors on planet rovers in Mars or Venus atmospheric conditions. A Mars rover power and motor system has been assessed for the power level of 3 kW.

  1. Link performance of mobile optical links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henniger, H.

    2007-09-01

    High data-rate atmospheric free-space optical (FSO) lasercom systems typically suffer from relatively long time duration link degradations. These are caused by pointing- and tracking-errors or deep signal-fades produced by the index of refraction fluctuations caused by atmospheric turbulence. Based on measurement results we will present in this paper a channel characterization model for free-space optical links. Further a forward-error-correction (FEC) coding scheme is introduced that is able to overcome link outages. The performance of these codes has been proven by measurements. Code design recommendations and validation test results are discussed in this paper.

  2. An Inverter-Driven Induction Motor System with a Deadlock Breaking Capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, Takuto; Yoshida, Toshiya; Miyashita, Osamu

    Induction motors are very widely used in various industrial applications. In semiconductor manufacturing processes, deadlock failure of pumps may occur by the adhering of glass material contained in the gas to the rotor. This can lead to the shutdown of the manufacturing plant. Therefore, a countermeasure to prevent deadlocking of a motor is required. This paper proposes a method for generating an impulse torque in an induction motor fed by an inverter. The proposed inverter circuit is composed of a conventional inverter and a few additional relays. The on-and-off control of the relays supplies an appropriate magnetizing current and a large torque current from the dc-link capacitor. In experiment, a 1.5-kW cage-type induction motor generated a torque that was approximately seven times larger than the rated torque of the motor. This large impulse torque is useful for breaking the motor deadlock.

  3. Imparting Motion to a Test Object Such as a Motor Vehicle in a Controlled Fashion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Southward, Stephen C. (Inventor); Reubush, Chandler (Inventor); Pittman, Bryan (Inventor); Roehrig, Kurt (Inventor); Gerard, Doug (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An apparatus imparts motion to a test object such as a motor vehicle in a controlled fashion. A base has mounted on it a linear electromagnetic motor having a first end and a second end, the first end being connected to the base. A pneumatic cylinder and piston combination have a first end and a second end, the first end connected to the base so that the pneumatic cylinder and piston combination is generally parallel with the linear electromagnetic motor. The second ends of the linear electromagnetic motor and pneumatic cylinder and piston combination being commonly linked to a mount for the test object. A control system for the linear electromagnetic motor and pneumatic cylinder and piston combination drives the pneumatic cylinder and piston combination to support a substantial static load of the test object and the linear electromagnetic motor to impart controlled motion to the test object.

  4. [Motor neglect of thalamic origin: report on two cases (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Laplane, D; Escourolle, R; Degos, J D; Sauron, B; Massiou, H

    1982-01-01

    Two cases of thalamic lesions with motor neglect are presented. The syndrome of motor neglect was complete in those cases with a) underutilization of left limbs, but good utilization upon verbal orders, b) loss of placement reaction, c) weakness of movement when hand was approaching the target, d) weakness of motor reaction to nociceptive stimuli. Those cases confirm that motor neglect exists after thalamic lesions and bring pathologic clues for topographic discussion. Motor neglect seems to be a particular case of partial unilateral neglect throwing some doubt on the hypothesis of a global trouble of hemispheric activation. Prevalence of left motor neglects suggests some linkage between propositional motility and language. One may suppose that in the right hemisphere language is able to have a vicarious action when spontaneous activation is lost; at the opposite, in the left hemisphere language and motility would be too linked to let this dissociation be generally possible.

  5. Comparison of capabilities of reluctance synchronous motor and induction motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štumberger, Gorazd; Hadžiselimović, Miralem; Štumberger, Bojan; Miljavec, Damijan; Dolinar, Drago; Zagradišnik, Ivan

    2006-09-01

    This paper compares the capabilities of a reluctance synchronous motor (RSM) with those of an induction motor (IM). An RSM and IM were designed and made, with the same rated power and speed. They differ only in the rotor portion while their stators, housings and cooling systems are identical. The capabilities of both motors in a variable speed drive are evaluated by comparison of the results obtained by magnetically nonlinear models and by measurements.

  6. Neurons other than motor neurons in motor neuron disease.

    PubMed

    Ruffoli, Riccardo; Biagioni, Francesca; Busceti, Carla L; Gaglione, Anderson; Ryskalin, Larisa; Gambardella, Stefano; Frati, Alessandro; Fornai, Francesco

    2017-11-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is typically defined by a loss of motor neurons in the central nervous system. Accordingly, morphological analysis for decades considered motor neurons (in the cortex, brainstem and spinal cord) as the neuronal population selectively involved in ALS. Similarly, this was considered the pathological marker to score disease severity ex vivo both in patients and experimental models. However, the concept of non-autonomous motor neuron death was used recently to indicate the need for additional cell types to produce motor neuron death in ALS. This means that motor neuron loss occurs only when they are connected with other cell types. This concept originally emphasized the need for resident glia as well as non-resident inflammatory cells. Nowadays, the additional role of neurons other than motor neurons emerged in the scenario to induce non-autonomous motor neuron death. In fact, in ALS neurons diverse from motor neurons are involved. These cells play multiple roles in ALS: (i) they participate in the chain of events to produce motor neuron loss; (ii) they may even degenerate more than and before motor neurons. In the present manuscript evidence about multi-neuronal involvement in ALS patients and experimental models is discussed. Specific sub-classes of neurons in the whole spinal cord are reported either to degenerate or to trigger neuronal degeneration, thus portraying ALS as a whole spinal cord disorder rather than a disease affecting motor neurons solely. This is associated with a novel concept in motor neuron disease which recruits abnormal mechanisms of cell to cell communication.

