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Sample records for motor skills matter

  1. Bidirectional gray matter changes after complex motor skill learning

    PubMed Central

    Gryga, Martin; Taubert, Marco; Dukart, Juergen; Vollmann, Henning; Conde, Virginia; Sehm, Bernhard; Villringer, Arno; Ragert, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Long-term motor skill learning has been consistently shown to result in functional as well as structural changes in the adult human brain. However, the effect of short learning periods on brain structure is not well understood. In the present study, subjects performed a sequential pinch force task (SPFT) for 20 min on 5 consecutive days. Changes in brain structure were evaluated with anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans acquired on the first and last day of motor skill learning. Behaviorally, the SPFT resulted in sequence-specific learning with the trained (right) hand. Structural gray matter (GM) alterations in left M1, right ventral premotor cortex (PMC) and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) correlated with performance improvements in the SPFT. More specifically we found that subjects with strong sequence-specific performance improvements in the SPFT also had larger increases in GM volume in the respective brain areas. On the other hand, subjects with small behavioral gains either showed no change or even a decrease in GM volume during the time course of learning. Furthermore, cerebellar GM volume before motor skill learning predicted (A) individual learning-related changes in the SPFT and (B) the amount of structural changes in left M1, right ventral PMC and DLPFC. In summary, we provide novel evidence that short-term motor skill learning is associated with learning-related structural brain alterations. Additionally, we showed that practicing a motor skill is not exclusively accompanied by increased GM volume. Instead, bidirectional structural alterations explained the variability of the individual learning success. PMID:22623914

  2. Motor skill learning is associated with diffusion characteristics of white matter in individuals with chronic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Borich, Michael R.; Brown, Katlyn E.; Boyd, Lara A.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Imaging advances allow investigation of white matter following stroke; a growing body of literature has shown links between diffusion-based measures of white matter microstructure and motor function. However, the relationship between these measures and motor skill learning has not been considered in individuals with stroke. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between post-training white matter microstructural status, as indexed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) within the ipsilesional posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) and learning of a novel motor task in individuals with chronic stroke. Methods Thirteen participants with chronic stroke and nine healthy controls practiced a visuomotor pursuit task across five sessions. Change in motor behavior associated with learning was indexed by comparing baseline performance with a delayed retention test. Fractional anisotropy (FA) indexed at the retention test was the primary DTI-derived outcome measure. Results In individuals with chronic stroke, we discovered an association between post-training ipsilesional PLIC FA and the magnitude of change associated with motor learning; hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses revealed that the combination of age, time post stroke and ipsilesional PLIC FA post-training was associated with motor learning related change (R2=0.649, p=0.02). Baseline motor performance was not related to post-training ipsilesional PLIC FA. Discussion and Conclusions Diffusion characteristics of post-training ipsilesional PLIC were linked to magnitude of change in skilled motor behavior. These results imply that the microstructural properties of regional white matter indexed by diffusion behavior may be an important factor to consider when determining potential response to rehabilitation in persons with stroke. Video Abstract available (See Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1.) for more insights from the authors. PMID:23934017

  3. A Matter of Balance: Motor Control is Related to Children's Spatial and Proportional Reasoning Skills.

    PubMed

    Frick, Andrea; Möhring, Wenke

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has shown close links between spatial and mathematical thinking and between spatial abilities and motor skills. However, longitudinal research examining the relations between motor, spatial, and mathematical skills is rare, and the nature of these relations remains unclear. The present study thus investigated the relation between children's motor control and their spatial and proportional reasoning. We measured 6-year-olds' spatial scaling (i.e., the ability to reason about different-sized spaces), their mental transformation skills, and their ability to balance on one leg as an index for motor control. One year later (N = 126), we tested the same children's understanding of proportions. We also assessed several control variables (verbal IQ and socio-economic status) as well as inhibitory control, visuo-spatial and verbal working memory. Stepwise hierarchical regressions showed that, after accounting for effects of control variables, children's balance skills significantly increased the explained variance in their spatial performance and proportional reasoning. Our results suggest specific relations between balance skills and spatial as well as proportional reasoning skills that cannot be explained by general differences in executive functioning or intelligence.

  4. Differential grey matter changes in sensorimotor cortex related to exceptional fine motor skills.

    PubMed

    Stoeckel, M Cornelia; Morgenroth, Farina; Buetefisch, Cathrin M; Seitz, Rüdiger J

    2012-01-01

    Functional changes in sensorimotor representation occur in response to use and lesion throughout life. Emerging evidence suggests that functional changes are paralleled by respective macroscopic structural changes. In the present study we used voxel-based morphometry to investigate sensorimotor cortex in subjects with congenitally malformed upper extremities. We expected increased or decreased grey matter to parallel the enlarged or reduced functional representations we reported previously. More specifically, we expected decreased grey matter values in lateral sensorimotor cortex related to compromised hand function and increased grey matter values in medial sensorimotor cortex due to compensatory foot use. We found a medial cluster of grey matter increase in subjects with frequent, hand-like compensatory foot use. This increase was predominantly seen for lateral premotor, supplementary motor, and motor areas and only marginally involved somatosensory cortex. Contrary to our expectation, subjects with a reduced number of fingers, who had shown shrinkage of the functional hand representation previously, did not show decreased grey matter values within lateral sensorimotor cortex. Our data suggest that functional plastic changes in sensorimotor cortex can be associated with increases in grey matter but may also occur in otherwise macroscopically normal appearing grey matter volumes. Furthermore, macroscopic structural changes in motor and premotor areas may be observed without respective changes in somatosensory cortex.

  5. Neuroplasticity subserving motor skill learning

    PubMed Central

    Dayan, Eran; Cohen, Leonardo G.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Recent years have seen significant progress in our understanding of the neural substrates of motor skill learning. Advances in neuroimaging provide new insight into functional reorganization associated with the acquisition, consolidation and retention of motor skills. Plastic changes involving structural reorganization in gray and white matter architecture that occurs over shorter time periods than previously thought have been documented as well. Data from experimental animals provided crucial information on plausible cellular and molecular substrates contributing to large-scale reorganization underlying skill acquisition in humans. Here, we review findings demonstrating functional and structural plasticity across different spatial and temporal scales that mediate motor skill learning, while identifying converging areas of interest, and possible avenues for future research. PMID:22078504

  6. A Matter of Balance: Motor Control is Related to Children’s Spatial and Proportional Reasoning Skills

    PubMed Central

    Frick, Andrea; Möhring, Wenke

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has shown close links between spatial and mathematical thinking and between spatial abilities and motor skills. However, longitudinal research examining the relations between motor, spatial, and mathematical skills is rare, and the nature of these relations remains unclear. The present study thus investigated the relation between children’s motor control and their spatial and proportional reasoning. We measured 6-year-olds’ spatial scaling (i.e., the ability to reason about different-sized spaces), their mental transformation skills, and their ability to balance on one leg as an index for motor control. One year later (N = 126), we tested the same children’s understanding of proportions. We also assessed several control variables (verbal IQ and socio-economic status) as well as inhibitory control, visuo-spatial and verbal working memory. Stepwise hierarchical regressions showed that, after accounting for effects of control variables, children’s balance skills significantly increased the explained variance in their spatial performance and proportional reasoning. Our results suggest specific relations between balance skills and spatial as well as proportional reasoning skills that cannot be explained by general differences in executive functioning or intelligence. PMID:26793157

  7. Background matters: Minor vibratory stimulation during motor skill acquisition selectively reduces off-line memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Korman, Maria; Herling, Zohar; Levy, Ishay; Egbarieh, Nebal; Engel-Yeger, Batya; Karni, Avi

    2017-04-01

    Although a ubiquitous situation, it is not clear how effective is a learning experience when task-irrelevant, sensory noise occurs in the background. Here, young adults were trained on the finger opposition sequence task, in a well-established training and testing protocol affording measures for online as well as off-line learning. During the training session, one group experienced a minor background vibratory stimulation to the trunk by the means of vibrating cushion, while the second group experienced recorded sound vibrations. A control group was trained with no extra sensory stimulation. Sensory stimulation during training had no effect on the online within-session gains, but dampened the expression of the off-line, consolidation phase, gains in the two sensory stimulation groups. These results suggest that background sensory stimulation can selectively modify off-line, procedural memory consolidation processes, despite well-preserved on-line learning. Classical studies have shown that neural plasticity in sensory systems is modulated by motor input. The current results extend this notion and suggest that some types of task-irrelevant sensory stimulation, concurrent with motor training, may constitute a 'gating' factor - modulating the triggering of long-term procedural memory consolidation processes. Thus, vibratory stimulation may be considered as a behavioral counterpart of pharmacological interventions that do not interfere with short term neural plasticity but block long-term plasticity.

  8. Retention of Motor Skills: Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schendel, J. D.; And Others

    A summary of an extensive literature survey deals with the variables known or suspected to affect the retention of learned motor behaviors over lengthy no-practice intervals. Emphasis was given to research conducted by or for the military. The variables that may affect the retention of motor skills were dichotomized into task variables and…

  9. Stages of motor skill learning.

    PubMed

    Luft, Andreas R; Buitrago, Manuel M

    2005-12-01

    Successful learning of a motor skill requires repetitive training. Once the skill is mastered, it can be remembered for a long period of time. The durable memory makes motor skill learning an interesting paradigm for the study of learning and memory mechanisms. To gain better understanding, one scientific approach is to dissect the process into stages and to study these as well as their interactions. This article covers the growing evidence that motor skill learning advances through stages, in which different storage mechanisms predominate. The acquisition phase is characterized by fast (within session) and slow learning (between sessions). For a short period following the initial training sessions, the skill is labile to interference by other skills and by protein synthesis inhibition, indicating that consolidation processes occur during rest periods between training sessions. During training as well as rest periods, activation in different brain regions changes dynamically. Evidence for stages in motor skill learning is provided by experiments using behavioral, electrophysiological, functional imaging, and cellular/molecular methods.

  10. Maintaining Motor Skill Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-18

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  11. Improving Motor Skills through Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lin

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how to improve a child's motor skills through listening by using three simple steps--recording the auditory model, determining when to use the auditory model, and considering where to use the auditory model. She points out the importance of using a demonstration technique that helps learners understand the…

  12. Motor Skill Learning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbard, Carl P.

    The purpose of this article is to briefly describe schema theory and indicate its relevance to early childhood development, with specific reference to children's acquisition of motor skills. Schema theory proposes an explanation of how individuals learn and perform a seemingly endless variety of movements. According to Schmidt (1975), goal…

  13. An Operational Model of Motor Skill Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinheiro, Victor E. D.; Simon, Herbert A.

    1992-01-01

    The ability to diagnose motor skills is important for physical educators. The paper discusses processes critical in motor skill diagnosis, proposing an operational model of motor skill development diagnosis for teacher educators and practitioners. The model provides a foundation upon which to build instructional strategies for developing…

  14. Retention of Motor Skills. Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-01

    c) degree to which the learner can organize or impose order upon the elements that define the task; (d) struc- ture of the training environment...term retention of motor skill include (a) degree of proficiency attained by the learner during initial training; (b) amount and kind of refresher...Time to retrain individuals to original performance levels is generally rapid, consistently less than half the original training time. 6. Learners

  15. Why skill matters

    PubMed Central

    Hikosaka, Okihide; Yamamoto, Shinya; Yasuda, Masaharu; Kim, Hyoung F.

    2013-01-01

    Maximizing rewards per unit time is ideal for success and survival for humans and animals. This goal can be approached by speeding up behavior aiming at rewards, and this is done most efficiently by acquiring skills. Importantly, reward-directed skills consist of two components: finding a good object (object skill) and acting on the object (action skill), which occur sequentially. Recent studies suggest that object skill is based on high capacity memory on object-value association. When a learned object appears, the corresponding memory is quickly expressed as a value-based gaze bias, leading to the automatic acquisition or avoidance of the object. Object skill thus plays a crucial role in increasing rewards per unit time. PMID:23911579

  16. Why skill matters.

    PubMed

    Hikosaka, Okihide; Yamamoto, Shinya; Yasuda, Masaharu; Kim, Hyoung F

    2013-09-01

    Maximizing rewards per unit time is ideal for success and survival in humans and animals. This goal can be approached by speeding up behavior aiming at rewards and this is done most efficiently by acquiring skills. Importantly, reward-directed skills consist of two components: finding a good object (i.e., object skill) and acting on the object (i.e., action skill), which occur sequentially. Recent studies suggest that object skill is based on high-capacity memory for object-value associations. When a learned object is encountered the corresponding memory is quickly expressed as a value-based gaze bias, leading to the automatic acquisition or avoidance of the object. Object skill thus plays a crucial role in increasing rewards per unit time. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Sport expert's motor imagery: functional imaging of professional motor skills and simple motor skills.

    PubMed

    Wei, Gaoxia; Luo, Jing

    2010-06-23

    Numerous studies provide evidence that motor skill acquisition is associated with dynamic changes in cortical and subcortical regions. Athletes are a professional population who are engaged in extensive motor training for long periods. However, the neural substrates of extreme level motor performance have not been clarified. We used kinesthetic imagery task to induce the mental representation of sport expert's extraordinary performance in view of the shared substrates of executing movement and motor imagery. For the first time, we compared, through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the pattern of cerebral activations in 12 professional divers and 12 normal people without extensive training, during imagery of professional skills and imagery of simple motor skills. The sport experts showed significant activation in the parahippocampus during imagery of professional skills relative to the novices, which might reflect the representation adapted to experience-related motor tasks. No significant difference was found between experts and novices when they imagined simple motor skills. These results indicated the experts might utilize their kinesthetic imagery more efficiently than novices, but only for the activity in which they had expertise. The sport experts also demonstrated more focused activation patterns in prefrontal areas in both of imagery tasks, which may be relevant to higher order of motor control during motor imagery. Moreover, this study suggested that the brains of sport experts could be regarded as the ideal subjects to explore the relationship between cerebral plasticity and learning of complex motor skills.

  18. Mathematical Skills and Motor Life Skills in Toddlers: Do Differences in Mathematical Skills Reflect Differences in Motor Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reikerås, Elin; Moser, Thomas; Tønnessen, Finn Egil

    2017-01-01

    This study examines possible relations between early mathematical skills and motor life skills in 450 toddlers aged two years and nine months. The study employs baseline data from the longitudinal Stavanger Project--The Learning Child. The children's mathematical skills and motor life skills were assessed by structured observation in the natural…

  19. Supporting Young Children's Motor Skill Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benelli, Cecelia; Yongue, Bill

    1995-01-01

    Addresses importance of planned motor skill development, providing specific guidelines for adults working with three-, four-, and five-year olds. Describes the influence of motor development on cognitive, language, emotional, and social development. Suggests using verbal feedback, visual assistance, and demonstration for teaching motor skills.…

  20. Early Childhood Motor Skills Information Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juelsgaard, Cheri

    This activity book is designed to assist teachers in enhancing preschool children's motor skills, physical development, and social skills, and to build young children's self-esteem. The activities are designed for both disabled and nondisabled children. The first section of the book suggests specific activities in 13 categories of motor skills:…

  1. On the Problem of Motor Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Jane E.

    2007-01-01

    As a way to address the serious obesity epidemic in the United States, many physical education classes have become fitness centers designed to raise heart rates and burn calories. An unintended consequence of this emphasis on fitness, however, is the lack of attention to motor skill development. Motor skills do not develop miraculously from one…

  2. Aging and Motor Skill: A Research Frontier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lersten, Ken

    This report reviews research which characterizes the motor skill capacity of older persons, 50 years of age and beyond. Research dealing with sensory-motor systems, memory, and practice factors receives major attention. Suggestions for future research include the following: (a) social psychological parameters which contribute to motor learning and…

  3. Motor skill depends on knowledge of facts

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Jason; Krakauer, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Those in 20th century philosophy, psychology, and neuroscience who have discussed the nature of skilled action have, for the most part, accepted the view that being skilled at an activity is independent of knowing facts about that activity, i.e., that skill is independent of knowledge of facts. In this paper we question this view of motor skill. We begin by situating the notion of skill in historical and philosophical context. We use the discussion to explain and motivate the view that motor skill depends upon knowledge of facts. This conclusion seemingly contradicts well-known results in cognitive science. It is natural, on the face of it, to take the case of H.M., the seminal case in cognitive neuroscience that led to the discovery of different memory systems, as providing powerful evidence for the independence of knowledge and skill acquisition. After all, H.M. seems to show that motor learning is retained even when previous knowledge about the activity has been lost. Improvements in skill generally require increased precision of selected actions, which we call motor acuity. Motor acuity may indeed not require propositional knowledge and has direct parallels with perceptual acuity. We argue, however, that reflection on the specifics of H.M.'s case, as well as other research on the nature of skill, indicates that learning to become skilled at a motor task, for example tennis, depends also on knowledge-based selection of the right actions. Thus skilled activity requires both acuity and knowledge, with both increasing with practice. The moral of our discussion ranges beyond debates about motor skill; we argue that it undermines any attempt to draw a distinction between practical and theoretical activities. While we will reject the independence of skill and knowledge, our discussion leaves open several different possible relations between knowledge and skill. Deciding between them is a task to be resolved by future research. PMID:24009571

  4. Circuit changes in motor cortex during motor skill learning.

    PubMed

    Papale, Andrew E; Hooks, Bryan M

    2017-09-14

    Motor cortex is important for motor skill learning, particularly the dexterous skills necessary for our favorite sports and careers. We are especially interested in understanding how plasticity in motor cortex contributes to skill learning. Although human studies have been helpful in understanding the importance of motor cortex in learning skilled tasks, animal models are necessary for achieving a detailed understanding of the circuitry underlying these behaviors and the changes that occur during training. We review data from these models to try to identify sites of plasticity in motor cortex, focusing on rodents asa model system. Rodent neocortex contains well-differentiated motor and sensory regions, as well as neurons expressing similar genetic markers to many of the same circuit components in human cortex. Furthermore, rodents have circuit mapping tools for labeling, targeting, and manipulating these cell types as circuit nodes. Crucially, the projection from rodent primary somatosensory cortex to primary motor cortex is a well-studied corticocortical projection and a model of sensorimotor integration. We first summarize some of the descending pathways involved in making dexterous movements, including reaching. We then describe local and long-range circuitry in mouse motor cortex, summarizing structural and functional changes associated with motor skill acquisition. We then address which specific connections might be responsible for plasticity. For insight into the range of plasticity mechanisms employed by cortex, we review plasticity in sensory systems. The similarities and differences between motor cortex plasticity and critical periods of plasticity in sensory systems are discussed. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Detection and Prevalence of Motor Skill Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolic, Snezana J.; Ilic-Stosovic, Danijela D.

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of this research was to establish the prevalence, form of manifestation, level and kind of motor skill disorders in three area of motor development functioning: neuromaturation, coordination and balance. The sample included 1165 children, between 6.5 and 11 years of age. The protocol was constructed and contained tests for the…

  6. Activities to Develop Your Students' Motor Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Mary Kay; Safran, Joan S.

    1986-01-01

    Instructions and illustrations support this discussion of learning activities designed to remediate deficiences and build skills in balance and/or motor skills for mildly handicapped students who may not have access to physical therapy or adaptive physical education. Appropriate for both regular and special classes, activities include arm…

  7. Motor Skill Acquisition Promotes Human Brain Myelin Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Lakhani, Bimal; Borich, Michael R.; Jackson, Jacob N.; Wadden, Katie P.; Peters, Sue; Villamayor, Anica; MacKay, Alex L.; Vavasour, Irene M.; Rauscher, Alexander; Boyd, Lara A.

    2016-01-01

    Experience-dependent structural changes are widely evident in gray matter. Using diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), the neuroplastic effect of motor training on white matter in the brain has been demonstrated. However, in humans it is not known whether specific features of white matter relate to motor skill acquisition or if these structural changes are associated to functional network connectivity. Myelin can be objectively quantified in vivo and used to index specific experience-dependent change. In the current study, seventeen healthy young adults completed ten sessions of visuomotor skill training (10,000 total movements) using the right arm. Multicomponent relaxation imaging was performed before and after training. Significant increases in myelin water fraction, a quantitative measure of myelin, were observed in task dependent brain regions (left intraparietal sulcus [IPS] and left parieto-occipital sulcus). In addition, the rate of motor skill acquisition and overall change in myelin water fraction in the left IPS were negatively related, suggesting that a slower rate of learning resulted in greater neuroplastic change. This study provides the first evidence for experience-dependent changes in myelin that are associated with changes in skilled movements in healthy young adults. PMID:27293906

  8. Psychological Readiness and Motor Skills Needed for Toilet Training

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Psychological Readiness and Motor Skills Needed for Toilet Training Page Content Article ... to see toilet training as a desirable skill. Motor Skills In addition to his physiological development, your ...

  9. Motor Skills Are Strengthened through Reconsolidation.

    PubMed

    Wymbs, Nicholas F; Bastian, Amy J; Celnik, Pablo A

    2016-02-08

    Newly acquired motor skills become stabilized through consolidation [1]. However, we know from daily life that consolidated skills are modified over multiple bouts of practice and in response to newfound challenges [2]. Recent evidence has shown that memories can be modified through reconsolidation, in which previously consolidated memories can re-enter a temporary state of instability through retrieval, and in order to persist, undergo re-stabilization [3-8]. Although observed in other memory domains [5, 6], it is unknown whether reconsolidation leads to strengthened motor skills over multiple episodes of practice. Using a novel intervention after the retrieval of a consolidated skill, we found that skill can be modified and enhanced through exposure to increased sensorimotor variability. This improvement was greatest in those participants who could rapidly adjust their sensorimotor output in response to the relatively large fluctuations presented during the intervention. Importantly, strengthening required the reactivation of the consolidated skill and time for changes to reconsolidate. These results provide a key demonstration that consolidated motor skills continue to change as needed through the remapping of motor command to action goal, with strong implications for rehabilitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Brainstem White Matter Predicts Individual Differences in Manual Motor Difficulties and Symptom Severity in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travers, Brittany G.; Bigler, Erin D.; Tromp, Do P. M.; Adluru, Nagesh; Destiche, Dan; Samsin, Danica; Froehlich, Alyson; Prigge, Molly D. B.; Duffield, Tyler C.; Lange, Nicholas; Alexander, Andrew L.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that poorer motor skills may be related to more severe autism symptoms. This study investigated if atypical white matter microstructure in the brain mediated the relationship between motor skills and ASD symptom severity. Sixty-seven males with ASD and 42 males with typical development (5-33 years old) completed a…

  11. Brainstem White Matter Predicts Individual Differences in Manual Motor Difficulties and Symptom Severity in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travers, Brittany G.; Bigler, Erin D.; Tromp, Do P. M.; Adluru, Nagesh; Destiche, Dan; Samsin, Danica; Froehlich, Alyson; Prigge, Molly D. B.; Duffield, Tyler C.; Lange, Nicholas; Alexander, Andrew L.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that poorer motor skills may be related to more severe autism symptoms. This study investigated if atypical white matter microstructure in the brain mediated the relationship between motor skills and ASD symptom severity. Sixty-seven males with ASD and 42 males with typical development (5-33 years old) completed a…

  12. An Exploratory Product Evaluation of the Manchester Motor Skills Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodal, Katherine; Bond, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    This study is an exploratory product evaluation of the Manchester Motor Skills Programme (MMSP). A mixed methodology was used to explore intended, unintended, positive and negative outcomes for four Key Stage 2 (KS2) children with motor skills difficulties who participated in the MMSP. The children's motor skills, social skills and self-esteem…

  13. Is Treating Motor Problems in DCD Just a Matter of Practice and More Practice?

    PubMed

    Schoemaker, Marina M; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is often called a motor learning deficit. The question addressed in this paper is whether improvement of motor skills is just a matter of mere practice. Without any kind of intervention, children with DCD do not improve their motor skills generally, whereas they do improve after task-oriented intervention. Merely offering children the opportunity to practice motor skills, for instance by playing active video games, did lead to improved motor performance according to recent research findings, but to a lesser extent than task-oriented intervention. We argue that children with DCD lack the required motor problem-solving skills necessary to further improve their performance. Explicit motor teaching with an emphasis on developing these problem-solving skills is a necessary ingredient of intervention in DCD, leveraging the effectiveness of intervention above that of mere practicing.

  14. Primary motor cortex disinhibition during motor skill learning.

    PubMed

    Coxon, James P; Peat, Nicola M; Byblow, Winston D

    2014-07-01

    Motor learning requires practice over a period of time and depends on brain plasticity, yet even for relatively simple movements, there are multiple practice strategies that can be used for skill acquisition. We investigated the role of intracortical inhibition in the primary motor cortex (M1) during motor skill learning. Event-related transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to assess corticomotor excitability and inhibition thought to involve synaptic and extrasynaptic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Short intracortical inhibition (SICI) was assessed using 1- and 2.5-ms interstimulus intervals (ISIs). Participants learned a novel, sequential pinch-grip task on a computer in either a repetitive or interleaved practice structure. Both practice structures showed equivalent levels of motor performance at the end of acquisition and at retention 1 wk later. There was a novel task-related modulation of 1-ms SICI. Repetitive practice elicited a greater reduction of 1- and 2.5-ms SICI, i.e., disinhibition, between rest and task acquisition, compared with interleaved practice. These novel findings support the use of a repetitive practice structure for motor learning because the associated effects within M1 have relevance for motor rehabilitation. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Computer games and fine motor skills.

    PubMed

    Borecki, Lukasz; Tolstych, Katarzyna; Pokorski, Mieczyslaw

    2013-01-01

    The study seeks to determine the influence of computer games on fine motor skills in young adults, an area of incomplete understanding and verification. We hypothesized that computer gaming could have a positive influence on basic motor skills, such as precision, aiming, speed, dexterity, or tremor. We examined 30 habitual game users (F/M - 3/27; age range 20-25 years) of the highly interactive game Counter Strike, in which players impersonate soldiers on a battlefield, and 30 age- and gender-matched subjects who declared never to play games. Selected tests from the Vienna Test System were used to assess fine motor skills and tremor. The results demonstrate that the game users scored appreciably better than the control subjects in all tests employed. In particular, the players did significantly better in the precision of arm-hand movements, as expressed by a lower time of errors, 1.6 ± 0.6 vs. 2.8 ± 0.6 s, a lower error rate, 13.6 ± 0.3 vs. 20.4 ± 2.2, and a shorter total time of performing a task, 14.6 ± 2.9 vs. 32.1 ± 4.5 s in non-players, respectively; p < 0.001 all. The findings demonstrate a positive influence of computer games on psychomotor functioning. We submit that playing computer games may be a useful training tool to increase fine motor skills and movement coordination.

  16. The Relationship between Fine-Motor Play and Fine-Motor Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marr, Deborah; Cermak, Sharon; Cohn, Ellen S.; Henderson, Anne

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between free-play choices and fine-motor skill in 4-year-old children attending Head Start. Children with poor fine-motor skill were matched for age and gender with children in the same classroom that exhibited good fine-motor skill. Each pair was observed during free-play sessions to examine the degree of…

  17. Female choice for male motor skills

    PubMed Central

    Barske, Julia; Schlinger, Barney A.; Wikelski, Martin; Fusani, Leonida

    2011-01-01

    Sexual selection was proposed by Darwin to explain the evolution of male sexual traits such as ornaments and elaborate courtship displays. Empirical and theoretical studies have traditionally focused on ornaments; the reasons for the evolution of elaborate, acrobatic courtship displays remain unclear. We addressed the hypothesis that females choose males on the basis of subtle differences in display performance, indicating motor skills that facilitate survival. Male golden-collared manakins (Manacus vitellinus) perform elaborate, acrobatic courtship displays. We used high-speed cameras to record the displays of wild males and analysed them in relation to male reproductive success. Females preferred males that performed specific display moves at greater speed, with differences of tens of milliseconds strongly impacting female preference. In additional males, we recorded telemetrically the heart rate during courtship using miniature transmitters and found that courtship is associated with profoundly elevated heart rates, revealing a large metabolic investment. Our study provides evidence that females choose their mates on the basis of subtle differences in motor performance during courtship. We propose that elaborate, acrobatic courtship dances evolve because they reflect motor skills and cardiovascular function of males. PMID:21508030

  18. The Gross Motor Skills of Children with Mild Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nonis, Karen P.; Jernice, Tan Sing Yee

    2014-01-01

    Many international studies have examined the gross motor skills of children studying in special schools while local studies of such nature are limited. This study investigated the gross motor skills of children with Mild Learning Disabilities (MLD; n = 14, M age = 8.93 years, SD = 0.33) with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2, Ulrich,…

  19. Development of white matter and reading skills.

    PubMed

    Yeatman, Jason D; Dougherty, Robert F; Ben-Shachar, Michal; Wandell, Brian A

    2012-10-30

    White matter tissue properties are highly correlated with reading proficiency; we would like to have a model that relates the dynamics of an individual's white matter development to their acquisition of skilled reading. The development of cerebral white matter involves multiple biological processes, and the balance between these processes differs between individuals. Cross-sectional measures of white matter mask the interplay between these processes and their connection to an individual's cognitive development. Hence, we performed a longitudinal study to measure white-matter development (diffusion-weighted imaging) and reading development (behavioral testing) in individual children (age 7-15 y). The pattern of white-matter development differed significantly among children. In the left arcuate and left inferior longitudinal fasciculus, children with above-average reading skills initially had low fractional anisotropy (FA) that increased over the 3-y period, whereas children with below-average reading skills had higher initial FA that declined over time. We describe a dual-process model of white matter development comprising biological processes with opposing effects on FA, such as axonal myelination and pruning, to explain the pattern of results.

  20. Motor Development and Skill Analysis. Connections to Elementary Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielke, Dan; Morrison, Craig

    1985-01-01

    Drawing upon stages of motor development and elements of biomechanics, the authors used anatomical planes as a frame of reference to determine movement patterns and assess readiness to perform movement skills. The combination of determining readiness and analyzing skill enables the teacher to plan proper motor skill activities. (MT)

  1. Motor Development and Skill Analysis. Connections to Elementary Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielke, Dan; Morrison, Craig

    1985-01-01

    Drawing upon stages of motor development and elements of biomechanics, the authors used anatomical planes as a frame of reference to determine movement patterns and assess readiness to perform movement skills. The combination of determining readiness and analyzing skill enables the teacher to plan proper motor skill activities. (MT)

  2. The Effects of Basketball Basic Skills Training on Gross Motor Skills Development of Female Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayazit, Betul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of basketball basic skills training on gross motor skills development of female children in Turkey. For that purpose, 40 female children took part in the study voluntarily. Basketball basic skills test was used to improve the gross motor skills of the female children in the study. Also,…

  3. Electroencephalography Pattern Variations During Motor Skill Acquisition.

    PubMed

    Ghasemian, Mohammadreza; Taheri, Hamidreza; Saberi Kakhki, Alireza; Ghoshuni, Majid

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined how motor skill acquisition affects electroencephalography patterns and compared short- and long-term electroencephalography variations. For this purpose, 17 volunteers with no history of disease, aged 18 to 22 years, attended seven training sessions every other day to practice a pursuit tracking motor skill. Electroencephalography brainwaves were recorded and analyzed on the first and last days within pre- and post-training intervals. The results showed a significant decrease in performance error and variability with practice over time. This progress slowed at the end of training, and there was no significant improvement in individual performance at the last session. In accordance with performance variations, some changes occurred in brainwaves. Specifically, θ power at Fz and α power at Cz increased on the last test day, compared with the first, while the coherence of α at Fz-T3 and Fz-Cz decreased. β Coherence between Fz-Cz was significantly reduced from pre- to posttest. Based on these results, power changes seem to be more affected by long-term training, whereas coherence changes are sensitive to both short- and long-term training. Specifically, β coherence at Fz-Cz was more influenced by short-term effects of training, whereas θ power at Fz, α power at Cz, and α coherence at Fz-T3 and Fz-Cz were affected by longer training.

  4. Development of fine motor skills in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Bos, Arend F; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N J A; Hitzert, Marrit M; Tanis, Jozien C; Roze, Elise

    2013-11-01

    Fine motor skills are related to functioning in daily life and at school. We reviewed the status of knowledge, in preterm children, on the development of fine motor skills, the relation with gross motor skills, and risk factors for impaired fine motor skills. We searched the past 15 years in PubMed, using ['motor skills' or 'fine motor function' and 'preterm infant'] as the search string. Impaired gross and fine motor skills are among the most frequently occurring problems encountered by preterm children who do not develop cerebral palsy. The prevalence is around 40% for mild to moderate impairment and 20% for moderate impairment. Fine motor skill scores on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children are about 0.62 of a standard deviation lower compared with term children. Risk factors for fine motor impairments include moderately preterm birth (odds ratio [OR] 2.0) and, among very preterm children (<32 wk gestation), intra-uterine growth restriction (ORs 2-3), inflammatory conditions (late-onset sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis, ORs 3-5), and dexamethasone therapy for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (OR 2.7). A better understanding of factors that play a role in the development of and recovery from brain injury could guide future intervention attempts aimed at improving fine motor skills of preterm children.

  5. Managing Personal Matters. Life Skills. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This teacher's guide is designed for use in presenting a six-unit course in managing personal matters that is part of a life skills series intended to help students become more self-sufficient in their personal and professional lives. The course's six instructional units cover these topics: personal records; risk management; health, life, and…

  6. Obesity Leads to Declines in Motor Skills across Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jessica; East, Patricia; Blanco, Estela; Sim, Eastern Kang; Castillo, Marcela; Lozoff, Betsy; Gahagan, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Background Poor motor skills have been consistently linked with a higher body weight in childhood, but the causal direction of this association is not fully understood. This study investigated the temporal ordering between children’s motor skills and weight status at 5 and 10 years. Methods Participants were 668 children (54% male) who were studied from infancy as part of an iron-deficiency anemia preventive trial and follow-up study in Santiago, Chile. All were healthy, full term, and weighing 3 kg or more at birth. Cross-lagged panel modeling was conducted to understand the temporal precedence between children’s weight status and motor proficiency. Analyses also examined differences in gross and fine motor skills among healthy weight, overweight, and obese children. Results A higher BMI at 5 years contributed to declines in motor proficiency from 5 to 10 years. There was no support for the reverse; that is, poor motor skills at 5 years did not predict increases in relative weight from 5 to 10 years. Obesity at 5 years also predicted declines in motor proficiency. When compared to normal weight children, obese children had significantly poorer total and gross motor skills at both 5 and 10 years. Overweight children had poorer total and gross motor skills at 10 years only. The differences in total and gross motor skills among normal-weight, overweight, and obese children appear to increase with age. There were small differences in fine motor skill between obese and non-obese children at 5 years only. Conclusions Obesity preceded declines in motor skills and not the reverse. Study findings suggest that early childhood obesity intervention efforts might help prevent declines in motor proficiency which, in turn, may positively impact children’s physical activity and overall fitness levels. PMID:27059409

  7. Visual-Motor Skills as a Predictor of Written Expression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiello-Cloutier, Mary

    This study investigated the relationship between the Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration-Revised (VMI-R) and written expression skills of 54 students (grades 2 to 7) with learning disabilities. Data analysis compared cognitive ability; visual motor skills; achievement in reading, math, and written language; teacher rating of written…

  8. Motor Skills of Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Meghann; MacDonald, Megan; Lord, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    With increased interest in the early diagnosis and treatment of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), more attention has been called to the motor skills of very young children with ASD. This study describes the gross and fine motor skills of a cross-sectional group of 162 children with ASD between the ages of 12 and 36 months, as well as…

  9. Young Athletes: A Special Olympics Motor Skill Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Favazza, Paddy C.; Siperstein, Gary N.

    2013-01-01

    While motor skills develop naturally among most typically developing preschoolers, young children with disabilities often experience deficits in this area. Therefore, it is important that children with disabilities are provided with "direct and intentional instruction" for motor skill development during the preschool years. One program…

  10. A System of Movement and Motor Skill Challenges for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Grant M.; Turner, Bud

    2012-01-01

    Given increasing childhood inactivity and obesity, and minimal time for quality physical education in elementary and secondary schools, it is essential that children are motivated and held accountable for independent motor and movement skill practice. The Movement and Motor Skill Challenge System provides a comprehensive set of stimulating,…

  11. Helping Preschoolers Prepare for Writing: Developing Fine Motor Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, J. Michelle; Fortenberry, Callie

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood is the most intensive period for the development of physical skills. Writing progress depends largely on the development of fine motor skills involving small muscle movements of the hand. Young children need to participate in a variety of developmentally appropriate activities intentionally designed to promote fine motor control.…

  12. Young Athletes: A Special Olympics Motor Skill Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Favazza, Paddy C.; Siperstein, Gary N.

    2013-01-01

    While motor skills develop naturally among most typically developing preschoolers, young children with disabilities often experience deficits in this area. Therefore, it is important that children with disabilities are provided with "direct and intentional instruction" for motor skill development during the preschool years. One program…

  13. Motor Skills of Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Meghann; MacDonald, Megan; Lord, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    With increased interest in the early diagnosis and treatment of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), more attention has been called to the motor skills of very young children with ASD. This study describes the gross and fine motor skills of a cross-sectional group of 162 children with ASD between the ages of 12 and 36 months, as well as…

  14. Helping Preschoolers Prepare for Writing: Developing Fine Motor Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, J. Michelle; Fortenberry, Callie

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood is the most intensive period for the development of physical skills. Writing progress depends largely on the development of fine motor skills involving small muscle movements of the hand. Young children need to participate in a variety of developmentally appropriate activities intentionally designed to promote fine motor control.…

  15. Measuring Motor Skill Learning--A Practical Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacs, Christopher R.

    2008-01-01

    The assessment of fundamental motor skills in early learners is critical to the overall well-being and physical development of the students within the physical education setting. Olrich (2002) has suggested that any physical education program must be designed to assess both measures of physical fitness and fundamental motor skills in all students.…

  16. Motor skills transfer from gymnastics to swimming.

    PubMed

    Collard, L; Oboeuf, A; Ahmaidi, S

    2007-08-01

    99 adult specialists in combat sports (n = 21), team sports (n = 37), gymnastics (n = 22), and swimming (n = 19) (M age = 20 yr., SD = 2; 64 young men, 35 young women) performed three 25-m swimming tasks whilst "blindfolded" by opaque goggles: front crawl in a straight line, dolphin-kicking on the back, and dolphin-kicking on the front. Even though the gymnasts (like the swimmers) were at ease in all 3 situations, the motor skills of the "motor interaction" specialists (team sports, combat sports) put the latter at a disadvantage. The similarities between the gymnasts' and swimmers' behavior (confirmed using factorial correspondence analysis with the TRIDEUX program) are undoubtedly related to the fact that these sportspersons essentially live in the same sensory space in their respective practices: exteroceptive information is subordinated by proprioceptive information. In contrast, the 99 subjects' timed freestyle swimming performances over 75 m depended so much on their physical and anthropometric qualities that the results were independent of the sporting specialties for the novice swimmers. Hence, the mere fact that the 22 gymnasts, who tended to be shorter, with a higher proportion of women, were more at ease in the water did not turn them into great performers.

  17. Skeletal maturation, fundamental motor skills and motor coordination in children 7-10 years.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Duarte L; Lausen, Berthold; Maia, José António; Lefevre, Johan; Gouveia, Élvio Rúbio; Thomis, Martine; Antunes, António Manuel; Claessens, Albrecht L; Beunen, Gaston; Malina, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Relationships between skeletal maturation and fundamental motor skills and gross motor coordination were evaluated in 429 children (213 boys and 216 girls) 7-10 years. Skeletal age was assessed (Tanner-Whitehouse 2 method), and stature, body mass, motor coordination (Körperkoordinations Test für Kinder, KTK) and fundamental motor skills (Test of Gross Motor Development, TGMD-2) were measured. Relationships among chronological age, skeletal age (expressed as the standardised residual of skeletal age on chronological age) and body size and fundamental motor skills and motor coordination were analysed with hierarchical multiple regression. Standardised residual of skeletal age on chronological age interacting with stature and body mass explained a maximum of 7.0% of the variance in fundamental motor skills and motor coordination over that attributed to body size per se. Standardised residual of skeletal age on chronological age alone accounted for a maximum of 9.0% of variance in fundamental motor skills, and motor coordination over that attributed to body size per se and interactions between standardised residual of skeletal age on chronological age and body size. In conclusion, skeletal age alone or interacting with body size has a negligible influence on fundamental motor skills and motor coordination in children 7-10 years.

  18. To What Extent Can Motor Imagery Replace Motor Execution While Learning a Fine Motor Skill?

    PubMed Central

    Sobierajewicz, Jagna; Szarkiewicz, Sylwia; Przekoracka-Krawczyk, Anna; Jaśkowski, Wojciech; van der Lubbe, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Motor imagery is generally thought to share common mechanisms with motor execution. In the present study, we examined to what extent learning a fine motor skill by motor imagery may substitute physical practice. Learning effects were assessed by manipulating the proportion of motor execution and motor imagery trials. Additionally, learning effects were compared between participants with an explicit motor imagery instruction and a control group. A Go/NoGo discrete sequence production (DSP) task was employed, wherein a five-stimulus sequence presented on each trial indicated the required sequence of finger movements after a Go signal. In the case of a NoGo signal, participants either had to imagine carrying out the response sequence (the motor imagery group), or the response sequence had to be withheld (the control group). Two practice days were followed by a final test day on which all sequences had to be executed. Learning effects were assessed by computing response times (RTs) and the percentages of correct responses (PCs). The electroencephalogram (EEG ) was additionally measured on this test day to examine whether motor preparation and the involvement of visual short term memory (VST M) depended on the amount of physical/mental practice. Accuracy data indicated strong learning effects. However, a substantial amount of physical practice was required to reach an optimal speed. EEG results suggest the involvement of VST M for sequences that had less or no physical practice in both groups. The absence of differences between the motor imagery and the control group underlines the possibility that motor preparation may actually resemble motor imagery. PMID:28154614

  19. To What Extent Can Motor Imagery Replace Motor Execution While Learning a Fine Motor Skill?

    PubMed

    Sobierajewicz, Jagna; Szarkiewicz, Sylwia; Przekoracka-Krawczyk, Anna; Jaśkowski, Wojciech; van der Lubbe, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Motor imagery is generally thought to share common mechanisms with motor execution. In the present study, we examined to what extent learning a fine motor skill by motor imagery may substitute physical practice. Learning effects were assessed by manipulating the proportion of motor execution and motor imagery trials. Additionally, learning effects were compared between participants with an explicit motor imagery instruction and a control group. A Go/NoGo discrete sequence production (DSP) task was employed, wherein a five-stimulus sequence presented on each trial indicated the required sequence of finger movements after a Go signal. In the case of a NoGo signal, participants either had to imagine carrying out the response sequence (the motor imagery group), or the response sequence had to be withheld (the control group). Two practice days were followed by a final test day on which all sequences had to be executed. Learning effects were assessed by computing response times (RTs) and the percentages of correct responses (PCs). The electroencephalogram (EEG ) was additionally measured on this test day to examine whether motor preparation and the involvement of visual short term memory (VST M) depended on the amount of physical/mental practice. Accuracy data indicated strong learning effects. However, a substantial amount of physical practice was required to reach an optimal speed. EEG results suggest the involvement of VST M for sequences that had less or no physical practice in both groups. The absence of differences between the motor imagery and the control group underlines the possibility that motor preparation may actually resemble motor imagery.

  20. Older Adults can Learn to Learn New Motor Skills

    PubMed Central

    Seidler, Rachael D.

    2007-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that aging is associated with declines in skill acquisition. In the current study, we tested whether older adults could acquire general, transferable knowledge about skill learning processes. Older adult participants learned five different motor tasks. Two older adult control groups performed the same number of trials, but learned only one task. The experimental group exhibited faster learning than that seen in the control groups. These data demonstrate that older adults can learn to learn new motor skills. PMID:17602760

  1. The Influence of Motor Skills on Measurement Accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brychta, Petr; Sadílek, Marek; Brychta, Josef

    2016-10-01

    This innovative study trying to do interdisciplinary interface at first view different ways fields: kinantropology and mechanical engineering. A motor skill is described as an action which involves the movement of muscles in a body. Gross motor skills permit functions as a running, jumping, walking, punching, lifting and throwing a ball, maintaining a body balance, coordinating etc. Fine motor skills captures smaller neuromuscular actions, such as holding an object between the thumb and a finger. In mechanical inspection, the accuracy of measurement is most important aspect. The accuracy of measurement to some extent is also dependent upon the sense of sight or sense of touch associated with fine motor skills. It is therefore clear that the level of motor skills will affect the precision and accuracy of measurement in metrology. Aim of this study is literature review to find out fine motor skills level of individuals and determine the potential effect of different fine motor skill performance on precision and accuracy of mechanical engineering measuring.

  2. Poor motor skills: a risk marker for bully victimization.

    PubMed

    Bejerot, Susanne; Plenty, Stephanie; Humble, Alice; Humble, Mats B

    2013-01-01

    Children who are clumsy are often bullied. Nevertheless, motor skills have been overlooked in research on bullying victimization. A total of 2,730 Swedish adults (83% females) responded to retrospective questions on bullying, their talents in physical education (i.e., coordination and balls skills) and school academics. Poor talents were used as indicators of poor gross motor skills and poor academic skills. A subset of participants also provided information on educational level in adulthood, childhood obesity, belonging to an ethic minority in school and socioeconomic status relative to schoolmates. A total of 29.4% of adults reported being bullied in school, and 18.4% reported having below average gross motor skills. Of those with below average motor skills, 48.6% were bullied in school. Below average motor skills in childhood were associated with an increased risk (OR 3.01 [95% CI: 1.97-4.60]) of being bullied, even after adjusting for the influence of lower socioeconomic status, poor academic performance, being overweight, and being a bully. Higher odds for bully victimization were also associated with lower socioeconomic status (OR 2.29 [95% CI: 1.45-3.63]), being overweight (OR 1.71 [95% CI: 1.18-2.47]) and being a bully (OR 2.18 [95% CI: 1.53-3.11]). The findings indicate that poor gross motor skills constitute a robust risk-marker for vulnerability for bully victimization.

  3. 125 years of perceptual-motor skill research.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Digby; Hayes, Spencer J; Bennett, Simon J

    2012-01-01

    This article celebrates the contribution that the American Journal of Psychology (AJP) has made to the area of perceptual-motor skill over its 125-year history. We highlight the articles published in AJP and trace the technical and theoretical developments that stem from this groundbreaking work. Included in our overview are AJP articles on the excitability of the motor system, motor learning, adaptation to visual rearrangement, the ecological approach to perception and action, and the measurement of human handedness. We conclude by identifying a number of areas associated with perceptual-motor skill where AJP continues to make an important contribution.

  4. Motor-Skill Learning Is Dependent on Astrocytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Padmashri, Ragunathan; Suresh, Anand; Boska, Michael D; Dunaevsky, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Motor-skill learning induces changes in synaptic structure and function in the primary motor cortex through the involvement of a long-term potentiation- (LTP-) like mechanism. Although there is evidence that calcium-dependent release of gliotransmitters by astrocytes plays an important role in synaptic transmission and plasticity, the role of astrocytes in motor-skill learning is not known. To test the hypothesis that astrocytic activity is necessary for motor-skill learning, we perturbed astrocytic function using pharmacological and genetic approaches. We find that perturbation of astrocytes either by selectively attenuating IP3R2 mediated astrocyte Ca(2+) signaling or using an astrocyte specific metabolic inhibitor fluorocitrate (FC) results in impaired motor-skill learning of a forelimb reaching-task in mice. Moreover, the learning impairment caused by blocking astrocytic activity using FC was rescued by administration of the gliotransmitter D-serine. The learning impairments are likely caused by impaired LTP as FC blocked LTP in slices and prevented motor-skill training-induced increases in synaptic AMPA-type glutamate receptor in vivo. These results support the conclusion that normal astrocytic Ca(2+) signaling during a reaching task is necessary for motor-skill learning.

  5. The influence of motor imagery on the learning of a fine hand motor skill.

    PubMed

    Sobierajewicz, Jagna; Przekoracka-Krawczyk, Anna; Jaśkowski, Wojciech; Verwey, Willem B; van der Lubbe, Rob

    2017-01-01

    Motor imagery has been argued to affect the acquisition of motor skills. The present study examined the specificity of motor imagery on the learning of a fine hand motor skill by employing a modified discrete sequence production task: the Go/NoGo DSP task. After an informative cue, a response sequence had either to be executed, imagined, or withheld. To establish learning effects, the experiment was divided into a practice phase and a test phase. In the latter phase, we compared mean response times and accuracy during the execution of unfamiliar sequences, familiar imagined sequences, and familiar executed sequences. The electroencephalogram was measured in the practice phase to compare activity between motor imagery, motor execution, and a control condition in which responses should be withheld. Event-related potentials (ERPs) and event-related lateralizations (ERLs) showed strong similarities above cortical motor areas on trials requiring motor imagery and motor execution, while a major difference was found with trials on which the response sequence should be withheld. Behavioral results from the test phase showed that response times and accuracy improved after physical and mental practice relative to unfamiliar sequences (so-called sequence-specific learning effects), although the effect of motor learning by motor imagery was smaller than the effect of physical practice. These findings confirm that motor imagery also resembles motor execution in the case of a fine hand motor skill.

  6. Retrospectively Assessed Early Motor and Current Pragmatic Language Skills in Autistic and Neurotypical Children.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Jennifer L; Lindley, Caitlin E; Murlo, Nicole

    2017-08-01

    Autistic individuals often struggle developmentally, even in areas that are not explicit diagnostic criteria, such as motor skills. This study explored the relation between early motor skills, assessed retrospectively, and current pragmatic language skills. Caregivers of neurotypical and autistic children, matched on gender and age, completed assessments of their child's early motor development and current language abilities. Early motor skills were correlated with later pragmatic language skills, and autistic children exhibited fewer motor skills than neurotypical children. In fact, motor skills were a better predictor of an autism spectrum diagnosis than were scores on a measure of current pragmatic language. These results highlight the important role of motor skills in autism spectrum disorders.

