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Sample records for mount agung eruption

  1. Twilight Phenomena Caused by the Eruption of Agung Volcano.

    PubMed

    Volz, F E

    1964-05-29

    Increase in twilight glow and in the dust stripes in the twilight arch have been observed from several places in the northern hemisphere from the fall of 1963 until now. Measurements of the twilight brightness indicate a considerable increase of dustiness in the stratosphere; this turbidity may be due to drifting ashes from the eruption of Agung volcano on Bali.

  2. Mt. Agung eruption as a confirmation of the effect of atmospheric radiative perturbations on climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, J. E.; Wang, W. C.; Lacis, A. A.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of the 1963 Mt. Agung (Bali) volcanic eruption are studied with respect to the response of the climate system to global radiative perturbations. Volcanic aerosols, spread globally by stratospheric winds, cause a perturbation characterized by a reasonably well known forcing function. Since the climatic response to a large eruption should be pronounced, these phenomena might provide a means to test the validity of climate models. The Mt. Agung eruption is described, and the atmospheric thermal response is calculated. The magnitude, sign, and time delay of temperature changes computed with a simple one-dimensional climate model for both the stratosphere and troposphere are in agreement with the observed temperature changes.

  3. Further studies of the atmospheric temperature change produced by the Mt. Agung volcanic eruption in 1963

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, R. E.

    1980-03-26

    The eruption of Mt. Agung in March 1963 introduced an aerosol layer into the stratosphere that was associated with stratospheric temperature increases of several degrees Kelvin. The mechanics of this temperature change in the tropical troposphere are examined by observations of its distribution in altitutde and time. (ACR)

  4. A 5000-year record of multiple highly explosive mafic eruptions from Gunung Agung (Bali, Indonesia): implications for eruption frequency and volcanic hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontijn, Karen; Costa, Fidel; Sutawidjaja, Igan; Newhall, Christopher G.; Herrin, Jason S.

    2015-07-01

    The 1963 AD eruption of Agung volcano was one of the most significant twentieth century eruptions in Indonesia, both in terms of its explosivity (volcanic explosivity index (VEI) of 4+) and its short-term climatic impact as a result of around 6.5 Mt SO2 emitted during the eruption. Because Agung has a significant potential to generate more sulphur-rich explosive eruptions in the future and in the wake of reported geophysical unrest between 2007 and 2011, we investigated the Late Holocene tephrostratigraphic record of this volcano using stratigraphic logging, and geochemical and geochronological analyses. We show that Agung has an average eruptive frequency of one VEI ≥2-3 eruptions per century. The Late Holocene eruptive record is dominated by basaltic andesitic eruptions generating tephra fall and pyroclastic density currents. About 25 % of eruptions are of similar or larger magnitude than the 1963 AD event, and this includes the previous eruption of 1843 AD (estimated VEI 5, contrary to previous estimations of VEI 2). The latter represents one of the chemically most evolved products (andesite) erupted at Agung. In the Late Holocene, periods of more intense explosive activity alternated with periods of background eruptive rates similar to those at other subduction zone volcanoes. All eruptive products at Agung show a texturally complex mineral assemblage, dominated by plagioclase, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene and olivine, suggesting recurring open-system processes of magmatic differentiation. We propose that erupted magmas are the result of repeated intrusions of basaltic magmas into basaltic andesitic to andesitic reservoirs producing a hybrid of bulk basaltic andesitic composition with limited compositional variations.

  5. Erupting Volcano Mount Etna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    An Expedition Two crewmember aboard the International Space Station (ISS) captured this overhead look at the smoke and ash regurgitated from the erupting volcano Mt. Etna on the island of Sicily, Italy. At an elevation of 10,990 feet (3,350 m), the summit of the Mt. Etna volcano, one of the most active and most studied volcanoes in the world, has been active for a half-million years and has erupted hundreds of times in recorded history.

  6. Erupting Volcano Mount Etna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Expedition Five crew members aboard the International Space Station (ISS) captured this overhead look at the smoke and ash regurgitated from the erupting volcano Mt. Etna on the island of Sicily, Italy in October 2002. Triggered by a series of earthquakes on October 27, 2002, this eruption was one of Etna's most vigorous in years. This image shows the ash plume curving out toward the horizon. The lighter-colored plumes down slope and north of the summit seen in this frame are produced by forest fires set by flowing lava. At an elevation of 10,990 feet (3,350 m), the summit of the Mt. Etna volcano, one of the most active and most studied volcanoes in the world, has been active for a half-million years and has erupted hundreds of times in recorded history.

  7. The 1991 eruptions of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfe, Edward W.

    1992-01-01

    Recognition of the volcanic unrest at Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines began when steam explosions occurred on April 2, 1991. The unrest culminated ten weeks later in the world's largest eruption in more than half a century. 

  8. Eruptive history of Mount Katmai, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hildreth, Edward; Fierstein, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Compositionally, products of Mount Katmai represent an ordinary medium-K arc array, both tholeiitic and calcalkaline, that extends from 51.6% to 72.3% SiO2. Values of 87Sr/86Sr range from 0.70335 to 0.70372, correlating loosely with fractionation indices. The 5–6 km3 of continuously zoned andesite-dacite magma (58%–68% SiO2) that erupted at Novarupta in 1912 was withdrawn from beneath Mount Katmai and bears close compositional affinity with products of that edifice, not with pre-1912 products of the adjacent Trident cluster. Evidence is presented that the 7–8 km3 of high-silica rhyolite (77% SiO2) released in 1912 is unlikely to have been stored under Novarupta or Trident. Pre-eruptive contiguity with the andesite-dacite reservoir is suggested by (1) eruption of ∼3 km3 of rhyolite magma first, followed by mutual mingling in fluctuating proportions; (2) thermal and redox continuity of the whole zoned sequence despite the wide compositional gap; (3) Nd, Sr, O isotopic, and rare earth element (REE) affinities of the whole array; (4) compositional continuity of the nearly aphyric rhyolite with the glass (melt) phase of the phenocryst-rich dacite; and (5) phase-equilibrium experiments that indicate similar shallow pre-eruptive storage depths (3–6 km) for rhyolite, dacite, and andesite.

  9. Late Holocene Eruptions of Mount Rainier, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallance, J. W.; Sisson, T. W.; Gardner, C. A.; McGeehin, J. P.; Champion, D. E.; Byman, J. A.

    2001-12-01

    Detailed stratigraphy, more than 20 radiocarbon ages, and paleomagnetic secular variation measurements indicate that eruptions of Mount Rainier clustered in three major periods during the past 3000 years. Products include a plinian fall deposit, several vulcanian falls, several fine ash falls that are associated with block-and-ash flows, and lahars that descended all major drainages that head on the volcano. Tephra layers are of two types: vesicle rich (chiefly pumice lapilli, scoria, and ash) and vesicle poor (chiefly fine-grained glass and lithic fragments). Pumice and glass shards in vesicle-rich deposits are microlite-poor and derive from explosive eruptions. Glass shards in vesicle-poor ashes have variable microlite contents and derive from minor explosions, or from ash clouds that billow up from block-and-ash pyroclastic flows. These findings contrast with those of previous studies that document only two eruptions, each associated with a pumiceous tephra layer, during the last 3000 years. The oldest eruptive period, called Summerland, began after 2700 cal yr BP with a vesicle-poor tephra and a collapse of hydrothermally altered rock on the west flank of the volcano that generated the Round Pass mudflow. Lava flows, fine ash falls and a pyroclastic flow erupted ca 2400 to 2500 cal yr BP. Intermittent eruptions produced more fine-grained ash falls, a possible pyroclastic flow and more lahars, then culminated in the plinian "C" fall to the NE and large lahars that flowed south, southeast, and west about 2200 cal yr BP. The Summerland period ended before 1600 cal yr BP with minor fall deposits and lahars. About 1000 cal yr BP, the Deadman Flat eruptions produced large lahars that contain distinctive prismatically-jointed glassy clasts, interpreted as juvenile components from pyroclastic flows, and co- ignimbrite ash in the headwaters of the White River. The lahars descended valleys to the NE and flowed 100 km to Puget Sound. Aggradation shortly after emplacement

  10. The Cataclysmic 1991 Eruption of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newhall, Christopher G.; Hendley, James W.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    1997-01-01

    The second-largest volcanic eruption of this century, and by far the largest eruption to affect a densely populated area, occurred at Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines on June 15, 1991. The eruption produced high-speed avalanches of hot ash and gas, giant mudflows, and a cloud of volcanic ash hundreds of miles across. The impacts of the eruption continue to this day.

  11. Late Holocene Andesitic Eruptions at Mount Rainier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisson, T. W.; Vallance, J. W.

    2005-12-01

    Holocene Mt. Rainier erupted much more frequently than is recorded by its 11 pumiceous tephras. In the 2.6-2.2 ka Summerland eruptive period, 6 groups of thin (1-5 mm) Sparsely Vesicular Glassy (SVG) ashes were deposited (S1-S6), followed by the 0.3 km3 C-tephra. Two groups of andesitic lava flows and one andesitic block-and-ash flow (2.45 ka) also erupted in the Summerland period (ice conceals any other products). Based on glass composition the pyroclastic flow correlates with S4 ashes that also contain pumiceous grains and rare pumice lapilli. The first of the lava groups, exposed in windows through the Emmons and Winthrop glaciers, is Sr-rich for Mt. Rainier eruptives and correlates with S5 & S6 ashes based on similar high-Sr plagioclase. The ensuing C-tephra formed by plinian eruption of mixed and mingled magma comprising 4 juvenile components: mixed porphyritic andesite pumice, crystal-poor andesite scoria, vesicular high-Sr dacite blebs in pumice and scoria, and poorly inflated crystal-rich high-Sr dacite. High-Sr components were probably entrained conduit linings and segregations from the preceding high-Sr eruptions. The youngest lava group, exposed at the summit, is normal-Sr andesite lacking mixing textures of the C-tephra, and represents eruption of another small batch of andesitic magma perhaps just after the C event. SVG ash grains have blocky-to-fluidal shapes, are rich in plagioclase microlites, and their glasses are high-SiO2 (66-78%) and low-Al2O3 (15-11%). Melting experiments yield apparent equilibration pressures <50MPa for SVG liquids. SVG ashes likely result from shallow hydromagmatic explosions as largely degassed magmas transited the upper-edifice hydrothermal system during effusive eruptions. Rare pumice lapilli codeposited with S1, S2, and S4 ashes have microlite-free dacitic glasses, one with nonreacted hbl phenocrysts. These pumice formed from magmas that ascended rapidly from reservoir depths, synchronous with or closely between effusive

  12. Tsunamis generated by eruptions from mount st. Augustine volcano, alaska.

    PubMed

    Kienle, J; Kowalik, Z; Murty, T S

    1987-06-12

    During an eruption of the Alaskan volcano Mount St. Augustine in the spring of 1986, there was concern about the possibility that a tsunami might be generated by the collapse of a portion of the volcano into the shallow water of Cook Inlet. A similar edifice collapse of the volcano and ensuing sea wave occurred during an eruption in 1883. Other sea waves resulting in great loss of life and property have been generated by the eruption of coastal volcanos around the world. Although Mount St. Augustine remained intact during this eruptive cycle, a possible recurrence of the 1883 events spurred a numerical simulation of the 1883 sea wave. This simulation, which yielded a forecast of potential wave heights and travel times, was based on a method that could be applied generally to other coastal volcanos.

  13. Air pressure waves from Mount St. Helens eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Jack W.

    1987-10-01

    Infrasonic recordings of the pressure wave from the Mount St. Helens (MSH) eruption on May 18, 1980, together with the weather station barograph records were used to estimate an equivalent explosion airblast yield for this eruption. Pressure wave amplitudes versus distance patterns were found to be comparable with patterns found for a small-scale nuclear explosion, the Krakatoa eruption, and the Tunguska comet impact, indicating that the MSH wave came from an explosion equivalent of about 5 megatons of TNT. The peculiar audibility pattern reported, with the blast being heard only at ranges beyond about 100 km, is explained by consideration of finite-amplitude shock propagation developments.

  14. Characterization of aerosols from eruptions of Mount St. Helens

    SciTech Connect

    Chuan, R.L.; Woods, D.C.; McCormick, M.P.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of mass concentration and size distribution of aerosols from eruptions of Mount St. Helens as well as morphological and elemental analyses were obtained between 7 April and 7 August 1980. In situ measurements were made in early phreatic and later, minor phreatomagmatic eruption clouds near the vent of the volcano and in plumes injected into the stratosphere from the major eruptions of 18 and 25 May. The phreatic aerosol was characterized by an essentially monomodal size distribution dominated by silicate particles larger than 10 micrometers in diameter. The phreatomagmatic eruption cloud was multimodal; the large size mode consisted of silicate particles and the small size modes were made up of mixtures of sulfuric acid and silicate particles. The stratospheric aerosol from the main eruption exhibited a characteristic narrow single mode with particles less than 1 micrometer in diameter and nearly all of the mass made up of sulfuric acid droplets.

  15. Characterization of aerosols from eruptions of mount st. Helens.

    PubMed

    Chuan, R L; Woods, D C; McCormick, M P

    1981-02-20

    Measurements of mass concentration and size distribution of aerosols from eruptions of Mount St. Helens as well as morphological and elemental analyses were obtained between 7 April and 7 August 1980. In situ measurements were made in early phreatic and later, minor phreatomagmatic eruption clouds near the vent of the volcano and in plumes injected into the stratosphere from the major eruptions of 18 and 25 May. The phreatic aerosol was characterized by an essentially monomodal size distribution dominated by silicate particles larger than 10 micrometers in diameter. The phreatomagmatic eruption cloud was multimodal; the large size mode consisted of silicate particles and the small size modes were made up of mixtures of sulfuric acid and silicate particles. The stratospheric aerosol from the main eruption exhibited a characteristic narrow single mode with particles less than 1 micrometer in diameter and nearly all of the mass made up of sulfuric acid droplets.

  16. A statistical analysis of eruptive activity on Mount Etna, Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smethurst, Lucy; James, Mike R.; Pinkerton, Harry; Tawn, Jonathan A.

    2009-10-01

    A rigorous analysis of the timing and location of flank eruptions of Mount Etna on Sicily is important for the creation of hazard maps of the densely populated area surrounding the volcano. In this paper, we analyse the temporal, volumetric and spatial data on eruptive activity on Etna. Our analyses are based on the two most recent and robust historical data catalogues of flank eruption activity on Etna, with one from 1669 to 2008 and the other from 1610 to 2008. We use standard statistical methodology and modelling techniques, though a number of features are new to the analysis of eruption data. Our temporal analysis reveals that flank eruptions on Mount Etna between 1610 and 2008 follow an inhomogeneous Poisson process, with intensity of eruptions increasing nearly linearly since the mid-1900s. Our temporal analysis reveals no evidence of cyclicity over this period. An analysis of volumetric lava flow rates shows a marked increase in activity since 1971. This increase, which coincides with the formation of the Southeast Crater (SEC), appears to be related to increased activity on and around the SEC. This has significant implications for hazard analysis on Etna.

  17. Recent eruptions of Mount Adams, Washington Cascades, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judy

    1997-01-01

    The postglacial eruption rate for the Mount Adams volcanic field is ∼0.1 km3/k.y., four to seven times smaller than the average rate for the past 520 k.y. Ten vents have been active since the last main deglaciation ∼15 ka. Seven high flank vents (at 2100-2600 m) and the central summit vent of the 3742-m stratocone produced varied andesites, and two peripheral vents (at 2100 and 1200 m) produced mildly alkalic basalt. Eruptive ages of most of these units are bracketed with respect to regional tephra layers from Mount Mazama and Mount St. Helens. The basaltic lavas and scoria cones north and south of Mount Adams and a 13-km-long andesitic lava flow on its east flank are of early postglacial age. The three most extensive andesitic lava-flow complexes were emplaced in the mid-Holocene (7-4 ka). Ages of three smaller Holocene andesite units are less well constrained. A phreatomagmatic ejecta cone and associated andesite lavas that together cap the summit may be of latest Pleistocene age. but a thin layer of mid-Holocene tephra appears to have erupted there as well. An alpine-meadow section on the southeast flank contains 24 locally derived Holocene andesitic ash layers intercalated with several silicic tephras from Mazama and St. Helens. Microprobe analyses of phenocrysts from the ash layers and postglacial lavas suggest a few correlations and refine some age constraints. Approximately 6 ka, a 0.07-km3 debris avalanche from the southwest face of Mount Adams gen-erated a clay-rich debris flow that devastated >30 km2 south of the volcano. A gravitationally metastable 2-to 3-km3 reservoir of hydrothermally altered fragmental andesite remains on the ice-capped summit and, towering 3 km above the surrounding lowlands, represents a greater hazard than an eruptive recurrence in the style of the last 15 k.y.

  18. An Early Holocene Eruptive Period at Mount Rainier, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byman, J.; Vallance, J. W.

    2001-12-01

    Tephrochronologic studies indicate that the Cowlitz Park eruptive period at Mount Rainier began about 7500 years ago and continued intermittently until about 6800 years ago. Stratigraphic evidence suggests that Cowlitz Park time comprises four distinct eruptive episodes, each of which occurred during a relatively brief interval. The eruptions produced subplinian falls, several small ash falls, pyroclastic flows, and lahars, the largest of which swept down the White River valley to Puget Sound lowland. Tephra layers are of two types: vesicle rich (chiefly pumice lapilli, scoria, and ash) and vesicle poor (chiefly fine-grained glass and lithic fragments). Pumice and glass shards in vesicle-rich deposits are microlite-poor and derive from larger explosive eruptions. Glass shards in vesicle-poor ashes have variable microlite contents and derive from smaller explosions, or from ash clouds that billow up from block-and-ash pyroclastic flows. Although the Pleistocene record indicates considerable effusive activity at Mount Rainier, no record remains of lavas that might have erupted during Cowlitz Park time. The oldest eruption, ca 7500 cal yr BP, produced vesicular tephra "A," distributed to the east, with a volume of 5 x 106 m3. Layer A is pumiceous, but fine-grained, glassy layers, suggestive of ash-clouds derived from pyroclastic flows, bracket it stratigraphically. About 7300 cal yr BP, within a short interval of time, a more complex eruptive episode occurred that produced a subplinian fall, at least 3 minor ash layers and an avalanche of hydrothermally altered rock on the south flank of the volcano that generated a lahar. The subplinian layer, "L," was among the most voluminous in the Holocene 30 x 106 m3 at Mount Rainier. This tephra occurs to the southeast and chiefly contains pumice along with subordinate, juvenile, lithic clasts. Related fine-to-coarse-grained ash layers derive from small explosions that occurred shortly before and after the eruption of layer L

  19. Fluvial sedimentation following Quaternary eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Janda, R.J.; Meyer, D.F

    1985-01-01

    Depositional records of convulsive volcanic events at Mount St. Helens are in many places obscured by rapid fluvial erosion and deposition close to the volcano. Some major eruptions are recorded primarily by lahars and alluvium deposited tens of kilometers away. About 35 percent of the distinctive hummocky topography of the 1980 North Fork Toutle debris avalanche deposit now resembles an alluvial fan or a braided glacial outwash plain covered with 10 m or more of alluvium. Deposits of small (20 x 10/sup 6/m/sup 3/) but damaging lahars, such as those generated in the afternoon of 18 May 1980 and on 19 March 1982, have been largely eroded away. Rivers draining rapidly eroding areas surrounding Mount St. Helens presently have sediment yields that are among the highest in the world for nonglaciated streams of comparable size. These sediment loads are capable of causing aggradation-induced flooding in populated areas along the lower Toutle and Cowlitz Rivers. Sediment retention structures and dredging have prevented such flooding. Immediately following prehistoric eruptions, however, coarse-grained volcanic alluvium was deposited in the Cowlitz River to levels more than 1 m above the 1980 mud flow inundation level. Post-1980 rapid landscape modifications and high sediment yields are noteworthy because the eruption-impact area has not yet had a major regional storm and potentially catastrophic breachings of avalanche-impounded lakes have been prevented through engineering measures.

  20. Pressure wave generated by the Mount St. Helens eruption

    SciTech Connect

    Banister, J.B.

    1984-06-20

    Histories of the air pressure wave radiated from the eruption of Mount St. Helens on May 18, 1980, were calculated for two models of the eruption cloud expansion. The first considered the wave radiated from an accelerated plane surface, while the second examined the wave radiated from an expanding hemisphere. Two histories of eruption cloud motion based on photographs were used. Peak positive overpressures were about the same for these cloud motion histories of expansion into a hemisphere was assumed. If an accelerated planar source model was used, the peak positive pressures have again about the same value in east and west direction, but values are about half in the north and south direction. Observed peak overpressures at microbarograph stations are somewhat higher than the calculated with the most marked departures at the greater surface ranges. These observed overpressures may have been about half the correct values, however. Microbarograph records show a weaker rarefaction than calculated histories or none at all. This can be explained, in part, by a lack of a real motion coherence in the slowing eruption cloud. If it is also possible the net ash cloud volume increased considerably after its vertical growth ceased and weakened the negative phase as well as lengthening the positive phase.

  1. Electrical activity during the 2006 Mount St. Augustine volcanic eruptions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Ronald J.; Krehbiel, Paul R.; Rison, William; Edens, H. E.; Aulich, G. D.; McNutt, S.R.; Tytgat, Guy; Clark, E.

    2007-01-01

    By using a combination of radio frequency time-of-arrival and interferometer measurements, we observed a sequence of lightning and electrical activity during one of Mount St. Augustine's eruptions. The observations indicate that the electrical activity had two modes or phases. First, there was an explosive phase in which the ejecta from the explosion appeared to be highly charged upon exiting the volcano, resulting in numerous apparently disorganized discharges and some simple lightning. The net charge exiting the volcano appears to have been positive. The second phase, which followed the most energetic explosion, produced conventional-type discharges that occurred within plume. Although the plume cloud was undoubtedly charged as a result of the explosion itself, the fact that the lightning onset was delayed and continued after and well downwind of the eruption indicates that in situ charging of some kind was occurring, presumably similar in some respects to that which occurs in normal thunderstorms.

  2. Ocular effects following the volcanic eruptions of Mount St Helens.

    PubMed

    Fraunfelder, F T; Kalina, R E; Buist, A S; Bernstein, R S; Johnson, D S

    1983-03-01

    Three hundred thirty-two ophthalmologists examined 1,523 patients with immediate ocular complaints following the 1980 eruptions of Mount St Helens. Loggers working up to 18 months in environments with high concentrations of volcanic ash were compared with a control group of loggers without volcanic ash contact. Although the ash particles acted as ocular foreign bodies, the small particles were apparently well tolerated for the most part, except for acute irritation. Patients with contact lenses or sicca syndrome had the most frequent ocular complaints. To date, no long-term ocular effects have been noted secondary to volcanic ash exposure.

  3. Post Eruption Hydrology and Hydraulics of Mount Pinatubo, The Philippines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    S~Technical RepMd GL-94-13 May 1994 US Army Corpsof Engineers AD-A281 068 Waterways Experiment StationII hII_ I Post Eruption Hydrology and...Hydraulics of Mount Pinatubo, The Philippines by Hilaire W. Peck, Karl W. Eriksen U.S. Army Engineer District, Portland Monte L. Pearson K. Malcolm Leytham...U.S.Anny Engineer District, Portland P.O. Box 2946 Ac".eson For Portland, OR 97208-2%45 NTIS CRA&I Monte L Pearson DTUC TAB Unannouritad 0 U.S. " Corps of

  4. 2014 Mount Ontake eruption: characteristics of the phreatic eruption as inferred from aerial observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Takayuki; Maeno, Fukashi; Nakada, Setsuya

    2016-05-01

    The sudden eruption of Mount Ontake on September 27, 2014, led to a tragedy that caused more than 60 fatalities including missing persons. In order to mitigate the potential risks posed by similar volcano-related disasters, it is vital to have a clear understanding of the activity status and progression of eruptions. Because the erupted material was largely disturbed while access was strictly prohibited for a month, we analyzed the aerial photographs taken on September 28. The results showed that there were three large vents in the bottom of the Jigokudani valley on September 28. The vent in the center was considered to have been the main vent involved in the eruption, and the vents on either side were considered to have been formed by non-explosive processes. The pyroclastic flows extended approximately 2.5 km along the valley at an average speed of 32 km/h. The absence of burned or fallen trees in this area indicated that the temperatures and destructive forces associated with the pyroclastic flow were both low. The distribution of ballistics was categorized into four zones based on the number of impact craters per unit area, and the furthest impact crater was located 950 m from the vents. Based on ballistic models, the maximum initial velocity of the ejecta was estimated to be 111 m/s. Just after the beginning of the eruption, very few ballistic ejecta had arrived at the summit, even though the eruption plume had risen above the summit, which suggested that a large amount of ballistic ejecta was expelled from the volcano several tens-of-seconds after the beginning of the eruption. This initial period was characterized by the escape of a vapor phase from the vents, which then caused the explosive eruption phase that generated large amounts of ballistic ejecta via sudden decompression of a hydrothermal reservoir.

  5. The 2013 Eruptions of Pavlof and Mount Veniaminof Volcanoes, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, D. J.; Waythomas, C. F.; Wallace, K.; Haney, M. M.; Fee, D.; Pavolonis, M. J.; Read, C.

    2013-12-01

    Pavlof Volcano and Mount Veniaminof on the Alaska Peninsula erupted during the summer of 2013 and were monitored by the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) using seismic data, satellite and web camera images, a regional infrasound array and observer reports. An overview of the work of the entire AVO staff is presented here. The 2013 eruption of Pavlof Volcano began on May 13 after a brief and subtle period of precursory seismicity. Two volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes at depths of 6-8 km on April 24 preceded the onset of the eruption by 3 weeks. Given the low background seismicity at Pavlof, the VTs were likely linked to the ascent of magma. The onset of the eruption was marked by subtle pulsating tremor that coincided with elevated surface temperatures in satellite images. Activity during May and June was characterized by lava fountaining and effusion from a vent near the summit. Seismicity consisted of fluctuating tremor and numerous explosions that were detected on an infrasound array (450 km NE) and as ground-coupled airwaves at local and distant seismic stations (up to 650 km). Emissions of ash and sulfur dioxide were observed in satellite data extending as far as 300 km downwind at altitudes of 5-7 km above sea level. Ash collected in Sand Point (90 km E) were well sorted, 60-150 micron diameter juvenile glass shards, many of which had fluidal forms. Automated objective ash cloud detection and cloud height retrievals from the NOAA volcanic cloud alerting system were used to evaluate the hazard to aviation. A brief reconnaissance of Pavlof in July found that lava flows on the NW flank consist of rubbly, clast rich, 'a'a flows composed of angular blocks of agglutinate and rheomorphic lava. There are at least three overlapping flows, the longest of which extends about 5 km from the vent. Eruptive activity continued through early July, and has since paused or stopped. Historical eruptions of Mount Veniaminof volcano have been from an intracaldera cone within a 10

  6. Trajectories of the mount st. Helens eruption plume.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, E F

    1981-02-20

    The plume of the major eruption of Mount St. Helens on 18 May 1980 penetrated 10 to 11 kilometers into the stratosphere, attaining heights of 22 to 23 kilometers. Wind shears rapidly converted the plume from an expanding vertical cone to a thin, slightly inclined lamina. The lamina was extruded zonally in the stratosphere as the lower part moved eastward at jet stream velocities, while the upper part slowly moved westward in the region of nonsteady transition from the westerlies to the summer stratospheric easterlies. Trajectories computed to position the NASA U-2 aircraft for sampling in the plume are described. Plume volume after 8 hours of strong volcanic emission is estimated at 2 x 10(6) cubic kilometers. Only about 1 percent of this volume is attributed to the volcano; the rest was entrained from the environment.

  7. Trajectories of the Mount St. Helens eruption plume

    SciTech Connect

    Danielsen, E.F.

    1981-01-01

    The plume of the major eruption of Mount St. Helens on 18 May 1980 penetrated 10 to 11 kilometers into the stratosphere, attaining heights of 22 to 23 kilometers. Wind shears rapidly converted the plume from expanding vertical cone to a thin, slightly inclined lamina. The lamina was extruded zonally in the stratosphere as the lower part moved eastward at jet stream velocities, while the upper part slowly moved westward in the region of nonsteady transition from the westerlies to the summer stratospheric easterlies. Trajectories computed to position the NASA U-2 aircraft for sampling in the plume are described. Plume volume after 8 hours of strong volcanic emission is estimated at 2 x 10/sup +6/ cubic kilometers. Only about 1 percent of this volume is attributed to the volcano; the rest was entrained from the environment.

  8. Radiative forcing from the 1991 Mount Pinatubo volcanic eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Kirchner, Ingo; Robock, Alan; Graf, Hans-F.; AntuñA, Juan Carlos; Grainger, R. G.; Lambert, Alyn; Thomason, Larry

    1998-06-01

    Volcanic sulfate aerosols in the stratosphere produce significant long-term solar and infrared radiative perturbations in the Earth's atmosphere and at the surface, which cause a response of the climate system. Here we study the fundamental process of the development of this volcanic radiative forcing, focusing on the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines on June 15, 1991. We develop a spectral-, space-, and time-dependent set of aerosol parameters for 2 years after the Pinatubo eruption using a combination of SAGE II aerosol extinctions and UARS-retrieved effective radii, supported by SAM II, AVHRR, lidar and balloon observations. Using these data, we calculate the aerosol radiative forcing with the ECHAM4 general circulation model (GCM) for cases with climatological and observed sea surface temperature (SST), as well as with and without climate response. We find that the aerosol radiative forcing is not sensitive to the climate variations caused by SST or the atmospheric response to the aerosols, except in regions with varying dense cloudiness. The solar forcing in the near infrared contributes substantially to the total stratospheric heating. A complete formulation of radiative forcing should include not only changes of net fluxes at the tropopause but also the vertical distribution of atmospheric heating rates and the change of downward thermal and net solar radiative fluxes at the surface. These forcing and aerosol data are available for GCM experiments with any spatial and spectral resolution.

  9. Air pressure waves from Mount St. Helens eruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, J.W.

    1987-10-20

    Weather station barograph records as well as infrasonic recordings of the pressure wave from the Mount St. Helens eruption of May 18, 1980, have been used to estimate an equivalent explosion airblast yield for this event. Pressure amplitude versus distance patterns in various directions compared with patterns from other large explosions, such as atmospheric nuclear tests, the Krakatoa eruption, and the Tunguska comet impact, indicate that the wave came from an explosion equivalent of a few megatons of TNT. The extent of tree blowdown is considerably greater than could be expected from such an explosion, and the observed forest damage is attributed to outflow of volcanic material. The pressure-time signature obtained at Toledo, Washington, showed a long, 13-min duration negative phase as well as a second, hour-long compression phase, both probably caused by ejacta dynamics rather than standard explosion wave phenomenology. The peculiar audibility pattern, with the blast being heard only at ranges beyond about 100 km, is explicable by finite amplitude propagation effects. Near the source, compression was slow, taking more than a second but probably less than 5 s, so that it went unnoticed by human ears and susceptible buildings were not damaged. There was no damage as Toledo (54 km), where the recorded amplitude would have broken windows with a fast compression. An explanation is that wave emissions at high elevation angles traveled to the upper stratosphere, where low ambient air pressures caused this energetic pressure oscillation to form a shock wave with rapid, nearly instantaneous compression. Atmospheric refraction then returned part of this wave to ground level at long ranges, where the fast compressions were clearly audible. copyright American Geophysical Union 1987

  10. Quantifying probabilities of eruptions at Mount Etna (Sicily, Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brancato, Alfonso

    2010-05-01

    based on seismological and volcanological data, integrated with strain, geochemical, gravimetric and magnetic parameters. In the code, is necessary to fix an appropriate forecasting time window. On open-conduit volcanoes as Mt. Etna, a forecast time window of a month (as fixed in other applications worldwide) seems unduly long, because variations of the state of the volcano (significant variation of a specific monitoring parameter could occur in time scale shorter than the forecasting time window) are expected with shorter time scale (hour, day or week). This leads to set a week as forecasting time window, coherently with the number of weeks in which an unrest has been experienced. The short-term vent opening hazard assessment will be estimated during an unrest phase; the testing case (2001 July eruption) will include all the monitoring parameters collected at Mt. Etna during the six months preceding the eruption. The monitoring role has been assessed eliciting more than 50 parameters, including seismic activity, ground deformation, geochemistry, gravity, magnetism, and distributed inside the first three nodes of the procedure. Parameter values describe the Mt. Etna volcano activity, being more detailed through the code, particularly in time units. The methodology allows all assumptions and thresholds to be clearly identified and provides a rational means for their revision if new data or information are incoming. References Newhall C.G. and Hoblitt R.P.; 2002: Constructing event trees for volcanic crises, Bull. Volcanol., 64, 3-20, doi: 10.1007/s0044500100173. Marzocchi W., Sandri L., Gasparini P., Newhall C. and Boschi E.; 2004: Quantifying probabilities of volcanic events: The example of volcanic hazard at Mount Vesuvius, J. Geophys. Res., 109, B11201, doi:10.1029/2004JB00315U. Marzocchi W., Sandri, L. and Selva, J.; 2008: BET_EF: a probabilistic tool for long- and short-term eruption forecasting, Bull. Volcanol., 70, 623 - 632, doi: 10.1007/s00445-007-0157-y.

  11. Frequent eruptions of Mount Rainier over the last ˜2,600 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisson, T. W.; Vallance, J. W.

    2009-08-01

    Field, geochronologic, and geochemical evidence from proximal fine-grained tephras, and from limited exposures of Holocene lava flows and a small pyroclastic flow document ten-12 eruptions of Mount Rainier over the last 2,600 years, contrasting with previously published evidence for only 11-12 eruptions of the volcano for all of the Holocene. Except for the pumiceous subplinian C event of 2,200 cal year BP, the late-Holocene eruptions were weakly explosive, involving lava effusions and at least two block-and-ash pyroclastic flows. Eruptions were clustered from ˜2,600 to ˜2,200 cal year BP, an interval referred to as the Summerland eruptive period that includes the youngest lava effusion from the volcano. Thin, fine-grained tephras are the only known primary volcanic products from eruptions near 1,500 and 1,000 cal year BP, but these and earlier eruptions were penecontemporaneous with far-traveled lahars, probably created from newly erupted materials melting snow and glacial ice. The most recent magmatic eruption of Mount Rainier, documented geochemically, was the 1,000 cal year BP event. Products from a proposed eruption of Mount Rainier between AD 1820 and 1854 (X tephra of Mullineaux (US Geol Surv Bull 1326:1-83, 1974)) are redeposited C tephra, probably transported onto young moraines by snow avalanches, and do not record a nineteenth century eruption. We found no conclusive evidence for an eruption associated with the clay-rich Electron Mudflow of ˜500 cal year BP, and though rare, non-eruptive collapse of unstable edifice flanks remains as a potential hazard from Mount Rainier.

  12. Frequent eruptions of Mount Rainier over the last ∼2,600 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sisson, T.W.; Vallance, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Field, geochronologic, and geochemical evidence from proximal fine-grained tephras, and from limited exposures of Holocene lava flows and a small pyroclastic flow document ten–12 eruptions of Mount Rainier over the last 2,600 years, contrasting with previously published evidence for only 11–12 eruptions of the volcano for all of the Holocene. Except for the pumiceous subplinian C event of 2,200 cal year BP, the late-Holocene eruptions were weakly explosive, involving lava effusions and at least two block-and-ash pyroclastic flows. Eruptions were clustered from ∼2,600 to ∼2,200 cal year BP, an interval referred to as the Summerland eruptive period that includes the youngest lava effusion from the volcano. Thin, fine-grained tephras are the only known primary volcanic products from eruptions near 1,500 and 1,000 cal year BP, but these and earlier eruptions were penecontemporaneous with far-traveled lahars, probably created from newly erupted materials melting snow and glacial ice. The most recent magmatic eruption of Mount Rainier, documented geochemically, was the 1,000 cal year BP event. Products from a proposed eruption of Mount Rainier between AD 1820 and 1854 (X tephra of Mullineaux (US Geol Surv Bull 1326:1–83, 1974)) are redeposited C tephra, probably transported onto young moraines by snow avalanches, and do not record a nineteenth century eruption. We found no conclusive evidence for an eruption associated with the clay-rich Electron Mudflow of ∼500 cal year BP, and though rare, non-eruptive collapse of unstable edifice flanks remains as a potential hazard from Mount Rainier.

  13. Atmospheric Effects and Potential Climatic Impact of the 1980 Eruptions of Mount St. Helens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deepak, A. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Measurements and studies of the 1980 Mount St. Helens volcanic eruptions and their atmospheric effects and climatic impact are addressed. Specific areas discussed include: (1) nature and impact of volcanic eruptions; (2) in situ measurements of effluents; (3) remote sensing measurements; (4) transport and dispersion of volcanic effluents; (5) chemistry of volcanic effluents; and (6) weather and potential climate impact.

  14. Mount st. Helens eruption of 18 may 1980: air waves and explosive yield.

    PubMed

    Donn, W L; Balachandran, N K

    1981-07-31

    Strong atmospheric acoustic-gravity waves were recorded by sensitive microbarographs and seismographs at large distances from the Mount St. Helens eruption of 18 May 1980. Wave signatures were similar to those of waves from large nuclear explosions. Independent theoretical and empirical analyses indicate that the explosive yield of the eruption was approximately 35 megatons.

  15. Carbonyl sulfide and carbon disulfide from the eruptions of mount st. Helens.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, R A; Khalil, M A; Dalluge, R W; Penkett, S A; Jones, B

    1982-02-05

    Ash from the massive 18 May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens readily gave off large amounts of carbonyl sulfide and carbon disulfide gases at room temperature. These findings suggest that the sulfur that enhances the Junge sulfate layer in the stratosphere after volcanic eruptions could be carried directly to the upper atmosphere as carbonyl sulfide and carbon disulfide adsorbed on ash particles from major volcanic eruptions.

  16. Carbonyl sulfide and carbon disulfide from the eruptions of Mount St. Helens

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, R.A.; Khalil, M.A.K.; Dalluge, R.W.; Penkett, S.A.; Jones, B.

    1982-01-01

    Ash from the massive 18 May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens readily gave off large amounts of carbonyl sulfide and carbon disulfide gases at room temperature. These findings suggest that the sulfur that enhances the Junge sulfate layer in the stratosphere after volcanic eruptions could be carried directly to the upper atmosphere as carbonyl sulfide and carbon disulfide adsorbed on ash particles from major volcanic eruptions.

  17. Sediment-discharge characteristics of the Toutle River following the Mount St. Helens eruption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Culbertson, J.K.; Dinehart, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Dinehart, R.L., Culbertson, J.K., 1982, Sediment-discharge characteristics of the Toutle River following the Mount St. Helens eruption, [abs.]: in Proceedings from the Conference on Mount St. Helens— Effects on water resources: State of Washington Water Research Center, p. 149.

  18. Changes in seismic anisotropy after volcanic eruptions: evidence from Mount Ruapehu.

    PubMed

    Miller, V; Savage, M

    2001-09-21

    The eruptions of andesite volcanoes are explosively catastrophic and notoriously difficult to predict. Yet changes in shear waveforms observed after an eruption of Mount Ruapehu, New Zealand, suggest that forces generated by such volcanoes are powerful and dynamic enough to locally overprint the regional stress regime, which suggests a new method of monitoring volcanoes for future eruptions. These results show a change in shear-wave polarization with time and are interpreted as being due to a localized stress regime caused by the volcano, with a release in pressure after the eruption.

  19. Potential hazards from future eruptions in the vicinity of Mount Shasta Volcano, Northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, C. Dan

    1980-01-01

    Mount Shasta has erupted, on the average, at least once per 800 years during the last 10,000 years, and about once per 600 years during the last 4,500 years. The last known eruption occurred about 200 radiocarbon years ago. Eruptions during the last 10,000 years produced lava flows and domes on and around the flanks of Mount Shasta, and pyroclastic flows from summit and flank vents extended as far as 20 kilometers from the summit. Most of these eruptions also produced large mudflows, many of which reached more than several tens of kilometers from Mount Shasta. Future eruptions like those of the past could endanger the communities of Weed, Mount Shasta, McCloud, and Dunsmuir, located at or near the base of Mount Shasta. Such eruptions will most likely produce deposits of lithic ash, lava flows, domes, and pyroclastic flows. Lava flows and pyroclastic flows may affect low-and flat-lying ground almost anywhere within about 20 kilometers of the summit of Mount Shasta, and mudflows may cover valley floors and other low areas as much as several tens of kilometers from the volcano. On the basis of its past behavior, Mount Shasta is not likely to erupt large volumes of pumiceous ash in the future; areas subject to the greatest risk from air-fall tephra are located mainly east and within about 50 kilometers of the summit of the volcano. The degree of risk from air-fall tephra decreases progressively as the distance from the volcano increases.

  20. Diversion of lava during the 1983 eruption of Mount Etna.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockwood, J.P.; Romano, R.

    1985-01-01

    Explosives and earth barriers were used fairly successfully to divert major flows during the 1983 eruption of Etna. Discusses the case history and draws attention to this method as a serious technique in natural hazard prevention. -after Authors

  1. The Atmospheric Impact of the 1991 Mount Pinatubo Eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Self, Stephen; Zhao, Jing-Xia; Holasek, Rick E.; Torres, Ronnie C.; King, Alan J.

    1993-01-01

    The 1991 eruption of Pinatubo produced about 5 cubic kilometers of dacitic magma and may be the second largest volcanic eruption of the century. Eruption columns reached 40 kilometers in altitude and emplaced a giant umbrella cloud in the middle to lower stratosphere that injected about 17 megatons of SO2, slightly more than twice the largest yielded by the 1982 eruption of El Chichon, Mexico. The SO2 formed sulfate aerosols that produced the largest perturbation to the stratospheric aerosol layer since the eruption of Krakatau in 1883. The aerosol cloud spread rapidly around the Earth in about 3 weeks and attained global coverage by about 1 year after the eruption. Peak local midvisible optical depths of up to 0.4 were measured in late 1992, and globally averaged values were about 0.1 to 0.15 for 2 years. The large aerosol cloud caused dramatic decreases in the amount of net radiation reaching the Earth's surface, producing a climate forcing that was two times stronger than the aerosols of El Chichon. Effects on climate were an observed surface cooling in the northern hemisphere of up to 0.5 to 0.6 C, equivalent to a hemispheric-wide reduction in net radiation of 4 watts per square meter and a cooling of perhaps as large as -0.4 C over large parts of the earth in 1992-93. Climate models seem to have predicted the cooling with a reasonable degree of accuracy. The Pinatubo climate forcing was stronger than the opposite warming of either the El Nino event or anthropogenic greenhouse gases in the period 1991-93. As a result of the presence of the aerosol particles, midlatitude ozone concentrations reached their lowest levels on record during 1992-93, the southern hemisphere 'ozone hole' increased in 1992 to an unprecedented size and ozone depletion rates were observed to be faster than ever before recorded. The atmospheric impact of the Pinatubo eruption has been profound, and it has sparked a lively interest in the role that volcanic aerosols play in climate change

  2. Diversion of lava during the 1983 eruption of Mount Etna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockwood, J.P.; Romano, R.

    1985-01-01

    During the 1983 eruption of Etna, Italian scientists managed, for the first time, to convince government authorities that direct intervention in natural volcanic processes was warranted. Both explosives and earthen barriers were used to divert major flows. These efforts were fairly successful, although at the time the historic importance of the operations was not fully recognized. 

  3. Paleomagnetic Evidence on a Volcanological Mystery - The 1631 Eruption of Mount Vesuvius, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte, G.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Gogichaishvili, A.; Incoronato, A.

    2004-12-01

    Was or was not effusive activity part of the 1631 eruption of Mount Vesuvius? We report on a detailed rock magnetic, paleomagnetic and absolute paleointensity study of lava flows from Mount Vesuvius and on its evidence concerning the enigmatic 1631 eruptive episode. Characteristic magnetization directions determined from detailed stepwise alternating field and thermal demagnetization give four new well-defined flow unit mean directions with a95 ranging from 0.7° to 2.4°. Paleodirections for eight lava flows from twenty-two flows studied appear related to the 1631 eruption, as indicated by their correlation to the early seventeen century segment of the Italian paleosecular variation reference curve. This provides new evidence supporting that the 1631 episode was an explosive-effusive eruption.

  4. Chaos and stochasticity in volcanic eruptions the case of Mount Etna and Vesuvius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzocchi, Warner

    1996-03-01

    The series of historical eruptions of Mount Etna and Vesuvius volcanoes are analyzed to verify the presence of low-dimensional chaos in the mechanism driving eruptive activity. A recently developed optimal methodology which is efficient on relatively small sets of data is used. The results indicate that there is no evidence of low-dimensional chaos in the sequences considered, and the mechanism appears better described by a classical stationary stochastic process.

  5. Atmospheric Effects and Potential Climatic Impact of the 1980 Eruptions of Mount St. Helens

    SciTech Connect

    Deepak, A.

    1982-10-01

    Measurements and studies of the 1980 Mount St. Helens volcanic eruptions and their atmospheric effects and climatic impact are addressed. Specific areas discussed include: (1) nature and impact of volcanic eruptions, (2) in situ measurements of effluents, (3) remote sensing measurements, (4) transport and dispersion of volcanic effluents, (5) chemistry of volcanic effluents, and (6) weather and potential climate impact. For individual titles, see N83-11535 through N83-11562.

  6. Size distributions and mineralogy of ash particles in the stratosphere from eruptions of Mount St. Helens

    SciTech Connect

    Farlow, N.H.; Oberbeck, V.R.; Snetsinger, K.G.; Ferry, G.V.; Polkowski, G.; Hayes, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    Samples from the stratosphere obtained by U-2 aircraft after the first three major eruptions of Mount St. Helens contained large globules of liquid acid and ash. Because of their large size, these globules had disappeared from the lower stratosphere by late June 1980, leaving behind only smaller acid droplets. Particle-size distributions and mineralogy of the stratospheric ash grains demonstrate inhomogeneity in the eruption clouds.

  7. Mount St. Helens, Washington, 1980 volcanic eruption: magmatic gas component during the first 16 days

    SciTech Connect

    Stoiber, R.E.; Williams, S.N.; Malinconico, L.L.

    1980-01-01

    Eruption plumes of Mount St. Helens, Washington, showed low rates of sulfur dioxide emission, and ash leachates had low ratios of sulfur to chlorine. These data and the nonvesicularity of ash fragments are indicative of only a small eruptive magmatic component. The low amounts of soluble fluorine on the ashes pose no health problems. Violent magmatic activity is possible, and thus continued geochemical monitoring is advised.

  8. Mount st. Helens, washington, 1980 volcanic eruption: magmatic gas component during the first 16 days.

    PubMed

    Stoiber, R E; Williams, S N; Malinconico, L L

    1980-06-13

    Eruption plumes of Mount St. Helens, Washington, showed low rates of sulfur dioxide emission, and ash leachates had low ratios of sulfur to chlorine. These data and the nonvesicularity of ash fragments are indicative of only a small eruptive magmatic component. The low amounts of soluble fluorine on the ashes pose no health problems. Violent magmatic activity is possible, and thus continued geochemical monitoring is advised.

  9. Size distributions and mineralogy of ash particles in the stratosphere from eruptions of mount st. Helens.

    PubMed

    Farlow, N H; Oberbeck, V R; Snetsinger, K G; Ferry, G V; Polkowski, G; Hayes, D M

    1981-02-20

    Samples from the stratosphere obtained by U-2 aircraft after the first three major eruptions of Mount St. Helens contained large globules of liquid acid and ash. Because of their large size, these globules had disappeared from the lower stratosphere by late June 1980, leaving behind only smaller acid droplets. Particle-size distributions and mineralogy of the stratospheric ash grains demonstrate in-homogeneity in the eruption clouds.

  10. Eruption-triggered avalanche, flood, and lahar at mount st. Helens--effects of winter snowpack.

    PubMed

    Waitt, R B; Pierson, T C; Macleod, N S; Janda, R J; Voight, B; Holcomb, R T

    1983-09-30

    An explosive eruption of Mount St. Helens on 19 March 1982 had substantial impact beyond the vent because hot eruption products interacted with a thick snowpack. A blast of hot pumice, dome rocks, and gas dislodged crater-wall snow that avalanched through the crater and down the north flank. Snow in the crater swiftly melted to form a transient lake, from which a destructive flood and lahar swept down the north flank and the North Fork Toutle River.

  11. Eruption-triggered avalanche, flood, and lahar at Mount St. Helens - Effects of winter snowpack

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waitt, R.B.; Pierson, T.C.; MacLeod, N.S.; Janda, R.J.; Voight, B.; Holcomb, R.T.

    1983-01-01

    An explosive eruption of Mount St. Helens on 19 March 1982 had substantial impact beyond the vent because hot eruption products interacted with a thick snowpack. A blast of hot pumice, dome rocks, and gas dislodged crater-wall snow that avalanched through the crater and down the north flank. Snow in the crater swiftly melted to form a transient lake, from which a destructive flood and lahar swept down the north flank and the North Fork Toutle River.

  12. Gas-driven eruptions at Mount Ruapehu, New Zealand: towards a coherent model of eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilgour, G. N.; Mader, H. M.; Mangan, M.; Blundy, J.

    2010-12-01

    Mt. Ruapehu is an andesitic cone volcano situated at the southern end of the Taupo Volcanic Zone. The summit plateau at Ruapehu consists of three craters (South, Central and North). Historical activity has consisted of frequent small phreatic and phreatomagmatic eruptions from South Crater. The active vents of South Crater are submerged beneath Crater Lake - a warm, acidic lake. The most recent eruption at Ruapehu occurred on 25th September, 2007 that generated a moderate steam column to about 4.5 km above Crater Lake, and a directed ballistic and surge deposit of coarse blocks and ash to the north of Crater Lake. It also initiated lahars in two catchments. The eruption occurred during the ski season and it resulted in the temporary closure of the three ski fields. Seismicity for the main eruption lasted for about 4 minutes and included an explosive phase which lasted for less than 1 minute and a post-explosion phase which probably indicated resonance in the conduit together with signals generated from lahars and vent stabilisation. Preceding seismicity occurred ~ 10 min before the eruption. The 2007 eruption appears strikingly similar to phreatic/phreatomagmatic eruptions of 1969 and 1975. In those eruptions, limited precursory seismicity was recorded, the bulk of the erupted deposits were accidental lithics, including lake sediments and older lavas, and only a small amount of juvenile material was erupted (~ 5%). It is likely that all three eruptions were driven by magmatic gases, either stored and pressurised beneath a hydrothermal seal, or rapidly exsolved during a gas release event. This poster outlines the plan that we will use to model this common type of eruption at Ruapehu. We will analyse the volatile content of phenocryst-hosted melt inclusions to determine the degassing depth of historic eruptions. This will allow us to identify where the magmas have been or are degassing beneath Crater Lake. Analogue modelling of gas and fluid flow through a visco

  13. Model for determining logistic distribution center: case study of Mount Merapi eruption disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, T. J.; Wigati, S. S.

    2017-01-01

    As one of the most active volcano in the earth, Mount Merapi is periodically erupted and it is considered as a natural disaster for the surrounding area. Kabupaten Sleman as one of the nearest location to this mount has to be always prepared to this disaster. The local government already set three different groups of region, in which potentially affected by Mount Merapi eruption, called KRB I, KRB II, and KRB III. Region KRB III is the closest area to the mount crater and most often affected by the eruption disaster. Whenever KRB III is affected, people live in that area usually being transfer to the next region set that is KRB II. The case presented in this paper is located at the KRB II region, which is the second closest region to the mount crater. A humanitarian distribution system has to be set in this region, since usually this region is became the location of shelters for KRB III population whenever a ‘big’ eruption is happened. A mathematical model is proposed in this paper, for determining the location of distribution center, vehicle route, and the amount of goods delivered to each customer. Some numerical illustration are presented in order to know the behavior of the proposed model.

  14. Measurements of the stratospheric plume from the Mount St. Helens eruption - Radioactivity and chemical composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leifer, R.; Hinchliffe, L.; Fisenne, I.; Franklin, H.; Knutson, E.; Olden, M.; Sedlacek, W.; Mroz, E.; Cahill, T.

    1981-11-01

    Gas measurements made in the stratospheric plume from the eruption of Mount St. Helens on 18 May 1980 were not consistent with a reported large injection of radon-222 into the atmosphere. No enrichment in the volatile element polonium was found in filter samples, and the ratio of polonium-210 to lead-210 was not different from background values. Data obtained with an experimental impactor, flown shortly after the eruption, showed an increase of 10 to the 3rd in the stratospheric number concentration of submicrometer sulfate particles compared to concentrations before the eruption.

  15. Measurements of the stratospheric plume from the Mount St. Helens eruption: radioactivity and chemical composition

    SciTech Connect

    Leifer, R.; Hinchliffe, L.; Fisenne, I.; Franklin, H.; Knutson, E.; Olden, M.; Sedlacek, W.; Mroz, E.; Cahill, T.

    1981-11-20

    Gas measurements made in the stratospheric plume from the eruption of Mount St. Helens on 18 May 1980 were not consistent with a reported large injection of radon-222 into the atmosphere. No enrichment in the volatile element polonium was found in filter samples, and the ratio of polonium-210 to lead-210 was not different from background values. Data obtained with an experimental impactor, flown shortly after the eruption, showed an increase of 10/sup 3/ in the stratospheric number concentration of submicrometer sulfate particles compared to concentrations before the eruption.

  16. Measurements of the stratospheric plume from the mount st. Helens eruption: radioactivity and chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Leifer, R; Hinchliffe, L; Fisenne, I; Franklin, H; Knutson, E; Olden, M; Sedlacek, W; Mroz, E; Cahill, T

    1981-11-20

    Gas measurements made in the stratospheric plume from the eruption of Mount St. Helens on 18 May 1980 were not consistent with a reported large injection of radon-222 into the atmosphere. No enrichment in the volatile element polonium was found in filter samples, and the ratio of polonium-210 to lead-210 was not different from background values. Data obtained with an experimental impactor, flown shortly after the eruption, showed an increase of 10(3) in the stratospheric number concentration of submicrometer sulfate particles compared to concentrations before the eruption.

  17. Predicting eruptions at mount st. Helens, june 1980 through december 1982.

    PubMed

    Swanson, D A; Casadevall, T J; Dzurisin, D; Malone, S D; Newhall, C G; Weaver, C S

    1983-09-30

    Thirteen eruptions of Mount St. Helens between June 1980 and December 1982 were predicted tens of minutes to, more generally, a few hours in advance. The last seven of these eruptions, starting with that of mid-April 1981, were predicted between 3 days and 3 weeks in advance. Precursory seismicity, deformation of the crater floor and the lava dome, and, to a lesser extent, gas emissions provided telltale evidence of forthcoming eruptions. The newly developed capability for prediction reduced risk to life and property and influenced land-use decisions.

  18. Acoustic source characterization of impulsive Strombolian eruptions from the Mount Erebus lava lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Jeffrey; Aster, Richard; Jones, Kyle R.; Kyle, Philip; McIntosh, Bill

    2008-11-01

    We invert for acoustic source volume outflux and momentum imparted to the atmosphere using an infrasonic network distributed about the erupting lava lake at Mount Erebus, Ross Island, Antarctica. By modeling these relatively simple eruptions as monopole point sources we estimate explosively ejected gas volumes that range from 1,000 m 3 to 24,000 m 3 for 312 lava lake eruptions recorded between January 6 and April 13, 2006. Though these volumes are compatible with bubble volumes at rupture (as estimated from explosion video records), departures from isotropic radiation are evident in the recorded acoustic wavefield for many eruptions. A point-source acoustic dipole component with arbitrary axis orientation and strength provides precise fit to the recorded infrasound. This dipole source axis, corresponding to the axis of inferred short-duration material jetting, varies significantly between events. Physical interpretation of dipole orientation as being indicative of eruptive directivity is corroborated by directional emissions of ejecta observed in Erebus eruption video footage. Although three azimuthally distributed stations are insufficient to fully characterize the eruptive acoustic source we speculate that a monopole with a minor amount of oriented dipole radiation may reasonably model the primary features of the recorded infrasound for these eruptions.

  19. Geologic Map of Mount St. Helens, Washington Prior to the 1980 Eruption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hopson, Clifford A.

    2008-01-01

    It is rare that a geologic map exists for a volcano prior to such a catastrophic modification as that produced by the eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980. As such, this map provides an important historical record of the volcano prior to that eruption. The map has not been reviewed or checked for conformity to USGS editorial standards or stratigraphic nomenclature, and it has not been digitized. This version of the map is unchanged from that submitted to the USGS for publication shortly after the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens and includes unresolved inconsistencies with the subsequently published work of Crandell (1987) and Mullineaux (1996). Nevertheless, it is the most accurate available depiction of the pre-1980 edifice and is published here for comparison with more recent geologic mapping and historical perspectives.

  20. Preferential eruption of andesitic magmas through recharge filtering at Mount Hood, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, A. J.; Darr, C.; Koleszar, A. M.; Salisbury, M. J.; Cooper, K. M.; Eppich, G. R.

    2010-12-01

    Andesitic compositions dominate the output of many subduction zone volcanoes. In this environment most andesites are produced by magma mixing, typically between mafic magmas, ultimately derived from the underlying mantle wedge, and felsic magmas produced by crustal melting or extensive differentiation. The high relative abundance of andesitic magmas in arcs require that they erupt in preference to the mafic and felsic magmas that mix to produce them, although the factors that control this remain less well understood. We investigate this issue through studies of Mount Hood, Oregon, which represents a class of intermediate volcanoes characterized by long-term outputs of compositionally monotonous andesitic magmas, and where recharge and magma mixing play a dominant role in petrogenesis. At Mount Hood 95% of magmas erupted over the last ~500,000 years have SiO2 contents between 58-66 wt.%, and textural and petrological evidence of magma mixing is ubiquitous. Estimates of the composition of mafic and felsic magmas involved in mixing at Mount Hood can be made by the combination of textural (CSD) and compositional data, and suggest that erupted magmas result from the mixing of mafic (50.7 ± 4.3 wt.% SiO2) and felsic (70.9 ± 2.1 wt.% SiO2) endmembers in approximately subequal proportions. These endmember compositions appear to have remained broadly constant through time but are virtually absent from the spectrum of erupted lavas. Mineral zoning and diffusion modeling shows that mafic and felsic endmember magmas evolve separately, and that mafic recharge and efficient mixing occurs weeks to months prior to eruption. Petrological estimates of pressure and temperature, melt inclusions measurements of volatile abundances and mineral ages from U-series, CSD and additional diffusion modeling also provide additional constraints on the dynamics of the system. The dependence on recharge for eruption also suggests that crustal and or magmatic conditions beneath Mount Hood prevent

  1. Evaluating high resolution climate model predictability and skill in response to the Mount Pinatubo eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaddis, A. L.; Evans, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    A central goal of climate research is to determine the perceptible effect of climate change on humans; in other words, the regional and decadal scale effects of carbon dioxide forcing. Identifying the most pronounced and long-lasting responses of climate variables to forcing is important for decadal prediction since forcing terms are one of the sources of predictability on those time scales. Volcanic eruptions provide a powerful, transient forcing on the global climate system by injecting tons of sulfur compounds into the stratosphere that react to form sulfate aerosols. The Community Earth System Model is used to explore predictability in response to the Mount Pinatubo eruption. In this study, the Mount Pinatubo eruption is simulated at very high resolution (T341) using the Community Earth System Model. The predictability of responses to the eruption are calculated and compared with previous studies of the same model at lower resolution for two configurations. All three configurations are compared with observations to evaluate model skill. The Northern Hemisphere winter warming response to the eruption improves in spatial distribution and strength at higher resolution. Stratospheric humidity increases predictably in all model configurations, with spatial analysis showing the that response is centered over the tropical tropopause. The polar night jet response to the eruption is not well replicated for any configuration.

  2. Air pressure waves from Mount St. Helens eruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    Barograms from a number of National Weather Service stations were assembled for the May 18, 1980, eruption and compared to airblast wave propagations from large explosions. Wave amplitudes at 50 to 300 km distances were about what might be expected from a nuclear explosion of between 1 megaton and 10 megaton yield. Pressure-time signatures could not be resolved for the first compression phase, because of the slow paper recording speed. The 900 s negative phase duration was much too long for comparison with the negative phase of an explosion. Nevertheless, positive and negative amplitudes were about equal, as often observed at long distances from explosions. Calculations have been made for a simple finite amplitude propagation model. These show rough bounds on the source compression rate, to give the observed inaudible waves at least to 54 km distance, yet cause audibly rapid compression at Seattle, near 150 km, and beyond.

  3. Nuclear transport erupts on the slopes of Mount Etna.

    PubMed

    Powers, Maureen A; Dasso, Mary

    2004-02-01

    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) mediate the active transport of large substrates and allow the passive diffusion of small molecules into the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. The EMBO Workshop on the Mechanisms of Nuclear Transport focused on NPCs and on the soluble nucleocytoplasmic transport machinery. This meeting, organized by Valérie Doye (Institut Curie, Paris) and Ed Hurt (University of Heidelberg), was held within view of Mount Etna at Taormina, Sicily (November 1-5, 2003). Presentations emphasized the dynamic properties of the nuclear trafficking machinery, and demonstrated the continuity of nuclear transport with processes in the nucleus and cytoplasm.

  4. Magmatic vapor source for sulfur dioxide released during volcanic eruptions: Evidence from Mount Pinatubo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, P.J.; Gerlach, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) released by the explosive eruption of Mount Pinatubo on 15 June 1991 had an impact on climate and stratospheric ozone. The total mass of SO2 released was much greater than the amount dissolved in the magma before the eruption, and thus an additional source for the excess SO2 is required. Infrared spectroscopic analyses of dissolved water and carbon dioxide in glass inclusions from quartz phenocrysts demonstrate that before eruption the magma contained a separate, SO2-bearing vapor phase. Data for gas emissions from other volcanoes in subduction-related arcs suggest that preeruptive magmatic vapor is a major source of the SO2 that is released during many volcanic eruptions.

  5. Monitoring the 1980-1982 eruptions of mount st. Helens: compositions and abundances of glass.

    PubMed

    Melson, W G

    1983-09-30

    The Mount St. Helens eruptive sequence of 1980 through 1982 reflects the tapping of successively less water-rich, more highly crystallized, and more viscous, highly phyric dacitic magmas. These changes reflect both syn- and preeruption processes. The decreasing water content points to a continued decline in the volume and intensity of explosive pyroclastic activity. This decreasing water content appears to be composed of a long-term trend established during a long period of repose (about 130 years) imposed on short-term trends established during short periods (about 7 to 100 days) of repose between eruptions in the present eruptive cycle. The last two eruptive cycles of this volcano, the T (A.D. 1800) and W cycles (about A. D. 1500), exhibited similar trends. These changes are inferred from a combination of petrographic, bulk chemical, and electron- and ion-microprobe analyses of matrix and melt-inclusion glasses.

  6. Evaluation of mental effects of disaster, Mount St. Helens eruption.

    PubMed Central

    Shore, J H; Tatum, E L; Vollmer, W M

    1986-01-01

    This psychiatric epidemiology study following the Mount St. Helens volcanic disaster revealed a significant morbidity for psychiatric disorders. The increased prevalence showed a dose response pattern in three population groups. The findings are reported as relative and attributable risk for the two exposed populations as compared to a control group. Patterns of significant risk are presented for sex, age, and for victims with pre-existing physical illness. The research utilized a new criteria-based interview schedule for the identification of psychiatric disorders. The methodology is reviewed in the context of the controversies and assumptions within the field of behavioral response to disaster stress. There are important implications for public health planning and intervention. PMID:3946730

  7. Evaluation of mental effects of disaster, Mount St. Helens eruption.

    PubMed

    Shore, J H; Tatum, E L; Vollmer, W M

    1986-03-01

    This psychiatric epidemiology study following the Mount St. Helens volcanic disaster revealed a significant morbidity for psychiatric disorders. The increased prevalence showed a dose response pattern in three population groups. The findings are reported as relative and attributable risk for the two exposed populations as compared to a control group. Patterns of significant risk are presented for sex, age, and for victims with pre-existing physical illness. The research utilized a new criteria-based interview schedule for the identification of psychiatric disorders. The methodology is reviewed in the context of the controversies and assumptions within the field of behavioral response to disaster stress. There are important implications for public health planning and intervention.

  8. The 18 May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens: The nature of the eruption, with an atmospheric perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, W. I., Jr.; Hoffman, M. F.

    1982-01-01

    Mount St. Helens erupted somewhat less than 0.5 cu km of magma (dense rock equivalent) on May 18, 1980. The May 18 event was usually violent. As much 35% of the volume of the airfall material fell outside of the 2.5 mm isopach, which encloses about 88,000 sq km. This extraordinary dispersive power was transmitted by an eruption column which reached heights of more than 20 km. There was a lateral blast (or surge) of unusually large dimensions associated with the onset of the eruption. The magma is dacitic in composition and had a low ( 500 ppm) sulfur content. Distal ashes contain much nonmagmatic (lithic) material, but smaller ( 50 microns m) particles are mostly finely divided magmatic dacite. The grain size distributions of the ash are multimodal, frequently with peaks at 90, 25, and 10 microns. The finer populations fell out faster than their terminal velocities as simple particles would suggest. It is inferred that large proportions of the fine ash fell out as composite particles. This condition greatly reduces the atmospheric burden of silicate particles. Some of the unusual aspects (violence, intense surges, multimodal grain size distributions, lithic content of the ashes) of the eruption may be due to its phreatomagmatic character. The hydrothermal system above the magma may have infiltrated the magma body at the onset of the eruption. An "overprint" of the geochemistry of this hydrothermal system on the geochemistry of the magmatic gas system is likely. One important feature is that reduced gas species may be much more abundant than in many eruptions. Another is that fine ash may form aggregates more readily.

  9. Deposition and dose from the 18 May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, K. R.

    1982-01-01

    The downwind deposition and radiation doses was calculated for the tropospheric part of the ash cloud from the May 18, 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, by using a large cloud diffusion model. The naturally occurring radionnuclides of radium and thorium, whose radon daughters normally seep very slowly from the rocks and soil, were violently released to the atmosphere. The largest dose to an individual from these nuclides is small, but the population dose to those affected by the radioactivity in the ash is about 100 person rem. This population dose from Mount St. Helens is much greater than the annual person rem routinely released by a typical large nuclear power plant. It is estimated that subsequent eruptions of Mount St. Helens have doubled or tripled the person rem calculated from the initial large eruption. The long range global ash deposition of the May 18 eruption is estimated through 1984, by use of a global deposition model. The maximum deposition is nearly 1000 kg square km and occurs in the spring of 1981 over middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere.

  10. Deposition and dose from the May 18, 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, K.R.

    1980-11-01

    The downwind deposition and radiation dose have been calculated for the tropospheric part of the ash cloud from the May 18, 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, using a large-cloud diffusion model. At that time the naturally occurring radionuclides of radium and thorium, whose radon daughters normally seep very slowly from the rocks and soil, were violently released to the atmosphere. The largest dose to an individual from these nuclides is small (in the microrem range), but the population dose to those affected by the radioactivity in the ash is about 100 person-rem. This population dose from Mount St. Helens is much greater than the annual person-rem routinely released by a typical large nuclear power plant. It is estimated that subsequent eruptions of Mount St. Helens have doubled or tripled the person-rem calculated for the initial large eruption; this total population dose is about the same as the lower-bound estimate of the population dose from the 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant. The long-range global ash deposition of the May 18 eruption has been estimated through 1984, using a global deposition model. The maximum deposition is nearly 1000 kg/km/sup 2/ and occurs in the spring of 1981 over middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere.

  11. Global tracking of the SO2 clouds from the June, 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluth, Gregg J. S.; Doiron, Scott D.; Schnetzler, Charles C.; Krueger, Arlin J.; Walter, Louis S.