  7. Motor and cognitive aspects of motor retardation in depression.

    PubMed

    Caligiuri, M P; Ellwanger, J

    2000-01-01

    Motor retardation is a common feature of major depressive disorder having potential prognostic and etiopathological significance. According to DSM-IV, depressed patients who meet criteria for psychomotor retardation, must exhibit motor slowing of sufficient severity to be observed by others. However, overt presentations of motor slowing cannot distinguish slowness due to cognitive factors from slowness due to neuromotor disturbances. We examined cognitive and neuromotor aspects of motor slowing in 36 depressed patients to test the hypothesis that a significant proportion of patients exhibit motor programming disturbances in addition to psychomotor impairment. A novel instrumental technique was used to assess motor programming in terms of the subject's ability to program movement velocity as a function of movement distance. A traditional psychomotor battery was combined with an instrumental measure of reaction time to assess the cognitive aspects of motor retardation. The depressed patients exhibited significant impairment on the velocity scaling measure and longer reaction times compared with nondepressed controls. Approximately 40% of the patients demonstrated abnormal psychomotor function as measured by the traditional battery; whereas over 60% exhibited some form of motor slowing as measured by the instruments. Approximately 40% of the patients exhibited parkinsonian-like motor programming deficits. A five-factor model consisting of motor measures predicted diagnosis among bipolar and unipolar depressed patients with 100% accuracy. The ability of motor measures to discriminate bipolar from unipolar patients must be viewed with caution considering the relatively small sample size of bipolar patients. These findings suggest that a subgroup of depressed patients exhibit motor retardation that is behaviorally similar to parkinsonian bradykinesia and may stem from a similar disruption within the basal ganglia.

  8. Sleep and Motor Learning: Implications for Physical Rehabilitation After Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Gudberg, Christel; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is essential for healthy brain function and plasticity underlying learning and memory. In the context of physical impairment such as following a stroke, sleep may be particularly important for supporting critical recovery of motor function through similar processes of reorganization in the brain. Despite a link between stroke and poor sleep, current approaches to rehabilitative care often neglect the importance of sleep in clinical assessment and treatment. This review assimilates current evidence on the role of sleep in motor learning, with a focus on the implications for physical rehabilitation after stroke. We further outline practical considerations for integrating sleep assessment as a vital part of clinical care. PMID:26635718

  9. Implicit chord processing and motor representation in pianists.

    PubMed

    Trimarchi, Pietro Davide; Luzzatti, Claudio

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the relevance of pitch dimension in auditory-motor interaction. Several behavioural and brain imaging studies have shown that auditory processing of sounds can activate motor representations, an effect which is however elicited only by action-related sounds, i.e., sounds linked to a specific motor repertoire. Music provides an appropriate framework for further exploration of this issue. Three groups of participants (pianists, non-pianist musicians and non-musicians) were tested with a shape decision task where left-hand and right-hand responses were required; each visual stimulus was paired with an auditory task-irrelevant stimulus (high-pitched or low-pitched piano-timbre chords). Of the three groups, only pianists had longer reaction times for left-hand/high-pitched chords and right-hand/low-pitched chords associations. These findings are consistent with an auditory-motor effect elicited by pitch dimension, as only pianists show an interaction between motor responses and implicit pitch processing. This interaction is consistent with the canonical mapping of hand gestures and pitch dimension on the piano keyboard. The results are discussed within the ideo-motor theoretical framework offered by the Theory of Event Coding (Hommel et al. in Behav Brain Sci 24:849-937, 2001).

  10. Enhanced Dynamics of Confined Cytoskeletal Filaments Driven by Asymmetric Motors.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, Arvind; Vliegenthart, Gerrit A; Saggiorato, Guglielmo; Auth, Thorsten; Gompper, Gerhard

    2017-09-05

    Cytoskeletal filaments and molecular motors facilitate the micron-scale force generation necessary for the distribution of organelles and the restructuring of the cytoskeleton within eukaryotic cells. Although the mesoscopic structure and the dynamics of such filaments have been studied in vitro and in vivo, their connection with filament polarity-dependent motor-mediated force generation is not well understood. Using 2D Brownian dynamics simulations, we study a dense, confined mixture of rigid microtubules (MTs) and active springs that have arms that cross-link neighboring MT pairs and move unidirectionally on the attached MT. We simulate depletion interactions between MTs using an attractive potential. We show that dimeric motors, with a motile arm on only one of the two MTs, produce large polarity-sorted MT clusters, whereas tetrameric motors, with motile arms on both microtubules, produce bundles. Furthermore, dimeric motors induce, on average, higher velocities between antialigned MTs than tetrameric motors. Our results, where MTs move faster near the confining wall, are consistent with experimental observations in Drosophila oocytes where enhanced microtubule activity is found close to the confining plasma membrane. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Multiple-motor based transport and its regulation by Tau

    PubMed Central

    Vershinin, Michael; Carter, Brian C.; Razafsky, David S.; King, Stephen J.; Gross, Steven P.

    2007-01-01

    Motor-based intracellular transport and its regulation are crucial to the functioning of a cell. Disruption of transport is linked to Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases. However, many fundamental aspects of transport are poorly understood. An important issue is how cells achieve and regulate efficient long-distance transport. Mounting evidence suggests that many in vivo cargoes are transported along microtubules by more than one motor, but we do not know how multiple motors work together or can be regulated. Here we first show that multiple kinesin motors, working in conjunction, can achieve very long distance transport and apply significantly larger forces without the need of additional factors. We then demonstrate in vitro that the important microtubule-associated protein, tau, regulates the number of engaged kinesin motors per cargo via its local concentration on microtubules. This function of tau provides a previously unappreciated mechanism to regulate transport. By reducing motor reattachment rates, tau affects cargo travel distance, motive force, and cargo dispersal. We also show that different isoforms of tau, at concentrations similar to those in cells, have dramatically different potency. These results provide a well defined mechanism for how altered tau isoform levels could impair transport and thereby lead to neurodegeneration without the need of any other pathway. PMID:17190808

  12. Potential interactions among linguistic, autonomic, and motor factors in speech.

    PubMed

    Kleinow, Jennifer; Smith, Anne

    2006-05-01

    Though anecdotal reports link certain speech disorders to increases in autonomic arousal, few studies have described the relationship between arousal and speech processes. Additionally, it is unclear how increases in arousal may interact with other cognitive-linguistic processes to affect speech motor control. In this experiment we examine potential interactions between autonomic arousal, linguistic processing, and speech motor coordination in adults and children. Autonomic responses (heart rate, finger pulse volume, tonic skin conductance, and phasic skin conductance) were recorded simultaneously with upper and lower lip movements during speech. The lip aperture variability (LA variability index) across multiple repetitions of sentences that varied in length and syntactic complexity was calculated under low- and high-arousal conditions. High arousal conditions were elicited by performance of the Stroop color word task. Children had significantly higher lip aperture variability index values across all speaking tasks, indicating more variable speech motor coordination. Increases in syntactic complexity and utterance length were associated with increases in speech motor coordination variability in both speaker groups. There was a significant effect of Stroop task, which produced increases in autonomic arousal and increased speech motor variability in both adults and children. These results provide novel evidence that high arousal levels can influence speech motor control in both adults and children.