  7. Automated Motor Skills Training Optimized for Individual Differences.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    training. A general review of the researh effort as well as a .pecific discussion of the research conducted during 1 October 1979 to 󈧎 Septem~her P1...1977. I Savage, R. E., Williges, R. C., and Williges, B. H. Individual differences in motor skill training. Paper presented at the Sixth Psychology in...Paper presented at the Sixth Psychology in the DoD Symposium, April, 1979. Williges, R. C. and Williges, B. H. Automated motor skills training

  8. Motor Skill Competence and Physical Activity in Preschoolers: A Review.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Roger; An, Ruopeng

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Preschoolers 3-5 years of age are in a crucial stage of motor skill competence. While preschoolers develop their motor skill competence through engagement in physical activity, a majority of them fail to meet guideline-recommended physical activity level. This study reviews scientific evidence on the relationship between motor skill competence and physical activity among preschoolers. Methods This systematic review followed the PRISMA framework. Keyword and reference search were conducted in PubMed, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Inclusion criteria included-age: 3-5 years of age; setting: preschool environment (e.g., preschool, childcare, head start); main outcomes: motor skill competence and physical activity; study design: cross-sectional study, case-control study, retrospective cohort study, prospective cohort study, or randomized controlled trial; language: English; and article type: peer-reviewed publication. Results Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria, including 6 randomized controlled trials and 5 cross-sectional studies. Studies were conducted in 5 countries: United States (5), United Kingdom (2), Australia (2), Switzerland (1), and Finland (1). Eight out of the 11 studies included in the review reported a significant relationship between motor skill competence and physical activity. The specific pattern and strength of the relationship tend to differ by gender, physical activity intensity, motor skill type, and day of the week (weekdays versus weekends). Conclusions An association has been consistently documented between motor skill competence and physical activity. Future research is warranted to elucidate the underlining causal link, examine potential heterogeneity, and determine the role of environment in the relationship between motor skill competence and physical activity among preschoolers.

  9. Teaching Motor Skills to Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Teri

    2012-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are commonly characterized by deficits in the social and communication domains. However, up to 80 percent of this population also have poor motor skills. Individuals with an ASD experience difficulties in motor planning, imitation, and postural stability. A better understanding of these deficits and of strategies…

  10. Assessing Gross Motor Skills of Kosovar Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shala, Merita

    2009-01-01

    In the light of the new developments in preschool education in Kosovo, this study attempts to carry out an assessment of the development of gross motor skills of preschool children attending institutional education. The emphasis is on creating a set of tests to measure the motor attainments of these children by conducting assessments of the…

  11. Delayed Motor Skill Acquisition in Kindergarten Children with Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adi-Japha, Esther; Strulovich-Schwartz, Orli; Julius, Mona

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition and consolidation of a new grapho-motor symbol into long-term memory was studied in 5-year-old children with language impairment (LI) and peers matched for age and visual-motor integration skills. The children practiced the production of a new symbol and were tested 24 h and two weeks post-practice day. Differences in performance…

  12. Assessing Gross Motor Skills of Kosovar Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shala, Merita

    2009-01-01

    In the light of the new developments in preschool education in Kosovo, this study attempts to carry out an assessment of the development of gross motor skills of preschool children attending institutional education. The emphasis is on creating a set of tests to measure the motor attainments of these children by conducting assessments of the…

  13. Delayed Motor Skill Acquisition in Kindergarten Children with Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adi-Japha, Esther; Strulovich-Schwartz, Orli; Julius, Mona

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition and consolidation of a new grapho-motor symbol into long-term memory was studied in 5-year-old children with language impairment (LI) and peers matched for age and visual-motor integration skills. The children practiced the production of a new symbol and were tested 24 h and two weeks post-practice day. Differences in performance…

  14. Collaborative Teaching of Motor Skills for Preschoolers with Developmental Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murata, Nathan M.; Tan, Carol A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe collaborative teaching between preschool teachers, adapted physical educators, physical therapists, and occupational therapists of motor skills for preschoolers with developmental delays. The motor domain is typically taught by the classroom teacher who may have little to no knowledge of how to initiate a…

  15. Collaborative Teaching of Motor Skills for Preschoolers with Developmental Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murata, Nathan M.; Tan, Carol A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe collaborative teaching between preschool teachers, adapted physical educators, physical therapists, and occupational therapists of motor skills for preschoolers with developmental delays. The motor domain is typically taught by the classroom teacher who may have little to no knowledge of how to initiate a…

  16. Teaching Motor Skills to Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Teri

    2012-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are commonly characterized by deficits in the social and communication domains. However, up to 80 percent of this population also have poor motor skills. Individuals with an ASD experience difficulties in motor planning, imitation, and postural stability. A better understanding of these deficits and of strategies…

  17. Transfer of motor and perceptual skills from basketball to darts

    PubMed Central

    Rienhoff, Rebecca; Hopwood, Melissa J.; Fischer, Lennart; Strauss, Bernd; Baker, Joseph; Schorer, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    The quiet eye is a perceptual skill associated with expertise and superior performance; however, little is known about the transfer of quiet eye across domains. We attempted to replicate previous skill-based differences in quiet eye and investigated whether transfer of motor and perceptual skills occurs between similar tasks. Throwing accuracy and quiet eye duration for skilled and less-skilled basketball players were examined in basketball free throw shooting and the transfer task of dart throwing. Skilled basketball players showed significantly higher throwing accuracy and longer quiet eye duration in the basketball free throw task compared to their less-skilled counterparts. Further, skilled basketball players showed positive transfer from basketball to dart throwing in accuracy but not in quiet eye duration. Our results raise interesting questions regarding the measurement of transfer between skills. PMID:24062703

  18. Novel Skill Learning and Gross Motor Performance Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotson, Charles O.

    This research study determined the relative importance of various basic motor ability traits possessed by the learner in the process of acquiring neuromuscular skills. Fifty-two university students practiced two novel skills (ball toss and fli-back paddle ball) 5 days per week for 2 weeks. Prior to beginning practice, each subject was measured on…

  19. Constraints of Motor Skill Acquisition: Implications for Teaching and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Michelle L.; Pankey, Robert; Kinnunen, David

    This article presents various solutions to possible problems associated with providing skill-based instruction in physical education. It explores and applies Newell's (1986) constraints model to the analysis and teaching of motor skills in physical education, describing the role of individual, task, and environmental constraints in physical…

  20. Resting-state cortical connectivity predicts motor skill acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jennifer; Srinivasan, Ramesh; Kaur, Arshdeep; Cramer, Steven C.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have examined brain states in an effort to predict individual differences in capacity for learning, with overall moderate results. The present study investigated how measures of cortical network function acquired at rest using dense-array EEG (256 leads) predict subsequent acquisition of a new motor skill. Brain activity was recorded in 17 healthy young subjects during three minutes of wakeful rest prior to a single motor skill training session on a digital version of the pursuit rotor task. Practice was associated with significant gains in task performance (% time on target increased from 24% to 41%, p < 0.0001). Using a partial least squares regression (PLS) model, coherence with the region of the left primary motor area (M1) in resting EEG data was a strong predictor of motor skill acquisition (R2 = 0.81 in a leave-one-out cross-validation analysis), exceeding the information provided by baseline behavior and demographics. Within this PLS model, greater skill acquisition was predicted by higher connectivity between M1 and left parietal cortex, possibly reflecting greater capacity for visuomotor integration, and by lower connectivity between M1 and left frontal-premotor areas, possibly reflecting differences in motor planning strategies. EEG coherence, which reflects functional connectivity, predicts individual motor skill acquisition with a level of accuracy that is remarkably high compared to prior reports using EEG or fMRI measures. PMID:24473097

  1. Reduced Motor Cortex Activity during Movement Preparation following a Period of Motor Skill Practice

    PubMed Central

    Wright, David J.; Holmes, Paul; Di Russo, Francesco; Loporto, Michela; Smith, Dave

    2012-01-01

    Experts in a skill produce movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs) of smaller amplitude and later onset than novices. This may indicate that, following long-term training, experts require less effort to plan motor skill performance. However, no longitudinal evidence exists to support this claim. To address this, EEG was used to study the effect of motor skill training on cortical activity related to motor planning. Ten non-musicians took part in a 5-week training study learning to play guitar. At week 1, the MRCP was recorded from motor areas whilst participants played the G Major scale. Following a period of practice of the scale, the MRCP was recorded again at week 5. Results showed that the amplitude of the later pre-movement components were smaller at week 5 compared to week 1. This may indicate that, following training, less activity at motor cortex sites is involved in motor skill preparation. This supports claims for a more efficient motor preparation following motor skill training. PMID:23251647

  2. Poor Motor Skills: A Risk Marker for Bully Victimization

    PubMed Central

    Bejerot, Susanne; Plenty, Stephanie; Humble, Alice; Humble, Mats B

    2013-01-01

    Children who are clumsy are often bullied. Nevertheless, motor skills have been overlooked in research on bullying victimization. A total of 2,730 Swedish adults (83% females) responded to retrospective questions on bullying, their talents in physical education (i.e., coordination and balls skills) and school academics. Poor talents were used as indicators of poor gross motor skills and poor academic skills. A subset of participants also provided information on educational level in adulthood, childhood obesity, belonging to an ethic minority in school and socioeconomic status relative to schoolmates. A total of 29.4% of adults reported being bullied in school, and 18.4% reported having below average gross motor skills. Of those with below average motor skills, 48.6% were bullied in school. Below average motor skills in childhood were associated with an increased risk (OR 3.01 [95% CI: 1.97–4.60]) of being bullied, even after adjusting for the influence of lower socioeconomic status, poor academic performance, being overweight, and being a bully. Higher odds for bully victimization were also associated with lower socioeconomic status (OR 2.29 [95% CI: 1.45–3.63]), being overweight (OR 1.71 [95% CI: 1.18–2.47]) and being a bully (OR 2.18 [95% CI: 1.53–3.11]). The findings indicate that poor gross motor skills constitute a robust risk-marker for vulnerability for bully victimization. Aggr. Behav. 39:453–461, 2013. © 2013 The Authors. Aggressive Behavior Published by Wiley-Blackwell PMID:23784933

  3. Dopamine Promotes Motor Cortex Plasticity and Motor Skill Learning via PLC Activation.

    PubMed

    Rioult-Pedotti, Mengia-Seraina; Pekanovic, Ana; Atiemo, Clement Osei; Marshall, John; Luft, Andreas Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area, the major midbrain nucleus projecting to the motor cortex, play a key role in motor skill learning and motor cortex synaptic plasticity. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists exert parallel effects in the motor system: they impair motor skill learning and reduce long-term potentiation. Traditionally, D1 and D2 receptor modulate adenylyl cyclase activity and cyclic adenosine monophosphate accumulation in opposite directions via different G-proteins and bidirectionally modulate protein kinase A (PKA), leading to distinct physiological and behavioral effects. Here we show that D1 and D2 receptor activity influences motor skill acquisition and long term synaptic potentiation via phospholipase C (PLC) activation in rat primary motor cortex. Learning a new forelimb reaching task is severely impaired in the presence of PLC, but not PKA-inhibitor. Similarly, long term potentiation in motor cortex, a mechanism involved in motor skill learning, is reduced when PLC is inhibited but remains unaffected by the PKA inhibitor. Skill learning deficits and reduced synaptic plasticity caused by dopamine antagonists are prevented by co-administration of a PLC agonist. These results provide evidence for a role of intracellular PLC signaling in motor skill learning and associated cortical synaptic plasticity, challenging the traditional view of bidirectional modulation of PKA by D1 and D2 receptors. These findings reveal a novel and important action of dopamine in motor cortex that might be a future target for selective therapeutic interventions to support learning and recovery of movement resulting from injury and disease.

  4. Dopamine Promotes Motor Cortex Plasticity and Motor Skill Learning via PLC Activation

    PubMed Central

    Rioult-Pedotti, Mengia-Seraina; Pekanovic, Ana; Atiemo, Clement Osei; Marshall, John; Luft, Andreas Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area, the major midbrain nucleus projecting to the motor cortex, play a key role in motor skill learning and motor cortex synaptic plasticity. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists exert parallel effects in the motor system: they impair motor skill learning and reduce long-term potentiation. Traditionally, D1 and D2 receptor modulate adenylyl cyclase activity and cyclic adenosine monophosphate accumulation in opposite directions via different G-proteins and bidirectionally modulate protein kinase A (PKA), leading to distinct physiological and behavioral effects. Here we show that D1 and D2 receptor activity influences motor skill acquisition and long term synaptic potentiation via phospholipase C (PLC) activation in rat primary motor cortex. Learning a new forelimb reaching task is severely impaired in the presence of PLC, but not PKA-inhibitor. Similarly, long term potentiation in motor cortex, a mechanism involved in motor skill learning, is reduced when PLC is inhibited but remains unaffected by the PKA inhibitor. Skill learning deficits and reduced synaptic plasticity caused by dopamine antagonists are prevented by co-administration of a PLC agonist. These results provide evidence for a role of intracellular PLC signaling in motor skill learning and associated cortical synaptic plasticity, challenging the traditional view of bidirectional modulation of PKA by D1 and D2 receptors. These findings reveal a novel and important action of dopamine in motor cortex that might be a future target for selective therapeutic interventions to support learning and recovery of movement resulting from injury and disease. PMID:25938462

  5. An adaptive process model of motor learning: insights for the teaching of motor skills.

    PubMed

    Tani, Go; Corrêa, Umberto Cesar; Basso, Luciano; Benda, Rodolfo Novellino; Ugrinowitsch, Herbert; Choshi, Koji

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an outline of a non-equilibrium model, in which motor learning is explained as a continuous process of stabilization and adaptation. The article also shows how propositions derived from this model have been tested, and discusses possible practical implications of some supporting evidence to the teaching of motor skills. The stabilization refers to a process of functional stabilization that is achieved through negative feedback mechanisms. Initially, inconsistent and incorrect responses are gradually reduced, leading to a spatial-temporal patterning of the action. The adaptation is one in which new skills are formed from the reorganization of those already acquired through the flexibility of the system, reorganization of the skill structure, or self-organization. In order to provide learners with competency for adaptation, teachers should (a) guide students to learn motor skills taking into account that the stabilization of performance is just a transitory state that must be dismantled to achieve higher levels of complexity; (b) be clear which parts (micro) compose the skills and how they interact in order to form the whole (macro); (c) manipulate the skills in terms of their temporal, spatial, and/or spatiotemporal dimensions; (d) organize practice initially in a constant way, and then in a varied regimen (random) when the motor skills involve requirements of time and force; and, inversely for motor skills with spatial demands; and (e), provide a moderate frequency of feedback.

  6. Gene Expression Changes in the Motor Cortex Mediating Motor Skill Learning

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Vincent C. K.; DeBoer, Caroline; Hanson, Elizabeth; Tunesi, Marta; D'Onofrio, Mara; Arisi, Ivan; Brandi, Rossella; Cattaneo, Antonino; Goosens, Ki A.

    2013-01-01

    The primary motor cortex (M1) supports motor skill learning, yet little is known about the genes that contribute to motor cortical plasticity. Such knowledge could identify candidate molecules whose targeting might enable a new understanding of motor cortical functions, and provide new drug targets for the treatment of diseases which impair motor function, such as ischemic stroke. Here, we assess changes in the motor-cortical transcriptome across different stages of motor skill acquisition. Adult rats were trained on a gradually acquired appetitive reach and grasp task that required different strategies for successful pellet retrieval, or a sham version of the task in which the rats received pellet reward without needing to develop the reach and grasp skill. Tissue was harvested from the forelimb motor-cortical area either before training commenced, prior to the initial rise in task performance, or at peak performance. Differential classes of gene expression were observed at the time point immediately preceding motor task improvement. Functional clustering revealed that gene expression changes were related to the synapse, development, intracellular signaling, and the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, with many modulated genes known to regulate synaptic plasticity, synaptogenesis, and cytoskeletal dynamics. The modulated expression of synaptic genes likely reflects ongoing network reorganization from commencement of training till the point of task improvement, suggesting that motor performance improves only after sufficient modifications in the cortical circuitry have accumulated. The regulated FGF-related genes may together contribute to M1 remodeling through their roles in synaptic growth and maturation. PMID:23637843

  7. Rapid production of new oligodendrocytes is required in the earliest stages of motor skill learning

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Ian A.; Sinclair-Wilson, Alexander; Wright, Jordan L.; Fudge, Alexander D.; Emery, Ben; Li, Huiliang; Richardson, William D

    2016-01-01

    Summary We identified a novel marker of newly-forming oligodendrocytes – the ecto-enzyme Enpp6 – and used this to track oligodendrocyte differentiation in adult mice as they learned a motor skill (running on a wheel with unevenly spaced rungs). Production of Enpp6 - expressing immature oligodendrocytes was accelerated within just 2.5 hours exposure to the complex wheel in subcortical white matter and within 4 hours in motor cortex. Conditional deletion of Myelin regulatory factor (Myrf) in oligodendrocyte precursors blocked formation of new Enpp6+ oligodendrocytes and impaired learning within the same ~2-3 hour time frame. This very early requirement for oligodendrocytes suggests a direct and active role in learning, closely linked to synaptic strengthening. Running performance of normal mice continued to improve over the following week accompanied by secondary waves of oligodendrocyte precursor proliferation and differentiation. We conclude that new oligodendrocytes contribute to both early and late stages of motor skill learning. PMID:27455109

  8. Child, family and environmental correlates of children's motor skill proficiency.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Lisa; Hinkley, Trina; Okely, Anthony D; Salmon, Jo

    2013-07-01

    To identify factors associated with children's motor skills. Cross-sectional. Australian preschool-aged children were recruited in 2009 as part of a larger study. Parent proxy-report of child factors (age, sex, parent perception of child skill, participation in unstructured and structured activity), self-report of parent factors (confidence in their own skills to support child's activity, parent-child physical activity interaction, parent physical activity) and perceived environmental factors (play space visits, equipment at home) were collected. Moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer) and motor skills (Test of Gross Motor Development-2) were also assessed. After age adjustment, variables were checked for association with raw object control and locomotor scores. Variables with associations of p<0.20 were entered into two multiple regression models with locomotor/object control as respective outcome variables. Motor skills were assessed for 76 children (42 female), mean [SD] age=4.1 [0.68]; 71 completed parent proxy-report and 53 had valid MVPA data. Child age, swimming lessons, and home equipment were positively associated explaining 20% of locomotor skill variance, but only age was significant (β=0.36, p=0.002). Child age and sex, unstructured activity participation, MVPA%, parent confidence, home equipment (all positively associated), and dance participation (inversely associated) explained 32% object control variance. But only age (β=0.67, p<0.0001), MVPA% (β=0.37, p=0.038) and no dance (β=-0.34, p=0.028) were significant. Motor skill correlates differ according to skill category and are context specific with child level correlates appearing more important. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Psychometric Properties of the Teacher-Reported Motor Skills Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Helyn; Murrah, William M.; Cameron, Claire E.; Brock, Laura L.; Cottone, Elizabeth A.; Grissmer, David

    2015-01-01

    Children's early motor competence is associated with social development and academic achievement. However, few studies have examined teacher reports of children's motor skills. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Motor Skills Rating Scale (MSRS), a 19-item measure of children's teacher-reported motor skills in the classroom.…

  10. Psychometric Properties of the Teacher-Reported Motor Skills Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Helyn; Murrah, William M.; Cameron, Claire E.; Brock, Laura L.; Cottone, Elizabeth A.; Grissmer, David

    2015-01-01

    Children's early motor competence is associated with social development and academic achievement. However, few studies have examined teacher reports of children's motor skills. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Motor Skills Rating Scale (MSRS), a 19-item measure of children's teacher-reported motor skills in the classroom.…

  11. Rewarding feedback promotes motor skill consolidation via striatal activity.

    PubMed

    Widmer, M; Ziegler, N; Held, J; Luft, A; Lutz, K

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of performance can activate the striatum, a key region of the reward system and highly relevant for motivated behavior. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, striatal activity linked to knowledge of performance was measured during the training of a repetitive arc-tracking task. Knowledge of performance was given after a random selection of trials or after good performance. The third group received knowledge of performance after good performance plus a monetary reward. Skill learning was measured from pre- to post- (acquisition) and from post- to 24h posttraining (consolidation). Our results demonstrate an influence of feedback on motor skill learning. Adding a monetary reward after good performance leads to better consolidation and higher ventral striatal activation than knowledge of performance alone. In turn, rewarding strategies that increase ventral striatal response during training of a motor skill may be utilized to improve skill consolidation. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Temporal dynamics of cerebellar and motor cortex physiological processes during motor skill learning.

    PubMed

    Spampinato, D; Celnik, P

    2017-01-16

    Learning motor tasks involves distinct physiological processes in the cerebellum (CB) and primary motor cortex (M1). Previous studies have shown that motor learning results in at least two important neurophysiological changes: modulation of cerebellar output mediated in-part by long-term depression of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapse and induction of long-term plasticity (LTP) in M1, leading to transient occlusion of additional LTP-like plasticity. However, little is known about the temporal dynamics of these two physiological mechanisms during motor skill learning. Here we use non-invasive brain stimulation to explore CB and M1 mechanisms during early and late motor skill learning in humans. We predicted that early skill acquisition would be proportional to cerebellar excitability (CBI) changes, whereas later stages of learning will result in M1 LTP-like plasticity modifications. We found that early, and not late into skill training, CBI changed. Whereas, occlusion of LTP-like plasticity over M1 occurred only during late, but not early training. These findings indicate a distinct temporal dissociation in the physiological role of the CB and M1 when learning a novel skill. Understanding the role and temporal dynamics of different brain regions during motor learning is critical to device optimal interventions to augment learning.

  13. Temporal dynamics of cerebellar and motor cortex physiological processes during motor skill learning

    PubMed Central

    Spampinato, D.; Celnik, P.

    2017-01-01

    Learning motor tasks involves distinct physiological processes in the cerebellum (CB) and primary motor cortex (M1). Previous studies have shown that motor learning results in at least two important neurophysiological changes: modulation of cerebellar output mediated in-part by long-term depression of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapse and induction of long-term plasticity (LTP) in M1, leading to transient occlusion of additional LTP-like plasticity. However, little is known about the temporal dynamics of these two physiological mechanisms during motor skill learning. Here we use non-invasive brain stimulation to explore CB and M1 mechanisms during early and late motor skill learning in humans. We predicted that early skill acquisition would be proportional to cerebellar excitability (CBI) changes, whereas later stages of learning will result in M1 LTP-like plasticity modifications. We found that early, and not late into skill training, CBI changed. Whereas, occlusion of LTP-like plasticity over M1 occurred only during late, but not early training. These findings indicate a distinct temporal dissociation in the physiological role of the CB and M1 when learning a novel skill. Understanding the role and temporal dynamics of different brain regions during motor learning is critical to device optimal interventions to augment learning. PMID:28091578

  14. Brainstem White Matter Predicts Individual Differences in Manual Motor Difficulties and Symptom Severity in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Travers, Brittany G.; Bigler, Erin D.; Tromp, Do P. M.; Adluru, Nagesh; Destiche, Dan; Samsin, Danica; Froehlich, Alyson; Prigge, Molly D. B.; Duffield, Tyler; Lange, Nicholas; Alexander, Andrew L.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that poorer motor skills may be related to more severe autism symptoms. This study investigated if atypical white matter microstructure in the brain mediated the relationship between motor skills and ASD symptom severity. Sixty-seven males with ASD and 42 males with typical development (5-33 years old) completed a diffusion tensor imaging scan and measures of grip strength, finger tapping, and autism symptom severity. Within the ASD group, weaker grip strength predicted more severe autism symptoms. Fractional anisotropy of the brainstem's corticospinal tract predicted both grip strength and autism symptom severity and mediated the relationship between the two. These findings suggest that brainstem white matter may contribute to autism symptoms and grip strength in ASD. PMID:26001365

  15. White Matter Microstructural Correlates of Superior Long-term Skill Gained Implicitly under Randomized Practice

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sunbin; Sharma, Nikhil; Buch, Ethan R.

    2012-01-01

    We value skills we have learned intentionally, but equally important are skills acquired incidentally without ability to describe how or what is learned, referred to as implicit. Randomized practice schedules are superior to grouped schedules for long-term skill gained intentionally, but its relevance for implicit learning is not known. In a parallel design, we studied healthy subjects who learned a motor sequence implicitly under randomized or grouped practice schedule and obtained diffusion-weighted images to identify white matter microstructural correlates of long-term skill. Randomized practice led to superior long-term skill compared with grouped practice. Whole-brain analyses relating interindividual variability in fractional anisotropy (FA) to long-term skill demonstrated that 1) skill in randomized learners correlated with FA within the corticostriatal tract connecting left sensorimotor cortex to posterior putamen, while 2) skill in grouped learners correlated with FA within the right forceps minor connecting homologous regions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the corticostriatal tract connecting lateral PFC to anterior putamen. These results demonstrate first that randomized practice schedules improve long-term implicit skill more than grouped practice schedules and, second, that the superior skill acquired through randomized practice can be related to white matter microstructure in the sensorimotor corticostriatal network. PMID:21914632

  16. White matter microstructural correlates of superior long-term skill gained implicitly under randomized practice.

    PubMed

    Song, Sunbin; Sharma, Nikhil; Buch, Ethan R; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2012-07-01

    We value skills we have learned intentionally, but equally important are skills acquired incidentally without ability to describe how or what is learned, referred to as implicit. Randomized practice schedules are superior to grouped schedules for long-term skill gained intentionally, but its relevance for implicit learning is not known. In a parallel design, we studied healthy subjects who learned a motor sequence implicitly under randomized or grouped practice schedule and obtained diffusion-weighted images to identify white matter microstructural correlates of long-term skill. Randomized practice led to superior long-term skill compared with grouped practice. Whole-brain analyses relating interindividual variability in fractional anisotropy (FA) to long-term skill demonstrated that 1) skill in randomized learners correlated with FA within the corticostriatal tract connecting left sensorimotor cortex to posterior putamen, while 2) skill in grouped learners correlated with FA within the right forceps minor connecting homologous regions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the corticostriatal tract connecting lateral PFC to anterior putamen. These results demonstrate first that randomized practice schedules improve long-term implicit skill more than grouped practice schedules and, second, that the superior skill acquired through randomized practice can be related to white matter microstructure in the sensorimotor corticostriatal network.

  17. Motor skill learning and offline-changes in TGA patients with acute hippocampal CA1 lesions.

    PubMed

    Döhring, Juliane; Stoldt, Anne; Witt, Karsten; Schönfeld, Robby; Deuschl, Günther; Born, Jan; Bartsch, Thorsten

    2017-04-01

    Learning and the formation of memory are reflected in various memory systems in the human brain such as the hippocampus based declarative memory system and the striatum-cortex based system involved in motor sequence learning. It is a matter of debate how both memory systems interact in humans during learning and consolidation and how this interaction is influenced by sleep. We studied the effect of an acute dysfunction of hippocampal CA1 neurons on the acquisition (on-line condition) and off-line changes of a motor skill in patients with a transient global amnesia (TGA). Sixteen patients (68 ± 4.4 yrs) were studied in the acute phase and during follow-up using a declarative and procedural test, and were compared to controls. Acute TGA patients displayed profound deficits in all declarative memory functions. During the acute amnestic phase, patients were able to acquire the motor skill task reflected by increasing finger tapping speed across the on-line condition, albeit to a lesser degree than during follow-up or compared to controls. Retrieval two days later indicated a greater off-line gain in motor speed in patients than controls. Moreover, this gain in motor skill performance was negatively correlated to the declarative learning deficit. Our results suggest a differential interaction between procedural and declarative memory systems during acquisition and consolidation of motor sequences in older humans. During acquisition, hippocampal dysfunction attenuates fast learning and thus unmasks the slow and rigid learning curve of striatum-based procedural learning. The stronger gains in the post-consolidation condition in motor skill in CA1 lesioned patients indicate a facilitated consolidation process probably occurring during sleep, and suggest a competitive interaction between the memory systems. These findings might be a reflection of network reorganization and plasticity in older humans and in the presence of CA1 hippocampal pathology.

  18. Relations among motor, social, and cognitive skills in pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Kim, Helyn; Carlson, Abby G; Curby, Timothy W; Winsler, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Despite the comorbidity between motor difficulties and certain disabilities, limited research has examined links between early motor, cognitive, and social skills in preschool-aged children with developmental disabilities. The present study examined the relative contributions of gross motor and fine motor skills to the prediction of improvements in children's cognitive and social skills among 2,027 pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities, including specific learning disorder, speech/language impairment, intellectual disability, and autism spectrum disorder. Results indicated that for pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities, fine motor skills, but not gross motor skills, were predictive of improvements in cognitive and social skills, even after controlling for demographic information and initial skill levels. Moreover, depending on the type of developmental disability, the pattern of prediction of gross motor and fine motor skills to improvements in children's cognitive and social skills differed. Implications are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Toy Story: Illustrating Gender Differences in a Motor Skills Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Jennifer L.; Hebl, Michelle R.; Mendoza, Miriam

    2004-01-01

    To challenge students' stereotypes about gendered performance on motor skills tasks, we developed a classroom active learning demonstration. Four 3-person, same-gender teams received either a Barbie(r) doll or a Transformer(r), and team members dressed the Barbie or manipulated the Transformer from a tank to a robot as quickly as possible, with…

  20. Protein Synthesis Inhibition Blocks Consolidation of an Acrobatic Motor Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaelin-Lang, Alain; Dichgans, Johannes; Schulz, Jorg B.; Luft, Andreas R.; Buitrago, Manuel M.

    2004-01-01

    To investigate whether motor skill learning depends on de novo protein synthesis, adult rats were trained in an acrobatic locomotor task (accelerating rotarod) for 7 d. Animals were systemically injected with cycloheximide (CHX, 0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h before sessions 1 and 2 or sessions 2 and 3. Control rats received vehicle injections before…

  1. Early Boost and Slow Consolidation in Motor Skill Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotermans, Christophe; Peigneux, Philippe; de Noordhout, Alain Maertens; Moonen, Gustave; Maquet, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Motor skill learning is a dynamic process that continues covertly after training has ended and eventually leads to delayed increments in performance. Current theories suggest that this off-line improvement takes time and appears only after several hours. Here we show an early transient and short-lived boost in performance, emerging as early as…

  2. Recreational Activities and Motor Skills of Children in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Viviene A.; Crane, Jeff R.; Brown, Amy; Williams, Buffy-Lynne; Bell, Rick I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Developmental theorists suggest that physical activity during early childhood promotes fundamental motor skill (FMS) proficiency; and that differences in FMS proficiency are largely related to children's experiences. Aim: To examine associations between participation in different types of recreation/leisure and FMS proficiency of boys…

  3. Improving Fine Motor Skills in Young Children: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Carol G.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Primary Movement programme on the fine motor skills of children in an early years setting in an area of high social disadvantage. Primary Movement is a programme which can be used as an early intervention technique to help children inhibit persistent primary reflexes that have been shown to…

  4. The Dynamic Association between Motor Skill Development and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stodden, David F.; Goodway, Jacqueline D.

    2007-01-01

    Although significant attention has been given to promoting physical activity among children, little attention has been given to the developmental process of how children learn to move or to the changing role that motor skill development plays in children's physical activity levels as they grow. In order to successfully address the obesity…

  5. Early Boost and Slow Consolidation in Motor Skill Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotermans, Christophe; Peigneux, Philippe; de Noordhout, Alain Maertens; Moonen, Gustave; Maquet, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Motor skill learning is a dynamic process that continues covertly after training has ended and eventually leads to delayed increments in performance. Current theories suggest that this off-line improvement takes time and appears only after several hours. Here we show an early transient and short-lived boost in performance, emerging as early as…

  6. Interrater Objectivity for Field-Based Fundamental Motor Skill Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Lisa; van Beurden, Eric; Morgan, Philip J.; Lincoln, Doug; Zask, Avigdor; Beard, John

    2009-01-01

    An important aspect in studies concerning fundamental motor skills (FMS) proficiency is interrater objectivity (or interrater reliability), defined as the consistency or agreement in scores obtained from two or more raters. In a training setting, interrater objectivity is commonly determined as the relative number of times raters agree with an…

  7. Sleep-Dependent Learning and Motor-Skill Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuriyama, Kenichi; Stickgold, Robert; Walker, Matthew P.

    2004-01-01

    Learning of a procedural motor-skill task is known to progress through a series of unique memory stages. Performance initially improves during training, and continues to improve, without further rehearsal, across subsequent periods of sleep. Here, we investigate how this delayed sleep-dependent learning is affected when the task characteristics…

  8. Preliminary Validation of the Motor Skills Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Claire E.; Chen, Wei-Bing; Blodgett, Julia; Cottone, Elizabeth A.; Mashburn, Andrew J.; Brock, Laura L.; Grissmer, David

    2012-01-01

    This study examined psychometric properties of the Motor Skills Rating Scale (MSRS), a questionnaire designed for classroom teachers of children in early elementary school. Items were developed with the guidance of two occupational therapists, and factor structure was examined with an exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The resulting model showed…

  9. Sleep-Dependent Learning and Motor-Skill Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuriyama, Kenichi; Stickgold, Robert; Walker, Matthew P.

    2004-01-01

    Learning of a procedural motor-skill task is known to progress through a series of unique memory stages. Performance initially improves during training, and continues to improve, without further rehearsal, across subsequent periods of sleep. Here, we investigate how this delayed sleep-dependent learning is affected when the task characteristics…

  10. Toy Story: Illustrating Gender Differences in a Motor Skills Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Jennifer L.; Hebl, Michelle R.; Mendoza, Miriam

    2004-01-01

    To challenge students' stereotypes about gendered performance on motor skills tasks, we developed a classroom active learning demonstration. Four 3-person, same-gender teams received either a Barbie(r) doll or a Transformer(r), and team members dressed the Barbie or manipulated the Transformer from a tank to a robot as quickly as possible, with…

  11. Improving Fine Motor Skills in Young Children: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Carol G.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Primary Movement programme on the fine motor skills of children in an early years setting in an area of high social disadvantage. Primary Movement is a programme which can be used as an early intervention technique to help children inhibit persistent primary reflexes that have been shown to…

  12. Protein Synthesis Inhibition Blocks Consolidation of an Acrobatic Motor Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaelin-Lang, Alain; Dichgans, Johannes; Schulz, Jorg B.; Luft, Andreas R.; Buitrago, Manuel M.

    2004-01-01

    To investigate whether motor skill learning depends on de novo protein synthesis, adult rats were trained in an acrobatic locomotor task (accelerating rotarod) for 7 d. Animals were systemically injected with cycloheximide (CHX, 0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h before sessions 1 and 2 or sessions 2 and 3. Control rats received vehicle injections before…

  13. Language-Motor Skill Acquisition and Shorthand Theory Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clippinger, Dorinda A.

    1979-01-01

    Focusing on the ST-ART shorthand theory presentation method, this article discusses the following principles of language-motor skill acquisition: mental practice, symbol-sound association, verbal mediation, recitation and articulation, hierarchy of habits, overlearning, learner anxiety, sense modality, guided practice, kinesthetic imagery, visual…

  14. Interference effects between manual and oral motor skills.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Marie-Hélène; Cohen, Henri

    2016-03-01

    Consolidation of a motor skill is characterized by spontaneous improvement in performance between practice sessions. These offline gains can be eliminated if another skill is introduced soon afterward-a phenomenon called retroactive interference. Interference effects have been found in studies using two similar tasks involving the same motor effectors in a manual mode. The present study aimed to determine the extent to which differences in motor production mode modulate interference in skill learning. Healthy participants were assigned to one of three conditions and trained on a finger opposition sequence (FOS) learning task. All subjects were tested 24 h later on the original FOS learning task. Control subjects who were not exposed to a secondary learning task exhibited the expected offline gains after 24 h. Subjects who immediately learned a secondary task after the FOS training, either in the same manual mode (French Sign Language) or in an oral mode (CVC syllables), did not show any offline gains. Interestingly, the amount of interference was equivalent in the manual and oral learning conditions. The results reveal that interference effects in motor skill learning can occur when different effectors are involved in the primary and secondary tasks. The sequence processing abilities of the basal ganglia appear to play a major role in these interference effects.

  15. Recreational Activities and Motor Skills of Children in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Viviene A.; Crane, Jeff R.; Brown, Amy; Williams, Buffy-Lynne; Bell, Rick I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Developmental theorists suggest that physical activity during early childhood promotes fundamental motor skill (FMS) proficiency; and that differences in FMS proficiency are largely related to children's experiences. Aim: To examine associations between participation in different types of recreation/leisure and FMS proficiency of boys…

  16. SKIPing with Teachers: An Early Years Motor Skill Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brian, Ali; Goodway, Jacqueline D.; Logan, Jessica A.; Sutherland, Sue

    2017-01-01

    Background: Fundamental motor skill (FMS) interventions when delivered by an expert can significantly improve the FMS of young children with and without developmental delays. However, there is a gap in the literature as few early childhood centers employ experts with the professional background to deliver FMS intervention. Purpose: The primary…

  17. Deep Breathing Practice Facilitates Retention of Newly Learned Motor Skills

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Goldy; Mutha, Pratik K.

    2016-01-01

    Paced deep breathing practices, a core component of a number of meditation programs, have been shown to enhance a variety of cognitive functions. However, their effects on complex processes such as memory, and in particular, formation and retention of motor memories, remain unknown. Here we show that a 30-minute session of deep, alternate-nostril breathing remarkably enhances retention of a newly learned motor skill. Healthy humans learned to accurately trace a given path within a fixed time duration. Following learning, one group of subjects (n = 16) underwent the 30-minute breathing practice while another control group (n = 14) rested for the same duration. The breathing-practice group retained the motor skill strikingly better than controls, both immediately after the breathing session and also at 24 hours. These effects were confirmed in another group (n = 10) that rested for 30 minutes post-learning, but practiced breathing after their first retention test; these subjects showed significantly better retention at 24 hours but not 30 minutes. Our results thus uncover for the first time the remarkable facilitatory effects of simple breathing practices on complex functions such as motor memory, and have important implications for sports training and neuromotor rehabilitation in which better retention of learned motor skills is highly desirable. PMID:27841345

  18. Deep Breathing Practice Facilitates Retention of Newly Learned Motor Skills.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Goldy; Mutha, Pratik K

    2016-11-14

    Paced deep breathing practices, a core component of a number of meditation programs, have been shown to enhance a variety of cognitive functions. However, their effects on complex processes such as memory, and in particular, formation and retention of motor memories, remain unknown. Here we show that a 30-minute session of deep, alternate-nostril breathing remarkably enhances retention of a newly learned motor skill. Healthy humans learned to accurately trace a given path within a fixed time duration. Following learning, one group of subjects (n = 16) underwent the 30-minute breathing practice while another control group (n = 14) rested for the same duration. The breathing-practice group retained the motor skill strikingly better than controls, both immediately after the breathing session and also at 24 hours. These effects were confirmed in another group (n = 10) that rested for 30 minutes post-learning, but practiced breathing after their first retention test; these subjects showed significantly better retention at 24 hours but not 30 minutes. Our results thus uncover for the first time the remarkable facilitatory effects of simple breathing practices on complex functions such as motor memory, and have important implications for sports training and neuromotor rehabilitation in which better retention of learned motor skills is highly desirable.

  19. Motor skill experience modulates executive control for task switching.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qiuhua; Chan, Chetwyn C H; Chau, Bolton; Fu, Amy S N

    2017-09-15

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of types of motor skills, including open and closed skills on enhancing proactive and reactive controls for task switching. Thirty-six athletes in open (n=18) or closed (n=18) sports and a control group (n=18) completed the task-switching paradigm and the simple reaction task. The task-switching paradigm drew on the proactive and reactive control of executive functions, whereas the simple reaction task assessed the processing speed. Significant Validity×Group effect revealed that the participants with open skills had a lower switch cost of response time compared to the other two groups when the task cue was 100% valid; whereas the participants regardless of motor skills had a lower switch cost of response time compared to the control group when the task cue was 50% valid. Hierarchical stepwise regression analysis further confirmed these findings. For the simple reaction task, there were no differences found among the three groups. These findings suggest that experience in open skills has benefits of promoting both proactive and reactive controls for task switching, which corresponds to the activity context exposed by the participants. In contrast, experience in closed skills appears to only benefit development of reactive control for task switching. The neural mechanisms for the proactive and reactive controls of executive functions between experts with open and closed skills call for future study. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Reciprocal changes in input-output curves of motor evoked potentials while learning motor skills.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Makoto; Kirimoto, Hikari; Onishi, Hideaki; Yamada, Sumio; Tamaki, Hiroyuki; Maruyama, Atsuo; Yamamoto, Jun-ichi

    2012-09-14

    Reciprocal inhibition of antagonist muscles is crucial for motor skill learning in humans. However, the changes in reciprocal inhibition function during the motor learning process are unknown. The aim of this study was to systematically observe the changes in reciprocal inhibition function. We investigated the optimal coil position for simultaneously eliciting motor evoked potentials (MEPs) of reciprocal muscles, and the reciprocal changes in input-output (IO) curves during motor skill training. From ten healthy volunteers, the IO curves of MEPs were measured for the midpoint between the center of gravity (CoG) of the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) and the flexor carpi radialis (FCR) muscles, for the CoG of ECR, and for the FCR muscles using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). In addition, the IO curves of the ECR and the FCR muscles were measured before and after the motor skill training of rapid wrist extension. The IO curves measured at the midpoint between the CoGs of the ECR and the FCR muscles and the CoG of each muscle were homogenous. However, after training to perform rapid wrist extension, the IO curve of the agonist (ECR) muscle was increased, while the antagonist (FCR) muscle was decreased. The present findings validate the IO curves simultaneously measured for reciprocal muscles, and suggest that motor skill training could induce reciprocal change in corticospinal excitability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Motor Skill Learning, Retention, and Control Deficits in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pendt, Lisa Katharina; Reuter, Iris; Müller, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease, which affects the basal ganglia, is known to lead to various impairments of motor control. Since the basal ganglia have also been shown to be involved in learning processes, motor learning has frequently been investigated in this group of patients. However, results are still inconsistent, mainly due to skill levels and time scales of testing. To bridge across the time scale problem, the present study examined de novo skill learning over a long series of practice sessions that comprised early and late learning stages as well as retention. 19 non-demented, medicated, mild to moderate patients with Parkinson's disease and 19 healthy age and gender matched participants practiced a novel throwing task over five days in a virtual environment where timing of release was a critical element. Six patients and seven control participants came to an additional long-term retention testing after seven to nine months. Changes in task performance were analyzed by a method that differentiates between three components of motor learning prominent in different stages of learning: Tolerance, Noise and Covariation. In addition, kinematic analysis related the influence of skill levels as affected by the specific motor control deficits in Parkinson patients to the process of learning. As a result, patients showed similar learning in early and late stages compared to the control subjects. Differences occurred in short-term retention tests; patients' performance constantly decreased after breaks arising from poorer release timing. However, patients were able to overcome the initial timing problems within the course of each practice session and could further improve their throwing performance. Thus, results demonstrate the intact ability to learn a novel motor skill in non-demented, medicated patients with Parkinson's disease and indicate confounding effects of motor control deficits on retention performance. PMID:21760898

  2. Motor skill learning, retention, and control deficits in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Pendt, Lisa Katharina; Reuter, Iris; Müller, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease, which affects the basal ganglia, is known to lead to various impairments of motor control. Since the basal ganglia have also been shown to be involved in learning processes, motor learning has frequently been investigated in this group of patients. However, results are still inconsistent, mainly due to skill levels and time scales of testing. To bridge across the time scale problem, the present study examined de novo skill learning over a long series of practice sessions that comprised early and late learning stages as well as retention. 19 non-demented, medicated, mild to moderate patients with Parkinson's disease and 19 healthy age and gender matched participants practiced a novel throwing task over five days in a virtual environment where timing of release was a critical element. Six patients and seven control participants came to an additional long-term retention testing after seven to nine months. Changes in task performance were analyzed by a method that differentiates between three components of motor learning prominent in different stages of learning: Tolerance, Noise and Covariation. In addition, kinematic analysis related the influence of skill levels as affected by the specific motor control deficits in Parkinson patients to the process of learning. As a result, patients showed similar learning in early and late stages compared to the control subjects. Differences occurred in short-term retention tests; patients' performance constantly decreased after breaks arising from poorer release timing. However, patients were able to overcome the initial timing problems within the course of each practice session and could further improve their throwing performance. Thus, results demonstrate the intact ability to learn a novel motor skill in non-demented, medicated patients with Parkinson's disease and indicate confounding effects of motor control deficits on retention performance.

  3. Finger-Based Numerical Skills Link Fine Motor Skills to Numerical Development in Preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Suggate, Sebastian; Stoeger, Heidrun; Fischer, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies investigating the association between fine-motor skills (FMS) and mathematical skills have lacked specificity. In this study, we test whether an FMS link to numerical skills is due to the involvement of finger representations in early mathematics. We gave 81 pre-schoolers (mean age of 4 years, 9 months) a set of FMS measures and numerical tasks with and without a specific finger focus. Additionally, we used receptive vocabulary and chronological age as control measures. FMS linked more closely to finger-based than to nonfinger-based numerical skills even after accounting for the control variables. Moreover, the relationship between FMS and numerical skill was entirely mediated by finger-based numerical skills. We concluded that FMS are closely related to early numerical skill development through finger-based numerical counting that aids the acquisition of mathematical mental representations.

  4. Perceiving Affordances for Different Motor Skills

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Whitney G.; Chan, Gladys L. Y.; Vereijken, Beatrix; Adolph, Karen E.

    2013-01-01

    We examined several factors that affect people’s ability to perceive possibilities for action. In Experiment 1, 24 participants crossed expanses of various sizes in three conditions: leaping, a familiar, launching action system; arm-swinging on monkey bars, an unpracticed skill that uses the arms rather than the legs; and crawling on hands and knees, a disused skill that involves all four limbs. Before and after performing each action, participants gave verbal judgments about the largest gap they could cross. Participants scaled initial judgments to their actual abilities in all three conditions. But they considerably underestimated their abilities for leaping, a launching action, and for arm-swinging when it was performed as a launching action; judgments about crawling, a non-launching action, and arm-swinging when it was performed as a non-launching action were more accurate. Thus, launching actions appear to produce a deficit in perceiving affordances that is not ameliorated by familiarity with the action. However, after performing the actions, participants partially corrected for the deficiency and more accurately judged their abilities for launching actions—suggesting that even brief action experience facilitates the perception of affordances. In Experiment 2, we confirmed that the deficit was due to the launching nature of the leaping and arm-swinging actions in Experiment 1. We asked an additional 12 participants to cross expanses using two non-launching actions using the legs (stepping across an expanse) and the arms (reaching across an expanse). Participants were highly accurate when judging affordances for these actions, supporting launching as the cause of the underestimation reported in Experiment 1. PMID:23411672

  5. Short Term Motor-Skill Acquisition Improves with Size of Self-Controlled Virtual Hands

    PubMed Central

    Ossmy, Ori; Mukamel, Roy

    2017-01-01

    Visual feedback in general, and from the body in particular, is known to influence the performance of motor skills in humans. However, it is unclear how the acquisition of motor skills depends on specific visual feedback parameters such as the size of performing effector. Here, 21 healthy subjects physically trained to perform sequences of finger movements with their right hand. Through the use of 3D Virtual Reality devices, visual feedback during training consisted of virtual hands presented on the screen, tracking subject’s hand movements in real time. Importantly, the setup allowed us to manipulate the size of the displayed virtual hands across experimental conditions. We found that performance gains increase with the size of virtual hands. In contrast, when subjects trained by mere observation (i.e., in the absence of physical movement), manipulating the size of the virtual hand did not significantly affect subsequent performance gains. These results demonstrate that when it comes to short-term motor skill learning, the size of visual feedback matters. Furthermore, these results suggest that highest performance gains in individual subjects are achieved when the size of the virtual hand matches their real hand size. These results may have implications for optimizing motor training schemes. PMID:28056023

  6. Aerobic exercise enhances neural correlates of motor skill learning.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amaya M; Neva, Jason L; Staines, W Richard

    2016-03-15

    Repetitive, in-phase bimanual motor training tasks can expand the excitable cortical area of the trained muscles. Recent evidence suggests that an acute bout of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise can enhance the induction of rapid motor plasticity at the motor hotspot. However, these changes have not been investigated throughout the entire cortical representation. Furthermore, it is unclear how exercise-induced changes in excitability may relate to motor performance. We investigated whether aerobic exercise could enhance the neural correlates of motor learning. We hypothesized that the combination of exercise and training would increase the excitable cortical area to a greater extent than either exercise or training alone, and that the addition of exercise would enhance performance on a motor training task. 25 young, healthy, right-handed individuals were recruited and divided into two groups and three experimental conditions. The exercise group performed exercise alone (EX) and exercise followed by training (EXTR) while the training group performed training alone (TR). The combination of exercise and training increased excitability within the cortical map of the trained muscle to a greater extent than training alone. However, there was no difference in performance between the two groups. These results indicate that exercise may enhance the cortical adaptations to motor skill learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Why Do Fine Motor Skills Predict Mathematics? Construct Validity of the Design Copying Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murrah, William M.; Chen, Wei-Bing; Cameron, Claire E.

