Science.gov

Sample records for motorist aid systems

  1. The Impact of Emerging Electronic Highway Control Systems on Motorist Information Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huchingson, R. Dale; Dudek, Conrad L.

    1974-01-01

    Advanced forms of electronic and computerized control systems are being developed to optimize traffic flow in and between cities. Modern technology permits communication of real-time information via signs and auditory messages and allows motorists to plan ahead for safer and more efficient travel. This paper describes an on-going research program for defining drivers' information needs and behavior in response to various message types and modes of presentation. Human engineer design criteria for real-time displays will be investigated in the laboratory and in research vehicles with field testing in actual city corridors. The results will be incorporated into a design handbook for use by sign design engineers.

  2. Motivating motorists to voluntarily slow down.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Rainer; Kalla, Roger; Spiegel, Frank; Brandt, Thomas; Strupp, Michael

    2010-01-01

    It is estimated that by 2020 road accidents will rise from ninth to third place in the worldwide ranking of the burden of disease. Traffic calming can reduce road accidents; however, many motorists do not adhere to speed limits. We report on an intervention that can influence many motorists at dangerous sites, where accidents are likely to occur (e.g., near playgrounds, schools). The intervention is a speed-displaying device mounted next to the road (visible to both motorists and the public). Our findings indicate that the device is associated with a significant speed reduction relative to the control condition.

  3. Motorists' knowledge of the 'No Smoking' ordinance in southern California

    Treesearch

    William S. Folkman

    1966-01-01

    Twenty-nine percent of motorists interviewed in an area where smoking was restricted were misinformed about, or didn't know of, the regulation prohibiting smoking while traveling. Familiarity with the regulation was related to whether the motorist smoked, frequency of use of the area, and place of residence. It was not related to the age and sex of the respondents...

  4. 40 CFR 51.362 - Motorist compliance enforcement program oversight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... oversight. 51.362 Section 51.362 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR.../Maintenance Program Requirements § 51.362 Motorist compliance enforcement program oversight. The enforcement... information base to be used in characterizing, evaluating, and enforcing the program, the State shall:...

  5. Automated Author Aiding System Conference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    0V) 0 Technical Report 684 r-Vass A Automated Author Aiding System Conference: Final Report edited by Nancy K. Atwood University of California at...AUTHOR AIDING SYSTEM CONFERENCE: Final Report FINAL REPORT June 84 through June 85 4. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOM(I4~dited by Nancy K...Dots Entered) Technical Report 684 Automated Author Aiding System Conference: Final Report edited by Nancy K. Atwood University of California at Los

  6. Hearing aid malfunction detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessinger, R. L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A malfunction detection system for detecting malfunctions in electrical signal processing circuits is disclosed. Malfunctions of a hearing aid in the form of frequency distortion and/or inadequate amplification by the hearing aid amplifier, as well as weakening of the hearing aid power supply are detectable. A test signal is generated and a timed switching circuit periodically applies the test signal to the input of the hearing aid amplifier in place of the input signal from the microphone. The resulting amplifier output is compared with the input test signal used as a reference signal. The hearing aid battery voltage is also periodically compared to a reference voltage. Deviations from the references beyond preset limits cause a warning system to operate.

  7. Aided targeting system simulation evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demaio, Joe; Becker, Curtis

    1994-01-01

    Simulation research was conducted at the Crew Station Research and Development Facility on the effectiveness and ease of use of three targeting systems. A manual system required the aviator to scan a target array area with a simulated second generation forward looking infrared (FLIR) sensor, locate and categorize targets, and construct a target hand-off list. The interface between the aviator and the system was like that of an advanced scout helicopter (manual mode). Two aided systems detected and categorized targets automatically. One system used only the FLIR sensor and the second used FLIR fused with Longbow radar. The interface for both was like that of an advanced scout helicopter aided mode. Exposure time while performing the task was reduced substantially with the aided systems, with no loss of target hand-off list accuracy. The fused sensor system showed lower time to construct the target hand-off list and a slightly lower false alarm rate than the other systems. A number of issues regarding system sensitivity and criterion, and operator interface design are discussed.

  8. Active transportation: do current traffic safety policies protect non-motorists?

    PubMed

    Mader, Emily M; Zick, Cathleen D

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the impact that state traffic safety regulations have on non-motorist fatality rates. Data obtained from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) were analyzed through a pooled time series cross-sectional model using fixed effects regression for all 50 states from 1999 to 2009. Two dependent variables were used in separate models measuring annual state non-motorist fatalities per million population, and the natural log of state non-motorist fatalities. Independent variables measuring traffic policies included state expenditures for highway law enforcement and safety per capita; driver cell phone use regulations; graduated driver license regulations; driver blood alcohol concentration regulations; bike helmet regulations; and seat belt regulations. Other control variables included percent of all vehicle miles driven that are urban and mean per capita alcohol consumption per year. Non-motorist traffic safety was positively impacted by state highway law enforcement and safety expenditures per capita, with a decrease in non-motorist fatalities occurring with increased spending. Per capita consumption of alcohol also influenced non-motorist fatalities, with higher non-motorist fatalities occurring with higher per capita consumption of alcohol. Other traffic safety covariates did not appear to have a significant impact on non-motorist fatality rates in the models. Our research suggests that increased expenditures on state highway and traffic safety and the initiation/expansion of programs targeted at curbing both driver and non-motorist intoxication are a starting point for the implementation of traffic safety policies that reduce risks for non-motorists. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Using Expert System Job Aids: A Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Clay

    1989-01-01

    Explains how current commercial expert system technology can be used to create useful job aids. Expert systems are defined, situations in which an expert system job aid will be most effective are described, expert system shells are discussed, and three commercial expert system products are described. (LRW)

  10. Computer-aided system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Carrie K.

    1991-01-01

    A technique has been developed for combining features of a systems architecture design and assessment tool and a software development tool. This technique reduces simulation development time and expands simulation detail. The Architecture Design and Assessment System (ADAS), developed at the Research Triangle Institute, is a set of computer-assisted engineering tools for the design and analysis of computer systems. The ADAS system is based on directed graph concepts and supports the synthesis and analysis of software algorithms mapped to candidate hardware implementations. Greater simulation detail is provided by the ADAS functional simulator. With the functional simulator, programs written in either Ada or C can be used to provide a detailed description of graph nodes. A Computer-Aided Software Engineering tool developed at the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (CSDL CASE) automatically generates Ada or C code from engineering block diagram specifications designed with an interactive graphical interface. A technique to use the tools together has been developed, which further automates the design process.

  11. Aids and the nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenblum, M.L. ); Levy, R.M. ); Bredesen, D.E. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 19 chapters. Some of the titles are: Neuroradiology of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; The AIDS dementia complex; primary infection with human immunodeficiency virus; The biology of the human immunodeficiency virus and its role in neurological disease; and Algorithms for the treatment of AIDS patients with neurological disease.

  12. CAESY - COMPUTER AIDED ENGINEERING SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wette, M. R.

    1994-01-01

    Many developers of software and algorithms for control system design have recognized that current tools have limits in both flexibility and efficiency. Many forces drive the development of new tools including the desire to make complex system modeling design and analysis easier and the need for quicker turnaround time in analysis and design. Other considerations include the desire to make use of advanced computer architectures to help in control system design, adopt new methodologies in control, and integrate design processes (e.g., structure, control, optics). CAESY was developed to provide a means to evaluate methods for dealing with user needs in computer-aided control system design. It is an interpreter for performing engineering calculations and incorporates features of both Ada and MATLAB. It is designed to be reasonably flexible and powerful. CAESY includes internally defined functions and procedures, as well as user defined ones. Support for matrix calculations is provided in the same manner as MATLAB. However, the development of CAESY is a research project, and while it provides some features which are not found in commercially sold tools, it does not exhibit the robustness that many commercially developed tools provide. CAESY is written in C-language for use on Sun4 series computers running SunOS 4.1.1 and later. The program is designed to optionally use the LAPACK math library. The LAPACK math routines are available through anonymous ftp from research.att.com. CAESY requires 4Mb of RAM for execution. The standard distribution medium is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge (QIC-24) in UNIX tar format. CAESY was developed in 1993 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA.

  13. CAESY - COMPUTER AIDED ENGINEERING SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wette, M. R.

    1994-01-01

    Many developers of software and algorithms for control system design have recognized that current tools have limits in both flexibility and efficiency. Many forces drive the development of new tools including the desire to make complex system modeling design and analysis easier and the need for quicker turnaround time in analysis and design. Other considerations include the desire to make use of advanced computer architectures to help in control system design, adopt new methodologies in control, and integrate design processes (e.g., structure, control, optics). CAESY was developed to provide a means to evaluate methods for dealing with user needs in computer-aided control system design. It is an interpreter for performing engineering calculations and incorporates features of both Ada and MATLAB. It is designed to be reasonably flexible and powerful. CAESY includes internally defined functions and procedures, as well as user defined ones. Support for matrix calculations is provided in the same manner as MATLAB. However, the development of CAESY is a research project, and while it provides some features which are not found in commercially sold tools, it does not exhibit the robustness that many commercially developed tools provide. CAESY is written in C-language for use on Sun4 series computers running SunOS 4.1.1 and later. The program is designed to optionally use the LAPACK math library. The LAPACK math routines are available through anonymous ftp from research.att.com. CAESY requires 4Mb of RAM for execution. The standard distribution medium is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge (QIC-24) in UNIX tar format. CAESY was developed in 1993 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA.

  14. Systems for Providing Aids for Disabled People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    The report summarizes a meeting of the World Health Organization's Working Group on Systems for Provision of Aids for Disabled Persons. The meeting was convened to discuss technical aids and ergonomic measures to bring greater independence to disabled people and the need to systematize services for the disabled in their own environments. Following…

  15. Cyclist-motorist crash patterns in Denmark: a latent class clustering approach.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    The current study aimed at uncovering patterns of cyclist-motorist crashes in Denmark and investigating their prevalence and severity. The importance of implementing clustering techniques for providing a holistic overview of vulnerable road users' crash patterns derives from the need to prioritize safety issues and to devise efficient preventive measures. The current study focused on cyclist-motorist crashes that occurred in Denmark during the period between 2007 and 2011. To uncover crash patterns, the current analysis applied latent class clustering, an unsupervised probabilistic clustering approach that relies on the statistical concept of likelihood and allows partial overlap across clusters. The analysis yielded 13 distinguishable cyclist-motorist latent classes. Specific crash patterns for urban and rural areas were revealed. Prevalent features that allowed differentiating the latent classes were speed limit, infrastructure type, road surface conditions, number of lanes, motorized vehicle precrash maneuvers, the availability of a cycle lane, cyclist intoxication, and helmet wearing behavior. After the latent class clustering, the distribution of cyclists' injury severity within each cluster was analyzed. The latent class clustering approach provided a comprehensive and clear map of cyclist-motorist crash patterns. The results are useful for prioritizing and resolving safety issues in urban areas, where there is a significant share of cyclists potentially involved in multiple hazardous situations or where extensive bicycle sharing programs are planned.

  16. Solar recharging system for hearing aid cells.

    PubMed

    Gòmez Estancona, N; Tena, A G; Torca, J; Urruticoechea, L; Muñiz, L; Aristimuño, D; Unanue, J M; Torca, J; Urruticoechea, A

    1994-09-01

    We present a solar recharging system for nickel-cadmium cells of interest in areas where batteries for hearing aids are difficult to obtain. The charger has sun cells at the top. Luminous energy is converted into electrical energy, during the day and also at night if there is moonlight. The cost of the charger and hearing aid is very low at 35 US$. The use of solar recharging for hearing aids would be useful in alleviating the problems of deafness in parts of developing countries where there is no electricity.

  17. Computer-aided dispatching system design specification

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, M.G.

    1997-12-16

    This document defines the performance requirements for a graphic display dispatching system to support Hanford Patrol Operations Center. This document reflects the as-built requirements for the system that was delivered by GTE Northwest, Inc. This system provided a commercial off-the-shelf computer-aided dispatching system and alarm monitoring system currently in operations at the Hanford Patrol Operations Center, Building 2721E. This system also provides alarm back-up capability for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP).

  18. NASA's online machine aided indexing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silvester, June P.; Genuardi, Michael T.; Klingbiel, Paul H.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the NASA Lexical Dictionary, a machine aided indexing system used online at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Center for Aerospace Information (CASI). This system is comprised of a text processor that is based on the computational, non-syntactic analysis of input text, and an extensive 'knowledge base' that serves to recognize and translate text-extracted concepts. The structure and function of the various NLD system components are described in detail. Methods used for the development of the knowledge base are discussed. Particular attention is given to a statistically-based text analysis program that provides the knowledge base developer with a list of concept-specific phrases extracted from large textual corpora. Production and quality benefits resulting from the integration of machine aided indexing at CASI are discussed along with a number of secondary applications of NLD-derived systems including on-line spell checking and machine aided lexicography.

  19. Direction discriminating hearing aid system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, M.; Lin, H. C.; Ward, G.

    1991-01-01

    A visual display was developed for people with substantial hearing loss in either one or both ears. The system consists of three discreet units; an eyeglass assembly for the visual display of the origin or direction of sounds; a stationary general purpose noise alarm; and a noise seeker wand.

  20. Uncertainty management in intelligent design aiding systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Donald E.; Gabbert, Paula S.

    1988-01-01

    A novel approach to uncertainty management which is particularly effective in intelligent design aiding systems for large-scale systems is presented. The use of this approach in the materials handling system design domain is discussed. It is noted that, during any point in the design process, a point value can be obtained for the evaluation of feasible designs; however, the techniques described provide unique solutions for these point values using only the current information about the design environment.

  1. Uncertainty management in intelligent design aiding systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Donald E.; Gabbert, Paula S.

    1988-01-01

    A novel approach to uncertainty management which is particularly effective in intelligent design aiding systems for large-scale systems is presented. The use of this approach in the materials handling system design domain is discussed. It is noted that, during any point in the design process, a point value can be obtained for the evaluation of feasible designs; however, the techniques described provide unique solutions for these point values using only the current information about the design environment.

  2. Drink driving deterrents and self-reported offending behaviours among a sample of Queensland motorists.

    PubMed

    Freeman, J; Watson, B

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of drink driving (driving under the influence, DUI) countermeasures to deter motorists from driving over the legal limit is extremely important when considering the personal and economic impact the offending behavior has on the community. This paper reports on an examination of 780 Queensland motorists' perceptions of legal and non-legal sanctions and their deterrent impact on self-reported offending behavior. The data were collected via a telephone survey of motorists recruited from a random sample of all listed telephone numbers in the state, adjusted according to district population figures. The results indicated that there were a range of legal and non-legal factors that were significantly associated with self-reported DUI including: the perceived risk of apprehension and license loss (legal factors); and concerns relating to the possibility of being involved in a crash and hurting another person (non-legal factors). However, additional multivariate analyses indicated that while both legal and non-legal factors significantly predicted self-reported DUI, higher alcohol consumption levels and more favorable attitudes to the behavior also appear to increase the likelihood of DUI. The paper will outline the direct implications of the research project such as the development and promotion of countermeasures that both effectively deter motorists and address pro-offending attitudes. The findings also highlight that DUI remains a relatively common behaviour among some motoring groups and that there is a need to extend current levels of enforcement as well as adopt innovative strategies to enhance the impact of these operations on the offending behaviour.

  3. AIDS Infects Education Systems in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Bess

    2005-01-01

    The AIDS pandemic raging across sub-Saharan Africa does not stop with personal carnage. It also threatens whole systems, including what is arguably the most critical for the region's future--education. Where rates of HIV infection are high, as they are in much of southern and eastern Africa, experts warn, the effects on social stability and…

  4. Motorist comprehension of the slow-moving vehicle emblem in Manitoba.

    PubMed

    Kroeker, A M; Mann, D D

    2010-04-01

    Despite the existence of the slow-moving vehicle (SMV) emblem for almost 50 years, there continues to be a large number of preventable accidents between SMVs and other motorists. In this study, the current SMV emblem was tested against other common road signs as well as alternative slow-moving vehicle emblems to determine motorist comprehension of the signs. An open-ended test method was used to determine the level of comprehension by Manitoba motorists. Written answers from 50 participants were classified as either "correct" or "incorrect" by the authors based on the meaning of the traffic signs provided in a driver's handbook. Only 3 of the 16 Manitoba traffic signs attained the 85% level of comprehension required by ANSI standards. Only 22% of participants correctly identified the current SMV emblem. Two alternatives to the SMV emblem found in the literature, both iconic in nature, were understood to mean "slow-moving vehicle" by only 2% and 8% of participants, respectively. Two alternatives to the SMV developed for this project were evaluated with levels of comprehension of 68% and 84%: however, these levels of comprehension were likely biased by the presence of text. There is insufficient evidence to suggest that the current symbolic SMV emblem should be replaced by an alternative emblem that is iconic in nature.

  5. Pedestrian and motorists' actions at pedestrian hybrid beacon sites: findings from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pulugurtha, Srinivas S; Self, Debbie R

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on an analysis of pedestrian and motorists' actions at sites with pedestrian hybrid beacons and assesses their effectiveness in improving the safety of pedestrians. Descriptive and statistical analyses (one-tail two-sample T-test and two-proportion Z-test) were conducted using field data collected during morning and evening peak hours at three study sites in the city of Charlotte, NC, before and after the installation of pedestrian hybrid beacons. Further, an analysis was conducted to assess the change in pedestrian and motorists' actions over time (before the installation; 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after the installation). Results showed an increase in average traffic speed at one of the pedestrian hybrid beacon sites while no specific trends were observed at the other two pedestrian hybrid beacon sites. A decrease in the number of motorists not yielding to pedestrians, pedestrians trapped in the middle of the street, and pedestrian-vehicle conflicts were observed at all the three pedestrian hybrid beacon sites. The installation of pedestrian hybrid beacons did not have a negative effect on pedestrian actions at two out of the three sites. Improvements seem to be relatively more consistent 3 months after the installation of the pedestrian hybrid beacon.

  6. A rule based computer aided design system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Premack, T.

    1986-01-01

    A Computer Aided Design (CAD) system is presented which supports the iterative process of design, the dimensional continuity between mating parts, and the hierarchical structure of the parts in their assembled configuration. Prolog, an interactive logic programming language, is used to represent and interpret the data base. The solid geometry representing the parts is defined in parameterized form using the swept volume method. The system is demonstrated with a design of a spring piston.

  7. Expert system aid for military finance

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J.D.; Emrich, M.L.; Hwang, Ho-Ling; Meador, M.

    1987-09-14

    Historically, budget preparation processes have been difficult to accomplish. Errors and inconsistencies cause problems for the analyst during budget review. This paper discusses the development and testing of an expert system to aid budget preparation. The prototyping tool, its capabilities, and their application are discussed. Shown are the pilot testing procedures and their role in system development. Current status and enhancements (including software updates and future testing) are also presented. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  8. 23 CFR 470.107 - Federal-aid highway systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal-aid highway systems. 470.107 Section 470.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.107 Federal-aid highway systems. (a) Interstate System. (1) The Dwight D...

  9. CAVES - Computer-Aided Vehicle Embarkation System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    14. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES It. KEY WORDS (Continue on rewer@* olde it necessary and identify by block number) Pallet loading Vehicle loading Cutting...loading problem. A computer-aided vehicle embarkation system (CAVES) is developed to assist embarkation personnel to load vehicles on board a ship. Caves...load vehicles on board a ship. CAVES provides the Embarkation Officer the flexibility and portability needed to make real time decisions about vehicle

  10. 40 CFR 51.362 - Motorist compliance enforcement program oversight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... assurance program shall be implemented to insure effective overall performance of the enforcement system... collection through the use of automatic data capture systems such as bar-code scanners or optical character... sticker dispensing and waiver processing, as well as written procedures for the auditing of...

  11. 40 CFR 51.362 - Motorist compliance enforcement program oversight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... program shall be audited regularly and shall follow effective program management practices, including... assurance program shall be implemented to insure effective overall performance of the enforcement system... collection through the use of automatic data capture systems such as bar-code scanners or optical...

  12. Gravity aided inertial navigation system (GAINS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jircitano, Albert; Dosch, Daniel E.

    The paper describes a new autonomous covert INS uniquely suited to underwater applications. Unlike the conventional INS, schuler and siderial errors are bounded without external navigation aids or active instrumentation of ground speed. As a result, the system exhibits excellent long-term navigation performance while maintaining the inherent covertness of the INS system. A conventional INS is integrated with a gravity gradiometer capable of measuring gravity field components independently of platform accelerations. This new integration scheme takes advantage of navigation system velocity error observability. Parametric performance results are presented for GAINS, varying gyro, gravimeter, gradiometer, depth sensor quality, and gravity field activity.

  13. 40 CFR 51.361 - Motorist compliance enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... database, generate computerized notices, and provide regular backup to said system while maintaining... summaries including statistics on the percentage of vehicles at each stage in the enforcement process; and...

  14. 40 CFR 51.361 - Motorist compliance enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... database, generate computerized notices, and provide regular backup to said system while maintaining... summaries including statistics on the percentage of vehicles at each stage in the enforcement process; and...

  15. 40 CFR 51.361 - Motorist compliance enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... database, generate computerized notices, and provide regular backup to said system while maintaining... summaries including statistics on the percentage of vehicles at each stage in the enforcement process; and...

  16. 40 CFR 51.361 - Motorist compliance enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... database, generate computerized notices, and provide regular backup to said system while maintaining... summaries including statistics on the percentage of vehicles at each stage in the enforcement process; and...

  17. 40 CFR 51.361 - Motorist compliance enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... database, generate computerized notices, and provide regular backup to said system while maintaining... summaries including statistics on the percentage of vehicles at each stage in the enforcement process; and...

  18. Computer aided system engineering for space construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racheli, Ugo

    1989-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation covers the following topics. Construction activities envisioned for the assembly of large platforms in space (as well as interplanetary spacecraft and bases on extraterrestrial surfaces) require computational tools that exceed the capability of conventional construction management programs. The Center for Space Construction is investigating the requirements for new computational tools and, at the same time, suggesting the expansion of graduate and undergraduate curricula to include proficiency in Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) though design courses and individual or team projects in advanced space systems design. In the center's research, special emphasis is placed on problems of constructability and of the interruptability of planned activity sequences to be carried out by crews operating under hostile environmental conditions. The departure point for the planned work is the acquisition of the MCAE I-DEAS software, developed by the Structural Dynamics Research Corporation (SDRC), and its expansion to the level of capability denoted by the acronym IDEAS**2 currently used for configuration maintenance on Space Station Freedom. In addition to improving proficiency in the use of I-DEAS and IDEAS**2, it is contemplated that new software modules will be developed to expand the architecture of IDEAS**2. Such modules will deal with those analyses that require the integration of a space platform's configuration with a breakdown of planned construction activities and with a failure modes analysis to support computer aided system engineering (CASE) applied to space construction.

  19. RASCAL: A Rudimentary Adaptive System for Computer-Aided Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, John Christopher

    Both the background of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) systems in general and the requirements of a computer-aided learning system which would be a reasonable assistant to a teacher are discussed. RASCAL (Rudimentary Adaptive System for Computer-Aided Learning) is a first attempt at defining a CAI system which would individualize the learning…

  20. Riding with the sharks: serious leisure cyclist's perceptions of sharing the road with motorists.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Justen P; Brown, Trent D

    2010-01-01

    As serious leisure cyclists increase their presence on Australian public roads, there have been reports within the popular and mainstream literature of a growing tension between these cyclists and other road users. Until now, there has been limited research exploring the relationship between serious leisure cyclists and other road users as it pertains to issues of safety and motivations to cycle for leisure. This mixed methods research provides insights into a particular cohort of serious leisure cyclists and their experiences of sharing the roads with motorists. Analysis reveals a range of concerns amongst this sub-group, mediated by factors such as age, experience and environment. The paper calls for a differential focus on sub-groups of cyclists when considering policy formation, regulation and safe provision for cyclists on roads.

  1. Expert System Shells: Tools to Aid Human Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Jack R.; Wilson, Brent G.

    1987-01-01

    Examines expert system shells and the role a microcomputer-based expert system can play as an intelligent job aid. Characteristics of traditional and automated job aids techniques are described, and the role of instructional designers in developing expert systems within organizations is discussed. (Author/LRW)

  2. Inert gas spraying device aids in repair of hazardous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teleha, S.

    1965-01-01

    Inert gas spraying device aids in safely making mechanical repairs to a cryogenic fluid system without prior emptying of the system. This method can be applied to any natural or bottled gas system and with modifications to gasoline transports.

  3. AUV-aided Seafloor Geodetic Observation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, M.; Asada, A.; Ura, T.; Fujita, M.; Colombo, O. L.; Sato, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Zheng, H.; Nagahashi, K.

    2007-12-01

    We launched a project supported by the Japan Society for the Science Promotion as the Grants in Aid for Scientific Research. In this project, we are aiming at developing new-generation seafloor geodetic observation system that conquers difficulties inherent with the current system. Central idea of this project is to utilize techniques of underwater robot (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) and seafloor platform to make measurements in place of using the research vessels. Combination of underwater robot and seafloor platform make it possible to conduct the observation with selecting favorable condition of sea and GPS satellite distributions, to make much more frequent observations and to enable flexible planning of observation in response to sudden geodetic events. Trial model of the on-board and the seafloor units were finished. Space-saving design for the on-board unit, which controls both acoustic ranging system and GPS, was one of big issues to be overcome. We reviewed the current system configuration and made it simple. It was miniaturized, and then it was put into two cylinders. The cylinder No.1 contains the PHINS (IXSEA), an inertial navigation system based on fiber optic gyroscope technology. Another one, the cylinder No.2, contains the SF-2050M (NAVCOM Technology) GPS receiver and the acoustic ranging units. The original chassis of the SF-2050M was removed to minimize the volume of the unit and then only the electrical boards of the GPS receiver was installed into the cylinder No.2. There is no commercialized GPS antenna that can receive both L1 and L2 signals and has pressure capability of 2,000 m depth in the sea. Then we developed the pressure housing for the GPS antenna. The small size antenna corresponding to the L1 and L2 signals was installed in it. The transducer, for underwater acoustic ranging, employed on both the on-board and the seafloor units has been newly developed by Dr. Tom Ensign, Engineering acoustic Inc.. This transducer has a spherical

  4. Software For Computer-Aided Design Of Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wette, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    Computer Aided Engineering System (CAESY) software developed to provide means to evaluate methods for dealing with users' needs in computer-aided design of control systems. Interpreter program for performing engineering calculations. Incorporates features of both Ada and MATLAB. Designed to be flexible and powerful. Includes internally defined functions, procedures and provides for definition of functions and procedures by user. Written in C language.

  5. Software For Computer-Aided Design Of Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wette, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    Computer Aided Engineering System (CAESY) software developed to provide means to evaluate methods for dealing with users' needs in computer-aided design of control systems. Interpreter program for performing engineering calculations. Incorporates features of both Ada and MATLAB. Designed to be flexible and powerful. Includes internally defined functions, procedures and provides for definition of functions and procedures by user. Written in C language.

  6. GPS-Aided Tsunami Early Detection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y. T.; Bar-Sever, Y. E.; Liu, Z.; Khachikyan, R.

    2015-12-01

    Most tsunami fatalities occur in near-field communities of earthquakes at offshore faults. Tsunami early warning is key for reducing the number of fatalities. Unfortunately, an earthquake's magnitude often does not gauge the resulting tsunami power. Here we show that real-time GPS stations along coastlines are able to detect seafloor motions due to big earthquakes, and that the detected seafloor displacements are able to determine tsunami energy and scales instantaneously for early warnings. Our method focuses on estimating tsunami energy directly from seafloor motions because a tsunami's potential or scale, no matter how it is defined, has to be proportional to the tsunami energy. Since seafloor motions are the only source of a tsunami, their estimation directly relates to the mechanism that generates tsunamis; therefore, it is a proper way of identifying earthquakes that are capable of triggering tsunamis, while being able to discriminate those particular earthquakes from false alarms. Examples of detecting the tsunami energy scales for the 2004 Sumatra M9.1 earthquake, the 2005 Nias M8.7 earthquake, the 2010 M8.8 Chilean earthquake, and the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake will be presented. The development of the Indo-Pacific GPS-Aided Tsunami Early Detection (GATED) system will be reported.

  7. An Interactive Computer Aiding System for Group Decision Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-01

    In addition, system evaluation studies will continue. The specific items of work for the next period include: (1) Operational testing of the color...Aid with other DDF decision aids; and (3) continuation of full scale experimental studies of the Group Decision Aid. The following specific tasks were...experimental studies are in progress at Perceptronics’ California office. The previously completed experimental hypotheses and the CACI-developed scenario

  8. The classification of AIDS cases: concordance between two AIDS surveillance systems in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Serraino, D; Franceschi, S; Dal Maso, L; Lepri, A C; Tirelli, U; Rezza, G

    1995-01-01

    This study assessed the concordance between the transmission classification of 725 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases by the Italian AIDS Registry (the national surveillance system) and the classification of the same cases by the Italian Cooperative Group on AIDS-Related Tumors. A high degree of concordance emerged for intravenous drug users in both sexes (kappa = 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.84, 0.92), for homosexual men (kappa = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.79, 0.87), and for persons infected through contaminated blood or blood derivatives (kappa = 1.00). The concordance was lower among heterosexual men (kappa = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.37, 0.65) and especially among men whose risk group was not determined (kappa = 0.28; 95% CI = 0.12, 0.44). The discrepancies observed among heterosexual men indicate a need for continuing and accurate monitoring of AIDS reporting by transmission category. PMID:7625506

  9. System integration of pattern recognition, adaptive aided, upper limb prostheses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyman, J.; Freedy, A.; Solomonow, M.

    1975-01-01

    The requirements for successful integration of a computer aided control system for multi degree of freedom artificial arms are discussed. Specifications are established for a system which shares control between a human amputee and an automatic control subsystem. The approach integrates the following subsystems: (1) myoelectric pattern recognition, (2) adaptive computer aiding; (3) local reflex control; (4) prosthetic sensory feedback; and (5) externally energized arm with the functions of prehension, wrist rotation, elbow extension and flexion and humeral rotation.

  10. An intelligent robotic aid system for human services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawamura, K.; Bagchi, S.; Iskarous, M.; Pack, R. T.; Saad, A.

    1994-01-01

    The long term goal of our research at the Intelligent Robotic Laboratory at Vanderbilt University is to develop advanced intelligent robotic aid systems for human services. As a first step toward our goal, the current thrusts of our R&D are centered on the development of an intelligent robotic aid called the ISAC (Intelligent Soft Arm Control). In this paper, we describe the overall system architecture and current activities in intelligent control, adaptive/interactive control and task learning.

  11. Computer-aided tutor of power electronic systems CATPELS

    SciTech Connect

    Rajagopalan, V.; Brillon, D.; Yao, Z.; Neacsu, D.O.; Doumbia, M.L.

    1995-12-31

    This paper outlines the major requirements and concepts of a computer-aided learning aid for power electronic systems and gives the characteristics of a prototype of an expert system named CATPELS. The open architecture of the run-time version of the CATPELS software provides not only the basic information for beginners and all the required tools for specialists but also permits a user (an instructor or a researcher) to expand the capabilities to customize his/her specific requirements.

  12. PLAID- A COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    PLAID is a three-dimensional Computer Aided Design (CAD) system which enables the user to interactively construct, manipulate, and display sets of highly complex geometric models. PLAID was initially developed by NASA to assist in the design of Space Shuttle crewstation panels, and the detection of payload object collisions. It has evolved into a more general program for convenient use in many engineering applications. Special effort was made to incorporate CAD techniques and features which minimize the users workload in designing and managing PLAID models. PLAID consists of three major modules: the Primitive Object Generator (BUILD), the Composite Object Generator (COG), and the DISPLAY Processor. The BUILD module provides a means of constructing simple geometric objects called primitives. The primitives are created from polygons which are defined either explicitly by vertex coordinates, or graphically by use of terminal crosshairs or a digitizer. Solid objects are constructed by combining, rotating, or translating the polygons. Corner rounding, hole punching, milling, and contouring are special features available in BUILD. The COG module hierarchically organizes and manipulates primitives and other previously defined COG objects to form complex assemblies. The composite object is constructed by applying transformations to simpler objects. The transformations which can be applied are scalings, rotations, and translations. These transformations may be defined explicitly or defined graphically using the interactive COG commands. The DISPLAY module enables the user to view COG assemblies from arbitrary viewpoints (inside or outside the object) both in wireframe and hidden line renderings. The PLAID projection of a three-dimensional object can be either orthographic or with perspective. A conflict analysis option enables detection of spatial conflicts or collisions. DISPLAY provides camera functions to simulate a view of the model through different lenses. Other

  13. PLAID- A COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    PLAID is a three-dimensional Computer Aided Design (CAD) system which enables the user to interactively construct, manipulate, and display sets of highly complex geometric models. PLAID was initially developed by NASA to assist in the design of Space Shuttle crewstation panels, and the detection of payload object collisions. It has evolved into a more general program for convenient use in many engineering applications. Special effort was made to incorporate CAD techniques and features which minimize the users workload in designing and managing PLAID models. PLAID consists of three major modules: the Primitive Object Generator (BUILD), the Composite Object Generator (COG), and the DISPLAY Processor. The BUILD module provides a means of constructing simple geometric objects called primitives. The primitives are created from polygons which are defined either explicitly by vertex coordinates, or graphically by use of terminal crosshairs or a digitizer. Solid objects are constructed by combining, rotating, or translating the polygons. Corner rounding, hole punching, milling, and contouring are special features available in BUILD. The COG module hierarchically organizes and manipulates primitives and other previously defined COG objects to form complex assemblies. The composite object is constructed by applying transformations to simpler objects. The transformations which can be applied are scalings, rotations, and translations. These transformations may be defined explicitly or defined graphically using the interactive COG commands. The DISPLAY module enables the user to view COG assemblies from arbitrary viewpoints (inside or outside the object) both in wireframe and hidden line renderings. The PLAID projection of a three-dimensional object can be either orthographic or with perspective. A conflict analysis option enables detection of spatial conflicts or collisions. DISPLAY provides camera functions to simulate a view of the model through different lenses. Other

  14. National AIDS Hotline: HIV and AIDS information service through a toll-free telephone system.

    PubMed Central

    Waller, R R; Lisella, L W

    1991-01-01

    The National AIDS Hotline (NAH), a service of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), is an information resource for the population of the United States, its Territories, and Puerto Rico concerning the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Since its inception in 1983, NAH has grown to be the world's largest health-related hotline service. NAH has received an average of more than 1.4 million calls per year since October 1987. Services of NAH include responding to the public's questions about HIV and AIDS and providing referrals to State and local resources. All services, including HIV and AIDS publications, are provided free of charge. The public contacts NAH 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, through a toll-free telephone system. Services are available to English-speaking, Spanish-speaking, and deaf populations. Each service has its own telephone number--English-speaking, 1-800-342-2437; Spanish-speaking, 1-800-344-7432; TTY service for the deaf, 1-800-243-7889. NAH employs approximately 170 information specialists to answer calls. The facility uses modern telecommunications technology to effectively manage and direct calls to 43 work stations. Each work station is supported by a personal computer that allows access to CDC's National AIDS Clearinghouse data bases for referrals and publication ordering. NAH ensures that information provided to the public is current, accurate, and consistent with approved government policy. Quality assurance reviews address call management, delivery of information, and content of calls. PMID:1659708

  15. HIV/AIDS Community Health Information System.

    PubMed

    Fulcher, Christopher L; Kaukinen, Catherine E

    2003-01-01

    Given changes in the faces of AIDS over the last decade, it is crucial that disparities in health and access to healthcare are addressed. An Internet-based GIS was developed using ESRI's Arc Internet Map Server (Arc IMS) to provide users with a suite of tools to interact with geographic data and conduct spatial analyses related to the characteristics that promote or impede the provision of HIV-related services. Internet Mapping allows those engaged in local decision-making to: (1) geographically visualize information via the Internet; (2) Assess the relationship between the distribution of HIV services and spatially referenced socio-economic data; and (3) generate "what if" scenarios" that may direct the allocation of healthcare resources.

  16. A research on SLAM aided INS/GPS navigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Menglong; Cui, Pingyuan

    2007-11-01

    Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) aided INS/GPS navigation system is a landmark based terrain aided autonomous integrated system that has the capability for online map building and simultaneously utilizing the generated map to bind the errors in the Inertial Navigation System (INS) when GPS is not available. If GPS information is available, the SLAM integrated system builds a landmark-based map using an INS/GPS solution. If GPS is not available, the previously newly generated map is used to constrain the INS errors. The SLAM augmented INS/GPS system shows two capabilities of landmark tracking and mapping using GPS information and more importantly, aiding the INS under GPS denied situation. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated by computer simulation.

  17. AIDS and international security in the United Nations System.

    PubMed

    Rushton, Simon

    2010-11-01

    Two assumptions underpin much of the literature that has examined the links between HIV/AIDS and security: (1) that HIV/AIDS is now firmly established as an international security issue; and (2) that Resolution 1308, adopted by the UN Security Council in July 2000, was the decisive moment in the securitization process. This article questions both of those assumptions. It argues that even within the Security Council, HIV/AIDS' status as a bona fide threat to international peace and security is not entirely secure. Despite the fact that the Resolution was adopted unanimously, there is considerable doubt over the extent to which the Council members were persuaded that HIV/AIDS is genuinely a threat to international peace and security. Furthermore, the Council's subsequent actions suggest a retreat from the issue. The article moves on to examine statements made in and by some of the other key UN System bodies grappling with HIV/AIDS. Focusing in particular on the General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council and UNAIDS, it is argued that the international security framing of HIV/AIDS has not generally achieved a great deal of traction within these bodies. Alternative framings, in particular international development and human rights, occur far more frequently. This raises issues for our understanding of both securitization theory and the global governance of HIV/AIDS.

  18. Computer-Aided dispatching system design specification

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, M.G.

    1996-05-03

    This document defines the performance requirements for a graphic display dispatching system to support Hanford Patrol emergency response. This system is defined as a Commercial-Off the-Shelf computer dispatching system providing both text and graphical display information while interfacing with the diverse reporting system within the Hanford Facility. This system also provided expansion capabilities to integrate Hanford Fire and the Occurrence Notification Center and provides back-up capabilities for the Plutonium Processing Facility.

  19. Computer-Aided dispatching system design specification

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, M.G.

    1996-09-27

    This document defines the performance requirements for a graphic display dispatching system to support Hanford Patrol emergency response. This document outlines the negotiated requirements as agreed to by GTE Northwest during technical contract discussions. This system defines a commercial off-the-shelf computer dispatching system providing both test and graphic display information while interfacing with diverse alarm reporting system within the Hanford Site. This system provided expansion capability to integrate Hanford Fire and the Occurrence Notification Center. The system also provided back-up capability for the Plutonium Processing Facility (PFP).

  20. Toward Computer-Aided Affective Learning Systems: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moridis, C. N.; Economides, A. A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this survey is to provide an overview of the various components of "computer aided affective learning systems." The research is classified into 3 main scientific areas that are integral parts of the development of these kinds of systems. The three main scientific areas are: i) emotions and their connection to learning; ii) affect…

  1. Computer-Aided Communication Satellite System Analysis and Optimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stagl, Thomas W.; And Others

    Various published computer programs for fixed/broadcast communication satellite system synthesis and optimization are discussed. The rationale for selecting General Dynamics/Convair's Satellite Telecommunication Analysis and Modeling Program (STAMP) in modified form to aid in the system costing and sensitivity analysis work in the Program on…

  2. MEMOS: a mobile extensible memory aid system.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Hendrik

    2004-01-01

    Memory disturbances are a frequent outcome of brain damages. Maintenance or enhancement of the patients' quality of life requires enormous effort on the part of caregivers. To support patients with brain injuries, the mobile distributed care system named MEMOS (Mobile Extensible Memory System) was designed, implemented, and tested in the day-care clinic for cognitive neurology at Leipzig University. MEMOS is implemented as a distributed system, using CORBA technologies and Enterprise Java Beans. A special palmtop computer, the Personal Memory Assistant (PMA), reminds the patient of important tasks and supervises the patient's actions. The PMA communicates with the stationary care system via a bi-directional cellular radio connection. The stationary care system was developed to be dependable and scalable. This paper describes the design and function of the MEMOS system.

  3. Micro-computer system aids in scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Anker, R.

    1986-11-01

    MLP (Mainline Pipeline Ltd.) is a petroleum system operated since 1973, by Esso, on behalf of three other oil companies and itself. To assist in pre- and post-startup planning of the revised pipe line network, Scicon developed a computer-based system based on a Scicon program, SCI-CLOPS. This pipe line simulator applies to a wide range of pipe line networks. By using a computer-based system, Esso plans operations far more effectively than with manual methods.

  4. Space systems computer-aided design technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, L. B.

    1984-01-01

    The interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced Spacecraft (IDEAS) system is described, together with planned capability increases in the IDEAS system. The system's disciplines consist of interactive graphics and interactive computing. A single user at an interactive terminal can create, design, analyze, and conduct parametric studies of earth-orbiting satellites, which represents a timely and cost-effective method during the conceptual design phase where various missions and spacecraft options require evaluation. Spacecraft concepts evaluated include microwave radiometer satellites, communication satellite systems, solar-powered lasers, power platforms, and orbiting space stations.

  5. IPS - a vision aided navigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Börner, Anko; Baumbach, Dirk; Buder, Maximilian; Choinowski, Andre; Ernst, Ines; Funk, Eugen; Grießbach, Denis; Schischmanow, Adrian; Wohlfeil, Jürgen; Zuev, Sergey

    2017-04-01

    Ego localization is an important prerequisite for several scientific, commercial, and statutory tasks. Only by knowing one's own position, can guidance be provided, inspections be executed, and autonomous vehicles be operated. Localization becomes challenging if satellite-based navigation systems are not available, or data quality is not sufficient. To overcome this problem, a team of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) developed a multi-sensor system based on the human head and its navigation sensors - the eyes and the vestibular system. This system is called integrated positioning system (IPS) and contains a stereo camera and an inertial measurement unit for determining an ego pose in six degrees of freedom in a local coordinate system. IPS is able to operate in real time and can be applied for indoor and outdoor scenarios without any external reference or prior knowledge. In this paper, the system and its key hardware and software components are introduced. The main issues during the development of such complex multi-sensor measurement systems are identified and discussed, and the performance of this technology is demonstrated. The developer team started from scratch and transfers this technology into a commercial product right now. The paper finishes with an outlook.

  6. Microcomputer-Aided Control Systems Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roat, S. D.; Melsheimer, S. S.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a single input/single output feedback control system design program for IBM PC and compatible microcomputers. Uses a heat exchanger temperature control loop to illustrate the various applications of the program. (ML)

  7. Computer-aided protective system (CAPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Squire, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    A method of improving the security of materials in transit is described. The system provides a continuously monitored position location system for the transport vehicle, an internal computer-based geographic delimiter that makes continuous comparisons of actual positions with the preplanned routing and schedule, and a tamper detection/reaction system. The position comparison is utilized to institute preprogrammed reactive measures if the carrier is taken off course or schedule, penetrated, or otherwise interfered with. The geographic locater could be an independent internal platform or an external signal-dependent system utilizing GPS, Loran or similar source of geographic information; a small (micro) computer could provide adequate memory and computational capacity; the insurance of integrity of the system indicates the need for a tamper-proof container and built-in intrusion sensors. A variant of the system could provide real-time transmission of the vehicle position and condition to a central control point for; such transmission could be encrypted to preclude spoofing.

  8. Integrated computer-aided retinal photocoagulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Steven F.; Wright, Cameron H. G.; Oberg, Erik D.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.; Cain, Clarence P.; Jerath, Maya R.; Rylander, Henry G., III; Welch, Ashley J.

    1996-05-01

    Successful retinal tracking subsystem testing results in vivo on rhesus monkeys using an argon continuous wave laser and an ultra-short pulse laser are presented. Progress on developing an integrated robotic retinal laser surgery system is also presented. Several interesting areas of study have developed: (1) 'doughnut' shaped lesions that occur under certain combinations of laser power, spot size, and irradiation time complicating measurements of central lesion reflectance, (2) the optimal retinal field of view to achieve simultaneous tracking and lesion parameter control, and (3) a fully digital versus a hybrid analog/digital tracker using confocal reflectometry integrated system implementation. These areas are investigated in detail in this paper. The hybrid system warrants a separate presentation and appears in another paper at this conference.

  9. Precision analysis of passive BD aided pseudolites positioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhao, Yan

    2007-11-01

    In recent years BD (BeiDou positioning system), an active satellite navigation system, has been widely applied in geodetic survey, precise engineering survey and GNC (guide, navigation and control system) of weapons because of its reliability and availability. However, it has several problems on the accuracy, anti-interference and active-positioning. A passive BD aided pseudolites positioning system is introduced in details in this paper. The configuration and the operating principle of system are presented. In analyzing the precision of location, one of the crucial aspects to be studied is how to determine the arrangement of the pseudolites to get the good GDOP, which is discussed in the different arrangements of the pseudolites in this paper. The simulation results show that the VDOP (vertical dilution of precision) of BD is improved due to introducing the pseudolites. The experiments indicate the validity of the methods and the improvement of the positioning precision in the BD aided pseudolite system.

  10. Artwork Interactive Design System (AIDS) program description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B. T.; Taylor, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    An artwork interactive design system is described which provides the microelectronic circuit designer/engineer a tool to perform circuit design, automatic layout modification, standard cell design, and artwork verification at a graphics computer terminal using a graphics tablet at the designer/computer interface.

  11. Computer-Aided Fabrication System Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-30

    of IC Manufacturing Data," August 18, 1988. Mike worked on our CAFE project this past spring and is now at TI on his VI-A internship company assignment...and Scheduling, Paris, France, July 5, 1988. X. Bai, "A Hierarchical Scheduling and Planning Framework for Manufacturing Systems," CIM- IC Workshop...Stage Process-Step Model Valid?," CIM- IC Workshop, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, August 4-5, 1988. E. M. Sachs, "Equipment Modeling Using Smart

  12. Information technology aided exploration of system design spaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, Martin S.; Kiper, James D.; Kalafat, Selcuk

    2004-01-01

    We report on a practical application of information technology techniques to aid system engineers effectively explore large design spaces. We make use of heuristic search, visualization and data mining, the combination of which we have implemented wtihin a risk management tool in use at JPL and NASA.

  13. Computer-Aided Personalized System of Instruction: A Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pear, Joseph J.; Novak, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Presents an evaluation of a computer-aided personalized system of instruction program in two undergraduate psychology courses. The computer presented short essay tests and arranged for students who had completed various assignments satisfactorily to help evaluate other students' mastery of those assignments. Student response generally was…

  14. Computer-aided Instructional System for Transmission Line Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhard, Erwin A.; Roth, Charles H., Jr.

    A computer-aided instructional system has been developed which utilizes dynamic computer-controlled graphic displays and which requires student interaction with a computer simulation in an instructional mode. A numerical scheme has been developed for digital simulation of a uniform, distortionless transmission line with resistive terminations and…

  15. Information technology aided exploration of system design spaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, Martin S.; Kiper, James D.; Kalafat, Selcuk

    2004-01-01

    We report on a practical application of information technology techniques to aid system engineers effectively explore large design spaces. We make use of heuristic search, visualization and data mining, the combination of which we have implemented wtihin a risk management tool in use at JPL and NASA.

  16. Field Evaluation of a Mini Learning Resource Aided Instruction System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attala, Emile E.; Howard, James A.

    Very little work has been done in the broad field of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) to exploring the use of a minicomputer as another learning resource in the instructional process. Accordingly a cost-effective Learning Resource Aided Instruction (LRAI) System centered around a Data General NOVA minicomputer augmented with slide…

  17. Computer program aids dual reflector antenna system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firnett, P.; Gerritsen, R.; Jarvie, P.; Ludwig, A.

    1968-01-01

    Computer program aids in the design of maximum efficiency dual reflector antenna systems. It designs a shaped cassegrainian antenna which has nearly 100 percent efficiency, and accepts input parameters specifying an existing conventional antenna and produces as output the modifications necessary to conform to a shaped design.

  18. The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Education Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaeffer, Sheldon

    1993-01-01

    AIDS is increasing pressure on educational delivery systems to transmit messages about it. It is having a short-term impact on demand, supply, and response, and its long-term impact will require broader educational and social objectives and functions and flexible mechanisms for planning, financing, and managing programs. (SK)

  19. The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Education Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaeffer, Sheldon

    1993-01-01

    AIDS is increasing pressure on educational delivery systems to transmit messages about it. It is having a short-term impact on demand, supply, and response, and its long-term impact will require broader educational and social objectives and functions and flexible mechanisms for planning, financing, and managing programs. (SK)

  20. Models of Human Information Requirements: "When Reasonable Aiding Systems Disagree"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, Kevin; Pisanich, Gregory; Shafto, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Aircraft flight management and Air Traffic Control (ATC) automation are under development to maximize the economy of flight and to increase the capacity of the terminal area airspace while maintaining levels of flight safety equal to or better than current system performance. These goals are being realized by the introduction of flight management automation aiding and operations support systems on the flight deck and by new developments of ATC aiding systems that seek to optimize scheduling of aircraft while potentially reducing required separation and accounting for weather and wake vortex turbulence. Aiding systems on both the flight deck and the ground operate through algorithmic functions on models of the aircraft and of the airspace. These models may differ from each other as a result of variations in their models of the immediate environment. The resultant flight operations or ATC commands may differ in their response requirements (e.g. different preferred descent speeds or descent initiation points). The human operators in the system must then interact with the automation to reconcile differences and resolve conflicts. We have developed a model of human performance including cognitive functions (decision-making, rule-based reasoning, procedural interruption recovery and forgetting) that supports analysis of the information requirements for resolution of flight aiding and ATC conflicts. The model represents multiple individuals in the flight crew and in ATC. The model is supported in simulation on a Silicon Graphics' workstation using Allegro Lisp. Design guidelines for aviation automation aiding systems have been developed using the model's specification of information and team procedural requirements. Empirical data on flight deck operations from full-mission flight simulation are provided to support the model's predictions. The paper describes the model, its development and implementation, the simulation test of the model predictions, and the empirical

  1. Models of Human Information Requirements: "When Reasonable Aiding Systems Disagree"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, Kevin; Pisanich, Gregory; Shafto, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Aircraft flight management and Air Traffic Control (ATC) automation are under development to maximize the economy of flight and to increase the capacity of the terminal area airspace while maintaining levels of flight safety equal to or better than current system performance. These goals are being realized by the introduction of flight management automation aiding and operations support systems on the flight deck and by new developments of ATC aiding systems that seek to optimize scheduling of aircraft while potentially reducing required separation and accounting for weather and wake vortex turbulence. Aiding systems on both the flight deck and the ground operate through algorithmic functions on models of the aircraft and of the airspace. These models may differ from each other as a result of variations in their models of the immediate environment. The resultant flight operations or ATC commands may differ in their response requirements (e.g. different preferred descent speeds or descent initiation points). The human operators in the system must then interact with the automation to reconcile differences and resolve conflicts. We have developed a model of human performance including cognitive functions (decision-making, rule-based reasoning, procedural interruption recovery and forgetting) that supports analysis of the information requirements for resolution of flight aiding and ATC conflicts. The model represents multiple individuals in the flight crew and in ATC. The model is supported in simulation on a Silicon Graphics' workstation using Allegro Lisp. Design guidelines for aviation automation aiding systems have been developed using the model's specification of information and team procedural requirements. Empirical data on flight deck operations from full-mission flight simulation are provided to support the model's predictions. The paper describes the model, its development and implementation, the simulation test of the model predictions, and the empirical

  2. A restoration aid expert system for distribution substations

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.J.; Park, Y.M.

    1996-10-01

    This paper presents a practical restoration aid expert system for 154kV distribution substations. The proposed expert system has a topology based simple structure and it utilizes basic rules suggested by Korea electric power company including heuristic rules, topology identification rules and searching rules to generate switching sequence for feasible restoration process. In this paper, general system structure as well as rules and data representations are discussed. The expert system is realized using HP9000 workstation. X-window and Motif shell is used for user friendly GUI. It has been tested in a practical sub-control center as a part of the intelligent fault diagnosis and restoration aid system to assist decision making of SCADA operators.