  13. Developmental contributions to motor sequence learning.

    PubMed

    Savion-Lemieux, Tal; Bailey, Jennifer A; Penhune, Virginia B

    2009-05-01

    of sequence learning is consistent with the hypothesis that accuracy or finger-stimulus association may rely on cortical pathways that show the greatest maturation between ages 6 and 10; whereas motor timing and sensorimotor integration may rely on subcortical pathways that continue to develop into young adulthood. Despite developmental differences across blocks of practice on both behavioral measures, there were no significant group differences for either the Recognition or Recall tests. We suggest that explicit knowledge of the MFST is not directly linked to task performance, thus challenging the implicit-explicit distinction in pediatric SRT studies assessing the developmental invariance model.

  14. Linking Policy | Smokefree 60+

    Cancer.gov

    Links to individual pages within the Smokefree 60+ website are permissible, provided attribution is made to 60plus.smokefree.gov and any descriptive notes accurately reflect the content of the linked page(s).

  15. Driving plasticity in the motor cortex in recurrent low back pain.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Henry; Galea, Mary P; Hodges, Paul W

    2010-09-01

    The sensory and motor systems can reorganise following injury and learning of new motor skills. Recently we observed adaptive changes in motor cortical organisation in patients with recurrent low back pain (LBP), which are linked to altered motor coordination. Although changes in motor coordination can be trained and are associated with improved symptoms and function, it remains unclear whether these training-induced changes are related to reorganisation of the motor cortex. This was investigated using the model of a delay in postural activation of the deep abdominal muscle, transversus abdominis (TrA) in 20 individuals with recurrent LBP. Subjects were allocated to either motor skill training that involved isolated voluntary contractions of TrA, or a control intervention of self-paced walking exercise for 2 weeks. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded from TrA bilaterally using intramuscular fine-wire electrodes. Motor cortical organisation using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and postural activation associated with single rapid arm movements were investigated before and after training. Motor skill training induced an anterior and medial shift in motor cortical representation of TrA, towards that observed in healthy individuals from our previous study. This shift was associated with earlier postural activation of TrA. Changes were not observed following unskilled walking exercise. This is the first observation that motor training can reverse reorganisation of neuronal networks of the motor cortex in people with recurrent pain. The observed relationship between cortical reorganisation and changes in motor coordination following motor training provides unique insight into potential mechanisms that underlie recovery. Copyright 2010 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters. All rights reserved.

  16. Learning piano melodies in visuo-motor or audio-motor training conditions and the neural correlates of their cross-modal transfer.

    PubMed

    Engel, Annerose; Bangert, Marc; Horbank, David; Hijmans, Brenda S; Wilkens, Katharina; Keller, Peter E; Keysers, Christian

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the cross-modal transfer of movement patterns necessary to perform melodies on the piano, 22 non-musicians learned to play short sequences on a piano keyboard by (1) merely listening and replaying (vision of own fingers occluded) or (2) merely observing silent finger movements and replaying (on a silent keyboard). After training, participants recognized with above chance accuracy (1) audio-motor learned sequences upon visual presentation (89±17%), and (2) visuo-motor learned sequences upon auditory presentation (77±22%). The recognition rates for visual presentation significantly exceeded those for auditory presentation (p<.05). fMRI revealed that observing finger movements corresponding to audio-motor trained melodies is associated with stronger activation in the left rolandic operculum than observing untrained sequences. This region was also involved in silent execution of sequences, suggesting that a link to motor representations may play a role in cross-modal transfer from audio-motor training condition to visual recognition. No significant differences in brain activity were found during listening to visuo-motor trained compared to untrained melodies. Cross-modal transfer was stronger from the audio-motor training condition to visual recognition and this is discussed in relation to the fact that non-musicians are familiar with how their finger movements look (motor-to-vision transformation), but not with how they sound on a piano (motor-to-sound transformation). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Motor Maps for Nonlinear Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arena, Paolo; Bucolo, Maide; Fortuna, Luigi; Frasca, Mattia

    2002-07-01

    In this paper the design of a motor map to control a chaotic system is presented. A feedback entrainment scheme is adopted: a system with different parameters is used to generate the reference trajectory for the chaotic system to be controlled, while the motor map provides the appropriate gain value of the feedback signal. As input of the motor map the state of the system to be controlled is considered. The motor map based adaptive controller offers high performances, specially in the case when the reference trajectory is switched into another one. In this case, a specialization of the neurons constituting the motor map is observed: while a group of neurons learns the appropriate control law for a reference trajectory, another group specializes itself to control the system when the other trajectory is used as reference. Moreover, a discrete components hardware implementation of the motor map has been realized.

  18. Dissociation of motor maturation.

    PubMed

    DiMario, Francis J

    2003-06-01

    We prospectively acquired clinical data regarding the presentation, evaluation, and developmental progress of all patients identified with dissociated motor maturation to define their clinical outcomes. Children (N = 8) referred for evaluation of suspected cerebral palsy because of delayed sitting or walking and identified to have dissociated motor maturation were followed with serial clinical examination. All displayed the characteristic "sitting on air" posture while held in vertical suspension and had otherwise normal developmental assessments. This posture is composed of the hips held in flexion and abduction with the knees extended and feet plantar or dorsiflexed. Three children were initially evaluated at 10 months of age owing to absence of sitting and five other children were evaluated at a mean of 14 months (range 12-19 months) owing to inability to stand. Follow-up evaluations were conducted over a mean of 10.5 months (range 5-34 months). Five children were born prematurely at 34 to 36 weeks gestation. Denver Developmental Screening Test and general and neurologic examinations were normal except to note hypotonia in six children and the "sitting on air" posture in all of the children. Four children have older siblings or parents who "walked late" (after 15 months). On average, the children attained sitting by 8 months (range 7-10 months). One child did not crawl prior to independent walking, two children scooted rather than crawled, and five children crawled at an average of 13.5 months (range 10-16 months). All children cruised by a mean of 18 months (range 16-21.5 months) and attained independent walking by 20.1 months (range 18-25 months). Neuroimaging and serum creatine kinase enzyme testing were normal in two children who were tested. These eight children conform to the syndrome of dissociated motor maturation. The "sitting on air" posture serves as a diagnostic sign and anticipated excellent prognosis, but follow-up is required to ensure a normal