    1992-01-01

    The explosive June 1991 eruptions of Mount Pinatubo produced the largest sulfur dioxide cloud detected by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) during its 13 years of operation: approximately 20 million tons of SO2, predominantly from the cataclysmic June 15th eruption. The SO2 cloud observed by the TOMS encircled the earth in about 22 days (about 21 m/s); however, during the first three days the leading edge of the SO2 cloud moved with a speed that averaged about 35 m/s. Compared to the 1982 El Chichon eruptions, Pinatubo outgassed nearly three times the amount of SO2 during its explosive phases. The main cloud straddled the equator within the first two weeks of eruption, whereas the El Chichon cloud remained primarily in the Northern Hemisphere. The measurements indicate that Mount Pinatubo has produced a much larger and perhaps longer-lasting SO2 cloud; thus, climatic responses to the Pinatubo eruption can exceed those of El Chichon.

  12. Impact on agriculture of the mount st. Helens eruptions.

    PubMed

    Cook, R J; Barron, J C; Papendick, R I; Williams, G J

    1981-01-02

    Ash from Mount St. Helens has fallen over a diverse agricultural area, with deposits of up to 30 kilograms per square meter. Crop losses in eastern Washington are estimated at about $100 million in 1980-about 7 percent of the normal crop value in the affected area and less than was expected initially. Production of wheat, potatoes, and apples will be normal or above normal because the favorable conditions for growth of these crops since the ashfall helped offset the losses. Alfalfa hay was severely lodged under the weight of the ash, but ash-contaminated hay is apparently nontoxic when eaten by livestock. The ash as an abrasive is lethal to certain insects, such as bees and grasshoppers, but populations are recovering. The ash has increased crop production costs by necessitating machinery repairs and increased tillage. On soil, the ash reduces water infiltration, increases surface albedo, and may continue to affect water runoff, erosion, evaporation, and soil temperature even when tilled into the soil. Ash on plant leaves reduced photosynthesis by up to 90 percent. Most plants have tended to shed the ash. With the possible exception of sulfur, the elements in the ash are either unavailable or present in very low concentrations; and no significant contribution to the nutrient status of soils is expected.

  13. Characterization of organic contaminants in environmental samples associated with mount St. Helens 1980 volcanic eruption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, W.E.

    1982-01-01

    Volcanic ash, surface-water, and bottom-material samples obtained in the vicinity of Mount St. Helens after the May 18, 1980, eruption were analyzed for organic contaminants by using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-computer techniques. Classes of compounds identified include n-alkanes, fatty acids, dicarboxylic acids, aromatic acids and aldehydes, phenols, resin acids, terpenes, and insect juvenile hormones. The most probable source of these compounds is from pyrolysis of plant and soil organic matter during and after the eruption. The toxicity of selected compounds and their environmental significance are discussed.

  14. Airborne studies of the emissions from the volcanic eruptions of mount st. Helens.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, P V; Radke, L F; Eltgroth, M W; Hegg, D A

    1981-02-20

    The concentrations of particles less than 10 micrometers in diameter in the ash emissions from Mount St. Helens have been more than 1000 times greater than those in the ambient air. Mass loadings of particles less than 2 micrometers in diameter were generally several hundred micrograms per cubic meter. In the ash clouds, produced by the large eruption on 18 May 1980, the concentrations of several trace gases generally were low. In other emissions, significant, but variable, concentrations of sulfur gases were measured. The 18 May eruption produced nuées ardentes, lightning flashes, and volcanic hail.

  15. Airborne studies of the emissions from the volcanic eruptions of Mount St. Helens

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, P.V.; Radke, L.F.; Eltgroth, M.W.; Hegg, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    The concentrations of particles less than 10 micrometers in diameter in the ash emissions from Mount St. Helens have been more than 1000 times greater than those in the ambient air. Mass loadings of particles less than 2 micrometers in diameter were generally several hundred micrograms per cubic meter. In the ash clouds, produced by the large eruption on 18 May 1980, the concentrations of several trace gases generally were low. In other emissions, significant, but variable, concentrations of sulfur gases were measured. The 18 May eruption produced nuees ardentes, lightning flashes, and volcanic hail.

  16. Eruption prediction aided by electronic tiltmeter data at mount st. Helens.

    PubMed

    Dzurisin, D; Westphal, J A; Johnson, D J

    1983-09-30

    Telemetry from electronic tiltmeters in the crater at Mount St. Helens contributed to accurate predictions of all six effusive eruptions from June 1981 to August 1982. Tilting of the crater floor began several weeks before each eruption, accelerated sharply for several days, and then abruptly changed direction a few minutes to days before extrusion began. Each episode of uplift was caused by the intrusion of magma into the lava dome from a shallow source, causing the dome to inflate and eventually rupture. Release of magma pressure and increased surface loading by magma added to the dome combined to cause subsidence just prior to extrusion.

  17. The chemical and radiative effects of the Mount Pinatubo eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinneson, Douglas E.; Grant, Keith E.; Connell, Peter S.; Rotman, Douglas A.; Wuebbles, Donald J.

    1994-01-01

    To clarify the mechanisms leading to effects on stratospheric ozone, time-dependent stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment II (SAGE II) and cryogenic limb array elaton spectrometer (CLAES) aerosol optical extinction data and SAGE II surface area density are used as parameters in a two-dimensional (2-D) zonally averaged chemical radiative transport model. The model was integrated with time from before the eruption through December 1993. The modeled impact on global ozone results from increased rates of heterogeneous reactions on sulfate aerosols and from the increased radiative heating and scattering caused by these aerosols. When the aerosol heating is allowed to modify the temperature distribution, the maximum change calculated in equatorial column ozone is -1.6%. The calculated equatorial temperature change and peak local ozone change in October 1991 are +6K and -4%, respectively. When aerosol heating perturbs the circulation in the model, the maximum change in equatorial column ozone is -6%. Increased heterogeneous processing on sulfate aerosols is calculated to have changed equatorial column ozone in late 1991 by -1.5%. Global column ozone in the model in 1992 and 1993 changed by -2.8% and -2.4%, respectively. The relationship of ozone-controlling processes in the lower stratosphere is altered as well; HO(x) becomes the most important catalytic cycle, followed by ClO(x) and NO(x). This is driven by significant changes in trace gas concentrations. In October 1991, lower stratospheric, equatorial NO(x) decreased by 40%, ClO(x) increased by 60%, and HO(x) increased by 25%. When the effect of heterogeneous chemical processing on sulfate aerosols is combined with aerosol heating, modifying either circulation or temperature, dramatically different ozone fingerprints with time and latitude are predicted. Model-derived changes in the equatorial region in column ozone best represented the observed data when perturbed circulation was combined with heterogeneous

  18. Vapor transfer prior to the October 2004 eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kent, A.J.R.; Blundy, J.; Cashman, K.V.; Copper, K.M.; Donnelly, C.; Pallister, J.S.; Reagan, M.; Rowe, M.C.; Thornber, C.R.

    2007-01-01

    Dome lavas from the 2004 eruption of Mount St. Helens show elevated Li contents in plagioclase phenocrysts at the onset of dome growth in October 2004. These cannot be explained by variations in plagioclase-melt partitioning, but require elevated Li contents in coexisting melt, a fact confirmed by measurements of Li contents as high as 207 ??g/g in coexisting melt inclusions. Similar Li enrichment has been observed in material erupted prior to and during the climactic May 1980 eruption, and is likewise best explained via pre-eruptive transfer of an exsolved alkali-rich vapor phase derived from deeper within the magma transport system. Unlike 1980, however, high Li samples from 2004 show no evidence of excess (210Pb)/(226 Ra), implying that measurable Li enrichments may occur despite significant differences in the timing and/or extent of magmatic degassing. Diffusion modeling shows that Li enrichment occurred within -1 yr before eruption, and that magma remained Li enriched until immediately before eruption and cooling. This short flux time and the very high Li contents in ash produced by phreatomagmatic activity prior to the onset of dome extrusion suggest that vapor transfer and accumulation were associated with initiation of the current eruption. Overall, observation of a high Li signature in both 1980 and 2004 dacites indicates that Li enrichment may be a relatively common phenomenon, and may prove useful for petrologic monitoring of Mount St. Helens and other silicic volcanoes. Lithium diffusion is also sufficiently rapid to constrain vapor transfer on similar time scales to short-lived radionuclides. ?? 2007 Geological Society of America.

  19. Preparatory and precursory processes leading up to the 2014 phreatic eruption of Mount Ontake, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Aitaro; Terakawa, Toshiko; Yamanaka, Yoshiko; Maeda, Yuta; Horikawa, Shinichiro; Matsuhiro, Kenjiro; Okuda, Takashi

    2015-07-01

    We analyzed seismicity linked to the 2014 phreatic eruption of Mount Ontake, Japan, on 27 September 2014. We first relocated shallow volcano tectonic (VT) earthquakes and long-period (LP) events from August to September 2014. By applying a matched-filter technique to continuous waveforms using these relocated earthquakes, we detected numerous additional micro-earthquakes beneath the craters. The relocated VT earthquakes aligned on a near-vertical plane oriented NNW-SSE, suggesting they occurred around a conduit related to the intrusion of magmatic-hydrothermal fluids into the craters. The frequency of VT earthquakes gradually increased from 6 September 2014 and reached a peak on 11 September 2014. After the peak, seismicity levels remained elevated until the eruption. b-values gradually increased from 1.2 to 1.7 from 11 to 16 September 2014 then declined gradually and dropped to 0.8 just before the eruption. During the 10-min period immediately preceding the phreatic eruption, VT earthquakes migrated in the up-dip direction as well as laterally along the NNW-SSE feature. The migrating seismicity coincided with an accelerated increase of pre-eruptive tremor amplitude and with an anomalous tiltmeter signal that indicated summit upheaval. Therefore, the migrating seismicity suggests that the vertical conduit was filled with pressurized fluids, which rapidly propagated to the surface during the final 10 min before the eruption.

  20. Inclusions in Mount St. Helens dacite erupted from 1980 through 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heliker, C.

    1995-01-01

    Inclusions of plutonic, metavolcanic and volcanic rocks are abundant in dacite pumice and lava from the 1980-1986 eruption sequence at Mount St. Helens. Point counts of inclusions exposed in talus blocks from the dome from 1980 through 1983 show that inclusions form approximately 3.5 vol.% of the lava. Eighty-five percent of the inclusions are medium-grained gabbros. The gabbroic inclusions are of four distinct type. The most abundant type is laminated gabbronorite. Various types of gabbroic inclusions, including the laminated gabbronorite, are common in Mount St. Helens lavas of approximately the last 3000 years. This coincides with the interval in which Mount St. Helens first erupted basalt and basaltic andesite lavas. These observations, together with the fact that the gabbroic inclusions are compositionally unlike any of the Tertiary intrusive rocks in the Mount St. Helens area, strongly suggest that the inclusions are related to the introduction of basalt to the Mount St. Helens magmatic system. -from Author

  1. Validating Seismic Tomography Results for the 1992 Eruptions of Mount Spurr, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, J. R.; Prejean, S. G.; Zhang, H.; Power, J. A.; Thurber, C. H.

    2005-12-01

    In previous studies of Mount Spurr, Alaska, seismic tomography has been used to locate hydrothermally altered zones and magmatic pathways during the 1992 eruptions. In this study we investigate the applicability of new tomography techniques to this problem. We use double-difference tomography (tomoDD) to determine P-wave velocity structure and improved earthquake locations using catalog travel time picks. The challenge for this and similar studies is the lack of dense station coverage in the mountainous terrain surrounding Mount Spurr. In 1992, Mount Spurr erupted three times from its Crater Peak vent. Seismicity was most active at shallow depths at the summit (-2 to 1 km depth) and at depths of 0-5 km and 10-20 km at the Crater Peak vent. Based on our relocated hypocenters, seismicity in these three regions form clusters reflecting structures within the volcano. At the summit, the hypocenters define structures that dip shallowly to the south. Focal mechanisms indicate that these are normal faults. The two clusters of seismicity beneath Crater Peak define two vertical columnar conduits associated with magma ascent during the eruptive sequence in 1992. Tomography reveals P-wave low-velocity anomalies as low as 4.5 km/s at depths of 1-4 km and 10-15 km beneath the Crater Peak vent. These anomalies are co-located with the two areas of seismicity. No velocity anomaly was observed in the summit region, which has not erupted for over 5,000 years. To investigate whether our tomography study is well resolved, we calculate travel times for a synthetic model using the 1992 station and hypocenter coverage and reinvert for the synthetic velocity model. TomoDD accurately recovers the 4.5 km/s P-wave velocity bodies modeled in our synthetic dataset beneath Crater Peak, indicating that this technique is robust for Mount Spurr despite its relatively sparse network.

  2. Temporal change in coda wave attenuation observed during an eruption of Mount St. Helens

    SciTech Connect

    Fehler, M.; Roberts, P.; Fairbanks, T.

    1988-05-10

    During the past few years there have been numerous reports of changes in coda wave attenuation occurring before major earthquakes. These observations are important because they may provide insight into stress-related structural changes taking place in the focal region prior to the occurrence of large earthquakes. The results of these studies led us to suspect that temporal changes in coda wave attenuation might also accompany volcanic eruptions. By measuring power decay envelopes for earthquakes at Mount St. Helens recorded before, during, and after an eruption that took place during September 3--6, 1981, we found that coda Q/sup -1/ for frequencies between 6 and 30 Hz was 20--30% higher before the eruption than after. The change is attributed to an increase in the density of open microcracks in the rock associated with inflation of the volcano prior to the eruption. Q/sup -1/ was found to be only weakly dependent on frequency and displayed a slight peak near 10 Hz. The weak frequency dependence is attributed to the dominance of intrinsic attenuation over scattering attenuation, since it is generally accepted that intrinsic attenuation is constant with frequency, whereas scattering attenuation decreases strongly at higher frequencies. The weak frequency dependence of Q/sup -1/ at Mount St. Helens contrasts with results reported for studies in nonvolcanic regions. The peak in Q/sup -1/ near 10 Hz at Mount St. Helens is attributed to the scale length of heterogeneity responsible for generating backscattered waves. Results for nonvolcanic regions have shown this peak to occur near 0.5 Hz. Thus a smaller scale length of heterogeneity is required to explain the 10-Hz peak at Mount St. Helens. copyright American Geophysical Union 1988

  3. The mount st. Helens volcanic eruption of 18 may 1980: minimal climatic effect.

    PubMed

    Robock, A

    1981-06-19

    An energy-balance numerical climate model was used to simulate the effects of the Mount St. Helens volcanic eruption of 18 May 1980. The resulting surface temperature depression is a maximum of 0.1 degrees C in the winter in the polar region, but is an order of magnitude smaller than the observed natural variability from other effects and will therefore be undetectable.

  4. Trace element composition of the mount st. Helens plume: stratospheric samples from the 18 may eruption.

    PubMed

    Vossler, T; Anderson, D L; Aras, N K; Phelan, J M; Zoller, W H

    1981-02-20

    Atmospheric particulate material collected from the stratosphere in the plume of the 18 May 1980 eruption of the Mount St. Helens volcano was quite similar in composition to that of ash that fell to the ground in western Washington. However, there were small but significant differences in concentrations of some elements with altitude, indicating that the stratospheric material was primarily produced from fresh magma, not fragments of the mountain.

  5. Trace element composition of the Mount St. Helens plume: stratospheric samples from the 18 May eruption

    SciTech Connect

    Vossler, T.; Anderson, D.L.; Aras, N.K.; Phelan, J.M.; Zoller, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    Atmospheric particulate material collected from the stratosphere in plume of the 18 May 1980 eruption of the Mount St. Helens volcano was quite similar in composition to that of ash that fell to the ground in western Washington. However, there were small but significant differences in concentrations of some elements with altitude, indicating that the statospheric material was primarily produced from fresh magma, but fragments of the mountain.

  6. Ash-flow eruptive megabreccias of the Manhattan and Mount Jefferson calderas, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Shawe, D.R.; Snyder, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    A detailed field study of ash-flow megabreccias associated with the Manhattan and Mount Jefferson calderas shows that megaclasts were brecciated in sub-caldera level before incorporation in ash flows. This evidence in addition to the presence of some clast lithologies that are nowhere recognized in caldera walls and the occurrence of some megabreccia units as outflow suggest an origin by eruption rather than by collapse of caldera walls. Geophysical investigations and a mathematical analysis are presented in the paper.

  7. Atmospheric oscillations after the May 18, 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolt, Bruce A.; Tanimoto, Toshiro

    Air waves corresponding both to direct (A1) and antipodean (A2) travel paths were clearly recorded on a sensitive microbarograph at Berkeley after the violent eruption of Mount St. Helens on May 18, 1980 (see Figure 1). These unusual complementary recordings throw light on the acoustic energy released as compared with Krakatoa [Strachey, 1888], atmospheric oscillations and their attenuation, and the directive properties of the phreatic blast. The principal explosive eruptions followed closely on an earthquake, Richter magnitude 4.9, origin time 1532 GMT, centered near the volcano. Atmospheric waves and associated magnetic perturbations [Fougere and Tsacoyeanes, 1980] from these eruptions were recorded by microbarographs, seismographs, and magnetometers around the world. In particular, Ritsema [1980] has published records of the A1 atmospheric wave train and the A2 wave (called B1 by him) recorded at De Bilt, Holland. The A2 waves at De Bilt, however, are barely visible on the paper record.

  8. Seismic precursors to the mount st. Helens eruptions in 1981 and 1982.

    PubMed

    Malone, S D; Boyko, C; Weaver, C S

    1983-09-30

    Six categories of seismic events are recognized on the seismograms from stations in the vicinity of Mount St. Helens. Two types of high-frequency earthquakes occur near the volcano and under the volcano at depths of more than 4 kilometers. Medium- and low-frequency earthquakes occur at shallow depths (less than 3 kilometers) within the volcano and increase in number and size before eruptions. Temporal changes in the energy release of the low-frequency earthquakes have been used in predicting all the eruptions since October 1980. During and after eruptions, two types of low-frequency emergent surface events occur, including rockfalls and steam or gas bursts from the lava dome.

  9. Petrologic monitoring of 1981 and 1982 eruptive products from mount st. Helens.

    PubMed

    Cashman, K V; Taggart, J E

    1983-09-30

    New material from the dacite lava dome of Mount St. Helens, collected soon after the start of each successive extrusion, is subjected to rapid chemical and petrologic analysis. The crystallinity of the dacite lava produced in 1981 and 1982 is 38 to 42 percent, about 10 percent higher than for products of the explosive 1980 eruptions. This increase in crystallinity accompanies a decrease in the ratio of hornblende to hornblende plus orthopyroxene, which suggests that the volatile-rich, crystal-poor material explosively erupted in 1980 came from the top of a zoned magma chamber and that a lower, volatile-poor and crystal-rich region is now being tapped. The major-element chemistry of the dacite lava has remained essentially constant (62 to 63 percent silica) since August 1980, ending a trend of decreasing silica seen in the products of the explosive eruptions of May through August 1980.

  10. Petrologic monitoring of 1981 and 1982 eruptive products from Mount St. Helens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cashman, K.V.; Taggart, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    New material from the dacite lava dome of Mount St. Helens, collected soon after the start of each successive extrusion, is subjected to rapid chemical and petrologic analysis. The crystallinity of the dacite lava produced in 1981 and 1982 is 38 to 42 percent, about 10 percent higher than for products of the explosive 1980 eruptions. This increase in crystallinity accompanies a decrease in the ratio of hornblende to hornblende plus orthopyroxene, which suggests that the volatile-rich, crystal-poor material explosively erupted in 1980 came from the top of a zoned magma chamber and that a lower, volatile-poor and crystal-rich region is now being tapped. The major-element chemistry of the dacite lava has remained essentially constant (62 to 63 percent silica) since August 1980, ending a trend of decreasing silica seen in the products of the explosive eruptions of May through August 1980.

  11. Cessation of the 2004-2008 Dome-Building Eruption at Mount St. Helens, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, S. C.; Dzurisin, D.; Lisowski, M.; Schilling, S. P.; Anderson, K. R.; Werner, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    The 2004-2008 dome-building eruption at Mount St. Helens ended during the winter of 2007-2008 at a time when field observations were hampered by persistent bad weather. As a result, recognizing the end of the eruption was challenging. Also challenging was the fact that signs of continued eruption were increasingly subtle — earthquakes were small, deformation signals tiny, gas content close to background — and observing these phenomena was critically dependent on recordings and measurements made close (< 2 km) to the vent. In hindsight, the end of the eruption was presaged by a slight increase in seismicity in December 2007 that culminated on January 12-13, 2008, with a flurry of more than 500 events, most of which occurred in association with several tremor-like signals and a spasmodic burst of long-period earthquakes. At about the same time, a series of regular, localized, small-amplitude tilt events — thousands of which had been recorded during earlier phases of the eruption — came to an end. Thereafter, seismicity declined to 10-20 events per day until January 27-28, when a spasmodic burst of about 50 volcano-tectonic earthquakes occurred over a span of 3 hours. This was followed by a brief return of repetitive "drumbeat" earthquakes that characterized much of the eruption. By January 31, seismicity had declined to 1-2 earthquakes per day, a rate similar to pre-eruption levels. We attribute the tilt and seismic observations to progressive stagnation of an increasingly stiffened plug of magma in the upper part of the conduit. Upward movement of the plug ceased when the excess driving pressure, which had gradually decreased throughout the eruption as a result of reservoir deflation and increasing overburden from the growing dome, was overcome by increasing sidewall friction as a result of cooling and crystallization of the plug.

  12. Pyroclastic deposits of the Mount Edgecumbe volcanic field, southeast Alaska: eruptions of a stratified magma chamber

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riehle, J.R.; Champion, D.E.; Brew, D.A.; Lanphere, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    The Mount Edgecumbe volcanic field in southeastern Alaska consists of 5-6 km3 (DRE) of postglacial pyroclasts that overlie Pleistocene lavas. All eleven pyroclast vents align with the long axis of the field, implying that the pyroclast magma conduits followed a crustal fissure. Most of these vents had previously erupted lavas that are compositionally similar to the pyroclasts, so a persistent magma system (chamber) had likely evolved by the onset of the pyroclastic eruptions. The pyroclastic sequence was deposited in about a millennium and is remarkable for a wide range of upward-increasing silica contents (51-72% SiO2), which is consistent with rise of coexisting magmas at different rates governed by their viscosity. Basaltic and andesitic lava flows have erupted throughout the lifetime of the field. Rhyolite erupted late; we infer that it formed early but was hindered from rising by its high viscosity. Most of the magmas-and all siliceous ones-erupted from vents on the central fissure. Basalt has not erupted from the center of the field during at least the latter part of its lifetime. Thus the field may illustrate basalt underplating: heat and mass flux are concentrated at the center of a stratified magma chamber in which a cap of siliceous melt blocks the rise of basalt. Major-element, strontium isotope, and mineral compositions of unaltered pyroclasts are broadly similar to those of older lavas of similar SiO2 content. Slightly fewer phenocrysts, inherited grains, and trace amphibole in pyroclastic magmas may be due simply to faster rise and less undercooling and degassing before eruption relative to the lavas. Dacite occurs only in the youngest deposits; the magma formed by mixing of andesitic and rhyolitic magmas erupted shortly before by the dacitic vents. ?? 1992.

  13. Petrology of the 2004-2006 Mount St. Helens lava dome -- implications for magmatic plumbing and eruption triggering: Chapter 30 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pallister, John S.; Thornber, Carl R.; Cashman, Katharine V.; Clynne, Michael A.; Lowers, Heather; Mandeville, Charles W.; Brownfield, Isabelle K.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    The question of new versus residual magma has implications for the long-term eruptive behavior of Mount St. Helens, because arrival of a new batch of dacitic magma from the deep crust could herald the beginning of a new long-term cycle of eruptive activity. It is also important to our understanding of what triggered the eruption and its future course. Two hypotheses for triggering are considered: (1) top-down fracturing related to the shallow groundwater system and (2) an increase in reservoir pressure brought about by recent magmatic replenishment. With respect to the future course of the eruption, similarities between textures and character of eruption of the 2004-6 dome and the long-duration (greater than 100 years) pre-1980 summit dome, along with the low eruptive rate of the current eruption, suggest that the eruption could continue sluggishly or intermittently for years to come.

  14. Eruptions of Mount Erebus Volcano Constrained with Infrasound, Video, and Doppler Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. B.; Jones, K. R.; Aster, R.; Kyle, P.; McIntosh, W.; Gerst, A.

    2008-12-01

    Co-eruptive infrasound recorded within several km of volcanoes can provide effective constraints on atmospheric accelerations or momentum exchange in the vicinity of active volcanic vents. These atmospheric perturbations can be induced by impulsive gas injection into the atmosphere (i.e., eruptive explosions), by deflection of a solid or fluid lava surface, or through a superposition of these effects. The "simple" lava lake bubble-bursting eruptions of Mount Erebus Volcano (Antarctica) provide an ideal test bed for multi- disciplinary observations of volcanic infrasound because of proximal (within few hundred meters) deployment of microphones and line-of-sight viewing geometry of cameras and radar to the vent. Erebus video observations provide timing constraints on the infrasound generation mechanisms, which include both pre- eruptive distension of the lava lake surface and gas expansion and jetting following large explosive bubble bursts. Network infrasound recordings are used to quantify the time history of explosive gas flux and cumulative yield (>103 kg of gas in ~0.5 s), which is corroborated by the video and Doppler radar observations. Infrasound records from a three-station network also show azimuthal variations, which can be attributed to non-isotropic components of the acoustic wavefield radiated during eruption. We model Erebus gas bubble bursts as a combination of symmetric gas expansion (monopole source) and gas jetting (dipole source) and corroborate this explosive asymmetry with video and Doppler radar observations.

  15. Monitoring eruptive activity at Mount St. Helens with TIR image data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vaughan, R.G.; Hook, S.J.; Ramsey, M.S.; Realmuto, V.J.; Schneider, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) data from the MASTER airborne imaging spectrometer were acquired over Mount St. Helens in Sept and Oct, 2004, before and after the onset of recent eruptive activity. Pre-eruption data showed no measurable increase in surface temperatures before the first phreatic eruption on Oct 1. MASTER data acquired during the initial eruptive episode on Oct 14 showed maximum temperatures of ???330??C and TIR data acquired concurrently from a Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) camera showed maximum temperatures ???675??C, in narrow (???1-m) fractures of molten rock on a new resurgent dome. MASTER and FLIR thermal flux calculations indicated a radiative cooling rate of ???714 J/m2/S over the new dome, corresponding to a radiant power of ???24 MW. MASTER data indicated the new dome was dacitic in composition, and digital elevation data derived from LIDAR acquired concurrently with MASTER showed that the dome growth correlated with the areas of elevated temperatures. Low SO2 concentrations in the plume combined with sub-optimal viewing conditions prohibited quantitative measurement of plume SO2. The results demonstrate that airborne TIR data can provide information on the temperature of both the surface and plume and the composition of new lava during eruptive episodes. Given sufficient resources, the airborne instrumentation could be deployed rapidly to a newly-awakening volcano and provide a means for remote volcano monitoring. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Monitoring Eruptive Activity at Mount St. Helens with TIR Image Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, R. G.; Hook, S. J.; Ramsey, M. S.; Realmuto, V. J.; Schneider, D. J.

    2005-01-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) data from the MASTER airborne imaging spectrometer were acquired over Mount St. Helens in Sept and Oct, 2004, before and after the onset of recent eruptive activity. Pre-eruption data showed no measurable increase in surface temperatures before the first phreatic eruption on Oct 1. MASTER data acquired during the initial eruptive episode on Oct 14 showed maximum temperatures of similar to approximately 330 C and TIR data acquired concurrently from a Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) camera showed maximum temperatures similar to approximately 675 C, in narrow (approximately 1-m) fractures of molten rock on a new resurgent dome. MASTER and FLIR thermal flux calculations indicated a radiative cooling rate of approximately 714 J/m(exp 2)/s over the new dome, corresponding to a radiant power of approximately 24 MW. MASTER data indicated the new dome was dacitic in composition, and digital elevation data derived from LIDAR acquired concurrently with MASTER showed that the dome growth correlated with the areas of elevated temperatures. Low SO2 concentrations in the plume combined with sub-optimal viewing conditions prohibited quantitative measurement of plume SO2. The results demonstrate that airborne TIR data can provide information on the temperature of both the surface and plume and the composition of new lava during eruptive episodes. Given sufficient resources, the airborne instrumentation could be deployed rapidly to a newly-awakening volcano and provide a means for remote volcano monitoring.

  17. A prehistoric lahar-dammed lake and eruption of Mount Pinatubo described in a Philippine aborigine legend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodolfo, Kelvin S.; Umbal, Jesse V.

    2008-10-01

    The prehistoric eruptions of Mount Pinatubo have followed a cycle: centuries of repose terminated by a caldera-forming eruption with large pyroclastic flows; a post-eruption aftermath of rain-triggered lahars in surrounding drainages and dome-building that fills the caldera; and then another long quiescent period. During and after the eruptions lahars descending along volcano channels may block tributaries from watersheds beyond Pinatubo, generating natural lakes. Since the 1991 eruption, the Mapanuepe River valley in the southwestern sector of the volcano has been the site of a large lahar-dammed lake. Geologic evidence indicates that similar lakes have occupied this site at least twice before. An Ayta legend collected decades before Mount Pinatubo was recognized as a volcano describes what is probably the younger of these lakes, and the caldera-forming eruption that destroyed it.

  18. Inter-Eruption Evolution of Mount St. Helens Tracked by Coda Wave Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotovec-Ellis, A. J.; Gomberg, J. S.; Thelen, W. A.; Vidale, J. E.; Creager, K. C.

    2012-12-01

    Mount St. Helens (MSH) erupted in 2004 after 18 years of quiescence, but the spatio-temporal movement underground of the magma that erupted at the surface remains a mystery. Swarms of deep (3-8 km) seismicity consistent with magmatic recharge beneath MSH occurred in 1989-1991 and 1995-1998, coincident with steam explosions and anomalous CO2 emission, respectively. Ground deformation observed between 1982 and 1991 was similarly consistent with magma recharge. However, there was no measurable ground deformation between 1991 and 2004. This evidence suggests that magma recharge likely took place during the 1989-1991 swarm, or alternatively, that it had already been mostly loaded to further erupt at the end of the 1980-1986 eruption. On other volcanoes, small changes in seismic wavespeed have been observed prior to eruptions and coincident with possible intrusions of fluids. Seismic velocity changes may have also occurred at MSH, and we speculate that the nature of these changes could provide additional constraints on how the system evolved leading up to the 2004 eruption. We compared the waveforms of thousands of pairs of repeating high frequency (>5 Hz) earthquakes in the PNSN catalog that occurred beneath the volcano's summit between the last explosion in 1986 and the onset of eruption in 2004. We measure temporal changes in repeater coda arrivals and interpret them in terms of possible changes in seismic structure and/or source processes using coda wave interferometry. Preliminary results show many pairs of coda waves have linearly increasing or decreasing lag with time within the waveforms, indicative of systematic wavespeed changes. If attributed to shear velocity variations alone, they would need to be as large as 2% spread over several years and change most around the times of increased deep seismicity.

  19. The 2004-2008 dome-building eruption at Mount St. Helens, Washington: epilogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzurisin, Daniel; Moran, Seth C.; Lisowski, Michael; Schilling, Steve P.; Anderson, Kyle R.; Werner, Cynthia

    2015-10-01

    The 2004-2008 dome-building eruption at Mount St. Helens ended during winter 2007-2008 at a time when field observations were hampered by persistent bad weather. As a result, recognizing the end of the eruption was challenging—but important for scientists trying to understand how and why long-lived eruptions end and for public officials and land managers responsible for hazards mitigation and access restrictions. In hindsight, the end of the eruption was presaged by a slight increase in seismicity in December 2007 that culminated on January 12-13, 2008, with a burst of more than 500 events, most of which occurred in association with several tremor-like signals and a spasmodic burst of long-period earthquakes. At about the same time, a series of regular, localized, small-amplitude tilt events—thousands of which had been recorded during earlier phases of the eruption—came to an end. Thereafter, seismicity declined to 10-20 events per day until January 27-28, when a spasmodic burst of about 50 volcano-tectonic earthquakes occurred over a span of 3 h. This was followed by a brief return of repetitive "drumbeat" earthquakes that characterized much of the eruption. By January 31, however, seismicity had declined to 1-2 earthquakes per day, a rate similar to pre-eruption levels. We attribute the tilt and seismic observations to convulsive stagnation of a semisolid magma plug in the upper part of the conduit. The upward movement of the plug ceased when the excess driving pressure, which had gradually decreased throughout the eruption as a result of reservoir deflation and increasing overburden from the growing dome, was overcome by increasing friction as a result of cooling and crystallization of the plug.

  20. The 2004–2008 dome-building eruption at Mount St. Helens, Washington: Epilogue

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dzurisin, Daniel; Moran, Seth C.; Lisowski, Michael; Schilling, Steve P.; Anderson, Kyle R.; Werner, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    The 2004–2008 dome-building eruption at Mount St. Helens ended during winter 2007–2008 at a time when field observations were hampered by persistent bad weather. As a result, recognizing the end of the eruption was challenging—but important for scientists trying to understand how and why long-lived eruptions end and for public officials and land managers responsible for hazards mitigation and access restrictions. In hindsight, the end of the eruption was presaged by a slight increase in seismicity in December 2007 that culminated on January 12–13, 2008, with a burst of more than 500 events, most of which occurred in association with several tremor-like signals and a spasmodic burst of long-period earthquakes. At about the same time, a series of regular, localized, small-amplitude tilt events—thousands of which had been recorded during earlier phases of the eruption—came to an end. Thereafter, seismicity declined to 10–20 events per day until January 27–28, when a spasmodic burst of about 50 volcano-tectonic earthquakes occurred over a span of 3 h. This was followed by a brief return of repetitive “drumbeat” earthquakes that characterized much of the eruption. By January 31, however, seismicity had declined to 1–2 earthquakes per day, a rate similar to pre-eruption levels. We attribute the tilt and seismic observations to convulsive stagnation of a semisolid magma plug in the upper part of the conduit. The upward movement of the plug ceased when the excess driving pressure, which had gradually decreased throughout the eruption as a result of reservoir deflation and increasing overburden from the growing dome, was overcome by increasing friction as a result of cooling and crystallization of the plug.

  1. Forensic recovery of transient eruption parameters for the 2360 BP fall deposit, Mount Meager, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Michelle E.; Porritt, Lucy; Russell, J. K.

    2016-02-01

    The 2360 BP eruption of Mount Meager, Canada featured an explosive subplinian onset resulting in dacitic fallout tephra and associated pumiceous pyroclastic flow deposits, followed by the effusion of dacite lava and the deposition of a thick sequence of block and ash flow deposits. Fall deposits are distributed to the NE of the vent onto a rugged, deeply incised landscape. The central axis of deposition is ~ 063° Az; the lateral margins of the fall deposit are massive to unbedded whereas deposits underlying the plume axis feature complex bedding relationships. We present componentry and granulometry data for eight outcroppings of the fall deposit (four on plume axis and four off plume axis). Vertical cross-sections, based on surface outcrops and drill core logs from local commercial drilling programs, are used to relate the accessory lithics to their source depth in the underlying subvolcanic basement. These combined datasets inform on the dynamics of this explosive phase of the eruption including variations in column height, eruption intensity, atmospheric conditions, and depth to fragmentation front. The lateral variations within the fall strata reflect the effects of the prevailing atmospheric conditions on the form and dispersal pattern of the subplinian plume. Vertical variations in granulometry and componentry of the fall deposits are used to track temporal changes in eruption intensity and column height and the transient influence of the jetstream on the dispersal pattern of the plume. Lastly, vertical variations in lithic componentry, combined with our knowledge of the subsurface geology, are used to quantitatively track the deepening of the fragmentation front. Our computed results show that the fragmentation front migrated from ~ 640 m to ~ 1160 m below the vent over the course of the 2360 BP Mount Meager eruption.

  2. Impact of Mount St. Helens eruption on hydrology and water quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonelli, J. E.; Taylor, H. E.; Klein, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    The 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens in southeast Washington resulted in a pronounced effect on the surface and ground water resources of the state. In response to the volcanic activity, the U.S. Geological Survey intensified statewide surface and ground water sampling programs to determine the nature and magnitude of the volcanic-induced variations. Streams to the east of Mount St. Helens received the major ash fallout. Chemical effects were best noted in smaller streams sampled 60 to 70 miles northeast of Mount St. Helens. The chemical variations observed were pronounced but short lived. Sulfate and chloride increases in anionic composition were prevalent immediately following the eruption; however, the original bicarbonate predominance was again attained within several days. Suspended iron and aluminum concentrations were similarly elevated during the period of greatest ash deposition (highest turbidity); however, the dissolved concentrations remained relatively constant. Depressions of pH were minor and short lived. Streams draining to the south, tributaries to the Columbia river, showed little observable changes in water chemistry. Streams draining to the west (Toutle river and its tributaries) were compositionally affected by the various volcanic activities. Chloride and sulfate anion percentage exceeded the bicarbonate percentage up to one month following the eruption period. Streams and lakes sampled in the immediate vicinity of Mount St. Helens, in addition to trace metals, contained organic compounds derived from decomposing wood buried in the debris deposits. This organic material may constitute a significant source of organic compounds to surface and ground water for some time to come.

  3. Impact of Mount St. Helens eruption on hydrology and water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Bonelli, J.E.; Taylor, H.E.; Klein, J.M.

    1982-10-01

    The 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens in southeast Washington resulted in a pronounced effect on the surface and ground water resources of the state. In response to the volcanic activity, the U.S. Geological Survey intensified statewide surface and ground water sampling programs to determine the nature and magnitude of the volcanic-induced variations. Streams to the east of Mount St. Helens received the major ash fallout. Chemical effects were best noted in smaller streams sampled 60 to 70 miles northeast of Mount St. Helens. The chemical variations observed were pronounced but short lived. Sulfate and chloride increases in anionic composition were prevalent immediately following the eruption however, the original bicarbonate predominance was again attained within several days. Suspended iron and aluminum concentrations were similarly elevated during the period of greatest ash deposition (highest turbidity) however, the dissolved concentrations remained relatively constant. Depressions of pH were minor and short lived. Streams draining to the south, tributaries to the Columbia river, showed little observable changes in water chemistry. Streams draining to the west (Toutle river and its tributaries) were compositionally affected by the various volcanic activities. Chloride and sulfate anion percentage exceeded the bicarbonate percentage up to one month following the eruption period. Streams and lakes sampled in the immediate vicinity of Mount St. Helens, in addition to trace metals, contained organic compounds derived from decomposing wood buried in the debris deposits. This organic material may constitute a significant source of organic compounds to surface and ground water for some time to come.

  4. Photogeologic maps of the 2004-2005 Mount St. Helens eruption: Chapter 10 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herriott, Trystan M.; Sherrod, David R.; Pallister, John S.; Vallance, James W.; Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    The 2004-5 eruption of Mount St. Helens, still ongoing as of this writing (September 2006), has comprised chiefly lava dome extrusion that produced a series of solid, faultgouge-mantled dacite spines. Vertical aerial photographs taken every 2 to 4 weeks, visual observations, and oblique photographs taken from aircraft and nearby observation points provide the basis for two types of photogeologic maps of the dome--photo-based maps and rectified maps. Eight map pairs, covering the period from October 1, 2004, through December 15, 2005, document the development of seven spines: an initial small, fin-shaped vertical spine; a north-south elongate wall of dacite; two large and elongate recumbent spines (“whalebacks”); a tall and elongate inclined spine; a smaller bulbous spine; and an initially endogenous spine extruded between remnants of preceding spines. All spines rose from the same general vent area near the southern margin of the 1980s lava dome. Maps also depict translation and rotation of active and abandoned spines, progressive deformation affecting Crater Glacier, and distribution of ash on the crater floor from phreatic and phreatomagmatic explosions. The maps help track key geologic and geographic features in the rapidly changing crater and help date dome, gouge, and ash samples that are no longer readily correlated to their original context because of deformation in a dynamic environment where spines extrude, deform, slough, and are overrun by newly erupted material.

  5. Eruptive history and geochronology of the Mount Baker volcanic field, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hildreth, W.; Fierstein, J.; Lanphere, M.

    2003-01-01

    Mount Baker, a steaming, ice-mantled, andesitic stratovolcano, is the most conspicuous component of a multivent Quaternary volcanic field active almost continuously since 1.3 Ma. More than 70 packages of lava flows and ~110 dikes have been mapped, ???500 samples chemically analyzed, and ~80 K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar ages determined. Principal components are (1) the ignimbrite-filled Kulshan caldera (1.15 Ma) and its precaldera and postcaldera rhyodacite lavas and dikes (1.29-0.99 Ma); (2)~60 intracaldera, hydrothermally altered, andesite-dacite dikes and pods-remnants of a substantial early-postcaldera volcanic center (1.1-0.6 Ma); (3) unaltered intracaldera andesite lavas and dikes, including those capping Ptarmigan and Lasiocarpa Ridges and Table Mountain (0.5-0.2 Ma); (4) the long-lived Chowder Ridge focus (1.29-0.1 Ma)-an andesite to rhyodacite eruptive complex now glacially reduced to ~50 dikes and remnants of ~10 lava flows; (5) Black Buttes stratocone, basaltic to dacitic, and several contemporaneous peripheral volcanoes (0.5-0.2 Ma); and (6) Mount Baker stratocone and contemporaneous peripheral volcanoes (0.1 Ma to Holocene). Glacial ice has influenced eruptions and amplified erosion throughout the lifetime of the volcanic field. Although more than half the material erupted has been eroded, liberal and conservative volume estimates for 77 increments of known age yield cumulative curves of volume erupted vs. time that indicate eruption rates in the range 0.17-0.43 km3/k.y. for major episodes and longterm background rates of 0.02-0.07 km3/k.y. Andesite and rhyodacite each make up nearly half of the 161 ?? 56 km3 of products erupted, whereas basalt and dacite represent only a few cubic kilometers, each representing 1%-3% the total. During the past 4 m.y., the principal magmatic focus has migrated stepwise 25 km southwestward, from the edge of the Chilliwack batholith to present-day Mount Baker.

  6. The mechanisms of fine particle generation and electrification during Mount St. Helens volcanic eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Microscopical investigation of volcanic ash collected from ground stations during Mount St. Helens eruptions reveal a distinctive bimodel size distribution with high concentrations of particle ranges at (1) 200-100 microns and (2) 20-0.1 microns. Close examination of individual particles shows that most larger ones are solidified magma particles of porous pumice with numerous gas bubbles in the interior and the smaller ones are all glassy fragments without any detectable gas bubbles. Elemental analysis demonstrates that the fine fragments all have a composition similar to that of the larger pumice particles. Laboratory experiments suggest that the formation of the fine fragments is by bursting of glassy bubbles from a partially solidified surface of a crystallizing molten magma particle. The production of gas bubbles is due to the release of absorbed gases in molten magma particles when solubility decreases during phase transition. Diffusion cloud chamber experiments strongly indicate that sub-micron volcanic fragments are highly hygroscopic and extremely active as cloud condensation nuclei. Ice crystals also are evidently formed on those fragments in a supercooled (-20 C) cloud chamber. It has been reported that charge generation from ocean volcanic eruptions is due to contact of molten lava with sea water. This seems to be insufficient to explain the observed rapid and intense lightning activities over Mount St. Helens eruptions. Therefore, a hypothesis is presented here that highly electrically charged fine solid fragments are ejected by bursting of gas bubbles from the surface of a crystallizing molten magma particles.

  7. Eruptive history and geochronology of Mount Mazama and the Crater Lake region, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacon, Charles R.; Lanphere, Marvin A.

    2006-01-01

    Geologic mapping, K-Ar, and 40Ar/39Ar age determinations, supplemented by paleomagnetic measurements and geochemical data, are used to quantify the Quaternary volcanic history of the Crater Lake region in order to define processes and conditions that led to voluminous explosive eruptions. The Cascade arc volcano known as Mount Mazama collapsed during its climactic eruption of ∼50 km3 of mainly rhyodacitic magma ∼7700 yr ago to form Crater Lake caldera. The Mazama edifice was constructed on a Pleistocene silicic lava field, amidst monogenetic and shield volcanoes ranging from basalt to andesite similar to parental magmas for Mount Mazama. Between 420 ka and 35 ka, Mazama produced medium-K andesite and dacite in 2:1 proportion. The edifice was built in many episodes; some of the more voluminous occurred approximately coeval with volcanic pulses in the surrounding region, and some were possibly related to deglaciation following marine oxygen isotope stages (MIS) 12, 10, 8, 6, 5.2, and 2. Magmas as evolved as dacite erupted many times, commonly associated with or following voluminous andesite effusion. Establishment of the climactic magma chamber was under way when the first preclimactic rhyodacites vented ca. 27 ka. The silicic melt volume then grew incrementally at an average rate of 2.5 km3 k.y.−1 for nearly 20 k.y. The climactic eruption exhausted the rhyodacitic magma and brought up crystal-rich andesitic magma, mafic cumulate mush, and wall-rock granodiorite. Postcaldera volcanism produced 4 km3 of andesite during the first 200–500 yr after collapse, followed at ca. 4800 yr B.P. by 0.07 km3 of rhyodacite. The average eruption rate for all Mazama products was ∼0.4 km3 k.y.−1, but major edifice construction episodes had rates of ∼0.8 km3 k.y.−1. The long-term eruption rate for regional monogenetic and shield volcanoes was d∼0.07 km3 k.y.−1, but only ∼0.02 km3 k.y.−1 when the two major shields are excluded. Plutonic xenoliths and evidence for

  8. Time correlation by palaeomagnetism of the 1631 eruption of Mount Vesuvius. Volcanological and volcanic hazard implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carracedo, J. C.; Principe, C.; Rosi, M.; Soler, V.

    1993-11-01

    The 1631 eruption of Mount Vesuvius was the most destructive episode in the recent volcanic history of Vesuvius and the last in which large pyroclastic flows were emitted. The controversy about whether lava flows were also generated in this eruption, as sustained in the mapping by Le Hon (1866) and by the interpretation by some authors (Burri et al., 1975; Rolandi et al., 1991) of eyewitness accounts, is important not only for a better understanding of the eruption but also for the implications in the prediction of volcanic hazards of this volcano, set in an overpopulated area with more than 3 million people potentially at risk. Short-period palaeomagnetic techniques (secular variation curve) have been applied to correlate lava flows interpreted as produced in the event of 1631 with the pyroclastic flow of this same eruption and other lava flows unquestionably emitted prior to this eruptive event. The model that best fits the results obtained suggests that the presumed 1631 lava flows were not the result of a single eruptive event but were, in fact, produced by several different eruptions. These lava flows also have a better palaeomagnetic correlation with the medieval lava flows than with the pyroclastic flow of 1631, whose juvenile pumice clasts have a well-defined single component magnetization that fits in the expected corresponding position of the secular variation curve for that age. The palaeomagnetic characteristics of the 1631 pyroclastic flow are compatible with a "hot" depositional temperature (apparently above the Curie point of magnetite, 585 °C) for the juvenile pumice fragments (magmatic fraction) and a "cold" deposition for the non-magmatic fraction. This suggests the lack of thermal equilibration during transport of the larger clasts, probably due to the short distance travelled by the pyroclastic flows. The main volcanological and volcanic hazard issues of this work are that the 1631 event was entirely explosive and that pyroclastic flow activity

  9. Forecasts and predictions of eruptive activity at Mount St. Helens, USA: 1975-1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swanson, D.A.; Casadevall, T.J.; Dzurisin, D.; Holcomb, R.T.; Newhall, C.G.; Malone, S.D.; Weaver, C.S.

    1985-01-01

    Public statements about volcanic activity at Mount St. Helens include factual statements, forecasts, and predictions. A factual statement describes current conditions but does not anticipate future events. A forecast is a comparatively imprecise statement of the time, place, and nature of expected activity. A prediction is a comparatively precise statement of the time, place, and ideally, the nature and size of impending activity. A prediction usually covers a shorter time period than a forecast and is generally based dominantly on interpretations and measurements of ongoing processes and secondarily on a projection of past history. The three types of statements grade from one to another, and distinctions are sometimes arbitrary. Forecasts and predictions at Mount St. Helens became increasingly precise from 1975 to 1982. Stratigraphic studies led to a long-range forecast in 1975 of renewed eruptive activity at Mount St. Helens, possibly before the end of the century. On the basis of seismic, geodetic and geologic data, general forecasts for a landslide and eruption were issued in April 1980, before the catastrophic blast and landslide on 18 May 1980. All extrusions except two from June 1980 to the end of 1984 were predicted on the basis of integrated geophysical, geochemical, and geologic monitoring. The two extrusions that were not predicted were preceded by explosions that removed a substantial part of the dome, reducing confining pressure and essentially short-circuiting the normal precursors. ?? 1985.

  10. Proximal ecological effects of the 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, F. J.

    1988-01-01

    The diversity of ecosystems and volcanic processes involved in the 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens, southwest Washington, provide an excellent setting for examining effects of volcanic events on ecosystems. These eruptions included a lateral blast, debris avalanche, mudflows, pyroclastic flows, and airfall tephra. Affected ecosystems within 30 km of the vent were lakes, streams, upland and riparian forest, and meadows. Ecological disturbances imposed by the Mount St. Helens events were predominantly physical, rather than climatic or chemical which are the dominant classes of disturbances considered in analysis of global catastrophes. Analysis of ecosystem response to disturbance should be based on consideration of composition and structure of the predisturbance system in terms that represent potential survivability of organisms, mechanisms in the primary disturbance, initial survivors, secondary disturbances arising from the primary disturbance and the biological responses to secondary disturbances, invasion of the site by new propagules, interactions among secondary disturbance processes and surviving and invading organisms. Predicting ecosystem response to disturbance is enchanced by considering the mechanisms of disturbance rather than type of disturbance. In the 1980 Mount St. Helens events, the disturbance types, involved primarily the mechanisms of sedimentation, heating, and shear stress. Each disturbance type involved one or more mechanisms. Ecosystem response varied greatly across the landscape. Analysis of ecosystem response to disturbance, regardless of type, should include detailed consideration of the properties of individual species, primary and secondary disturbance mechanisms, and their distributions across landscapes.

  11. The 1928 eruption of Mount Etna volcano, Sicily, and the destruction of the town of Mascali.

    PubMed

    Duncan, A M; Dibben, C; Chester, D K; Guest, J E

    1996-03-01

    In November 1928 there was an eruption of Mount Etna, Sicily, which led to lava largely destroying the town of Mascali, situated low on the eastern flank of the volcano. Destruction of the town took just over a day but there was an orderly evacuation of its inhabitants and, with help from the military, families were able to remove furniture and fittings from their houses. Evacuees were relocated to nearby towns staying with relatives, friends or in hired apartments. Rebuilding Mascali provided an opportunity for the fascist government of the time to demonstrate efficient centralised planning. A completely new town was built on a grid-iron plan with many of the buildings reflecting the 'fascist architecture' of the time. The town was complete by 1937 and housing condztzons were very advanced in comparison with other towns in the region. The 1928 eruption is important as it was the most destructive on Etna since 1669 when the city of Catania was overwhelmed. In terms of hazard and risk assessment the 1928 eruption demonstrates that lava can reach the lower flanks of the volcano within a short period after the onset of an eruption.

  12. Global cooling after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo: a test of climate feedback by water vapor.

    PubMed

    Soden, Brian J; Wetherald, Richard T; Stenchikov, Georgiy L; Robock, Alan

    2002-04-26

    The sensitivity of Earth's climate to an external radiative forcing depends critically on the response of water vapor. We use the global cooling and drying of the atmosphere that was observed after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo to test model predictions of the climate feedback from water vapor. Here, we first highlight the success of the model in reproducing the observed drying after the volcanic eruption. Then, by comparing model simulations with and without water vapor feedback, we demonstrate the importance of the atmospheric drying in amplifying the temperature change and show that, without the strong positive feedback from water vapor, the model is unable to reproduce the observed cooling. These results provide quantitative evidence of the reliability of water vapor feedback in current climate models, which is crucial to their use for global warming projections.

  13. Eruptive history of Mount Mazama and Crater Lake Caldera, Cascade Range, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, Charles R.

    1983-10-01

    New investigations of the geology of Crater Lake National Park necessitate a reinterpretation of the eruptive history of Mount Mazama and of the formation of Crater Lake caldera. Mount Mazama consisted of a glaciated complex of overlapping shields and stratovolcanoes, each of which was probably active for a comparatively short interval. All the Mazama magmas apparently evolved within thermally and compositionally zoned crustal magma reservoirs, which reached their maximum volume and degree of differentiation in the climactic magma chamber ˜ 7000 yr B.P. The history displayed in the caldera walls begins with construction of the andesitic Phantom Cone ˜ 400,000 yr B.P. Subsequently, at least 6 major centers erupted combinations of mafic andesite, andesite, or dacite before initiation of the Wisconsin Glaciation ˜ 75,000 yr B.P. Eruption of andesitic and dacitic lavas from 5 or more discrete centers, as well as an episode of dacitic pyroclastic activity, occurred until ˜ 50,000 yr B.P.; by that time, intermediate lava had been erupted at several short-lived vents. Concurrently, and probably during much of the Pleistocene, basaltic to mafic andesitic monogenetic vents built cinder cones and erupted local lava flows low on the flanks of Mount Mazama. Basaltic magma from one of these vents, Forgotten Crater, intercepted the margin of the zoned intermediate to silicic magmatic system and caused eruption of commingled andesitic and dacitic lava along a radial trend sometime between ˜ 22,000 and ˜ 30,000 yr B.P. Dacitic deposits between 22,000 and 50,000 yr old appear to record emplacement of domes high on the south slope. A line of silicic domes that may be between 22,000 and 30,000 yr old, northeast of and radial to the caldera, and a single dome on the north wall were probably fed by the same developing magma chamber as the dacitic lavas of the Forgotten Crater complex. The dacitic Palisade flow on the northeast wall is ˜ 25,000 yr old. These relatively silicic

  14. Lava channel formation during the 2001 eruption on Mount Etna: evidence for mechanical erosion.

    PubMed

    Ferlito, Carmelo; Siewert, Jens

    2006-01-20

    We report the direct observation of a peculiar lava channel that was formed near the base of a parasitic cone during the 2001 eruption on Mount Etna. Erosive processes by flowing lava are commonly attributed to thermal erosion. However, field evidence strongly suggests that models of thermal erosion cannot explain the formation of this channel. Here, we put forward the idea that the essential erosion mechanism was abrasive wear. By applying a simple model from tribology we demonstrate that the available data agree favorably with our hypothesis. Consequently, we propose that erosional processes resembling the wear phenomena in glacial erosion are possible in a volcanic environment.

  15. Remanent magnetization of ash from the 18 May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, W.K.

    1981-03-01

    Ash from the May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens deposited from air faithfully records the direction of the local geomagnetic field in eastern Washington, whereas ash settled from suspension in water in fluvial environments exhibits significant inclination and current-rotation errors in magnetic direction similar to those reported in other subaqueously deposited sediments. The current-rotation errors are associated with partial alignment of the major axes of magnetic susceptibility in the direction of water currents. Subaerial deposition produces strong stable remanent magnetization in ash with or without postdepositional wetting by rain.

  16. Evaluation of radon progeny from Mount St. Helens eruptions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lepel, E.A.; Olsen, K.B.; Thomas, V.W.; Eichner, F.N.

    1982-09-01

    A network of twelve monitoring sites around Mount St. Helens was established to evaluate possible short-lived radioactivity in the fallen ash. Seven sites were located near major population centers of Washington and Oregon, and five sites were located within 80 km of the volcano. Each site monitored the radioactivity present by the use of thermoluminescent dosimeters which recorded the total exposure to radioactivity over the exposure period. Eruptions occurring on July 22, August 7, and October 16 to 18, 1980 were monitored. No statistically significant quantities of measurable radon daughters were observed.

  17. Mount St. Helens erupts again: activity from September 2004 through March 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Major, Jon J.; Scott, William E.; Driedger, Carolyn; Dzurisin, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Eruptive activity at Mount St. Helens captured the world’s attention in 1980 when the largest historical landslide on Earth and a powerful explosion reshaped the volcano, created its distinctive crater, and dramatically modified the surrounding landscape. Over the next 6 years, episodic extrusions of lava built a large dome in the crater. From 1987 to 2004, Mount St. Helens returned to a period of relative quiet, interrupted by occasional, short-lived seismic swarms that lasted minutes to days, by months-to-yearslong increases in background seismicity that probably reflected replenishment of magma deep underground, and by minor steam explosions as late as 1991. During this period a new glacier grew in the crater and wrapped around and partly buried the lava dome. Although the volcano was relatively quiet, scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey and University of Washington’s Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network continued to closely monitor it for signs of renewed activity.

  18. The eruption of Mount Pagan volcano, Mariana Islands, 15 May 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, N.G.; Koyanagi, R.Y.; Sinton, J.M.; Honma, K.T.

    1984-01-01

    A major explosive eruption occurred 15 May 1981 at Mount Pagan Volcano, the larger of two historic eruptive centers on Pagan Island, Mariana Islands. The eruption was preceded by increased numbers of locally felt earthquakes beginning in late March or early April and by new ground cracks, new sublimates, and increased gas emissions. A swarm of felt earthquakes began at 0745h (local time = UCT+10 hours) 15 May, and at 0915 h, closely following a loud sonic boom, a strong plinian column issued from the volcano. The high-altitude ash cloud (at least 13.5 km) travelled south-southeast, but ash and scoria deposits were thickest (> 2 m) in the NW sector of the island because of the prevailing low-altitude southeasterly winds. The early activity of 15 May probably involved magmatic eruption along a fissure system oriented about N10??E. However, the eruption became hydromagmatic, possibly within minutes, and was largely restricted to three long-lived vents. The northernmost of these built a substantial new scoria-ash cinder cone. Flows and air-fall deposits, consisting almost entirely of juvenile material, exceeded 105 ?? 106 m3 in volume (75 ?? 106 m3 of magma) on land and at least 70-100 ?? 606 m3 at sea. An unknown volume was carried away by stratospheric winds. Lithic blocks and juvenile bombs as large as 1 m in diameter were thrown more than 2 km from the summit, and evidence for base-surge was observed in restricted corridors as low as 200 m elevation on the north and south slopes of the volcano. Neither of these events resulted in serious injuries to the 54 residents of the island, nor did the eruption produce serious chemical hazards in their water supply. Weak eruptions occurred during the ensuing month, and some of these were monitored by ground observations, seismic monitoring, and deformation studies. Precursory seismicity and possibly deformation occurred with some of the observed eruptions. More vigorous eruptions were reported by visiting residents in late

  19. Crystal size distributions of plagioclase in lavas from the July-August 2001 Mount Etna eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornaciai, Alessandro; Perinelli, Cristina; Armienti, Pietro; Favalli, Massimiliano

    2015-08-01

    During the 2001 eruption of Mount Etna, two independent vent systems simultaneously erupted two different lavas. The Upper Vents system (UV), opened between 3100 and 2650 m a.s.l., emitted products that are markedly porphyritic and rich in plagioclase, while the Lower Vents system (LV), opened at 2100 and 2550 m a.s.l., emitted products that are sparsely porphyritic with scarce plagioclase. In this study, the crystal size distributions (CSDs) of plagioclase were measured for a series of 14 samples collected from all the main flows of the 2001 eruption. The coefficient of R 2 determination was used to evaluate the goodness of fit of linear models to the CSDs, and the results are represented as a grid of R 2 values by using a numerical code developed ad hoc. R 2 diagrams suggest that the 2001 products can be separated into two main groups with slightly different characteristics: plagioclase CSDs from the UVs can be modeled by three straight lines with different slopes while the plagioclase CSDs from the LVs are largely concave. We have interpreted the CSDs of the UVs as representing three different populations of plagioclases: (i) the large phenocrysts (type I), which started to crystallize at lower cooling rate in a deep reservoir from 13 to 8 months before eruption onset; (ii) the phenocrysts (type II), which crystallized largely during continuous degassing in a shallow reservoir; and (iii) the microlites, which crystallized during magma ascent immediately prior to the eruption. The plagioclase CSD curves for the LVs lava are interpreted to reflect strong and rapid changes in undercooling induced by strong and sudden degassing.

  20. Timing of degassing and plagioclase growth in lavas erupted from Mount St. Helens, 2004-2005, from 210Po-210Pb-226Ra disequilibria: Chapter 37 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reagan, Mark K.; Cooper, Kari M.; Pallister, John S.; Thornber, Carl R.; Wortel, Matthew; Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    Disequilibrium between 210Po, 210Pb, and 226Ra was measured on rocks and plagioclase mineral separates erupted during the first year of the ongoing eruption of Mount St. Helens. The purpose of this study was to monitor the volatile fluxing and crystal growth that occurred in the weeks, years, and decades leading up to eruption. Whole-rock samples were leached in dilute HCl to remove 210Po precipitated in open spaces. Before leaching, samples had variable initial (210Po) values, whereas after leaching, the groundmasses of nearly all juvenile samples were found to have had (210Po) ≈ 0 when they erupted. Thus, most samples degassed 210Po both before and after the magmas switched from open- to closed-system degassing. All juvenile samples have (210Pb)/(226Ra) ratios within 2 δ of equilibrium, suggesting that the magmas involved in the ongoing eruption did not have strong, persistent fluxes of 222Rn in or out of magmas during the decades and years leading to eruption. These equilibrium values also require a period of at least a century after magma generation and the last significant differentiation of the Mount St. Helens dacites. Despite this, the elevated (210Pb)/(226Ra) value measured in a plagioclase mineral separate from lava erupted in 2004 suggests that a significant proportion of this plagioclase grew within a few decades of eruption. The combined dataset suggests that for most 2004-5 lavas, the last stage of open-system degassing of the dacite magmas at Mount St. Helens is confined to the period between 1-2 years and 1-2 weeks before eruption, whereas plagioclase large enough to be included in the mineral separate grew around the time of the 1980s eruption or earlier.

  1. Eruptive history of Mount Mazama and Crater Lake Caldera, Cascade Range, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacon, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    New investigations of the geology of Crater Lake National Park necessitate a reinterpretation of the eruptive history of Mount Mazama and of the formation of Crater Lake caldera. Mount Mazama consisted of a glaciated complex of overlapping shields and stratovolcanoes, each of which was probably active for a comparatively short interval. All the Mazama magmas apparently evolved within thermally and compositionally zoned crustal magma reservoirs, which reached their maximum volume and degree of differentiation in the climactic magma chamber ??? 7000 yr B.P. The history displayed in the caldera walls begins with construction of the andesitic Phantom Cone ??? 400,000 yr B.P. Subsequently, at least 6 major centers erupted combinations of mafic andesite, andesite, or dacite before initiation of the Wisconsin Glaciation ??? 75,000 yr B.P. Eruption of andesitic and dacitic lavas from 5 or more discrete centers, as well as an episode of dacitic pyroclastic activity, occurred until ??? 50,000 yr B.P.; by that time, intermediate lava had been erupted at several short-lived vents. Concurrently, and probably during much of the Pleistocene, basaltic to mafic andesitic monogenetic vents built cinder cones and erupted local lava flows low on the flanks of Mount Mazama. Basaltic magma from one of these vents, Forgotten Crater, intercepted the margin of the zoned intermediate to silicic magmatic system and caused eruption of commingled andesitic and dacitic lava along a radial trend sometime between ??? 22,000 and ??? 30,000 yr B.P. Dacitic deposits between 22,000 and 50,000 yr old appear to record emplacement of domes high on the south slope. A line of silicic domes that may be between 22,000 and 30,000 yr old, northeast of and radial to the caldera, and a single dome on the north wall were probably fed by the same developing magma chamber as the dacitic lavas of the Forgotten Crater complex. The dacitic Palisade flow on the northeast wall is ??? 25,000 yr old. These relatively

  2. Properties and decay of stratospheric aerosols in the Arctic following the 1991 eruptions of Mount Pinatubo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Robert S.; Key, Jeffrey R.; Dutton, Ellsworth G.

    1993-01-01

    Sunphotometer observations made from an aircraft several months after the June 1991 eruptions of Mount Pinatubo are used to quantify the spectral opacity of the Arctic stratosphere. Ancillary surface-based measurements are presented in support of the aircraft data that show large increases in stratospheric optical depth attributed to the presence of volcanic aerosols. Visible optical depths greater than 0.2 were observed during flight segments flown above the tropopause. An inversion algorithm and the optical depth data are used to infer effective aerosol size distributions. The distributions tend to be bimodal, having a large-partical mode radius of about 0.50 micron and a small-particle mode of higher concentration with radii less than 0.18 micron. Surface measurements made during spring 1992 and 1993 are also used to estimate a time constant (e-folding time) of about 13.5 months assuming that the Arctic stratosphere's opacity decays exponentially; this estimate is larger than decay times observed following other major volcanic eruptions. Our results suggest that any climate perturbations in the Arctic caused by eruptions of Pinatubo may be significant and will very likely persist longer than any volcanically-induced changes observed there during the past century.

  3. Properties and decay of stratospheric aerosols in the Arctic following the 1991 eruptions of Mount Pinatubo

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, R.S.; Key, J.R. ); Dutton, E.G. )

    1993-11-05

    Sunphotometer observations made from an aircraft several months after the June 1991 eruptions of Mount Pinatubo are used to quantify the spectral opacity of the Arctic stratosphere. Ancillary surface-based measurements are presented in support of the aircraft data that show large increases in stratospheric optical depth attributed to the presence of volcanic aerosols. Visible optical depths greater than 0.2 were observed during flight segments flown above the tropopause. An inversion algorithm and the optical depth data are used to infer effective aerosol size distributions. The distributions tend to be dimodal, having a large-pArcticle mode radius of about 0.50 [mu]m and a small-particle mode of higher concentration with radii less than 0.18 [mu]. Surface measurements made during spring 1992 and 1993 are also used to estimate a time constant (e-folding time) of about 13.5 months assuming that the Arctic stratosphere's opacity decays exponentially; this estimate is larger than decay times observed following the major volcanic eruptions. These results suggest that any climate perturbations in the Artic caused by the eruptions of Pinatubo may be significant and will very likely persist longer than any volcanically-induced changes observed there during the past century.

  4. Temporal changes in stress preceding the 2004-2008 eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lehto, H.L.; Roman, D.C.; Moran, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    The 2004-2008 eruption of Mount St. Helens (MSH), Washington, was preceded by a swarm of shallow volcano-tectonic earthquakes (VTs) that began on September 23, 2004. We calculated locations and fault-plane solutions (FPS) for shallow VTs recorded during a background period (January 1999 to July 2004) and during the early vent-clearing phase (September 23 to 29, 2004) of the 2004-2008 eruption. FPS show normal and strike-slip faulting during the background period and on September 23; strike-slip and reverse faulting on September 24; and a mixture of strike-slip, reverse, and normal faulting on September 25-29. The orientation of ??1 beneath MSH, as estimated from stress tensor inversions, was found to be sub-horizontal for all periods and oriented NE-SW during the background period, NW-SE on September 24, and NE-SW on September 25-29. We suggest that the ephemeral ~90?? change in ??1 orientation was due to intrusion and inflation of a NE-SW-oriented dike in the shallow crust prior to the eruption onset. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Dispersion of the Volcanic Sulfate Cloud from the Mount Pinatubo Eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aquila, Valentina; Oman, Luke D.; Stolarski, Richard S.; Colarco, Peter R.; Newman, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    We simulate the transport of the volcanic cloud from the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo with the GEOS-5 general circulation model. Our simulations are in good agreement with observational data. We tested the importance of initial condition corresponding to the specific meteorological situation at the time of the eruption by employing reanalysis from MERRA. We found no significant difference in the transport of the cloud. We show how the inclusion of the interaction between volcanic sulfate aerosol and radiation is essential for a reliable simulation of the transport of the volcanic cloud. The absorption of long wave radiation by the volcanic sulfate induces a rising of the volcanic cloud up to the middle stratosphere, combined with divergent motion from the latitude of the eruption to the tropics. Our simulations indicate that the cloud diffuses to the northern hemisphere through a lower stratospheric pathway, and to mid- and high latitudes of the southern hemisphere through a middle stratospheric pathway, centered at about 30 hPa. The direction of the middle stratospheric pathway depends on the season. We did not detect any significant change of the mixing between tropics and mid- and high latitudes in the southern hemisphere.