  3. Aid effectiveness in rebuilding the Afghan health system: A reflection

    PubMed Central

    Dalil, Suraya; Newbrander, William; Loevinsohn, Benjamin; Naeem, Ahmad Jan; Griffin, James; Salama, Peter; Momand, Faiz Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The Paris Declaration defined five components of aid effectiveness: ownership, alignment, harmonisation, managing for results and mutual accountability. Afghanistan, which has received a high level of donor aid for health since 2002, has seen significant improvements in health indicators, expanded access to health services and an increased range of services. Do the impressive health outcomes in this fragile state mean that aid has been effectively utilised? The factors that contributed to the success of the Ministry of Public Health (MOPH)-donor partnership include as follows: Ownership: a realistic role for the MOPH as the steward of the health sector that was clearly articulated to all stakeholders; Donor alignment: donor coordination and collaboration initiated by the MOPH; Joint decisions: participatory decision-making by the MOPH and donors, such as the major decision to use contracts with nongovernmental organisations for health service delivery; Managing for results: basing programmes on available evidence, supplementing that evidence where possible and performance monitoring of health-sector activities using multiple data sources; Reliable aid flows: the availability of sufficient donor funding for more than 10 years for MOPH priorities, such as the Basic Package of Health Services, and other programmes that boosted system development and capacity building; Human factors: these include a critical mass of individuals with the right experience and expertise being deployed at the right time and able to look beyond agency mandates and priorities to support sector reform and results. These factors, which made aid to Afghanistan effective, can be applied in other countries. PMID:24922192

  4. 21 CFR 874.3950 - Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system... Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system. (a) Identification. A transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid... occluding the ear canal. The device consists of an air conduction hearing aid attached to a...

  5. 21 CFR 874.3950 - Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system... Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system. (a) Identification. A transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid... occluding the ear canal. The device consists of an air conduction hearing aid attached to a...

  6. 21 CFR 874.3950 - Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system... Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system. (a) Identification. A transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid... occluding the ear canal. The device consists of an air conduction hearing aid attached to a...

  7. A noncontacting motion monitoring system for an astronaut translation aid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finley, Tom D.

    1990-04-01

    The development of a noncontacting motion sensing system designed to monitor the movement of a cart along a track in the low earth orbit space environment is described. The system uses Hall effect sensors to detect the position of small permanent magnets located along the track. The measurement criteria are described, the system design is discussed, and estimates of the system error are given. The system will be used on the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) experiment scheduled for the STS37 flight in November 1990. It will allow the position, velocity, and acceleration of the cart to be determined as it moves along the track.

  8. A noncontacting motion monitoring system for an astronaut translation aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finley, Tom D.

    1990-01-01

    The development of a noncontacting motion sensing system designed to monitor the movement of a cart along a track in the low earth orbit space environment is described. The system uses Hall effect sensors to detect the position of small permanent magnets located along the track. The measurement criteria are described, the system design is discussed, and estimates of the system error are given. The system will be used on the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) experiment scheduled for the STS37 flight in November 1990. It will allow the position, velocity, and acceleration of the cart to be determined as it moves along the track.

  9. Filter aids influence on pressure drop across a filtration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajar, S.; Rashid, M.; Nurnadia, A.; Ammar, M. R.; Hasfalina, C. M.

    2017-06-01

    Filter aids is commonly used to reduce pressure drop across air filtration system as it helps to increase the efficiency of filtration of accumulated filter cake. Filtration velocity is one of the main parameters that affect the performance of filter aids material. In this study, a formulated filter aids consisting of PreKot™ and activated carbon mixture (designated as PrekotAC) was tested on PTFE filter media under various filtration velocities of 5, 6, and 8 m/min at a constant material loading of 0.2 mg/mm2. Results showed that pressure drop is highly influenced by filtration velocity where higher filtration velocity leads to a higher pressure drop across the filter cake. It was found that PrekotAC performed better in terms of reducing the pressure drop across the filter cake even at the highest filtration velocity. The diversity in different particle size distribution of non-uniform particle size in the formulated PrekotAC mixture presents a higher permeability causes a lower pressure drop across the accumulated filter cake. The finding suggests that PrekotAC is a promising filter aids material that helps reducing the pressure drop across fabric filtration system.

  10. The NASA computer aided design and test system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, J. M.; Juergensen, K.

    1973-01-01

    A family of computer programs facilitating the design, layout, evaluation, and testing of digital electronic circuitry is described. CADAT (computer aided design and test system) is intended for use by NASA and its contractors and is aimed predominantly at providing cost effective microelectronic subsystems based on custom designed metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) large scale integrated circuits (LSIC's). CADAT software can be easily adopted by installations with a wide variety of computer hardware configurations. Its structure permits ease of update to more powerful component programs and to newly emerging LSIC technologies. The components of the CADAT system are described stressing the interaction of programs rather than detail of coding or algorithms. The CADAT system provides computer aids to derive and document the design intent, includes powerful automatic layout software, permits detailed geometry checks and performance simulation based on mask data, and furnishes test pattern sequences for hardware testing.

  11. HIV/AIDS Monitoring and Evaluation Systems Strengthening for the National AIDS Program in Albania.

    PubMed

    Rjepaj, Klodian; Bani, Roland

    2013-12-01

    The Institute of Public Health (IPH) is the Principal Recipient (PR) of the Global Fund for AIDS, TB and Malaria Round 5 HIV/AIDS and TB grants. The GF HIV Grant is highly targeted, aimed at filling key gaps in the national response to HIV/AIDS. Albania is considered a low HIV prevalence country based on the number of reported cases. The work presented in this paper is carried out as part of the Monitoring and evaluation framework development in respect to the National AIDS strategy and Global Fund agreement. The performance framework consists of a range of indicators agreed by the PR (IPH in Albania), and specific targets to be met on an annual base. The PR must, therefore, be able to measure its performance against this framework in order to demonstrate that it is meeting its targets. To assist this process, the GFATM requires PRs to undertake an assessment of their capacity to monitor and evaluate the program, and put in place measures to strengthen any identified weaknesses. The Global Fund's M&E Systems Strengthening Tool, MESST, was used. The MESST is conducted via a participatory workshop involving the PR, SRs,(Subrecipients) some representatives of the Country Coordinating Mechanism (CCM), the donor community and other stakeholders or implementing partners relevant to the exercise. The proposed output for this exercise is an M&E Action Plan for the PR. A 2-day MESST workshop was held in Tirana, Albania. Participants at the workshop assessed the M&E capacity of the national HIV program, and its implementers, the IPH and the sub recipients (SRs), by looking at three elements of the M&E system. These are: The Monitoring and Evaluation Plan, The ability of collate and analyze data at the IPH, The reporting systems in the health facilities, the community and the laboratories, The result was identification of a range of strengths and weaknesses, and from these, the development of a list of key actions to address the weaknesses identified.

  12. A review of HIV/AIDS system-level interventions

    PubMed Central

    Bauermeister, José A.; Tross, Susan; Ehrhardt, Anke A.

    2010-01-01

    The escalating HIV/AIDS epidemic worldwide demands that on-going prevention efforts be strengthened, disseminated, and scaled-up. System-level interventions refer to programs aiming to improve the functioning of an agency as well as the delivery of its services to the community. System-level interventions are a promising approach to HIV/AIDS prevention because they focus on (a) improving the agency’s ability to adopt evidence-based HIV prevention and care programs; (b) develop and establish policies and procedures that maximize the sustainability of on-going prevention and care efforts; and (c) improve decision-making processes such as incorporating the needs of communities into their tailored services. We reviewed studies focusing on system-level interventions by searching multiple electronic abstracting indices, including PsycInfo, PubMed, and ProQuest. Twenty-three studies out of 624 peer-reviewed studies (published from January 1985 to February 2007) met study criteria. Most of the studies focused on strengthening agency infrastructure, while other studies included collaborative partnerships and technical assistance programs. Our findings suggest that system-level interventions are promising in strengthening HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment efforts. Based on our findings, we propose recommendations for future work in developing and evaluating system-level interventions. PMID:18369722

  13. Student Financial Aid: 1997-98 Update. The University of Wisconsin System Informational Memorandum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ. System, Madison.

    Highlights of this data on student financial aid in the University of Wisconsin (UW) system for 1997-98 include the following: 84 percent of student financial aid comes from federal sources; 56 percent of undergraduate students receive aid (up 2 percent from the previous year); 35 percent of graduate students receive aid (up 2 percent); 60 percent…

  14. A Computer Aided Statistical Covariance Program for Missile System Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-04-01

    ENGINEERING RESEARCH OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY A COMPUTER AIDED STATISTICAL COVARIANCE PROGRAM FOR MISSILE SYSTEM ANALYSI. TO D JN2 U. S. Army Missile...ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS Office of Engineering Rsch, Oklahoma State Univ Agiculture...ANALYSIS by James R. Rowland and V. M. Gupta School of Electrical Engineering V Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Office of Engineering

  15. A Dynamic Scheduler for a Computer Aided Prototyping System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    9 D . OVERVIEW ......................................... .... 10 II. BACKGROUND AND DEVELOPMENT OF SCHEDULING ALGO- R IT H M S ...4. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER( S ) S MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER( S ) NPS52-88-019 6a. NAME OF PERrORMING ORGANIZATION 6b OFFICE...DYNAMIC SCHEDULER FOR A COMPUTER AIDED PROTOTYPING SYSTEM (U) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR( S ) EATON, Susan L., LUQI 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b TIME COVERED 114

  16. Computer-Aided Final Design Cost Estimating System Overview.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-01

    laboratory _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ /1— COMPUTER-AIDED FINAL DESIGN • COST ESTIMATING SYSTEM OVERVIEW © by...PROJECT . TASKAAEA~~ WORK UNIT NUMBERSCONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING RESEARCH LABORATORY ~~~~~~~~~ .• . — P.O. Box 4005 ~~ 4A7627~ %T4fldt11 Champa ign , IL 61820...Construction Division (FA), U.S. Army Construction Engineering Re- search Laboratory (CERL), Champaign , IL. The Principal Investigator was Mr. Michael

  17. Knowledge aided display design (KADD) system - An evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Ruston M.; Frey, Paul R.

    1987-01-01

    The development and evaluation of the Knowledge Aided Display Design (KADD) system is described. Developed to investigate several designer support concepts in the context of the design of computer-generated displays, KADD's implementation uses technology from several disciplines of computer science including data base design and management, graphics, expert systems, and real-time simulation. This paper discusses KADD's goals and concepts, the implementation of the system, and the results of a two-part evaluation to determine the effectiveness of the KADD concepts.

  18. Program Aids Design Of Fluid-Circulating Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacskay, Allen; Dalee, Robert

    1992-01-01

    Computer Aided Systems Engineering and Analysis (CASE/A) program is interactive software tool for trade study and analysis, designed to increase productivity during all phases of systems engineering. Graphics-based command-driven software package provides user-friendly computing environment in which engineer analyzes performance and interface characteristics of ECLS/ATC system. Useful during all phases of spacecraft-design program, from initial conceptual design trade studies to actual flight, including pre-flight prediction and in-flight analysis of anomalies. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  19. Computer-aided radio dispatch system streamlines operations

    SciTech Connect

    Meck, G.L.

    1985-10-01

    This paper describes a computer-aided radio dispatch system (CARDS) used by The East Ohio Gas Company to help improve customer satisfaction and the already high level of performance in customer service operations. East Ohio decided to develop its own system after establishing certain criteria. The heart of the Cards unit is the DEC microcomputer LSI-11 where data is transmitted between it and the dispatch centers at 1,200 baud. The large number of job functions that the system helps fulfill are discussed in this paper.

  20. Expert systems to aid in wind farm operations

    SciTech Connect

    Schluter, L.L. ); Nateghian, F. ); Luger, G.F. )

    1991-01-01

    An expert system is a knowledge-based program that provides solutions to problems in a specific domain by mimicking the behavior of a human expert. Expert systems can have several advantages over traditional programming methods; however, developing an expert system generally involves a considerable amount of time and money. Therefore, careful investigation must be done to ensure that a problem is suited for an expert system application. This paper examines several areas where an expert system may help wind farm operators lower their operational costs. Justifications for using expert systems rather than traditional programming methods are given. This paper also discusses some of the design decisions that were made in developing an expert system for US Windpower that will aid in diagnosing wind turbine failures. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Expert systems to aid in wind farm operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schluter, L. L.; Nateghian, F.; Luger, G. F.

    1991-12-01

    An expert system is a knowledge-based program that provides solutions to problems in a specific domain by mimicking the behavior of a human expert. Expert systems can have several advantages over traditional programming methods; however, developing an expert system generally involves a considerable amount of time and money. Therefore, careful investigation must be done to ensure that a problem is suited for an expert system application. This paper examines several areas where an expert system may help wind farm operators lower their operational costs. Justifications for using expert systems rather than traditional programming methods are given. This paper also discusses some of the design decisions that were made in developing an expert system for US Windpower that will aid in diagnosing wind turbine failures.

  2. CATIA - A computer aided design and manufacturing tridimensional system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, F.

    A properietary computer graphics-aided, three-dimensional interactive application (CATIA) design system is described. CATIA employs approximately 100 graphics displays, which are used by some 500 persons engaged in the definition of aircraft structures, structural strength analyses, the kinematic analysis of mobile elements, aerodynamic calculations, the choice of tooling in the machining of aircraft elements, and the programming of robotics. CATIA covers these diverse fields with a single data base. After a description of salient aspects of the system's hardware and software, graphics examples are given of the definition of curves, surfaces, complex volumes, and analytical tasks.

  3. [About the creation of a unified system of first aid in the Russian Federation].

    PubMed

    Voĭnovskiĭ, E A; Lysenko, K I; Dezhurnyĭ, L I

    2011-08-01

    The current status of first aid in the Russian Federation is covered. The necessity and the basic principles o first aid in the country are formulated, the need for the creation of which is due to the involvement of first aid to victims wide range of people, including and without health education. The necessity of developing and adopting the number of regulations to administrate various aspects of first aid, changes in existing regulations, as well as the establishment and functioning of the interagency coordinating council on first aid. The principles of operation of the system of training of participants in first aid, equipping them with the means to administer first aid are suggested.

  4. Computer-aided auscultation learning system for nursing technique instruction.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chun-Ju; Chen, Yen-Ting; Hu, Ling-Chen; Chuang, Chih-Chieh; Chiu, Yu-Hsien; Tsai, Ming-Shih

    2008-01-01

    Pulmonary auscultation is a physical assessment skill learned by nursing students for examining the respiratory system. Generally, a sound simulator equipped mannequin is used to group teach auscultation techniques via classroom demonstration. However, nursing students cannot readily duplicate this learning environment for self-study. The advancement of electronic and digital signal processing technologies facilitates simulating this learning environment. This study aims to develop a computer-aided auscultation learning system for assisting teachers and nursing students in auscultation teaching and learning. This system provides teachers with signal recording and processing of lung sounds and immediate playback of lung sounds for students. A graphical user interface allows teachers to control the measuring device, draw lung sound waveforms, highlight lung sound segments of interest, and include descriptive text. Effects on learning lung sound auscultation were evaluated for verifying the feasibility of the system. Fifteen nursing students voluntarily participated in the repeated experiment. The results of a paired t test showed that auscultative abilities of the students were significantly improved by using the computer-aided auscultation learning system.

  5. Analysis of a desiccant aided evaporative cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    The typically humid climate of the southeastern portion of the United States is not amenable to present evaporative cooling systems. This study seeks to develop a system that would include drying the humid air (by using a desiccant) for efficient use in the evaporative cooler. The analysis employs a high efficiency desiccant that could be regenerated by solar energy and uses designs engaging an indoor comfort range technique instead of a design-point to achieve realistic optimum systems. The simulated results compare well with three previously constructed prototypes and the study also provides a design, operation, and sensitivity analysis for a residential cooling example. Finally, based on energy consumption, a comparison between typical vapor compression air conditioners and this desiccant aided evaporative cooling system is made. Results indicate that the evaporative system consumes less total energy.

  6. 21 CFR 874.3310 - Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system. 874.3310 Section 874.3310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... aid calibrator and analysis system. (a) Identification. A hearing aid calibrator and analysis...

  7. 21 CFR 874.3310 - Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system. 874.3310 Section 874.3310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... aid calibrator and analysis system. (a) Identification. A hearing aid calibrator and analysis...

  8. 21 CFR 874.3310 - Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system. 874.3310 Section 874.3310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... aid calibrator and analysis system. (a) Identification. A hearing aid calibrator and analysis...

  9. Application of expert systems in project management decision aiding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Regina; Shaffer, Steven; Stokes, James; Goldstein, David

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of developing an expert systems-based project management decision aid to enhance the performance of NASA project managers was assessed. The research effort included extensive literature reviews in the areas of project management, project management decision aiding, expert systems technology, and human-computer interface engineering. Literature reviews were augmented by focused interviews with NASA managers. Time estimation for project scheduling was identified as the target activity for decision augmentation, and a design was developed for an Integrated NASA System for Intelligent Time Estimation (INSITE). The proposed INSITE design was judged feasible with a low level of risk. A partial proof-of-concept experiment was performed and was successful. Specific conclusions drawn from the research and analyses are included. The INSITE concept is potentially applicable in any management sphere, commercial or government, where time estimation is required for project scheduling. As project scheduling is a nearly universal management activity, the range of possibilities is considerable. The INSITE concept also holds potential for enhancing other management tasks, especially in areas such as cost estimation, where estimation-by-analogy is already a proven method.

  10. Computer aided systems human engineering: A hypermedia tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boff, Kenneth R.; Monk, Donald L.; Cody, William J.

    1992-01-01

    The Computer Aided Systems Human Engineering (CASHE) system, Version 1.0, is a multimedia ergonomics database on CD-ROM for the Apple Macintosh II computer, being developed for use by human system designers, educators, and researchers. It will initially be available on CD-ROM and will allow users to access ergonomics data and models stored electronically as text, graphics, and audio. The CASHE CD-ROM, Version 1.0 will contain the Boff and Lincoln (1988) Engineering Data Compendium, MIL-STD-1472D and a unique, interactive simulation capability, the Perception and Performance Prototyper. Its features also include a specialized data retrieval, scaling, and analysis capability and the state of the art in information retrieval, browsing, and navigation.

  11. The Brain in AIDS: Central Nervous System HIV-1 Infection and AIDS Dementia Complex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Richard W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the complicated infection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in its late stages of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) dementia complex. Explains the syndrome's development of abnormalities in cognition, motor performance, and behavior. (TW)

  12. Computer-Aided Diagnostic System For Mass Survey Chest Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Yoshizumi; Kinoshita, Yasuhiro; Emori, Yasufumi; Yoshimura, Hitoshi

    1988-06-01

    In order to support screening of chest radiographs on mass survey, a computer-aided diagnostic system that automatically detects abnormality of candidate images using a digital image analysis technique has been developed. Extracting boundary lines of lung fields and examining their shapes allowed various kind of abnormalities to be detected. Correction and expansion were facilitated by describing the system control, image analysis control and judgement of abnormality in the rule type programing language. In the experiments using typical samples of student's radiograms, good results were obtained for the detection of abnormal shape of lung field, cardiac hypertrophy and scoliosis. As for the detection of diaphragmatic abnormality, relatively good results were obtained but further improvements will be necessary.

  13. The Pediatric AIDS Program: A Systems Approach to Services for Children and Families in New Orleans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Patricia; Gruber, DeAnn; vonAlmen, Kris

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the multiple needs of infants and young children affected by HIV/AIDS and the compromising psychosocial factors that frequently accompany HIV/AIDS. Implications of these psychosocial medical variables for programming is presented within a systems framework and illustrated in a description of a pediatric AIDS program in New Orleans.…

  14. [Knowledge of accident causation research in relation to age-induced decrease in the performance of elderly motorists, their accident risk and legal consequences].

    PubMed

    Seib, H

    1990-01-01

    Elderly motorists lose a significant amount of their mental(-somatic) and sensomotor capabilities. No data is available on the percentage of elderly motorists involved in car accidents. Their accident risk, however, is not above average because that decrease is outweighed by increased experience and a more thoughtful manner of driving. The percentage of elderly, especially female pedestrians killed by autos is very high. This is mainly due to age-specific mortality and to the high proportion of aged people, especially women, within the population. Our jurisdiction concerning responsibilities requires elderly people to become aware of any deficiencies and to take them into account. The administrative courts are very reserved in withdrawing driving licenses because of age-caused deficiencies. The mere fact that a driver is very old does not suffice; it even does not justify seeking a psychomedical opinion. In this paper it is argued that actions provided for by the law and regulations asking for a periodical check-up of sensomotor and mental capabilities of the elderly driver are disproportionate. Introducing an "eye-certificate" for all motorists as suggested by the German Ophthalmological Society, however, is considered useful and appropriate since deficiencies of vision have been discovered for all age groups.

  15. A computer-aided diagnostic system for kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Jahantigh, Farzad Firouzi; Malmir, Behnam; Avilaq, Behzad Aslani

    2017-01-01

    Background Disease diagnosis is complicated since patients may demonstrate similar symptoms but physician may diagnose different diseases. There are a few number of investigations aimed to create a fuzzy expert system, as a computer aided system for disease diagnosis. Methods In this research, a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in a kidney clinic in Tehran, Iran in 2012. Medical diagnosis fuzzy rules applied, and a set of symptoms related to the set of considered diseases defined. The input case to be diagnosed defined by assigning a fuzzy value to each symptom and then three physicians asked about each suspected diseases. Then comments of those three physicians summarized for each disease. The fuzzy inference applied to obtain a decision fuzzy set for each disease, and crisp decision values attained to determine the certainty of existence for each disease. Results Results indicated that, in the diagnosis of seven cases of kidney disease by examining 21 indicators using fuzzy expert system, kidney stone disease with 63% certainty was the most probable, renal tubular was at the lowest level with 15%, and other kidney diseases were at the other levels. The most remarkable finding of this study was that results of kidney disease diagnosis (e.g., kidney stone) via fuzzy expert system were fully compatible with those of kidney physicians. Conclusion The proposed fuzzy expert system is a valid, reliable, and flexible instrument to diagnose several typical input cases. The developed system decreases the effort of initial physical checking and manual feeding of input symptoms. PMID:28392995

  16. A handheld computer-aided diagnosis system and simulated analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Mingjian; Zhang, Xuejun; Liu, Brent; Su, Kening; Louie, Ryan

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system based on cellphone and distributed cluster. One of the bottlenecks in building a CAD system for clinical practice is the storage and process of mass pathology samples freely among different devices, and normal pattern matching algorithm on large scale image set is very time consuming. Distributed computation on cluster has demonstrated the ability to relieve this bottleneck. We develop a system enabling the user to compare the mass image to a dataset with feature table by sending datasets to Generic Data Handler Module in Hadoop, where the pattern recognition is undertaken for the detection of skin diseases. A single and combination retrieval algorithm to data pipeline base on Map Reduce framework is used in our system in order to make optimal choice between recognition accuracy and system cost. The profile of lesion area is drawn by doctors manually on the screen, and then uploads this pattern to the server. In our evaluation experiment, an accuracy of 75% diagnosis hit rate is obtained by testing 100 patients with skin illness. Our system has the potential help in building a novel medical image dataset by collecting large amounts of gold standard during medical diagnosis. Once the project is online, the participants are free to join and eventually an abundant sample dataset will soon be gathered enough for learning. These results demonstrate our technology is very promising and expected to be used in clinical practice.

  17. Group Decision Support System to Aid the Process of Design and Maintenance of Large Scale Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-23

    AD-A252 729 ., INAVAL VrUfGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California 6 DTIC A THESIS GROUP DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM TO AID THE PROCESS OF DESIGN AND...SUPPORT SYSTEM TO AID THE PROCESS OF DESIGN AND MAINTENANCE OF LARGE SCALE SYSTEMS 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) John R. Ros 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME...scale systems design and maintenance. A review of the REMAP model and the Cooperative Multiple Criteria Group Decision Making (Co-oP) group decision

  18. Computer-aided X-ray holographic imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Morita, H.; Ando, K.; Sasaki, K.

    1981-07-01

    A computer-aided X-ray holographic imaging method is proposed. In this system a three-dimensional image of an object is reconstructed by extracting the hologram, which corresponds to the complete coherence, from the intensity signals obtained under temporally and spatially partial coherent illumination of the object. This method requires neither a priori information about the object's structures nor placement of a pointlike target near the object to obtain the reference waves. The coherence function is detected differentially from intensities of infinitesimal intervals on the hemispherical hologram plane so that it does not suffer from the short temporal coherence length of available X-ray sources. Two deconvolution processings to compensate the effects of the spatially and temporally partial coherency of the waves are also adopted. Principle, design conditions, and a few numerical results are given.

  19. Optical-digital-neural network system for aided target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farr, Keith B.; Hartman, Richard L.

    1995-07-01

    Many military systems have a critical need for aided target recognition, or cuing. This includes several systems with wide field-of-view search missions such as the UAV, EFOG-M, and Comanche. This report discusses one new approach: a multiple region of interest processor based on diffraction pattern sampling and digital neural network processing. In this concept an optical system segments the image into multiple, rectangular regions of interest and in parallel converts each ROI, be it visible, IR, or radar, to a spatial frequency power spectrum and samples that spectrum for 64 features. A neural network learns to correlate those features with target classes or identifications. A digital system uses the network weights to recognize unknown targets. The research discussed in this report using a single ROI processor showed a very high level of performance. Out of 1024 trials with models of five targets of F- 14, F-18, HIND, SCUD, and M1 tanks, there were 1023 correct classifications and 1 incorrect classification. Out of 1514 trials with those images plus 490 real clutter scenes, there were 1514 correct decisions between target or no-target. Of the 1024 target detections, there were 1023 correct classifications. Out of 60 trials with low resolution IR images of real scenes, there were 60 correct decisions between target and no-target. Of the 40 target detections, there were 40 correct classifications.

  20. Vision aided inertial navigation system augmented with a coded aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Jamie R.

    plate aperture produces diffraction patterns that change the shape of the focal blur pattern. When used as an aperture, the Fresnel zone plate produces multiple focal planes in the scene. The interference between the multiple focal planes produce changes in the aperture that can be observed both between the focal planes and beyond the most distant focal plane. The Fresnel zone plate aperture and lens may be designed to change in the focal blur pattern at greater depths, thereby improving measurement performance of the coded aperture system. This research provides an in-depth study of the Fresnel zone plate used as a coded aperture, and the performance improvement obtained by augmenting a single camera vision aided inertial navigation system with a Fresnel zone plate coded aperture. Design and analysis of a generalized coded aperture is presented and demonstrated, and special considerations for the Fresnel zone plate are given. Also techniques to determine a continuous depth measurement from a coded image are presented and evaluated through measurement. Finally the measurement results from different aperture configurations are statistically modeled and compared with a simulated vision aided navigation environment to predict the change in performance of a vision aided inertial navigation system when augmented with a coded aperture.

  1. Computer-aided pattern classification system for dermoscopy images.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Qaisar; Celebi, M Emre; Fondón, Irene

    2012-08-01

    Computer-aided pattern classification of melanoma and other pigmented skin lesions is one of the most important tasks for clinical diagnosis. To differentiate between benign and malignant lesions, the extraction of color, architectural order, symmetry of pattern and homogeneity (CASH) is a challenging task. In this article, a novel pattern classification system (PCS) based on the clinical CASH rule is presented to classify among six classes of patterns. The PCS system consists of the following five steps: transformation to the CIE L*a*b* color space, pre-processing to enhance the tumor region and removal of hairs, tumor-area segmentation, color and texture feature extraction, and finally, classification based on a multiclass support vector machine. The PCS system is tested on a total of 180 dermoscopic images. To test the performance of the PCS diagnostic classifier, the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) is utilized. The proposed classifier achieved a sensitivity of 91.64%, specificity of 94.14%, and AUC of 0.948. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed pattern classifier is highly accurate and classify between benign and malignant lesions into some extend. The PCS method is fully automatic and can accurately detect different patterns from dermoscopy images using color and texture properties. Additional pattern features can be included to investigate the impact of pattern classification based on the CASH rule. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Aiding the environment: the Australian Development Agency's experience of implementing an environmental management system

    SciTech Connect

    Keen, Meg . E-mail: meg.keen@anu.edu.au; Sullivan, Marjorie

    2005-08-15

    Aid agencies, like commercial businesses, are increasingly concerned with incorporating sound environmental management into their operations. Different approaches are being used to integrate sustainability into development assistance to ensure that environmental impacts are assessed and managed. One approach being used by AusAID, the Australian aid agency, is to implement an environmental management system (EMS) across program and project areas. This paper examines how AusAID has adapted the EMS approach to suit aid agency operations, and some of the lessons from the Australian experience.

  3. Improving Aid Effectiveness or Transforming the Global Capitalist System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Mark

    2010-01-01

    In the introduction to his article, "Aid, Development, and Education," Klees (2010) poses the question, has the "hundreds of billions of dollars in international aid... loaned to [or otherwise targeted to "assist"] developing countries through bilateral and multilateral mechanisms... helped?" He then posits the question to be "too complicated to…

  4. Evaluation of a Job Aid System for Combat Leaders: Rifle Platoon and Squad

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    Combat Leaders’ Guide (CLG). The CLG is a job aid designed to help leaders perfom their combat mission. It contains 21 sections that support critical...Research Report 1465 00 .O Evaluation of a Job Aid System for Combat Leaders: Rifle Platoon and Squad Elisabeth B. Evensen and Robert B. Winn Litton...COVERED Final Report EVALUATION OF A JOB AID SYSTEM FOR COMBAT October1 LEADERS: RIFLE PLATOON AND SQUAD 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR

  5. AIDS: The Impact on the Criminal Justice System Management of Aids in Corrections.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    undertakers have refused to bury them. Fear and the prejudice born of fear are one thing. Toleration of discrimination against AIDS patients and carriers...the knowledge that they are seropositive. Because institutions contain a substantial number of individuals with sociopathic personalities, it can be...prisoners are statutorily ineligible for Medicaid, the costs of their care must be borne entirely by the jurisdiction in charge of the correctional 56

  6. A Learning Health Care System Using Computer-Aided Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Cimino, James J

    2017-01-01

    Physicians intuitively apply pattern recognition when evaluating a patient. Rational diagnosis making requires that clinical patterns be put in the context of disease prior probability, yet physicians often exhibit flawed probabilistic reasoning. Difficulties in making a diagnosis are reflected in the high rates of deadly and costly diagnostic errors. Introduced 6 decades ago, computerized diagnosis support systems are still not widely used by internists. These systems cannot efficiently recognize patterns and are unable to consider the base rate of potential diagnoses. We review the limitations of current computer-aided diagnosis support systems. We then portray future diagnosis support systems and provide a conceptual framework for their development. We argue for capturing physician knowledge using a novel knowledge representation model of the clinical picture. This model (based on structured patient presentation patterns) holds not only symptoms and signs but also their temporal and semantic interrelations. We call for the collection of crowdsourced, automatically deidentified, structured patient patterns as means to support distributed knowledge accumulation and maintenance. In this approach, each structured patient pattern adds to a self-growing and -maintaining knowledge base, sharing the experience of physicians worldwide. Besides supporting diagnosis by relating the symptoms and signs with the final diagnosis recorded, the collective pattern map can also provide disease base-rate estimates and real-time surveillance for early detection of outbreaks. We explain how health care in resource-limited settings can benefit from using this approach and how it can be applied to provide feedback-rich medical education for both students and practitioners. PMID:28274905

  7. A Learning Health Care System Using Computer-Aided Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Cahan, Amos; Cimino, James J

    2017-03-08

    Physicians intuitively apply pattern recognition when evaluating a patient. Rational diagnosis making requires that clinical patterns be put in the context of disease prior probability, yet physicians often exhibit flawed probabilistic reasoning. Difficulties in making a diagnosis are reflected in the high rates of deadly and costly diagnostic errors. Introduced 6 decades ago, computerized diagnosis support systems are still not widely used by internists. These systems cannot efficiently recognize patterns and are unable to consider the base rate of potential diagnoses. We review the limitations of current computer-aided diagnosis support systems. We then portray future diagnosis support systems and provide a conceptual framework for their development. We argue for capturing physician knowledge using a novel knowledge representation model of the clinical picture. This model (based on structured patient presentation patterns) holds not only symptoms and signs but also their temporal and semantic interrelations. We call for the collection of crowdsourced, automatically deidentified, structured patient patterns as means to support distributed knowledge accumulation and maintenance. In this approach, each structured patient pattern adds to a self-growing and -maintaining knowledge base, sharing the experience of physicians worldwide. Besides supporting diagnosis by relating the symptoms and signs with the final diagnosis recorded, the collective pattern map can also provide disease base-rate estimates and real-time surveillance for early detection of outbreaks. We explain how health care in resource-limited settings can benefit from using this approach and how it can be applied to provide feedback-rich medical education for both students and practitioners.

  8. [Scientific approach to establishing system of providing first aid care in the Russian Federation].

    PubMed

    Lysenko, K I; Dezhurnĭ, L I; Neudakhin, G V

    2012-01-01

    The article is devoted to evaluation of situation with providing first aid in the Russian Federation. It discusses the necessity to establish first aid system in the Russian Federation and formulates it's principles. The need in establishing such system is caused by necessity to draw a wide range of persons, including those who are not medically educated, to provide first aid service to patients. Also substantiated the need of development and adoption of the legislation that adjusts different aspects of first aid, as well as alteration in a current legislation. Proved the necessity of establishment and functioning of the intersectional coordination council. Consideration is given to principles of functioning of the training system for first aid providers. Principles, which will help to provide them with first aid tools, are substantiated.

  9. Satellite-aided mobile radio concepts study: Concept definition of a satellite-aided mobile and personal radio communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    The satellite system requires the use of a large satellite antenna and spacecraft array power of about 12 kW or more depending on the operating frequency. Technology developments needed include large offset reflector multibeam antennas, satellite electrical power sybsystems providing greater than 12 kW of power, signal switching hardware, and linearized efficient solid state amplifiers for the satellite-aided mobile band. Presently there is no frequency assignment for this service, and it is recommended that an allocation be pursued. The satellite system appears to be within reasonable extrapolation of the state of the art. It is further recommended that the satellite-aided system spacecraft definition studies and supporting technology development be initiated.

  10. [Design and implementation of GpsOne remote heart disease first-aid system].

    PubMed

    Lin, Hua

    2008-09-01

    This paper introduces how to develop a novel remote heart disease first-aid system with N-tier architecture. The system applies GpsOne communication technology and professional ECG signal collection technology to the embedded SCM. It can provide an accurate location of the patient and his essential ECG details for remote heart disease first-aid.

  11. FirstAidAssistanceSystem (FAAS): improvement of first aid measures using Car2Car-communication technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuchscheerer, Sven; Hoppe, Tobias; Krätzer, Christian; Dittmann, Jana

    2011-01-01

    This work's goal is the enhancement of first aid measures directly after car accidents by calling suited first aiders via Car-to-Car (C2C) communication and to assist them providing detailed multimedia support instructions. Our concept combines upcoming C2C communication technologies with established technology, in particular GPS and GSM. After a collision, the proposed FirstAidAssistanceSystem (FAAS) sends a broadcast message using C2C technology according to the IEEE 802.11p standard. All nearby cars (as potential first aiders) are located and at least one nearest candidate (we suggest 3-5) driving towards the accident scene is chosen and notified as first aider. A support guide on his multipurpose display (e.g. the navigation system) provides first aiders with detailed instructions and illustrative tutorials. The paper presents our concept in detail with a discussion of practical evaluation criteria and an introduction of a first test implementation.

  12. A novel AIDS/HIV intelligent medical consulting system based on expert systems

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Alireza Pour; Toloui Ashlaghi, Abbas; Mahdavy Rad, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel intelligent model for AIDS/HIV data based on expert system and using it for developing an intelligent medical consulting system for AIDS/HIV. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive research, 752 frequently asked questions (FAQs) about AIDS/HIV are gathered from numerous websites about this disease. To perform the data mining and extracting the intelligent model, the 6 stages of Crisp method has been completed for FAQs. The 6 stages include: Business understanding, data understanding, data preparation, modelling, evaluation and deployment. C5.0 Tree classification algorithm is used for modelling. Also, rational unified process (RUP) is used to develop the web-based medical consulting software. Stages of RUP are as follows: Inception, elaboration, construction and transition. The intelligent developed model has been used in the infrastructure of the software and based on client's inquiry and keywords related FAQs are displayed to the client, according to the rank. FAQs’ ranks are gradually determined considering clients reading it. Based on displayed FAQs, test and entertainment links are also displayed. Result: The accuracy of the AIDS/HIV intelligent web-based medical consulting system is estimated to be 78.76%. Conclusion: AIDS/HIV medical consulting systems have been developed using intelligent infrastructure. Being equipped with an intelligent model, providing consulting services on systematic textual data and providing side services based on client's activities causes the implemented system to be unique. The research has been approved by Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education for being practical. PMID:24251290

  13. A novel AIDS/HIV intelligent medical consulting system based on expert systems.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Alireza Pour; Toloui Ashlaghi, Abbas; Mahdavy Rad, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel intelligent model for AIDS/HIV data based on expert system and using it for developing an intelligent medical consulting system for AIDS/HIV. In this descriptive research, 752 frequently asked questions (FAQs) about AIDS/HIV are gathered from numerous websites about this disease. To perform the data mining and extracting the intelligent model, the 6 stages of Crisp method has been completed for FAQs. The 6 stages include: Business understanding, data understanding, data preparation, modelling, evaluation and deployment. C5.0 Tree classification algorithm is used for modelling. Also, rational unified process (RUP) is used to develop the web-based medical consulting software. Stages of RUP are as follows: Inception, elaboration, construction and transition. The intelligent developed model has been used in the infrastructure of the software and based on client's inquiry and keywords related FAQs are displayed to the client, according to the rank. FAQs' ranks are gradually determined considering clients reading it. Based on displayed FAQs, test and entertainment links are also displayed. The accuracy of the AIDS/HIV intelligent web-based medical consulting system is estimated to be 78.76%. AIDS/HIV medical consulting systems have been developed using intelligent infrastructure. Being equipped with an intelligent model, providing consulting services on systematic textual data and providing side services based on client's activities causes the implemented system to be unique. The research has been approved by Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education for being practical.

  14. Some effects of FM-system coupling on hearing aid characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, D B; Schum, D J

    1985-05-01

    A variety of electroacoustic characteristics was measured on four hearing aids and then repeated with the hearing aids connected to two different FM systems via three coupling methods: direct input, neck loop, and silhouette inductor. The measurements included frequency response, harmonic distortion, noise levels, input-output functions, and FM receiver volume control wheel taper curves. Omnidirectional and directional FM microphones were compared in a classroom environment, and minor changes in hearing aid-silhouette coupling were investigated. Large differences were found in some frequency response comparisons, with no single coupling method providing consistently better agreement with the hearing aid alone response. With the exception of the silhouette inductor, distortion and noise levels were similar for the hearing aids and FM-hearing aid combinations. Differences in the input-output functions between the hearing aids and the FM systems were observed. Some FM-hearing aid combinations produced very nonlinear FM receiver volume control wheel taper curves. The output level of a broadband noise in a classroom was reduced when a directional FM microphone was compared to the omnidirectional version. The results indicate that it cannot be assumed that the electroacoustic characteristics of a personal hearing aid are preserved when it is connected to an FM system.

  15. Analysis of Integrating Computer-Aided Dispatch Information with the Multi-Agency Situational Awareness System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-26

    approaches of integrating Computer Aided Dispatch systems with the MASAS. The technical integration focused on Kelowna’s FDM Computer Aided Dispatch system...Kelowna, the CAD system is provided by FDM Software Inc. The project had two main goals: 1. Test the interoperability between the Kelowna CAD...NFIRS standard to the EMS taxonomy used in MASAS. A technical interface was developed between the Kelowna CAD System, FDM and MASAS. Its key

  16. Don't Fix the Student-Aid System. Kill It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronstadt, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The American student-aid system has long been based on a tacit promise to provide students with the means to complete their college education and ensure that money is not a barrier to getting a degree. Unfortunately, says the writer, student aid has become little more than a marketing mechanism that permits colleges to maximize tuition dollars…

  17. Student Financial Aid Information. Systems Architecture Needed To Improve Programs' Efficiency. Report To Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Accounting and Information Management Div.

    This is a report evaluating the National Student Loan Data System (NSLDS), which is designed to track federal student financial aid (Title IV) programs and provide research and support functions such as prescreening of aid applicants for eligibility and enrollment status. The report finds that the Department of Education has made only limited…

  18. Don't Fix the Student-Aid System. Kill It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronstadt, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The American student-aid system has long been based on a tacit promise to provide students with the means to complete their college education and ensure that money is not a barrier to getting a degree. Unfortunately, says the writer, student aid has become little more than a marketing mechanism that permits colleges to maximize tuition dollars…

  19. 75 FR 38073 - Information Collection; Commodity Request (Food Aid Request Entry System (FARES))

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation Farm Service Agency Information Collection; Commodity Request (Food Aid Request... individuals and organizations on an extension of a currently approved information collection for the Food Aid Request Entry System (FARES). FSA and CCC procure various processed foods and commodities to be exported...

  20. A computer aided treatment event recognition system in radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Junyi Mart, Christopher; Bayouth, John

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: To develop an automated system to safeguard radiation therapy treatments by analyzing electronic treatment records and reporting treatment events. Methods: CATERS (Computer Aided Treatment Event Recognition System) was developed to detect treatment events by retrieving and analyzing electronic treatment records. CATERS is designed to make the treatment monitoring process more efficient by automating the search of the electronic record for possible deviations from physician's intention, such as logical inconsistencies as well as aberrant treatment parameters (e.g., beam energy, dose, table position, prescription change, treatment overrides, etc). Over a 5 month period (July 2012–November 2012), physicists were assisted by the CATERS software in conducting normal weekly chart checks with the aims of (a) determining the relative frequency of particular events in the authors’ clinic and (b) incorporating these checks into the CATERS. During this study period, 491 patients were treated at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics for a total of 7692 fractions. Results: All treatment records from the 5 month analysis period were evaluated using all the checks incorporated into CATERS after the training period. About 553 events were detected as being exceptions, although none of them had significant dosimetric impact on patient treatments. These events included every known event type that was discovered during the trial period. A frequency analysis of the events showed that the top three types of detected events were couch position override (3.2%), extra cone beam imaging (1.85%), and significant couch position deviation (1.31%). The significant couch deviation is defined as the number of treatments where couch vertical exceeded two times standard deviation of all couch verticals, or couch lateral/longitudinal exceeded three times standard deviation of all couch laterals and longitudinals. On average, the application takes about 1 s per patient when

  1. Computer aided decision support system for cervical cancer classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmadwati, Rahmadwati; Naghdy, Golshah; Ros, Montserrat; Todd, Catherine

    2012-10-01

    Conventional analysis of a cervical histology image, such a pap smear or a biopsy sample, is performed by an expert pathologist manually. This involves inspecting the sample for cellular level abnormalities and determining the spread of the abnormalities. Cancer is graded based on the spread of the abnormal cells. This is a tedious, subjective and time-consuming process with considerable variations in diagnosis between the experts. This paper presents a computer aided decision support system (CADSS) tool to help the pathologists in their examination of the cervical cancer biopsies. The main aim of the proposed CADSS system is to identify abnormalities and quantify cancer grading in a systematic and repeatable manner. The paper proposes three different methods which presents and compares the results using 475 images of cervical biopsies which include normal, three stages of pre cancer, and malignant cases. This paper will explore various components of an effective CADSS; image acquisition, pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction, classification, grading and disease identification. Cervical histological images are captured using a digital microscope. The images are captured in sufficient resolution to retain enough information for effective classification. Histology images of cervical biopsies consist of three major sections; background, stroma and squamous epithelium. Most diagnostic information are contained within the epithelium region. This paper will present two levels of segmentations; global (macro) and local (micro). At the global level the squamous epithelium is separated from the background and stroma. At the local or cellular level, the nuclei and cytoplasm are segmented for further analysis. Image features that influence the pathologists' decision during the analysis and classification of a cervical biopsy are the nuclei's shape and spread; the ratio of the areas of nuclei and cytoplasm as well as the texture and spread of the abnormalities

  2. eWorkbook: A Computer Aided Assessment System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costagliola, Gennaro; Ferrucci, Filomena; Fuccella, Vittorio; Oliveto, Rocco

    2007-01-01

    Computer aided assessment (CAA) tools are more and more widely adopted in academic environments mixed to other assessment means. In this article, we present a CAA Web application, named eWorkbook, which can be used for evaluating learner's knowledge by creating (the tutor) and taking (the learner) on-line tests based on multiple choice, multiple…

  3. MONIFORMS as Authoring Aids for the PLATO IV CAI System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Russel E.

    An analysis of portions of the HumRRO (Human Resources Research Organization) developed computer-assisted instruction (CAI) course in COBOL programing, and a survey of representatives from Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA) PLATO IV installations indicated a need for authoring aids that could be prepared and programed easily and quickly. The…

  4. BAE systems brownout landing aid system technology (BLAST) system overview and flight test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykora, Brian

    2012-06-01

    Rotary wing aircraft continue to experience mishaps caused by the loss of visual situational awareness and spatial disorientation due to brownout or whiteout in dusty, sandy or snowy conditions as the downwash of the rotor blades creates obscurant clouds that completely engulf the helicopter during approaches to land. BAE Systems has developed a "see-through" brownout landing aid system technology (BLAST) based on a small and light weight 94GHz radar with proven ability to penetrate dust, coupled with proprietary antenna tracking, signal processing and digital terrain morphing algorithms to produce a cognitive real-time 3D synthetic image of the ground and proximate surface hazards in and around the landing zone. A series of ground and flight tests have been conducted at the United States Army's Yuma Proving Ground in Arizona that reflect operational scenarios in relevant environments to progressively mature the technology. A description of the BLAST solution developed by BAE Systems and results from recent flight tests is provided.

  5. An Information Systems Approach to the Intervention and Prevention of AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Li D.; Li, Ling X.

    1992-01-01

    Provides a conceptual framework for information systems (IS) that can be used in AIDS intervention and prevention (AIP). System components are analyzed, including a database, decision support systems (DSS), expert systems, and software; potential applications of ISAIP are suggested; and an example of a system implemented at Wright State University…

  6. Evaluation of the noise reduction system in a commercial digital hearing aid.

    PubMed

    Alcántara, José L; Moore, Brian C J; Kühnel, Volker; Launer, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of a noise reduction system implemented in a commercial digital multichannel compression hearing aid. Eight experienced hearing aid wearers with moderate sensorineural hearing loss were fitted bilaterally according to the manufacturer's fitting guidelines. After a 3-month period of regular use of two programs, one with and one without the noise reduction system, speech recognition thresholds (SRTs) were measured in four types of background noise, including steady noise, and noises with spectral and/or temporal dips. SRTs were very similar with and without the noise reduction system; in both cases, SRTs were markedly lower than for unaided listening. SRTs were lower for the noises with dips than for the steady noise, especially for the aided conditions, indicating that amplification can help to 'listen in the dips'. Ratings of sound quality and listening comfort in the aided conditions were uniformly high and very similar with and without the noise reduction system.

  7. The impact of the US president's emergency plan for AIDS relief (PEPFAR) HIV and AIDS program on the Nigerian health system.

    PubMed

    Odekunle, Florence Femi; Odekunle, Raphael Oluseun

    2016-01-01

    The PEPFAR HIV/AIDS program has had noticeable impacts on the Nigerian health system. The impacts are presented using the World Health Organization (WHO) health system six building blocks. These include service delivery, health workforce, health information, medical products, vaccines and technologies, financing and governance. PEPFAR HIV/AIDS program has improved the delivery of prevention and care services for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The most important measure of PEPFAR's success is the availability of free ART in Nigeria for PLWHA who need this. The PEPFAR program has brought about increased political awareness of and raised the priority given to public health by governments and civil society through its scaling up response to HIV/AIDS. The scaled-up program has direct benefits on the health workforce by preserving HIV-infected health personnel's lives so that they can live longer enjoy a better quality of life and return to their jobs; all of which invariably enhances the country's health workforce. Moreover, the training and retraining in PEPFAR HIV/AIDS program have boosted both the morale and the skills of the health workforce. Considerable resources have been brought into Nigeria for scaled-up HIV/AIDS treatment by PEPFAR. However, this has contributed to the development of donor dependency syndrome by Nigerian government. There is a non-alignment between PEPFAR HIV/AIDS program and the recipient country's health system. Attention to maternal mortality and other reproductive health services has suffered as non-governmental organizations (NGOs) pursue AIDS money and local governments receive signals from the political center to prioritize HIV/AIDS over other problems that are just as serious. A functional health system is important in prevention of the HIV epidemic. Hence efforts should be made to strengthen health systems. The PEPFAR HIV/AIDS program should be harmonized with the country's health system for maximum impact.

  8. The impact of the US president’s emergency plan for AIDS relief (PEPFAR) HIV and AIDS program on the Nigerian health system

    PubMed Central

    Odekunle, Florence Femi; Odekunle, Raphael Oluseun

    2016-01-01

    The PEPFAR HIV/AIDS program has had noticeable impacts on the Nigerian health system. The impacts are presented using the World Health Organization (WHO) health system six building blocks. These include service delivery, health workforce, health information, medical products, vaccines and technologies, financing and governance. PEPFAR HIV/AIDS program has improved the delivery of prevention and care services for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The most important measure of PEPFAR’s success is the availability of free ART in Nigeria for PLWHA who need this. The PEPFAR program has brought about increased political awareness of and raised the priority given to public health by governments and civil society through its scaling up response to HIV/AIDS. The scaled-up program has direct benefits on the health workforce by preserving HIV-infected health personnel’s lives so that they can live longer enjoy a better quality of life and return to their jobs; all of which invariably enhances the country’s health workforce. Moreover, the training and retraining in PEPFAR HIV/AIDS program have boosted both the morale and the skills of the health workforce. Considerable resources have been brought into Nigeria for scaled-up HIV/AIDS treatment by PEPFAR. However, this has contributed to the development of donor dependency syndrome by Nigerian government. There is a non-alignment between PEPFAR HIV/AIDS program and the recipient country’s health system. Attention to maternal mortality and other reproductive health services has suffered as non-governmental organizations (NGOs) pursue AIDS money and local governments receive signals from the political center to prioritize HIV/AIDS over other problems that are just as serious. A functional health system is important in prevention of the HIV epidemic. Hence efforts should be made to strengthen health systems. The PEPFAR HIV/AIDS program should be harmonized with the country’s health system for maximum impact. PMID

  9. Global HIV/AIDS funding and health systems: Searching for the win-win.

    PubMed

    Levine, Ruth; Oomman, Nandini

    2009-11-01

    Donors, developing country governments, and NGOs are searching for ways to use funding for HIV/AIDS programs that strengthen the functioning of weak health systems. This is motivated both by the realization that a large share of donor funding for global health is and will continue to be dedicated to HIV/AIDS, and that the aims of more and better treatment, prevention, and care can be achieved only with attention to systemic capacities. For AIDS resources to strengthen health systems, decision makers should: (a) mitigate the risks that AIDS spending may weaken the ability of health systems to respond to other health problems; (b) find ways for procurement, supply chain, management information, and other systems that are created to support AIDS treatment to be broadened to serve other types of services; and (c) build upon the ways in which AIDS programs have overcome some demand-side barriers to use of services. In pursuing this agenda, donors should recognize that health system development is a function of the national and local political economy and place respect for national sovereignty as a central tenet of their policies and practices.