  19. Region and task-specific activation of Arc in primary motor cortex of rats following motor skill learning.

    PubMed

    Hosp, J A; Mann, S; Wegenast-Braun, B M; Calhoun, M E; Luft, A R

    2013-10-10

    Motor learning requires protein synthesis within the primary motor cortex (M1). Here, we show that the immediate early gene Arc/Arg3.1 is specifically induced in M1 by learning a motor skill. Arc mRNA was quantified using a fluorescent in situ hybridization assay in adult Long-Evans rats learning a skilled reaching task (SRT), in rats performing reaching-like forelimb movement without learning (ACT) and in rats that were trained in the operant but not the motor elements of the task (controls). Apart from M1, Arc expression was assessed within the rostral motor area (RMA), primary somatosensory cortex (S1), striatum (ST) and cerebellum. In SRT animals, Arc mRNA levels in M1 contralateral to the trained limb were 31% higher than ipsilateral (p<0.001), 31% higher than in the contralateral M1 of ACT animals (p<0.001) and 48% higher than in controls (p<0.001). Arc mRNA expression in SRT was positively correlated with learning success between two sessions (r=0.52; p=0.026). For RMA, S1, ST or cerebellum no significant differences in Arc mRNA expression were found between hemispheres or across behaviors. As Arc expression has been related to different forms of cellular plasticity, these findings suggest a link between M1 Arc expression and motor skill learning in rats. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nodal-link semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhongbo; Bi, Ren; Shen, Huitao; Lu, Ling; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Wang, Zhong

    2017-07-01

    In topological semimetals, the valance band and conduction band meet at zero-dimensional nodal points or one-dimensional nodal rings, which are protected by band topology and symmetries. In this Rapid Communication, we introduce "nodal-link semimetals", which host linked nodal rings in the Brillouin zone. We put forward a general recipe based on the Hopf map for constructing models of nodal-link semimetals. The consequences of nodal ring linking in the Landau levels and Floquet properties are investigated.

  1. Sport expert's motor imagery: functional imaging of professional motor skills and simple motor skills.

    PubMed

    Wei, Gaoxia; Luo, Jing

    2010-06-23

    Numerous studies provide evidence that motor skill acquisition is associated with dynamic changes in cortical and subcortical regions. Athletes are a professional population who are engaged in extensive motor training for long periods. However, the neural substrates of extreme level motor performance have not been clarified. We used kinesthetic imagery task to induce the mental representation of sport expert's extraordinary performance in view of the shared substrates of executing movement and motor imagery. For the first time, we compared, through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the pattern of cerebral activations in 12 professional divers and 12 normal people without extensive training, during imagery of professional skills and imagery of simple motor skills. The sport experts showed significant activation in the parahippocampus during imagery of professional skills relative to the novices, which might reflect the representation adapted to experience-related motor tasks. No significant difference was found between experts and novices when they imagined simple motor skills. These results indicated the experts might utilize their kinesthetic imagery more efficiently than novices, but only for the activity in which they had expertise. The sport experts also demonstrated more focused activation patterns in prefrontal areas in both of imagery tasks, which may be relevant to higher order of motor control during motor imagery. Moreover, this study suggested that the brains of sport experts could be regarded as the ideal subjects to explore the relationship between cerebral plasticity and learning of complex motor skills.

  2. Multimotor Driven Cargos: From Single Motor under Load to the Role of Motor-Motor Coupling.

    PubMed

    Peker, Itay; Granek, Rony

    2016-07-07

    Motor proteins constitute an essential part of the cellular machinery. They have been the subject of intensive studies in the past two decades. Yet, when several motors simultaneously carry a single cargo, the effect of motor-motor coupling, such as mutual stalling and jamming, remains unclear. We commence by constructing a general model for single motor motion, which is a product of a derived load-dependent expression and a phenomenological motor specific function. Forming the latter according to recent single molecule measurements for a given load, the model correctly predicts the motor full step-size distribution for all other measured loads. We then use our proposed model to predict transport properties of multimotor complexes, with particular attention to 1-dimensional constructs with variable flexibility, motor density, and number of motors: (i) a chain of motors connected by springs, a recently studied construction of a pair, and (ii) an array of motors all connected by identical springs to a stiff rod, which is essentially a mirror image of standard gliding motility assays. In both systems, and for any number of carrying motors, we find that, while low flexibility results in a strongly damped velocity, increased flexibility renders an almost single motor velocity. Comparing our model based simulations to recent gliding assays we find remarkable qualitative agreement. We also demonstrate consistency with other multimotor motility assays. In all cases, the characteristic spring constant, that controls the crossover behavior between high and low velocity regimes, is found to be the stalling force divided by the mean step size. We conjecture that this characteristic spring constant can serve as a tool for engineering multimotor complexes.

  3. Motor timing under microgravity.

    PubMed

    Semjen, A; Leone, G; Lipshits, M

    1998-01-01

    Five participants were tested on their ability to produce accurate and regular inter-response intervals in the 350 to 530 ms time range. Three of them were members of the French-Russian CASSIOPEE 96 spaceflight mission, and the other two were control subjects tested on the ground. During spaceflight, the target inter-response intervals were increasingly undershot and the timing became more variable (less regular). The increase in the timing variability was mostly attributable to the internal timekeeping processes rather than those involved in motor execution. The results are discussed with reference to the physiological mechanisms possibly underlying the timing of fast serial movements.

  4. Electric motor analysis at Dofasco

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, D.; Morgan, V.A.; Nicholas, J.R. Jr.

    1997-03-01

    Initiatives adopted by Dofasco to enhance electric motor reliability and availability include: Enhancement of the electrical repair shop testing and repair capabilities; More stringent standards for motor repair service vendors; Application of predictive technologies to motors in service within manufacturing units; Training of personnel in electrical predictive condition monitoring and analysis methods; and Periodic audit and comparison of central support and operating unit predictive technology application and integration. The basis for the initiative is discussed together with illustrative case histories.

  5. Torque-Summing Brushless Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaidya, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    Torque channels function cooperatively but electrically independent for reliability. Brushless, electronically-commutated dc motor sums electromagnetic torques on four channels and applies them to single shaft. Motor operates with any combination of channels and continues if one or more of channels fail electrically. Motor employs single stator and rotor and mechanically simple; however, each of channels electrically isolated from other so that failure of one does not adversely affect others.