    2013-01-01

    Recent educational studies have found evidence that measures of fine motor skills are predictive of educational outcomes. However, the precise nature of fine motor skills has received little attention in these studies. With evidence mounting that fine motor skills are an important indicator of school readiness, investigating the nature of this…

  8. Key Principles of Open Motor-Skill Training for Peak Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Motor-skill training is an imperative element contributing to overall sport performance. In order to help coaches, athletes and practitioners to capture the characteristics of motor skills, sport scientists have divided motor skills into different categories, such as open versus closed, serial or discrete, outcome- or process-oriented, and…

  9. Practice Schedule and the Learning of Motor Skills in Children and Adults: Teaching Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zipp, Genevieve Pinto; Gentile, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding how motor skills are learned influences how one teaches effective motor skill attainment. Educators must ask, "Does repetitive practice of the same task make for better performance or does contextual variability (random practice) offer some benefit when learning motor skills?" Studies on the effects of Contextual Interference may…

  10. Key Principles of Open Motor-Skill Training for Peak Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Motor-skill training is an imperative element contributing to overall sport performance. In order to help coaches, athletes and practitioners to capture the characteristics of motor skills, sport scientists have divided motor skills into different categories, such as open versus closed, serial or discrete, outcome- or process-oriented, and…

  11. Development of Young Adults' Fine Motor Skills when Learning to Play Percussion Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gzibovskis, Talis; Marnauza, Mara

    2012-01-01

    When playing percussion instruments, the main activity is done with the help of a motion or motor skills; to perform it, developed fine motor skills are necessary: the speed and precision of fingers, hands and palms. The aim of the research was to study and test the development of young adults' fine motor skills while learning to play percussion…

  12. Development of Young Adults' Fine Motor Skills when Learning to Play Percussion Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gzibovskis, Talis; Marnauza, Mara

    2012-01-01

    When playing percussion instruments, the main activity is done with the help of a motion or motor skills; to perform it, developed fine motor skills are necessary: the speed and precision of fingers, hands and palms. The aim of the research was to study and test the development of young adults' fine motor skills while learning to play percussion…

  13. Practice Schedule and the Learning of Motor Skills in Children and Adults: Teaching Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zipp, Genevieve Pinto; Gentile, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding how motor skills are learned influences how one teaches effective motor skill attainment. Educators must ask, "Does repetitive practice of the same task make for better performance or does contextual variability (random practice) offer some benefit when learning motor skills?" Studies on the effects of Contextual Interference may…

  14. Visual-motor integration skills: accuracy of predicting reading.

    PubMed

    Santi, Kristi L; Francis, David J; Currie, Debra; Wang, Qianqian

    2015-02-01

    This article investigated the contribution of visual-motor integration (VMI) to reading ability when known predictors of later reading outcomes were also present in the data analysis. Participants included 778 first and second grade students from a large diverse urban district in Texas. The data were analyzed using multiple regression models with a forced entry of predictors for each regression model, and each model was run separately for each outcome. The results indicate that VMI drops out of the prediction models once more reading- and language-specific skills are introduced. Although VMI skills make a statistically significant contribution in some aspects of the regression model, the reduction in contribution reduces the predictive validity of VMI skills. Therefore, a VMI skill measure will not sufficiently determine if a child has a reading disability.

  15. High-intensity Interval Exercise Promotes Motor Cortex Disinhibition and Early Motor Skill Consolidation.

    PubMed

    Stavrinos, Ellen L; Coxon, James P

    2017-04-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) inhibition shapes motor cortex output, gates synaptic plasticity in the form of long-term potentiation, and plays an important role in motor learning. Remarkably, recent studies have shown that acute cardiovascular exercise can improve motor memory, but the cortical mechanisms are not completely understood. We investigated whether an acute bout of lower-limb high-intensity interval (HIT) exercise could promote motor memory formation in humans through changes in cortical inhibition within the hand region of the primary motor cortex. We used TMS to assess the input-output relationship, along with inhibition involving GABAA and GABAB receptors. Measures were obtained before and after a 20-min session of HIT cycling (exercise group) or rest (control group). We then had the same participants learn a new visuomotor skill and perform a retention test 5 hr later in the absence of sleep. No differences were found in corticomotor excitability or GABAB inhibition; however, synaptic GABAA inhibition was significantly reduced for the exercise group but not the control group. HIT exercise was found to enhance motor skill consolidation. These findings link modification of GABA to improved motor memory consolidation after HIT exercise and suggest that the beneficial effects of exercise on consolidation might not be dependent on sleep.

  16. Hemispheric asymmetry of ipsilateral motor cortex activation in motor skill learning.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tomotaka; Higashi, Toshio; Takagi, Mineko; Sugawara, Kenichi

    2013-09-11

    In this study, we investigated how ipsilateral motor cortex (M1) activation during unimanual hand movements and hemispheric asymmetry changed after motor skill learning. Eleven right-handed participants preformed a two-ball-rotation motor task with the right and the left hand, separately, in all experimental sessions. Before and after exercise sessions, the degree of ipsilateral M1 activation during brief execution of the motor task was measured as changes in the size of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) of the thenar and the first dorsal interosseous muscle of the nontask hand using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Before exercise, MEPs of the nontask hand were significantly facilitated on both sides during the motor task. After exercise, facilitation of MEPs of the nontask hand during the motor task was significantly reduced for the right hand (thenar: P=0.014, first dorsal interosseous: P=0.022) but not for the left hand. We conclude that ipsilateral M1 activation, associated with a complex motor task, is first symmetrical in both hemispheres. However, on exercise, ipsilateral activation is reduced only in left M1, indicating a stronger learning-dependent modification of motor networks within the left hemisphere.

  17. Reinforcement learning of motor skills with policy gradients.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jan; Schaal, Stefan

    2008-05-01

    Autonomous learning is one of the hallmarks of human and animal behavior, and understanding the principles of learning will be crucial in order to achieve true autonomy in advanced machines like humanoid robots. In this paper, we examine learning of complex motor skills with human-like limbs. While supervised learning can offer useful tools for bootstrapping behavior, e.g., by learning from demonstration, it is only reinforcement learning that offers a general approach to the final trial-and-error improvement that is needed by each individual acquiring a skill. Neither neurobiological nor machine learning studies have, so far, offered compelling results on how reinforcement learning can be scaled to the high-dimensional continuous state and action spaces of humans or humanoids. Here, we combine two recent research developments on learning motor control in order to achieve this scaling. First, we interpret the idea of modular motor control by means of motor primitives as a suitable way to generate parameterized control policies for reinforcement learning. Second, we combine motor primitives with the theory of stochastic policy gradient learning, which currently seems to be the only feasible framework for reinforcement learning for humanoids. We evaluate different policy gradient methods with a focus on their applicability to parameterized motor primitives. We compare these algorithms in the context of motor primitive learning, and show that our most modern algorithm, the Episodic Natural Actor-Critic outperforms previous algorithms by at least an order of magnitude. We demonstrate the efficiency of this reinforcement learning method in the application of learning to hit a baseball with an anthropomorphic robot arm.

  18. Motor skills and calibrated autism severity in young children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Megan; Lord, Catherine; Ulrich, Dale A

    2014-04-01

    In addition to the core characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), motor skill deficits are present, persistent, and pervasive across age. Although motor skill deficits have been indicated in young children with autism, they have not been included in the primary discussion of early intervention content. One hundred fifty-nine young children with a confirmed diagnosis of ASD (n = 110), PDD-NOS (n = 26), and non-ASD (n = 23) between the ages of 14-33 months participated in this study.1 The univariate general linear model tested the relationship of fine and gross motor skills and social communicative skills (using calibrated autism severity scores). Fine motor and gross motor skills significantly predicted calibrated autism severity (p < .05). Children with weaker motor skills have greater social communicative skill deficits. Future directions and the role of motor skills in early intervention are discussed.

  19. Skill acquisition via motor imagery relies on both motor and perceptual learning.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Tony G J; Kraeutner, Sarah N; Solomon, Jack P; Westwood, David A; Boe, Shaun G

    2016-04-01

    Motor imagery (MI), the mental rehearsal of movement, is an effective means for acquiring a novel skill, even in the absence of physical practice (PP). The nature of this learning, be it perceptual, motor, or both, is not well understood. Understanding the mechanisms underlying MI-based skill acquisition has implications for its use in numerous disciplines, including informing best practices regarding its use. Here we used an implicit sequence learning (ISL) task to probe whether MI-based skill acquisition can be attributed to perceptual or motor learning. Participants (n = 60) randomized to 4 groups were trained through MI or PP, and were then tested in either perceptual (altering the sensory cue) or motor (switching the hand) transfer conditions. Control participants (n = 42) that did not perform a transfer condition were utilized from previous work. Learning was quantified through effect sizes for reaction time (RT) differences between implicit and random sequences. Generally, PP-based training led to lower RTs compared with MI-based training for implicit and random sequences. All groups demonstrated learning (p < .05), the magnitude of which was reduced by transfer conditions relative to controls. For MI-based training perceptual transfer disrupted performance more than for PP. Motor transfer disrupted performance equally for MI- and PP-based training. Our results suggest that MI-based training relies on both perceptual and motor learning, while PP-based training relies more on motor processes. These results reveal details regarding the mechanisms underlying MI, and inform its use as a modality for skill acquisition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. The Computerized Perceptual Motor Skills Assessment: A new visual perceptual motor skills evaluation tool for children in early elementary grades.

    PubMed

    Howe, Tsu-Hsin; Chen, Hao-Ling; Lee, Candy Chieh; Chen, Ying-Dar; Wang, Tien-Ni

    2017-10-01

    Visual perceptual motor skills have been proposed as underlying courses of handwriting difficulties. However, there is no evaluation tool currently available to assess these skills comprehensively and to serve as a sensitive measure. The purpose of this study was to validate the Computerized Perceptual Motor Skills Assessment (CPMSA), a newly developed evaluation tool for children in early elementary grades. Its test-retest reliability, concurrent validity, discriminant validity, and responsiveness were examined in 43 typically developing children and 26 children with handwriting difficulty. The CPMSA demonstrated excellent reliability across all subtests with intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs)≥0.80. Significant moderate correlations between the domains of the CPMSA and corresponding gold standards including Beery VMI, the TVPS-3, and the eye-hand coordination subtest of the DTVP-2 demonstrated good concurrent validity. In addition, the CPMSA showed evidence of discriminant validity in samples of children with and without handwriting difficulty. This article provides evidence in support of the CPMSA. The CPMSA is a reliable, valid, and promising measure of visual perceptual motor skills for children in early elementary grades. Directions for future study and improvements to the assessment are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Perspectives on Learning Styles in Motor and Sport Skills

    PubMed Central

    Fuelscher, Ian Tobias; Ball, Kevin; MacMahon, Clare

    2011-01-01

    We present the perspective that while coaches and instructors commonly adapt learning styles to maximize training outcomes, there has been little to no empirical support for the efficacy of this practice. Learning styles is a learner’s preferred mode (e.g., visual, verbal) of taking in and processing new information. Although it is a relevant topic for the learning of motor and sport skills, few studies have used an appropriate methodology to test the effectiveness of learning style-based instruction. We highlight the need for a learning style assessment tool specific to motor skills and call for a test of the learning style hypothesis, the claim that learners will benefit from instruction that is tailored to their individual learning style. To this end, we suggest methodological guidelines. PMID:22416240

  2. Perspectives on learning styles in motor and sport skills.

    PubMed

    Fuelscher, Ian Tobias; Ball, Kevin; Macmahon, Clare

    2012-01-01

    We present the perspective that while coaches and instructors commonly adapt learning styles to maximize training outcomes, there has been little to no empirical support for the efficacy of this practice. Learning styles is a learner's preferred mode (e.g., visual, verbal) of taking in and processing new information. Although it is a relevant topic for the learning of motor and sport skills, few studies have used an appropriate methodology to test the effectiveness of learning style-based instruction. We highlight the need for a learning style assessment tool specific to motor skills and call for a test of the learning style hypothesis, the claim that learners will benefit from instruction that is tailored to their individual learning style. To this end, we suggest methodological guidelines.

  3. Training motor skills of children with low vision.

    PubMed

    Aki, Esra; Atasavun, Songül; Turan, Ayşe; Kayihan, Hülya

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to study the effectiveness of a motor training program for visually impaired children. 40 children with low vision took part in the study. 20 children (10 boys, 10 girls), mean age 8:9 yr.:mo. (SD= 1:6), were in a Training group and 20 children (10 boys, 10 girls), mean age 8:10 yr.:mo. (SD= 1:65), were in a Home Training group. The Snellen Chart and Bruininks Oseretsky Motor Proficiency Test were used for assessment. Training program included training balance, coordination, strength, visuomotor control, and finger dexterity. Significant differences were found on all skills after training in the Training group, but no significant differences were observed, other than visual motor control, in the Home Training group. Children with low vision have some useable vision and learning to use the available vision depends on proper rehabilitation.

  4. Skilled forelimb movements and internal copy motor circuits.

    PubMed

    Azim, Eiman; Alstermark, Bror

    2015-08-01

    Mammalian skilled forelimb movements are remarkable in their precision, a feature that emerges from the continuous adjustment of motor output. Here we discuss recent progress in bridging the gap between theory and neural implementation in understanding the basis of forelimb motor refinement. One influential theory is that feedback from internal copy motor pathways enables fast prediction, through a forward model of the limb, an idea supported by behavioral studies that have explored how forelimb movements are corrected online and can adapt to changing conditions. In parallel, neural substrates of forelimb internal copy pathways are coming into clearer focus, in part through the use of genetically tractable animal models to isolate spinal and cerebellar circuits and explore their contributions to movement.

  5. Robot Guided 'Pen Skill' Training in Children with Motor Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Shire, Katy A; Hill, Liam J B; Snapp-Childs, Winona; Bingham, Geoffrey P; Kountouriotis, Georgios K; Barber, Sally; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Motor deficits are linked to a range of negative physical, social and academic consequences. Haptic robotic interventions, based on the principles of sensorimotor learning, have been shown previously to help children with motor problems learn new movements. We therefore examined whether the training benefits of a robotic system would generalise to a standardised test of 'pen-skills', assessed using objective kinematic measures [via the Clinical Kinematic Assessment Tool, CKAT]. A counterbalanced, cross-over design was used in a group of 51 children (37 male, aged 5-11 years) with manual control difficulties. Improved performance on a novel task using the robotic device could be attributed to the intervention but there was no evidence of generalisation to any of the CKAT tasks. The robotic system appears to have the potential to support motor learning, with the technology affording numerous advantages. However, the training regime may need to target particular manual skills (e.g. letter formation) in order to obtain clinically significant improvements in specific skills such as handwriting.

  6. Effects of motor skill learning on reciprocal inhibition.

    PubMed

    Floeter, Mary Kay; Danielian, Laura E; Kim, Yong Kyun

    2013-01-01

    Learning a skilled movement is associated with more efficient use of subcortical motor circuits which can coordinate features of the movements such as the timing and patterns of activation of different muscles. Learning a motor skill could strengthen spinal interneuron circuits that facilitate the movement. We hypothesized that learning a simple, alternating movement would produce changes in spinal circuits that mediate reciprocal inhibition between antagonist muscles. Sixteen healthy adult subjects were trained to perform a wrist flexion and extension task to control the movement of a cursor between targets appearing on a computer display. The goal of the task was to hit the targets. Subjects practiced for 15 minutes daily until reaching the acquisition criterion. Surface EMG recordings from wrist flexor and extensor muscles showed reduced co-contraction during acquisition of the task. Compared to the initial session, in the final session short-latency reciprocal inhibition was enhanced during the late-extension phase in the final session. This phase-dependent increase in short-latency reciprocal inhibition is likely to facilitate switching activation between wrist antagonistic muscles. Learning a motor skill can produce alterations in spinal reflex circuits that facilitate the desired movement.

  7. Motor imagery training enhances motor skill in children with DCD: A replication study.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Peter H; Adams, Imke L J; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Thomas, Patrick; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien; Steenbergen, Bert

    2016-10-01

    Children with impaired motor coordination (or DCD) have difficulty using motor imagery. We have suggested that this difficulty is explained by the internal modeling deficit (IMD) hypothesis of DCD. Our previous training study lent support for this hypothesis by showing that a computerized imagery training protocol (involving action observation, and mental- and overt-rehearsal) was equally effective to perceptual-motor therapy (PMT) in promoting motor skill acquisition. The study presented here was designed to replicate and extend this finding, targeting a select group of children with moderate-to-severe DCD. All 36 children with DCD who participated were referred to the study and scored below the 10th percentile for their age on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). Using a randomized control trial, the referred children were assigned randomly to one of three groups using a blocked procedure: imagery training, perceptual-motor training (PMT), and wait-list control. Motor proficiency was measured using the MABC, pre and post-training. Individual training consisted of 60-min sessions, conducted once a week for 5 weeks. Results showed that the imagery protocol was equally effective as PMT in promoting motor skill acquisition, with moderate-to-large effect sizes. Individual differences showed that the majority of children in the two intervention groups improved their motor performance significantly. Overall, these results further support the use of motor imagery protocols in the treatment of DCD, and tentative support for the IMD hypothesis. Developmental and dose issues in the implementation of imagery-based intervention are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Coordination Motor Skills of Military Pilots Subjected to Survival Training.

    PubMed

    Tomczak, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    Survival training of military pilots in the Polish Army gains significance because polish pilots have taken part in more and more military missions. Prolonged exercise of moderate intensity with restricted sleep or sleep deprivation is known to deteriorate performance. The aim of the study was thus to determine the effects of a strenuous 36-hour exercise with restricted sleep on selected motor coordination and psychomotor indices. Thirteen military pilots aged 30-56 years were examined twice: pretraining and posttraining. The following tests were applied: running motor adjustment (15-m sprint, 3 × 5-m shuttle run, 15-m slalom, and 15-m squat), divided attention, dynamic body balance, handgrip strength differentiation. Survival training resulted in significant decreases in maximum handgrip strength (from 672 to 630 N), corrected 50% max handgrip (from 427 to 367 N), error 50% max (from 26 to 17%), 15-m sprint (from 5.01 to 4.64 m·s), and 15-m squat (2.20 to 1.98 m·s). The training improvements took place in divided attention test (from 48.2 to 57.2%). The survival training applied to pilots only moderately affected some of their motor adjustment skills, the divided attention, and dynamic body balance remaining unaffected or even improved. Further studies aimed at designing a set of tests for coordination motor skills and of soldiers' capacity to fight for survival under conditions of isolation are needed.

  9. Cognitive processing and motor skill learning in motor-handicapped teenagers: effects of learning method.

    PubMed

    Deviterne, Dominique; Gauchard, Gerome C; Lavisse, Dominique; Perrin, Philippe P

    2007-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the efficiency of a motor skill learning method intended to promote learning course personalization through an increase in cognitive processing deployment in motor-handicapped persons. Thirty-three secondary school students volunteered to participate in an archery motor skill learning session, 11 motor-handicapped (MH(1)) and 11 able-bodied (AB) teenagers following a standard learning method, and 11 motor-handicapped teenagers following a cognitive enriched learning method (MH(2)) based on the use of an individually written and illustrated document. The results showed that MH(1) displayed lower performances than AB, both in terms of the mental representations of the movements expected and performed and of efficiency of the movement. On the other hand, MH(2) performances were higher than MH(1) for all these parameters, and similar to those of AB at the end of the learning session. Personalization of the learning course allowed optimization of the learning potential in motor-handicapped teenagers to resolve the difficulties inherent to their handicap.

  10. Resting state interhemispheric motor connectivity and white matter integrity correlate with motor impairment in chronic stroke.

    PubMed

    Chen, Joyce L; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    Functional and structural reorganization in the brain occurs after stroke. The ability to predict motor outcomes may depend on patterns of brain functional and structural connectivity. We tested the hypothesis that alterations in motor transcallosal and corticospinal connections correlate with motor impairment in patients with chronic stroke. Eleven ischemic stroke patients underwent the Upper Extremity Fugl-Meyer (UE-FM) assessment, resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Twelve healthy control subjects underwent DTI. We assessed the temporal coupling in neural activity between interhemispheric motor cortex, and white matter integrity by means of fractional anisotropy (FA), in the transcallosal motor fibers and corticospinal tract. Partial correlation analyses were performed to determine whether these connectivity measures correlate with Upper UE-FM scores. Patients compared to controls had reduced FA in common voxels of transcallosal motor and ipsilesional corticospinal fibers. Within the patient group those with higher interhemispheric motor cortex connectivity and higher FA in the transcallosal motor fibers were less impaired. The results show that markers of functional and structural motor cortex connectivity correlate with motor impairment in the chronic stage of stroke.

  11. Simulating a Skilled Typist: A Study of Skilled Cognitive Motor Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumelhart, David E.; Norman, Donald A.

    A project studied the problem of control of skilled motor movements by concentrating on typing. The fundamental phenomena of typing, which fall into three categories, were reviewed: timing of key strokes, pattern of errors, and general organization of typing. A model for the simulation of these phenomena was developed, based on an…

  12. Cognitive, perceptual, and motor abilities in skilled basketball performance.

    PubMed

    Kioumourtzoglou, E; Derri, V; Tzetzis, G; Theodorakis, Y

    1998-06-01

    The differences among athletes of differing skill should assist successful identification and selection of the best athletes in a specific sport. For the purpose of this study, a laboratory study was conducted with a group of 13 men on the elite male national team of basketball players, 22 to 23 years of age, and a control group of 15 men of equal age (physical education class) to assess differences in their scores on cognitive skills (memory-retention, memory-grouping analytic ability), perceptual skills (speed of perception, prediction, selective attention, response selection), and motor skills (dynamic balance, whole body coordination, wrist-finger dexterity, rhythmic ability). Analysis showed that elite male basketball players scored higher on hand coordination and lower on dynamic balance given their anthropometric measurements. Elite players were better on memory-retention, selective attention, and on prediction measures than the control group. The above skills are important in basketball performance. Researchers may examine whether other factors contribute more in the development of perceptual and cognitive skills.

  13. Are Motor Skills and Motor Inhibitions Impaired in Tourette Syndrome? A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kalsi, Navkiran; Tambelli, Renata; Aceto, Paola; Lai, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental motor disorder described as an inability to inhibit unwanted motor movements. This article reviews research on the execution and inhibition of voluntary motor movements in TS. Over last two decades, a number of studies have addressed the structural and functional deficits associated with this syndrome. Only a limited number of studies have assessed the motor skills in these patients but have failed to reach any conclusive outcome. In the domain of response inhibition also, studies have reported arguable impairments in these patients. It is suggested that these conflicting results can be attributed to co-occurring comorbid conditions, the constraints posed by variable age groups, lack of control measures, and lack of specificity of domains addressed. This review will describe a way in which future research can be directed to increase our knowledge of this otherwise complex spectrum of disorders. PMID:26279630

  14. Central neuronal motor behaviour in skilled and less skilled novices - Approaching sports-specific movement techniques.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Tobias; Kato, Kouki; Schneider, Stefan; Türk, Stefan; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2017-02-14

    Research on motor behavioural processes preceding voluntary movements often refers to analysing the readiness potential (RP). For this, decades of studies used laboratory setups with controlled sports-related actions. Further, recent applied approaches focus on athlete-non-athlete comparisons, omitting possible effects of training history on RP. However, RP preceding real sport-specific movements in accordance to skill acquisition remains to be elucidated. Therefore, after familiarization 16 right-handed males with no experience in archery volunteered to perform repeated sports-specific movements, i.e. 40 arrow-releasing shots at 60s rest on a 15m distant standard target. Continuous, synchronised EEG and right limb EMG recordings during arrow-releasing served to detect movement onsets for RP analyses over distinct cortical motor areas. Based on attained scores on target, archery novices were, a posteriori, subdivided into a skilled and less skilled group. EMG results for mean values revealed no significant changes (all p>0.05), whereas RP amplitudes and onsets differed between groups but not between motor areas. Arrow-releasing preceded larger RP amplitudes (p<0.05) and later RP onsets (p<0.05) in skilled compared to less skilled novices. We suggest this to reflect attentional orienting and greater effort that accompanies central neuronal preparatory states of a sports-specific movement.

  15. Motor development in individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Strength, targeting, and fine motor skill

    PubMed Central

    Collaer, Marcia L.; Brook, Charles; Conway, Gerard S.; Hindmarsh, Peter C.; Hines, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    Summary This study investigated early androgen influence on the development of human motor and visuomotor characteristics. Participants, ages 12 to 45 years, were individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), a disorder causing increased adrenal androgen production before birth (40 females, 29 males) and their unaffected relatives (29 females, 30 males). We investigated grip strength and visuomotor targeting tasks on which males generally outperform females, and fine motor pegboard tasks on which females generally outperform males. Physical characteristics (height and weight) were measured to explore whether body parameters could explain differences in motor skills. Females with CAH were stronger and showed better targeting than unaffected females and showed reduced fine visuomotor skill on one pegboard measure, with no difference on the other. Males with CAH were weaker than unaffected males in grip strength but did not differ on the targeting or pegboard measures. Correction for body size could not explain the findings for females, but suggests that the reduced strength of males with CAH may relate to their smaller stature. Further, the targeting advantage in females with CAH persisted following adjustment for their greater strength. Results in females support the hypothesis that androgen may masculinize, or promote, certain motor characteristics at which males excel, and contribute to defeminization of certain fine motor characteristics at which females excel. Thus, these data suggest that organizational effects of androgens on behavior during prenatal life may extend to motor characteristics and may contribute to general sex differences in motor-related behaviors; however, alternative explanations based on activational influences of androgen or altered experiential factors cannot be excluded without further study. KEYWORDS: congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), androgen, sex, motor, strength, targeting PMID:18938041

  16. Interactions Among Learning Stage, Retention, and Primary Motor Cortex Excitability in Motor Skill Learning.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Masato; Kubota, Shinji; Tanabe, Shigeo; Koizume, Yoshiki; Funase, Kozo

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that primary motor cortex (M1) excitability is modulated by motor skill learning and that the M1 plays a crucial role in motor memory. However, the following questions remain: (1) At what stage do changes in M1 excitability occur? (2) Are learning-induced changes in leg M1 excitability associated with motor memory? Here, we did two experiments to answer these questions. In experiment 1, subjects learned a visuomotor tracking task over two consecutive days. Before and after the task in Day 1, we recorded input-output curves of the motor evoked potentials (I-O curve) produced in the tibialis anterior muscle by transcranial magnetic stimulation. We found that the changes in M1 excitability were affected by learning stage. In addition, the changes in M1 excitability in Day 1 were correlated with the retention. In experiment 2, we recorded I-O curves before learning, after the fast-learning stage, and after learning. We found no changes in M1 excitability immediately after the fast-learning stage. Furthermore, a significant relationship between the length of slow-learning stage and the changes in M1 excitability was detected. Previous studies have suggested that optimal motor commands are repeatedly used during the slow-learning stage. Therefore, present results indicate that changes in M1 excitability occur during the slow-learning stage and that such changes are proportional to motor skill retention because use-dependent plasticity occur by repetitive use of same motor commands during the slow-learning stage. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Field-Based Testing Protocol for Assessing Gross Motor Skills in Preschool Children: The CHAMPS Motor Skills Protocol (CMSP)

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Harriet G.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Jeter, Chevy; Jones, Shaverra; Pate, Russell R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop a valid and reliable tool for use in assessing motor skills in preschool children in field based settings. The development of the CHAMPS (Children’s Activity and Movement in Preschool Study) Motor Skills Protocol (CMSP) included evidence of its reliability and validity for use in field-based environments as part of large epidemiological studies. Following pilot work, 297 children (3-5 years old) from 22 preschools were tested using the final version of the CMSP and the TGMD-2. Reliability of the CMSP and interobserver reliability were determined using intraclass correlation procedures (ICC; ANOVA). Concurrent validity was assessed using Pearson correlation coefficients to compare the CMSP to the original Test of Gross Motor Development (2nd Edition) (TGMD-2). Results indicated that test reliability, interobserver reliability and validity coefficients were all high, generally above R/r = 0.90. Significant age differences were found. Outcomes indicate that the CMSP is an appropriate tool for assessing motor development of 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children in field-based settings that are consistent with large-scale trials. PMID:21532999

  18. Fine-motor skills testing and prediction of endovascular performance.

    PubMed

    Bech, Bo; Lönn, Lars; Schroeder, Torben V; Ringsted, Charlotte

    2013-12-01

    Performing endovascular procedures requires good control of fine-motor digital movements and hand-eye coordination. Objective assessment of such skills is difficult. Trainees acquire control of catheter/wire movements at various paces. However, little is known to what extent talent plays for novice candidates at entry to practice. To study the association between performance in a novel aptitude test of fine-motor skills and performance in simulated procedures. The test was based on manual course-tracking using a proprietary hand-operated roller-bar device coupled to a personal computer with monitor view rotation. A total of 40 test repetitions were conducted separately with each hand. Test scores were correlated with simulator performance. Group A (n = 14), clinicians with various levels of endovascular experience, performed a simulated procedure of contralateral iliac artery stenting. Group B (n = 19), medical students, performed 10 repetitions of crossing a challenging aortic bifurcation in a simulator. The test score differed markedly between the individuals in both groups, in particular with the non-dominant hand. Group A: the test score with the non-dominant hand correlated significantly with simulator performance assessed with the global rating scale SAVE (R = -0.69, P = 0.007). There was no association observed from performances with the dominant hand. Group B: there was no significant association between the test score and endovascular skills acquisition neither with the dominant nor with the non-dominant hand. Clinicians with increasing levels of endovascular technical experience had developed good fine-motor control of the non-dominant hand, in particular, that was associated with good procedural performance in the simulator. The aptitude test did not predict endovascular skills acquisition among medical students, thus, cannot be suggested for selection of novice candidates. Procedural experience and practice probably supplant the influence of innate

  19. A Field-Based Testing Protocol for Assessing Gross Motor Skills in Preschool Children: The Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Harriet G.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Jeter, Chevy; Jones, Shaverra; Pate, Russell R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable tool for use in assessing motor skills in preschool children in field-based settings. The development of the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol included evidence of its reliability and validity for use in field-based environments as part of large…

  20. A Field-Based Testing Protocol for Assessing Gross Motor Skills in Preschool Children: The Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Harriet G.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Jeter, Chevy; Jones, Shaverra; Pate, Russell R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable tool for use in assessing motor skills in preschool children in field-based settings. The development of the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol included evidence of its reliability and validity for use in field-based environments as part of large…

  1. Neonatal Stroke Causes Poor Midline Motor Behaviors and Poor Fine and Gross Motor Skills during Early Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chao-Ying; Lo, Warren D.; Heathcock, Jill C.

    2013-01-01

    Upper extremity movements, midline behaviors, fine, and gross motor skills are frequently impaired in hemiparesis and cerebral palsy. We investigated midline toy exploration and fine and gross motor skills in infants at risk for hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Eight infants with neonatal stroke (NS) and thirteen infants with typical development (TD)…

  2. Neonatal Stroke Causes Poor Midline Motor Behaviors and Poor Fine and Gross Motor Skills during Early Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chao-Ying; Lo, Warren D.; Heathcock, Jill C.

    2013-01-01

    Upper extremity movements, midline behaviors, fine, and gross motor skills are frequently impaired in hemiparesis and cerebral palsy. We investigated midline toy exploration and fine and gross motor skills in infants at risk for hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Eight infants with neonatal stroke (NS) and thirteen infants with typical development (TD)…

  3. Managing Personal Matters. Successful Living Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This module on managing personal matters is one of a series of modules designed to help teach students to become more self-sufficient in their personal and professional lives. This module provides teacher and student materials that are planned to help students maintain personal records, obtain insurance, and deal with funerals and wills. Six units…

  4. The relationship of motor skills and social communicative skills in school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Megan; Lord, Catherine; Ulrich, Dale A

    2013-07-01

    Motor skill deficits are present and persist in school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; Staples & Reid, 2010). Yet the focus of intervention is on core impairments, which are part of the diagnostic criteria for ASD, deficits in social communication skills. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the functional motor skills, of 6- to 15-year-old children with high-functioning ASD, predict success in standardized social communicative skills. It is hypothesized that children with better motor skills will have better social communicative skills. A total of 35 children with ASD between the ages of 6-15 years participated in this study. The univariate GLM (general linear model) tested the relationship of motor skills on social communicative skills holding constant age, IQ, ethnicity, gender, and clinical ASD diagnosis. Object-control motor skills significantly predicted calibrated ASD severity (p < .05). Children with weaker motor skills have greater social communicative skill deficits. How this relationship exists behaviorally, needs to be explored further.

  5. Motor skills in kindergarten: Internal structure, cognitive correlates and relationships to background variables.

    PubMed

    Oberer, Nicole; Gashaj, Venera; Roebers, Claudia M

    2017-04-01

    The present study aimed to contribute to the discussion about the relation between motor coordination and executive functions in preschool children. Specifically, the relation between gross and fine motor skills and executive functions as well as the relation to possible background variables (SES, physical activity) were investigated. Based on the data of N=156 kindergarten children the internal structure of motor skills was investigated and confirmed the theoretically assumed subdivision of gross and fine motor skills. Both, gross and fine motor skills correlated significantly with executive functions, whereas the background variables seemed to have no significant impact on the executive functions and motor skills. Higher order control processes are discussed as an explanation of the relation between executive functions and motor skills.

  6. Supporting Children with Motor Skills Difficulties: An Initial Evaluation of the Manchester Motor Skills Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Children with motor difficulties are a very varied group. In order to target interventions more effectively researchers have attempted to identify specific sub-groups; however, attempts to identify sub-groups and provide interventions accordingly have met with limited success. Currently interventions can be classified into two main types, namely,…

  7. Improving a Bimanual Motor Skill Through Unimanual Training.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Takuji; Nozaki, Daichi

    2016-01-01

    When we learn a bimanual motor skill (e.g., rowing a boat), we often break it down into unimanual practices (e.g., a rowing drill with the left or right arm). Such unimanual practice is thought to be useful for learning bimanual motor skills efficiently because the learner can concentrate on learning to perform a simpler component. However, it is not so straightforward to assume that unimanual training (UT) improves bimanual performance. We have previously demonstrated that motor memories for reaching movements consist of three different parts: unimanual-specific, bimanual-specific, and overlapping parts. According to this scheme, UT appears to be less effective, as its training effect is only partially transferred to the same limb for bimanual movement. In the present study, counter-intuitively, we demonstrate that, even after the bimanual skill is almost fully learned by means of bimanual training (BT), additional UT could further improve bimanual skill. We hypothesized that this effect occurs because UT increases the memory content in the overlapping part, which might contribute to an increase in the memory for bimanual movement. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether the UT performed after sufficient BT could improve the bimanual performance. Participants practiced performing bimanual reaching movements (BM) in the presence of a novel force-field imposed only on their left arm. As an index for the motor performance, we used the error-clamp method (i.e., after-effect of the left arm) to evaluate the force output to compensate for the force-field during the reaching movement. After sufficient BT, the training effect reached a plateau. However, UT performed subsequently improved the bimanual performance significantly. In contrast, when the same amount of BT was continued, the bimanual performance remained unchanged, highlighting the beneficial effect of UT on bimanual performance. Considering memory structure, we also expected that BT could improve unimanual

  8. Improving a Bimanual Motor Skill Through Unimanual Training

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Takuji; Nozaki, Daichi

    2016-01-01

    When we learn a bimanual motor skill (e.g., rowing a boat), we often break it down into unimanual practices (e.g., a rowing drill with the left or right arm). Such unimanual practice is thought to be useful for learning bimanual motor skills efficiently because the learner can concentrate on learning to perform a simpler component. However, it is not so straightforward to assume that unimanual training (UT) improves bimanual performance. We have previously demonstrated that motor memories for reaching movements consist of three different parts: unimanual-specific, bimanual-specific, and overlapping parts. According to this scheme, UT appears to be less effective, as its training effect is only partially transferred to the same limb for bimanual movement. In the present study, counter-intuitively, we demonstrate that, even after the bimanual skill is almost fully learned by means of bimanual training (BT), additional UT could further improve bimanual skill. We hypothesized that this effect occurs because UT increases the memory content in the overlapping part, which might contribute to an increase in the memory for bimanual movement. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether the UT performed after sufficient BT could improve the bimanual performance. Participants practiced performing bimanual reaching movements (BM) in the presence of a novel force-field imposed only on their left arm. As an index for the motor performance, we used the error-clamp method (i.e., after-effect of the left arm) to evaluate the force output to compensate for the force-field during the reaching movement. After sufficient BT, the training effect reached a plateau. However, UT performed subsequently improved the bimanual performance significantly. In contrast, when the same amount of BT was continued, the bimanual performance remained unchanged, highlighting the beneficial effect of UT on bimanual performance. Considering memory structure, we also expected that BT could improve unimanual

  9. Children with low motor ability have lower visual-motor integration ability but unaffected perceptual skills.

    PubMed

    Bonifacci, Paola

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine perceptual, visual-motor abilities and intellectual skills in children with low, average and above average motor abilities. The participants were 144 children (aged 6-10 years) attending elementary school. Three groups of children were identified on the basis of their performance at the TGMD (Test of Gross Motor Development; [Ulrich, D.A. (1985). TGMD, Test of Gross Motor Development. Austin, Texas: PRO-ED. Edizione Italiana a cura di D. Ianes, TEST TGM. Test di valutazione delle abilita grosso-motorie. 1994, Trento: Edizioni Centro Studi Erickson]). Each child received an intelligence test (K-BIT; [Kaufman, A.S., & Kaufman, N.L. (1990). K-BIT. Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service]) and was evaluated for perceptual and visual-motor integration abilities (DTVP; [Hammill, D.D., Pearson, N.A., & Voress, J.K. (1993). Developmental Test of Visual Perception (2nd ed.). Austin, Texas: PRO-ED. Edizione Italiana a cura di D. Ianes, TEST TPV. Test di percezione visiva e integrazione visuo-motoria. Trento: Edizioni Centro Studi Erickson]). Results highlight a significant difference in visual-motor integration between children with high and low gross-motor abilities, in the absence of significant differences in perceptual skills or intellectual ability. The findings are discussed with reference to the concept of atypical brain development [Gilger, J.W., & Kaplan, B.J. (2001). Atypical brain development: A conceptual framework for understanding developmental learning disabilities. Developmental Neuropsychology, 20, 465].

  10. Motor development in individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: strength, targeting, and fine motor skill.

    PubMed

    Collaer, Marcia L; Brook, Charles G D; Conway, Gerard S; Hindmarsh, Peter C; Hines, Melissa

    2009-02-01

    This study investigated early androgen influence on the development of human motor and visuomotor characteristics. Participants, ages 12-45 years, were individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), a disorder causing increased adrenal androgen production before birth (40 females, 29 males) and their unaffected relatives (29 females, 30 males). We investigated grip strength and visuomotor targeting tasks on which males generally outperform females, and fine motor pegboard tasks on which females generally outperform males. Physical characteristics (height and weight) were measured to explore whether body parameters could explain differences in motor skills. Females with CAH were stronger and showed better targeting than unaffected females and showed reduced fine visuomotor skill on one pegboard measure, with no difference on the other. Males with CAH were weaker than unaffected males in grip strength but did not differ on the targeting or pegboard measures. Correction for body size could not explain the findings for females, but suggests that the reduced strength of males with CAH may relate to their smaller stature. Further, the targeting advantage in females with CAH persisted following adjustment for their greater strength. Results in females support the hypothesis that androgen may masculinize, or promote, certain motor characteristics at which males excel, and contribute to defeminization of certain fine motor characteristics at which females excel. Thus, these data suggest that organizational effects of androgens on behavior during prenatal life may extend to motor characteristics and may contribute to general sex differences in motor-related behaviors; however, alternative explanations based on activational influences of androgen or altered experiential factors cannot be excluded without further study.

  11. Inter-individual differences in audio-motor learning of piano melodies and white matter fiber tract architecture.

    PubMed

    Engel, Annerose; Hijmans, Brenda S; Cerliani, Leonardo; Bangert, Marc; Nanetti, Luca; Keller, Peter E; Keysers, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Humans vary substantially in their ability to learn new motor skills. Here, we examined inter-individual differences in learning to play the piano, with the goal of identifying relations to structural properties of white matter fiber tracts relevant to audio-motor learning. Non-musicians (n = 18) learned to perform three short melodies on a piano keyboard in a pure audio-motor training condition (vision of their own fingers was occluded). Initial learning times ranged from 17 to 120 min (mean ± SD: 62 ± 29 min). Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was used to derive the fractional anisotropy (FA), an index of white matter microstructural arrangement. A correlation analysis revealed that higher FA values were associated with faster learning of piano melodies. These effects were observed in the bilateral corticospinal tracts, bundles of axons relevant for the execution of voluntary movements, and the right superior longitudinal fasciculus, a tract important for audio-motor transformations. These results suggest that the speed with which novel complex audio-motor skills can be acquired may be determined by variability in structural properties of white matter fiber tracts connecting brain areas functionally relevant for audio-motor learning. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Responsiveness of the Test of Basic Motor Skills of Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Heuvel, Marieke E.; de Jong, Inge; Lauteslager, Peter E. M.; Volman, M. J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the responsiveness of the Test of Basic Motor Skills for Children with Down Syndrome (BMS). Forty-one children with Down Syndrome, 3 to 36 months of age, participated in the study. Gross motor skills were assessed three times using the BMS and the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) before and after a baseline…

  13. The Relationship between Gross Motor Skills and Academic Achievement in Children with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor skills and academic performance in reading,…

  14. Cognitive and Developmental Influences in Visual-Motor Integration Skills in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Scott L.; Englund, Julia A.; Carboni, Jessica A.; Brooks, Janell H.

    2011-01-01

    Measures of visual-motor integration skills continue to be widely used in psychological assessments with children. However, the construct validity of many visual-motor integration measures remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the relative contributions of maturation and cognitive skills to the development of visual-motor integration…

  15. Cognitive and Developmental Influences in Visual-Motor Integration Skills in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Scott L.; Englund, Julia A.; Carboni, Jessica A.; Brooks, Janell H.

    2011-01-01

    Measures of visual-motor integration skills continue to be widely used in psychological assessments with children. However, the construct validity of many visual-motor integration measures remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the relative contributions of maturation and cognitive skills to the development of visual-motor integration…

  16. Responsiveness of the Test of Basic Motor Skills of Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Heuvel, Marieke E.; de Jong, Inge; Lauteslager, Peter E. M.; Volman, M. J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the responsiveness of the Test of Basic Motor Skills for Children with Down Syndrome (BMS). Forty-one children with Down Syndrome, 3 to 36 months of age, participated in the study. Gross motor skills were assessed three times using the BMS and the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) before and after a baseline…

  17. Screening preschool children for fine motor skills: environmental influence

    PubMed Central

    Comuk-Balci, Nilay; Bayoglu, Birgul; Tekindal, Agah; Kerem-Gunel, Mintaze; Anlar, Banu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gender and family factors on performance in the fine motor domain of the Denver II developmental screening test. [Subjects and Methods] Data were obtained from 2038 healthy children, 999 boys (49%) and 1039 girls (51%) in four age groups: 0–24 months (57%), 25–40 months (21.1%), 41–56 months (10.4%), and 57–82 months (11.5%). [Results] Female gender, higher maternal age, especially in children older than 24 months, and higher maternal education were associated with earlier accomplishment of fine motor items. Higher socioeconomic status was correlated with fine motor skills more noticeably at young ages. [Conclusion] The results of this study support the role of environmental factors in the interpretation of fine motor test results and point to target groups for intervention, such as infants in the low socioeconomic group and preschool children of less educated mothers. Studies in different populations may reveal particular patterns that affect child development. PMID:27134406

  18. Evaluating the importance of social motor synchronization and motor skill for understanding autism.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Paula; Romero, Veronica; Amaral, Joseph L; Duncan, Amie; Barnard, Holly; Richardson, Michael J; Schmidt, R C

    2017-06-07

    Impairments in social interaction and communicating with others are core features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the specific processes underlying such social competence impairments are not well understood. An important key for increasing our understanding of ASD-specific social deficits may lie with the social motor synchronization that takes place when we implicitly coordinate our bodies with others. Here, we tested whether dynamical measures of synchronization differentiate children with ASD from controls and further explored the relationships between synchronization ability and motor control problems. We found (a) that children with ASD exhibited different and less stable patterns of social synchronization ability than controls; (b) children with ASD performed motor movements that were slower and more variable in both spacing and timing; and (c) some social synchronization that involved motor timing was related to motor ability but less rhythmic synchronization was not. These findings raise the possibility that objective dynamical measures of synchronization ability and motor skill could provide new insights into understanding the social deficits in ASD that could ultimately aid clinical diagnosis and prognosis. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Role of Early Parenting and Motor Skills on Development in Children with Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lomax-Bream, Laura E.; Taylor, Heather B.; Landry, Susan H.; Barnes, Marcia A.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Swank, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The impact of parenting and motor skills on the development of cognitive, language, and daily living skills was examined in 165 children (91 with spina bifida, SB), from 6-36 months of age. Motor scores significantly influenced cognitive, language, and daily living skills. Higher quality parenting was associated with higher levels of development…

  20. Role of Early Parenting and Motor Skills on Development in Children with Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lomax-Bream, Laura E.; Taylor, Heather B.; Landry, Susan H.; Barnes, Marcia A.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Swank, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The impact of parenting and motor skills on the development of cognitive, language, and daily living skills was examined in 165 children (91 with spina bifida, SB), from 6-36 months of age. Motor scores significantly influenced cognitive, language, and daily living skills. Higher quality parenting was associated with higher levels of development…

  1. Improvement of Fine Motor Skills in Children with Visual Impairment: An Explorative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimer, A. M.; Cox, R. F. A.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M. W. G.; Boonstra, F. N.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we analysed the potential spin-off of magnifier training on the fine-motor skills of visually impaired children. The fine-motor skills of 4- and 5-year-old visually impaired children were assessed using the manual skills test for children (6-12 years) with a visual impairment (ManuVis) and movement assessment for children (Movement…

  2. Amount of kinematic feedback affects learning of speech motor skills.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Kirrie J; Smith, Heather D; Paramatmuni, Divija; McCabe, Patricia; Theodoros, Deborah G; Murdoch, Bruce E

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of Performance (KP) feedback, such as biofeedback or kinematic feedback, is used to provide information on the nature and quality of movement responses for the purpose of guiding active learning or rehabilitation of motor skills. It has been proposed that KP feedback may interfere with long-term learning when provided throughout training. Here, twelve healthy English-speaking adults were trained to produce a trilled Russian [r] in words with KP kinematic feedback using electropalatography (EPG) and without KP (noKP). Five one-hour training sessions were provided over one week with testing pretraining and one day and one week posttraining. No group differences were found at pretraining or one day post training for production accuracy. A group by time interaction supported the hypothesis that providing kinematic feedback continually during skill acquisition interferes with retention.

  3. [Motor asymmetry and learning new skills in animals].

    PubMed

    Budilin, S Iu; Pletneva, E V; Ioffe, M E; Arsen'ev, G N

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to examine the relationship between the ability to learn new motor skills and preference to the right or left front paw when performing manipulation movements in rats. As a new skill used the Morris water maze, in which the animals are initially trained to detect platform hidden under water at the swim of the sector of the opposite platform, and then when sailing from sectors on the left or the right of the platform. Preference paw was determined by using the taking of animal food from a narrow horizontal tube and, accordingly, the rats were divided into left-handedness and right-handedness. We found that when changing the place of launch, that is the first voyage from the left or right of the sector, are right-handed, unlike left-handed, spent significantly more time to find the platform.

  4. Dopamine in Motor Cortex Is Necessary for Skill Learning and Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Molina-Luna, Katiuska; Pekanovic, Ana; Röhrich, Sebastian; Hertler, Benjamin; Schubring-Giese, Maximilian; Rioult-Pedotti, Mengia-Seraina; Luft, Andreas R.

    2009-01-01

    Preliminary evidence indicates that dopamine given by mouth facilitates the learning of motor skills and improves the recovery of movement after stroke. The mechanism of these phenomena is unknown. Here, we describe a mechanism by demonstrating in rat that dopaminergic terminals and receptors in primary motor cortex (M1) enable motor skill learning and enhance M1 synaptic plasticity. Elimination of dopaminergic terminals in M1 specifically impaired motor skill acquisition, which was restored upon DA substitution. Execution of a previously acquired skill was unaffected. Reversible blockade of M1 D1 and D2 receptors temporarily impaired skill acquisition but not execution, and reduced long-term potentiation (LTP) within M1, a form of synaptic plasticity critically involved in skill learning. These findings identify a behavioral and functional role of dopaminergic signaling in M1. DA in M1 optimizes the learning of a novel motor skill. PMID:19759902

  5. Cognitive Processes and Learner Strategies in the Acquisition of Motor Skills

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-01

    ARI TECHNICAL REPORTLEVE TR-78-TH-1 Cognitive Processes and Learner Strategies in the Acquisition of Motor Skills by Robert N. Singer and Richard F...Transfer Learner strategies Motor skill Acquisition Task classification schemeRetention "M ABSTRACT (Cotinue ,an revorse ide if necessmy a2nd dentify by...block number)fho cognitive processes and learner strategies associated with motor skill acquisition, retention, and transfer were identified and defined

  6. Capacity to improve fine motor skills in Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Berencsi, A; Gombos, F; Kovács, I

    2016-10-01

    Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) are known to have difficulties in carrying out fine motor movements; however, a detailed behavioural profile of WS in this domain is still missing. It is also unknown how great the capacity to improve these skills with focused and extensive practice is. We studied initial performance and learning capacity in a sequential finger tapping (FT) task in WS and in typical development. Improvement in the FT task has been shown to be sleep dependent. WS subjects participating in the current study have also participated in earlier polysomnography studies, although not directly related to learning. WS participants presented with great individual variability. In addition to generally poor initial performance, learning capacity was also greatly limited in WS. We found indications that reduced sleep efficiency might contribute to this limitation. Estimating motor learning capacity and the depth of sleep disorder in a larger sample of WS individuals might reveal important relationships between sleep and learning, and contribute to efficient intervention methods improving skill acquisition in WS. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research published by MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Fine motor skill proficiency in typically developing children: On or off the maturation track?