  10. Expert Systems in Education and Training: Automated Job Aids or Sophisticated Instructional Media?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romiszowski, Alexander J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the current status and limitations of expert systems, and explores the possible applications of such systems in education and training. The use of expert systems as tutors, as job aids, and as a vehicle for students to develop their own expert systems on specific topics are discussed. (40 references) (CLB)

  11. A Spatial Analysis of Land Use and Network Effects on Frequency and Severity of Cyclist-Motorist Crashes in the Copenhagen Region.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Sigal; Giacomo Prato, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Urban and transport planners worldwide have recently designed and implemented policies for increasing the number of cyclists. Although cycling is on the rise even in car-oriented cities and regions, the fear of being involved in a crash is still the main obstacle to further increases in cycling market shares. The current study proposes the first joint model of frequency and severity of cyclist-motorist collisions with the aim of unraveling the factors contributing to both the probability of being involved in a crash and, conditional on the crash occurrence, experiencing a severe injury outcome. A multivariate Poisson-lognormal model with correlated autoregressive priors was estimated on a sample of 5,349 cyclist-motorist crashes that occurred in the Copenhagen region between 2009 and 2013. The model considered the links of the road network in the region as the unit of observation, controlled for traffic exposure of nonmotorized and motorized transport modes, evaluated the effect of infrastructure and land use, and accounted for heterogeneity and spatial correlation across links. Results confirmed the existence of the phenomenon of safety in numbers and added to the narrative by emphasizing that the most severe crashes are the ones most benefiting from an increase in the number of cyclists. In addition, results argued that the construction of Copenhagen-style bicycle paths would significantly contribute to increasing safety, especially in suburban areas where the speed differential between cyclists and motorists is greater. Last, results illustrated a need for thinking about cycling safety in intersection design and reflecting on the importance of spatial and aspatial correlation both within and between injury categories. The findings from this study illustrated how encouraging cycling would increase safety in relation to the phenomenon of safety in numbers and how, in turn, increasing safety would convince more people to cycle. In addition, they suggested how the

  12. GPS aiding of ocean current determination. [Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohan, S. N.

    1981-01-01

    The navigational accuracy of an oceangoing vessel using conventional GPS p-code data is examined. The GPS signal is transmitted over two carrier frequencies in the L-band at 1575.42 and 1227.6 MHz. Achievable navigational uncertainties of differenced positional estimates are presented as a function of the parameters of the problem, with particular attention given to the effect of sea-state, user equivalent range error, uncompensated antenna motion, varying delay intervals, and reduced data rate examined in the unaided mode. The unmodeled errors resulting from satellite ephemeris uncertainties are shown to be negligible for the GPS-NDS (Navigation Development) satellites. Requirements are met in relatively calm seas, but accuracy degradation by a factor of at least 2 must be anticipated in heavier sea states. The aided mode of operation is examined, and it is shown that requirements can be met by using an inertial measurement unit (IMU) to aid the GPS receiver operation. Since the use of an IMU would mean higher costs, direct Doppler from the GPS satellites is presented as a viable alternative.

  13. The Development of a Design Database for the Computer Aided Prototyping System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL * Monterey, California AD-A245 786 1I I1 11 , 11 ,l DTIC R E.LECTE FEB 121992D THESIS 0 THE DEVELOPMENT OF A DESIGN ...ELEMENT NO. I NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) THE DEVELOPMENT OF A DESIGN DATABASE FOR THE COMPUTER AIDED PROTOTYPING...and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Design Database, Engineering Database, Object Oriented Database,Computer Aided Prototyping System

  14. Early warning system for PC-AIDS revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magruder, Scott

    1995-08-01

    Computer viruses can wipe out some or all of a user's hard work. Thus, it is important for every computer user to be on the alert. Virus programs have been written in assembler language in the past. However, it also is possible to write them in a high-level language. This may lead to an even greater proliferation of these types of programs than previously thought. A tool which aids in the detection of Corresponding and Surrogate File Viruses is discussed. This tool can be used in conjunction with other tools to provide a high level of security from the computer virus problem. The source code for this tool is provided in the Appendix.

  15. Development of a unified web-based national HIV/AIDS information system in China.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yurong; Wu, Zunyou; Poundstone, Katharine; Wang, Changhe; Qin, Qianqian; Ma, Ye; Ma, Wei

    2010-12-01

    In the past, many data collection systems were in operation for different HIV/AIDS projects in China. We describe the creation of a unified, web-based national HIV/AIDS information system designed to streamline data collection and facilitate data use. Integration of separate HIV/AIDS data systems was carried out in three phases. Phase 1, from January 2006 to December 2007, involved creating a set of unified data collection forms that took into account existing program needs and the reporting requirements of various international organizations. Phase 2, from January to October 2007, involved creating a web-based platform to host the integrated HIV/AIDS data collection system. Phase 3, from November to December 2007, involved pilot testing the new, integrated system prior to nationwide application. Eight web-based data collection subsystems based on one platform began operation on 1 January 2008. These eight subsystems cover: (i) HIV/AIDS case reporting; (ii) HIV testing and counselling; (iii) antiretroviral treatment (ART) for adults; (iv) ART for children; (v) behavioural interventions for high-risk groups; (vi) methadone maintenance treatment; (vii) sentinel and behavioural surveillance; and (viii) local county background information. The system provides real-time data to monitor HIV testing, prevention and treatment programs across the country. China's new unified, web-based HIV/AIDS information system has improved the efficiency of data collection, reporting, analysis and use, as well as data quality and security. It is a powerful tool to support policy making, program evaluation and implementation of the national HIV/AIDS program and, thus, may serve a model for other countries.

  16. A Multidisciplinary Research Team Approach to Computer-Aided Drafting (CAD) System Selection. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franken, Ken; And Others

    A multidisciplinary research team was assembled to review existing computer-aided drafting (CAD) systems for the purpose of enabling staff in the Design Drafting Department at Linn Technical College (Missouri) to select the best system out of the many CAD systems in existence. During the initial stage of the evaluation project, researchers…

  17. FBI fingerprint identification automation study: AIDS 3 evaluation report. Volume 5: Current system evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulhall, B. D. L.

    1980-01-01

    The performance, costs, organization and other characteristics of both the manual system and AIDS 2 were used to establish a baseline case. The results of the evaluation are to be used to determine the feasibility of the AIDS 3 System, as well as provide a basis for ranking alternative systems during the second phase of the JPL study. The results of the study were tabulated by subject, scope and methods, providing a descriptive, quantitative and qualitative analysis of the current operating systems employed by the FBI Identification Division.

  18. Ionospheric electron density inversion for Global Navigation Satellite Systems radio occultation using aided Abel inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Min Yang; Lin, Charles C. H.; Tsai, Ho Fang; Lin, Chi Yen

    2017-01-01

    The Abel inversion of ionospheric electron density profiles with the assumption of spherical symmetry applied for radio occultation soundings could introduce a greater systematic error or sometimes artifacts if the occultation rays trespass regions with larger horizontal gradients in electron density. The aided Abel inversions have been proposed by considering the asymmetry ratio derived from ionospheric total electron content (TEC) or peak density (NmF2) of reconstructed observation maps since knowledge of the horizontal asymmetry in ambient ionospheric density could mitigate the inversion error. Here we propose a new aided Abel inversion using three-dimensional time-dependent electron density (Ne) based on the climatological maps constructed from previous observations, as it has an advantage of providing altitudinal information on the horizontal asymmetry. Improvement of proposed Ne-aided Abel inversion and comparisons with electron density profiles inverted from the NmF2- and TEC-aided inversions are studied using observation system simulation experiments. Comparison results show that all three aided Abel inversions improve the ionospheric profiling by mitigating the artificial plasma caves and negative electron density in the daytime E region. The equatorial ionization anomaly crests in the F region become more distinct. The statistical results show that the Ne-aided Abel inversion has less mean and RMS error of error percentage above 250 km altitudes, and the performances for all aided Abel inversions are similar below 250 km altitudes.

  19. Web-based auditory self-training system for adult and elderly users of hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Vitti, Simone Virginia; Blasca, Wanderléia Quinhoneiro; Sigulem, Daniel; Torres Pisa, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Adults and elderly users of hearing aids suffer psychosocial reactions as a result of hearing loss. Auditory rehabilitation is typically carried out with support from a speech therapist, usually in a clinical center. For these cases, there is a lack of computer-based self-training tools for minimizing the psychosocial impact of hearing deficiency. To develop and evaluate a web-based auditory self-training system for adult and elderly users of hearing aids. Two modules were developed for the web system: an information module based on guidelines for using hearing aids; and an auditory training module presenting a sequence of training exercises for auditory abilities along the lines of the auditory skill steps within auditory processing. We built aweb system using PHP programming language and a MySQL database .from requirements surveyed through focus groups that were conducted by healthcare information technology experts. The web system was evaluated by speech therapists and hearing aid users. An initial sample of 150 patients at DSA/HRAC/USP was defined to apply the system with the inclusion criteria that: the individuals should be over the age of 25 years, presently have hearing impairment, be a hearing aid user, have a computer and have internet experience. They were divided into two groups: a control group (G1) and an experimental group (G2). These patients were evaluated clinically using the HHIE for adults and HHIA for elderly people, before and after system implementation. A third web group was formed with users who were invited through social networks for their opinions on using the system. A questionnaire evaluating hearing complaints was given to all three groups. The study hypothesis considered that G2 would present greater auditory perception, higher satisfaction and fewer complaints than G1 after the auditory training. It was expected that G3 would have fewer complaints regarding use and acceptance of the system. The web system, which was named Sis

  20. Multicriteria aided design of integrated heating-cooling energy systems in buildings.

    PubMed

    Mróz, Tomasz M

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the possible application of integrated heating-cooling systems in buildings. The general algorithm of integrated heating-cooling system design aid was formulated. The evaluation criteria of technically acceptable variants were defined. Fossil fuel energy consumption, carbon dioxide emission, investment, and total exploitation cost were identified as the most important factors describing the considered decision problem. The multicriteria decision aid method ELECTRE III was proposed as the decision tool for the choice of the most compromised variant. The proposed method was used for a case study calculation-the choice of an integrated heating-cooling system for an office building.

  1. An improved TERCOM algorithm and its application in a submarine terrain aided navigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zunyi; Yan, Lei; Liu, Guangjun; Wang, Hua

    2006-10-01

    Terrain contour matching (TERCOM) algorithm is the main one in the conventional terrain aided navigation system. When it has been directly applied to the submarine terrain aided navigation (STAN) system, the accuracy and stability are primely reduced. To solve these problems, the detail analyses about the particularities of the STAN and the disadvantages of the conventional TERCOM algorithm have been made. The improvement for the TERCOM algorithm on the measurement function, the water depth survey error and the scheme to prevent fail positioning has been done. Moreover, experiments with pedestrian simulation confirm the effectiveness of the improved TERCOM algorithm. The system achieves higher positioning precision than that of conventional one.

  2. Decision aiding systems: an enabler for the network-centric force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodenhorn, Chris

    2001-08-01

    The `digitized force' offers the potential for revolutionary improvements in force effectiveness. However, a possible spoiler is information overload--instances where crews are so overwhelmed with information that they are unable to process the data and make the correct decision. Lockheed Martin Systems Integration has developed decision aiding technologies to address this information overload problem. Our experience developing decision aiding systems dates back to 1985. A significant recent contrast effort was the U.S. Army's Rotorcraft Pilot's Associate (RPA) Advanced Technology Development Program. RPA culminated in 1999 with a full mission laboratory evaluation and a flight demonstration on a modified Longbow Apache at the Army's Yuma Proving Ground. In addition to the RPA Program, LMSI has provided decision aiding systems for evaluation in several Army Battle Labs. LMSI is currently developing a `Core' Decision Aiding System, utilizing COTS-based technologies, that can serve as the foundation for application to a number of platforms. This paper will provide an overview of these decision aiding efforts including a summary of capabilities, evaluation results and future research, development and production efforts.

  3. Satellite-aided land mobile communications system implementation considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leroy, B. E.

    1982-01-01

    It was proposed that a satellite-based land mobile radio system could effectively extend the terrestrial cellular mobile system into rural and remote areas. The market, technical and economic feasibility for such a system is studied. Some of the aspects of implementing an operational mobile-satellite system are discussed. In particular, two key factors in implementation are examined: (1) bandwidth requirements; and (2) frequency sharing. Bandwidth requirements are derived based on the satellite antenna requirements, modulation characteristics and numbers of subscribers. Design trade-offs for the satellite system and potential implementation scenarios are identified. Frequency sharing is examined from a power flux density and modulation viewpoint.

  4. Satellite-aided coastal zone monitoring and vessel traffic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    The development and demonstration of a coastal zone monitoring and vessel traffic system is described. This technique uses a LORAN-C navigational system and relays signals via the ATS-3 satellite to a computer driven color video display for real time control. Multi-use applications of the system to search and rescue operations, coastal zone management and marine safety are described. It is emphasized that among the advantages of the system are: its unlimited range; compatibility with existing navigation systems; and relatively inexpensive cost.

  5. Micrometric precision of prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    das Neves, Flávio Domingues; de Almeida Prado Naves Carneiro, Thiago; do Prado, Célio Jesus; Prudente, Marcel Santana; Zancopé, Karla; Davi, Letícia Resende; Mendonça, Gustavo; Soares, Carlos José

    2014-08-01

    The current study evaluated prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and a computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system using micro-computed tomography to compare the marginal fit. The virtual models were obtained with four different scanning surfaces: typodont (T), regular impressions (RI), master casts (MC), and powdered master casts (PMC). Five virtual models were obtained for each group. For each model, a crown was designed on the software and milled from feldspathic ceramic blocks. Micro-CT images were obtained for marginal gap measurements and the data were statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test. The mean vertical misfit was T=62.6±65.2 μm; MC=60.4±38.4 μm; PMC=58.1±38.0 μm, and RI=89.8±62.8 μm. Considering a percentage of vertical marginal gap of up to 75 μm, the results were T=71.5%, RI=49.2%, MC=69.6%, and PMC=71.2%. The percentages of horizontal overextension were T=8.5%, RI=0%, MC=0.8%, and PMC=3.8%. Based on the results, virtual model acquisition by scanning the typodont (simulated mouth) or MC, with or without powder, showed acceptable values for the marginal gap. The higher result of marginal gap of the RI group suggests that it is preferable to scan this directly from the mouth or from MC.

  6. Micrometric precision of prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system.

    PubMed

    das Neves, Flávio Domingues; de Almeida Prado Naves Carneiro, Thiago; do Prado, Célio Jesus; Prudente, Marcel Santana; Zancopé, Karla; Davi, Letícia Resende; Mendonça, Gustavo; Soares, Carlos José

    2014-08-01

    The current study evaluated prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and a computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system using micro-computed tomography to compare the marginal fit. The virtual models were obtained with four different scanning surfaces: typodont (T), regular impressions (RI), master casts (MC), and powdered master casts (PMC). Five virtual models were obtained for each group. For each model, a crown was designed on the software and milled from feldspathic ceramic blocks. Micro-CT images were obtained for marginal gap measurements and the data were statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test. The mean vertical misfit was T = 62.6 ± 65.2 μm ; MC = 60.4 ± 38.4 μm; PMC = 58.1 ± 38.0 μm, and RI = 89.8 ± 62.8 μm. Considering a percentage of vertical marginal gap of up to 75 μm, the results were T = 71.5%, RI = 49.2%, MC = 69.6%, and PMC = 71.2%. The percentages of horizontal overextension were T = 8.5%, RI = 0%, MC = 0.8%, and PMC = 3.8%. Based on the results, virtual model acquisition by scanning the typodont (simulated mouth) or MC, with or without powder, showed acceptable values for the marginal gap. The higher result of marginal gap of the RI group suggests that it is preferable to scan this directly from the mouth or from MC.

  7. The Shifting Financial Aid System in Spanish University: Grant-Recipients' Experiences and Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Río-Ruiz, Manuel Ángel; Jiménez-Rodrigo, María Luisa; Caro-Cabrera, Manuel Jesús

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 Spain inaugurated a reform of its higher education financial aid system inspired by three principles: cost-sharing, increasing academic performance and school efficiency. This reform has shifted the aim of the system from equality of access to a type of meritocracy that can be defined as class-biased, as it is only applied to low-income…

  8. It's Time for Serious Reform of the Student-Aid System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Sandy

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the current student-aid system in American higher education and the policy issues surrounding it. The author asserts that it is time to consider serious reform of the complex system of federal, state, and institutional subsidies that has evolved to support postsecondary students. A rational long-term planning process never…

  9. Functional Specifications for Computer Aided Training Systems Development and Management (CATSDM) Support Functions. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, John; And Others

    This report provides a description of a Computer Aided Training System Development and Management (CATSDM) environment based on state-of-the-art hardware and software technology, and including recommendations for off the shelf systems to be utilized as a starting point in addressing the particular systematic training and instruction design and…

  10. The Shifting Financial Aid System in Spanish University: Grant-Recipients' Experiences and Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Río-Ruiz, Manuel Ángel; Jiménez-Rodrigo, María Luisa; Caro-Cabrera, Manuel Jesús

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 Spain inaugurated a reform of its higher education financial aid system inspired by three principles: cost-sharing, increasing academic performance and school efficiency. This reform has shifted the aim of the system from equality of access to a type of meritocracy that can be defined as class-biased, as it is only applied to low-income…

  11. Persons with Alzheimer's Disease Make Phone Calls Independently Using a Computer-Aided Telephone System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perilli, Viviana; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Cassano, Germana; Cordiano, Noemi; Pinto, Katia; Minervini, Mauro G.; Oliva, Doretta

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed whether four patients with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease could make independent phone calls via a computer-aided telephone system. The study was carried out according to a non-concurrent multiple baseline design across participants. All participants started with baseline during which the telephone system was not available,…

  12. Persons with Alzheimer's Disease Make Phone Calls Independently Using a Computer-Aided Telephone System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perilli, Viviana; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Cassano, Germana; Cordiano, Noemi; Pinto, Katia; Minervini, Mauro G.; Oliva, Doretta

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed whether four patients with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease could make independent phone calls via a computer-aided telephone system. The study was carried out according to a non-concurrent multiple baseline design across participants. All participants started with baseline during which the telephone system was not available,…

  13. Factors Associated with Incomplete Reporting of HIV and AIDS by Uganda's Surveillance System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akankunda, Denis B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Over the last 20 years, Uganda has piloted and implemented various management information systems (MIS) for better surveillance of HIV/AIDS. With support from the United States Government, Uganda introduced the District Health Information Software 2 (DHIS2) in 2012. However, districts have yet to fully adapt to this system given a…

  14. CAMRAD - COMPUTER AIDED MATERIAL REVIEW AUTOMATED DISPOSITION SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanna, T. L.

    1994-01-01

    The basic function of a manufacturer's production support engineering unit is to identify, document, and dispose of hardware that does not conform to drawing requirements. CAMRAD, a program designed for rapid input and retrieval of all data used in engineering-to-manufacturing support operations, aids the engineer by automating the material review disposition process. Before CAMRAD, material review record searches were manual. The time spent searching through old documents precluded the timely disposition of new material reviews. CAMRAD facilitates the research of material review histories and provides for the efficient processing of material review documents. Three SmartWare project files control the operation of CAMRAD. The project file CAMRAD initializes variables for the other project files and specifies the pathing of the CAMRAD program, database files, and document files. The project file DATARAD controls all data management functions. The database consists of individual files containing all records of specific hardware discrepancies for a given part number. There are four basic avenues for records searches: part serial number, feature, Material Review (MR) number, and non-conformance. WORDRAD is the project file which controls the management of document files created when processing a material review disposition. Given a material review report identifying a defective hardware item, the production support engineer can use CAMRAD to quickly search the database for any history of the same problem, find out how well the problem has been documented, and create appropriate documentation for this latest occurrence. CAMRAD is written in the Smart Programming Language and is designed to run on IBM PC compatibles with the SmartWare v. 3.1 software package available from Informix Software. CAMRAD was developed in 1987. SmartWare is a registered trademark of Informix Software, Inc. IBM PC is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation.

  15. Study on computer-aided alignment method of reflective zoom systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jide; Chang, Jun; Xie, Guijuan; Zhang, Ke

    2015-08-01

    Computer-aided alignment is an effective method to improve the imaging quality of high-precision, complex, and off-axis optical systems. However, how to determine the misalignment quickly, exactly and constantly is essential to the technology of computer-aided alignment. Owing to the varying optical characteristics of a zoom system, sensitivity matrices are used in the alignment rather than a single matrix. Thus, the processing of sensitivity matrices is important for the computer-aided alignment of the reflective zoom system. So, the total least squares is proposed in order to solve the problems of the numerical instability and the result inaccuracy which result from the solution of the least squares method directly. Finally, the simulant calculation is processed using the numerical analysis model established in the essay. The results demonstrate that the computation method is rational and effective.

  16. Ultrasonic Sensors in Urban Traffic Driving-Aid Systems

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Luciano; Milanés, Vicente; Torre-Ferrero, Carlos; Godoy, Jorge; Oria, Juan P.; de Pedro, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Currently, vehicles are often equipped with active safety systems to reduce the risk of accidents, most of which occur in urban environments. The most prominent include Antilock Braking Systems (ABS), Traction Control and Stability Control. All these systems use different kinds of sensors to constantly monitor the conditions of the vehicle, and act in an emergency. In this paper the use of ultrasonic sensors in active safety systems for urban traffic is proposed, and the advantages and disadvantages when compared to other sensors are discussed. Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) for urban traffic based on ultrasounds is presented as an application example. The proposed system has been implemented in a fully-automated prototype vehicle and has been tested under real traffic conditions. The results confirm the good performance of ultrasonic sensors in these systems. PMID:22346596

  17. Expert systems - New approaches to computer-aided engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dym, C. L.

    This paper provides an overview of the burgeoning new field of expert (knowledge-based) systems. This survey is tutorial in nature, intended to convey the gestalt of such systems to engineers who are newly exposed to the field. The discussion includes definitions, basic concepts, expert system architecture, descriptions of some of the programming tools and environments with which knowledge-based systems can be built, and approaches to knowledge acquisition. Some currently extant expert systems are described en passant, including a few developed for engineering purposes. Comments follow on the engineering of knowledge, as both cultural and social processes. The paper closes with an assessment of the roles that expert systems can play in engineering analysis, design, planning, and education.

  18. Ultrasonic sensors in urban traffic driving-aid systems.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Luciano; Milanés, Vicente; Torre-Ferrero, Carlos; Godoy, Jorge; Oria, Juan P; de Pedro, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Currently, vehicles are often equipped with active safety systems to reduce the risk of accidents, most of which occur in urban environments. The most prominent include Antilock Braking Systems (ABS), Traction Control and Stability Control. All these systems use different kinds of sensors to constantly monitor the conditions of the vehicle, and act in an emergency. In this paper the use of ultrasonic sensors in active safety systems for urban traffic is proposed, and the advantages and disadvantages when compared to other sensors are discussed. Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) for urban traffic based on ultrasounds is presented as an application example. The proposed system has been implemented in a fully-automated prototype vehicle and has been tested under real traffic conditions. The results confirm the good performance of ultrasonic sensors in these systems.

  19. NIST System for Measuring the Directivity Index of Hearing Aids under Simulated Real-Ear Conditions.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Randall P

    2013-01-01

    The directivity index is a parameter that is commonly used to characterize the performance of directional hearing aids, and is determined from the measured directional response. Since this response is different for a hearing aid worn on a person as compared to when it is in a free field, directivity index measurements of hearing aids are usually done under simulated real-ear conditions. Details are provided regarding the NIST system for measuring the hearing aid directivity index under these conditions and how this system is used to implement a standardized procedure for performing such measurements. This procedure involves a sampling method that utilizes sound source locations distributed in a semi-aligned zone array on an imaginary spherical surface surrounding a standardized acoustical test manikin. The capabilities of the system were demonstrated over the frequency range of one-third-octave bands with center frequencies from 200 Hz to 8000 Hz through NIST participation in an interlaboratory comparison. This comparison was conducted between eight different laboratories of members of Working Group S3/WG48, Hearing Aids, established by Accredited Standards Committee S3, Bioacoustics, which is administered by the Acoustical Society of America and accredited by the American National Standards Institute. Directivity measurements were made for a total of six programmed memories in two different hearing aids and for the unaided manikin with the manikin right pinna accompanying the aids. Omnidirectional, cardioid, and bidirectional response patterns were measured. Results are presented comparing the NIST data with the reference values calculated from the data reported by all participating laboratories.

  20. Computer-aided-analysis of linear control system robustness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.; Ray, Laura R.

    1990-01-01

    Stochastic robustness is a simple technique used to estimate the stability and performance robustness of linear, time-invariant systems. The use of high-speed graphics workstations and control system design software in stochastic robustness analysis is discussed and demonstrated. It is shown that stochastic robustness makes good use of modern computational and graphic tools, and it is easily implemented using commercial control system design and analysis software.

  1. Hearing Aid-Induced Plasticity in the Auditory System of Older Adults: Evidence From Speech Perception.

    PubMed

    Lavie, Limor; Banai, Karen; Karni, Avi; Attias, Joseph

    2015-10-01

    We tested whether using hearing aids can improve unaided performance in speech perception tasks in older adults with hearing impairment. Unaided performance was evaluated in dichotic listening and speech-in-noise tests in 47 older adults with hearing impairment; 36 participants in 3 study groups were tested before hearing aid fitting and after 4, 8, and 14 weeks of hearing-aid use. The remaining 11 participants served as a control group and were similarly evaluated but were not fitted with hearing aids. Three protocols were compared in the study groups: amplification for the nondominant ear, amplification for the dominant ear, and bilateral amplification. Subsequently, after 4 weeks, all participants were afforded bilateral amplification. In the study groups, unaided dichotic listening scores improved significantly in the nondominant ear by 8 weeks and onward. Significant improvements were also observed for unaided speech identification in noise, with some gains apparent after 4 weeks of hearing-aid use. No gains were observed in the control group. Using hearing aids for a relatively short period can induce changes in the way older adults process auditory inputs in perceptual tasks such as speech identification in noise and dichotic listening. These changes suggest that the central auditory system of older adults retains the potential for behaviorally relevant plasticity.

  2. Status of DOE and AID stand-alone photovoltaic system field tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bifano, W. J.; Delombard, R.; Ratajczak, A. F.; Scudder, L. R.

    1984-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is managing stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system projects sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). The DOE project includes village PV power demonstration projects in Gabon (four sites) and the Marshall Islands, and PV-powered vaccine refrigerator systems in six countries. The AID project includes a large village power system, a farmhouse system and two water pumping-irrigation systems in Tunisia, a water pumping/grain grinding system in Upper Volta, five medical clinic systems in four countries, PV-powered vaccine refrigerator systems in 18 countries and a PV-powered remote earth station in Indonesia. This paper reviews these PV projects and summarizes significant findings to date.

  3. Status of DOE and AID stand-alone photovoltaic system field tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bifano, W. J.; Delombard, R.; Ratajczak, A. F.; Scudder, L. R.

    The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is managing stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system projects sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). The DOE project includes village PV power demonstration projects in Gabon (four sites) and the Marshall Islands, and PV-powered vaccine refrigerator systems in six countries. The AID project includes a large village power system, a farmhouse system and two water pumping-irrigation systems in Tunisia, a water pumping/grain grinding system in Upper Volta, five medical clinic systems in four countries, PV-powered vaccine refrigerator systems in 18 countries and a PV-powered remote earth station in Indonesia. This paper reviews these PV projects and summarizes significant findings to date.

  4. Status of DOE and AID stand-alone photovoltaic system field tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bifano, W. J.; Delombard, R.; Ratajczak, A. F.; Scudder, L. R.

    1984-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is managing stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system projects sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). The DOE project includes village PV power demonstration projects in Gabon (four sites) and the Marshall Islands, and PV-powered vaccine refrigerator systems in six countries. The AID project includes a large village power system, a farmhouse system and two water pumping-irrigation systems in Tunisia, a water pumping/grain grinding system in Upper Volta, five medical clinic systems in four countries, PV-powered vaccine refrigerator systems in 18 countries and a PV-powered remote earth station in Indonesia. This paper reviews these PV projects and summarizes significant findings to date.

  5. Web-Based Computer-Aided Personalized System of Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pear, Joseph J.; Schnerch, Gabriel J.; Silva, Kathleen M.; Svenningsen, Louis; Lambert, Jody

    2011-01-01

    In the last two decades, there has been a proliferation of Web-based course-management systems designed to facilitate postsecondary teaching (for example, WebCT, Blackboard, Desire2Learn, Moodle). In general, these systems provide analogs for delivering lectures, holding class discussions, giving quizzes and examinations (typically multiple…

  6. Error Characterization of Vision-Aided Navigation Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    iv EKF Extended Kalman Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv GNSS Global Navigation Satellite System...Satellite Systems ( GNSS ), of which GPS is an example, suffer from availability restrictions when satellite signals are physically blocked in areas...ION GNSS 2006, 1093–1103. Sep 2006. [24] Veth, M., J. Raquet, and M. Pachter. “Stochastic Constraints for Efficient Image Correspondence Search”. IEEE

  7. Computer aided design of jet engine test cell exhaust systems

    SciTech Connect

    Collings, D.

    1982-01-01

    A computerized design procedure that provides a multi-directional analysis of available data is a proven method of developing accurate cost models and performing system trade-offs. The application to the engineering of exhaust silencing systems for jet engine test cells is discused.

  8. Web-Based Computer-Aided Personalized System of Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pear, Joseph J.; Schnerch, Gabriel J.; Silva, Kathleen M.; Svenningsen, Louis; Lambert, Jody

    2011-01-01

    In the last two decades, there has been a proliferation of Web-based course-management systems designed to facilitate postsecondary teaching (for example, WebCT, Blackboard, Desire2Learn, Moodle). In general, these systems provide analogs for delivering lectures, holding class discussions, giving quizzes and examinations (typically multiple…

  9. Computer aided production planning - SWZ system of order verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krenczyk, D.; Skolud, B.

    2015-11-01

    SWZ (System of order verification) is a computer implementation of the methodology that support fast decision making on the acceptability of a production order, which allows to determine not the best possible solution, but admissible solution that is possible to find in an acceptable time (feasible solution) and acceptable due to the existing constraints. The methodology uses the propagation of constraints techniques and reduced to test a sequence of arbitrarily selected conditions. Fulfilment of all the conditions (the conjunction) provides the ability to perform production orders. In the paper examples of the application of SWZ system comprising the steps of planning and control is presented. The obtained results allowing the determination of acceptable production flow in the system - determination of the manufacturing system parameters those that ensure execution of orders in time under the resource constraints. SWZ also allows to generate the dispatching rules as a sequence of processing operations for each production resource, performed periodically during the production flow in the system. Furthermore the example of SWZ and simulation system integration is shown. SWZ has been enhanced with a module generating files containing the script code of the system model using the internal language of simulation and visualization system.

  10. 23 CFR 470.107 - Federal-aid highway systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS...). (3) The National Highway System shall include the Strategic Highway Corridor Network (STRAHNET) and... important to the United States strategic defense policy and which provide defense access, continuity, and...

  11. Theoretical Issues of Validity in the Measurement of Aided Speech Reception Threshold in Noise for Comparing Nonlinear Hearing Aid Systems.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Graham

    2016-07-01

    Adaptive Speech Reception Threshold in noise (SRTn) measurements are often used to make comparisons between alternative hearing aid (HA) systems. Such measurements usually do not constrain the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at which testing takes place. Meanwhile, HA systems increasingly include nonlinear features that operate differently in different SNRs, and listeners differ in their inherent SNR requirements. To show that SRTn measurements, as commonly used in comparisons of alternative HA systems, suffer from threats to their validity, to illustrate these threats with examples of potentially invalid conclusions in the research literature, and to propose ways to tackle these threats. An examination of the nature of SRTn measurements in the context of test theory, modern nonlinear HAs, and listener diversity. Examples from the audiological research literature were used to estimate typical interparticipant variation in SRTn and to illustrate cases where validity may have been compromised. There can be no doubt that SRTn measurements, when used to compare nonlinear HA systems, in principle, suffer from threats to their internal and external/ecological validity. Interactions between HA nonlinearities and SNR, and interparticipant differences in inherent SNR requirements, can act to generate misleading results. In addition, SRTn may lie at an SNR outside the range for which the HA system is designed or expected to operate in. Although the extent of invalid conclusions in the literature is difficult to evaluate, examples of studies were nevertheless identified where the risk of each form of invalidity is significant. Reliable data on ecological SNRs is becoming available, so that ecological validity can be assessed. Methodological developments that can reduce the risk of invalid conclusions include variations on the SRTn measurement procedure itself, manipulations of stimulus or scoring conditions to place SRTn in an ecologically relevant range, and design and analysis

  12. A Tone-Aided/Dual Vestigial Sideband (TA/DVSB) system for mobile satellite channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saulnier, Gary J.; Millar, Gilbert M.; Depaolo, Anthony D.

    1990-01-01

    Tone-aided modulation is one way of combatting the effects of multipath fading and Doppler frequency shifts. A new tone-aided modulation format for M-ary phase-shift keyed signals (MPSK) is discussed. A spectral null for the placement of the tone is created in the center of the MPSK signal by translating the upper sideband upwards in frequency by the same amount. The key element of the system is the algorithm for recombining the data sidebands in the receiver, a function that is performed by a specialized phase-locked loop (PLL). The system structure is discussed and simulation results showing the PLL acquisition performance are presented.

  13. Evaluation of Tactile Situation Awareness System as an Aid for Improving Aircraft Control During Periods of Impaired Vision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    distribution is unlimited EVALUATION OF TACTILE SITUATION AWARENESS SYSTEM AS AN AID FOR IMPROVING AIRCRAFT CONTROL DURING PERIODS OF IMPAIRED...Evaluation of Tactile Situation Awareness System as an Aid For Improving Aircraft Control During Periods of Impaired Vision 6. AUTHOR James S...AWARENESS SYSTEM AS AN AID FOR IMPROVING AIRCRAFT CONTROL DURING PERIODS OF IMPAIRED VISION James S. Brown Lieutenant Commander, United States

  14. Expert system to aid learning of new products for inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, John P.; Batchelor, Bruce G.; Broderick, S. R.; Lambert, Robin A.; Weeks, A. W.

    1992-03-01

    An expert system has been written in the Prolog language which enables a non-expert user to specify the method of manufacture and visual appearance of small decorated cakes. The expert system has been designed to be ergonomically acceptable to non-expert users. It formulates the inspection procedures necessary by relating the method of manufacture to the appearance of a product, and from this the image processing operations are generated in the form of a Prolog+ program. Such a method enables the system to inspect new and varied products without sacrificing the complexity and robustness of inspection.

  15. Computer-aided coordination and overcurrent protection for distribution systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, L.M.

    1995-03-01

    Overcurrent protection and coordination studies for electrical distribution systems have become much easier to perform with the emergence of several commercially available software programs that run on a personal computer. These programs have built-in libraries of protective device time-current curves, damage curves for cable and transformers, and motor starting curves, thereby facilitating the design of a selectively coordinated protection system which is also well-protected. Additionally, design time when utilizing computers is far less than the previous method of tracing manufacturers` curves on transparent paper. Basic protection and coordination principles are presented in this paper along with several helpful suggestions for designing electrical protection systems. A step-by-step methodology is presented to illustrate the design concepts when using software for selecting and coordinating the protective devices in distribution systems.

  16. 23 CFR 470.107 - Federal-aid highway systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... importance in Canada and Mexico. (2) The portion of the Interstate System designated under 23 U.S.C. 103(c)(1... movement of personnel, materials, and equipment in both peace time and war time. (4) The National...

  17. 23 CFR 470.107 - Federal-aid highway systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... importance in Canada and Mexico. (2) The portion of the Interstate System designated under 23 U.S.C. 103(c)(1... movement of personnel, materials, and equipment in both peace time and war time. (4) The National...

  18. 23 CFR 470.107 - Federal-aid highway systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... importance in Canada and Mexico. (2) The portion of the Interstate System designated under 23 U.S.C. 103(c)(1... movement of personnel, materials, and equipment in both peace time and war time. (4) The National...

  19. Computer-aided communication satellite system analysis and optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stagl, T. W.; Morgan, N. H.; Morley, R. E.; Singh, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    The capabilities and limitations of the various published computer programs for fixed/broadcast communication satellite system synthesis and optimization are discussed. A satellite Telecommunication analysis and Modeling Program (STAMP) for costing and sensitivity analysis work in application of communication satellites to educational development is given. The modifications made to STAMP include: extension of the six beam capability to eight; addition of generation of multiple beams from a single reflector system with an array of feeds; an improved system costing to reflect the time value of money, growth in earth terminal population with time, and to account for various measures of system reliability; inclusion of a model for scintillation at microwave frequencies in the communication link loss model; and, an updated technological environment.

  20. Flight evaluation of differential GPS aided inertial navigation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnally, B. David; Paielli, Russell A.; Bach, Ralph E., Jr.; Warner, David N., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Algorithms are described for integration of Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) data with Inertial Navigation System (INS) data to provide an integrated DGPS/INS navigation system. The objective is to establish the benefits that can be achieved through various levels of integration of DGPS with INS for precision navigation. An eight state Kalman filter integration was implemented in real-time on a twin turbo-prop transport aircraft to evaluate system performance during terminal approach and landing operations. A fully integrated DGPS/INS system is also presented which models accelerometer and rate-gyro measurement errors plus position, velocity, and attitude errors. The fully integrated system was implemented off-line using range-domain (seventeen-state) and position domain (fifteen-state) Kalman filters. Both filter integration approaches were evaluated using data collected during the flight test. Flight-test data consisted of measurements from a 5 channel Precision Code GPS receiver, a strap-down Inertial Navigation Unit (INU), and GPS satellite differential range corrections from a ground reference station. The aircraft was laser tracked to determine its true position. Results indicate that there is no significant improvement in positioning accuracy with the higher levels of DGPS/INS integration. All three systems provided high-frequency (e.g., 20 Hz) estimates of position and velocity. The fully integrated system provided estimates of inertial sensor errors which may be used to improve INS navigation accuracy should GPS become unavailable, and improved estimates of acceleration, attitude, and body rates which can be used for guidance and control. Precision Code DGPS/INS positioning accuracy (root-mean-square) was 1.0 m cross-track and 3.0 m vertical. (This AGARDograph was sponsored by the Guidance and Control Panel.)

  1. Computer aided differential diagnosis in emergency situations (CADDIES) system

    SciTech Connect

    NOEL,WILLIAM P.

    2000-03-01

    This report presents an idea for a portable computerized differential diagnosis tool that could be utilized by a health care provider during an emergency situation. This radio frequency, networked, menu driven system would analyze various patient assessment parameters and make recommendations regarding possible diagnoses/treatment options outside the scope of suspicion of the health care provider. This system would serve as a repository for initial epidemiological data and assist the health care provider with spotting emerging trends.

  2. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.

    1999-10-26

    A computer system (1) for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments may be improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area (814) and sample sequences in another area (816) on a display device (3).

  3. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.

    1998-08-18

    A computer system for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments are improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area and sample sequences in another area on a display device.

  4. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.

    2001-06-05

    A computer system (1) for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments may be improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area (814) and sample sequences in another area (816) on a display device (3).

  5. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, M.S.

    1998-08-18

    A computer system for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments are improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area and sample sequences in another area on a display device. 27 figs.

  6. Flight evaluation of differential GPS aided inertial navigation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnally, B. David; Paielli, Russell A.; Bach, Ralph E., Jr.; Warner, David N., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Algorithms are described for integration of Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) data with Inertial Navigation System (INS) data to provide an integrated DGPS/INS navigation system. The objective is to establish the benefits that can be achieved through various levels of integration of DGPS with INS for precision navigation. An eight state Kalman filter integration was implemented in real-time on a twin turbo-prop transport aircraft to evaluate system performance during terminal approach and landing operations. A fully integrated DGPS/INS system is also presented which models accelerometer and rate-gyro measurement errors plus position, velocity, and attitude errors. The fully integrated system was implemented off-line using range-domain (seventeen-state) and position domain (fifteen-state) Kalman filters. Both filter integration approaches were evaluated using data collected during the flight test. Flight-test data consisted of measurements from a 5 channel Precision Code GPS receiver, a strap-down Inertial Navigation Unit (INU), and GPS satellite differential range corrections from a ground reference station. The aircraft was laser tracked to determine its true position. Results indicate that there is no significant improvement in positioning accuracy with the higher levels of DGPS/INS integration. All three systems provided high-frequency (e.g., 20 Hz) estimates of position and velocity. The fully integrated system provided estimates of inertial sensor errors which may be used to improve INS navigation accuracy should GPS become unavailable, and improved estimates of acceleration, attitude, and body rates which can be used for guidance and control. Precision Code DGPS/INS positioning accuracy (root-mean-square) was 1.0 m cross-track and 3.0 m vertical. (This AGARDograph was sponsored by the Guidance and Control Panel.)

  7. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.; Wang, Chunwei; Jevons, Luis C.; Bernhart, Derek H.; Lipshutz, Robert J.

    2004-05-11

    A computer system for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments are improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area and sample sequences in another area on a display device.

  8. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.

    2003-08-19

    A computer system for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments may be improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area and sample sequences in another area on a display device.

  9. A new Wellsite Information System to aid the drilling process

    SciTech Connect

    Grenadier, J.A.; McCann, D.; Koch, S.; Schlumberger, A.

    1994-12-31

    The IDEAL Wellsite Information System acquires data to monitor the drilling process. It interprets the realtime data flow from both surface and downhole and displays useful information on high resolution color screens to the key decision makers on and off the wellsite. The IDEAL Wellsite Information System can support four classes of users simultaneously: The driller, the directional driller on the rig floor, logging specialists in the unit and the company representative in the customer`s office. Color displays have been customized to the specialized needs of each class of user. In particular, the IDEAL Driller`s Display is a pressurized unit located on the rig floor. The driller can select from a number of screens with a minimum number of keystrokes. This information network improves drilling efficiency, geological evaluation and subsequent production through enhanced geological steering. Data is continually stored in both the time and depth domains. These databases can be exported into a variety of formats. Data can also be transmitted in realtime to the customer`s office offsite. Backup system components allow for redundancy so that system downtime is virtually eliminated. By having system developers concentrate on making the workstation easy to operate, the users can focus on the drilling process and not on the computer system. Custom graphic displays were designed by drillers for drillers. {open_quotes}Smart Alarms{close_quotes} have been designed to alert the user of potential problems such as kicks, sticking pipe and drillpipe washout.

  10. Computer-aided diagnosis expert system for cerebrovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu; Wang, Zhijun; Sy, Chrisopher; Liu, Xiaokun; Qian, Jinwu; Zheng, Jia; Dong, Zhiqiang; Cao, Limei; Geng, Xiang; Xu, Shuye; Liu, Xueyuan

    2014-05-01

    To establish an expert diagnosis system for cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs) and assess accuracy of the diagnosis system. An expert diagnosis system for CVDs was established and evaluated using actual clinical cases. An expert diagnosis system for CVDs was established and tested in 319 clinical patients. Diagnosis accordance was obtained in 307 patients (the diagnosis accordance rate was 96.2%). Involved were 223, 7, 23, 54 and 12 patients with cerebral thrombosis, cerebral embolism, transient ischemic attack, cerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage, respectively; and diagnosis accordance was obtained in 219 (98.2%), 6 (85.7%), 23 (100%), 48 (88.9%) and 11 (91.7%), respectively. Overall, the case analysis results support and demonstrate the diagnostic reasoning accuracy of the expert diagnosis system for CVDs. With the expert diagnosis system, medical experts' diagnosis of CVDs can be effectively mimicked and auxiliary diagnosis of CVDs has been preliminarily realized, laying a foundation for increasing the diagnostic accuracy of clinical diagnoses as it pertains to CVDs.

  11. Automatic computer aided analysis algorithms and system for adrenal tumors on CT images.

    PubMed

    Chai, Hanchao; Guo, Yi; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Guohui

    2017-08-04

    The adrenal tumor will disturb the secreting function of adrenocortical cells, leading to many diseases. Different kinds of adrenal tumors require different therapeutic schedules. In the practical diagnosis, it highly relies on the doctor's experience to judge the tumor type by reading the hundreds of CT images. This paper proposed an automatic computer aided analysis method for adrenal tumors detection and classification. It consisted of the automatic segmentation algorithms, the feature extraction and the classification algorithms. These algorithms were then integrated into a system and conducted on the graphic interface by using MATLAB Graphic user interface (GUI). The accuracy of the automatic computer aided segmentation and classification reached 90% on 436 CT images. The experiments proved the stability and reliability of this automatic computer aided analytic system.

  12. A Computer-Based, Interactive Videodisc Job Aid and Expert System for Electron Beam Lithography Integration and Diagnostic Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Kimberly

    This master's thesis describes the development of an expert system and interactive videodisc computer-based instructional job aid used for assisting in the integration of electron beam lithography devices. Comparable to all comprehensive training, expert system and job aid development require a criterion-referenced systems approach treatment to…

  13. A Computer-Based, Interactive Videodisc Job Aid and Expert System for Electron Beam Lithography Integration and Diagnostic Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Kimberly

    This master's thesis describes the development of an expert system and interactive videodisc computer-based instructional job aid used for assisting in the integration of electron beam lithography devices. Comparable to all comprehensive training, expert system and job aid development require a criterion-referenced systems approach treatment to…

  14. The US blockade and Cuba's AIDS sanatoria system.

    PubMed

    Landau, J G

    1998-01-01

    Cuba's low rate of HIV infection is due to several factors that include early HIV detection campaigns, the sanatoria system, and the U.S. embargo that has restricted sex tourism and drugs. People diagnosed with HIV are scheduled for entry into the sanatoria system within their province. Food and medical care are guaranteed in the sanatoria, as are educational opportunities and work for the unskilled, a powerful incentive in an impoverished nation. Ironically, while the U.S. embargo partly contributes to keeping the HIV infection rate low, it also is severely and adversely affecting public health in Cuba by creating widespread shortages in medical care resources.

  15. Computer aided optimal design of compressed air energy storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahrens, F. W.; Sharma, A.; Ragsdell, K. M.

    1980-07-01

    An automated procedure for the design of Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) systems is presented. The procedure relies upon modern nonlinear programming algorithms, decomposition theory, and numerical models of the various system components. Two modern optimization methods are employed; BIAS, a Method of Multipliers code and OPT, a Generalized Reduced Gradient code. The procedure is demonstrated by the design of a CAES facility employing the Media, Illinois Galesville aquifer as the reservoir. The methods employed produced significant reduction in capital and operating cost, and in number of aquifer wells required.

  16. A Hypermedia Computer-Aided Parasitology Tutoring System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodoropoulos, Georgios; Loumos, Vassili

    A hypermedia tutoring system for teaching parasitology to college students was developed using an object oriented software development tool, Knowledge Pro. The program was designed to meet four objectives: knowledge incorporation, tutoring, indexing of key words for Boolean search, and random generation of quiz questions with instant scoring. The…

  17. Logic system aids in evaluation of project readiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maris, S. J.; Obrien, T. J.

    1966-01-01

    Measurement Operational Readiness Requirements /MORR/ assignments logic is used for determining the readiness of a complex project to go forward as planned. The system used logic network which assigns qualities to all important criteria in a project and establishes a logical sequence of measurements to determine what the conditions are.

  18. The NIAID Division of AIDS enterprise information system: integrated decision support for global clinical research programs.

    PubMed

    Kagan, Jonathan M; Gupta, Nitin; Varghese, Suresh; Virkar, Hemant

    2011-12-01

    The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Division of AIDS (DAIDS) Enterprise Information System (DAIDS-ES) is a web-based system that supports NIAID in the scientific, strategic, and tactical management of its global clinical research programs for HIV/AIDS vaccines, prevention, and therapeutics. Different from most commercial clinical trials information systems, which are typically protocol-driven, the DAIDS-ES was built to exchange information with those types of systems and integrate it in ways that help scientific program directors lead the research effort and keep pace with the complex and ever-changing global HIV/AIDS pandemic. Whereas commercially available clinical trials support systems are not usually disease-focused, DAIDS-ES was specifically designed to capture and incorporate unique scientific, demographic, and logistical aspects of HIV/AIDS treatment, prevention, and vaccine research in order to provide a rich source of information to guide informed decision-making. Sharing data across its internal components and with external systems, using defined vocabularies, open standards and flexible interfaces, the DAIDS-ES enables NIAID, its global collaborators and stakeholders, access to timely, quality information about NIAID-supported clinical trials which is utilized to: (1) analyze the research portfolio, assess capacity, identify opportunities, and avoid redundancies; (2) help support study safety, quality, ethics, and regulatory compliance; (3) conduct evidence-based policy analysis and business process re-engineering for improved efficiency. This report summarizes how the DAIDS-ES was conceptualized, how it differs from typical clinical trial support systems, the rationale for key design choices, and examples of how it is being used to advance the efficiency and effectiveness of NIAID's HIV/AIDS clinical research programs.

  19. Evolution of facility layout requirements and CAD (computer-aided design) system development

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M. )

    1990-06-01

    The overall configuration of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) including the infrastructure and land boundary requirements were developed using a computer-aided design (CAD) system. The evolution of the facility layout requirements and the use of the CAD system are discussed. The emphasis has been on minimizing the amount of input required and maximizing the speed by which the output may be obtained. The computer system used to store the data is also described.

  20. Noise studies of communication systems using the SYSTID computer aided analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tranter, W. H.; Dawson, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    SYSTID computer aided design is a simple program for simulating data systems and communication links. A trial of the efficiency of the method was carried out by simulating a linear analog communication system to determine its noise performance and by comparing the SYSTID result with the result arrived at by theoretical calculation. It is shown that the SYSTID program is readily applicable to the analysis of these types of systems.

  1. A study on spatial decision support systems for HIV/AIDS prevention based on COM GIS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kun; Luo, Huasong; Peng, Shungyun; Xu, Quanli

    2007-06-01

    Based on the deeply analysis of the current status and the existing problems of GIS technology applications in Epidemiology, this paper has proposed the method and process for establishing the spatial decision support systems of AIDS epidemic prevention by integrating the COM GIS, Spatial Database, GPS, Remote Sensing, and Communication technologies, as well as ASP and ActiveX software development technologies. One of the most important issues for constructing the spatial decision support systems of AIDS epidemic prevention is how to integrate the AIDS spreading models with GIS. The capabilities of GIS applications in the AIDS epidemic prevention have been described here in this paper firstly. Then some mature epidemic spreading models have also been discussed for extracting the computation parameters. Furthermore, a technical schema has been proposed for integrating the AIDS spreading models with GIS and relevant geospatial technologies, in which the GIS and model running platforms share a common spatial database and the computing results can be spatially visualized on Desktop or Web GIS clients. Finally, a complete solution for establishing the decision support systems of AIDS epidemic prevention has been offered in this paper based on the model integrating methods and ESRI COM GIS software packages. The general decision support systems are composed of data acquisition sub-systems, network communication sub-systems, model integrating sub-systems, AIDS epidemic information spatial database sub-systems, AIDS epidemic information querying and statistical analysis sub-systems, AIDS epidemic dynamic surveillance sub-systems, AIDS epidemic information spatial analysis and decision support sub-systems, as well as AIDS epidemic information publishing sub-systems based on Web GIS.

  2. A computer-aided drug discovery system for chemistry teaching.

    PubMed

    Gledhill, Robert; Kent, Sarah; Hudson, Brian; Richards, W Graham; Essex, Jonathan W; Frey, Jeremy G

    2006-01-01

    The Schools Malaria Project (http://emalaria.soton.ac.uk/) brings together school students with university researchers in the hunt for a new antimalaria drug. The design challenge being offered to students is to use a distributed drug search and selection system to design potential antimalaria drugs. The system is accessed via a Web interface. This e-science project displays the results of the trials in an accessible manner, giving students an opportunity for discussion and debate both with peers and with the university contacts. The project has been implemented by using distributed computing techniques, spreading computer load over a network of machines that cross institutional boundaries, forming a grid. This provides access to greater computing power and allows a much more complex and detailed formulation of the drug design problem to be tackled for research, teaching, and learning.

  3. Graphical Input Methodology for Computer Aided Analysis of Control Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    Control Data Corporation (CDC) CYBER series computer (Ref 4,8). It is designed to run as an INTERCOM job under the NOS/BE operating system (Ref 1,3,5,9...19147-3, Contract- 5- -7. Seattle, Washington, Boeing Areospace Company, 1979. 8. Control Data Corporation . Fortran Extended Version 4 Reference...Manual. Pub. No. 614978%0, Revsion D. Sunnyvale,-California: Publications and Graphics n Division, 1978. 9. Control Data Corporation . INTERCOM Version 4

  4. Intelligent Embedded Instruction for Computer-Aided Design (CAD) systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    8217 convenience and according to their individual learning preferences. This benefit is extremely valuable for adult professionals whose needs may be highly...solving problems. Adult designers tend to develop their own personal ways of using CAD software which can optimize a system’s use. This ability has been...average age for subjects with more than 1 year of computer experience was 34 whereas those with less than 2 months of experience averaged 41 years old

  5. Computer-aided intelligent system for diagnosing pediatric asthma.

    PubMed

    Zolnoori, Maryam; Fazel Zarandi, Mohammad Hossein; Moin, Mostafa; Heidarnezhad, Hassan; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2012-04-01

    Asthma is a lung chronic inflammatory disorder estimated between 1.4% and 27.1% in different area of the world. Result of various studies show that asthma is usually underdiagnosed especially in developing countries, because of limitations on access to medical specialists and laboratory facilities. In this paper, we report on the development and evaluation of a novel patient-based fuzzy system that promotes the diagnosis method of asthma. The design of this application addresses five critical issues included: 1) modular representation of asthma diagnostic variables regard to patients' perception of the disease, 2) algorithmic approaches conducting inference of diagnosing based on patient's response to questions, 4) front-end mechanism for capturing data from patient, 5) output for both patient and physician regard to asthma possibility. for the system output score (0-10) the efficacy of this system calculated in the study sample included 139 asthmatic patients and 139 non-asthmatic patients (age range 6-18) reinforce the sensitivity of 88% and specificity of 100% for cut off value 0.7.