  6. Commercial Web Site Links.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelwall, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Discusses business use of the Web and related search engine design issues as well as research on general and academic links before reporting on a survey of the links published by a collection of business Web sites. Results indicate around 66% of Web sites do carry external links, most of which are targeted at a specific purpose, but about 17%…

  7. Commercial Web Site Links.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelwall, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Discusses business use of the Web and related search engine design issues as well as research on general and academic links before reporting on a survey of the links published by a collection of business Web sites. Results indicate around 66% of Web sites do carry external links, most of which are targeted at a specific purpose, but about 17%…

  8. Motor Skill Competence and Physical Activity in Preschoolers: A Review.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Roger; An, Ruopeng

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Preschoolers 3-5 years of age are in a crucial stage of motor skill competence. While preschoolers develop their motor skill competence through engagement in physical activity, a majority of them fail to meet guideline-recommended physical activity level. This study reviews scientific evidence on the relationship between motor skill competence and physical activity among preschoolers. Methods This systematic review followed the PRISMA framework. Keyword and reference search were conducted in PubMed, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Inclusion criteria included-age: 3-5 years of age; setting: preschool environment (e.g., preschool, childcare, head start); main outcomes: motor skill competence and physical activity; study design: cross-sectional study, case-control study, retrospective cohort study, prospective cohort study, or randomized controlled trial; language: English; and article type: peer-reviewed publication. Results Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria, including 6 randomized controlled trials and 5 cross-sectional studies. Studies were conducted in 5 countries: United States (5), United Kingdom (2), Australia (2), Switzerland (1), and Finland (1). Eight out of the 11 studies included in the review reported a significant relationship between motor skill competence and physical activity. The specific pattern and strength of the relationship tend to differ by gender, physical activity intensity, motor skill type, and day of the week (weekdays versus weekends). Conclusions An association has been consistently documented between motor skill competence and physical activity. Future research is warranted to elucidate the underlining causal link, examine potential heterogeneity, and determine the role of environment in the relationship between motor skill competence and physical activity among preschoolers.

  9. Motor unit activity after eccentric exercise and muscle damage in humans.

    PubMed

    Semmler, J G

    2014-04-01

    It is well known that unaccustomed eccentric exercise leads to muscle damage and soreness, which can produce long-lasting effects on muscle function. How this muscle damage influences muscle activation is poorly understood. The purpose of this brief review is to highlight the effect of eccentric exercise on the activation of muscle by the nervous system, by examining the change in motor unit activity obtained from surface electromyography (EMG) and intramuscular recordings. Previous research shows that eccentric exercise produces unusual changes in the EMG–force relation that influences motor performance during isometric, shortening and lengthening muscle contractions and during fatiguing tasks. When examining the effect of eccentric exercise at the single motor unit level, there are substantial changes in recruitment thresholds, discharge rates, motor unit conduction velocities and synchronization, which can last for up to 1 week after eccentric exercise. Examining the time course of these changes suggests that the increased submaximal EMG after eccentric exercise most likely occurs through a decrease in motor unit conduction velocity and an increase in motor unit activity related to antagonist muscle coactivation and low-frequency fatigue. Furthermore, there is a commonly held view that eccentric exercise produces preferential damage to high-threshold motor units, but the evidence for this in humans is limited. Further research is needed to establish whether there is preferential damage to high-threshold motor units after eccentric exercise in humans, preferably by linking changes in motor unit activity with estimates of motor unit size using selective intramuscular recording techniques.

  10. Motor cortex plasticity can indicate vulnerability to motor fluctuation and high L-DOPA need in drug-naïve Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kishore, Asha; James, Praveen; Krishnan, Syam; Yahia-Cherif, Lydia; Meunier, Sabine; Popa, Traian

    2017-02-01

    Motor cortex plasticity is reported to be decreased in Parkinson's disease in studies which pooled patients in various stages of the disease. Whether the early decrease in plasticity is related to the motor signs or is linked to the future development of motor complications of treatment is unclear. The aim of the study was to test if motor cortex plasticity and its cerebellar modulation are impaired in treatment-naïve Parkinson's disease, are related to the motor signs of the disease and predict occurrence of motor complications of treatment. Twenty-nine denovo patients with Parkinson's disease were longitudinally assessed for motor complications for four years. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation, the plasticity of the motor cortex and its cerebellar modulation were measured (response to paired-associative stimulation alone or preceded by 2 active cerebellar stimulation protocols), both in the untreated state and after a single dose of L-DOPA. Twenty-six matched, healthy volunteers were tested, only without L-DOPA. Patients and healthy controls had similar proportions of responders and non-responders to plasticity induction. In the untreated state, the more efficient was the cerebellar modulation of motor cortex plasticity, the lower were the bradykinesia and rigidity scores. The extent of the individual plastic response to paired associative stimulation could indicate a vulnerability to develop early motor fluctuation but not dyskinesia. Measuring motor cortex plasticity in denovo Parkinson's disease could be a neurophysiological parameter that may help identify patients with greater propensity for early motor fluctuations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Weyl-link semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Po-Yao; Yee, Chuck-Hou

    2017-08-01

    A family of topological semimetallic phases where twofold degenerate gapless points form linked rings is introduced. We refer to this phase as Weyl-link semimetals. A concrete two-band model with two linked nodal lines is constructed. We demonstrate that the Chern-Simons 3-form depends on the linking number of rings in a generic two-band model. In addition, we show the emergence of zero-energy modes in the Landau level spectrum can reveal the location of nodal lines, providing a method of probing their linking number.

  12. Motor-operated valve (MOV) actuator motor and gearbox testing

    SciTech Connect

    DeWall, K.; Watkins, J.C.; Bramwell, D.

    1997-07-01

    Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory tested the performance of electric motors and actuator gearboxes typical of the equipment installed on motor-operated valves used in nuclear power plants. Using a test stand that simulates valve closure loads against flow and pressure, the authors tested five electric motors (four ac and one dc) and three gearboxes at conditions a motor might experience in a power plant, including such off-normal conditions as operation at high temperature and reduced voltage. They also monitored the efficiency of the actuator gearbox. All five motors operated at or above their rated starting torque during tests at normal voltages and temperatures. For all five motors, actual torque losses due to voltage degradation were greater than the losses calculated by methods typically used for predicting motor torque at degraded voltage conditions. For the dc motor the actual torque losses due to elevated operating temperatures were greater than the losses calculated by the typical predictive method. The actual efficiencies of the actuator gearboxes were generally lower than the running efficiencies published by the manufacturer and were generally nearer the published pull-out efficiencies. Operation of the gearbox at elevated temperature did not affect the operating efficiency.