  6. Mount St. Helens eruptions: the acute respiratory effects of volcanic ash in a North American community.

    PubMed

    Baxter, P J; Ing, R; Falk, H; Plikaytis, B

    1983-01-01

    After the May 18, 1980 volcanic eruption of Mount St. Helens, increases were observed in the number of patients who, because of asthma or bronchitis, sought medical care at emergency rooms of major hospitals in areas of ashfall. An interview study of 39 asthma and 44 bronchitis patients who became sick during the 4 wk following the eruption and who attended the emergency rooms of two major hospitals in Yakima, Washington, and of healthy matched controls indicated that a history of asthma, and possibly of bronchitis, were risk factors for contracting respiratory problems. The interview study also indicated that the main exacerbating factor was the elevated level of airborne total suspended particulates (in excess of 30,000 micrograms/m3) after the eruption. An interview study of 97 patients who had chronic lung disease and who lived in the same area as the above-mentioned patients, but who did not go to a hospital, showed that the ashfall exacerbated the condition in about one-third of these. Emergency planners and their geologist advisers should be aware that special preventive measures are justified for people with a history of asthma or chronic lung disease who live in communities at risk to volcanic ashfalls.

  7. Ash loading and insolation at Hanford, Washington during and after the eruption of Mount St. Helens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laulainen, N. S.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of volcanic ash suspended in the atmosphere on the incident solar radiation was monitored at the Hanford Meteorological Station (HMS) subsequent to the major eruption of Mount St. Helens on May 18, 1980. Passage of the ash plume over Hanford resulted in a very dramatic decrease of solar radiation intensity to zero. A reduction in visibility to less than 1 km was observed, as great quantities of ash fell out of the plume onto the ground. Ash loading in the atmosphere remained very high for several days following the eruption, primarily as a result of resuspension from the surface. Visibilities remained low (2 to 8 km) during this period. Estimates of atmospheric turbidity were made from the ratio of diffuse-to-direct solar radiation; these turbidities were used to estimate extinction along a horizontal path, a quantity which can be related to visibility. Comparisons of observed and estimated visibilities were very good, in spite of the rather coarse approximations used in the estimates. Atmospheric clarity and visibility improved to near pre-eruption conditions following a period of rain showers. The diffuse-to-direct ratio of solar radiation provided a useful index for estimating volcanic ash loading of the atmosphere.

  8. Postglacial volcanic deposits at Mount Baker, Washington, and potential hazards from future eruptions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyde, Jack H.; Crandell, Dwight Raymond

    1978-01-01

    Eruptions and other geologic events at Mount Baker during the last 10,000 years have repeatedly affected adjacent areas, especially the valleys that head on the south and east sides of the volcano. Small volumes of tephra were erupted at least four times during the past 10,000 years. Future eruptions like these could cause as much as 35 centimeters of tephra to be deposited at sites 17 kilometers from the volcano, 15 centimeters of tephra to be deposited 29 kilometers from the volcano, and 5 centimeters, 44 kilometers from the volcano. Lava flows were erupted at least twice during the last 10,000 years and moved down two valleys. Future lava flows will not directly endanger people because lava typically moves so slowly that escape is possible. Hot pyroclastic flows evidently occurred during only one period and were confined to the Boulder Creek valley. Such flows can move at speeds of as much as 150 kilometers per hour and can bury valley floors under tens of meters of hot rock debris for at least 15 kilometers from the volcano. large mudflows, most of which contain hydrothermally altered rock debris, originated at Mount Baker at least eight times during the last 10,000 years. The largest mudflow reached 29 kilometers or more down the valley of the Middle Fork Nooksack River, west of the volcano, about 6,000 years ago. Extensive masses of hydrothermally altered rock that are potentially unstable exist today near the summit of the volcano, especially in the Sherman Crater - Sherman Peak area. Avalanches of this material could be triggered by steam explosions, earthquakes, or eruptions, or may occur because of slow-acting forces of processes that gradually decrease stability. large avalanches could move downslope at high speed and could grade downvalley into mudflows. Floods caused by rapid melting of snow and ice by lava or by hot rock debris could affect valley floors many tens of kilometers from the volcano and could have especially severe effects if they were to

  9. Airborne thermal infrared imaging of the 2004-2005 eruption of Mount St. Helens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, D. J.; Vallance, J. W.; Logan, M.; Wessels, R.; Ramsey, M.

    2005-12-01

    A helicopter-mounted forward-looking infrared imaging radiometer (FLIR) documented the explosive and effusive activity at Mount St. Helens during the 2004-2005 eruption. A gyrostabilzed gimbal controlled by a crew member houses the FLIR radiometer and an optical video camera attached at the lower front of the helicopter. Since October 1, 2004 the system has provided an unprecedented data set of thermal and video dome-growth observations. Flights were conducted as frequently as twice daily during the initial month of the eruption (when changes in the crater and dome occurred rapidly), and have been continued on a tri-weekly basis during the period of sustained dome growth. As with any new technology, the routine use of FLIR images to aid in volcano monitoring has been a learning experience in terms of observation strategy and data interpretation. Some of the unique information that has been derived from these data to date include: 1) Rapid identification of the phreatic nature of the early explosive phase; 2) Observation of faulting and associated heat flow during times of large scale deformation; 3) Venting of hot gas through a short lived crater lake, indicative of a shallow magma source; 4) Increased heat flow of the crater floor prior to the initial dome extrusion; 5) Confirmation of new magma reaching the surface; 6) Identification of the source of active lava extrusion, dome collapse, and block and ash flows. Temperatures vary from ambient, in areas insulated by fault gouge and talus produced during extrusion, to as high as 500-740 degrees C in regions of active extrusion, collapse, and fracturing. This temperature variation needs to be accounted for in the retrieval of eruption parameters using satellite-based techniques as such features are sub-pixel size in satellite images.

  10. A Volcano Rekindled: The Renewed Eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    Mount St. Helens began a dome-building eruption in September 2004 after nearly two decades of quiescence. Dome growth was initially robust, became more sluggish with time, and ceased completely in late January 2008. The volcano has been quiet again since January 2008. Professional Paper 1750 describes the first 1 1/2 years of this eruptive activity, chiefly from September 2004 until December 2005. Its 37 chapters contain contributions of 87 authors from 23 institutions, including the U.S. Geological Survey, Forest Service, many universities, and local and State emergency management agencies. Chapter topics range widely - from seismology, geology, geodesy, gas geochemistry, and petrology to the human endeavor required for managing the public volcanic lands and distributing information during the hectic early days of a renewed eruption. In PDF format, the book may be downloaded in its entirety or by its topical sections, each section including a few prefatory paragraphs that describe the general findings, recurrent themes, and, in some cases, the unanswered questions that arise repeatedly. Those readers who prefer downloading the smaller files of only a chapter or two have this option available as well. Readers are directed to chapter 1 for a general overview of the eruption and the manner in which different chapters build our knowledge of events. More detailed summaries for specific topics can be found in chapter 2 (seismology), chapter 9 (geology), chapter 14 (deformation), chapter 26 (gas geochemistry), and chapter 30 (petrology). The printed version of the book may be purchased as a hardback weighty tome (856 printed pages) that includes a DVD replete with the complete online version, including all chapters and several additional appendixes not in the printed book.

  11. Constraints and conundrums resulting from ground-deformation measurements made during the 2004-2005 dome-building eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington: Chapter 14 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dzurisin, Daniel; Lisowski, Michael; Poland, Michael P.; Sherrod, David R.; LaHusen, Richard G.; Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    Lack of precursory inflation suggests that the volcano was poised to erupt magma already stored in a crustal reservoir when JRO1 was installed in 1997. Trilateration and campaign GPS data indicate surface dilatation, presumably caused by reservoir expansion between 1982 and 1991, but no measurable deformation between 1991 and 2003. We conclude that all three of the traditionally reliable eruption precursors (seismicity, ground deformation, and volcanic gas emission) failed to provide warning that an eruption was imminent until a few days before a visible welt appeared at the surface--a situation reminiscent of the 1980 north-flank bulge at Mount St. Helens.

  12. Mts. Agung and Batur, Bali, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This perspective view shows the major volcanic group of Bali, one 13,000 islands comprising the nation of Indonesia. The conical mountain to the left is Gunung Agung, at 3,148 meters (10,308 feet) the highest point on Bali and an object of great significance in Balinese religion and culture. Agung underwent a major eruption in 1963 after more than 100 years of dormancy, resulting in the loss of over 1,000 lives.

    In the center is the complex structure of Batur volcano, showing a caldera (volcanic crater) left over from a massive catastrophic eruption about 30,000 years ago. Judging from the total volume of the outer crater and the volcano, that once lay above it, approximately 140 cubic kilometers(33.4 cubic miles) of material must have been produced by this eruption, making it one of the largest known volcanic events on Earth. Batur is still active and has erupted at least 22 times since the 1800's.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA

  13. A comparison of thermal observations of mount st. Helens before and during the first week of the initial 1980 eruption.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, W S; Qamar, A; Moore, J; Kendrick, G

    1980-09-26

    Before and during the first week of the March-April 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Washington, infrared thermal surveys were conducted to monitor the thermal activity of the volcano. The purpose was to determine if an increase in thermal activity had taken place since an earlier airborne survey in 1966. Nine months before the eruption there was no evidence of an increase in thermal activity. The survey during the first week of the 1980 eruptions indicated that little or no change in thermal activity had taken place up to 4 April. Temperatures of ejected ash and steam were low and never exceeded 15 degrees C directly above the vent.

  14. The 1992 eruptions of Crater Peak vent, Mount Spurr Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keith, Terry E.C.

    1995-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide scrubbing by liquid water masked SO2 emissions from shallow magma during the 1992 eruptions of Crater Peak and effectively prevented observation of SO2 emissions from shallow magma both before and after explosive eruptions and seismic crises. Airborne ultraviolet correlation spectrometer (COSPEC) measurements from July 22, 1991, to September 24, 1992, indicate only background to minor ( H2S(aq) + 3H+(aq) + 3HSO4-(aq). Sulfur dioxide hydrolysis also explains the increase in the sulfate content of Crater Peak lake water prior to the first eruption, the strong H2S odor during periods of background to low SO2 emission, the TOMS evidence for significant H2S emissions during the explosive eruptions, and the observed decline of SO2 during periods of volcanic tremor. Abundant, local sources of melt water and a high permeability for the Mount Spurr volcanic edifice are probably the chief factors responsible for masking SO2 emissions by scrubbing, and possibly for quenching shallow intrusions that were ascending. Large SO2 emissions unencumbered by scrubbing were only possible during the three explosive eruptions when magma penetrated through liquid water zones under Crater Peak and reached the surface. Nonexplosive SO2 emissions of as much as 750 t/d were possible, however, for a brief period when dry pathways to the surface existed from September 25 until about October 10, 1992. Airborne infrared spectrometer (MIRAN) measurements of CO2 emissions indicate that in addition to the degassing of magma through dry pathways, degassing through boiling water with the loss of SO2 by scrubbing was also important during that time. The CO2 emission data indicate that magma degassing was taking place, and CO2/SO2 values calculated from MIRAN and COSPEC data are in the range 10 to 100, which supports the hypothesis of SO2 loss by scrubbing. Because of its strong preference for the vapor phase during boiling, CO2 emissions from degassing magma are less likely to be masked

  15. Gaseous constituents in the plume from eruptions of Mount St. Helens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inn, E. C. Y.; Vedder, J. F.; Condon, E. P.; Ohara, D.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements in the stratosphere of gaseous constituents in the plume of Mount St. Helens were obtained during five flights of the NASA U-2 aircraft between 19 May and 17 June 1980. Mixing ratios from gas chromatographic measurements on samples acquired about 24 hours after the initial eruption show considerable enhancement over nonvolcanic concentrations for sulfur dioxide (more than 1000 times), methyl chloride (about 10 times), and carbon disulfide (more than 3 times). The mixing ratio of carbonyl sulfide was comparable to nonvolcanic mixing ratios although 3 days later it was enhanced two to three times. Ion chromatography measurements on water-soluble constituents are also reported. Very large concentrations of chloride, nitrate, and sulfate ions were measured, implying large mixing ratios for the water-soluble gaseous constituents from which the anions are derived. Measurements of radon-222 present in the plume are also reported.

  16. Chronology and pyroclastic stratigraphy of the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, C. William

    1987-01-01

    The eruption of Mount St. Helens on May 18, 1980 can be subdivided into six phases: the paroxysmal phase I, the early Plinian phase II, the early ash flow phase III, the climactic phase IV, the late ash flow phase V, and phase VI, the activity of which consisted of a low-energy ash plume. These phases are correlated with stratigraphic subunits of ash-fall tephra and pyroclastic flow deposits. Sustained vertical discharge of phase II produced evolved dacite with high S/Cl ratios. Ash flow activity of phase III is attributed to decreases in gas content, indicated by reduced S/Cl ratios and increased clast density of the less evolved gray pumice. Climactic events are attributed to vent clearing and exhaustion of the evolved dacite.

  17. Forward scattering and backscattering of solar radiation by the stratospheric limb after Mount St. Helens eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerman, M.; Lippens, C.

    1982-01-01

    Stratospheric limb radiance profiles versus altitude of closest approach of the line of sight to the Earth's surface have been measured before and after the Mount St. Helens eruptions by means of photographs taken from a Sun-oriented balloon gondola floating above 35 km altitude over France. Preliminary data were reported for flights in October 1979 and in May and June 1980. The radiance integrated along the line of sight as in-situ radiance (R) can be derived taking into account absorption by ozone and air. The onion peeling inversion method was used to derive the vertical radiance (R) profiles respectively. The values of R were determined in the solar azimuth. The solar elevation angles are chosen larger for the backscattering observation than for the forward scattering observation to deal with as similar illumination conditions as possible despite the Earth's sphericity.

  18. Effects of the Mount Pinatubo eruption on solar insolation: Four case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, A.L.; Robert, J.M.

    1993-05-01

    The Southwest Technology Development Institute staff analyzed solar insolation data from four sites recorded during the years 1990 through 1992. Analyses were performed to identify and quantify the effects on insolation caused by the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines on June 15th and 16th, 1991. The four monitoring stations that supplied the raw data for this report were: The Southwest Region Experiment Station in Las Cruces, New Mexico; The Solar Radiation Research Laboratory at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado; The Solar Insolation Monitor Program station operated by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company in Carrisa Plains, California; and The Solar Insolation monitor station at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Data from each of the sites were recorded by dedicated datalogging equipment. Every effort was made to prevent data acquisition system problems (e.g., drift of the datalogger clock) from influencing the accuracy of the results.

  19. Gas emissions and the eruptions of mount st. Helens through 1982.

    PubMed

    Casadevall, T; Rose, W; Gerlach, T; Greenland, L P; Ewert, J; Wunderman, R; Symonds, R

    1983-09-30

    The monitoring of gas emissions from Mount St. Helens includes daily airborne measurements of sulfur dioxide in the volcanic plume and monthly sampling of gases from crater fumaroles. The composition of the fumarolic gases has changed slightly since 1980: the water content increased from 90 to 98 percent, and the carbon dioxide concentrations decreased from about 10 to 1 percent. The emission rates of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide were at their peak during July and August 1980, decreased rapidly in late 1980, and have remained low and decreased slightly through 1981 and 1982. These patterns suggest steady outgassing of a single batch of magma (with a volume of not less than 0.3 cubic kilometer) to which no significant new magma has been added since mid-1980. The gas data were useful in predicting eruptions in August 1980 and June 1981.

  20. Gas emissions and the eruptions of Mount St. Helens through 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Casadevall, T.; Rose, W.; Gerlach, T.; Greenland, L.P.; Ewert, J.; Wunderman, R.; Symonds, R.

    1983-09-30

    The monitoring of gas emissions from Mount St. Helens includes daily airborne measurements of sulfur dioxide in the volcanic plume and monthly sampling of gases from crater fumaroles. The composition of the fumarolic gases has changed slightly since 1980: the water content increased from 90 to 98 percent, and the carbon dioxide concentrations decreased from about 10 to 1 percent. The emission rates of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide were at their peak during July and August 1980, decreased rapidly in late 1980, and have remained low and decreased slightly through 1981 and 1982. These patterns suggest steady outgassing of a single batch of magma has been added since mid-1980. The gas data were useful in predicting eruptions in August 1980 and June 1981.

  1. Gaseous constituents in the plume from eruptions of mount st. Helens.

    PubMed

    Inn, E C; Vedder, J F; Condon, E P; O'hara, D

    1981-02-20

    Measurements in the stratosphere of gaseous constituents in the plume of Mount St. Helens were obtained during five flights of the NASA U-2 aircraft between 19 May and 17 June 1980. Mixing ratios from gas chromatographic measurements on samples acquired about 24 hours after the initial eruption show considerable enhancement over nonvolcanic concentrations for sulfur dioxide (more than 1000 times), methyl chloride (about 10 times), and carbon disulfide (more than 3 times). The mixing ratio of carbonyl sulfide was comparable to nonvolcanic mixing ratios although 3 days later it was enhanced two to three times. Ion chromatography measurements on water-soluble constituents are also reported. Very large concentrations of chloride, nitrate, and sulfate ions were measured, implying large mixing ratios for the water-soluble gaseous constituents from which the anions are derived. Measurements of radon-222 present in the plume are also reported.

  2. GOES weather satellite observations and measurements of the May 18, 1980, Mount St. Helens eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holasek, R. E.; Self, S.

    1995-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) images of the May 18, 1980, Mount St. Helens volcanic plume in providing details of the dynamics and changing character of this major explosive eruption. Visible and thermal infrared (IR) data from a sequence of images at 30-min intervals from 0850 to 1720 Local Time (LT) give information on dispersal and plume top temperature. Initial visible and IR images at 0850 show the top of a spreading co-ignimbrite-like umbrella plume and an overshooting column emerging from it, both rising off the ground-hugging pyroclastic gravity flow generated by the opening directed blast. The overshooting column had a minimum temperature significantly colder than local ambient atmosphere, indicating substantial undercooling, and a maximum altitude of 31 +/- 2 km at 0920. This large plume system then formed a high-velocity, radially spreading, gravitationally driven current before becoming advected in the wind field at an average downwind velocity of 29 m/s. Reflectance values from visible GOES data change from lower to higher during periods of transition from darker toned Plinian to lighter toned co-ignimbrite plumes indicating that in this case satellite data resolved changes in eruptive style from plumes with a coarser to a finer dominant particle size.

  3. Changes in Seismic Velocity During the 2004 - 2008 Eruption of Mount St. Helens Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotovec-Ellis, A. J.; Vidale, J. E.; Gomberg, J. S.; Moran, S. C.; Thelen, W. A.

    2013-12-01

    Mount St. Helens (MSH) effusively erupted in late 2004, following an 18-year quiescence. Many swarms of repeating earthquakes accompanied the extrusion and in some cases the waveforms from these earthquakes evolved slowly, possibly reflecting changes in the properties of the volcano that affect seismic wave propagation. We use coda-wave interferometry to quantify these changes in terms of small (usually <1%) changes in seismic velocity structure by determining how relatively condensed or stretched the coda is between two similar earthquakes. We then utilize several hundred distinct families of repeating earthquakes at once to create a continuous function of velocity change observed at any station in the seismic network. The rate of earthquakes allows us to track these changes on a daily or even hourly time scale. Following years of no seismic velocity changes larger than those due to climatic processes (tenths of a percent), we observed decreases in seismic velocity of >1% coincident with the onset of increased earthquake activity beginning September 23, 2004. These changes are largest near the summit of the volcano, and likely related to shallow deformation as magma first worked its way to the surface. Changes in velocity are often attributed to deformation, especially volumetric strain and the opening or closing of cracks, but also with nonlinear responses to ground shaking and fluid intrusion. We compare velocity changes across the eruption with other available observations, such as deformation (e.g., GPS, tilt, photogrammetry), to better constrain the relationships between velocity change and its possible causes.

  4. The 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens - Physical and chemical processes in the stratospheric clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.; Whitten, R. C.; Hamill, P.; Keesee, R. G.

    1983-01-01

    The large and diverse set of observational data collected in the high-altitude plumes of the May 18, May 25, and June 13, 1980 eruptions is organized and analyzed with a view to discerning the processes at work. The data serve to guide and constrain detailed model simulations of the volcanic clouds. For this purpose, use is made of a comprehensive one-dimensional model of stratospheric sulfate aerosols, sulfur precursor gases, and volcanic ash and dust. The model takes into account gas-phase and condensed-phase (heterogeneous) chemistry in the clouds, aerosol nucleation and growth, and cloud expansion. Computational results are presented for the time histories of the gaseous species concentrations, aerosol size distributions, and ash burdens of the eruption clouds. Also investigated are the long-term buildup of stratospheric aerosols in the Northern Hemisphere and the persistent effects of injected chlorine and water vapor on stratospheric ozone. It is concluded that SO2, water vapor, and ash were probably the most important substances injected into the stratosphere by the Mount St. Helens volcano, both with respect to their widespread effects on composition and their effect on climate.

  5. Impact of mount st. Helens eruption on bacteriology of lakes in the blast zone.

    PubMed

    Staley, J T; Lehmicke, L G; Palmer, F E; Peet, R W; Wissmar, R C

    1982-03-01

    Lakes lying within the blast zone of Mount St. Helens showed dramatic increases in heterotrophic bacterial numbers after the eruption of 18 May 1980. The total microscopic counts of bacteria in some of the most severely affected lakes were more than 10 cells per ml, an order of magnitude above the counts in outlying control lakes. Likewise, the numbers of viable bacteria reached levels of more than 10 cells per ml, compated with fewer than 10 cells per ml in control lakes. The CPS medium used for enumeration provided growth of up to 81.5% of the bacteria during sampling of one of the blast zone lakes. The high numbers of bacteria and the efficacy of the viable enumeration procedure are evidence that the lakes have been transformed rapidly from oligotrophy to eutrophy due to the eruption and its aftermath. Organic material leached from the devastated forest vegetation is thought to be responsible for the enrichment of heterotrophs. Total coliform bacteria were found in all of the blast zone lakes, and some lakes contained fecal coliform bacteria. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the predominant total coliform and was also identified as one of the fecal coliform bacteria, although Escherichia coli was the predominant species in that category. Our data indicate that bacterial populations peaked in the outer blast zone lakes in the summer of 1980 and in most of the inner lakes during the summer of 1981.

  6. Effects of Mount Pinatubo Volcanic Eruption on the Hydrological Cycle as an Analog of Geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenberth, K. E.

    2007-05-01

    Much of my work in recent years has been devoted to understanding the hydrological and energy cycles. The incoming radiant energy from the sun is transformed into various forms (internal heat, potential energy, latent energy, and kinetic energy) moved around in various ways primarily by the atmosphere and oceans, stored and sequestered in the ocean, land, and ice components of the climate system, and ultimately radiated back to space as infrared radiation. The requirement for an equilibrium climate mandates a balance between the incoming and outgoing radiation and further mandates that the flows of energy are systematic. The imbalance at top of atmosphere from increasing greenhouse gases from human activities creates warming. The central concern with geoengineering fixes to global warming is that the cure could be worse than the disease. The problem of global warming arises from the buildup of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide from burning of fossil fuels and other human activities that change the composition of the atmosphere. However, the solution proposed is to reduce the incoming sunshine by emulating a volcanic eruption. In between the incoming solar radiation and the outgoing longwave radiation is the entire weather and climate system and the operation of the hydrological cycle. The eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991 is used as an analog for the geoengineering and show that there was a substantial decrease in precipitation over land and a record decrease in runoff and streamflow in 1992, suggesting that major adverse effects, such as drought, could arise from such geoengineering solutions.

  7. Precise relocation of earthquakes following the 15 June 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo (Philippines)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battaglia, J.; Thurber, C.H.; Got, J.-L.; Rowe, C.A.; White, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    The 15 June 1991 climactic eruption of Mount Pinatubo (Philippines) was followed by intense seismicity that remained at a high level for several months. We located 10,839 events recorded between 1 July and mid-December 1991. In contrast to the preeruptive seismicity which was focused in two groups below the summit area, posteruptive events were widely distributed below and around the volcano. The classification of the events indicates the presence of several large multiplets, and the application of relative relocation techniques to the similar events by calculating high-precision delays between traces outlines a number of clear seismogenic structures. We used different methods to confirm the validity of our results; these tests indicate that reliable features can be detected with a small monitoring network. While the main cluster of activity can be attributed to an intrusive process starting from below the 15 June crater, the volcanic origin of the seismic activity in the other areas is more difficult to establish. Away from the summit, relocations define streaks or planes which are oriented predominantly southwest-northeast, with in several cases the presence of northwest-southeast conjugate structures. Most of the composite focal mechanisms that we could determine indicate predominantly strike-slip, right-lateral faulting. Our results indicate that most of the seismicity that occurred after the 15 June eruption is related to the east-west regional compressional stress field related to the subduction. We suggest that the regional stress field induces seismicity along new or preexisting faults in the medium surrounding the volcano where the stress field was locally disturbed by the volcanic eruption. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Leaching characteristics of ash from the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens volcano, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. B.; Zielinski, R. A.; Taylor, H. E.; Sawyer, M. B.

    1983-06-01

    Leaching of freshly erupted air-fall ash, unaffected by rain, from the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens volcano, Washington, shows that Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, SO{4/2-}, and Cl- are the predominant chemical species released on first exposure of the ash to water. Extremely high correlation of Ca with SO4 and Na with Cl in water leachates suggests the presence of CaSO4 and NaCl salts on the ash. The amount of water soluble material on ash increases with distance from source and with the weight fraction of small (less than 63 micrometers) ash particles of high-surface area. This suggests that surface reactions such as adsorption are responsible for concentrating the soluble material. CaSO4, NaCl, and other salts are probably formed as microscopic crystals in the high-temperature core of the eruption column and are then adsorbed by silicate ash particles. The environmentally important elements Zn, Cu, Cd, F. Pb, and Ba are released by a water leach in concentrations which could pose short-term hazards to some forms of aquatic life. However, calculated concentrations are based on a water-to-ash ratio of 4:1 or less, which is probably an underestimation of the regionally operative ratio. A subsequent leach of ash by warm alkaline solution shows dramatic increases, in the amount of dissolved SiO2, U, and V, which are probably caused by increased dissolution of the glassy component of ash. Glass dissolution by alkaline ground water is a mechanism for providing these three elements to sedimentary traps where they may coaccumulate as uraniferous silica or U-V minerals. Leaching characteristics of ash from Mount St. Helens are comparable to characteristics of ash of similar composition from volcanoes in Guatemala. Ashes from each locality show similar ions predominating for a given leachate and similar fractions of a particular element in the ash removed on contact with the leach solution.

  9. Leaching characteristics of ash from the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens Volcano, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, David Burl; Zielinski, Robert A.; Taylor, Howard Edward

    1982-01-01

    Leaching of freshly erupted air-fall ash, unaffected by rain, from the May 18, 1.980,eruption of Mount St. Helens volcano, Washington, shows that Ca 2+, Na+, Mg+, SO4 2-, and Cl- are the predominant chemical species released on first exposure of the ash to water. Extremely high correlation of Ca with SO4 and Na with Cl in water leachates suggests the presence of CaSO4 and NaCl salts on the ash. The amount of water soluble material on ash increases with distance from source and with the weight fraction of small (less than 63 micrometers) ash particles of high-surface area. This suggests that surface reactions such as adsorption are responsible for concentrating the soluble material. CaSO4, NaCl, and other salts are probably formed as microscopic crystals in the high-temperature core of the eruption column and are then adsorbed by silicate ash particles. The environmentally important elements Zn, Cu, Cd, F, Pb, and Ba are released by a water leach in concentrations which could pose short-term hazards to some forms of aquatic life. However, calculated concentrations are based on a water-to-ash ratio of 4:1 or less, which is probably an underestimation of the regionally operative ratio. A subsequent leach of ash by warm alkaline solution shows dramatic increases in the amount of dissolved SiO2, U, and V, which are probably caused by increased dissolution of the glassy component of ash. Glass dissolution by alkaline ground water is a mechanism for providing these three elements to sedimentary traps where they may co-accumulate as uraniferous silica or U-V minerals. Leaching characteristics of ash from Mount St. Helens are comparable to characteristics of ash of similar composition from volcanoes in Guatemala. Ashes from each locality show similar ions predominating for a given leachate and similar fractions of a particular element in the ash removed on contact with the leach solution.

  10. Observations of the eruptions of July 22 and August 7, 1980, at Mount St. Helens, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoblitt, Richard P.

    1986-01-01

    The explosive eruptions of July 22 and August 7, 1980, at Mount St. Helens, Wash., both included multiple eruptive pulses. The beginnings of three of the pulses-two on July 22 and one on August 7-were witnessed and photographed. Each of these three began with a fountain of gases and pyroclasts that collapsed around the vent and generated a pyroclastic density flow. Significant vertical-eruption columns developed only after the density flows were generated. This behavior is attributable to either an increase in the gas content of the eruption jet or a decrease in vent radius with time. An increase in the gas content may have occurred as the vent was cleared (by expulsion of a plug of pyroclasts) or as the eruption began to tap deeper, gas-rich magma after first expelling the upper, gas-depleted part of the magma body. An effective decrease of the vent radius with time may have occurred as the eruption originated from progressively deeper levels in the vent. All of these processes-vent clearing; tapping of deeper, gas-rich magma; and effective decrease in vent radius-probably operated to some extent. A 'relief-valve' mechanism is proposed here to account for the occurrence of multiple eruptive pulses. This mechanism requires that the conduit above the magma body be filled with a bed of pyroclasts, and that the vesiculation rate in the magma body be inadequate to sustain continuous eruption. During a repose interval, vesiculation of the magma body would cause gas to flow upward through the bed of pyroclasts. If the rate at which the magma produced gas exceeded the rate at which gas escaped to the atmosphere, the vertical pressure difference across the bed of pyroclastic debris would increase, as would the gas-flow rate. Eventually a gas-flow rate would be achieved that would suddenly diminish the ability of the bed to maintain a pressure difference between the magma body and the atmosphere. The bed of pyroclasts would then be expelled (that is, the relief valve would

  11. The mount st. Helens volcanic eruption of 18 may 1980: large short-term surface temperature effects.

    PubMed

    Robock, A; Mass, C

    1982-05-07

    The surface temperature effects of the 18 May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens Volcano were examinedfor 1 day immediately after the eruption; 24-hour temperature differences and Model Output Statistics errors as well as the detailed temporal evolution of surface temperature at selected stations were used. During the daytime hours immediately after the eruption, the temperature was suppressed by the volcanic plume by as much as 8 degrees C. That night, low-level volcanic dust produced temperature enhancements of up to 8 degrees C. These effects quickly diminished the next day as the volcanic dust cloud dissipated and moved toward the east. The net local effect of the eruption appears to be warming, in contrast to cooling which might be expected over climatic time scales.

  12. Hydrometeor-enhanced tephra sedimentation: Constraints from the 18 May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durant, A.J.; Rose, William I.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Carey, Steven; Volentik, A.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Uncertainty remains on the origin of distal mass deposition maxima observed in many recent tephra fall deposits. In this study the link between ash aggregation and the formation of distal mass deposition maxima is investigated through reanalysis of tephra fallout from the Mount St. Helens 18 May 1980 (MSH80) eruption. In addition, we collate all the data needed to model distal ash sedimentation from the MSH80 eruption cloud. Four particle size subpopulations were present in distal fallout with modes at 2.2 ??, 4.2 ??, 5.9 ??, and 8.3 ??. Settling rates of the coarsest subpopulation closely matched predicted single-particle terminal fall velocities. Sedimentation of particles <100 ??m was greatly enhanced, predominantly through aggregation of a particle subpopulation with modal diameter 5.9 ?? 0.2 ?? (19 ?? 3 ??m). Mammatus on the MSH80 cloud provided a mechanism to transport very fine ash particles, with predicted atmospheric lifetimes of days to weeks, from the upper troposphere to the surface in a matter of hours. In this mechanism, ash particles initiate ice hydrometeor formation high in the troposphere. Subsequently, the volcanic cloud rapidly subsides as mammatus develop from increased particle loading and cloud base sublimation. Rapid fallout occurs as the cloud passes through the melting level in a process analogous to snowflake aggregation. Aggregates sediment en masse and form the distal mass deposition maxima observed in many recent volcanic ash fall deposits. This work provides a data resource that will facilitate tephra sedimentation modeling and allow model intercomparisons. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. Eruptive history and petrology of Mount Drum volcano, Wrangell Mountains, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richter, D.H.; Moll-Stalcup, E. J.; Miller, T.P.; Lanphere, M.A.; Dalrymple, G.B.; Smith, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    Mount Drum is one of the youngest volcanoes in the subduction-related Wrangell volcanic field (80x200 km) of southcentral Alaska. It lies at the northwest end of a series of large, andesite-dominated shield volcanoes that show a northwesterly progression of age from 26 Ma near the Alaska-Yukon border to about 0.2 Ma at Mount Drum. The volcano was constructed between 750 and 250 ka during at least two cycles of cone building and ring-dome emplacement and was partially destroyed by violent explosive activity probably after 250 ka. Cone lavas range from basaltic andesite to dacite in composition; ring-domes are dacite to rhyolite. The last constructional activity occured in the vicinity of Snider Peak, on the south flank of the volcano, where extensive dacite flows and a dacite dome erupted at about 250 ka. The climactic explosive eruption, that destroyed the top and a part of the south flank of the volcano, produced more than 7 km3 of proximal hot and cold avalanche deposits and distal mudflows. The Mount Drum rocks have medium-K, calc-alkaline affinities and are generally plagioclase phyric. Silica contents range from 55.8 to 74.0 wt%, with a compositional gap between 66.8 and 72.8 wt%. All the rocks are enriched in alkali elements and depleted in Ta relative to the LREE, typical of volcanic arc rocks, but have higher MgO contents at a given SiO2, than typical orogenic medium-K andesites. Strontium-isotope ratios vary from 0.70292 to 0.70353. The compositional range of Mount Drum lavas is best explained by a combination of diverse parental magmas, magma mixing, and fractionation. The small, but significant, range in 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the basaltic andesites and the wide range of incompatible-element ratios exhibited by the basaltic andesites and andesites suggests the presence of compositionally diverse parent magmas. The lavas show abundant petrographic evidence of magma mixing, such as bimodal phenocryst size, resorbed phenocrysts, reaction rims, and

  14. Eruptive history and petrology of Mount Drum volcano, Wrangell Mountains, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, D. H.; Moll-Stalcup, E. J.; Miller, T. P.; Lanphere, M. A.; Dalrymple, G. B.; Smith, R. L.

    1994-03-01

    Mount Drum is one of the youngest volcanoes in the subduction-related Wrangell volcanic field (80×200 km) of southcentral Alaska. It lies at the northwest end of a series of large, andesite-dominated shield volcanoes that show a northwesterly progression of age from 26 Ma near the Alaska-Yukon border to about 0.2 Ma at Mount Drum. The volcano was constructed between 750 and 250 ka during at least two cycles of cone building and ring-dome emplacement and was partially destroyed by violent explosive activity probably after 250 ka. Cone lavas range from basaltic andesite to dacite in composition; ring-domes are dacite to rhyolite. The last constructional activity occurred in the vicinity of Snider Peak, on the south flank of the volcano, where extensive dacite flows and a dacite dome erupted at about 250 ka. The climactic explosive eruption, that destroyed the top and a part of the south flank of the volcano, produced more than 7 km3 of proximal hot and cold avalanche deposits and distal mudflows. The Mount Drum rocks have medium-K, calc-alkaline affinities and are generally plagioclase phyric. Silica contents range from 55.8 to 74.0 wt%, with a compositional gap between 66.8 and 72.8 wt%. All the rocks are enriched in alkali elements and depleted in Ta relative to the LREE, typical of volcanic arc rocks, but have higher MgO contents at a given SiO2, than typical orogenic medium-K andesites. Strontium-isotope ratios vary from 0.70292 to 0.70353. The compositional range of Mount Drum lavas is best explained by a combination of diverse parental magmas, magma mixing, and fractionation. The small, but significant, range in 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the basaltic andesites and the wide range of incompatible-element ratios exhibited by the basaltic andesites and andesites suggests the presence of compositionally diverse parent magmas. The lavas show abundant petrographic evidence of magma mixing, such as bimodal phenocryst size, resorbed phenocrysts, reaction rims, and

  15. 40Ar/39Ar dating of the eruptive history of Mount Erebus, Antarctica: summit flows, tephra, and caldera collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harpel, Christopher J.; Kyle, Philip R.; Esser, Richard P.; McIntosh, William C.; Caldwell, David A.

    2004-12-01

    Eruptive activity has occurred in the summit region of Mount Erebus over the last 95 ky, and has included numerous lava flows and small explosive eruptions, at least one plinian eruption, and at least one and probably two caldera-forming events. Furnace and laser step-heating 40Ar/39Ar ages have been determined for 16 summit lava flows and three englacial tephra layers erupted from Mount Erebus. The summit region is composed of at least one or possibly two superimposed calderas that have been filled by post-caldera lava flows ranging in age from 17 ± 8 to 1 ± 5 ka. Dated pre-caldera summit flows display two age populations at 95 ± 9 to 76 ± 4 ka and 27 ± 3 to 21 ± 4 ka of samples with tephriphonolite and phonolite compositions, respectively. A caldera-collapse event occurred between 25 and 11 ka. An older caldera-collapse event is likely to have occurred between 80 and 24 ka. Two englacial tephra layers from the flanks of Mount Erebus have been dated at 71 ± 5 and 15 ± 4 ka. These layers stratigraphically bracket 14 undated tephra layers, and predate 19 undated tephra layers, indicating that small-scale explosive activity has occurred throughout the late Pleistocene and Holocene eruptive history of Mount Erebus. A distal, englacial plinian-fall tephra sample has an age of 39 ± 6 ka and may have been associated with the older of the two caldera-collapse events. A shift in magma composition from tephriphonolite to phonolite occurred at around 36 ka.

  16. 40Ar/39Ar dating of the eruptive history of Mount Erebus, Antarctica: Summit flows, tephra, and caldera collapse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harpel, C.J.; Kyle, P.R.; Esser, R.P.; McIntosh, W.C.; Caldwell, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Eruptive activity has occurred in the summit region of Mount Erebus over the last 95 ky, and has included numerous lava flows and small explosive eruptions, at least one plinian eruption, and at least one and probably two caldera-forming events. Furnace and laser step-heating 40Ar/39Ar ages have been determined for 16 summit lava flows and three englacial tephra layers erupted from Mount Erebus. The summit region is composed of at least one or possibly two superimposed calderas that have been filled by post-caldera lava flows ranging in age from 17 ?? 8 to 1 ?? 5 ka. Dated pre-caldera summit flows display two age populations at 95 ?? 9 to 76 ?? 4 ka and 27 ?? 3 to 21 ??4 ka of samples with tephriphonolite and phonolite compositions, respectively. A caldera-collapse event occurred between 25 and 11 ka. An older caldera-collapse event is likely to have occurred between 80 and 24 ka. Two englacial tephra layers from the flanks of Mount Erebus have been dated at 71 ?? 5 and 15 ?? 4 ka. These layers stratigraphically bracket 14 undated tephra layers, and predate 19 undated tephra layers, indicating that small-scale explosive activity has occurred throughout the late Pleistocene and Holocene eruptive history of Mount Erebus. A distal, englacial plinian-fall tephra sample has an age of 39 ?? 6 ka and may have been associated with the older of the two caldera-collapse events. A shift in magma composition from tephriphonolite to phonolite occurred at around 36 ka. ?? Springer-Verlag 2004.

  17. Structure and physical characteristics of pumice from the climactic eruption of Mount Mazama (Crater Lake), Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klug, C.; Cashman, K.; Bacon, C.

    2002-01-01

    The vesicularity, permeability, and structure of pumice clasts provide insight into conditions of vesiculation and fragmentation during Plinian fall and pyroclastic flow-producing phases of the ???7,700 cal. year B.P. climactic eruption of Mount Mazama (Crater Lake), Oregon. We show that bulk properties (vesicularity and permeability) can be correlated with internal textures and that the clast structure can be related to inferred changes in eruption conditions. The vesicularity of all pumice clasts is 75-88%, with >90% interconnected pore volume. However, pumice clasts from the Plinian fall deposits exhibit a wider vesicularity range and higher volume percentage of interconnected vesicles than do clasts from pyroclastic-flow deposits. Pumice permeabilities also differ between the two clast types, with pumice from the fall deposit having higher minimum permeabilities (???5??10-13 m2) and a narrower permeability range (5-50??10-13 m2) than clasts from pyroclastic-flow deposits (0.2-330??10-13 m2). The observed permeability can be modeled to estimate average vesicle aperture radii of 1-5 ??m for the fall deposit clasts and 0.25-1 ??m for clasts from the pyroclastic flows. High vesicle number densities (???109 cm-3) in all clasts suggest that bubble nucleation occured rapidly and at high supersaturations. Post-nucleation modifications to bubble populations include both bubble growth and coalescence. A single stage of bubble nucleation and growth can account for 35-60% of the vesicle population in clasts from the fall deposits, and 65-80% in pumice from pyroclastic flows. Large vesicles form a separate population which defines a power law distribution with fractal dimension D=3.3 (range 3.0-3.5). The large D.value, coupled with textural evidence, suggests that the large vesicles formed primarily by coalescence. When viewed together, the bulk properties (vesicularity, permeability) and textural characteristics of all clasts indicate rapid bubble nucleation followed by

  18. Modeling deformation associated with the 2004-2008 dome-building eruption of Mount St. Helens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisowski, M.; Battaglia, M.

    2011-12-01

    We estimate deformation sources active during and after the 2004-2008 dome-building eruption of Mount St. Helens (MSH) by inverting campaign and continuous GPS (CGPS) measured deformation between 2000 and 2011. All data are corrected for background deformation using a tectonic model that includes block rotation and uniform strain accumulation. The campaign GPS surveys characterize the deformation over a large area, and the CGPS data allow estimates of time-dependent changes in the rate of deformation. Only one CGPS station, JRO1, was operating near MSH prior to the start of unrest on September 23, 2004. Most other CGPS stations, installed by the Plate Boundary Observatory and Cascade Volcano Observatory, were operating by mid-October, 2004. The inward displacement of JRO1 started with the seismic unrest on September 23, 2004, and continued at a rate of 0.5 mm/day until the last phreatic explosion on October 5, 2004 (note there was another explosion in March 2005). The deformation then decayed exponentially until activity ceased in January, 2008. The rate of decay was estimated using a number of clean CGPS time series, and then it was fixed to estimate amplitudes for all CGPS station displacements. The inward and downward movements (deflation) observed at all stations during the eruption (2004-2008) were best-fit by a prolate spheroid with geometric aspect ratio 0.19 ± 0.6, a depth of 7.4 ± 1.7 km, and a cavity volume decrease of 0.028 ± 0.005 cubic km. This source is practically vertical (dip angle: 84 ± 5; strike angle 298 ± 84) and is located beneath the dome. All errors are 95% bounds and have been estimated using jackknife. The post-eruption deformation (2008 - present) is characterized by deflation in the near field (within 2 km from the dome) and inflation in the far field. The near-field deflation signal is best fit by a very shallow sill-like source (~0.18 ± 0.05 km below the crater floor) with a radius of 0.5 ± 0.3 km and a cavity volume decrease of

  19. Source mechanisms of persistent shallow earthquakes during eruptive and non-eruptive periods between 1981 and 2011 at Mount St. Helens, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehto, Heather L.; Roman, Diana C.; Moran, Seth C.

    2013-04-01

    Shallow seismicity between 0 and 3-km depth has persisted at Mount St. Helens, Washington (MSH) during both eruptive and non-eruptive periods for at least the past thirty years. In this study we investigate the source mechanisms of shallow volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes at MSH by calculating high-quality hypocenter locations and fault plane solutions (FPS) for all VT events recorded during two eruptive periods (1981-1986 and 2004-2008) and two non-eruptive periods (1987-2004 and 2008-2011). FPS show a mixture of normal, reverse, and strike-slip faulting during all periods, with a sharp increase in strike-slip faulting observed in 1987-1997 and an increase in normal faulting in 1998-2004. FPS P-axis orientations show a ~ 90° rotation with respect to regional σ1 (N23°E) during 1981-1986 and 2004-2008, bimodal orientations (~ N-S and ~ E-W) during 1987-2004, and bimodal orientations at ~ N-E and ~ S-W from 2008-2011. We interpret these orientations to likely be due to pressurization accompanying the shallow intrusion and subsequent eruption of magma as domes during 1981-1986 and 2004-2008 and the buildup of pore pressure beneath a seismogenic volume (located at 0-1 km) with a smaller component due to the buildup of tectonic forces during 1987-2004 and 2008-2011.

  20. Source mechanisms of persistent shallow earthquakes during eruptive and non-eruptive periods between 1981 and 2011 at Mount St. Helens, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lehto, Heather L.; Roman, Diana C.; Moran, Seth C.

    2013-01-01

    Shallow seismicity between 0 and 3-km depth has persisted at Mount St. Helens, Washington (MSH) during both eruptive and non-eruptive periods for at least the past thirty years. In this study we investigate the source mechanisms of shallow volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes at MSH by calculating high-quality hypocenter locations and fault plane solutions (FPS) for all VT events recorded during two eruptive periods (1981–1986 and 2004–2008) and two non-eruptive periods (1987–2004 and 2008–2011). FPS show a mixture of normal, reverse, and strike-slip faulting during all periods, with a sharp increase in strike-slip faulting observed in 1987–1997 and an increase in normal faulting in 1998–2004. FPS P-axis orientations show a ~ 90° rotation with respect to regional σ1 (N23°E) during 1981–1986 and 2004–2008, bimodal orientations (~ N-S and ~ E-W) during 1987–2004, and bimodal orientations at ~ N-E and ~ S-W from 2008–2011. We interpret these orientations to likely be due to pressurization accompanying the shallow intrusion and subsequent eruption of magma as domes during 1981–1986 and 2004–2008 and the buildup of pore pressure beneath a seismogenic volume (located at 0–1 km) with a smaller component due to the buildup of tectonic forces during 1987–2004 and 2008–2011.

  1. Mount St. Helens a decade after the 1980 eruptions: magmatic models, chemical cycles, and a revised hazards assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pallister, J.S.; Hoblitt, R.P.; Crandell, D.R.; Mullineaux, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    Available geophysical and geologic data provide a simplified model of the current magmatic plumbing system of Mount St. Helens (MSH). This model and new geochemical data are the basis for the revised hazards assessment presented here. The assessment is weighted by the style of eruptions and the chemistry of magmas erupted during the past 500 years, the interval for which the most detailed stratigraphic and geochemical data are available. This interval includes the Kalama (A. D. 1480-1770s?), Goat Rocks (A.D. 1800-1857), and current eruptive periods. In each of these periods, silica content decreased, then increased. The Kalama is a large amplitude chemical cycle (SiO2: 57%-67%), produced by mixing of arc dacite, which is depleted in high field-strength and incompatible elements, with enriched (OIB-like) basalt. The Goat Rocks and current cycles are of small amplitude (SiO2: 61%-64% and 62%-65%) and are related to the fluid dynamics of magma withdrawal from a zoned reservoir. The cyclic behavior is used to forecast future activity. The 1980-1986 chemical cycle, and consequently the current eruptive period, appears to be virtually complete. This inference is supported by the progressively decreasing volumes and volatile contents of magma erupted since 1980, both changes that suggest a decreasing potential for a major explosive eruption in the near future. However, recent changes in seismicity and a series of small gas-release explosions (beginning in late 1989 and accompanied by eruption of a minor fraction of relatively low-silica tephra on 6 January and 5 November 1990) suggest that the current eruptive period may continue to produce small explosions and that a small amount of magma may still be present within the conduit. The gas-release explosions occur without warning and pose a continuing hazard, especially in the crater area. An eruption as large or larger than that of 18 May 1980 (???0.5 km3 dense-rock equivalent) probably will occur only if magma rises from

  2. An investigation of pre-eruptive deformation for the 2004 eruption of Mount St. Helens using persistent scatterer interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, M.; Schmidt, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    The volcanoes of the Cascade Range pose a legitimate threat to people living in the Pacific Northwest. Mt St Helens, which erupted in 2004 as a part of a dome building event, is a notable example of this danger. Deformation and seismicity are known indicators of volcanic activity and can provide warning of an imminent eruption. In the weeks leading up to the 2004 eruption, a shallow earthquake swarm was detected under St. Helens, suggesting ongoing deformation with its source beneath the edifice. A campaign GPS survey conducted in 2000 found no evidence of deformation. The sole continuous GPS station that was operational prior to the eruption (located ~9 km away from the crater) began moving only with the onset of the earthquake swarm. Because of the lack of ground based geodetic instruments in the near-field of Mt St Helens at the time of the 2004 eruption, it is unknown whether pre-eruptive deformation occurred on the edifice or solely within crater. InSAR is the only method available to conclusively determine whether the 2004 eruption was preceded by deformation of the edifice. Previous work explored this question using standard 2-pass interferometry, but the results were inconclusive. The main obstacle to implementing InSAR methods in the Cascades region is phase decorrelation due to the presence of both dense forest and snow for most of the year. We revisit the available InSAR data for St. Helens by experimenting with the application of the Persistent Scatterers and Distributed Scatterers processing techniques in order to overcome the decorrelation problem. By using these techniques on the question of Mt St Helens pre-eruptive deformation, we will demonstrate the viability of their application to the entire Northwest region as a low cost, low maintenance, monitoring tool.

  3. Mount St. Helens Ash from the 18 May 1980 Eruption: Chemical, Physical, Mineralogical, and Biological Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Robertson, David E.; Evans, John C.; Olsen, Khris B.; Lepel, Elwood A.; Laul, Jagdish C.; Abel, Keith H.; Sanders, Ronald W.; Jackson, Peter O.; Wogman, Ned S.; Perkins, Richard W.; van Tuyl, Harold H.; Beauchamp, Raymond H.; Shade, John W.; Leland Daniel, J.; Erikson, Robert L.; Sehmel, George A.; Lee, Richard N.; Robinson, Alfred V.; Moss, Owen R.; Briant, James K.; Cannon, William C.

    1980-09-01

    Samples of ash from the 18 May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens were collected from several locations in eastern Washington and Montana. The ash was subjected to a variety of analyses to determine its chemical, physical, mineralogical, and biological characteristics. Chemically, the ash samples were of dacitic composition. Particle size data showed bimodal distributions and differed considerably with location. However, all samples contained comparable amounts of particles less than 3.5 micrometers in diameter (respirable fraction). Mineralogically, the samples ranged from almost totally glassy to almost totally crystalline. Crystalline samples were dominated by plagioclase feldspar (andesine) and orthopyroxene (hypersthene), with smaller amounts of titanomagnetite and hornblende. All but one of the samples contained from less than 1 percent to 3 percent free crystalline silica (quartz, trydimite, or cristobalite) in both the bulk samples and 1 to 2 percent in the fractions smaller than 3.5 micrometers. The long-lived natural radionuclide content of the ash was comparable to that of crustal material; however, relatively large concentrations of short-lived radon daughters were present and polonium-210 content was inversely correlated with particle size. In vitro biological tests showed the ash to be nontoxic to alveolar macrophages, which are an important part of the lungs' natural clearance mechanism. On the basis of a substantial body of data that has shown a correlation between macrophage cytotoxicity and fibrogenicity of minerals, the ash is not predicted to be highly fibrogenic.

  4. Estimation of ballistic block landing energy during 2014 Mount Ontake eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunematsu, Kae; Ishimine, Yasuhiro; Kaneko, Takayuki; Yoshimoto, Mitsuhiro; Fujii, Toshitsugu; Yamaoka, Koshun

    2016-05-01

    The 2014 Mount Ontake eruption started just before noon on September 27, 2014. It killed 58 people, and five are still missing (as of January 1, 2016). The casualties were mainly caused by the impact of ballistic blocks around the summit area. It is necessary to know the magnitude of the block velocity and energy to construct a hazard map of ballistic projectiles and design effective shelters and mountain huts. The ejection velocities of the ballistic projectiles were estimated by comparing the observed distribution of the ballistic impact craters on the ground with simulated distributions of landing positions under various sets of conditions. A three-dimensional numerical multiparticle ballistic model adapted to account for topographic effect was used to estimate the ejection angles. From these simulations, we have obtained an ejection angle of γ = 20° from vertical to horizontal and α = 20° from north to east. With these ejection angle conditions, the ejection speed was estimated to be between 145 and 185 m/s for a previously obtained range of drag coefficients of 0.62-1.01. The order of magnitude of the mean landing energy obtained using our numerical simulation was 104 J.

  5. Precursor gases of aerosols in the Mount St. Helens eruption plumes at stratospheric altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inn, E. C. Y.; Vedder, J. F.; Condon, E. P.; Ohara, D.

    1982-01-01

    Nineteen stratospheric samples from the eruption plumes of Mount St. Helens were collected in five flight experiments. The plume samples were collected at various altitudes from 13.1 to 20.7 km by using the Ames cryogenic sampling system on board the NASA U-2 aircraft. The enriched, cryogenically collected samples were analyzed by chromatography. The concentrations of aerosols precursor gases (OCS, SO2, and CS2), CH3Cl, N2O, CF2Cl2, and CFCl3 were measured by gas chromatography. Large enhancement of the mixing ratio of SO2 and moderate enhancement of CS2 and OCS were found in the plume samples compared with similar measurement under pre-volcanic conditions. A fast decay rate of the SO2 mixing ratio in the plume was observed. Measurement of Cl(-), SO2(2-), and NO3(-) by ion chromatography was also carried out on water solutions prepared from the plume samples. The results obtained with this technique imply large mixing ratios of HCl, (NO + NO2 + HNO3), and SO2, in which these constituents are the respective sources of the anions. Measurement of the Rn222 concentration in the plume was made. Other stratospheric constituents in the plume samples, such as H2O, CO2, CH4, and CO, were also observed.

  6. Mount St. Helens ash from the 18 May 1980 eruption: chemical, physical, mineralogical, and biological properties

    SciTech Connect

    Fruchter, J.S.; Robertson, D.E.; Evans, J.C.

    1980-09-05

    Samples of ash from the 18 May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens were collected from several locations in eastern Washington and Montana. The ash was subjected to a variety of analyses to determine its chemical, physical, mineralogical, and biological characteristics. Chemically, the ash samples were of dacitic composition. Particle size data showed bimodal distributions and differed considerably with location. However, all samples contained comparable amounts of particles less than 3.5 micrometers in diameter (respirable fraction). Mineralogically, the samples ranged from almost totally glassy to almost totally crystalline. Crystalline samples were dominated by plagioclase feldspar (andesine) and orthopyroxene (hypersthene), with smaller amounts of titanomagnetite and hornblende. All but one of the samples contained from less than 1% to 3% free crystalline silica (quartz, trydimite, or cristobalite) in both the bulk samples and 1 to 2% in the fractions smaller than 3.5 micrometers. The long-lived natural radionuclide content of the ash was comparable to that of crustal material; however, relatively large concentrations of short-lived radon daughters were present and polonium-210 content was inversely correlated with particle size. In vitro biological tests showed the ash to be nontoxic to alveolar macrophages, which are an important pat of the lungs' natural clearance mechanism. On the basis of a substantial body of data that has shown a correlation between macrophage cytotoxicity and fibrogenicity of minerals, the ash is not predicted to be highly fibrogenic.

  7. Mount st. Helens ash from the 18 may 1980 eruption: chemical, physical, mineralogical, and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Fruchter, J S; Robertson, D E; Evans, J C; Olsen, K B; Lepel, E A; Laul, J C; Abel, K H; Sanders, R W; Jackson, P O; Wogman, N S; Perkins, R W; VAN Tuyl, H H; Beauchamp, R H; Shade, J W; Daniel, J L; Erikson, R L; Sehmel, G A; Lee, R N; Robinson, A V; Moss, O R; Briant, J K; Cannon, W C

    1980-09-05

    Samples of ash from the 18 May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens were collected from several locations in eastern Washington and Montana. The ash was subjected to a variety of analyses to determine its chemical, physical, mineralogical, and biological characteristics. Chemically, the ash samples were of dacitic composition. Particle size data showed bimodal distributions and differed considerably with location. However, all samples contained comparable amounts of particles less than 3.5 micrometers in diameter (respirable fraction). Mineralogically, the samples ranged from almost totally glassy to almost totally crystalline. Crystalline samples were dominated by plagioclase feldspar (andesine) and orthopyroxene (hypersthene), with smaller amounts of titanomagnetite and hornblende. All but one of the samples contained from less than 1 percent to 3 percent free crystalline silica (quartz, trydimite, or cristobalite) in both the bulk samples and 1 to 2 percent in the fractions smaller than 3.5 micrometers. The long-lived natural radionuclide content of the ash was comparable to that of crustal material; however, relatively large concentrations of short-lived radon daughters were present and polonium-210 content was inversely correlated with particle size. In vitro biological tests showed the ash to be nontoxic to alveolar macrophages, which are an important part of the lungs' natural clearance mechanism. On the basis of a substantial body of data that has shown a correlation between macrophage cytotoxicity and fibrogenicity of minerals, the ash is not predicted to be highly fibrogenic.

  8. Fluvial sediment transport and deposition following the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, S.K.; Montgomery, D.R.; Newhall, C.G.

    2002-01-01

    The 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo generated extreme sediment yields from watersheds heavily impacted by pyroclastic flows. Bedload sampling in the Pasig-Potrero River, one of the most heavily impacted rivers, revealed negligible critical shear stress and very high transport rates that reflected an essentially unlimited sediment supply and the enhanced mobility of particles moving over a smooth, fine-grained bed. Dimensionless bedload transport rates in the Pasig-Potrero River differed substantially from those previously reported for rivers in temperate regions for the same dimensionless shear stress, but were similar to rates identified in rivers on other volcanoes and ephemeral streams in arid environments. The similarity between volcanically disturbed and arid rivers appears to arise from the lack of an armored bed surface due to very high relative sediment supply; in arid rivers, this is attributed to a flashy hydrograph, whereas volcanically disturbed rivers lack armoring due to sustained high rates of sediment delivery. This work suggests that the increases in sediment supply accompanying massive disturbance induce morphologic and hydrologic changes that temporarily enhance transport efficiency until the watershed recovers and sediment supply is reduced. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Very shallow dyke intrusion and potential slope failure imaged by ground deformation: The 28 December 2014 eruption on Mount Etna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonforte, Alessandro; Guglielmino, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    On 28 December 2014, eruptive activity resumed at Mount Etna with fire fountain activity feeding two lava flows on the eastern and southwestern upper flanks of the volcano. Unlike all previous summit activity, this eruption produced clear deformation at the summit of the volcano. GPS displacements and Sentinel-1A ascending interferograms were calculated in order to image the ground deformation pattern accompanying the eruption. The displacements observed by GPS depict a local ground deformation pattern, affecting only the upper part of the volcano. Despite snow cover on the summit, differential interferometry synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR) data allowed obtaining more detail on the ground deformation pattern on the upper eastern side of the volcano. Three-dimensional GPS displacements inversion located a very shallow NE-SW intrusion just beneath the New Southeast Crater. However, this model cannot justify all the deformation observed by DInSAR thus revealing a gravitational failure of the lava flow field.

  10. Mount St Helens eruptions, May 18 to June 12, 1980. An overview of the acute health impact.

    PubMed

    Baxter, P J; Ing, R; Falk, H; French, J; Stein, G F; Bernstein, R S; Merchant, J A; Allard, J

    1981-12-04

    Thirty-five known deaths were caused by the landslide and lateral blast of the May 18 eruption of Mount St Helens and at least 23 persons are missing. In 18 of 23 cases that reached autopsy, asphyxiation from ash inhalation was the cause of death. A rapidly established hospital surveillance system detected increases in the number of emergency room (ER) visits and admissions for asthma and bronchitis in communities with the heaviest ashfall after the May 18 eruption and the eruptions on May 25 and June 12. There were also increases in the number of ER visits for ash-related eye complaints in some areas. laboratory studies indicated that the May 18 ash was not acutely toxic, but the respirable portion contained 3% to 7% of crystalline free silica, a potential pneumoconiosis hazard to certain heavily exposed occupational groups. Continuing volcanic activity of Mount St Helens and future eruption of other volcanoes in the Cascade Range may pose a variety of health hazards, including blast, ashfalls, flooding, damage to public utilities, and possible psychosocial effects.

  11. Climate model simulation of winter warming and summer cooling following the 1991 Mount Pinatubo volcanic eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, Ingo; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Graf, Hans-F.; Robock, Alan; AntuñA, Juan Carlos

    1999-08-01

    We simulate climate change for the 2-year period following the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines on June 15, 1991, with the ECHAM4 general circulation model (GCM). The model was forced by realistic aerosol spatial-time distributions and spectral radiative characteristics calculated using Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II extinctions and Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite-retrieved effective radii. We calculate statistical ensembles of GCM simulations with and without volcanic aerosols for 2 years after the eruption for three different sea surface temperatures (SSTs): climatological SST, El Niño-type SST of 1991-1993, and La Niña-type SST of 1984-1986. We performed detailed comparisons of calculated fields with observations. We analyzed the atmospheric response to Pinatubo radiative forcing and the ability of the GCM to reproduce it with different SSTs. The temperature of the tropical lower stratosphere increased by 4 K because of aerosol absorption of terrestrial longwave and solar near-infrared radiation. The heating is larger than observed, but that is because in this simulation we did not account for quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) cooling and the cooling effects of volcanically induced ozone depletion. We estimated that both QBO and ozone depletion decrease the stratospheric temperature by about 2 K. The remaining 2 K stratospheric warming is in good agreement with observations. By comparing the runs with the Pinatubo aerosol forcing with those with no aerosols, we find that the model calculates a general cooling of the global troposphere, but with a clear winter warming pattern of surface air temperature over Northern Hemisphere continents. This pattern is consistent with the observed temperature patterns. The stratospheric heating and tropospheric summer cooling are directly caused by aerosol radiative effects, but the winter warming is indirect, produced by dynamical responses to the enhanced stratospheric latitudinal temperature

  12. Managing public and media response to a reawakening volcano: lessons from the 2004 eruptive activity of Mount St. Helens: Chapter 23 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frenzen, Peter M.; Matarrese, Michael T.; Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions and other infrequent, large-scale natural disturbances pose challenges and opportunities for public-land managers. In the days and weeks preceding an eruption, there can be considerable uncertainty surrounding the magnitude and areal extent of eruptive effects. At the same time, public and media interest in viewing developing events is high and concern for public safety on the part of local land managers and public safety officials is elevated. Land managers and collaborating Federal, State, and local officials must decide whether evacuations or restrictions to public access are necessary, the appropriate level of advance preparation, and how best to coordinate between overlapping jurisdictions. In the absence of a formal Federal or State emergency declaration, there is generally no identified source of supplemental funding for emergency-response preparation or managing extraordinary public and media response to developing events. In this chapter, we examine responses to escalating events that preceded the 2004 Mount St. Helens eruption and changes in public perception during the extended period of the largely nonexplosive, dome-building eruption that followed. Lessons learned include the importance of maintaining up-to-date emergency-response plans, cultivating close working relationships with collaborating agencies, and utilizing an organized response framework that incorporates clearly defined roles and responsibilities and effective communication strategies.

  13. Total sulfur dioxide emissions and pre-eruption vapor-saturated magma at Mount St. Helens, 1980-88

    SciTech Connect

    Gerlach, T.M.; McGee, K.A.

    1994-12-15

    SO{sub 2} from explosive volcanism can cause significant climatic and atmospheric impacts, but the source of the sulfur is controversial. TOMS, COSPEC, and ash leachate data for Mount St. Helens from the time of the climactic eruption on 18 May 1980 to the final stages of non-explosive degassing in 1988 give a total SO{sub 2} emission of 2 Mt. COSPEC data show a sharp drop in emission rate that was apparently controlled by a decreasing rate of magma supply. A total SO{sub 2} emission of only 0.08 Mt is estimated from melt inclusion data and the conventional assumption that the main sulfur source was pre-eruption melt; commonly invoked sources of {open_quotes}excess sulfur{close_quotes} (anhydrite decomposition, basaltic magma, and degassing of non-erupted magma) are unlikely in this case. Thus melt inclusions may significantly underestimate SO{sub 2} emissions and impacts of explosive volcanism on climate and the atmosphere. Measured CO{sub 2} emissions, together with the H{sub 2}O content of melt inclusions and experimental solubility data, indicate the Mount St. Helens dacite was vapor-saturated at depth prior to ascent and suggest that a vapor phase was the main source of sulfur for the 2-Mt of SO{sub 2}. A vapor source is consistent with experimental studies on the Mount St. Helens dacite and removes the need for a much debated shallow magma body. 23 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Chronology, morphology and stratigraphy of pumiceous pyroclastic-flow (ignimbrite) deposits from the eruption of Mount St. Helens on 18 May 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, C. W.; Elston, W. E.

    1984-01-01

    Between 1217 and 1620 hours (PDT), on May 18, 1980, the magmatic eruption column of Mount St. Helens formed an ash fountain and pyroclastic flows dominated the eruption process over tephra ejection. Eurption-rate pulsations generally increased to a maximum at 1600 to 1700 hrs. After 1620 hrs, the eruption assumed an open-vent discharge with strong, vertical ejection of tephra. Relative eruption rates (relative mass flux rates) of the pyroclastic flows were determined by correlating sequential photographs and SLAR images, obtained during the eruption, with stratigraphy and surface morphology of the deposits.

  15. Using An Extensive Catalogue of Repeatable Strombolian Eruptions to Monitor Small Medium Changes at Mount Erebus Volcano, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, B.; Aster, R. C.; Kyle, P.

    2005-12-01

    A recent study by Gret et al. (2005) reconfirmed earlier work demonstrating remarkable, though variable, repeatability of short-period seismic signals produced by characteristic Strombolian eruptions of Mount Erebus. The eruptions originate as impulsive explosions of large simple gas bubbles from the surface of a long-lived, actively convecting phonolitic lava lake that rapidly refills afterwards. This self-reconstructing eruptive system lends itself to highly repeatable seismic sources. Gret et al. further noted that these repeatable seismograms (extending many 10s of seconds into the coda) and associated seismic energy scattered within the low-velocity waveguide of the volcano conduit might facilitate the novel tracking of small temporal changes in seismic velocity and/or impedance contrast within the near summit magma body and more general conduit system. We expand on this suggestive work using comprehensive correlation-based similar seismogram analysis of an extensive database of over 3000 candidate Strombolian eruptions occurring between Jan 1992 and July 2005, and recorded at up to 9 different seismic stations situated around the volcano. To obviate potential complications caused by nonlinear response (e.g., clipping) at short-period instruments, we incorporate data from broadband, high-dynamic range sensors and digital telemetry installed since 2001, and take advantage of a new period of prolific eruptions, especially since early 2005, Gret, A., Snieder, R., Aster, R., Kyle, P., Monitoring rapid temporal change in a volcano with coda wave interferometry, Geop. Res. Lett., 32, L06304, doi:10.1029/2004GL021143, 2005.

  16. Crystallization of microlites during magma ascent: the fluid mechanics of 1980 1986 eruptions at Mount St Helens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geschwind, C.-H.; Rutherford, Malcolm J.