  6. IDEAS: A multidisciplinary computer-aided conceptual design system for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferebee, M. J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    During the conceptual development of advanced aerospace vehicles, many compromises must be considered to balance economy and performance of the total system. Subsystem tradeoffs may need to be made in order to satisfy system-sensitive attributes. Due to the increasingly complex nature of aerospace systems, these trade studies have become more difficult and time-consuming to complete and involve interactions of ever-larger numbers of subsystems, components, and performance parameters. The current advances of computer-aided synthesis, modeling and analysis techniques have greatly helped in the evaluation of competing design concepts. Langley Research Center's Space Systems Division is currently engaged in trade studies for a variety of systems which include advanced ground-launched space transportation systems, space-based orbital transfer vehicles, large space antenna concepts and space stations. The need for engineering analysis tools to aid in the rapid synthesis and evaluation of spacecraft has led to the development of the Interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced Spacecraft (IDEAS) computer-aided design system. The ADEAS system has been used to perform trade studies of competing technologies and requirements in order to pinpoint possible beneficial areas for research and development. IDEAS is presented as a multidisciplinary tool for the analysis of advanced space systems. Capabilities range from model generation and structural and thermal analysis to subsystem synthesis and performance analysis.

  7. IDEAS: A multidisciplinary computer-aided conceptual design system for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferebee, M. J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    During the conceptual development of advanced aerospace vehicles, many compromises must be considered to balance economy and performance of the total system. Subsystem tradeoffs may need to be made in order to satisfy system-sensitive attributes. Due to the increasingly complex nature of aerospace systems, these trade studies have become more difficult and time-consuming to complete and involve interactions of ever-larger numbers of subsystems, components, and performance parameters. The current advances of computer-aided synthesis, modeling and analysis techniques have greatly helped in the evaluation of competing design concepts. Langley Research Center's Space Systems Division is currently engaged in trade studies for a variety of systems which include advanced ground-launched space transportation systems, space-based orbital transfer vehicles, large space antenna concepts and space stations. The need for engineering analysis tools to aid in the rapid synthesis and evaluation of spacecraft has led to the development of the Interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced Spacecraft (IDEAS) computer-aided design system. The ADEAS system has been used to perform trade studies of competing technologies and requirements in order to pinpoint possible beneficial areas for research and development. IDEAS is presented as a multidisciplinary tool for the analysis of advanced space systems. Capabilities range from model generation and structural and thermal analysis to subsystem synthesis and performance analysis.

  8. Computer-aided decision support systems for endoscopy in the gastrointestinal tract: a review.

    PubMed

    Liedlgruber, Michael; Uhl, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Today, medical endoscopy is a widely used procedure to inspect the inner cavities of the human body. The advent of endoscopic imaging techniques-allowing the acquisition of images or videos-created the possibility for the development of the whole new branch of computer-aided decision support systems. Such systems aim at helping physicians to identify possibly malignant abnormalities more accurately. At the beginning of this paper, we give a brief introduction to the history of endoscopy, followed by introducing the main types of endoscopes which emerged so far (flexible endoscope, wireless capsule endoscope, and confocal laser endomicroscope). We then give a brief introduction to computer-aided decision support systems specifically targeted at endoscopy in the gastrointestinal tract. Then we present general facts and figures concerning computer-aided decision support systems and summarize work specifically targeted at computer-aided decision support in the gastrointestinal tract. This summary is followed by a discussion of some common issues concerning the approaches reviewed and suggestions of possible ways to resolve them.

  9. The design of a space optical system using computer-aided engineeringtechniques.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, G. R.; Brillhart, R. D.; Louie, E. A.

    1987-01-01

    Using computer-aided engineering tools and techniques for the design of a space optical system, from preliminary design through testing of hardware, provided an excellent means for compressing project schedules. The three principal steps in the process were (1) solids modeling, (2) structural analysis, and (3) design test.

  10. Implementation and Evaluation of Computer-Aided Mandarin Phonemes Training System for Hearing-Impaired Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hui-Jen; Lay, Yun-Long

    2005-01-01

    A computer-aided Mandarin phonemes training (CAMPT) system was developed and evaluated for training hearing-impaired students in their pronunciation of Mandarin phonemes. Deaf or hearing-impaired people have difficulty hearing their own voice, hence most of them cannot learn how to speak. Phonemes are the basis for learning to read and speak in…

  11. Why AIDS? The Mystery of How HIV Attacks the Immune System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Damaris

    1999-01-01

    Reviews differing theories surrounding the mystery of how human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) attacks the immune system. Claims that understanding how HIV triggers immune-cell depletion may enable researchers to block its effects. New knowledge could reveal strategies for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) therapies that go beyond the drugs…

  12. Minnesota Computer Aided Library System (MCALS); University of Minnesota Subsystem Cost/Benefits Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lourey, Eugene D., Comp.

    The Minnesota Computer Aided Library System (MCALS) provides a basis of unification for library service program development in Minnesota for eventual linkage to the national information network. A prototype plan for communications functions is illustrated. A cost/benefits analysis was made to show the cost/effectiveness potential for MCALS. System…

  13. Performance Measures in Courses Using Computer-Aided Personalized System of Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, C. R.; Pear, J. J.

    2008-01-01

    Archived data from four courses taught with computer-aided personalized system of instruction (CAPSI)--an online, self-paced, instructional program--were used to explore the relationship between objectively rescored final exam grades, peer reviewing, and progress rate--i.e., the rate at which students completed unit tests. There was a strong…

  14. Computer-Aided Personalized System of Instruction for the Virtual Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinser, W.; Pear, J. J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a computer-aided personalized system of instruction (CAPSI) and its implementations for both on-campus and off-campus teaching at the University of Manitoba. Highlights include electronic mail, student reactions, the use of data that are saved throughout the course, and future possibilities. (Author/LRW)

  15. Electroacoustic Performance of Direct-Input Hearing Aids with FM Amplification Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thibodeau, Linda M.

    1990-01-01

    The electroacoustic performance of 18 direct-input and two inductive-coupling hearing aids was compared when operating with two different frequency modulation (FM) systems. The most significant differences occurred in full-on gain, equivalent-input noise, and frequency response, as opposed to high frequency average saturation sound pressure level…

  16. Implementation and Evaluation of Computer-Aided Mandarin Phonemes Training System for Hearing-Impaired Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hui-Jen; Lay, Yun-Long

    2005-01-01

    A computer-aided Mandarin phonemes training (CAMPT) system was developed and evaluated for training hearing-impaired students in their pronunciation of Mandarin phonemes. Deaf or hearing-impaired people have difficulty hearing their own voice, hence most of them cannot learn how to speak. Phonemes are the basis for learning to read and speak in…

  17. The Alabama Information and Development System (AIDS): State Dissemination Capacity Building Grant. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Jackie A; Guy, R. Meade

    This report summarizes the activities and impact of the Alabama Information and Development System (AIDS), an educational resource project funded from 1976 to 1981 by a federal Dissemination Capacity-Building Grant. Computerized literature searches, collection of information on local educational programs in an Alabama Resource File, coordination…

  18. Possible Computer Vision Systems and Automated or Computer-Aided Edging and Trimming

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses research which is underway to help our industry reduce costs, increase product volume and value recovery, and market more accurately graded and described products. The research is part of a team effort to help the hardwood sawmill industry automate with computer vision systems, and computer-aided or computer controlled processing. This paper...

  19. Why AIDS? The Mystery of How HIV Attacks the Immune System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Damaris

    1999-01-01

    Reviews differing theories surrounding the mystery of how human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) attacks the immune system. Claims that understanding how HIV triggers immune-cell depletion may enable researchers to block its effects. New knowledge could reveal strategies for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) therapies that go beyond the drugs…

  20. 21 CFR 874.3950 - Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3950... system is a wearable sound-amplifying device intended to compensate for impaired hearing without occluding the ear canal. The device consists of an air conduction hearing aid attached to a...

  1. 21 CFR 874.3950 - Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3950... system is a wearable sound-amplifying device intended to compensate for impaired hearing without occluding the ear canal. The device consists of an air conduction hearing aid attached to a...

  2. Electroacoustic Performance of Direct-Input Hearing Aids with FM Amplification Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thibodeau, Linda M.

    1990-01-01

    The electroacoustic performance of 18 direct-input and two inductive-coupling hearing aids was compared when operating with two different frequency modulation (FM) systems. The most significant differences occurred in full-on gain, equivalent-input noise, and frequency response, as opposed to high frequency average saturation sound pressure level…

  3. A Computer-Aided Self-Testing System for Biological Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiblum, M. D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes the production of a computer-aided, self-testing system for university students enrolled in a first-year course in biological psychology. Project aspects described include selection, acquisition and description of software; question banks and test structures; modes of use (computer or printed version); evaluation; and future plans. (11…

  4. Extending the Computer-Aided Software Evolution System (CASES) with Quality Function Deployment (QFD)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-01

    This thesis extends the Computer Aided Software Evolution System (CASES) with Quality Function Deployment (QFD) to enhance dependency traceability...type and degree) between software development artifacts. Embedding Quality Function Deployment (QFD) in the Relational Hypergraph Software Evolution ...to define and manage any software evolution process. These major contributions allow a software engineer to: (1) Input, modify, and analyze

  5. A Computer-Aided Self-Testing System for Biological Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiblum, M. D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes the production of a computer-aided, self-testing system for university students enrolled in a first-year course in biological psychology. Project aspects described include selection, acquisition and description of software; question banks and test structures; modes of use (computer or printed version); evaluation; and future plans. (11…

  6. Experience gained at ZAO Ural Turbine Works with the use of computer-aided design systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortenko, V. V.; Valamin, A. E.; Shanturov, D. N.; Sokolov, E. V.; Toibich, S. V.; Glushchenko, A. N.

    2008-08-01

    The results of work accomplished in the field of computer-aided design at ZAO Ural Turbine Works (UTZ) are presented. A concept is described following which the tasks for a specialist’s workstations being developed at the UTZ are solved. Results from solution of problems with the use of modern numerical simulation computer programs for analyzing gas dynamic processes, casting, welding, and strength of complex structures are given. An example is given to show efficient use of a computer-aided design system for shifting an enterprise to a modern level of automation.

  7. A tone-aided dual vestigial sideband system for digital communications on fading channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hladik, Stephen M.; Saulnier, Gary J.; Rafferty, William

    1989-01-01

    A spectrally efficient tone-aided dual vestigial sideband (TA/DVSB) system for digital data communications on fading channels is presented and described analytically. This PSK (phase-shift-keying) system incorporates a feed-forward, tone-aided demodulation technique to compensate for Doppler frequency shift and channel- induced, multipath fading. In contrast to other tone-in-band-type systems, receiver synchronization is derived from the complete data VSBs. Simulation results for the Rician fading channel are presented. These results demonstrate the receiver's ability to mitigate performance degradation due to fading and to obtain proper data carrier synchronization, suggesting that the proposed TA/DVSB system has promise for this application. Simulated BER (bit-error rate) data indicate that the TA/DVSB system effectively alleviates the channel distortions of the land mobile satellite application.

  8. A tone-aided dual vestigial sideband system for digital communications on fading channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hladik, Stephen M.; Saulnier, Gary J.; Rafferty, William

    1989-01-01

    A spectrally efficient tone-aided dual vestigial sideband (TA/DVSB) system for digital data communications on fading channels is presented and described analytically. This PSK (phase-shift-keying) system incorporates a feed-forward, tone-aided demodulation technique to compensate for Doppler frequency shift and channel- induced, multipath fading. In contrast to other tone-in-band-type systems, receiver synchronization is derived from the complete data VSBs. Simulation results for the Rician fading channel are presented. These results demonstrate the receiver's ability to mitigate performance degradation due to fading and to obtain proper data carrier synchronization, suggesting that the proposed TA/DVSB system has promise for this application. Simulated BER (bit-error rate) data indicate that the TA/DVSB system effectively alleviates the channel distortions of the land mobile satellite application.

  9. Search and rescue satellite-aided tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trudell, B.; Gutwein, J. M.; Vollmers, R.; Wammer, D.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of Sarsat is to demonstrate that satellites can greatly facilitate the monitoring, detection, and location of distress incidents alerted by Emergency Locator Transmitters (ELTs) and Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRBs) carried on commercial, military, and general aviation aircraft and some marine vessels. The detection and location will be accomplished by relaying, via satellite, ELT/EPIRB distress information to ground stations, which will complete the data processing and forward alert and position location data to rescue coordination services. This paper presents a Sarsat system description and a summary of Coast Guard and USAF objectives for the initial demonstration and evaluation tests of Sarsat.

  10. Search and rescue satellite-aided tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trudell, B.; Gutwein, J. M.; Vollmers, R.; Wammer, D.

    1980-10-01

    The objective of Sarsat is to demonstrate that satellites can greatly facilitate the monitoring, detection, and location of distress incidents alerted by Emergency Locator Transmitters (ELTs) and Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRBs) carried on commercial, military, and general aviation aircraft and some marine vessels. The detection and location will be accomplished by relaying, via satellite, ELT/EPIRB distress information to ground stations, which will complete the data processing and forward alert and position location data to rescue coordination services. This paper presents a Sarsat system description and a summary of Coast Guard and USAF objectives for the initial demonstration and evaluation tests of Sarsat.

  11. Computer Aided Design for Linear Control State Variable System (SVS).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    if last rank = size then Writeln(list,’The system is obseryable with index ’,Value2, .’) If (valuT2 >= size ) and ( lat rank < size), hen Writeln...gamma:aryls ) var A2,A3,A4,A5 :arls 1,j :in eger; tesi value,step :real; es value:=1.0e-08; stepT-1 for:=1 o size do %or i:= o size do be in FI-ii -1 0. A2f

  12. Search and rescue satellite-aided tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trudell, B.; Gutwein, J. M.; Vollmers, R.; Wammer, D.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of Sarsat is to demonstrate that satellites can greatly facilitate the monitoring, detection, and location of distress incidents alerted by Emergency Locator Transmitters (ELTs) and Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRBs) carried on commercial, military, and general aviation aircraft and some marine vessels. The detection and location will be accomplished by relaying, via satellite, ELT/EPIRB distress information to ground stations, which will complete the data processing and forward alert and position location data to rescue coordination services. This paper presents a Sarsat system description and a summary of Coast Guard and USAF objectives for the initial demonstration and evaluation tests of Sarsat.

  13. [PIV: a computer-aided portal image verification system].

    PubMed

    Fu, Weihua; Zhang, Hongzhi; Wu, Jing

    2002-12-01

    Portal image verification (PIV) is one of the key actions in QA procedure for sophisticated accurate radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to develop a PIV software as a tool for improving the accuracy and visualization of portal field verification and computing field placement errors. PIV was developed in the visual C++ integrated environment under Windows 95 operating system. It can improve visualization by providing tools for image processing and multimode images display. Semi-automatic register methods make verification more accurate than view-box method. It can provide useful quantitative errors for regular fields. PIV is flexible and accurate. It is an effective tool for portal field verification.

  14. Unmanned Aerial System Aids Dry-season Stream Temperature Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, M.; Detweiler, C.; Higgins, J.; Ore, J. P.; Dralle, D.; Thompson, S. E.

    2016-12-01

    In freshwater ecosystems, temperature affects biogeochemistry and ecology, and is thus a primary physical determinant of habitat quality. Measuring temperatures in spatially heterogeneous water bodies poses a serious challenge to researchers due to constraints associated with currently available methods: in situ loggers record temporally continuous temperature measurements but are limited to discrete spatial locations, while distributed temperature and remote sensing provide fine-resolution spatial measurements that are restricted to only two-dimensions (i.e. streambed and surface, respectively). Using a commercially available quadcopter equipped with a 6m cable and temperature-pressure sensor system, we measured stream temperatures at two confluences at the South Fork Eel River, where cold water inputs from the tributary to the mainstem create thermal refugia for juvenile salmonids during the dry season. As a mobile sensing platform, unmanned aerial systems (UAS) can facilitate quick and repeated sampling with minimal disturbance to the ecosystem, and their datasets can be interpolated to create a three-dimensional thermal map of a water body. The UAS-derived data was compared to data from in situ data loggers to evaluate whether the UAS is better able to capture fine-scale temperature dynamics at each confluence. The UAS has inherent limitations defined by battery life and flight times, as well as operational constraints related to maneuverability under wind and streamflow conditions. However, the platform is able to serve as an additional field tool for researchers to capture complex thermal structures in water bodies.

  15. Classification of transmission risk in the national HIV/AIDS surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lisa M; McKenna, Matthew T; Janssen, Robert S

    2003-01-01

    Risk behavior information is essential for allocating resources and developing effective HIV prevention strategies. Over time, transmission risk information on HIV/AIDS cases has been less likely to be reported to the national surveillance system. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) invited approximately 30 experts in HIV/AIDS and behavioral research from state and local health departments, academia, community-based organizations, and the CDC to participate in a consultation in December 2001 to generate ideas on how best to deal with the lack of risk data. The group was charged with providing recommendations on methods for classifying and reporting risk information and for identifying methods and sources for improving ascertainment of transmission risk behaviors for individuals infected with HIV. This report describes the recommendations and the effects of implementing such recommended procedures on the national HIV/AIDS surveillance database.

  16. SFO compensation by pilot-aided channel estimation for real-time DDO-OFDM system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Rui; He, Jing; Chen, Ming; Chen, Lin

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we experimentally demonstrated a pilot-aided and linear interpolated channel estimation technique in the real-time direct-detection optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (DDO-OFDM) system using a cost-effective directly modulated laser (DML). It has been verified that the pilot-aided and linear interpolated channel estimation technique can help to compensate the sampling frequency offset (SFO) effect. The experimental results show that, based on the pilot-aided and linear interpolated channel estimation technique, even at a SFO of 170 ppm, a 16-QAM-OFDM signal can be successfully transmitted over 100-km SSMF under the hard-decision forward-error-correction (HD-FEC) threshold with a bit error rate of 3.8×10-3. And the effect of up to ~25 ppm SFO can be negligible.

  17. Classification of transmission risk in the national HIV/AIDS surveillance system.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Lisa M.; McKenna, Matthew T.; Janssen, Robert S.

    2003-01-01

    Risk behavior information is essential for allocating resources and developing effective HIV prevention strategies. Over time, transmission risk information on HIV/AIDS cases has been less likely to be reported to the national surveillance system. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) invited approximately 30 experts in HIV/AIDS and behavioral research from state and local health departments, academia, community-based organizations, and the CDC to participate in a consultation in December 2001 to generate ideas on how best to deal with the lack of risk data. The group was charged with providing recommendations on methods for classifying and reporting risk information and for identifying methods and sources for improving ascertainment of transmission risk behaviors for individuals infected with HIV. This report describes the recommendations and the effects of implementing such recommended procedures on the national HIV/AIDS surveillance database. PMID:12941852

  18. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... CPR: A Real Lifesaver Kids Talk About: Coaches HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Kids > HIV and AIDS ... actually the virus that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV ...

  19. Relationship between Otolaryngologic Complaints and Systemic Comorbidities Observed in a Group of Hearing Aid Users

    PubMed Central

    Ribas, Angela; Silvestre, Renata; Mottecy, Carla Meller; Kozlowski, Lorena; Marques, Jair Mendes

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Optimization of the selection, adaptation, and benefit of hearing aids is necessary to characterize and manage hearing loss, user expectations, otolaryngologic symptoms, and systemic comorbidities. Objective To compare the occurrence of otologic complaints, systemic diseases, and effective use of hearing aids in men and women with deafness. Methods Patients from a Unified Health System–accredited hearing health service, who reported problems in adapting to their hearing aids, were evaluated by a physician and audiologist. An anamnesis, ENT evaluation, and audiological evaluation were performed. Results During the data collection period, 278 subjects came in for follow-up visits; of these, 61 (21%) reported otologic or operational problems with their equipment. The most prevalent type of hearing loss was basocochlear, a characteristic of presbycusis, in both men and women; the most frequently reported comorbidities were hypercholesterolemia (more significant in women) and hypertension (more significant in men). Fourteen subjects reported using their device discontinuously, with no significant difference between genders; the reasons for discontinuation of use were itching and ringing, with more complaints from women. Conclusion The incidence of systemic and audiological complaints is high in this population. These patients should be evaluated thoroughly, as resolutions of these complaints can contribute to improving the quality of life and assist in the process of hearing aid fitting. PMID:26157495

  20. Staphylococcal proteases aid in evasion of the human complement system

    PubMed Central

    Jusko, Monika; Potempa, Jan; Kantyka, Tomasz; Bielecka, Ewa; Miller, Halie K.; Kalinska, Magdalena; Dubin, Grzegorz; Garred, Peter; Shaw, Lindsey N.; Blom, Anna M.

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that presents severe healthcare concerns due to the prevalence of multiple antibiotic resistant strains. New treatment strategies are urgently needed, which requires an understanding of disease causation mechanisms. Complement is one of the first lines of defense against bacterial pathogens, and S. aureus expresses several specific complement inhibitors. The effect of extracellular proteases from this bacterium on complement, however, has been the subject of limited investigation, except for a recent report regarding cleavage of the C3 component by aureolysin. We demonstrate here that four major extracellular proteases of S. aureus are potent complement inhibitors. Incubation of human serum with the cysteine proteases staphopain A and staphopain B, the serine protease V8, and the metalloproteinase aureolysin resulted in a drastic decrease in the haemolytic activity of serum; whereas two serine-protease like enzymes, SplD and SplE, had no effect. These four proteases were found to inhibit all pathways of complement due to the efficient degradation of several crucial components. Furthermore, S. aureus mutants lacking proteolytic enzymes were found to be more efficiently killed in human blood. Taken together, the major proteases of S. aureus appear to be important for pathogen-mediated evasion of the human complement system. PMID:23838186

  1. Alternative Techniques for Testing A Highway Information Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mast, Truman; Mast, Truman

    1974-01-01

    The highway transport system as contrasted with other modes of transportation is quite unique in that the users of the system are responsible for the guidance and control functions of the vehicle. Research has shown that improved forms of motorist information, such as highway signs and markings, can enhance the predictability and reliability of the driving task. Test and evaluation of promising new concepts in motorist information must preceed widespread endorsement and implementation on our highway system. This paper reviews the merits and limitations of presently available human factor research techniques--laboratory, instrumented vehicle and traffic performance studies on operational facilities--for evaluating the efficacy of motorist information concepts. Specific examples are given to demonstrate the utility and the interrelationships of the alternative research techniques and there is a discussion of the most pressing immediate and future needs for improved highway signing and road marking research methodology.

  2. Alternative Techniques for Testing A Highway Information Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mast, Truman; Mast, Truman

    1974-01-01

    The highway transport system as contrasted with other modes of transportation is quite unique in that the users of the system are responsible for the guidance and control functions of the vehicle. Research has shown that improved forms of motorist information, such as highway signs and markings, can enhance the predictability and reliability of the driving task. Test and evaluation of promising new concepts in motorist information must preceed widespread endorsement and implementation on our highway system. This paper reviews the merits and limitations of presently available human factor research techniques--laboratory, instrumented vehicle and traffic performance studies on operational facilities--for evaluating the efficacy of motorist information concepts. Specific examples are given to demonstrate the utility and the interrelationships of the alternative research techniques and there is a discussion of the most pressing immediate and future needs for improved highway signing and road marking research methodology.

  3. Practical considerations for a second-order directional hearing aid microphone system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Stephen C.

    2003-04-01

    First-order directional microphone systems for hearing aids have been available for several years. Such a system uses two microphones and has a theoretical maximum free-field directivity index (DI) of 6.0 dB. A second-order microphone system using three microphones could provide a theoretical increase in free-field DI to 9.5 dB. These theoretical maximum DI values assume that the microphones have exactly matched sensitivities at all frequencies of interest. In practice, the individual microphones in the hearing aid always have slightly different sensitivities. For the small microphone separation necessary to fit in a hearing aid, these sensitivity matching errors degrade the directivity from the theoretical values, especially at low frequencies. This paper shows that, for first-order systems the directivity degradation due to sensitivity errors is relatively small. However, for second-order systems with practical microphone sensitivity matching specifications, the directivity degradation below 1 kHz is not tolerable. A hybrid order directive system is proposed that uses first-order processing at low frequencies and second-order directive processing at higher frequencies. This hybrid system is suggested as an alternative that could provide improved directivity index in the frequency regions that are important to speech intelligibility.

  4. Do we have the reliable data? An exploration of data quality for AIDS information system in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Yu, Ping; Wang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    A national AIDS program evaluation system has been applied to the ranking of the performance of involved public health organizations in China since 2007. The system provides quantitative performance comparison information based on automatic mining of the data stored in a unified web-based national information system, China AIDS Comprehensive Response Information Management System (the CRIMS). Hence, the quality of the AIDS program evaluation system is directly related to the data quality in the CRIMS. This study aims to evaluate the performance of the AIDS program evaluation system. The research method is qualitative interview of public health practitioners in Jiangxi Province. The public health practitioners believed that the introduction and ongoing usage of the CRIMS has significantly transformed the practice of AIDS prevention and control. They believed that the AIDS program evaluation system has brought in increased accountability of public health. They suggested that the accuracy and completeness of AIDS program evaluation needs to go beyond the data from the CRIMS. Further research will continue to identify the unknown factors that undermine the performance of AIDS programs in China.

  5. The third therapeutic system: faith healing strategies in the context of a generalized AIDS epidemic.

    PubMed

    Manglos, Nicolette D; Trinitapoli, Jenny

    2011-03-01

    Faith healing in sub-Saharan Africa has primarily been studied qualitatively among Pentecostal-Charismatic groups, and considered as its own phenomenon with little attention to its relationship to other modes of healing. Using data from Malawi, a religiously diverse African country with high HIV prevalence, we find that faith healing is pervasive across multiple religious traditions. For individuals, attending a faith healing congregation is associated with lower levels of generalized worry about AIDS, and this association is driven by those who switched churches before AIDS became widespread in rural areas. Use of condoms and traditional medicine are, on the other hand, positively associated with worry about AIDS. We argue that faith healing can be understood as a third therapeutic system that coexists with the well-documented biomedical and traditional systems. The success of faith healing approaches lies in their unique ability to combine individual-pragmatic and communal-ritualized aspects of healing to inform interpretations of the AIDS epidemic and its consequences.

  6. The Third Therapeutic System: Faith Healing Strategies in the Context of a Generalized AIDS Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Manglos, Nicolette D.; Trinitapoli, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Faith healing in sub-Saharan Africa has primarily been studied qualitatively among Pentecostal-Charismatic groups, and considered as its own phenomenon with little attention to its relationship to other modes of healing. Using data from Malawi, a religiously diverse African country with high HIV prevalence, we find that faith healing is pervasive across multiple religious traditions. For individuals, attending a faith healing congregation is associated with lower levels of generalized worry about AIDS, and this association is driven by those who switched churches before AIDS became widespread in rural areas. Use of condoms and traditional medicine are, on the other hand, positively associated with worry about AIDS. We argue that faith healing can be understood as a third therapeutic system that coexists with the well-documented biomedical and traditional systems. The success of faith healing approaches lies in their unique ability to combine individual-pragmatic and communal-ritualized aspects of healing to inform interpretations of the AIDS epidemic and its consequences. PMID:21362615

  7. Online Design Aid for Evaluating Manure Pit Ventilation Systems to Reduce Entry Risk.

    PubMed

    Manbeck, Harvey B; Hofstetter, Daniel W; Murphy, Dennis J; Puri, Virendra M

    2016-01-01

    On-farm manure storage pits contain both toxic and asphyxiating gases such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane, and ammonia. Farmers and service personnel occasionally need to enter these pits to conduct repair and maintenance tasks. One intervention to reduce the toxic and asphyxiating gas exposure risk to farm workers when entering manure pits is manure pit ventilation. This article describes an online computational fluid dynamics-based design aid for evaluating the effectiveness of manure pit ventilation systems to reduce the concentrations of toxic and asphyxiating gases in the manure pits. This design aid, developed by a team of agricultural engineering and agricultural safety specialists at Pennsylvania State University, represents the culmination of more than a decade of research and technology development effort. The article includes a summary of the research efforts leading to the online design aid development and describes protocols for using the online design aid, including procedures for data input and for accessing design aid results. Design aid results include gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment curves inside the manure pit and inside the barns above the manure pits, as well as animated motion pictures of individual gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment in selected horizontal and vertical cut plots in the manure pits and barns. These results allow the user to assess (1) how long one needs to ventilate the pits to remove toxic and asphyxiating gases from the pit and barn, (2) from which portions of the barn and pit these gases are most and least readily evacuated, and (3) whether or not animals and personnel need to be removed from portions of the barn above the manure pit being ventilated.

  8. Online Design Aid for Evaluating Manure Pit Ventilation Systems to Reduce Entry Risk

    PubMed Central

    Manbeck, Harvey B.; Hofstetter, Daniel W.; Murphy, Dennis J.; Puri, Virendra M.

    2016-01-01

    On-farm manure storage pits contain both toxic and asphyxiating gases such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane, and ammonia. Farmers and service personnel occasionally need to enter these pits to conduct repair and maintenance tasks. One intervention to reduce the toxic and asphyxiating gas exposure risk to farm workers when entering manure pits is manure pit ventilation. This article describes an online computational fluid dynamics-based design aid for evaluating the effectiveness of manure pit ventilation systems to reduce the concentrations of toxic and asphyxiating gases in the manure pits. This design aid, developed by a team of agricultural engineering and agricultural safety specialists at Pennsylvania State University, represents the culmination of more than a decade of research and technology development effort. The article includes a summary of the research efforts leading to the online design aid development and describes protocols for using the online design aid, including procedures for data input and for accessing design aid results. Design aid results include gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment curves inside the manure pit and inside the barns above the manure pits, as well as animated motion pictures of individual gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment in selected horizontal and vertical cut plots in the manure pits and barns. These results allow the user to assess (1) how long one needs to ventilate the pits to remove toxic and asphyxiating gases from the pit and barn, (2) from which portions of the barn and pit these gases are most and least readily evacuated, and (3) whether or not animals and personnel need to be removed from portions of the barn above the manure pit being ventilated. PMID:27303661

  9. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and network system for chest diagnosis based on multislice CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Masuda, Hideo; Machida, Suguru

    2008-03-01

    Mass screening based on multi-helical CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. To overcome this problem, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images, a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification and a vertebra body analysis algorithm for quantitative evaluation of osteoporosis likelihood by using helical CT scanner for the lung cancer mass screening. The function to observe suspicious shadow in detail are provided in computer-aided diagnosis workstation with these screening algorithms. We also have developed the telemedicine network by using Web medical image conference system with the security improvement of images transmission, Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system. Biometric face authentication used on site of telemedicine makes "Encryption of file" and Success in login" effective. As a result, patients' private information is protected. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have developed a new computer-aided workstation and a new telemedicine network that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. The results of this study indicate that our radiological information system without film by using computer-aided diagnosis workstation and our telemedicine network system can increase diagnostic speed, diagnostic accuracy and security improvement of medical information.

  10. The intellectual information system of medical aid control in the scope of Russian medical insurance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taranik, M. A.; Silich, V. A.; Silich, M. P.

    2017-01-01

    The article presents the developed intellectual information system, oriented for healthcare providers. The system solves a problem of medical aid quality control in the Russian medical insurance sphere. The main components are ISO13606, fuzzy logic and a case-based reasoning concept. The system provides medical insurance payments forecasting by the analysis of medical records and generates two evaluations based on medical standards and a set of precedents. The result of the system implementation allowed up to a 10% increase in insurance payments for the healthcare provider.

  11. Methods and software tools for computer-aided design of the spacecraft guidance, navigation and control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somov, Yevgeny; Oparin, Gennady

    2017-01-01

    We shortly present results on development and employment of the software systems for computer-aided design of the spacecraft guidance. navigation and control systems - modeling, synthesis, nonlinear analysis, simulation and graphic mapping of dynamic processes.

  12. Smartphone-Based System for Learning and Inferring Hearing Aid Settings.

    PubMed

    Aldaz, Gabriel; Puria, Sunil; Leifer, Larry J

    2016-10-01

    Previous research has shown that hearing aid wearers can successfully self-train their instruments' gain-frequency response and compression parameters in everyday situations. Combining hearing aids with a smartphone introduces additional computing power, memory, and a graphical user interface that may enable greater setting personalization. To explore the benefits of self-training with a smartphone-based hearing system, a parameter space was chosen with four possible combinations of microphone mode (omnidirectional and directional) and noise reduction state (active and off). The baseline for comparison was the "untrained system," that is, the manufacturer's algorithm for automatically selecting microphone mode and noise reduction state based on acoustic environment. The "trained system" first learned each individual's preferences, self-entered via a smartphone in real-world situations, to build a trained model. The system then predicted the optimal setting (among available choices) using an inference engine, which considered the trained model and current context (e.g., sound environment, location, and time). To develop a smartphone-based prototype hearing system that can be trained to learn preferred user settings. Determine whether user study participants showed a preference for trained over untrained system settings. An experimental within-participants study. Participants used a prototype hearing system-comprising two hearing aids, Android smartphone, and body-worn gateway device-for ∼6 weeks. Sixteen adults with mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss (HL) (ten males, six females; mean age = 55.5 yr). Fifteen had ≥6 mo of experience wearing hearing aids, and 14 had previous experience using smartphones. Participants were fitted and instructed to perform daily comparisons of settings ("listening evaluations") through a smartphone-based software application called Hearing Aid Learning and Inference Controller (HALIC). In the four-week-long training phase

  13. Three-dimensional computer-aided design system for plant layout

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, T.; Yoshinaga, T.; Yoshida, M.

    1987-01-01

    A three-dimensional CAD system for plant layout of nuclear power plants has been developed, adopting the latest technologies of knowledge engineering, CAD/CAM, and interactive computer graphics. With this system, Hitachi is now able to plan plant layout more effectively, reduce design time and cost, and detect defective designs before actual construction problems occur. Hitachi is planning to enhance this three-dimensional CAD system to a plant total life computer-aided engineering (CAE) system. This system will include a construction CAE system, a test operation and in-service inspection control system, and a plant maintenance system. After completion of this system, Hitachi will be able to plan, monitor, and control all major aspects in the life of a nuclear power plant from the very first stage of the planning to its decommissioning.

  14. High phase noise tolerant pilot-tone-aided DP-QPSK optical communication systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Pang, Xiaodan; Deng, Lei; Zibar, Darko; Monroy, Idelfonso Tafur; Younce, Richard

    2012-08-27

    In this paper we experimentally demonstrate a novel, high phase-noise tolerant, optical dual polarization (DP) quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) communication system based on pilot-tone-aided phase noise cancellation (PNC) algorithm. Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) with approximate 300 MHz linewidth are used as transmitters and local oscillators for coherent detection of optical DP-QPSK signals. The proposed system, with central wavelength at 1540.68 nm, operates at 40 Gb/s over 80 km single mode fiber (SMF) as part of a passive optical network (PON). The deployment of pilot-tone-aided PNC algorithm guarantees a bit error rate (BER) performance below the forward error correction (FEC) threshold. Moreover, we also evaluate a novel digital signal processing (DSP) algorithm for adaptive pilot tone detection.

  15. Towards a Mobile Intelligent Information System with Application to HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Kopec, D; Eckhardt, R; Tamang, S; Reinharth, D

    2005-01-01

    The United Nations Security Council reports HIV/AIDS as the fastest growing threat to human development. In addition, the World Health Organization [1] reports that nearly 5 million persons (4.3 million adults and 700,000 children) are newly infected with HIV each year; more than 95% of them found in developing countries. Since STDs as a group are a personal problem which few people feel comfortable discussing, we believe that hand-held PDAs can provide an opportunity for learning about this disease while insuring anonymity. This device will employ the newest technologies including Bluetooth wireless technology, which can transmit and receive data via a short-range radio link using a globally available frequency band (2.4 GHz ISM band), enabling rapid and accurate synchronous and asynchronous data communication. The first generation of Bluetooth permits exchange of data up to a rate of 1 Mbps, even in areas with much electromagnetic disturbance. This emerging technology can facilitate HIV/AIDS outreach around the globe.Recent advances in learning have taken a particularly cognitive perspective and these findings have implications for education in general as well as for the development of intelligent tutoring systems in particular. In the past, effective SmartBookstrade markhave been developed for AIDS education to disseminate the critical knowledge relevant to this epidemic [2].Since 1993, the proliferation of the World Wide Web has created a plethora of new opportunities for the delivery of electronic distance learning systems. However, we feel that it is important that a whatever technology is employed is based on a sound educational theory. A new, comprehensive, web-based learning system called SmartTutor has been developed, at Brooklyn College of The City University of New York [3]. This technology provides a user-friendly, self-paced, easy to modify, software environment intended to serve the user's learning needs and is based on a generic Smart

  16. Optimization of Breast Tomosynthesis Imaging Systems for Computer-Aided Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    08-1-0353 TITLE: Optimization of Breast Tomosynthesis Imaging Systems for Computer-Aided Detection PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr...is digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), which produces images of slices through the breast using multiple projection view images from a limited angular...range [2, 3]. The goal of this research was to develop methodology for optimizing the acquisition parameters for tomosynthesis . This requires an

  17. Analysis of proctor marking accuracy in a computer-aided personalized system of instruction course.

    PubMed

    Martin, Toby L; Pear, Joseph J; Martin, Garry L

    2002-01-01

    In a computer-aided version of Keller's personalized system of instruction (CAPSI), students within a course were assigned by a computer to be proctors for tests. Archived data from a CAPSI-taught behavior modification course were analyzed to assess proctor accuracy in marking answers as correct or incorrect. Overall accuracy was increased by having each test marked independently by two proctors, and was higher on incorrect answers when the degree of incorrectness was larger.

  18. Role of the ubiquitin system and tumor viruses in AIDS-related cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shackelford, Julia; Pagano, Joseph S

    2007-01-01

    Tumor viruses are linked to approximately 20% of human malignancies worldwide. This review focuses on examples of human oncogenic viruses that manipulate the ubiquitin system in a subset of viral malignancies; those associated with AIDS. The viruses include Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus, Epstein-Barr virus and human papilloma virus, which are causally linked to Kaposi's sarcoma, certain B-cell lymphomas and cervical cancer, respectively. We discuss the molecular mechanisms by which these viruses subvert the ubiquitin system and potential viral targets for anti-cancer therapy from the perspective of this system. Publication history: Republished from Current BioData's Targeted Proteins database (TPdb; ). PMID:18047745

  19. Role of the ubiquitin system and tumor viruses in AIDS-related cancer.

    PubMed

    Shackelford, Julia; Pagano, Joseph S

    2007-11-22

    Tumor viruses are linked to approximately 20% of human malignancies worldwide. This review focuses on examples of human oncogenic viruses that manipulate the ubiquitin system in a subset of viral malignancies; those associated with AIDS. The viruses include Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus, Epstein-Barr virus and human papilloma virus, which are causally linked to Kaposi's sarcoma, certain B-cell lymphomas and cervical cancer, respectively. We discuss the molecular mechanisms by which these viruses subvert the ubiquitin system and potential viral targets for anti-cancer therapy from the perspective of this system. Publication history: Republished from Current BioData's Targeted Proteins database (TPdb; http://www.targetedproteinsdb.com).

  20. Pre-compensation combined with TS-aided and ISFA-enhanced scheme for UWB system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jing; Xiang, Changqing; Long, Fengting; Wu, Kaiquan; Chen, Lin

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a pre-compensation combined with training sequence (TS)-aided and intra-symbol frequency-domain averaging (ISFA)-enhanced scheme is proposed to improve the transmission performance in 64-quadrature amplitude modulation multiband orthogonal-frequency-division-multiplexing ultra-wide band over fiber (64QAM MB-OFDM UWBoF) system. We theoretically analyze and experimentally demonstrate that the proposed scheme is suitable for the 64QAM MB-OFDM UWBoF system in contrast with two other cases: (I) only pilot-aided channel estimation and (II) pilot-aided and pre-compensation combined with ISFA-enhanced channel estimation. The experimental results demonstrate that the performance of system with the proposed scheme can be improved by about 1.25 dB and 0.37 dB compared with the case I and the case II, respectively, at the BER of 3.8×10-3 after 70 km transmission in standard single mode fiber (SSMF).

  1. Unit cell-based computer-aided manufacturing system for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun-Wook; Park, Jeong Hun; Kang, Tae-Yun; Seol, Young-Joon; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2012-03-01

    Scaffolds play an important role in the regeneration of artificial tissues or organs. A scaffold is a porous structure with a micro-scale inner architecture in the range of several to several hundreds of micrometers. Therefore, computer-aided construction of scaffolds should provide sophisticated functionality for porous structure design and a tool path generation strategy that can achieve micro-scale architecture. In this study, a new unit cell-based computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) system was developed for the automated design and fabrication of a porous structure with micro-scale inner architecture that can be applied to composite tissue regeneration. The CAM system was developed by first defining a data structure for the computing process of a unit cell representing a single pore structure. Next, an algorithm and software were developed and applied to construct porous structures with a single or multiple pore design using solid freeform fabrication technology and a 3D tooth/spine computer-aided design model. We showed that this system is quite feasible for the design and fabrication of a scaffold for tissue engineering.

  2. Crew aiding and automation: A system concept for terminal area operations, and guidelines for automation design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwyer, John P.

    1994-01-01

    This research and development program comprised two efforts: the development of guidelines for the design of automated systems, with particular emphasis on automation design that takes advantage of contextual information, and the concept-level design of a crew aiding system, the Terminal Area Navigation Decision Aiding Mediator (TANDAM). This concept outlines a system capable of organizing navigation and communication information and assisting the crew in executing the operations required in descent and approach. In service of this endeavor, problem definition activities were conducted that identified terminal area navigation and operational familiarization exercises addressing the terminal area navigation problem. Both airborne and ground-based (ATC) elements of aircraft control were extensively researched. The TANDAM system concept was then specified, and the crew interface and associated systems described. Additionally, three descent and approach scenarios were devised in order to illustrate the principal functions of the TANDAM system concept in relation to the crew, the aircraft, and ATC. A plan for the evaluation of the TANDAM system was established. The guidelines were developed based on reviews of relevant literature, and on experience gained in the design effort.

  3. Computer-aided diagnosis system for coronary artery stenosis using a neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Kenji; Horiba, Isao; Sugie, Noboru; Nanki, Michio

    2001-07-01

    We have developed a new computer-aided diagnosis system for coronary artery stenosis, which can learn medical doctors' clinical experiences and medical knowledge. In order to develop such a system, we have employed a multilayer neural network (NN). The NN has the capability to learn experts' experiences and knowledge. The proposed system consists of (a) automatic vessel tracking, (b) automatically extraction of the edges of the vessel, and (c) estimation of stenosis based on the NN. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed system, two experiments with the phantoms and clinical images were performed. The stenoses estimated by the proposed system agreed well with not only the stenoses based on the actual measurement of the phantoms but also those diagnosed by a medical specialist from coronary arteriograms. The experimental results have shown that the proposed system has the capability to learn medical doctors' clinical experiences and medical knowledge. The proposed system has been proved to be useful to aid to diagnose coronary artery stenosis.

  4. Toxoplasmosis of the central nervous system in patients with AIDS in Mexico.

    PubMed

    del Rio-Chiriboga, C; Orzechowski-Rallo, A; Sanchez-Mejorada, G

    1997-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis of the central nervous system (CNS) is the most common cause of intracerebral lesions in patients with AIDS. It is now standard clinical practice to treat empirically, based on clinical and radiographic findings, and to perform a biopsy of the lesion only in those patients who fail to have a clinical and radiographic response after two weeks of therapy. This study describes the presentation and response to therapy of central nervous system toxoplasmosis in patients with AIDS at a private practice in Mexico City. A retrospective chart and radiology review of all patients with AIDS treated empirically for toxoplasmosis between 1988 and 1993 was performed. A total of 177 patients with AIDS were seen, nine (5.1%) had toxoplasmosis. Patients with toxoplasmosis were males with a median age of 39 years (range 26 - 65). In two patients, toxoplamosis of the CNS was the initial manifestation of HIV infection, all others had a prior diagnosis of AIDS with a mean of 10 months between their first AIDS defining event and the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. The median CD4+ T-cell count at the time of the diagnosis of toxoplamsosis was 78 cells/microL. Most patients had headache associated with other focal neurological symptoms such as hemiplegia (2), hemiparesis (2) or seizures (4). Only 4 out of 9 patients had fever as part of their initial clinical presentation. Serum IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii were positive in 6 out of 7 patients tested, while IgM antibodies were negative in all patients. On imaging studies (Computerized Tomography or Magnetic Resonance Imaging), 4 patients had a single lesion while the rest had two or more lesions. Two patients were initially treated with pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine and were later changed to pyrimethamine/clindamycin, which was the treatment given from the beginning to all other patients. One patient died of an intralesional hemorrhage two weeks after the diagnosis despite adequate therapy. The probability of surviving

  5. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and database system for chest diagnosis based on multihelical CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Mori, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Masuda, Hideo; Machida, Suguru; Sasagawa, Michizou

    2004-04-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause, accounting for about 20% of all cancer deaths for males in Japan. Myocardial infarction is also known as a most fearful adult disease. Recently, multi-helical CT scanner advanced remarkably at the speed at which the chest CT images were acquired for screening examination. This screening examination requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of multi-helical CT for mass screening. To overcome this problem, our group has developed a computer-aided diagnosis algorithm to automatically detect suspicious regions of lung cancer and coronary calcifications in chest CT images, so far. And in this time, our group has developed a newly computer-aided diagnosis workstation and database. These consist in three. First, it is an image processing system to automatically detect suspicious bronchial regions, pulmonary artery regions, plumonary vein regions and myocardial infarction regions at high speed. Second, they are two 1600 x 1200 matrix black and white liquid crystal monitor. Third, it is a terminal of image storage. These are connected mutually on the network. This makes it much easier to read images, since the 3D image of suspicious regions and shadow of suspicious regions can be displayed simultaneously on two 1600 x 1200 matrix liquid crystal monitor. The experimental results indicate that a newly computer-aided diagnosis workstation and database system can be effectively used in clinical practice to increase the speed and accuracy of routine diagnosis.

  6. Payload installation and deployment aid for space shuttle orbiter spacecraft remote manipulator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, T. O.

    1982-01-01

    An aid concept known as the PIDA (Payload Installation and Deployment Aid) is presented as a way to assist the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) by relaxing the accuracy required during payload handling in the payload bay. The aid concept was designed and developed to move payloads through a prescribed path between the confined quarters of the payload bay and a position outside the critical maneuvering area of the Orbiter. An androgynous docking mechanism is used at the payload/PIDA interfaces for normal docking functions that also serves as the structural connection between the payload and the Orbiter, that is capable of being loosened to prevent transfer of loads between a stowed payload and the PIDA structure. A gearmotor driven drum/cable system is used in the docking mechanism in a unique manner to center the attenuator assembly, align the ring and guide assembly (docking interface) in roll, pitch, and yaw, and rigidize the mechanism at a nominal position. A description of the design requirements and the modes of operation of the various functions of the deployment and the docking mechanisms are covered.

  7. Symmetric RBF classifier for nonlinear detection in multiple-antenna-aided systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng; Wolfgang, Andreas; Harris, Chris J; Hanzo, Lajos

    2008-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a powerful symmetric radial basis function (RBF) classifier for nonlinear detection in the so-called "overloaded" multiple-antenna-aided communication systems. By exploiting the inherent symmetry property of the optimal Bayesian detector, the proposed symmetric RBF classifier is capable of approaching the optimal classification performance using noisy training data. The classifier construction process is robust to the choice of the RBF width and is computationally efficient. The proposed solution is capable of providing a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) gain in excess of 8 dB against the powerful linear minimum bit error rate (BER) benchmark, when supporting four users with the aid of two receive antennas or seven users with four receive antenna elements.

  8. Decision-aided sampling frequency offset compensation for reduced-guard-interval coherent optical OFDM systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Zhuge, Qunbi; Morsy-Osman, Mohamed; Gao, Yuliang; Xu, Xian; Chagnon, Mathieu; Qiu, Meng; Hoang, Minh Thang; Zhang, Fangyuan; Li, Rui; Plant, David V

    2014-11-03

    We propose a decision-aided algorithm to compensate the sampling frequency offset (SFO) between the transmitter and receiver for reduced-guard-interval (RGI) coherent optical (CO) OFDM systems. In this paper, we first derive the cyclic prefix (CP) requirement for preventing OFDM symbols from SFO induced inter-symbol interference (ISI). Then we propose a new decision-aided SFO compensation (DA-SFOC) algorithm, which shows a high SFO tolerance and reduces the CP requirement. The performance of DA-SFOC is numerically investigated for various situations. Finally, the proposed algorithm is verified in a single channel 28 Gbaud polarization division multiplexing (PDM) RGI CO-OFDM experiment with QPSK, 8 QAM and 16 QAM modulation formats, respectively. Both numerical and experimental results show that the proposed DA-SFOC method is highly robust against the standard SFO in optical fiber transmission.

  9. Smartphone-Based System for Learning and Inferring Hearing Aid Settings

    PubMed Central

    Aldaz, Gabriel; Puria, Sunil; Leifer, Larry J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Previous research has shown that hearing aid wearers can successfully self-train their instruments’ gain-frequency response and compression parameters in everyday situations. Combining hearing aids with a smartphone introduces additional computing power, memory, and a graphical user interface that may enable greater setting personalization. To explore the benefits of self-training with a smartphone-based hearing system, a parameter space was chosen with four possible combinations of microphone mode (omnidirectional and directional) and noise reduction state (active and off). The baseline for comparison was the “untrained system,” that is, the manufacturer’s algorithm for automatically selecting microphone mode and noise reduction state based on acoustic environment. The “trained system” first learned each individual’s preferences, self-entered via a smartphone in real-world situations, to build a trained model. The system then predicted the optimal setting (among available choices) using an inference engine, which considered the trained model and current context (e.g., sound environment, location, and time). Purpose To develop a smartphone-based prototype hearing system that can be trained to learn preferred user settings. Determine whether user study participants showed a preference for trained over untrained system settings. Research Design An experimental within-participants study. Participants used a prototype hearing system—comprising two hearing aids, Android smartphone, and body-worn gateway device—for ~6 weeks. Study Sample Sixteen adults with mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss (HL) (ten males, six females; mean age = 55.5 yr). Fifteen had ≥6 mo of experience wearing hearing aids, and 14 had previous experience using smartphones. Intervention Participants were fitted and instructed to perform daily comparisons of settings (“listening evaluations”) through a smartphone-based software application called Hearing Aid

  10. Design and implementation of a GPS-aided inertial navigation system for a helicopter UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastelan, David R.

    Helicopter unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) benefit from vertical takeoff and landing, hover, low-speed, and cruising flight capabilities. This versatility has the expense of nonlinear, unstable, and underactuated system dynamics. These challenges and numerous potential applications make the helicopter UAV an interesting testbed for nonlinear control. A platform for such development has been established in the Applied Nonlinear Controls Lab (ANCL). A miniature helicopter was augmented with a manual/autonomous takeover system and the ANCL Avionics. This payload contains a global positioning system (GPS) receiver, inertial sensors, and communications and computing hardware. Allan variance analysis of inertial sensor data enabled the derivation of a GPS-aided inertial navigation system that was implemented on the ANCL Avionics. This extended Kalman filter (EKF)-based algorithm estimates vehicle position, velocity, and attitude necessary for system identification tasks and control system feedback. Performance validation of this algorithm was demonstrated in simulation and in experimental ground and flight tests.

  11. Requirements for a tool to aid in the development of expert systems for space station applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culbert, Chris

    1988-01-01

    The Space Station Program is currently in the early stages of design. The extended life of the program and the wide range of planned capabilities present NASA with a major challenge to make effective use of all available resources. Expert systems may represent one of the most important techniques NASA can use to improve performance and functionality of the Space Station. The recent growth in expert system applications has been spurred by the availability of commercial expert system development tools. These state-of-the-art tools provide multiple representation techniques, sophisticated user interfaces, and powerful development tools; allowing programmers to develop expert systems without requiring years of training in knowledge engineering. The requirements are described for a software tool to aid in the development and delivery of expert systems intended for use in the Space Station Program. The intent is to define a tool that would be useful for a very broad range of expert system applications.