    PubMed

    Gaul, David; Issartel, Johann

    2016-04-01

    Fine motor skill proficiency is an essential component of numerous daily living activities such as dressing, feeding or playing. Poor fine motor skills can lead to difficulties in academic achievement, increased anxiety and poor self-esteem. Recent findings have shown that children's gross motor skill proficiency tends to fall below established developmental norms. A question remains: do fine motor skill proficiency levels also fall below developmental norms? The aim of this study was to examine the current level of fine motor skill in Irish children. Children (N=253) from 2nd, 4th and 6th grades (mean age=7.12, 9.11 and 11.02 respectively) completed the Fine Motor Composite of the Bruininks Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2nd Edition (BOT-2). Analysis revealed that only 2nd grade children met the expected level of fine motor skill proficiency. It was also found that despite children's raw scores improving with age, children's fine motor skill proficiency was not progressing at the expected rate given by normative data. This leads us to question the role and impact of modern society on fine motor skills development over the past number of decades.

  8. The effect of fine and grapho-motor skill demands on preschoolers' decoding skill.

    PubMed

    Suggate, Sebastian; Pufke, Eva; Stoeger, Heidrun

    2016-01-01

    Previous correlational research has found indications that fine motor skills (FMS) link to early reading development, but the work has not demonstrated causality. We manipulated 51 preschoolers' FMS while children learned to decode letters and nonsense words in a within-participants, randomized, and counterbalanced single-factor design with pre- and posttesting. In two conditions, children wrote with a pencil that had a conical shape fitted to the end filled with either steel (impaired writing condition) or polystyrene (normal writing condition). In a third control condition, children simply pointed at the letters with the light pencil as they learned to read the words (pointing condition). Results indicate that children learned the most decoding skills in the normal writing condition, followed by the pointing and impaired writing conditions. In addition, working memory, phonemic awareness, and grapho-motor skills were generally predictors of decoding skill development. The findings provide experimental evidence that having lower FMS is disadvantageous for reading development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of two distinct group motor skill interventions in psychological and motor skills of children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Caçola, Priscila; Romero, Michael; Ibana, Melvin; Chuang, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) have an increased risk for mental health difficulties. The present pilot study aimed to determine whether distinct group intervention programs improved several psychological variables (anxiety; adequacy and predilection for physical activity; participation, preferences, and enjoyment for activities) and motor skills from the perspective of a child with DCD as well as parental perceptions of motor skills, rate of function, and strengths and difficulties. Eleven children participated in Program A and thirteen in Program B. Both involved 10 sessions of 1 h each. Program A focused on task-oriented activities in a large group involving motor skill training and collaboration and cooperation among children, while Program B was composed of three groups with a direct goal-oriented approach for training of skills chosen by the children. Results indicated that children improved motor skills after both programs, but showed distinct results in regards to other variables - after Program A, children showed higher anxiety and lower levels of enjoyment, even though parents detected an improvement in rate of function and a decrease in peer problems. With Program B, children decreased anxiety levels, and parents noted a higher control of movement of their children. Regardless of the group approach, children were able to improve motor skills. However, it is possible that the differences between groups may have influenced parents' perception of their children's motor and psychological skills, as well as children's perception of anxiety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A review of environmental contributions to childhood motor skills

    PubMed Central

    Golding, Jean; Emmett, Pauline; Iles-Caven, Yasmin; Steer, Colin; Lingam, Raghu

    2013-01-01

    Although much of children’s motor skills have a heredity component, at least half of the variance is likely to be influenced by the environment It is important to ascertain features of the environment that are responsible so that toxins can be avoided, children at risk can be identified and beneficial interventions initiated. This review outlines the results of published studies and recommends the areas where further research is required. We found much confusion with little comparability concerning the ages or measures used. Few studies had sufficient power and few allowed for confounders. We found that research to date implicates associations with prenatal drinking ≥4 drinks of alcohol per day; diabetes; taking antidepressant drugs; being deficient in iodine or iron; dietary fish; and postnatal depression. The child appearing to be most at risk was born of low birth weight (but not due to preterm delivery); or with neonatal problems. PMID:24170258

  11. Aging increases the susceptibility to motor memory interference and reduces off-line gains in motor skill learning.

    PubMed

    Roig, Marc; Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2014-08-01

    Declines in the ability to learn motor skills in older adults are commonly attributed to deficits in the encoding of sensorimotor information during motor practice. We investigated whether aging also impairs motor memory consolidation by assessing the susceptibility to memory interference and off-line gains in motor skill learning after practice in children, young, and older adults. Subjects performed a ballistic task (A) followed by an accuracy-tracking task (B) designed to disrupt the consolidation of A. Retention tests of A were performed immediately and 24 hours after B. Older adults showed greater susceptibility to memory interference and no off-line gains in motor skill learning. Performing B produced memory interference and reduced off-line gains only in the older group. However, older adults also showed deficits in memory consolidation independent of the interfering effects of B. Age-related declines in motor skill learning are not produced exclusively by deficits in the encoding of sensorimotor information during practice. Aging also increases the susceptibility to memory interference and reduces off-line gains in motor skill learning after practice.

  12. The Relationship between Motor Skills, Perceived Social Support, and Internalizing Problems in a Community Adolescent Sample

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Vincent O.; Rigoli, Daniela; Heritage, Brody; Roberts, Lynne D.; Piek, Jan P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Poor motor skills are associated with a range of psychosocial consequences, including internalizing (anxious and depressive) symptoms. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis provides a causal framework to explain this association. The framework posits that motor skills impact internalizing problems through an indirect effect via perceived social support. However, empirical evaluation is required. We examined whether motor skills had an indirect effect on anxious and depressive symptoms via perceived family support domains. Methods: This study used a community sample of 93 adolescents (12–16 years). Participants completed measures of motor skills, perceived social support across three dimensions (family, friend, and significant other), depressive symptoms, and anxious symptoms. Age, gender, verbal IQ, and ADHD symptoms were included as control variables. Results: Regression analysis using PROCESS revealed that motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support, but not by perceived friend support or significant other support. The negative association between motor skills and anxious symptoms was not mediated by any perceived social support domain. Conclusions: Findings are consistent with previous literature indicating an association between motor skills and internalizing problems. However, we identified a different pattern of relationships across anxious and depressive symptoms. While anxiety and depressive symptoms were highly correlated, motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support only. Our findings highlight the importance of family support as a potential protective factor in the onset of depressive symptoms. This study provides partial support for the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis, however further research is required. PMID:27148149

  13. Effects of Age and Visual-Motor Skills on Preschool Children's Computer-Game Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strein, William

    1987-01-01

    The relationship of both age and visual-motor skills to performance on an arcade-like video game was studied with 16 preschool children. While age was positively related to performance, no significant relationship was found for the visual-motor skills variable. (Author/CB)

  14. The Effects of Modified Games on the Development of Gross Motor Skill in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lestari, Indah; Ratnaningsih, Tri

    2016-01-01

    Gross motor skills on children must be optimized much earlier since it plays important role not only on their interaction process but also in supporting other multiple developments. One of the means in developing child's motor skill is by providing innovative games i.e. modified games including game format, game timing, and game sequence. The…

  15. A Strategy for Embedding Functional Motor and Early Numeracy Skill Instruction into Physical Education Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whinnery, Stacie B.; Whinnery, Keith W.; Eddins, Daisy

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the challenges educators face when attempting to find a balance between both functional and academic skill instruction for students with severe, multiple disabilities including motor impairments. The authors describe a strategy that employs embedded instruction of early numeracy and functional motor skills during physical…

  16. Determining the Motor Skills Development of Mentally Retarded Children through the Contribution of Visual Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erim, Gonca; Caferoglu, Müge

    2017-01-01

    Visual arts education is a process that helps the reflection of inner worlds, socialization via group works and healthier motor skills development of normally developing or handicapped children like the mentally retarded. This study aims to determine the influence of visual art studies on the motor skills development of primary school first grade…

  17. The Association between Motor Skill Competence and Physical Fitness in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stodden, David; Langendorfer, Stephen; Roberton, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    We examined the relationship between competence in three fundamental motor skills (throwing, kicking, and jumping) and six measures of health-related physical fitness in young adults (ages 18-25). We assessed motor skill competence using product scores of maximum kicking and throwing speed and maximum jumping distance. A factor analysis indicated…

  18. Teacher Compliance and Accuracy in State Assessment of Student Motor Skill Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Tina J.; Hicklin, Lori K.; French, Karen E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate teacher compliance with state mandated assessment protocols and teacher accuracy in assessing student motor skill performance. Method: Middle school teachers (N = 116) submitted eighth grade student motor skill performance data from 318 physical education classes to a trained monitoring…

  19. A Comparison of the Motor Music Skills of Nonhandicapped and Learning Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Janet Perkins

    1983-01-01

    The Motoric Music Skills Test was administered to 103 public school children, ages five through nine. Improved skills were related to age, and normal subjects attained a better performance in the areas of motor pattern coordination, eye-hand coordination, and speed and range of movement. (Author/RM)

  20. The Relationship between Motor Skills, Perceived Social Support, and Internalizing Problems in a Community Adolescent Sample.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Vincent O; Rigoli, Daniela; Heritage, Brody; Roberts, Lynne D; Piek, Jan P

    2016-01-01

    Poor motor skills are associated with a range of psychosocial consequences, including internalizing (anxious and depressive) symptoms. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis provides a causal framework to explain this association. The framework posits that motor skills impact internalizing problems through an indirect effect via perceived social support. However, empirical evaluation is required. We examined whether motor skills had an indirect effect on anxious and depressive symptoms via perceived family support domains. This study used a community sample of 93 adolescents (12-16 years). Participants completed measures of motor skills, perceived social support across three dimensions (family, friend, and significant other), depressive symptoms, and anxious symptoms. Age, gender, verbal IQ, and ADHD symptoms were included as control variables. Regression analysis using PROCESS revealed that motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support, but not by perceived friend support or significant other support. The negative association between motor skills and anxious symptoms was not mediated by any perceived social support domain. Findings are consistent with previous literature indicating an association between motor skills and internalizing problems. However, we identified a different pattern of relationships across anxious and depressive symptoms. While anxiety and depressive symptoms were highly correlated, motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support only. Our findings highlight the importance of family support as a potential protective factor in the onset of depressive symptoms. This study provides partial support for the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis, however further research is required.

  1. Infant and Toddler Oral- and Manual-Motor Skills Predict Later Speech Fluency in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Sauer, Eve A.; Geye, Heather M.; Schweigert, Emily K.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2008-01-01

    Background: Spoken and gestural communication proficiency varies greatly among autistic individuals. Three studies examined the role of oral- and manual-motor skill in predicting autistic children's speech development. Methods: Study 1 investigated whether infant and toddler oral- and manual-motor skills predict middle childhood and teenage speech…

  2. Sensori-Motor and Daily Living Skills of Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasmin, Emmanuelle; Couture, Melanie; McKinley, Patricia; Reid, Greg; Fombonne, Eric; Gisel, Erika

    2009-01-01

    Sensori-motor development and performance of daily living skills (DLS) remain little explored in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The objective of this study was to determine the impact of sensori-motor skills on the performance of DLS in preschool children with ASD. Thirty-five children, 3-4 years of age, were recruited and assessed…

  3. Does Computer-Based Motor Skill Assessment Training Transfer to Live Assessing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Luke E.; Taliaferro, Andrea; Krause, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Developing competency in motor skill assessment has been identified as a critical need in physical educator preparation. We conducted this study to evaluate (a) the effectiveness of a web-based instructional program--Motor Skill Assessment Program (MSAP)--for developing assessment competency, and specifically (b) whether competency developed by…

  4. A Comparison of the Motor Music Skills of Nonhandicapped and Learning Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Janet Perkins

    1983-01-01

    The Motoric Music Skills Test was administered to 103 public school children, ages five through nine. Improved skills were related to age, and normal subjects attained a better performance in the areas of motor pattern coordination, eye-hand coordination, and speed and range of movement. (Author/RM)

  5. Sensori-Motor and Daily Living Skills of Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasmin, Emmanuelle; Couture, Melanie; McKinley, Patricia; Reid, Greg; Fombonne, Eric; Gisel, Erika

    2009-01-01

    Sensori-motor development and performance of daily living skills (DLS) remain little explored in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The objective of this study was to determine the impact of sensori-motor skills on the performance of DLS in preschool children with ASD. Thirty-five children, 3-4 years of age, were recruited and assessed…

  6. Does Computer-Based Motor Skill Assessment Training Transfer to Live Assessing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Luke E.; Taliaferro, Andrea; Krause, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Developing competency in motor skill assessment has been identified as a critical need in physical educator preparation. We conducted this study to evaluate (a) the effectiveness of a web-based instructional program--Motor Skill Assessment Program (MSAP)--for developing assessment competency, and specifically (b) whether competency developed by…

  7. The Association between Motor Skill Competence and Physical Fitness in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stodden, David; Langendorfer, Stephen; Roberton, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    We examined the relationship between competence in three fundamental motor skills (throwing, kicking, and jumping) and six measures of health-related physical fitness in young adults (ages 18-25). We assessed motor skill competence using product scores of maximum kicking and throwing speed and maximum jumping distance. A factor analysis indicated…

  8. Early motor skill competence as a mediator of child and adult physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Davis, Robert E.; Fu, Yang-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In order to effectively promote physical activity (PA) during childhood, and across the lifespan, a better understanding of the role of early motor skill development on child and adult PA is needed. Methods: Here, we propose a conceptual model delineating the hypothesized influence of motor skill development on child and adult PA, while providing an overview of the current empirical research related to this model. Results: There is consistent and emerging evidence showing that adequate motor skill competence, particularly locomotor and gross motor skills, is associated with increased PA levels during the preschool, child, and adolescent years, with early motor skill development also influencing enjoyment of PA as well as long-term PA and motor skill performance. The physical education setting appears to be a well-suited environment for motor skill development. Conclusion: Employing appropriate strategies to target motor skill development across the childhood years is of paramount interest in helping shape children's PA behavior, their experiences related to PA, as well as maintain their PA. PMID:26844157

  9. Fine Motor Skills and Executive Function Both Contribute to Kindergarten Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Claire E.; Brock, Laura L.; Murrah, William M.; Bell, Lindsay H.; Worzalla, Samantha L.; Grissmer, David; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of executive function (EF) and multiple aspects of fine motor skills to achievement on 6 standardized assessments in a sample of middle-socioeconomic status kindergarteners. Three- and 4-year-olds' (n = 213) fine and gross motor skills were assessed in a home visit before kindergarten, EF was measured at fall…

  10. Are Gross Motor Skills and Sports Participation Related in Children with Intellectual Disabilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westendorp, Marieke; Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the specific gross motor skills of 156 children with intellectual disabilities (ID) (50 less than or equal to IQ greater than or equal to 79) with that of 255 typically developing children, aged 7-12 years. Additionally, the relationship between the specific gross motor skills and organized sports participation was examined in…

  11. Infants with Down Syndrome: Percentage and Age for Acquisition of Gross Motor Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Karina; Basso, Renata Pedrolongo; Lindquist, Ana Raquel Rodrigues; da Silva, Louise Gracelli Pereira; Tudella, Eloisa

    2013-01-01

    The literature is bereft of information about the age at which infants with Down syndrome (DS) acquire motor skills and the percentage of infants that do so by the age of 12 months. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the difference in age, in relation to typical infants, at which motor skills were acquired and the percentage of infants with DS…

  12. Are Gross Motor Skills and Sports Participation Related in Children with Intellectual Disabilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westendorp, Marieke; Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the specific gross motor skills of 156 children with intellectual disabilities (ID) (50 less than or equal to IQ greater than or equal to 79) with that of 255 typically developing children, aged 7-12 years. Additionally, the relationship between the specific gross motor skills and organized sports participation was examined in…

  13. How Fine Motor Skills Influence the Assessment of High Abilities and Underachievement in Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Albert; Stoeger, Heidrun

    2010-01-01

    Previously, fine motor skills have been of little or no interest to giftedness research. New lines of thought have been advanced that imply that fine motor skills can be of significance in the identification of gifted persons as well as gifted underachievers. This would also have consequences for the diagnostic process underlying identification.…

  14. Infants with Down Syndrome: Percentage and Age for Acquisition of Gross Motor Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Karina; Basso, Renata Pedrolongo; Lindquist, Ana Raquel Rodrigues; da Silva, Louise Gracelli Pereira; Tudella, Eloisa

    2013-01-01

    The literature is bereft of information about the age at which infants with Down syndrome (DS) acquire motor skills and the percentage of infants that do so by the age of 12 months. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the difference in age, in relation to typical infants, at which motor skills were acquired and the percentage of infants with DS…

  15. Effects of Age and Visual-Motor Skills on Preschool Children's Computer-Game Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strein, William

    1987-01-01

    The relationship of both age and visual-motor skills to performance on an arcade-like video game was studied with 16 preschool children. While age was positively related to performance, no significant relationship was found for the visual-motor skills variable. (Author/CB)

  16. Field dependence-independence in complex motor skills.

    PubMed

    Guillot, Aymeric; Collet, Christian

    2004-04-01

    This study analyzed the relationship between field dependence-independence and complex motor skills. According to the requirements of each sporting activity, subjects' motor system can be mainly controlled through exteroceptive or proprioceptive information. Sport performances require the athlete to disembed himself, other players, or the ball from the background, and decision-making appears to require cognitive restructuring. 26 athletes (13 men and 13 women) involved in acrobatic sports (gymnastics, trampoline, half-pipe snowboard, synchronized 3-m springboard, acrobatic rock, skateboard, and free skating) and 26 athletes (13 men and 13 women) involved in individual racket sports (tennis and table-tennis) completed the Group Embedded Figures Test. Participants (at least 10 years of practice) were from 16 to 35 years of age (M=22.0, SD=3.1). No significant difference among athletes on scores for field dependence-independence was evidenced given this expertise, sex, or age. Significantly higher scores were obtained by athletes in acrobatic sports, indicating that they tended to be predominately more field-independent whereas the lower scores were obtained by tennis and table-tennis players.

  17. Active learning: learning a motor skill without a coach.

    PubMed

    Huang, Vincent S; Shadmehr, Reza; Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2008-08-01

    When we learn a new skill (e.g., golf) without a coach, we are "active learners": we have to choose the specific components of the task on which to train (e.g., iron, driver, putter, etc.). What guides our selection of the training sequence? How do choices that people make compare with choices made by machine learning algorithms that attempt to optimize performance? We asked subjects to learn the novel dynamics of a robotic tool while moving it in four directions. They were instructed to choose their practice directions to maximize their performance in subsequent tests. We found that their choices were strongly influenced by motor errors: subjects tended to immediately repeat an action if that action had produced a large error. This strategy was correlated with better performance on test trials. However, even when participants performed perfectly on a movement, they did not avoid repeating that movement. The probability of repeating an action did not drop below chance even when no errors were observed. This behavior led to suboptimal performance. It also violated a strong prediction of current machine learning algorithms, which solve the active learning problem by choosing a training sequence that will maximally reduce the learner's uncertainty about the task. While we show that these algorithms do not provide an adequate description of human behavior, our results suggest ways to improve human motor learning by helping people choose an optimal training sequence.

  18. Preservation of motor skill learning in patients with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Tomassini, Valentina; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Leonardi, Laura; Paixao, Luis; Jbabdi, Saad; Palace, Jackie; Pozzilli, Carlo; Matthews, Paul M

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies have demonstrated benefits of rehabilitation in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the neuroscientific foundations for rehabilitation in MS are poorly established. Objectives As rehabilitation and motor learning share similar mechanisms of brain plasticity, we test whether the dynamics of skill learning are preserved in MS patients relative to controls. Methods MS patients and controls learned a repeating sequence of hand movements and were assessed for short-term learning. Long-term learning was tested in another cohort of patients and controls practising the same sequence daily for two weeks. Results Despite differences in baseline performance, the dynamics and extent of improvements were comparable between MS and control groups for both the short- and long-term learning. Even the most severely damaged patients were capable of performance improvements of similar magnitude to that seen in controls. After one week of training patients performed as well as the controls at baseline. Conclusions Mechanisms for short- and long-term plasticity may compensate for impaired functional connectivity in MS to mediate behavioural improvements. Future studies are needed to define the neurobiological substrates of this plasticity and the extent to which mechanisms of plasticity in patients may be distinct from those used for motor learning in controls. PMID:20834040

  19. Motor skills training promotes motor functional recovery and induces synaptogenesis in the motor cortex and striatum after intracerebral hemorrhage in rats.

    PubMed

    Tamakoshi, Keigo; Ishida, Akimasa; Takamatsu, Yasuyuki; Hamakawa, Michiru; Nakashima, Hiroki; Shimada, Haruka; Ishida, Kazuto

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the effects of motor skills training on several types of motor function and synaptic plasticity following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats. Male Wistar rats were injected with collagenase into the left striatum to induce ICH, and they were randomly assigned to the ICH or sham groups. Each group was divided into the motor skills training (acrobatic training) and control (no exercise) groups. The acrobatic group performed acrobatic training from 4 to 28 days after surgery. Motor functions were assessed by motor deficit score, the horizontal ladder test and the wide or narrow beam walking test at several time points after ICH. The number of ΔFosB-positive cells was counted using immunohistochemistry to examine neuronal activation, and the PSD95 protein levels were analyzed by Western blotting to examine synaptic plasticity in the bilateral sensorimotor cortices and striata at 14 and 29 days after ICH. Motor skills training following ICH significantly improved gross motor function in the early phase after ICH and skilled motor coordinated function in the late phase. The number of ΔFosB-positive cells in the contralateral sensorimotor cortex in the acrobatic group significantly increased compared to the control group. PSD95 protein expression in the motor cortex significantly increased in the late phase, and in the striatum, the protein level significantly increased in the early phase by motor skills training after ICH compared to no training after ICH. We demonstrated that motor skills training improved motor function after ICH in rats and enhanced the neural activity and synaptic plasticity in the striatum and sensorimotor cortex. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Activity-based intervention in motor skill development.

    PubMed

    Apache, R R Goyakla

    2005-06-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of an activity-based intervention program and a direct instruction program for preschool children with disabilities. Two groups of preschool students (average age=4.1 yr.), classified as having developmental delays or at risk for such delays, were selected. They were provided 15 weeks of physical education through activity-based intervention and 15 weeks of physical education by direct instruction. Instruction was provided three times a week for 30-min. each session. In the fall semester the morning group received physical education through activity-based intervention, while the afternoon group received physical education through direct instruction. In the spring semester delivery of instruction was reversed for each group. The curriculum and activities provided to each group were identical with only the instructional delivery format altered. Two sets of pre- and post-tests using the Test of Gross Motor Development were administered before and after each 15-wk. instructional period. Group improvement in skills was compared between instructional methods. Significant improvement in both locomotor and object control skills through the activity-based intervention was found compared to direct instruction. Activity-based intervention was shown to be easily adapted to a naturalistic educational setting befitting that of preschool education.

  1. Sensori-motor and daily living skills of preschool children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Jasmin, Emmanuelle; Couture, Mélanie; McKinley, Patricia; Reid, Greg; Fombonne, Eric; Gisel, Erika

    2009-02-01

    Sensori-motor development and performance of daily living skills (DLS) remain little explored in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The objective of this study was to determine the impact of sensori-motor skills on the performance of DLS in preschool children with ASD. Thirty-five children, 3-4 years of age, were recruited and assessed with a battery of diagnostic and clinical tests. Children showed atypical sensory responses, very poor motor and DLS. Sensory avoiding, an excessive reaction to sensory stimuli, and fine motor skills were highly correlated with DLS, even when cognitive performance was taken into account. Sensori-motor deficits have an impact on the autonomy of children with ASD and interventions should aim at improving and supporting the development of sensori-motor skills.

  2. Haptics in teaching handwriting: the role of perceptual and visuo-motor skills.

    PubMed

    Bara, Florence; Gentaz, Edouard

    2011-08-01

    Two studies were carried out in order to better understand the role of perceptual and visuo-motor skills in handwriting. Two training programs, visual-haptic (VH) and visual (V), were compared which differed in the way children explored the letters. The results revealed that improvements of VH training on letter recognition and handwriting quality were higher than improvements after V training. We suppose that VH training was more efficient because it improved both perceptual and visuo-motor skills. In the second experiment, in order to investigate the part of each component, we assessed the link between visuo-motor skills, perceptual skills and handwriting. The results showed that only the visuo-motor tasks predict handwriting copying performance. These results are discussed in relation to the respective roles of the perceptual and visuo-motor skills on letter shape learning and handwriting movement execution.

  3. The relationship between gross motor skills and academic achievement in children with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the gross motor skills of 7- to 12-year-old children with learning disabilities (n = 104) with those of age-matched typically developing children (n = 104) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Additionally, the specific relationships between subsets of gross motor skills and academic performance in reading, spelling, and mathematics were examined in children with learning disabilities. As expected, the children with learning disabilities scored poorer on both the locomotor and object-control subtests than their typically developing peers. Furthermore, in children with learning disabilities a specific relationship was observed between reading and locomotor skills and a trend was found for a relationship between mathematics and object-control skills: the larger children's learning lag, the poorer their motor skill scores. This study stresses the importance of specific interventions facilitating both motor and academic abilities.

  4. Motor Skills, Attention and Academic Achievements. An Intervention Study in School Years 1-3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ericsson, Ingegerd

    2008-01-01

    The aim was to study effects of an extension of physical education and motor training on motor skills, attention and cognition during a period of three years. The study has two intervention groups (n = 152) that have physical activity and motor training one lesson every school day and one control group (n = 99) that has the school's ordinary…

  5. Motor Skills, Attention and Academic Achievements. An Intervention Study in School Years 1-3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ericsson, Ingegerd

    2008-01-01

    The aim was to study effects of an extension of physical education and motor training on motor skills, attention and cognition during a period of three years. The study has two intervention groups (n = 152) that have physical activity and motor training one lesson every school day and one control group (n = 99) that has the school's ordinary…

  6. Motor Skills in Hearing Impaired Children with or without Cochlear Implant--A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Vidranski, Tihomir; Farkaš, Daria

    2015-07-01

    Hearing impairment is a major limitation in communication, and it can obstruct psychological development, development of social skills and motor development. Hearing impairment is the third most common contemporary chronic health condition, and it has become a public health problem. The effectiveness of problem solving in everyday life and in emergency situations depends greatly on the amount and quality of the motor programs. Therefore, it is evident that the normal motor development in persons with hearing impairment is essential for everyday life. The aim of this research is to analyze the available information pertaining to motor skills of hearing impaired children both with and without a cochlear implant (CI) and to analyze possibilities of influencing their motor skills. The relevant studies on motor skills of hearing impaired children both with and without CI were obtained by an extensive computer search of various databases using special keywords and extraction with respect to certain criteria, resulting in 22 studies. The overall results of this systematic review indicate that the children with hearing impairment exhibit suboptimal levels of motor skills especially balance. Very few studies compared children with hearing impairment with CI units and without CI units and the results of those studies are quite contradictory. Numerous studies have confirmed that the regular and appropriate physical exercise can improve motor skills of children with hearing impairment, especially balance. The fact that the development of motor skills is crucial for the child's interaction with the outside world, action, perception and acquisition of academic skills and other skills necessary for life shows the importance of motor skills development for children with hearing impairment.

  7. The Influence of Guided Error-Based Learning on Motor Skills Self-Efficacy and Achievement.

    PubMed

    Chien, Kuei-Pin; Chen, Sufen

    2017-08-30

    The authors investigated the role of errors in motor skills teaching, specifically the influence of errors on skills self-efficacy and achievement. The participants were 75 undergraduate students enrolled in pétanque courses. The experimental group (guided error-based learning, n = 37) received a 6-week period of instruction based on the students' errors, whereas the control group (correct motion instruction, n = 38) received a 6-week period of instruction emphasizing correct motor skills. The experimental group had significantly higher scores in motor skills self-efficacy and outcomes than did the control group. Novices' errors reflect their schema in motor skills learning, which provides a basis for instructors to implement student-centered instruction and to facilitate the learning process. Guided error-based learning can effectively enhance beginners' skills self-efficacy and achievement in precision sports such as pétanque.

  8. Long-term importance of fundamental motor skills: a 20-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Meghann; Saunders, Travis J; Bremer, Emily; Tremblay, Mark S

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential long-term association of motor skill proficiency at 6 years of age and self-reported physical activity (PA) at age 26. Direct motor performance data were collected in 1991 with a follow-up study occurring in 1996, and then indirect questionnaires (self-report) administered in 2001 and 2011. In 2011, 17 participants who were identified as either having high motor proficiency (HMP) or low motor proficiency (LMP) in 1991 completed a series of 4 questionnaires. Analyses were conducted to determine whether there were differences between groups for motor skill proficiency, PA, or sedentary behavior, and whether these outcomes were related across ages. Motor skill proficiency at age 6 was related to self-reported proficiency at age 16 (r = .77, p = .006), and self-reported proficiency between 16 and 26 years (r = .85, p = .001). Motor skill proficiency at age 6 was positively associated with leisure time PA at age 26 in females and participants in the HMP group. The results may provide preliminary evidence about the importance of how early motor skill proficiency relates to long-term PA. More research with larger sample sizes is needed to investigate the importance of motor skills over time.

  9. The differential consolidation of perceptual and motor learning in skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Hallgató, Emese; Győri-Dani, Dóra; Pekár, Judit; Janacsek, Karolina; Nemeth, Dezso

    2013-04-01

    Implicit skill learning is an unconscious way of learning which underlies not only motor but also cognitive and social skills. This form of learning is based on both motor and perceptual information. Although many studies have investigated the perceptual and motor components of "online" skill learning, the effect of consolidation on perceptual and motor characteristics of skill learning has not been studied to our knowledge. In our research we used a sequence learning task to determine if consolidation had the same or different effect on the perceptual and the motor components of skill acquisition. We introduced a 12-h (including or not including sleep) and a 24-h (diurnal control) delay between the learning and the testing phase with AM-PM, PM-AM, AM-AM and PM-PM groups, in order to examine whether the offline period had differential effects on perceptual and motor learning. Although both perceptual and motor learning were significant in the testing phase, results showed that motor knowledge transfers more effectively than perceptual knowledge during the offline period, irrespective of whether sleep occurred or not and whether there was a 12- or 24-h delay period between the learning and the testing phase. These results have important implications for the debate concerning perceptual/motor learning and the role of sleep in skill acquisition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Adaptive behaviour and motor skills in children with upper limb deficiency.

    PubMed

    Mano, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Sayaka; Haga, Nobuhiko

    2017-07-01

    The dysfunction of individuals with upper limb deficiencies affects their daily lives and social participation. To clarify the adaptive behaviours and motor skills of children with upper limb deficiencies. Cross-sectional survey. The subjects were 10 children ranging from 1 to 6 years of age with unilateral upper limb deficiencies at the level distal to the elbow who were using only cosmetic or passive prostheses or none at all. To measure their adaptive behaviour and motor skills, the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition was used. They were evaluated on the domains of communication, daily living skills, socialization and motor skills. We also examined the relationship of the scores with age. There were no statistically significant scores for domains or subdomains. The domain standard score of motor skills was significantly lower than the median scores of the domains and was negatively correlated with age. Children with upper limb deficiencies have individual weaknesses in motor skill behaviours, and these weaknesses increase with age. It may be helpful in considering approaches to rehabilitation and the prescription of prostheses to consider the characteristics and course of children's motor skill behaviours. Clinical relevance Even if children with unilateral upper limb deficiencies seem to compensate well for their affected limb function, they have or will experience individual weaknesses in motor skills. We should take this into consideration to develop better strategies for rehabilitation and prostheses prescriptions.

  11. Motor development and motor resonance difficulties in autism: relevance to early intervention for language and communication skills

    PubMed Central

    McCleery, Joseph P.; Elliott, Natasha A.; Sampanis, Dimitrios S.; Stefanidou, Chrysi A.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that a sub-set of children with autism experience notable difficulties and delays in motor skills development, and that a large percentage of children with autism experience deficits in motor resonance. These motor-related deficiencies, which evidence suggests are present from a very early age, are likely to negatively affect social-communicative and language development in this population. Here, we review evidence for delayed, impaired, and atypical motor development in infants and children with autism. We then carefully review and examine the current language and communication-based intervention research that is relevant to motor and motor resonance (i.e., neural “mirroring” mechanisms activated when we observe the actions of others) deficits in children with autism. Finally, we describe research needs and future directions and developments for early interventions aimed at addressing the speech/language and social-communication development difficulties in autism from a motor-related perspective. PMID:23630476

  12. Enhancing the Motor Skills of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Pool-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jihyun; Porretta, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) often experience difficulties with motor skill learning and performance. The pool is a unique learning environment that can help children with ASDs learn or improve aquatic skills, fitness, and social skills. A pool-based approach is also aligned with the elements of dynamic systems theory, which…

  13. Enhancing the Motor Skills of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Pool-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jihyun; Porretta, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) often experience difficulties with motor skill learning and performance. The pool is a unique learning environment that can help children with ASDs learn or improve aquatic skills, fitness, and social skills. A pool-based approach is also aligned with the elements of dynamic systems theory, which…

  14. Fine Motor Skill Mediates Visual Memory Ability with Microstructural Neuro-correlates in Cerebellar Peduncles in Prematurely Born Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Alyssa R; Lacadie, Cheryl; Vohr, Betty; Ment, Laura R; Scheinost, Dustin

    2017-01-19

    Adolescents born preterm (PT) with no evidence of neonatal brain injury are at risk of deficits in visual memory and fine motor skills that diminish academic performance. The association between these deficits and white matter microstructure is relatively unexplored. We studied 190 PTs with no brain injury and 92 term controls at age 16 years. The Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCF), the Beery visual-motor integration (VMI), and the Grooved Pegboard Test (GPT) were collected for all participants, while a subset (40 PTs and 40 terms) underwent diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. PTs performed more poorly than terms on ROCF, VMI, and GPT (all P < 0.01). Mediation analysis showed fine motor skill (GPT score) significantly mediates group difference in ROCF and VMI (all P < 0.001). PTs showed a negative correlation (P < 0.05, corrected) between fractional anisotropy (FA) in the bilateral middle cerebellar peduncles and GPT score, with higher FA correlating to lower (faster task completion) GPT scores, and between FA in the right superior cerebellar peduncle and ROCF scores. PTs also had a positive correlation (P < 0.05, corrected) between VMI and left middle cerebellar peduncle FA. Novel strategies to target fine motor skills and the cerebellum may help PTs reach their full academic potential.

  15. Gross Motor Profile and Its Association with Socialization Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Pusponegoro, Hardiono D; Efar, Pustika; Soedjatmiko; Soebadi, Amanda; Firmansyah, Agus; Chen, Hui-Ju; Hung, Kun-Long

    2016-12-01

    While social impairment is considered to be the core deficit in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a large proportion of these children have poor gross motor ability, and gross motor deficits may influence socialization skills in children with ASD. The objectives of this study were to compare gross motor skills in children with ASD to typically developing children, to describe gross motor problems in children with ASD, and to investigate associations between gross motor and socialization skills in children with ASD. This was a cross-sectional study including 40 ASD children aged from 18 months to 6 years and 40 age-matched typically developing controls. Gross motor and socialization skills were scored using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, 2(nd) edition (Vineland-II). Below average gross motor function was found in eight of 40 (20%) ASD children. The mean gross motor v-scale score in the ASD group was 15.1 [standard deviation (SD) 3.12], significantly lower than in the control group [18.7, SD 2.09, p = 0.0001; 95% confidence intervals (CI) from -4.725 to -2.525]. The differences were most prominent in ball throwing and catching, using stairs, jumping, and bicycling. The ASD children with gross motor impairments had a mean socialization domain score of 66.6 (SD 6.50) compared to 85.7 (SD 10.90) in those without gross motor impairments (p = 0.0001, 95% CI from -25.327 to -12.736). Children with ASD had lower gross motor skills compared to typically developing children. Gross motor impairments were found in 20% of the ASD children, and these children also had lower socialization skills than those without gross motor impairments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Global models: Robot sensing, control, and sensory-motor skills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenker, Paul S.

    1989-01-01

    Robotics research has begun to address the modeling and implementation of a wide variety of unstructured tasks. Examples include automated navigation, platform servicing, custom fabrication and repair, deployment and recovery, and science exploration. Such tasks are poorly described at onset; the workspace layout is partially unfamiliar, and the task control sequence is only qualitatively characterized. The robot must model the workspace, plan detailed physical actions from qualitative goals, and adapt its instantaneous control regimes to unpredicted events. Developing robust representations and computational approaches for these sensing, planning, and control functions is a major challenge. The underlying domain constraints are very general, and seem to offer little guidance for well-bounded approximation of object shape and motion, manipulation postures and trajectories, and the like. This generalized modeling problem is discussed, with an emphasis on the role of sensing. It is also discussed that unstructured tasks often have, in fact, a high degree of underlying physical symmetry, and such implicit knowledge should be drawn on to model task performance strategies in a methodological fashion. A group-theoretic decomposition of the workspace organization, task goals, and their admissible interactions are proposed. This group-mechanical approach to task representation helps to clarify the functional interplay of perception and control, in essence, describing what perception is specifically for, versus how it is generically modeled. One also gains insight how perception might logically evolve in response to needs of more complex motor skills. It is discussed why, of the many solutions that are often mathematically admissible to a given sensory motor-coordination problem, one may be preferred over others.

  17. Skills Matter: Further Results from the Survey of Adult Skills. OECD Skills Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kankaraš, Miloš; Montt, Guillermo; Paccagnella, Marco; Quintini, Glenda; Thorn, William

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of the technological revolution that began in the last decades of the 20th century, labour market demand for information-processing and other high-level cognitive and interpersonal skills is growing substantially. The "Survey of Adult Skills," a product of the OECD Programme for the International Assessment of Adult…

  18. Skills Matter: Further Results from the Survey of Adult Skills. OECD Skills Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kankaraš, Miloš; Montt, Guillermo; Paccagnella, Marco; Quintini, Glenda; Thorn, William

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of the technological revolution that began in the last decades of the 20th century, labour market demand for information-processing and other high-level cognitive and interpersonal skills is growing substantially. The "Survey of Adult Skills," a product of the OECD Programme for the International Assessment of Adult…

  19. Neural substrates underlying stimulation-enhanced motor skill learning after stroke.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Stéphanie; Dricot, Laurence; Laloux, Patrice; Gradkowski, Wojciech; Desfontaines, Philippe; Evrard, Frédéric; Peeters, André; Jamart, Jacques; Vandermeeren, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Motor skill learning is one of the key components of motor function recovery after stroke, especially recovery driven by neurorehabilitation. Transcranial direct current stimulation can enhance neurorehabilitation and motor skill learning in stroke patients. However, the neural mechanisms underlying the retention of stimulation-enhanced motor skill learning involving a paretic upper limb have not been resolved. These neural substrates were explored by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging. Nineteen chronic hemiparetic stroke patients participated in a double-blind, cross-over randomized, sham-controlled experiment with two series. Each series consisted of two sessions: (i) an intervention session during which dual transcranial direct current stimulation or sham was applied during motor skill learning with the paretic upper limb; and (ii) an imaging session 1 week later, during which the patients performed the learned motor skill. The motor skill learning task, called the 'circuit game', involves a speed/accuracy trade-off and consists of moving a pointer controlled by a computer mouse along a complex circuit as quickly and accurately as possible. Relative to the sham series, dual transcranial direct current stimulation applied bilaterally over the primary motor cortex during motor skill learning with the paretic upper limb resulted in (i) enhanced online motor skill learning; (ii) enhanced 1-week retention; and (iii) superior transfer of performance improvement to an untrained task. The 1-week retention's enhancement driven by the intervention was associated with a trend towards normalization of the brain activation pattern during performance of the learned motor skill relative to the sham series. A similar trend towards normalization relative to sham was observed during performance of a simple, untrained task without a speed/accuracy constraint, despite a lack of behavioural difference between the dual transcranial direct current stimulation and sham

  20. Neural substrates underlying stimulation-enhanced motor skill learning after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Lefebvre, Stéphanie; Dricot, Laurence; Laloux, Patrice; Gradkowski, Wojciech; Desfontaines, Philippe; Evrard, Frédéric; Peeters, André; Jamart, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Motor skill learning is one of the key components of motor function recovery after stroke, especially recovery driven by neurorehabilitation. Transcranial direct current stimulation can enhance neurorehabilitation and motor skill learning in stroke patients. However, the neural mechanisms underlying the retention of stimulation-enhanced motor skill learning involving a paretic upper limb have not been resolved. These neural substrates were explored by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging. Nineteen chronic hemiparetic stroke patients participated in a double-blind, cross-over randomized, sham-controlled experiment with two series. Each series consisted of two sessions: (i) an intervention session during which dual transcranial direct current stimulation or sham was applied during motor skill learning with the paretic upper limb; and (ii) an imaging session 1 week later, during which the patients performed the learned motor skill. The motor skill learning task, called the ‘circuit game’, involves a speed/accuracy trade-off and consists of moving a pointer controlled by a computer mouse along a complex circuit as quickly and accurately as possible. Relative to the sham series, dual transcranial direct current stimulation applied bilaterally over the primary motor cortex during motor skill learning with the paretic upper limb resulted in (i) enhanced online motor skill learning; (ii) enhanced 1-week retention; and (iii) superior transfer of performance improvement to an untrained task. The 1-week retention’s enhancement driven by the intervention was associated with a trend towards normalization of the brain activation pattern during performance of the learned motor skill relative to the sham series. A similar trend towards normalization relative to sham was observed during performance of a simple, untrained task without a speed/accuracy constraint, despite a lack of behavioural difference between the dual transcranial direct current stimulation and

  1. Effects of gross motor function and manual function levels on performance-based ADL motor skills of children with spastic cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Myoung-Ok

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine effects of Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification System levels on performance-based motor skills of children with spastic cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three children with cerebral palsy were included. The Assessment of Motor and Process Skills was used to evaluate performance-based motor skills in daily life. Gross motor function was assessed using Gross Motor Function Classification Systems, and manual function was measured using the Manual Ability Classification System. [Results] Motor skills in daily activities were significantly different on Gross Motor Function Classification System level and Manual Ability Classification System level. According to the results of multiple regression analysis, children categorized as Gross Motor Function Classification System level III scored lower in terms of performance based motor skills than Gross Motor Function Classification System level I children. Also, when analyzed with respect to Manual Ability Classification System level, level II was lower than level I, and level III was lower than level II in terms of performance based motor skills. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that performance-based motor skills differ among children categorized based on Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification System levels of cerebral palsy. PMID:28265171

  2. Effects of gross motor function and manual function levels on performance-based ADL motor skills of children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Park, Myoung-Ok

    2017-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine effects of Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification System levels on performance-based motor skills of children with spastic cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three children with cerebral palsy were included. The Assessment of Motor and Process Skills was used to evaluate performance-based motor skills in daily life. Gross motor function was assessed using Gross Motor Function Classification Systems, and manual function was measured using the Manual Ability Classification System. [Results] Motor skills in daily activities were significantly different on Gross Motor Function Classification System level and Manual Ability Classification System level. According to the results of multiple regression analysis, children categorized as Gross Motor Function Classification System level III scored lower in terms of performance based motor skills than Gross Motor Function Classification System level I children. Also, when analyzed with respect to Manual Ability Classification System level, level II was lower than level I, and level III was lower than level II in terms of performance based motor skills. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that performance-based motor skills differ among children categorized based on Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification System levels of cerebral palsy.

  3. Fine and gross motor skills differ between healthy-weight and obese children.

    PubMed

    Gentier, Ilse; D'Hondt, Eva; Shultz, Sarah; Deforche, Benedicte; Augustijn, Mireille; Hoorne, Sofie; Verlaecke, Katja; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2013-11-01

    Within the obesity literature, focus is put on the link between weight status and gross motor skills. However, research on fine motor skills in the obese (OB) childhood population is limited. Therefore, the present study focused on possible weight related differences in gross as well as fine motor skill tasks. Thirty-four OB children (12 ♀ and 22 ♂, aged 7-13 years) were recruited prior to participating in a multidisciplinary treatment program at the Zeepreventorium (De Haan, Belgium). Additionally, a control group of 34 age and gender-matched healthy-weight (HW) children was included in the study. Anthropometric measures were recorded and gross and fine motor skills were assessed using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, second edition (BOT-2). Results were analyzed by independent samples t-tests, multivariate analysis of variance, and a chi-squared test. Being OB was detrimental for all subtests evaluating gross motor skill performance (i.e., upper-limb coordination, bilateral coordination, balance, running speed and agility, and strength). Furthermore, OB children performed worse in fine motor precision and a manual dexterity task, when compared to their HW peers. No group differences existed for the fine motor integration task. Our study provides evidence that lower motor competence in OB children is not limited to gross motor skills alone; OB children are also affected by fine motor skill problems. Further investigation is warranted to provide possible explanations for these differences. It is tentatively suggested that OB children experience difficulties with the integration and processing of sensory information. Future research is needed to explore whether this assumption is correct and what the underlying mechanism(s) could be. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Analogy learning and the performance of motor skills under pressure.

    PubMed

    Lam, Wing Kai; Maxwell, Jon P; Masters, Richard

    2009-06-01

    The efficacy of analogical instruction, relative to explicit instruction, for the acquisition of a complex motor skill and subsequent performance under pressure was investigated using a modified (seated) basketball shooting task. Differences in attentional resource allocation associated with analogy and explicit learning were also examined using probe reaction times (PRT). Access to task-relevant explicit (declarative) knowledge was assessed. The analogy and explicit learning groups performed equally well during learning and delayed retention tests. The explicit group experienced a drop in performance during a pressured transfer test, relative to their performance during a preceding retention test. However, the analogy group's performance was unaffected by the pressure manipulation. Results from PRTs suggested that both groups allocated equal amounts of attentional resources to the task throughout learning and test trials. Analogy learners had significantly less access to rules about the mechanics of their movements, relative to explicit learners. The results are interpreted in the context of Eysenck and Calvo's (1992) processing efficiency theory and Masters's (1992) theory of reinvestment.

  5. Exploring the Interaction of Motor and Social Skills With Autism Severity Using the SFARI Dataset.

    PubMed

    Colombo-Dougovito, Andrew M; Reeve, Ronald E

    2017-04-01

    Social communicative deficits and stereotyped or repetitive interests or behaviors are the defining features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A growing body of research suggests that gross motor deficits are also present in most children with ASD. This study sought to understand how pediatric ASD severity is related to motor skills and social skills. A multivariate analysis of variance analysis of 483 children with autism ( N = 444) and ASD ( N = 39) revealed a nonsignificant difference between groups. Results suggest little difference between severity groups on gross motor and social skills within the limited age range of the participants (about 5.6 years of age).

  6. Speed of motor re-learning after experimental stroke depends on prior skill.

    PubMed

    Schubring-Giese, Maximilian; Molina-Luna, Katiuska; Hertler, Benjamin; Buitrago, Manuel M; Hanley, Daniel F; Luft, Andreas R

    2007-08-01

    Many motor rehabilitation therapies are based on principles of motor learning. Motor learning depends on preliminary knowledge of the trained and other (similar) skills. This study sought to investigate the influence of prior skill knowledge on re-learning of a precision reaching skill after a cortical lesion in rat. One group of animals recovered a previously known skill (skill training, followed by stroke and re-learning training, TST, n = 8). A second group learned the skill for the first time after stroke (ST, n = 6). A control group received prolonged training without stroke (n = 6). Unilateral partial motor cortex lesions were induced photothrombotically after identifying the forelimb representation using epidural stimulation mapping. In TST animals, re-learning after stroke was slower than learning before stroke (post hoc repeated measures ANOVA P = 0.039) and learning in the control group (P = 0.033). De novo learning after stroke (ST group) was not different from healthy learning. These findings show that skill learning can be performed if the motor cortex is partially lesioned; re-learning of a skill after stroke is slowed by prior knowledge of the skill. It remains to be tested in humans whether task novelty positively influences rehabilitation therapy.

  7. Assessing Motor Skill Competency in Elementary School Students: A Three-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Weiyun; Mason, Steve; Hypnar, Andrew; Bennett, Austin

    2016-01-01

    This study was to examine how well fourth- and fifth-grade students demonstrated motor skill competency assessed with selected PE Metrics assessment rubrics (2009). Fourth- and fifth-grade students (n = 1,346-1,926) were assessed on their performance of three manipulative skills using the PE Metrics Assessment Rubrics during the pre-intervention year, the post-intervention year 1, and the post-intervention year 3. Descriptive statistics, independent t-test, ANOVA, and follow-up comparisons were conducted for data analysis. The results indicated that the post-intervention year 2 cohort performed significantly more competent than the pre-intervention cohort and the post-intervention year 1 cohort on the three manipulative skill assessments. The post-intervention year 1 cohort significantly outperformed the pre-intervention cohort on the soccer dribbling, passing, and receiving and the striking skill assessments, but not on the throwing skill assessment. Although the boys in the three cohorts performed significantly better than the girls on all three skills, the girls showed substantial improvement on the overhand throwing and the soccer skills from baseline to the post-intervention year 1 and the post-intervention year 2. However, the girls, in particular, need to improve striking skill. The CTACH PE was conducive to improving fourth- and fifth-grade students’ motor skill competency in the three manipulative skills. This study suggest that PE Metrics assessment rubrics are feasible tools for PE teachers to assess levels of students’ demonstration of motor skill competency during a regular PE lesson. Key points CATCH PE is an empirically-evidenced quality PE curricular that is conducive to improving students’ manipulative skill competency. Boys significantly outperformed than girls in all three manipulative skills. Girls need to improve motor skill competency in striking skill. PE Metrics are feasible assessment rubrics that can be easily used by trained

  8. The relationship between transitional motor skills and locomotion.

    PubMed

    Looper, Julia; Talbot, Sara; Link, Allison; Chandler, Lynette

    2015-02-01

    This study explores whether transitional skills and sitting correlate with locomotion onset. The development of eight infants was followed. Most transitional skills correlated with locomotor skills. Sitting and rolling did not. Transitional skills may resemble the control needed for locomotion more closely than sitting.