    1995-11-01

    Eruptions of Mount St Helens (Washington, USA) decreased in intensity and explosivity after the main May 18, 1980 eruption. As the post-May 18 eruptions progressed, albitic plagioclase microlites began to appear in the matrix glass, although the bulk composition of erupted products, the phenocryst compositions and magmatic temperatures remained fairly constant. Equilibrium experiments on a Mount St Helens white pumice show that at 160 MPa water pressure and 900°C, conditions deduced for the 8 km deep magma storage zone, the stable plagioclase is An47. The microlites in the natural samples, which are more albitic, had to grow at lower water pressures during ascent. Isothermal decompression experiments reported here demonstrate that a decrease in water pressure from 160 to 2 MPa over four to eight days is capable of producing the albitic groundmass plagioclase and evolved melt compositions observed in post-May 18 1980 dacites. Because groundmass crystallization occurs over a period of days during and after decreases in pressure, microlite crystallization in the Mount St Helens dacites must have occurred during the ascent of each magma batch from a deep reservoir rather than continuously in a shallow holding chamber. This is consistent with data on the kinetics of amphibole breakdown, which require that a significant portion of magma vented in each eruption ascended from a depth of at least 6.5 km (˜160 MPa water pressure) in a matter of days. The size and shape of the microlite population have not been studied because of the small size of the experimental samples; it is possible that the texture continues to mature long after chemical equilibrium is approached. As the temperature, composition, crystal content and water content of magma in the deep reservoir remained approximately constant from May 1980 to at least March 1982, the spectacular decrease in eruption intensity during this period cannot be attributed to changes in viscosity or density of the magma

  17. Morphological analysis of active Mount Nemrut stratovolcano, eastern Turkey: evidences and possible impact areas of future eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydar, Erkan; Gourgaud, Alain; Ulusoy, Inan; Digonnet, Fabrice; Labazuy, Philippe; Sen, Erdal; Bayhan, Hasan; Kurttas, Turker; Tolluoglu, Arif Umit

    2003-05-01

    Mount Nemrut, an active stratovolcano in eastern Turkey, is a great danger for its vicinity. The volcano possesses a summit caldera which cuts the volcano into two stages, i.e. pre- and post-caldera. Wisps of smoke and hot springs are to be found within the caldera. Although the last recorded volcanic activity is known to have been in 1441, we consider here that the last eruption of Nemrut occurred more recently, probably just before 1597. The present active tectonic regime, historical eruptions, occurrence of mantle-derived magmatic gases and the fumarole and hot spring activities on the caldera floor make Nemrut Volcano a real danger for its vicinity. According to the volcanological past of Nemrut, the styles of expected eruptions are well-focused on two types: (1) occurrence of water within the caldera leads to phreatomagmatic (highly energetic) eruptions, subsequently followed by lava extrusions, and (2) effusions-extrusions (non-explosive or weakly energetic eruptions) on the flanks from fissures. To predict the impact area of future eruptions, a series of morphological analyses based on field observations, Digital Elevation Model and satellite images were realized. Twenty-two valleys (main transport pathways) were classified according to their importance, and the physical parameters related to the valleys were determined. The slope values in each point of the flanks and the Heim parameters H/ L were calculated. In the light of morphological analysis the possible impact areas around the volcano and danger zones were proposed. The possible transport pathways of the products of expected volcanic events are unified in three main directions: Bitlis, Guroymak, Tatvan and Ahlat cities, the about 135 000 inhabitants of which could be threatened by future eruptions of this poorly known and unsurveyed volcano.

  18. Characteristics of the syneruptive-spouted type lahar generated by the September 2014 eruption of Mount Ontake, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Hisashi; Chiba, Tatsuro; Kishimoto, Hiroshi; Naruke, Shino

    2016-08-01

    Mount Ontake erupted at 11:52 am on September 27, 2014, which generated pyroclastic density currents, ballistic projectiles, ash falls, and a small-scale lahar that spouted directly from craters formed by the eruption. Because this lahar may have been generated by water released from within these craters, we refer to this lahar as a "syneruptive-spouted type lahar" in this study. The lahar of the 2014 eruption was small relative to the other syneruptive type lahars reported in the past that were snowmelt type or crater lake breakout type lahars. Nevertheless, in the 2014 event, the syneruptive-spouted type lahar extended approximately 5 km downstream from the Jigokudani crater via the Akagawa River, with an estimated total volume of ~1.2 × 105 m3. We have reviewed other representative syneruptive-spouted type lahars that have been reported in Japan. The syneruptive-spouted type lahar attributed to the September 2014 eruption had the longest runout distance and largest volume of all cases studied. The mineral assemblage identified from samples of the lahar deposits is similar to that of ash-fall deposits from the same eruption. Previous workers deduced that the ash was derived mainly from shallow depths (within 2 km of the surface). The syneruptive-spouted type lahar deposits are therefore also considered to have originated from shallow depths. A syneruptive-spouted type lahar is a small-scale phenomenon that causes little direct damage to infrastructure, but has long-term influence on water quality. Increases in turbidity and decreases in pH are expected to occur in the Mount Ontake area downstream of Nigorisawa after heavy rainfall events in the future. Therefore, the potential indirect (but long term) damage of syneruptive-spouted type lahars should be considered for hazard mapping and planning volcanic disaster prevention measures.

  19. Lava identification by paleomagnetism: a case study and some problems surrounding the 1631 eruption of Mount Vesuvius, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte-Fasano, G.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Goguitchaichvili, A.; Incoronato, A.; Tiano, P.

    2006-08-01

    Detailed rock magnetic, paleomagnetic and absolute paleointensity studies of lava flows from the disputed 1631 Mount Vesuvius eruption are reported. The magnetic carrier consists of pseudo-single domain state Ti-poor titanomagnetites. Characteristic magnetization directions determined from detailed stepwise alternating field and thermal demagnetizations provide four new well-defined flow unit mean directions, with α95 ranging from 0.7° to 2.6°. Paleodirections for 11 lava flows from 24-four flows studied previously appear to be related to the 1631 eruption, as indicated by their correlation to the early 17th century segment of the Italian paleosecular variation reference curve. This provides new evidence supporting the conclusion that the 1631 episode was an explosive-effusive eruption. The paleointensity results obtained from this study are the first to be published for Mount Vesuvius, with virtual dipole moments of 9.24±1.8×1022 and 13.5±0.4×1022 Am2 higher than the present-day geomagnetic field strength.

  20. After the disaster: the hydrogeomorphic, ecological, and biological responses to the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Major, Jon J.; Crisafulli, Charlie; Bishop, John

    2009-01-01

    The 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens caused instantaneous landscape disturbance on a grand scale. On 18 May 1980, an ensemble of volcanic processes, including a debris avalanche, a directed pyroclastic density current, voluminous lahars, and widespread tephra fall, abruptly altered landscape hydrology and geomorphology, and created distinctive disturbance zones having varying impacts on regional biota. Response to the geological and ecological disturbances has been varied and complex. In general, eruption-induced alterations in landscape hydrology and geomorphology led to enhanced stormflow discharge and sediment transport. Although the hydrological response to landscape perturbation has diminished, enhanced sediment transport persists in some basins. In the nearly 30 years since the eruption, 350 million (metric) tons of suspended sediment has been delivered from the Toutle River watershed to the Cowlitz River (roughly 40 times the average annual preeruption suspended-sediment discharge of the Columbia River). Such prodigious sediment loading has wreaked considerable socioeconomic havoc, causing significant channel aggradation and loss of flood conveyance capacity. Significant and ongoing engineering efforts have been required to mitigate these problems. The overall biological evolution of the eruption-impacted landscape can be viewed in terms of a framework of survivor legacies. Despite appearances to the contrary, a surprising number of species survived the eruption, even in the most heavily devastated areas. With time, survivor “hotspots” have coalesced into larger patches, and have served as stepping stones for immigrant colonization. The importance of biological legacies will diminish with time, but the intertwined trajectories of geophysical and biological successions will influence the geological and biological responses to the 1980 eruption for decades to come.

  1. Monitoring lava-dome growth during the 2004-2008 Mount St. Helens, Washington, eruption using oblique terrestrial photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Major, J.J.; Dzurisin, D.; Schilling, S.P.; Poland, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    We present an analysis of lava dome growth during the 2004–2008 eruption of Mount St. Helens using oblique terrestrial images from a network of remotely placed cameras. This underutilized monitoring tool augmented more traditional monitoring techniques, and was used to provide a robust assessment of the nature, pace, and state of the eruption and to quantify the kinematics of dome growth. Eruption monitoring using terrestrial photography began with a single camera deployed at the mouth of the volcano's crater during the first year of activity. Analysis of those images indicates that the average lineal extrusion rate decayed approximately logarithmically from about 8 m/d to about 2 m/d (± 2 m/d) from November 2004 through December 2005, and suggests that the extrusion rate fluctuated on time scales of days to weeks. From May 2006 through September 2007, imagery from multiple cameras deployed around the volcano allowed determination of 3-dimensional motion across the dome complex. Analysis of the multi-camera imagery shows spatially differential, but remarkably steady to gradually slowing, motion, from about 1–2 m/d from May through October 2006, to about 0.2–1.0 m/d from May through September 2007. In contrast to the fluctuations in lineal extrusion rate documented during the first year of eruption, dome motion from May 2006 through September 2007 was monotonic (± 0.10 m/d) to gradually slowing on time scales of weeks to months. The ability to measure spatial and temporal rates of motion of the effusing lava dome from oblique terrestrial photographs provided a significant, and sometimes the sole, means of identifying and quantifying dome growth during the eruption, and it demonstrates the utility of using frequent, long-term terrestrial photography to monitor and study volcanic eruptions.

  2. Chlorine as a geobarometer for alkaline magmas: Evidence from a systematic study of the eruptions of Mount Somma-Vesuvius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcone-Boissard, H.; Boudon, G.; Cioni, R.; Webster, J. D.; Zdanowicz, G.; Orsi, G.; Civetta, L.

    2016-02-01

    Defining the magma storage conditions of a volcanic system is a major goal in modern volcanology due to its direct implications for the style of a possible eruption, and thus on the associated risk of any crisis and the necessary management and mitigation strategies. Below 200 MPa and at equivalent depths, the strongly non-ideal behaviour of the H-C-O-S-Cl-F system in the silicate melt causes unmixing of the fluid phase to form an H2O-rich vapour and a hydrosaline phase in equilibrium with the silicate melt, both responsible for buffering the chlorine (Cl) concentration. Following this equilibrium, the Cl concentration in melts may be used as a geobarometer for alkaline magmas. Systematic application of this method to the main explosive eruptions of Mount Somma-Vesuvius highlights two main magma ponding zones, at ~180–200 and ~100 MPa. At these pressures, the maximum pre-eruptive H2O contents for the different magma compositions can be estimated; the results obtained, largely in agreement with the current literature, therefore confirm the validity of the method. The Cl geobarometer may help scientists to define the variation of the magmatic reservoir location through time and thus provide strong constraints on pre-eruptive conditions, which are of utmost importance for volcanic crisis management.

  3. Chlorine as a geobarometer for alkaline magmas: Evidence from a systematic study of the eruptions of Mount Somma-Vesuvius.

    PubMed

    Balcone-Boissard, H; Boudon, G; Cioni, R; Webster, J D; Zdanowicz, G; Orsi, G; Civetta, L

    2016-02-18

    Defining the magma storage conditions of a volcanic system is a major goal in modern volcanology due to its direct implications for the style of a possible eruption, and thus on the associated risk of any crisis and the necessary management and mitigation strategies. Below 200 MPa and at equivalent depths, the strongly non-ideal behaviour of the H-C-O-S-Cl-F system in the silicate melt causes unmixing of the fluid phase to form an H2O-rich vapour and a hydrosaline phase in equilibrium with the silicate melt, both responsible for buffering the chlorine (Cl) concentration. Following this equilibrium, the Cl concentration in melts may be used as a geobarometer for alkaline magmas. Systematic application of this method to the main explosive eruptions of Mount Somma-Vesuvius highlights two main magma ponding zones, at ~180-200 and ~100 MPa. At these pressures, the maximum pre-eruptive H2O contents for the different magma compositions can be estimated; the results obtained, largely in agreement with the current literature, therefore confirm the validity of the method. The Cl geobarometer may help scientists to define the variation of the magmatic reservoir location through time and thus provide strong constraints on pre-eruptive conditions, which are of utmost importance for volcanic crisis management.

  4. Magmatic gas source for the stratospheric SO[sub 2] cloud from the June 15, 1991, eruption of Mount Pinatubo

    SciTech Connect

    Westrich, H.R. ); Gerlach, T.M. )

    1992-10-01

    A water-rich magmatic gas phase escaped explosively from Mount Pinatubo on June 15, 1991, taking with it a load of crystalline and molten material sufficient to form pumice and tephra deposits with an estimated total dense-rock-equivalent volume of 3-5 km[sup 3], and carrying in it enough sulfur to form a 20 Mt SO[sub 2] cloud in the stratosphere. Application of the petrologic method for estimating sulfur degassing during the climatic event from the sulfur content of trapped glass inclusions and matrix glasses in the pumice deposits requires an unacceptably large volume of erupted magma to account for SO[sub 2] in the stratospheric cloud. The ubiquitous presence of primary vapor bubbles in glass inclusions and unaltered anhydrite phenocrysts in the pumice suggest that sulfur was present in a separate H[sub 2]O-rich gas phase of the Pinatubo magma before eruption. Thus, for this eruption, and perhaps others, the petrologic method for estimating sulfur degassing is prone to substantial underestimation of sulfur release and the potential climatic impact of past explosive eruptions.

  5. Chlorine as a geobarometer for alkaline magmas: Evidence from a systematic study of the eruptions of Mount Somma-Vesuvius

    PubMed Central

    Balcone-Boissard, H.; Boudon, G.; Cioni, R.; Webster, J. D.; Zdanowicz, G.; Orsi, G.; Civetta, L.

    2016-01-01

    Defining the magma storage conditions of a volcanic system is a major goal in modern volcanology due to its direct implications for the style of a possible eruption, and thus on the associated risk of any crisis and the necessary management and mitigation strategies. Below 200 MPa and at equivalent depths, the strongly non-ideal behaviour of the H-C-O-S-Cl-F system in the silicate melt causes unmixing of the fluid phase to form an H2O-rich vapour and a hydrosaline phase in equilibrium with the silicate melt, both responsible for buffering the chlorine (Cl) concentration. Following this equilibrium, the Cl concentration in melts may be used as a geobarometer for alkaline magmas. Systematic application of this method to the main explosive eruptions of Mount Somma-Vesuvius highlights two main magma ponding zones, at ~180–200 and ~100 MPa. At these pressures, the maximum pre-eruptive H2O contents for the different magma compositions can be estimated; the results obtained, largely in agreement with the current literature, therefore confirm the validity of the method. The Cl geobarometer may help scientists to define the variation of the magmatic reservoir location through time and thus provide strong constraints on pre-eruptive conditions, which are of utmost importance for volcanic crisis management. PMID:26888358

  6. Post-traumatic stress disorder among survivors two years after the 2010 Mount Merapi volcano eruption: A survey study.

    PubMed

    Warsini, Sri; Buettner, Petra; Mills, Jane; West, Caryn; Usher, Kim

    2015-06-01

    The Mount Merapi volcanic eruption in October 2010 was one of Indonesia's largest and most recent natural disasters. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to measure the psychosocial impact of the eruption on survivors in two locations in Yogyakarta, Java, Indonesia. The Impact of Event Scale Revised was used to assess participants' symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder responses and demographic characteristics were compared in both locations by conducting bivariate analysis using Mann-Whitney and t tests. The relative contributions of demographic variables and psychosocial impact were examined using multiple linear regression analyses. Two years after the eruption, survivors from the area closest to the eruption had significantly higher Impact of Event Scale Revised scores than those in the comparison area. In particular, females, adults between the ages of 18 and 59, and people who owned their own home experienced the highest levels of psychosocial impact. Nurses and other health professionals need to be aware of the impact of natural disasters on survivors and develop interventions to help people adjust to the psychosocial impact of these events.

  7. Comparing Simultaneous Stratospheric Aerosol and Ozone Lidar Measurements with SAGE 2 Data after the Mount Pinatubo Eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, G. K.; Poole, L. R.; McCormick, M. P.; Veiga, R. E.; Wang, P.-H.; Rizi, V.; Masci, F.; DAltorio, A.; Visconti, G.

    1995-01-01

    Stratospheric aerosol and ozone profiles obtained simultaneously from the lidar station at the University of L'Aquila (42.35 deg N, 13.33 deg E, 683 m above sea level) during the first 6 months following the eruption of Mount Pinatubo are compared with corresponding nearby Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) 2 profiles. The agreement between the two data sets is found to be reasonably good. The temporal change of aerosol profiles obtained by both techniques showed the intrusion and growth of Pinatubo aerosols. In addition, ozone concentration profiles derived from an empirical time-series model based on SAGE 2 ozone data obtained before the Pinatubo eruption are compared with measured profiles. Good agreement is shown in the 1991 profiles, but ozone concentrations measured in January 1992 were reduced relative to time-series model estimates. Possible reasons for the differences between measured and model-based ozone profiles are discussed.

  8. the sub-Plinian Greenish Pumice eruption (19,065±105 yr cal BP) of Mount Somma - Vesuvius. Geochemical and textural constrains.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdanowicz, Géraldine; Boudon, Georges; Balcone-Boissard, Hélène; Cioni, Raffaello; Mundula, Filippo; Orsi, Giovanni; Civetta, Lucia

    2016-04-01

    Researches are currently focused on large intensity and stable eruptive columns as for Plinian event. But the large variability in deposits issued from sub-Plinian eruptions needs more observations, theoretical and experimental investigations to be better described and enhances criteria of classification and the knowledge on processes at the origin of this unsteadiness of various timescales. Here, we focus on the well-known example of sub-Plinian eruption exhibiting by Mount Somma-Vesuvius: the Greenish Pumice eruption (GP). On the basis of coupled geochemical and textural analyses we investigate the volatile behavior (H2O, CO2 and halogen (F, Cl)) to better constrain (1) the magma reservoir location and pre-eruptive state and (2) the sub-Plinian eruptive style through a detailed study of the degassing processes in relation with the dynamic of the eruptive column. Results evidence that Cl act as a geobarometer for the trachytic-phonolitic melt involved during the eruption indicating that magma reservoir was at 100 MPa (Cl buffer value: 5300 ±130 ppm) and wholly H2O-saturated (pre-eruptive H2O content between 3.8 and 5.2 wt%). The eruption dynamic is clearly explained by open-system degassing processes responsible of the eruptive column instability, correlated to textural heterogeneities of the eruptive products reflecting conduit heterogeneity (smaller diameter and higher horizontal gradient in magma ascent velocity).

  9. Digital Elevation Models of the Pre-Eruption 2000 Crater and 2004-07 Dome-Building Eruption at Mount St. Helens, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Messerich, J.A.; Schilling, S.P.; Thompson, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Presented in this report are 27 digital elevation model (DEM) datasets for the crater area of Mount St. Helens. These datasets include pre-eruption baseline data collected in 2000, incremental model subsets collected during the 2004-07 dome building eruption, and associated shaded-relief image datasets. Each dataset was collected photogrammetrically with digital softcopy methods employing a combination of manual collection and iterative compilation of x,y,z coordinate triplets utilizing autocorrelation techniques. DEM data points collected using autocorrelation methods were rigorously edited in stereo and manually corrected to ensure conformity with the ground surface. Data were first collected as a triangulated irregular network (TIN) then interpolated to a grid format. DEM data are based on aerotriangulated photogrammetric solutions for aerial photograph strips flown at a nominal scale of 1:12,000 using a combination of surveyed ground control and photograph-identified control points. The 2000 DEM is based on aerotriangulation of four strips totaling 31 photographs. Subsequent DEMs collected during the course of the eruption are based on aerotriangulation of single aerial photograph strips consisting of between three and seven 1:12,000-scale photographs (two to six stereo pairs). Most datasets were based on three or four stereo pairs. Photogrammetric errors associated with each dataset are presented along with ground control used in the photogrammetric aerotriangulation. The temporal increase in area of deformation in the crater as a result of dome growth, deformation, and translation of glacial ice resulted in continual adoption of new ground control points and abandonment of others during the course of the eruption. Additionally, seasonal snow cover precluded the consistent use of some ground control points.

  10. The impacts of the 2014 eruption of Holuhraun in Iceland: the tropospheric equivalent of Mount Pinatubo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platnick, S. E.; Haywood, J. M.; Malavelle, F.; Jones, A.; Bellouin, N.; Boucher, O.; Bauduin, S.; Carslaw, K. S.; Clarisse, L.; Coe, H.; Dalvi, M.; Dhomse, S.; Gettelman, A.; Grosvenor, D.; Hartley, M. E.; Johnson, B. T.; Johnson, C.; Knight, J.; Kristjansson, J. E.; Mann, G.; O'connor, F. M.; Schmidt, A.; Stephens, G. L.; Takahashi, H.; Allan, R. P.; Hawcroft, M.

    2015-12-01

    During the period 31st August September 2014- 28th February 2015, a significant fissure eruption occurred in the Holuhraun area of Iceland. Unlike the well documented eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in 2010, this eruption has received relatively little public attention as the emissions are at low altitude, there is little accompanying ash, and thus there has not been any impact on trans-Atlantic air-traffic. However, the emission rates of sulphur dioxide from the eruption during the first two months was at least four times those from the entire 28 European member states and the continuous nature of the eruption means that by the end of the eruption, the emissions of sulphur dioxide exceeded the total annual emission targets of all of Europe. We provide a comprehensive global modelling estimate of the impact on cloud microphysics and show that the empirical relationship between degassed sulphur and TiO2/FeO ratios derived from prior Icelandic basaltic flood lava has undoubted utility. The impact of the sulphur dioxide cloud droplet size is clearly identified in satellite retrievals over the entire North Atlantic. Pristine clouds of lesser reflectivity were replaced by polluted clouds of higher reflectivity. This eruption provides an ideal test bed for validating models and inter-comparing observations of aerosol-cloud-interactions. Simulations with HadGEM3 including a detailed aerosol-microphysical scheme show excellent agreement with observations of cloud effective radius and cloud droplet number concentration and we use the model to assess the detectability of other variables such as aerosol optical depth, cloud liquid water path, cloud optical depth and radiation forcing. We conclude that, just as the explosive eruption of Pinatubo into the stratosphere provided the basis for many model and satellite analysis and inter-comparisons, the Holuhraun eruption provides a similar counterpart for focussing analyses of tropospheric cloud-aerosol interactions.

  11. Peak flow responses to landscape disturbances caused by the cataclysmic 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Major, Jon J.; Mark, Linda E.

    2006-01-01

    Years of discharge measurements that precede and follow the cataclysmic 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington, provide an exceptional opportunity to examine the responses of peak flows to abrupt, widespread, devastating landscape disturbance. Multiple basins surrounding Mount St. Helens (300–1300 km2 drainage areas) were variously disturbed by: (1) a debris avalanche that buried 60 km2 of valley; (2) a lateral volcanic blast and associated pyroclastic flow that destroyed 550 km2 of mature forest and blanketed the landscape with silt-capped lithic tephra; (3) debris flows that reamed riparian corridors and deposited tens to hundreds of centimeters of gravelly sand on valley floors; and (4) a Plinian tephra fall that blanketed areas proximal to the volcano with up to tens of centimeters of pumiceous silt, sand, and gravel. The spatially complex disturbances produced a variety of potentially compensating effects that interacted with and influenced hydrological responses. Changes to water transfer on hillslopes and to flow storage and routing along channels both enhanced and retarded runoff. Rapid post-eruption modifications of hillslope surface textures, adjustments of channel networks, and vegetation recovery, in conjunction with the complex nature of the eruptive impacts and strong seasonal variability in regional climate hindered a consistent or persistent shift in peak discharges. Overall, we detected a short-lived (5–10 yr) increase in the magnitudes of autumn and winter peak flows. In general, peak flows were larger, and moderate to large flows (>Q2 yr) were more substantively affected than predicted by early modeling efforts. Proportional increases in the magnitudes of both small and large flows in basins subject to severe channel disturbances, but not in basins subject solely to hillslope disturbances, suggest that eruption-induced modifications to flow efficiency along alluvial channels that have very mobile beds differentially affected flows of

  12. Trace metals in the Columbia River Estuary following the 18 May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens

    SciTech Connect

    Riedel, G.F.; Wilson, S.L.; Holton, R.L.

    1984-10-01

    Dissolved and suspended concentrations of cadmium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, and zinc were measured in the Columbia River Estuary following the 18 May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. Soluble concentrations of these trace elements were not substantially elevated by the influx of volcanic ash and mud into the estuary during this period, except for somewhat higher than usual concentrations of manganese and copper. A laboratory experiment indicates that manganese leached from volcanic debris in fresh water and in the transition from fresh to slightly saline water probably caused the elevated Mn leaching from the material into fresh water.

  13. Ambient airborne solids concentrations including volcanic ash at Hanford, Washington sampling sites subsequent to the Mount St. Helens eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sehmel, G. A.

    1982-01-01

    Airborne solids concentrations were measured on a near daily basis at two Hanford, Washington sites after the eruption of Mount St. Helens on May 18, 1980. These sites are about 211 km east of Mount St. Helens. Collected airborne solids included resuspended volcanic ash plus normal ambient solids. Average airborne solids concentrations were greater at the Hanford meteorological station sampling site which is 24 km northwest of the Horn Rapids dam sampling site. These increased concentrations reflect the sampling site proximity to greater ash fallout depths. Both sites are in low ash fallout areas although the Hanford meteorological station site is closer to the greater ash fallout areas. Airborne solids concentrations were decreased by rain, but airborne solids concentrations rapidly increased as surfaces dried. Airborne concentrations tended to become nearly the same at both sampling sites only for July 12 and 13.

  14. Sulfur isotopic characteristics of volcanic products from the September 2014 Mount Ontake eruption, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikehata, Kei; Maruoka, Teruyuki

    2016-07-01

    Components and sulfur isotopic compositions of pyroclastic materials from the 2014 Mt. Ontake eruption were investigated. The volcanic ash samples were found to be composed of altered volcanic fragments, alunite, anhydrite, biotite, cristobalite, gypsum, ilmenite, kaolin minerals, native sulfur, orthopyroxene, plagioclase, potassium feldspar, pyrite, pyrophyllite, quartz, rutile, and smectite, and most of these minerals were likely derived from the acidic alteration zones of Mt. Ontake. The absence of juvenile material in the eruptive products indicates that the eruption was phreatic. The sulfur isotopic compositions of the water-leached sulfate, hydrochloric acid-leached sulfate, acetone-leached native sulfur, and pyrite of the samples indicate that these sulfur species were produced by disproportionation of magmatic SO2 in the hydrothermal system at temperatures of 270-281 °C. This temperature range is consistent with that inferred from the hydrothermal mineral assemblage (e.g., pyrophyllite and rutile) in the 2014 pyroclastic materials (200-300 °C). Except for the sulfur isotopic compositions of anhydrite, which may have been altered by incorporation of sulfate minerals in a fumarolic area with lower sulfur isotopic values into the underground materials during the 1979 eruption, no significant differences in the mineral assemblages and sulfur isotopic compositions of the pyroclastic materials were identified between the products of the 2014 and 1979 Ontake phreatic eruptions, which suggests geochemical similarities in the underlying hydrothermal systems before the 2014 and 1979 eruptions.

  15. Frictional properties of the Mount St. Helens gouge: Chapter 20 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Peter L.; Iverson, Neal R.; Iverson, Richard M.; Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    Rate-weakening friction is a requirement for stick-slip behavior that is satisfied by the Mount St. Helens gouge. Indeed, regular stick-slip oscillations were observed in two experiments performed at the highest normal stress and lowest rates of shear. The conditions under which this stick-slip motion occurred indicate that the gouge also satisfies a second criterion for stick-slip behavior of materials exhibiting rateand-state dependent friction-gouge stiffness exceeds that of the ascending magma that drives upward motion of the plug. The presence of highly compliant magma as a driving element may be crucial for generating stick-slip instabilities at the shallow earthquake focal depths observed during the eruption.

  16. Influence of particle aggregation on deposition of distal tephra from the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens volcano

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, S.N.; Sigurdsson, H.

    1982-08-10

    The May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens (MSH) produced an extensive ashfall deposit in Washington, Idaho, and Montana with a minimum volume of 0.55 km/sup 3/ (tephra). An unusual feature of the deposit is the occurrence of a second thickness maximum 325 km ENE of MSH near Ritzville, Washington. Grain size and component abundance analysis of samples along the main is very fine grained (mean size, 2 ..mu..m), poorly sorted, polymodal, and rich in glass shards and pumice fragments. A computer simulation of ash fallout from an atmospherically dispersed eruption plume was developed to evaluate various hypotheses for the origin of the distal ash characteristics, particularly the thickness versus distance relationship. The model was constrained by observations of the eruption column height, elevation of major ash transport, lateral spreading of the eruption plume, and atmospheric wind structure in the vicinity of MSH. Results of different simulations indicate that the second thickness maximum cannot be attributed to either decreased wind velocities over central Washington or injection of fine ash above the horizontal wind velocity maximum near the tropopause. For the model to fit the observed characteristics of the deposit, significant particle aggregation of ash finer than 63 ..mu..m must be invoked. The best fit occurs when ash less than 63 ..mu..m is aggregated into particles several hundred microns in diameter with a settling velocity of 0.35 m/s. Support for this process comes from the observation and collection of fragile ash clusters of similar size which fell at Pullman, Washington, during the May 18 eruption (Sorem, 1982). The premature fallout of fine ash as particle aggregates is a fundamental process in the origin of the grain size characteristics, variations in component abundances, and thickness versus distance relationship of the May 18 MSH ash fall deposit.

  17. Origin and age of postglacial deposits and assessment of potential hazards from future eruptions of Mount Baker, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyde, Jack H.; Crandell, Dwight Raymond

    1975-01-01

    Eruptions and other geologic processes at Mount Baker during the last 10,000 years have repeatedly affected adjacent areas, and especially the valleys that head at the volcano. Most mudflows from the volcano were caused by massive avalanches of volcanic rock that had been partly altered to clay by steam and other gases. Future mudflows like these could move down valleys for distances of tens of kilometres. Floods caused by rapid melting of snow and ice by lava flows or hot rock debris could affect valley floors far from the volcano, especially if they occurred at a time of high stream discharge due to other causes. Small amounts of tephra (airborne rock debris) have been erupted at least four times during the last 10,000 years. Eruptions like these in the future probably would not seriously endanger human life except within a distance of perhaps a few kilometres of the vent. Lava flows have been erupted at least twice during the last 10,000 years, but have moved down only two valleys. Future lava flows will not directly endanger people because movement typically is so slow that escape is possible. Eruptions which caused pyroclastic flows (flows of hot rock debris) evidently occurred during only one period, and the flows were restricted to only one valley. Pyroclastic flows seriously endanger human life in areas they affect. Such flows move at speeds of as much as 100 km/hr and can bury valley floors under tens of metres of hot rock debris to distances of as much as 15 km from the volcano.

  18. Global temperature response to the major volcanic eruptions in multiple reanalysis data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, M.; Hibino, T.; Mehta, S. K.; Gray, L.; Mitchell, D.; Anstey, J.

    2015-12-01

    The global temperature responses to the eruptions of Mount Agung in 1963, El Chichón in 1982, and Mount Pinatubo in 1991 are investigated using nine currently available reanalysis data sets (JRA-55, MERRA, ERA-Interim, NCEP-CFSR, JRA-25, ERA-40, NCEP-1, NCEP-2, and 20CR). Multiple linear regression is applied to the zonal and monthly mean time series of temperature for two periods, 1979-2009 (for eight reanalysis data sets) and 1958-2001 (for four reanalysis data sets), by considering explanatory factors of seasonal harmonics, linear trends, Quasi-Biennial Oscillation, solar cycle, and El Niño Southern Oscillation. The residuals are used to define the volcanic signals for the three eruptions separately, and common and different responses among the older and newer reanalysis data sets are highlighted for each eruption. In response to the Mount Pinatubo eruption, most reanalysis data sets show strong warming signals (up to 2-3 K for 1-year average) in the tropical lower stratosphere and weak cooling signals (down to -1 K) in the subtropical upper troposphere. For the El Chichón eruption, warming signals in the tropical lower stratosphere are somewhat smaller than those for the Mount Pinatubo eruption. The response to the Mount Agung eruption is asymmetric about the equator with strong warming in the Southern Hemisphere midlatitude upper troposphere to lower stratosphere. Comparison of the results from several different reanalysis data sets confirms the atmospheric temperature response to these major eruptions qualitatively, but also shows quantitative differences even among the most recent reanalysis data sets. The consistencies and differences among different reanalysis data sets provide a measure of the confidence and uncertainty in our current understanding of the volcanic response. The results of this intercomparison study may be useful for validation of climate model responses to volcanic forcing and for assessing proposed geoengineering by stratospheric

  19. Overview of the 2004 to 2006, and continuing, eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington: Chapter 1 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, William E.; Sherrod, David R.; Gardner, Cynthia A.; Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    Rapid onset of unrest at Mount St. Helens on September 23, 2004, initiated an uninterrupted lava-dome-building eruption that continues to the time of writing this overview (spring 2006) for a volume of papers focused on this eruption. About three weeks of intense seismic unrest and localized surface uplift, punctuated by four brief explosions, constituted a ventclearing phase, during which there was a frenzy of media attention and considerable uncertainty regarding the likely course of the eruption. The third week exhibited lessened seismicity and only minor venting of steam and ash, but rapid growth of the uplift, or welt, south of the 1980-86 lava dome proceeded as magma continued to push upward. Crystalrich dacite (~65 weight percent SiO2) lava first appeared at the surface on October 11, 2004, beginning the growth of a complex lava dome of uniform chemical composition accompanied by persistent but low levels of seismicity, rare explosions, low gas emissions, and frequent rockfalls. Petrologic studies suggest that the dome lava is chiefly of 1980s vintage, but with an admixed portion of new dacite. Alternatively, it may derive from a part of the magma chamber not tapped by 1980s eruptions. Regardless, detailed investigations of crystal chemistry, melt inclusions, and isotopes reveal a complex magmatic history. Largely episodic extrusion between 1980 and 1986 produced a relatively symmetrical lava dome composed of stubby lobes. In contrast, continuous extrusion at mean rates of about 5 m3/s in autumn 2004 to 3/s in early 2006 has produced an east-west ridge of three mounds with total volume about equal to that of the old dome. During much of late 2004 to summer 2005, a succession of spines, two recumbent and one steeply sloping and each mantled by striated gouge, grew to nearly 500 m in length in the southeastern sector of the 1980 crater and later disintegrated into two mounds. Since then, growth has been concentrated in the southwestern sector, producing a

  20. Comparison of Mount Saint Helens volcanic eruption to a nuclear explosion. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, K.E.

    1981-01-01

    The phenomena and effects of airblast, ground shock, thermal radiation, cratering and ejecta, and debris cloud and deposition from the eruption of Mt. St. Helens were compared to those that would result from a nuclear explosion to determine if phenomena or effects were analogous and thus might provide useful data for military nuclear weapon effects studies. It is concluded that the phenomena are not analogous. In particular, airblast destruction was caused by clouds of ash driven by subsonic winds, rather than by a supersonic shock wave that would be the damage mechanism of a nuclear explosion. Because of the lack of analogy between the eruption and nuclear explosion phenomena, it appears questionable that any of the effects are analogous; therefore, it is unlikely that anything more of military interest can be gained from studying the effects of the eruption. However, key contacts for further information on the eruption and the associated research studies are given. The comparison of the eruption of Mt. St. Helens to the explosion of a 10- to 20-megaton nuclear weapon is misleading. Such comparisons serve no useful purpose and should be avoided.

  1. Lava flow hazards at Mount Etna: constraints imposed by eruptive history and numerical simulations

    PubMed Central

    Negro, Ciro Del; Cappello, Annalisa; Neri, Marco; Bilotta, Giuseppe; Hérault, Alexis; Ganci, Gaetana

    2013-01-01

    Improving lava flow hazard assessment is one of the most important and challenging fields of volcanology, and has an immediate and practical impact on society. Here, we present a methodology for the quantitative assessment of lava flow hazards based on a combination of field data, numerical simulations and probability analyses. With the extensive data available on historic eruptions of Mt. Etna, going back over 2000 years, it has been possible to construct two hazard maps, one for flank and the other for summit eruptions, allowing a quantitative analysis of the most likely future courses of lava flows. The effective use of hazard maps of Etna may help in minimizing the damage from volcanic eruptions through correct land use in densely urbanized area with a population of almost one million people. Although this study was conducted on Mt. Etna, the approach used is designed to be applicable to other volcanic areas. PMID:24336484

  2. Lava flow hazards at Mount Etna: constraints imposed by eruptive history and numerical simulations.

    PubMed

    Del Negro, Ciro; Cappello, Annalisa; Neri, Marco; Bilotta, Giuseppe; Hérault, Alexis; Ganci, Gaetana

    2013-12-13

    Improving lava flow hazard assessment is one of the most important and challenging fields of volcanology, and has an immediate and practical impact on society. Here, we present a methodology for the quantitative assessment of lava flow hazards based on a combination of field data, numerical simulations and probability analyses. With the extensive data available on historic eruptions of Mt. Etna, going back over 2000 years, it has been possible to construct two hazard maps, one for flank and the other for summit eruptions, allowing a quantitative analysis of the most likely future courses of lava flows. The effective use of hazard maps of Etna may help in minimizing the damage from volcanic eruptions through correct land use in densely urbanized area with a population of almost one million people. Although this study was conducted on Mt. Etna, the approach used is designed to be applicable to other volcanic areas.

  3. The tectonic setting of Mount Vesuvius and the correlation between its eruptions and the earthquakes of the Southern Apennines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzocchi, Warner; Scandone, Roberto; Mulargia, Francesco

    1993-11-01

    Mount Vesuvius is emplaced on a regional NE-SW-trending fault that accommodates the stretching of the lithosphere caused by a backward retreat of the Calabrian arc. The dynamics of the Calabrian arc controls the temporal occurrence of earthquakes in the Southern Apennines and in Sicily. By means of a detailed statistical approach, we identified a significant correlation between seismic events occurring in different subsets of this geodynamic domain: seismicity changes in the Southern Apennines follow those in the Calabrian arc after 18-21 years, while seismicity changes in Sicily follow those in the Calabrian arc after 8-10 years. The seismicity changes in these three areas appear also to have affected the eruptive activity of Vesuvius in the period 1631-1944. The major effusive-explosive eruptions of this period followed the seismicity changes in the Southern Apennines after 6-13 years and those in the Calabrian arc after 36-39 years. From a tectonic point of view, this indicates a direct link between the eruptive activity of Vesuvius and the dynamics of the Calabrian arc. The backward retreat of the arc produces strain pulses propagating to adjacent areas. From a volcanological point of view, we speculate that the arrival of an extension strain pulse in the area of Vesuvius may trigger the fast movement of magma-filled cracks that stay in unstable equilibrium in the roots of the volcano.

  4. Simulating the effects of the 1991 Mount Pinatubo volcanic eruption using the ARPEGE atmosphere general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otterå, Odd Helge

    2008-03-01

    The climate changes that occured following the volcanic eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Phillippines on 15 June 1991 have been simulated using the ARPEGE atmosphere general circulation model (AGCM). The model was forced by a reconstructed spatial-time distribution of stratospheric aerosols intended for use in long climate simulations. Four statistical ensembles of the AGCM simulations with and without volcanic aerosols over a period of 5 years following the eruption have been made, and the calculated fields have been compared to available observations. The model is able to reproduce some of the observed features after the eruption, such as the winter warming pattern that was observed over the Northern Hemisphere (NH) during the following winters. This pattern was caused by an enhanced Equator-to-pole temperature gradient in the stratosphere that developed due to aerosol heating of the tropics. This in turn led to a strengthening of the polar vortex, which tends to modulate the planetary wave field in such a way that an anomalously positive Arctic Oscillation pattern is produced in the troposphere and at the surface, favouring warm conditions over the NH. During the summer, the model produced a more uniform cooling over the NH.

  5. Remote Monitoring of Post-eruption Volcano Environment Based-On Wireless Sensor Network (WSN): The Mount Sinabung Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soeharwinto; Sinulingga, Emerson; Siregar, Baihaqi

    2017-01-01

    An accurate information can be useful for authorities to make good policies for preventive and mitigation after volcano eruption disaster. Monitoring of environmental parameters of post-eruption volcano provides an important information for authorities. Such monitoring system can be develop using the Wireless Network Sensor technology. Many application has been developed using the Wireless Sensor Network technology, such as floods early warning system, sun radiation mapping, and watershed monitoring. This paper describes the implementation of a remote environment monitoring system of mount Sinabung post-eruption. The system monitor three environmental parameters: soil condition, water quality and air quality (outdoor). Motes equipped with proper sensors, as components of the monitoring system placed in sample locations. The measured value from the sensors periodically sends to data server using 3G/GPRS communication module. The data can be downloaded by the user for further analysis.The measurement and data analysis results generally indicate that the environmental parameters in the range of normal/standard condition. The sample locations are safe for living and suitable for cultivation, but awareness is strictly required due to the uncertainty of Sinabung status.

  6. Pre-eruptive volatile content of mafic magma from the 2.0-1.7 ka Castle Creek eruptive period, Mount St. Helens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rea, J.; Wallace, P. J.; Clynne, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Among global convergent margins, the Cascade arc (Pacific Northwest, North America) has an atypically warm thermal profile due to the young age of the subducting ocean crust (≤10 Ma) and slow rate of subduction (3.5 cm/yr) in this region. Slab dehydration is thus expected to occur at relatively shallow subduction depths, resulting in high fluid fluxes in the mantle wedge below the forearc, with minimal addition of volatiles directly beneath the main volcanic front. Across-arc trends in magmatic volatiles should be most visible within particularly wide (E-W) portions of the active volcanic arc, such as are observed in Southern Washington, Central Oregon, and Northern California. As part of an ongoing study aimed at constraining variations in magmatic volatiles using monogenetic cinder cones across the Southern Washington Cascades, we analyzed the H2O and CO2 contents of olivine-hosted melt inclusions in basaltic scoria (Bu tephra) from the Castle Creek eruptive period (2.0-1.7 ka) of Mount St. Helens (MSH). The defining feature of this period is the first appearance of mafic magma at the surface, which initiated the modern Mount St. Helens and its variety of rock compositions (Mullineaux, 1996). Andesite, dacite, and basalt all were erupted during Castle Creek time, producing pyroclastic flows, surges, and tephra as well as lava flows. Our initial results show pre-eruptive H2O contents of 0.4-1.3 wt. % H2O and CO2 values that are below detection (<25-50 ppm). The morphology of the olivine crystals and their melt inclusions indicate relatively rapid crystallization. Given the low CO2 values, we conclude that the melt inclusions trapped partially degassed melts at relatively low pressure in a volcanic conduit or shallow storage reservoir. MSH represents the western extent of a stretch of volcanism extending ~100 km to the east; MSH magmas are thus expected to have high volatile contents relative to the other volcanic centers at this latitude.

  7. Sixty thousand years of magmatic volatile history before the caldera-forming eruption of Mount Mazama, Crater Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Heather M.; Bacon, Charles R.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Sisson, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    The well-documented eruptive history of Mount Mazama, Oregon, provides an excellent opportunity to use pre-eruptive volatile concentrations to study the growth of an explosive silicic magmatic system. Melt inclusions (MI) hosted in pyroxene and plagioclase crystals from eight dacitic–rhyodacitic eruptive deposits (71–7.7 ka) were analyzed to determine variations in volatile-element concentrations and changes in magma storage conditions leading up to and including the climactic eruption of Crater Lake caldera. Temperatures (Fe–Ti oxides) increased through the series of dacites, then decreased, and increased again through the rhyodacites (918–968 to ~950 to 845–895 °C). Oxygen fugacity began at nickel–nickel-oxide buffer (NNO) +0.8 (71 ka), dropped slightly to NNO +0.3, and then climbed to its highest value with the climactic eruption (7.7 ka) at NNO +1.1 log units. In parallel with oxidation state, maximum MI sulfur concentrations were high early in the eruptive sequence (~500 ppm), decreased (to ~200 ppm), and then increased again with the climactic eruption (~500 ppm). Maximum MI sulfur correlates with the Sr content (as a proxy for LREE, Ba, Rb, P2O5) of recharge magmas, represented by basaltic andesitic to andesitic enclaves and similar-aged lavas. These results suggest that oxidized Sr-rich recharge magmas dominated early and late in the development of the pre-climactic dacite–rhyodacite system. Dissolved H2O concentrations in MI do not, however, correlate with these changes in dominant recharge magma, instead recording vapor solubility relations in the developing shallow magma storage and conduit region. Dissolved H2O concentrations form two populations through time: the first at 3–4.6 wt% (with a few extreme values up to 6.1 wt%) and the second at ≤2.4 wt%. CO2 concentrations measured in a subset of these inclusions reach up to 240 ppm in early-erupted deposits (71 ka) and are below detection in climactic deposits (7.7 ka). Combined H2O and

  8. Volcanic-aerosol-induced changes in stratospheric ozone following the eruption of Mount Pinatubo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, W. B.; Browell, E. V.; Fishman, J.; Brackett, V. G.; Fenn, M. A.; Butler, C. F.; Nganga, D.; Minga, A.; Cros, B.; Mayor, S. D.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of lower stratospheric ozone in the Tropics using electrochemical concentrations cell (ECC) sondes and the airborne UV Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system after the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo are compared with the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 2 (SAGE 2) and ECC sonde measurements from below the eruption to determine what changes have occurred as a result. Aerosol data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and the visible and IR wavelengths of the lidar system are used to examine the relationship between aerosols and ozone changes. Ozone decreases of 30 percent at altitudes between 19 and 26 km, partial column (16-28 km) decreases of about 27 D.U., and slight increases (5.4 D.U.) between 28 and 31 km are found in comparison with SAGE 2 climatological values.

  9. The Response of Ozone and Nitrogen Dioxide to the Eruption of Mount Pinatubo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aquila. Valentina; Oman, Luke D.; Stolarsk, Richard S.; Douglass, Anne R.; Newman, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Observations have shown that the global mass of nitrogen dioxide decreased in both hemispheres in the year following the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo, indicating an enhanced heterogeneous chemistry. In contrast, the observed ozone response was largely asymmetrical with respect to the equator, with a decrease in the northern hemisphere and little change in the southern hemisphere. Simulations including enhanced heterogeneous chemistry due to the presence of the volcanic aerosol reproduce a decrease of ozone in the northern hemisphere, but also produce a comparable ozone decrease in the southern hemisphere, contrary to observations. Our simulations show that the heating due to the volcanic aerosol enhanced both the tropical upwelling and the extratropical downwelling. The enhanced extratropical downwelling, combined with the time of the eruption relative to the phase of the Brewer-Dobson circulation, increased the ozone in the southern hemisphere and counteracted the ozone depletion due to heterogeneous chemistry on volcanic aerosol.

  10. Laboratory experiments on conduit kinetics of 2001 and 2002 Mount Etna eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mincione, V.; Trigila, R.

    2003-04-01

    During the 2001and 2002 Mt. Etna eruptions lavas and ashes with peculiar mineralogical and textural characters, i.e. low porfiricity index, scarcity of plagioclase phenocrysts, appearance of amphibole among mineral phases, have been erupted. Moreover, the eruptions of these peculiar products took place with an anomalously high explovity index for Etna volcano. In order to constrain conduit parameters responsible for these volcanological features, two sets of experiments have been run, using a rapid quenching TZM externally heated pressure vessel. One set of experiments was performed at eruptive temperature and constant pressure (T = 950°-1050°; P = 200 MPa) to investigate the rock paragenesis, the order of crystallization and the amount of dissolved gases pertinent to magmatic chamber conditions. The experiments were run at controlled NNO oxygen fugacity and samples were satured initially with water or oxalic acid diidrated. Samples were collected from different vents and showed different porfiricity and paragenesis. All the samples run at such conditions show the same crystalline assemblage: plagioclase, diopsidic clinopyroxene, olivine, titanomagnetite and amphibole. These results may indicate that the differences in the porfiricity and paragenesis observed in natural products are not related to a different source of the magmatic masses but simply to a different kinetics of the magma ascent. Therefore, the second set of experiments was performed on purpose at the same temperatures and different decompression rate (from 200MPa to 20MPa in 1 hour, 12 hour and 24h), in order to investigate the role of ascent velocity in the volcanic conduit. The samples were decompressed acting manually on the TZM purge valve, connected on purpose with a fluximeter. Preliminary results show a straight influence of decompression kinetics on some features of the experimental products, as the porfiric index, the occurence of amphibole among mineral species and the amount of gases

  11. Holocene Coastal Environments near Pompeii before the A.D. 79 Eruption of Mount Vesuvius, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pescatore, Tullio; Senatore, Maria Rosaria; Capretto, Giovanna; Lerro, Gaia

    2001-01-01

    Studies of some 70 bore holes around ancient Pompeii, on the southwestern slope of the Somma-Vesuvius volcano, allow the reconstruction of Holocene environments earlier than the A.D. 79 eruption. This eruption produced about 10 km3 of pyroclastic material that buried the Roman cities of Pompeii, Herculaneum, and Stabiae and promoted a shoreline progradation of 1 km. The Sarno coastal plain, in a post-Miocene sedimentary basin, has been affected by Somma-Vesuvius volcanic activity since the late Pleistocene. At the Holocene transgressive maximum, the sea reached an area east of ancient Pompeii and formed a beach ridge (Messigno, 5600 and 4500 14C yr B.P.) more than 2 km inland from the present shore. Progradation of the plain due to high volcanic supply during the following highstand resulted in a new beach ridge (Bottaro-Pioppaino, 3600 14C yr B.P.) 0.5 km seaward of the Messigno ridge. Ancient Pompeii was built as the shoreline continued to prograde toward its present position. Deposits of the A.D. 79 eruption blanketed the natural levees of the Sarno River, marshes near the city and on the Sarno's floodplain, the morphological highs of Messigno and Bottaro-Pioppaino beach ridges, and the seashore. That shore was probably 1 km landward of the present one.

  12. Fissure eruptions at Mount Vesuvius (Italy): Insights on the shallow propagation of dikes at volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acocella, Valerio; Porreca, Massimiliano; Neri, Marco; Mattei, Massimo; Funiciello, Renato

    2006-08-01

    Fissure eruptions may provide important information on the shallow propagation of dikes at volcanoes. Somma-Vesuvius (Italy) consists of the active Vesuvius cone, bordered to the north by the remnants of the older Somma edifice. Historical chronicles are considered to define the development of the 37 fissure eruptions between A.D. 1631 and 1944. The 1631 fissure, which reopened the magmatic conduit, migrated upward and was the only one triggered by the subvertical propagation of a dike. The other 25 fissure eruptions migrated downward, when the conduit was open, through the lateral propagation of radial dikes. We suggest two scenarios for the development of the fissures. When the summit conduit is closed, the fissures are fed by vertically propagating dikes. When the summit conduit is open, the fissures are fed by laterally propagating dikes along the volcano slopes. Consistent behaviors are found at other composite volcanoes, suggesting a general application to our model, independent of the tectonic setting and composition of magma. At Vesuvius, the historical data set and our scenarios are used to predict the consequences of the emplacement of fissures after the opening of the conduit. The results suggest that, even though the probability of opening of vents within the inhabited south and west slopes is negligible, the possibility that these are reached by a lava flow remains significant.

  13. Investigation of the Mount Etna eruption in December 2015 using IASI observations and numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athanassiadou, Maria; Marenco, Franco

    2016-04-01

    The Etna volcano in Sicily erupted on 3 December 2015, producing a strong SO2 plume that travelled swiftly eastwards along a narrow 20 deg latitudinal belt (30 N - 50 N). The leading edge of the plume reached half way around the world in 3 days and by the seventh day it had crossed North America and was over the western Atlantic. Subsequent eruptions on the 4 - 7 December, produced SO2 plumes that either remained in the Mediterranean area or travelled northwards over Europe. The latter, reached the northern coast of France and skimmed the south east of the UK, before disappearing over the North Sea to the west of Denmark and Norway. The eruption and plume evolution are investigated using observation from the IASI instrument on board the MetOp satellites. In particular, the plume is detected in negative Brightness Temperature differences from IASI channels as in Clarisse et al., 2008. Other plume characteristics (height, vertical extend, SO2 amount) are obtained by combining the IASI observations with flow trajectories and radiative transfer calculations. The impact of meteorology on the plume height estimation is also assessed. In particular, the investigation of the northward travelling plume over Europe has revealed that the complex synoptic situation, in conjunction with the orography (Alps) can impose constraints on the space and time scales of suitable meteorology used for the plume height specification.

  14. Source Mechanism Inversion of Very Long Period Strombolian Eruption Signals at Mount Erebus, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, S. K.; Aster, R. C.; Kyle, P.

    2003-12-01

    Oscillatory, repeatable, very-long-period signals (25 s > T > 5 s) associated with strombolian eruptions of Mt. Erebus, Antarctica have been recorded by near-field broadband seismometers for several years. The eruptions are typically single, large (up to 10-m diameter), explosive bubble decompressions occurring at the surface of a phonolitic lava lake that eviscerate the lake to a depth of approximately 10 m. Associated VLP signals begin several seconds before, and continue for several minutes after, eruptions, becoming indistinguishable as lava lake recovery is achieved. We have performed waveform inversions of high signal-to-noise stacks to recover equivalent point-source moment tensor parameters and associated source time functions. Solutions are obtained by minimizing 2-norm residuals between synthetic and three-component observed seismograms using a modified version of the iterative inversion technique of Lay and Wallace (1995). We allow for varying degrees of source freedom, ranging from pure Mogi (explosive/implosive) to a complete set of six double couples and three single forces. Results suggest a shallow (<= 200 m) source region and negligible non-volumetric couple and single-force terms. During the VLP coda, the source model evolves in time towards an increasingly subhorizontal resonating crack. We will address the accuracy of using simple half-space Green's functions in such inversions and discuss source mechanism possibilities in terms of slow elastic, dynamic recharge, and other processes.

  15. Analysis of seismic body waves excited by the Mount Saint Helens eruption of May 18, 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanamori, H.; Given, J. W.; Lay, T.

    1982-01-01

    Seismic body waves which were excited by eruption of Mt. St. Helens, and recorded by the Global Digital Seismographic Network (GDSN) stations are analyzed to determine the nature and the time sequence of the events associated with the eruption. The polarity of teleseismic P waves (period 20 sec) is identical at six stations which are distributed over a wide azimuthal range. This observation, together with a very small S to P amplitude ratio (at 20 sec), suggests that the source is a nearly vertical single force that represents the counter force of the eruption. The time history of the vertical force suggests two distinct groups of events, about two minutes apart, each consisting of several subevents with a duration of about 25 sec. The magnitude of the force is approximately 2.6 to the 17th power dyne. this vertical force is in contrast with the long period (approximately 150 sec) southward horizontal single force which was determined by a previous study and interpreted to be due to the massive landslide.

  16. Analysis of seismic body waves excited by the Mount St. Helens eruption of May 18, 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanamori, H.; Given, J. W.; Lay, T.

    1984-01-01

    Seismic body waves which were excited by eruption of Mt. St. Helens, and recorded by the Global Digital Seismographic Network (GDSN) stations are analyzed to determine the nature and the time sequence of the events associated with the eruption. The polarity of teleseismic P waves (period 20 sec) is identical at six stations which are distributed over a wide azimuthal range. This observation, together with a very small S to P amplitude ratio (at 20 sec), suggests that the source is a nearly vertical single force that represents the counter force of the eruption. The time history of the vertical force suggests two distinct groups of events, about two minutes apart, each consisting of several subevents with a duration of about 25 sec. The magnitude of the force is approximately 2.6 to the 17th power dyne. This vertical force is in contrast with the long period (approximately 150 sec) southward horizontal single force which was determined by a previous study and interpreted to be due to the massive landslide. Previously announced in STAR as N83-15968

  17. Near-real-time information products for Mount St. Helens -- tracking the ongoing eruption: Chapter 3 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qamar, Anthony I.; Malone, Stephen; Moran, Seth C.; Steele, William P.; Thelen, Weston A.; Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    The rapid onset of energetic seismicity on September 23, 2004, at Mount St. Helens caused seismologists at the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network and the Cascades Volcano Observatory to quickly improve and develop techniques that summarized and displayed seismic parameters for use by scientists and the general public. Such techniques included webicorders (Web-based helicorder-like displays), graphs showing RSAM (real-time seismic amplitude measurements), RMS (root-mean-square) plots, spectrograms, location maps, automated seismic-event detectors, focal mechanism solutions, automated approximations of earthquake magnitudes, RSAM-based alarms, and time-depth plots for seismic events. Many of these visual-information products were made available publicly as Web pages generated and updated routinely. The graphs and maps included short written text that explained the concepts behind them, which increased their value to the nonseismologic community that was tracking the eruption. Laypeople could read online summaries of the scientific interpretations and, if they chose, review some of the basic data, thereby providing a better understanding of the data used by scientists to make interpretations about ongoing eruptive activity, as well as a better understanding of how scientists worked to monitor the volcano.

  18. 40Ar/39Ar dating of the eruptive history of Mount Erebus, Antarctica: volcano evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esser, Richard P.; Kyle, Philip R.; McIntosh, William C.

    2004-12-01

    Mt. Erebus, a 3,794-meter-high active polygenetic stratovolcano, is composed of voluminous anorthoclase-phyric tephriphonolite and phonolite lavas overlying unknown volumes of poorly exposed, less differentiated lavas. The older basanite to phonotephrite lavas crop out on Fang Ridge, an eroded remnant of a proto-Erebus volcano and at other isolated locations on the flanks of the Mt. Erebus edifice. Anorthoclase feldspars in the phonolitic lavas are large (~10 cm), abundant (~30 40%) and contain numerous melt inclusions. Although excess argon is known to exist within the melt inclusions, rigorous sample preparation was used to remove the majority of the contaminant. Twenty-five sample sites were dated by the 40Ar/39Ar method (using 20 anorthoclase, 5 plagioclase and 9 groundmass concentrates) to examine the eruptive history of the volcano. Cape Barne, the oldest site, is 1,311±16 ka and represents the first of three stages of eruptive activity on the Mt. Erebus edifice. It shows a transition from sub-aqueous to sub-aerial volcanism that may mark the initiation of proto-Erebus eruptive activity. It is inferred that a further ~300 ky of basanitic/phonotephritic volcanism built a low, broad platform shield volcano. Cessation of the shield-building phase is marked by eruptions at Fang Ridge at ~1,000 ka. The termination of proto-Erebus eruptive activity is marked by the stratigraphically highest flow at Fang Ridge (758±20 ka). Younger lavas (~550 250 ka) on a modern-Erebus edifice are characterized by phonotephrites, tephriphonolites and trachytes. Plagioclase-phyric phonotephrite from coastal and flank flows yield ages between 531±38 and 368±18 ka. The initiation of anorthoclase tephriphonolite occurred in the southwest sector of the volcano at and around Turks Head (243±10 ka). A short pulse of effusive activity marked by crustal contamination occurred ~160 ka as indicated by at least two trachytic flows (157±6 and 166±10 ka). Most

  19. Rates and processes of channel development and recovery following the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, D.F.; Martinson, H.A.

    1989-01-01

    Stream channel development in response to the eruption of Mount St. Helens on 18 May 1980, resulted in some of the largest sediment yields documented anywhere on earth. Development of new channels on the 2.7 km3 debris-avalanche deposit in the North Fork Toutle River caused net erosion of as much as 1.3 X 105 t km-2 annually. The principal effect of the blast on channels throughout the 550 km2 devastated area was the subsequent rapid delivery of sand- and silt-size sediment eroded from hillslopes. Since 1984, instability and sedimentation in lahar and blast-affected channels have been within the range of pre-1980 levels. -from Authors

  20. Development of a multidisciplinary plan for evaluation of the long-term health effects of the Mount St. Helens eruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Buist, A.S.; Martin, T.R.; Shore, J.H.; Butler, J.; Lybarger, J.A.

    1986-03-01

    The emphasis of this article is on the approach that was taken to evaluating the chronic or delayed effects of the volcanic eruptions of Mount St. Helens in 1980. This strategy has been very successful and may be useful as a model for addressing the possible health effects of other environmental hazards. The steps in this process were: 1) identification of the physical and physicochemical characteristics of the hazard; 2) formation of hypotheses about biologically plausible effects of the hazard on human health; and 3) development of a plan for evaluating the health effects and, were possible, for controlling or minimizing adverse health effects. The third step involved a multidisciplinary group that included public health officials, medical specialists, and research scientists, including a geologist.

  1. Ambient airborne-solids concentrations including volcanic ash at Hanford, Washington sampling sites subsequent to the Mount St. Helens eruption

    SciTech Connect

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1981-06-01

    A major eruption of Mount St. Helens, state of Washington, USA, occurred on May 18, 1980. The resulting volcanic ash plume was transported to the east. The Hanford area, northwest of Richland, Washington, was within the southern edge of the fallout plume. Airborne solid concentrations and airborne particle size distributions were measured at two sites in the Hanford area, a southern and northern site. During the initial sampling day (May 19), the average concentration for respirable particles, < 5.5-..mu..m diameter, was 1430-..mu..g/m/sup 3/ at the southern site; the total collection was 2610-..mu..g/m/sup 3/. The respirable content of the total airborne solids was 55%. At both sites average airborne solid concentrations decreased to 10- to 20-..mu..g/m/sup 3/ in December.

  2. Heterogeneous conversion of N2O5 to HNO3 in the post-Mount Pinatubo eruption stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Gunson, M. R.; Abrams, M. C.; Lowes, L. L.; Zander, R.; Mahieu, E.; Goldman, A.; Ko, M. K. W.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Sze, N. D.

    1994-01-01

    Simultaneous stratospheric volume mixing ration (VMR) profiles of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) and nitric acid (HNO3) at sunrise between 25 deg N and 15 deg S latitude and profiles of HNO3 at sunset between 42 deg S and 53 deg S latitude have been derived from 0.01/cm resolution infrared solar occultation spectra recorded 9.5 months after the massive eruption of the Mount Pinatubo volcano in the Philippine Islands. The measurements were obtained by the atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy (ATMOS) Fourier transform spectrometer during the ATLAS 1 shuttle mission (March 24 to April 2, 1992). The measured HNO3 VMRs are higher at all altitudes and latitudes than corresponding values measured by the limb infrared monitor of the stratosphere (LIMS) instrument during the same season in 1979, when the aerosol loading was near background levels. The largest relative increase in the HNO3 VMR occurred near the equator at 30-km altitude, where the ATMOS/ATLAS 1 values are about a factor of 2 higher than the LIMS measurements. Two-dimensional model calculations show that the increase in HNO3 and the ATMOS/ATLAS 1 measurement of a steep decrease in the N2O5 VMR below 30 km can be explained by the enhanced conversion of N2O5 to HNO3 on the surfaces of the Mount Pinatubo sulfate aerosols. Our profile results demonstrate the global impact of the N2O5 + H2O yields 2HNO3 heterogeneous reaction in altering the partitioning of stratospheric odd nitrogen after a major volcanic eruption.

  3. Heterogeneous conversion of N2O5 to HNO3 in the post-Mount Pinatubo eruption stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Gunson, M. R.; Abrams, M. C.; Lowes, L. L.; Zander, R.; Mahieu, E.; Goldman, A.; Ko, M. K. W.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Sze, N. D.

    1994-04-01

    Simultaneous stratospheric volume mixing ratio (VMR) profiles of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) and nitric acid (HNO3) at sunrise between 25°N and 15°S latitude and profiles of HNO3 at sunset between 42°S and 53°S latitude have been derived from 0.01 cm-1 resolution infrared solar occultation spectra ? months after the massive eruption of the Mount Pinatubo volcano in the Philippine Islands. The measurements were obtained by the atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy (ATMOS) Fourier transform spectrometer during the ATLAS 1 shuttle mission (March 24 to April 2, 1992). The measured HNO3 VMRs are higher at all altitudes and latitudes than corresponding values measured by the limb infrared monitor of the stratosphere (LIMS) instrument during the same season in 1979, when the aerosol loading was near background levels. The largest relative increase in the HNO3 VMR occurred near the equator at 30-km altitude, where the ATMOS/ATLAS 1 values are about a factor of 2 higher than the LIMS measurements. Two-dimensional model calculations show that the increase in HNO3 and the ATMOS/ATLAS 1 measurement of a steep decrease in the N2O5 VMR below 30 km can be explained by the enhanced conversion of N2O5 to HNO3 on the surfaces of the Mount Pinatubo sulfate aerosols. Our profile results demonstrate the global impact of the N2O5 + H2O → 2HNO3 heterogeneous reaction in altering the partitioning of stratospheric odd nitrogen after a major volcanic eruption.

  4. Eruptive pattern classification on Mount Etna (Sicily) and Piton de la Fournaise (La Réunion)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falsaperla, Susanna; Langer, Horst; Ferrazzini, Valérie

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of the European MEDiterrranean Supersite Volcanoes (MED­SUV) project, Mt. Etna (Italy) and Piton de la Fournaise (La Réunion) were chosen as "European Supersite Demonstrator" and test site, respectively, to promote the transfer and implementation of efficient tools for the identification of impending volcanic activity. Both are "open-conduit volcanoes", forming ideal sites for the test and validation of innovative concepts, which can contribute to minimize volcanic hazard. One of the aims of the MED-SUV project was the development of software for machine learning applicable to data processing for early-warning purposes. Near-real time classification of continuous seismic data stream has been carried out in the control room of INGV Osservatorio Etneo since 2010. Subsequently, automatic alert procedures were activated. In the light of the excellent results for the 24/7 surveillance of Etna, we examine the portability of tools developed in the framework of the project when applied to seismic data recorded at Piton de la Fournaise. In the present application to data recorded at Piton de la Fournaise, the classifier aims at highlighting changes in the frequency content of the background seismic signal heralding the activation of the volcanic source and the imminent eruption. We describe the preliminary results of this test on a set of data of nearly two years starting on January 2014. This period follows three years of inactivity and deflation of the volcano and marks a renewal of the volcano activity with inflation, deep seismicity (-7km bsl) and five eruptions with fountains and lava flows that lasted from a few hours to more than two months. We discuss here the necessary tuning for the implementation of the software to the new dataset analyzed. We also propose a comparison with the results of pattern classification regarding recent eruptive activity at Etna.

  5. Persistence of seed bank under thick volcanic deposits twenty years after eruptions of Mount Usu, Hokkaido Island, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsuyuzaki, S; Goto, M

    2001-10-01

    The topsoil that contained the seed bank became buried under thick tephra after the eruptions of Mount Usu during 1977 and 1978. To determine the seed bank potential of the topsoil 20 yr after the eruptions, i.e., in 1998, 408 100-cm(3) samples were excavated under 115-185 cm of volcanic deposits. The topsoil was collected at 10-cm intervals along the horizontal scale and was divided into a 0-5 cm deep upper layer and a 5-10 cm deep lower layer. The seed bank was estimated by both the germination (GM) and flotation (FM) methods. In total, 23 species with an average seed density of 1317 seeds/m(2) were identified by GM, and 30 species with a density of 2986 seeds/m(2) were extracted by FM. The dominant species was Rumex obtusifolius, and perennial herbs, such as Carex oxyandra, Viola grypoceras, and Poa pratensis, were common. For nine species this study provided the first records for field seed longevity >20 yr. The seed density in the upper layer was double that in the lower layer, and the horizontal distribution was heterogeneous even at 10-cm intervals. We concluded that the seed bank has retained the original structure of the seed bank under the tephra and will persist longer with soil water content between 20 and 40%, no light, and low temperature fluctuations (±0.17°C of standard deviation in a day).

  6. Effects of the 1980 eruption of Mount St Helens on the limnological characteristics of selected lakes in western Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Embrey, S.S.; Dion, N.P.