  13. Motor power control circuit for ac induction motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A motor power control of the type which functions by controlling the power factor wherein one of the parameters of power factor current on time is determined by the on time of a triac through which current is supplied to the motor. By means of a positive feedback circuit, a wider range of control is effected.

  14. 27. View, looking north, of motor house; the electric motor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. View, looking north, of motor house; the electric motor and electric-powered winch are housed in section of building to the left. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  15. Motor vehicle drivers' injuries in train-motor vehicle crashes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shanshan; Khattak, Aemal

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to: (1) identify a more suitable model for modeling injury severity of motor vehicle drivers involved in train-motor vehicle crashes at highway-rail grade crossings from among three commonly used injury severity models and (2) to investigate factors associated with injury severity levels of motor vehicle drivers involved in train-motor vehicle crashes at such crossings. The 2009-2013 highway-rail grade crossing crash data and the national highway-rail crossing inventory data were combined to produce the analysis dataset. Four-year (2009-2012) data were used for model estimation while 2013 data were used for model validation. The three injury severity levels-fatal, injury and no injury-were based on the reported intensity of motor-vehicle drivers' injuries at highway-rail grade crossings. The three injury severity models evaluated were: ordered probit, multinomial logit and random parameter logit. A comparison of the three models based on different criteria showed that the random parameter logit model and multinomial logit model were more suitable for injury severity analysis of motor vehicle drivers involved in crashes at highway-rail grade crossings. Some of the factors that increased the likelihood of more severe crashes included higher train and vehicle speeds, freight trains, older drivers, and female drivers. Where feasible, reducing train and motor vehicle speeds and nighttime lighting may help reduce injury severities of motor vehicle drivers.

  16. 76 FR 12792 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; General Motors Corporation AGENCY: National Highway Traffic.... SUMMARY: This document grants in full the petition of General Motors Corporation's (GM) petition for...

  17. To What Extent Can Motor Imagery Replace Motor Execution While Learning a Fine Motor Skill?

    PubMed Central

    Sobierajewicz, Jagna; Szarkiewicz, Sylwia; Przekoracka-Krawczyk, Anna; Jaśkowski, Wojciech; van der Lubbe, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Motor imagery is generally thought to share common mechanisms with motor execution. In the present study, we examined to what extent learning a fine motor skill by motor imagery may substitute physical practice. Learning effects were assessed by manipulating the proportion of motor execution and motor imagery trials. Additionally, learning effects were compared between participants with an explicit motor imagery instruction and a control group. A Go/NoGo discrete sequence production (DSP) task was employed, wherein a five-stimulus sequence presented on each trial indicated the required sequence of finger movements after a Go signal. In the case of a NoGo signal, participants either had to imagine carrying out the response sequence (the motor imagery group), or the response sequence had to be withheld (the control group). Two practice days were followed by a final test day on which all sequences had to be executed. Learning effects were assessed by computing response times (RTs) and the percentages of correct responses (PCs). The electroencephalogram (EEG ) was additionally measured on this test day to examine whether motor preparation and the involvement of visual short term memory (VST M) depended on the amount of physical/mental practice. Accuracy data indicated strong learning effects. However, a substantial amount of physical practice was required to reach an optimal speed. EEG results suggest the involvement of VST M for sequences that had less or no physical practice in both groups. The absence of differences between the motor imagery and the control group underlines the possibility that motor preparation may actually resemble motor imagery. PMID:28154614

  18. To What Extent Can Motor Imagery Replace Motor Execution While Learning a Fine Motor Skill?

    PubMed

    Sobierajewicz, Jagna; Szarkiewicz, Sylwia; Przekoracka-Krawczyk, Anna; Jaśkowski, Wojciech; van der Lubbe, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Motor imagery is generally thought to share common mechanisms with motor execution. In the present study, we examined to what extent learning a fine motor skill by motor imagery may substitute physical practice. Learning effects were assessed by manipulating the proportion of motor execution and motor imagery trials. Additionally, learning effects were compared between participants with an explicit motor imagery instruction and a control group. A Go/NoGo discrete sequence production (DSP) task was employed, wherein a five-stimulus sequence presented on each trial indicated the required sequence of finger movements after a Go signal. In the case of a NoGo signal, participants either had to imagine carrying out the response sequence (the motor imagery group), or the response sequence had to be withheld (the control group). Two practice days were followed by a final test day on which all sequences had to be executed. Learning effects were assessed by computing response times (RTs) and the percentages of correct responses (PCs). The electroencephalogram (EEG ) was additionally measured on this test day to examine whether motor preparation and the involvement of visual short term memory (VST M) depended on the amount of physical/mental practice. Accuracy data indicated strong learning effects. However, a substantial amount of physical practice was required to reach an optimal speed. EEG results suggest the involvement of VST M for sequences that had less or no physical practice in both groups. The absence of differences between the motor imagery and the control group underlines the possibility that motor preparation may actually resemble motor imagery.

  19. Motor field sensitivity for preoperative localization of motor cortex

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Peter T.; Berger, Mitchel S.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.

    2014-01-01

    Object In this study the role of magnetic source imaging for preoperative motor mapping was evaluated by using a single-dipole localization method to analyze motor field data in 41 patients. Methods Data from affected and unaffected hemispheres were collected in patients performing voluntary finger flexion movements. Somatosensory evoked field (SSEF) data were also obtained using tactile stimulation. Dipole localization using motor field (MF) data was successful in only 49% of patients, whereas localization with movement evoked field (MEF) data was successful in 66% of patients. When the spatial distribution of MF and MEF dipoles in relation to SSEF dipoles was analyzed, the motor dipoles were not spatially distinct from somatosensory dipoles. Conclusions The findings in this study suggest that single-dipole localization for the analysis of motor data is not sufficiently sensitive and is nonspecific, and thus not clinically useful. PMID:17044563

  20. Proposed Rule for Amendments Related to: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards, Nonroad Engine and Equipment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Link to Federal Register Notice from February 19, 2015 announcing Amendments Related to: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards, Nonroad Engine and Equipment Programs, and MARPOL Annex VI Implementation.