  9. Fine motor skills and expressive language: a study with children with congenital hypotyreoidism.

    PubMed

    Frezzato, Renata Camargo; Santos, Denise Castilho Cabrera; Goto, Maura Mikie Fukujima; Ouro, Michelle Prado Cabral do; Santos, Carolina Taddeo Mendes Dos; Dutra, Vivian; Lima, Maria Cecília Marconi Pinheiro

    2017-03-09

    To screen the global development of children with and without congenital hypothyroidism and to investigate the association between fine motor skills and expressive language development in both groups. This is a prospective study of a cohort of children diagnosed with Congenital Hypothyroidism and monitored in a reference service for congenital hypothyroidism of a public hospital and of children without this disorder. The screening was performed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III in the cognitive, gross and fine motor skills, and receptive and expressive language domains. The children's performance was expressed in three categories: competent, and non-competent. We screened 117 children with average age of 21 months diagnosed with Congenital Hypothyroidism at birth, with the Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) level normalized during screening, and 51 children without the condition. The children with Congenital Hypothyroidism presented lower performance in gross and fine motor skills upon comparison between the two groups, and no differences were found in the cognitive and receptive and expressive language domains. The association between fine motor skills and language persisted in the group with Hypothyroidism, demonstrating that the interrelationship of skills is present in all individuals, although this group is two times more likely to present expressive language impairment when fine motor skills are already compromised. In the development process, both skills - motor and expressive language - might be associated and/or dependent on each other in the sample assessed.

  10. Changes in corticospinal drive to spinal motoneurones following visuo-motor skill learning in humans

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Monica A; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Nielsen, Jens B

    2006-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated an increase in the excitability of the leg motor cortical area in relation to acquisition of a visuo-motor task in healthy humans. It remains unknown whether the interaction between corticospinal drive and spinal motoneurones is also modulated following motor skill learning. Here we investigated the effect of visuo-motor skill training involving the ankle muscles on the coupling between electroencephalographic (EEG) activity recorded from the motor cortex (Cz) and electromyographic (EMG) activity recorded from the left tibialis anterior (TA) muscle in 11 volunteers. Coupling in the time (cumulant density function) and frequency domains (coherence) between EEG–EMG and EMG–EMG activity were calculated during tonic isometric dorsiflexion before and after 32 min of training a visuo-motor tracking task involving the ankle muscles or performing alternating dorsi- and plantarflexion movements without visual feedback. A significant increase in EEG–EMG coherence around 15–35 Hz was observed following the visuo-motor skill session in nine subjects and in only one subject after the control task. Changes in coherence were specific to the trained muscle as coherence for the untrained contralateral TA muscle was unchanged. EEG and EMG power were unchanged following the training. Our results suggest that visuo-motor skill training is associated with changes in the corticospinal drive to spinal motorneurones. Possibly these changes reflect sensorimotor integration processes between cortex and muscle as part of the motor learning process. PMID:16581867

  11. The Neural Basis for Learning of Simple Motor Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisberger, Stephen G.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) which is used to investigate the neural basis for motor learning in monkeys. Suggests organizing principles that may apply in forms of motor learning as a result of similarities among VOR and other motor systems. (Author/RT)

  12. Fine motor skills and executive function both contribute to kindergarten achievement.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Claire E; Brock, Laura L; Murrah, William M; Bell, Lindsay H; Worzalla, Samantha L; Grissmer, David; Morrison, Frederick J

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of executive function (EF) and multiple aspects of fine motor skills to achievement on 6 standardized assessments in a sample of middle-socioeconomic status kindergarteners. Three- and 4-year-olds' (n=213) fine and gross motor skills were assessed in a home visit before kindergarten, EF was measured at fall of kindergarten, and Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Academic Achievement were administered at fall and spring. Correlations indicated that EF and fine motor skills appeared distinct. Further, controlling for background variables, higher levels of both EF and fine motor skills, specifically design copy, predicted higher achievement on multiple subtests at kindergarten entry, as well as improvement from fall to spring. Implications for research on school readiness are discussed. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  13. Teaching and Assessing Manipulative Motor Skills in High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bert, Greg

    2015-01-01

    This article provides new ways to teach and assess motor skills in various lifetime sports such as tennis, golf, badminton, and other sports that students are likely to play as adults by focusing on five basic biomechanical principles.

  14. Comparison of motor and process skills among children with different developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Park, Myoung-Ok

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to compare the motor and process skills of children with different developmental disabilities. [Subjects] Thirty-nine children with developmental disabilities participated in this study which was conducted at N hospital in South Korea. [Methods] The motor and process skills of the participants were compared among three different disabilities: pervasive developmental disorder, cerebral palsy, and intellectual disorder. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and one-way ANOVA. [Results] Significant differences in motor skills were found among the diagnoses. The cerebral palsy group showed poorer motor skills than the pervasive developmental disability and intellectual disability groups. [Conclusion] The findings have clinical implications for strategies of rehabilitation for children with developmental disabilities.

  15. Teaching and Assessing Manipulative Motor Skills in High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bert, Greg

    2015-01-01

    This article provides new ways to teach and assess motor skills in various lifetime sports such as tennis, golf, badminton, and other sports that students are likely to play as adults by focusing on five basic biomechanical principles.

  16. Fine motor skills and executive function both contribute to kindergarten achievement

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Claire E.; Brock, Laura L.; Murrah, William M.; Bell, Lindsay H.; Worzalla, Samantha L.; Grissmer, David; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of executive function (EF) and multiple aspects of fine motor skills to achievement on six standardized assessments in a sample of middle-SES kindergarteners. 3- and 4-year-olds’ (N=213) fine and gross motor skills were assessed in a home visit before kindergarten; EF was measured at fall of kindergarten; and Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ III) Tests of Academic Achievement were administered at fall and spring. Correlations indicated that EF and fine motor skills appeared distinct. Further, controlling for background variables, higher levels of both EF and fine motor skills, specifically design copy, predicted higher achievement on multiple subtests at kindergarten entry, as well as improvement from fall to spring. Implications for research on school readiness are discussed. PMID:22537276

  17. Comparison of motor and process skills among children with different developmental disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Park, Myoung-Ok

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to compare the motor and process skills of children with different developmental disabilities. [Subjects] Thirty-nine children with developmental disabilities participated in this study which was conducted at N hospital in South Korea. [Methods] The motor and process skills of the participants were compared among three different disabilities: pervasive developmental disorder, cerebral palsy, and intellectual disorder. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and one-way ANOVA. [Results] Significant differences in motor skills were found among the diagnoses. The cerebral palsy group showed poorer motor skills than the pervasive developmental disability and intellectual disability groups. [Conclusion] The findings have clinical implications for strategies of rehabilitation for children with developmental disabilities. PMID:26644670

  18. Region and task-specific activation of Arc in primary motor cortex of rats following motor skill learning.

    PubMed

    Hosp, J A; Mann, S; Wegenast-Braun, B M; Calhoun, M E; Luft, A R

    2013-10-10

    Motor learning requires protein synthesis within the primary motor cortex (M1). Here, we show that the immediate early gene Arc/Arg3.1 is specifically induced in M1 by learning a motor skill. Arc mRNA was quantified using a fluorescent in situ hybridization assay in adult Long-Evans rats learning a skilled reaching task (SRT), in rats performing reaching-like forelimb movement without learning (ACT) and in rats that were trained in the operant but not the motor elements of the task (controls). Apart from M1, Arc expression was assessed within the rostral motor area (RMA), primary somatosensory cortex (S1), striatum (ST) and cerebellum. In SRT animals, Arc mRNA levels in M1 contralateral to the trained limb were 31% higher than ipsilateral (p<0.001), 31% higher than in the contralateral M1 of ACT animals (p<0.001) and 48% higher than in controls (p<0.001). Arc mRNA expression in SRT was positively correlated with learning success between two sessions (r=0.52; p=0.026). For RMA, S1, ST or cerebellum no significant differences in Arc mRNA expression were found between hemispheres or across behaviors. As Arc expression has been related to different forms of cellular plasticity, these findings suggest a link between M1 Arc expression and motor skill learning in rats. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Neural substrates underlying motor skill learning in chronic hemiparetic stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Lefebvre, Stéphanie; Dricot, Laurence; Laloux, Patrice; Gradkowski, Wojciech; Desfontaines, Philippe; Evrard, Frédéric; Peeters, André; Jamart, Jacques; Vandermeeren, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Motor skill learning is critical in post-stroke motor recovery, but little is known about its underlying neural substrates. Recently, using a new visuomotor skill learning paradigm involving a speed/accuracy trade-off in healthy individuals we identified three subpopulations based on their behavioral trajectories: fitters (in whom improvement in speed or accuracy coincided with deterioration in the other parameter), shifters (in whom speed and/or accuracy improved without degradation of the other parameter), and non-learners. We aimed to identify the neural substrates underlying the first stages of motor skill learning in chronic hemiparetic stroke patients and to determine whether specific neural substrates were recruited in shifters versus fitters. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 23 patients learned the visuomotor skill with their paretic upper limb. In the whole-group analysis, correlation between activation and motor skill learning was restricted to the dorsal prefrontal cortex of the damaged hemisphere (DLPFCdamh: r = −0.82) and the dorsal premotor cortex (PMddamh: r = 0.70); the correlations was much lesser (−0.16 < r > 0.25) in the other regions of interest. In a subgroup analysis, significant activation was restricted to bilateral posterior parietal cortices of the fitters and did not correlate with motor skill learning. Conversely, in shifters significant activation occurred in the primary sensorimotor cortexdamh and supplementary motor areadamh and in bilateral PMd where activation changes correlated significantly with motor skill learning (r = 0.91). Finally, resting-state activity acquired before learning showed a higher functional connectivity in the salience network of shifters compared with fitters (qFDR < 0.05). These data suggest a neuroplastic compensatory reorganization of brain activity underlying the first stages of motor skill learning with the paretic upper limb in chronic hemiparetic stroke patients, with a key role

  20. Neural substrates underlying motor skill learning in chronic hemiparetic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Stéphanie; Dricot, Laurence; Laloux, Patrice; Gradkowski, Wojciech; Desfontaines, Philippe; Evrard, Frédéric; Peeters, André; Jamart, Jacques; Vandermeeren, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Motor skill learning is critical in post-stroke motor recovery, but little is known about its underlying neural substrates. Recently, using a new visuomotor skill learning paradigm involving a speed/accuracy trade-off in healthy individuals we identified three subpopulations based on their behavioral trajectories: fitters (in whom improvement in speed or accuracy coincided with deterioration in the other parameter), shifters (in whom speed and/or accuracy improved without degradation of the other parameter), and non-learners. We aimed to identify the neural substrates underlying the first stages of motor skill learning in chronic hemiparetic stroke patients and to determine whether specific neural substrates were recruited in shifters versus fitters. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 23 patients learned the visuomotor skill with their paretic upper limb. In the whole-group analysis, correlation between activation and motor skill learning was restricted to the dorsal prefrontal cortex of the damaged hemisphere (DLPFCdamh: r = -0.82) and the dorsal premotor cortex (PMddamh: r = 0.70); the correlations was much lesser (-0.16 < r > 0.25) in the other regions of interest. In a subgroup analysis, significant activation was restricted to bilateral posterior parietal cortices of the fitters and did not correlate with motor skill learning. Conversely, in shifters significant activation occurred in the primary sensorimotor cortexdamh and supplementary motor areadamh and in bilateral PMd where activation changes correlated significantly with motor skill learning (r = 0.91). Finally, resting-state activity acquired before learning showed a higher functional connectivity in the salience network of shifters compared with fitters (qFDR < 0.05). These data suggest a neuroplastic compensatory reorganization of brain activity underlying the first stages of motor skill learning with the paretic upper limb in chronic hemiparetic stroke patients, with a key role of

  1. Qigong massage for motor skills in young children with cerebral palsy and Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Silva, Louisa M T; Schalock, Mark; Garberg, Jodi; Smith, Cynthia Lammers

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we present a small randomized controlled study evaluating the effect of a dual parent- and trainer-delivered qigong massage methodology on motor skills and sensory responses in 28 children under age 4 with developmental delay and motor tone abnormalities. Fourteen children had high motor tone as a result of cerebral palsy (CP), and 14 children had low motor tone as a result of Down syndrome. Multivariate analysis and post hoc analysis of variance showed large effect-size improvements in Peabody Gross Motor Scale (PGMS) Object Manipulation scores (p < .01) and large effect-size improvements in overall PGMS scores (p < .04) in treatment versus control groups after 5 mo intervention. Follow-up evaluation 10 mo from the start indicated continued improvement. Sensory responses showed no treatment effect. The results suggest further investigation of qigong massage as a promising avenue for research to improve motor skills in young children with CP and Down syndrome.

  2. Fine motor skill predicts expressive language in infant siblings of children with autism.

    PubMed

    LeBarton, Eve Sauer; Iverson, Jana M

    2013-11-01

    We investigated whether fine motor and expressive language skills are related in the later-born siblings of children with autism (heightened-risk, HR infants) who are at increased risk for language delays. We observed 34 HR infants longitudinally from 12 to 36 months. We used parent report and standardized observation measures to assess fine motor skill from 12 to 24 months in HR infants (Study 1) and its relation to later expressive vocabulary at 36 months in HR infants (Study 2). In Study 1, we also included 25 infants without a family history of autism to serve as a normative comparison group for a parent-report fine motor measure. We found that HR infants exhibited fine motor delays between 12 and 24 months and expressive vocabulary delays at 36 months. Further, fine motor skill significantly predicted expressive language at 36 months. Fine motor and expressive language skills are related early in development in HR infants, who, as a group, exhibit risk for delays in both. Our findings highlight the importance of considering fine motor skill in children at risk for language impairments and may have implications for early identification of expressive language difficulties. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Differential modulation of motor cortex plasticity in skill- and endurance-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Kumpulainen, Susanne; Avela, Janne; Gruber, Markus; Bergmann, Julian; Voigt, Michael; Linnamo, Vesa; Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie

    2015-05-01

    Extensive evidence exists that regular physical exercise offers neuroplastic benefits to the brain. In this study, exercise-specific effects on motor cortex plasticity were compared between 15 skilled and 15 endurance trained athletes and 8 controls. Plasticity was tested with a paired associative stimulation (PAS) protocol. PAS is a non-invasive stimulation method developed to induce bidirectional changes in the excitability of the cortical projections to the target muscles. Motor cortex excitability was assessed by motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in the task-relevant soleus muscle, elicited with transcranial magnetic stimulation, before and following PAS. To test for changes at the spinal level, soleus short latency stretch reflexes (SLSR) were elicited before and after PAS. PAS induced a significant (76 ± 83 %) increase in MEP amplitude in the skill group, without significant changes in the endurance (-7 ± 35 %) or control groups (21 ± 30 %). Baseline MEP/post MEP ratio was significantly different between the skill and endurance groups. SLSR remained unchanged after the PAS intervention. The possible reason for differential motor cortex plasticity in skill and endurance groups is likely related to the different training-induced adaptations. The findings of the current study suggest that long-term skill training by skill group induced preferable adaptations in the task-related areas of the motor cortex because increased plasticity is known to enhance motor learning.

  4. Reduced asymmetry in motor skill learning in left-handed compared to right-handed individuals.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Robert L; Kantak, Shailesh S

    2016-02-01

    Hemispheric specialization for motor control influences how individuals perform and adapt to goal-directed movements. In contrast to adaptation, motor skill learning involves a process wherein one learns to synthesize novel movement capabilities in absence of perturbation such that they are performed with greater accuracy, consistency and efficiency. Here, we investigated manual asymmetry in acquisition and retention of a complex motor skill that requires speed and accuracy for optimal performance in right-handed and left-handed individuals. We further determined if degree of handedness influences motor skill learning. Ten right-handed (RH) and 10 left-handed (LH) adults practiced two distinct motor skills with their dominant or nondominant arms during separate sessions two-four weeks apart. Learning was quantified by changes in the speed-accuracy tradeoff function measured at baseline and one-day retention. Manual asymmetry was evident in the RH group but not the LH group. RH group demonstrated significantly greater skill improvement for their dominant-right hand than their nondominant-left hand. In contrast, for the LH group, both dominant and nondominant hands demonstrated comparable learning. Less strongly-LH individuals (lower EHI scores) exhibited more learning of their dominant hand. These results suggest that while hemispheric specialization influences motor skill learning, these effects may be influenced by handedness.

  5. Visual Constructive and Visual-Motor Skills in Deaf Native Signers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauser, Peter C.; Cohen, Julie; Dye, Matthew W. G.; Bavelier, Daphne

    2007-01-01

    Visual constructive and visual-motor skills in the deaf population were investigated by comparing performance of deaf native signers (n = 20) to that of hearing nonsigners (n = 20) on the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, Wechsler Memory Scale Visual Reproduction subtest, and…

  6. Motor Skill Performance by Low SES Preschool and Typically Developing Children on the PDMS-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ting; Hoffmann, Chelsea; Hamilton, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the motor skill performance of preschool children from low socioeconomic (SES) backgrounds to their age matched typically developing peers using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2 (PDMS-2). Sixty-eight children (34 low SES and 34 typically developing; ages 3-5) performed the PDMS-2. Standard scores…

  7. Interaction of Language Processing and Motor Skill in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiDonato Brumbach, Andrea C.; Goffman, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine how language production interacts with speech motor and gross and fine motor skill in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Eleven children with SLI and 12 age-matched peers (4-6 years) produced structurally primed sentences containing particles and prepositions. Utterances were analyzed for errors and for…

  8. Behind Mathematical Learning Disabilities: What about Visual Perception and Motor Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieters, Stefanie; Desoete, Annemie; Roeyers, Herbert; Vanderswalmen, Ruth; Van Waelvelde, Hilde

    2012-01-01

    In a sample of 39 children with mathematical learning disabilities (MLD) and 106 typically developing controls belonging to three control groups of three different ages, we found that visual perception, motor skills and visual-motor integration explained a substantial proportion of the variance in either number fact retrieval or procedural…

  9. Motor Skill Performance and Sports Participation in Deaf Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to examine motor performance in deaf elementary school children and its association with sports participation. The population studied included 42 deaf children whose hearing loss ranged from 80 to 120 dB. Their motor skills were assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, and a questionnaire was used to determine…

  10. A Model for the Transfer of Perceptual-Motor Skill Learning in Human Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosalie, Simon M.; Muller, Sean

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary model that outlines the mechanisms underlying the transfer of perceptual-motor skill learning in sport and everyday tasks. Perceptual-motor behavior is motivated by performance demands and evolves over time to increase the probability of success through adaptation. Performance demands at the time of an event…

  11. Changes in Information Processing with Aging: Implications for Teaching Motor Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anshel, Mark H.

    Although there are marked individual differences in the effect of aging on learning and performing motor skills, there is agreement that humans process information less efficiently with advanced age. Significant decrements have been found specifically with motor tasks that are characterized as externally-paced, rapid, complex, and requiring rapid…

  12. Relationship between Motor Skill and Body Mass Index in 5- to 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Hondt, Eva; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate gross and fine motor skill in overweight and obese children compared with normal-weight peers. According to international cut-off points for Body Mass Index (BMI) from Cole et al. (2000), all 117 participants (5-10 year) were classified as being normal-weight, overweight, or obese. Level of motor skill…

  13. Culturally & Linguistically Sensitive Practices in Motor Skills Intervention for Young Children. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baghwanji, Yash; Santos, Rosa Milagros; Fowler, Susan A.

    This report examines the validity of motor intervention practices that have been described as "quality" practices and the extent to which they are appropriate for all families and children. Misunderstandings and conflicts in the areas of motor skills evaluation and intervention can occur between those providing services and those receiving…

  14. Motor Skill Performance and Sports Participation in Deaf Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to examine motor performance in deaf elementary school children and its association with sports participation. The population studied included 42 deaf children whose hearing loss ranged from 80 to 120 dB. Their motor skills were assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, and a questionnaire was used to determine…

  15. Relationship between Motor Skill and Body Mass Index in 5- to 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Hondt, Eva; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate gross and fine motor skill in overweight and obese children compared with normal-weight peers. According to international cut-off points for Body Mass Index (BMI) from Cole et al. (2000), all 117 participants (5-10 year) were classified as being normal-weight, overweight, or obese. Level of motor skill…

  16. A Researcher's Story of Assessing Motor Skills of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslin, Casey M.; Buchanan, Alice M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore and interpret a researcher's experiences while conducting motor skill assessments of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The first author and participant-researcher was, at the time of the study, a kinesiology doctoral candidate studying motor behavior. The second author, an associate professor of…

  17. Relationship between Motor Skill Competency and Executive Function in Children with Down's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schott, N.; Holfelder, B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies suggest that children with Down's syndrome (DS), a genetically based neurodevelopmental disorder, demonstrate motor problems and cognitive deficits. The first aim of this study was to examine motor skills and executive functions (EFs) in school-age children with DS. The second aim was to investigate the relationship…

  18. Behind Mathematical Learning Disabilities: What about Visual Perception and Motor Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieters, Stefanie; Desoete, Annemie; Roeyers, Herbert; Vanderswalmen, Ruth; Van Waelvelde, Hilde

    2012-01-01

    In a sample of 39 children with mathematical learning disabilities (MLD) and 106 typically developing controls belonging to three control groups of three different ages, we found that visual perception, motor skills and visual-motor integration explained a substantial proportion of the variance in either number fact retrieval or procedural…

  19. Motor Skill Performance by Low SES Preschool and Typically Developing Children on the PDMS-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ting; Hoffmann, Chelsea; Hamilton, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the motor skill performance of preschool children from low socioeconomic (SES) backgrounds to their age matched typically developing peers using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2 (PDMS-2). Sixty-eight children (34 low SES and 34 typically developing; ages 3-5) performed the PDMS-2. Standard scores…

  20. Interaction of Language Processing and Motor Skill in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiDonato Brumbach, Andrea C.; Goffman, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine how language production interacts with speech motor and gross and fine motor skill in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Eleven children with SLI and 12 age-matched peers (4-6 years) produced structurally primed sentences containing particles and prepositions. Utterances were analyzed for errors and for…

  1. Relationship between Motor Skill Competency and Executive Function in Children with Down's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schott, N.; Holfelder, B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies suggest that children with Down's syndrome (DS), a genetically based neurodevelopmental disorder, demonstrate motor problems and cognitive deficits. The first aim of this study was to examine motor skills and executive functions (EFs) in school-age children with DS. The second aim was to investigate the relationship…

  2. A Model for the Transfer of Perceptual-Motor Skill Learning in Human Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosalie, Simon M.; Muller, Sean

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary model that outlines the mechanisms underlying the transfer of perceptual-motor skill learning in sport and everyday tasks. Perceptual-motor behavior is motivated by performance demands and evolves over time to increase the probability of success through adaptation. Performance demands at the time of an event…

  3. Developing Motor and Tactical Skills in K-2 Physical Education: Let the Games Begin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oslin, Judy

    2004-01-01

    Most motor development experts, teacher educators, and physical educators agree that the development of fundamental motor skills ought to be the focus of primary level (K-2nd grade) physical education. Given the limited number of days allocated for physical education in most elementary schools, ensuring that all students learn 200 or more…

  4. Motor Skill Performance of School-Age Children with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houwen, S.; Visscher, C.; Lemmink, K. A. P. M.; Hartman, E.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the performance of children with visual impairments (VI) aged 7 to 10 years on different types of motor skills. Furthermore, the association between the degree of the VI and motor performance was examined. The motor performance of 48 children with VI (32 males, 16 females; mean age 8y 10mo [SD 1y 1mo]) was…

  5. Motor Skill Performance of School-Age Children with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houwen, S.; Visscher, C.; Lemmink, K. A. P. M.; Hartman, E.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the performance of children with visual impairments (VI) aged 7 to 10 years on different types of motor skills. Furthermore, the association between the degree of the VI and motor performance was examined. The motor performance of 48 children with VI (32 males, 16 females; mean age 8y 10mo [SD 1y 1mo]) was…

  6. A Single Bout of Moderate Aerobic Exercise Improves Motor Skill Acquisition.

    PubMed

    Statton, Matthew A; Encarnacion, Marysol; Celnik, Pablo; Bastian, Amy J

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exercise is associated with improved performance on a variety of cognitive tasks including attention, executive function, and long-term memory. Remarkably, recent studies have shown that even a single bout of aerobic exercise can lead to immediate improvements in declarative learning and memory, but less is known about the effect of exercise on motor learning. Here we sought to determine the effect of a single bout of moderate intensity aerobic exercise on motor skill learning. In experiment 1, we investigated the effect of moderate aerobic exercise on motor acquisition. 24 young, healthy adults performed a motor learning task either immediately after 30 minutes of moderate intensity running, after running followed by a long rest period, or after slow walking. Motor skill was assessed via a speed-accuracy tradeoff function to determine how exercise might differentially affect two distinct components of motor learning performance: movement speed and accuracy. In experiment 2, we investigated both acquisition and retention of motor skill across multiple days of training. 20 additional participants performed either a bout of running or slow walking immediately before motor learning on three consecutive days, and only motor learning (no exercise) on a fourth day. We found that moderate intensity running led to an immediate improvement in motor acquisition for both a single session and on multiple sessions across subsequent days, but had no effect on between-day retention. This effect was driven by improved movement accuracy, as opposed to speed. However, the benefit of exercise was dependent upon motor learning occurring immediately after exercise-resting for a period of one hour after exercise diminished the effect. These results demonstrate that moderate intensity exercise can prime the nervous system for the acquisition of new motor skills, and suggest that similar exercise protocols may be effective in improving the outcomes of movement rehabilitation

  7. Sit to Talk: Relation between Motor Skills and Language Development in Infancy.

    PubMed

    Libertus, Klaus; Violi, Dominic A

    2016-01-01

    Relations between walking skills and language development have been reported in 10- to 14-month-old infants. However, whether earlier emerging motor milestones also affect language skills remains unknown. The current research fills this gap by examining the relation between reaching and sitting skills and later language development, respectively. Reaching and sitting were assessed eight times, starting when infants (N = 29) were around 3 months of age. All assessments were completed and recorded remotely via videoconference using Skype or FaceTime. Subsequently, infants' language and motor skills were assessed via parent questionnaires (Communicative Development Inventories and Early Motor Questionnaire) at 10 and 14 months of age. Results revealed a significant correlation between the emergence of sitting skills and receptive vocabulary size at 10 and 14 months of age. Regression analyses further confirmed this pattern and revealed that the emergence of sitting is a significant predictor of subsequent language development above and beyond influences of concurrent motor skills. These findings suggest that the onset of independent sitting may initiate a developmental cascade that results in increased language learning opportunities. Further, this study also demonstrates how infants' early motor skills can be assessed remotely using videoconference.

  8. Sit to Talk: Relation between Motor Skills and Language Development in Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Libertus, Klaus; Violi, Dominic A.

    2016-01-01

    Relations between walking skills and language development have been reported in 10- to 14-month-old infants. However, whether earlier emerging motor milestones also affect language skills remains unknown. The current research fills this gap by examining the relation between reaching and sitting skills and later language development, respectively. Reaching and sitting were assessed eight times, starting when infants (N = 29) were around 3 months of age. All assessments were completed and recorded remotely via videoconference using Skype or FaceTime. Subsequently, infants’ language and motor skills were assessed via parent questionnaires (Communicative Development Inventories and Early Motor Questionnaire) at 10 and 14 months of age. Results revealed a significant correlation between the emergence of sitting skills and receptive vocabulary size at 10 and 14 months of age. Regression analyses further confirmed this pattern and revealed that the emergence of sitting is a significant predictor of subsequent language development above and beyond influences of concurrent motor skills. These findings suggest that the onset of independent sitting may initiate a developmental cascade that results in increased language learning opportunities. Further, this study also demonstrates how infants’ early motor skills can be assessed remotely using videoconference. PMID:27065934

  9. Older age relates to worsening of fine motor skills: a population-based study of middle-aged and elderly persons.

    PubMed

    Hoogendam, Yoo Young; van der Lijn, Fedde; Vernooij, Meike W; Hofman, Albert; Niessen, Wiro J; van der Lugt, Aad; Ikram, M Arfan; van der Geest, Jos N

    2014-01-01

    In a population-based study of 1,912 community-dwelling persons of 45 years and older, we investigated the relation between age and fine motor skills using the Archimedes spiral-drawing test. Also, we studied the effect of brain volume on fine motor skills. Participants were required to trace a template of a spiral on an electronic drawing board. Clinical scores from this test were obtained by visual assessment of the drawings. Quantitative measures were objectively determined from the recorded data of the drawings. As tremor is known to occur increasingly with advancing age, we also rated drawings to assess presence of tremor. We found presence of a tremor in 1.3% of the drawings. In the group without tremor, we found that older age was related to worse fine motor skills. Additionally, participants over the age of 75 showed increasing deviations from the template when drawing the spiral. Larger cerebral volume and smaller white matter lesion volume were related to better spiral-drawing performance, whereas cerebellar volume was not related to spiral-drawing performance. Older age is related to worse fine motor skills, which can be captured by clinical scoring or quantitative measures of the Archimedes spiral-drawing test. Persons with a tremor performed worse on almost all measures of the spiral-drawing test. Furthermore, larger cerebral volume is related to better fine motor skills.

  10. Older Age Relates to Worsening of Fine Motor Skills: A Population-Based Study of Middle-Aged and Elderly Persons

    PubMed Central

    Hoogendam, Yoo Young; van der Lijn, Fedde; Vernooij, Meike W.; Hofman, Albert; Niessen, Wiro J.; van der Lugt, Aad; Ikram, M. Arfan; van der Geest, Jos N.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In a population-based study of 1,912 community-dwelling persons of 45 years and older, we investigated the relation between age and fine motor skills using the Archimedes spiral-drawing test. Also, we studied the effect of brain volume on fine motor skills. Methods: Participants were required to trace a template of a spiral on an electronic drawing board. Clinical scores from this test were obtained by visual assessment of the drawings. Quantitative measures were objectively determined from the recorded data of the drawings. As tremor is known to occur increasingly with advancing age, we also rated drawings to assess presence of tremor. Results: We found presence of a tremor in 1.3% of the drawings. In the group without tremor, we found that older age was related to worse fine motor skills. Additionally, participants over the age of 75 showed increasing deviations from the template when drawing the spiral. Larger cerebral volume and smaller white matter lesion volume were related to better spiral-drawing performance, whereas cerebellar volume was not related to spiral-drawing performance. Conclusion: Older age is related to worse fine motor skills, which can be captured by clinical scoring or quantitative measures of the Archimedes spiral-drawing test. Persons with a tremor performed worse on almost all measures of the spiral-drawing test. Furthermore, larger cerebral volume is related to better fine motor skills. PMID:25309436

  11. Task Analyses and Objectives for Trainable Mentally Retarded: Communication Skills [and] Daily Living Skills [and] Motor Skills [and] Quantitative Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Public Schools, Minn.

    The document is comprised of objectives and information on step-by-step tasks for instruction of trainable mentally retarded students and for development of individualized education programs. Each objective includes information on materials, behavioral criteria, and a chart to assess task analyzed steps. Four main skill areas are covered (sample…

  12. The effects of an early motor skill intervention on motor skills, levels of physical activity, and socialization in young children with autism spectrum disorder: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ketcheson, Leah; Hauck, Janet; Ulrich, Dale

    2017-05-01

    Despite evidence suggesting one of the earliest indicators of an eventual autism spectrum disorder diagnoses is an early motor delay, there remain very few interventions targeting motor behavior as the primary outcome for young children with autism spectrum disorder. The aim of this pilot study was to measure the efficacy of an intensive motor skill intervention on motor skills (Test of Gross Motor Development-2), physical activity (accelerometers), and socialization (Playground Observation of Peer Engagement) in young children with autism spectrum disorder. A total of 20 children with autism spectrum disorder aged 4-6 years participated. The experimental group ( n = 11) participated in an 8-week intervention consisting of motor skill instruction for 4 h/day, 5 days/week. The control group ( n = 9) did not receive the intervention. A repeated-measures analysis of covariance revealed statistically significant differences between groups in all three motor outcomes, locomotor ( F(1, 14) = 10.07, p < 0.001, partial η(2) = 0.42), object control ( F(1, 14) = 12.90, p < 0.001, partial η(2) = 0.48), and gross quotient ( F(1, 14) = 15.61, p < 0.01, partial η(2) = 0.53). Findings shed light on the importance of including motor programming as part of the early intervention services delivered to young children with autism spectrum disorder.

  13. Functional Abilities as a Predictor of Specific Motor Skills of Young Water Polo Players

    PubMed Central

    Aleksandrović, Marko; Radovanović, Dragan; Okičić, Tomislav; Madić, Dejan; Georgiev, Georgi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of functional abilities on specificmotor skills. A total number of 92 male water polo players (age 12±0.5 years, body height 156.96±22.3 cm, body weight 51.02±33.18 kg) with at least two years’ experience, were enrolled in the study. The investigation protocol consisted of standardized anthropometric measurements, estimation of maximum oxygen uptake, determination of the lung function values, specific swim tests and swim tests with a ball. The factor analysis was used for the estimation of the structure of specific motor skills. The influence of functional abilities on specific motor skills was estimated by regression analysis. Out of 15 correlations in total between the variables of space of functional abilities of water polo players, 6 were significant at the level of 95% (between the variables of aerobic power and lung function) and all of the correlations (15) between the variables of specific motor skills in water polo players were significant at the 99% level. Only one principal component, the General factor of specific motor skills in water polo (GFSWP) was obtained by way of factorization of the tests of specific motor skills, so the GFSWP represents the latent space of specific motor skills as a criterion. The regression analysis showed that functional abilities (as group predictors) (p= 0.00) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (as a separate variable) have a significant influence on GFSWP (the criterion). The results of the study pointed out the impact of functional abilities on specific motor skills of selected young water polo players. This may be important for the selection and effective coaching in the early period of training and can affect the development of more appropriate and specific training programmes for optimal physical fitness preparation in young water polo players. PMID:23486729

  14. Functional abilities as a predictor of specific motor skills of young water polo players.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrović, Marko; Radovanović, Dragan; Okičić, Tomislav; Madić, Dejan; Georgiev, Georgi

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of functional abilities on specificmotor skills. A total number of 92 male water polo players (age 12±0.5 years, body height 156.96±22.3 cm, body weight 51.02±33.18 kg) with at least two years' experience, were enrolled in the study. The investigation protocol consisted of standardized anthropometric measurements, estimation of maximum oxygen uptake, determination of the lung function values, specific swim tests and swim tests with a ball. The factor analysis was used for the estimation of the structure of specific motor skills. The influence of functional abilities on specific motor skills was estimated by regression analysis. Out of 15 correlations in total between the variables of space of functional abilities of water polo players, 6 were significant at the level of 95% (between the variables of aerobic power and lung function) and all of the correlations (15) between the variables of specific motor skills in water polo players were significant at the 99% level. Only one principal component, the General factor of specific motor skills in water polo (GFSWP) was obtained by way of factorization of the tests of specific motor skills, so the GFSWP represents the latent space of specific motor skills as a criterion. The regression analysis showed that functional abilities (as group predictors) (p= 0.00) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (as a separate variable) have a significant influence on GFSWP (the criterion). The results of the study pointed out the impact of functional abilities on specific motor skills of selected young water polo players. This may be important for the selection and effective coaching in the early period of training and can affect the development of more appropriate and specific training programmes for optimal physical fitness preparation in young water polo players.

  15. Motor Skill Assessment of Children: Is There an Association between Performance-Based, Child-Report, and Parent-Report Measures of Children's Motor Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Johanna; Brown, Ted; Chien, Chi-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Client-centered practice requires therapists to actively seek the perspectives of children and families. Several assessment tools are available to facilitate this process. However, when evaluating motor skill performance, therapists typically concentrate on performance-based assessment. To improve understanding of the information provided by the…

  16. Motor Skill Assessment of Children: Is There an Association between Performance-Based, Child-Report, and Parent-Report Measures of Children's Motor Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Johanna; Brown, Ted; Chien, Chi-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Client-centered practice requires therapists to actively seek the perspectives of children and families. Several assessment tools are available to facilitate this process. However, when evaluating motor skill performance, therapists typically concentrate on performance-based assessment. To improve understanding of the information provided by the…

  17. 78 FR 41187 - Driver Qualifications: Skill Performance Evaluation; Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Driver Qualifications: Skill Performance Evaluation; Virginia...), on behalf of truck and bus drivers who are licensed in the Commonwealth of Virginia and need a Skill...: You may submit comments bearing the Federal Docket Management System (FDMS) number FMCSA-2013-0147...

  18. Relations of Preschoolers' Visual-Motor and Object Manipulation Skills with Executive Function and Social Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Megan; Lipscomb, Shannon; McClelland, Megan M.; Duncan, Rob; Becker, Derek; Anderson, Kim; Kile, Molly

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article was to examine specific linkages between early visual-motor integration skills and executive function, as well as between early object manipulation skills and social behaviors in the classroom during the preschool year. Method: Ninety-two children aged 3 to 5 years old (M[subscript age] = 4.31 years) were…

  19. Relations of Preschoolers' Visual-Motor and Object Manipulation Skills with Executive Function and Social Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Megan; Lipscomb, Shannon; McClelland, Megan M.; Duncan, Rob; Becker, Derek; Anderson, Kim; Kile, Molly

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article was to examine specific linkages between early visual-motor integration skills and executive function, as well as between early object manipulation skills and social behaviors in the classroom during the preschool year. Method: Ninety-two children aged 3 to 5 years old (M[subscript age] = 4.31 years) were…

  20. Acquisition and improvement of human motor skills: Learning through observation and practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iba, Wayne

    1991-01-01

    Skilled movement is an integral part of the human existence. A better understanding of motor skills and their development is a prerequisite to the construction of truly flexible intelligent agents. We present MAEANDER, a computational model of human motor behavior, that uniformly addresses both the acquisition of skills through observation and the improvement of skills through practice. MAEANDER consists of a sensory-effector interface, a memory of movements, and a set of performance and learning mechanisms that let it recognize and generate motor skills. The system initially acquires such skills by observing movements performed by another agent and constructing a concept hierarchy. Given a stored motor skill in memory, MAEANDER will cause an effector to behave appropriately. All learning involves changing the hierarchical memory of skill concepts to more closely correspond to either observed experience or to desired behaviors. We evaluated MAEANDER empirically with respect to how well it acquires and improves both artificial movement types and handwritten script letters from the alphabet. We also evaluate MAEANDER as a psychological model by comparing its behavior to robust phenomena in humans and by considering the richness of the predictions it makes.

  1. The Effects of Teaching Styles on Motor Performance, Self Concept, and Social Skill Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberger, Michael

    The effects of three teaching styles in Mosston's Spectrum of Teaching Styles were examined in terms of the motor skill acquisition and social skill development of 96 randomly selected fifth grade students, who were taught a hockey accuracy task. Performance data were collected prior to, midway through, and following training and were analyzed:…

  2. Motor skills development in children with inattentive versus combined subtypes of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Vasserman, Marsha; Bender, H Allison; Macallister, William S

    2014-01-01

    The relations between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and motor skills are well documented, with research indicating both early and lifelong motor deficits in children with this disorder. Despite neuroanatomical and neurodevelopmental differences, which may predict differential rates of motor impairment between ADHD subtypes, evaluation of motor skill deficits in children with different presentations are limited in scope and equivocal in findings. The present investigation evaluated early motor development history and objectively measured motor skills in children with ADHD-Inattentive subtype (ADHD-I) and ADHD-Combined subtype (ADHD-C). One hundred and one children with ADHD-I (n = 53) and ADHD-C (n = 48) were included. Variables included Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ), history of motor delays, and utilization of early intervention services, as well as objectively measured motor impairment as assessed via tasks of fine-motor coordination. No between-group differences were found for FSIQ, but differences in age emerged, with the ADHD-I group being older. No differences in early motor delays were observed, though a considerably higher percentage of children with ADHD-C demonstrated early difficulties. Surprisingly, although children and adolescents with ADHD-C reported more frequent utilization of early intervention services, those with ADHD-I exhibited greater levels of current motor impairment on objective tasks. Given the over-representation of older children in the ADHD-I group, data were reanalyzed after excluding participants older than 10 years of age. Although the between-group differences were no longer significant, more than twice the number of parents of children with ADHD-C reported early motor delays, as compared with the ADHD-I group. Overall, children with ADHD-I were more likely to exhibit current objectively measured motor impairment, possibly due to later identification, less intervention, and/or different neurodevelopmental substrates

  3. The death of handwriting: secondary effects of frequent computer use on basic motor skills.

    PubMed

    Sulzenbruck, Sandra; Hegele, Mathias; Rinkenauer, Gerhard; Heuer, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    The benefits of modern technologies such as personal computers, in-vehicle navigation systems, and electronic organizers are evident in everyday life. However, only recently has it been proposed that the increasing use of personal computers in producing written texts may significantly contribute to the loss of handwriting skills. Such a fundamental change of human habits is likely to have generalized consequences for other basic fine motor skills as well. In this article, the authors provide evidence that the skill to produce precisely controlled arm-hand movements is related to the usage of computer keyboards in producing written text in everyday life. This result supports the notion that specific cultural skills such as handwriting and typing shape more general perceptual and motor skills. More generally, changing technologies are associated with generalized changes of the profile of basic human skills.

  4. Using Video Game Telemetry Data to Research Motor Chunking, Action Latencies, and Complex Cognitive-Motor Skill Learning.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Joseph J; McColeman, C M; Stepanova, Ekaterina R; Blair, Mark R

    2017-04-01

    Many theories of complex cognitive-motor skill learning are built on the notion that basic cognitive processes group actions into easy-to-perform sequences. The present work examines predictions derived from laboratory-based studies of motor chunking and motor preparation using data collected from the real-time strategy video game StarCraft 2. We examined 996,163 action sequences in the telemetry data of 3,317 players across seven levels of skill. As predicted, the latency to the first action (thought to be the beginning of a chunked sequence) is delayed relative to the other actions in the group. Other predictions, inspired by the memory drum theory of Henry and Rogers, received only weak support. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  5. [Motor capacities involved in the psychomotor skills of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation technique: recommendations for the teaching-learning process].

    PubMed

    Miyadahira, A M

    2001-12-01

    It is a bibliographic study about the identification of the motor capacities involved in the psychomotor skills of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) which aims to obtain subsidies to the planning of the teaching-learning process of this skill. It was found that: the motor capacities involved in the psychomotor skill of the CPR technique are predominantly cognitive and motor, involving 9 perceptive-motor capacities and 8 physical proficiency capacities. The CPR technique is a psychomotor skill classified as open, done in series and categorized as a thin and global skill and the teaching-learning process of the CPR technique has an elevated degree of complexity.

  6. Mastery and Exercise Play Interventions: Motor Skill Development and Verbal Recall of Children with and without Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentini, Nadia Cristina; Pierosan, Licia; Rudisill, Mary E.; Hastie, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Fundamental motor skill proficiency is essential for engagement in sports and physical play and in the development of a healthy lifestyle. Children with motor delays (with and without disabilities) lack the motor skills necessary to participate in games and physical activity, and tend to spend more time as onlookers than do their…

  7. A Comparison of Perceptual Motor Skill with Auditory Comprehension as Correlates of Word Recognition, Oral Reading, and Silent Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Chester E.

    A study was conducted to examine the relationship of perceptual motor skills as measured by the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test to word recognition, oral reading, and silent reading. In addition, perceptual motor skill and auditory comprehension were compared as correlates of the three reading variables. Subjects were 60 primary grade students in…

  8. A Comparison of Perceptual Motor Skill with Auditory Comprehension as Correlates of Word Recognition, Oral Reading, and Silent Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Chester E.

    A study was conducted to examine the relationship of perceptual motor skills as measured by the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test to word recognition, oral reading, and silent reading. In addition, perceptual motor skill and auditory comprehension were compared as correlates of the three reading variables. Subjects were 60 primary grade students in…

  9. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground.

    PubMed

    Tortella, Patrizia; Haga, Monika; Loras, Håvard; Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Fumagalli, Guido

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s) appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens.

  10. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground

    PubMed Central

    Tortella, Patrizia; Haga, Monika; Loras, Håvard

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s) appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens. PMID:27462985

  11. Motor Skill Assessment in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ting; Breslin, Casey M.; ElGarhy, Sayed

    2017-01-01

    Without proper motor assessment, children with autism spectrum disorder may be placed in educational settings that are inappropriate for their motor abilities. However, many practitioners find it challenging to choose which assessment to use to assess these children, especially with the number of instruments available. The purpose of this study…

  12. The Evidence Against Learnability of Early Motor Skills Reconsidered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razel, Micha

    This paper attempts to refute the assumption that early motor development is determined genetically and is not influenced by environmental factors. The paper re-examines three studies which are consistently cited as providing evidence for a maturational theory of motor development: the "early training study" by Gesell and Thompson, the "swaddling…

  13. Language and Motor Speech Skills in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirila, Silja; van der Meere, Jaap; Pentikainen, Taina; Ruusu-Niemi, Pirjo; Korpela, Raija; Kilpinen, Jenni; Nieminen, Pirkko

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate associations between the severity of motor limitations, cognitive difficulties, language and motor speech problems in children with cerebral palsy. Also, the predictive power of neonatal cranial ultrasound findings on later outcome was investigated. For this purpose, 36 children (age range 1 year 10 months…

  14. Language and Motor Speech Skills in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirila, Silja; van der Meere, Jaap; Pentikainen, Taina; Ruusu-Niemi, Pirjo; Korpela, Raija; Kilpinen, Jenni; Nieminen, Pirkko

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate associations between the severity of motor limitations, cognitive difficulties, language and motor speech problems in children with cerebral palsy. Also, the predictive power of neonatal cranial ultrasound findings on later outcome was investigated. For this purpose, 36 children (age range 1 year 10 months…

  15. Using Achievement Goal Theory in Motor Skill Instruction: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Kara K; Chinn, Katherine M; Robinson, Leah E

    2017-08-04

    Over the past two decades, achievement goal theory (AGT) has been used as a theoretical framework to design and implement motor skill programming in young children. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the effects of AGT in motor skill interventions and programming in children aged 0-12 years. This systematic literature search was conducted using three databases: Google Scholar, PubMed, and EBSCOhost. Studies were included if they met the following four inclusion criteria: (1) had an intervention with a gross motor outcome, (2) used an intervention grounded in AGT, (3) included young children (aged 0-12 years), and (4) were written in English. Studies were rated according to methodological reporting quality. All literature searches and reporting were consistent with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) protocol. A total of 12 studies met all inclusion criteria and were included in the sample. All studies reported that AGT motor skill interventions were effective for improving motor skills in young children. Studies varied in regard to intervention groups, duration, dosage, and the personnel responsible for implementing the intervention. None of the included studies met the requirements to be considered as having high methodological quality. Based on these findings, AGT is an effective theoretical approach for designing and implementing motor skill interventions for young children.

  16. Acute effects of dietary constituents on motor skill and cognitive performance in athletes.

    PubMed

    Baker, Lindsay B; Nuccio, Ryan P; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2014-12-01

    Performance in many sports is at least partially dependent on motor control, coordination, decision-making, and other cognitive tasks. This review summarizes available evidence about the ingestion of selected nutrients or isolated compounds (dietary constituents) and potential acute effects on motor skill and/or cognitive performance in athletes. Dietary constituents discussed include branched-chain amino acids, caffeine, carbohydrate, cocoa flavanols, Gingko biloba, ginseng, guarana, Rhodiola rosea, sage, L-theanine, theobromine, and tyrosine. Although this is not an exhaustive list, these are perhaps the most researched dietary constituents. Caffeine and carbohydrate have the greatest number of published reports supporting their ability to enhance acute motor skill and cognitive performance in athletes. At this time, there is insufficient published evidence to substantiate the use of any other dietary constituents to benefit sports-related motor skill or cognitive performance. The optimal dose and timing of caffeine and carbohydrate intake promoting enhanced motor skill and cognitive performance remain to be identified. Valid, reliable, and sensitive batteries of motor skills and cognitive tests should be developed for use in future efficacy studies.

  17. Refinement of learned skilled movement representation in motor cortex deep output layer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qian; Ko, Ho; Qian, Zhong-Ming; Yan, Leo Y. C.; Chan, Danny C. W.; Arbuthnott, Gordon; Ke, Ya; Yung, Wing-Ho

    2017-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the emergence of learned motor skill representation in primary motor cortex (M1) are not well understood. Specifically, how motor representation in the deep output layer 5b (L5b) is shaped by motor learning remains virtually unknown. In rats undergoing motor skill training, we detect a subpopulation of task-recruited L5b neurons that not only become more movement-encoding, but their activities are also more structured and temporally aligned to motor execution with a timescale of refinement in tens-of-milliseconds. Field potentials evoked at L5b in vivo exhibit persistent long-term potentiation (LTP) that parallels motor performance. Intracortical dopamine denervation impairs motor learning, and disrupts the LTP profile as well as the emergent neurodynamical properties of task-recruited L5b neurons. Thus, dopamine-dependent recruitment of L5b neuronal ensembles via synaptic reorganization may allow the motor cortex to generate more temporally structured, movement-encoding output signal from M1 to downstream circuitry that drives increased uniformity and precision of movement during motor learning. PMID:28598433

  18. Motor speech skills in children with Down syndrome: A descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Rupela, Vani; Velleman, Shelley L; Andrianopoulos, Mary V

    2016-10-01

    Motor speech characteristics of children with Down syndrome (DS) have historically been viewed as either Childhood Dysarthria (CD) or, more infrequently, as Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS). The objective of this study was to investigate motor speech deficits in a systematic manner, considering characteristics from both CAS and CD. Motor speech assessments were carried out on seven 3;4-8;11-year old children with DS in comparison with younger, typically-developing children using a Language-Neutral Assessment of Motor Speech for young children (LAMS). Additionally, the motor speech and non-speech oral motor skills of all participants were analysed qualitatively using an investigator checklist of characteristics of CAS, CD and Motor Speech Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (MSD-NOS). Results indicated that the children with DS exhibited symptoms of CAS, CD and MSD-NOS, with variability within the group and overlapping symptoms of the disorder types. This finding is different from previous assumptions that children with DS have either CD or CAS. The motor speech disorder accompanying DS is complex. The data provide some preliminary descriptions of motor speech disorders in this population and some tools that clinicians would find useful when assessing motor speech skills of young children with DS.