    1988-01-01

    The 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens provided the opportunity to study its effect on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of lakes near the volcano, and to describe two newly created lakes. Concentrations of dissolved solids and organic carbon, measured in June 1980, had increased from 2 to 30 times those observed in the 1970 's in Spirit, St. Helens, and Venus Lakes. Water in the lakes was altered from preeruption calcium-bicarbonate types to calcium-sulfate, calcium sulfate-chloride, or lake surface, as in St. Helens Lake; transparency in Venus Lake had improved to a depth of 24 ft by 1982. Spirit Lake was anoxic into fall 1980, but had reaerated to 5.2 mg/L of dissolved oxygen by May 1981. Phytoplankton communities in existing lakes in the blast zone in 1980 were primarily green and bluegreen algae; diatoms were sparse until summer 1982. Small numbers of zooplankton in Spirit, St. Helens, and Venus Lakes, compared to numbers in Walupt and Fawn Lakes, may indicate some post-eruption mortality. Rotifers were absent from lakes in the blast zone, but by 1981 were observed in all the lakes. The recovery of the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the lakes will depend on stabilization of the surrounding environment and biological processes within each lake. Excluding Spirit Lake, it is estimated that St. Helens Lake would be the slowest to recover and Venus Lake the fastest. (USGS)

  7. Effect of temperature on the permeability of lava dome rocks from the 2004-2008 eruption of Mount St. Helens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaunt, H. Elizabeth; Sammonds, Peter R.; Meredith, Philip G.; Chadderton, Amy

    2016-04-01

    As magma ascends to shallow levels in the volcanic conduit, volatile exsolution can produce a dramatic increase in the crystal content of the magma. During extrusion, low porosity, highly crystalline magmas are subjected to thermal stresses which generate permeable microfracture networks. How these networks evolve and respond to changing temperature has significant implications for gas escape and hence volcano explosivity. Here, we report the first laboratory experimental study on the effect of temperature on the permeability of lava dome rocks under environmental conditions designed to simulate the shallow volcanic conduit and lava dome. Samples were collected for this study from the 2004-2008 lava dome eruption of Mount St. Helens (Washington State, USA). We show that the evolution of microfracture networks, and their permeability, depends strongly on temperature changes. Our results show that permeability decreases by nearly four orders of magnitude as temperature increases from room temperature to 800 °C. Above 800 °C, the rock samples become effectively impermeable. Repeated cycles of heating leads to sample compaction and a reduction in fracture density and therefore a decrease in permeability. We argue that changes in eruption regimes from effusive to explosive activity can be explained by strongly decreasing permeability caused by repeated heating of magma, conduit walls and volcanic plugs or domes. Conversely, magma becomes more permeable as it cools, which will reduce explosivity.

  8. Changes in seismic velocity during the first 14 months of the 2004-2008 eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotovec-Ellis, A. J.; Vidale, J. E.; Gomberg, J.; Thelen, W.; Moran, S. C.

    2015-09-01

    Mount St. Helens began erupting in late 2004 following an 18 year quiescence. Swarms of repeating earthquakes accompanied the extrusion of a mostly solid dacite dome over the next 4 years. In some cases the waveforms from these earthquakes evolved slowly, likely reflecting changes in the properties of the volcano that affect seismic wave propagation. We use coda-wave interferometry to quantify small changes in seismic velocity structure (usually <1%) between two similar earthquakes and employed waveforms from several hundred families of repeating earthquakes together to create a continuous function of velocity change observed at permanent stations operated within 20 km of the volcano. The high rate of earthquakes allowed tracking of velocity changes on an hourly time scale. Changes in velocity were largest near the newly extruding dome and likely related to shallow deformation as magma first worked its way to the surface. We found strong correlation between velocity changes and the inverse of real-time seismic amplitude measurements during the first 3 weeks of activity, suggesting that fluctuations of pressure in the shallow subsurface may have driven both seismicity and velocity changes. Velocity changes during the remainder of the eruption likely result from a complex interplay of multiple effects and are not well explained by any single factor alone, highlighting the need for complementary geophysical data when interpreting velocity changes.

  9. Large-scale magnetic field perturbation arising from the 18 May 1980 eruption from Mount St. Helens, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, R.J.; Johnston, M.J.S.

    1989-01-01

    A traveling magnetic field disturbance generated by the 18 may 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens at 1532 UT was detected on an 800-km linear array of recording magnetometers installed along the San Andreas fault system in California, from San Francisco to the Salton Sea. Arrival times of the disturbance field, from the most northern of these 24 magnetometers (996 km south of the volcano) to the most southern (1493 km S23?? E), are consistent with the generation of a traveling ionospheric disturbance stimulated by the blast pressure wave in the atmosphere. The first arrivals at the north and the south ends of the array occurred at 26 and 48 min, respectively, after the initial eruption. Apparent average wave velocity through the array is 309 ?? 14 m s-1 but may have approached 600 m s-1 close to the volcano. The horizontal phase and the group velocity of ??? 300 m s-1 at periods of 70-80 min, and the attenuation with distance, strongly suggest that the magnetic field perturbations at distances of 1000-1500 km are caused by gravity mode acoustic-gravity waves propagating at F-region heights in the ionosphere. ?? 1989.

  10. Seismic Moment Rate Function Inversions from Very Long Period Signals Associated with Strombolian Eruptions at Mount Erebus, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucero, C.; Aster, R. C.; Borchers, B.; Kyle, P.

    2005-12-01

    Mount Erebus, Antarctica, shows persistent Strombolian activity, principally in the form of impulsive eruptions of simple and very large (up to 10 m diameter) gas bubbles through its long-lived phonolitic lava lake. Eruptions produce oscillatory near-field very long period (VLP; ~8-20 s period) seismic signals due to processes occurring (seconds) before, during, and (up to several minutes) following the characteristic bubble bursts that mark the onset of short period (>1 Hz) seismoacoustic signals. Coupled broadband seismoacoustic and video analysis shows that this signal is associated with three corresponding component processes: 1) the bubble ascent phase characterized by gas/lava mass transport within the conduit system that can produce a positive or negative vertical rate of momentum change, depending on the event; 2) the eruptive evisceration of the lava lake to a depth of up to 10's of m in the explosive surface decompression of the gas bubble; 3) the refilling and reestablishment gravitational equilibrium within the conduit system. We employ a new method for efficiently solving the inverse problem of finding either independent or proportional moment-tensor element rate functions using three-component near-field seismograms recorded at multiple seismic stations. The method incorporates a frequency-domain deconvolution that, in its most general formulation, solves for six independent moment rate tensor force couple time functions plus a vertical force time function. We present an efficient scheme for solving this problem using conjugate gradient methods and apply it to Erebus VLP signals from the past several years of activity.

  11. New Constraints on the Geochemistry of the Millennium Eruption of Mount Paektu (Changbaishan), Democratic People's Republic of Korea/China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacovino, K.; Kim, J. S.; Sisson, T. W.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Jang, J. N.; Song, K. H.; Ham, H. H.; Ri, K. H.; Donovan, A. R.; Oppenheimer, C.; Hammond, J. O. S.; Weber Liu, K.; Ryu, K. R.

    2015-12-01

    Mount Paektu (also known as Changbaishan) is a large caldera located on the border between China and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. Circa 946 AD, Paektu produced one of the largest volcanic eruptions in recorded history, the so-called Millennium Eruption (ME), whose combined fall and pyroclastic flow deposits total approximately 25 km3 dense rock equivalent (95% commendite, 5% late stage trachyte). Despite its recent and potentially destructive history, the volcano is not well studied due to its relative inaccessibility. A seismic swarm beneath the volcano's summit in 2002-2005 spurred a unique collaboration between scientists from the DPRK, US, and the UK with the goals of characterizing Paektu's eruptive history and assessing its current state of activity. We present new results from this collaboration, including major and trace element (XRF, EMP and SHRIMP-RG) and volatile data (SHRIMP-RG and FTIR) on feldspar-, clinopyroxene-, and olivine-hosted melt inclusions (MI), matrix glasses, and bulk pumices from four ME comendites and one ME trachyte. MI are halogen rich (F≤4000 ppm, Cl≤5000 ppm) with moderate S (≤250 ppm) and H2O (≤4 wt%) and minimal CO2 (≤15 ppm, detection limit ~2 ppm). H2O contents in comendite MI indicate saturation pressures (at 725 °C) of ~150 MPa, corresponding to a magma chamber depth of ~6 km, similar to the depth inferred for the magmatic injection thought to have resulted in the 2002-05 earthquake swarm. ME comendite is consistent with a ca. 25% residual melt by fractional crystallization from an ME trachyte parent. Published U-series zircon ages from ME comendite indicate a magma residence time of 11ky. Thus, the late stage ME trachyte likely represents a mafic recharge event of a melt separate from but geochemically similar to the original ME comendite parent.

  12. Methane production and oxidation in lakes impacted by the May 18, 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens

    SciTech Connect

    Lilley, M.D.; Baross, J.A.; Dahm, C.N. )

    1988-12-01

    The concentrations of CH{sub 4} and CH{sub 4} oxidation rates were measured in lakes impacted by the May 18, 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. The highest CH{sub 4} concentrations were recorded during the first summer after the eruption and ranged in surface waters from 5 microM in the moderately impacted Ryan Lake to 28 microM in the heavily impacted North Coldwater Lake. At depths below the oxic/anoxic interface, CH{sub 4} levels reached 250 microM in North Coldwater Lake, 184 microM in Spirit Lake, 70 microM in Castle Creek lake, and 60 microM in Ryan Lake. The CH{sub 4} flux measurements from these lakes during the summer following the May 18, 1980 eruption were the highest ever recorded in lakes with ranges of 1.1-2.9 mmol CH{sub 4}/sq m/day in the light to moderately impacted McBride and Ryan Lakes to ranges of 17.4-25.3 mmol CH{sub 4}/sq m/day in the heavily impacted Castle Creek, North Coldwater, and Spirit Lakes. Evidence of CH{sub 4} oxidation was seen in all of the lakes during the summer of 1981, and rates of CH{sub 4} oxidation using C{sup 14}-CH{sub 4} were measured in spirit Lake from 1982 to 1986. The highest rates of CH{sub 4} oxidation measured were during the summer stratification and ranged from 50 to 150 nmol CH{sub 4} oxidized/L/day. methane oxidation rates were measured in waters having oxygen concentrations less than 100 microM with highest activity occurring at concentrations of 30-60 microM. 36 refs., 12 figs. 3 tabs.

  13. Can we explain the observed methane variability after the Mount Pinatubo eruption?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bândă, N.; Krol, M.; van Weele, M.; van Noije, T.; Le Sager, P.; Röckmann, T.

    2016-01-01

    The CH4 growth rate in the atmosphere showed large variations after the Pinatubo eruption in June 1991. A decrease of more than 10 ppb yr-1 in the growth rate over the course of 1992 was reported, and a partial recovery in the following year. Although several reasons have been proposed to explain the evolution of CH4 after the eruption, their contributions to the observed variations are not yet resolved. CH4 is removed from the atmosphere by the reaction with tropospheric OH, which in turn is produced by O3 photolysis under UV radiation. The CH4 removal after the Pinatubo eruption might have been affected by changes in tropospheric UV levels due to the presence of stratospheric SO2 and sulfate aerosols, and due to enhanced ozone depletion on Pinatubo aerosols. The perturbed climate after the eruption also altered both sources and sinks of atmospheric CH4. Furthermore, CH4 concentrations were influenced by other factors of natural variability in that period, such as El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and biomass burning events. Emissions of CO, NOX and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) also affected CH4 concentrations indirectly by influencing tropospheric OH levels.

    Potential drivers of CH4 variability are investigated using the TM5 global chemistry model. The contribution that each driver had to the global CH4 variability during the period 1990 to 1995 is quantified. We find that a decrease of 8-10 ppb yr-1 CH4 is explained by a combination of the above processes. However, the timing of the minimum growth rate is found 6&nash;9 months later than observed. The long-term decrease in CH4 growth rate over the period 1990 to 1995 is well captured and can be attributed to an increase in OH concentrations over this time period. Potential uncertainties in our modelled CH4 growth rate include emissions of CH4 from wetlands, biomass burning emissions of CH4 and other compounds, biogenic NMVOC and the sensitivity of OH to NMVOC emission changes

  14. The Initial Giant Umbrella Cloud of the May 18, 1980 Explosive Eruption of Mount St. Helens.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-30

    be approximately estimated by considering the heat balance between the pyroclasts and the air and the definition of the bulk density, which are given...nc is the mass fraction of solids, and a is the pyroclast density. With the following definitions , AM ffi -- (3a-)" nc = 1+j1(a and Mm M (3b) a Eqs...REFERENCES Carey, S. N. and Sparks, R. S. J., 1986. Quantitative models of the fall-out and dispersal of tephra from volcanic eruption

  15. Filter measurements of stratospheric sulfate and chloride in the eruption plume of Mount St. Helens

    SciTech Connect

    Gandrud, B.W.; Lazrus, A.L.

    1981-01-01

    Five flights of the U-2 aircraft with a filter sampler aboard were flown in the Mount St. Helens debris from 19 May to 17 June 1980. Sulfate concentrations as large as 216 times the expected background were observed. The enhancements of acid chloride vapor were considerably smaller, suggesting an insignificant increase of background values of hydrogen chloride once the plume is well mixed throughout the lower stratosphere.

  16. Mercury content of equisetum plants around mount st. Helens one year after the major eruption.

    PubMed

    Siegel, B Z; Siegel, S M

    1982-04-16

    The mercury content of young Equisetum plants collected around Mount St. Helens was higher in the direction of Yakima and Toppenish, Washington (northeast to east-northeast), than at any other compass heading and was about 20 times that measured around Portland, Oregon. The increase in substratum mercury was not as pronounced as that in plants but was also higher toward the northeast, the direction taken by the May 1980 volcanic plume.

  17. Filter measurements of stratospheric sulfate and chloride in the eruption plume of mount st. Helens.

    PubMed

    Gandrud, B W; Lazrus, A L

    1981-02-20

    Five flights of the U-2 aircraft with a filter sampler aboard were flown in the Mount St. Helens debris from 19 May to 17 June 1980. Sulfate concentrations as large as 216 times the expected background were observed. The enhancements of acid chloride vapor were considerably smaller, suggesting an insignificant increase of background values of hydrogen chloride once the plume is well mixed throughout the lower stratosphere.

  18. Eruptive activity at Mount St Helens, Washington, USA, 1984-1988: a gas geochemistry perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGee, K.A.; Sutton, A.J.

    1994-01-01

    The results from two different types of gas measurement, telemetered in situ monitoring of reducing gases on the dome and airborne measurements of sulfur dioxide emission rates in the plume by correlation spectrometry, suggest that the combination of these two methods is particularly effective in detecting periods of enhanced degassing that intermittently punctuate the normal background leakage of gaseous effluent from Mount St Helens to the atmosphere. Gas events were recorded before lava extrusion for each of the four dome-building episodes at Mount St Helens since mid-1984. For two of the episodes, precursory reducing gas peaks were detected, whereas during three of the episodes, COSPEC measurements recorded precursory degassing of sulfur dioxide. During one episode (October 1986), both reducing gas monitoring and SO2 emission rate measurements simultaneously detected a large gas release several hours before lava extrusion. Had both types of gas measurements been operational during each of the dome-building episodes, it is thought that both would have recorded precursory signals for all four episodes. Evidence from the data presented herein suggests that increased degassing at Mount St Helens becomes detectable when fresh upward-moving magma is between 2 km and a few hundred meters below the base of the dome and between about 60 and 12 hours before the surface extrusion of lava. ?? 1994 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Predicting and validating the motion of an ash cloud during the 2006 eruption of Mount Augustine volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, Richard L.; Fochesatto, Javier; Sassen, Kenneth; Webley, Peter W.; Atkinson, David E.; Dean, Kenneson G.; Cahill, Catherine F.; Mizutani, Kohei

    2007-01-01

    On 11 January 2006, Mount Augustine volcano in southern Alaska began erupting after 20- year repose. The Anchorage Forecast Office of the National Weather Service (NWS) issued an advisory on 28 January for Kodiak City. On 31 January, Alaska Airlines cancelled all flights to and from Anchorage after multiple advisories from the NWS for Anchorage and the surrounding region. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) had reported the onset of the continuous eruption. AVO monitors the approximately 100 active volcanoes in the Northern Pacific. Ash clouds from these volcanoes can cause serious damage to an aircraft and pose a serious threat to the local communities, and to transcontinental air traffic throughout the Arctic and sub-Arctic region. Within AVO, a dispersion model has been developed to track the dispersion of volcanic ash clouds. The model, Puff, was used operational by AVO during the Augustine eruptive period. Here, we examine the dispersion of a volcanic ash (or aerosol) cloud from Mount Augustine across Alaska from 29 January through the 2 February 2006. We present the synoptic meteorology, the Puff predictions, and measurements from aerosol samplers, laser radar (or lidar) systems, and satellites. Aerosol samplers revealed the presence of volcanic aerosols at the surface at sites where Puff predicted the ash clouds movement. Remote sensing satellite data showed the development of the ash cloud in close proximity to the volcano consistent with the Puff predictions. Two lidars showed the presence of volcanic aerosol with consistent characteristics aloft over Alaska and were capable of detecting the aerosol, even in the presence of scattered clouds and where the ash cloud is too thin/disperse to be detected by remote sensing satellite data. The lidar measurements revealed the different trajectories of ash consistent with the Puff predictions. Dispersion models provide a forecast of volcanic ash cloud movement that might be undetectable by any other means but are

  20. Ambient Airborne Solids Concentrations Including Volcanic Ash at Hanford, Washington Sampling Sites Subsequent to the Mount St. Helens Eruption

    SciTech Connect

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1982-12-20

    A major eruption of Mount St. Helens occurred on May 18, 1980. Subsequently, airborne solid concentrations were measured as a function of time at two sites within the southern edge of the fallout plume about 211 km east of Mount St. Helens. This ash was a source for investigating area-wide resuspension. Rain had a variable effect on decreasing airborne concentrations from resuspension. From 0.5 to 1.5 cm of rain were required to significantly reduce airborne solid concentrations through July. For a more aged resuspension source in September, a rain of 2.0 cm had a negligible effect. A monthly average threshold-wind speed for resuspension was defined as 3.6 m/s. For monthly-average wind speeds less than the threshold wind speed, monthly-average airborne concentrations tended to decrease with time. A decrease was recorded between September and October. For this 4-month time period, the half-life was on the order of 50 days, corresponding to a weathering rate of 5.1 year/sup -1/.

  1. A conceptual model of the Mount Spurr magmatic system from seismic and geochemical observations of the 1992 Crater Peak eruption sequence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Power, J.; Jolly, A.; Nye, C.; Harbin, M.

    2002-01-01

    A conceptual model of the geometry and dynamics of the Mount Spurr magmatic system is developed using seismic, geochemical, and visual observations of the 1992 Crater Peak eruption sequence. The basis for this model is a new classification of all located seismic events and results from prior studies of seismology, geology, geochemistry, and geophysics of the Mount Spurr area. Significant seismic features of the 1992 eruption sequence include (1) a distinct swarm of volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes in August 1991 directly beneath the Crater Peak vent, (2) a caldera-wide increase in VT earthquakes, lasting 7 months, which preceded the 27 June eruption, (3) two shallow swarms of VT earthquakes that occured on 5 June and 27 June, the latter immediately preceding the 27 June eruption, (4) a mix of VT, long-period (LP), and hybrid events at depths of 20-40 km, which began coincident with the onset of seismic unrest and reached a peak after eruptive activity ended, (5) a strong swarm of VT earthquakes that began as the 16-17 September eruption was ending, (6) a prominent swarm of VT earthquakes on 9-10 November at depths of 1 to 4 km beneath Crater Peak, and (7) a smaller swarm of VT earthquakes in late December 1992, which were located between 7 and 10 km depth. These seismic observations, combined with geological, geochemical, and geophysical data and observations, suggest a deep magmatic source zone for Crater Peak andesites at depths of 20-40 km, a smaller mid-crustal storage zone at about 10 km depth, and a conduit that extends to the surface. We infer that the magmas erupted in 1992 were generated at depths of 20-40 km and rose to the mid-crustal storage zone that fed all three 1992 eruptions. The 1992 eruption sequence may have terminated when additional magma solidified at shallow depths.

  2. Immediate public health concerns and actions in volcanic eruptions: lessons from the Mount St. Helens eruptions, May 18-October 18, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, R.S.; Baxter, P.J.; Falk, H.; Ing, R.; Foster, L.; Frost, F.

    1986-03-01

    The Centers for Disease Control in collaboration with affected state and local health departments, clinicians, and private institutions carried out a compulsive epidemiologic evaluation of mortality and morbidity associated with volcanic activity following the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. Excession morbidity were limited to transient increases to emergency room visits and hospital admissions for troumatic injuries and respiratory problems. Excessive mortality due to suffocation (76%) thermal injuries (12%), or trauma (12%) by ash and other volcanic hazards was directly proportional to the degree of environmental damage. De novo appearance of asthma was not observed, but excess adverse respiratory effects were observed in persons with preexisting respiratory disease and in heavy smokers. The volcanic ash had a mild to moderate fibrogenic potential. Community exposures to resuspended ash only transiently exceeded health limits normally applied to entire working lifetime exposures to free silica. There were no excessive exposures to toxic metals, fibrous minerals, organic chemicals, radon, or toxic gases of volcanic origin in community water supplies on air.

  3. A characteristic earthquake model of the seismicity preceding the eruption of Mount St. Helens on 18 May 1980

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Main, Ian G.

    1987-12-01

    The two classes of earthquakes which preceded the explosive eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington, on 18 May 1980, can be related to two different forms of energy release. This is manifest both in the predominant periods of the two classes of seismic energy release at 1.0 and 0.55 s, and in the ratio of their source dimensions, in the range 2 : 1 to 6 : 1, inferred from characteristic magnitudes of the two possible classes of earthquakes apparent in the discrete frequency-magnitude distribution. The observed increase in the ratio of long to short period amplitudes of surface waves recorded on MSO, a local WWSSN station, can be numerically related to the growth of a magma chamber or conduit within which are generated the transient oscillations thought to be responsible for volcanic tremor. These calculations predict an increase in the chamber's diameter at a rate of 2-7 m day -1 at depth in the 2 months preceding the eruption, and this is consistent with an observed growth rate of 2 m day -1 of the precursory bulge which appeared at the surface on the mountain's north flank at the time. The frequency-magnitude distribution is analysed in two parts corresponding to a power law at low magnitudes and a Gaussian distribution of typical fault lengths at high magnitudes—an extension of the characteristic earthquake model first developed for individual fault zones. The power law can in general have a non-integer exponent, which can be equated to a fractal self-similarity dimension D. Temporal changes in D, which is proportional to the seismic b-value, are proposed as an alternative and complementary description of the way seismic energy is released to the more commonly used viewpoints of changes in stress and heterogeneity. Despite a reassessment of the completeness of the magnitude catalogue, no clear seismic precursor to the explosive eruption is observed in the b-value, although an earlier phase of phreatic eruptions was strongly associated with a b-value anomaly.

  4. Monitoring eruption activity using temporal stress changes at Mount Ontake volcano

    PubMed Central

    Terakawa, Toshiko; Kato, Aitaro; Yamanaka, Yoshiko; Maeda, Yuta; Horikawa, Shinichiro; Matsuhiro, Kenjiro; Okuda, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Volcanic activity is often accompanied by many small earthquakes. Earthquake focal mechanisms represent the fault orientation and slip direction, which are influenced by the stress field. Focal mechanisms of volcano-tectonic earthquakes provide information on the state of volcanoes via stresses. Here we demonstrate that quantitative evaluation of temporal stress changes beneath Mt. Ontake, Japan, using the misfit angles of focal mechanism solutions to the regional stress field, is effective for eruption monitoring. The moving average of misfit angles indicates that during the precursory period the local stress field beneath Mt. Ontake was deviated from the regional stress field, presumably by stress perturbations caused by the inflation of magmatic/hydrothermal fluids, which was removed immediately after the expulsion of volcanic ejecta. The deviation of the local stress field can be an indicator of increases in volcanic activity. The proposed method may contribute to the mitigation of volcanic hazards. PMID:26892716

  5. Monitoring eruption activity using temporal stress changes at Mount Ontake volcano.

    PubMed

    Terakawa, Toshiko; Kato, Aitaro; Yamanaka, Yoshiko; Maeda, Yuta; Horikawa, Shinichiro; Matsuhiro, Kenjiro; Okuda, Takashi

    2016-02-19

    Volcanic activity is often accompanied by many small earthquakes. Earthquake focal mechanisms represent the fault orientation and slip direction, which are influenced by the stress field. Focal mechanisms of volcano-tectonic earthquakes provide information on the state of volcanoes via stresses. Here we demonstrate that quantitative evaluation of temporal stress changes beneath Mt. Ontake, Japan, using the misfit angles of focal mechanism solutions to the regional stress field, is effective for eruption monitoring. The moving average of misfit angles indicates that during the precursory period the local stress field beneath Mt. Ontake was deviated from the regional stress field, presumably by stress perturbations caused by the inflation of magmatic/hydrothermal fluids, which was removed immediately after the expulsion of volcanic ejecta. The deviation of the local stress field can be an indicator of increases in volcanic activity. The proposed method may contribute to the mitigation of volcanic hazards.

  6. Changes in stratospheric water vapor associated with the Mount St. Helens eruption

    SciTech Connect

    Murcray, D.G.; Murcray, F.J.; Barker, D.B.; Mastenbrook, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    A frost point hygrometer designed for aircraft operation was included in the complement of instruments assembled for the NASA U-2 flights through the plume of Mount St. Helens. Measurements made on the 22 May flight showed the water vapor to be closely associated with the aerosol plume. The water vapor mixing ratio by mass in the plume was as high as 40 x 10/sup -6/. This compares with values of 2 x 10/sup -6/ to 3 x 10/sup -6/ outside of the plume.

  7. Changes in stratospheric water vapor associated with the mount st. Helens eruption.

    PubMed

    Murcray, D G; Murcray, F J; Barker, D B; Mastenbrook, H J

    1981-02-20

    A frost point hygrometer designed for aircraft operation was included in the complement of instruments assembled for the NASA U-2 flights through the plume of Mount St. Helens. Measurements made on the 22 May flight showed the water vapor to be closely associated with the aerosol plume. The water vapor mixing ratio by mass in the plume was as high as 40 x 10(-6). This compares with values of 2 x 10(-6) to 3 x 10(-6) outside of the plume.

  8. Rheological properties of mudflows associated with the spring 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens volcano, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, J.H.; Malin, M.C.; D'Alli, R.E.; Greeley, R.

    1981-01-01

    Rhelogoical properties of three recent mudflows at Mount St. Helens were estimated using technique developed for deterimining the properties of debris flows based on the geometry of their deposits. Calculated yield strengths of 1100, 1000, and 400 Pa, maximum flow velocities of 10 to 31 m/s, volumetric flow rates of 300 to 3400 m/sup 3//s, and plastic viscosities of 20 to 320 Ps-s all compare favorably with measured and estimated values cited in the literature. A method for determining likely sites of future mudflow initiation based on these data is outlined.

  9. Eruption-related lahars and sedimentation response downstream of Mount Hood: Field guide to volcaniclastic deposits along the Sandy River, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierson, Tom C.; Scott, William E.; Vallance, James W.; Pringle, Patrick T.; O'Connor, Jim; Dorsey, Rebecca; Madin, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Late Holocene dome-building eruptions at Mount Hood during the Timberline and Old Maid eruptive periods resulted in numerous dome-collapse pyroclastic flows and lahars that moved large volumes of volcaniclastic sediment into temporary storage in headwater canyons of the Sandy River. During each eruptive period, accelerated sediment loading to the river through erosion and remobilization of volcanic fragmental debris resulted in very high sediment-transport rates in the Sandy River during rain- and snowmelt-induced floods. Large sediment loads in excess of the river's transport capacity led to channel aggradation, channel widening, and change to a braided channel form in the lowermost reach of the river, between 61 and 87 km downstream from the volcano. The post-eruption sediment load moved as a broad bed-material wave, which in the case of the Old Maid eruption took ~2 decades to crest 83 km downstream. Maximum post-eruption aggradation levels of at least 28 and 23 m were achieved in response to Timberline and Old Maid eruptions. In each case, downstream aggradation cycles were initiated by lahars, but the bulk of the aggradation was achieved by fluvial sediment transport and deposition. When the high rates of sediment supply began to diminish, the river degraded, incising the channel fills and forming progressively lower sets of degradational terraces. A variety of debris-flow, hyperconcentrated-flow, and fluvial (upper and lower flow regime) deposits record the downstream passage of the sediment waves that were initiated by these eruptions. The deposits also presage a hazard that may be faced by communities along the Sandy River when volcanic activity at Mount Hood resumes.

  10. Immediate public health concerns and actions in volcanic eruptions: lessons from the Mount St. Helens eruptions, May 18-October 18, 1980.

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, R S; Baxter, P J; Falk, H; Ing, R; Foster, L; Frost, F

    1986-01-01

    A comprehensive epidemiological evaluation of mortality and short-term morbidity associated with explosive volcanic activity was carried out by the Centers for Disease Control in collaboration with affected state and local health departments, clinicians, and private institutions. Following the May 18, 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, a series of public health actions were rapidly instituted to develop accurate information about volcanic hazards and to recommend methods for prevention or control of adverse effects on safety and health. These public health actions included: establishing a system of active surveillance of cause-specific emergency room (ER) visits and hospital admissions in affected and unaffected communities for comparison; assessing the causes of death and factors associated with survival or death among persons located near the crater; analyzing the mineralogy and toxicology of sedimented ash and the airborne concentration of resuspended dusts; investigating reported excesses of ash-related adverse respiratory effects by epidemiological methods such as cross-sectional and case-control studies; and controlling rumors and disseminating accurate, timely information about volcanic hazards and recommended preventive or control measures by means of press briefings and health bulletins. Surveillance and observational studies indicated that: excess in morbidity were limited to transient increases in ER visits and hospital admissions for traumatic injuries and respiratory problems (but not for communicable disease or mental health problems) which were associated in time, place, and person with exposures to volcanic ash; excessive mortality due to suffocation (76 per cent), thermal injuries (12 per cent), or trauma (12 per cent) by ash and other volcanic hazards was directly proportional to the degree of environmental damage--that is, it was more pronounced among those persons (48/65, or about 74 per cent) who, at the time of the eruption, were residing

  11. Immediate public health concerns and actions in volcanic eruptions: lessons from the Mount St. Helens eruptions, May 18-October 18, 1980.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, R S; Baxter, P J; Falk, H; Ing, R; Foster, L; Frost, F

    1986-03-01

    A comprehensive epidemiological evaluation of mortality and short-term morbidity associated with explosive volcanic activity was carried out by the Centers for Disease Control in collaboration with affected state and local health departments, clinicians, and private institutions. Following the May 18, 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, a series of public health actions were rapidly instituted to develop accurate information about volcanic hazards and to recommend methods for prevention or control of adverse effects on safety and health. These public health actions included: establishing a system of active surveillance of cause-specific emergency room (ER) visits and hospital admissions in affected and unaffected communities for comparison; assessing the causes of death and factors associated with survival or death among persons located near the crater; analyzing the mineralogy and toxicology of sedimented ash and the airborne concentration of resuspended dusts; investigating reported excesses of ash-related adverse respiratory effects by epidemiological methods such as cross-sectional and case-control studies; and controlling rumors and disseminating accurate, timely information about volcanic hazards and recommended preventive or control measures by means of press briefings and health bulletins. Surveillance and observational studies indicated that: excess in morbidity were limited to transient increases in ER visits and hospital admissions for traumatic injuries and respiratory problems (but not for communicable disease or mental health problems) which were associated in time, place, and person with exposures to volcanic ash; excessive mortality due to suffocation (76 per cent), thermal injuries (12 per cent), or trauma (12 per cent) by ash and other volcanic hazards was directly proportional to the degree of environmental damage--that is, it was more pronounced among those persons (48/65, or about 74 per cent) who, at the time of the eruption, were residing

  12. Initial effects of the mount st. Helens eruption on nitrogen cycle and related chemical processes in ryan lake.

    PubMed

    Dahm, C N; Baross, J A; Ward, A K; Lilley, M D; Sedell, J R

    1983-05-01

    Ryan Lake, a 1.6-hectare basin lake near the periphery of the tree blowdown area in the blast zone 19 km north of Mount St. Helens, was studied from August to October 1980 to determine the microbial and chemical response of the lake to the eruption. Nutrient enrichment through the addition of fresh volcanic material and the organic debris from the surrounding conifer forest stimulated intense microbial activity. Concentrations of such nutrients as phosphorus, sulfur, manganese, iron, and dissolved organic carbon were markedly elevated. Nitrogen cycle activity was especially important to the lake ecosystem in regulating biogeochemical cycling owing to the limiting abundance of nitrogen compounds. Nitrogen fixation, both aerobic and anaerobic, was active from aerobic benthic and planktonic cyanobacteria with rates up to 210 nmol of N(2) cm h and 667 nmol of N(2) liter h, respectively, and from anaerobic bacteria with rates reaching 220 nmol of N(2) liter h. Nitrification was limited to the aerobic epilimnion and littoral zones where rates were 43 and 261 nmol of NO(2) liter day, respectively. Potential denitrification rates were as high as 30 mumol of N(2)O liter day in the anaerobic hypolimnion. Total bacterial numbers ranged from 1 x 10 to 3 x 10 ml with the number of viable sulfur-metal-oxidizing bacteria reaching 2 x 10 ml in the hypolimnion. A general scenario for the microbial cycling of nitrogen, carbon, sulfur, and metals is presented for volcanically impacted lakes. The important role of nitrogen as these lakes recover from the cataclysmic eruption and proceed back towards their prior status as oligotrophic alpine lakes is emphasized.

  13. Initial Effects of the Mount St. Helens Eruption on Nitrogen Cycle and Related Chemical Processes in Ryan Lake

    PubMed Central

    Dahm, Clifford N.; Baross, John A.; Ward, Amelia K.; Lilley, Marvin D.; Sedell, James R.

    1983-01-01

    Ryan Lake, a 1.6-hectare basin lake near the periphery of the tree blowdown area in the blast zone 19 km north of Mount St. Helens, was studied from August to October 1980 to determine the microbial and chemical response of the lake to the eruption. Nutrient enrichment through the addition of fresh volcanic material and the organic debris from the surrounding conifer forest stimulated intense microbial activity. Concentrations of such nutrients as phosphorus, sulfur, manganese, iron, and dissolved organic carbon were markedly elevated. Nitrogen cycle activity was especially important to the lake ecosystem in regulating biogeochemical cycling owing to the limiting abundance of nitrogen compounds. Nitrogen fixation, both aerobic and anaerobic, was active from aerobic benthic and planktonic cyanobacteria with rates up to 210 nmol of N2 cm−1 h−1 and 667 nmol of N2 liter−1 h−1, respectively, and from anaerobic bacteria with rates reaching 220 nmol of N2 liter−1 h−1. Nitrification was limited to the aerobic epilimnion and littoral zones where rates were 43 and 261 nmol of NO2 liter−1 day−1, respectively. Potential denitrification rates were as high as 30 μmol of N2O liter−1 day−1 in the anaerobic hypolimnion. Total bacterial numbers ranged from 1 × 106 to 3 × 108 ml−1 with the number of viable sulfur-metal-oxidizing bacteria reaching 2 × 106 ml−1 in the hypolimnion. A general scenario for the microbial cycling of nitrogen, carbon, sulfur, and metals is presented for volcanically impacted lakes. The important role of nitrogen as these lakes recover from the cataclysmic eruption and proceed back towards their prior status as oligotrophic alpine lakes is emphasized. Images PMID:16346298

  14. 2D dynamical magma propagation modeling: application to the 2001 Mount Etna eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinel, Virginie; Carrara, Alexandre; Maccaferri, Francesco; Rivalta, Eleonora; Corbi, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    Numerical and analog studies of dike propagation in a stress field induced by volcanic edifice construction have shown that surface loading tends both to attract the magma and to reduce its velocity. Available numerical models can either calculate the trajectory or the velocity of the ascending dikes, but not both of them simultaneously. We developed a hybrid model of dyke propagation in two dimensions solving both for the magma trajectory and velocity as a function of the source overpressure, the magma physical properties (density and viscosity) as well as the crustal density and stress field. We first calculate a dyke trajectory in 2D and secondly run a 1D dynamical model of dyke propagation along this trajectory taken into account the influence of the stress field seen by the magma along this path. This model is used to characterize the influence of surface load on magma migration towards the surface and compared to previous results obtained by analog modeling.We find that the amplitude of dyke deflection and magma velocity variation depend on the ratio between the dyke driving pressure (source overpressure as well buoyancy) and the stress field perturbation. Our model is then applied to the July 2001 eruption of Etna, where the final dyke deflection had been previously interpreted as due to the topographic load by Bonaccorso et al. [2010]. We show that the velocity decrease observed during the last stage of the propagation can also be attributed to the local stress field. We use the dyke propagation duration to estimate the magma overpressure at the dyke bottom to be less than 4 MPa.

  15. Scattering and absorption mapping of tectonic and feeding structures under the pre-eruptive Mount St. Helens volcano.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Siena, Luca; Calvet, Marie; Thomas, Christine

    2015-04-01

    Knowing how seismic waves lose their energy in space and frequency is both critical for understating volcanic structures and important to detect eventual changes in their seismic and volcanic activity. We measure both the peak-delay time and the coda quality factor on seismic envelopes recorded at Mount St. Helens volcano between 2000 and 2003, just before its 2004 explosive eruption. By the 2D mapping of these two frequency-dependent quantities we obtain S-wave scattering and absorption maps in the pre-eruptive phase of the volcano. We use a 2D K-means cluster analysis to highlight correlations in the frequency-dependent spatial patterns and interpret the results in terms of tectonic and feeding structures. The transition between the high-velocity and high-scattering Siletz terrane and the low-velocity and high-absorption Cascade arc crust is a persistent signature in the entire frequency range. At high frequencies, we observe strong correlation between high-scattering, high-absorption, and high P-wave heterogeneity (this last tomographically derived between depths of 0 and 10 km). In our interpretation, this correlation is a direct consequence of resonance effects, induced by the presence of melt and fluid inclusions as well as residuals of previous eruptions. The area of maximum heterogeneity is located south-south-west of the central crater: the region shows selective high absorption characteristics at 6 Hz only. If this supports the presence of a previously-inferred aseismic magma chamber intersecting the south-south-western flank of the volcano, the selectivity suggests a depth extension of the magma chamber lower than 1 km. The most important high-scattering and high-absorption signature at high frequencies remains a NNW-SSE suture crossing the volcanic cone and parallel to the St. Helens Seismic Zone. The trend confirms the persistent major role of the main direction of regional structural stress in the uprise of magma/fluid filled materials in the first

  16. Analysis of recently digitized continuous seismic data recorded during the March-May, 1980, eruption sequence at Mount St. Helens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, S. C.; Malone, S. D.

    2013-12-01

    The May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens (MSH) was an historic event, both for society and for the field of volcanology. However, our knowledge of the eruption and the precursory period leading up it is limited by the fact that most of the data, particularly seismic recordings, were not kept due to severe limitations in the amount of digital data that could be handled and stored using 1980 computer technology. Because of these limitations, only about 900 digital event files have been available for seismic studies of the March-May seismic sequence out of a total of more than 4,000 events that were counted using paper records. Fortunately, data from a subset of stations were also recorded continuously on a series of 24 analog 14-track IRIG magnetic tapes. We have recently digitized these tapes and time-corrected and cataloged the resultant digital data streams, enabling more in-depth studies of the (almost) complete pre-eruption seismic sequence using modern digital processing techniques. Of the fifteen seismic stations operating near MSH for at least a part of the two months between March 20 and May 18, six stations have relatively complete analog recordings. These recordings have gaps of minutes to days because of radio noise, poor tape quality, or missing tapes. In addition, several other stations have partial records. All stations had short-period vertical-component sensors with very limited dynamic range and unknown response details. Nevertheless, because the stations were at a range of distances and were operated at a range of gains, a variety of earthquake sizes were recorded on scale by at least one station, and therefore a much more complete understanding of the evolution of event types, sizes and character should be achievable. In our preliminary analysis of this dataset we have found over 10,000 individual events as recorded on stations 35-40 km from MSH, spanning a recalculated coda-duration magnitude range of ~1.5 to 4.1, including many M < 3

  17. A retrospective study on acute health effects due to volcanic ash exposure during the eruption of Mount Etna (Sicily) in 2002

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mount Etna, located in the eastern part of Sicily (Italy), is the highest and most active volcano in Europe. During the sustained eruption that occurred in October-November 2002 huge amounts of volcanic ash fell on a densely populated area south-east of Mount Etna in Catania province. The volcanic ash fall caused extensive damage to infrastructure utilities and distress in the exposed population. This retrospective study evaluates whether or not there was an association between ash fall and acute health effects in exposed local communities. Methods We collected the number and type of visits to the emergency department (ED) for diseases that could be related to volcanic ash exposure in public hospitals of the Province of Catania between October 20 and November 7, 2002. We compared the magnitude of differences in ED visits between the ash exposure period in 2002 and the same period of the previous year 2001. Results We observed a significant increase of ED visits for acute respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, and ocular disturbances during the ash exposure time period. Conclusions There was a positive association between exposure to volcanic ash from the 2002 eruption of Mount Etna and acute health effects in the Catania residents. This study documents the need for public health preparedness and response initiatives to protect nearby populations from exposure to ash fall from future eruptions of Mount Etna. PMID:23924394

  18. Thermal radiance observations of an active lava flow during the June 1984 eruption of Mount Etna

    SciTech Connect

    Pieri, D.C.; Glaze, L.S.; Abrams, M.J. )

    1990-10-01

    The thermal budget of an active lava flow observed on 20 June 1984 from the Southeast crater of Mount Etna, Sicily, Italy, was analyzed from data taken by the Landsat Thematic Mapper. The Thematic Mapper images constitute one of the few satellite data sets of sufficient spatial and spectral resolution to allow calibrated measurements on the distribution and intensity of thermal radiation from active lava flows. Using radiance data from two reflective infrared channels, we can estimate the temperature and areas of the hottest parts of the active flow, which correspond to hot (>500{degree}C) fractures or zones at the flow surface. Using this techniques, we estimate that only 10%-20% of the total radiated thermal power output is emitted by hot zones or fractures, which constitute less than 1% of the observed surface area. Generally, it seems that only where hot fractures or zones constitute greater than about 1% of the surface area of the flow will losses from such features significantly reduce internal flow temperatures. Using our radiance observations as boundary conditions for a multicomponent thermal model of flow interior temperature, we infer that, for the parts of this flow subject to analysis, the boundary layer and flow thickness effects dominate over radiant zones in controlling the depression of core temperature.

  19. Bimodal Density Distribution of Cryptodome Dacite from the 1980 Eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoblitt, R.P.; Harmon, R.S.

    1993-01-01

    The explosion of a cryptodome at Mount St. Helens in 1980 produced two juvenile rock types that are derived from the same source magma. Their differences-color, texture and density-are due only to vesicularity differences. The vesicular gray dacite comprises bout 72% of the juvenile material; the black dacite comprises the other 28%. The density of juvenile dacite is bimodally distributed, with peaks at 1.6 g cm-3 (gray dacite) and 2.3 g cm-3 (black dacite). Water contents, deuterium abundances, and the relationship of petrographic structures to vapor-phase crystals indicate both rock types underwent pre-explosion subsurface vesiculation and degassing. The gray dacite underwent a second vesiculation event, probably during the 18 May explosion. In the subsurface, gases probably escaped through interconnected vesicles into the permeable volcanic edifice. We suggest that nonuniform degassing of an initially homogeneous magma produced volatile gradients in the cryptodome and that these gradients were responsible for the density bimodality. That is, water contents less than about 0.2-0.4 wt% produced vesicle growth rates that were slow in comparison to the pyroclast cooling rates; greater water contents produced vesicle growth rates that were fast in comparison to cooling rates. In this scheme, the dacite densities are bimodally distributed simply because, following decompression on 18 May 1980, one clast population vesiculated while the other did not. For clasts that did vesiculate, vesicle growth continued until it was arrested by fragmentation. ?? 1993 Springer-Verlag.

  20. Vegetation patterns 25 years after the eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington, USA.

    PubMed

    Del Moral, Roger; Lacher, Iara L

    2005-12-01

    In 2004, we surveyed the vegetation on Mount St. Helens to document changes since 1992. We asked how communities differentiate and if they develop predictable relationships with local environments. We sought evidence from links between species and environment and changes in community structure in 271 250-m(2) plots. The habitats of the seven community types (CTs) overlapped broadly. Ordination methods demonstrated weak correlations among species distributions and location, elevation, and surface variables. Comparisons to 1992 by habitat demonstrated a large increase in plant cover and substantial development of vegetation structure. Pioneer species declined while mosses increased proportionately leading to more pronounced dominance hierarchies in most habitats. In Lupinus colonies, dominance declined, and diversity increased due to the increased abundance of formerly rare species. On once barren sites, dominance increased, but diversity changed slightly, which suggested the incipient development of competitive hierarchies. Weak correlations between vegetation and the environment suggested that initially stochastic establishment patterns had not yet been erased by deterministic factors. A vegetation mosaic that is loosely controlled by environmental factors may produce different successional trajectories that lead to alternative stable communities in similar habitats. This result has implications for restoration planning.

  1. Spatial and temporal patterns of dome extrusion during the 2004-2008 eruption of Mount St. Helens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salzer, J. T.; Denlinger, R. P.; Diefenbach, A. K.; Walter, T. R.

    2014-12-01

    Extensive efforts by the USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory in response to the 2004-2008 dome building eruption at Mount St. Helens recorded the extrusion of seven dacite spines. Efforts included a network of time-lapse cameras. Published studies of decimated data from these cameras show strong correlations between (long-term) extrusion velocities determined from the camera imagery and ancillary geophysical data, such as dome tilt and RSAM seismicity. However, more detailed analysis of these data should provide better constraints on physical processes behind dome extrusion. Here we apply modern computer vision techniques to explore the spatiotemporal variability and interactions occurring during spine extrusion and dome growth. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) delineates the deformation field in a series of images at sub-pixel level, and quantifies dome, talus and glacier deformation at unprecedented resolution, revealing spatiotemporal variability of the strain field on the time scale of hours. We identify sharp boundaries between the vertically extruding spine, laterally displaced material, and downward-creeping talus. The spine growth at Mount St. Helens appears locally constrained and structurally separated into distinct segments. The velocities of different dome segments are generally correlated, but displacement patterns of the talus are more complex. We identify short term fluctuations with periods of hours to days superimposed on longer term fluctuations having periods of several weeks. The short term episodes of high displacement rates are often associated with strongly degassing plumes observed in the camera imagery. Over longer periods (days to weeks), extrusion rates form a sinusoidal fluctuating pattern, marked by sharp increases and gradual decreases in velocity. These observations substantiate the correlations with seismic and geodetic data shown in previous studies, but more closely constrain the velocity fluctuations of each spine. These fluctuations

  2. Seismic-monitoring changes and the remote deployment of seismic stations (seismic spider) at Mount St. Helens, 2004-2005: Chapter 7 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McChesney, Patrick J.; Couchman, Marvin R.; Moran, Seth C.; Lockhart, Andrew B.; Swinford, Kelly J.; LaHusen, Richard G.; Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    The instruments in place at the start of volcanic unrest at Mount St. Helens in 2004 were inadequate to record the large earthquakes and monitor the explosions that occurred as the eruption developed. To remedy this, new instruments were deployed and the short-period seismic network was modified. A new method of establishing near-field seismic monitoring was developed, using remote deployment by helicopter. The remotely deployed seismic sensor was a piezoelectric accelerometer mounted on a surface-coupled platform. Remote deployment enabled placement of stations within 250 m of the active vent.

  3. Rapid, low-cost photogrammetry to monitor volcanic eruptions: an example from Mount St. Helens, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diefenbach, Angela K.; Crider, Juliet G.; Schilling, Steve P.; Dzurisin, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We describe a low-cost application of digital photogrammetry using commercially available photogrammetric software and oblique photographs taken with an off-the-shelf digital camera to create sequential digital elevation models (DEMs) of a lava dome that grew during the 2004–2008 eruption of Mount St. Helens (MSH) volcano. Renewed activity at MSH provided an opportunity to devise and test this method, because it could be validated against other observations of this well-monitored volcano. The datasets consist of oblique aerial photographs (snapshots) taken from a helicopter using a digital single-lens reflex camera. Twelve sets of overlapping digital images of the dome taken during 2004–2007 were used to produce DEMs and to calculate lava dome volumes and extrusion rates. Analyses of the digital images were carried out using photogrammetric software to produce three-dimensional coordinates of points identified in multiple photos. The evolving morphology of the dome was modeled by comparing successive DEMs. Results were validated by comparison to volume measurements derived from traditional vertical photogrammetric surveys by the US Geological Survey Cascades Volcano Observatory. Our technique was significantly less expensive and required less time than traditional vertical photogrammetric techniques; yet, it consistently yielded volume estimates within 5% of the traditional method. This technique provides an inexpensive, rapid assessment tool for tracking lava dome growth or other topographic changes at restless volcanoes.

  4. Paleomagnetic constraints on the timing and duration of latest Pleistocene to early Holocene eruptions at Mount Shasta volcano, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, C. A.; Champion, D. E.; Christiansen, R. L.; Calvert, A. T.; Mosbrucker, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    Mount Shasta in northern California, USA, has among the highest late Pleistocene to early Holocene eruptive rates in the Cascades arc (Hildreth, 2007, USGS Prof Paper 1744). Paleomagnetic data from over 50 sites help constrain the timing and durations of these events. In late glacial times, lithic pyroclastic flows of unknown volume and age swept down all flanks of the volcano, followed, after a period of quiescence, by Shasta's largest known explosive event-- the pumiceous Red Banks tephra fall and pyroclastic flows at ~11 ka. The Red Banks tephra fall was closely followed by growth of the Shastina and Black Butte edifices on the west side of the volcano with the volume of the Shastina deposits alone estimated to be about 30 km3. Since cessation of activity at Shastina and Black Butte, a series of lava domes and flows built the summit Hotlum cone and inundated the N and E flanks of the volcano. Paleomagnetic secular-variation data show that the events described above have well-grouped and distinct remanence directions suggesting that individual pulses of activity occurred within short time intervals (days to decades), with periods of quiescence between them lasting longer than the eruptive activity. The total interval of time suggested by the movement of the magnetic field from pre-Red Banks through Hotlum activity is likely within 5-10 kyr. The pre-Redbanks pyroclastic flows exposed on at least three flanks of the volcano have essentially the same paleomagnetic direction of ~ D=350°, I=60° with a site mean α95of 1.8° (7/7 sites). The Red Banks eruptive products have a more easterly and shallower (~ D=2°, I=53°) remanent direction. The prominent Shastina cone on the NW flank of the volcano produced lava flows to the NW and SW of the cone and an apron of pyroclastic material to the west. Shastina pyroclastic flows and lava flows have a similar direction of ~ D=8°, I=56 (α95 from 15 sites is 1.4°) suggesting that the Shastina eruptive period lasted a

  5. Preliminary report on physical, chemical and mineralogical composition and health implications of ash from the Mount St. Helens eruption of May 18, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    On May 18, 1980 at 8:32 AM Pacific Daylight Time, a major eruption of ash and pyroclastics occurred from the Mount St. Helens volcano in Washington State. These and subsequent eruptions resulted in deposition of volcanic ash on large areas of the state of Washington and neighboring states. Beginning the day of the eruption and continuing through the following week, samples of the ash were collected for analysis by Battelle staff from various parts of eastern Washington and Montana. Specifically, samples were obtained from Richland, Yakima, Ahtanum, Tieton Ranger Station, Pullman, Rosalia, Moses Lake, Spokane, Ellensburg, Washington and Missoula, Montana. These materials were subjected to a variety of analyses including chemical, mineralogical and physical characterization and an in vitro biological assay to determine the effects of the ash on the pulmonary macrophage. This test gives an indication of the potential of the ash to cause respiratory diseases such as silicosis. Preliminary results of these various analyses are described.

  6. Subevents of long-period seismicity: implications for hydrothermal dynamics during the 2004-2008 eruption of Mount St. Helens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matoza, Robin S.; Chouet, Bernard A.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most striking aspects of seismicity during the 2004–2008 eruption of Mount St. Helens (MSH) was the precise regularity in occurrence of repetitive long-period (LP) or “drumbeat” events over sustained time periods. However, this precise regularity was not always observed, and at times the temporal occurrence of LP events became more random. In addition, accompanying the dominant LP class of events during the 2004–2008 MSH eruption, there was a near-continuous, randomly occurring series of smaller seismic events. These subevents are not always simply small-amplitude versions of the dominant LP class of events but appear instead to result from a separate random process only loosely coupled to the main LP source mechanism. We present an analysis of the interevent time and amplitude distributions of the subevents, using waveform cross correlation to separate LP events from the subevents. We also discuss seismic tremor that accompanied the 8 March 2005 phreatic explosion event at MSH. This tremor consists of a rapid succession of LPs and subevents triggered during the explosion, in addition to broadband noise from the sustained degassing. Immediately afterward, seismicity returned to the pre-explosion occurrence pattern. This triggering in relation to the rapid ejection of steam from the system, and subsequent return to pre-explosion seismicity, suggests that both seismic event types originated in a region of the subsurface hydrothermal system that was (1) in contact with the reservoir feeding the 8 March 2005 phreatic explosion but (2) not destroyed or drained by the explosion event. Finally, we discuss possible thermodynamic conditions in a pressurized hydrothermal crack that could give rise to seismicity. Pressure drop estimates for typical LP events are not generally large enough to perturb pure water in a shallow hydrothermal crack into an unstable state. However, dissolved volatiles such as CO2 may lead to a more unstable system, increasing the

  7. Bidecadal North Atlantic ocean circulation variability controlled by timing of volcanic eruptions.

    PubMed

    Swingedouw, Didier; Ortega, Pablo; Mignot, Juliette; Guilyardi, Eric; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Butler, Paul G; Khodri, Myriam; Séférian, Roland

    2015-03-30

    While bidecadal climate variability has been evidenced in several North Atlantic paleoclimate records, its drivers remain poorly understood. Here we show that the subset of CMIP5 historical climate simulations that produce such bidecadal variability exhibits a robust synchronization, with a maximum in Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) 15 years after the 1963 Agung eruption. The mechanisms at play involve salinity advection from the Arctic and explain the timing of Great Salinity Anomalies observed in the 1970s and the 1990s. Simulations, as well as Greenland and Iceland paleoclimate records, indicate that coherent bidecadal cycles were excited following five Agung-like volcanic eruptions of the last millennium. Climate simulations and a conceptual model reveal that destructive interference caused by the Pinatubo 1991 eruption may have damped the observed decreasing trend of the AMOC in the 2000s. Our results imply a long-lasting climatic impact and predictability following the next Agung-like eruption.

  8. Ground-coupled acoustic airwaves from Mount St. Helens provide constraints on the May 18, 1980 eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Jeffrey B.; Malone, Stephen D.

    2007-06-01

    The May 18, 1980 Mount St. Helens eruption perturbed the atmosphere and generated atmosphere-to-ground coupled airwaves, which were recorded on at least 35 seismometers operated by the Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network (PNSN). From 102 distinct travel time picks we identify coherent airwaves crossing Washington State primarily to the north and east of the volcano. The travel time curves provide evidence for both stratospheric refractions (at 200 to 300 km from the volcano) as well as probable thermospheric refractions (at 100 to 350 km). The very few first-hand reports of audible volcano sounds within about 80 km of the volcano coincide with a general absence of ground-coupled acoustic arrivals registered within about 100 km and are attributed to upward refraction of sound waves. From the coherent refracted airwave arrivals, we identify at least four distinct sources which we infer to originate 10 s, 114 s, ˜ 180 s and 319 s after the onset of an 8:32:11 PDT landslide. The first of these sources is attributed to resultant depressurization and explosion of the cryptodome. Most of the subsequent arrivals also appear to be coincident with a source located at or near the presumed volcanic conduit, but at least one of the later arrivals suggests an epicenter displaced about 9 km to the northwest of the vent. This dislocation is compatible with the direction of the sector collapse and lateral blast. We speculate that this concussion corresponds to a northern explosion event associated with hot cryptodome entering the Toutle River Valley.

  9. Fumarole distribution, morphology, and encrustation mineralogy associated with the 1986 eruptive deposits of mount St. Augustine, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodosky, Lawrence; Keskinen, Mary

    1990-01-01

    Numerous rootless fumaroles were developed on pyroclastic flows and a lava flow generated during the March 1986 eruptive cycle of Mount St. Augustine. Gases issued from fumarole vents with four different shapes: fissure, phreatic explosion crater, single/multiple ovoid opening, and diffuse, multiple opening. Fumarole distribution and morphology were controlled by preeruption drainage and topography, as well as by the thickness, compaction, and settling of the flow deposits. Fumarole temperatures measured in June and July 1986 ranged from 75° 394°C. Varying amounts of colorful and often roughly zoned encrustations are associated with all fumarole vent shapes. Only six types of crystalline phases were detected by X-ray diffraction, with gypsum the most abundant mineral, followed by anhydrite, sulfur, tridymite, halite, and soda alum. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis revealed a number of amorphous phases, mainly halogen-rich, as well as other minor crystalline phases. The mineral assemblages in the encrustations suggest formation conditions for these deposits within a general range of 25° 250°C in an oxidizing environment. Many of the amorphous phases are metastable and upon cooling of the fumarole lose nonstructural water and crystallize to more stable forms. The high halogen contents of the fumarole condensates and the mineralogy, chemistry, and morphology of the encrustations support leaching of the andesitic ash and lava flow by condensed acid vapors as the primary source for the chemical components contained in the encrustations. Comparison of traceelement (Sr, Ba, V, Co, Ni, and Cr) contents in unaltered and altered ash suggests that trace-element distribution follows a pattern of isomorphic substitution in the encrustation phases.

  10. Ground-coupled acoustic airwaves from Mount St. Helens provide constraints on the May 18, 1980 eruption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, J.B.; Malone, S.D.

    2007-01-01

    The May 18, 1980 Mount St. Helens eruption perturbed the atmosphere and generated atmosphere-to-ground coupled airwaves, which were recorded on at least 35 seismometers operated by the Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network (PNSN). From 102 distinct travel time picks we identify coherent airwaves crossing Washington State primarily to the north and east of the volcano. The travel time curves provide evidence for both stratospheric refractions (at 200 to 300 km from the volcano) as well as probable thermospheric refractions (at 100 to 350 km). The very few first-hand reports of audible volcano sounds within about 80 km of the volcano coincide with a general absence of ground-coupled acoustic arrivals registered within about 100 km and are attributed to upward refraction of sound waves. From the coherent refracted airwave arrivals, we identify at least four distinct sources which we infer to originate 10 s, 114 s, ∼ 180 s and 319 s after the onset of an 8:32:11 PDT landslide. The first of these sources is attributed to resultant depressurization and explosion of the cryptodome. Most of the subsequent arrivals also appear to be coincident with a source located at or near the presumed volcanic conduit, but at least one of the later arrivals suggests an epicenter displaced about 9 km to the northwest of the vent. This dislocation is compatible with the direction of the sector collapse and lateral blast. We speculate that this concussion corresponds to a northern explosion event associated with hot cryptodome entering the Toutle River Valley.

  11. Eruption dynamics at Mount St. Helens imaged from broadband seismic waveforms: Interaction of the shallow magmatic and hydrothermal systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waite, G.P.; Chouet, B.A.; Dawson, P.B.

    2008-01-01

    The current eruption at Mount St. Helens is characterized by dome building and shallow, repetitive, long-period (LP) earthquakes. Waveform cross-correlation reveals remarkable similarity for a majority of the earthquakes over periods of several weeks. Stacked spectra of these events display multiple peaks between 0.5 and 2 Hz that are common to most stations. Lower-amplitude very-long-period (VLP) events commonly accompany the LP events. We model the source mechanisms of LP and VLP events in the 0.5-4 s and 8-40 s bands, respectively, using data recorded in July 2005 with a 19-station temporary broadband network. The source mechanism of the LP events includes: 1) a volumetric component modeled as resonance of a gently NNW-dipping, steam-filled crack located directly beneath the actively extruding part of the new dome and within 100 m of the crater floor and 2) a vertical single force attributed to movement of the overlying dome. The VLP source, which also includes volumetric and single-force components, is 250 m deeper and NNW of the LP source, at the SW edge of the 1980s lava dome. The volumetric component points to the compression and expansion of a shallow, magma-filled sill, which is subparallel to the hydrothermal crack imaged at the LP source, coupled with a smaller component of expansion and compression of a dike. The single-force components are due to mass advection in the magma conduit. The location, geometry and timing of the sources suggest the VLP and LP events are caused by perturbations of a common crack system.

  12. Temporal and spatial variation of local stress fields before and after the 1992 eruptions of Crater Peak vent, Mount Spurr volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roman, D.C.; Moran, S.C.; Power, J.A.; Cashman, K.V.

    2004-01-01

    We searched for changes in local stress-field orientation at Mount Spurr volcano, Alaska, between August 1991 and December 2001. This study focuses on the stress-field orientation beneath Crater Peak vent, the site of three eruptions in 1992, and beneath the summit of Mount Spurr. Local stress tensors were calculated by inverting subsets of 140 fault-plane solutions for earthquakes beneath Crater Peak and 96 fault-plane solutions for earthquakes beneath Mount Spurr. We also calculated an upper-crustal regional stress tensor by inverting fault-plane solutions for 66 intraplate earthquakes located near Mount Spurr during 1991-2001. Prior to the 1992 eruptions, and for 11 months beginning with a posteruption seismic swarm, the axis of maximum compressive stress beneath Crater Peak was subhorizontal and oriented N67-76??E, approximately perpendicular to the regional axis of maximum compressive stress (N43??W). The strong temporal correlation between this horizontal stress-field rotation (change in position of the ??1/ ??3 axes relative to regional stress) and magmatic activity indicates that the rotation was related to magmatic activity, and we suggest that the Crater Peak stress-field rotation resulted from pressurization of a network of dikes. During the entire study period, the stress field beneath the summit of Mount Spurr also differed from the regional stress tensor and was characterized by a vertical axis of maximum compressive stress. We suggest that slip beneath Mount Spurr's summit occurs primarily on a major normal fault in response to a combination of gravitational loading, hydrothermal circulation, and magmatic processes beneath Crater Peak. Online material: Regional and local fault-plane solutions.

  13. Analysis of GPS-measured deformation associated with the 2004-2006 dome-building eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington: Chapter 15 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lisowski, Michael; Dzurisin, Daniel; Denlinger, Roger P.; Iwatsubo, Eugene Y.; Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    . The discrepancy between the estimated cavity-volume loss and the >83×106-m3 volume of the erupted dome can be explained, for the most part, by exsolution of gas in the stored magma and by minor input of new magma during the eruption.

  14. Use of thermal infrared imaging for monitoring renewed dome growth at Mount St. Helens, 2004: Chapter 17 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, David J.; Vallance, James W.; Wessels, Rick L.; Logan, Matthew; Ramsey, Michael S.; Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    A helicopter-mounted thermal imaging radiometer documented the explosive vent-clearing and effusive phases of the eruption of Mount St. Helens in 2004. A gyrostabilized gimbal controlled by a crew member housed the radiometer and an optical video camera attached to the nose of the helicopter. Since October 1, 2004, the system has provided thermal and video observations of dome growth. Flights conducted as frequently as twice daily during the initial month of the eruption monitored rapid changes in the crater and 1980-86 lava dome. Thermal monitoring decreased to several times per week once dome extrusion began. The thermal imaging system provided unique observations, including timely recognition that the early explosive phase was phreatic, location of structures controlling thermal emissions and active faults, detection of increased heat flow prior to the extrusion of lava, and recognition of new lava extrusion. The first spines, 1 and 2, were hotter when they emerged (maximum temperature 700-730°C) than subsequent spines insulated by as much as several meters of fault gouge. Temperature of gouge-covered spines was about 200°C where they emerged from the vent, and it decreased rapidly with distance from the vent. The hottest parts of these spines were as high as 500-730°C in fractured and broken-up regions. Such temperature variation needs to be accounted for in the retrieval of eruption parameters using satellite-based techniques, as such features are smaller than pixels in satellite images.

  15. 238U-230Th-226Ra disequilibria in dacite and plagioclase from the 2004-2005 eruption of Mount St. Helens: Chapter 36 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, Kari M.; Donnelly, Carrie T.; Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    230Th)/(232Th) measured for the 1980s reference suite. However, (230Th)/(232Th) for plagioclase separates for dome samples erupted during October and November 2004 are significantly different from corresponding whole-rock values, which suggests that a large fraction (>30 percent) of crystals in each sample are foreign to the host liquid. Furthermore, plagioclase in the two 2004 samples have U-series characteristics distinct from each other and from plagioclase in dacite erupted in 1982, indicating that (1) the current eruption must include a component of crystals (and potentially associated magma) that were not sampled by the 1980-86 eruption, and (2) dacite magmas erupted only a month apart in 2004 contain different populations of crystals, indicating that this foreign component is highly heterogeneous within the 2004-5 magma reservoir.

  16. Construction and Evolution of the Mount St. Helens Magmatic System During the Swift Creek Eruptive Stage (16-9 ka) Revealed by Zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanagan, D. M.; Claiborne, L. L.; Miller, C. F.; Clynne, M. A.; Wooden, J. L.

    2009-05-01

    U-series geochronology and trace element analyses of zircon record the evolution and construction of the sub- volcanic magmatic system of Mount St. Helens during its Swift Creek eruptive stage (16-9 ka). This timeframe was characterized by episodic eruptions of relatively cool, wet, and evolved lavas and tephras followed by emplacement of hotter, drier, and less evolved eruptive products. These fluctuations between magma types potentially represent the first evidence of well-developed magmatic cycles within the Mount St. Helens plumbing system (Clynne et al., in press). We compare the geochronology and geochemistry of zircons from Swift Creek rock samples to those from samples that span the rest of the eruptive history (Claiborne et al., 2008). U-Th age spectra demonstrate that zircon within Swift Creek rocks predominantly crystallized between 20 and 80 ka (˜70% of analyses), with crystallization peaks at ˜30 and 55 ka. Minor populations of ages are also present at ˜105, 160, 210, and 250 ka (˜25% of analyses). Most crystallization ages range from tens to hundreds of thousands of years before eruption, indicating that Swift Creek magmas extracted crystals from previous episodes of crystallization. However, some zircon analyses (<10%) yield U-Th ages within error of eruption age, potentially allowing us to track Swift Creek magmatic evolution from its incipient stages to eruption. Both of these observations are consistent with previously documented zircon populations from samples spanning the eruptive history of the volcano (Claiborne et al., 2008). Although some age populations observed in zircons from early (300-250 ka) and late (160-35 ka) Ape Canyon eruptive stage rock samples reappear in zircons from Swift Creek samples, the major populations from these earlier eruptive episodes are absent or sparse. Conversely, zircons from the Cougar stage (28-18 ka) exhibit comparable age peaks to Swift Creek zircons. These observations suggest that Swift Creek and

  17. From dome to dust: shallow crystallization and fragmentation of conduit magma during the 2004-2006 dome extrusion of Mount St. Helens, Washington: Chapter 19 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cashman, Katharine V.; Thornber, Carl R.; Pallister, John S.; Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    Comparison of eruptive conditions during the 2004-6 activity at Mount St. Helens with those of other spine-forming eruptions suggests that magma ascent rates of about 10-4 m/s or less allow sufficient degassing and crystallization within the conduit to form large volcanic spines of intermediate composition (andesite to dacite). Solidification deep within the conduit, in turn, requires transport of the solid plug over long distances (hundreds of meters); resultant large strains are responsible for extensive brittle breakage and development of thick gouge zones. Moreover, similarities between gouge textures and those of ash emitted by explosions from spine margins indicate that fault gouge is the origin for the ash. As the comminution and generation of ash-sized particles was clearly a multistep process, this observation suggests that fragmentation preceded, rather than accompanied, these explosions.