  1. Imagery and Motor Processes--When Are They Connected? The Mental Rotation of Body Parts in Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruger, Markus; Krist, Horst

    2009-01-01

    Motor influences on the mental transformation of body parts have been observed in both children and adults. Previous findings indicated that these influences were more pronounced in children than in adults, suggesting a stronger link between motor processes and imagery in children. The present series of two experiments casts doubt on the general…

  2. Imagery and Motor Processes--When Are They Connected? The Mental Rotation of Body Parts in Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruger, Markus; Krist, Horst

    2009-01-01

    Motor influences on the mental transformation of body parts have been observed in both children and adults. Previous findings indicated that these influences were more pronounced in children than in adults, suggesting a stronger link between motor processes and imagery in children. The present series of two experiments casts doubt on the general…

  3. Spinal muscular atrophy: Factors that modulate motor neurone vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Tu, Wen-Yo; Simpson, Julie E; Highley, J Robin; Heath, Paul R

    2017-02-02

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a leading genetic cause of infant death, is a neurodegenerative disease characterised by the selective loss of particular groups of motor neurones in the anterior horn of the spinal cord with concomitant muscle weakness. To date, no effective treatment is available, however, there are ongoing clinical trials are in place which promise much for the future. However, there remains an ongoing problem in trying to link a single gene loss to motor neurone degeneration. Fortunately, given successful disease models that have been established and intensive studies on SMN functions in the past ten years, we are fast approaching the stage of identifying the underlying mechanisms of SMA pathogenesis Here we discuss potential disease modifying factors on motor neurone vulnerability, in the belief that these factors give insight into the pathological mechanisms of SMA and therefore possible therapeutic targets.

  4. The Motor System Contributes to Comprehension of Abstract Language

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Connie Qun; Meng, Wanjin; Yao, Ru; Glenberg, Arthur M.

    2013-01-01

    If language comprehension requires a sensorimotor simulation, how can abstract language be comprehended? We show that preparation to respond in an upward or downward direction affects comprehension of the abstract quantifiers “more and more” and “less and less” as indexed by an N400-like component. Conversely, the semantic content of the sentence affects the motor potential measured immediately before the upward or downward action is initiated. We propose that this bidirectional link between motor system and language arises because the motor system implements forward models that predict the sensory consequences of actions. Because the same movement (e.g., raising the arm) can have multiple forward models for different contexts, the models can make different predictions depending on whether the arm is raised, for example, to place an object or raised as a threat. Thus, different linguistic contexts invoke different forward models, and the predictions constitute different understandings of the language. PMID:24086463

  5. Aberrant supplementary motor complex and limbic activity during motor preparation in motor conversion disorder.

    PubMed

    Voon, Valerie; Brezing, Christina; Gallea, Cecile; Hallett, Mark

    2011-11-01

    Conversion disorder (CD) is characterized by unexplained neurological symptoms presumed related to psychological issues. The main hypotheses to explain conversion paralysis, characterized by a lack of movement, include impairments in either motor intention or disruption of motor execution, and further, that hyperactive self-monitoring, limbic processing or top-down regulation from higher order frontal regions may interfere with motor execution. We have recently shown that CD with positive abnormal or excessive motor symptoms was associated with greater amygdala activity to arousing stimuli along with greater functional connectivity between the amygdala and supplementary motor area. Here we studied patients with such symptoms focusing on motor initiation. Subjects performed either an internally or externally generated 2-button action selection task in a functional MRI study. Eleven CD patients without major depression and 11 age- and gender-matched normal volunteers were assessed. During both internally and externally generated movement, conversion disorder patients relative to normal volunteers had lower left supplementary motor area (SMA) (implicated in motor initiation) and higher right amygdala, left anterior insula, and bilateral posterior cingulate activity (implicated in assigning emotional salience). These findings were confirmed in a subgroup analysis of patients with tremor symptoms. During internally versus externally generated action in CD patients, the left SMA had lower functional connectivity with bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. We propose a theory in which previously mapped conversion motor representations may in an arousing context hijack the voluntary action selection system, which is both hypoactive and functionally disconnected from prefrontal top-down regulation.

  6. Circuit changes in motor cortex during motor skill learning.

    PubMed

    Papale, Andrew E; Hooks, Bryan M

    2017-09-14

    Motor cortex is important for motor skill learning, particularly the dexterous skills necessary for our favorite sports and careers. We are especially interested in understanding how plasticity in motor cortex contributes to skill learning. Although human studies have been helpful in understanding the importance of motor cortex in learning skilled tasks, animal models are necessary for achieving a detailed understanding of the circuitry underlying these behaviors and the changes that occur during training. We review data from these models to try to identify sites of plasticity in motor cortex, focusing on rodents asa model system. Rodent neocortex contains well-differentiated motor and sensory regions, as well as neurons expressing similar genetic markers to many of the same circuit components in human cortex. Furthermore, rodents have circuit mapping tools for labeling, targeting, and manipulating these cell types as circuit nodes. Crucially, the projection from rodent primary somatosensory cortex to primary motor cortex is a well-studied corticocortical projection and a model of sensorimotor integration. We first summarize some of the descending pathways involved in making dexterous movements, including reaching. We then describe local and long-range circuitry in mouse motor cortex, summarizing structural and functional changes associated with motor skill acquisition. We then address which specific connections might be responsible for plasticity. For insight into the range of plasticity mechanisms employed by cortex, we review plasticity in sensory systems. The similarities and differences between motor cortex plasticity and critical periods of plasticity in sensory systems are discussed. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Small teams of myosin Vc motors coordinate their stepping for efficient cargo transport on actin bundles.

    PubMed

    Krementsova, Elena B; Furuta, Ken'ya; Oiwa, Kazuhiro; Trybus, Kathleen M; Ali, M Yusuf

    2017-06-30

    Myosin Vc (myoVc) is unique among vertebrate class V myosin isoforms in that it requires teams of motors to move continuously on single actin filaments. Single molecules of myoVc cannot take multiple hand-over-hand steps from one actin-binding site to the next without dissociating, in stark contrast to the well studied myosin Va (myoVa) isoform. At low salt, single myoVc motors can, however, move processively on actin bundles, and at physiologic ionic strength, even teams of myoVc motors require actin bundles to sustain continuous motion. Here, we linked defined numbers of myoVc or myoVa molecules to DNA nanostructures as synthetic cargos. Using total internal reflectance fluorescence microscopy, we compared the stepping behavior of myoVc versus myoVa ensembles and myoVc stepping patterns on single actin filaments versus actin bundles. Run lengths of both myoVc and myoVa teams increased with motor number, but only multiple myoVc motors showed a run-length enhancement on actin bundles compared with actin filaments. By resolving the stepping behavior of individual myoVc motors with a quantum dot bound to the motor domain, we found that coupling of two myoVc motors significantly decreased the futile back and side steps that were frequently observed for single myoVc motors. Changes in the inter-motor distance between two coupled myoVc motors affected stepping dynamics, suggesting that mechanical tension coordinates the stepping behavior of two myoVc motors for efficient directional motion. Our study provides a molecular basis to explain how teams of myoVc motors are suited to transport cargos such as zymogen granules on actin bundles. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Pain in motor neuron disease.