  19. Preparing Pre-Service Primary School Teachers to Assess Fundamental Motor Skills: Two Skills and Two Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, John; Miller, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pre-service teacher education (PSTE) programmes for generalist primary school teachers have limited time allocated to Physical Education, Health and Personal Development. In practice, teachers in schools are required to assess motor skills despite the fact that their training provides minimal preparation. This necessitates creative…

  20. Preparing Pre-Service Primary School Teachers to Assess Fundamental Motor Skills: Two Skills and Two Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, John; Miller, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pre-service teacher education (PSTE) programmes for generalist primary school teachers have limited time allocated to Physical Education, Health and Personal Development. In practice, teachers in schools are required to assess motor skills despite the fact that their training provides minimal preparation. This necessitates creative…

  1. Variability effects on retention of a motor skill in elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Bortoli, L; Spagolla, G; Robazza, C

    2001-08-01

    Variability effects on learning, retention, and transfer of motor skills have been a main issue for scientists involved in laboratory and field research. Variable practice is intended as parameter variations of a generalized motor program as well as rehearsal of different motor programs. Although the benefits deriving from variable practice on motor skill retention appear quite robust in laboratory settings, field investigations have produced mixed results. Hence, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of different variable schedules on the retention of a complex min tor skill in a physical education setting. 61 elementary school children were assigned Blocked/Nonvariable, Blocked/Variable, Serial/Nonvariable, or Serial/Variable schedules, and practiced two tasks (throwing and hurdle running) and a complex skill (jumping) across 14 lessons. Improved performance in the complex skill was found after practice, with the Serial/Nonvariable group outperforming all other groups. Therefore. the rehearsal of different motor programs was beneficial for jumping skill retention, whereas parameter variation was not.

  2. Effectiveness of a Fundamental Motor Skill Intervention for 4-Year-Old Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremer, Emily; Balogh, Robert; Lloyd, Meghann

    2015-01-01

    A wait-list control experimental design was employed to investigate the effectiveness of a fundamental motor skill intervention at improving the motor skills, adaptive behavior, and social skills of 4-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (experimental n?=?5, control n?=?4); the impact of intervention intensity was also explored. The…

  3. Effect of a Mastery Climate Motor Program on Object Control Skills and Perceived Physical Competence in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Leah E.

    2011-01-01

    Fundamental motor skills (e.g., run, jump, catch, and throw) are essential building blocks for more advanced and context-specific skills. Children with these motor skills are able to function independently while learning and exploring their environment. The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) "Active Start"…

  4. Effect of a Mastery Climate Motor Program on Object Control Skills and Perceived Physical Competence in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Leah E.

    2011-01-01

    Fundamental motor skills (e.g., run, jump, catch, and throw) are essential building blocks for more advanced and context-specific skills. Children with these motor skills are able to function independently while learning and exploring their environment. The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) "Active Start"…

  5. Effectiveness of a Fundamental Motor Skill Intervention for 4-Year-Old Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremer, Emily; Balogh, Robert; Lloyd, Meghann

    2015-01-01

    A wait-list control experimental design was employed to investigate the effectiveness of a fundamental motor skill intervention at improving the motor skills, adaptive behavior, and social skills of 4-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (experimental n?=?5, control n?=?4); the impact of intervention intensity was also explored. The…

  6. Gross motor skill performance in children with and without visual impairments--research to practice.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Matthias O; Haibach, Pamela S; Lieberman, Lauren J

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an empirical basis for teaching gross motor skills in children with visual impairments. For this purpose, gross motor skill performance of 23, 6-12 year old, boys and girls who are blind (ICD-10 H54.0) and 28 sighted controls with comparable age and gender characteristics was compared on six locomotor and six object control tasks using the Test of Gross Motor Development-Second Edition. Results indicate that children who are blind perform significantly (p<.05) worse in all assessed locomotor and object control skills, whereby running, leaping, kicking and catching are the most affected skills, and corresponding differences are related to most running, leaping, kicking and catching component. Practical implications are provided. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimal training design for procedural motor skills: a review and application to laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Spruit, Edward N; Band, Guido P H; Hamming, Jaap F; Ridderinkhof, K Richard

    2014-11-01

    This literature review covers the choices to consider in training complex procedural, perceptual and motor skills. In particular, we focus on laparoscopic surgery. An overview is provided of important training factors modulating the acquisition, durability, transfer, and efficiency of trained skills. We summarize empirical studies and their theoretical background on the topic of training complex cognitive and motor skills that are pertinent to proficiency in laparoscopic surgery. The overview pertains to surgical simulation training for laparoscopy, but also to training in other demanding procedural and dexterous tasks, such as aviation, managing complex systems and sports. Evidence-based recommendations are provided for facilitating efficiency in laparoscopic motor skill training such as session spacing, adaptive training, task variability, part-task training, mental imagery and deliberate practice.

  8. Relationship between motor skill and body mass index in 5- to 10-year-old children.

    PubMed

    D Hondt, Eva; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lenoir, Matthiew

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate gross and fine motor skill in overweight and obese children compared with normal-weight peers. According to international cut-off points for Body Mass Index (BMI) from Cole et al. (2000), all 117 participants (5-10 year) were classified as being normal-weight, overweight, or obese. Level of motor skill was assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). Scores for balance (p < .01) and ball skills (p < .05) were significantly better in normal-weight and overweight children as compared with their obese counterparts. A similar trend was found for manual dexterity (p < .10). This study demonstrates that general motor skill level is lower in obese children than in normal-weight and overweight peers.

  9. M1 contributes to the intrinsic but not the extrinsic components of motor-skills.

    PubMed

    Romei, Vincenzo; Thut, Gregor; Ramos-Estebanez, Ciro; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2009-10-01

    Procedural skills consist of several components that can be simultaneously acquired. During a motor-learning task we can distinguish between how a "movement" is performed (intrinsic component) and the spatial-related (extrinsic) component of this movement. The intrinsic movement component is thought to be supported by motor loops, including primary motor cortex (M1) as assessed with neuroimaging studies. Here we want to test further whether M1 makes a critical contribution to the movement rather than spatial-related component of skill-learning. To this purpose, we used repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) and the serial reaction time (SRT) task. Twenty right-handed participants performed the SRT-task starting with their left or right hand. After this learning session, participants switched to the untrained hand by performing original (spatial-related) and mirror-ordered (movement-based) sequences. rTMS was applied to M1 ipsi- or contralateral to the transfer-hand and both sequences were retested. Results revealed rTMS-interference with motor-skill transfer of mirror-ordered but not original sequences, showing that M1 is critically involved in the retrieval/transformation of the intrinsic but not the extrinsic movement coordinates. rTMS-interference in the mirror-condition consisted of both (i) disruption and (ii) release of motor-skill transfer depending on the stimulated hemisphere and on transfer-hand. The pattern of results suggests (i) contralateral (right) M1 involvement in retrieval/transformation of motor information during left-hand reproduction of previously acquired right-hand motor-skills; and (ii) modulatory interactions of inhibitory nature from the dominant (left) to the non-dominant (right) M1 in the same transfer-condition. These results provide further evidence that M1 is essential to intrinsic movement-based skill-learning and novel insight on models of motor-learning and hemispheric specialization, suggesting the involvement of

  10. The timing and importance of motor skills course in knee arthroscopy training.

    PubMed

    Çetinkaya, Engin; Çift, Hakan; Aybar, Ahmet; Erçin, Ersin; Güler, Gamze Babür; Poyanlı, Oğuz

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this prospective study is to evaluate the impact of the simulation training program in learning duration of arthroscopic motor skills. Furthermore, we investigated the difference between junior and experienced residents in the improvement of arthroscopic motor skills duration. We established 2 study groups according to participants' year of experience in orthopedic residency with junior group residents with three years or less than three years experience as group 1 and experienced group with over 3 years of experience as group 2. We calculated duration change of motor skill test results for each participant before and after the course. The tools used were; auto scoring mirror tracer(ASMT), 0'Conner the tweezer dexterity test(OCTDT), etch-a-sketch with overlay(ESOT), purdue the pegboard test(PPT), two-arm coordination test(TACT) and grooved pegboard test(GPT) which were all produced by Lafayette firm. These instruments were used to practice and measure the basic motor skills. All post-course test durations for participants decreased significantly when compared to pre-course. We calculated percentage change of motor skill test results for each participant before and after the course. All motor skill test percentage changes were similar between two groups. In comparison of participants according to their experiences, results revealed that there was no difference in test results of experienced and junior surgeons. Both groups had provided equal improvement in terms of motor skills. As our results revealed, residents will be able to act with a strong motivation to learn applications through basic arthroscopic information gained in early period of orthopedic training and will make more successful applications of real patients. Copyright © 2017 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Interaction of Language Processing and Motor Skill in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    DiDonato Brumbach, Andrea C.; Goffman, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine how language production interacts with speech motor and gross/fine motor skill in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method Eleven children with SLI and 12 age-matched peers (4–6 years) produced structurally primed sentences containing particles and prepositions. Utterances were analyzed for errors and for articulatory duration and variability. Standard measures of motor, language, and articulation skill were also obtained. Results Sentences containing particles, as compared with prepositions, were less likely to be produced in a priming task and were longer in duration, suggesting increased difficulty with this syntactic structure. Children with SLI demonstrated higher articulatory variability and poorer gross and fine motor skills compared with aged matched controls. Articulatory variability was correlated with generalized gross and fine motor performance. Conclusions Children with SLI show co-occurring speech motor and generalized motor deficits. Current theories do not fully account for the present findings, though the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis provides a framework for interpreting overlap among language and motor domains. PMID:24023372

  12. Investigation of Visual Motor Integration Skills in Children With Speech Sound Problems.

    PubMed

    Ercan, Zülfiye Gül; Yilmaz, Şule; Taş, Memduha; Aral, Neriman

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate visual motor integration skills in children with speech sound disorders compared with age-matched controls. Sixty-five children aged from 5 to 6½ years old (68% males, 32% females; M age = 5.4, SD = 0.5) participated in the study. Thirty-one of them had speech sound problems, and 34 were children without any problem in their speech. The Ankara Articulation Test for evaluating speech sound skills and the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration with its supplemental tests of Visual Perception and Motor Coordination were used in the study. Visual Motor Integration, Visual Perception, and Motor Coordination scores of children with speech sound disorders were significantly lower than those of controls. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Development of oral motor behavior related to the skill assisted spoon feeding.

    PubMed

    van den Engel-Hoek, Lenie; van Hulst, Karen C M; van Gerven, Marjo H J C; van Haaften, Leenke; de Groot, Sandra A F

    2014-05-01

    Milestones in the typical development of eating skills are considered to be nippling (breast or bottle), eating from a spoon, drinking from a cup, biting and chewing. The purpose of this research was to study the development and consolidation of oral motor behavior related to the skill assisted spoon feeding in young infants. The present study longitudinally investigated the development of this skill in 39 healthy children from the start of spoon feeding until the skill was acquired. The Observation List Spoon Feeding with 7 observation items for oral motor behavior and 6 items for abnormal behavior was used. Results showed that infants between 4 and 8 months of age needed 5.7 weeks (SD 2.1), with a range of 8 weeks (from 2 to 10 weeks) to acquire this skill. No significant correlation (p=.109) between age at start spoon feeding and weeks needed to develop the skill was found. During this period oral motor behavior consolidated and abnormal behavior diminished. With this study it is shown that the period in weeks needed to acquire the oral motor behavior for the skill assisted spoon feeding is important in case of feeding problems.

  14. Changes in Voice Onset Time and Motor Speech Skills in Children following Motor Speech Therapy: Evidence from /pa/ productions

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Vickie Y.; Kadis, Darren S.; Oh, Anna; Goshulak, Debra; Namasivayam, Aravind; Pukonen, Margit; Kroll, Robert; De Nil, Luc F.; Pang, Elizabeth W.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated changes in motor speech control and inter-gestural coordination for children with speech sound disorders (SSD) subsequent to PROMPT (Prompts for Restructuring Oral Muscular Phonetic Targets) intervention. We measured the distribution patterns of voice onset time (VOT) for a voiceless stop (/p/) to examine the changes in inter-gestural coordination. Two standardized tests were used (VMPAC, GFTA-2) to assess the changes in motor speech skills and articulation. Data showed positive changes in patterns of VOT with a lower pattern of variability. All children showed significantly higher scores for VMPAC, but only some children showed higher scores for GFTA-2. Results suggest that the proprioceptive feedback provided through PROMPT had a positive influence on motor speech control and inter-gestural coordination in voicing behavior. This set of VOT data for children with SSD adds to our understanding of the speech characteristics underlying motor speech control. Directions for future studies are discussed. PMID:24446799

  15. Promoting Motor Skill Development through the MOVE Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Stacie B.

    This research proposal reviews the literature on the development of mobility skills in students with severe physical disabilities and proposes a single-subject study, using a multiple baseline across subjects design, to evaluate effects of the Mobility Opportunities Via Education (MOVE) Curriculum on the mobility skills of sitting, standing, and…

  16. Graphemes as Motor Units in the Acquisition of Writing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Sonia; Soler, Olga; Valdois, Sylviane; Gros, Celine

    2006-01-01

    This study examined whether the graphemic structure of words modulates the timing of handwriting production during the acquisition of writing skills. This is particularly important during the acquisition period because phonological recoding skills are determinant in the elaboration of orthographic representations. First graders wrote seven-letter…

  17. Graphemes as Motor Units in the Acquisition of Writing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Sonia; Soler, Olga; Valdois, Sylviane; Gros, Celine

    2006-01-01

    This study examined whether the graphemic structure of words modulates the timing of handwriting production during the acquisition of writing skills. This is particularly important during the acquisition period because phonological recoding skills are determinant in the elaboration of orthographic representations. First graders wrote seven-letter…

  18. Effects of overweight and obese body mass on motor planning and motor skills during obstacle crossing in children.

    PubMed

    Gill, Simone V; Hung, Ya-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about how obesity relates to motor planning and skills during functional tasks. We collected 3-D kinematics and kinetics as normal weight (n=10) and overweight/obese (n=12) children walked on flat ground and as they crossed low, medium, and high obstacles. We investigated if motor planning and motor skill impairments were evident during obstacle crossing. Baseline conditions showed no group differences (all ps>.05). Increased toe clearance was found on low obstacles (p=.01) for the overweight/obese group and on high obstacles (p=.01) for the normal weight group. With the crossing leg, the overweight/obese group had larger hip abduction angles (p=.01) and medial ground reaction forces (p=.006) on high obstacles and high anterior ground reaction forces on low obstacles (p=.001). With the trailing leg, overweight/obese children had higher vertical ground reaction forces on high obstacles (p=.005) and higher knee angles (p=.01) and anterior acceleration in the center of mass (p=.01) on low obstacles. These findings suggest that differences in motor planning and skills in overweight/obese children may be more apparent during functional activities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fine motor skills in adult Tourette patients are task-dependent

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Tourette syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by motor and phonic tics. Deficient motor inhibition underlying tics is one of the main hypotheses in its pathophysiology. Therefore the question arises whether this supposed deficient motor inhibition affects also voluntary movements. Despite severe motor tics, different personalities who suffer from Tourette perform successfully as neurosurgeon, pilot or professional basketball player. Methods For the investigation of fine motor skills we conducted a motor performance test battery in an adult Tourette sample and an age matched group of healthy controls. Results The Tourette patients showed a significant lower performance in the categories steadiness of both hands and aiming of the right hand in comparison to the healthy controls. A comparison of patients’ subgroup without comorbidities or medication and healthy controls revealed a significant difference in the category steadiness of the right hand. Conclusions Our results show that steadiness and visuomotor integration of fine motor skills are altered in our adult sample but not precision and speed of movements. This alteration pattern might be the clinical vignette of complex adaptations in the excitability of the motor system on the basis of altered cortical and subcortical components. The structurally and functionally altered neuronal components could encompass orbitofrontal, ventrolateral prefrontal and parietal cortices, the anterior cingulate, amygdala, primary motor and sensorimotor areas including altered corticospinal projections, the corpus callosum and the basal ganglia. PMID:23057645

  20. Fine motor skills in adult Tourette patients are task-dependent.

    PubMed

    Neuner, Irene; Arrubla, Jorge; Ehlen, Corinna; Janouschek, Hildegard; Nordt, Carlos; Fimm, Bruno; Schneider, Frank; Shah, N Jon; Kawohl, Wolfram

    2012-10-11

    Tourette syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by motor and phonic tics. Deficient motor inhibition underlying tics is one of the main hypotheses in its pathophysiology. Therefore the question arises whether this supposed deficient motor inhibition affects also voluntary movements. Despite severe motor tics, different personalities who suffer from Tourette perform successfully as neurosurgeon, pilot or professional basketball player. For the investigation of fine motor skills we conducted a motor performance test battery in an adult Tourette sample and an age matched group of healthy controls. The Tourette patients showed a significant lower performance in the categories steadiness of both hands and aiming of the right hand in comparison to the healthy controls. A comparison of patients' subgroup without comorbidities or medication and healthy controls revealed a significant difference in the category steadiness of the right hand. Our results show that steadiness and visuomotor integration of fine motor skills are altered in our adult sample but not precision and speed of movements. This alteration pattern might be the clinical vignette of complex adaptations in the excitability of the motor system on the basis of altered cortical and subcortical components. The structurally and functionally altered neuronal components could encompass orbitofrontal, ventrolateral prefrontal and parietal cortices, the anterior cingulate, amygdala, primary motor and sensorimotor areas including altered corticospinal projections, the corpus callosum and the basal ganglia.

  1. Task-specific contribution of the human striatum to perceptual-motor skill learning.

    PubMed

    Cavaco, Sara; Anderson, Steven W; Correia, Manuel; Magalhaes, Marina; Pereira, Claudia; Tuna, Assuncao; Taipa, Ricardo; Pinto, Pedro; Pinto, Claudia; Cruz, Romeu; Lima, Antonio Bastos; Castro-Caldas, Alexandre; da Silva, Antonio Martins; Damasio, Hanna

    2011-01-01

    Acquisition of new perceptual-motor skills depends on multiple brain areas, including the striatum. However, the specific contribution of each structure to this type of learning is still poorly understood. Focusing on the striatum, we proposed (a) to replicate the finding of impaired rotary pursuit (RP) and preserved mirror tracing (MT) in Huntington's disease (HD); and (b) to further explore this putative learning dissociation with other human models of striatal dysfunction (i.e., Parkinson's disease and focal vascular damage) and two new paradigms (i.e., Geometric Figures, GF, and Control Stick, CS) of skill learning. Regardless of the etiology, participants with damage to the striatum showed impaired learning of visuomotor tracking skills (i.e., RP and GF), whereas the ability to learn skills that require motor adaptation (i.e., MT and CS) was not affected. These results suggest a task-specific involvement of the striatum in the early stages of skill learning.

  2. Disentangling fine motor skills' relations to academic achievement: the relative contributions of visual-spatial integration and visual-motor coordination.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Abby G; Rowe, Ellen; Curby, Timothy W

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has established a connection between children's fine motor skills and their academic performance. Previous research has focused on fine motor skills measured prior to elementary school, while the present sample included children ages 5-18 years old, making it possible to examine whether this link remains relevant throughout childhood and adolescence. Furthermore, the majority of research linking fine motor skills and academic achievement has not determined which specific components of fine motor skill are driving this relation. The few studies that have looked at associations of separate fine motor tasks with achievement suggest that copying tasks that tap visual-spatial integration skills are most closely related to achievement. The present study examined two separate elements of fine motor skills--visual-motor coordination and visual-spatial integration--and their associations with various measures of academic achievement. Visual-motor coordination was measured using tracing tasks, while visual-spatial integration was measured using copy-a-figure tasks. After controlling for gender, socioeconomic status, IQ, and visual-motor coordination, and visual-spatial integration explained significant variance in children's math and written expression achievement. Knowing that visual-spatial integration skills are associated with these two achievement domains suggests potential avenues for targeted math and writing interventions for children of all ages.

  3. Disentangling Fine Motor Skills' Relations to Academic Achievement: The Relative Contributions of Visual-Spatial Integration and Visual-Motor Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Abby G.; Rowe, Ellen; Curby, Timothy W.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has established a connection between children's fine motor skills and their academic performance. Previous research has focused on fine motor skills measured prior to elementary school, while the present sample included children ages 5-18 years old, making it possible to examine whether this link remains relevant throughout…

  4. Disentangling Fine Motor Skills' Relations to Academic Achievement: The Relative Contributions of Visual-Spatial Integration and Visual-Motor Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Abby G.; Rowe, Ellen; Curby, Timothy W.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has established a connection between children's fine motor skills and their academic performance. Previous research has focused on fine motor skills measured prior to elementary school, while the present sample included children ages 5-18 years old, making it possible to examine whether this link remains relevant throughout…

  5. How can ten fingers shape a pot? Evidence for equivalent function in culturally distinct motor skills.

    PubMed

    Gandon, Enora; Bootsma, Reinoud J; Endler, John A; Grosman, Leore

    2013-01-01

    Behavioural variability is likely to emerge when a particular task is performed in different cultural settings, assuming that part of human motor behaviour is influenced by culture. In analysing motor behaviour it is useful to distinguish how the action is performed from the result achieved. Does cultural environment lead to specific cultural motor skills? Are there differences between cultures both in the skills themselves and in the corresponding outcomes? Here we analyse the skill of pottery wheel-throwing in French and Indian cultural environments. Our specific goal was to examine the ability of expert potters from distinct cultural settings to reproduce a common model shape (a sphere). The operational aspects of motor performance were captured through the analysis of the hand positions used by the potters during the fashioning process. In parallel, the outcomes were captured by the geometrical characteristics of the vessels produced. As expected, results revealed a cultural influence on the operational aspects of the potters' motor skill. Yet, the marked cultural differences in hand positions used did not give rise to noticeable differences in the shapes of the vessels produced. Hence, for the simple model form studied, the culturally-specific motor traditions of the French and Indian potters gave rise to an equivalent outcome, that is shape uniformity. Further work is needed to test whether such equivalence is also observed in more complex ceramic shapes.

  6. How Can Ten Fingers Shape a Pot? Evidence for Equivalent Function in Culturally Distinct Motor Skills

    PubMed Central

    Gandon, Enora; Bootsma, Reinoud J.; Endler, John A.; Grosman, Leore

    2013-01-01

    Behavioural variability is likely to emerge when a particular task is performed in different cultural settings, assuming that part of human motor behaviour is influenced by culture. In analysing motor behaviour it is useful to distinguish how the action is performed from the result achieved. Does cultural environment lead to specific cultural motor skills? Are there differences between cultures both in the skills themselves and in the corresponding outcomes? Here we analyse the skill of pottery wheel-throwing in French and Indian cultural environments. Our specific goal was to examine the ability of expert potters from distinct cultural settings to reproduce a common model shape (a sphere). The operational aspects of motor performance were captured through the analysis of the hand positions used by the potters during the fashioning process. In parallel, the outcomes were captured by the geometrical characteristics of the vessels produced. As expected, results revealed a cultural influence on the operational aspects of the potters’ motor skill. Yet, the marked cultural differences in hand positions used did not give rise to noticeable differences in the shapes of the vessels produced. Hence, for the simple model form studied, the culturally-specific motor traditions of the French and Indian potters gave rise to an equivalent outcome, that is shape uniformity. Further work is needed to test whether such equivalence is also observed in more complex ceramic shapes. PMID:24312327

  7. Changes in Striatal Dopamine Release Associated with Human Motor-Skill Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Kawashima, Shoji; Ueki, Yoshino; Kato, Takashi; Matsukawa, Noriyuki; Mima, Tatsuya; Hallett, Mark; Ito, Kengo; Ojika, Kosei

    2012-01-01

    The acquisition of new motor skills is essential throughout daily life and involves the processes of learning new motor sequence and encoding elementary aspects of new movement. Although previous animal studies have suggested a functional importance for striatal dopamine release in the learning of new motor sequence, its role in encoding elementary aspects of new movement has not yet been investigated. To elucidate this, we investigated changes in striatal dopamine levels during initial skill-training (Day 1) compared with acquired conditions (Day 2) using 11C-raclopride positron-emission tomography. Ten volunteers learned to perform brisk contractions using their non-dominant left thumbs with the aid of visual feedback. On Day 1, the mean acceleration of each session was improved through repeated training sessions until performance neared asymptotic levels, while improved motor performance was retained from the beginning on Day 2. The 11C-raclopride binding potential (BP) in the right putamen was reduced during initial skill-training compared with under acquired conditions. Moreover, voxel-wise analysis revealed that 11C-raclopride BP was particularly reduced in the right antero-dorsal to the lateral part of the putamen. Based on findings from previous fMRI studies that show a gradual shift of activation within the striatum during the initial processing of motor learning, striatal dopamine may play a role in the dynamic cortico-striatal activation during encoding of new motor memory in skill acquisition. PMID:22355391

  8. Measures of Fine Motor Skills in People with Tremor Disorders: Appraisal and Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Kathleen E.; Héroux, Martin E.

    2013-01-01

    People with Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, or other movement disorders involving tremor have changes in fine motor skills that are among the hallmarks of these diseases. Numerous measurement tools have been created and other methods devised to measure such changes in fine motor skills. Measurement tools may focus on specific features – e.g., motor skills or dexterity, slowness in movement execution associated with parkinsonian bradykinesia, or magnitude of tremor. Less obviously, some tools may be better suited than others for specific goals such as detecting subtle dysfunction early in disease, revealing aspects of brain function affected by disease, or tracking changes expected from treatment or disease progression. The purpose of this review is to describe and appraise selected measurement tools of fine motor skills appropriate for people with tremor disorders. In this context, we consider the tools’ content – i.e., what movement features they focus on. In addition, we consider how measurement tools of fine motor skills relate to measures of a person’s disease state or a person’s function. These considerations affect how one should select and interpret the results of these tools in laboratory and clinical contexts. PMID:23717299

  9. Identifying and analyzing motor skill responses in body movement and dance.

    PubMed

    Castañer, Marta; Torrents, Carlota; Anguera, M T; Dinusová, Mária; Jonsson, Gudberg K

    2009-08-01

    The present article analyzes the diversity of motor skills related to three different kinds of instructions: descriptive, metaphoric, and kinesic, with a special emphasis on the detection of temporal patterns (T-patterns). Twelve undergraduates studying sport and physical education, but without experience in dance, were observed during 24 lessons of Body Movement, a discipline based on creative dance, mime dance, and motor skill improvisation. Using observational methodology and technology applied to movement, the aim of this article was to adapt the Observational instrument of Motor Skills (OSMOS) (Castañer, Torrents, Anguera, & Dinusová, 2008) so as to create an instrument capable of analyzing the motor skill responses generated in lessons of Body Movement and Dance. The results, as reflected by the T-patterns detected, show that (1) participants try to generate their own motor skills but copy some fundamental components of the instructions, and (2) the criterion of stability in two configurations (support and axial) is the predominant category. Sequential and coordinated locomotion also appears to be very relevant.

  10. Probing for hemispheric specialization for motor skill learning: a transcranial direct current stimulation study.

    PubMed

    Schambra, Heidi M; Abe, Mitsunari; Luckenbaugh, David A; Reis, Janine; Krakauer, John W; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2011-08-01

    Convergent findings point to a left-sided specialization for the representation of learned actions in right-handed humans, but it is unknown whether analogous hemispheric specialization exists for motor skill learning. In the present study, we explored this question by comparing the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over either left or right motor cortex (M1) on motor skill learning in either hand, using a tDCS montage to better isolate stimulation to one hemisphere. Results were compared with those previously found with a montage more commonly used in the field. Six groups trained for three sessions on a visually guided sequential pinch force modulation task with their right or left hand and received right M1, left M1, or sham tDCS. A linear mixed-model analysis for motor skill showed a significant main effect for stimulation group (left M1, right M1, sham) but not for hand (right, left) or their interaction. Left M1 tDCS induced significantly greater skill learning than sham when hand data were combined, a result consistent not only with the hypothesized left hemisphere specialization for motor skill learning but also with possible increased left M1 responsiveness to tDCS. The unihemispheric montage effect size was one-half that of the more common montage, and subsequent power analysis indicated that 75 subjects per group would be needed to detect differences seen with only 12 subjects with the customary bihemispheric montage.

  11. Probing for hemispheric specialization for motor skill learning: a transcranial direct current stimulation study

    PubMed Central

    Schambra, Heidi M.; Abe, Mitsunari; Luckenbaugh, David A.; Reis, Janine; Krakauer, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Convergent findings point to a left-sided specialization for the representation of learned actions in right-handed humans, but it is unknown whether analogous hemispheric specialization exists for motor skill learning. In the present study, we explored this question by comparing the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over either left or right motor cortex (M1) on motor skill learning in either hand, using a tDCS montage to better isolate stimulation to one hemisphere. Results were compared with those previously found with a montage more commonly used in the field. Six groups trained for three sessions on a visually guided sequential pinch force modulation task with their right or left hand and received right M1, left M1, or sham tDCS. A linear mixed-model analysis for motor skill showed a significant main effect for stimulation group (left M1, right M1, sham) but not for hand (right, left) or their interaction. Left M1 tDCS induced significantly greater skill learning than sham when hand data were combined, a result consistent not only with the hypothesized left hemisphere specialization for motor skill learning but also with possible increased left M1 responsiveness to tDCS. The unihemispheric montage effect size was one-half that of the more common montage, and subsequent power analysis indicated that 75 subjects per group would be needed to detect differences seen with only 12 subjects with the customary bihemispheric montage. PMID:21613597

  12. Sensorimotor recovery in children after traumatic brain injury: analyses of gait, gross motor, and fine motor skills.

    PubMed

    Kuhtz-Buschbeck, Johann P; Hoppe, Birgit; Gölge, Mukaddes; Dreesmann, Mona; Damm-Stünitz, Ute; Ritz, Annegret

    2003-12-01

    The recovery of gait, gross motor proficiency, and hand function was examined in 23 children (13 males, 10 females; age 4 years 7 months to 15 years 10 months) with traumatic brain injury (TBI) over five months of in patient rehabilitation. We used gait analysis, the Gross Motor Function Measure, the Developmental Hand Function Test, and the Purdue Pegboard test. Brain injury had been severe (initial Glasgow Coma Scale GCS <8) in 17 children and moderate (GCS 8-10) in six children. Compared with healthy control children of the same age and sex, repeated gait analyses in ambulatory children with brain injury showed significant reductions of velocity, stride length and cadence, and impaired balance. Spatiotemporal gait variables were correlated with Gross Motor Function Measure scores. Hand function tests revealed deficits in fine motor skills, speed, and coordination. Degree of impairment increased with trauma severity. Despite significant improvements, differences in gait velocity, stride length, and hand function of children with brain injuries and controls were still present about 8 months after TBI. Hand motor skills improved less than gait. Young age at injury was not associated with better recovery.

  13. Promoting gross motor skills and physical activity in childcare: A translational randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rachel A; Okely, Anthony D; Hinkley, Trina; Batterham, Marijka; Burke, Claire

    2016-09-01

    Educator-led programs for physical activity and motor skill development show potential but few have been implemented and evaluated using a randomized controlled design. Furthermore, few educator-led programs have evaluated both gross motor skills and physical activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate a gross motor skill and physical activity program for preschool children which was facilitated solely by childcare educators. A six-month 2-arm randomized controlled trial was implemented between April and September 2012 in four early childhood centers in Tasmania, Australia. Educators participated in ongoing professional development sessions and children participated in structured physical activity lessons and unstructured physical activity sessions. In total, 150 children were recruited from four centers which were randomized to intervention or wait-list control group. Six early childhood educators from the intervention centers were trained to deliver the intervention. Gross motor skills were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development (2nd edition) and physical activity was measured objectively using GT3X+ Actigraph accelerometers. No statistically significant differences were identified. However, small to medium effect sizes, in favor of the intervention group, were evident for four of the five gross motor skills and the total gross motor skill score and small to medium effect sizes were reported for all physical activity outcomes. This study highlights the potential of educator-led physical activity interventions and supports the need for further translational trials within the early childhood sector. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Matter of Time: Rapid Motor Memory Stabilization in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adi-Japha, Esther; Badir, Rodayna; Dorfberger, Shoshi; Karni, Avi

    2014-01-01

    Are children better than adults in acquiring new skills ("how-to" knowledge) because of a difference in skill memory consolidation? Here we tested the proposal that, as opposed to adults, children's memories for newly acquired skills are immune to interference by subsequent experience. The establishment of long-term memory for a…

  15. A Matter of Time: Rapid Motor Memory Stabilization in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adi-Japha, Esther; Badir, Rodayna; Dorfberger, Shoshi; Karni, Avi

    2014-01-01

    Are children better than adults in acquiring new skills ("how-to" knowledge) because of a difference in skill memory consolidation? Here we tested the proposal that, as opposed to adults, children's memories for newly acquired skills are immune to interference by subsequent experience. The establishment of long-term memory for a…

  16. Motor neuronal activity varies least among individuals when it matters most for behavior

    PubMed Central

    Cullins, Miranda J.; Shaw, Kendrick M.; Gill, Jeffrey P.

    2014-01-01

    How does motor neuronal variability affect behavior? To explore this question, we quantified activity of multiple individual identified motor neurons mediating biting and swallowing in intact, behaving Aplysia californica by recording from the protractor muscle and the three nerves containing the majority of motor neurons controlling the feeding musculature. We measured multiple motor components: duration of the activity of identified motor neurons as well as their relative timing. At the same time, we measured behavioral efficacy: amplitude of grasping movement during biting and amplitude of net inward food movement during swallowing. We observed that the total duration of the behaviors varied: Within animals, biting duration shortened from the first to the second and third bites; between animals, biting and swallowing durations varied. To study other sources of variation, motor components were divided by behavior duration (i.e., normalized). Even after normalization, distributions of motor component durations could distinguish animals as unique individuals. However, the degree to which a motor component varied among individuals depended on the role of that motor component in a behavior. Motor neuronal activity that was essential for the expression of biting or swallowing was similar among animals, whereas motor neuronal activity that was not essential for that behavior varied more from individual to individual. These results suggest that motor neuronal activity that matters most for the expression of a particular behavior may vary least from individual to individual. Shaping individual variability to ensure behavioral efficacy may be a general principle for the operation of motor systems. PMID:25411463

  17. Fine Motor Skills Predict Maths Ability Better than They Predict Reading Ability in the Early Primary School Years.

    PubMed

    Pitchford, Nicola J; Papini, Chiara; Outhwaite, Laura A; Gulliford, Anthea

    2016-01-01

    Fine motor skills have long been recognized as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths development in two studies with primary school children of low-to-mid socio-economic status in the UK. Two key findings were revealed. First, despite being in the first 2 years of primary school education, significantly better performance was found in reading compared to maths across both studies. This may reflect the protective effects of recent national-level interventions to promote early literacy skills in young children in the UK that have not been similarly promoted for maths. Second, fine motor skills were a better predictor of early maths ability than they were of early reading ability. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that fine motor skills did not significantly predict reading ability when verbal short-term memory was taken into account. In contrast, Fine Motor Integration remained a significant predictor of maths ability, even after the influence of non-verbal IQ had been accounted for. These results suggest that fine motor skills should have a pivotal role in educational interventions designed to support the development of early mathematical skills.

  18. Fine Motor Skills Predict Maths Ability Better than They Predict Reading Ability in the Early Primary School Years

    PubMed Central

    Pitchford, Nicola J.; Papini, Chiara; Outhwaite, Laura A.; Gulliford, Anthea

    2016-01-01

    Fine motor skills have long been recognized as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths development in two studies with primary school children of low-to-mid socio-economic status in the UK. Two key findings were revealed. First, despite being in the first 2 years of primary school education, significantly better performance was found in reading compared to maths across both studies. This may reflect the protective effects of recent national-level interventions to promote early literacy skills in young children in the UK that have not been similarly promoted for maths. Second, fine motor skills were a better predictor of early maths ability than they were of early reading ability. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that fine motor skills did not significantly predict reading ability when verbal short-term memory was taken into account. In contrast, Fine Motor Integration remained a significant predictor of maths ability, even after the influence of non-verbal IQ had been accounted for. These results suggest that fine motor skills should have a pivotal role in educational interventions designed to support the development of early mathematical skills. PMID:27303342

  19. Impact of a Community-Based Programme for Motor Development on Gross Motor Skills and Cognitive Function in Preschool Children from Disadvantaged Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Catherine E.; Achmat, Masturah; Forbes, Jared; Lambert, Estelle V.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the studies were to assess the impact of the Little Champs programme for motor development on (1) the gross motor skills, and (2) cognitive function of children in the programme. In study 1, 118 children from one Early Childhood Development Centre (ECDC) were tested using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, and in study 2, 83…

  20. Impact of a Community-Based Programme for Motor Development on Gross Motor Skills and Cognitive Function in Preschool Children from Disadvantaged Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Catherine E.; Achmat, Masturah; Forbes, Jared; Lambert, Estelle V.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the studies were to assess the impact of the Little Champs programme for motor development on (1) the gross motor skills, and (2) cognitive function of children in the programme. In study 1, 118 children from one Early Childhood Development Centre (ECDC) were tested using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, and in study 2, 83…

  1. Altered Synaptic Plasticity in Tourette's Syndrome and Its Relationship to Motor Skill Learning

    PubMed Central

    Ganos, Christos; Kahl, Ursula; Bäumer, Tobias; Münchau, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by motor and phonic tics that can be considered motor responses to preceding inner urges. It has been shown that Tourette patients have inferior performance in some motor learning tasks and reduced synaptic plasticity induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation. However, it has not been investigated whether altered synaptic plasticity is directly linked to impaired motor skill acquisition in Tourette patients. In this study, cortical plasticity was assessed by measuring motor-evoked potentials before and after paired associative stimulation in 14 Tourette patients (13 male; age 18–39) and 15 healthy controls (12 male; age 18–33). Tic and urge severity were assessed using the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale and the Premonitory Urges for Tics Scale. Motor learning was assessed 45 minutes after inducing synaptic plasticity and 9 months later, using the rotary pursuit task. On average, long-term potentiation-like effects in response to the paired associative stimulation were present in healthy controls but not in patients. In Tourette patients, long-term potentiation-like effects were associated with more and long-term depression-like effects with less severe urges and tics. While motor learning did not differ between patients and healthy controls 45 minutes after inducing synaptic plasticity, the learning curve of the healthy controls started at a significantly higher level than the Tourette patients' 9 months later. Induced synaptic plasticity correlated positively with motor skills in healthy controls 9 months later. The present study confirms previously found long-term improvement in motor performance after paired associative stimulation in healthy controls but not in Tourette patients. Tourette patients did not show long-term potentiation in response to PAS and also showed reduced levels of motor skill consolidation after 9 months compared to healthy controls. Moreover, synaptic

  2. Cerebellar development and plasticity: perspectives for motor coordination strategies, for motor skills, and for therapy.

    PubMed

    Swinny, J D; van der Want, J J L; Gramsbergen, A

    2005-01-01

    The role of the mammalian cerebellum ranges from motor coordination, sensory-motor integration, motor learning, and timing to nonmotor functions such as cognition. In terms of motor function, the development of the cerebellum is of particular interest because animal studies show that the development of the cerebellar cortical circuitry closely parallels motor coordination. Ultrastructural analysis of the morphological development of the cerebellar circuitry, coupled with the temporal and spatial identification of the neurochemical substrates expressed during development, will help to elucidate their roles in the establishment of the cerebellar circuitry and hence motor activity. Furthermore, the convenience of a number of naturally occurring mouse mutations has allowed a functional dissection of the various cellular elements that make up the cerebellar circuitry. This understanding will also help in the approach to possible therapies of pathologies arising during development because the cerebellum is especially prone to such perturbation because of its late development.

  3. Language and motor skills are impaired in infants with biliary atresia before transplantation.

    PubMed

    Caudle, Susan E; Katzenstein, Jennifer M; Karpen, Saul J; McLin, Valérie A

    2010-06-01

    To test the hypothesis that in very young patients with biliary atresia, cognitive deficits are apparent before transplantation. With the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (Mullen), we examined 15 infants (mean age, 7.8 months) with biliary atresia, correlating Mullen scores with standard clinical and biochemical parameters. Overall, participants displayed significant delays in gross motor and language skills, and fine motor and visual reasoning skills were relatively preserved. The international normalized ratio correlated inversely with gross (P < .01) and fine (P < .05) motor skills. Growth parameters correlated positively with expressive language ability, but length of hospitalization and mode of feeding did not. Age at performance of the Kasai procedure was found to correlate with receptive language performance (P < .05). Very young children with biliary atresia display a characteristic profile of early developmental deficits before transplantation. These findings suggest that early intervention and aggressive nutritional management should be the standard of care to minimize neurocognitive effects. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Bend it like Beckham: embodying the motor skills of famous athletes.

    PubMed

    Bach, Patric; Tipper, Steven P

    2006-12-01

    Observing an action activates the same representations as does the actual performance of the action. Here we show for the first time that the action system can also be activated in the complete absence of action perception. When the participants had to identify the faces of famous athletes, the responses were influenced by their similarity to the motor skills of the athletes. Thus, the motor skills of the viewed athletes were retrieved automatically during person identification and had a direct influence on the action system of the observer. However, our results also indicated that motor behaviours that are implicit characteristics of other people are represented differently from when actions are directly observed. That is, unlike the facilitatory effects reported when actions were seen, the embodiment of the motor behaviour that is not concurrently perceived gave rise to contrast effects where responses similar to the behaviour of the athletes were inhibited.

  5. A goal-based mechanism for delayed motor intention: considerations from motor skills, tool use and action memory.

    PubMed

    Badets, Arnaud; Osiurak, François

    2015-05-01

    Thinking about our behaviors for a future recall like playing a piano sonata during the next weekend (i.e., delayed motor intention) should engage at some level sensorimotor-based representations. Theoretically, such representations can be stored through both an action- and a goal-based mechanism. An action-based mechanism is related to the specific motor sequence of fingers like the key presses on the piano, and a goal-based mechanism is related to the musical tones generated by the key presses. From these considerations, the present article tries to explore whether the cognitive nature of delayed motor intention is more based on an action or goal mechanism. We reviewed empirical evidence and theoretical accounts of different domains such as motor skills, tool use, and action memory supporting the idea that such delayed motor intentions are rather represented through a goal-based mechanism. The specific role of this goal-based mechanism is to envision the future in an implementation-neutral mode to flexibly and efficiently retrieve an adapted action to environmental constraints. This goal-based account offers an interesting alternative to reshape the classical models about the representations of delayed motor intention. We also discuss how this account can be applied to practical activities in daily life situations.

  6. Assessment of sensorimotor cortical representation asymmetries and motor skills in violin players.

    PubMed

    Schwenkreis, Peter; El Tom, Susan; Ragert, Patrick; Pleger, Burkhard; Tegenthoff, Martin; Dinse, Hubert R

    2007-12-01

    As a model for use-dependent plasticity, the brains of professional musicians have been extensively studied to examine structural and functional adaptation to unique requirements of skilled performance. Here we provide a combination of data on motor performance and hand representation in the primary motor and somatosensory cortex of professional violin players, with the aim of assessing possible behavioural consequences of sensorimotor cortical asymmetries. We studied 15 healthy right-handed professional violin players and 35 healthy nonmusician controls. Motor and somatosensory cortex asymmetry was assessed by recording the motor output map after transcranial magnetic stimulation from a small hand muscle, and by dipole source localization of somatosensory evoked potentials after electrical stimulation of the median and ulnar nerves. Motor performance was examined using a series of standardized motor tasks covering different aspects of hand function. Violin players showed a significant right-larger-than-left asymmetry of the motor and somatosensory cortex, whereas nonmusician controls showed no significant interhemispheric difference. The amount of asymmetry in the motor and somatosensory cortices of musicians was significantly correlated. At the behavioural level, motor performance did not significantly differ between musicians and nonmusicians. The results support a use-dependent enlargement of the left hand representation in the sensorimotor cortex of violin players. However, these cortical asymmetries were not paralleled by accompanying altered asymmetries at a behavioural level, suggesting that the reorganisation might be task-specific and does not lead to improved motor abilities in general.

  7. Recruitment of prefrontal-striatal circuit in response to skilled motor challenge.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yumei; Wang, Zhuo; Prathap, Sandhya; Holschneider, Daniel P

    2017-09-08

    A variety of physical fitness regimens have been shown to improve cognition, including executive function, yet our understanding of which parameters of motor training are important in optimizing outcomes remains limited. We used functional brain mapping to compare the ability of two motor challenges to acutely recruit the prefrontal-striatal circuit. The two motor tasks - walking in a complex running wheel with irregularly spaced rungs or walking in a running wheel with a smooth internal surface - differed only in the extent of skill required for their execution. Cerebral perfusion was mapped in rats by intravenous injection of [C]-iodoantipyrine during walking in either a motorized complex wheel or in a simple wheel. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was quantified by whole-brain autoradiography and analyzed in three-dimensional reconstructed brains by statistical parametric mapping and seed-based functional connectivity. Skilled or simple walking compared with rest, increased rCBF in regions of the motor circuit, somatosensory and visual cortex, as well as the hippocampus. Significantly greater rCBF increases were noted during skilled walking than for simple walking. Skilled walking, unlike simple walking or the resting condition, was associated with a significant positive functional connectivity in the prefrontal-striatal circuit (prelimbic cortex-dorsomedial striatum) and greater negative functional connectivity in the prefrontal-hippocampal circuit. Our findings suggest that the level of skill of a motor training task determines the extent of functional recruitment of the prefrontal-corticostriatal circuit, with implications for a new approach in neurorehabilitation that uses circuit-specific neuroplasticity to improve motor and cognitive functions.

  8. Physical fitness, motor skill, and physical activity relationships in grade 4 to 6 children.

    PubMed

    Larouche, Richard; Boyer, Charles; Tremblay, Mark Stephen; Longmuir, Patricia

    2014-05-01

    The present study sought to quantify the relationships among physical activity (PA), health-related fitness, and motor skill in children (grades 4 to 6), and to determine whether specific tests of fitness or motor skill are independently associated with objectively measured PA level. Four hundred and ninety-one students (56.4% female) wore a Digi-Walker pedometer for 7 consecutive days. Standardized protocols were used to assess health-related fitness (body mass index percentile, waist circumference, 20-m shuttle run, plank, handgrip, and trunk flexibility). Motor skill was evaluated using a validated obstacle course. Pearson correlations (with Holm adjustments for multiple comparisons) initially assessed associations among PA, health-related fitness, and motor skill. Multi-variable linear regression was used to determine which factors were significantly associated with daily step counts, while adjusting for gender, age, testing season, and socioeconomic status. Step counts were significantly correlated with predicted aerobic power (r = 0.30), obstacle course time (r = -0.27), obstacle course score (r = 0.20), plank isometric torso endurance (r = 0.16), and handgrip strength (r = 0.12), but not with waist circumference (r = -0.10), trunk flexibility (r = 0.10), or overweight status (ρ = -0.06). In the multi-variable model, predicted aerobic power, obstacle course time, testing season, gender, and the predicted aerobic power by gender interaction were significantly associated with step counts, explaining 16.4% of the variance. Specifically, the relationship between predicted aerobic power and step counts was stronger in girls. These findings suggest that aerobic fitness and motor skill are independently associated with children's PA. Future longitudinal studies should evaluate whether interventions to enhance aerobic fitness and motor skill could enhance daily PA among children of this age.

  9. Core exercises elevate trunk stability to facilitate skilled motor behavior of the upper extremities.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yuki; Kobayashi, Ryuji; Kelepecz, Dolly; Nakajima, Masaaki

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of core exercises on upper extremity function relative to skilled motor behavior and postural sway. We examined the effects of core exercises on the skilled motor behavior and postural sway of 40 healthy students who were assigned randomly to the core exercise group or the control group. Independent variable is extent of exposure to core exercise and dependent variables are skilled motor behavior and postural sway. A Purdue pegboard which measures skilled motor behavior and a stabilometer which measures postural sway were used to evaluate the influence of core exercises. Pre-intervention and post-intervention skilled motor behavior and postural sway were compared between the core exercise group and control group using the Wilcoxon rank sum test; a significance level of α = 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Also, we investigated the application of core exercises in a clinical setting for one patient with cerebral vascular disease. The post intervention skilled motor behavior (p = 0.04) and postural sway, LNG (p = 0.05), LNG/TIME (p = 0.04) and X LNG (p = 0.02) were significantly higher in the core exercise group than control group. In the case report, there were good results; function of the upper extremity improved after doing the exercises. There were positive changes in some daily living activities. Core exercises are likely to enhance trunk stabilization to improve upper extremity function. It is possible for core exercises to be adapted for patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. What Research Says About: Visual Attributes and Skilled Motor Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacs, Larry D.

    Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is defined as the performer's ability to visually discriminate parts of an object when there is relative motion between the target and the performer. According to research findings, this visual attribute may play a key role in motor-task performance. Researchers have found a significant relationship between DVA and…

  11. Training of Perceptual Motor Skills in Minimally Brain Damaged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazer, Hilda Ruth; Cox, David L.

    Twenty-five male (aged 7 years, 6 months to 10 years, 7 months) and five female (aged 9 years, 3 months to 10 years, 2 months) minimally brain damaged children were examined to determine feasibility of perceptual motor training on the pursuit rotor (which requires Ss to track a light as it revolves under a pattern on a turntable). Experimental Ss…

  12. Motor Skill Learning in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bo, Jin; Lee, Chi-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) are characterized as having motor difficulties and learning impairment that may last well into adolescence and adulthood. Although behavioral deficits have been identified in many domains such as visuo-spatial processing, kinesthetic perception, and cross-modal sensory integration, recent…

  13. Computer-assisted design in perceptual-motor skills research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, C. A., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A categorization was made of independent variables previously found to be potent in simple perceptual-motor tasks. A computer was then used to generate hypothetical factorial designs. These were evaluated in terms of literature trends and pragmatic criteria. Potential side-effects of machine-assisted research strategy were discussed.