  18. The 1928 eruption of Mount Etna (Italy): Reconstructing lava flow evolution and the destruction and recovery of the town of Mascali

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branca, Stefano; De Beni, Emanuela; Chester, David; Duncan, Angus; Lotteri, Alessandra

    2017-04-01

    Mount Etna in Sicily (Italy) shows > 2500 years of interactions between volcanic eruptions and human activity, and these are well documented in historical sources. During the last 400 years, flank eruptions have had major impacts on the urban fabric of the Etna region, especially in 1651-54, 1669, 1923 and 1928, and it is the last of these which is the focus of this paper. A detailed field and historical reconstruction of the 1928 eruption is presented which allows three themes to be discussed: the evolution of the flow field, lava volume and average magma discharge rate trend; the eruption's human impact, particularly the destruction of the town of Mascali; and the recovery of the region with re-construction of Mascali in a new location. Detailed mapping of lava flows allowed the following dimensions to be calculated: total area, 4.38 × 106 m2; maximum length, 9.4 km; volume, 52.91 ± 5.21 × 106 m3 and an average effusion rate of 38.5 m3 s-1. Time-averaged discharged rates are calculated allowing the reconstruction of their temporal variations during the course of the eruption evidencing a high maximum effusion rate of 374 m3 s- 1. These trends, in particular with regard to the Lower Fissure main phase of the eruption, are in accordance with the 'idealized discharge model' of Wadge (1981), proposed for basaltic eruptions driven by de-pressurization of magma sources, mainly through reservoir relaxation (i.e. elastic contraction of a magma body). The eruption took place when Italy was governed by Mussolini and the fascist party. The State response both, during and in the immediate aftermath of the eruption and in the years that followed during which Mascali was reconstructed, was impressive. This masked a less benign legacy, however, that can be traced for several subsequent decades of using responses to natural catastrophes to manufacture State prestige by reacting to, rather than planning for, disasters.

  19. Reanalysis of the Pyroclastic Fall Deposit from the 18 May 1980 Eruption of Mount Saint Helens, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durant, A. J.; Rose, W. I.; Horwell, C. J.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Wan, E.; Dartevelle, S.; Volentik, A. C.

    2006-12-01

    A new analysis of the distal fall deposit from the 18 May 1980 Eruption of Mount Saint Helens (MSH80) is presented. The removal of fine distal volcanic ash from the atmosphere is complex: From the data presented here, it is clear that meteorological processes and atmospheric dynamics influence particle settling. Original samples were analysed by a Malvern Instruments Mastersizer 2000 to determine particle size through the range 0.1-2000 μm. MSH80 fallout consists of material from an initial directed blast and ~9 hour Plinian phase, which was later dominated by coignimbrite input. A striking feature of the distal ashfall deposit is a secondary maximum in mass deposited located ~300 km from the volcano, previously attributed to ash aggregation and enhanced particle settling. Median particle size averaged by transect decreases with distance from 2.91 Φ at ~150 km to 5.35 Φ at ~300 km, then increases again before decreasing to a minimum of 5.22 Φ at ~650 km. Investigation of size fractions averaged by transect show 0-3 Φ proportions decrease with distance and >4 Φ proportions increase with distance. Contribution of 5-7 Φ size fractions peak at the secondary maximum, which may suggest that ash aggregation selectively binds particles of this size. Proportions of particles >9 Φ (<1.95 μm diameter ~ PM2.5; the most pertinent phi size fraction for health hazard assessment) remain fairly constant over the deposit at ~4-5 wt%. Samples beyond ~300 km had remarkably similar grainsize characteristics. All samples are poorly sorted with transect average σ values ranging from 2.30-1.64 Φ; samples in the secondary maximum region have the highest measured sorting coefficients. By transect average, all samples are positively skewed (0.5-0.79 Φ) and strongly leptokurtic (2.75-3.21 Φ). Some bimodal samples are present at distances less than ~300 km. Enhancement of coarse fractions between 0-3 Φ was observed to the south of these transects and may represent the footprint

  20. Evolving magma storage conditions beneath Mount St. Helens inferred from chemical variations in melt inclusions from the 1980-1986 and current (2004-2006) eruptions: Chapter 33 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blundy, Jon; Cashman, Katharine V.; Berlo, Kim; Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    O contents, consistent with magma extraction from shallow depths. Highly enriched Li in melt inclusions suggests that vapor transport of Li is a characteristic feature of Mount St. Helens. Melt inclusions from the current eruption have subtly different trace-element chemistry from all but one of the 1980-86 melt inclusions, with steeper rareearth-element (REE) patterns and low U, Th, and high-fieldstrength elements (HFSE), indicating addition of a new melt component to the magma system. It is anticipated that increasing involvement of the new melt component will be evident as the current eruption proceeds.

  1. Chlorine as a geobarometer tool: Application to the explosive eruptions of the Volcanic Campanian District (Mount Somma-Vesuvius, Phlegrean Fields, Ischia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcone-Boissard, Hélène; Boudon, Georges; Zdanowicz, Géraldine; Orsi, Giovanni; Civetta, Lucia; Webster, Jim D.; Cioni, Raffaello; D'Antonio, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    volcanoes of the Neapolitan area: Mount Somma-Vesuvius, Phlegrean Fields and Ischia. We have analysed the products of the representative explosive eruptions of each volcano, including Plinian, sub-Plinian and strombolian events. We have focussed our research on the earliest emitted, most evolved products of each eruption, likely representing the shallower, fluid-saturated portion of the reservoir. As the studied eruptions cover the entire eruptive history of each volcanic system, the results allow better constraining the evolution through time of the shallow plumbing system. We highlighted for Mount Somma - Vesuvius two magma ponding zones, at ~170-200 MPa and ~105-115 MPa, alternatively active in time. For Phlegrean Fields, we evidence a progressive deepening of the shallow reservoirs, from the Campanian Ignimbrite (30-50 MPa) to the Monte Nuovo eruption (115 MPa). Only one eruption was studied for Ischia, the Cretaio eruption, that shows a reservoir at 140 MPa. The results on pressure are in large agreement with literature. The Cl geobarometer may help scientists to define the reservoir dynamics through time and provide strong constraints on pre-eruptive conditions, of utmost importance for the interpretation of the monitoring data and the identification of precursory signals.

  2. Analysis of long-period seismic waves excited by the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens - A terrestrial monopole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanamori, H.; Given, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    The eruption of Mount St. Helens on May 18, 1980, excited long-period seismic waves, and high-quality digital seismograms were recorded. The present investigation is concerned with the results of detailed analyses of Rayleigh and Love waves excited by this eruption. Since the elastic response of the earth is very accurately known, it is possible to retrieve the source parameters of this unique event from observations at far-field. It is shown that the source can be represented by a nearly horizontal single force. The conducted analysis is concerned with only long-period characteristics of the source. The short-period behavior of the source is difficult to determine from surface waves because the available knowledge of the earth's response is less accurate than at long periods.

  3. Seismicity and infrasound associated with explosions at Mount St. Helens, 2004-2005: Chapter 6 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, Seth C.; McChesney, Patrick J.; Lockhart, Andrew B.; Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    Six explosions occurred during 2004-5 in association with renewed eruptive activity at Mount St. Helens, Washington. Of four explosions in October 2004, none had precursory seismicity and two had explosion-related seismic tremor that marked the end of the explosion. However, seismicity levels dropped following each of the October explosions, providing the primary instrumental means for explosion detection during the initial vent-clearing phase. In contrast, explosions on January 16 and March 8, 2005, produced noticeable seismicity in the form of explosion-related tremor, infrasonic signals, and, in the case of the March 8 explosion, an increase in event size ~2 hours before the explosion. In both 2005 cases seismic tremor appeared before any infrasonic signals and was best recorded on stations located within the crater. These explosions demonstrated that reliable explosion detection at volcanoes like Mount St. Helens requires seismic stations within 1-2 km of the vent and stations with multiple acoustic sensors.

  4. Identification and evolution of the juvenile component in 2004-2005 Mount St. Helens ash: Chapter 29 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowe, Michael C.; Thornber, Carl R.; Kent, Adam J.R.; Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    Petrologic studies of volcanic ash are commonly used to identify juvenile volcanic material and observe changes in the composition and style of volcanic eruptions. During the 2004-5 eruption of Mount St. Helens, recognition of the juvenile component in ash produced by early phreatic explosions was complicated by the presence of a substantial proportion of 1980-86 lava-dome fragments and glassy tephra, in addition to older volcanic fragments possibly derived from crater debris. In this report, we correlate groundmass textures and compositions of glass, mafic phases, and feldspar from 2004-5 ash in an attempt to identify juvenile material in early phreatic explosions and to distinguish among the various processes that generate and distribute ash. We conclude that clean glass in the ash is derived mostly from nonjuvenile sources and is not particularly useful for identifying the proportion of juvenile material in ash samples. High Li contents (>30 μg/g) in feldspars provide a useful tracer for juvenile material and suggest an increase in the proportion of the juvenile component between October 1 and October 4, 2004, before the emergence of hot dacite on the surface of the crater on October 11, 2004. The presence of Li-rich feldspar out of equilibrium (based on Liplagioclase/melt partitioning) with groundmass and bulk dacite early in the eruption also suggests vapor enrichment in the initially erupted dacite. If an excess vapor phase was, indeed, present, it may have provided a catalyst to initiate the eruption. Textural and compositional comparisons between dome fault gouge and the ash produced by rockfalls, rock avalanches, and vent explosions indicate that the fault gouge is a likely source of ash particles for both types of events. Comparison of the ash from vent explosions and rockfalls suggests that the fault gouge and new dome were initially heterogeneous, containing a mixture of conduit and crater debris and juvenile material, but became increasingly

  5. In situ observations of aerosol and chlorine monoxide after the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo - Effect of reactions on sulfate aerosol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. C.; Jonsson, H. H.; Brock, C. A.; Toohey, D. W.; Avallone, L. M.; Baumgardner, D.; Dye, J. E.; Poole, L. R.; Woods, D. C.; Decoursey, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    Highly resolved aerosol size distributions measured from high-altitude aircraft can be used to describe the effect of the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo on the stratospheric aerosol. In some air masses, aerosol mass mixing ratios increased by factors exceeding 100 and aerosol surface area concentrations increased by factors of 30 or more. Increases in aerosol surface area concentration were accompanied by increases in chlorine monoxide at mid-latitudes when confounding factors were controlled. This observation supports the assertion that reactions occurring on the aerosol can increase the fraction of stratospheric chlorine that occurs in ozone-destroying forms.

  6. Eruption in an ice-filled caldera, Mount Veniaminof, Alaska Peninsula: A section in The United States Geological Survey in Alaska: Accomplishments during 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yount, M. Elizabeth; Miller, Thomas P.; Emanuel, Richard P.; Wilson, Frederic H.

    1985-01-01

    The more prominent of the two visible intracaldera cones of Mount Veniaminof went into eruption in early June 1983 and continued until early April 1984. Veniaminof is a 2,507-m-high composite cone having an 8 x 11-km summit caldera which formed 3,300-3,700 yr B.P. (Miller and Smith, 1977). The active 1.6x1.2-km cone protrudes 200 m through the glacial ice filling the caldera; it lies in a 60-m-long belt of cinder cones that is transverse to the trend of the Aleutian arc (fig. 44).

  7. Changing patterns of seismicity and ground deformation at the end of the Mount St. Helens 2004-2008 dome-building eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisowski, M.; Moran, S. C.; Dzurisin, D.; Anderson, K. R.

    2012-12-01

    The onset and character of the 2004-2008 dome-building eruption at Mount St. Helens has been reported in detail through 2006-2007; our purpose here is to describe activity near the end of the eruption in early 2008. Overall, seismicity, deformation, and extrusion rates progressively declined throughout the eruption. As measured from SEP, the continuously-running seismic station closest to the vent, the number of detected earthquakes declined from ~1000/day during January-October 2006 to hundreds per day by September 2007 and to near zero by late October 2007. Starting in December 2007 the seismicity rate increased slightly , culminating in a short-lived episode of about 500 events on January 12-13, most of which accompanied several tremor-like signals and a spasmodic burst of LPs. At this time, distinctive sawtooth-shaped tilt events that had accompanied dome growth ceased; these had been recorded throughout the earlier part of the eruption at three locations on the 1980s lava dome adjacent to the 2004-2008 vent. Seismicity rapidly declined back to rates of 10-20 per day for the next two weeks. The "last gasp" from the seismic perspective was on January 27-28, when a spasmodic burst of ~50 VT earthquakes occurred over the space of 3 hours early on January 27. This burst followed by a brief return of drumbeat-style earthquakes that had characterized much of the 2004-2008 eruption, with hybrid-style earthquakes occurring every 35-40 minutes through the end of January 28. By the end of January, seismicity had declined to 1-2 earthquakes per day, consistent with pre-2004-eruption background levels. In conjunction with the decline in seismicity rate, depths of locatable earthquakes increased from the 0-1 km depth range seen during the eruption to 2-3 km by the end of January 2008, a depth range typical of pre-2004-eruption seismicity. Remote-camera photography confirmed the cessation of dome growth and also the subsequent subsidence of the 2004-2008 dome as a result of

  8. Eruptive history, petrology, and petrogenesis of the Joe Lott Tuff Member of the Mount Belknap Volcanics, Marysvale volcanic field, west-central Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Budding, Karin E.

    1982-01-01

    The Joe Lott Tuff Member of the Mount Belknap Volcanics is the largest rhyolitic ash-flow tuff sheet in the Marysvale volcanic field. It was erupted 19 m.y. ago, shortly after the changeover from intermediate-composition calc-alkalic volcanism to bimodal basalt-rhyolite volcanism. Eruption of the tuff resulted in the formation of the Mount Belknap Caldera whose pyroclastic intracaldera stratigraphy parallels that in the outflow facies. The Joe Loft Tuff Member is a composite ash-flow sheet that changes laterally from a simple cooling unit near the source to four distinct cooling units toward the distal end. The lowest of these units is the largest and most widespread; it is 64 m thick and contains a basal vitrophyre. Eruption of the lower unit led to the initial collapse of the caldera. The lower unit is followed upward by a 43 m middle unit, a 26 m pink-colored unit which is separated by a prominent air- fall layer, and a 31 m upper unit. The Joe Loft Tuff Member is an alkali rhyolite with 75.85-77.31 wt. % silica and 8.06-9.32 wt. % K2O+Na2O; the agpaitic index (Na2O+ K2O/Al2O3) is .77-.98. The tuff contains about I% phenocrysts of quartz, sanidine, oligoclase, augite, apatite, zircon, sphene, biotite, and oxidized Fe-Ti oxides. The basal vitrophyre contains accessory allanite, chevkinite, and magnesiohastingsite. The main cooling units are chemically and mineralogically zoned indicating that the magma chamber restratified prior to each major eruption. Within each of the two thickest cooling units, the mineralogy changes systematically upwards; the Or content and relative volume of sanidine decreases and An content of plagioclase increases. The basal vitrophyre of the lower unit has a bulk composition that lies in the thermal trough near the minima of Or-Ab-Q at 1 kb PH2O. Microprobe analyses of feldspar and chemical modeling on experimental systems indicate that pre-eruption temperatures were near 750?C and that the temperature increased during the eruption of

  9. Zircon from Mount St. Helens Reveals Residence Times of Tens to Hundreds of Thousands of Years at Low Magmatic Temperatures Prior to Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claiborne, L. L.; Miller, C. F.; Clynne, M. A.; Wooden, J. L.; Pallister, J. S.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Mazdab, F. K.

    2007-12-01

    U-series and U-Pb geochronology of zircons from four samples that span the 300,000 year eruptive history of Mount St. Helens, combined with zircon trace element geochemistry and application of the Ti-in-zircon thermometer, provide critical constraints on the time-temperature-compositional history of the sub-volcanic magmatic system. Preliminary results indicate that prior to and throughout its eruptive history, one or more relatively cool, crystal-rich reservoirs have been accumulating beneath the volcano. SHRIMP-RG U-Pb ages of the oldest sample, a dacite erupted ~300 ka, reveal that zircons grew between ~320 and 520 ka, suggesting magmatic activity may have begun 200 ka before eruption. 238U-230Th age spectra in the three youngest samples indicate multiple ages of growth for each sample. The oldest of these three young samples (eruption constrained to ~35-50 ka) contains zircons ranging from ~50 to ~200 ka, with the main concentration of ages ~100 ka. Zircons from a 35 ka dacite range from ~65 to ~230 ka in age, with a dominant episode of growth ~130 ka. Dacite from the current eruption, sampled from the dome in 2005, contains zircons from ~40 to ~170 ka in age, with distinct populations at ~130 and ~170 ka. Taken together, these ages of tens to hundreds of thousands of years prior to eruption and the distinct episodes of growth suggest repeated injection and accumulation of one or more crystal-rich reservoirs beneath the volcanic edifice, a scenario that is further supported by Ti-in-zircon geothermometry (Watson et al. 2006). Ti concentrations indicate zircons grew at temperatures from ~840 to ~640 C, with 90% of analyzed spots recording temperatures between ~770 and ~670 C (T's carry uncertainties of tens of degrees, mostly from uncertainty in a(TiO2)). These temperatures are significantly lower than the eruption temperatures of their host magmas, which range from ~950-800 C. The rounded, resorbed surface morphology of many of the grains attests to the

  10. How a complex basaltic volcanic system works: Constraints from integrating seismic, geodetic, and petrological data at Mount Etna volcano during the July-August 2014 eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viccaro, Marco; Zuccarello, Francesco; Cannata, Andrea; Palano, Mimmo; Gresta, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    Integrating geodetic, seismic, and petrological data for a recent eruptive episode at Mount Etna has enabled us to define the history of magma storage and transfer within the multilevel structure of the volcano, providing spatial and temporal constraints for magma movements before the eruption. Geodetic data related to the July-August 2014 activity provide evidence of a magma reservoir at ~4 km below sea level. This reservoir pressurized from late March 2014 and fed magmas that were then erupted from vents on the lower eastern flank of North-East Crater (NEC) and at New South-East Crater (NSEC) summit crater during the July eruptive activity. Magma drainage caused its depressurization since mid-July. Textural and microanalytical data obtained from plagioclase crystals indicate similar disequilibrium textures and compositions at the cores in lavas erupted at the base of NEC and NSEC, suggesting comparable deep histories of evolution and ascent. Conversely, the compositional differences observed at the crystal rims have been associated to distinct degassing styles during storage in a shallow magma reservoir. Seismic data have constrained depth for a shallow part of the plumbing system at 1-2 km above sea level. Timescales of magma storage and transfer have also been calculated through diffusion modeling of zoning in olivine crystals of the two systems. Our data reveal a common deep history of magmas from the two systems, which is consistent with a recharging phase by more mafic magma between late March and early June 2014. Later, the magma continued its crystallization under distinct chemical and physical conditions at shallower levels.

  11. Effects of lava-dome growth on the crater glacier of Mount St. Helens, Washington: Chapter 13 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walder, Joseph S.; Schilling, Steve P.; Vallance, James W.; LaHusen, Richard G.; Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    The process of lava-dome emplacement through a glacier was observed for the first time as the 2004-6 eruption of Mount St. Helens proceeded. The glacier that had grown in the crater since the cataclysmic 1980 eruption was split in two by the new lava dome. The two parts of the glacier were successively squeezed against the crater wall. Photography, photogrammetry, and geodetic measurements document glacier deformation of an extreme variety, with strain rates of extraordinary magnitude as compared to normal temperate alpine glaciers. Unlike such glaciers, the Mount St. Helens crater glacier shows no evidence of either speed-up at the beginning of the ablation season or diurnal speed fluctuations during the ablation season. Thus there is evidently no slip of the glacier over its bed. The most reasonable explanation for this anomaly is that meltwater penetrating the glacier is captured by a thick layer of coarse rubble at the bed and then enters the volcano’s groundwater system rather than flowing through a drainage network along the bed. Mechanical consideration of the glacier-squeeze process also leads to an estimate for the driving pressure applied by the growing lava dome.

  12. The 25 September 2007 eruption of Mount Ruapehu, New Zealand: Directed ballistics, surtseyan jets, and ice-slurry lahars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilgour, G.; Manville, V.; Della Pasqua, F.; Graettinger, A.; Hodgson, K. A.; Jolly, G. E.

    2010-03-01

    At 20:26 (NZDT) on 25 September 2007 a moderate gas-driven eruption beneath the summit Crater Lake of Mt. Ruapehu, New Zealand generated a directed ballistic fallout apron and surtseyan jet that impacted an area of c. 2.5 km 2 to the north of the vent. Two climbers were caught in the blast at a hut 600 m from the vent. Primary, ice-slurry lahars were generated in two catchments draining the summit region, including a flow that entered a commercial ski field. The ejecta consists of blocks of andesitic lava and scoria erupted during previous volcanic episodes, a variety of mineral-cemented lake-floor sediments, vent-fill debris and rare glassy material interpreted to be derived from a fresh batch of magma. A minority of clasts contain formerly molten elemental sulphur, indicating that vent temperatures at the base of the lake were in excess of 119 °C. The ballistic deposit is confined to a c. 40° wide swath directed northwards that extends up to 2 km from the inferred vent location beneath Crater Lake. The strong directionality of the jetted deposits and ballistic-free 'shadow-zones' sheltered by intervening topography all point to a relatively low-angle directed blast. Previous similar eruptions at Ruapehu also show preferred deposit orientations that are here correlated with an inclined and off-centre vent beneath Crater Lake. The 25 September 2007 eruption appears to have resulted from failure of a relatively shallow hydrothermal seal composed of elemental sulphur and other mineral precipitates developed in the vent breccia, which breached following overpressurization by a pulse of magmatic gases released from deeper in the conduit. This event highlights the potential hazard from relatively minor gas-driven eruptions at Ruapehu that can occur with little or no warning. Improved understanding of the eruption mechanism for this style of eruption will inform future risk assessments for Ruapehu and other similar volcanoes worldwide.

  13. The 1669 eruption at Mount Etna: chronology, petrology and geochemistry, with inferences on the magma sources and ascent mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsaro, Rosa Anna; Cristofolini, Renato; Patanè, Loredana

    1996-12-01

    Analysis of the petrochemical characters of the 1669 Etnean lavas shows that they can be grouped into two sets: SET1 lavas were erupted from 11 to 20 March and are more primitive in composition than SET2, erupted later until the end of activity. Both sets may be interpreted as the result of crystallization under different conditions of two primary magmas which are compositionally slightly distinct and which fractionate different volumetric proportions of minerals. To explain why more mafic lavas (SET1) were erupted earlier than more acid ones (SET2), we argue that new deeper magma rose up into a reservoir where residing magma was fractionating. Density calculations demonstrate that new magma is less dense and may originate a plume, rapidly rising through the residing magma which is cooler and more volatile-depleted than the new magma. Calculations of uprise velocity assuming laminar flow are consistent with this hypothesis.

  14. Bayesian inversion of data from effusive volcanic eruptions using physics-based models: Application to Mount St. Helens 2004--2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Kyle; Segall, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Physics-based models of volcanic eruptions can directly link magmatic processes with diverse, time-varying geophysical observations, and when used in an inverse procedure make it possible to bring all available information to bear on estimating properties of the volcanic system. We develop a technique for inverting geodetic, extrusive flux, and other types of data using a physics-based model of an effusive silicic volcanic eruption to estimate the geometry, pressure, depth, and volatile content of a magma chamber, and properties of the conduit linking the chamber to the surface. A Bayesian inverse formulation makes it possible to easily incorporate independent information into the inversion, such as petrologic estimates of melt water content, and yields probabilistic estimates for model parameters and other properties of the volcano. Probability distributions are sampled using a Markov-Chain Monte Carlo algorithm. We apply the technique using GPS and extrusion data from the 2004–2008 eruption of Mount St. Helens. In contrast to more traditional inversions such as those involving geodetic data alone in combination with kinematic forward models, this technique is able to provide constraint on properties of the magma, including its volatile content, and on the absolute volume and pressure of the magma chamber. Results suggest a large chamber of >40 km3 with a centroid depth of 11–18 km and a dissolved water content at the top of the chamber of 2.6–4.9 wt%.

  15. Using the Mount Pinatubo Volcanic Eruption to Determine Climate Sensitivity: Comments on "Climate Forcing by the Volcanic Eruption of Mount Pinatubo" by David H. Douglass and Robert S. Knox

    SciTech Connect

    Wigley, T L; Ammann, C M; Santer, B D; Taylor, K E

    2005-04-22

    [1] Douglass and Knox [2005], hereafter referred to as DK, present an analysis of the observed cooling following the 1991 Mt. Pinatubo eruption and claim that these data imply a very low value for the climate sensitivity (equivalent to 0.6 C equilibrium warming for a CO{sub 2} doubling). We show here that their analysis is flawed and their results are incorrect.

  16. Magnitude and timing of downstream channel aggradation and degradation in response to a dome-building eruption at Mount Hood, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierson, Thomas C.; Pringle, Patrick T.; Cameron, Kenneth A.

    2011-01-01

    A dome-building eruption at Mount Hood, Oregon, starting in A.D. 1781 and lasting until ca. 1793, produced dome-collapse lithic pyroclastic flows that triggered lahars and intermittently fed 108 m3 of coarse volcaniclastic sediment to sediment reservoirs in headwater canyons of the Sandy River. Mobilization of dominantly sandy sediment from these reservoirs by lahars and seasonal floods initiated downstream migration of a sediment wave that resulted in a profound cycle of aggradation and degradation in the lowermost reach of the river (depositional reach), 61-87 km from the source. Stratigraphic and sedimentologic relations in the alluvial fill, together with dendrochronologic dating of degradation terraces, demonstrate that (1) channel aggradation in response to sediment loading in the headwater canyons raised the river bed in this reach at least 23 m in a decade or less; (2) the transition from aggradation to degradation in the upper part of this reach roughly coincided with the end of the dome-building eruption; (3) fluvial sediment transport and deposition, augmented by one lahar, achieved a minimum average aggradation rate of ~2 m/yr; (4) the degradation phase of the cycle was more prolonged than the aggradation phase, requiring more than half a century for the river to reach its present bed elevation; and (5) the present longitudinal profile of the Sandy River in this reach is at least 3 m above the pre-eruption profile. The pattern and rate of channel response and recovery in the Sandy River following heavy sediment loading resemble those of other rivers similarly subjected to very large sediment inputs. The magnitude of channel aggradation in the lower Sandy River, greater than that achieved at other volcanoes following much larger eruptions, was likely enhanced by lateral confinement of the channel within a narrow incised valley. A combination of at least one lahar and winter floods from frequent moderate-magnitude rainstorms and infrequent very large

  17. Plagioclase populations and zoning in dacite of the 2004-2005 Mount St. Helens eruption: constraints for magma origin and dynamics: Chapter 34 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Streck, Martin J.; Broderick, Cindy A.; Thronber, Carl R.; Clynne, Michael A.; Pallister, John S.; Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    We propose that crystals with no dissolution surfaces are those that were supplied last to the shallow reservoir, whereas plagioclase with increasingly more complex zoning patterns (that is, the number of zoned bands bounded by dissolution surfaces) result from prolonged residency and evolution in the reservoir. We propose that banding and An zoning across multiple bands are primarily a response to thermally induced fluctuations in crystallinity of the magma in combination with recharge; a lesser role is ascribed to cycling crystals through pressure gradients. Crystals without dissolution surfaces, in contrast, could have grown only in response to steady(?) decompression. Some heating-cooling cycles probably postdate the final eruption in 1986. They resulted from small recharge events that supplied new crystals that then experienced resorption-growth cycles. We suggest that magmatic events shortly prior to the current eruption, recorded in the outermost zones of plagioclase phenocrysts, began with the incorporation of acicular orthopyroxene, followed by last resorption, and concluded with crystallization of euhedral rims. Finally, we propose that 2004-5 dacite is composed mostly of dacite magma that remained after 1986 and underwent subsequent magmatic evolution but, more importantly, contains a component of new dacite from deeper in the magmatic system, which may have triggered the new eruption.

  18. Mount Etna eruptions of the last 2,750 years: revised chronology and location through archeomagnetic and 226Ra-230Th dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanguy, Jean-Claude; Condomines, Michel; Le Goff, Maxime; Chillemi, Vito; La Delfa, Santo; Patanè, Giuseppe

    2007-09-01

    A careful re-examination of the well-known written documents pertaining to the 2,750-year-long historical period of Mount Etna was carried out and their interpretation checked through the high-accuracy archeomagnetic method (>1,200 large samples), combined with the 226Ra-230Th radiochronology. The magnetic dating is based upon secular variation of the direction of the geomagnetic field (DGF) and estimated to reach a precision of ±40 years for the last 1,200 years, and ±100 to 200 years up to circa 150 B.C. Although less precise, the 226Ra-230Th method provides a unique tool for distinguishing between historic and prehistoric lavas, which in some cases might have similar DGFs. We show that despite the abundance of details on ancient historical eruptions, the primary sources of information are often too imprecise to identify their lava flows and eruptive systems. Most of the ages of these lavas, which are today accepted on the geological maps and catalogues, were attributed in the 1800s on the basis of their morphology and without any stratigraphical control. In fact, we found that 80% of the “historically dated” flows and cones prior to the 1700s are usually several hundreds of years older than recorded, the discrepancies sometimes exceeding a millennium. This is proper the case for volcanics presumed of the “1651 east” (actually ˜1020), “1595” (actually two distinct flows, respectively, ˜1200 and ˜1060), “1566” (˜1180), “1536” (two branches dated ˜1250 and ˜950), “1444” (a branch dated ˜1270), “1408” (lower branches dated ˜450 and ˜350), “1381” (˜1160), “1329” (˜1030), “1284” (˜1450 and ˜700), “1169 or 812” (˜1000) eruptions. Conversely, well-preserved cones and flows that are undated on the maps were produced by recent eruptions that went unnoticed in historical accounts, especially during the Middle Ages. For the few eruptions that are recorded between A.D. 252 and 750 B.C., none of their presumed lava

  19. The influence of stratospheric dynamics on the forcing efficacy of tropical volcanic SO2 injection: a case study around the 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhomse, Sandip; Mann, Graham; Marshall, Lauren; Schmidt, Anja; Carslaw, Kenneth; Chipperfield, Martyn; Bellouin, Nicolas; Morgenstern, Olaf; Johnson, Colin; O'Connor, Fiona

    2016-04-01

    Major tropical volcanic eruptions exert significant climate impacts principally via enhanced scattering of solar radiation due to the injected SO2 elevating particle concentrations in the stratospheric aerosol layer. The size distribution of stratospheric aerosol particles also shifts to larger sizes in volcanically-enhanced conditions, which promotes absorption and subsequent stratospheric heating as well as causing faster sedimentation. How the volcanic sulphur cloud is dispersed also strongly affects the longevity of its radiative effects. In this presentation we investigate the role of stratospheric dynamical variability in affecting the temporal evolution of the volcanic aerosol, and also its feedback on subsequent chemical and dynamical ozone changes. Among various processes, the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO), the dominant mode of dynamical variability in the tropical stratosphere, is known to play a key role in determining the meridional dispersion of the volcanic cloud generated by major tropical eruptions. We have carried out a series of interactive stratospheric aerosol simulations with the UM-UKCA composition-climate model, to explore how different QBO phase impact volcanic radiative forcing, with a test case based around Mount Pinatubo. We will present results from an ensemble of simulations for different easterly and westerly phases of QBO, comparing simulated stratospheric aerosol properties (e.g. extinction, AOD, effective radius, particle size distribution) against a range of satellite and in-situ observational datasets. Changes in dynamics and temperatures would be compared against reanalysis (e.g. ERA-interim, HaDCRUT4) datasets followed by an analysis of radiative and dynamical changes for contrasting phases of QBO. References: Dhomse SS, Chipperfield MP, Feng W, Hossaini R, Mann GW, Santee ML (2015) Revisiting the hemispheric asymmetry in midlatitude ozone changes following the Mount Pinatubo eruption: A 3-D model study, Geophysical Research

  20. Remote camera observations of lava dome growth at Mount St. Helens, Washington, October 2004 to February 2006: Chapter 11 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poland, Michael P.; Dzurisin, Daniel; LaHusen, Richard G.; Major, John J.; Lapcewich, Dennis; Endo, Elliot T.; Gooding, Daniel J.; Schilling, Steve P.; Janda, Christine G.; Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    Images from a Web-based camera (Webcam) located 8 km north of Mount St. Helens and a network of remote, telemetered digital cameras were used to observe eruptive activity at the volcano between October 2004 and February 2006. The cameras offered the advantages of low cost, low power, flexibility in deployment, and high spatial and temporal resolution. Images obtained from the cameras provided important insights into several aspects of dome extrusion, including rockfalls, lava extrusion rates, and explosive activity. Images from the remote, telemetered digital cameras were assembled into time-lapse animations of dome extrusion that supported monitoring, research, and outreach efforts. The wide-ranging utility of remote camera imagery should motivate additional work, especially to develop the three-dimensional quantitative capabilities of terrestrial camera networks.

  1. The Response of Ozone and Nitrogen Dioxide to the Eruption of Mount Pinatubo at Southern and Northern Midlatitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aquila, Valentina; Oman, Luke D.; Stolarski, Richard S.; Douglass, Anne R.; Newman, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Observations have shown that the mass of nitrogen dioxide decreased at both southern and northern midlatitudes in the year following the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo, indicating that the volcanic aerosol had enhanced nitrogen dioxide depletion via heterogeneous chemistry. In contrast, the observed ozone response showed a northern midlatitude decrease and a small southern midlatitude increase. Previous simulations that included an enhancement of heterogeneous chemistry by the volcanic aerosol but no other effect of this aerosol produce ozone decreases in both hemispheres, contrary to observations. The authors simulations show that the heating due to the volcanic aerosol enhanced both the tropical upwelling and Southern Hemisphere extratropical downwelling. This enhanced extratropical downwelling, combined with the time of the eruption relative to the phase of the Brewer Dobson circulation, increased Southern Hemisphere ozone via advection, counteracting the ozone depletion due to heterogeneous chemistry on the Pinatubo aerosol.

  2. Changes in channel geometry of six eruption-affected tributaries of the Lewis River, 1980-82, Mount St. Helens, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martinson, H.A.; Finneran, S.D.; Topinka, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    The May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens generated a lateral blast, lahars and tephra deposits that altered tributary channels in the Lewis River drainage basin. In order to assess potential flood hazards, study channel adjustments, and construct a sediment budget for the perturbed drainages on the east and southeast flanks of the volcano, channel cross sections were monumented and surveyed on Pine Creek, Muddy River, and Smith Creek during September and October of 1980. Additional cross sections were monumented and surveyed on Swift Creek, Bean Creek, and Clearwater Creek during the summer of 1981. The network of 88 channel cross sections has been resurveyed annually. Selected cross sections have been surveyed more frequently, following periods of higher flow. The repetitive cross-section surveys provide measurements of bank erosion or accretion and of channel erosion or aggradation. The report presents channel cross-section profiles constructed from the survey data collected during water years 1980-82. (USGS)

  3. Effects of the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens on the limnological characteristics of selected lakes in western Washington. Water resources investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Embrey, S.S.; Dion, N.P.

    1988-01-01

    The 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington, afforded an opportunity to study its physical, chemical, and biological effects on lakes near the volcano and to describe two newly created lakes. From June 1980 to August 1982, water samples were collected from four lakes in the blast zone and two outside the blast zone, as well as from the two newly created lakes. Concentrations of chemical constituents were inversely related to the distance of a lake from the volcano. The recovery of physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the lakes will depend on stabilization of the volcano and lake watersheds, dilution and water-exchange rates, and biological processes within each lake. Excluding Spirit Lake from consideration, it was estimated from the study that St. Helens Lake would be the slowest of the study lakes to recover, and Venus Lake would be the fastest.

  4. Post-Eruption Changes in Channel Geometry of Streams in the Toutle River Drainage Basin, 1980-82, Mount St. Helens, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, D.F.; Nolan, K. Michael; Dodge, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    The May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington, generated a debris avalanche, lateral blast, lahars, and tephra deposits that altered mainstem and tributary channels within the Toutle River drainage basin. Channel cross sections were monumented and surveyed on North Fork Toutle River and its tributaries, on South Fork Toutle River, on Green River, and on Toutle River in 1980 and 1981. These streams drain the north and west flanks of the volcano. The network of channel cross sections was surveyed more frequently following periods of higher flow. The repetitive cross-section surveys provide measurements of bank erosion or accretion and of channel erosion or aggradation. These data can be used to determine erosion rates, and to identify sources and storage sites of sediment in sediment budget computations. This report presents channel cross-section profiles constructed from the survey data collected during water years 1980 through 1982.

  5. Hydrogen isotope investigation of amphibole and glass in dacite magmas erupted in 1980-1986 and 2005 at Mount St. Helens, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Underwood, S.J.; Feeley, T.C.; Clynne, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    In active, shallow, sub-volcanic magma conduits the extent of the dehydrogenation–oxidation reaction in amphibole phenocrysts is controlled by energetic processes that cause crystal lattice damage or conditions that increase hydrogen diffusivity in magmatic phases. Amphibole phenocrysts separated from dacitic volcanic rocks erupted from 1980 to 1986 and in 2005 at Mount St. Helens (MSH) were analyzed for δD, water content and Fe3+/Fe2+, and fragments of glassy groundmass were analyzed for δD and water content. Changes in amphibole δD values through time are evaluated within the context of carefully observed volcanic eruption behavior and published petrological and geochemical investigations. Driving forces for amphibole dehydrogenation include increase in magma oxygen fugacity, decrease in amphibole hydrogen fugacity, or both. The phenocryst amphibole (δD value c. –57‰ and 2 wt % H2O) in the white fallout pumice of the May 18, 1980 plinian eruptive phase is probably little modified during rapid magma ascent up an ∼7 km conduit. Younger volcanic rocks incorporate some shallowly degassed dacitic magma from earlier pulses, based on amphibole phenocryst populations that exhibit varying degrees of dehydrogenation. Pyroclastic rocks from explosive eruptions in June–October 1980 have elevated abundances of mottled amphibole phenocrysts (peaking in some pyroclastic rocks erupted on July 22, 1980), and extensive amphibole dehydrogenation is linked to crystal damage from vesiculation and pyroclastic fountain collapse that increased effective hydrogen diffusion in amphibole. Multiple amphibole δD populations in many 1980 pyroclastic rocks combined with their groundmass characteristics (e.g. mixed pumice textures) support models of shallow mixing prior to, or during, eruption as new, volatile-rich magma pulses blended with more oxidized, degassed magma. Amphibole dehydrogenation is quenched at the top surface of MSH dacite lava lobes, but the diversity in the

  6. Radar interferometry observations of surface displacements during pre- and coeruptive periods at Mount St. Helens, Washington, 1992-2005: Chapter 18 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poland, Michael; Lu, Zhong; Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed hundreds of interferograms of Mount St. Helens produced from radar images acquired by the ERS-1/2, ENVISAT, and RADARSAT satellites during the 1992-2004 preeruptive and 2004-2005 coeruptive periods for signs of deformation associated with magmatic activity at depth. Individual interferograms were often contaminated by atmospheric delay anomalies; therefore, we employed stacking to amplify any deformation patterns that might exist while minimizing random noise. Preeruptive interferograms show no signs of volcanowide deformation between 1992 and the onset of eruptive activity in 2004. Several patches of subsidence in the 1980 debris-avalanche deposit were identified, however, and are thought to be caused by viscoelastic relaxation of loosely consolidated substrate, consolidation of water-saturated sediment, or melting of buried ice. Coeruptive interferometric stacks are dominated by atmospheric noise, probably because individual interferograms span only short time intervals in 2004 and 2005. Nevertheless, we are confident that at least one of the seven coeruptive stacks we constructed is reliable at about the 1-cm level. This stack suggests deflation of Mount St. Helens driven by contraction of a source beneath the volcano.

  7. Changes in seismic velocity during the first 14 months of the 2004–2008 eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hotovec-Ellis, A.J.; Vidale, J.E.; Gomberg, Joan S.; Thelen, Weston A.; Moran, Seth C.

    2015-01-01

    Mount St. Helens began erupting in late 2004 following an 18 year quiescence. Swarms of repeating earthquakes accompanied the extrusion of a mostly solid dacite dome over the next 4 years. In some cases the waveforms from these earthquakes evolved slowly, likely reflecting changes in the properties of the volcano that affect seismic wave propagation. We use coda-wave interferometry to quantify small changes in seismic velocity structure (usually <1%) between two similar earthquakes and employed waveforms from several hundred families of repeating earthquakes together to create a continuous function of velocity change observed at permanent stations operated within 20 km of the volcano. The high rate of earthquakes allowed tracking of velocity changes on an hourly time scale. Changes in velocity were largest near the newly extruding dome and likely related to shallow deformation as magma first worked its way to the surface. We found strong correlation between velocity changes and the inverse of real-time seismic amplitude measurements during the first 3 weeks of activity, suggesting that fluctuations of pressure in the shallow subsurface may have driven both seismicity and velocity changes. Velocity changes during the remainder of the eruption likely result from a complex interplay of multiple effects and are not well explained by any single factor alone, highlighting the need for complementary geophysical data when interpreting velocity changes.

  8. Synergistic use of Lagrangian dispersion modelling, satellite and surface remote sensing measurements for the investigation of volcanic plumes: the Mount Etna eruption of 25-27 October 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellitto, P.; di Sarra, A.; Corradini, S.; Boichu, M.; Herbin, H.; Dubuisson, P.; Sèze, G.; Meloni, D.; Monteleone, F.; Merucci, L.; Rusalem, J.; Salerno, G.; Briole, P.; Legras, B.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we combine SO2/ash plume dispersion modelling, satellite and surface remote sensing observations to study the regional influence of a relatively weak volcanic eruption from Mount Etna on the optical and micro-physical properties of Mediterranean aerosols. We analyse the Mount Etna eruption episode of 25-27 October 2013. The evolution of the plume along the trajectory is investigated by means of the FLEXPART (FLEXible PARTicle dispersion model) Lagrangian dispersion model. The satellite dataset includes true colour images, retrieved values of volcanic SO2 and ash, and estimates of SO2 and ash emission rates derived from MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) observations, and estimates of cloud top pressure from SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager). Surface remote sensing measurements of aerosol and SO2 made at the ENEA Station for Climate Observations (35.52° N, 12.63° E, 50 m a.s.l.) on the island of Lampedusa are used in the analysis. The combination of these different datasets suggests that SO2 and ash, despite the initial injection occurred at about 7.0 km altitude, reached altitudes around 10-12 km and influenced the aerosol size distribution at a distance more than 350 km downwind. This study indicates that even a relatively weak volcanic eruption may produce an observable effect on the aerosol properties at the regional scale. The impact of secondary sulphate particles on the aerosol size distribution at Lampedusa is discussed, and estimates of the clear sky direct aerosol radiative forcing are derived. Daily shortwave radiative forcing efficiencies are calculated with the LibRadtran model. They are estimated between -39 and -48 W m-2 AOD-1 at the top of the atmosphere, and between -66 and -49 W m-2 AOD-1, at the surface, with the variability in the estimates mainly depending on the aerosol single scattering albedo. These results suggest that sulphate particles played a large role, while the contribution by

  9. Land use cover changes and water quality of Cipunten Agung Watershed Banten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karima, Afifa; Leonardus Kaswanto, Regan

    2017-01-01

    In general, the land and natural resources utilization of Cipunteng Agung Watershed could be classified into protected and cultivated region. Based on satellite imagery classification, protected region covers 885.76 ha (22.71%), while cultivated region occupied 3,041.69 ha (77.29%) in 2011. It means that the land use and covers change (LUCC) to be cultivated rapidly increase. Those conditions had impacted positively to the local economy development, however it had negatively degrades water quality in Ciputen Agung river. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to analyze LUCC impacts to the water quality (WQ) in Cipunten Agung watershed. Supervised classification method and Water Pollution Index (WPI) approach were correlated to define the optimal solution to reduce the rate of LUCC. The result shows that area of cultivation tree and paddy field are higher than others in midstream, and settlement is higher in downstream, particularly at riparian landscapes. The concentration of total phospate, nitrite, and nitrate which indicated from agriculture land were complies with WPI class 2 until 4 standart. The rate of LUCC of Cipunten Agung watershed and the density of settlement are potential to be the driving factor of water quality degradation. Regional planning with ecology approach was recommended for sustainable development of Cipunten Agung Wateshed.

  10. Absolute and relative locations of earthquakes at Mount St. Helens, Washington, using continuous data: implications for magmatic processes: Chapter 4 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thelen, Weston A.; Crosson, Robert S.; Creager, Kenneth C.; Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    This study uses a combination of absolute and relative locations from earthquake multiplets to investigate the seismicity associated with the eruptive sequence at Mount St. Helens between September 23, 2004, and November 20, 2004. Multiplets, a prominent feature of seismicity during this time period, occurred as volcano-tectonic, hybrid, and low-frequency earthquakes spanning a large range of magnitudes and lifespans. Absolute locations were improved through the use of a new one-dimensional velocity model with excellent shallow constraints on P-wave velocities. We used jackknife tests to minimize possible biases in absolute and relative locations resulting from station outages and changing station configurations. In this paper, we show that earthquake hypocenters shallowed before the October 1 explosion along a north-dipping structure under the 1980-86 dome. Relative relocations of multiplets during the initial seismic unrest and ensuing eruption showed rather small source volumes before the October 1 explosion and larger tabular source volumes after October 5. All multiplets possess absolute locations very close to each other. However, the highly dissimilar waveforms displayed by each of the multiplets analyzed suggest that different sources and mechanisms were present within a very small source volume. We suggest that multiplets were related to pressurization of the conduit system that produced a stationary source that was highly stable over long time periods. On the basis of their response to explosions occurring in October 2004, earthquakes not associated with multiplets also appeared to be pressure dependent. The pressure source for these earthquakes appeared, however, to be different from the pressure source of the multiplets.

  11. Broadband characteristics of earthquakes recorded during a dome-building eruption at Mount St. Helens, Washington, between October 2004 and May 2005: Chapter 5 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horton, Stephen P.; Norris, Robert D.; Moran, Seth C.; Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    From October 2004 to May 2005, the Center for Earthquake Research and Information of the University of Memphis operated two to six broadband seismometers within 5 to 20 km of Mount St. Helens to help monitor recent seismic and volcanic activity. Approximately 57,000 earthquakes identified during the 7-month deployment had a normal magnitude distribution with a mean magnitude of 1.78 and a standard deviation of 0.24 magnitude units. Both the mode and range of earthquake magnitude and the rate of activity varied during the deployment. We examined the time domain and spectral characteristics of two classes of events seen during dome building. These include volcano-tectonic earthquakes and lower-frequency events. Lower-frequency events are further classified into hybrid earthquakes, low-frequency earthquakes, and long-duration volcanic tremor. Hybrid and low-frequency earthquakes showed a continuum of characteristics that varied systematically with time. A progressive loss of high-frequency seismic energy occurred in earthquakes as magma approached and eventually reached the surface. The spectral shape of large and small earthquakes occurring within days of each other did not vary with magnitude. Volcanic tremor events and lower-frequency earthquakes displayed consistent spectral peaks, although higher frequencies were more favorably excited during tremor than earthquakes.

  12. The initial giant umbrella cloud of the May 18th, 1980, explosive eruption of Mount St. Helens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparks, R.S.J.; Moore, J.G.; Rice, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    The initial eruption column of May 18th, 1980 reached nearly 30 km altitude and released 1017 joules of thermal energy into the atmosphere in only a few minutes. Ascent of the cloud resulted in forced intrusion of a giant umbrella-shaped cloud between altitudes of 10 and 20 km at radial horizontal velocities initially in excess of 50 m/s. The mushroom cloud expanded 15 km upwind, forming a stagnation point where the radial expansion velocity and wind velocity were equal. The cloud was initiated when the pyroclastic blast flow became buoyant. The flow reduced its density as it moved away from the volcano by decompression, by sedimentation, and by mixing with and heating the surrounding air. Observations indicate that much of the flow, covering an area of 600 km2, became buoyant within 1.5 minutes and abruptly ascended to form the giant cloud. Calculations are presented for the amount of air that must have been entrained into the flow to make it buoyant. Assuming an initial temperature of 450??C and a magmatic origin for the explosion, these calculations indicate that the flow became buoyant when its temperature was approximately 150??C and the flow consisted of a mixture of 3.25 ?? 1011 kg of pyroclasts and 5.0 ?? 1011 kg of air. If sedimentation is considered, these figures reduce to 1.1 ?? 1011 kg of pyroclasts and 1.0 ?? 1011 kg of air. ?? 1986.

  13. On the mechanism of explosive eruption of mount erebus volcano: the dynamics of the rupture structure in a cavitating layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bol'shakova, E. S.; Kedrinskiy, V. K.

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental simulation of rupture development in heavily cavitating magma melt flow in volcanic conduits and its effect on the structure of explosive volcanic eruptions. The dynamics of the state of a layer of distilled water (similar in the density of cavitation nuclei to magma melt) under shock-wave loading was studied. The experiments were performed using electromagnetic hydrodynamic shock tubes (EM HST) with maximum capacitor bank energy of up to 100 J and 5 kJ. It was found that the topology of the rupture formed on the membrane surface did not change during its development. Empirical estimates were obtained for the proportion of the capacitor bank energy expended in the development of the rupture and the characteristic time of its existence. The study revealed a number of fundamentally new physical effects in the cavity dynamics in a cavitating medium: a cavitation “boundary layer” is formed on the surface of the quasi-empty rupture, which is transformed into a cluster of high energy density upon closure of the flow.

  14. Phytoliths Used to Investigate the Effects of the Indonesian Mount Toba Super-Eruption (~75 kyr) in East Africa: A Subdecadal Record from Lake Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yost, C. L.; Cohen, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    The recent discovery of cryptotephra visually and chemically matched to the Youngest Toba Tuff (YTT, 75.0 ± 0.9 kyr) in Lake Malawi drill core sediments has spurred renewed interest in this period of time in East Africa. The YTT is the most recent and largest of the four Mount Toba eruptions, and is the only super-eruption to have taken place during the Quaternary. The timing of the YTT approximately coincides with a hypothesized human genetic bottleneck. Several climate models have proposed an episode of global cooling following the YTT; however, the magnitude and duration of the cooling is much debated, ranging from just a few degrees of cooling to a state of volcanic winter. Cored sediments from Lake Malawi provide an excellent record of local variability in the lake's watershed that may be linked to specific climatic events. To investigate the possible effects of the YTT in East Africa, we continuously sampled Lake Malawi drill core 2A-10H-2 at 2-4 mm (~6 yr) intervals above and below the first occurrence of the YTT. Poaceae phytoliths were grouped into plant functional types (C3, C4, xerophytic, mesophytic, arboreal, etc.), revealing mostly subtle changes in terrestrial vegetation over the ~400 yr time period examined. Abrupt increases in concentration values for phytoliths derived from riverine Podostemaceae plants appear to signal increased discharge from rivers draining the surrounding uplands. Perhaps most significant is the increasing trend in burned phytoliths and decreasing trend in tree phytoliths post-YTT. Although there appears to be a very weak cooling signal synchronous with the YTT, the most abrupt terrestrial vegetation changes appear to be better correlated with the deposition of a slightly older cryptotephra horizon derived from the local Rungwe Volcanic Province. A potential complication with this record is the existence of a turbidite pre-YTT that encompasses the Rungwe horizon.

  15. Analysis of long-period seismic waves excited by the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens: a terrestrial monopole

    SciTech Connect

    Kanamori, H.; Given, J.W.

    1982-07-10

    Long-period (100 to 260 s) Love and Rayleigh waves excited by the eruption of Mount St. Helens on May 18, 1980, and recorded by ID, SRO, and ASRO stations were analyzed to determine the mechanism of the eruption. The amplitude radiation patterns of both Rayleigh and Love waves are two lobed with nodal direction in E5/sup 0/S for Rayleigh waves and in N5/sup 0/E for Love waves. These radiation patterns preclude any double-couple mechanism. The radiation pattern, the initial phase, the relatively large amplitude ratio of Love to Rayleigh waves and the existence of clear nodes in the radiation patterns of fundamental mode and higher-mode Rayleigh waves suggest that the source is represented by an almost horizontal (less than 15/sup 0/ from the horizontal) single force pointed toward S5/sup 0/W. The surface wave spectra fall off very rapidly at periods shorter than 75 s suggesting a very slow source process. Although the details of the source time history could not be determined, a smooth bell-shaped time function: f/sub 0/s(t) = (1/2)f/sub 0/(1-cos( (t)/(tau) ..pi..)) for 0< or =t< or =2tau and f/sub 0/s(t) = 0 for t> or =2tau, with tau = 75 s is considered appropriate on the basis of comparison between synthetic and observed seismograms and of the shape of the source spectrum. The peak value of the force f/sub 0/ is about 10/sup 18/ dynes. The tailing end of the source time function could not be resolved, and some overshoot may be added. The magnitude and the time history of the force can be explained by a northward landslide followed by a lateral blast observed at the time of the eruption. Two distinct events about 110 apart can be identified on body wave and short-period surface wave records. The first event may correspond to the earthquake which triggered the landslide and the lateral blast. The second event appears to correspond to a second large earthquake and explosion which took place about 2 minutes after the first earthquake.

  16. Patterns of earthquakes and the effect of solid earth and ocean load tides at Mount St. Helens prior to the May 18, 1980, eruption

    SciTech Connect

    McNutt, S.R.; Beavan, R.J.

    1984-05-10

    Seismographs near Mount St. Helens Volcano recorded an earthquake swarm lasting nearly 2 months prior to the May 18, 1980, eruption. The earthquakes are divided into four classes based on station CPW (..delta.. = 116 km) seismogram characteristics: (1) events with Sv:P amplitude ratio > 3 and dominant frequency > 3 Hz; (2) events with Sv:P ratio between 1 and 3 and dominant frequency > 2 Hz; (3) events similar to characteristic 2 but with a strong (probably surface wave) phase just after the S phase; and (4) events with frequencies between 1 and 2 Hz lacking a clear S phase. The seismicity pattern for each of the four classes is unique. Solid earth stress and strain tides were calculated at the average hypocentral depth of 4 km. Stress and strain tides induced by ocean loading were also calculated; their amplitudes are typically 20-40% those of the solid earth tides at the location of Mount St. Helens. A weak but significant correlation exists between the latter two classes of events and the tides for a time interval of about 5 days preceding the first onset of volcanic tremor and about 5 days thereafter. The polarity of the correlation is opposite for the two classes of events. In each case, the phase of the correlation changes systematically with time, the changes coinciding with the onset of tremor on March 31 and with a pronounced decrease in earthquake energy release rate on April 3. There are no significant correlations between the tides and the number of events or energy release of these two classes of earthquakes during any other interval between March 20 and May 18, 1980. The first two classes of events show no evidence of significant tidal correlation at any time during the study period. 20 references, 8 figures, 2 tables.

  17. Channel geometry and hydrologic data for six eruption-affected tributaries of the Lewis River, Mount St. Helens, Washington, water years 1983-84

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martinson, H.A.; Hammond, H.E.; Mast, W.W.; Mango, P.D.

    1986-01-01

    The May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens generated a lateral blast, lahars, and tephra deposits that altered stream channels in the Lewis River drainage basin. In order to assess potential flood hazards, monitor channel adjustments, and construct a sediment budget for disturbed drainages on the east and southeast flanks of the volcano, channel cross sections were monumented and surveyed on Pine Creek, Muddy River, and Smith Creek during September and October of 1980. Additional cross sections were monumented and surveyed on Swift Creek, Bean Creek , and Clearwater Creek during 1981. This network of channel cross sections has been resurveyed annually. Selected cross sections have been surveyed more frequently, following periods of higher flow. Longitudinal stream profiles of the low-water thalweg and (or) water surfaces were surveyed periodically for selected short reaches of channel. Corresponding map views for these reaches were constructed using the survey data and aerial photographs. This report presents plots of channel cross-section profiles, longitudinal stream profiles, and channel maps constructed from survey data collected during water years 1983-84. (USGS)

  18. Self-similar rupture implied by scaling properties of volcanic earthquakes occurring during the 2004-2008 eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrington, Rebecca M.; Kwiatek, Grzegorz; Moran, Seth C.

    2015-01-01

    We analyze a group of 6073 low-frequency earthquakes recorded during a week-long temporary deployment of broadband seismometers at distances of less than 3 km from the crater at Mount St. Helens in September of 2006. We estimate the seismic moment (M0) and spectral corner frequency (f0) using a spectral ratio approach for events with a high signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio that have a cross-correlation coefficient of 0.8 or greater with at least five other events. A cluster analysis of cross-correlation values indicates that the group of 421 events meeting the SNR and cross-correlation criteria forms eight event families that exhibit largely self-similar scaling. We estimate the M0 and f0 values of the 421 events and calculate their static stress drop and scaled energy (ER/M0) values. The estimated values suggest self-similar scaling within families, as well as between five of eight families (i.e.,  and  constant). We speculate that differences in scaled energy values for the two families with variable scaling may result from a lack of resolution in the velocity model. The observation of self-similar scaling is the first of its kind for such a large group of low-frequency volcanic tectonic events occurring during a single active dome extrusion eruption.

  19. Self-similar rupture implied by scaling properties of volcanic earthquakes occurring during the 2004-2008 eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Rebecca M.; Kwiatek, Grzegorz; Moran, Seth C.

    2015-07-01

    We analyze a group of 6073 low-frequency earthquakes recorded during a week-long temporary deployment of broadband seismometers at distances of less than 3 km from the crater at Mount St. Helens in September of 2006. We estimate the seismic moment (M0) and spectral corner frequency (f0) using a spectral ratio approach for events with a high signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio that have a cross-correlation coefficient of 0.8 or greater with at least five other events. A cluster analysis of cross-correlation values indicates that the group of 421 events meeting the SNR and cross-correlation criteria forms eight event families that exhibit largely self-similar scaling. We estimate the M0 and f0 values of the 421 events and calculate their static stress drop and scaled energy (ER/M0) values. The estimated values suggest self-similar scaling within families, as well as between five of eight families (i.e., M0∝f0-3 and ER/M0∝ constant). We speculate that differences in scaled energy values for the two families with variable scaling may result from a lack of resolution in the velocity model. The observation of self-similar scaling is the first of its kind for such a large group of low-frequency volcanic tectonic events occurring during a single active dome extrusion eruption.

  20. Dynamics of seismogenic volcanic extrusion resisted by a solid surface plug, Mount St. Helens, 2004-2005: Chapter 21 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iverson, Richard M.; Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    The 2004-5 eruption of Mount St. Helens exhibited sustained, near-equilibrium behavior characterized by nearly steady extrusion of a solid dacite plug and nearly periodic occurrence of shallow earthquakes. Diverse data support the hypothesis that these earthquakes resulted from stick-slip motion along the margins of the plug as it was forced incrementally upward by ascending, solidifying, gas-poor magma. I formalize this hypothesis with a mathematical model derived by assuming that magma enters the base of the eruption conduit at a steady rate, invoking conservation of mass and momentum of the magma and plug, and postulating simple constitutive equations that describe magma and conduit compressibilities and friction along the plug margins. Reduction of the model equations reveals a strong mathematical analogy between the dynamics of the magma-plug system and those of a variably damped oscillator. Oscillations in extrusion velocity result from the interaction of plug inertia, a variable upward force due to magma pressure, and a downward force due to the plug weight. Damping of oscillations depends mostly on plug-boundary friction, and oscillations grow unstably if friction exhibits rate weakening similar to that observed in experiments. When growth of oscillations causes the extrusion rate to reach zero, however, gravity causes friction to reverse direction, and this reversal instigates a transition from unstable oscillations to self-regulating stick-slip cycles. The transition occurs irrespective of the details of rate-weakening behavior, and repetitive stick-slip cycles are, therefore, robust features of the system’s dynamics. The presence of a highly compressible elastic driving element (that is, magma containing bubbles) appears crucial for enabling seismogenic slip events to occur repeatedly at the shallow earthquake focal depths (8 N. These results imply that the system’s self-regulating behavior is not susceptible to dramatic change--provided that the

  1. Use of digital aerophotogrammetry to determine rates of lava dome growth, Mount St. Helens, Washington, 2004-2005: Chapter 8 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, Steve P.; Thompson, Ren A.; Messerich, James A.; Iwatsubo, Eugene Y.; Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    Successful application of aerophotogrammetry was possible during the critical earliest parts of the eruption because we had baseline data and photogrammetric infrastructure in place before the eruption began. The vertical aerial photographs, including the DEMs and calculations derived from them, were one of the most widely used data sets collected during the 2004-5 eruption, as evidenced in numerous contributions to this volume. These data were used to construct photogeologic maps, deformation vector fields, and profiles of the evolving dome and glacier. Extruded volumes and rates proved to be critical parameters to constrain models and hypotheses of eruption dynamics and thus helped to assess volcano hazards.

  2. Interrelations among pyroclastic surge, pyroclastic flow, and lahars in Smith Creek valley during first minutes of 18 May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brantley, S.R.; Waitt, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    A devastating pyroclastic surge and resultant lahars at Mount St. Helens on 18 May 1980 produced several catastrophic flowages into tributaries on the northeast volcano flank. The tributaries channeled the flows to Smith Creek valley, which lies within the area devastated by the surge but was unaffected by the great debris avalanche on the north flank. Stratigraphy shows that the pyroclastic surge preceded the lahars; there is no notable "wet" character to the surge deposits. Therefore the lahars must have originated as snowmelt, not as ejected water-saturated debris that segregated from the pyroclastic surge as has been inferred for other flanks of the volcano. In stratigraphic order the Smith Creek valley-floor materials comprise (1) a complex valley-bottom facies of the pyroclastic surge and a related pyroclastic flow, (2) an unusual hummocky diamict caused by complex mixing of lahars with the dry pyroclastic debris, and (3) deposits of secondary pyroclastic flows. These units are capped by silt containing accretionary lapilli, which began falling from a rapidly expanding mushroom-shaped cloud 20 minutes after the eruption's onset. The Smith Creek valley-bottom pyroclastic facies consists of (a) a weakly graded basal bed of fines-poor granular sand, the deposit of a low-concentration lithic pyroclastic surge, and (b) a bed of very poorly sorted pebble to cobble gravel inversely graded near its base, the deposit of a high-concentration lithic pyroclastic flow. The surge apparently segregated while crossing the steep headwater tributaries of Smith Creek; large fragments that settled from the turbulent surge formed a dense pyroclastic flow along the valley floor that lagged behind the front of the overland surge. The unusual hummocky diamict as thick as 15 m contains large lithic clasts supported by a tough, brown muddy sand matrix like that of lahar deposits upvalley. This unit contains irregular friable lenses and pods meters in diameter, blocks incorporated from

  3. Interrelations among pyroclastic surge, pyroclastic flow, and lahars in Smith Creek valley during first minutes of 18 May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brantley, Steven R.; Waitt, Richard B.

    1988-09-01

    A devastating pyroclastic surge and resultant lahars at Mount St. Helens on 18 May 1980 produced several catastrophic flowages into tributaries on the northeast volcano flank. The tributaries channeled the flows to Smith Creek valley, which lies within the area devastated by the surge but was unaffected by the great debris avalanche on the north flank. Stratigraphy shows that the pyroclastic surge preceded the lahars; there is no notable “wet” character to the surge deposits. Therefore the lahars must have originated as snowmelt, not as ejected water-saturated debris that segregated from the pyroclastic surge as has been inferred for other flanks of the volcano. In stratigraphic order the Smith Creek valley-floor materials comprise (1) a complex valley-bottom facies of the pyroclastic surge and a related pyroclastic flow, (2) an unusual hummocky diamict caused by complex mixing of lahars with the dry pyroclastic debris, and (3) deposits of secondary pyroclastic flows. These units are capped by silt containing accretionary lapilli, which began falling from a rapidly expanding mushroom-shaped cloud 20 minutes after the eruption's onset. The Smith Creek valley-bottom pyroclastic facies consists of (a) a weakly graded basal bed of fines-poor granular sand, the deposit of a low-concentration lithic pyroclastic surge, and (b) a bed of very poorly sorted pebble to cobble gravel inversely graded near its base, the deposit of a high-concentration lithic pyroclastic flow. The surge apparently segregated while crossing the steep headwater tributaries of Smith Creek; large fragments that settled from the turbulent surge formed a dense pyroclastic flow along the valley floor that lagged behind the front of the overland surge. The unusual hummocky diamict as thick as 15 m contains large lithic clasts supported by a tough, brown muddy sand matrix like that of lahar deposits upvalley. This unit contains irregular friable lenses and pods meters in diameter, blocks incorporated

  4. Do volcanic eruptions affect climate? Sulfur gases may cause cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Self, Stephen; Rampino, Michael R.

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between volcanic eruptions on earth and the observed climatic changes is investigated. The results of the comparison and analyses of volcanologic and climatologic data sets for the years between 1880 and 1980 indicate that changes in temperature caused by even of the largest eruptions recorded during this time were about the same as normal variations in temperature. However, when temperature records for several months or years preceding and following a given eruption were analyzed, a statistically significant temperature decrease of 0.2-0.5 C was found for the periods of one to two years immediately following some of the 19th and 20th century explosive events that prodiced large aerosol clouds (e.g., Krakatau and Agung eruptions). It is suggested that the content of sulfur in the erupted magma determines the size of aerosol cloud producing the cooling effect.

  5. Instrumentation in remote and dangerous settings; examples using data from GPS “spider” deployments during the 2004-2005 eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington: Chapter 16 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaHusen, Richard G.; Swinford, Kelly J.; Logan, Matthew; Lisowski, Michael; Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    Self-contained, single-frequency GPS instruments fitted on lightweight stations suitable for helicopter-sling payloads became a critical part of volcano monitoring during the September 2004 unrest and subsequent eruption of Mount St. Helens. Known as “spiders” because of their spindly frames, the stations were slung into the crater 29 times from September 2004 to December 2005 when conditions at the volcano were too dangerous for crews to install conventional equipment. Data were transmitted in near-real time to the Cascades Volcano Observatory in Vancouver, Washington. Each fully equipped unit cost about $2,500 in materials and, if not destroyed by natural events, was retrieved and redeployed as needed. The GPS spiders have been used to track the growth and decay of extruding dacite lava (meters per day), thickening and accelerated flow of Crater Glacier (meters per month), and movement of the 1980-86 dome from pressure and relaxation of the newly extruding lava dome (centimeters per day).

  6. Contrasting styles of Mount Vesuvius activity in the period between the Avellino and Pompeii Plinian eruptions, and some implications for assessment of future hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronico, Daniele; Cioni, Raffaello

    2002-09-01

    Intense explosive activity occurred repeatedly at Vesuvius during the nearly 1,600-year period between the two Plinian eruptions of Avellino (3.5 ka) and Pompeii (79 A.D.). By correlating stratigraphic sections from more than 40 sites around the volcano, we identify the deposits of six main eruptions (AP1-AP6) and of some minor intervening events. Several deposits can be traced up to 20 km from the vent. Their stratigraphic and dispersal features suggest the prevalence of two main contrasting eruptive styles, each involving a complex relationship between magmatic and phreatomagmatic phases. The two main eruption styles are (1) sub-Plinian to phreato-Plinian events (AP1 and AP2 members), where deposits consist of pumice and scoria fall layers alternating with fine-grained, vesiculated, accretionary lapilli-bearing ashes; and (2) mixed, violent Strombolian to Vulcanian events (AP3-AP6 members), which deposited a complex sequence of fallout, massive to thinly stratified, scoria-bearing lapilli layers and fine ash beds. Morphology and density variations of the juvenile fragments confirm the important role played by magma-water interaction in the eruptive dynamics. The mean composition of the ejected material changes with time, and shows a strong correlation with vent position and eruption style. The ranges of intensity and magnitude of these events, derived by estimations of peak column height and volume of the ejecta, are significantly smaller than the values for the better known Plinian and sub-Plinian eruptions of Vesuvius, enlarging the spectrum of the possible eruptive scenarios at Vesuvius, useful in the assessment of its potential hazard.