    PubMed Central

    Newrick, P G; Langton-Hewer, R

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-seven of 42 patients with motor neuron disease had significant pain. The nature and duration of the pain are described along with an illustrative case-report. The aetiology and most effective treatment of this common complication of motor neuron disease remain unclear. PMID:4031936

  9. High efficiency motor rewind study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, A. K.; Spee, R.

    1991-02-01

    The objective of performing this work was to evaluate a new technology used for rewinding electric motors. Motor performance evaluation was conducted at the motor test facility at Oregon State University. The test program consisted of comparing new high efficiency motor technology and standard rewind technology with the Unity-Plus system. The Unity-Plus configuration exhibited reduced efficiency over the complete load range compared to the other motors. Appropriately sized capacitors connected to the terminals of the conventional induction motor produced the same power factor improvement as the Unity-Plus system. Torque production and torque pulsation were very similar for all systems. The Unity-Plus configuration drew lower starting currents but the duration of the starting transient was increased. Motor temperature rise was about the same for all systems. Noise levels were about the same in all systems. Although determination of time to failure was not undertaken, the expected lifetime of the Unit-Plus system is probably less due to higher capacitor stress and higher insulation stress. The investigation concludes that a conventional induction motor with terminal capacitors is the most acceptable way of obtaining good efficiency and power factor and the Unity-Plus system cannot be recommended on the basis of any of the evaluation criteria used in this study.

  10. Conical Bearingless Motor/Generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, P.; Jansen, R.; Dever, T.

    2008-01-01

    Motor/generators based on conical magnetic bearings have been invented as an improved alternative to prior such machines based, variously, on radial and/or axial magnetic bearings. Both the present and prior machines are members of the class of so-called bearingless or self bearing (in the sense of not containing mechanical bearings) rotary machines. Each motor/generator provides both a torque and force allowing it to either function as a motor and magnetic bearing or a generator and magnetic bearing concurrently. Because they are not subject to mechanical bearing wear, these machines have potentially long operational lives and can function without lubrication and over wide ranges of speed and temperature that include conditions under which lubricants would become depleted, degraded, or ineffective and mechanical bearings would fail. The figure shows three typical configurations of conical bearingless motor/generators. The main elements of each motor/generator are concentric rotor and stator portions having conically tapered surfaces facing each other across a gap. Because a conical motor/generator imposes both radial and axial magnetic forces, it acts, in effect, as a combination of an axial and a radial magnetic bearing. Therefore, only two conical motor/generators - one at each end of a rotor - are needed to effect complete magnetic leviation of the rotor, whereas previously, it was necessary to use a combination of an axial and a radial magnetic bearing at each end of the rotor to achieve complete magnetic levitation and a separate motor to provide torque.

  11. Motor Coordination and Executive Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Since Piaget, the view that motor and cognitive development are interrelated has gained wide acceptance. However, empirical research on this issue is still rare. Few studies show a correlation of performance in cognitive and motor tasks in typically developing children. More specifically, Diamond A. (2000) hypothesizes an involvement of executive…

  12. Motor Coordination and Executive Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Since Piaget, the view that motor and cognitive development are interrelated has gained wide acceptance. However, empirical research on this issue is still rare. Few studies show a correlation of performance in cognitive and motor tasks in typically developing children. More specifically, Diamond A. (2000) hypothesizes an involvement of executive…

  13. Perceptual Aspects of Motor Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallahue, David L.

    Perceptual-motor functioning is a cyclic process involving: (1) organizing incoming sensory stimuli with past or stored perceptual information; (2) making motor (internal) decisions based on the combination of sensory (present) and perceptual (past) information; (3) executing the actual movement (observable act) itself; and (4) evaluating the act…

  14. Retention of Motor Skills: Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schendel, J. D.; And Others

    A summary of an extensive literature survey deals with the variables known or suspected to affect the retention of learned motor behaviors over lengthy no-practice intervals. Emphasis was given to research conducted by or for the military. The variables that may affect the retention of motor skills were dichotomized into task variables and…

  15. Open-Ended Electric Motor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Mauri

    1975-01-01

    Presents complete instructions for assembling an electric motor which does not require large amounts of power to operate and which is inexpensive as well as reliable. Several open-ended experiments with the motor are included as well as information for obtaining a kit of parts and instructions. (BR)

  16. Advanced solid propellant motor insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, P. L.; Russ, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    An advanced lightweight insulation system suitable for use in long duration, low pressure planetary orbiter-type motor applications was developed. Experiments included the screening of various filler and binder materials with optimization studies combining the best of each. Small scale test motor data were used to judge the degree of success.

  17. Individualized Motor-Perceptual Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Public Schools, OR.

    This guide is being used in the Individualized Motor-Perceptual Study to determine whether working directly with kindergarten children to improve performance on motor-perceptual tasks will affect reading ability at the end of grades one, two, and three. The 5-year project involves six schools. In this guide, there are tips for teaching, suggested…

  18. Computational approaches to motor control.

    PubMed

    Flash, T; Sejnowski, T J

    2001-12-01

    New concepts and computational models that integrate behavioral and neurophysiological observations have addressed several of the most fundamental long-standing problems in motor control. These problems include the selection of particular trajectories among the large number of possibilities, the solution of inverse kinematics and dynamics problems, motor adaptation and the learning of sequential behaviors.

  19. Power control for ac motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dabney, R. W. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A motor controller employing a triac through which power is supplied to a motor is described. The open circuit voltage appearing across the triac controls the operation of a timing circuit. This timing circuit triggers on the triac at a time following turn off which varies inversely as a function of the amplitude of the open circuit voltage of the triac.

  20. Motor Development: Core Curricular Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulrich, Beverly

    2007-01-01

    Motor developmentalists study the processes that underlie change in behavior. There are at least two fundamental ways in which theory and data emanating from motor development are critical components of what undergraduate kinesiology majors should know. First is an emphasis on the lifespan. We are very different organisms as we progress through…