  14. Motor Skill Learning in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bo, Jin; Lee, Chi-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) are characterized as having motor difficulties and learning impairment that may last well into adolescence and adulthood. Although behavioral deficits have been identified in many domains such as visuo-spatial processing, kinesthetic perception, and cross-modal sensory integration, recent…

  15. Cognitive and developmental influences in visual-motor integration skills in young children.

    PubMed

    Decker, Scott L; Englund, Julia A; Carboni, Jessica A; Brooks, Janell H

    2011-12-01

    Measures of visual-motor integration skills continue to be widely used in psychological assessments with children. However, the construct validity of many visual-motor integration measures remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the relative contributions of maturation and cognitive skills to the development of visual-motor integration skills in young children (N = 856). We used a block regression analysis to determine the contribution of maturation, as indicated by age, followed by broad cognitive factors (Study 1) and subsequently by individual subtests in verbal and nonverbal domains subsumed under each factor (Study 2) in explaining score variance of the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test (2nd ed.; BG-II; Brannigan & Decker, 2003) Copy and Recall scores in children between the ages of 4 and 7 years. Results confirm that maturation accounted for a large proportion of variance in both BG-II Copy and Recall performance, above which Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (5th ed.; SB-5; Roid, 2003) Quantitative Reasoning and Fluid Reasoning factors significantly contributed to visual-motor integration performance for the Copy phase, and SB-5 Quantitative Reasoning and Visual-Spatial factors accounted for a significant amount of variance for the Recall phase. Additionally, nonverbal domains were more related to visual-motor performance than verbal domains. Results from this study are interpreted to suggest nonverbal reasoning and visual-spatial attention are important contributing factors to visual-motor integration, as measured by the BG-II. Developmental implications of visual-motor integration skills, nonverbal problem solving, and mathematical competence are discussed.

  16. Children's self-perceived bodily competencies and associations with motor skills, body mass index, teachers' evaluations, and parents' concerns.

    PubMed

    Toftegaard-stoeckel, Jan; Groenfeldt, Vivian; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2010-10-01

    The associations between physical competence, self-perceived bodily competence, parental concern for their children's motor skill development, and teachers' evaluation of their bodily competence were assessed in 646 six- to seven-year-olds. Physical competence was assessed by the German motor ability test "Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder", while the children's, their parents', and their teachers' evaluations were obtained through questionnaires. Parental concern, teacher evaluation, and a high body mass index were the strongest predictors of low physical competence (motor skill quotient < 85). Teachers' evaluation of bodily competence was associated with low self-perceived bodily competence in the children even after adjustment for motor skill quotient, with an odds ratio of 2.3 (P < 0.05) between the lowest and highest of the three levels after correction for motor skill competence. Results indicate that teachers' evaluation of children's motor skills should be considered a key factor when tracking and assessing physical competencies among youth.

  17. Co-occurring development of early childhood communication and motor skills: results from a population-based longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Wang, M V; Lekhal, R; Aarø, L E; Schjølberg, S

    2014-01-01

    Communicative and motor development is frequently found to be associated. In the current study we investigate to what extent communication and motor skills at 1½ years predict skills in the same domains at 3 years of age. This study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Heath. Data stem from 62,944 children and their mothers. Mothers completed questionnaires on their child's communication and motor skills at ages 1½ and 3. Associations between communication and motor skills were estimated in a cross-lagged model with latent variables. Early communication skills were correlated with early motor skills (0.72). Stability was high (0.81) across time points for motor skills and somewhat lower (0.40) for communication skills. Early motor skills predicted later communication skills (0.38) whereas early communication skills negatively predicted later motor skills (-0.14). Our findings provide support for the hypothesis that these two difficulties are not symptoms of separate disorders, but might rather be different manifestations of a common underlying neurodevelopmental weakness. However, there also seem to be specific developmental pathways for each domain. Besides theoretical interest, more knowledge about the relationship between these early skills might shed light upon early intervention strategies and preventive efforts commonly used with children with problems in these areas. Our findings suggest that the relationship between language and motor skills is not likely to be simple and directional but rather to be complex and multifaceted. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Using 2D: 4D digit ratios to determine motor skills in children.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Wang, H-L; Li, Y-H; Zhu, F-L; Li, S-J; Ni, H

    2016-03-01

    In past few decades, there has an outburst of research surrounding second to fourth finger digit ratio (2D:4D) and its relation to prenatal sex steroids including both testosterone and estrogen. In utero, testosterone and estrogen are responsible for the differences in digit ratio between the genders. Recent research has tried to extend past the influence of steroids and look at the potential effect of digit ratios on fine and gross motor skills in children. We compiled the current understanding of the connection between sex hormones and the development of the 2D:4D ratio as well as the effect the ratio has on motor skills. There seems to be a significant positive correlation between 2D:4D digit ratio and precision of fine motor skill. In addition, there is a negative correlation between 2D:4D ratio and speed of fine motor activity. In this review, we will outline the use of 2D:4D ratio as a biomarker for prenatal sex steroids and through that, a proxy marker for fine and gross motor skills.

  19. Timing-dependent priming effects of tDCS on ankle motor skill learning.

    PubMed

    Sriraman, Aishwarya; Oishi, Tatsuya; Madhavan, Sangeetha

    2014-09-18

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has gained increasing interest in neurorehabilitation with its ability to modulate cortical excitability, and thereby influence neural plasticity and functional recovery. While the beneficial effects of tDCS on motor learning and function have been recognized, there is no clear consensus regarding the timing of the tDCS priming protocol in relation to the intervention especially with respect to lower limb motor learning. Depending on the time of priming in relation to the training task, the neural mechanisms of priming (gating vs. homeostatic plasticity) are different and thereby subsequently affect motor learning. Hence, the aim of this study was to examine the interaction of tDCS with subsequent vs. concurrent motor learning using an ankle visuomotor skill learning paradigm. Twelve healthy participants were tested under three stimulation conditions: (1) anodal tDCS prior to the motor task (tDCS-before), (2) anodal tDCS during the motor task (tDCS-during) and (3) sham tDCS during the motor task (tDCS-sham). Results revealed that tDCS application during practice of a skilled motor task increased motor performance compared to tDCS applied prior to motor practice. Both tDCS groups demonstrated enhanced motor learning when tested 24 hours after practice. We conclude that the priming effects of tDCS are timing dependent, and maybe a critical regulatory feature in determining outcomes of priming with tDCS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Atrophy of spared grey matter tissue predicts poorer motor recovery and rehabilitation response in chronic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Lynne V.; Taub, Edward; Mark, Victor W.; Barghi, Ameen; Uswatte, Gitendra

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose Although the motor deficit following stroke is clearly due to the structural brain damage that has been sustained, this relationship is attenuated from the acute to chronic phases. We investigated the possibility that motor impairment and response to Constraint-Induced Movement therapy (CI therapy) in chronic stroke patients may relate more strongly to the structural integrity of brain structures remote from the lesion than to measures of overt tissue damage. Methods Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis was performed on MRI scans from 80 chronic stroke patients to investigate whether variations in grey matter density were correlated with extent of residual motor impairment or with CI therapy-induced motor recovery. Results Decreased grey matter density in non-infarcted motor regions was significantly correlated with magnitude of residual motor deficit. In addition, reduced grey matter density in multiple remote brain regions predicted a lesser extent of motor improvement from CI therapy. Conclusions Atrophy in seemingly healthy parts of the brain that are distant from the infarct accounts for at least a portion of the sustained motor deficit in chronic stroke. PMID:22096036

  1. Sleep-Dependent Reactivation of Ensembles in Motor Cortex Promotes Skill Consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Dhakshin S.; Gulati, Tanuj; Ganguly, Karunesh

    2015-01-01

    Despite many prior studies demonstrating offline behavioral gains in motor skills after sleep, the underlying neural mechanisms remain poorly understood. To investigate the neurophysiological basis for offline gains, we performed single-unit recordings in motor cortex as rats learned a skilled upper-limb task. We found that sleep improved movement speed with preservation of accuracy. These offline improvements were linked to both replay of task-related ensembles during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and temporal shifts that more tightly bound motor cortical ensembles to movements; such offline gains and temporal shifts were not evident with sleep restriction. Interestingly, replay was linked to the coincidence of slow-wave events and bursts of spindle activity. Neurons that experienced the most consistent replay also underwent the most significant temporal shift and binding to the motor task. Significantly, replay and the associated performance gains after sleep only occurred when animals first learned the skill; continued practice during later stages of learning (i.e., after motor kinematics had stabilized) did not show evidence of replay. Our results highlight how replay of synchronous neural activity during sleep mediates large-scale neural plasticity and stabilizes kinematics during early motor learning. PMID:26382320

  2. Motor skills of children with unilateral visual impairment in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study.

    PubMed

    Celano, Marianne; Hartmann, E Eugenie; DuBois, Lindreth G; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn

    2016-02-01

    To assess motor functioning in children aged 4 years 6 months enrolled in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study, and to determine contributions of visual acuity and stereopsis to measured motor skills. One hundred and four children (53% female) with unilateral aphakia randomized to intraocular lens or contact lens treatment were evaluated at 4 years 6 months (age range 4y 6mo-4y 11mo) for monocular recognition visual acuity, motor skills, and stereopsis by a traveling examiner masked to treatment condition. Motor skills were assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children--Second Edition (MABC-2). Visual acuity was operationalized as log10 of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) value for treated eye, best logMAR value for either eye, and intraocular logMAR difference. Student's t-tests showed no significant differences in MABC-2 scores between the intraocular lens and contact lens groups. The mean total score was low (6.43; 18th centile) compared with the normative reference group. Motor functioning was not related to visual acuity in the treated eye or to intraocular logMAR difference, but was predicted in a regression model by the better visual acuity of either eye (usually the fellow eye), even after accounting for the influence of age at surgery, examiner, orthotropic ocular alignment, and stereopsis. Children with unilateral congenital cataract may have delayed motor functioning at 4 years 6 months, which may adversely affect their social and academic functioning. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  3. Motor Skills of Children with Unilateral Visual Impairment in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study

    PubMed Central

    Celano, Marianne; Hartmann, E. Eugenie; DuBois, Lindreth G.; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Aim To assess motor functioning in 4.5 year olds enrolled in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study, and to determine contributions of visual acuity and stereopsis to measured motor skills. Method Children with unilateral aphakia randomized to intraocular lens (IOL) or contact lens (CL) treatment were evaluated at 4.5 years for monocular recognition visual acuity, motor skills, and stereopsis by a traveling examiner masked to treatment condition. Motor skills were assessed with the Movement ABC-2. Visual acuity was operationalized as logMAR value for treated eye, best logMAR value for either eye, and intraocular logMAR difference. Results T-tests showed no significant differences in MABC-2 scores between the IOL and CL groups. The mean total score was low (6.43; 18th percentile) compared to the normative reference group. Motor functioning was not related to visual acuity in the treated eye or to intraocular logMAR difference, but was predicted in a regression model by the better visual acuity of either eye (usually the fellow eye), even after accounting for the influence of age at surgery, examiner, orthotropic ocular alignment, and stereopsis. Interpretation Children with unilateral congenital cataract may have delayed motor functioning at 4.5 years, which may adversely affect their social and academic functioning. PMID:26084944

  4. Sleep-Dependent Reactivation of Ensembles in Motor Cortex Promotes Skill Consolidation.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Dhakshin S; Gulati, Tanuj; Ganguly, Karunesh

    2015-01-01

    Despite many prior studies demonstrating offline behavioral gains in motor skills after sleep, the underlying neural mechanisms remain poorly understood. To investigate the neurophysiological basis for offline gains, we performed single-unit recordings in motor cortex as rats learned a skilled upper-limb task. We found that sleep improved movement speed with preservation of accuracy. These offline improvements were linked to both replay of task-related ensembles during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and temporal shifts that more tightly bound motor cortical ensembles to movements; such offline gains and temporal shifts were not evident with sleep restriction. Interestingly, replay was linked to the coincidence of slow-wave events and bursts of spindle activity. Neurons that experienced the most consistent replay also underwent the most significant temporal shift and binding to the motor task. Significantly, replay and the associated performance gains after sleep only occurred when animals first learned the skill; continued practice during later stages of learning (i.e., after motor kinematics had stabilized) did not show evidence of replay. Our results highlight how replay of synchronous neural activity during sleep mediates large-scale neural plasticity and stabilizes kinematics during early motor learning.

  5. Strengthening Teacher Preparation for Motor Performance Skill Development--Motor Processes Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Connie

    In a study of beginning collegiate volleyball players, two classes were assigned to a traditional approach, and two to a Motor Processes Approach. Following 8 weeks of instruction, the Motor Processes classes were significantly better on the set, serve, and pass, and were more knowledgeable. Students indicated that they believed they learned equal…

  6. Motor Development: Theory into Practice. Monograph 3. Motor Skills: Theory into Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Arlene M., Ed.

    Eight papers present information about children's motor development and its application for program design. Jerry R. Thomas, Kathi T. Thomas, and Jere D. Gallagher discuss "Children's Processing of Information in Physical Activity and Sport." In "Toward Inclusion," G. S. Don Morris considers characteristics of children and of motor tasks with…

  7. Obesity and motor skills among 4 to 6-year-old children in the United States: nationally-representative surveys.

    PubMed

    Castetbon, Katia; Andreyeva, Tatiana

    2012-03-15

    Few population-based studies have assessed relationships between body weight and motor skills in young children. Our objective was to estimate the association between obesity and motor skills at 4 years and 5-6 years of age in the United States. We used repeated cross-sectional assessments of the national sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) of preschool 4-year-old children (2005-2006; n = 5 100) and 5-6-year-old kindergarteners (2006-2007; n = 4 700). Height, weight, and fine and gross motor skills were assessed objectively via direct standardized procedures. We used categorical and continuous measures of body weight status, including obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥ 95th percentile) and BMI z-scores. Multivariate logistic and linear models estimated the association between obesity and gross and fine motor skills in very young children adjusting for individual, social, and economic characteristics and parental involvement. The prevalence of obesity was about 15%. The relationship between motor skills and obesity varied across types of skills. For hopping, obese boys and girls had significantly lower scores, 20% lower in obese preschoolers and 10% lower in obese kindergarteners than normal weight counterparts, p < 0.01. Obese girls could jump 1.6-1.7 inches shorter than normal weight peers (p < 0.01). Other gross motor skills and fine motor skills of young children were not consistently related to BMI z-scores and obesity. Based on objective assessment of children's motor skills and body weight and a full adjustment for confounding covariates, we find no reduction in overall coordination and fine motor skills in obese young children. Motor skills are adversely associated with childhood obesity only for skills most directly related to body weight.

  8. Obesity and motor skills among 4 to 6-year-old children in the united states: nationally-representative surveys

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Few population-based studies have assessed relationships between body weight and motor skills in young children. Our objective was to estimate the association between obesity and motor skills at 4 years and 5-6 years of age in the United States. We used repeated cross-sectional assessments of the national sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) of preschool 4-year-old children (2005-2006; n = 5 100) and 5-6-year-old kindergarteners (2006-2007; n = 4 700). Height, weight, and fine and gross motor skills were assessed objectively via direct standardized procedures. We used categorical and continuous measures of body weight status, including obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥ 95th percentile) and BMI z-scores. Multivariate logistic and linear models estimated the association between obesity and gross and fine motor skills in very young children adjusting for individual, social, and economic characteristics and parental involvement. Results The prevalence of obesity was about 15%. The relationship between motor skills and obesity varied across types of skills. For hopping, obese boys and girls had significantly lower scores, 20% lower in obese preschoolers and 10% lower in obese kindergarteners than normal weight counterparts, p < 0.01. Obese girls could jump 1.6-1.7 inches shorter than normal weight peers (p < 0.01). Other gross motor skills and fine motor skills of young children were not consistently related to BMI z-scores and obesity. Conclusions Based on objective assessment of children's motor skills and body weight and a full adjustment for confounding covariates, we find no reduction in overall coordination and fine motor skills in obese young children. Motor skills are adversely associated with childhood obesity only for skills most directly related to body weight. PMID:22420636

  9. A Single Bout of High-Intensity Interval Training Improves Motor Skill Retention in Individuals With Stroke.

    PubMed

    Nepveu, Jean-Francois; Thiel, Alexander; Tang, Ada; Fung, Joyce; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Boyd, Lara A; Roig, Marc

    2017-08-01

    One bout of high-intensity cardiovascular exercise performed immediately after practicing a motor skill promotes changes in the neuroplasticity of the motor cortex and facilitates motor learning in nondisabled individuals. To determine if a bout of exercise performed at high intensity is sufficient to induce neuroplastic changes and improve motor skill retention in patients with chronic stroke. Twenty-two patients with different levels of motor impairment were recruited. On the first session, the effects of a maximal graded exercise test on corticospinal and intracortical excitability were assessed from the affected and unaffected primary motor cortex representational area of a hand muscle with transcranial magnetic stimulation. On the second session, participants were randomly assigned to an exercise or a nonexercise control group. Immediately after practicing a motor task, the exercise group performed 15 minutes of high-intensity interval training while the control group rested. Twenty-four hours after motor practice all participants completed a test of the motor task to assess skill retention. The graded exercise test reduced interhemispheric imbalances in GABAA-mediated short-interval intracortical inhibition but changes in other markers of excitability were not statistically significant. The group that performed high-intensity interval training showed a better retention of the motor skill. The performance of a maximal graded exercise test triggers only modest neuroplastic changes in patients with chronic stroke. However, a single bout of high-intensity interval training performed immediately after motor practice improves skill retention, which could potentially accelerate motor recovery in these individuals.

  10. [Electroencephalography measures in motor skill learning and effects of bromazepam].

    PubMed

    Bastos, Victor Hugo; Machado, Dionis; Cunha, Marlo; Portella, Claudio Elidio; Cagy, Maurício; Furtado, Vernon; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2005-06-01

    Neuromodulators change brain's neural circuitry. Bromazepam is often been used in the pharmacological treatment of anxiety disorders. Few papers links this anxiolytic to motor tasks. The purpose of this study was to examine motor and electrophysiological changes produced by administration of bromazepam in differents doses (3 and 6 mg). The sample consisted of 39 healthy individuals, of both sexes, between 20 and 30 years of age. The control (placebo) and experimental (bromazepam 3mg and bromazepam 6 mg) groups were submitted to a typewriting task, in a randomized, double-blind design. The results did not reveal differences on score and time of the attention test. In the comportamental analysis was noticed blocks as main effect to behavioral variables (time and mistakes in the task). Electrophysiological data showed significants interactions to: laterally/condition/moment; laterally/condition; laterally/moment; condition/moment; condition/site.

  11. Teaching Practices that Promote Motor Skills in Early Childhood Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Leah E.; Webster, E. Kipling; Logan, S. Wood; Lucas, W. Amarie; Barber, Laura T.

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood educators, especially those in preschool centers, are often expected to design and implement movement programs. However, these individuals may not have been taught these skills during their education. The purpose of this study was to determine if early childhood majors could successfully be taught to implement a mastery climate…

  12. Teaching Practices that Promote Motor Skills in Early Childhood Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Leah E.; Webster, E. Kipling; Logan, S. Wood; Lucas, W. Amarie; Barber, Laura T.

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood educators, especially those in preschool centers, are often expected to design and implement movement programs. However, these individuals may not have been taught these skills during their education. The purpose of this study was to determine if early childhood majors could successfully be taught to implement a mastery climate…

  13. Relationship between writing skills and visual-motor control in low-vision students.

    PubMed

    Atasavun Uysal, Songül; Aki, Esra

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between handwriting skills and visual motor control among students with low vision and to compare this with the performance of their normal sighted peers. 42 students with low vision and 26 normal sighted peers participated. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Motor Proficiency Test-Short Form (BOTMP-SF), Jebsen Taylor Hand Function Test's writing subtest, and a legibility assessment were administered. Significant differences were found between groups for students' writing speed, legibility, and visual motor control. Visual motor control was correlated both writing speed and legibility. Students with low vision had poorer handwriting performance, with lower legibility and slower writing speed. Writing performance time was related to visual motor control in students with low vision.

  14. Coding, Organization and Feedback Variables in Motor Skills.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    F.V. Reaction time kinesthetic stimulation resulting from sudden arm diiplacement. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1952, 43, 1-8. Easton, T.A...Mechanisms in Behavior. New York: Wiley, 1951. Laszlo, J.I. Training of fast tapping with reduction of kinesthetic , tactile, visual, and auditory...Experimental Psycholog,, 1974, 103, 1092-1107. Keele, S.W., & Ells, J.C. Memory characteristics of kinesthetic information. Journal of Motor sehavior, 1972, 4

  15. Comparison of performance on process- and product-oriented assessments of fundamental motor skills across childhood.

    PubMed

    Logan, Samuel W; Barnett, Lisa M; Goodway, Jacqueline D; Stodden, David F

    2017-04-01

    Process-oriented motor competence (MC) assessments evaluate how a movement is performed. Product-oriented assessments evaluate the outcome of a movement. Determining the concurrent validity of process and product assessments is important to address the predictive utility of motor competence for health. The current study aimed to: (1) compare process and product assessments of the standing long jump, hop and throw across age groups and (2) determine the capacity of process assessments to classify levels of MC. Participants included 170 children classified into three age groups: 4-5, 7-8 and 10-11 years old. Participants' skills were examined concurrently using three process assessments ((Test of Gross Motor Development-2nd edition [TGMD-2]), Get Skilled; Get Active, and developmental sequences) and one product measure (throw speed, jump and hop distance). Results indicate moderate to strong correlations between (1) process assessments across skills and age groups (r range = .37-70) and (2) process and product assessments across skills and age groups (r range = .26-.88). In general, sensitivity to detect advanced skill level is lowest for TGMD-2 and highest for developmental sequences for all three skills. The use of process and product assessments is suggested to comprehensively capture levels of MC in human movement.

  16. Role of medial premotor areas in action language processing in relation to motor skills.

    PubMed

    Courson, Melody; Macoir, Joël; Tremblay, Pascale

    2017-10-01

    The literature reports that the supplementary motor area (SMA) and pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) are involved in motor planning and execution, and in motor-related cognitive functions such as motor imagery. However, their specific role in action language processing remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the impact of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over SMA and pre-SMA during an action semantic analogy task (SAT) in relation with fine motor skills (i.e., manual dexterity) and motor imagery abilities in healthy non-expert adults. The impact of rTMS over SMA (but not pre-SMA) on reaction times (RT) during SAT was correlated with manual dexterity. Specifically, results show that rTMS over SMA modulated RT for those with lower dexterity skills. Our results therefore demonstrate a causal involvement of SMA in action language processing, as well as the existence of inter-individual differences in this involvement. We discuss these findings in light of neurolinguistic theories of language processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Whole body heat stress increases motor cortical excitability and skill acquisition in humans.

    PubMed

    Littmann, Andrew E; Shields, Richard K

    2016-02-01

    Vigorous systemic exercise stimulates a cascade of molecular and cellular processes that enhance central nervous system (CNS) plasticity and performance. The influence of heat stress on CNS performance and learning is novel. We designed two experiments to determine whether passive heat stress (1) facilitated motor cortex excitability and (2) improved motor task acquisition compared to no heat stress. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from the first dorsal interosseus (FDI) were collected before and after 30 min of heat stress at 73 °C. A second cohort of subjects performed a motor learning task using the FDI either following heat or the no heat condition. Heat stress increased heart rate to 65% of age-predicted maximum. After heat, mean resting MEP amplitude increased 48% (p<0.05). MEP stimulus-response amplitudes did not differ according to stimulus intensity. In the second experiment, heat stress caused a significant decrease in absolute and variable error (p<0.05) during a novel movement task using the FDI. Passive environmental heat stress (1) increases motor cortical excitability, and (2) enhances performance in a motor skill acquisition task. Controlled heat stress may prime the CNS to enhance motor skill acquisition during rehabilitation. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Reduced corticomotor excitability and motor skills development in children born preterm.

    PubMed

    Pitcher, Julia B; Schneider, Luke A; Burns, Nicholas R; Drysdale, John L; Higgins, Ryan D; Ridding, Michael C; Nettelbeck, Theodore J; Haslam, Ross R; Robinson, Jeffrey S

    2012-11-15

    The mechanisms underlying the altered neurodevelopment commonly experienced by children born preterm, but without brain lesions, remain unknown. While individuals born the earliest are at most risk, late preterm children also experience significant motor, cognitive and behavioural dysfunction from school age, and reduced income and educational attainment in adulthood. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional assessments to examine corticomotor development in 151 children without cerebral palsy, aged 10-13 years and born after gestations of 25-41 completed weeks. We hypothesized that motor cortex and corticospinal development are altered in preterm children, which underpins at least some of their motor dysfunction. We report for the first time that every week of reduced gestation is associated with a reduction in corticomotor excitability that remains evident in late childhood. This reduced excitability was associated with poorer motor skill development, particularly manual dexterity. However, child adiposity, sex and socio-economic factors regarding the child's home environment soon after birth were also powerful influences on development of motor skills. Preterm birth was also associated with reduced left hemisphere lateralization, but without increasing the likelihood of being left handed per se. These corticomotor findings have implications for normal motor development, but also raise questions regarding possible longer term consequences of preterm birth on motor function.

  19. Sensory processing and motor skill performance in elementary school children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting

    2013-02-01

    Research to examine both sensory processing and motor skill performance in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is limited. This study assessed whether children with ASD would show sensory and motor delays compared to typically developing children and examined the relationship between sensory processing and motor performance. 32 children diagnosed with ASD were assessed using the Short Sensory Profile (SSP) and the Movement ABC-2 (MABC-2). The SSP measures children's sensory processing in daily life and the MABC-2 measures children's fine and gross motor skill performance. Overall, the samples' scores on the SSP indicated atypical sensory processing and scores on the MABC-2 showed poorer fine and gross motor performance as compared to age-matched norms. Furthermore, the samples' scores for sensory processing were positively correlated with their motor performance. The results suggest that fine and gross motor difficulties of children with ASD may be related to their delayed sensory processing to visual, auditory, tactile, and movement stimuli, and that this hypothesis needs to be tested in future research.

  20. Whole body heat stress increases motor cortical excitability and skill acquisition in humans

    PubMed Central

    Littmann, Andrew E.; Shields, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Vigorous systemic exercise stimulates a cascade of molecular and cellular processes that enhance central nervous system (CNS) plasticity and performance. The influence of heat stress on CNS performance and learning is novel. We designed two experiments to determine whether passive heat stress 1) facilitated motor cortex excitability and 2) improved motor task acquisition compared to no heat stress. Methods Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from the first dorsal interosseus (FDI) were collected before and after 30 minutes of heat stress at 73° C. A second cohort of subjects performed a motor learning task using the FDI either following heat or the no heat condition. Results Heat stress increased heart rate to 65% of age-predicted maximum. After heat, mean resting MEP amplitude increased 48% (P < 0.05). MEP stimulus-response amplitudes did not differ according to stimulus intensity. In the second experiment, heat stress caused a significant decrease in absolute and variable error (p < 0.05) during a novel movement task using the FDI. Conclusions Passive environmental heat stress 1) increases motor cortical excitability, and 2) enhances performance in a motor skill acquisition task. Significance Controlled heat stress may prime the CNS to enhance motor skill acquisition during rehabilitation. PMID:26616546

  1. Mental practice promotes motor anticipation: evidence from skilled music performance.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Nicolò F; De Buglio, Matteo; Trimarchi, Pietro D; Chielli, Alfonso; Bricolo, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    Mental practice (MP) has been shown to improve movement accuracy and velocity, but it is not known whether MP can also optimize movement timing. We addressed this question by studying two groups of expert pianists who performed challenging music sequences after either MP or physical practice (PP). Performance and motion-capture data were collected along with responses to imagery questionnaires. The results showed that MP produced performance improvements, although to a lower degree than PP did. MP and PP induced changes in both movement velocity and movement timing, promoting the emergence of movement anticipatory patterns. Furthermore, motor imagery was associated with greater changes in movement velocity, while auditory imagery was associated with greater movement anticipation. Data from a control group that was not allowed to practice confirmed that the changes in accuracy and kinematics were not due to mere repetition of the sequence during testing. This study provides the first evidence of an anticipatory control following MP and extends the present knowledge on the effectiveness of MP to a task of unparalleled motor complexity. The practical implications of MP in the motor domain are discussed.

  2. Mental practice promotes motor anticipation: evidence from skilled music performance

    PubMed Central

    Bernardi, Nicolò F.; De Buglio, Matteo; Trimarchi, Pietro D.; Chielli, Alfonso; Bricolo, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    Mental practice (MP) has been shown to improve movement accuracy and velocity, but it is not known whether MP can also optimize movement timing. We addressed this question by studying two groups of expert pianists who performed challenging music sequences after either MP or physical practice (PP). Performance and motion-capture data were collected along with responses to imagery questionnaires. The results showed that MP produced performance improvements, although to a lower degree than PP did. MP and PP induced changes in both movement velocity and movement timing, promoting the emergence of movement anticipatory patterns. Furthermore, motor imagery was associated with greater changes in movement velocity, while auditory imagery was associated with greater movement anticipation. Data from a control group that was not allowed to practice confirmed that the changes in accuracy and kinematics were not due to mere repetition of the sequence during testing. This study provides the first evidence of an anticipatory control following MP and extends the present knowledge on the effectiveness of MP to a task of unparalleled motor complexity. The practical implications of MP in the motor domain are discussed. PMID:23970859

  3. Evaluation of Sensory and Motor Skills in Neurosurgery Applicants Using a Virtual Reality Neurosurgical Simulator: The Sensory-Motor Quotient.

    PubMed

    Roitberg, Ben Z; Kania, Patrick; Luciano, Cristian; Dharmavaram, Naga; Banerjee, Pat

    2015-01-01

    Manual skill is an important attribute for any surgeon. Current methods to evaluate sensory-motor skills in neurosurgical residency applicants are limited. We aim to develop an objective multifaceted measure of sensory-motor skills using a virtual reality surgical simulator. A set of 3 tests of sensory-motor function was performed using a 3-dimensional surgical simulator with head and arm tracking, collocalization, and haptic feedback. (1) Trajectory planning: virtual reality drilling of a pedicle. Entry point, target point, and trajectory were scored-evaluating spatial memory and orientation. (2) Motor planning: sequence, timing, and precision: hemostasis in a postresection cavity in the brain. (3) Haptic perception: touching virtual spheres to determine which is softest of the group, with progressive difficulty. Results were analyzed individually and for a combined score of all the tasks. The University of Chicago Hospital's tertiary care academic center. A total of 95 consecutive applicants interviewed at a neurosurgery residency program over 2 years were offered anonymous participation in the study; in 2 cohorts, 36 participants in year 1 and 27 participants in year 2 (validation cohort) agreed and completed all the tasks. We also tested 10 first-year medical students and 4 first- and second-year neurosurgery residents. A cumulative score was generated from the 3 tests. The mean score was 14.47 (standard deviation = 4.37), median score was 13.42, best score was 8.41, and worst score was 30.26. Separate analysis of applicants from each of 2 years yielded nearly identical results. Residents tended to cluster on the better performance side, and first-year students were not different from applicants. (1) Our cumulative score measures sensory-motor skills in an objective and reproducible way. (2) Better performance by residents hints at validity for neurosurgery. (3) We were able to demonstrate good psychometric qualities and generate a proposed sensory-motor

  4. Effect of the Children’s Health Activity Motor Program on Motor Skills and Self-Regulation in Head Start Preschoolers: An Efficacy Trial

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Leah E.; Palmer, Kara K.; Bub, Kristen L.

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulatory skills are broadly defined as the ability to manage emotions, focus attention, and inhibit some behaviors while activating others in accordance with social expectations and are an established indicator of academic success. Growing evidence links motor skills and physical activity to self-regulation. This study examined the efficacy of a motor skills intervention (i.e., the Children’s Health Activity Motor Program, CHAMP) that is theoretically grounded in Achievement Goal Theory on motor skill performance and self-regulation in Head Start preschoolers. A sample of 113 Head Start preschoolers (Mage = 51.91 ± 6.5 months; 49.5% males) were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 68) or control (n = 45) program. CHAMP participants engaged in 15, 40-min sessions of a mastery climate intervention that focused on the development of motor skills over 5 weeks while control participants engaged in their normal outdoor recess period. The Delay of Gratification Snack Task was used to measure self-regulation and the Test of Gross Motor Development-2nd Edition was used to assess motor skills. All measures were assessed prior to and following the intervention. Linear mixed models were fit for both self-regulation and motor skills. Results revealed a significant time × treatment interaction (p < 0.001). In regard to motor skills, post hoc comparisons found that all children improved their motor skills (p < 0.05), but the CHAMP group improved significantly more than the control group (p < 0.001). Children in CHAMP maintained their self-regulation scores across time, while children in the control group scored significantly lower than the CHAMP group at the posttest (p < 0.05). CHAMP is a mastery climate movement program that enhance skills associated with healthy development in children (i.e., motor skills and self-regulation). This efficacy trial provided evidence that CHAMP helped maintain delay of gratification in preschool

  5. Effect of the Children's Health Activity Motor Program on Motor Skills and Self-Regulation in Head Start Preschoolers: An Efficacy Trial.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Leah E; Palmer, Kara K; Bub, Kristen L

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulatory skills are broadly defined as the ability to manage emotions, focus attention, and inhibit some behaviors while activating others in accordance with social expectations and are an established indicator of academic success. Growing evidence links motor skills and physical activity to self-regulation. This study examined the efficacy of a motor skills intervention (i.e., the Children's Health Activity Motor Program, CHAMP) that is theoretically grounded in Achievement Goal Theory on motor skill performance and self-regulation in Head Start preschoolers. A sample of 113 Head Start preschoolers (Mage = 51.91 ± 6.5 months; 49.5% males) were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 68) or control (n = 45) program. CHAMP participants engaged in 15, 40-min sessions of a mastery climate intervention that focused on the development of motor skills over 5 weeks while control participants engaged in their normal outdoor recess period. The Delay of Gratification Snack Task was used to measure self-regulation and the Test of Gross Motor Development-2nd Edition was used to assess motor skills. All measures were assessed prior to and following the intervention. Linear mixed models were fit for both self-regulation and motor skills. Results revealed a significant time × treatment interaction (p < 0.001). In regard to motor skills, post hoc comparisons found that all children improved their motor skills (p < 0.05), but the CHAMP group improved significantly more than the control group (p < 0.001). Children in CHAMP maintained their self-regulation scores across time, while children in the control group scored significantly lower than the CHAMP group at the posttest (p < 0.05). CHAMP is a mastery climate movement program that enhance skills associated with healthy development in children (i.e., motor skills and self-regulation). This efficacy trial provided evidence that CHAMP helped maintain delay of gratification in preschool

  6. The Relative Impact of Sleep and Circadian Drive on Motor Skill Acquisition and Memory Consolidation.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Matthew A; Morris, Christopher J; Morgan, Alexandra; Yang, Jessica; Myers, Samantha; Pierce, Joanna Garcia; Stickgold, Robert; Scheer, Frank A J L

    2017-04-01

    Sleep during the biological night facilitates memory consolidation. Here we determined the impact of sleep and wake on motor skill learning (acquisition) and subsequent off-line skill improvement (memory consolidation), independent of circadian phase, and compared this to the impact of the endogenous circadian system, independent of whether sleep occurred during the biological night or day. Participants completed two 8-day sleep laboratory visits, adhering on one visit to a circadian aligned ("normal") sleep schedule for the full duration of the protocol, and on the other to a circadian misaligned (12-hour inverted) schedule, with alignment during the first 3 days, a 12-hour 'slam shift' on Day 4, followed by circadian misalignment during the last 4 days of the protocol. Participants were repeatedly trained and tested on different versions of the finger-tapping motor sequence task across each visit. Sleep facilitated offline memory consolidation regardless of whether it occurred during the biological day or night, while circadian phase had no significant impact. These sleep-related benefits remained after accounting for general motor speed, measured in the absence of learning. In addition, motor skill acquisition was facilitated when the training session followed shortly after sleep, without significant impact of circadian phase (biological morning vs. evening). This effect was largely driven by heightened acquisition in participants who slept during the day and were trained shortly thereafter, that is, when acquisition occurred during the biological evening. These benefits were also retained after controlling for general motor speed. Sleep benefits both the acquisition and consolidation of motor skill regardless of whether they occur during the biological day or night. After controlling for general motor speed, a critical adjustment that few studies perform, these sleep benefits remain intact. Our findings have clear implications for night shift workers who obtain

  7. Learning-performance distinction and memory processes for motor skills: a focused review and perspective.

    PubMed

    Kantak, Shailesh S; Winstein, Carolee J

    2012-03-01

    Behavioral research in cognitive psychology provides evidence for an important distinction between immediate performance that accompanies practice and long-term performance that reflects the relative permanence in the capability for the practiced skill (i.e. learning). This learning-performance distinction is strikingly evident when challenging practice conditions may impair practice performance, but enhance long-term retention of motor skills. A review of motor learning studies with a specific focus on comparing differences in performance between that at the end of practice and at delayed retention suggests that the delayed retention or transfer performance is a better indicator of motor learning than the performance at (or end of) practice. This provides objective evidence for the learning-performance distinction. This behavioral evidence coupled with an understanding of the motor memory processes of encoding, consolidation and retrieval may provide insight into the putative mechanism that implements the learning-performance distinction. Here, we propose a simplistic empirically-based framework--motor behavior-memory framework--that integrates the temporal evolution of motor memory processes with the time course of practice and delayed retention frequently used in behavioral motor learning paradigms. In the context of the proposed framework, recent research has used noninvasive brain stimulation to decipher the role of each motor memory process, and specific cortical brain regions engaged in motor performance and learning. Such findings provide beginning insights into the relationship between the time course of practice-induced performance changes and motor memory processes. This in turn has promising implications for future research and practical applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Written Communication Skills That Matter Most for Accountants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Tracey J.; Simons, Kathleen A.

    2016-01-01

    Given the importance of effective written communication skills to the discipline of accounting, faculty must emphasize these skills in their classroom in order to adequately prepare students for successful careers in the field. Since 2000, only two studies in the accounting literature have examined which written communication skills are needed by…

  9. The Written Communication Skills That Matter Most for Accountants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Tracey J.; Simons, Kathleen A.

    2016-01-01

    Given the importance of effective written communication skills to the discipline of accounting, faculty must emphasize these skills in their classroom in order to adequately prepare students for successful careers in the field. Since 2000, only two studies in the accounting literature have examined which written communication skills are needed by…

  10. Gross motor skill performance in a sample of overweight and non-overweight preschool children.

    PubMed

    Morano, Milena; Colella, Dario; Caroli, Margherita

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the gross motor skill performance of overweight and non-overweight preschool children from South of Italy, and to investigate possible differences by gender. Participants were 38 boys and 42 girls (4.5 ± 0.5 yr) categorized as overweight (n = 38) and non-overweight (n = 42), according to the IOTF body mass index (BMI) cut-off points. The Test of Gross Motor Development was used to assess seven locomotor skills (run, gallop, hop, leap, horizontal jump, skip and slide) and five object-control skills (two-hand strike, stationary bounce, catch, kick and overhand throw). The raw, standard and percentile scores and the Gross Motor Development Quotient (GMDQ) were calculated for each participant. ANOVA 2 (gender) x 2 (group) was conducted on the subtest standard scores and the GMDQ. No differences in performance were found between boys and girls on the subscale standard scores and the GMDQ. Significant main effects (p < 0.001) were reported for group on the GMDQ, and the standard scores for locomotor and object-control skills, with overweight children reporting lower movement competence than their counterparts. Pearson's correlations revealed relationships (p < 0.001) between BMI and locomotor (r = -0.54) and object-control (r = 20.48) skills, and between BMI and GMDQ (r = 20.54). Findings indicate that childhood obesity might have adverse effects on gross motor development. Overweight participants showed poorer performance on locomotor and object-control tasks than their non-overweight peers. Interventions to promote physical activity in overweight children should be directed towards achieving a healthy weight and motor skill improvement.

  11. Skill learning induced plasticity of motor cortical representations is time and age-dependent

    PubMed Central

    Tennant, Kelly A.; Adkins, DeAnna L.; Scalco, Matthew D.; Donlan, Nicole A.; Asay, Aaron L.; Thomas, Nagheme; Kleim, Jeffrey A.; Jones, Theresa A.

    2012-01-01

    Movement representations in the motor cortex can reorganize to support motor skill learning during young adulthood. However, little is known about how motor representations change during aging or whether their change is influenced by continued practice of a skill after it is learned. We used intracortical microstimulation to characterize the organization of the forelimb motor cortex in young and aged C57/BL6 mice after short (2-4 weeks) or long (8 weeks) durations of training on a skilled reaching task or control procedures. In young mice, a short duration of reach training increased the area of proximal forelimb movement representations at the expense of distal representations. Following a longer training duration, ratios of proximal to distal movements returned to baseline, even with ongoing practice and skill maintenance. However, lingering changes were evident in thresholds for eliciting distal forelimb movements, which declined over the longer training period. In aged mice, movement representations and movement thresholds failed to change after either duration of training. Furthermore, there was an age-related loss of digit representations and performance decrements on other sensorimotor tests. Nevertheless, in quantitative measures of reaching success, aged mice learned and performed the skilled reaching task at least as well as younger mice. These results indicate that experience-driven topographical reorganization of motor cortex varies with age, as well as time, and is partially dissociable from behavioral performance. They also support an enduring capacity to learn new manual skills during aging, even as more youthful forms of cortical plasticity and sensorimotor function are lost. PMID:23010138

  12. The effectiveness of a fundamental motor skill intervention in pre-schoolers with motor problems depends on gender but not environmental context.

    PubMed

    Bardid, Farid; Deconinck, Frederik J A; Descamps, Sofie; Verhoeven, Liesbeth; De Pooter, Greet; Lenoir, Matthieu; D'Hondt, Eva

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluated the effect of a 10-week fundamental motor skill programme in pre-schoolers with motor problems. Alongside the general effect of the intervention, we also explored possible gender differences and the role of the environmental context (living community, socio-economic status, and recreational space inside/outside the house). The intervention group (n=47; 20 ♂ and 27 ♀) received twenty 60-min motor skill sessions (2 per week) in addition to the regular physical education curriculum for pre-schoolers; the control group (n=46; 21 ♂ and 25 ♀) did not receive additional practice. General motor competence, and locomotor and object control subscales, were assessed before and after the intervention using the Test of Gross Motor Development 2nd edition (TGMD-2). Data regarding environmental factors were gathered through a questionnaire. A Group×Gender×Time ANOVA revealed that the intervention group benefited significantly from the intervention and scored better than the control group at the post-test for general motor competence and both sub-categories (locomotor and object control skill). Moreover, the intervention programme was found to be effective in helping 49% of the intervention group to achieve an average motor skill level, according to the TGMD-2 norms, while a further decline in motor competence was observed in the control group. Interestingly, the effect appeared to be gender-specific, since object control skill improved only in girls of the intervention group. Considering the environmental context, none of the above-mentioned factors was found to have an influence on the effectiveness of the intervention. The present study highlights the need for an early motor skill programme with a gender-specific approach in order to help low skilled boys and girls master a diverse set of motor skills. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Changes in voice onset time and motor speech skills in children following motor speech therapy: Evidence from /pa/ productions.

    PubMed

    Yu, Vickie Y; Kadis, Darren S; Oh, Anna; Goshulak, Debra; Namasivayam, Aravind; Pukonen, Margit; Kroll, Robert; De Nil, Luc F; Pang, Elizabeth W

    2014-06-01

    This study evaluated changes in motor speech control and inter-gestural coordination for children with speech sound disorders (SSD) subsequent to Prompts for Restructuring Oral and Muscular Phonetic Targets (PROMPT) intervention. We measured the distribution patterns of voice onset time (VOT) for a voiceless stop (/p/) to examine the changes in inter-gestural coordination. Two standardized tests were used (Verbal Motor Production Assessment for Children (VMPAC), GFTA-2) to assess the changes in motor speech skills and articulation. Data showed positive changes in patterns of VOT with a lower pattern of variability. All children showed significantly higher scores for VMPAC, but only some children showed higher scores for GFTA-2. Results suggest that the proprioceptive feedback provided through PROMPT had a positive influence on speech motor control and inter-gestural coordination in voicing behavior. This set of VOT data for children with SSD adds to our understanding of the speech characteristics underlying speech motor control. Directions for future studies are discussed.

  14. Associations among Selected Motor Skills and Health-Related Fitness: Indirect Evidence for Seefeldt's Proficiency Barrier in Young Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stodden, David F.; True, Larissa K.; Langendorfer, Stephen J.; Gao, Zan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This exploratory study examined the notion of Seefeldt's (1980) hypothesized motor skill "proficiency barrier" related to composite levels of health-related physical fitness (HRF) in young adults. Method: A motor skill competence (MSC) index composed of maximum throwing and kicking speed and jumping distance in 187 young adults…

  15. Associations between Low-Income Children's Fine Motor Skills in Preschool and Academic Performance in Second Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinehart, Laura; Manfra, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Given the growing literature pertaining to the importance of fine motor skills for later academic achievement (D. W. Grissmer, K. J. Grimm, S. M. Aiyer, W. M. Murrah, & J. S. Steele, 2010), the current study examines whether the fine motor skills of economically disadvantaged preschool students predict later academic…

  16. The Relationship between Motor Skills Difficulties and Self-Esteem in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodal, Katherine; Bond, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Research findings indicate that there appears to be a relationship between poor motor skills and self-esteem, however this relationship is ambiguous. This review examines the effects of poor motor skills on global and/or domain specific self-esteem. Four databases, Google Scholar and the Manchester Online library were searched for articles…

  17. The Relationship between Motor Skills Difficulties and Self-Esteem in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodal, Katherine; Bond, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Research findings indicate that there appears to be a relationship between poor motor skills and self-esteem, however this relationship is ambiguous. This review examines the effects of poor motor skills on global and/or domain specific self-esteem. Four databases, Google Scholar and the Manchester Online library were searched for articles…

  18. Examining the Potential of Web-Based Multimedia to Support Complex Fine Motor Skill Learning: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papastergiou, Marina; Pollatou, Elisana; Theofylaktou, Ioannis; Karadimou, Konstantina

    2014-01-01

    Research on the utilization of the Web for complex fine motor skill learning that involves whole body movements is still scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the introduction of a multimedia web-based learning environment, which was targeted at a rhythmic gymnastics routine consisting of eight fine motor skills, into an…

  19. Developing and Sustaining Provision for Children with Motor Skills Difficulties in Schools: The Role of Educational Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Caroline; Cole, Marilyn; Fletcher, Judy; Noble, Jennifer; O'Connell, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The current paper outlines a three-year action research project with 39 schools in one inner city local authority. A local need to improve provision for children with motor skills difficulties resulted in a team of educational psychologists (EPs) and specialist teachers developing the Manchester Motor Skills Intervention (MMSI), which is a…

  20. Motor skill learning enhances the expression of activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein in the rat cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dean-Chuan; Lin, Yu-Yi; Chen, Tsan-Ju; Lin, Hwai-Ting

    2014-11-01

    Motor skill learning is essential for environmental adaptations during everyday life. It has been shown that the cerebellum plays an important role in both the adaptation of eye movements and the motor skill learning. However, the neuronal substrates responsible for consolidation of complex motor skills rather than simple reflexes are still uncertain. Because the induction of immediate-early genes activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) and zinc finger binding protein clone 268 (Zif268) has been regarded as a marker for recent neuronal activity, therefore, in the present study, a rat paradigm of motor skill learning was used to investigate the protein expression of Arc and zif268 in the cerebellum after motor skill learning. Rats were trained to traverse the runway apparatus for 5 days. Protein samples were collected from the cerebellar cortices 1 hour after the training on days 1, 3, and 5, and analyzed by western blotting. The results showed that the expression of Arc, but not zif268, was significantly increased in the cerebellum following motor skill learning. These findings suggest that motor skill learning induces Arc expression in the cerebellum, which may play a role in acquiring complex motor skills.