  12. An intermediate solution between basic and expanded aircraft integrated data systems (AIDS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, C.

    1981-11-01

    A single digital flight data acquisition and management unit, divided for reliability into two parts, is proposed as an alternative to ARINC 717. One part deals with mandatory parameters which are sampled, coded, and transmitted in a PCM stream to the digital flight data recorder. The second part processes the parameters and is user programmable. Analysis consists of exceedance processing (e.g., engine, nacelle) gas pass analysis, AIDS monitoring and aircraft system warning from the flight warning computer. Airline response indicates that this system meets their requirements.

  13. Biomedical Informatics for Computer-Aided Decision Support Systems: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Belle, Ashwin; Kon, Mark A.; Najarian, Kayvan

    2013-01-01

    The volumes of current patient data as well as their complexity make clinical decision making more challenging than ever for physicians and other care givers. This situation calls for the use of biomedical informatics methods to process data and form recommendations and/or predictions to assist such decision makers. The design, implementation, and use of biomedical informatics systems in the form of computer-aided decision support have become essential and widely used over the last two decades. This paper provides a brief review of such systems, their application protocols and methodologies, and the future challenges and directions they suggest. PMID:23431259

  14. Biomedical informatics for computer-aided decision support systems: a survey.

    PubMed

    Belle, Ashwin; Kon, Mark A; Najarian, Kayvan

    2013-01-01

    The volumes of current patient data as well as their complexity make clinical decision making more challenging than ever for physicians and other care givers. This situation calls for the use of biomedical informatics methods to process data and form recommendations and/or predictions to assist such decision makers. The design, implementation, and use of biomedical informatics systems in the form of computer-aided decision support have become essential and widely used over the last two decades. This paper provides a brief review of such systems, their application protocols and methodologies, and the future challenges and directions they suggest.

  15. Building a durable response to HIV/AIDS: implications for health systems.

    PubMed

    Atun, Rifat; Bataringaya, Jacqueline

    2011-08-01

    The remarkable rise in investments for HIV control programs in 2003-2010 enabled an unprecedented expansion of access to HIV services in low-income and middle-income countries. By the end of 2010, more than 5.2 million people were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), which transformed HIV infection, once a death sentence, into a long-term illness. The rapid expansion in the number of persons receiving ART means that health systems must continue to provide acute life-saving care for those with advanced HIV/AIDS although also providing chronic care services to expanding cohorts of more stable patients who are doing well on ART. This expansion also means a transition from an emergency response to the epidemic, characterized by a public health approach, to a more integrated and durable approach to HIV prevention, care, and treatment services that fosters individualized care for those requiring long-term antiretroviral treatment. Yet most low-income and middle-income countries, which have weak health systems, are poorly prepared to make this transition. In this article, we highlight the challenges health systems face in developing a sustained and durable response to HIV/AIDS. The article analyses the readiness of health systems to combine rapid expansion of ART access with long-term treatment and continuity of care for a growing cohort of patients. We argue that effective management of a transition from an emergency AIDS response to long-term programatic strategies will require a paradigm shift that enables leveraging investments in HIV to build sustainable health systems for managing large cohorts of patients receiving ART although meeting the immediate needs of those who remain without access to HIV treatment and care.

  16. Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) system for construction of spinal orthosis for patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Wong, M S

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spinal orthoses are commonly prescribed to patients with moderate adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) for prevention of further curve deterioration. In conventional manufacturing method, plaster bandages are used to obtain the patient's body contour and then the plaster cast is rectified manually. With computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) system, a series of automated processes from body scanning to digital rectification and milling of the positive model can be performed in a fast and accurate fashion. The purpose of this manuscript is to introduce the application of CAD/CAM system to the construction of spinal orthosis for patients with AIS. Based on evidence within the literature, CAD/CAM method can achieve similar clinical outcomes but with higher efficiency than the conventional fabrication method. Therefore, CAD/CAM method should be considered a substitute to the conventional method in fabrication of spinal orthoses for patients with AIS.

  17. Performance Analysis of Global Navigation Satellite System Signal Acquisition Aided by Different Grade Inertial Navigation System under Highly Dynamic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunxi; Li, Xianmu; Gao, Shuang; Lin, Tie; Wang, Lu

    2017-01-01

    Under the high dynamic conditions, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals produce great Doppler frequency shifts, which hinders the fast acquisition of signals. Inertial Navigation System (INS)-aided acquisition can improve the acquisition performance, whereas the accuracy of Doppler shift and code phase estimation are mainly determined by the INS precision. The relation between the INS accuracy and Doppler shift estimation error has been derived, while the relation between the INS accuracy and code phase estimation error has not been deduced. In this paper, in order to theoretically analyze the effects of INS errors on the performance of Doppler shift and code phase estimations, the connections between them are re-deduced. Moreover, the curves of the corresponding relations are given for the first time. Then, in order to have a better verification of the INS-aided acquisition, a high dynamic scenario is designed. Furthermore, by using the deduced mathematical relation, the effects of different grade INS on the GNSS (including Global Positioning System (GPS) and BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS)) signal acquisition are analyzed. Experimental results demonstrate that the INS-aided acquisition can reduce the search range of local frequency and code phase, and achieve fast acquisition. According to the experimental results, a suitable INS can be chosen for the deeply coupled integration. PMID:28452933

  18. Development and assessment of a clinically viable system for breast ultrasound computer-aided diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruszauskas, Nicholas Peter

    The chances of surviving a breast cancer diagnosis as well as the effectiveness of any potential treatments increase significantly with early detection of the disease. As such, a considerable amount of research is being conducted to augment the breast cancer detection and diagnosis process. One such area of research involves the investigation and application of sophisticated computer algorithms to assist clinicians in detecting and diagnosing breast cancer on medical images (termed generally as "computer-aided diagnosis" or CAD). This study investigated a previously-developed breast ultrasound CAD system with the intent of translating it into a clinically-viable system. While past studies have demonstrated that breast ultrasound CAD may be a beneficial aid during the diagnosis of breast cancer on ultrasound, there are no investigations concerning its potential clinical translation and there are currently no commercially-available implementations of such systems. This study "bridges the gap" between the laboratory-developed system and the steps necessary for clinical implementation. A novel observer study was conducted that mimicked the clinical use of the breast ultrasound CAD system in order to assess the impact it had on the diagnostic performance of the user. Several robustness studies were also performed: the sonographic features used by the system were evaluated and the databases used for calibration and testing were characterized, the effect of the user's input was assessed by evaluating the performance of the system with variations in lesion identification and image selection, and the performance of the system on different patient populations was investigated by evaluating its performance on a database consisting solely of patients with Asian ethnicity. The analyses performed here indicate that the breast ultrasound CAD system under investigation is robust and demonstrates only minor variability when subjected to "real-world" use. All of these results are

  19. Data Mining in HIV-AIDS Surveillance System : Application to Portuguese Data.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Alexandra; Faria, Brígida Mónica; Gaio, A Rita; Reis, Luís Paulo

    2017-04-01

    The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is an infectious agent that attacks the immune system cells. Without a strong immune system, the body becomes very susceptible to serious life threatening opportunistic diseases. In spite of the great progresses on medication and prevention over the last years, HIV infection continues to be a major global public health issue, having claimed more than 36 million lives over the last 35 years since the recognition of the disease. Monitoring, through registries, of HIV-AIDS cases is vital to assess general health care needs and to support long-term health-policy control planning. Surveillance systems are therefore established in almost all developed countries. Typically, this is a complex system depending on several stakeholders, such as health care providers, the general population and laboratories, which challenges an efficient and effective reporting of diagnosed cases. One issue that often arises is the administrative delay in reports of diagnosed cases. This paper aims to identify the main factors influencing reporting delays of HIV-AIDS cases within the portuguese surveillance system. The used methodologies included multilayer artificial neural networks (MLP), naive bayesian classifiers (NB), support vector machines (SVM) and the k-nearest neighbor algorithm (KNN). The highest classification accuracy, precision and recall were obtained for MLP and the results suggested homogeneous administrative and clinical practices within the reporting process. Guidelines for reductions of the delays should therefore be developed nationwise and transversally to all stakeholders.

  20. Hearing loss and the central auditory system: Implications for hearing aids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisina, Robert D.

    2003-04-01

    Hearing loss can result from disorders or damage to the ear (peripheral auditory system) or the brain (central auditory system). Here, the basic structure and function of the central auditory system will be highlighted as relevant to cases of permanent hearing loss where assistive devices (hearing aids) are called for. The parts of the brain used for hearing are altered in two basic ways in instances of hearing loss: (1) Damage to the ear can reduce the number and nature of input channels that the brainstem receives from the ear, causing plasticity of the central auditory system. This plasticity may partially compensate for the peripheral loss, or add new abnormalities such as distorted speech processing or tinnitus. (2) In some situations, damage to the brain can occur independently of the ear, as may occur in cases of head trauma, tumors or aging. Implications of deficits to the central auditory system for speech perception in noise, hearing aid use and future innovative circuit designs will be provided to set the stage for subsequent presentations in this special educational session. [Work supported by NIA-NIH Grant P01 AG09524 and the International Center for Hearing & Speech Research, Rochester, NY.

  1. Computer-aided design and distributed system technology development for large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Ernest S.; Joshi, Suresh M.

    1986-01-01

    Proposed large space structures have many characteristics that make them difficult to analyze and control. They are highly flexible, with components mathematically modeled by partial differential equations or very large systems of ordinary differential equations. They have many resonant frequencies, typically low and closely spaced. Natural damping may be low and/or improperly modeled. Coupled with stringent operational requirements of orientation, shape control, and vibration suppression, and the inability to perform adequate ground testing, these characteristics present an unconventional identification and control design problem to the systems theorist. Some of the research underway within Langley's Spacecraft Control Branch, Guidance and Control Division aimed at developing theory and algorithms to treat large space structures systems identification and control problems is described. The research areas to be considered are computer-aided design algorithms, and systems identification and control of distributed systems.

  2. Genalogical approaches to ethical implications of informational assimilative integrated discovery systems (AIDS) in business

    SciTech Connect

    Pharhizgar, K.D.; Lunce, S.E.

    1994-12-31

    Development of knowledge-based technological acquisition techniques and customers` information profiles are known as assimilative integrated discovery systems (AIDS) in modern organizations. These systems have access through processing to both deep and broad domains of information in modern societies. Through these systems organizations and individuals can predict future trend probabilities and events concerning their customers. AIDSs are new techniques which produce new information which informants can use without the help of the knowledge sources because of the existence of highly sophisticated computerized networks. This paper has analyzed the danger and side effects of misuse of information through the illegal, unethical and immoral access to the data-base in an integrated and assimilative information system as described above. Cognivistic mapping, pragmatistic informational design gathering, and holistic classifiable and distributive techniques are potentially abusive systems whose outputs can be easily misused by businesses when researching the firm`s customers.

  3. Clinical decision support systems and computer-aided diagnosis in otology.

    PubMed

    Goggin, Leigh S; Eikelboom, Robert H; Atlas, Marcus D

    2007-04-01

    We reviewed the progress of the implementation of expert diagnostic systems in the field of otology. We conducted a review of the literature at a research institute. The utilization of expert diagnostic systems in otology is very limited. Previous applications focused primarily upon the diagnosis of vertiginous disorders with the use of deterministic algorithms and, more recently, with adaptive algorithms such as neural networks. Expert systems provide greater diagnostic accuracy to physicians across a wide range of medical specialties. The success of such a system depends upon the strength of its reasoning algorithm, the validity of its knowledge base, and its ease of use. There have been no attempts to develop an adaptive expert system for the full range of otological conditions. Such a tool may be of great use to physicians as a diagnostic aid and educational resource, particularly for those located in isolated sites.

  4. The auxin-inducible degradation (AID) system enables versatile conditional protein depletion in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangyu; Ward, Jordan D; Cheng, Ze; Dernburg, Abby F

    2015-12-15

    Experimental manipulation of protein abundance in living cells or organisms is an essential strategy for investigation of biological regulatory mechanisms. Whereas powerful techniques for protein expression have been developed in Caenorhabditis elegans, existing tools for conditional disruption of protein function are far more limited. To address this, we have adapted the auxin-inducible degradation (AID) system discovered in plants to enable conditional protein depletion in C. elegans. We report that expression of a modified Arabidopsis TIR1 F-box protein mediates robust auxin-dependent depletion of degron-tagged targets. We document the effectiveness of this system for depletion of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins in diverse somatic and germline tissues throughout development. Target proteins were depleted in as little as 20-30 min, and their expression could be re-established upon auxin removal. We have engineered strains expressing TIR1 under the control of various promoter and 3' UTR sequences to drive tissue-specific or temporally regulated expression. The degron tag can be efficiently introduced by CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing. We have harnessed this system to explore the roles of dynamically expressed nuclear hormone receptors in molting, and to analyze meiosis-specific roles for proteins required for germ line proliferation. Together, our results demonstrate that the AID system provides a powerful new tool for spatiotemporal regulation and analysis of protein function in a metazoan model organism. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. The Master Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    Curran, James R.

    2013-01-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  6. In-flight angular alignment of inertial navigation systems by means of radio aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, W.

    1972-01-01

    The principles involved in the angular alignment of the inertial reference by nondirectional data from radio aids are developed and compared with conventional methods of alignment such as gyro-compassing and pendulous vertical determination. The specific problem is considered of the space shuttle reentry and a proposed technique for the alignment of the inertial reference system some time before landing. A description is given of the digital simulation of a transponder interrogation system and of its interaction with the inertial navigation system. Data from reentry simulations are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of in-flight inertial system alignment. Concluding remarks refer to other potential applications such as space shuttle orbit insertion and air navigation of conventional aircraft.

  7. Computer-Aided Diagnosis System for Alzheimer's Disease Using Different Discrete Transform Techniques.

    PubMed

    Dessouky, Mohamed M; Elrashidy, Mohamed A; Taha, Taha E; Abdelkader, Hatem M

    2016-05-01

    The different discrete transform techniques such as discrete cosine transform (DCT), discrete sine transform (DST), discrete wavelet transform (DWT), and mel-scale frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) are powerful feature extraction techniques. This article presents a proposed computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for extracting the most effective and significant features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) using these different discrete transform techniques and MFCC techniques. Linear support vector machine has been used as a classifier in this article. Experimental results conclude that the proposed CAD system using MFCC technique for AD recognition has a great improvement for the system performance with small number of significant extracted features, as compared with the CAD system based on DCT, DST, DWT, and the hybrid combination methods of the different transform techniques.

  8. Laser experimental system as teaching aid for demonstrating basic phenomena of laser feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ling; Zhao, Shijie; Zhang, Shulian

    2015-03-01

    An experimental laser teaching system is developed to demonstrate laser feedback phenomena, which bring great harm to optical communication and benefits to precision measurement. The system consists of an orthogonally polarized He-Ne laser, a feedback mirror which reflects the laser output light into the laser cavity, and an optical attenuator which changes the intensity of the feedback light. As the feedback mirror is driven by a piezoelectric ceramic, the attenuator is adjusted and the feedback mirror is tilted, the system can demonstrate many basic laser feedback phenomena, including weak, moderate and strong optical feedback, multiple feedback and polarization flipping. Demonstrations of these phenomena can give students a better understanding about the intensity and polarization of lasers. The system is well designed and assembled, simple to operate, and provides a valuable teaching aid at an undergraduate level.

  9. A Model for Integrating a Job-Aiding, Training, and Performance Assessment System--A Preliminary Concept Paper. Final Technical Paper for Period June-August 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Charles R., Jr.; Lester, Mark

    This paper presents a model for an integrated system used for job-aiding, training, and performance assessment for persons who maintain systems of various types. The model is driven by updatable job aids, by integrated human-machine heuristics, and by an expanding matrix of maintenance activities. The model uses the job-aiding base, updated by…

  10. Error analysis for relay type satellite-aided search and rescue systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marini, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    An analysis is made of the errors in the determination of the position of an emergency transmitter in a satellite-aided search and rescue system. The satellite is assumed to be at a height of 820 km in a near-circular near polar orbit. Short data spans of four minutes or less are used. The error sources considered are measurement noise, transmitter frequency drift, ionospheric effects, and error in the assumed height of the transmitter. The errors are calculated for several different transmitter positions, data rates, and data spans. The only transmitter frequency used was 406 MHz, but the result can be scaled to different frequencies.

  11. Pharmacokinetics and expert systems as aids for risk assessment in reproductive toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Mattison, D.R.; Jelovsek, F.R.

    1987-12-01

    A minimal approach to risk assessment in reproductive toxicology involves four components: hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure characterization, and risk characterization. In practice, risk assessment in reproductive toxicology has been reduced to arbitrary safety factors or mathematical models of the dose-response relationship. These approaches obscure biological differences across species rather than using this important and frequently accessible information. Two approaches that are formally capable of using biologically relevant information (pharmacokinetics and expert system shells) are explored as aids to risk assessment in reproductive toxicology.

  12. Vector Observation-Aided/Attitude-Rate Estimation Using Global Positioning System Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oshman, Yaakov; Markley, F. Landis

    1997-01-01

    A sequential filtering algorithm is presented for attitude and attitude-rate estimation from Global Positioning System (GPS) differential carrier phase measurements. A third-order, minimal-parameter method for solving the attitude matrix kinematic equation is used to parameterize the filter's state, which renders the resulting estimator computationally efficient. Borrowing from tracking theory concepts, the angular acceleration is modeled as an exponentially autocorrelated stochastic process, thus avoiding the use of the uncertain spacecraft dynamic model. The new formulation facilitates the use of aiding vector observations in a unified filtering algorithm, which can enhance the method's robustness and accuracy. Numerical examples are used to demonstrate the performance of the method.

  13. Pharmacokinetics and expert systems as aids for risk assessment in reproductive toxicology.

    PubMed Central

    Mattison, D R; Jelovsek, F R

    1987-01-01

    A minimal approach to risk assessment in reproductive toxicology involves four components: hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure characterization, and risk characterization. In practice, risk assessment in reproductive toxicology has been reduced to arbitrary safety factors or mathematical models of the dose-response relationship. These approaches obscure biological differences across species rather than using this important and frequently accessible information. Two approaches that are formally capable of using biologically relevant information (pharmacokinetics and expert system shells) are explored as aids to risk assessment in reproductive toxicology. PMID:3447888

  14. The research on and application of detecting technology in car intelligent video-aided driving system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuelin; Sun, Liangbo; Lu, Chong

    2011-08-01

    Analyze the advantages and disadvantages and applying condition of the existing object detecting algorithm, aims to body's variation and real-time and dynamic, combing with Histogram of Gradient statistic method, classify organ of level-connect mechanism and leaning algorithm based on Adaboost of face-detecting Boosted Cascad algorithm, to realize the object detect in car aided driving system. References the sift algorithm rationale and algorithm tracing steability to match and trace the object by characteristic in local area, eliminate the unuse information, simple the search area and speed the tracing. By practical video testing, this method does well in passengers and cars real-time detecting and tracing.

  15. Computer-based clinical decision aids. A review of methods and assessment of systems.

    PubMed

    Reisman, Y

    1996-01-01

    During the last three decades a great deal of research has been devoted to the development of integrated clinical decision support systems. This report aims to give a basic understanding of what is required for such a system. By means of a large literature study a survey is given of the major components of computer-based clinical aid systems. The main approaches and several aspects of evaluation of such programs are described. The computer has several inherent capabilities which are suitable for medical problem solving and can help in the formalization of medical knowledge. The components of such systems include the computer database, the reasoning engine and the user interface. The different approaches on which the reasoning engine is built are based on manipulation of information and advocate the use of knowledge to construct a solution to a problem. The information in the mode vary from data-intensive to knowledge-intensive. Assessment of decision support systems is a very important phase in the development of such systems. Evaluation should be made on the accuracy of the program, the nature of the system, the use of the data and the acceptance by the target users. Whatever the model is, its effectiveness will depend on the data with which the program has to work. Acceptance by physicians depends among other things on ease of use of the user interface. Profound changes in the delivery of health care will be induced through the rapid growth of on-line computer communication together with the development of integrated clinical decision support systems and electronic medical records. Notwithstanding the rapid growth of computer technology, computer-aided decision making is in its infancy and real support in daily practice is not yet achieved.

  16. Velocity-Aided Attitude Estimation for Helicopter Aircraft Using Microelectromechanical System Inertial-Measurement Units

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Cheol; Hong, Sung Kyung

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for velocity-aided attitude estimation for helicopter aircraft using a microelectromechanical system inertial-measurement unit. In general, high- performance gyroscopes are used for estimating the attitude of a helicopter, but this type of sensor is very expensive. When designing a cost-effective attitude system, attitude can be estimated by fusing a low cost accelerometer and a gyro, but the disadvantage of this method is its relatively low accuracy. The accelerometer output includes a component that occurs primarily as the aircraft turns, as well as the gravitational acceleration. When estimating attitude, the accelerometer measurement terms other than gravitational ones can be considered as disturbances. Therefore, errors increase in accordance with the flight dynamics. The proposed algorithm is designed for using velocity as an aid for high accuracy at low cost. It effectively eliminates the disturbances of accelerometer measurements using the airspeed. The algorithm was verified using helicopter experimental data. The algorithm performance was confirmed through a comparison with an attitude estimate obtained from an attitude heading reference system based on a high accuracy optic gyro, which was employed as core attitude equipment in the helicopter. PMID:27973429

  17. Velocity-Aided Attitude Estimation for Helicopter Aircraft Using Microelectromechanical System Inertial-Measurement Units.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Cheol; Hong, Sung Kyung

    2016-12-11

    This paper presents an algorithm for velocity-aided attitude estimation for helicopter aircraft using a microelectromechanical system inertial-measurement unit. In general, high- performance gyroscopes are used for estimating the attitude of a helicopter, but this type of sensor is very expensive. When designing a cost-effective attitude system, attitude can be estimated by fusing a low cost accelerometer and a gyro, but the disadvantage of this method is its relatively low accuracy. The accelerometer output includes a component that occurs primarily as the aircraft turns, as well as the gravitational acceleration. When estimating attitude, the accelerometer measurement terms other than gravitational ones can be considered as disturbances. Therefore, errors increase in accordance with the flight dynamics. The proposed algorithm is designed for using velocity as an aid for high accuracy at low cost. It effectively eliminates the disturbances of accelerometer measurements using the airspeed. The algorithm was verified using helicopter experimental data. The algorithm performance was confirmed through a comparison with an attitude estimate obtained from an attitude heading reference system based on a high accuracy optic gyro, which was employed as core attitude equipment in the helicopter.

  18. ACSYNT - A standards-based system for parametric, computer aided conceptual design of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayaram, S.; Myklebust, A.; Gelhausen, P.

    1992-01-01

    A group of eight US aerospace companies together with several NASA and NAVY centers, led by NASA Ames Systems Analysis Branch, and Virginia Tech's CAD Laboratory agreed, through the assistance of Americal Technology Initiative, in 1990 to form the ACSYNT (Aircraft Synthesis) Institute. The Institute is supported by a Joint Sponsored Research Agreement to continue the research and development in computer aided conceptual design of aircraft initiated by NASA Ames Research Center and Virginia Tech's CAD Laboratory. The result of this collaboration, a feature-based, parametric computer aided aircraft conceptual design code called ACSYNT, is described. The code is based on analysis routines begun at NASA Ames in the early 1970's. ACSYNT's CAD system is based entirely on the ISO standard Programmer's Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System and is graphics-device independent. The code includes a highly interactive graphical user interface, automatically generated Hermite and B-Spline surface models, and shaded image displays. Numerous features to enhance aircraft conceptual design are described.

  19. Computer-Aided Modeling and Analysis of Power Processing Systems (CAMAPPS), phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, S.; Lee, J.; Cho, B. H.; Lee, F. C.

    1986-01-01

    The large-signal behaviors of a regulator depend largely on the type of power circuit topology and control. Thus, for maximum flexibility, it is best to develop models for each functional block a independent modules. A regulator can then be configured by collecting appropriate pre-defined modules for each functional block. In order to complete the component model generation for a comprehensive spacecraft power system, the following modules were developed: solar array switching unit and control; shunt regulators; and battery discharger. The capability of each module is demonstrated using a simplified Direct Energy Transfer (DET) system. Large-signal behaviors of solar array power systems were analyzed. Stability of the solar array system operating points with a nonlinear load is analyzed. The state-plane analysis illustrates trajectories of the system operating point under various conditions. Stability and transient responses of the system operating near the solar array's maximum power point are also analyzed. The solar array system mode of operation is described using the DET spacecraft power system. The DET system is simulated for various operating conditions. Transfer of the software program CAMAPPS (Computer Aided Modeling and Analysis of Power Processing Systems) to NASA/GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center) was accomplished.

  20. The development of expertise using an intelligent computer-aided training system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Debra Steele

    1991-01-01

    An initial examination was conducted of an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) developed for use in industry. The ITS, developed by NASA, simulated a satellite deployment task. More specifically, the PD (Payload Assist Module Deployment)/ICAT (Intelligent Computer Aided Training) System simulated a nominal Payload Assist Module (PAM) deployment. The development of expertise on this task was examined using three Flight Dynamics Officer (FDO) candidates who has no previous experience with this task. The results indicated that performance improved rapidly until Trial 5, followed by more gradual improvements through Trial 12. The performance dimensions measured included performance speed, actions completed, errors, help required, and display fields checked. Suggestions for further refining the software and for deciding when to expose trainees to more difficult task scenarios are discussed. Further, the results provide an initial demonstration of the effectiveness of the PD/ICAT system in training the nominal PAM deployment task and indicate the potential benefits of using ITS's for training other FDO tasks.

  1. Computer-aided system for morphometric mandibular index computation (Using dental panoramic radiographs)

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-López, Jose M.; Jané-Salas, Enrique; Estrugo-Devesa, Albert; Ayuso-Montero, Raul; Velasco-Ortega, Eugenio; Segura-Egea, Juan J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We propose and validate a computer—aided system to measure three different mandibular indexes: cortical width, panoramic mandibular index and, mandibular alveolar bone resorption index. Study Design: Repeatability and reproducibility of the measurements are analyzed and compared to the manual estimation of the same indexes. Results: The proposed computerized system exhibits superior repeatability and reproducibility rates compared to standard manual methods. Moreover, the time required to perform the measurements using the proposed method is negligible compared to perform the measurements manually. Conclusions: We have proposed a very user friendly computerized method to measure three different morphometric mandibular indexes. From the results we can conclude that the system provides a practical manner to perform these measurements. It does not require an expert examiner and does not take more than 16 seconds per analysis. Thus, it may be suitable to diagnose osteoporosis using dental panoramic radiographs. Key words:Osteoporosis, panoramic mandibular index, cortical width, mandibular alveolar bone resorption index. PMID:22322489

  2. Java interface to a computer-aided diagnosis system for acute pulmonary embolism using PIOPED findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederick, Erik D.; Tourassi, Georgia D.; Gauger, Matthew; Floyd, Carey E., Jr.

    1999-05-01

    An interface to a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system for diagnosis of Acute Pulmonary Embolism (PE) from PIOPED radiographic findings was developed. The interface is based on Internet technology which is user-friendly and available on a broad range of computing platforms. It was designed to be used as a research tool and as a data collection tool, allowing researchers to observe the behavior of a CAD system and to collect radiographic findings on ventilation-perfusion lung scans and chest radiographs. The interface collects findings from physicians in the PIOPED reporting format, processes those findings and presents them as inputs to an artificial neural network (ANN) previously trained on findings from 1,064 patients from the Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis (PIOPED) study. The likelihood of PE predicted by the ANN and by the physician using the system is then saved for later analysis.

  3. Virtual environment and computer-aided technologies used for system prototyping and requirements development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Cory; Maida, James; Goldsby, Michael; Clark, Jim; Wu, Liew; Prenger, Henk

    1993-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom (SSF) Data Management System (DMS) consists of distributed hardware and software which monitor and control the many onboard systems. Virtual environment and off-the-shelf computer technologies can be used at critical points in project development to aid in objectives and requirements development. Geometric models (images) coupled with off-the-shelf hardware and software technologies were used in The Space Station Mockup and Trainer Facility (SSMTF) Crew Operational Assessment Project. Rapid prototyping is shown to be a valuable tool for operational procedure and system hardware and software requirements development. The project objectives, hardware and software technologies used, data gained, current activities, future development and training objectives shall be discussed. The importance of defining prototyping objectives and staying focused while maintaining schedules are discussed along with project pitfalls.

  4. An IMM-Aided ZUPT Methodology for an INS/DVL Integrated Navigation System.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yiqing; Xu, Xiaosu; Xu, Xiang

    2017-09-05

    Inertial navigation system (INS)/Doppler velocity log (DVL) integration is the most common navigation solution for underwater vehicles. Due to the complex underwater environment, the velocity information provided by DVL always contains some errors. To improve navigation accuracy, zero velocity update (ZUPT) technology is considered, which is an effective algorithm for land vehicles to mitigate the navigation error during the pure INS mode. However, in contrast to ground vehicles, the ZUPT solution cannot be used directly for underwater vehicles because of the existence of the water current. In order to leverage the strengths of the ZUPT method and the INS/DVL solution, an interactive multiple model (IMM)-aided ZUPT methodology for the INS/DVL-integrated underwater navigation system is proposed. Both the INS/DVL and INS/ZUPT models are constructed and operated in parallel, with weights calculated according to their innovations and innovation covariance matrices. Simulations are conducted to evaluate the proposed algorithm. The results indicate that the IMM-aided ZUPT solution outperforms both the INS/DVL solution and the INS/ZUPT solution in the underwater environment, which can properly distinguish between the ZUPT and non-ZUPT conditions. In addition, during DVL outage, the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is also verified.

  5. Mathematical and Numerical Analysis of Model Equations on Interactions of the HIV/AIDS Virus and the Immune System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parumasur, N.; Willie, R.

    2008-09-01

    We consider a simple HIV/AIDs finite dimensional mathematical model on interactions of the blood cells, the HIV/AIDs virus and the immune system for consistence of the equations to the real biomedical situation that they model. A better understanding to a cure solution to the illness modeled by the finite dimensional equations is given. This is accomplished through rigorous mathematical analysis and is reinforced by numerical analysis of models developed for real life cases.

  6. Operator function modeling: Cognitive task analysis, modeling and intelligent aiding in supervisory control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Christine M.

    1990-01-01

    The design, implementation, and empirical evaluation of task-analytic models and intelligent aids for operators in the control of complex dynamic systems, specifically aerospace systems, are studied. Three related activities are included: (1) the models of operator decision making in complex and predominantly automated space systems were used and developed; (2) the Operator Function Model (OFM) was used to represent operator activities; and (3) Operator Function Model Expert System (OFMspert), a stand-alone knowledge-based system was developed, that interacts with a human operator in a manner similar to a human assistant in the control of aerospace systems. OFMspert is an architecture for an operator's assistant that uses the OFM as its system and operator knowledge base and a blackboard paradigm of problem solving to dynamically generate expectations about upcoming operator activities and interpreting actual operator actions. An experiment validated the OFMspert's intent inferencing capability and showed that it inferred the intentions of operators in ways comparable to both a human expert and operators themselves. OFMspert was also augmented with control capabilities. An interface allowed the operator to interact with OFMspert, delegating as much or as little control responsibility as the operator chose. With its design based on the OFM, OFMspert's control capabilities were available at multiple levels of abstraction and allowed the operator a great deal of discretion over the amount and level of delegated control. An experiment showed that overall system performance was comparable for teams consisting of two human operators versus a human operator and OFMspert team.

  7. Harnessing Polypharmacology with Computer-Aided Drug Design and Systems Biology.

    PubMed

    Wathieu, Henri; Issa, Naiem T; Byers, Stephen W; Dakshanamurthy, Sivanesan

    2016-01-01

    The ascent of polypharmacology in drug development has many implications for disease therapy, most notably in the efforts of drug discovery, drug repositioning, precision medicine and combination therapy. The single- target approach to drug development has encountered difficulties in predicting drugs that are both clinically efficacious and avoid toxicity. By contrast, polypharmacology offers the possibility of a controlled distribution of effects on a biological system. This review addresses possibilities and bottlenecks in the efficient computational application of polypharmacology. The two major areas we address are the discovery and prediction of multiple protein targets using the tools of computer-aided drug design, and the use of these protein targets in predicting therapeutic potential in the context of biological networks. The successful application of polypharmacology to systems biology and pharmacology has the potential to markedly accelerate the pace of development of novel therapies for multiple diseases, and has implications for the intellectual property landscape, likely requiring targeted changes in patent law.

  8. A system for evaluating the use of media in CDC's National AIDS Information and Education Program.

    PubMed Central

    Salmon, C T; Jason, J

    1991-01-01

    The National AIDS Information and Education Program (NAIEP) commissioned the National Academy of Sciences to design a prototypical system of research for use in the evaluation of the agency's media campaign. It consists of four types of evaluation: formative, efficacy, process, and outcome. These types of evaluations are used to answer such questions as the following: What message strategies will work best? Can a campaign under optimal conditions be expected to make a difference? What interventions are actually delivered during the campaign? Has the campaign actually had an impact? How NAIEP has used the system and adapted it during 1 year of research activities is outlined, and examples from a variety of other social marketing programs are described. PMID:1659710

  9. Adapting Logistics Models to a Microcomputer for Interface with Computer-Aided Design Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    the Apple computer (CAD-Apple System by T&W & ..... ..................- Systems) and the IBM-PC (MtcroCAD by Computer Aided Design, AutoCAD by Autodesk ...NDOSER 9 DOE 1 I C 122 CDOSE 11 SCAL 68 2 C 123 CFD 11 SCAL 69 2 C 124 POT 11 SCAL 70 1 C 125 DPT 11 SCAL 71 1 C 126 DRCT 4 RUIN 6 2 C 127 CTFS 11 SCAL 73...15) CYSS VS-b - 41) NOT USED -67) ND C - 16) FJ6 - 42) PTT -69) CD9E C VS-3 - 17) NN - 43) CAC2 69) CFD C - 19) NMMKW - 44) OSCY -70) POT C - 19

  10. Interactive Image Processing As An Aid To Designing Robot Vision Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, B. G.; Cotter, S. M.; Page, G. J.; Hopkins, S. H.

    1983-10-01

    Interactive image processing has proved to be a valuable aid to prototype development for industrial inspection systems. This paper advocates extending its use to exploratory analysis of robot vision applications. Preliminary studies have shown that it is equally effective in this role, although it is not usually possible to achieve the computational speeds needed for real-time control of the robot using a software-based image processor. Its use, as in inspection research, is likely to be limited to algorithm design/selection. The Autoview image processor (British Robotic Systems Ltd.) has recently been interfaced to a Placemate 5 robot (Pendar Robotics Ltd.) and further programmable manipulation devices, including an xy-coordinate table and a stepping turntable are currently being connected. Using these and similar devices, research will be conducted into such tasks as assembly, Dalletisinq and robot-assisted inspection.

  11. Design and development of computer-aided chemical systems: representation and balance of inorganic chemical reactions

    PubMed

    Ruiz; Martinez-Pedrajas; Gomez-Nieto

    2000-05-01

    A model for the tracking of inorganic chemical reactions is proposed. Designed to acquire, process, and solve a great number of inorganic reactions, this model will hopefully contribute to the development of powerful computer-aided chemistry teaching systems for use within or without the environment of a virtual laboratory. Using full representation of an inorganic reaction to allow the extraction of chemical knowledge, incomplete reactions (where species are absent) may be completed by adding the necessary species, and reactions may be solved and balanced. Various types of reaction are classified, and a layer-based model is defined for the solution of different reaction types, establishing the basis for the construction of a system which, based on a wide set of production rules, is capable of solving an incomplete inorganic chemical reaction.

  12. Computer Aided Diagnostic Support System for Skin Cancer: A Review of Techniques and Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Masood, Ammara; Al-Jumaily, Adel Ali

    2013-01-01

    Image-based computer aided diagnosis systems have significant potential for screening and early detection of malignant melanoma. We review the state of the art in these systems and examine current practices, problems, and prospects of image acquisition, pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction and selection, and classification of dermoscopic images. This paper reports statistics and results from the most important implementations reported to date. We compared the performance of several classifiers specifically developed for skin lesion diagnosis and discussed the corresponding findings. Whenever available, indication of various conditions that affect the technique's performance is reported. We suggest a framework for comparative assessment of skin cancer diagnostic models and review the results based on these models. The deficiencies in some of the existing studies are highlighted and suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:24575126

  13. A system for evaluating the use of media in CDC's National AIDS Information and Education Program.

    PubMed

    Salmon, C T; Jason, J

    1991-01-01

    The National AIDS Information and Education Program (NAIEP) commissioned the National Academy of Sciences to design a prototypical system of research for use in the evaluation of the agency's media campaign. It consists of four types of evaluation: formative, efficacy, process, and outcome. These types of evaluations are used to answer such questions as the following: What message strategies will work best? Can a campaign under optimal conditions be expected to make a difference? What interventions are actually delivered during the campaign? Has the campaign actually had an impact? How NAIEP has used the system and adapted it during 1 year of research activities is outlined, and examples from a variety of other social marketing programs are described.

  14. Robot Arm Control and Having Meal Aid System with Eye Based Human-Computer Interaction (HCI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Kohei; Mardiyanto, Ronny

    Robot arm control and having meal aid system with eye based HCI is proposed. The proposed system allows disabled person to select desirable food from the meal tray by their eyes only. Robot arm which is used for retrieving the desirable food is controlled by human eye. At the tip of the robot arm, tiny camera is equipped. Disabled person wear a glass of which a single Head Mount Display: HMD and tiny camera is mounted so that disabled person can take a look at the desired food and retrieve it by looking at the food displayed onto HMD. Experimental results show that disabled person can retrieve the desired food successfully. It also is confirmed that robot arm control by eye based HCI is much faster than that by hands.

  15. Towards Building a Computer Aided Education System for Special Students Using Wearable Sensor Technologies.

    PubMed

    Mehmood, Raja Majid; Lee, Hyo Jong

    2017-02-08

    Human computer interaction is a growing field in terms of helping people in their daily life to improve their living. Especially, people with some disability may need an interface which is more appropriate and compatible with their needs. Our research is focused on similar kinds of problems, such as students with some mental disorder or mood disruption problems. To improve their learning process, an intelligent emotion recognition system is essential which has an ability to recognize the current emotional state of the brain. Nowadays, in special schools, instructors are commonly use some conventional methods for managing special students for educational purposes. In this paper, we proposed a novel computer aided method for instructors at special schools where they can teach special students with the support of our system using wearable technologies.

  16. Towards Building a Computer Aided Education System for Special Students Using Wearable Sensor Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Mehmood, Raja Majid; Lee, Hyo Jong

    2017-01-01

    Human computer interaction is a growing field in terms of helping people in their daily life to improve their living. Especially, people with some disability may need an interface which is more appropriate and compatible with their needs. Our research is focused on similar kinds of problems, such as students with some mental disorder or mood disruption problems. To improve their learning process, an intelligent emotion recognition system is essential which has an ability to recognize the current emotional state of the brain. Nowadays, in special schools, instructors are commonly use some conventional methods for managing special students for educational purposes. In this paper, we proposed a novel computer aided method for instructors at special schools where they can teach special students with the support of our system using wearable technologies. PMID:28208734

  17. Horse-Expert: An aided expert system for diagnosing horse diseases.

    PubMed

    Qin, H; Xiao, J; Gao, X; Wang, H

    2016-12-01

    In contrast to the rapid development of the horse husbandry in China, the ability of horse veterinarians to diagnose diseases has not been improved and only a few domain experts have considerable expertise. At present, many expert systems have been developed for diseases diagnosis, but few for horse diseases diagnosis have been studied in depth. This paper presents the design and development of a computer-aided expert system for diagnosing horse diseases. We suggest an approach for diagnosis of horse diseases based on the analysis of diagnostic characteristics and the experiential knowledge of domain experts. It is based on using evidence-weighted uncertainty reasoning theory, which is a combination of evidence theory and an uncertainty pass algorithm of confidence factors. It enables drawing of inferences with atypical clinical signs and the uncertainty of the user's subjective understanding. It reduces the influence of subjective factors on diagnostic accuracy. The system utilizes a user friendly interface for users and requests a confidence factor from users when feedback is given to the system. Horse-Expert combines the confidence factors with weight factors assigned to clinical signs by experts during the knowledge acquisition process to make diagnostic conclusions. The system can diagnose 91 common horse diseases, and provides suggestions for appropriate treatment options. In addition, users can check the medical record through statistical charts. The system has been tested in seven demonstration areas of Xinjiang province in northwestern China. By constantly maintaining and updating the knowledge base, the system has potential application in veterinary practice.

  18. VIP: A knowledge-based design aid for the engineering of space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Steven M.; Bellman, Kirstie L.

    1990-01-01

    The Vehicles Implementation Project (VIP), a knowledge-based design aid for the engineering of space systems is described. VIP combines qualitative knowledge in the form of rules, quantitative knowledge in the form of equations, and other mathematical modeling tools. The system allows users rapidly to develop and experiment with models of spacecraft system designs. As information becomes available to the system, appropriate equations are solved symbolically and the results are displayed. Users may browse through the system, observing dependencies and the effects of altering specific parameters. The system can also suggest approaches to the derivation of specific parameter values. In addition to providing a tool for the development of specific designs, VIP aims at increasing the user's understanding of the design process. Users may rapidly examine the sensitivity of a given parameter to others in the system and perform tradeoffs or optimizations of specific parameters. A second major goal of VIP is to integrate the existing corporate knowledge base of models and rules into a central, symbolic form.

  19. Anonymous reporting of HIV infection: an evaluation of the HIV/AIDS surveillance system in Norway 1983-2000.

    PubMed

    Aavitsland, P; Nilsen, O; Lystad, A

    2001-01-01

    Several European countries are considering implementing surveillance systems for HIV infection, but questions remain regarding patient confidentiality. The population-based HIV/AIDS surveillance system in Norway integrates anonymous HIV case reports from laboratories and clinicians and named AIDS case reports. This evaluation includes a description of the system, evidence of system attributes, estimation of resources for system operations, and documentation of the system's usefulness. HIV case reports provide a far better picture of the epidemic than AIDS reports. The median delay between positive HIV test and reporting was 30 days (interquartile range 18-49 days). Completeness of demographic and epidemiologic information in the surveillance database ranges from 60 to 100%. Information on pre-AIDS mortality and emigration is incomplete. The system cost euro 25,200 in 1999. Results are published every week and used for planning of health care and prevention. We conclude that the Norwegian surveillance system with anonymous reporting of HIV cases is simple, inexpensive and flexible, and capable of providing a representative and timely overview that guides prevention. The system fulfils its objectives while respecting confidentiality and adhering to ethical principles. A similar system may be considered in other countries.

  20. Computer-aided detection of breast masses on mammograms: performance improvement using a dual system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jun; Sahiner, Berkman; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Helvie, Mark A.; Roubidoux, Marilyn A.; Petrick, Nicholas; Ge, Jun; Zhou, Chuan

    2005-04-01

    We have developed a computer-aided detection (CAD) system for breast masses on mammograms. In this study, our purpose was to improve the performance of our mass detection system by using a new dual system approach which combines a CAD system optimized with "average" masses with another CAD system optimized with subtle masses. The latter system is trained to provide high sensitivity in detecting subtle masses. For an unknown mammogram, the two systems are used in parallel to detect suspicious objects. A feed-forward backpropagation neural network trained to merge the scores of the two linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifiers from the two systems makes the final decision in differentiation of true masses from normal tissue. A data set of 86 patients containing 172 mammograms with biopsy-proven masses was partitioned into a training set and an independent test set. This data set is referred to as the average data set. A second data set of 214 prior mammograms was used for training the second CAD system for detection of subtle masses. When the single CAD system trained on the average data set was applied to the test set, the Az for false positive (FP) classification was 0.81 and the FP rates were 2.1, 1.5 and 1.3 FPs/image at the case-based sensitivities of 95%, 90% and 85%, respectively. With the dual CAD system, the Az was 0.85 and the FP rates were improved to 1.7, 1.2 and 0.8 FPs/image at the same case-based sensitivities. Our results indicate that the dual CAD system can improve the performance of mass detection on mammograms.

  1. Lead-acid batteries in solar photovoltaic power systems for marine aids to navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenchard, S. E.

    1981-10-01

    Since 1974, the U.S. Coast Guard has been testing lead-acid batteries in solar photovoltaic-powered systems for aids to navigation. Three types of lead-acid batteries, distinguished by the composition of their grid material, have been tested: lead-antimony grid, lead-calcium grid, and pure-lead grid. This report contains a comparison of the charging characteristics and the charge-discharge cycling behavior of each grid type. All types were remarkably similar qualitatively in their daily as well as annual cycling behavior but the significance of the quantitative differences offer distinctive tradeoffs. This report presents models for water usage, depth-of-discharge, and post-cycle capacity for various levels of voltage regulation. Based on the post-cycle capacity tests, the effect of grid strength, grid thickness, and operating conditions on life expectancy are presented. A final discussion presents the results of a field deployment of solar photovoltaic-powered aids to navigation in the Miami, Florida area. Potential solutions to the battery terminal corrosion and bird guano problems observed are discussed.

  2. A Profiling System for the Assessment of Individual Needs for Rehabilitation With Hearing Aids

    PubMed Central

    de Ronde-Brons, I.

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the development of a profiling system to specify the needs of hearing-aid candidates. As a basis for the profile of compensation needs, we used a slightly modified version of the Amsterdam Inventory of Disability and Handicap, combined with the well-known Client-Oriented Scale of Improvement (COSI). The first questionnaire results in scores for six audiological dimensions: detection, speech in quiet, speech in noise, localization, focus or discrimination, and noise tolerance. The goal of this study was to determine whether the six dimensions derived from the disability questionnaire are appropriate to also categorize individual COSI targets. The results show a good agreement between eight audiologists in the categorization of COSI goals along the six dimensions. The results per dimension show that the dimension focus or discrimination can be regarded as superfluous. Possible additional dimensions were tinnitus and listening effort. The results indicate that it is possible to translate individual user needs (administered using COSI) into more general dimensions derived from a disability questionnaire. This allows to summarize the compensation needs for individual patients in a profile of general dimensions, based on the degree of disability and the individual user needs. This profile can be used as a starting point in hearing aid selection. This approach also offers a well-structured method for the evaluation of the postfitting results. PMID:27815547

  3. Computer-Aided Modelling and Analysis of PV Systems: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Koukouvaos, Charalambos

    2014-01-01

    Modern scientific advances have enabled remarkable efficacy for photovoltaic systems with regard to the exploitation of solar energy, boosting them into having a rapidly growing position among the systems developed for the production of renewable energy. However, in many cases the design, analysis, and control of photovoltaic systems are tasks which are quite complex and thus difficult to be carried out. In order to cope with this kind of problems, appropriate software tools have been developed either as standalone products or parts of general purpose software platforms used to model and simulate the generation, transmission, and distribution of solar energy. The utilization of this kind of software tools may be extremely helpful to the successful performance evaluation of energy systems with maximum accuracy and minimum cost in time and effort. The work presented in this paper aims on a first level at the performance analysis of various configurations of photovoltaic systems through computer-aided modelling. On a second level, it provides a comparative evaluation of the credibility of two of the most advanced graphical programming environments, namely, Simulink and LabVIEW, with regard to their application in photovoltaic systems. PMID:24772007

  4. The servicing aid tool: A teleoperated robotics system for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorman, Keith W.; Pullen, John L.; Keksz, William O.; Eismann, Paul H.; Kowalski, Keith A.; Karlen, James P.

    1994-01-01

    The Servicing Aid Tool (SAT) is a teleoperated, force-reflecting manipulation system designed for use on the Space Shuttle. The system will assist Extravehicular Activity (EVA) servicing of spacecraft such as the Hubble Space Telescope. The SAT stands out from other robotics development programs in that special attention was given to provide a low-cost, space-qualified design which can easily and inexpensively be reconfigured and/or enhanced through the addition of existing NASA funded technology as that technology matures. SAT components are spaceflight adaptations of existing ground-based designs from Robotics Research Corporation (RRC), the leading supplier of robotics systems to the NASA and university research community in the United States. Fairchild Space is the prime contractor and provides the control electronics, safety system, system integration, and qualification testing. The manipulator consists of a 6-DOF Slave Arm mounted on a 1-DOF Positioning Link in the shuttle payload bay. The Slave Arm is controlled via a highly similar, 6-DOF, force-reflecting Master Arm from Schilling Development, Inc. This work is being performed under contract to the Goddard Space Flight Center Code, Code 442, Hubble Space Telescope Flight Systems and Servicing Project.

  5. Effect of a computer-aided diagnosis system on radiologists' performance in grading gliomas with MRI

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Kevin Li-Chun; Tsai, Ruei-Je; Teng, Yu-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    The effects of a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system based on quantitative intensity features with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MRI) were evaluated by examining radiologists' performance in grading gliomas. The acquired MRI database included 71 lower-grade gliomas and 34 glioblastomas. Quantitative image features were extracted from the tumor area and combined in a CAD system to generate a prediction model. The effect of the CAD system was evaluated in a two-stage procedure. First, a radiologist performed a conventional reading. A sequential second reading was determined with a malignancy estimation by the CAD system. Each MR image was regularly read by one radiologist out of a group of three radiologists. The CAD system achieved an accuracy of 87% (91/105), a sensitivity of 79% (27/34), a specificity of 90% (64/71), and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az) of 0.89. In the evaluation, the radiologists’ Az values significantly improved from 0.81, 0.87, and 0.84 to 0.90, 0.90, and 0.88 with p = 0.0011, 0.0076, and 0.0167, respectively. Based on the MR image features, the proposed CAD system not only performed well in distinguishing glioblastomas from lower-grade gliomas but also provided suggestions about glioma grading to reinforce radiologists’ confidence rating. PMID:28158235

  6. Computer-aided modelling and analysis of PV systems: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Koukouvaos, Charalambos; Kandris, Dionisis; Samarakou, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Modern scientific advances have enabled remarkable efficacy for photovoltaic systems with regard to the exploitation of solar energy, boosting them into having a rapidly growing position among the systems developed for the production of renewable energy. However, in many cases the design, analysis, and control of photovoltaic systems are tasks which are quite complex and thus difficult to be carried out. In order to cope with this kind of problems, appropriate software tools have been developed either as standalone products or parts of general purpose software platforms used to model and simulate the generation, transmission, and distribution of solar energy. The utilization of this kind of software tools may be extremely helpful to the successful performance evaluation of energy systems with maximum accuracy and minimum cost in time and effort. The work presented in this paper aims on a first level at the performance analysis of various configurations of photovoltaic systems through computer-aided modelling. On a second level, it provides a comparative evaluation of the credibility of two of the most advanced graphical programming environments, namely, Simulink and LabVIEW, with regard to their application in photovoltaic systems.

  7. Effect of a computer-aided diagnosis system on radiologists' performance in grading gliomas with MRI.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Kevin Li-Chun; Tsai, Ruei-Je; Teng, Yu-Chuan; Lo, Chung-Ming

    2017-01-01

    The effects of a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system based on quantitative intensity features with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MRI) were evaluated by examining radiologists' performance in grading gliomas. The acquired MRI database included 71 lower-grade gliomas and 34 glioblastomas. Quantitative image features were extracted from the tumor area and combined in a CAD system to generate a prediction model. The effect of the CAD system was evaluated in a two-stage procedure. First, a radiologist performed a conventional reading. A sequential second reading was determined with a malignancy estimation by the CAD system. Each MR image was regularly read by one radiologist out of a group of three radiologists. The CAD system achieved an accuracy of 87% (91/105), a sensitivity of 79% (27/34), a specificity of 90% (64/71), and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az) of 0.89. In the evaluation, the radiologists' Az values significantly improved from 0.81, 0.87, and 0.84 to 0.90, 0.90, and 0.88 with p = 0.0011, 0.0076, and 0.0167, respectively. Based on the MR image features, the proposed CAD system not only performed well in distinguishing glioblastomas from lower-grade gliomas but also provided suggestions about glioma grading to reinforce radiologists' confidence rating.