  7. Possible effects of volcanic eruptions on stratospheric minor constituent chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarski, R. S.; Butler, D. M.

    1979-01-01

    Although stratosphere penetrating volcanic eruptions have been infrequent during the last half century, periods have existed in the last several hundred years when such eruptions were significantly more frequent. Several mechanisms exist for these injections to affect stratospheric minor constituent chemistry, both on the long-term average and for short-term perturbations. These mechanisms are reviewed and, because of the sensitivity of current models of stratospheric ozone to chlorine perturbations, quantitative estimates are made of chlorine injection rates. It is found that, if chlorine makes up as much as 0.5 to 1% of the gases released and if the total gases released are about the same magnitude as the fine ash, then a major stratosphere penetrating eruption could deplete the ozone column by several percent. The estimate for the Agung eruption of 1963 is just under 1% an amount not excluded by the ozone record but complicated by the peak in atmospheric nuclear explosions at about the same time.

  8. Modeling of the thermal state of Mount Vesuvius from 1631 A.D. to present and the role of CO2 degassing on the volcanic conduit closure after the 1944 A.D. eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quareni, Francesca; Moretti, Roberto; Piochi, Monica; Chiodini, Giovanni

    2007-03-01

    The last eruptive event at Mount Vesuvius occurred in 1944 A.D., ending a cycle of continuous eruptive activity started with the sub-Plinian event of 1631 A.D. The aim of this research is (1) to model the thermal evolution of the volcanic system from 1631 A.D. up to the present and (2) to investigate the possible process leading the volcano to the current state of quiescence. A finite element software is employed to solve the time-dependent energy equation and obtain the thermal field in the volcanic edifice and the surrounding medium. Volcanological, petrological, and geophysical constraints are used to define the crustal structure beneath the volcanic edifice, the magma supply system active since 1631 A.D., and the physico-chemical conditions of magma. Thermodynamic properties of magma and wall rocks have been evaluated from well-established thermo-chemical compilations and data from the literature. It is shown that heat transfer due to magma degassing is required in addition to the heat conduction in order to obtain transient depth-temperature fields consistent with geochemical observations, high crustal magnetization, and rigid behavior of the shallow crust as indicated by geophysical data. Surface data of carbon dioxide soil flux coming out from the Mount Vesuvius crater are taken to constrain such an additional heat flux. The agreement between modeled and measured temperatures at the crater since 1944 A.D. proves the consistency of the model. It is concluded that the present state of quiescence of Mount Vesuvius is mostly a consequence of the absence of magma supply from the deep reservoir into the shallower system. This allows the cooling of residual magma left within the volcanic conduit and the transition from continuous eruptive activity to the condition of conduit obstruction. In this scenario, the hydrothermal system may have developed subsequent to the cooling of the magma within the conduit. Our findings are a direct consequence of the high

  9. Rebuilding Mount St. Helens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, Steve P.; Ramsey, David W.; Messerich, James A.; Thompson, Ren A.

    2006-01-01

    On May 18, 1980, Mount St. Helens, Washington exploded in a spectacular and devastating eruption that shocked the world. The eruption, one of the most powerful in the history of the United States, removed 2.7 cubic kilometers of rock from the volcano's edifice, the bulk of which had been constructed by nearly 4,000 years of lava-dome-building eruptions. In seconds, the mountain's summit elevation was lowered from 2,950 meters to 2,549 meters, leaving a north-facing, horseshoe-shaped crater over 2 kilometers wide. Following the 1980 eruption, Mount St. Helens remained active. A large lava dome began episodically extruding in the center of the volcano's empty crater. This dome-building eruption lasted until 1986 and added about 80 million cubic meters of rock to the volcano. During the two decades following the May 18, 1980 eruption, Crater Glacier formed tongues of ice around the east and west sides of the lava dome in the deeply shaded niche between the lava dome and the south crater wall. Long the most active volcano in the Cascade Range with a complex 300,000-year history, Mount St. Helens erupted again in the fall of 2004 as a new period of dome building began within the 1980 crater. Between October 2004 and February 2006, about 80 million cubic meters of dacite lava erupted immediately south of the 1980-86 lava dome. The erupting lava separated the glacier into two parts, first squeezing the east arm of the glacier against the east crater wall and then causing equally spectacular crevassing and broad uplift of the glacier's west arm. Vertical aerial photographs document dome growth and glacier deformation. These photographs enabled photogrammetric construction of a series of high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) showing changes from October 4, 2004 to February 9, 2006. From the DEMs, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications were used to estimate extruded volumes and growth rates of the new lava dome. The DEMs were also used to quantify dome

  10. Fine Resolution Analysis of Lake Malawi Sediment Record Shows No Significant Climatic Impacts from the Mount Toba Super-Eruption of ~75ky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, L. J.; Stone, J.; Cohen, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    Debate over long, and short-term climatic impacts of the Mt. Toba super-eruption circa 75ky is often focused on East Africa. A severe drop in anatomically modern human populations has been hypothesized to be synchronous with a volcanic winter caused by the Toba super-eruption. If the Toba eruption caused a volcanic winter in East Africa, climatologically-sensitive ecosystems, such as Lake Malawi and its immediate watershed should show a direct and observable response in the sediment record. Cooler temperatures would cause a reduction of density contrast between epilimnion and hypolimnion waters, allowing for increased mixing and oxygenation of normally anoxic bottom waters. Enhanced mixing would cause noticeable changes in lake fly and algal communities. Cooler temperatures might also affect precipitation and the fire regime in the surrounding watershed. We analyzed two Lake Malawi cores at the finest practical resolution. Core 2A-10H-2 was analyzed in less than 6-year intervals and core 1C-8H-1 in 7-year intervals surrounding the Youngest Toba Tephra (YTT) for microfaunal abundance and variability, sediment composition, and evidence of changes in the occurrence of fires or watershed precipitation. Our analysis included point counts of diatoms and other algae, lake flies, charcoal, and siliciclastics. Changes in microfossil assemblage, variability, and abundance, as well as sediment composition around the YTT in Core 2A and 1C do not indicate that increased mixing or cooler temperatures occurred in either the central or northern basins of Lake Malawi. Similarly, charcoal counts do not suggest a change in fire regime. Our results indicate that at a subdecadal scale there was no substantial response in Lake Malawi or its immediate watershed to the Mt. Toba super-eruption, in contrast to predictions from the volcanic winter hypothesis.

  11. Mass-independent sulfur isotopic compositions in stratospheric volcanic eruptions.

    PubMed

    Baroni, Mélanie; Thiemens, Mark H; Delmas, Robert J; Savarino, Joël

    2007-01-05

    The observed mass-independent sulfur isotopic composition (Delta33S) of volcanic sulfate from the Agung (March 1963) and Pinatubo (June 1991) eruptions recorded in the Antarctic snow provides a mechanism for documenting stratospheric events. The sign of Delta33S changes over time from an initial positive component to a negative value. Delta33S is created during photochemical oxidation of sulfur dioxide to sulfuric acid on a monthly time scale, which indicates a fast process. The reproducibility of the results reveals that Delta33S is a reliable tracer to chemically identify atmospheric processes involved during stratospheric volcanism.

  12. The ISA-MIP Historical Eruption SO2 Emissions Assessment (HErSEA): an intercomparison for interactive stratospheric aerosol models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Graham; Dhomse, Sandip; Sheng, Jianxiong; Mills, Mike

    2016-04-01

    Major historical volcanic eruptions have injected huge amounts of sulphur dioxide into the stratosphere with observations showing an enhancement of the stratospheric aerosol layer for several years (ASAP, 2006). Such long-lasting increases in stratospheric aerosol loading cool the Earth's surface by scattering incoming solar radiation and warm the stratosphere via absorption of near infra-red solar and long-wave terrestrial radiation with complex effects on climate (e.g. Robock, 2000). Two recent modelling studies of Mount Pinatubo (Dhomse et al., 2014; Sheng et al. 2015) have highlighted that observations suggest the sulphur loading of the volcanically enhanced stratospheric aerosol may have been considerably lower than suggested by measurements of the injected SO2. This poster describes a new model intercomparison activity "ISA-MIP" for interactive stratospheric aerosol models within the framework of the SPARC initiative on Stratospheric Sulphur and its Role in Climate (SSiRC). The new "Historical Eruption SO2 emissions Assessment" (HErSEA) will intercompare model simulations of the three largest volcanic perturbations to the stratosphere in the last 50 years, 1963 Mt Agung, 1982 El Chichon and 1991 Mt Pinatubo. The aim is to assess how effectively the emitted SO2 translates into perturbations to stratospheric aerosol properties and simulated radiative forcings in different composition-climate models with interactive stratospheric aerosol (ISA). Each modelling group will run a mini-ensemble of transient AMIP-type runs for the 3 eruptions with a control no-eruption run followed by upper and lower bound injection amount estimates and 3 different injection height settings for two shallow (e.g. 19-21km amd 23-25km) and one deep (e.g. 19-25km) injection. First order analysis will intercompare stratospheric aerosol metrics such as 2D-monthly AOD(550nm, 1020nm) and timeseries of tropical and NH/SH mid-visible extinction at three different models levels (15, 20 and 25km

  13. High-resolution 40Ar/39Ar study of Mount Avital, northern Golan: reconstructing the interaction between volcanism and a drainage system and their impact on eruptive styles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, Yishai; Weinberger, Ram; Calvert, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    We present a high-resolution 40Ar/39Ar data set of a volcanic complex at Mt. Avital, northern Golan, which experienced a transition from strombolian to phreatomagmatic activity. Previous studies attributed this transition to a change in the drainage basin of a nearby stream due to the damming by a lava flow, which resulted in flooding of the eruption site. In this study we determined the age of different volcanic phases and events in the history of Mt. Avital, as well as that of the damming flow, and examined the cause of the transition in light of the new 40Ar/39Ar ages. The 40Ar/39Ar results show that the history of Mt. Avital includes two main phases of volcanic activity, an early phase at ca. 800-600 ka and a late phase at 120-95 ka. Most of the activity of the late phase was continuous (within the 40Ar/39Ar error), including the transition to phreatomagmatic explosions, which occurred sometime between 115-107 ka, probably between 115-113 ka. The age of the damming flow is 115.6 ± 3.1 ka, which suggests that the volcanic activity immediately reacted to the change in the drainage basin dynamics. The activity culminated with lava flow eruptions, the latest at 100 ± 4 ka, either due to the establishment of the tuff ring levees, which prevented access of water to the eruption site, or due to the migration of activity to the northern part and then to the southern part of the complex.

  14. History and hazards of Mount Rainier, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sisson, Thomas W.

    1995-01-01

    Mount Rainier is an active volcano that first erupted about half a million years ago. Because of Rainier's great height (14,410 feet above sea level) and northerly location, glaciers have cut deeply into its lavas, making it appear deceptively older than it actually is. Mount Rainier is known to have erupted as recently as in the 1840s, and large eruptions took place as recently as about 1,000 and 2,300 years ago.

  15. Volcanic hazards at Mount Shasta, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crandell, Dwight R.; Nichols, Donald R.

    1989-01-01

    The eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Washington, in 1980 served as a reminder that long-dormant volcanoes can come to life again. Those eruptions, and their effects on people and property, also showed the value of having information about volcanic hazards well in advance of possible volcanic activity. This pamphlet about Mount Shasta provides such information for the public, even though the next eruption may still be far in the future.

  16. High-resolution remote sensing data to monitor active volcanic areas: an application to the 2011-2015 eruptive activity of Mount Etna (Italy) (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsella, Maria

    2016-10-01

    In volcanic areas, where it could be difficult to gain access to the most critical zones for carrying out direct surveys, remote sensing proved to have remarkable potentialities to follow the evolution of lava flow, as well as to detect slope instability processes induced by volcanic activity. By exploiting SAR and optical data a methodology for observing and quantifying eruptive processes was developed. The approach integrates HR optical images and SAR interferometric products and can optimize the observational capability of standard surveillance activities based on in-situ video camera network. A dedicated tool for mapping the evolution of the lava field, using both ground-based and satellite data, was developed and tested to map lava flows during the 2011-2015 eruptive activities. Ground based data were collected using the permanent ground NEtwork of Thermal and VIsible Sensors located on Mt. Etna (Etna_NETVIS) and allowed to downscale the information derived from satellite data and to integrate the satellite datasets in case of incomplete coverage or missing acquisitions. This work was developed in the framework of the EU-FP7 project "MED-SUV" (MEDiterranean SUpersite Volcanoes).

  17. Synergistic use of Lagrangian dispersion and radiative transfer modelling with satellite and surface remote sensing measurements for the investigation of volcanic plumes: the Mount Etna eruption of 25-27 October 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellitto, Pasquale; di Sarra, Alcide; Corradini, Stefano; Boichu, Marie; Herbin, Hervé; Dubuisson, Philippe; Sèze, Geneviève; Meloni, Daniela; Monteleone, Francesco; Merucci, Luca; Rusalem, Justin; Salerno, Giuseppe; Briole, Pierre; Legras, Bernard

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we combine SO2 and ash plume dispersion modelling with satellite and surface remote sensing observations to study the regional influence of a relatively weak volcanic eruption from Mount Etna on the optical and micro-physical properties of Mediterranean aerosols. We analyse the Mount Etna eruption episode of 25-27 October 2013. The evolution of the plume along the trajectory is investigated by means of the FLEXible PARTicle Lagrangian dispersion (FLEXPART) model. The satellite data set includes true colour images, retrieved values of volcanic SO2 and ash, estimates of SO2 and ash emission rates derived from MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) observations and estimates of cloud top pressure from SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager). Surface remote sensing measurements of aerosol and SO2 made at the ENEA Station for Climate Observations (35.52° N, 12.63° E; 50 m a.s.l.) on the island of Lampedusa are used in the analysis. The combination of these different data sets suggests that SO2 and ash, despite the initial injection at about 7.0 km altitude, reached altitudes around 10-12 km and influenced the column average aerosol particle size distribution at a distance of more than 350 km downwind. This study indicates that even a relatively weak volcanic eruption may produce an observable effect on the aerosol properties at the regional scale. The impact of secondary sulfate particles on the aerosol size distribution at Lampedusa is discussed and estimates of the clear-sky direct aerosol radiative forcing are derived. Daily shortwave radiative forcing efficiencies, i.e. radiative forcing per unit AOD (aerosol optical depth), are calculated with the LibRadtran model. They are estimated between -39 and -48 W m-2 AOD-1 at the top of the atmosphere and between -66 and -49 W m-2 AOD-1 at the surface, with the variability in the estimates mainly depending on the aerosol single scattering albedo. These results suggest that

  18. Extrusion rate of the Mount St. Helens lava dome estimated from terrestrial imagery, November 2004-December 2005: Chapter 12 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Major, Jon J.; Kingsbury, Cole G.; Poland, Michael P.; LaHusen, Richard G.; Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    Oblique, terrestrial imagery from a single, fixed-position camera was used to estimate linear extrusion rates during sustained exogenous growth of the Mount St. Helens lava dome from November 2004 through December 2005. During that 14-month period, extrusion rates declined logarithmically from about 8-10 m/d to about 2 m/d. The overall ebbing of effusive output was punctuated, however, by episodes of fluctuating extrusion rates that varied on scales of days to weeks. The overall decline of effusive output and finer scale rate fluctuations correlated approximately with trends in seismicity and deformation. Those correlations portray an extrusion that underwent episodic, broad-scale stick-slip behavior superposed on the finer scale, smaller magnitude stick-slip behavior that has been hypothesized by other researchers to correlate with repetitive, nearly periodic shallow earthquakes.

  19. Growth of the 2004-2006 lava-dome complex at Mount St. Helens, Washington: Chapter 9 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vallance, James W.; Schneider, David J.; Schilling, Steve P.; Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    The chief near-surface controls on spine extrusion during 2004-6 have been vent location, relict topographic surfaces from the 1980s, and spine remnants emplaced previously during the present eruption. In contrast, glacier ice has had minimal influence on spine growth. Ice as thick as 150 m has prevented formation of marginal angle-of-repose talus fans but has not provided sufficient resistance to stop spine growth or slow it appreciably. Spines initially emerged along a relict south-facing slope as steep as 40° on the 1980s dome. The open space of the moat between that dome and the crater walls permitted initial southward migration of recumbent spines. An initial spine impinged on the opposing slopes of the crater and stopped; in contrast, recumbent whaleback spines of phase 3 impinged on opposing walls of the crater at oblique angles and rotated eastward before breaking up. Once spine remnants occupied all available open space to the south, spines thrust over previous remnants. Finally, with south and east portions of the moat filled, spine growth proceeded westward. Although Crater Glacier had only a small influence on the growing spines, spine growth affected the glacier dramatically, initially dividing it into two arms and then bulldozing it hundreds of meters, first east and then west, and heaping it more than 100 m higher than its original altitude.

  20. Chemistry, mineralogy, and petrology of amphibole in Mount St. Helens 2004-2006 dacite: Chapter 32 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thornber, Carl R.; Pallister, John S.; Lowers, Heather; Rowe, Michael C.; Mandeville, Charles W.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    Decompression-related reaction rims around subhedral, rounded, resorbed, and fragmented amphibole phenocrysts, regardless of composition, indicate that this mixed-crystal assemblage was being broken, abraded, and dissolved in the magma as a result of mechanical mixing before and during early stages of ascent from conduit roots extending into a mushy cupola of the shallow reservoir. In the earliest lava samples (October 2004), amphiboles with <3-μm rims associated with a glassier matrix than later samples suggest a slightly faster ascent rate consistent with the relatively high eruptive flux of the earliest phases of dome extrusion. Reaction rim widths of ~5 μm on amphibole in all subsequently extruded lava result from a steady influx and upward transport of magma from 3.5-2.5-km to ~1-km depth at rates of ~600 to ~1,200 m/day, through a conduit less than 10 m in radius. Slower ascent rates inferred from volumetric-flux and matrixcrystallization parameters are explained by a widening of the conduit to greater than 60 m radius within 1 km of the surface.

  1. Magmatic conditions and processes in the storage zone of the 2004-2006 Mount St. Helens dacite: Chapter 31 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rutherford, Malcom J.; Devine, Joseph D.; Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    O2 values of NNO +1 log unit. Magnetite compositions suggest that the 2004-6 magma was formed by mingling of magmas less than 5-8 weeks before eruption and that the magma last equilibrated within this temperature range. The amphibole phenocryst zoning involves approximately equal amounts of a pressure-sensitive Al-Tschermak molecular substitution and a temperature-sensitive edenite substitution in one cycle of growth. Hydrothermal experiments done on the natural dacite show that crystallization of the Fe- and Al-rich amphibole end member requires pressures of 200-300 MPa at temperatures of 900°C, conditions approaching the upper temperature limit of amphibole stability. The dacitic magma crystallizes the An68 plagioclase when the pressure drops to 200 MPa at 900°C. The magma must cool at this depth to produce a complete An68-An40 plagioclase zone and a Mg-rich layer on the amphiboles before the magma is cycled back to a high pressure, when a new layer of Fe-rich amphibole is acquired. The amphibole crystallizing in the dacite experiments at less than 200 MPa is lower in aluminum than any compositions in the natural cyclically zoned phenocrysts. The outer rim on some 2004-6 amphibole phenocrysts appears to have formed in the 100-200 MPa range, as do some phenocrysts in the May 1980 dacite pumice. Plagioclase rims of An35 in the 2004-6 magmas indicate that phenocryst growth continued until the pressure decreased to 130 MPa and that ascent was slow until this depth. Magma then entered the conduit for a relatively rapid ascent to the surface as indicated by the very thin (less than 5 μm) decompression-induced rims on the amphibole phenocrysts.

  2. Small volcanic eruptions and the stratospheric sulfate aerosol burden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyle, David M.

    2012-09-01

    Understanding of volcanic activity and its impacts on the atmosphere has evolved in discrete steps, associated with defining eruptions. The eruption of Krakatau, Indonesia, in August 1883 was the first whose global reach was recorded through observations of atmospheric phenomena around the world (Symons 1888). The rapid equatorial spread of Krakatau's ash cloud revealed new details of atmospheric circulation, while the vivid twilights and other optical phenomena were soon causally linked to the effects of particles and gases released from the volcano (e.g. Stothers 1996, Schroder 1999, Hamilton 2012). Later, eruptions of Agung, Bali (1963), El Chichón, Mexico (1982) and Pinatubo, Philippines (1991) led to a fuller understanding of how volcanic SO2 is transformed to a long-lived stratospheric sulfate aerosol, and its consequences (e.g. Meinel and Meinel 1967, Rampino and Self 1982, Hoffman and Rosen 1983, Bekki and Pyle 1994, McCormick et al 1995). While our ability to track the dispersal of volcanic emissions has been transformed since Pinatubo, with the launch of fleets of Earth-observing satellites (e.g. NASA's A-Train; ESA's MetOp) and burgeoning networks of ground-based remote-sensing instruments (e.g. lidar and sun-photometers; infrasound and lightning detection systems), there have been relatively few significant eruptions. Thus, there have been limited opportunities to test emerging hypotheses including, for example, the vexed question of the role of 'smaller' explosive eruptions in perturbations of the atmosphere—those that may just be large enough to reach the stratosphere (of size 'VEI 3', Newhall and Self 1982, Pyle 2000). Geological evidence, from ice-cores and historical eruptions, suggests that small explosive volcanic eruptions with the potential to transport material into the stratosphere should be frequent (5-10 per decade), and responsible for a significant proportion of the long-term time-averaged flux of volcanic sulfur into the stratosphere

  3. Hazard information management during the autumn 2004 reawakening of Mount St. Helens volcano, Washington: Chapter 24 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driedger, Carolyn L.; Neal, Christina A.; Knappenberger, Tom H.; Needham, Deborah H.; Harper, Robert B.; Steele, William P.; Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    The 2004 reawakening of Mount St. Helens quickly caught the attention of government agencies as well as the international news media and the public. Immediate concerns focused on a repeat of the catastrophic landslide and blast event of May 18, 1980, which remains a vivid memory for many individuals. Within several days of the onset of accelerating seismicity, media inquiries increased exponentially. Personnel at the U.S. Geological Survey, the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network, and the Gifford Pinchot National Forest soon handled hundreds of press inquiries and held several press briefings per day. About one week into the event, a Joint Information Center was established to help maintain a consistent hazard message and to provide a centralized information source about volcanic activity, hazards, area closures, and media briefings. Scientists, public-affairs specialists, and personnel from emergency-management, health, public-safety, and land-management agencies answered phones, helped in press briefings and interviews, and managed media access to colleagues working on science and safety issues. For scientists, in addition to managing the cycle of daily fieldwork, challenges included (1) balancing accurate interpretations of data under crisis conditions with the need to share information quickly, (2) articulating uncertainties for a variety of volcanic scenarios, (3) minimizing scientific jargon, and (4) frequently updating and effectively distributing talking points. Success of hazard information management during a volcanic crisis depends largely on scientists’ clarity of communication and thorough preplanning among interagency partners. All parties must commit to after-action evaluation and improvement of communication plans, incorporating lessons learned during each event.

  4. Sulfur and Hydrogen Isotopic Evidence for Open-System Degassing during the Climactic and Pre-Climactic Eruptions of Mount Mazama, Crater Lake, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandeville, C. W.; Webster, J. D.; Tappen, C. M.; Taylor, B. E.; Timbal, A.; Sasaki, A.; Hauri, E. H.; Bacon, C. R.; Eschen, M. L.

    2001-05-01

    Assessing the source(s) of magmatic volatiles through isotopic characterization requires evaluation of modifications to initial isotopic composition during degassing. Sulfur, and hydrogen isotope compositions of whole rocks and matrix glasses were measured in climactic rhyodacitic to andesitic tephra and in pre-climactic rhyodacitic tephra to identify the likely source(s) of magmatic volatiles (H2O, S). Sulfur isotope analyses of climactic rhyodacitic whole-rock samples indicate δ 34S values ranging from +2.8‰ to +14.8‰ with corresponding matrix glass δ 34S values of +4.9‰ to +13.2‰ . Matrix glass δ 34S values are generally 1-2 % higher than whole-rock δ 34S values in corresponding samples. The whole-rock δ 34S is strongly controlled by the 34/32S ratio and sulfur concentration of the glass. Whole-rock and matrix glass δ 34S values generally tend to increase with stratigraphic height. Average sulfur concentration (by Kiba extraction) of climactic rhyodacitic matrix glasses is 71 ppm and compares well to 77 ppm (by ion chromatography). Electron microprobe analyses of plagioclase-hosted glass inclusions from rhyodacitic pumices have sulfur concentrations of 80 to 330 ppm, with the highest sulfur concentrations in inclusions with 4.8 - 5.2 wt. % H2O (by FTIR and ion probe, respectively). Lower sulfur concentrations in glass inclusions containing 4.0 wt. % water (by ion probe) are attributed to melt entrapment following pre-eruptive degassing. Negative correlation of δ 34S values with sulfur concentration indicates sulfur degassing of mostly SO2 from an oxidized magma with SO4 as the dominant sulfur species in the melt. SIMS δ 34S analyses of pyrrhotites in climactic rhyodacitic tephra range from -1.0‰ to +5.6‰ and from -1.0‰ to +4.0‰ in andesitic scoria. The initial δ 34S value of rhyodacitic magma was most likely near a mantle value of 0‰ . Elevated δ 34S values of +7‰ to +14‰ in degassed matrix glasses are best explained by open

  5. Ash leachates from some recent eruptions of Mount Etna (Italy) and Popocatépetl (Mexico) volcanoes and their impact on amphibian living freshwater organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Addabbo, M.; Sulpizio, R.; Guidi, M.; Capitani, G.; Mantecca, P.; Zanchetta, G.

    2015-12-01

    Leaching experiments were carried out on fresh ash samples from Popocatépetl 2012, Etna 2011, and Etna 2012 eruptions, in order to investigate the release of compounds in both double-deionized and lake (Lake Ohrid, FYR of Macedonia) waters. The experiments were carried out using different grain sizes and variable stirring times (from 30 min to 7 days). Results were discussed in the light of changing pH and release of compounds for the different leachates. In particular, Etna samples induced alkalinization, and Popocatépetl samples induced acidification of the corresponding leachates. The release of different elements does not show correlation with the stirring time, with the measured maximum concentrations reached in the first hours of washing. General inverse correlation with grain size was observed only for Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, Mg2+, SO42-, and Mn2+, while the other analysed elements show a complex, scattering relationship with grain size. Geochemical modelling highlights leachates' saturation only for F and Si, with Popocatépetl samples sometimes showing saturation in Fe. The analysed leachates are classified as undrinkable for humans on the basis of European laws, due to excess in F-, Mn2+, Fe, and SO42- (the latter only for Popocatépetl samples). Finally, the Etna 2012 and Popocatépetl leachates were used for toxicity experiments on living biota (Xenopus laevis). They are mildly toxic, and no significant differences exist between the toxic profiles of the two leachates. In particular, no significant embryo mortality was observed; while even at high dilutions, the leachates produced more than 20 % of malformed larvae.

  6. Ash leachates from some recent eruptions of Mount Etna (Italy) and Popocatépetl (Mexico) volcanoes and their impact on amphibian living freshwater organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Addabbo, M.; Sulpizio, R.; Guidi, M.; Capitani, G.; Mantecca, P.; Zanchetta, G.

    2015-08-01

    Leaching experiments were carried out on fresh ash samples from Popocatépetl 2012, Etna 2011 and 2012 eruptions, in order to investigate the release of compounds in both double-deionised and lake (Ohrid lake, FYR of Macedonia) waters. The experiments were carried out using different grain sizes and variable time of stirring (from 30 min to 7 days). Results were discussed in the light of changing pH and release of compounds for the different leachates. In particular, Etna samples induced alkalinisation and Popocatépetl samples induced acidification of the corresponding leachates. The release of different elements does not show correlation with time of stirring, with the measured maximum concentrations reached in the first hours of washing. General inverse correlation with grain size was observed only for Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, Mg2+, SO42-, and Mn2+, while the other analysed elements show complex, scattering relationship with grain size. Geochemical modelling highlights leachates saturation only for F and Si, with Popocatépetl samples sometimes showing saturation in Fe. The analysed leachates are classified as undrinkable for humans on the basis of Italian laws, due to excess in F-, Mn2+, Fe, and SO42- (the latter only for Popocatépetl samples). Finally, the Etna 2012 and Popocatépetl leachates were used for toxicity experiments on living biota (Xenopus laevis). They are mild toxic, and no significant differences exist between the toxic profiles of the two leachates. In particular, no significant embryo mortality was observed, while even at high dilutions the leachates produced more than 20 % of malformed larvae.

  7. Mount St. Helens Rebirth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The catastrophic eruption of Mt. St. Helens 20 years ago today (on May 18, 1980), ranks among the most important natural events of the twentieth century in the United States. Because Mt. St. Helens is in a remote area of the Cascades Mountains, only a few people were killed by the eruption, but property damage and destruction totaled in the billions of dollars. Mount St. Helens is an example of a composite or stratovolcano. These are explosive volcanoes that are generally steep-sided, symmetrical cones built up by the accumulation of debris from previous eruptions and consist of alternating layers of lava flows, volcanic ash and cinder. Some of the most photographed mountains in the world are stratovolcanoes, including Mount Fuji in Japan, Mount Cotopaxi in Ecuador, Mount Hood in Oregon, and Mount Rainier in Washington. The recently erupting Mount Usu on the island of Hokkaido in Japan is also a stratovolcano. Stratovolcanoes are characterized by having plumbing systems that move magma from a chamber deep within the Earth's crust to vents at the surface. The height of Mt. St. Helens was reduced from about 2950 m (9677 ft) to about 2550 m (8364 ft) as a result of the explosive eruption on the morning of May 18. The eruption sent a column of dust and ash upwards more than 25 km into the atmosphere, and shock waves from the blast knocked down almost every tree within 10 km of the central crater. Massive avalanches and mudflows, generated by the near-instantaneous melting of deep snowpacks on the flanks of the mountain, devastated an area more than 20 km to the north and east of the former summit, and rivers choked with all sorts of debris were flooded more than 100 km away. The area of almost total destruction was about 600 sq. km. Ash from the eruption cloud was rapidly blown to the northeast and east producing lightning which started many small forest fires. An erie darkness caused by the cloud enveloped the landscape more than 200 km from the blast area, and ash

  8. Volcanic eruptions recorded in the Illimani ice core (Bolivia): 1918-1998 and Tambora periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Angelis, M.; Simões, J.; Bonnaveira, H.; Taupin, J.-D.; Delmas, R. J.

    2003-05-01

    Acid layers of volcanic origin detected in polar snow and ice layers are commonly used to document past volcanic activity on a global scale or, conversely, to date polar ice cores. Although most cataclysmic eruptions of the last two centuries (Pinatubo, El Chichon, Agung, Krakatoa, Cosiguina, Tambora, etc.) occurred in the tropics, cold tropical glaciers have not been used for the reconstruction of past volcanism. The glaciochemical study of a 137 m ice core drilled in 1999 close to the summit of Nevado Illimani (Eastern Bolivian Andes, 16°37' S, 67°46' W, 6350 m a.s.l.) demonstrates, for the first time, that such eruptions are recorded by both their tropospheric and stratospheric deposits. An 80-year ice sequence (1918-1998) and the Tambora years have been analyzed in detail. In several cases, ash, chloride and fluoride were also detected. The ice records of the Pinatubo (1991), Agung (1963) and Tambora (1815) eruptions are discussed in detail. Less important eruptions located in the Andes are also recorded and may also disturb background aerosol composition on a regional scale.

  9. Volcanic eruptions recorded in the Illimani ice core (Bolivia): 1918Â 1998 and Tambora periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Angelis, M.; Simões, J.; Bonnaveira, H.; Taupin, J.-D.; Delmas, R. J.

    2003-10-01

    Acid layers of volcanic origin detected in polar snow and ice layers are commonly used to document past volcanic activity on a global scale or, conversely, to date polar ice cores. Although most cataclysmic eruptions of the last two centuries (Pinatubo, El Chichon, Agung, Krakatoa, Cosiguina, Tambora, etc.) occurred in the tropics, cold tropical glaciers have not been used for the reconstruction of past volcanism. The glaciochemical study of a 137 m ice core drilled in 1999 close to the summit of Nevado Illimani (Eastern Bolivian Andes, 16°37' S, 67°46' W, 6350 m asl) demonstrates, for the first time, that such eruptions are recorded by both their tropospheric and stratospheric deposits. An 80-year ice sequence (1918-1998) and the Tambora years have been analyzed in detail. In several cases, ash, chloride and fluoride were also detected. The ice records of the Pinatubo (1991), Agung (1963) and Tambora (1815) eruptions are discussed in detail. The potential impact of less important regional eruptions is discussed.

  10. Monitoring Mount Baker Volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malone, S.D.; Frank, D.

    1976-01-01

    Hisotrically active volcanoes in the conterminous United States are restricted to the Cascade Range and extend to the Cascade Range and extend from Mount Baker near the Canadian border to Lassen Peak in northern California. Since 1800 A.D, most eruptive activity has been on a relatively small scale and has not caused loss of life or significant property damage. However, future  volcanism predictably will have more serious effects because of greatly increased use of land near volcanoes during the present century. (See "Appraising Volcanic Hazards of the Cascade Range of the Northwestern United States," Earthquake Inf. Bull., Sept.-Oct. 1974.) The recognition an impending eruption is highly important in order to minimize the potential hazard to people and property. Thus, a substantial increase in hydrothermal activity at Mount Baker in March 1975 ( see "Mount Baker Heating Up," July-Aug. 1975 issue) was regarded as a possible first signal that an eruption might occur, and an intensive monitoring program was undertaken. 

  11. Responses of large volcanic eruptions in the instrumental and documentary climatic data over Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Písek, Jan; Brázdil, Rudolf

    2006-03-01

    Responses of large volcanic eruptions in selected long temperature series from Austria, the Czech Republic and Germany as well as in three global radiation series in Central Europe are studied. In the example of seven large tropical eruptions (Krakatau 1883; Pelée, Soufriére and Santa María 1902; Agung, 1963; El Chichón, 1982; Mt Pinatubo, 1991) it has been demonstrated that volcanic signal in regional series is not so strongly expressed as in the hemispheric scale owing to different local effects and circulation patterns. This is also valid in the case of two further discussed eruptions of Tambora (1815) and Katmai (1912). The responses of eruptions in areas closer to Central Europe such as Iceland or Italy are more important. In nine analysed cases with VEI = 4-5 with a single exception of the Hekla eruption (1917), cold seasons were observed to follow the eruption. Responses to the Lakagígar eruption (1783) of Iceland with important impacts are also discussed in detail. Moreover, correlation between temperatures (annual and winter half-year series) and NAOI is prevailingly smaller for the period following eruptions than in the period preceding eruptions. The importance of documentary evidence as a valuable source of the information about the impacts of volcanic eruptions is demonstrated.

  12. Lahars of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newhall, Christopher G.; Stauffer, Peter H.; Hendley, James W.

    1997-01-01

    On June 15, 1991, Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines exploded in the second largest volcanic eruption on Earth this century. This eruption deposited more than 1 cubic mile (5 cubic kilometers) of volcanic ash and rock fragments on the volcano's slopes. Within hours, heavy rains began to wash this material down into the surrounding lowlands in giant, fast-moving mudflows called lahars. In the next four rainy seasons, lahars carried about half of the deposits off the volcano, causing even more destruction in the lowlands than the eruption itself.

  13. Major Optical Depth Perturbations to the Stratosphere from Volcanic Eruptions: Stellar-Extinction Period, 1961-1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, Richard B.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A revised chronology of stratospheric aerosol extinction due to volcanic eruptions has been assembled for the period 1961-1978, which immediately precedes the era of dedicated satellite measurements. On the whole, the most accurate data consist of published observations of stellar extinction, supplemented in part by other kinds of observational data. The period covered encompasses the important eruptions of Agung (1963) and Fuego (1974), whose dust veils are discussed with respect to their transport, decay, and total mass. The effective (area-weighted mean) radii of the aerosols for both eruptions are found to be 0.3-0.4 microns. It is confirmed that, among known tropical eruptions, Agung's dust was unique for a low-latitude eruption in remaining almost entirely confined to the hemisphere of its production. A new table of homogeneous visual optical depth perturbations, listed by year and by hemisphere, is provided for the whole period 1881-1978, including the pyrheliometric period before 1961 that was investigated previously.

  14. Mount St. Helens aerosol evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Oberbeck, V.R.; Farlow, N.H.

    1982-08-01

    Stratospheric aerosol samples were collected using a wire impactor during the year following the eruption of Mount St. Helens. Analysis of samples shows that aerosol volume increased for 6 months due to gas-to-particle conversion and then decreased to background levels in the following 6 months.

  15. Mount Pinatubo, Philippine Islands as seen from STS-59

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    View of Mount Pinatubo, Philippine Islands. Subic Bay is at the lower left corner, with the sea at the left and Clark Air Force Base (abandoned after the eruption) is to the lower right of the volcano. A turquoise lake occupies the caldera just below the center of the photograph. Mount Pinatubo erupted in June, 1991 after several hundred years of quiet.

  16. Mount Vesuvius: 2000 years of volcanological observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scandone, Roberto; Giacomelli, Lisetta; Gasparini, Paolo

    1993-11-01

    Mount Vesuvius had eruptions ranging between VEI 5+ to 0-1 during the last 2000 years. Infrequent explosive eruptions are recorded during the period 79 AD to 1631. Since the violent explosive eruption of 1631, the volcano has been in persistent activity, rebuilding the morphology that it had before that eruption. A succession of explosive and effusive eruptions occurred until 1944, with a predominance of short and violent episodes until 1872 and longer effusive eruptions since that date. Two factors mainly controlled the character of volcanic activity during this period: (1) the strength of the cone, which allowed, in the earlier period, an easy fracturing, rapid drainage, and pressure release of the magma column; (2) the interaction between magma and water, which enhanced the explosivity of several eruptions. The volcano appears to have reached a stage of quiescence because it finally attained a shape of equilibrium in which the height of the mountain is sufficient to counterbalance the buoyancy of the magma.

  17. Mount Vesuvius, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of Mt. Vesuvius, Italy was acquired September 26, 2000. The full-size false-color image covers an area of 36 by 45 km. Vesuvius overlooks the city of Naples and the Bay of Naples in central Italy. (Popocatepetl and Mount Fuji are other volcanos surrounded by dense urban areas.) In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, burying all of the surrounding cites with up to 30 m of ash. The towns of Pompeii and Herculanaeum were rediscovered in the 18th century, and excavated in the 20th century. They provide a snapshot of Roman life from 2000 years ago: perfectly preserved are wooden objects, food items, and the casts of hundreds of victims. Vesuvius is intensively monitored for potential signs of unrest that could signal the beginning of another eruption. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  18. Combustor mount

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, H.S.

    1986-07-01

    For a gas turbine engine, mounting means are described for attaching the annular burner to the engine case including a mount lug having a relatively flat surface extending from and secured to the annular burner, a mount pin attached to the engine case having one end extending through an opening in the flat surface of the mount lug, a bushing frictionally engaging the pin and extending through the opening, and having a flange surrounding the opening and bearing against one side of the flat surface, a washer fitted over the pin and bearing against the opposite side of the flat surface to sandwich with the flange the mount lug, and the bushing having an increased internal diameter portion adjacent the washer and weldment means securing the washer to the mount lug.

  19. Directed blasts and blast-generated pyroclastic density currents: a comparison of the Bezymianny 1956, Mount St Helens 1980, and Soufrière Hills, Montserrat 1997 eruptions and deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belousov, Alexander; Voight, Barry; Belousova, Marina

    2007-01-01

    We compare eruptive dynamics, effects and deposits of the Bezymianny 1956 (BZ), Mount St Helens 1980 (MSH), and Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat 1997 (SHV) eruptions, the key events of which included powerful directed blasts. Each blast subsequently generated a high-energy stratified pyroclastic density current (PDC) with a high speed at onset. The blasts were triggered by rapid unloading of an extruding or intruding shallow magma body (lava dome and/or cryptodome) of andesitic or dacitic composition. The unloading was caused by sector failures of the volcanic edifices, with respective volumes for BZ, MSH, and SHV c. 0.5, 2.5, and 0.05 km3 . The blasts devastated approximately elliptical areas, axial directions of which coincided with the directions of sector failures. We separate the transient directed blast phenomenon into three main parts, the burst phase, the collapse phase, and the PDC phase. In the burst phase the pressurized mixture is driven by initial kinetic energy and expands rapidly into the atmosphere, with much of the expansion having an initially lateral component. The erupted material fails to mix with sufficient air to form a buoyant column, but in the collapse phase, falls beyond the source as an inclined fountain, and thereafter generates a PDC moving parallel to the ground surface. It is possible for the burst phase to comprise an overpressured jet, which requires injection of momentum from an orifice; however some exploding sources may have different geometry and a jet is not necessarily formed. A major unresolved question is whether the preponderance of strong damage observed in the volcanic blasts should be attributed to shock waves within an overpressured jet, or alternatively to dynamic pressures and shocks within the energetic collapse and PDC phases. Internal shock structures related to unsteady flow and compressibility effects can occur in each phase. We withhold judgment about published shock models as a primary explanation for the

  20. Directed blasts and blast-generated pyroclastic density currents: a comparison of the Bezymianny 1956, Mount St Helens 1980, and Soufrière Hills, Montserrat 1997 eruptions and deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belousov, Alexander; Voight, Barry; Belousova, Marina

    2007-06-01

    We compare eruptive dynamics, effects and deposits of the Bezymianny 1956 (BZ), Mount St Helens 1980 (MSH), and Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat 1997 (SHV) eruptions, the key events of which included powerful directed blasts. Each blast subsequently generated a high-energy stratified pyroclastic density current (PDC) with a high speed at onset. The blasts were triggered by rapid unloading of an extruding or intruding shallow magma body (lava dome and/or cryptodome) of andesitic or dacitic composition. The unloading was caused by sector failures of the volcanic edifices, with respective volumes for BZ, MSH, and SHV c. 0.5, 2.5, and 0.05 km3. The blasts devastated approximately elliptical areas, axial directions of which coincided with the directions of sector failures. We separate the transient directed blast phenomenon into three main parts, the burst phase, the collapse phase, and the PDC phase. In the burst phase the pressurized mixture is driven by initial kinetic energy and expands rapidly into the atmosphere, with much of the expansion having an initially lateral component. The erupted material fails to mix with sufficient air to form a buoyant column, but in the collapse phase, falls beyond the source as an inclined fountain, and thereafter generates a PDC moving parallel to the ground surface. It is possible for the burst phase to comprise an overpressured jet, which requires injection of momentum from an orifice; however some exploding sources may have different geometry and a jet is not necessarily formed. A major unresolved question is whether the preponderance of strong damage observed in the volcanic blasts should be attributed to shock waves within an overpressured jet, or alternatively to dynamic pressures and shocks within the energetic collapse and PDC phases. Internal shock structures related to unsteady flow and compressibility effects can occur in each phase. We withhold judgment about published shock models as a primary explanation for the

  1. Progress made in understanding Mount Rainier's hazards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sisson, T.W.; Vallance, J.W.; Pringle, P.T.

    2001-01-01

    At 4392 m high, glacier-clad Mount Rainier dominates the skyline of the southern Puget Sound region and is the centerpiece of Mount Rainier National Park. About 2.5 million people of the greater Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area can see Mount Rainier on clear days, and 150,000 live in areas swept by lahars and floods that emanated from the volcano during the last 6,000 years (Figure 1). These lahars include the voluminous Osceola Mudflow that floors the lowlands south of Seattle and east of Tacoma, and which was generated by massive volcano flank-collapse. Mount Rainier's last eruption was a light dusting of ash in 1894; minor pumice last erupted between 1820 and 1854; and the most recent large eruptions we know of were about 1100 and 2300 years ago, according to reports from the U.S. Geological Survey.

  2. Mount Erebus activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An international team of scientists reports that unusually high seismic activity joggled Mount Erebus last fall. However, the Antarctic volcano showed no external signs of an eruption.When scientists from the United States, Japan, and New Zealand returned to the world's southernmost active volcano last November for their annual field expedition, they found that seismic stations recorded 650 small tremors on October 8; prior to that, the number of quakes had averaged between 20 and 80 per day. The October 8 maximum was followed by 140 on October 9 and 120 on October 10. Philip R. Kyle, assistant professor of geochemistry at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology in Socorro and leader of the team studying Mount Erebus, noted that some of the strongest earthquakes recorded during the team's 3 years of observations occurred on October 8; these registered less than 2 on the Richter scale.

  3. Assessing the link between mantle source and sub-volcanic plumbing in the petrology of basalts from the 2001 and 2002/2003 eruptions of Mount Etna, Sicily: Evidence from geochemical and helium isotope data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulson, Ian M.; Stuart, Finlay M.; MacLean, Natalie J.

    2011-04-01

    The 2001 and 2002-2003 flank eruptions of Mt. Etna consisted of near continuous explosive activity and sporadic lava flows. Previous studies have suggested that distinct magmas were simultaneously tapped by fissures in different parts of the volcano, indicating a complex plumbing system. From textural and chemical data it has been suggested that "eccentric" eruptions on the south flank were fed by a deep-seated reservoir that is not related to the central conduit. In contrast, materials erupted above 2600 m and from the northeast flank represent partially degassed, more fractionated magma, typical of that residing within the central vents. A concern is that Etna has entered a new phase of activity, with magma supply from a deep reservoir that is capable of generating recurrent flank eruptions posing significant hazard to populated areas and air travel. We have investigated materials that erupted from different vents during both the 2001 and 2002/3 eruptive episodes by means of petrology, whole-rock chemistry and helium isotopic methods. Here we show from trace element chemistry and the 3He/ 4He isotope record of melt inclusions in olivine that the mantle source for both magma batches is identical. Furthermore, this magmatic source has not changed over the past 0.5 Ma. As such, our data support the premise that the petrological variability exhibited by products that erupted from different parts of the volcano reflects storage, fractionation and degassing at different levels within the crust.

  4. Mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Humpal, Harold H.

    1987-01-01

    A mirror mount (10) is provided that allows free pitch, yaw and roll motion of the mirror (28) while keeping the location of a point (56) on the surface of the mirror (28) fixed in the rest frame of reference of the mount (10). Yaw movement is provided by two yaw cylinders (30,32) that are bearing (52) mounted to provide rotation. Pitch and roll motion is provided by a spherically annular shell (42) that is air bearing (72,74) mounted to move between a clamp (60) and an upper pedestal bearing (44). The centers of curvature of the spherical surfaces of the shell (42) lie upon the point (56). Pitch motion and roll motion are separately and independently imparted to mirror (28) by a pair of pitch paddles (34) and a pair of roll paddles (36) that are independently and separately moved by control rods (76,80) driven by motors (78,82).

  5. Mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Humpal, H.H.

    1986-03-21

    A mirror mount is provided that allows free pitch, yaw and roll motion of the mirror while keeping the location of a point on the surface of the mirror fixed in the rest frame of reference of the mount. Yaw movement is provided by two yaw cylinders that are bearing mounted to provide rotation. Pitch and roll motion is provided by a spherically annular shell that is air bearing mounted to move between a clamp and an upper pedestal bearing. The centers of curvature of the spherical surfaces of the shell lie upon the point. Pitch motion and roll motion are separately and independently imparted to mirror by a pair of pitch paddles and a pair of roll paddles that are independently and separately moved by control rods driven by motors.

  6. Mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Humpal, H.H.

    1987-11-10

    A mirror mount is provided that allows free pitch, yaw and roll motion of the mirror while keeping the location of a point on the surface of the mirror fixed in the rest frame of reference of the mount. Yaw movement is provided by two yaw cylinders that are bearing mounted to provide rotation. Pitch and roll motion is provided by a spherically annular shell that is air bearing mounted to move between a clamp and an upper pedestal bearing. The centers of curvature of the spherical surfaces of the shell lie upon the point. Pitch motion and roll motion are separately and independently imparted to mirror by a pair of pitch paddles and a pair of roll paddles that are independently and separately moved by control rods driven by motors. 5 figs.

  7. Creeping eruption

    MedlinePlus

    ... JavaScript. Creeping eruption is a human infection with dog or cat hookworm larvae (immature worms). Causes Hookworm eggs are found in the stool of infected dogs and cats. When the eggs hatch, the larvae ...

  8. Mount Rainier, a decade volcano

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehn, S.C.; Hooper, P.R. . Dept. of Geology); Eggers, A.E. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Mount Rainier, recently designated as a decade volcano, is a 14,410 foot landmark which towers over the heavily populated southern Puget Sound Lowland of Washington State. It last erupted in the mid-1800's and is an obvious threat to this area, yet Rainier has received little detailed study. Previous work has divided Rainier into two distinct pre-glacial eruptive episodes and one post-glacial eruptive episode. In a pilot project, the authors analyzed 253 well-located samples from the volcano for 27 major and trace elements. Their objective is to test the value of chemical compositions as a tool in mapping the stratigraphy and understanding the eruptive history of the volcano which they regard as prerequisite to determining the petrogenesis and potential hazard of the volcano. The preliminary data demonstrates that variation between flows is significantly greater than intra-flow variation -- a necessary condition for stratigraphic use. Numerous flows or groups of flows can be distinguished chemically. It is also apparent from the small variation in Zr abundances and considerable variation in such ratios as Ba/Nb that fractional crystallization plays a subordinate role to some form of mixing process in the origin of the Mount Rainier lavas.

  9. The Latest on Volcanic Eruptions and Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robock, Alan

    2013-08-01

    What was the largest volcanic eruption on Earth since the historic Mount Pinatubo eruption on 15 June 1991? Was the Toba super­eruption 74,000 years ago—the largest in the past 100,000 years—responsible for a human genetic bottleneck or a 1000-year-long glacial advance? What role did small volcanic eruptions play in the reduced global warming of the past decade? What caused the Little Ice Age? Was the April 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption in Iceland important for climate change? What do volcanic eruptions teach us about new ideas on geoengineering and nuclear winter? These are some of the questions that have been answered since the review article by Robock [2000]. Reviews by Forster et al. [2007] and Timmreck [2012] go into some of these topics in much greater detail.

  10. Mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, Thomas C.; Bender, Donald A.

    1994-01-01

    A unique lens or mirror mount having adjustable constraints at two key locations to allow for "X" and "Y" tilts of the mirror only. The device uses two pair of flexures of a type such that the pivots of the mirror gimble are rigidly fixed in all planes allowing the device to have zero stacking tolerance and zero wear over time.

  11. Mount Rainier active cascade volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mount Rainier is one of about two dozen active or recently active volcanoes in the Cascade Range, an arc of volcanoes in the northwestern United States and Canada. The volcano is located about 35 kilometers southeast of the Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area, which has a population of more than 2.5 million. This metropolitan area is the high technology industrial center of the Pacific Northwest and one of the commercial aircraft manufacturing centers of the United States. The rivers draining the volcano empty into Puget Sound, which has two major shipping ports, and into the Columbia River, a major shipping lane and home to approximately a million people in southwestern Washington and northwestern Oregon. Mount Rainier is an active volcano. It last erupted approximately 150 years ago, and numerous large floods and debris flows have been generated on its slopes during this century. More than 100,000 people live on the extensive mudflow deposits that have filled the rivers and valleys draining the volcano during the past 10,000 years. A major volcanic eruption or debris flow could kill thousands of residents and cripple the economy of the Pacific Northwest. Despite the potential for such danger, Mount Rainier has received little study. Most of the geologic work on Mount Rainier was done more than two decades ago. Fundamental topics such as the development, history, and stability of the volcano are poorly understood.

  12. Mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, T.C.; Bender, D.A.

    1994-10-04

    A unique lens or mirror mount having adjustable constraints at two key locations to allow for ''X'' and ''Y'' tilts of the mirror only is disclosed. The device uses two pair of flexures of a type such that the pivots of the mirror gimble are rigidly fixed in all planes allowing the device to have zero stacking tolerance and zero wear over time. 4 figs.

  13. Mount St. Helens Flyover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of Mt. St. Helens volcano in Washington State was acquired on August 8, 2000 and covers an area of 37 by 51 km. Mount Saint Helens, a volcano in the Cascade Range of southwestern Washington that had been dormant since 1857, began to show signs of renewed activity in early 1980. On 18 May 1980, it erupted with such violence that the top of the mountain was blown off, spewing a cloud of ash and gases that rose to an altitude of 19 kilometers. The blast killed about 60 people and destroyed all life in an area of some 180 square kilometers (some 70 square miles), while a much larger area was covered with ash and debris. It continues to spit forth ash and steam intermittently. As a result of the eruption, the mountain's elevation decreased from 2,950 meters to 2,549 meters. The simulated fly-over was produced by draping ASTER visible and near infrared image data over a digital topography model, created from ASTER's 3-D stereo bands. The color was computer enhanced to create a 'natural' color image, where the vegetation appears green. The topography has been exaggerated 2 times to enhance the appearance of the relief. Landsat7 aquired an image of Mt. St. Helens on August 22, 1999. Image and animation courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  14. Can rain cause volcanic eruptions?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastin, Larry G.

    1993-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions are renowned for their violence and destructive power. This power comes ultimately from the heat and pressure of molten rock and its contained gases. Therefore we rarely consider the possibility that meteoric phenomena, like rainfall, could promote or inhibit their occurrence. Yet from time to time observers have suggested that weather may affect volcanic activity. In the late 1800's, for example, one of the first geologists to visit the island of Hawaii, J.D. Dana, speculated that rainfall influenced the occurrence of eruptions there. In the early 1900's, volcanologists suggested that some eruptions from Mount Lassen, Calif., were caused by the infiltration of snowmelt into the volcano's hot summit. Most such associations have not been provable because of lack of information; others have been dismissed after careful evaluation of the evidence.

  15. Popocatepetl Erupts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Popocatepetl Volcano, almost 30 miles south of Mexico City, erupted yesterday (December 18, 2000) in what authorities are calling its most spectacular eruption since 800 A.D. This morning, Popocatepetl (pronounced poh-poh-kah-TEH-peh-til) continued spewing red-hot rocks as well as a column of smoke and ash about 2.5 miles high into the atmosphere. This true-color image of the volcano was acquired today by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) flying aboard the OrbView-2 satellite. In this image, Popocatepetl's plume (greyish pixels) can be seen blowing southward, away from Mexico City. There is a large cloud bank (bright white pixels) just to the east of the volcanic plume. Although Popocatepetl has been active since 1994-when it awoke from a 70-year slumber-this most recent eruption is most concerning to the greater Mexico City region's 20 million residents. The volcano demonstrated what it can do in 800 A.D. when it belched forth enough lava to fill many of the valleys in the surrounding region. Earlier, scientists warned the citizens of Mexico that there is a dome of lava at the base of the volcano that is causing pressure to build inside. They are concerned that, if it continues to build unabated, this pressure could cause even larger eruptions in the future. Image provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  16. Mount St. Helens related aerosol properties from solar extinction measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Michalsky, J.J.; Kleckner, E.W.; Stokes, G.M.

    1980-11-01

    The optical extinction due to the introduction of aerosols and aerosol-precursors into the troposphere and stratosphere during the major eruptive phase of Mount St. Helens, Washington, is quantified. The concentration is on the two-week period centered on the major eruption of 22 July 1980. (ACR)

  17. Mount st. Helens volcano: recent and future behavior.

    PubMed

    Crandell, D R; Mullineaux, D R; Rubin, M

    1975-02-07

    Mount St. Helens volcano in southern Washington has erupted many times during the last 4000 years, usually after brief dormant periods. This behavior pattern. suggests that the volcano, last active in 1857, will erupt again-perhaps within the next few decades. Potential volcanic hazards of several kinds should be considered in planning for land use near the volcano.

  18. Deformation monitoring at mount st. Helens in 1981 and 1982.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, W W; Swanson, D A; Iwatsubo, E Y; Heliker, C C; Leighley, T A

    1983-09-30

    For several weeks before each eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1981 and 1982, viscous magma rising in the feeder conduit inflated the lava dome and shoved the crater floor laterally against the immobile crater walls, producing ground cracks and thrust faults. The rates of deformation accelerated before eruptions, and thus it was possible to predict eruptions 3 to 19 days in advance. Lack of deformation outside the crater showed that intrusion of magma during 1981 and 1982 was not voluminous.

  19. Deformation monitoring at Mount St. Helens in 1981 and 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chadwick, W.W.; Swanson, D.A.; Iwatsubo, E.Y.; Heliker, C.C.; Leighley, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    For several weeks before each eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1981 and 1982, viscous magma rising in the feeder conduit inflated the lava dome and shoved the crater floor laterally against the immobile crater walls, producing ground cracks and thrust faults. The rates of deformation accelerated before eruptions, and thus it was possible to predict eruptions 3 to 19 days in advance. Lack of deformation outside the crater showed that intrusion of magma during 1981 and 1982 was not voluminous.

  20. Polymorphic light eruption sine eruption.

    PubMed

    Dover, J S; Hawk, J L

    1988-01-01

    We describe seven patients, four female and three male, who developed intense pruritus on sun-exposed skin without visible change. The clinical features resembled those of polymorphic light eruption (PLE) without rash. Four patients also occasionally developed typical PLE upon sun exposure, but sun-induced pruritus alone occurred most frequently. No patient was taking any drug therapy. One patient developed similar pruritus following solar simulated irradiation, and one following PUVA therapy. All other laboratory investigations were negative. Treatment with low dose UVB phototherapy or PUVA therapy was effective. The condition, which we have called polymorphic light eruption sine eruptione (PLESE), appears to be a variant of PLE not previously reported.

  1. Historical evidence for a connection between volcanic eruptions and climate change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampino, Michael R.

    1991-01-01

    The times of historical volcanic aerosol clouds were compared with changes in atmospheric temperatures on regional, hemispheric, and global scales. These involve either a direct comparison of individual significant eruption years with temperature records, or a comparison of eruption years with composited temperature records for several years before and after chosen sets of eruptions. Some studies have challenged the connection between individual eruptions and climate change. Mass and Portman (1989) recently suggested that the volcanic signal was present, but smaller than previously thought. In a study designed to test the idea that eruptions could cause small changes in climate, Hansen and other (1978) chose one of the best monitored eruptions at the time, the 1963 eruption of Agung volcano on the island of Bali. Using a simple radiation-balance model, in which an aerosol cloud in the tropics was simulated, this basic pattern of temperature change in the tropics and subtropics was reproduced. There may be natural limits to the atmospheric effects of any volcanic eruption. Self-limiting physical and chemical effects in eruption clouds were proposed. Model results suggest that aerosol microphysical processes of condensation and coagulation produce larger aerosols as the SO2 injection rate is increased. The key to discovering the greatest effects of volcanoes on short-term climate may be to concentrate on regional temperatures where the effects of volcanic aerosol clouds can be amplified by perturbed atmospheric circulation patterns, especially changes in mid-latitudes where meridional circulation patterns may develop. Such climatic perturbations can be detected in proxy evidence such as decreases in tree-ring widths and frost damage rings in climatically sensitive parts of the world, changes in treelines, weather anomalies such as unusually cold summers, severity of sea-ice in polar and subpolar regions, and poor grain yields and crop failures.

  2. A model for Plinian eruptions of Vesuvius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, M. F.; Barberi, F.; Rosi, M.; Santacroce, R.

    1981-01-01

    The term `Plinian' has been widely used1-4 to describe continuous gas-blast eruptions of large magnitude a typical example5, of which is the AD 79 eruption of Vesuvius which destroyed Pompei and the surrounding region. We develop a new model here for the AD 79 event that explains the complete Plinian eruptive episode including pyroclastic fall, pyroclastic flow, base surge, laharic and phreatic activity. This model has widespread implications with regard to volcanic hazard evaluation and geothermal exploration at Vesuvius and other volcanoes with similar patterns of activity, such as Mount St Helens.

  3. Eruptive xanthomas.

    PubMed

    Zaremba, Joanna; Zaczkiewicz, Andrzej; Placek, Waldemar

    2013-12-01

    Xanthomas are localized lipid deposits in the skin, tendons and subcutaneous tissue associated with lipid abnormality. The hyperlipidemia responsible for this disorder can be caused by a primary genetic defect, a secondary disorder, or both. That kind of skin exanthema may be the first signal of cardiovascular risk. We present a 24-year-old woman with a skin eruption that had appeared a few months earlier.

  4. Eruptive xanthomas

    PubMed Central

    Zaczkiewicz, Andrzej; Placek, Waldemar

    2013-01-01

    Xanthomas are localized lipid deposits in the skin, tendons and subcutaneous tissue associated with lipid abnormality. The hyperlipidemia responsible for this disorder can be caused by a primary genetic defect, a secondary disorder, or both. That kind of skin exanthema may be the first signal of cardiovascular risk. We present a 24-year-old woman with a skin eruption that had appeared a few months earlier. PMID:24494004

  5. Assessing Eruption Column Height in Ancient Flood Basalt Eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaze, Lori S.; Self, Stephen; Schmidt, Anja; Hunter, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    A buoyant plume model is used to explore the ability of flood basalt eruptions to inject climate-relevant gases into the stratosphere. An example from the 1986 Izu-Oshima basaltic fissure eruption validates the model's ability to reproduce the observed maximum plume heights of 12-16 km above sea level, sustained above fire-fountains. The model predicts maximum plume heights of 13-17 km for source widths of between 4-16 m when 32% (by mass) of the erupted magma is fragmented and involved in the buoyant plume (effective volatile content of 6 wt%). Assuming that the Miocene-age Roza eruption (part of the Columbia River Basalt Group) sustained fire-fountains of similar height to Izu-Oshima (1.6 km above the vent), we show that the Roza eruption could have sustained buoyant ash and gas plumes that extended into the stratosphere at approximately 45 deg N. Assuming 5 km long active fissure segments and 9000 Mt of SO2 released during explosive phases over a 10-15 year duration, the approximately 180 km of known Roza fissure length could have supported approximately 36 explosive events/phases, each with a duration of 3-4 days. Each 5 km fissure segment could have emitted 62 Mt of SO2 per day into the stratosphere while actively fountaining, the equivalent of about three 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruptions per day. Each fissure segment could have had one to several vents, which subsequently produced lava without significant fountaining for a longer period within the decades-long eruption. Sensitivity of plume rise height to ancient atmospheric conditions is explored. Although eruptions in the Deccan Traps (approximately 66 Ma) may have generated buoyant plumes that rose to altitudes in excess of 18 km, they may not have reached the stratosphere because the tropopause was substantially higher in the late Cretaceous. Our results indicate that some flood basalt eruptions, such as Roza, were capable of repeatedly injecting large masses of SO2 into the stratosphere. Thus sustained

  6. Assessing eruption column height in ancient flood basalt eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaze, Lori S.; Self, Stephen; Schmidt, Anja; Hunter, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    A buoyant plume model is used to explore the ability of flood basalt eruptions to inject climate-relevant gases into the stratosphere. An example from the 1986 Izu-Oshima basaltic fissure eruption validates the model's ability to reproduce the observed maximum plume heights of 12-16 km above sea level, sustained above fire-fountains. The model predicts maximum plume heights of 13-17 km for source widths of between 4-16 m when 32% (by mass) of the erupted magma is fragmented and involved in the buoyant plume (effective volatile content of 6 wt%). Assuming that the Miocene-age Roza eruption (part of the Columbia River Basalt Group) sustained fire-fountains of similar height to Izu-Oshima (1.6 km above the vent), we show that the Roza eruption could have sustained buoyant ash and gas plumes that extended into the stratosphere at ∼ 45 ° N. Assuming 5 km long active fissure segments and 9000 Mt of SO2 released during explosive phases over a 10-15 year duration, the ∼ 180km of known Roza fissure length could have supported ∼36 explosive events/phases, each with a duration of 3-4 days. Each 5 km fissure segment could have emitted 62 Mt of SO2 per day into the stratosphere while actively fountaining, the equivalent of about three 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruptions per day. Each fissure segment could have had one to several vents, which subsequently produced lava without significant fountaining for a longer period within the decades-long eruption. Sensitivity of plume rise height to ancient atmospheric conditions is explored. Although eruptions in the Deccan Traps (∼ 66Ma) may have generated buoyant plumes that rose to altitudes in excess of 18 km, they may not have reached the stratosphere because the tropopause was substantially higher in the late Cretaceous. Our results indicate that some flood basalt eruptions, such as Roza, were capable of repeatedly injecting large masses of SO2 into the stratosphere. Thus sustained flood basalt eruptions could have influenced

  7. Volcanic fire and glacial ice: Mount Rogers National Recreation Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; ,

    2007-01-01

    In addition to containing the highest point in Virginia (Mount Rogers, elevation 5,729 feet), the Mount Rogers National Recreation Area (NRA) of the Jefferson National Forest is a window on the history of ancient volcanic eruptions and glacial movement.

  8. Mount St. Helens: the aftermath

    SciTech Connect

    Flaherty, D.C.

    1983-01-01

    During the May 18, 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, ash fell over a 100,000 sq mile area to the east. The Idaho studies showed that, although the ashfall altered the food chains of some forest streams, within a year they fully recovered. The effects of ashfall on lake benthic organisms are still being assessed by sediment sampling. The Montana studies reported on snow avalanche models adapted to mudflows, trophic impact of ash deposits on Montana lakes, and the volcanic ash as nutrient subsidy to sub-alpine lakes. The Oregon studies reported herring and smelt egg and larvae damage due to suspended ash. The drainage patterns in eruption debris were studied along with the filling of Columbia River berths with ash.

  9. Volcano hazards in the Mount Jefferson region, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walder, Joseph S.; Gardner, Cynthia A.; Conrey, Richard M.; Fisher, Bruce J.; Schilling, Steven P.

    1999-01-01

    Mount Jefferson is a prominent feature of the landscape seen from highways east and west of the Cascades. Mount Jefferson (one of thirteen major volcanic centers in the Cascade Range) has erupted repeatedly for hundreds of thousands of years, with its last eruptive episode during the last major glaciation which culminated about 15,000 years ago. Geologic evidence shows that Mount Jefferson is capable of large explosive eruptions. The largest such eruption occurred between 35,000 and 100,000 years ago, and caused ash to fall as far away as the present-day town of Arco in southeast Idaho. Although there has not been an eruption at Mount Jefferson for some time, experience at explosive volcanoes elsewhere suggests that Mount Jefferson cannot be regarded as extinct. If Mount Jefferson erupts again, areas close to the eruptive vent will be severely affected, and even areas tens of kilometers (tens of miles) downstream along river valleys or hundreds of kilometers (hundreds of miles) downwind may be at risk. Numerous small volcanoes occupy the area between Mount Jefferson and Mount Hood to the north, and between Mount Jefferson and the Three Sisters region to the south. These small volcanoes tend not to pose the far-reaching hazards associated with Mount Jefferson, but are nonetheless locally important. A concern at Mount Jefferson, but not at the smaller volcanoes, is the possibility that small to- moderate sized landslides could occur even during periods of no volcanic activity. Such landslides may transform as they move into lahars (watery flows of rock, mud, and debris) that can inundate areas far downstream. The population at immediate risk in the Mount Jefferson region is small, but these residents as well as other people who visit the area for recreation and work purposes should be aware of the potential hazards. Probably the greatest concern in the Mount Jefferson region is the possibility that large lahars might enter reservoirs on either side of the volcano

  10. Ice Volumes on Cascade Volcanoes: Mount Rainier, Mount Hood, Three Sisters, and Mount Shasta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driedger, Carolyn L.; Kennard, Paul M.