  1. Developing and Sustaining Provision for Children with Motor Skills Difficulties in Schools: The Role of Educational Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Caroline; Cole, Marilyn; Fletcher, Judy; Noble, Jennifer; O'Connell, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The current paper outlines a three-year action research project with 39 schools in one inner city local authority. A local need to improve provision for children with motor skills difficulties resulted in a team of educational psychologists (EPs) and specialist teachers developing the Manchester Motor Skills Intervention (MMSI), which is a…

  2. Associations among Selected Motor Skills and Health-Related Fitness: Indirect Evidence for Seefeldt's Proficiency Barrier in Young Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stodden, David F.; True, Larissa K.; Langendorfer, Stephen J.; Gao, Zan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This exploratory study examined the notion of Seefeldt's (1980) hypothesized motor skill "proficiency barrier" related to composite levels of health-related physical fitness (HRF) in young adults. Method: A motor skill competence (MSC) index composed of maximum throwing and kicking speed and jumping distance in 187 young adults…

  3. Atypical Acquisition and Atypical Expression of Memory Consolidation Gains in a Motor Skill in Young Female Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adi-Japha, Esther; Fox, Orly; Karni, Avi

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with ADHD often show performance deficits in motor tasks. It is not clear, however, whether this reflects less effective acquisition of skill (procedural knowledge), or deficient consolidation into long-term memory, in ADHD. The aim of the study was to compare the acquisition of skilled motor performance, the expression of…

  4. Examining the Potential of Web-Based Multimedia to Support Complex Fine Motor Skill Learning: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papastergiou, Marina; Pollatou, Elisana; Theofylaktou, Ioannis; Karadimou, Konstantina

    2014-01-01

    Research on the utilization of the Web for complex fine motor skill learning that involves whole body movements is still scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the introduction of a multimedia web-based learning environment, which was targeted at a rhythmic gymnastics routine consisting of eight fine motor skills, into an…

  5. Associations between Low-Income Children's Fine Motor Skills in Preschool and Academic Performance in Second Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinehart, Laura; Manfra, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Given the growing literature pertaining to the importance of fine motor skills for later academic achievement (D. W. Grissmer, K. J. Grimm, S. M. Aiyer, W. M. Murrah, & J. S. Steele, 2010), the current study examines whether the fine motor skills of economically disadvantaged preschool students predict later academic…

  6. Transfer of Movement Control in Motor Skill Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    kinesthetic -sensitivity tasK involving judging the differences amonc lifted weiahts, and a soatia--reL.tions test. Subjects were then div,ded into two...low in early practice, but a difference between groups emerges as practice continued, we can say that the kinesthetic sensitivity test (and whatever...the pattern of abilities ur1erly,1r a giver skill shifts with ora:tice, with some abilities (eg., kinesthetic sensitivity) becomming more important

  7. Relations of Preschoolers' Visual-Motor and Object Manipulation Skills With Executive Function and Social Behavior.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Megan; Lipscomb, Shannon; McClelland, Megan M; Duncan, Rob; Becker, Derek; Anderson, Kim; Kile, Molly

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine specific linkages between early visual-motor integration skills and executive function, as well as between early object manipulation skills and social behaviors in the classroom during the preschool year. Ninety-two children aged 3 to 5 years old (Mage = 4.31 years) were recruited to participate. Comprehensive measures of visual-motor integration skills, object manipulation skills, executive function, and social behaviors were administered in the fall and spring of the preschool year. Our findings indicated that children who had better visual-motor integration skills in the fall had better executive function scores (B = 0.47 [0.20], p < .05, β = .27) in the spring of the preschool year after controlling for age, gender, Head Start status, and site location, but not after controlling for children's baseline levels of executive function. In addition, children who demonstrated better object manipulation skills in the fall showed significantly stronger social behavior in their classrooms (as rated by teachers) in the spring, including more self-control (B - 0.03 [0.00], p < .05, β = .40), more cooperation (B = 0.02 [0.01], p < .05, β = .28), and less externalizing/hyperactivity (B = - 0.02 [0.01], p < .05, β = - .28) after controlling for social behavior in the fall and other covariates. Children's visual-motor integration and object manipulation skills in the fall have modest to moderate relations with executive function and social behaviors later in the preschool year. These findings have implications for early learning initiatives and school readiness.

  8. Adaptation of the Resistance Training Skills Battery for Use in Children Across the Motor Proficiency Spectrum.

    PubMed

    Bebich-Philip, Marc Daniel; Thornton, Ashleigh Lorenz; Reid, Siobhan L; Wright, Kemi E; Furzer, Bonnie J

    2016-08-01

    The study aim was to adapt the Resistance Training Skills Battery for use in children and assess its interrater and intrarater reliability. The RTSBc provides an assessment of resistance training (RT) skill competency and an indication of readiness to perform RT. The RTSBc includes 6 basic RT skills. Scoring for individual RT skills is based on the number of performance criteria correctly demonstrated and a gross resistance training skills quotient for children (RTSQc) is calculated by summing the individual skill scores. Twenty participants (mean age = 8.2 ± 1.8 years) were assessed while performing the RTSBc on 2 occasions. The 3 raters completing the assessments had varying levels of movement analysis and RT experience and received training in how to appraise RT skill competency using the RTSBc. Interrater reliability for the 3 raters was very good for the RTSQc (ICC = 0.92) and individual RT skills (ICC range = 0.82-0.94). Intrarater reliability of the live rater was also very good for the RTSQc (ICC = 0.97) and individual RT skills (ICC range = 0.87-0.95). This study has demonstrated the interrater and intrarater reliability of the RTSBc for children with varying levels of motor proficiency. The RTSBc can be used reliably within and between-raters to assess the RT skill competency of children.

  9. Transfer and motor skill learning in association football.

    PubMed

    Weigelt, C; Williams, A M; Wingrove, T; Scott, M A

    2000-10-01

    Transfer of learning involves the influence of previous experiences on the performance or learning of new skills. It is defined as a gain (or loss) in the capability for performance on one task as a result of practice on another. The aim of the study was to examine the degree of transfer between various association football skills. Twenty intermediate male players participated in the study. During pre- and post-training tests, participants juggled a football as many times as possible within 30 s using feet or knees. Further tests required participants to control an approaching football inside a restricted area using the preferred and non-preferred kicking leg. Following performance on the pretest, two matched skill groups were obtained. One group participated in a 4-week training period in which feet-only ball juggling was practised for 10 min daily, while the remaining group acted as a control. Trained participants exhibited superior post-test performance on knee juggling and ball control with preferred and non-preferred leg tasks relative to the control group (p < 0.05). Findings indicate positive transfer of learning from juggling practice with the feet to juggling with the knees and a football control task. Implications for theory and practice are highlighted.

  10. Assessing Motor Skills as a Differentiating Feature between High Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cid, Maria R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate if motor skills could be used as a differentiating feature between Asperger's Disorder (AD) and High Functioning (HFA) in children under the age of 9 years, 0 months, in order to provide additional information regarding the usefulness and validity of distinguishing these two disorders. There is…

  11. Do Nimble Hands Make for Nimble Lexicons? Fine Motor Skills Predict Knowledge of Embodied Vocabulary Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suggate, Sebastian P.; Stoeger, Heidrun

    2014-01-01

    Theories and research in embodied cognition postulate that cognition grounded in action enjoys a processing advantage. Extending this theory to the study of how fine motor skills (FMS) link to vocabulary development in preschool children, the authors investigated FMS and vocabulary in 76 preschoolers. Building on previous research, they…

  12. Assessment of Perceptual Motor Skills Contribution to Psycho-Evaluation: Unit 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peabody, Albert D. Jr.

    2005-01-01

    According to (Koppitz, 1975) manual suggests, "the use of the BVMGT is a rough test of intelligence. The BVMGT is not an intelligence test but a measure of a child's skill in coping geometric designs. It provides a very limited sample of behavior. Although perceptual motor development has emerged as a very important instrument for the development…

  13. The Effects of Collectivism-Individualism on the Cooperative Learning of Motor Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Yi; Sun, Yan; Strobel, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how cultural background (collectivism vs. individualism) affects motor skill learning in a dyadic cooperative learning environment. The research context of this study was Nintendo™ Wii Tennis. Twenty college students from a Midwestern university participated in the study, among whom half were from an individualistic culture…

  14. Improvement of fine motor skills in children with visual impairment: an explorative study.

    PubMed

    Reimer, A M; Cox, R F A; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M W G; Boonstra, F N

    2011-01-01

    In this study we analysed the potential spin-off of magnifier training on the fine-motor skills of visually impaired children. The fine-motor skills of 4- and 5-year-old visually impaired children were assessed using the manual skills test for children (6-12 years) with a visual impairment (ManuVis) and movement assessment for children (Movement ABC), before and after receiving a 12-sessions training within a 6-weeks period. The training was designed to practice the use of a stand magnifier, as part of a larger research project on low-vision aids. In this study, fifteen children trained with a magnifier; seven without. Sixteen children had nystagmus. In this group head orientation (ocular torticollis) was monitored. Results showed an age-related progress in children's fine-motor skills after the training, irrespective of magnifier condition: performance speed of the ManuVis items went from 333.4s to 273.6s on average. Accuracy in the writing tasks also increased. Finally, for the children with nystagmus, an increase of ocular torticollis was found. These results suggest a careful reconsideration of which intervention is most effective for enhancing perceptuomotor performance in visually impaired children: specific 'fine-motor' training or 'non-specific' visual-attention training with a magnifier. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Using Video-Based Modeling to Promote Acquisition of Fundamental Motor Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obrusnikova, Iva; Rattigan, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Video-based modeling is becoming increasingly popular for teaching fundamental motor skills to children in physical education. Two frequently used video-based instructional strategies that incorporate modeling are video prompting (VP) and video modeling (VM). Both strategies have been used across multiple disciplines and populations to teach a…

  16. Deficits in Fine Motor Skills and Their Influence on Persistence among Gifted Elementary School Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoeger, Heidrun; Ziegler, Albert

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the causes of underachievement in scholastic education. Whereas many studies have been able to show that motivational deficits provide an explanation for underachievement, little research has yet explored the possible influences of deficits in fine motor skills. The aim of our empirical study was, therefore, to investigate…

  17. Fine Motor Skill Predicts Expressive Language in Infant Siblings of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBarton, Eve Sauer; Iverson, Jana M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether fine motor and expressive language skills are related in the later-born siblings of children with autism (heightened-risk, HR infants) who are at increased risk for language delays. We observed 34 HR infants longitudinally from 12 to 36 months. We used parent report and standardized observation measures to assess fine motor…

  18. Motor Skill Performance of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairments: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houwen, Suzanne; Visscher, Chris; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Hartman, Esther

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews studies on variables that are related to the motor skill performance of children and adolescents with visual impairments (VI). Three major groups of variables are considered (child, environmental, and task). Thirty-nine studies are included in this review, 26 of which examined the effects of child, environmental, and/or task…

  19. The Effect of Fine Motor Skill Activities on Kindergarten Student Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Roger A.; Rule, Audrey C.; Giordano, Debra A.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the effect of fine motor skill activities on the development of attention in kindergarteners (n = 68) in five classes at a suburban public school in the Intermountain West through a pretest/posttest experimental group (n = 36) control group (n = 32) design. All children received the regular curriculum which included typical…

  20. Basic Motor Skills Instruction for Children with Neuromotor Delays: A Critical Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Eva M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper analyzes the methodology and effectiveness of the training approaches implemented in 28 empirical studies on basic motor skills instruction for children with neuromotor delays. For all types of training approaches (neuromotor interventions, sensory integration techniques, behavioral programing, and naturalistic programing), assessment…

  1. Vocational High School Cooperation with PT Astra Honda Motor to Prepare Skilled Labor in Industries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoto; Widiyanti

    2017-01-01

    SMK Nasional as a secondary vocational education institution contribute in creating skilled labor to meet the needs of the industry. Motorcycle Engineering expertise program at the SMK Nasional in improving the graduate's quality carries out industrial class education with PT Astra Honda Motor (PT AHM); it is intended so that there is a link and…

  2. Assessing Motor Skills as a Differentiating Feature between High Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cid, Maria R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate if motor skills could be used as a differentiating feature between Asperger's Disorder (AD) and High Functioning (HFA) in children under the age of 9 years, 0 months, in order to provide additional information regarding the usefulness and validity of distinguishing these two disorders. There is…

  3. Systems in Development: Motor Skill Acquisition Facilitates Three-Dimensional Object Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soska, Kasey C.; Adolph, Karen E.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2010-01-01

    How do infants learn to perceive the backs of objects that they see only from a limited viewpoint? Infants' 3-dimensional object completion abilities emerge in conjunction with developing motor skills--independent sitting and visual-manual exploration. Infants at 4.5 to 7.5 months of age (n = 28) were habituated to a limited-view object and tested…

  4. The Use of Cognitive Strategies To Enhance Motor Skill Acquisition and Retention in the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anshel, Mark H.

    It has been hypothesized that the use of techniques to enhance motor skill acquisition and retention in the elderly may retard the onset of retirement, result in the continuation of a productive professional career, allow continued participation in recreational activities, and possibly slow the decline in physiological functions that normally…

  5. The Effectiveness of a Web-Based Motor Skill Assessment Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Luke E.; Moran, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a web-based, intereactive video assessment program on teaching preservice physical education majors to assess the motor skill of kicking. The program provided component specific feedback through tutorial, guided practice, and competency training options. The 72 participants were…

  6. A Literature Review on Observational Learning for Medical Motor Skills and Anesthesia Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordovani, Ligia; Cordovani, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Motor skill practice is very important to improve performance of medical procedures and could be enhanced by observational practice. Observational learning could be particularly important in the medical field considering that patients' safety prevails over students' training. The mechanism of observational learning is based on the mirror neuron…

  7. The Carter Neurocognitive Assessment for Children with Severely Compromised Expressive Language and Motor Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leevers, Hilary J.; Roesler, Cynthia P.; Flax, Judy; Benasich, April A.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, different means of assessing cognitive development in children with severe impairments in "both" their expressive language and their motor skills are reviewed. A range of techniques are considered, including traditional cognitive tests and behavioral and physiological measures, but these techniques are generally impractical and…

  8. Adolescents' School-Related Self-Concept Mediates Motor Skills and Psychosocial Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viholainen, Helena; Aro, Tuija; Purtsi, Jarno; Tolvanen, Asko; Cantell, Marja

    2014-01-01

    Background: The health benefits of exercise participation and physical activity for mental health and psychosocial well-being (PSWB) have been shown in several studies. However, one important background factor, that is, motor skills (MSs), has largely been ignored. In addition, most of the existing research focuses on poor MSs, that is, poor MSs…

  9. Preschool Children's Fundamental Motor Skills: A Review of Significant Determinants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iivonen, S.; Sääkslahti, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental motor skills (FMS) affect children's physical, social, and cognitive development. To plan successful interventions when promoting the development of children's FMS, the underlying positive determinants for the acquisition of FMS competence during preschool years need to be identified. The purpose of this systematic review was…

  10. Does Data Distribution Change as a Function of Motor Skill Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Jin H.; Rodriguez, Ward A.; Thomas, Jerry R.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether data distribution changes as a result of motor skill practice or learning. The data on three dependent measures (movement time; MT), percentage of movement time in primary submovement (PSB), and movement jerk (JEK) were collected at baseline and practice Blocks 1 to 5. Sixty 6-year-olds,…

  11. The Carter Neurocognitive Assessment for Children with Severely Compromised Expressive Language and Motor Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leevers, Hilary J.; Roesler, Cynthia P.; Flax, Judy; Benasich, April A.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, different means of assessing cognitive development in children with severe impairments in "both" their expressive language and their motor skills are reviewed. A range of techniques are considered, including traditional cognitive tests and behavioral and physiological measures, but these techniques are generally impractical and…

  12. Motor Skill Performance of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairments: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houwen, Suzanne; Visscher, Chris; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Hartman, Esther

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews studies on variables that are related to the motor skill performance of children and adolescents with visual impairments (VI). Three major groups of variables are considered (child, environmental, and task). Thirty-nine studies are included in this review, 26 of which examined the effects of child, environmental, and/or task…

  13. Personality characteristics and motor skills attributed to occupations in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Gatto, Nicole M; Bordelon, Yvette; Gatz, Margaret; Ritz, Beate

    2011-03-01

    It has previously been speculated that a distinct premorbid personality characterized by introversion, rigidity, and over cautiousness might be associated with Parkinson disease (PD). Only 1 previous study has assessed personality before PD onset, and other data collected retrospectively do not exclude reverse causation. We relied on the longest held job reported in an interview to infer personality traits and motor skills for 355 incident PD patients and 335 population controls enrolled in a PD study in California. Jobs were coded according to the 1980 US Census Occupational Code and assigned scores for various demands, skills, and aptitudes required by the job. None of the occupational temperament or interest factors required, expected, or exhibited by workers were related to statistically significantly higher odds of having PD per unit increase in scores, whereas there was some suggestion of differences when the extremes were examined. Analyses of physical aptitude factors showed that PD cases were less likely to have worked in jobs that involved certain motor skills. This study uses a novel approach to assess personality traits using occupational characteristics. Most job attributes thought to reflect conservativeness; risk taking, stress resistance, and flexibility were not associated with PD in a linear manner. Thus, these occupation-derived traits do not seem to support the existence of a distinct parkinsonian personality. However, the negative associations with jobs requiring certain motor skills are intriguing, and may suggest very early premotor features or a lack of continuous motor training as a risk factor for PD.

  14. Effects of Peer Mediated Instruction with Task Cards on Motor Skill Acquisition in Tennis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iserbyt, Peter; Madou, Bob; Vergauwen, Lieven; Behets, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the motor skill effects of a peer teaching format by means of task cards with a teacher-centered format. Tennis performance of eighth grade students (n = 55) was measured before and after a four week intervention period in a regular physical education program. Results show that peer mediated learning with task cards…

  15. Content Evaluation and Development of Videotapes Demonstrating Regional Anesthesia Motor Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warwick, Pamela M.; Ravin, Mark B.

    1975-01-01

    A study is reported which evaluated the content of three instructional videotapes designed to impart information and to demonstrate regional (spinal, epidural, and caudal) anesthesia motor skills. Pretest-posttest results demonstrated that the tapes successfully met predetermined criteria. Advantages of the method for medical student instruction…

  16. A Literature Review on Observational Learning for Medical Motor Skills and Anesthesia Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordovani, Ligia; Cordovani, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Motor skill practice is very important to improve performance of medical procedures and could be enhanced by observational practice. Observational learning could be particularly important in the medical field considering that patients' safety prevails over students' training. The mechanism of observational learning is based on the mirror neuron…

  17. Get Kids Moving: Simple Activities To Build Gross-Motor Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Highlights the importance of activities to build gross motor skills and provides hints for encouraging such activities. Specific areas of activities presented are: (1) running and jumping; (2) music games; (3) action games; (4) races; (5) bed sheets or parachutes; (6) hula hoops; (7) balls; (8) batting; (9) balance; and (10) creative movement. (SD)

  18. Preschool Children's Fundamental Motor Skills: A Review of Significant Determinants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iivonen, S.; Sääkslahti, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental motor skills (FMS) affect children's physical, social, and cognitive development. To plan successful interventions when promoting the development of children's FMS, the underlying positive determinants for the acquisition of FMS competence during preschool years need to be identified. The purpose of this systematic review was…

  19. Self-Pacing a Gross Motor Skills Course: Crawler Tractor Operator, MOS 62E20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Mark F.; Taylor, John E.

    As part of the Army's emphasis on performance-oriented instruction in training centers, a study was conducted to determine the feasibility of using self-paced instruction in a gross motor skills course. The Crawler Tractor Operator Course, a seven-week heavy equipment course conducted at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri was selected for the study…

  20. Motivational Climate, Motor-Skill Development, and Perceived Competence: Two Studies of Developmentally Delayed Kindergarten Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentini, Nadia; Rudisill, Mary E.

    2004-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine the effects of motivational climate on motor-skill development and perceived physical competence in kindergarten children with developmental delays. In Experiment 1, two intervention groups were exposed to environments with either high (mastery climate) or low autonomy for 12 weeks. Results showed that the…

  1. Do Nimble Hands Make for Nimble Lexicons? Fine Motor Skills Predict Knowledge of Embodied Vocabulary Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suggate, Sebastian P.; Stoeger, Heidrun

    2014-01-01

    Theories and research in embodied cognition postulate that cognition grounded in action enjoys a processing advantage. Extending this theory to the study of how fine motor skills (FMS) link to vocabulary development in preschool children, the authors investigated FMS and vocabulary in 76 preschoolers. Building on previous research, they…

  2. Content Evaluation and Development of Videotapes Demonstrating Regional Anesthesia Motor Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warwick, Pamela M.; Ravin, Mark B.

    1975-01-01

    A study is reported which evaluated the content of three instructional videotapes designed to impart information and to demonstrate regional (spinal, epidural, and caudal) anesthesia motor skills. Pretest-posttest results demonstrated that the tapes successfully met predetermined criteria. Advantages of the method for medical student instruction…

  3. Adolescents' School-Related Self-Concept Mediates Motor Skills and Psychosocial Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viholainen, Helena; Aro, Tuija; Purtsi, Jarno; Tolvanen, Asko; Cantell, Marja

    2014-01-01

    Background: The health benefits of exercise participation and physical activity for mental health and psychosocial well-being (PSWB) have been shown in several studies. However, one important background factor, that is, motor skills (MSs), has largely been ignored. In addition, most of the existing research focuses on poor MSs, that is, poor MSs…

  4. Motor Skills in Children Aged 7-10 Years, Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyatt, Caroline P.; Craig, Cathy M.

    2012-01-01

    This study used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to assess motor skills in children aged 7-10 years with autism (n = 18) in comparison to two groups of age-matched typically developing children; a receptive vocabulary matched group (n = 19) and a nonverbal IQ matched group (n = 22). The results supported previous work, as…

  5. Motor Skills in Children Aged 7-10 Years, Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyatt, Caroline P.; Craig, Cathy M.

    2012-01-01

    This study used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to assess motor skills in children aged 7-10 years with autism (n = 18) in comparison to two groups of age-matched typically developing children; a receptive vocabulary matched group (n = 19) and a nonverbal IQ matched group (n = 22). The results supported previous work, as…

  6. Effects of Interventions Based in Behavior Analysis on Motor Skill Acquisition: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alstot, Andrew E.; Kang, Minsoo; Alstot, Crystal D.

    2013-01-01

    Techniques based in applied behavior analysis (ABA) have been shown to be useful across a variety of settings to improve numerous behaviors. Specifically within physical activity settings, several studies have examined the effect of interventions based in ABA on a variety of motor skills, but the overall effects of these interventions are unknown.…

  7. Effects of Peer Mediated Instruction with Task Cards on Motor Skill Acquisition in Tennis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iserbyt, Peter; Madou, Bob; Vergauwen, Lieven; Behets, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the motor skill effects of a peer teaching format by means of task cards with a teacher-centered format. Tennis performance of eighth grade students (n = 55) was measured before and after a four week intervention period in a regular physical education program. Results show that peer mediated learning with task cards…

  8. Teaching Methods Effectiveness and the Acquisition of Psycho-Motor Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikulayo, Philomena Bolaji

    An experimental study was conducted to discover the relative effectiveness of five different instructional strategies on the acquisition of four psycho-motor skills associated with four physical sports (continuous volleying in volleyball, zig-zag dribbling in field hockey, headstand in gymnastics, and sail long jump in athletics). The subjects…

  9. Effects of Two Practice Style Formats on Fifth Grade Students' Motor Skill Performance and Task Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatoupis, Constantine C.; Vagenas, George

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of two teaching formats that fall under the canopy of Mosston and Ashworth's (2008) practice style, on fifth grade students' motor skill performance and task engagement. Both formats are also known as station teaching or learning centers. In the teacher-rotated format (TR), the teacher decides the amount of time…

  10. Deficits in Fine Motor Skills and Their Influence on Persistence among Gifted Elementary School Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoeger, Heidrun; Ziegler, Albert

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the causes of underachievement in scholastic education. Whereas many studies have been able to show that motivational deficits provide an explanation for underachievement, little research has yet explored the possible influences of deficits in fine motor skills. The aim of our empirical study was, therefore, to investigate…

  11. Using Video-Based Modeling to Promote Acquisition of Fundamental Motor Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obrusnikova, Iva; Rattigan, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Video-based modeling is becoming increasingly popular for teaching fundamental motor skills to children in physical education. Two frequently used video-based instructional strategies that incorporate modeling are video prompting (VP) and video modeling (VM). Both strategies have been used across multiple disciplines and populations to teach a…

  12. Fine Motor Skill Predicts Expressive Language in Infant Siblings of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBarton, Eve Sauer; Iverson, Jana M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether fine motor and expressive language skills are related in the later-born siblings of children with autism (heightened-risk, HR infants) who are at increased risk for language delays. We observed 34 HR infants longitudinally from 12 to 36 months. We used parent report and standardized observation measures to assess fine motor…

  13. Goal Scoring in Soccer: A Polar Coordinate Analysis of Motor Skills Used by Lionel Messi.

    PubMed

    Castañer, Marta; Barreira, Daniel; Camerino, Oleguer; Anguera, M Teresa; Canton, Albert; Hileno, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    Soccer research has traditionally focused on technical and tactical aspects of team play, but few studies have analyzed motor skills in individual actions, such as goal scoring. The objective of this study was to investigate how Lionel Messi, one of the world's top soccer players, uses his motor skills and laterality in individual attacking actions resulting in a goal. We analyzed 103 goals scored by Messi between over a decade in three competitions: La Liga (n = 74), Copa del Rey (n = 8), and the UEFA Champions League (n = 21). We used an ad-hoc observation instrument (OSMOS-soccer player) comprising 10 criteria and 50 categories; polar coordinate analysis, a powerful data reduction technique, revealed significant associations for body part and orientation, foot contact zone, turn direction, and locomotion. No significant associations were observed for pitch area or interaction with opponents. Our analysis confirms significant associations between different aspects of motor skill use by Messi immediately before scoring, namely use of lower limbs, foot contact zones, turn direction, use of wings, and orientation of body to move toward the goal. Studies of motor skills in soccer could shed light on the qualities that make certain players unique.

  14. Developing Learning Readiness; A Visual-Motor-Tactile Skills Program. Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getman, G.N.; And Others

    A flexible program for preschool, primary grades, or remedial classes provides opportunities for the child to achieve readiness for learning through the development of visual, motor, and tactile skills. A cardboard doll is discussed which may be utilized by the teacher and children in a variety of gymnasium routines to increase knowledge of body…

  15. Goal Scoring in Soccer: A Polar Coordinate Analysis of Motor Skills Used by Lionel Messi

    PubMed Central

    Castañer, Marta; Barreira, Daniel; Camerino, Oleguer; Anguera, M. Teresa; Canton, Albert; Hileno, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    Soccer research has traditionally focused on technical and tactical aspects of team play, but few studies have analyzed motor skills in individual actions, such as goal scoring. The objective of this study was to investigate how Lionel Messi, one of the world's top soccer players, uses his motor skills and laterality in individual attacking actions resulting in a goal. We analyzed 103 goals scored by Messi between over a decade in three competitions: La Liga (n = 74), Copa del Rey (n = 8), and the UEFA Champions League (n = 21). We used an ad-hoc observation instrument (OSMOS-soccer player) comprising 10 criteria and 50 categories; polar coordinate analysis, a powerful data reduction technique, revealed significant associations for body part and orientation, foot contact zone, turn direction, and locomotion. No significant associations were observed for pitch area or interaction with opponents. Our analysis confirms significant associations between different aspects of motor skill use by Messi immediately before scoring, namely use of lower limbs, foot contact zones, turn direction, use of wings, and orientation of body to move toward the goal. Studies of motor skills in soccer could shed light on the qualities that make certain players unique. PMID:27303357

  16. Get Kids Moving: Simple Activities To Build Gross-Motor Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Highlights the importance of activities to build gross motor skills and provides hints for encouraging such activities. Specific areas of activities presented are: (1) running and jumping; (2) music games; (3) action games; (4) races; (5) bed sheets or parachutes; (6) hula hoops; (7) balls; (8) batting; (9) balance; and (10) creative movement. (SD)

  17. Comparison of effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation on primary motor cortex and supplementary motor area in motor skill learning (randomized, cross over study).

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Kyun; Shin, Sung Hun

    2014-01-01

    Motor skills require quick visuomotor reaction time, fast movement time, and accurate performance. Primary motor cortex (M1) and supplementary motor area (SMA) are closely related in learning motor skills. Also, it is well known that high frequency repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on these sites has a facilitating effect. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of high frequency rTMS activation of these two brain sites on learning of motor skills. Twenty three normal volunteers participated. Subjects were randomly stimulated on either brain area, SMA or M1. The motor task required the learning of sequential finger movements, explicitly or implicitly. It consisted of pressing the keyboard sequentially with their right hand on seeing 7 digits on the monitor explicitly, and then tapping the 7 digits by memorization, implicitly. Subjects were instructed to hit the keyboard as fast and accurately as possible. Using Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI), the keyboard pressing task was measured before and after high frequency rTMS for motor performance, which was measured by response time (RT), movement time, and accuracy (AC). A week later, the same task was repeated by cross-over study design. At this time, rTMS was applied on the other brain area. Two-way ANOVA was used to assess the carry over time effect and stimulation sites (M1 and SMA), as factors. Results indicated that no carry-over effect was observed. The AC and RT were not different between the two stimulating sites (M1 and SMA). But movement time was significantly decreased after rTMS on both SMA and M1. The amount of shortened movement time after rTMS on SMA was significantly increased as compared to the movement time after rTMS on M1 (p < 0.05), especially for implicit learning of motor tasks. The coefficient of variation was lower in implicit trial than in explicit trial. In conclusion, this finding indicated an important role of SMA compared to M1, in implicit motor

  18. Effectiveness of a fundamental motor skill intervention for 4-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bremer, Emily; Balogh, Robert; Lloyd, Meghann

    2015-11-01

    A wait-list control experimental design was employed to investigate the effectiveness of a fundamental motor skill intervention at improving the motor skills, adaptive behavior, and social skills of 4-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (experimental n = 5, control n = 4); the impact of intervention intensity was also explored. The experimental group significantly improved their object manipulation and overall motor scores from pre- to post-intervention. The wait-list control design revealed no group-by-time interactions; however, with the groups combined time was a significant factor for all motor variables. There were no significant changes in adaptive behavior and social skills. These preliminary findings suggest that a fundamental motor skill intervention may benefit young children with autism spectrum disorder. Future research with larger samples is warranted. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Social-comparative feedback affects motor skill learning.

    PubMed

    Lewthwaite, Rebecca; Wulf, Gabriele

    2010-04-01

    This study examined motivational effects of feedback on motor learning. Specifically, we investigated the influence of social-comparative feedback on the learning of a balance task (stabilometer). In addition to veridical feedback (error scores reflecting deviation from the target horizontal platform position) about their own performance after each trial, two groups received false normative information about the "average" score of others on that trial. Average performance scores indicated that the participant's performance was either above (better group) or below (worse group) the average, respectively. A control group received veridical feedback about trial performance without normative feedback. Learning as a function of social-comparative feedback was determined in a retention test without feedback, performed on a third day following two days of practice. Normative feedback affected the learning of the balance task: The better group demonstrated more effective balance performance than both the worse and control groups on the retention test. Furthermore, high-frequency/low-amplitude balance adjustments, indicative of more automatic control of movement, were greater in the better than in the worse group. The control group exhibited more limited learning and less automaticity than both the better and the worse groups. The findings indicate that positive normative feedback had a facilitatory effect on motor learning.

  20. Memory and motor skill components of the WAIS-III Digit Symbol-Coding subtest.

    PubMed

    Kreiner, D S; Ryan, J J

    2001-02-01

    We examined motor skill and memory components of the Digit Symbol-Coding subtest of the WAIS-III in a clinical sample. Research using previous versions of the WAIS in non-clinical samples has suggested that the age-related decline in Digit Symbol-Coding scores is more related to motor ability rather than to the memory requirements of the test. Our results extend this conclusion to a clinical sample, using the WAIS-II. Copy scores measure motor skill on the Digit Symbol-Coding subtest, and Incidental Learning scores (Free Recall and Pairing) measure memory. A large proportion of Digit Symbol-Coding variance was explained by Copy scores with Incidental Learning scores controlled, but Incidental Learning scores explained little additional variance when Copy scores were controlled. The same pattern was found when we used the Immediate Memory and General Memory Indexes from the Wechsler Memory Scale-II as independent measures of memory.

  1. Effects of Long-Duration Microgravity on Fine Motor Skills: ISS One-Year Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, Kritina; Greene, Maya; Cross, Ernest

    2017-01-01

    Fine motor skills will be critical in future long-duration missions, particularly those skills needed to interact with advanced technologies in next-generation vehicles, spacesuits, and habitats. Studies to date on the effects of microgravity and gravitational transitions on fine motor performance have not yielded conclusive results. Datasets are incomplete-timeline gaps in the microgravity data sessions. Studies have not focused on the fine motor actions that are likely to be required for interacting with software displays and controls (pointing, clicking, dragging, multi-touch/pinching). The majority of studies have used a joystick or arm reaching task. Touchscreen tablets are already in use on ISS, and at least one commercial partner is already planning a cockpit with touchscreens as the primary means of input. We must ensure that crewmembers are ready to perform with computer-based devices after a long-duration voyage and transition to surface operations.

  2. Motor Skills of Children Newly Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Prior to and Following Treatment with Stimulant Medication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brossard-Racine, Marie; Shevell, Michael; Snider, Laurie; Belanger, Stacey Ageranioti; Majnemer, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Motor difficulties are common in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Although preliminary evidence has suggested that methylphenidate can improve the motor skills in children with ADHD and Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), the effect of stimulant medication on motor performance in children newly diagnosed with…

  3. Motor Skills of Children Newly Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Prior to and Following Treatment with Stimulant Medication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brossard-Racine, Marie; Shevell, Michael; Snider, Laurie; Belanger, Stacey Ageranioti; Majnemer, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Motor difficulties are common in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Although preliminary evidence has suggested that methylphenidate can improve the motor skills in children with ADHD and Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), the effect of stimulant medication on motor performance in children newly diagnosed with…

  4. Gender differences in fundamental motor skill development in disadvantaged preschoolers from two geographical regions.

    PubMed

    Goodway, Jacqueline D; Robinson, Leah E; Crowe, Heather

    2010-03-01

    This study examined the influence of gender and region on object control (OC) and locomotor skill development. Participants were 275 midwestern African American and 194 southwestern Hispanic preschool children who were disadvantaged. All were evaluated on the Test of Gross MotorDevelopment-2 (Ulrich, 2000). Two, 2 Gender (girls, boys) x 2 Region (midwest, southwest) analyses of variance were conducted on OC and locomotor percentile rank. Both midwestern and southwestern preschoolers were developmentally delayed in locomotor and OC skills (< 30th percentile). There was a significant difference for gender (p < .0001) and Gender x Region interaction (p = .02) for OC skills. Boys outperformed girls in the midwestern and southwestern regions. For locomotor skills, there was a significant difference for region (p < .001), with midwestern preschoolers having better locomotor skills.

  5. Aging and longitudinal change in perceptual-motor skill acquisition in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Rodrigue, Karen M; Kennedy, Kristen M; Raz, Naftali

    2005-07-01

    Knowledge about aging of perceptual-motor skills is based almost exclusively on cross-sectional studies. We examined age-related changes in the retention of mirror-tracing skills in healthy adults who practiced for 3 separate days at baseline and retrained 5 years later at follow-up. Overall, the speed and accuracy of an acquired skill were partially retained after a 5-year interim, although the same asymptote was reached. Analyses with individual learning curves indicated that the effects of age on mirror-tracing speed were greater at longitudinal follow-up than at baseline, with older adults requiring more training to reach asymptote. Thus, although the long-term retention of acquired skills declines with age, older adults still retain the ability to learn the skill. Moreover, those who maintained a processing speed comparable with that of the younger participants evidenced no age-related performance decrements on the mirror-drawing task.

  6. Integrating visual cues for motor control: a matter of time.

    PubMed

    Greenwald, Hal S; Knill, David C; Saunders, Jeffrey A

    2005-07-01

    The visual system continuously integrates multiple sensory cues to help plan and control everyday motor tasks. We quantified how subjects integrated monocular cues (contour and texture) and binocular cues (disparity and vergence) about 3D surface orientation throughout an object placement task and found that binocular cues contributed more to online control than planning. A temporal analysis of corrective responses to stimulus perturbations revealed that the visuomotor system processes binocular cues faster than monocular cues. This suggests that binocular cues dominated online control because they were available sooner, thus affecting a larger proportion of the movement. This was consistent with our finding that the relative influence of binocular information was higher for short-duration movements than long-duration movements. A motor control model that optimally integrates cues with different delays accounts for our findings and shows that cue integration for motor control depends in part on the time course of cue processing.

  7. Fine motor skills and early comprehension of the world: two new school readiness indicators.

    PubMed

    Grissmer, David; Grimm, Kevin J; Aiyer, Sophie M; Murrah, William M; Steele, Joel S

    2010-09-01

    Duncan et al. (2007) presented a new methodology for identifying kindergarten readiness factors and quantifying their importance by determining which of children's developing skills measured around kindergarten entrance would predict later reading and math achievement. This article extends Duncan et al.'s work to identify kindergarten readiness factors with 6 longitudinal data sets. Their results identified kindergarten math and reading readiness and attention as the primary long-term predictors but found no effects from social skills or internalizing and externalizing behavior. We incorporated motor skills measures from 3 of the data sets and found that fine motor skills are an additional strong predictor of later achievement. Using one of the data sets, we also predicted later science scores and incorporated an additional early test of general knowledge of the social and physical world as a predictor. We found that the test of general knowledge was by far the strongest predictor of science and reading and also contributed significantly to predicting later math, making the content of this test another important kindergarten readiness indicator. Together, attention, fine motor skills, and general knowledge are much stronger overall predictors of later math, reading, and science scores than early math and reading scores alone.

  8. Mothers' questionnaire of preschoolers' language and motor skills: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Gudmundsson, E; Gretarsson, S J

    2013-03-01

    Parent questionnaires of child motor and language skills are useful in many contexts. This study validates one such measure, the Preschool Child Development Inventory (PCDI), a mother-answered standardized measure of motor (fine and gross) and language (expression and comprehension) skills of 3-6-year-old children. Eighty-one mothers answered the inventory and their children were concurrently tested on six verbal subtests of WPPSI-R(IS). The six language and motor subtests of the PCDI revealed the predicted convergent and divergent correlations with the verbal subtests of the WPPSI-R(IS). As predicted, the motor subtests diverged and the language subtests converged with the expected WPPSI-R(IS) subtests. Principal components analysis of all the measures (the PCDI and the WPPSI-R(IS) subtests) revealed two components, verbal and motor in content. The findings support the validity of a mother-answered inventory to assess language and motor development. It is pointed out that such inventories are a viable brief and cost effective alternative to individual testing, both to supplement such measures in clinical practice and as main information in research, for example on determinants of development. Some suggestions are made for future research and applications. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Characterizing skill acquisition through motor imagery with no prior physical practice.

    PubMed

    Kraeutner, Sarah N; MacKenzie, Laura A; Westwood, David A; Boe, Shaun G

    2016-02-01

    Motor learning depends upon plasticity in neural networks involved in the planning and execution of movement. Physical practice (PP) is the primary means of motor learning, but it can be augmented with nonphysical forms of practice including motor imagery (MI)-the mental rehearsal of movement. It is unknown if MI alone, without prior PP of a movement, can produce robust learning. Here the authors used an implicit sequence learning task to explore motor learning via MI alone or PP. Participants underwent implicit sequence learning training via MI (n = 31) or PP (n = 33). Posttraining reaction time was faster for implicit versus random sequences for both the MI group (M = 583 ± 84 ms; 632 ± 86 ms, d = 0.59) and PP group (M = 532 ± 73 ms; 589 ± 70 ms, d = 0.80), demonstrating that MI without PP facilitated skill acquisition. Relative to MI alone, PP led to reduced reaction time for both random (d = 0.65) and implicit sequences (d = 0.55) consistent with a nonspecific motor benefit favoring PP over MI. These results have broad implication for theories of MI and support the use of MI as a form of practice to acquire implicit motor skills. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Physical activity, motor function, and white matter hyperintensity burden in healthy older adults

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jingyun; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Arvanitakis, Zoe; Leurgans, Sue E.; Turner, Arlener D.; Barnes, Lisa L.; Bennett, David A.; Buchman, Aron S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that physical activity modifies the association between white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden and motor function in healthy older persons without dementia. Methods: Total daily activity (exercise and nonexercise physical activity) was measured for up to 11 days with actigraphy (Actical; Philips Respironics, Bend, OR) in 167 older adults without dementia participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Eleven motor performances were summarized into a previously described global motor score. WMH volume was expressed as percent of intracranial volume. Linear regression models, adjusted for age, education, and sex, were performed with total WMH volume as the predictor and global motor score as the outcome. Terms for total daily physical activity and its interaction with WMH volume were then added to the model. Results: Higher WMH burden was associated with lower motor function (p = 0.006), and total daily activity was positively associated with motor function (p = 0.002). Total daily activity modified the association between WMH and motor function (p = 0.007). WMH burden was not associated with motor function in persons with high activity (90th percentile). By contrast, higher WMH burden remained associated with lower motor function in persons with average (50th percentile; estimate = −0.304, slope = −0.133) and low (10th percentile; estimate = −1.793, slope = −0.241) activity. Conclusions: Higher levels of physical activity may reduce the effect of WMH burden on motor function in healthy older adults. PMID:25762710

  11. Physical activity, motor function, and white matter hyperintensity burden in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Fleischman, Debra A; Yang, Jingyun; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Arvanitakis, Zoe; Leurgans, Sue E; Turner, Arlener D; Barnes, Lisa L; Bennett, David A; Buchman, Aron S

    2015-03-31

    To test the hypothesis that physical activity modifies the association between white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden and motor function in healthy older persons without dementia. Total daily activity (exercise and nonexercise physical activity) was measured for up to 11 days with actigraphy (Actical; Philips Respironics, Bend, OR) in 167 older adults without dementia participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Eleven motor performances were summarized into a previously described global motor score. WMH volume was expressed as percent of intracranial volume. Linear regression models, adjusted for age, education, and sex, were performed with total WMH volume as the predictor and global motor score as the outcome. Terms for total daily physical activity and its interaction with WMH volume were then added to the model. Higher WMH burden was associated with lower motor function (p = 0.006), and total daily activity was positively associated with motor function (p = 0.002). Total daily activity modified the association between WMH and motor function (p = 0.007). WMH burden was not associated with motor function in persons with high activity (90th percentile). By contrast, higher WMH burden remained associated with lower motor function in persons with average (50th percentile; estimate = -0.304, slope = -0.133) and low (10th percentile; estimate = -1.793, slope = -0.241) activity. Higher levels of physical activity may reduce the effect of WMH burden on motor function in healthy older adults. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  12. Dopamine-dependent reinforcement of motor skill learning: evidence from Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Palminteri, Stefano; Lebreton, Maël; Worbe, Yulia; Hartmann, Andreas; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Vidailhet, Marie; Grabli, David; Pessiglione, Mathias

    2011-08-01

    Reinforcement learning theory has been extensively used to understand the neural underpinnings of instrumental behaviour. A central assumption surrounds dopamine signalling reward prediction errors, so as to update action values and ensure better choices in the future. However, educators may share the intuitive idea that reinforcements not only affect choices but also motor skills such as typing. Here, we employed a novel paradigm to demonstrate that monetary rewards can improve motor skill learning in humans. Indeed, healthy participants progressively got faster in executing sequences of key presses that were repeatedly rewarded with 10 euro compared with 1 cent. Control tests revealed that the effect of reinforcement on motor skill learning was independent of subjects being aware of sequence-reward associations. To account for this implicit effect, we developed an actor-critic model, in which reward prediction errors are used by the critic to update state values and by the actor to facilitate action execution. To assess the role of dopamine in such computations, we applied the same paradigm in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, who were either unmedicated or treated with neuroleptics. We also included patients with focal dystonia, as an example of hyperkinetic motor disorder unrelated to dopamine. Model fit showed the following dissociation: while motor skills were affected in all patient groups, reinforcement learning was selectively enhanced in unmedicated patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome and impaired by neuroleptics. These results support the hypothesis that overactive dopamine transmission leads to excessive reinforcement of motor sequences, which might explain the formation of tics in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

  13. Influence of self-controlled feedback on learning a serial motor skill.

    PubMed

    Lim, Soowoen; Ali, Asif; Kim, Wonchan; Kim, Jingu; Choi, Sungmook; Radlo, Steven J

    2015-04-01

    Self-controlled feedback on a variety of tasks are well established as effective means of facilitating motor skill learning. This study assessed the effects of self-controlled feedback on the performance of a serial motor skill. The task was to learn the sequence of 18 movements that make up the Taekwondo Poomsae Taegeuk first, which is the first beginner's practice form learned in this martial art. Twenty-four novice female participants (M age=27.2 yr., SD=1.8) were divided into two groups. All participants performed 16 trials in 4 blocks of the acquisition phase and 20 hr. later, 8 trials in 2 blocks of the retention phase. The self-controlled feedback group had significantly higher performance compared to the yoked-feedback group with regard to acquisition and retention. The results of this study may contribute to the literature regarding feedback by extending the usefulness of self-controlled feedback for learning a serial skill.

  14. Early developmental influences on self-esteem trajectories from adolescence through adulthood: Impact of birth weight and motor skills.

    PubMed

    Poole, Kristie L; Schmidt, Louis A; Ferro, Mark A; Missiuna, Cheryl; Saigal, Saroj; Boyle, Michael H; Van Lieshout, Ryan J

    2017-04-20

    While the trajectory of self-esteem from adolescence to adulthood varies from person to person, little research has examined how differences in early developmental processes might affect these pathways. This study examined how early motor skill development interacted with preterm birth status to predict self-esteem from adolescence through the early 30s. We addressed this using the oldest known, prospectively followed cohort of extremely low birth weight (<1000 g) survivors (N = 179) and normal birth weight controls (N = 145) in the world, born between 1977 and 1982. Motor skills were measured using a performance-based assessment at age 8 and a retrospective self-report, and self-esteem was reported during three follow-up periods (age 12-16, age 22-26, and age 29-36). We found that birth weight status moderated the association between early motor skills and self-esteem. Stable over three decades, the self-esteem of normal birth weight participants was sensitive to early motor skills such that those with poorer motor functioning manifested lower self-esteem, while those with better motor skills manifested higher self-esteem. Conversely, differences in motor skill development did not affect the self-esteem from adolescence to adulthood in individuals born at extremely low birth weight. Early motor skill development may exert differential effects on self-esteem, depending on whether one is born at term or prematurely.

  15. Recovery of simple motor skills after head injury.

    PubMed

    Haaland, K Y; Temkin, N; Randahl, G; Dikmen, S

    1994-06-01

    The performance of 40 head-injured patients (HI) without peripheral upper body injuries and 88 normal controls were compared on finger tapping and grip strength 1 month and 1 year after injury. The HI group demonstrated deficits on both tasks 1 month after injury, but only finger tapping was impaired 1 year postinjury. While grip strength differentially improved in the HI group from 1 month to 1 year, finger tapping improved similarly in both groups. The pattern of results was similar when a subset of 25 HI patients without any evidence of focal lesions were examined. These results demonstrate (1) motor deficits are present 1 year after injury even in a sample of predominantly mild head-injury patients, (2) grip strength is more sensitive to recovery in the first year after head injury, and (3) finger tapping continues to be impaired 1 year after head injury possibly due to its speed requirements.

  16. Children show limited movement repertoire when learning a novel motor skill.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mei-Hua; Farshchiansadegh, Ali; Ranganathan, Rajiv

    2017-09-27

    Examining age differences in motor learning using real-world tasks is often problematic due to task novelty and biomechanical confounds. Here, we investigated how children and adults acquire a novel motor skill in a virtual environment. Participants of three different age groups (9-year-olds, 12-year-olds, and adults) learned to use their upper body movements to control a cursor on a computer screen. Results showed that 9-year-old and 12-year-old children showed poorer ability to control the cursor at the end of practice. Critically, when we investigated the movement coordination, we found that the lower task performance of children was associated with limited exploration of their movement repertoire. These results reveal the critical role of motor exploration in understanding developmental differences in motor learning. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Motor neuronal activity varies least among individuals when it matters most for behavior.

    PubMed

    Cullins, Miranda J; Shaw, Kendrick M; Gill, Jeffrey P; Chiel, Hillel J

    2015-02-01

    How does motor neuronal variability affect behavior? To explore this question, we quantified activity of multiple individual identified motor neurons mediating biting and swallowing in intact, behaving Aplysia californica by recording from the protractor muscle and the three nerves containing the majority of motor neurons controlling the feeding musculature. We measured multiple motor components: duration of the activity of identified motor neurons as well as their relative timing. At the same time, we measured behavioral efficacy: amplitude of grasping movement during biting and amplitude of net inward food movement during swallowing. We observed that the total duration of the behaviors varied: Within animals, biting duration shortened from the first to the second and third bites; between animals, biting and swallowing durations varied. To study other sources of variation, motor components were divided by behavior duration (i.e., normalized). Even after normalization, distributions of motor component durations could distinguish animals as unique individuals. However, the degree to which a motor component varied among individuals depended on the role of that motor component in a behavior. Motor neuronal activity that was essential for the expression of biting or swallowing was similar among animals, whereas motor neuronal activity that was not essential for that behavior varied more from individual to individual. These results suggest that motor neuronal activity that matters most for the expression of a particular behavior may vary least from individual to individual. Shaping individual variability to ensure behavioral efficacy may be a general principle for the operation of motor systems. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Patient activation and advocacy: which literacy skills matter most?

    PubMed

    Martin, Laurie T; Schonlau, Matthias; Haas, Ann; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Rosenfeld, Lindsay; Buka, Stephen L; Rudd, Rima

    2011-01-01

    Attention to the effect of a patient's literacy skills on health care interactions is relatively new. So, too, are studies of either structural or personal factors that inhibit or support a patient's ability to navigate health services and systems and to advocate for their own needs within a service delivery system. Contributions of the structural environment, of interpersonal dynamics, and of a variety of psychological and sociological factors in the relationship between patients and providers have long been under study. Less frequently examined is the advocacy role expected of patients. However, the complex nature of health care in the United States increasingly requires a proactive stance. This study examined whether four literacy skills (reading, numeracy, speaking, and listening) were associated with patient self-advocacy--a component of health literacy itself--when faced with a hypothetical barrier to scheduling a medical appointment. Although all literacy skills were significantly associated with advocacy when examined in isolation, greater speaking and listening skills remained significantly associated with better patient advocacy when all four skills were examined simultaneously. These findings suggest that speaking and listening skills and support for such skills may be important factors to consider when developing patient activation and advocacy skills.

  19. Immigrants Matter: Canada's Social Agenda on Skill and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirchandani, Kiran

    2004-01-01

    Evidence shows that there is an increasing number of knowledge and management occupations in a broad range of sectors, requiring greater numbers of well-educated and skilled workers. Despite this compelling need for skilled workers, the reports note that immigrants often do not fare well in the Canadian economy. One of the main barriers faced by…

  20. Knowledge Matters: Skills and Learning for Canadians. Canada's Innovation Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources Development Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This paper outlines the skills and learning challenges that Canada faces to ensure it meets its skills and learning requirements for the 21st century. It proposes a series of national goals and milestones against which progress can be measured over time and reported on regularly to Canadians. Following an introduction, Sections 2-5 discuss the…