  8. Flight evaluation of a computer aided low-altitude helicopter flight guidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, Harry N.; Jones, Raymond D.; Clark, Raymond

    1993-01-01

    The Flight Systems Development branch of the U.S. Army's Avionics Research and Development Activity (AVRADA) and NASA Ames Research Center developed for flight testing a Computer Aided Low-Altitude Helicopter Flight (CALAHF) guidance system. The system includes a trajectory-generation algorithm which uses dynamic programming and a helmet-mounted display (HMD) presentation of a pathway-in-the-sky, a phantom aircraft, and flight-path vector/predictor guidance symbology. The trajectory-generation algorithm uses knowledge of the global mission requirements, a digital terrain map, aircraft performance capabilities, and precision navigation information to determine a trajectory between mission waypoints that seeks valleys to minimize threat exposure. This system was developed and evaluated through extensive use of piloted simulation and has demonstrated a 'pilot centered' concept of automated and integrated navigation and terrain mission planning flight guidance. This system has shown a significant improvement in pilot situational awareness, and mission effectiveness as well as a decrease in training and proficiency time required for a near terrain, nighttime, adverse weather system.

  9. HIV/AIDS and Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... NIAID). /* // ** // */ Prevention Research Vaccines Microbicides Related Topics on AIDS.gov Clinical Trials Immune System 101 HIV Vaccine ... Be the Generation Last revised: 12/09/2016 AIDS.gov HIV/AIDS Basics • Federal Resources • Using New ...

  10. Flight evaluation of a computer aided low-altitude helicopter flight guidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, Harry N.; Jones, Raymond D.; Clark, Raymond

    1993-01-01

    The Flight Systems Development branch of the U.S. Army's Avionics Research and Development Activity (AVRADA) and NASA Ames Research Center have developed for flight testing a Computer Aided Low-Altitude Helicopter Flight (CALAHF) guidance system. The system includes a trajectory-generation algorithm which uses dynamic programming and a helmet-mounted display (HMD) presentation of a pathway-in-the-sky, a phantom aircraft, and flight-path vector/predictor guidance symbology. The trajectory-generation algorithm uses knowledge of the global mission requirements, a digital terrain map, aircraft performance capabilities, and precision navigation information to determine a trajectory between mission way points that seeks valleys to minimize threat exposure. This system was developed and evaluated through extensive use of piloted simulation and has demonstrated a 'pilot centered' concept of automated and integrated navigation and terrain mission planning flight guidance. This system has shown a significant improvement in pilot situational awareness, and mission effectiveness as well as a decrease in training and proficiency time required for a near terrain, nighttime, adverse weather system. AVRADA's NUH-60A STAR (Systems Testbed for Avionics Research) helicopter was specially modified, in house, for the flight evaluation of the CALAHF system. The near terrain trajectory generation algorithm runs on a multiprocessor flight computer. Global Positioning System (GPS) data are integrated with Inertial Navigation Unit (INU) data in the flight computer to provide a precise navigation solution. The near-terrain trajectory and the aircraft state information are passed to a Silicon Graphics computer to provide the graphical 'pilot centered' guidance, presented on a Honeywell Integrated Helmet And Display Sighting System (IHADSS). The system design, piloted simulation, and initial flight test results are presented.

  11. An interactive system for computer-aided diagnosis of breast masses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingwei; Li, Lihua; Liu, Wei; Xu, Weidong; Lederman, Dror; Zheng, Bin

    2012-10-01

    Although mammography is the only clinically accepted imaging modality for screening the general population to detect breast cancer, interpreting mammograms is difficult with lower sensitivity and specificity. To provide radiologists "a visual aid" in interpreting mammograms, we developed and tested an interactive system for computer-aided detection and diagnosis (CAD) of mass-like cancers. Using this system, an observer can view CAD-cued mass regions depicted on one image and then query any suspicious regions (either cued or not cued by CAD). CAD scheme automatically segments the suspicious region or accepts manually defined region and computes a set of image features. Using content-based image retrieval (CBIR) algorithm, CAD searches for a set of reference images depicting "abnormalities" similar to the queried region. Based on image retrieval results and a decision algorithm, a classification score is assigned to the queried region. In this study, a reference database with 1,800 malignant mass regions and 1,800 benign and CAD-generated false-positive regions was used. A modified CBIR algorithm with a new function of stretching the attributes in the multi-dimensional space and decision scheme was optimized using a genetic algorithm. Using a leave-one-out testing method to classify suspicious mass regions, we compared the classification performance using two CBIR algorithms with either equally weighted or optimally stretched attributes. Using the modified CBIR algorithm, the area under receiver operating characteristic curve was significantly increased from 0.865 ± 0.006 to 0.897 ± 0.005 (p < 0.001). This study demonstrated the feasibility of developing an interactive CAD system with a large reference database and achieving improved performance.

  12. Computer-Aided Personalized System of Instruction: An Effective and Economical Method for Short- and Long-Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pear, Joseph J.; Kinsner, W.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a computer program based on Keller's Personalized System of Instruction that has been used for on-campus and off-campus teaching by the University of Manitoba. Highlights include electronic mail, student attitudes and roles, costs, suggestions for future research, and examples from computer-aided personalized system of instruction…

  13. Effects of Computer-Aided Personalized System of Instruction in Developing Knowledge and Critical Thinking in Blended Learning Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svenningsen, Louis; Pear, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess an online version of Keller's personalized system of instruction, called computer-aided personalized system of instruction (CAPSI), as part of a blended learning design with regard to course knowledge and critical thinking development. In Experiment 1, two lecture sections of an introduction to University…

  14. A review of ICT systems for HIV/AIDS and anti-retroviral treatment management in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Tove; Rivett, Ulrike; Fortuin, Jill

    2008-01-01

    Telemedicine and e-health systems have been proposed as a support tool, to monitor and evaluate HIV/AIDS management strategies. The aim of the present study was to provide an overview of telemedicine and e-health systems for HIV/AIDS in South Africa as a basis for developing an e-health toolkit for anti-retroviral treatment (ART). An initial literature review and a subsequent interactive networking approach were chosen to identify telemedicine and e-health systems, projects and services for HIV/AIDS and ART facilities in low-resource settings and under-served areas. The literature review produced little useful information. In contrast, the face-to-face interviews and the focus group discussions provided useful information about projects and systems which had not been published. The meetings involved 1 - 5 people per session, about 30 people in total. The review showed that there were some plans for telemedicine and e-health implementation in South Africa. However, there was no all-inclusive ICT-based system in place for AIDS treatment there. With the exception of the major health information systems and electronic patient record systems, none of the telemedicine and e-health systems identified in the review were ready to be deployed across the country as a whole.

  15. Computer-aided system for measuring the mandibular cortical width on panoramic radiographs in osteoporosis diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arifin, Agus Zainal; Asano, Akira; Taguchi, Akira; Nakamoto, Takashi; Ohtsuka, Masahiko; Tanimoto, Keiji

    2005-04-01

    Osteoporotic fractures are associated with substantial morbidity, increased medical cost and high mortality risk. Several equipments of bone assessment have been developed to identify individuals, especially postmenopausal women, with high risk of osteoporotic fracture; however, a large segment of women with low skeletal bone mineral density (BMD), namely women with high risk of osteoporotic fractures, cannot be identified sufficiently because osteoporosis is asymptomatic. Recent studies have been demonstrating that mandibular inferior cortical width manually measured on panoramic radiographs may be useful for the identification of women with low BMD. Automatic measurement of cortical width may enable us to identify a large number of asymptomatic women with low BMD. The purpose of this study was to develop a computer-aided system for measuring the mandibular cortical width on panoramic radiographs. Initially, oral radiologists determined the region of interest based on the position of mental foramen. Some enhancing image techniques were applied so as to measure the cortical width at the best point. Panoramic radiographs of 100 women who had BMD assessments of the lumbar spine and femoral neck were used to confirm the efficacy of our new system. Cortical width measured with our system was compared with skeletal BMD. There were significant correlation between cortical width measured with our system and skeletal BMD. These correlations were similar with those between cortical width manually measured by the dentist and skeletal BMD. Our results suggest that our new system may be useful for mass screening of osteoporosis.

  16. Computer-aided bone age assessment for ethnically diverse older children using integrated fuzzy logic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Kevin; Moin, Paymann; Zhang, Aifeng; Liu, Brent

    2010-03-01

    Bone Age Assessment (BAA) of children is a clinical procedure frequently performed in pediatric radiology to evaluate the stage of skeletal maturation based on the left hand x-ray radiograph. The current BAA standard in the US is using the Greulich & Pyle (G&P) Hand Atlas, which was developed fifty years ago and was only based on Caucasian population from the Midwest US. To bring the BAA procedure up-to-date with today's population, a Digital Hand Atlas (DHA) consisting of 1400 hand images of normal children of different ethnicities, age, and gender. Based on the DHA and to solve inter- and intra-observer reading discrepancies, an automatic computer-aided bone age assessment system has been developed and tested in clinical environments. The algorithm utilizes features extracted from three regions of interests: phalanges, carpal, and radius. The features are aggregated into a fuzzy logic system, which outputs the calculated bone age. The previous BAA system only uses features from phalanges and carpal, thus BAA result for children over age of 15 is less accurate. In this project, the new radius features are incorporated into the overall BAA system. The bone age results, calculated from the new fuzzy logic system, are compared against radiologists' readings based on G&P atlas, and exhibits an improvement in reading accuracy for older children.

  17. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and network system for chest diagnosis based on multislice CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Mori, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro; Kakinuma, Ryutarou; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Masuda, Hideo; Machida, Suguru

    2007-03-01

    Multislice CT scanner advanced remarkably at the speed at which the chest CT images were acquired for mass screening. Mass screening based on multislice CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. To overcome this problem, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images and a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification. Moreover, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by using a lung cancer screening algorithm built into mobile helical CT scanner for the lung cancer mass screening done in the region without the hospital. We also have developed electronic medical recording system and prototype internet system for the community health in two or more regions by using the Virtual Private Network router and Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system for safety of medical information. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have now developed a new computer-aided workstation and database that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. This paper describes basic studies that have been conducted to evaluate this new system.

  18. A computer-aided telescope pointing system utilizing a video star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, J. P.; Lorell, K. R.; Swift, C. D.

    1975-01-01

    The Video Inertial Pointing (VIP) System developed to satisfy the acquisition and pointing requirements of astronomical telescopes is described. A unique feature of the system is the use of a single sensor to provide information for the generation of three axis pointing error signals and for a cathode ray tube (CRT) display of the star field. The pointing error signals are used to update the telescope's gyro stabilization and the CRT display is used by an operator to facilitate target acquisition and to aid in manual positioning of the telescope optical axis. A model of the system using a low light level vidicon built and flown on a balloon-borne infrared telescope is briefly described from a state of the art charge coupled device (CCD) sensor. The advanced system hardware is described and an analysis of the multi-star tracking and three axis error signal generation, along with an analysis and design of the gyro update filter, are presented. Results of a hybrid simulation are described in which the advanced VIP system hardware is driven by a digital simulation of the star field/CCD sensor and an analog simulation of the telescope and gyro stabilization dynamics.

  19. Transponder-Aided Joint Calibration and Synchronization Compensation for Distributed Radar Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-Qin

    2015-01-01

    High-precision radiometric calibration and synchronization compensation must be provided for distributed radar system due to separate transmitters and receivers. This paper proposes a transponder-aided joint radiometric calibration, motion compensation and synchronization for distributed radar remote sensing. As the transponder signal can be separated from the normal radar returns, it is used to calibrate the distributed radar for radiometry. Meanwhile, the distributed radar motion compensation and synchronization compensation algorithms are presented by utilizing the transponder signals. This method requires no hardware modifications to both the normal radar transmitter and receiver and no change to the operating pulse repetition frequency (PRF). The distributed radar radiometric calibration and synchronization compensation require only one transponder, but the motion compensation requires six transponders because there are six independent variables in the distributed radar geometry. Furthermore, a maximum likelihood method is used to estimate the transponder signal parameters. The proposed methods are verified by simulation results. PMID:25794158

  20. Large Advanced Space Systems (LASS) computer-aided design program additions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, C. E.

    1982-01-01

    The LSS preliminary and conceptual design requires extensive iteractive analysis because of the effects of structural, thermal, and control intercoupling. A computer aided design program that will permit integrating and interfacing of required large space system (LSS) analyses is discussed. The primary objective of this program is the implementation of modeling techniques and analysis algorithms that permit interactive design and tradeoff studies of LSS concepts. Eight software modules were added to the program. The existing rigid body controls module was modified to include solar pressure effects. The new model generator modules and appendage synthesizer module are integrated (interfaced) to permit interactive definition and generation of LSS concepts. The mass properties module permits interactive specification of discrete masses and their locations. The other modules permit interactive analysis of orbital transfer requirements, antenna primary beam n, and attitude control requirements.

  1. Transponder-aided joint calibration and synchronization compensation for distributed radar systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Qin

    2015-01-01

    High-precision radiometric calibration and synchronization compensation must be provided for distributed radar system due to separate transmitters and receivers. This paper proposes a transponder-aided joint radiometric calibration, motion compensation and synchronization for distributed radar remote sensing. As the transponder signal can be separated from the normal radar returns, it is used to calibrate the distributed radar for radiometry. Meanwhile, the distributed radar motion compensation and synchronization compensation algorithms are presented by utilizing the transponder signals. This method requires no hardware modifications to both the normal radar transmitter and receiver and no change to the operating pulse repetition frequency (PRF). The distributed radar radiometric calibration and synchronization compensation require only one transponder, but the motion compensation requires six transponders because there are six independent variables in the distributed radar geometry. Furthermore, a maximum likelihood method is used to estimate the transponder signal parameters. The proposed methods are verified by simulation results.

  2. Using existing health care systems to respond to the AIDS epidemic: research and recommendations for Chile.

    PubMed

    Aiken, L H; Smith, H L; Lake, E T

    1997-01-01

    Chile is a country with a relatively low prevalence of HIV infection, where successful prevention has the potential to change the future course of the epidemic. A controversial national prevention strategy based upon public education has emerged in response to characterizations of the epidemic as well-dispersed with a growing involvement of heterosexuals. This characterization is not consistent with the observed facts. There is a comparatively well-organized health care system in Santiago that is doing a good job of detecting HIV infection and already has in place the elements of a targeted intervention scheme. Chile should place priority on the use of the existing health care infrastructure for implementing both the traditional public health interventions for sexually transmitted diseases (contact tracing and partner notification) and the AIDS-necessitated strategy of focused counseling and education.

  3. In situ tuning of omnidirectional microelectromechanical-systems microphones to improve performance fit in hearing aids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Je, Sang-Soo; Kim, Jeonghwan; Harrison, Jere C.; Kozicki, Michael N.; Chae, Junseok

    2008-09-01

    Hearing aids are not a one-size-fits-all solution to hearing problems; they must be uniquely tuned for each wearer. There are currently no low-cost and/or effective methods for in situ tuning. This paper describes a microelectromechanical-systems (MEMS)-based dual omnidirectional microphone that can be tuned by growing metallic nanostructures. The nanostructures are grown on integrated solid electrolyte layers on a suspended parylene diaphragm using an external bias and tune the MEMS microphones in situ thereby limiting mismatch. In our tests, this tuning improved the directivity index from 3.5 (fair directionality) to 4.6 dB (excellent directionality) in normal (room temperature) operating environments.

  4. Error analysis for relay type satellite-aided search and rescue systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marini, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    An analysis was made of the errors in the determination of the position of an emergency transmitter in a satellite aided search and rescue system. The satellite was assumed to be at a height of 820 km in a near circular near polar orbit. Short data spans of four minutes or less were used. The error sources considered were measurement noise, transmitter frequency drift, ionospheric effects and error in the assumed height of the transmitter. The errors were calculated for several different transmitter positions, data rates and data spans. The only transmitter frequency used was 406 MHz, but the results can be scaled to different frequencies. In a typical case, in which four Doppler measurements were taken over a span of two minutes, the position error was about 1.2 km.

  5. An application of computer aided requirements analysis to a real time deep space system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farny, A. M.; Morris, R. V.; Hartsough, C.; Callender, E. D.; Teichroew, D.; Chikofsky, E.

    1981-01-01

    The entire procedure of incorporating the requirements and goals of a space flight project into integrated, time ordered sequences of spacecraft commands, is called the uplink process. The Uplink Process Control Task (UPCT) was created to examine the uplink process and determine ways to improve it. The Problem Statement Language/Problem Statement Analyzer (PSL/PSA) designed to assist the designer/analyst/engineer in the preparation of specifications of an information system is used as a supporting tool to aid in the analysis. Attention is given to a definition of the uplink process, the definition of PSL/PSA, the construction of a PSA database, the value of analysis to the study of the uplink process, and the PSL/PSA lessons learned.

  6. The circulatory system: blood procurement, AIDS, and the social body in China.

    PubMed

    Erwin, Kathleen

    2006-06-01

    The market for blood thrived in China for more than a decade, preying on rural villagers desperate for cash. Profit motives and unhygienic collection created an AIDS epidemic, where now up to 80 percent of adults in some villages are HIV infected. Today, illegal blood banks continue to operate in some areas. Moreover, better screening and blood testing do little to address the underlying cultural reluctance to give blood. This article examines what is at stake for blood donors in the circulation of blood through both the physical and the social bodies in China today. I argue that public health and social policy solutions require consideration of the symbolic meanings of blood and the body, kin relations, and gift exchange. China's HIV-contaminated blood procurement crisis demands a critical reexamination of the hidden processes embedded in a "circulatory system" that has inseparably bound the "gift of life" and a "commodity of death".

  7. Pilot-symbols-aided cycle slip mitigation for DP-16QAM optical communication systems.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Haiquan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Fangzheng; Wu, Jian; Lu, Jianxin; Zhang, Guoyi; Xu, Jian; Lin, Jintong

    2013-09-23

    A pilot-symbols-aided phase unwrapping (PAPU), which utilizes the time-division multiplexed pilot symbols that are transmitted with data, is proposed to do cycle slip detection and correction with the carrier phase estimation (CPE). Numerical simulations for 10 Gbaud dual-polarization 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (DP-16QAM) systems show that the block averaging quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) partitioning with PAPU greatly eliminates the performance degradation caused by cycle slips, maintains a low CS probability with less influence of filter length, and achieves a bit-error-rate (BER) performance below soft-decision forward error correction (FEC) limit 2 × 10⁻² at 15 dB optical signal-to-noise ratio with only 1.56% overhead and 6 MHz combined laser linewidth.

  8. CATOS (Computer Aided Training/Observing System): Automating animal observation and training.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jinook; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2017-02-01

    In animal behavioral biology, an automated observing/training system may be useful for several reasons: (a) continuous observation of animals for documentation of specific, irregular events, (b) long-term intensive training of animals in preparation for behavioral experiments, (c) elimination of potential cues and biases induced by humans during training and testing. Here, we describe an open-source-based system named CATOS (Computer Aided Training/Observing System) developed for such situations. There are several notable features in this system. CATOS is flexible and low cost because it is based on free open-source software libraries, common hardware parts, and open-system electronics based on Arduino. Automated video condensation is applied, leading to significantly reduced video data storage compared to the total active hours of the system. A data-viewing utility program helps a user browse recorded data quickly and more efficiently. With these features, CATOS has the potential to be applied to many different animal species in various environments such as laboratories, zoos, or even private homes. Also, an animal's free access to the device without constraint, and a gamified learning process, enhance the animal's welfare and enriches their environment. As a proof of concept, the system was built and tested with two different species. Initially, the system was tested for approximately 10 months with a domesticated cat. The cat was successfully and fully automatically trained to discriminate three different spoken words. Then, in order to test the system's adaptability to other species and hardware components, we used it to train a laboratory rat for 3 weeks.

  9. Systems Approach to targeted and long-acting HIV/AIDS therapy.

    PubMed

    Ho, Rodney J Y; Yu, Jesse; Li, Bowen; Kraft, John C; Freeling, Jennifer P; Koehn, Josefin; Shao, Jingwei

    2015-12-01

    Medication adherence and insufficient drug levels are central to HIV/AIDS disease progression. Recently, Fletcher et al. confirmed that HIV patients on oral antiretroviral therapy had lower intracellular drug concentrations in lymph nodes than in blood. For instance, in the same patient, multiple lymph node drug concentrations were as much as 99 % lower than in blood. This study built upon our previous finding that HIV patients taking oral indinavir had 3-fold lower mononuclear cell drug concentrations in lymph nodes than in blood. As a result, an association between insufficient lymph node drug concentrations in cells and persistent viral replication has now been validated. Lymph node cells, particularly CD4 T lymphocytes, host HIV infection and persistence; CD4 T cell depletion in blood correlates with AIDS progression. With established drug targets to overcome drug insufficiency in lymphoid cells and tissues, we have developed and employed a "Systems Approach" to engineer multi-drug-incorporated particles for HIV treatment. The goal is to improve lymphatic HIV drug exposure to eliminate HIV drug insufficiency and disease progression. We found that nano-particulate drugs that absorb, transit, and retain in the lymphatic system after subcutaneous dosing improve intracellular lymphatic drug exposure and overcome HIV lymphatic drug insufficiency. The composition, physical properties, and stability of the drug nanoparticles contribute to the prolonged and enhanced drug exposure in lymphoid cells and tissues. In addition to overcoming lymphatic drug insufficiency and potentially reversing HIV infection, targeted drug nanoparticle properties may extend drug concentrations and enable the development of long-acting HIV drug therapy for enhanced patient compliance.

  10. Development of expert systems as on-line power system operational aids: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.C.; Damborg, M.J.

    1988-02-01

    Expert systems technologies, including hardware and software, have become mature in the last several years. A properly designed expert system can incorporate the expertise of experienced engineers and duplicate human decision-making processes accurately. The purpose of this research is to demonstrate the feasibility of expert system applications in a power system control center environment. In this project, an expert system was developed which serves as a power system dispatchers' assistant during the fault isolation and load restoration process. Results of the expert system development work are provided in this report. The accuracy and efficiency of the developed expert system was validated by utility dispatchers thereby demonstrating the feasibility of the expert system approach. This report includes the evaluation method used and the simultion results as well as a detailed plan for the implementation of expert systems in a real-world control center. 25 refs., 18 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. The effects of global health initiatives on country health systems: a review of the evidence from HIV/AIDS control.

    PubMed

    Biesma, Regien G; Brugha, Ruairí; Harmer, Andrew; Walsh, Aisling; Spicer, Neil; Walt, Gill

    2009-07-01

    This paper reviews country-level evidence about the impact of global health initiatives (GHIs), which have had profound effects on recipient country health systems in middle and low income countries. We have selected three initiatives that account for an estimated two-thirds of external funding earmarked for HIV/AIDS control in resource-poor countries: the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria, the World Bank Multi-country AIDS Program (MAP) and the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). This paper draws on 31 original country-specific and cross-country articles and reports, based on country-level fieldwork conducted between 2002 and 2007. Positive effects have included a rapid scale-up in HIV/AIDS service delivery, greater stakeholder participation, and channelling of funds to non-governmental stakeholders, mainly NGOs and faith-based bodies. Negative effects include distortion of recipient countries' national policies, notably through distracting governments from coordinated efforts to strengthen health systems and re-verticalization of planning, management and monitoring and evaluation systems. Sub-national and district studies are needed to assess the degree to which GHIs are learning to align with and build the capacities of countries to respond to HIV/AIDS; whether marginalized populations access and benefit from GHI-funded programmes; and about the cost-effectiveness and long-term sustainability of the HIV and AIDS programmes funded by the GHIs. Three multi-country sets of evaluations, which will be reporting in 2009, will answer some of these questions.

  12. The Clinical Usefulness of Ultrasound-Aided Fixation Using an Absorbable Plate System in Patients with Zygomatico-Maxillary Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jun Hyung

    2013-01-01

    Background Ultrasound-aided fixation is a recently developed alternative method of treatment of zygomatico-maxillary (ZM) fracture, and it can resolve the problems of excessive torsion force and subsequent fractures of screws. We conducted this study to evaluate the clinical usefulness of ultrasound-aided fixation as compared with the conventional fixation method using a drill and an expander in patients with ZM fracture. Methods We conducted a retrospective study in 35 patients with ZM fracture who had been treated at our hospital during a period ranging from March of 2008 to December of 2010. We divided them into two groups: an ultrasound-aided fixation group, comprising 13 patients who underwent ultrasound-aided fixation (SonicWeld Rx, KLS Martin), and a conventional group, comprising 22 patients who underwent conventional fixation (Biosorb FX, Linvatec Biomaterials Ltd.). We compared such variables as sex, direction, age at operation, follow-up period, operation duration, number of fixed holes, and time to discharge between the two groups. Results The ultrasound-aided fixation reduced the operation duration by about 30 minutes as compared with that of conventional fixation. There was no significant difference in follow-up period, number of fixed holes, or time to discharge between the two groups. Furthermore, there were no complications in either group. Conclusions The ultrasound-aided fixation of fractured ZM bone using an absorbable implant system is safe and effective in promptly reducing the bone fracture and providing satisfactory cosmetic outcomes over time. PMID:23898427

  13. Accuracy evaluation of metal copings fabricated by computer-aided milling and direct metal laser sintering systems.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Kyoung; Lee, Wan-Sun; Kim, Hae-Young; Kim, Woong-Chul; Kim, Ji-Hwan

    2015-04-01

    To assess the marginal and internal gaps of the copings fabricated by computer-aided milling and direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) systems in comparison to casting method. Ten metal copings were fabricated by casting, computer-aided milling, and DMLS. Seven mesiodistal and labiolingual positions were then measured, and each of these were divided into the categories; marginal gap (MG), cervical gap (CG), axial wall at internal gap (AG), and incisal edge at internal gap (IG). Evaluation was performed by a silicone replica technique. A digital microscope was used for measurement of silicone layer. Statistical analyses included one-way and repeated measure ANOVA to test the difference between the fabrication methods and categories of measured points (α=.05), respectively. The mean gap differed significantly with fabrication methods (P<.001). Casting produced the narrowest gap in each of the four measured positions, whereas CG, AG, and IG proved narrower in computer-aided milling than in DMLS. Thus, with the exception of MG, all positions exhibited a significant difference between computer-aided milling and DMLS (P<.05). Although the gap was found to vary with fabrication methods, the marginal and internal gaps of the copings fabricated by computer-aided milling and DMLS fell within the range of clinical acceptance (<120 µm). However, the statistically significant difference to conventional casting indicates that the gaps in computer-aided milling and DMLS fabricated restorations still need to be further reduced.

  14. Garrett County Aids AID

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachia, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Garrett County, Maryland volunteered to act as a pre-overseas learning laboratory for AID (Agency for International Development) interns who practiced data collection and planning techniques with the help of local citizenry. (JC)

  15. Comparison of implant stability measurement devices for bone-anchored hearing aid systems.

    PubMed

    Westover, Lindsey; Faulkner, Gary; Hodgetts, William; Raboud, Don

    2017-05-20

    The success of implants for bone-anchored hearing aids (BAHA) relies on proper osseointegration at the bone-implant interface. Clinical evaluation of implant stability is important in prescribing loading, identifying the risk of failure, and monitoring the long-term health of the implant. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate 2 measurement systems for BAHA implant stability: the most commonly used, Osstell implant stability quotient (ISQ), and a newly developed advance system for implant stability testing (ASIST). BAHA implants (Oticon Medical Ponto and Cochlear BAHA Connect systems) were installed in plastic materials with adhesive to simulate implants integrated in bone with varying levels of interface stiffness. Different lengths of BAHA abutments were used with each implant specimen, and stability measurements were obtained with both the Osstell ISQ and the ASIST systems. The measurement systems were evaluated in terms of sensitivity to differences in interface stiffness and the effect of abutment length on the stability measurement. Repeated measures ANOVA followed by post hoc t tests were used for the comparisons with a Bonferroni adjusted alpha value of .05/15 = .003 to control for potential type 1 errors. Changing the abutment length of a single implant installation had minimal effect on the ASIST stability coefficient, whereas large variations were observed in the Osstell implant stability quotient (ISQ). The Osstell showed a clear relationship of decreasing ISQ with increasing abutment length for both the Oticon Medical and the Cochlear implant systems. Both the ASIST and the Osstell were found to be sensitive to changes in interface properties, with the ASIST being more sensitive to these changes. The ASIST system is more sensitive to changes in interface properties and shows smaller variation because of changes in abutment length than the Osstell ISQ system. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry

  16. Computer-aided detection system for lung cancer in computed tomography scans: Review and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The goal of this paper is to present a critical review of major Computer-Aided Detection systems (CADe) for lung cancer in order to identify challenges for future research. CADe systems must meet the following requirements: improve the performance of radiologists providing high sensitivity in the diagnosis, a low number of false positives (FP), have high processing speed, present high level of automation, low cost (of implementation, training, support and maintenance), the ability to detect different types and shapes of nodules, and software security assurance. Methods The relevant literature related to “CADe for lung cancer” was obtained from PubMed, IEEEXplore and Science Direct database. Articles published from 2009 to 2013, and some articles previously published, were used. A systemic analysis was made on these articles and the results were summarized. Discussion Based on literature search, it was observed that many if not all systems described in this survey have the potential to be important in clinical practice. However, no significant improvement was observed in sensitivity, number of false positives, level of automation and ability to detect different types and shapes of nodules in the studied period. Challenges were presented for future research. Conclusions Further research is needed to improve existing systems and propose new solutions. For this, we believe that collaborative efforts through the creation of open source software communities are necessary to develop a CADe system with all the requirements mentioned and with a short development cycle. In addition, future CADe systems should improve the level of automation, through integration with picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) and the electronic record of the patient, decrease the number of false positives, measure the evolution of tumors, evaluate the evolution of the oncological treatment, and its possible prognosis. PMID:24713067

  17. Utilization of computer-aided detection system in diagnosing unilateral maxillary sinusitis on panoramic radiographs

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Yasufumi; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Fujita, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Miwa; Fukuda, Motoki; Nozawa, Michihito; Ariji, Eiichiro

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: It is unclear whether computer-aided detection (CAD) systems for panoramic radiography can help inexperienced dentists to diagnose maxillary sinusitis. The aim of this study was to clarify whether a CAD system for panoramic radiography can contribute to improved diagnostic performance for maxillary sinusitis by inexperienced dentists. Methods: The panoramic radiographs of 49 patients with maxillary sinusitis and 49 patients with healthy sinuses were evaluated in this study. The diagnostic performance of the CAD system was determined. 12 inexperienced dentists and 4 expert oral and maxillofacial radiologists observed the total of 98 panoramic radiographs and judged the presence or absence of maxillary sinusitis, under conditions with and without the support of the CAD system. The receiver operating characteristic curves of the two groups were compared. Results: The CAD system provided sensitivity of 77.6%, specificity of 69.4% and accuracy of 73.5%. The diagnostic performance of the inexperienced dentists increased with the support of the CAD system. When the inexperienced dentists diagnosed maxillary sinusitis with CAD support, the area under the curve (AUC) was significantly higher than that without CAD support. When the focus was only on panoramic radiographs in which CAD support led to a correct diagnosis, the AUC of the inexperienced dentists increased to an equivalent level to that of the experienced radiologists. Conclusions: The CAD system supported the inexperienced dentists in diagnosing maxillary sinusitis on the panoramic radiographs. If the accuracy of the CAD system can be increased, the benefits of CAD support will be further enhanced. PMID:26837670

  18. Generating natural language explanations in a computer-aided design system

    SciTech Connect

    Bienkowski, M.A.; Cullingford, R.E.; Krueger, M.W.

    1983-01-01

    CADHELP is a graphics-based computer-aided design system which contains detailed knowledge bases intended to support three different types of intelligent behavior: (1) the generation of natural-language explanations concerning the operation of the graphical features, for use by naive users; (2) an animated display coordinated with the explanation, simulating the feature's use; and (3) control of the operation of the CAD system itself, by interpretation of knowledge structures describing the system's operation. This final report is a detailed description of the knowledge-base summarization and generation methods developed for CADHELP, which are the basis for the three different sources of knowledge. The Explanation Mechanism devised for CADHELP describes the CAD commands CADHELP can execute using test and graphical animation. A unique feature of this system is that neither the text nor the animation are stored, but are generated from a representation of knowledge about how to use CADHELP. This representation, called a feature script, is a set of concepts linked by causal relations. Since the feature scripts developed were very detailed to enable the animator to work, a means of pruning the script to produce natural-sounding text was needed. A selector mechanism, called HELPCON, was developed to select concepts for expression from the feature scripts using rules on how to conduct an explanation. The concepts thus selected are generated as English sentences by another module called OGEN, which prunes a concept to express it in a concise form much as HELPCON does.

  19. LiDAR Scan Matching Aided Inertial Navigation System in GNSS-Denied Environments.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jian; Chen, Yuwei; Niu, Xiaoji; Wang, Li; Chen, Liang; Liu, Jingbin; Shi, Chuang; Hyyppä, Juha

    2015-07-10

    A new scan that matches an aided Inertial Navigation System (INS) with a low-cost LiDAR is proposed as an alternative to GNSS-based navigation systems in GNSS-degraded or -denied environments such as indoor areas, dense forests, or urban canyons. In these areas, INS-based Dead Reckoning (DR) and Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technologies are normally used to estimate positions as separate tools. However, there are critical implementation problems with each standalone system. The drift errors of velocity, position, and heading angles in an INS will accumulate over time, and on-line calibration is a must for sustaining positioning accuracy. SLAM performance is poor in featureless environments where the matching errors can significantly increase. Each standalone positioning method cannot offer a sustainable navigation solution with acceptable accuracy. This paper integrates two complementary technologies-INS and LiDAR SLAM-into one navigation frame with a loosely coupled Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) to use the advantages and overcome the drawbacks of each system to establish a stable long-term navigation process. Static and dynamic field tests were carried out with a self-developed Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) platform-NAVIS. The results prove that the proposed approach can provide positioning accuracy at the centimetre level for long-term operations, even in a featureless indoor environment.

  20. Computer-aided design of control systems to meet many requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schy, A. A.; Adams, W. M., Jr.; Johnson, K. G.

    1974-01-01

    A method is described for using nonlinear programing in the computer-aided design of airplane control systems. It is assumed that the quality of such systems depends on many criteria. These criteria are included in the constraints vector (instead of attempting to combine them into a single scalar criterion, as is usually done), and the design proceeds through a sequence of nonlinear programing solutions in which the designer varies the specification of sets of requirements levels. The method is applied to design of a lateral stability augmentation system (SAS) for a fighter airplane, in which the requirements vector is chosen from the official handling qualities specifications. Results are shown for several simple SAS configurations designed to obtain desirable handling qualities over all design flight conditions with minimum feedback gains. The choice of the final design for each case is not unique but depends on the designer's decision as to which achievable set of requirements levels represents the best for that system. Results indicate that it may be possible to design constant parameter SAS which can satisfy the most stringent handling qualities requirements for fighter airplanes in all flight conditions. The role of the designer as a decision maker, interacting with the computer program, is discussed. Advantages of this type of designer-computer interaction are emphasized. Desirable extensions of the method are indicated.

  1. Computer-Aided Diagnosis Systems for Lung Cancer: Challenges and Methodologies

    PubMed Central

    El-Baz, Ayman; Beache, Garth M.; Gimel'farb, Georgy; Suzuki, Kenji; Okada, Kazunori; Elnakib, Ahmed; Soliman, Ahmed; Abdollahi, Behnoush

    2013-01-01

    This paper overviews one of the most important, interesting, and challenging problems in oncology, the problem of lung cancer diagnosis. Developing an effective computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for lung cancer is of great clinical importance and can increase the patient's chance of survival. For this reason, CAD systems for lung cancer have been investigated in a huge number of research studies. A typical CAD system for lung cancer diagnosis is composed of four main processing steps: segmentation of the lung fields, detection of nodules inside the lung fields, segmentation of the detected nodules, and diagnosis of the nodules as benign or malignant. This paper overviews the current state-of-the-art techniques that have been developed to implement each of these CAD processing steps. For each technique, various aspects of technical issues, implemented methodologies, training and testing databases, and validation methods, as well as achieved performances, are described. In addition, the paper addresses several challenges that researchers face in each implementation step and outlines the strengths and drawbacks of the existing approaches for lung cancer CAD systems. PMID:23431282

  2. LiDAR Scan Matching Aided Inertial Navigation System in GNSS-Denied Environments

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jian; Chen, Yuwei; Niu, Xiaoji; Wang, Li; Chen, Liang; Liu, Jingbin; Shi, Chuang; Hyyppä, Juha

    2015-01-01

    A new scan that matches an aided Inertial Navigation System (INS) with a low-cost LiDAR is proposed as an alternative to GNSS-based navigation systems in GNSS-degraded or -denied environments such as indoor areas, dense forests, or urban canyons. In these areas, INS-based Dead Reckoning (DR) and Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technologies are normally used to estimate positions as separate tools. However, there are critical implementation problems with each standalone system. The drift errors of velocity, position, and heading angles in an INS will accumulate over time, and on-line calibration is a must for sustaining positioning accuracy. SLAM performance is poor in featureless environments where the matching errors can significantly increase. Each standalone positioning method cannot offer a sustainable navigation solution with acceptable accuracy. This paper integrates two complementary technologies—INS and LiDAR SLAM—into one navigation frame with a loosely coupled Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) to use the advantages and overcome the drawbacks of each system to establish a stable long-term navigation process. Static and dynamic field tests were carried out with a self-developed Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) platform—NAVIS. The results prove that the proposed approach can provide positioning accuracy at the centimetre level for long-term operations, even in a featureless indoor environment. PMID:26184206

  3. An improved automatic computer aided tube detection and labeling system on chest radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishna, Bharath; Brown, Matthew; Goldin, Jonathan; Cagnon, Christopher; Enzmann, Dieter

    2012-03-01

    Tubes like Endotracheal (ET) tube used to maintain patient's airway and the Nasogastric (NG) tube used to feed the patient and drain contents of the stomach are very commonly used in Intensive Care Units (ICU). The placement of these tubes is critical for their proper functioning and improper tube placement can even be fatal. Bedside chest radiographs are considered the quickest and safest method to check the placement of these tubes. Tertiary ICU's typically generate over 250 chest radiographs per day to confirm tube placement. This paper develops a new fully automatic prototype computer-aided detection (CAD) system for tube detection on bedside chest radiographs. The core of the CAD system is the randomized algorithm which selects tubes based on their average repeatability from seed points. The CAD algorithm is designed as a 5 stage process: Preprocessing (removing borders, histogram equalization, anisotropic filtering), Anatomy Segmentation (to identify neck, esophagus, abdomen ROI's), Seed Generation, Region Growing and Tube Selection. The preliminary evaluation was carried out on 64 cases. The prototype CAD system was able to detect ET tubes with a True Positive Rate of 0.93 and False Positive Rate of 0.02/image and NG tubes with a True Positive Rate of 0.84 and False Positive Rate of 0.02/image respectively. The results from the prototype system show that it is feasible to automatically detect both tubes on chest radiographs, with the potential to significantly speed the delivery of imaging services while maintaining high accuracy.

  4. Wireless power and data transmission system for a micro implantable intraocular vision aid.

    PubMed

    Hijazi, N; Krisch, I; Hosticka, B J

    2002-01-01

    Wireless power and data transmission system developed for an intraocular vision aid for blind patients will be described. This system is applicable for patients suffering from bilateral corneal opacification but with intact posterior ocular. The system consists of an external unit as well as an implant. The external unit is required for image acquisition, channel coding, IR data transmission, and RF power transmission to the implant. The implantable unit contains a CMOS receiver, a receiver antenna coil, and the microdisplay based on a LED array. The CMOS receiver serves for reception and decoding of image data as well as driving circuits for the miniaturized LED array. In this case, mechanical wiring between the external unit and the implant is neither useful nor comfortable. An optimal technical solution needs a wireless data transfer. If the power is transferred to the implant wireless, too, the solution grows ideal. The system described in this communication employs wireless power and data transmission using an 13.56 MHz RF link for power transmission and an near IR (NIR) optical link for data transmission from an external CMOS camera and telemetry unit to the implantable micro display.

  5. The Servicing Aid Tool. [teleoperated manipulation system for space shuttle orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pullen, John L.; Keksz, William O.; Manson, Thomas J.; Martin, David; Werneth, Russel

    1992-01-01

    The Servicing Aid Tool (SAT) is a teleoperated manipulation system designed for use on the NSTS Orbiter. The system will assist EVA servicing of spacecraft such as the Hubble Space Telescope and Explorer platform. SAT components are spaceflight adaptations of existing ground-based designs from Robotics Research and Schilling Development. Fairchild Space is providing the control electronics, safety system, and flight integration. The manipulator consists of a 6-DOF Slave Arm mounted on a 1-DOF Positioning Link in the Payload Bay. The Slave Arm is controlled via a highly similar, 6-DOF, force-reflecting Master Arm. Each slave arm joint receives position commands from the corresponding master arm joint; torque commands are reflected to each master joint based on the current state of the slave joint and the master/slave relationship. Scaled and indexed control will be accommodated, as will various features to ensure safe operation. The paper will focus on the development of the safety system, and operations for the demonstration and servicing missions.

  6. A general-purpose development environment for intelligent computer-aided training systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savely, Robert T.

    1990-01-01

    Space station training will be a major task, requiring the creation of large numbers of simulation-based training systems for crew, flight controllers, and ground-based support personnel. Given the long duration of space station missions and the large number of activities supported by the space station, the extension of space shuttle training methods to space station training may prove to be impractical. The application of artificial intelligence technology to simulation training can provide the ability to deliver individualized training to large numbers of personnel in a distributed workstation environment. The principal objective of this project is the creation of a software development environment which can be used to build intelligent training systems for procedural tasks associated with the operation of the space station. Current NASA Johnson Space Center projects and joint projects with other NASA operational centers will result in specific training systems for existing space shuttle crew, ground support personnel, and flight controller tasks. Concurrently with the creation of these systems, a general-purpose development environment for intelligent computer-aided training systems will be built. Such an environment would permit the rapid production, delivery, and evolution of training systems for space station crew, flight controllers, and other support personnel. The widespread use of such systems will serve to preserve task and training expertise, support the training of many personnel in a distributed manner, and ensure the uniformity and verifiability of training experiences. As a result, significant reductions in training costs can be realized while safety and the probability of mission success can be enhanced.

  7. Computer-Aided System Engineering and Analysis (CASE/A) Programmer's Manual, Version 5.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    The Computer Aided System Engineering and Analysis (CASE/A) Version 5.0 Programmer's Manual provides the programmer and user with information regarding the internal structure of the CASE/A 5.0 software system. CASE/A 5.0 is a trade study tool that provides modeling/simulation capabilities for analyzing environmental control and life support systems and active thermal control systems. CASE/A has been successfully used in studies such as the evaluation of carbon dioxide removal in the space station. CASE/A modeling provides a graphical and command-driven interface for the user. This interface allows the user to construct a model by placing equipment components in a graphical layout of the system hardware, then connect the components via flow streams and define their operating parameters. Once the equipment is placed, the simulation time and other control parameters can be set to run the simulation based on the model constructed. After completion of the simulation, graphical plots or text files can be obtained for evaluation of the simulation results over time. Additionally, users have the capability to control the simulation and extract information at various times in the simulation (e.g., control equipment operating parameters over the simulation time or extract plot data) by using "User Operations (OPS) Code." This OPS code is written in FORTRAN with a canned set of utility subroutines for performing common tasks. CASE/A version 5.0 software runs under the VAX VMS(Trademark) environment. It utilizes the Tektronics 4014(Trademark) graphics display system and the VTIOO(Trademark) text manipulation/display system.

  8. Impact of Computer-Aided Detection Systems on Radiologist Accuracy With Digital Mammography

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Elodia B.; Zhang, Zheng; Marques, Helga S.; Hendrick, R. Edward; Yaffe, Martin J.; Pisano, Etta D.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of computer-aided detection (CAD) systems on the performance of radiologists with digital mammograms acquired during the Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial (DMIST). MATERIALS AND METHODS Only those DMIST cases with proven cancer status by biopsy or 1-year follow-up that had available digital images were included in this multireader, multicase ROC study. Two commercially available CAD systems for digital mammography were used: iCAD SecondLook, version 1.4; and R2 ImageChecker Cenova, version 1.0. Fourteen radiologists interpreted, without and with CAD, a set of 300 cases (150 cancer, 150 benign or normal) on the iCAD SecondLook system, and 15 radiologists interpreted a different set of 300 cases (150 cancer, 150 benign or normal) on the R2 ImageChecker Cenova system. RESULTS The average AUC was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.66–0.76) without and 0.72 (95% CI, 0.67–0.77) with the iCAD system (p = 0.07). Similarly, the average AUC was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.66–0.76) without and 0.72 (95% CI 0.67–0.77) with the R2 system (p = 0.08). Sensitivity and specificity differences without and with CAD for both systems also were not significant. CONCLUSION Radiologists in our studies rarely changed their diagnostic decisions after the addition of CAD. The application of CAD had no statistically significant effect on radiologist AUC, sensitivity, or specificity performance with digital mammograms from DMIST. PMID:25247960

  9. Pyrimethamine alone as maintenance therapy for central nervous system toxoplasmosis in 38 patients with AIDS.

    PubMed

    de Gans, J; Portegies, P; Reiss, P; Troost, D; van Gool, T; Lange, J M

    1992-01-01

    We retrospectively assessed the efficacy of maintenance therapy with pyrimethamine alone in 38 patients with AIDS and central nervous system (CNS) toxoplasmosis. The diagnosis was based on clinical presentation and compatible CT scan abnormalities with subsequent response to therapy. Survival analysis was performed by the product limit method of Kaplan-Meier. Fourteen patients received maintenance therapy with 25 mg pyrimethamine per day (group 1), and 24 patients were treated with 50 mg per day (group 2). The median survival from initiation of maintenance therapy until death or end of the study for the entire study population was 32 weeks. Median survival in group 1 was 28 weeks, as compared with 36 weeks in group 2 (p = 0.34). Relapses occurred in 12 patients, six in group 1 and six in group 2. There was no significant difference in failure-free survival between the two treatment groups (p = 0.09). One patient in group 1 and two patients in group 2 experienced severe toxicity, requiring discontinuation of therapy. All three patients relapsed and died. Two patients in group 2 who stopped treatment on their own initiative also had relapses. Thus, all five patients who discontinued therapy had relapses. Five of 13 patients in group 1 and two of 20 patients in group 2 relapsed during continuous therapy with pyrimethamine (p = 0.13); these seven patients responded to reintroduction of combination therapy (n = 6) or treatment with 50 mg pyrimethamine per day (n = 1). The results of our retrospective analysis suggest that maintenance therapy with oral pyrimethamine, 50 mg per day, in AIDS patients with CNS toxoplasmosis is effective.

  10. Results of the European clinical trial of Arrow CorAide left ventricular assist system.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Diyar; Arusoglu, Latif; Gazzoli, Fabrizio; Hetzer, Roland; Morshius, Michael; Alloni, Alessia; Viganò, Mario; Koerfer, Reiner; Golding, Leonard A R; El Banayosy, Aly

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and performance of the Arrow CorAide left ventricular assist system (LVAS) (Arrow International, Reading, PA, USA), a continuous-flow left ventricular assist device, as bridge to transplantation or recovery as well as destination therapy in patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class IV heart failure. Twenty-one patients were implanted with the CorAide LVAS between February 2005 and February 2006 in a prospective, multicenter, nonrandomized trial. Seventeen patients (81%) survived to >180 days or to transplantation. The cumulative time on device was 16.58 patient years (range 23-796 days, median 192 days). No intraoperative technical issues were observed at the time of implantation. Of the 21 implants, nine patients died on device, two were converted to other devices, and 10 were transplanted. Three patient deaths were attributed to pump polymer coating delamination. Postmortem device inspection determined delamination of the polymer coating on the pump's internal surface to be the cause of the late hemolysis and sudden fatal pump stops. No embolic or driveline infection event was recorded. The automatic flow control algorithm functioned reliably throughout the trial. Primary performance trial endpoint was achieved with 81% survival to 180 days or transplantation. Delamination of the polymer coating on the internal surface of the pump with resultant hemolysis and pump stops was the sole major device event in this trial. Elimination of the polymer coating and replacement with an amorphous carbon coating has resolved this in preclinical testing, prior to initiation of further clinical testing of this device. © 2012, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2012, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Computer-aided diagnostic system for breast cancer by detecting microcalcifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chul S.; Kim, Jong K.; Park, Hyun Wook

    1998-06-01

    X-ray mammography is an important diagnostic imaging modality for early detection of breast cancer. The early detection of the breast cancer can reduce the mortality of middle-aged women, especially in the developed country. Computer aided diagnosis (CAD) technologies have been developed to assist radiologists to detect breast cancer in early stage. This paper presents a KCAD (KAIST Computer-Aided Diagnosis) system for detection of breast cancer, which consists of personal computer, high resolution X-ray film scanner, high-resolution display and application softwares. There are three algorithms implemented in the application softwares. The first algorithm is the enhancement of the digitized X-ray mammograms based on the gradient operation. The second algorithm is to detect the clustered microcalcifications based on the statistical texture analysis, which is called surrounding region dependence method (SRDM). The SRDM matrix is computed for each ROI, which has 128 by 128 pixels. The SRDM matrix characterizes the small and high-density regions in mammograms, which can be recognized as microcalcifications. Four textural features are computed from the SRDM matrix. Using these features, the neural network classifies the regions as normal or microcalcification region. The third algorithm is the classification of the clustered microcalcifications as malignant or benign based on the shape analysis. The microcalcifications are segmented using SRDM. Four shape features are extracted from each microcalcification and five representatives are computed for each shape feature. Twenty-one shape-based values containing the number of microcalcifications are used to classify the region as malignant or benign. These algorithms are verified by real experiments.

  12. Computer aided analysis of prostate histopathology images to support a refined Gleason grading system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jian; Sadimin, Evita; Foran, David J.; Qi, Xin

    2017-02-01

    The Gleason grading system used to render prostate cancer diagnosis has recently been updated to allow more accurate grade stratification and higher prognostic discrimination when compared to the traditional grading system. In spite of progress made in trying to standardize the grading process, there still remains approximately a 30% grading discrepancy between the score rendered by general pathologists and those provided by experts while reviewing needle biopsies for Gleason pattern 3 and 4, which accounts for more than 70% of daily prostate tis- sue slides at most institutions. We propose a new computational imaging method for Gleason pattern 3 and 4 classification, which better matches the newly established prostate cancer grading system. The computer- aided analysis method includes two phases. First, the boundary of each glandular region is automatically segmented using a deep convolutional neural network. Second, color, shape and texture features are extracted from superpixels corresponding to the outer and inner glandular regions and are subsequently forwarded to a random forest classifier to give a gradient score between 3 and 4 for each delineated glandular region. The F1 score for glandular segmentation is 0.8460 and the classification accuracy is 0.83+/-0.03.

  13. Web-based computer-aided-diagnosis (CAD) system for bone age assessment (BAA) of children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Aifeng; Uyeda, Joshua; Tsao, Sinchai; Ma, Kevin; Vachon, Linda A.; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, H. K.

    2008-03-01

    Bone age assessment (BAA) of children is a clinical procedure frequently performed in pediatric radiology to evaluate the stage of skeletal maturation based on a left hand and wrist radiograph. The most commonly used standard: Greulich and Pyle (G&P) Hand Atlas was developed 50 years ago and exclusively based on Caucasian population. Moreover, inter- & intra-observer discrepancies using this method create a need of an objective and automatic BAA method. A digital hand atlas (DHA) has been collected with 1,400 hand images of normal children from Asian, African American, Caucasian and Hispanic descends. Based on DHA, a fully automatic, objective computer-aided-diagnosis (CAD) method was developed and it was adapted to specific population. To bring DHA and CAD method to the clinical environment as a useful tool in assisting radiologist to achieve higher accuracy in BAA, a web-based system with direct connection to a clinical site is designed as a novel clinical implementation approach for online and real time BAA. The core of the system, a CAD server receives the image from clinical site, processes it by the CAD method and finally, generates report. A web service publishes the results and radiologists at the clinical site can review it online within minutes. This prototype can be easily extended to multiple clinical sites and will provide the foundation for broader use of the CAD system for BAA.

  14. The Personal Hearing System—A Software Hearing Aid for a Personal Communication System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, Giso; Guilmin, Gwénaël; Poppen, Frank; Vlaming, Marcel S. M. G.; Hohmann, Volker

    2009-12-01

    A concept and architecture of a personal communication system (PCS) is introduced that integrates audio communication and hearing support for the elderly and hearing-impaired through a personal hearing system (PHS). The concept envisions a central processor connected to audio headsets via a wireless body area network (WBAN). To demonstrate the concept, a prototype PCS is presented that is implemented on a netbook computer with a dedicated audio interface in combination with a mobile phone. The prototype can be used for field-testing possible applications and to reveal possibilities and limitations of the concept of integrating hearing support in consumer audio communication devices. It is shown that the prototype PCS can integrate hearing aid functionality, telephony, public announcement systems, and home entertainment. An exemplary binaural speech enhancement scheme that represents a large class of possible PHS processing schemes is shown to be compatible with the general concept. However, an analysis of hardware and software architectures shows that the implementation of a PCS on future advanced cell phone-like devices is challenging. Because of limitations in processing power, recoding of prototype implementations into fixed point arithmetic will be required and WBAN performance is still a limiting factor in terms of data rate and delay.

  15. Computer-aided diagnostic system for diffuse liver diseases with ultrasonography by neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, K.; Fukushima, M.; Kubota, K.; Hisa, N.

    1998-12-01

    The aim of the study is to establish a computer-aided diagnostic system for diffuse liver diseases such as chronic active hepatitis (CAH) and liver cirrhosis (LC). The authors introduced an artificial neural network in the classification of these diseases. In this system the neural network was trained by feature parameters extracted from B-mode ultrasonic images of normal liver (NL), CAH and LC. For input data the authors used six parameters calculated by a region of interest (ROI) and a parameter calculated by five ROIs in each image. They were variance of pixel values, coefficient of variation, annular Fourier power spectrum, longitudinal Fourier power spectrum which were calculated for the ROI, and variation of the means of the five ROIs. In addition, the authors used two more parameters calculated from a co-occurrence matrix of pixel values in the ROI. The results showed that the neural network classifier was 83.8% in sensitivity for LC, 90.0% in sensitivity for CAH and 93.6% in specificity, and the system was considered to be helpful for clinical and educational use.

  16. The use of a spatial information system in the management of HIV/AIDS in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Busgeeth, Karishma; Rivett, Ulrike

    2004-01-01

    Background South Africa is experiencing an HIV/AIDS pandemic of shattering dimensions. The availability and provision of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs could bring relief to the situation, but the treatment is unfortunately complex with each patient being assigned a different antiretroviral therapy varying in diet-medication regiment. The context of South Africa, its variety of urban and rural settings adds to the challenge of administering and monitoring the HIV+ person throughout the treatment, which will last for the rest of their lives. The lack of physical infrastructure, reliable statistics and adequate resources hinder the efficient management of HIV/AIDS. Results The collection of reliable data will be a first step to assess the status of HIV/AIDS in communities. A number of hospitals have started this process using the conventional approach to collect information about their patients using a paper-based system. Since time is of essence in the fight against the pandemic, data exchange between various hospitals, municipalities and decision-making bodies is becoming more and more important. The logical response to such a need is a computerised system, which will collect and administer HIV/AIDS related information within the local context and allow a monitored access to the data from a number of stakeholders. Conclusions The purpose of this study was to design and develop an HIV/AIDS database, which is embedded in a Spatial Information Management System. The pilot study area is the Gugulethu township in Cape Town where more than 27% of the 325 000 residents are HIV+. It is shown that the implementation of the HIV/AIDS database and the Spatial Information Management System can play a critical role in determining where and when to intervene, improving the quality of care for HIV+ patients, increasing accessibility of service and delivering a cost-effective mode of information. PMID:15239839

  17. The use of a spatial information system in the management of HIV/AIDS in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Busgeeth, Karishma; Rivett, Ulrike

    2004-07-07

    BACKGROUND: South Africa is experiencing an HIV/AIDS pandemic of shattering dimensions. The availability and provision of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs could bring relief to the situation, but the treatment is unfortunately complex with each patient being assigned a different antiretroviral therapy varying in diet-medication regiment. The context of South Africa, its variety of urban and rural settings adds to the challenge of administering and monitoring the HIV+ person throughout the treatment, which will last for the rest of their lives. The lack of physical infrastructure, reliable statistics and adequate resources hinder the efficient management of HIV/AIDS. RESULTS: The collection of reliable data will be a first step to assess the status of HIV/AIDS in communities. A number of hospitals have started this process using the conventional approach to collect information about their patients using a paper-based system. Since time is of essence in the fight against the pandemic, data exchange between various hospitals, municipalities and decision-making bodies is becoming more and more important. The logical response to such a need is a computerised system, which will collect and administer HIV/AIDS related information within the local context and allow a monitored access to the data from a number of stakeholders. CONCLUSIONS: The purpose of this study was to design and develop an HIV/AIDS database, which is embedded in a Spatial Information Management System. The pilot study area is the Gugulethu township in Cape Town where more than 27% of the 325 000 residents are HIV+. It is shown that the implementation of the HIV/AIDS database and the Spatial Information Management System can play a critical role in determining where and when to intervene, improving the quality of care for HIV+ patients, increasing accessibility of service and delivering a cost-effective mode of information.

  18. A visual-aided wireless monitoring system design for total hip replacement surgery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Gao, Jiyang; Su, Shaojie; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Zhihua

    2015-04-01

    To improve the positioning accuracy of implants in Total Hip Replacement (THR) surgeries, a visual-aided wireless monitoring system for THR surgery is proposed in this paper. This system aims to measure and display the contact distribution and relative pose between femoral head and acetabulum prosthesis during the surgery to help surgeons obtain accurate position of implants. The system consists of two parts: the Sensors Array Measuring System (SAMS) and the display part. The SAMS is composed of a sensors array (including contact sensors and an image sensor), signal conditioning circuits, a low power microcontroller (MCU), and a low-power transceiver. The SAMS is designed to estimate the relative pose of femoral head component to acetabular component. The display part processes the data from sensors and demonstrates the contact distribution and the pose of the prothesis during the surgery in 3-D graphics. The two parts of the system communicate with each other on an RF link at the band of 400 MHz. The signal conditioning circuits have been designed and fabricated in 0.18 μm CMOS process. Testing results show that the resolution of the signal conditioning circuits is 60.1 μ Vpp (1.35 g) with ±100 mVpp input. The chip can operate under 1.2-to-3.6 V supply voltage for single battery applications with 116-160 μ A current consumption. The system has been verified by the simulation with rotation quaternion and translation vector. The experimental results show that the contact distribution and relative pose of the two components could be measured and demonstrated in real time. The relative error of rotation is less than 8% and the actual relative error of translation is less than 10%.

  19. Central Asian Post-Soviet health systems in transition: has different aid engagement produced different outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Ulikpan, Anar; Mirzoev, Tolib; Jimenez, Eliana; Malik, Asmat; Hill, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 resulted in a transition from centrally planned socialist systems to largely free-market systems for post-Soviet states. The health systems of Central Asian Post-Soviet (CAPS) countries (Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan) have undergone a profound revolution. External development partners have been crucial to this reorientation through financial and technical support, though both relationships and outcomes have varied. This research provides a comparative review of the development assistance provided in the health systems of CAPS countries and proposes future policy options to improve the effectiveness of development. Design Extensive documentary review was conducted using Pubmed, Medline/Ovid, Scopus, and Google scholar search engines, local websites, donor reports, and grey literature. The review was supplemented by key informant interviews and participant observation. Findings The collapse of the Soviet dominance of the region brought many health system challenges. Donors have played an essential role in the reform of health systems. However, as new aid beneficiaries, neither CAPS countries’ governments nor the donors had the experience of development collaboration in this context. The scale of development assistance for health in CAPS countries has been limited compared to other countries with similar income, partly due to their limited history with the donor community, lack of experience in managing donors, and a limited history of transparency in international dealings. Despite commonalities at the start, two distinctive trajectories formed in CAPS countries, due to their differing politics and governance context. Conclusions The influence of donors, both financially and technically, remains crucial to health sector reform, despite their relatively small contribution to overall health budgets. Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, and Tajikistan have demonstrated more effective development

  20. iAID: an improved auxin-inducible degron system for the construction of a 'tight' conditional mutant in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Seiji; Miyazawa-Onami, Mayumi; Iida, Tetsushi; Araki, Hiroyuki

    2015-08-01

    Isolation of a 'tight' conditional mutant of a gene of interest is an effective way of studying the functions of essential genes. Strategies that use ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation to eliminate the product of a gene of interest, such as heat-inducible degron (td) and auxin-inducible degron (AID), are powerful methods for constructing conditional mutants. However, these methods do not work with some genes. Here, we describe an improved AID system (iAID) for isolating tight conditional mutants in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this method, transcriptional repression by the 'Tet-OFF' promoter is combined with proteolytic elimination of the target protein by the AID system. To provide examples, we describe the construction of tight mutants of the replication factors Dpb11 and Mcm10, dpb11-iAID, and mcm10-iAID. Because Dpb11 and Mcm10 are required for the initiation of DNA replication, their tight mutants are unable to enter S phase. This is the case for dpb11-iAID and mcm10-iAID cells after the addition of tetracycline and auxin. Both the 'Tet-OFF' promoter and the AID system have been shown to work in model eukaryotes other than budding yeast. Therefore, the iAID system is not only useful in budding yeast, but also can be applied to other model systems to isolate tight conditional mutants.

  1. Issues in Expanding the Software Base Management System Supporting the Computer Aided Prototyping System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    and deficient in their stated requirements. The problem involves not only the high cost of software development, but also in the poor quality of...to improving software development productivity and quality [Ref. 4]. It also has the most potential in the short term to show tangible benefits in a...real-time embedded systems [Ref. 5]. This system differs in its approach from most other prototyping systems in its approach to software generation from

  2. A computer aided diagnosis system for thyroid disease using extreme learning machine.

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Na; Ouyang, Ji-Hong; Chen, Hui-Ling; Liu, Da-You

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we present an effective and efficient computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system based on principle component analysis (PCA) and extreme learning machine (ELM) to assist the task of thyroid disease diagnosis. The CAD system is comprised of three stages. Focusing on dimension reduction, the first stage applies PCA to construct the most discriminative new feature set. After then, the system switches to the second stage whose target is model construction. ELM classifier is explored to train an optimal predictive model whose parameters are optimized. As we known, the number of hidden neurons has an important role in the performance of ELM, so we propose an experimental method to hunt for the optimal value. Finally, the obtained optimal ELM model proceeds to perform the thyroid disease diagnosis tasks using the most discriminative new feature set and the optimal parameters. The effectiveness of the resultant CAD system (PCA-ELM) has been rigorously estimated on a thyroid disease dataset which is taken from UCI machine learning repository. We compare it with other related methods in terms of their classification accuracy. Experimental results demonstrate that PCA-ELM outperforms other ones reported so far by 10-fold cross-validation method, with the mean accuracy of 97.73% and with the maximum accuracy of 98.1%. Besides, PCA-ELM performs much faster than support vector machines (SVM) based CAD system. Consequently, the proposed method PCA-ELM can be considered as a new powerful tools for diagnosing thyroid disease with excellent performance and less time.

  3. Modeling uncertainty in classification design of a computer-aided detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, Rahil; Dehmeshki, Jamshid; Barman, Sarah; Mazinani, Mahdi; Qanadli, Salah

    2010-03-01

    A computerized image analysis technology suffers from imperfection, imprecision and vagueness of the input data and its propagation in all individual components of the technology including image enhancement, segmentation and pattern recognition. Furthermore, a Computerized Medical Image Analysis System (CMIAS) such as computer aided detection (CAD) technology deals with another source of uncertainty that is inherent in image-based practice of medicine. While there are several technology-oriented studies reported in developing CAD applications, no attempt has been made to address, model and integrate these types of uncertainty in the design of the system components, even though uncertainty issues directly affect the performance and its accuracy. In this paper, the main uncertainty paradigms associated with CAD technologies are addressed. The influence of the vagueness and imprecision in the classification of the CAD, as a second reader, on the validity of ROC analysis results is defined. In order to tackle the problem of uncertainty in the classification design of the CAD, two fuzzy methods are applied and evaluated for a lung nodule CAD application. Type-1 fuzzy logic system (T1FLS) and an extension of it, interval type-2 fuzzy logic system (IT2FLS) are employed as methods with high potential for managing uncertainty issues. The novelty of the proposed classification methods is to address and handle all sources of uncertainty associated with a CAD system. The results reveal that IT2FLS is superior to T1FLS for tackling all sources of uncertainty and significantly, the problem of inter and intra operator observer variability.

  4. High School Students' Written Argumentation Qualities with Problem-Based Computer-Aided Material (PBCAM) Designed about Human Endocrine System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vekli, Gülsah Sezen; Çimer, Atilla

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated development of students' scientific argumentation levels in the applications made with Problem-Based Computer-Aided Material (PBCAM) designed about Human Endocrine System. The case study method was used: The study group was formed of 43 students in the 11th grade of the science high school in Rize. Human Endocrine System…

  5. A Computer-Aided Telephone System to Enable Five Persons with Alzheimer's Disease to Make Phone Calls Independently

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perilli, Viviana; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Laporta, Dominga; Paparella, Adele; Caffo, Alessandro O.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Oliva, Doretta

    2013-01-01

    This study extended the assessment of a computer-aided telephone system to enable five patients with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease to make phone calls independently. The patients were divided into two groups and exposed to intervention according to a non-concurrent multiple baseline design across groups. All patients started with baseline in…

  6. The national- and international-wide prospects of future improvements of position location and time synchronization systems and aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gouzhva, Yuri G.; Balyasnikov, Boris N.; Korniyenko, Vladimir V.; Pushkina, Irina G.; Shebshayevich, Valentin S.; Denisov, Vladimir I.; Reutov, Alexander P.

    1990-01-01

    The concept being designed by the Leningrad Scientific Research Radio Technical Institute (LSRRI) of united positioning and timing service on the basis of the utilization of long-range and global radionavigation and common time systems and aids for different users is described. The estimate of its utilization on the national as well as on international scale is given.

  7. A Computer-Aided Telephone System to Enable Five Persons with Alzheimer's Disease to Make Phone Calls Independently

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perilli, Viviana; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Laporta, Dominga; Paparella, Adele; Caffo, Alessandro O.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Oliva, Doretta

    2013-01-01

    This study extended the assessment of a computer-aided telephone system to enable five patients with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease to make phone calls independently. The patients were divided into two groups and exposed to intervention according to a non-concurrent multiple baseline design across groups. All patients started with baseline in…

  8. Two Adults with Multiple Disabilities Use a Computer-Aided Telephone System to Make Phone Calls Independently

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Oliva, Doretta; Alberti, Gloria; Lang, Russell

    2011-01-01

    This study extended the assessment of a newly developed computer-aided telephone system with two participants (adults) who presented with blindness or severe visual impairment and motor or motor and intellectual disabilities. For each participant, the study was carried out according to an ABAB design, in which the A represented baseline phases and…

  9. Using the HIV Surveillance System to Monitor the National HIV/AIDS Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Tian; Shouse, Luke; Li, Jianmin; Mermin, Jonathan; Hall, H. Irene

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To report on indicators of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy, we analyzed data collected through the national HIV surveillance system. Methods. We analyzed data from adults and adolescents aged 13 years or older diagnosed with HIV in 13 US jurisdictions that have laboratory reporting of CD4+ T-lymphocyte (CD4) and viral load (VL) test results and enter CD4 and VL test results into the national surveillance system. Results. Of 4899 people diagnosed in 2009, 81.7% had at least 1 CD4 or VL test performed within 3 months of diagnosis. A higher proportion of Whites (86.2%) than Blacks (78.4%) and Hispanics (82.6%) had a CD4 or VL test. Of 53 642 people diagnosed through 2008 and living with HIV at the end of 2009 who had a VL test, 69.4% had a most recent VL of 200 copies per milliliter or less. The proportion of people with suppressed VLs differed among Blacks (60.2%), Hispanics (70.3%), and Whites (77.4%) and among people aged 13 to 24 years (44.3%) compared with people aged 65 years or older (84.2%). Of men who have sex with men, 74.2% had a suppressed VL. Conclusions. The findings highlight disparities in access to and success of care. PMID:23153150

  10. Airborne pseudolite aiding BeiDou system to improve positioning precision in low latitude areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Weihua; Yuan, Jianping; Luo, Jianjun

    2005-11-01

    The BeiDou System (BDS), which has three satellites in Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO), is a regional satellite navigation system of China and its positioning performance is notorious in low latitude areas. The two mending plans using Airborne Pseudolite (APL) aiding BDS to improve navigation precision in such areas are put forward. Plan I uses three BDS satellites and one APS to supply navigation data and Plan II employs two BDS satellites, one APS and altimeter to work. Both of the plans adopt point positioning with code pseudo-range algorithm. Geometric Dilution of Precision (GDOP), which is calculated by Positioning Error Transfer Coefficient Matrix (PETCM), is used to evaluate the positioning performance of new plans. PETCM is predigested when user is in low latitude areas. The key elements of predigested PETCM that effect the Geometric Dilution of Precision (GDOP) are analyzed. The character of GDOP is forecasted easily with the predigested PETCM. The simulations show that the precision of plans are expected to be hundreds of meters except some region where the latitudes of user and APL are close to each other and Plan II is better than plan I. The phenomenal consists with the theoretical analysis.

  11. Computer aided diagnosis system for breast cancer based on color Doppler flow imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Cheng, H D; Huang, J H; Zhang, Y T; Tang, X L; Tian, J W; Wang, Y

    2012-12-01

    Color Doppler flow imaging takes a great value in diagnosing and classifying benign and malignant breast lesions. However, scanning of color Doppler sonography is operator-dependent and ineffective. In this paper, a novel breast classification system based on B-Mode ultrasound and color Doppler flow imaging is proposed. First, different feature extraction methods were used to obtain the texture and geometric features from B-Mode ultrasound images. In color Doppler feature extraction stage, several spectrum features are extracted by applying blood flow velocity analysis to Doppler signals. Moreover, a velocity coherent vector method is proposed based on color coherence vector, which is helpful for designing to the optimize detection of flow indices from different blood flow velocity fields automatically. Finally, a support vector machine classifier with selected feature vectors is used to classify breast tumors into benign and malignant. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed computer-aided diagnosis system is useful for reducing the unnecessary biopsy and death rate.

  12. Development strategies on an integrated operator decision aid support system for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ki Sig Kang; Han Gon Kim; Soon Heung Chang . Dept of Nuclear Engineering); Jeong, Hee Kyo; Park, S.D.

    1993-08-01

    The development strategies on an integrated operator decision aid support (IODAS) system are discussed by focusing attention on the importance of the operator's role for nuclear power plants. The IODAS is under development to support the operator's decision making process and to enhance the safety of a nuclear power plant by providing the plant operators with timely and proper guideline during abnormal and emergency conditions. The IODAS has capabilities for the signal validation/management, the alarm processing, the failure diagnosis using abnormal operating procedures, and the dynamic tracking of emergency operating procedures using function restoration guidelines and optimal recovery guidelines with a series of complex logic steps covering a broad spectrum of event sequences. The proposed system is being implemented on a SUN-4/75 Workstation using C and Quintus[sup TM] prolog language. For verification studies a full-scope real-time simulator is being used. Test results show that the IODAS is capable of diagnosing a plant failure quickly and of providing an operator guideline with fast response time. After verification, the IODAS will be installed in the main control room of the unit one nuclear power plant at Yeoung Gwang.

  13. Stand alone computer system to aid the development of Mirror Fusion Test Facility rf heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.A.

    1983-12-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) control system architecture requires the Supervisory Control and Diagnostic System (SCDS) to communicate with a LSI-11 Local Control Computer (LCC) that in turn communicates via a fiber optic link to CAMAC based control hardware located near the machine. In many cases, the control hardware is very complex and requires a sizable development effort prior to being integrated into the overall MFTF-B system. One such effort was the development of the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) system. It became clear that a stand alone computer system was needed to simulate the functions of SCDS. This paper describes the hardware and software necessary to implement the SCDS Simulation Computer (SSC). It consists of a Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) LSI-11 computer and a Winchester/Floppy disk operating under the DEC RT-11 operating system. All application software for MFTF-B is programmed in PASCAL, which allowed us to adapt procedures originally written for SCDS to the SSC. This nearly identical software interface means that software written during the equipment development will be useful to the SCDS programmers in the integration phase.

  14. HIV infection and AIDS in the public health and health care systems: the role of law and litigation.

    PubMed

    Gostin, L O; Webber, D W

    1998-04-08

    The AIDS Litigation Project has reviewed nearly 600 reported cases involving individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the federal and state courts in the United States between 1991 and 1997. Cases were identified through a federal and 50-state computer and library search. An important subset of litigation relates to HIV/AIDS in the public health and health care systems, since the law affects health care institutions and professionals, patients, and public health policy in America. This subset of HIV/AIDS litigation includes testing and reporting; privacy, the duty to warn, and the right to know; physician standards of care in prevention and treatment; and discrimination and access to health care. In broad terms, the review demonstrates a reliance on voluntary testing and protection of patient privacy through HIV-specific statutes and the common law. Negligence with potential civil and criminal liability has been alleged in cases of erroneous or missed diagnosis of HIV infection. In the first AIDS case to be considered by the Supreme Court, the Court will decide whether patients with asymptomatic HIV infection are protected under the Americans With Disabilities Act. Considerable progress has been made, both socially and legally, during the first 2 decades of the epidemic, but much still needs to be accomplished to protect privacy, prevent discrimination, and promote tolerance.

  15. Conceptualizing the dynamics of workplace stress: a systems-based study of nursing aides.

    PubMed

    Jetha, Arif; Kernan, Laura; Kurowski, Alicia

    2017-01-05

    Workplace stress is a complex phenomenon that may often be dynamic and evolving over time. Traditional linear modeling does not allow representation of recursive feedback loops among the implicated factors. The objective of this study was to develop a multidimensional system dynamics model (SDM) of workplace stress among nursing aides and conduct simulations to illustrate how changes in psychosocial perceptions and workplace factors might influence workplace stress over time. Eight key informants with prior experience in a large study of US nursing home workers participated in model building. Participants brainstormed the range of components related to workplace stress. Components were grouped together based on common themes and translated into feedback loops. The SDM was parameterized through key informant insight on the shape and magnitude of the relationship between model components. Model construction was also supported utilizing survey data collected as part of the larger study. All data was entered into the software program, Vensim. Simulations were conducted to examine how adaptations to model components would influence workplace stress. The SDM included perceptions of organizational conditions (e.g., job demands and job control), workplace social support (i.e., managerial and coworker social support), workplace safety, and demands outside of work (i.e. work-family conflict). Each component was part of a reinforcing feedback loop. Simulations exhibited that scenarios with increasing job control and decreasing job demands led to a decline in workplace stress. Within the context of the system, the effects of workplace social support, workplace safety, and work-family conflict were relatively minor. SDM methodology offers a unique perspective for researchers and practitioners to view workplace stress as a dynamic process. The portrayal of multiple recursive feedback loops can guide the development of policies and programs within complex organizational contexts

  16. Computer-aided diagnosis system based on fuzzy logic for breast cancer categorization.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Gisele Helena Barboni; Felipe, Joaquim Cezar

    2015-09-01

    Fuzzy logic can help reduce the difficulties faced by computational systems to represent and simulate the reasoning and the style adopted by radiologists in the process of medical image analysis. The study described in this paper consists of a new method that applies fuzzy logic concepts to improve the representation of features related to image description in order to make it semantically more consistent. Specifically, we have developed a computer-aided diagnosis tool for automatic BI-RADS categorization of breast lesions. The user provides parameters such as contour, shape and density and the system gives a suggestion about the BI-RADS classification. Initially, values of malignancy were defined for each image descriptor, according to the BI-RADS standard. When analyzing contour, for example, our method considers the matching of features and linguistic variables. Next, we created the fuzzy inference system. The generation of membership functions was carried out by the Fuzzy Omega algorithm, which is based on the statistical analysis of the dataset. This algorithm maps the distribution of different classes in a set. Images were analyzed by a group of physicians and the resulting evaluations were submitted to the Fuzzy Omega algorithm. The results were compared, achieving an accuracy of 76.67% for nodules and 83.34% for calcifications. The fit of definitions and linguistic rules to numerical models provided by our method can lead to a tighter connection between the specialist and the computer system, yielding more effective and reliable results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A novel computer-aided lung nodule detection system for CT images.

    PubMed

    Tan, Maxine; Deklerck, Rudi; Jansen, Bart; Bister, Michel; Cornelis, Jan

    2011-10-01

    The paper presents a complete computer-aided detection (CAD) system for the detection of lung nodules in computed tomography images. A new mixed feature selection and classification methodology is applied for the first time on a difficult medical image analysis problem. The CAD system was trained and tested on images from the publicly available Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) on the National Cancer Institute website. The detection stage of the system consists of a nodule segmentation method based on nodule and vessel enhancement filters and a computed divergence feature to locate the centers of the nodule clusters. In the subsequent classification stage, invariant features, defined on a gauge coordinates system, are used to differentiate between real nodules and some forms of blood vessels that are easily generating false positive detections. The performance of the novel feature-selective classifier based on genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks (ANNs) is compared with that of two other established classifiers, namely, support vector machines (SVMs) and fixed-topology neural networks. A set of 235 randomly selected cases from the LIDC database was used to train the CAD system. The system has been tested on 125 independent cases from the LIDC database. The overall performance of the fixed-topology ANN classifier slightly exceeds that of the other classifiers, provided the number of internal ANN nodes is chosen well. Making educated guesses about the number of internal ANN nodes is not needed in the new feature-selective classifier, and therefore this classifier remains interesting due to its flexibility and adaptability to the complexity of the classification problem to be solved. Our fixed-topology ANN classifier with 11 hidden nodes reaches a detection sensitivity of 87.5% with an average of four false positives per scan, for nodules with diameter greater than or equal to 3 mm. Analysis of the false positive items reveals that a considerable

  18. A novel computer-aided lung nodule detection system for CT images

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Maxine; Deklerck, Rudi; Jansen, Bart; Bister, Michel; Cornelis, Jan

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: The paper presents a complete computer-aided detection (CAD) system for the detection of lung nodules in computed tomography images. A new mixed feature selection and classification methodology is applied for the first time on a difficult medical image analysis problem. Methods: The CAD system was trained and tested on images from the publicly available Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) on the National Cancer Institute website. The detection stage of the system consists of a nodule segmentation method based on nodule and vessel enhancement filters and a computed divergence feature to locate the centers of the nodule clusters. In the subsequent classification stage, invariant features, defined on a gauge coordinates system, are used to differentiate between real nodules and some forms of blood vessels that are easily generating false positive detections. The performance of the novel feature-selective classifier based on genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks (ANNs) is compared with that of two other established classifiers, namely, support vector machines (SVMs) and fixed-topology neural networks. A set of 235 randomly selected cases from the LIDC database was used to train the CAD system. The system has been tested on 125 independent cases from the LIDC database. Results: The overall performance of the fixed-topology ANN classifier slightly exceeds that of the other classifiers, provided the number of internal ANN nodes is chosen well. Making educated guesses about the number of internal ANN nodes is not needed in the new feature-selective classifier, and therefore this classifier remains interesting due to its flexibility and adaptability to the complexity of the classification problem to be solved. Our fixed-topology ANN classifier with 11 hidden nodes reaches a detection sensitivity of 87.5% with an average of four false positives per scan, for nodules with diameter greater than or equal to 3 mm. Analysis of the false positive items

  19. Black-White Disparities in HIV/AIDS:The Role of Drug Policy and the Corrections System

    PubMed Central

    Blankenship, Kim M.; Smoyer, Amy B.; Bray, Sarah J.; Mattocks, Kristin

    2006-01-01

    African Americans in the United States are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. We focus in this paper on the structural and contextual sources of HIV/AIDS risk, and suggest that among the most important of these sources are drug policy and the corrections system. In particular, high rates of exposure to the corrections system (including incarceration, probation, and parole) spurred in large part by federal and state governments’ self-styled war on drugs in the United States, have disproportionately affected African Americans. We review a wide range of research literature to suggest how exposure to the corrections system may affect the HIV/AIDS related risks of drug users in general, and the disproportionate HIV risk faced by African Americans in particular. We then discuss the implications of the information reviewed for structural interventions to address African American HIV-related risk. Future research must further our understanding of the relations among drug policy, corrections, and race-based disparities in HIV/AIDS. PMID:16327113

  20. AIDS-case surveillance.

    PubMed

    Lal, S; Khodakevich, L; Sengupta, D

    1994-01-01

    In 1991 in India, the Ministry of Health realized that the diagnostic and reporting network for AIDS cases was inadequate as AIDS cases grew and that the establishment of specialized AIDS units in hospitals was not the best strategy. It decided to integrate AIDS diagnostic and management facilities into primary health services. It would arrange training for 1 physician from each district and peripheral hospital, private hospital, and inpatient service of other medical institutions in AIDS diagnosis and management. These physicians would then train others in the clinical diagnosis and management of AIDS cases. The physicians would use the World Health Organization [WHO] case definition of AIDS supported by HIV serological test results. All AIDS cases would be transferred to the Medical College Hospitals of the States and Union Territories (UTs), regional hospitals, and perhaps some private hospitals. Between May 1986 and October 1993, India had 459 AIDS cases reported from 19 States and UTs, especially the States of Tamil Nadul and Maharashtra. This AIDS case surveillance system should motivate political will, describe the underlying and preceding HIV epidemic, and contribute to the understanding of current and future course of the epidemic. Thus, it will guide decision makers to develop sound preventive strategies, to plan health care, and to evaluate interventions. The surveillance system's target population is all outpatients and inpatients at medical institutions. During 1993-1994, 1000 hospitals should make up the network of referral institutions. AIDS case surveillance coordinators (ASCs) at each institution form the basis of the network. The individual case record of each suspected AIDS case will have details on his/her life and medical history. Records of confirmed cases will be sent to State ASCs who will compile them for the National AIDS Control Organisation. After 3-4 year of training and practice in AIDS diagnosis and reporting, AIDS reporting will be

  1. An Expert System for Computer-aided Volcano Monitoring on Mt. Etna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannavo', Flavio; Cannata, Andrea; Cassisi, Carmelo; Di Grazia, Giuseppe; Montalto, Placido; Prestifilippo, Michele; Privitera, Eugenio; Gambino, Salvatore; Coltelli, Mauro

    2017-04-01

    Constant estimation of the state of potentially hazardous volcanos plays a crucial role for civil protection purposes. In particular, the importance of monitoring volcanic activity, especially for paroxysms that usually come with tephra emissions, is crucial not only for hazards to the local population but also for airline traffic. Indeed, At present, real-time surveillance of most volcanoes worldwide is essentially deputized to one or more human experts in volcanology, who interpret data coming from different kind of monitoring networks. Unfavourably, the coupling of highly nonlinear and complex volcanic dynamic processes leads to measurable effects that can show a large variety of different behaviours. Moreover, due to intrinsic uncertainties and possible failures in some recorded data, the volcano state needs to be expressed in probabilistic terms, thus making the fast volcano state assessment sometimes impracticable for the personnel on duty at the control rooms. With the aim of aiding the personnel on duty in volcano surveillance, we present an expert system based on a probabilistic graphical model to estimate automatically the ongoing volcano state from all the available different kind of measurements. The system consists of a decision network able to represent a set of variables and their conditional dependencies via a directed acyclic graph. The model variables are both the measurements and the possible states of the volcano through the time. The model output is the most likely volcanic state. We tested the expert system on the Mt. Etna (Italy) case study by considering a long record of multivariate data from 2011 to 2015 and cross-validated it. Results indicate that the proposed model is effective and of great power for decision making purposes.

  2. On the multiuser diversity of relay-aided downlink systems using reduced feedback.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yong-Up; Shin, Won-Yong

    2014-01-01

    We introduce an efficient multiuser scheduling method using amplify-and-forward relaying in relay-aided downlink systems, consisting of one base station (BS), one relay station, and multiple mobile stations (MSs). In our scheme, the BS opportunistically selects both the transmission mode, that is, either one- or two-hop transmission, and the desired user (i.e., the desired MS). Closed-form expressions for the average achievable rates are derived for the two transmission modes with multiuser scheduling, and its asymptotic solutions are also analyzed in the limit of large number of MSs. Based on the analysis, we propose a feedback-efficient two-step multiuser scheduling algorithm: the transmission mode selection followed by the user selection that only needs a partial feedback for instantaneous signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) to the BS. We also analyze the average SNR condition such that the multiuser diversity gain is fully exploited for two-hop transmission. The proposed two-step scheduling algorithm exhibits the quite comparable achievable rates to those of the optimal one using full feedback information, while its required feedback information is reduced by half of the optimal one.

  3. Augmented reality as an aid in maxillofacial surgery: validation of a wearable system allowing maxillary repositioning.

    PubMed

    Badiali, Giovanni; Ferrari, Vincenzo; Cutolo, Fabrizio; Freschi, Cinzia; Caramella, Davide; Bianchi, Alberto; Marchetti, Claudio

    2014-12-01

    We present a newly designed, localiser-free, head-mounted system featuring augmented reality as an aid to maxillofacial bone surgery, and assess the potential utility of the device by conducting a feasibility study and validation. Our head-mounted wearable system facilitating augmented surgery was developed as a stand-alone, video-based, see-through device in which the visual features were adapted to facilitate maxillofacial bone surgery. We implement a strategy designed to present augmented reality information to the operating surgeon. LeFort1 osteotomy was chosen as the test procedure. The system is designed to exhibit virtual planning overlaying the details of a real patient. We implemented a method allowing performance of waferless, augmented-reality assisted bone repositioning. In vitro testing was conducted on a physical replica of a human skull, and the augmented reality system was used to perform LeFort1 maxillary repositioning. Surgical accuracy was measured with the aid of an optical navigation system that recorded the coordinates of three reference points (located in anterior, posterior right, and posterior left positions) on the repositioned maxilla. The outcomes were compared with those expected to be achievable in a three-dimensional environment. Data were derived using three levels of surgical planning, of increasing complexity, and for nine different operators with varying levels of surgical skill. The mean error was 1.70 ± 0.51 mm. The axial errors were 0.89 ± 0.54 mm on the sagittal axis, 0.60 ± 0.20 mm on the frontal axis, and 1.06 ± 0.40 mm on the craniocaudal axis. The simplest plan was associated with a slightly lower mean error (1.58 ± 0.37 mm) compared with the more complex plans (medium: 1.82 ± 0.71 mm; difficult: 1.70 ± 0.45 mm). The mean error for the anterior reference point was lower (1.33 ± 0.58 mm) than those for both the posterior right (1.72 ± 0.24 mm) and posterior left points (2.05 ± 0.47 mm). No significant difference

  4. Development of a Computer-Aided Diagnosis System for Early Detection of Masses Using Retrospectively Detected Cancers on Prior Mammograms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    system (C) Development of image processing techniques for improvement of mass detection on prior mammograms ( D ) Continue to develop a two-view...increase the overall accuracy for detection of subtle early-stage breast cancers. 13 ( D ) Continuation of Development of a Two-view Information Fusion...Petrick, B. Sahiner, S. C. B. Lo, M. Freedman, D . Adler, J. Bailey, et al., "Sensitivity of noncommercial computer-aided detection system for

  5. Review of Multi-Criteria Decision Aid for Integrated Sustainability Assessment of Urban Water Systems - MCEARD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Integrated sustainability assessment is part of a new paradigm for urban water decision making. Multi-criteria decision aid (MCDA) is an integrative framework used in urban water sustainability assessment, which has a particular focus on utilising stakeholder participation. Here ...

  6. Review of Multi-Criteria Decision Aid for Integrated Sustainability Assessment of Urban Water Systems - MCEARD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Integrated sustainability assessment is part of a new paradigm for urban water decision making. Multi-criteria decision aid (MCDA) is an integrative framework used in urban water sustainability assessment, which has a particular focus on utilising stakeholder participation. Here ...

  7. Promoting the dissemination of decision aids: an odyssey in a dysfunctional health care financing system.

    PubMed

    Billings, John

    2004-01-01

    The usefulness of patient decision aids (PtDAs) is well documented, yet they are not in widespread use. Barriers include assuring balance and fairness (auspices matter), the cost of producing and maintaining them, and getting them into the hands of patients at the right time. The Foundation for Informed Medical Decision Making and its for-profit partner, Health Dialog, have developed a creative business model that helps overcome these barriers and has greatly expanded the reach of decision aids.

  8. Image-based retrieval system and computer-aided diagnosis system for renal cortical scintigraphy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumcuoğlu, Erkan; Nar, Fatih; Uğur, Omer; Bozkurt, M. Fani; Aslan, Mehmet

    2008-03-01

    Cortical renal (kidney) scintigraphy images are 2D images (256x256) acquired in three projection angles (posterior, right-posterior-oblique and left-posterior-oblique). These images are used by nuclear medicine specialists to examine the functional morphology of kidney parenchyma. The main visual features examined in reading the images are: size, location, shape and activity distribution (pixel intensity distribution within the boundary of each kidney). Among the above features, activity distribution (in finding scars if any) was found to have the least interobserver reproducibility. Therefore, in this study, we developed an image-based retrieval (IBR) and a computer-based diagnosis (CAD) system, focused on this feature in particular. The developed IBR and CAD algorithms start with automatic segmentation, boundary and landmark detection. Then, shape and activity distribution features are computed. Activity distribution feature is obtained using the acquired image and image set statistics of the normal patients. Active Shape Model (ASM) technique is used for more accurate kidney segmentation. In the training step of ASM, normal patient images are used. Retrieval performance is evaluated by calculating precision and recall. CAD performance is evaluated by specificity and sensitivity. To our knowledge, this paper is the first IBR or CAD system reported in the literature on renal cortical scintigraphy images.

  9. Computer-aided detection systems to improve lung cancer early diagnosis: state-of-the-art and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traverso, A.; Lopez Torres, E.; Fantacci, M. E.; Cerello, P.

    2017-05-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most lethal types of cancer, because its early diagnosis is not good enough. In fact, the detection of pulmonary nodule, potential lung cancers, in Computed Tomography scans is a very challenging and time-consuming task for radiologists. To support radiologists, researchers have developed Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems for the automated detection of pulmonary nodules in chest Computed Tomography scans. Despite the high level of technological developments and the proved benefits on the overall detection performance, the usage of Computer-Aided Diagnosis in clinical practice is far from being a common procedure. In this paper we investigate the causes underlying this discrepancy and present a solution to tackle it: the M5L WEB- and Cloud-based on-demand Computer-Aided Diagnosis. In addition, we prove how the combination of traditional imaging processing techniques with state-of-art advanced classification algorithms allows to build a system whose performance could be much larger than any Computer-Aided Diagnosis developed so far. This outcome opens the possibility to use the CAD as clinical decision support for radiologists.

  10. CASTLE3D - A Computer Aided System for Labelling Archaeological Excavations in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houshiar, H.; Borrmann, D.; Elseberg, J.; Nüchter, A.; Näth, F.; Winkler, S.

    2015-08-01

    Documentation of archaeological excavation sites with conventional methods and tools such as hand drawings, measuring tape and archaeological notes is time consuming. This process is prone to human errors and the quality of the documentation depends on the qualification of the archaeologist on site. Use of modern technology and methods in 3D surveying and 3D robotics facilitate and improve this process. Computer-aided systems and databases improve the documentation quality and increase the speed of data acquisition. 3D laser scanning is the state of the art in modelling archaeological excavation sites, historical sites and even entire cities or landscapes. Modern laser scanners are capable of data acquisition of up to 1 million points per second. This provides a very detailed 3D point cloud of the environment. 3D point clouds and 3D models of an excavation site provide a better representation of the environment for the archaeologist and for documentation. The point cloud can be used both for further studies on the excavation and for the presentation of results. This paper introduces a Computer aided system for labelling archaeological excavations in 3D (CASTLE3D). Consisting of a set of tools for recording and georeferencing the 3D data from an excavation site, CASTLE3D is a novel documentation approach in industrial archaeology. It provides a 2D and 3D visualisation of the data and an easy-to-use interface that enables the archaeologist to select regions of interest and to interact with the data in both representations. The 2D visualisation and a 3D orthogonal view of the data provide cuts of the environment that resemble the traditional hand drawings. The 3D perspective view gives a realistic view of the environment. CASTLE3D is designed as an easy-to-use on-site semantic mapping tool for archaeologists. Each project contains a predefined set of semantic information that can be used to label findings in the data. Multiple regions of interest can be joined under

  11. A novel computer-aided detection system for pulmonary nodule identification in CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Hao; Li, Lihong; Wang, Huafeng; Zhang, Hao; Moore, William; Liang, Zhengrong

    2014-03-01

    Computer-aided detection (CADe) of pulmonary nodules from computer tomography (CT) scans is critical for assisting radiologists to identify lung lesions at an early stage. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for CADe of lung nodules using a two-stage vector quantization (VQ) scheme. The first-stage VQ aims to extract lung from the chest volume, while the second-stage VQ is designed to extract initial nodule candidates (INCs) within the lung volume. Then rule-based expert filtering is employed to prune obvious FPs from INCs, and the commonly-used support vector machine (SVM) classifier is adopted to further reduce the FPs. The proposed system was validated on 100 CT scans randomly selected from the 262 scans that have at least one juxta-pleural nodule annotation in the publicly available database - Lung Image Database Consortium and Image Database Resource Initiative (LIDC-IDRI). The two-stage VQ only missed 2 out of the 207 nodules at agreement level 1, and the INCs detection for each scan took about 30 seconds in average. Expert filtering reduced FPs more than 18 times, while maintaining a sensitivity of 93.24%. As it is trivial to distinguish INCs attached to pleural wall versus not on wall, we investigated the feasibility of training different SVM classifiers to further reduce FPs from these two kinds of INCs. Experiment results indicated that SVM classification over the entire set of INCs was in favor of, where the optimal operating of our CADe system achieved a sensitivity of 89.4% at a specificity of 86.8%.

  12. Ambulance times of Ankara emergency aid and rescue services' ambulance system.

    PubMed

    Altintaş, K H; Bilir, N

    2001-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine various times related to the ambulance activities of Ankara Emergency Aid and Rescue Services (EARS) and if necessary contribute to the improvement of them. A descriptive study was planned to determine various times related to the ambulance activities of Ankara EARS. The data was collected by one of the researchers. The study was conducted between 1 October 1995 and 30 September 1996. The variables of the study were: delay time, response time, time at the scene (scene time), round trip time, transport time and total run time of Ankara EARS ambulance activities. Ankara EARS Emergency Call Registry Forms (5638 forms) were evaluated for the above stated variables. The computer program EPI-INFO 5.0 was used in the study. The median response time of Ankara EARS was found to be 9 minutes. In the research year, the median delay time was 2 minutes. Median arrival to patient contact time of Ankara EARS was 2 minutes. Median time at the scene was 7 minutes. Median round trip time of the system was 44 minutes. The median time to arrive at the scene from the ambulance station was 8 minutes. The median transport time was 10 minutes. The median total run time was 30 minutes. As the median response time was found to be 9 minutes it is concluded that there should be more ambulance vehicles to improve this time of Ankara EARS. Due to financial problems, times were recorded manually by the ambulance crew and dispatchers of Ankara EARS. If digital and electronic recording systems are used, these times might be more precise.

  13. Computer Aided Detection (CAD) Systems for Mammography and the Use of GRID in Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauria, Adele

    It is well known that the most effective way to defeat breast cancer is early detection, as surgery and medical therapies are more efficient when the disease is diagnosed at an early stage. The principal diagnostic technique for breast cancer detection is X-ray mammography. Screening programs have been introduced in many European countries to invite women to have periodic radiological breast examinations. In such screenings, radiologists are often required to examine large numbers of mammograms with a double reading, that is, two radiologists examine the images independently and then compare their results. In this way an increment in sensitivity (the rate of correctly identified images with a lesion) of up to 15% is obtained.1,2 In most radiological centres, it is a rarity to find two radiologists to examine each report. In recent years different Computer Aided Detection (CAD) systems have been developed as a support to radiologists working in mammography: one may hope that the "second opinion" provided by CAD might represent a lower cost alternative to improve the diagnosis. At present, four CAD systems have obtained the FDA approval in the USA. † Studies3,4 show an increment in sensitivity when CAD systems are used. Freer and Ulissey in 2001 5 demonstrated that the use of a commercial CAD system (ImageChecker M1000, R2 Technology) increases the number of cancers detected up to 19.5% with little increment in recall rate. Ciatto et al.,5 in a study simulating a double reading with a commercial CAD system (SecondLook‡), showed a moderate increment in sensitivity while reducing specificity (the rate of correctly identified images without a lesion). Notwithstanding these optimistic results, there is an ongoing debate to define the advantages of the use of CAD as second reader: the main limits underlined, e.g., by Nishikawa6 are that retrospective studies are considered much too optimistic and that clinical studies must be performed to demonstrate a statistically

  14. The integration of automated knowledge acquisition with computer-aided software engineering for space shuttle expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Modesitt, Kenneth L.

    1990-01-01

    A prediction was made that the terms expert systems and knowledge acquisition would begin to disappear over the next several years. This is not because they are falling into disuse; it is rather that practitioners are realizing that they are valuable adjuncts to software engineering, in terms of problem domains addressed, user acceptance, and in development methodologies. A specific problem was discussed, that of constructing an automated test analysis system for the Space Shuttle Main Engine. In this domain, knowledge acquisition was part of requirements systems analysis, and was performed with the aid of a powerful inductive ESBT in conjunction with a computer aided software engineering (CASE) tool. The original prediction is not a very risky one -- it has already been accomplished.

  15. A Decision Aid for Women Considering Neoadjuvant Systemic Therapy for Operable Invasive Breast Cancer: Development and Protocol of a Phase II Evaluation Study (ANZ1301 DOMINO).

    PubMed

    Zdenkowski, Nicholas; Butow, Phyllis; Hutchings, Elizabeth; Douglas, Charles; Coll, Joseph R; Boyle, Frances M

    2016-05-20

    Neoadjuvant systemic therapy is offered to selected women with large and/or highly proliferative operable breast cancers. This option adds further complexity to an already complex breast cancer treatment decision tree. Patient decision aids are an established method of increasing patient involvement and knowledge while decreasing decisional conflict. There is currently no decision aid available for women considering neoadjuvant systemic therapy. We aimed to develop a decision aid for women diagnosed with operable breast cancer and considered suitable for neoadjuvant systemic therapy, and the protocol for a multicenter pre-post study evaluating the acceptability and feasibility of the decision aid. The decision aid was developed through literature review, expert advisory panel, adherence to the International Patient Decision Aid Standards, and iterative review. The protocol for evaluation of the decision aid consists of the following: eligible women will undertake a series of questionnaires prior to and after using the decision aid. The primary endpoint is decision aid acceptability to patients and investigators and the feasibility of use. Secondary endpoints include change in decisional conflict, participant knowledge, and information involvement preference. Feasibility is defined as the proportion of eligible participants who use the decision aid to help inform their treatment decision. This study has recruited 29 out of a planned 50 participants at four Australian sites. A 12-month recruitment period is expected with a further 12-months follow-up. The decision aid has the potential to allow patients with operable breast cancer, who have been offered neoadjuvant systemic therapy, decreased decisional conflict, and greater involvement in the decision. If this study finds that an online decision aid is feasible and acceptable, it will be made widely available for routine clinical practice. Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12614001267640; http

  16. A hearing aid on-chip system based on accuracy optimized front- and back-end blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanyang, Li; Hao, Jiang

    2014-03-01

    A hearing aid on-chip system based on accuracy optimized front- and back-end blocks is presented for enhancing the signal processing accuracy of the hearing aid. Compared with the conventional system, the accuracy optimized system is characterized by the dual feedback network and the gain compensation technique used in the front- and back-end blocks, respectively, so as to alleviate the nonlinearity distortion caused by the output swing. By using the technique, the accuracy of the whole hearing aid system can be significantly improved. The prototype chip has been designed with a 0.13 μm standard CMOS process and tested with 1 V supply voltage. The measurement results show that, for driving a 16 Ω loudspeaker with a normalized output level of 300 mVp-p, the total harmonic distortion reached about -60 dB, achieving at least three times reduction compared to the previously reported works. In addition, the typical input referred noise is only about 5 μVrms.

  17. Identification and red blood cell automated counting from blood smear images using computer-aided system.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Vasundhara; Kumar, Preetham

    2017-08-17

    Red blood cell count plays a vital role in identifying the overall health of the patient. Hospitals use the hemocytometer to count the blood cells. Conventional method of placing the smear under microscope and counting the cells manually lead to erroneous results, and medical laboratory technicians are put under stress. A computer-aided system will help to attain precise results in less amount of time. This research work proposes an image-processing technique for counting the number of red blood cells. It aims to examine and process the blood smear image, in order to support the counting of red blood cells and identify the number of normal and abnormal cells in the image automatically. K-medoids algorithm which is robust to external noise is used to extract the WBCs from the image. Granulometric analysis is used to separate the red blood cells from the white blood cells. The red blood cells obtained are counted using the labeling algorithm and circular Hough transform. The radius range for the circle-drawing algorithm is estimated by computing the distance of the pixels from the boundary which automates the entire algorithm. A comparison is done between the counts obtained using the labeling algorithm and circular Hough transform. Results of the work showed that circular Hough transform was more accurate in counting the red blood cells than the labeling algorithm as it was successful in identifying even the overlapping cells. The work also intends to compare the results of cell count done using the proposed methodology and manual approach. The work is designed to address all the drawbacks of the previous research work. The research work can be extended to extract various texture and shape features of abnormal cells identified so that diseases like anemia of inflammation and chronic disease can be detected at the earliest.

  18. Computer-aided diagnosis system for bone scintigrams from Japanese patients: importance of training database.

    PubMed

    Horikoshi, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Akihiro; Onoguchi, Masahisa; Sjöstrand, Karl; Edenbrandt, Lars

    2012-10-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) software for bone scintigrams have recently been introduced as a clinical quality assurance tool. The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of two CAD systems, one based on a European and one on a Japanese training database, in a group of bone scans from Japanese patients. The two CAD software are trained to interpret bone scans using training databases consisting of bone scans with the desired interpretation, metastatic disease or not. One software was trained using 795 bone scans from European patients and the other with 904 bone scans from Japanese patients. The two CAD softwares were evaluated using the same group of 257 Japanese patients, who underwent bone scintigraphy because of suspected metastases of malignant tumors in 2009. The final diagnostic results made by clinicians were used as gold standard. The Japanese CAD software showed a higher specificity and accuracy compared to the European CAD software [81 vs. 57 % (p < 0.05) and 82 vs. 61 % (p < 0.05), respectively]. The sensitivity was 90 % for the Japanese CAD software and 83 % for the European CAD software (n.s). The CAD software trained with a Japanese database showed significantly higher performance than the corresponding CAD software trained with a European database for the analysis of bone scans from Japanese patients. These results could at least partly be caused by the physical differences between Japanese and European patients resulting in less influence of attenuation in Japanese patients and possible different judgement of count intensities of hot spots.

  19. Validation of a computer-aided diagnosis system for the automatic identification of carotid atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Bonanno, Lilla; Marino, Silvia; Bramanti, Placido; Sottile, Fabrizio

    2015-02-01

    Carotid atherosclerosis represents one of the most important causes of brain stroke. The degree of carotid stenosis is, up to now, considered one of the most important features for determining the risk of brain stroke. Ultrasound (US) is a non-invasive, relatively inexpensive, portable technique, which has an excellent temporal resolution. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) has become one of the major research fields in medical and diagnostic imaging. We studied US images of 44 patients, 22 patients with and 22 without carotid artery stenosis, by using US examination and applying a CAD system, an automatic prototype software to detect carotid plaques. We obtained 287 regions: 60 were classified as plaques, with an average signal echogenicity of 244.1 ± 20.0 and 227 were classified as non-plaques, with an average signal echogenicity of 193.8 ± 38.6 compared with the opinion of an expert neurologist (golden test). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed a highly significant area under the ROC curve difference from 0.5 (null hypothesis) in the discrimination between plaques and non-plaques; the diagnostic accuracy was 89% (95% CI: 0.85-0.92), with an appropriate cut-off value of 236.8, sensitivity was 83% and specificity reached a value of 85%. The experimental results showed that the proposed method is feasible and has a good agreement with the expert neurologist. Without the need of any user-interaction, this method generates a detection out-put that may be useful in second opinion.

  20. A computer-aided diagnosis system to detect pathologies in temporal subtraction images of chest radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Looper, Jared; Harrison, Melanie; Armato, Samuel G.

    2016-03-01

    Radiologists often compare sequential radiographs to identify areas of pathologic change; however, this process is prone to error, as human anatomy can obscure the regions of change, causing the radiologists to overlook pathology. Temporal subtraction (TS) images can provide enhanced visualization of regions of change in sequential radiographs and allow radiologists to better detect areas of change in radiographs. Not all areas of change shown in TS images, however, are actual pathology. The purpose of this study was to create a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) system that identifies which regions of change are caused by pathology and which are caused by misregistration of the radiographs used to create the TS image. The dataset used in this study contained 120 images with 74 pathologic regions on 54 images outlined by an experienced radiologist. High and low ("light" and "dark") gray-level candidate regions were extracted from the images using gray-level thresholding. Then, sampling techniques were used to address the class imbalance problem between "true" and "false" candidate regions. Next, the datasets of light candidate regions, dark candidate regions, and the combined set of light and dark candidate regions were used as training and testing data for classifiers by using five-fold cross validation. Of the classifiers tested (support vector machines, discriminant analyses, logistic regression, and k-nearest neighbors), the support vector machine on the combined candidates using synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) performed best with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve value of 0.85, a sensitivity of 85%, and a specificity of 84%.

  1. A hybrid fuzzy-neural system for computer-aided diagnosis of ultrasound kidney images using prominent features.

    PubMed

    Bommanna Raja, K; Madheswaran, M; Thyagarajah, K

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this work is to develop and implement a computer-aided decision support system for an automated diagnosis and classification of ultrasound kidney images. The proposed method distinguishes three kidney categories namely normal, medical renal diseases and cortical cyst. For the each pre-processed ultrasound kidney image, 36 features are extracted. Two types of decision support systems, optimized multi-layer back propagation network and hybrid fuzzy-neural system have been developed with these features for classifying the kidney categories. The performance of the hybrid fuzzy-neural system is compared with the optimized multi-layer back propagation network in terms of classification efficiency, training and testing time. The results obtained show that fuzzy-neural system provides higher classification efficiency with minimum training and testing time. It has also been found that instead of using all 36 features, ranking the features enhance classification efficiency. The outputs of the decision support systems are validated with medical expert to measure the actual efficiency. The overall discriminating capability of the systems is accessed with performance evaluation measure, f-score. It has been observed that the performance of fuzzy-neural system is superior compared to optimized multi-layer back propagation network. Such hybrid fuzzy-neural system with feature extraction algorithms and pre-processing scheme helps in developing computer-aided diagnosis system for ultrasound kidney images and can be used as a secondary observer in clinical decision making.

  2. Development of a novel remote-controlled and self-contained audiovisual-aided interactive system for immobilizing claustrophobic patients.

    PubMed

    Ju, Harang; Kim, Siyong; Read, Paul; Trifiletti, Daniel; Harrell, Andrew; Libby, Bruce; Kim, Taeho

    2015-05-08

    In radiotherapy, only a few immobilization systems, such as open-face mask and head mold with a bite plate, are available for claustrophobic patients with a certain degree of discomfort. The purpose of this study was to develop a remote-controlled and self-contained audiovisual (AV)-aided interactive system with the iPad mini with Retina display for intrafractional motion management in brain/H&N (head and neck) radiotherapy for claustrophobic patients. The self-contained, AV-aided interactive system utilized two tablet computers: one for AV-aided interactive guidance for the subject and the other for remote control by an operator. The tablet for audiovisual guidance traced the motion of a colored marker using the built-in front-facing camera, and the remote control tablet at the control room used infrastructure Wi-Fi networks for real-time communication with the other tablet. In the evaluation, a programmed QUASAR motion phantom was used to test the temporal and positional accuracy and resolution. Position data were also obtained from ten healthy volunteers with and without guidance to evaluate the reduction of intrafractional head motion in simulations of a claustrophobic brain or H&N case. In the phantom study, the temporal and positional resolution was 24 Hz and 0.2 mm. In the volunteer study, the average superior-inferior and right-left displacement was reduced from 1.9 mm to 0.3 mm and from 2.2 mm to 0.2 mm with AV-aided interactive guidance, respectively. The superior-inferior and right-left positional drift was reduced from 0.5 mm/min to 0.1 mm/min and from 0.4 mm/min to 0.04 mm/min with audiovisual-aided interactive guidance. This study demonstrated a reduction in intrafractional head motion using a remote-controlled and self-contained AV-aided interactive system of iPad minis with Retina display, easily obtainable and cost-effective tablet computers. This approach can potentially streamline clinical flow for claustrophobic patients without a head mask and

  3. Space Derived Health Aids (AID, Heart Monitor)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    CPI's spinoff from miniaturized pace circuitry is the new heart-assist device, the AID implantable automatic pulse generator. AID pulse generator monitors the heart continuously, recognizes onset of fibrillation, then administers a corrective electrical shock. A mini- computer, a power source, and two electrodes which sense heart activity are included in the unit. An associated system was also developed. It includes an external recorder to be worn by AID patients and a physician's console to display the data stored by the recorder. System provides a record of fibrillation occurrences and the ensuing defibrillation.

  4. A cost-effectiveness comparison of existing and Landsat-aided snow water content estimation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, J. M.; Thomas, R. W.

    1975-01-01

    This study describes how Landsat imagery can be cost-effectively employed to augment an operational hydrologic model. Attention is directed toward the estimation of snow water content, a major predictor variable in the volumetric runoff forecasting model presently used by the California Department of Water Resources. A stratified double sampling scheme is supplemented with qualitative and quantitative analyses of existing operations to develop a comparison between the existing and satellite-aided approaches to snow water content estimation. Results show a decided advantage for the Landsat-aided approach.

  5. A cost-effectiveness comparison of existing and Landsat-aided snow water content estimation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, J. M.; Thomas, R. W.

    1975-01-01

    This study describes how Landsat imagery can be cost-effectively employed to augment an operational hydrologic model. Attention is directed toward the estimation of snow water content, a major predictor variable in the volumetric runoff forecasting model presently used by the California Department of Water Resources. A stratified double sampling scheme is supplemented with qualitative and quantitative analyses of existing operations to develop a comparison between the existing and satellite-aided approaches to snow water content estimation. Results show a decided advantage for the Landsat-aided approach.

  6. A reconfigurable digital filterbank for hearing-aid systems with a variety of sound wave decomposition plans.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ying; Liu, Debao

    2013-06-01

    Current hearing-aid systems have fixed sound wave decomposition plans due to the use of fixed filterbanks, thus cannot provide enough flexibility for the compensation of different hearing impairment cases. In this paper, a reconfigurable filterbank that consists of a multiband-generation block and a subband-selection block is proposed. Different subbands can be produced according to the control parameters without changing the structure of the filterbank system. The use of interpolation, decimation, and frequency-response masking enables us to reduce the computational complexity by realizing the entire system with only three prototype filters. Reconfigurability of the proposed filterbank enables hearing-impaired people to customize hearing aids based on their own specific conditions to improve their hearing ability. We show, by means of examples, that the proposed filterbank can achieve a better matching to the audiogram and has smaller complexity compared with the fixed filterbank. The drawback of the proposed method is that the throughput delay is relatively long (>20 ms), which needs to be further reduced before it can be used in a real hearing-aid application.

  7. NEXUS/NASCAD- NASA ENGINEERING EXTENDIBLE UNIFIED SOFTWARE SYSTEM WITH NASA COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, L. R.

    1994-01-01

    NEXUS, the NASA Engineering Extendible Unified Software system, is a research set of computer programs designed to support the full sequence of activities encountered in NASA engineering projects. This sequence spans preliminary design, design analysis, detailed design, manufacturing, assembly, and testing. NEXUS primarily addresses the process of prototype engineering, the task of getting a single or small number of copies of a product to work. Prototype engineering is a critical element of large scale industrial production. The time and cost needed to introduce a new product are heavily dependent on two factors: 1) how efficiently required product prototypes can be developed, and 2) how efficiently required production facilities, also a prototype engineering development, can be completed. NEXUS extendibility and unification are achieved by organizing the system as an arbitrarily large set of computer programs accessed in a common manner through a standard user interface. The NEXUS interface is a multipurpose interactive graphics interface called NASCAD (NASA Computer Aided Design). NASCAD can be used to build and display two and three-dimensional geometries, to annotate models with dimension lines, text strings, etc., and to store and retrieve design related information such as names, masses, and power requirements of components used in the design. From the user's standpoint, NASCAD allows the construction, viewing, modification, and other processing of data structures that represent the design. Four basic types of data structures are supported by NASCAD: 1) three-dimensional geometric models of the object being designed, 2) alphanumeric arrays to hold data ranging from numeric scalars to multidimensional arrays of numbers or characters, 3) tabular data sets that provide a relational data base capability, and 4) procedure definitions to combine groups of system commands or other user procedures to create more powerful functions. NASCAD has extensive abilities to

  8. Detection of polyomavirus simian virus 40 tumor antigen DNA in AIDS-related systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilchez, Regis A.; Lednicky, John A.; Halvorson, Steven J.; White, Zoe S.; Kozinetz, Claudia A.; Butel, Janet S.

    2002-01-01

    Systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma (S-NHL) is a common malignancy during HIV infection, and it is hypothesized that infectious agents may be involved in the etiology. Epstein-Barr virus DNA is found in <40% of patients with AIDS-related S-NHL, suggesting that other oncogenic viruses, such as polyomaviruses, may play a role in pathogenesis. We analyzed AIDS-related S-NHL samples, NHL samples from HIV-negative patients, peripheral blood leukocytes from HIV-infected and -uninfected patients without NHL, and lymph nodes without tumors from HIV-infected patients. Specimens were examined by polymerase chain reaction analysis with use of primers specific for an N-terminal region of the oncoprotein large tumor antigen ( T-ag ) gene conserved among all three polyomaviruses (simian virus 40 [SV40], JC virus, and BK virus). Polyomavirus T-ag DNA sequences, proven to be SV40-specific, were detected more frequently in AIDS-related S-NHL samples (6 of 26) than in peripheral blood leukocytes from HIV-infected patients (6 of 26 vs. 0 of 69; p =.0001), NHL samples from HIV-negative patients (6 of 26 vs. 0 of 10; p =.09), or lymph nodes (6 of 26 vs. 0 of 7; p =.16). Sequences of C-terminal T-ag DNA from SV40 were amplified from two AIDS-related S-NHL samples. Epstein-Barr virus DNA sequences were detected in 38% (10 of 26) AIDS-related S-NHL samples, 50% (5 of 10) HIV-negative S-NHL samples, and 57% (4 of 7) lymph nodes. None of the S-NHL samples were positive for both Epstein-Barr virus DNA and SV40 DNA. Further studies of the possible role of SV40 in the pathogenesis of S-NHL are warranted.

  9. Detection of polyomavirus simian virus 40 tumor antigen DNA in AIDS-related systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilchez, Regis A.; Lednicky, John A.; Halvorson, Steven J.; White, Zoe S.; Kozinetz, Claudia A.; Butel, Janet S.

    2002-01-01

    Systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma (S-NHL) is a common malignancy during HIV infection, and it is hypothesized that infectious agents may be involved in the etiology. Epstein-Barr virus DNA is found in <40% of patients with AIDS-related S-NHL, suggesting that other oncogenic viruses, such as polyomaviruses, may play a role in pathogenesis. We analyzed AIDS-related S-NHL samples, NHL samples from HIV-negative patients, peripheral blood leukocytes from HIV-infected and -uninfected patients without NHL, and lymph nodes without tumors from HIV-infected patients. Specimens were examined by polymerase chain reaction analysis with use of primers specific for an N-terminal region of the oncoprotein large tumor antigen ( T-ag ) gene conserved among all three polyomaviruses (simian virus 40 [SV40], JC virus, and BK virus). Polyomavirus T-ag DNA sequences, proven to be SV40-specific, were detected more frequently in AIDS-related S-NHL samples (6 of 26) than in peripheral blood leukocytes from HIV-infected patients (6 of 26 vs. 0 of 69; p =.0001), NHL samples from HIV-negative patients (6 of 26 vs. 0 of 10; p =.09), or lymph nodes (6 of 26 vs. 0 of 7; p =.16). Sequences of C-terminal T-ag DNA from SV40 were amplified from two AIDS-related S-NHL samples. Epstein-Barr virus DNA sequences were detected in 38% (10 of 26) AIDS-related S-NHL samples, 50% (5 of 10) HIV-negative S-NHL samples, and 57% (4 of 7) lymph nodes. None of the S-NHL samples were positive for both Epstein-Barr virus DNA and SV40 DNA. Further studies of the possible role of SV40 in the pathogenesis of S-NHL are warranted.

  10. Multilevel Drivers of HIV/AIDS among Black Philadelphians: Exploration Using Community Ethnography and Geographic Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Brawner, Bridgette M.; Reason, Janaiya L.; Goodman, Bridget A.; Schensul, Jean J.; Guthrie, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Background Unequal HIV/AIDS distribution is influenced by certain social and structural contexts that facilitate HIV transmission and concentrate HIV in disease epicenters. Thus, one of the first steps in designing effective community-level HIV/AIDS initiatives is to disentangle the influence of individual, social, and structural factors on HIV risk. Combining ethnographic methodology with geographic information systems (GIS) mapping can allow for a complex exploration of multilevel factors within communities that facilitate HIV transmission in highly affected areas. Objectives We present the formative comparative community-based case study findings of an investigation of individual-, social- , and structural-level factors that contribute to the HIV/AIDS epidemic among Black Philadelphians. Methods Communities were defined using census tracts. The methodology included ethnographic and GIS mapping, observation, informal conversations with residents and business owners, and secondary analyses of census tract-level data in four Philadelphia neighborhoods. Results Factors such as overcrowding, disadvantage, permeability in community boundaries, and availability and accessibility of health-related resources varied significantly. Further, HIV/AIDS trended with social and structural inequities above and beyond the community’s racial composition. Discussion This study was a first step to disentangle relationships between community-level factors and potential risk for HIV in an HIV epicenter. The findings also highlight stark sociodemographic differences within and across racial groups, and further substantiate the need for comprehensive, community-level HIV prevention interventions. These findings from targeted United States urban communities have potential applicability for examining the distribution of HIV/AIDS in broader national and international geosocial contexts. PMID:25738621

  11. Development of a GPS-aided motion measurement, pointing, and stabilization system for a Synthetic Aperture Radar. [Global Positioning System (GPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Fellerhoff, J.R.; Kohler, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    An advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar Motion Compensation System has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The system includes a miniaturized high accuracy ring laser gyro inertial measurement unit, a three axis gimbal pointing and stabilization assembly, a differential Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation aiding system, and a pilot guidance system. The system provides several improvements over previous SNL motion compensation systems and is capable of antenna stabilization to less than 0.01 degrees RMS and absolute position measurement to less than 5.0 meters RMS. These accuracies have been demonstrated in recent flight testing aboard a DHC-6-300 Twin Otter'' aircraft.

  12. Improving the Student Financial Aid System to Provide Efficiency for Taxpayers. Program Report 85-14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douma, Wallace H.

    Ways to improve college student loans, work-study, and grants programs are suggested, based on the experience of the financial aid director at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. It is recommended that emphasis be shifted from the Guaranteed Student Loan (GSL) Program to the National Direct Student Loan (NDSL) Program, which is more…

  13. Lecturers' Perspectives on the Use of a Mathematics-Based Computer-Aided Assessment System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broughton, Stephen J.; Robinson, Carol L.; Hernandez-Martinez, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Computer-aided assessment (CAA) has been used at a university with one of the largest mathematics and engineering undergraduate cohorts in the UK for more than ten years. Lecturers teaching mathematics to first year students were asked about their current use of CAA in a questionnaire and in interviews. This article presents the issues that these…

  14. Education for Social Transformation: Soviet University Education Aid in the Cold War Capitalist World-System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Tom G.; Charon Cardona, Euridice

    2015-01-01

    International education is seen as an effective form of soft power. This article reviews one of history's largest and most ambitious attempts to achieve global influence through university education, and to reshape the world--the Soviet university aid program, 1956-91. Drawing on existing research and Soviet archival materials, we lay out and…

  15. Hearing Aid-Induced Plasticity in the Auditory System of Older Adults: Evidence from Speech Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavie, Limor; Banai, Karen; Karni, Avi; Attias, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We tested whether using hearing aids can improve unaided performance in speech perception tasks in older adults with hearing impairment. Method: Unaided performance was evaluated in dichotic listening and speech-­in-­noise tests in 47 older adults with hearing impairment; 36 participants in 3 study groups were tested before hearing aid…

  16. Hearing Aid-Induced Plasticity in the Auditory System of Older Adults: Evidence from Speech Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavie, Limor; Banai, Karen; Karni, Avi; Attias, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We tested whether using hearing aids can improve unaided performance in speech perception tasks in older adults with hearing impairment. Method: Unaided performance was evaluated in dichotic listening and speech-­in-­noise tests in 47 older adults with hearing impairment; 36 participants in 3 study groups were tested before hearing aid…

  17. Education for Social Transformation: Soviet University Education Aid in the Cold War Capitalist World-System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Tom G.; Charon Cardona, Euridice

    2015-01-01

    International education is seen as an effective form of soft power. This article reviews one of history's largest and most ambitious attempts to achieve global influence through university education, and to reshape the world--the Soviet university aid program, 1956-91. Drawing on existing research and Soviet archival materials, we lay out and…

  18. Clinical application of a novel computer-aided detection system based on three-dimensional CT images on pulmonary nodule.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jian-Ye; Ye, Hai-Hong; Yang, Shi-Xiong; Jin, Ren-Chao; Huang, Qi-Liang; Wei, Yong-Chu; Huang, Si-Guang; Wang, Bin-Qiang; Ye, Jia-Zhou; Qin, Jian-Ying

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical application effects of a novel computer-aided detection (CAD) system based on three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) images on pulmonary nodule. 98 cases with pulmonary nodule (PN) in our hospital from Jun, 2009 to Jun, 2013 were analysed in this study. All cases underwent PN detection both by the simple spiral CT scan and by the computer-aided system based on 3D CT images, respectively. Postoperative pathological results were considered as the "gold standard", for both two checking methods, the diagnostic accuracies for determining benign and malignant PN were calculated. Under simple spiral CT scan method, 63 cases is malignant, including 50 true positive cases and 13 false positive cases from the "gold standard"; 35 cases is benign, 16 true negative case and 19 false negative cases, the Sensitivity 1 (Se1)=0.725, Specificity1 (Sp1)=0.448, Agreement rate1 (Kappa 1)=0.673, J1 (Youden's index 1)=0.173, LR(+)1=1.616, LR(-)1=0.499. Kappa 1=0.673 between the 0.4 and 0.75, has a moderate consistency. Underwent computer-aided detection (CAD) based on 3D CT method, 67cases is malignant, including 62 true positive cases and 7 false positive cases; 31 cases is benign, 24 true negative case and 7 false negative cases, Sensitivity 2 (Se2)=0.899, Specificity2 (Sp2)=0.828, Agreement rate (Kappa 2)=0.877, J2 (Youden's index 2)=0.727, LR(+)2=5.212, LR(-)2=0.123. Kappa 2=0.877 >0.75, has a good consistency. Computer-aided PN detecting system based on 3D CT images has better clinical application value, and can help doctor carry out early diagnosis of lung disease (such as cancer, etc.) through CT images.

  19. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... hearing aid has three basic parts: a microphone, amplifier, and speaker. The hearing aid receives sound through ... to electrical signals and sends them to an amplifier. The amplifier increases the power of the signals ...

  20. AIDS (image)

    MedlinePlus

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medicine can suppress symptoms. ...

  1. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  2. The use and impact of a computer-based support system for people living with AIDS and HIV infection.

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, D. H.; Hawkins, R. P.; Boberg, E. W.; Bricker, E.; Pingree, S.; Chan, C. L.

    1994-01-01

    CHESS (the Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System) is an interactive, computer-based system to support people facing AIDS/HIV Infection and other health-related crises or concerns. CHESS provides information, referral to service providers, support in making tough decisions and networking to experts and others facing the same concerns. CHESS is designed to improve access to health and human services for people who would otherwise face psychological, social, economic or geographic barriers to receiving services. CHESS has been evaluated in a random-assignment study with over 200 men and women living with AIDS and HIV infection. When CHESS was placed in subjects' homes for 3-6 months, use of CHESS was extremely heavy, with the average subject using CHESS 138 times for 39 hours. Compared with a control group which did not receive CHESS, subjects who used CHESS reported significantly higher quality of life in several dimensions, including social support and cognitive functioning. Users also reported significant reductions in some types of health care costs, especially inpatient services (hospitalizations). All segments of the study population used and benefited from CHESS, including women, minorities and those subjects with lower levels of education. Thus, CHESS appears to be an effective means of delivering education and support to the diverse populations which are affected by AIDS and HIV infection. PMID:7949999

  3. Quality assurance and training procedures for computer-aided detection and diagnosis systems in clinical use.

    PubMed

    Huo, Zhimin; Summers, Ronald M; Paquerault, Sophie; Lo, Joseph; Hoffmeister, Jeffrey; Armato, Samuel G; Freedman, Matthew T; Lin, Jesse; Lo, Shih-Chung Ben; Petrick, Nicholas; Sahiner, Berkman; Fryd, David; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Chan, Heang-Ping

    2013-07-01

    Computer-aided detection/diagnosis (CAD) is increasingly used for decision support by clinicians for detection and interpretation of diseases. However, there are no quality assurance (QA) requirements for CAD in clinical use at present. QA of CAD is important so that end users can be made aware of changes in CAD performance both due to intentional or unintentional causes. In addition, end-user training is critical to prevent improper use of CAD, which could potentially result in lower overall clinical performance. Research on QA of CAD and user training are limited to date. The purpose of this paper is to bring attention to these issues, inform the readers of the opinions of the members of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) CAD subcommittee, and thus stimulate further discussion in the CAD community on these topics. The recommendations in this paper are intended to be work items for AAPM task groups that will be formed to address QA and user training issues on CAD in the future. The work items may serve as a framework for the discussion and eventual design of detailed QA and training procedures for physicists and users of CAD. Some of the recommendations are considered by the subcommittee to be reasonably easy and practical and can be implemented immediately by the end users; others are considered to be "best practice" approaches, which may require significant effort, additional tools, and proper training to implement. The eventual standardization of the requirements of QA procedures for CAD will have to be determined through consensus from members of the CAD community, and user training may require support of professional societies. It is expected that high-quality CAD and proper use of CAD could allow these systems to achieve their true potential, thus benefiting both the patients and the clinicians, and may bring about more widespread clinical use of CAD for many other diseases and applications. It is hoped that the awareness of the need

  4. Quality assurance and training procedures for computer-aided detection and diagnosis systems in clinical usea)

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Zhimin; Summers, Ronald M.; Paquerault, Sophie; Lo, Joseph; Hoffmeister, Jeffrey; Armato, Samuel G.; Freedman, Matthew T.; Lin, Jesse; Ben Lo, Shih-Chung; Petrick, Nicholas; Sahiner, Berkman; Fryd, David; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Chan, Heang-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Computer-aided detection/diagnosis (CAD) is increasingly used for decision support by clinicians for detection and interpretation of diseases. However, there are no quality assurance (QA) requirements for CAD in clinical use at present. QA of CAD is important so that end users can be made aware of changes in CAD performance both due to intentional or unintentional causes. In addition, end-user training is critical to prevent improper use of CAD, which could potentially result in lower overall clinical performance. Research on QA of CAD and user training are limited to date. The purpose of this paper is to bring attention to these issues, inform the readers of the opinions of the members of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) CAD subcommittee, and thus stimulate further discussion in the CAD community on these topics. The recommendations in this paper are intended to be work items for AAPM task groups that will be formed to address QA and user training issues on CAD in the future. The work items may serve as a framework for the discussion and eventual design of detailed QA and training procedures for physicists and users of CAD. Some of the recommendations are considered by the subcommittee to be reasonably easy and practical and can be implemented immediately by the end users; others are considered to be “best practice” approaches, which may require significant effort, additional tools, and proper training to implement. The eventual standardization of the requirements of QA procedures for CAD will have to be determined through consensus from members of the CAD community, and user training may require support of professional societies. It is expected that high-quality CAD and proper use of CAD could allow these systems to achieve their true potential, thus benefiting both the patients and the clinicians, and may bring about more widespread clinical use of CAD for many other diseases and applications. It is hoped that the awareness of the

  5. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... known as AIDS . HIV destroys a type of defense cell in the body called a CD4 helper ... are part of the body's immune system , the defense system that fights infections. When HIV destroys these ...

  6. Ideological schisms about HIV/AIDS helping systems in the African American community, with an emphasis on women.

    PubMed

    Fairfax, Colita Nichols

    2010-10-01

    This article is an initial exploration about the impact of ideological beliefs on helping services in the African American community. Newly infected HIV/AIDS cases place African Americans at 45% of such new cases, with African American women becoming infected at a rate 18 times that of Whites. Yet, helping services that are organic to African American women should be stronger through a discussion of cultural beliefs held in the community, where the genesis of helping services exists. Values and beliefs should be at the center of community partnerships, public media strategies, generalist-practice curricula in macro-level systems, and creating more space for relationship dialogue between African American men and women, which includes gender and racial distortions. Given the exponentially high numbers of HIV/AIDS cases in the African American community, a more earnest examination of values and beliefs is warranted.

  7. Evaluation of a stand-alone computer-aided detection system for acute intra-cranial hemorrhage in emergency environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, James; Deshpande, Ruchi; Wang, Ximing; Liu, Brent; Brazaitis, Michael; Munter, Fletcher; Liu, Margaret

    2011-03-01

    Acute intra-cranial hemorrhage (AIH) may result from traumatic brain injury (TBI). Successful management of AIH depends heavily on the speed and accuracy of diagnosis. Timely diagnosis in emergency environments in both civilian and military settings is difficult primarily due to severe time restraints and lack of resources. Often, diagnosis is performed by emergency physicians rather than trained radiologists. As a result, added support in the form of computer-aided detection (CAD) would greatly enhance the decision-making process and help in providing faster and more accurate diagnosis of AIH. This paper discusses the implementation of a CAD system in an emergency environment, and its efficacy in aiding in the detection of AIH.

  8. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and telemedicine network system for chest diagnosis based on multislice CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kakinuma, Ryutaru; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2009-02-01

    Mass screening based on multi-helical CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. Moreover, the doctor who diagnoses a medical image is insufficient in Japan. To overcome these problems, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images, a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification and a vertebra body analysis algorithm for quantitative evaluation of osteoporosis likelihood by using helical CT scanner for the lung cancer mass screening. The functions to observe suspicious shadow in detail are provided in computer-aided diagnosis workstation with these screening algorithms. We also have developed the telemedicine network by using Web medical image conference system with the security improvement of images transmission, Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system. Biometric face authentication used on site of telemedicine makes "Encryption of file" and "Success in login" effective. As a result, patients' private information is protected. We can share the screen of Web medical image conference system from two or more web conference terminals at the same time. An opinion can be exchanged mutually by using a camera and a microphone that are connected with workstation. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have developed a new computer-aided workstation and a new telemedicine network that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. The results of this study indicate that our radiological information system without film by using computer-aided diagnosis workstation and our telemedicine network system can increase diagnostic speed, diagnostic accuracy and

  9. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and database system for chest diagnosis based on multi-helical CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Mori, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro; Kakinuma, Ryutarou; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Masuda, Hideo; Machida, Suguru; Sasagawa, Michizou

    2006-03-01

    Multi-helical CT scanner advanced remarkably at the speed at which the chest CT images were acquired for mass screening. Mass screening based on multi-helical CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. To overcome this problem, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images and a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification. We also have developed electronic medical recording system and prototype internet system for the community health in two or more regions by using the Virtual Private Network router and Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system for safety of medical information. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have now developed a new computer-aided workstation and database that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. This paper describes basic studies that have been conducted to evaluate this new system. The results of this study indicate that our computer-aided diagnosis workstation and network system can increase diagnostic speed, diagnostic accuracy and safety of medical information.

  10. Manufacturing Aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    During a research program, MMTC/Textron invented a computer-aided automatic robotic system for spraying hot plasma onto a turbine blade. The need to control the thickness of the plasma deposit led to the development of advanced optical gaging techniques to monitor and control plasma spray build-up on blade surfaces. The techniques led to computerized optical gages for inspecting aircraft, industrial turbine blades, etc. MMTC offers 10 standard commercial robotic gages. The system also generates two dimensional profiles for assessing status and specifying repairs to the electromechanical cathodes used to make the parts. It is capable of accuracies to a ten-thousandth of an inch. An expanded product line is currently marketed. The gages offer multiple improvements in quality control and significant savings.

  11. Pilot-aided sampling frequency offset estimation and compensation using DSP technique in DD-OOFDM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; He, Jing; Tang, Jin; Chen, Lin

    2014-06-01

    To improve the outage performance of an optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) system under the frequency offset between the sampling clocks in the transmitter and receiver, a pilot-aided sampling frequency offset (SFO) estimation and compensation scheme for the optical OFDM system with intensity-modulation and direct-detection (DD-OOFDM) is experimentally demonstrated. The experimental and simulated results show that the scheme can work effectively even with large sampling frequency offsets. In addition, it can achieve a good bit error rate (BER) performance without the sampling clock frequency synchronization in the receiver.

  12. An overview of the computer aided definition system for design definition at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore FY91 update

    SciTech Connect

    Koopmann, B.E.

    1991-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, is continuing to process the upgrading and enhancing its Computer Aided Definition System to incorporate new hardware capabilities and software functionality to meet our design definition mission. The original report, published in August 1988, detailed the current configuration and design concepts. Although many of the concepts are still valid, several new hardware capabilities are now available and significant software advances have been made since that report was published. This report describes the updated system configuration and revised concepts for the early 1990`s.

  13. An overview of the computer aided definition system for design definition at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore FY91 update

    SciTech Connect

    Koopmann, B.E.

    1991-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, is continuing to process the upgrading and enhancing its Computer Aided Definition System to incorporate new hardware capabilities and software functionality to meet our design definition mission. The original report, published in August 1988, detailed the current configuration and design concepts. Although many of the concepts are still valid, several new hardware capabilities are now available and significant software advances have been made since that report was published. This report describes the updated system configuration and revised concepts for the early 1990's.

  14. AIDS and confidentiality.

    PubMed

    Kirkman, M B; Bell, S K

    1989-01-01

    AIDS has created many challenges for those who provide care for AIDS patients. One major challenge has been the request of many public officials for healthcare professionals to abandon the traditional view of confidentiality and to reveal AIDS patients' names. This ethical dilemma is explored and some ethical theories are presented as possible resolutions. The conclusion presented is that healthcare professionals must recognize that the power of the healthcare system over an AIDS patient is immense. Therefore, healthcare professionals must make a commitment to protect the patient's right to privacy by preventing any unauthorized disclosure at all costs.

  15. A computer-aided audit system for respiratory therapy consult evaluations: description of a method and early results.

    PubMed

    Kester, Lucy; Stoller, James K

    2013-05-01

    Use of respiratory therapist (RT)-guided protocols enhances allocation of respiratory care. In the context that optimal protocol use requires a system for auditing respiratory care plans to assure adherence to protocols and expertise of the RTs generating the care plan, a live audit system has been in longstanding use in our Respiratory Therapy Consult Service. Growth in the number of RT positions and the need to audit more frequently has prompted development of a new, computer-aided audit system. The number and results of audits using the old and new systems were compared (for the periods May 30, 2009 through May 30, 2011 and January 1, 2012 through May 30, 2012, respectively). In contrast to the original, live system requiring a patient visit by the auditor, the new system involves completion of a respiratory therapy care plan using patient information in the electronic medical record, both by the RT generating the care plan and the auditor. Completing audits in the new system also uses an electronic respiratory therapy management system. The degrees of concordance between the audited RT's care plans and the "gold standard" care plans using the old and new audit systems were similar. Use of the new system was associated with an almost doubling of the rate of audits (ie, 11 per month vs 6.1 per month). The new, computer-aided audit system increased capacity to audit more RTs performing RT-guided consults while preserving accuracy as an audit tool. Ensuring that RTs adhere to the audit process remains the challenge for the new system, and is the rate-limiting step.

  16. Research on positioning mode of LADAR aided navigation system over plain area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi; Yan, Lei; Tong, Qingxi

    2007-11-01

    Laser Radar (LADAR) achieves more applications on aerial aided-navigation in mountainous areas for its good performance. But plain areas encounter terrain elevation's slow variation and occasional unavailability of Digital Feature Analysis Database (DFAD), which as necessary reference. Looking for replaceable map source and extracting common characters for matching, are the fundamental circles of imaging LADAR aided navigation research. In this paper aerial high-resolution remote sensing (RS) images are applied as substitute for DFAD, and the edge factor is chosen out by synthetically analyzing RS images' and imaging LADAR point cloud'scharacters. Then edge extraction algorithm based on multi-scale wavelet is explored to reflect their common features, and weighted Hausdorff distance method is applied to match for positioning. At last the high-resolution RS images and imaging LADAR data of the same area are assumed for simulation experiment, which testifies the validity of the methods proposed above.

  17. Computer-aided diagnostic system for detection of Hashimoto thyroiditis on ultrasound images from a Polish population.

    PubMed

    Acharya, U Rajendra; Sree, S Vinitha; Krishnan, M Muthu Rama; Molinari, Filippo; Zieleźnik, Witold; Bardales, Ricardo H; Witkowska, Agnieszka; Suri, Jasjit S

    2014-02-01

    Computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) techniques aid physicians in better diagnosis of diseases by extracting objective and accurate diagnostic information from medical data. Hashimoto thyroiditis is the most common type of inflammation of the thyroid gland. The inflammation changes the structure of the thyroid tissue, and these changes are reflected as echogenic changes on ultrasound images. In this work, we propose a novel CAD system (a class of systems called ThyroScan) that extracts textural features from a thyroid sonogram and uses them to aid in the detection of Hashimoto thyroiditis. In this paradigm, we extracted grayscale features based on stationary wavelet transform from 232 normal and 294 Hashimoto thyroiditis-affected thyroid ultrasound images obtained from a Polish population. Significant features were selected using a Student t test. The resulting feature vectors were used to build and evaluate the following 4 classifiers using a 10-fold stratified cross-validation technique: support vector machine, decision tree, fuzzy classifier, and K-nearest neighbor. Using 7 significant features that characterized the textural changes in the images, the fuzzy classifier had the highest classification accuracy of 84.6%, sensitivity of 82.8%, specificity of 87.0%, and a positive predictive value of 88.9%. The proposed ThyroScan CAD system uses novel features to noninvasively detect the presence of Hashimoto thyroiditis on ultrasound images. Compared to manual interpretations of ultrasound images, the CAD system offers a more objective interpretation of the nature of the thyroid. The preliminary results presented in this work indicate the possibility of using such a CAD system in a clinical setting after evaluating it with larger databases in multicenter clinical trials.

  18. Addition of Coal Mining Regulations to the Computer-Aided Environmental Legislative Data System (CELDS).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    Armyengineering Corps of Engineers research SPECIAL REPORTy1983’boratory Z ADDITION OF COAL MINING REGULATIONS TO THE COMPUTER-AIDED ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATIVE...AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASK U.S. ARMY AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING RESEARCH LABORATORY CHAMPAIGN, IL 61820 11...an online, interactive database developed by the US. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (CERL). CELDS indexes and abstracts

  19. Teachers with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strope, John L., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the application of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 as a legal theory available to an employee of a public school system who faces isolation, transfer, suspension, or termination because of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Addresses AIDS in the workplace and the law. (MLF)

  20. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    CPI's human-implantable automatic implantable defibrillator (AID) is a heart assist system, derived from NASA's space circuitry technology, that can prevent erratic heart action known as arrhythmias. Implanted AID, consisting of microcomputer power source and two electrodes for sensing heart activity, recognizes onset of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and delivers corrective electrical countershock to restore rhythmic heartbeat.

  1. HIV/AIDS and Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Having HIV/AIDS weakens your body's immune system. It destroys the white blood cells that fight infection. This puts ... such as crypto (cryptosporidiosis) and toxo (toxoplasmosis) Having HIV/AIDS can make infections harder to treat. People ...

  2. NEXUS/NASCAD- NASA ENGINEERING EXTENDIBLE UNIFIED SOFTWARE SYSTEM WITH NASA COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, L. R.

    1994-01-01

    NEXUS, the NASA Engineering Extendible Unified Software system, is a research set of computer programs designed to support the full sequence of activities encountered in NASA engineering projects. This sequence spans preliminary design, design analysis, detailed design, manufacturing, assembly, and testing. NEXUS primarily addresses the process of prototype engineering, the task of getting a single or small number of copies of a product to work. Prototype engineering is a critical element of large scale industrial production. The time and cost needed to introduce a new product are heavily dependent on two factors: 1) how efficiently required product prototypes can be developed, and 2) how efficiently required production facilities, also a prototype engineering development, can be completed. NEXUS extendibility and unification are achieved by organizing the system as an arbitrarily large set of computer programs accessed in a common manner through a standard user interface. The NEXUS interface is a multipurpose interactive graphics interface called NASCAD (NASA Computer Aided Design). NASCAD can be used to build and display two and three-dimensional geometries, to annotate models with dimension lines, text strings, etc., and to store and retrieve design related information such as names, masses, and power requirements of components used in the design. From the user's standpoint, NASCAD allows the construction, viewing, modification, and other processing of data structures that represent the design. Four basic types of data structures are supported by NASCAD: 1) three-dimensional geometric models of the object being designed, 2) alphanumeric arrays to hold data ranging from numeric scalars to multidimensional arrays of numbers or characters, 3) tabular data sets that provide a relational data base capability, and 4) procedure definitions to combine groups of system commands or other user procedures to create more powerful functions. NASCAD has extensive abilities to

  3. NEXUS/NASCAD- NASA ENGINEERING EXTENDIBLE UNIFIED SOFTWARE SYSTEM WITH NASA COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, L. R.

    1994-01-01

    NEXUS, the NASA Engineering Extendible Unified Software system, is a research set of computer programs designed to support the full sequence of activities encountered in NASA engineering projects. This sequence spans preliminary design, design analysis, detailed design, manufacturing, assembly, and testing. NEXUS primarily addresses the process of prototype engineering, the task of getting a single or small number of copies of a product to work. Prototype engineering is a critical element of large scale industrial production. The time and cost needed to introduce a new product are heavily dependent on two factors: 1) how efficiently required product prototypes can be developed, and 2) how efficiently required production facilities, also a prototype engineering development, can be completed. NEXUS extendibility and unification are achieved by organizing the system as an arbitrarily large set of computer programs accessed in a common manner through a standard user interface. The NEXUS interface is a multipurpose interactive graphics interface called NASCAD (NASA Computer Aided Design). NASCAD can be used to build and display two and three-dimensional geometries, to annotate models with dimension lines, text strings, etc., and to store and retrieve design related information such as names, masses, and power requirements of components used in the design. From the user's standpoint, NASCAD allows the construction, viewing, modification, and other processing of data structures that represent the design. Four basic types of data structures are supported by NASCAD: 1) three-dimensional geometric models of the object being designed, 2) alphanumeric arrays to hold data ranging from numeric scalars to multidimensional arrays of numbers or characters, 3) tabular data sets that provide a relational data base capability, and 4) procedure definitions to combine groups of system commands or other user procedures to create more powerful functions. NASCAD has extensive abilities to

  4. Two adults with multiple disabilities use a computer-aided telephone system to make phone calls independently.

    PubMed

    Lancioni, Giulio E; O'Reilly, Mark F; Singh, Nirbhay N; Sigafoos, Jeff; Oliva, Doretta; Alberti, Gloria; Lang, Russell

    2011-01-01

    This study extended the assessment of a newly developed computer-aided telephone system with two participants (adults) who presented with blindness or severe visual impairment and motor or motor and intellectual disabilities. For each participant, the study was carried out according to an ABAB design, in which the A represented baseline phases and the B represented intervention phases, during which the special telephone system was available. The system involved among others a net-book computer provided with specific software, a global system for mobile communication modem, and a microswitch. Both participants learned to use the system very rapidly and managed to make phone calls independently to a variety of partners such as family members, friends and staff personnel. The results were discussed in terms of the technology under investigation (its advantages, drawbacks, and need of improvement) and the social-communication impact it can make for persons with multiple disabilities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A computer-aided tracking and motion analysis with ultrasound (CAT & MAUS) system for the description of hip joint kinematics.

    PubMed

    Jia, Rui; Mellon, Stephen; Monk, Paul; Murray, David; Noble, J Alison

    2016-11-01

    Investigation of joint kinematics contributes to developing a better understanding of musculoskeletal conditions. However, the most commonly used optoelectronic motion analysis systems cannot determine the movements of underlying bone landmarks with high accuracy because of soft tissue artefacts. The aim of this paper was to present a computer-aided measurement system to track the underlying bone anatomy in a 3D global coordinate frame and describe hip joint kinematics of ten healthy volunteers during gait. We have developed a measurement tool with an image-based computer-aided post-processing pipeline for automatic bone segmentation in ultrasound (US) images and a globally optimal 3D surface-to-surface registration method to quantify hip joint movements. The segmentation algorithm exploits US intensity profiles, including information about the integrated backscattering, acoustic shadows, and local phase features. A global optimization method is applied based on the traditional iterative closest point registration algorithm, which is robust to initialization. The International Society of Biomechanics recommended joint kinematics descriptor has been adapted to calculate the joint kinematics. The developed system prototype has been validated with a ball-joint femoral phantom and tested in vivo with 10 volunteers. The maximum Euclidean distance error of the automatic bone segmentation is less than 2 pixels (approximately 0.2 mm). The maximum absolute rotation angle error is less than [Formula: see text]. This computer-aided tracking and motion analysis with ultrasound (CAT & MAUS) system shows the feasibility of describing hip joint kinematics for clinical investigation and diagnosis using an image-based solution.

  6. Proposal for Development of EBM-CDSS (Evidence-based Clinical Decision Support System) to Aid Prognostication in Terminally Ill Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    TITLE: Proposal for Development of EBM-CDSS (Evidence-based Clinical Decision Support System) to Aid Prognostication in Terminally Ill Patients...SUBTITLE Proposal for development of EBM-CDSS (Evidence-based Clinical Decision Support System) to aid prognostication in terminally ill patients 5a...to improve prognostication of the life expectancy of terminally ill patients to improve referral of patients to hospice. In addition, the EBM-CDSS

  7. Three Proposals to Simplify the Federal Student Aid System: A Critical Reply from Financial Aid Administrators at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Marcia D.

    2014-01-01

    Financial aid programs are supposed to improve access and affordability in higher education (Gillen, 2009). The effectiveness of these programs is increasingly being questioned as college attainment figures stagnate and the financial burden on students and families continues to climb year after year. The purpose of this study was to examine the…

  8. Three Proposals to Simplify the Federal Student Aid System: A Critical Reply from Financial Aid Administrators at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Marcia D.

    2014-01-01

    Financial aid programs are supposed to improve access and affordability in higher education (Gillen, 2009). The effectiveness of these programs is increasingly being questioned as college attainment figures stagnate and the financial burden on students and families continues to climb year after year. The purpose of this study was to examine the…

  9. The development of computer-aided system for tissue scaffolds (CASTS) system for functionally graded tissue-engineering scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Sudarmadji, Novella; Chua, Chee Kai; Leong, Kah Fai

    2012-01-01

    Computer-aided system for tissue scaffolds (CASTS) is an in-house parametric library of polyhedral units that can be assembled into customized tissue scaffolds. Thirteen polyhedral configurations are available to select, depending on the biological and mechanical requirements of the target tissue/organ. Input parameters include the individual polyhedral units and overall scaffold block as well as the scaffold strut diameter. Taking advantage of its repeatability and reproducibility, the scaffold file is then converted into .STL file and fabricated using selective laser sintering, a rapid prototyping system. CASTS seeks to fulfill anatomical, biological, and mechanical requirements of the target tissue/organ. Customized anatomical scaffold shape is achieved through a Boolean operation between the scaffold block and the tissue defect image. Biological requirements, such as scaffold pore size and porosity, are unique for different type of cells. Matching mechanical properties, such as stiffness and strength, between the scaffold and target organ is very important, particularly in the regeneration of load-bearing organ, i.e., bone. This includes mimicking the compressive stiffness variation across the bone to prevent stress shielding and ensuring that the scaffold can withstand the load normally borne by the bone. The stiffness variation is tailored by adjusting the scaffold porosity based on the porosity-stiffness relationship of the CASTS scaffolds. Two types of functional gradients based on the gradient direction include radial and axial/linear gradient. Radial gradient is useful in the case of regenerating a section of long bones while the gradient in linear direction can be used in short or irregular bones. Stiffness gradient in the radial direction is achieved by using cylindrical unit cells arranged in a concentric manner, in which the porosity decreases from the center of the structure toward the outside radius, making the scaffold stiffer at the outer radius

  10. Music and hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-10-31

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Music and Hearing Aids

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Brian C. J.

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  12. Dynamic MRI-based computer aided diagnostic systems for early detection of kidney transplant rejection: A survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostapha, Mahmoud; Khalifa, Fahmi; Alansary, Amir; Soliman, Ahmed; Gimel'farb, Georgy; El-Baz, Ayman

    2013-10-01

    Early detection of renal transplant rejection is important to implement appropriate medical and immune therapy in patients with transplanted kidneys. In literature, a large number of computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) systems using different image modalities, such as ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and radionuclide imaging, have been proposed for early detection of kidney diseases. A typical CAD system for kidney diagnosis consists of a set of processing steps including: motion correction, segmentation of the kidney and/or its internal structures (e.g., cortex, medulla), construction of agent kinetic curves, functional parameter estimation, diagnosis, and assessment of the kidney status. In this paper, we survey the current state-of-the-art CAD systems that have been developed for kidney disease diagnosis using dynamic MRI. In addition, the paper addresses several challenges that researchers face in developing efficient, fast and reliable CAD systems for the early detection of kidney diseases.

  13. Snail shell as coagulant aid in the alum precipitation of malachite green from aqua system.

    PubMed

    Oladoja, Nurudeen A; Aliu, Yekini D

    2009-05-30

    The ability of snail shell (SS) to act as coagulant aid in the alum precipitation of a basic dye (MG) was investigated. The proximate physicochemical characterization of the SS showed the pH(solution) to be 8.01, high fraction of the inorganic constituents (ash content=93.76%), the presence of Ca(2+) (99.74%) as the major metal ion present and the point zero charge (PZC) found at pH 7.9. The X-ray diffractometric analysis revealed the presence of aragonite. The stability and leaching of the SS, tested in different aqua medium (acidic, basic and neutral solutions) showed that the SS was less stable in the acidic medium. Both the alum and the SS were used, differently, for the dye precipitation. The alum alone had no precipitating effect on the MG dye molecules while SS alone was able to reduce the intensity of the dye. When the SS was used as coagulant aid in alum precipitation, the percentage of the MG molecule removed was enhanced. The effects of some process variables (coagulant/coagulant aid dosage, pH and flocculation time) were optimized by method of continuous variation. The optimum pH for the MG removal was found to range between 4 and 5 but the amount of MG removed was appreciable at all the pH studied. Studies on the effect of time on the flocculation of the precipitated MG molecule showed that the problem of redispersion and restabilisation encountered in alum precipitation could be overcome using alum-SS combination. The settling characteristics of the sludge obtained from the use of SS alone and alum-SS combination was studied by measuring the sludge volume index (SVI, mg/g) over time. The value of the SVI (mg/g) showed that the sludge produced from the alum-SS combination had better settling characteristics than the sludge got from the use of SS alone.

  14. A comparison of two computer-based prognostic systems for AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Ohno-Machado, L.; Musen, M. A.

    1995-01-01

    We compare the performances of a Cox model and a neural network model that are used as prognostic tools for a cohort of people living with AIDS. We modeled disease progression for patients who had AIDS (according to the 1993 CDC definition) in a cohort of 588 patients in California, using data from the ATHOS project. We divided the study population into 10 training and 10 test sets and evaluated the prognostic accuracy of a Cox proportional hazards model and of a neural network model by determining the number of predicted deaths, the sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values for intervals of one year following the diagnosis of AIDS. For the Cox model, we further tested the agreement between a series of binary observations, representing death in one, two, and three years, and a set of estimates which define the probability of survival for those intervals. Both models were able to provide accurate numbers on how many patients were likely to die at each interval, and reasonable individualized estimates for the two- and three-year survival of a given patient, but failed to provide reliable predictions for the first year after diagnosis. There was no evidence that the Cox model performed better than did the neural network model or vice-versa, but the former method had the advantage of providing some insight on which variables were most influential for prognosis. Nevertheless, it is likely that the assumptions required by the Cox model may not be satisfied in all data sets, justifying the use of neural networks in certain cases. PMID:8563387

  15. Job Aid Manuals for Phase 2-DESIGN of the Instructional Systems Development Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    NOTESESO O.3-ECPE AAOGNME ISDA Trainin Devlopen Job Aids()S.CNRCTO RN ThRupse ofS he or eac wasC1 todvlpjbad-o h ciiis dni ANLZE E IGGNIDATEOP INA LME N...Write-In Section. These write-in sections are provided in order that you may comment on each task inventory section, or list any task(s) you think...should be included in the Task Inventory. These sections also allow you to comment on those tasks that you find are the most difficult for you to

  16. User-Friendly, Syntax Directed Input to a Computer Aided Design System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    indepen- dern-. oblems arise in both compu:er aided design and in software development as a result of multipla types cf computz , mUtiple languages...Base CONLAN. Ease CONLAN is defined cy three i- ms , a set of object types and cperations, syntax, and a comPuta-IoL model. It is defined with Primitive...ycsjum on Computer Hardware= DescrT:--c-: -Lanquaqes. ~ p. =-3’EEET73 28. H1Il, F. J., and Petezzcn, J. R., DjZt4- S Lt-= Ms : Hardware O~gan iza,,i.n cand

  17. Study of the Performance of Aids to Navigation Systems - Phase 1, An Empirical Model Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-07-19

    OMEGA5 +i.0 NM (day) + 1.0 NM (day) +2,0 NM (night) +2.0 NM (night) RDF6 + 5 dog 1 deg roundoff "+5.05 dec plus gyro error 1 deg roundoff SPEED LOG 7...gI𔄁 UU zz w : Or 31VI DNi ’# 0..I 5.3.1 Sample Scenario Evaluation: Florida Keys A sample coastwise passage between Carysfort Reef and Tennessee Reef...the Institute of Navigation, vol 21:2 (Summer 1974), 117-133. Blood , E.B. "Navigation Aid Requirements for the U.S. Coastal Confluence Region," Journal

  18. Exposure to the magnetic field from an induction loop pad for a hearing aid system.

    PubMed

    Hansson Mild, Kjell; Friberg, Stefan; Frankel, Jennifer; Wilén, Jonna

    2017-03-01

    As a case study we have measured the magnetic field from an induction loop pad designed for hearing aid assistance. The magnitude of the field was high, although well below international guidelines. We recorded values up to 70% of the recommended standard in some instances. However, in view of the many reports indicating health effects of low-level exposure, we recommend that the precautionary principle is applied when such pads are given to people who might be especially vulnerable, such as children, pregnant women and women on breast cancer medication.

  19. A Short Review of Chemical Reaction Database Systems, Computer-Aided Synthesis Design, Reaction Prediction and Synthetic Feasibility.

    PubMed

    Warr, Wendy A

    2014-06-01

    This article is the text for a pedagogical lecture to be given at the Strasbourg Summer School in Chemoinformatics in June 2104. It covers a very wide range of reaction topics including structure and reaction representation, reaction centers, atom-to-atom mapping, reaction retrieval systems, computer-aided synthesis design, retrosynthesis, reaction prediction and synthetic feasibility. In the time available the coverage of each topic can only be cursory; the main usefulness of this article to the research community is the extensive bibliography. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. A web-based computer aided system for liver surgery planning: initial implementation on RayPlus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ming; Yuan, Rong; Sun, Zhi; Li, Tianhong; Xie, Qingguo

    2016-03-01

    At present, computer aided systems for liver surgery design and risk evaluation are widely used in clinical all over the world. However, most systems are local applications that run on high-performance workstations, and the images have to processed offline. Compared with local applications, a web-based system is accessible anywhere and for a range of regardless of relative processing power or operating system. RayPlus (http://rayplus.life.hust.edu.cn), a B/S platform for medical image processing, was developed to give a jump start on web-based medical image processing. In this paper, we implement a computer aided system for liver surgery planning on the architecture of RayPlus. The system consists of a series of processing to CT images including filtering, segmentation, visualization and analyzing. Each processing is packaged into an executable program and runs on the server side. CT images in DICOM format are processed step by to interactive modeling on browser with zero-installation and server-side computing. The system supports users to semi-automatically segment the liver, intrahepatic vessel and tumor from the pre-processed images. Then, surface and volume models are built to analyze the vessel structure and the relative position between adjacent organs. The results show that the initial implementation meets satisfactorily its first-order objectives and provide an accurate 3D delineation of the liver anatomy. Vessel labeling and resection simulation are planned to add in the future. The system is available on Internet at the link mentioned above and an open username for testing is offered.