    1986-01-01

    During the eruptions of Mount St. Helens the occurrence of floods and mudflows made apparent the need for predictive water-hazard analysis of other Cascade volcanoes. A basic requirement for such analysis is information about the volumes and distributions of snow and ice on other volcanoes. A radar unit contained in a backpack was used to make point measurements of ice thickness on major glaciers of Mount Rainier, Wash.; Mount Hood, Oreg.; the Three Sisters, Oreg.; and Mount Shasta, Calif. The measurements were corrected for slope and were used to develop subglacial contour maps from which glacier volumes were measured. These values were used to develop estimation methods for finding volumes of unmeasured glaciers. These methods require a knowledge of glacier slope, altitude, and area and require an estimation of basal shear stress, each estimate derived by using topographic maps updated by aerial photographs. The estimation methods were found to be accurate within ?20 percent on measured glaciers and to be within ?25 percent when applied to unmeasured glaciers on the Cascade volcanoes. The estimation methods may be applicable to other temperate glaciers in similar climatic settings. Areas and volumes of snow and ice are as follows: Mount Rainier, 991 million ft2, 156 billion ft3; Mount Hood, 145 million ft2, 12 billion ft3; Three Sisters, 89 million ft2, 6 billion ft3; and Mount Shasta, 74 million ft2, 5 billion ft3. The distribution of ice and firn patches within 58 glacierized basins on volcanoes is mapped and listed by altitude and by watershed to facilitate water-hazard analysis.

  11. The 1631 eruption of Vesuvius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolandi, G.; Barrella, A. M.; Borrelli, A.

    1993-11-01

    Contemporary accounts of the violent eruption of Vesuvius in 1631 are reviewed, and recorded events are correlated with resulting volcanic deposits. Field study of the deposits in the proximal area revealed the presence of tephra falls, pyroclastic flows and lava, with subordinate surge deposits. A total volume of 1.1 km 3 (0.55 km 3 DRE) of phono-tephritic to phonolitic magma was ejected during 24 hours. The different magma compositions correspond with a transition from a lower, white, aphyric, highly vesiculated pumice (layer 1) to an upper, gray, crystal-rich, poorly vesiculated pumice (layer 3), showing reverse grading. Isopach and isopleth maps of the tephra-falls have been constructed to determine changes in the eruptive style and temporal evolution of the eruption column which reached a maximum height of 16 to 28 km. The recorded column height variations show a change in the mass discharge rate (8.9 × 10 6 kg/s to 8.2 × 10 7 kg/s) and the occurrence of pyroclastic flows during the deposition of the weakly vesiculated, dense pumice of the upper part of layer 3. Pyroclastic flows are crystal-rich and show St. Vincent-type features. The explosive phase demolished the upper part of the pre-existing cone, and debris flows invaded the southern side of the volcano. In the afternoon of December 17, 1631 an outbreak of lava flow from a southern lateral fracture system occurred, and effusion of lava continued up to midnight of December 18. Intermittent steam blasts continued to the end of December, when the eruption ended and Mount Vesuvius entered a solfataric phase. The earthquakes that had marked both the pre-eruptive and eruptive phases, continued, however, well into March 1632.

  12. Nyiragongo Volcano Erupts in the Congo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Mount Nyiragongo, located in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, erupted today (January 17, 2002), ejecting a large cloud of smoke and ash high into the sky and spewing lava down three sides of the volcano. Mount Nyiragongo is located roughly 10 km (6 miles) north of the town of Goma, near the Congo's border with Rwanda. According to news reports, one river of lava is headed straight toward Goma, where international aid teams are evacuating residents. Already, the lava flows have burned through large swaths of the surrounding jungle and have destroyed dozens of homes. This false-color image was acquired today (January 17) by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) roughly 5 hours after the eruption began. Notice Mount Nyiragongo's large plume (bright white) can be seen streaming westward in this scene. The plume appears to be higher than the immediately adjacent clouds and so it is colder in temperature, making it easy for MODIS to distinguish the volcanic plume from the clouds by using image bands sensitive to thermal radiation. Images of the eruption using other band combinations are located on the MODIS Rapid Response System. Nyiragongo eruptions are extremely hazardous because the lava tends to be very fluid and travels down the slopes of the volcano quickly. Eruptions can be large and spectacular, and flows can reach up to 10s of kilometers from the volcano very quickly. Also, biomass burned from Nyriagongo, and nearby Mount Nyamuragira, eruptions tends to create clouds of smoke that adversely affect the Mountain Gorillas living in the adjacent mountain chain. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  13. Ocean Response to Volcanic Eruptions in CMIP5 Coupled Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yanni; Carton, James; Chepurin, Gennady; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Robock, Alan; Sentman, Lori; Krasting, John

    2014-05-01

    Questions regarding the ocean response to changes in atmospheric aerosol loading have arisen in several contexts recent years. Here we exploit the availability of new simulations produced as part of CMIP5 to revisit the ocean response to the five largest tropical volcanoes of the last 135 years (Krakatau, Santa Maria, Agung, El Chichón, and Pinatubo) in a set of 36 historical climate simulations produced using eight widely used climate models. All models show an annual average reduction in net surface solar radiation of 1-5 W m-2, a drop in net surface heat flux of 1-3 W m-2, and a resulting decline in SST of 0.1-0.3 K. Sea ice extent and mass also increase by about 5%. For smaller eruptions SST may recover in a few years, but our results confirm the suggestion of previous studies that the impacts on ocean heat content of major eruptions may persist for decades. The increase in sea ice area and mass also persists well beyond the lifetime of stratospheric aerosols due to the reinforcing impact of solar albedo feedback and reductions in thermodynamic surface heat loss. The cool SST signal also penetrates into the subsurface ocean, lowering 0-1000m temperature by an average of roughly 0.03 K, and persisting for many decades, masking some of the anthropogenic warming signal. Indeed, comparisons of simulations with and without volcanic aerosols show that the concentration of eruptions in the early years of the 20th century and again in the near the end of the century may mask some of the acceleration of ocean heating that might otherwise have been observed. A number of previous studies have explored the connection between volcanic eruptions and interannual to decadal climate variability with contradictory results. Here we combine the use of extensive numbers of ensemble members with a Rotated Extended Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis to further discriminate the natural and forced response, the result of which is no compelling evidence of a link between the timing

  14. Mount St. Helens: A 30-year legacy of volcanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vallance, James W.; Gardner, Cynthia A.; Scott, William E.; Iverson, Richard M.; Pierson, Thomas C.

    2010-01-01

    The spectacular eruption of Mount St. Helens on 18 May 1980 electrified scientists and the public. Photodocumentation of the colossal landslide, directed blast, and ensuing eruption column—which reached as high as 25 kilometers in altitude and lasted for nearly 9 hours—made news worldwide. Reconnaissance of the devastation spurred efforts to understand the power and awe of those moments (Figure 1). The eruption remains a seminal historical event—studying it and its aftermath revolutionized the way scientists approach the field of volcanology. Not only was the eruption spectacular, but also it occurred in daytime, at an accessible volcano, in a country with the resources to transform disaster into scientific opportunity, amid a transformation in digital technology. Lives lost and the impact of the eruption on people and infrastructure downstream and downwind made it imperative for scientists to investigate events and work with communities to lessen losses from future eruptions.

  15. Preliminary volcano-hazard assessment for Mount Spurr Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Nye, Christopher J.

    2001-01-01

    Mount Spurr volcano is an ice- and snow-covered stratovolcano complex located in the north-central Cook Inlet region about 100 kilometers west of Anchorage, Alaska. Mount Spurr volcano consists of a breached stratovolcano, a lava dome at the summit of Mount Spurr, and Crater Peak vent, a small stratocone on the south flank of Mount Spurr volcano. Historical eruptions of Crater Peak occurred in 1953 and 1992. These eruptions were relatively small but explosive, and they dispersed volcanic ash over areas of interior, south-central, and southeastern Alaska. Individual ash clouds produced by the 1992 eruption drifted east, north, and south. Within a few days of the eruption, the south-moving ash cloud was detected over the North Atlantic. Pyroclastic flows that descended the south flank of Crater Peak during both historical eruptions initiated volcanic-debris flows or lahars that formed temporary debris dams across the Chakachatna River, the principal drainage south of Crater Peak. Prehistoric eruptions of Crater Peak and Mount Spurr generated clouds of volcanic ash, pyroclastic flows, and lahars that extended to the volcano flanks and beyond. A flank collapse on the southeast side of Mount Spurr generated a large debris avalanche that flowed about 20 kilometers beyond the volcano into the Chakachatna River valley. The debris-avalanche deposit probably formed a large, temporary debris dam across the Chakachatna River. The distribution and thickness of volcanic-ash deposits from Mount Spurr volcano in the Cook Inlet region indicate that volcanic-ash clouds from most prehistoric eruptions were as voluminous as those produced by the 1953 and 1992 eruptions. Clouds of volcanic ash emitted from the active vent, Crater Peak, would be a major hazard to all aircraft using Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport and other local airports and, depending on wind direction, could drift a considerable distance beyond the volcano. Ash fall from future eruptions could disrupt many

  16. Mount St. Helens and Kilauea volcanoes

    SciTech Connect

    Barrat, J. )

    1989-01-01

    Mount St. Helens' eruption has taught geologists invaluable lessons about how volcanoes work. Such information will be crucial in saving lives and property when other dormant volcanoes in the northwestern United States--and around the world--reawaken, as geologists predict they someday will. Since 1912, scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey's Hawaiian Volcano Observatory have pioneered the study of volcanoes through work on Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes on the island of Hawaii. In Vancouver, Wash., scientists at the Survey's Cascades Volcano Observatory are studying the after-effects of Mount St. Helens' catalysmic eruption as well as monitoring a number of other now-dormant volcanoes in the western United States. This paper briefly reviews the similarities and differences between the Hawaiian and Washington volcanoes and what these volcanoes are teaching the volcanologists.

  17. Jupiter Eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for high resolution image of Nature Cover

    Detailed analysis of two continent-sized storms that erupted in Jupiter's atmosphere in March 2007 shows that Jupiter's internal heat plays a significant role in generating atmospheric disturbances. Understanding these outbreaks could be the key to unlock the mysteries buried in the deep Jovian atmosphere, say astronomers.

    This visible-light image is from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope taken on May 11, 2007. It shows the turbulent pattern generated by the two plumes on the upper left part of Jupiter.

    Understanding these phenomena is important for Earth's meteorology where storms are present everywhere and jet streams dominate the atmospheric circulation. Jupiter is a natural laboratory where atmospheric scientists study the nature and interplay of the intense jets and severe atmospheric phenomena.

    According to the analysis, the bright plumes were storm systems triggered in Jupiter's deep water clouds that moved upward in the atmosphere vi gorously and injected a fresh mixture of ammonia ice and water about 20 miles (30 kilometers) above the visible clouds. The storms moved in the peak of a jet stream in Jupiter's atmosphere at 375 miles per hour (600 kilometers per hour). Models of the disturbance indicate that the jet stream extends deep in the buried atmosphere of Jupiter, more than 60 miles (approximately100 kilometers) below the cloud tops where most sunlight is absorbed.

  18. Magma ascent and the pressurization of Mount Etna's volcanic system.

    PubMed

    Patanè, Domenico; De Gori, Pasquale; Chiarabba, Claudio; Bonaccorso, Alessandro

    2003-03-28

    After a period of deflation during the 1991-1993 flank eruption, Mount Etna underwent a rapid inflation. Seismicity and ground deformation show that since 1994, a huge volume of magma intruded beneath the volcano, producing from 1998 onward a series of eruptions at the summit and on the flank of the volcano. The last of these, started on 27 October 2002, is still in progress and can be considered one of the most explosive eruptions of the volcano in recent times. Here we show how geodetic data and seismic deformation, between 1994 and 2001, indicate a radial compression around an axial intrusion, consistent with a repressurization of Mount Etna's plumbing system at a depth of 6 to 15 kilometers, which triggered most of the seismicity and provoked the dilatation of the volcano and the recent explosive eruptive activity.

  19. Geologic map of Mount Mazama, Crater Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacon, Charles

    1990-01-01

    Crater Lake caldera collapsed about 6,850 yr B.P. during the climactic eruption of Mount Mazama, a High Cascade basaltic andesitic to dacitic volcanic center that was constructed during a period of about 400,000 yr. The caldera and the products of the climactic eruption are clear evidence for the presence of a shallow magma body that must have supported a hydrothermal system in the recent past. The geology of Mount Mazama has been mapped at a scale of 1:24,000 based on detailed study of the walls of Crater Lake caldera and mapping of the flanks of the volcano. The map shows lavas and fragmental deposits of Mount Mazama, lavas of nearby monogenetic volcanoes, pre-Mazama silicic volcanic rocks, products of the climactic eruption, and glacial deposits. Related topical studies of the volcanology, geochronology, petrology, and geochemistry of the Crater Lake area depend on field relations established by geologic mapping.

  20. In the wake of Mount St Helens.

    PubMed

    Nania, J; Bruya, T E

    1982-04-01

    On May 18, 1980, Mount St Helens, Washington State's most active volcano, erupted violently. Volcanic eruptions in recent geologic history have demonstrated tremendous environmental impact and caused significant loss of human life. Volcanic ash expelled during the eruption was deposited on much of eastern Washington and had a profound effect on local air quality. Although ash is relatively inert, analysis revealed a small but significant amount of free crystalline silica, the causative agent of silicosis. The fine particles of ash were of respirable size, and there was a remarkable increase in the volume of respiratory cases seen in emergency departments during the period of high airborne particulate levels. Numerous cases of injury indirectly related to the fall of ash were also seen. The long-term effect of exposure to this volcanic ash is unknown. A prompt, coordinated community medical response is necessary to protect the general population from the potential hazard of exposure to volcanic ash.

  1. In the wake of Mount St Helens

    SciTech Connect

    Nania, J.; Bruya, T.E.

    1982-04-01

    On May 18, 1980, Mount St Helens, Washington State's most active volcano, erupted violently. Volcanic eruptions in recent geologic history have demonstrated tremendous environmental impact and caused significant loss of human life. Volcanic ash expelled during the eruption was deposited on much of eastern Washington and had a profound effect on local air quality. Although ash is relatively inert, analysis revealed a small but significant amount of free crystalline silica, the causative agent of silicosis. The fine particles of ash were of respirable size, and there was a remarkable increase in the volume of respiratory cases seen in emergency departments during the period of high airborne particulate levels. Numerous cases of injury indirectly related to the fall of ash were also seen. The long-term effect of exposure to this volcanic ash is unknown. A prompt, coordinated community medical response is necessary to protect the general population from the potential hazard of exposure to volcanic ash.

  2. Effects of Vent Asymmetry on Steady and Unsteady Eruption Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, S.; Ogden, D.

    2013-12-01

    Models of volcanic eruptions are typically based on symmetric vent and conduit geometries. However, in natural settings, these features are rarely perfectly symmetric. For example, the May 18, 1980 eruption of Mount St Helens (MSH) took place through a highly asymmetrical crater due to the preceding landslide and subsequent vent erosion. In supersonic, high-pressure eruptions, such as what may have occurred at MSH, vent and crater asymmetry can strongly affect the directionality of the eruption. Here we explore flow dynamics resulting from a supersonic, high-pressure eruption though an asymmetric volcanic vent and a symmetric vent using a both unsteady numerical simulations and semi-analytical steady-state models. Preliminary results from both methods suggest that asymmetric vent shape may provide a first-order effect on dynamics of the initial phases of explosive eruptions.

  3. 30 Cool Facts about Mount St. Helens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driedger, Carolyn; Liz, Westby; Faust, Lisa; Frenzen, Peter; Bennett, Jeanne; Clynne, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Commemorating the 30th anniversary of the 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens 1-During the past 4,000 years, Mount St. Helens has erupted more frequently than any other volcano in the Cascade Range. 2-Most of Mount St. Helens is younger than 3,000 years old (younger than the pyramids of Egypt). 3-Some Native American names that refer to smoke at the volcano include- Lawala Clough, Low-We- Lat-Klah, Low-We-Not- Thlat, Loowit, Loo-wit, Loo-wit Lat-kla, and Louwala-Clough. 4-3,600 years ago-Native Americans abandoned hunting grounds devastated by an enormous eruption four times larger than the May 18, 1980 eruption. 5-1792-Captain George Vancouver named the volcano for Britain's ambassador to Spain, Alleyne Fitzherbert, also known as Baron St. Helens. 6-1975-U.S. Geological Survey geologists forecasted that Mount St. Helens would erupt again, 'possibly before the end of the century.' 7-March 20, 1980-A magnitude 4.2 earthquake signaled the reawakening of the volcano after 123 years. 8-Spring 1980-Rising magma pushed the volcano's north flank outward 5 feet per day. 9-Morning of May 18, 1980- The largest terrestrial landslide in recorded history reduced the summit by 1,300 feet and triggered a lateral blast. 10-Within 3 minutes, the lateral blast, traveling at more than 300 miles per hour, blew down and scorched 230 square miles of forest. 11-Within 15 minutes, a vertical plume of volcanic ash rose over 80,000 feet. 12-Afternoon of May 18, 1980-The dense ash cloud turned daylight into darkness in eastern Washington, causing streetlights to turn on in Yakima and Ritzville. 13-The volcanic ash cloud drifted east across the United States in 3 days and encircled Earth in 15 days. 14-Lahars (volcanic mudflows) filled rivers with rocks, sand, and mud, damaging 27 bridges and 200 homes and forcing 31 ships to remain in ports upstream. 15-The May 18, 1980 eruption was the most economically destructive volcanic event in U.S. history. 16-Small plants and trees beneath winter snow

  4. Herculaneum: Clues to Vesuvius eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    More than 80 skeletons have been unearthed in the ancient Mediterranean town of Herculaneum, west of Italy's Mount Vesuvius. This anthropological find corroborates a reinterpretation by three University of Rhode Island scientists of the sequence of the August A.D. 79 eruption of Vesuvius. In addition, the discovery is the first proof that large numbers of people perished as they tried to flee from the eruption, estimated to have been about 10 times more powerful than the May 1980 Mount St. Helens blast.‘Who says dead men don't talk? Their bones have something to say about them and their everyday lives,’ says Sara C. Bisel, a physical anthropologist who analyzed the skeletons. Among the remains are a cluster of skeletons from six adults, four children, and two infants trying to shield themselves from the volcanic onslaught; the skeleton of a sailor, still clutching an oar, lying on his back beside an 8-m-long capsized boat; a woman whose now bony hand was still graced with gem-encrusted gold rings; and a soldier (see Figure 1). From these and other finds the anthropological team was able to discern that the ancient Romans, on average, were shorter than modern citizens and, judging from the condition of some of the teeth, probably had a low-sugar diet.

  5. Mount St. Helens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of Mount St. Helens was captured one week after the March 8, 2005, ash and steam eruption, the latest activity since the volcano's reawakening in September 2004. The new lava dome in the southeast part of the crater is clearly visible, highlighted by red areas where ASTER's infrared channels detected hot spots from incandescent lava. The new lava dome is 155 meters (500 feet) higher than the old lava dome, and still growing.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 21.9 by 24.4 kilometers (13.6 by 15.1 miles) Location: 46.2 degrees North latitude, 122.2 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 8, 3, and 1 Original Data Resolution

  6. Excitation of atmospheric oscillations by volcanic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanamori, Hiroo; Mori, Jim; Harkrider, David G.

    1994-11-01

    We investigated the mechanism of atmospheric oscillations with periods of about 300 s which were observed for the 1991 Pinatubo and the 1982 El Chichon eruptions. Two distinct spectral peaks, at T = 270 and 230 s for the Pinatubo eruption and at T = 195 and 266 s for the El Chichon eruptions, have been reported. We found similar oscillations for the 1980 Mount St. Helens and the 1883 Krakatoa eruptions. To explain these observations, we investigated excitation problems for two types of idealized sources, 'mass injection' and 'energy injection' sources, placed in an isothermal atmosphere. In general, two modes of oscillations, 'acoustic' and 'gravity' modes, can be excited. For realistic atmospheric parameters, the acoustic and gravity modes have a period of 275 and 304 s, respectively. For a realistic time history of eruption, atmospheric oscillations with an amplitude of 50 to 100 Pa (0.5 to 1 mbar) can be excited by an energy injection source with a total energy of 10(exp 17) J. This result is consistent with the observations and provides a physical basis for interpretation of atmospheric oscillations excited by volcanic eruptions.

  7. Effects of Vent Asymmetry on Explosive Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, S.; Ogden, D. E.

    2012-12-01

    Current computer models of volcanic eruptions are typically based on symmetric vent and conduit geometries. However, in natural settings, these features are rarely perfectly symmetric. For example, the May 18, 1980 eruption of Mount St Helens (MSH) took place through a highly asymmetrical crater due to the preceding landslide and subsequent vent erosion. In supersonic, high pressure eruptions, such as what may have occurred at MSH, vent and crater asymmetry can strongly affect the directionality of the gas-thrust region. These effects on eruption direction may have implications for the formation of lateral blasts and pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). Here, we present preliminary results from numerical simulations using CartaBlanca, a Java based simulation tool for non-linear physics as developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Using 2D time-dependent simulations of explosive volcanic eruptions, we study the effects of vent asymmetry on a variety of eruptive conditions. Preliminary results suggest that asymmetric vent shape may provide an additional mechanism for the formation of lateral blasts and PDCs.

  8. Geochemical precursors to volcanic activity at Mount St. Helens, USA.

    PubMed

    Berlo, Kim; Blundy, Jon; Turner, Simon; Cashman, Kathy; Hawkesworth, Chris; Black, Stuart

    2004-11-12

    The importance of the interplay between degassing and crystallization before and after the eruption of Mount St. Helens (Washington, USA) in 1980 is well established. Here, we show that degassing occurred over a period of decades to days before eruptions and that the manner of degassing, as deduced from geochemical signatures within the magma, was characteristic of the eruptive style. Trace element (lithium) and short-lived radioactive isotope (lead-210 and radium-226) data show that ascending magma stalled within the conduit, leading to the accumulation of volatiles and the formation of lead-210 excesses, which signals the presence of degassing magma at depth.

  9. Earthquake swarms on Mount Erebus, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminuma, Katsutada; Baba, Megumi; Ueki, Sadato

    1986-12-01

    Mount Erebus (3794 m), located on Ross Island in McMurdo Sound, is one of the few active volcanoes in Antartica. A high-sensitivity seismic network has been operated by Japanese and US parties on and around the Volcano since December, 1980. The results of these observations show two kinds of seismic activity on Ross Island: activity concentrated near the summit of Mount Erebus associated with Strombolian eruptions, and micro-earthquake activity spread through Mount Erebus and the surrounding area. Seismicity on Mount Erebus has been quite high, usually exceeding 20 volcanic earthquakes per day. They frequently occur in swarms with daily counts exceeding 100 events. Sixteen earthquake swarms with more than 250 events per day were recorded by the seismic network during the three year period 1982-1984, and three notable earthquake swarms out of the sixteen were recognized, in October, 1982 (named 82-C), March-April, 1984 (84-B) and July, 1984 (84-F). Swarms 84-B and 84-F have a large total number of earthquakes and large Ishimoto-Iida's "m"; hence these two swarms are presumed to constitute on one of the precursor phenomena to the new eruption, which took place on 13 September, 1984, and lasted a few months.

  10. PV module mounting method and mounting assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lenox, Carl J.S.; Johnson, Kurt M.

    2013-04-23

    A method for mounting PV modules to a deck includes selecting PV module layout pattern so that adjacent PV module edges are spaced apart. PV mounting and support assemblies are secured to the deck according to the layout pattern using fasteners extending into the deck. The PV modules are placed on the PV mounting and support assemblies. Retaining elements are located over and secured against the upper peripheral edge surfaces of the PV modules so to secure them to the deck with the peripheral edges of the PV modules spaced apart from the deck. In some examples a PV module mounting assembly, for use on a shingled deck, comprises flashing, a base mountable on the flashing, a deck-penetrating fastener engageable with the base and securable to the deck so to secure the flashing and the base to the shingled deck, and PV module mounting hardware securable to the base.

  11. Filament Eruption Onset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    We have been investigating filament eruptions in recent years. Use filament eruptions as markers of the coronal field evolution. Data from SoHO, Yohkoh, TRACE, Hinode, and other sources. We and others have observed: (1)Filaments often show slow rise, followed by fast rise, (2) Brightenings, preflares, microflares during slow rise (3) Magnetic evolution in hours prior to eruption onset. We investigated What do Hinode and SDO show for filament eruptions?

  12. An erupted compound odontoma.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anil; Vij, Hitesh; Vij, Ruchieka; Malhotra, Ritika

    2014-04-12

    Odontomas are familiar entities but their eruption into the oral cavity is an extraordinary occurrence, which may be associated with pain, infection, malocclusion, etc. Not many cases of erupted odontomas have been reported in the literature. This paper puts forth a case of erupting odontoma in an attempt to add to the list of reported cases of this unique pathology.

  13. Magnetic core mounting system

    DOEpatents

    Ronning, Jeffrey J.

    2002-01-01

    A mounting apparatus for an electromagnetic device such as a transformer of inductor includes a generally planar metallic plate as a first heat sink, and a metallic mounting cup as a second heat sink. The mounting cup includes a cavity configured to receive the electromagnetic device, the cavity being defined by a base, and an axially-extending annular sidewall extending from the base to a flange portion of the mounting cup. The mounting cup includes first and second passages for allowing the leads of first and second windings of the electromagnetic device to be routed out of the cavity. The cavity is filled with a polyurethane potting resin, and the mounting cup, including the potted electromagnetic device, is mounted to the plate heat sink using fasteners. The mounting cup, which surrounds the electromagnetic device, in combination with the potting resin provides improved thermal transfer to the plate heat sink, as well as providing resistance to vibration and shocks.

  14. Fixed mount wavefront sensor

    DOEpatents

    Neal, Daniel R.

    2000-01-01

    A rigid mount and method of mounting for a wavefront sensor. A wavefront dissector, such as a lenslet array, is rigidly mounted at a fixed distance relative to an imager, such as a CCD camera, without need for a relay imaging lens therebetween.

  15. Discovery of the Largest Historic Silicic Submarine Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, Rebecca J.; Wysoczanski, Richard; Wunderman, Richard; Jutzeler, Martin

    2014-05-01

    It was likely twice the size of the renowned Mount St. Helens eruption of 1980 and perhaps more than 10 times bigger than the more recent 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption in Iceland. However, unlike those two events, which dominated world news headlines, in 2012 the daylong submarine silicic eruption at Havre volcano in the Kermadec Arc, New Zealand (Figure 1a; ~800 kilometers north of Auckland, New Zealand), passed without fanfare. In fact, for a while no one even knew it had occurred.

  16. Volcanic hazards at Mount Rainier, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crandell, Dwight Raymond; Mullineaux, Donal Ray

    1967-01-01

    Mount Rainier is a large stratovolcano of andesitic rock in the Cascade Range of western Washington. Although the volcano as it now stands was almost completely formed before the last major glaciation, geologic formations record a variety of events that have occurred at the volcano in postglacial time. Repetition of some of these events today without warning would result in property damage and loss of life on a catastrophic scale. It is appropriate, therefore, to examine the extent, frequency, and apparent origin of these phenomena and to attempt to predict the effects on man of similar events in the future. The present report was prompted by a contrast that we noted during a study of surficial geologic deposits in Mount Rainier National Park, between the present tranquil landscape adjacent to the volcano and the violent events that shaped parts of that same landscape in the recent past. Natural catastrophes that have geologic causes - such as eruptions, landslides, earthquakes, and floods - all too often are disastrous primarily because man has not understood and made allowance for the geologic environment he occupies. Assessment of the potential hazards of a volcanic environment is especially difficult, for prediction of the time and kind of volcanic activity is still an imperfect art, even at active volcanoes whose behavior has been closely observed for many years. Qualified predictions, however, can be used to plan ways in which hazards to life and property can be minimized. The prediction of eruptions is handicapped because volcanism results from conditions far beneath the surface of the earth, where the causative factors cannot be seen and, for the most part, cannot be measured. Consequently, long-range predictions at Mount Rainier can be based only on the past behavior of the volcano, as revealed by study of the deposits that resulted from previous eruptions. Predictions of this sort, of course, cannot be specific as to time and locale of future events, and

  17. The great Tambora eruption in 1815 and its aftermath

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    The events consequent to the cataclysmic eruption of Mount Tambora, Indonesia, in April of 1815 are reconstructed by quantitative analytical methods which synthesize data and methods from the volcanological, oceanographic, glaciological, meteorological, climatological, astronomical and historical disciplines. This eruption is noteworthy in having been an order of magnitude greater in discharged pyroclastics volume than the Krakatau eruption of 1883, and further, in exceeding the size of any known eruption in the last 10,000 years. The mean temperature in the Northern Hemisphere dropped by 0.4 to 0.7 C in 1816 as a result of its dust veil. It is suggested that Tambora may be used as a calibrating standard in the investigation of other volcanic eruptions.

  18. Learning from Mount St. Helens: Catastrophic Events as Educational Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jeremy

    1987-01-01

    Maintains that the study of catastrophic events should be given temporary precedence over the normal curriculum in order to help students understand the causes, consequences, and recovery alternatives, deal with trauma, and allay fear of recurrence and feelings of helplessness. Uses the May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens to demonstrate how…

  19. Photovoltaic module mounting system

    SciTech Connect

    Miros, Robert H. J.; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Seery, Martin N; Holland, Rodney H

    2012-04-17

    A solar array mounting system having unique installation, load distribution, and grounding features, and which is adaptable for mounting solar panels having no external frame. The solar array mounting system includes flexible, pedestal-style feet and structural links connected in a grid formation on the mounting surface. The photovoltaic modules are secured in place via the use of attachment clamps that grip the edge of the typically glass substrate. The panel mounting clamps are then held in place by tilt brackets and/or mid-link brackets that provide fixation for the clamps and align the solar panels at a tilt to the horizontal mounting surface. The tilt brackets are held in place atop the flexible feet and connected link members thus creating a complete mounting structure.

  20. Photovoltaic module mounting system

    SciTech Connect

    Miros, Robert H. J.; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Seery, Martin N; Holland, Rodney H

    2012-09-18

    A solar array mounting system having unique installation, load distribution, and grounding features, and which is adaptable for mounting solar panels having no external frame. The solar array mounting system includes flexible, pedestal-style feet and structural links connected in a grid formation on the mounting surface. The photovoltaic modules are secured in place via the use of attachment clamps that grip the edge of the typically glass substrate. The panel mounting clamps are then held in place by tilt brackets and/or mid-link brackets that provide fixation for the clamps and align the solar panels at a tilt to the horizontal mounting surface. The tilt brackets are held in place atop the flexible feet and connected link members thus creating a complete mounting structure.

  1. Precursors of eruptions at Vesuvius (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scandone, Roberto; Giacomelli, Lisetta

    2008-04-01

    The historical record of activity of Mount Vesuvius is uncommonly long and may serve as a guide to understand precursors before the outbreak of new activity. Reposes of different lengths have been observed in the past, with long ones preceding violent explosive eruptions. Eruptions occurring during periods of permanent activity have been preceded by possible deformation of the volcanic edifice and by short duration, earthquake swarms. Otherwise they have occurred without any reported precursors. The renewal of activity after long periods, like the current one, has been preceded by unrest lasting years to weeks, as a new eruption would require connection to the surface of a reservoir at depth ranging between 6 and 4 km. Since 1944, episodic seismic swarms, have occurred with a frequency similar to that of the violent strombolian eruptions during the last period of permanent activity; they are interpreted as intrusions and arrest of magma batches into a reservoir at the same depth of that feeding past sub-plinian eruptions.

  2. Effects of volcanism on the glaciers of Mount St. Helens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brugman, Melinda M.; Post, Austin

    1981-01-01

    The cataclysmic eruption of Mount St. Helens May 18, 1980, removed 2.9 km2 (about 0.13 km3) of glacier snow and ice including a large part of Shoestring, Forsyth, Wishbone, Ape, Nelson, and all of Loowit and Leschi Glaciers. Minor eruptions and bulging of the volcano from March 27 to May 17 shattered glaciers which were on the deforming rock and deposited ash on other glaciers. Thick ash layers persisted after the May 18 eruption through the summer on most of the remaining snow and ice, and protected winter snow from melting on Swift and Dryer Glaciers. Melting and recrystalization of snow and ice surviving on Mount St. Helens could cause and lubricate mudflows and generate outburst floods. Study of glaciers that remain on this active volcano may assist in recognizing potential hazards on other volcanoes and lead to new contributions to knowledge of the transient response of glaciers to changes in mass balance or geometry.

  3. Effects of volcanism on the glaciers of Mount St. Helens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brugman, M. M.; Post, A.

    The cataclysmic eruption of Mount St. Helens May 18, 1980, removed 2.9 sq/km of glacier snow and ice including a large part of Shoestring Forsyth, Wishbone, Ape, Nelson, and all of Loowit and Leschi Glaciers. Minor eruptions and bulging of the volcano from March 27 to May 17 shattered glaciers which were on the deforming rock and deposited ash on other glaciers. Thick ash layers persisted after the May 18 eruption through the summer on most of the remaining snow and ice, and protected winter snow from melting on Swift and Dryer Glaciers. Melting and recrystallization of snow and ice surviving on Mount St. Helens could cause and lubricate mud flows and generate outburst floods.

  4. Dynamics of the Mount Nyiragongo lava lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgi, P.-Y.; Darrah, T. H.; Tedesco, D.; Eymold, W. K.

    2014-05-01

    The permanent and presently rising lava lake at Mount Nyiragongo constitutes a major potential geological hazard to the inhabitants of the Virunga volcanic region in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Rwanda. Based on two field campaigns in June 2010 and 2011, we estimate the lava lake level from the southeastern crater rim (~400 m diameter) and lava lake area (~46,550 m2), which constrains, respectively, the lava lake volume (~9 × 106 m3) and volume flow rate needed to keep the magma in a molten state (0.6 to 3.5 m3 s-1). A bidirectional magma flow model, which includes the characterization of the conduit diameter and funnel-shaped lava lake geometry, is developed to constrain the amount of magma intruded/emplaced within the magmatic chamber and rift-related structures that extend between Mount Nyiragongo's volcanic center and the city of Goma, DRC, since Mount Nyiragongo's last eruption (17 January 2002). Besides matching field data of the lava lake level covering the period 1977 to 2002, numerical solutions of the model indicate that by 2022, 20 years after the January 2002 eruption, between 300 and 1700 × 106 m3 (0.3 to 1.7 km3) of magma could have intruded/emplaced underneath the edifice, and the lava lake volume could exceed 15 × 106 m3.

  5. Gravity and magma induces spreading of Mount Etna volcano revealed by satellite radar interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lungren, P.; Casu, F.; Manzo, M.; Pepe, A.; Berardino, P.; Sansosti, E.; Lanari, R.

    2004-01-01

    Mount Etna underwent a cycle of eruptive activity over the past ten years. Here we compute ground displacement maps and deformation time series from more than 400 radar interferograms to reveal Mount Etna's average and time varying surface deformation from 1992 to 2001.

  6. U-238- and Th-232-series chronology of phonolite fractionation at Mount Erebus, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reagan, Mark K.; Volpe, Alan M.; Cashman, Katharine V.

    1992-03-01

    Some of the first uranium thorium, and radium nuclide and barium abundance data from phonolites erupted in 1984 and 1988 from Mount Erebus, Antarctica are reported. The data are used to constrain the time scales of anorthoclase megacryst growth and, by inference, the residence times and histories of anorthoclase phonolite differentiation at Mount Erebus.

  7. Scattering matrices of volcanic ash particles of Mount St. Helens, Redoubt, and Mount Spurr Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MuñOz, O.; Volten, H.; Hovenier, J. W.; Veihelmann, B.; van der Zande, W. J.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Rose, W. I.

    2004-08-01

    We present measurements of the whole scattering matrix as a function of the scattering angle at a wavelength of 632.8 nm in the scattering angle range 3°-174° of randomly oriented particles taken from seven samples of volcanic ashes corresponding to four different volcanic eruptions: the 18 May 1980 Mount St. Helens eruption, the 1989-1990 Redoubt eruption, and the 18 August and 17 September 1992 Mount Spurr eruptions. The samples were collected at different distances from the vent. The samples studied contain large mass fractions of fine particles and were chosen to represent ash that could remain in the atmosphere for at least hours or days. They include fine ashfall samples that fell at a variety of distances from the volcano and pyroclastic flows that retained their fine fractions. Together, they represent a range of ashes likely to remain in the atmosphere in volcanic clouds following eruptions from convergent plate boundary volcanoes, Earth's most important group of explosive sources of ash. All measured scattering matrix elements are confined to rather limited domains when plotted as functions of the scattering angle following the general trends presented by irregular mineral particles. This similarity in the scattering behavior justifies the construction of an average scattering matrix for volcanic ash particles as a function of the scattering angle. To facilitate the use of the average scattering matrix for multiple-scattering calculations with polarization included, we present a synthetic scattering matrix based on the average scattering matrix for volcanic ashes and the assumption that the diffraction forward scattering peak is the same for randomly oriented nonspherical particles and projected-surface-area-equivalent spheres. This synthetic scattering matrix is normalized so that the average of its 1-1 element over all directions equals unity. It is available in the full range from 0° to 180° and can be used, for example, for interpretation of

  8. Deposits of large volcanic debris avalanches at Mount St. Helens and Mount Shasta volcanoes

    SciTech Connect

    Glicken, H.

    1985-01-01

    Large volcanic debris avalanches are among the world's largest mass movements. The rockslide-debris avalanche of the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens produced a 2.8 km/sup 3/ deposit and is the largest historic mass movement. A Pleistocene debris avalanche at Mount Shasta produced a 26 km/sup 3/ deposit that may be the largest Quaternary mass movement. The hummocky deposits at both volcanoes consist of rubble divided into (1) block facies that comprises unconsolidated pieces of the old edifice transported relatively intact, and (2) matrix facies that comprises a mixture of rocks from the old mountain and material picked up from the surrounding terrain. At Mount St. Helens, the juvenile dacite is found in the matrix facies, indicating that matrix facies formed from explosions of the erupting magma as well as from disaggregation and mixing of blocks. The block facies forms both hummocks and interhummock areas in the proximal part of the St. Helens avalanche deposit. At Mount St. Helens, the density of the old cone is 21% greater than the density of the avalanche deposit. Block size decreases with distance. Clast size, measured in the field and by sieving, coverages about a mean with distance, which suggests that blocks disaggregated and mixed together during transport.

  9. Digital Data for Volcano Hazards in the Mount Jefferson Region, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, S.P.; Doelger, S.; Walder, J.S.; Gardner, C.A.; Conrey, R.M.; Fisher, B.J.

    2008-01-01

    Mount Jefferson has erupted repeatedly for hundreds of thousands of years, with its last eruptive episode during the last major glaciation which culminated about 15,000 years ago. Geologic evidence shows that Mount Jefferson is capable of large explosive eruptions. The largest such eruption occurred between 35,000 and 100,000 years ago. If Mount Jefferson erupts again, areas close to the eruptive vent will be severely affected, and even areas tens of kilometers (tens of miles) downstream along river valleys or hundreds of kilometers (hundreds of miles) downwind may be at risk. Numerous small volcanoes occupy the area between Mount Jefferson and Mount Hood to the north, and between Mount Jefferson and the Three Sisters region to the south. These small volcanoes tend not to pose the far-reaching hazards associated with Mount Jefferson, but are nonetheless locally important. A concern at Mount Jefferson, but not at the smaller volcanoes, is the possibility that small-to-moderate sized landslides could occur even during periods of no volcanic activity. Such landslides may transform as they move into lahars (watery flows of rock, mud, and debris) that can inundate areas far downstream. The geographic information system (GIS) volcano hazard data layer used to produce the Mount Jefferson volcano hazard map in USGS Open-File Report 99-24 (Walder and others, 1999) is included in this data set. Both proximal and distal hazard zones were delineated by scientists at the Cascades Volcano Observatory and depict various volcano hazard areas around the mountain.

  10. A visit to Mount St. Helens

    SciTech Connect

    Meadows, D.G.

    1994-04-01

    The May 18, 1980, eruption displaced roughly 2.6 km[sup 3] of rock and devastated more than 500 km[sup 2] of forest, mostly to the north of the mountain. Trees within 10--15 km of the mountain peak were burned and uprooted. Beyond that, high winds and flying debris created a blowdown zone. Up to 150 m of rock and ice covered some areas. Accumulations of ash were measured as much as 330 km from the volcano. Mud flows choked nearby rivers and streams. Two years later, the US Congress established the 44,000-hectare Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument. The Act essentially directed the USDA Forest Service to allow the area to recover naturally. The paper reviews what changes the ecosystem has been going through since the eruption and the lessons learned that suggest some new resource management techniques.

  11. Renewed unrest at Mount Spurr Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Power, John A.

    2004-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO),a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the University of Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, has detected unrest at Mount Spurr volcano, located about 125 km west of Anchorage, Alaska, at the northeast end of the Aleutian volcanic arc.This activity consists of increased seismicity melting of the summit ice cap, and substantial rates of C02 and H2S emission.The current unrest is centered beneath the volcano's 3374-m-high summit, whose last known eruption was 5000–6000 years ago. Since then, Crater Peak, 2309 m in elevation and 4 km to the south, has been the active vent. Recent eruptions occurred in 1953 and 1992.

  12. Mt. Spurr's 1992 eruptions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1993-01-01

    On 27 June, 1992, the Crater Peak vent on the south side of Mt. Spurr awoke from 39 years of dormancy and burst into sub-plinian eruption after 10 months of elevated seismicity. Two more eruptions followed in August and September. The volcano lies 125 km west of Anchorage, Alaska's largest city and an important international hub for air travel. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) was able to warn communities and the aviation industry well in advance of these eruptions.

  13. High bandwidth optical mount

    DOEpatents

    Bender, Donald A.; Kuklo, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    An optical mount, which directs a laser beam to a point by controlling the position of a light-transmitting optic, is stiffened so that a lowest resonant frequency of the mount is approximately one kilohertz. The optical mount, which is cylindrically-shaped, positions the optic by individually moving a plurality of carriages which are positioned longitudinally within a sidewall of the mount. The optical mount is stiffened by allowing each carriage, which is attached to the optic, to move only in a direction which is substantially parallel to a center axis of the optic. The carriage is limited to an axial movement by flexures or linear bearings which connect the carriage to the mount. The carriage is moved by a piezoelectric transducer. By limiting the carriage to axial movement, the optic can be kinematically clamped to a carriage.

  14. High bandwidth optical mount

    DOEpatents

    Bender, D.A.; Kuklo, T.

    1994-11-08

    An optical mount, which directs a laser beam to a point by controlling the position of a light-transmitting optic, is stiffened so that a lowest resonant frequency of the mount is approximately one kilohertz. The optical mount, which is cylindrically-shaped, positions the optic by individually moving a plurality of carriages which are positioned longitudinally within a sidewall of the mount. The optical mount is stiffened by allowing each carriage, which is attached to the optic, to move only in a direction which is substantially parallel to a center axis of the optic. The carriage is limited to an axial movement by flexures or linear bearings which connect the carriage to the mount. The carriage is moved by a piezoelectric transducer. By limiting the carriage to axial movement, the optic can be kinematically clamped to a carriage. 5 figs.

  15. Enhancements in biologically effective ultraviolet radiation following volcanic eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogelmann, A. M.; Ackerman, T. P.; Turco, R. P.

    1992-01-01

    A radiative transfer model is used to estimate the changes in biologically effective radiation (UV-BE) at the earth's surface produced by the El Chichon (1982) and Mount Pinatubo (1991) eruptions. It is found that in both cases surface intensity can increase because the effect of ozone depletion outweighs the increased scattering.

  16. Volcanic eruptions, prediction, hazard assessment, remote sensing, and societal implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Self, Stephen; Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.

    1995-07-01

    In volcanology, the period 1991-1994 was very busy, with many active volcanoes keeping pace with the higher-than-average frequency of eruptions (about 60-70 per year) recorded during the late 1970's to the late 1980's (Simkin, 1993). Some large and violent eruptions occurred in well populated areas but these passed without the higher death tolls caused by eruptions in the previous decade, a reflection perhaps of increased volcanic hazard awareness, improved prediction and monitoring, and better communication between volcanologists and public officials (Peterson and Tilling, 1993). The loss of human life was limited to a little over 1000, with perhaps ˜750 of these attributable to the Mount Pinatubo eruption on Luzon in the Philippines. Many were killed by post-eruption phenomena, such as mudflows, and by disease in the displaced populations. This large eruption, which had a world-wide atmospheric impact, dominates the picture of volcanism in the early 1990's. However, significant eruptions also occurred at Hudson, Unzen, Spurr, Redoubt, Hekla, Mayon, Galeras, Rabaul, Kliuchevskoi, Etna (the most voluminous lava outpourings this century), and many other volcanoes. Here we assess the current state of volcano monitoring and hazard awareness against a backdrop of the eruptions of the past four years, and take a look at future developments, stressing new techniques in the field of remote sensing.

  17. Mount St. Helens Volcano, WA, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Mount St. Helens Volcano (46.0N, 122.0W) and its blast zone can be seen in this northeast looking infrared view. Mt. Rainier and Mt. Adams can also be seen in the near area. The Columbia River can be seen at the bottom of the view. When Mt. St. Helens erupted on 18 May 80, the top 1300 ft. disappeared within minutes. The blast area covered an area of more than 150 sq. miles and sent thousands of tons of ash into the upper atmosphere.

  18. Geologic Map of Mount Mazama and Crater Lake Caldera, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacon, Charles R.

    2008-01-01

    Crater Lake partly fills one of the most spectacular calderas of the world, an 8-by-10-km basin more than 1 km deep formed by collapse of the volcano known as Mount Mazama (fig. 1) during a rapid series of explosive eruptions about 7,700 years ago. Having a maximum depth of 594 m, Crater Lake is the deepest lake in the United States. Crater Lake National Park, dedicated in 1902, encompasses 645 km2 of pristine forested and alpine terrain, including the lake itself, virtually all of Mount Mazama, and most of the area of the geologic map. The geology of the area was first described in detail by Diller and Patton (1902) and later by Williams (1942), whose vivid account led to international recognition of Crater Lake as the classic collapse caldera. Because of excellent preservation and access, Mount Mazama, Crater Lake caldera, and the deposits formed by the climactic eruption constitute a natural laboratory for study of volcanic and magmatic processes. For example, the climactic ejecta are renowned among volcanologists as evidence for systematic compositional zonation within a subterranean magma chamber. Mount Mazama's climactic eruption also is important as the source of the widespread Mazama ash, a useful Holocene stratigraphic marker throughout the Pacific Northwest, adjacent Canada, and offshore. A detailed bathymetric survey of the floor of Crater Lake in 2000 (Bacon and others, 2002) provides a unique record of postcaldera eruptions, the interplay between volcanism and filling of the lake, and sediment transport within this closed basin. Knowledge of the geology and eruptive history of the Mount Mazama edifice, greatly enhanced by the caldera wall exposures, gives exceptional insight into how large volcanoes of magmatic arcs grow and evolve. Lastly, the many smaller volcanoes of the High Cascades beyond the limits of Mount Mazama are a source of information on the flux of mantle-derived magma through the region. General principles of magmatic and eruptive

  19. Stable mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.

    1990-01-01

    An improved mirror mount assembly is disclosed. The mirror mount assembly provides a post assembly slidable in a Y-axis orientation and a nut plate assembly slidable in an X-axis orientation and a device for simultaneously locking the post assembly and the key assembly in a fixed position.

  20. Stable mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, R.W.

    1983-11-04

    An improved mirror mount assembly is disclosed. The mirror mount assembly provides a post assembly slidable in a Y-axis orientation and a nut plate assembly slidable in an X-axis orientation and means for simultaneously locking said post assembly and said key assembly in a fixed position.

  1. Spherical mirror mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Jay L. (Inventor); Messick, Glenn C. (Inventor); Nardell, Carl A. (Inventor); Hendlin, Martin J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A spherical mounting assembly for mounting an optical element allows for rotational motion of an optical surface of the optical element only. In that regard, an optical surface of the optical element does not translate in any of the three perpendicular translational axes. More importantly, the assembly provides adjustment that may be independently controlled for each of the three mutually perpendicular rotational axes.

  2. Linear drug eruption.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, R; Belinchon, I

    2001-01-01

    Linear eruptions are sometimes associated with systemic diseases and they may also be induced by various drugs. Paradoxically, such acquired inflammatory skin diseases tend to follow the system of Blaschko's lines. We describe a case of unilateral linear drug eruption caused by ibuprofen, which later became bilateral and generalized.

  3. Generalized Eruptive Syringoma

    PubMed Central

    Avhad, Ganesh; Ghuge, Priyanka; Jerajani, HR

    2015-01-01

    Eruptive syringoma is a very rare variant of syringoma. It is a benign adnexal tumor of the intraepidermal portion of eccrine sweat ducts. Here we report a 32-year-old female presented with classical asymptomatic eruptive syringomas involving her face and extremities. PMID:25814740

  4. Geology of the Ugashik-Mount Peulik Volcanic Center, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Thomas P.

    2004-01-01

    The Ugashik-Mount Peulik volcanic center, 550 km southwest of Anchorage on the Alaska Peninsula, consists of the late Quaternary 5-km-wide Ugashik caldera and the stratovolcano Mount Peulik built on the north flank of Ugashik. The center has been the site of explosive volcanism including a caldera-forming eruption and post-caldera dome-destructive activity. Mount Peulik has been formed entirely in Holocene time and erupted in 1814 and 1845. A large lava dome occupies the summit crater, which is breached to the west. A smaller dome is perched high on the southeast flank of the cone. Pyroclastic-flow deposits form aprons below both domes. One or more sector-collapse events occurred early in the formation of Mount Peulik volcano resulting in a large area of debris-avalanche deposits on the volcano's northwest flank. The Ugashik-Mount Peulik center is a calcalkaline suite of basalt, andesite, dacite, and rhyolite, ranging in SiO2 content from 51 to 72 percent. The Ugashik-Mount Peulik magmas appear to be co-genetic in a broad sense and their compositional variation has probably resulted from a combination of fractional crystallization and magma-mixing. The most likely scenario for a future eruption is that one or more of the summit domes on Mount Peulik are destroyed as new magma rises to the surface. Debris avalanches and pyroclastic flows may then move down the west and, less likely, east flanks of the volcano for distances of 10 km or more. A new lava dome or series of domes would be expected to form either during or within some few years after the explosive disruption of the previous dome. This cycle of dome disruption, pyroclastic flow generation, and new dome formation could be repeated several times in a single eruption. The volcano poses little direct threat to human population as the area is sparsely populated. The most serious hazard is the effect of airborne volcanic ash on aircraft since Mount Peulik sits astride heavily traveled air routes connecting the U

  5. Optoelectronic Mounting Structure

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gene R.; Armendariz, Marcelino G.; Baca, Johnny R. F.; Bryan, Robert P.; Carson, Richard F.; Chu, Dahwey; Duckett, III, Edwin B.; McCormick, Frederick B.; Peterson, David W.; Peterson, Gary D.; Reber, Cathleen A.; Reysen, Bill H.

    2004-10-05

    An optoelectronic mounting structure is provided that may be used in conjunction with an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module. The mounting structure may be a flexible printed circuit board. Thermal vias or heat pipes in the head region may transmit heat from the mounting structure to the heat spreader. The heat spreader may provide mechanical rigidity or stiffness to the heat region. In another embodiment, an electrical contact and ground plane may pass along a surface of the head region so as to provide an electrical contact path to the optoelectronic devices and limit electromagnetic interference. In yet another embodiment, a window may be formed in the head region of the mounting structure so as to provide access to the heat spreader. Optoelectronic devices may be adapted to the heat spreader in such a manner that the devices are accessible through the window in the mounting structure.

  6. Initiation of Solar Eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.

    2007-01-01

    We consider processes occurring just prior to and at the start of the onset of flare- and CME-producing solar eruptions. Our recent work uses observations of filament motions around the time of eruption onset as a proxy for the evolution of the fields involved in the eruption. Frequently the filaments show a slow rise prior to fast eruption, indicative of a slow expansion of the field that is about co explode. Work by us and others suggests that reconnection involving emerging or canceling flux results in a lengthening of fields restraining the filament-carrying field, and the consequent upward expansion of the field in and around the filament produces the filament's slow rise: that is, the reconnection weakens the magnetic "tethers" ("tether-weakening" reconnection), and results in the slow rise of the filament. It is still inconclusive, however, what mechanism is responsible for the switch from the slow rise to the fast eruption.

  7. Living through a volcanic eruption: Understanding the experience of survivors as a phenomenological existential phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Warsini, Sri; Mills, Jane; West, Caryn; Usher, Kim

    2016-06-01

    Mount Merapi in Indonesia is the most active volcano in the world with its 4-6-year eruption cycle. The mountain and surrounding areas are populated by hundreds of thousands of people who live near the volcano despite the danger posed to their wellbeing. The aim of this study was to explore the lived experience of people who survived the most recent eruption of Mount Merapi, which took place in 2010. Investigators conducted interviews with 20 participants to generate textual data that were coded and themed. Three themes linked to the phenomenological existential experience (temporality and relationality) of living through a volcanic eruption emerged from the data. These themes were: connectivity, disconnection and reconnection. Results indicate that the close relationship individuals have with Mount Merapi and others in their neighbourhood outweighs the risk of living in the shadow of an active volcano. This is the first study to analyze the phenomenological existential elements of living through a volcanic eruption.

  8. Volcanic Eruptions and Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robock, A.

    2012-12-01

    Large volcanic eruptions inject sulfur gases into the stratosphere, which convert to sulfate aerosols with an e-folding residence time of about one year. The radiative and chemical effects of these aerosol clouds produce responses in the climate system. Observations and numerical models of the climate system show that volcanic eruptions produce global cooling and were the dominant natural cause of climate change for the past millennium, on timescales from annual to century. Major tropical eruptions produce winter warming of Northern Hemisphere continents for one or two years, while high latitude eruptions in the Northern Hemisphere weaken the Asian and African summer monsoon. The Toba supereruption 74,000 years ago caused very large climate changes, affecting human evolution. However, the effects did not last long enough to produce widespread glaciation. An episode of four large decadally-spaced eruptions at the end of the 13th century C.E. started the Little Ice Age. Since the Mt. Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines in 1991, there have been no large eruptions that affected climate, but the cumulative effects of small eruptions over the past decade had a small effect on global temperature trends. The June 13, 2011 Nabro eruption in Eritrea produced the largest stratospheric aerosol cloud since Pinatubo, and the most of the sulfur entered the stratosphere not by direct injection, but by slow lofting in the Asian summer monsoon circulation. Volcanic eruptions warn us that while stratospheric geoengineering could cool the surface, reducing ice melt and sea level rise, producing pretty sunsets, and increasing the CO2 sink, it could also reduce summer monsoon precipitation, destroy ozone, allowing more harmful UV at the surface, produce rapid warming when stopped, make the sky white, reduce solar power, perturb the ecology with more diffuse radiation, damage airplanes flying in the stratosphere, degrade astronomical observations, affect remote sensing, and affect

  9. SO2 flux measurements at Mount Etna (Sicily)

    SciTech Connect

    Caltabiano, T.; Romano, R.; Budetta, G.

    1994-06-01

    Since 1987, over 220 measurements of the SO2 flux at Mount Etna have been carried out using a correlation spectrometer (COSPEC) with different measuring techniques (mainly with COSPEC mounted on ground-based vehicle). This paper reports and analyzes the data obtained between October 1987 and December 1991. During this period, three distinct time intervals characterized by particular SO2 emission patterns were identified. The first interval (A) showed a mean SO2 flux of 5500 t/d associated with relatively quiet summit crater eruptive activity. The second interval (B) included two eruptive periods, September-October 1989 and January-February 1990, associated with high fluxes reaching 10,000-25,000 t/d. The third interval (C) started in concert with a regional earthquake (December 13, 1990) and showed first a decrease and then an increase of SO2 emissions before the onset of the major 1991-1993 flank eruption. Analysis of the data reveals a cyclic pattern to the SO2 emissions over prolonged periods; a nearly constant supply of SO2 from the volcano`s main feeder system, especially evident in the long term; a two- to fivefold increase above mean flux values (from 10,000 to 25,000 t/d) when occurring with paroxysmal eruptive activity; and minimal flux values (approximately 1000 t/d) about 1 month prior to important eruptive events.

  10. Infrasonic component of volcano-seismic eruption tremor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matoza, Robin S.; Fee, David

    2014-03-01

    Air-ground and ground-air elastic wave coupling are key processes in the rapidly developing field of seismoacoustics and are particularly relevant for volcanoes. During a sustained explosive volcanic eruption, it is typical to record a sustained broadband signal on seismometers, termed eruption tremor. Eruption tremor is usually attributed to a subsurface seismic source process, such as the upward migration of magma and gases through the shallow conduit and vent. However, it is now known that sustained explosive volcanic eruptions also generate powerful tremor signals in the atmosphere, termed infrasonic tremor. We investigate infrasonic tremor coupling down into the ground and its contribution to the observed seismic tremor. Our methodology builds on that proposed by Ichihara et al. (2012) and involves cross-correlation, coherence, and cross-phase spectra between waveforms from nearly collocated seismic and infrasonic sensors; we apply it to datasets from Mount St. Helens, Tungurahua, and Redoubt Volcanoes.

  11. Learning to recognize volcanic non-eruptions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poland, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    An important goal of volcanology is to answer the questions of when, where, and how a volcano will erupt—in other words, eruption prediction. Generally, eruption predictions are based on insights from monitoring data combined with the history of the volcano. An outstanding example is the A.D. 1980–1986 lava dome growth at Mount St. Helens, Washington (United States). Recognition of a consistent pattern of precursors revealed by geophysical, geological, and geochemical monitoring enabled successful predictions of more than 12 dome-building episodes (Swanson et al., 1983). At volcanic systems that are more complex or poorly understood, probabilistic forecasts can be useful (e.g., Newhall and Hoblitt, 2002; Marzocchi and Woo, 2009). In such cases, the probabilities of different types of volcanic events are quantified, using historical accounts and geological studies of a volcano's past activity, supplemented by information from similar volcanoes elsewhere, combined with contemporary monitoring information.

  12. Long-wave stratospheric transmission of Mount St. Helens ejecta

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, P.M.; Haughney, L.C.; Innis, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    The NASA/Ames Research C-141 aircraft underflew the Mount St. Helens ejecta plume in Utah three days after the eruption. Upward-looking 20--40-..mu..m on-board radiometry provided data resulting in a calculated long-wave transmission of 0.93. From this value, an optical depth of 0.073 is inferred. This value is compared with an accepted background, stratospheric infrared optical depth of 0.06. Assumptions on particle size, shortwave albedo, and thermal warming imply little surface temperature change caused by the ejecta on the third day immediately following the eruption.

  13. Long-wave stratospheric transmission of Mount St. Helens ejecta.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, P M; Haughney, L C; Innis, R C

    1981-01-01

    The NASA/Ames Research C-141 aircraft underflew the Mount St. Helens ejecta plume in Utah three days after the eruption. Upward-looking 20-40-microm on-board radiometry provided data resulting in a calculated long-wave transmission of 0.93. From this value, an optical depth of 0.073 is inferred. This value is compared with an accepted background, stratospheric infrared optical depth of 0.06. Assumptions on particle size, shortwave albedo, and thermal warming imply little surface temperature change caused by the ejecta on the third day immediately following the eruption.

  14. A sight "fearfully grand": eruptions of Lassen Peak, California, 1914 to 1917

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clynne, Michael A.; Christiansen, Robert L.; Stauffer, Peter H.; Hendley, James W.; Bleick, Heather A.

    2014-01-01

    On May 22, 1915, a large explosive eruption at the summit of Lassen Peak, California, the southernmost active volcano in the Cascade Range, devastated nearby areas and rained volcanic ash as far away as 280 miles to the east. This explosion was the most powerful in a series of eruptions during 1914–17 that were the last to occur in the Cascade Range before the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington. A century after the Lassen eruptions, work by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists in cooperation with the National Park Service is shedding new light on these events.

  15. Solar Prominence Eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.

    1998-01-01

    The prominence that erupts in a prominence eruption is a magnetic structure in the chromosphere and corona. It is visible in chromospheric images by virtue of chromospheric-temperature plasma suspended in the magnetic field, and belongs to that large class of magnetic structures appropriately called filaments because of their characteristic sinewy sigmoidal form. Hence, the term "filament eruption" is used interchangeably with the term "prominence eruption". The magnetic field holding a filament is prone to undergo explosive changes in configuration. In these upheavals, because the filament material is compelled by its high conductivity to ride with the magnetic field that threads it, this material is a visible tracer of the field motion. The part of the magnetic explosion displayed by the entrained filament material is the phenomenon known as a filament eruption, the topic of this article. This article begins with a description of basic observed characteristics of filament eruptions, with attention to the magnetic fields, flares, and coronal mass ejections in which erupting filaments are embedded. The present understanding of these characteristics in terms of the form and action of the magnetic field is then laid out by means of a rudimentary three-dimensional model of the field. The article ends with basic questions that this picture leaves unresolved and with remarks on the observations needed to probe these questions.

  16. NIF small mirror mount

    SciTech Connect

    McCarville, T

    1999-07-01

    A number of small mirror mounts have been identified that meet the stringent stability, wave front, and cleanliness standards of the NIF. These requirements are similar to those required in other performance critical optical design applications. Future design teams would conserve time and effort if recognized standards were established for mirror mount design and performance characteristics. Standards for stability, physical features, wave front distortion, and cleanliness would simplify the qualification process considerably. At this point such standards are not difficult to define, as the technical support work has been performed repeatedly by mirror mount consumers and suppliers.

  17. Distribution of melt beneath Mount St Helens and Mount Adams inferred from magnetotelluric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Graham J.; Caldwell, T. Grant; Heise, Wiebke; Chertkoff, Darren G.; Bibby, Hugh M.; Burgess, Matt K.; Cull, James P.; Cas, Ray A. F.

    2009-11-01

    Three prominent volcanoes that form part of the Cascade mountain range in Washington State (USA)-Mounts St Helens, Adams and Rainier-are located on the margins of a mid-crustal zone of high electrical conductivity. Interconnected melt can increase the bulk conductivity of the region containing the melt, which leads us to propose that the anomalous conductivity in this region is due to partial melt associated with the volcanism. Here we test this hypothesis by using magnetotelluric data recorded at a network of 85 locations in the area of the high-conductivity anomaly. Our data reveal that a localized zone of high conductivity beneath this volcano extends downwards to join the mid-crustal conductor. As our measurements were made during the recent period of lava extrusion at Mount St Helens, we infer that the conductivity anomaly associated with the localized zone, and by extension with the mid-crustal conductor, is caused by the presence of partial melt. Our interpretation is consistent with the crustal origin of silicic magmas erupting from Mount St Helens, and explains the distribution of seismicity observed at the time of the catastrophic eruption in 1980 (refs 9, 10).

  18. Distribution of melt beneath Mount St Helens and Mount Adams inferred from magnetotelluric data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, G.J.; Caldwell, T.G.; Heise, W.; Chertkoff, D.G.; Bibby, H.M.; Burgess, M.K.; Cull, J.P.; Cas, Ray A.F.

    2009-01-01

    Three prominent volcanoes that form part of the Cascade mountain range in Washington State (USA)Mounts StHelens, Adams and Rainierare located on the margins of a mid-crustal zone of high electrical conductivity1,5. Interconnected melt can increase the bulk conductivity of the region containing the melt6,7, which leads us to propose that the anomalous conductivity in this region is due to partial melt associated with the volcanism. Here we test this hypothesis by using magnetotelluric data recorded at a network of 85 locations in the area of the high-conductivity anomaly. Our data reveal that a localized zone of high conductivity beneath thisvolcano extends downwards to join the mid-crustal conductor. As our measurements were made during the recent period of lava extrusion at Mount St Helens, we infer that the conductivity anomaly associated with the localized zone, and by extension with the mid-crustal conductor, is caused by the presence of partial melt. Our interpretation is consistent with the crustal origin of silicic magmas erupting from Mount St Helens8, and explains the distribution of seismicity observed at the time of the catastrophic eruption in 1980 (refs9, 10). ?? 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  19. Tilt networks of Mount Shasta and Lassen Peak, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dzurisin, Daniel; Johnson, Daniel J.; Murray, T.L.; Myers, Barbara

    1982-01-01

    In response to recent eruptions at Mount St. Helens and with support from the USGS Volcanic Hazards Program, the Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) has initiated a program to monitor all potentially-active volcanoes of the Cascade Range. As part of that effort, we installed tilt networks and obtained baseline measurements at Mount Shasta and Lassen Peak, California during July 1981. At the same time, baseline electronic distance measurements (EDM) were made and fumarole surveys were conducted by other crews from CVO. Annual surveys are planned initially, with subsequent visits as conditions warrant. These geodetic and geochemical measurements supplement a program of continuous seismic monitoring of Cascade volcanoes by the USGS Office of Earthquake Studies in cooperation with local universities. Other tilt networks were established at Mount Baker in 1975 and at Mount St. Helens in 1981. EDM networks were established at Mount Baker in 1975, Mount St. Helens in 1980, and Crater Lake in 1981. Additional tilt and/or EDM networks are planned for Mount Rainier, Mount Hood, Glacier Peak, Three Sisters, and Crater Lake as funds permit.

  20. Radiative and climate impacts of a large volcanic eruption during stratospheric sulfur geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, A.; Kokkola, H.; Partanen, A.-I.; Niemeier, U.; Timmreck, C.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Hakkarainen, H.; Korhonen, H.

    2016-01-01

    first year after the eruption and again a clearly faster recovery in the concurrent eruption and SRM scenario, which is suspended after the eruption. We also found that an explosive eruption could lead to significantly different regional climate responses depending on whether it takes place during geoengineering or into an unperturbed background atmosphere. Our results imply that observations from previous large eruptions, such as Mount Pinatubo in 1991, are not directly applicable when estimating the potential consequences of a volcanic eruption during stratospheric geoengineering.

  1. Imaging the Mount St. Helens Magmatic Systems using Magnetotellurics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, G. J.; Caldwell, T. G.; Heise, W.; Bibby, H. M.; Chertkoff, D. G.; Burgess, M. K.; Cull, J. P.; Cas, R. A.

    2009-05-01

    A detailed magnetotelluric survey of Mount St. Helens shows that a conduit like zone of high electrical conductivity beneath the volcano is connected to a larger zone of high conductivity at 15 km depth that extends eastward to Mount Adams. We interpret this zone to be a region of connected melt that acts as the reservoir for the silicic magma being extruded at the time of the magnetotelluric survey. This interpretation is consistent with a mid-crustal origin for the silicic component of the Mount St. Helens' magmas and provides an elegant explanation for a previously unexplained feature of the seismicity observed at the time of the catastrophic eruption in 1980. This zone of high mid-crustal conductivity extends northwards to near Mount Rainier suggesting a single region of connected melt comparable in size to the largest silicic volcanic systems known.

  2. Energetics of gas-driven limnic and volcanic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.

    2000-04-01

    This paper lays the foundation for the rigorous treatment of the energetics of gas exsolution from a gas-containing liquid, which powers gas-driven volcanic and limnic eruptions. Various exsolution processes (reversible or irreversible, slow or rapid) are discussed, and the maximum amount of kinetic energy derivable from a reversible gas exsolution process is obtained. The concept of dynamic irreversibility is proposed for discussing the kinetic energy available from irreversible gas exsolution processes. The changes of thermodynamic properties during gas exsolution processes are derived. Density-pressure relations for gas-liquid mixtures are presented, including empirical relations for irreversible gas exsolution. The energetics of gas-driven eruptions through both fluid and rigid media, including the role of buoyancy and the role of magma chamber expansion work, are investigated. For reversible processes, the energetics can be used to discuss the dynamics of gas-driven eruptions, leading to maximum erupting velocities and maximum eruptible fractions. For irreversible processes, empirical relations and parameters must be employed. The exit velocities of the Lake Nyos eruption and the 18 May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens are modeled by incorporating possible irreversibility.

  3. Mounting for ceramic scroll

    DOEpatents

    Petty, Jack D.

    1993-01-01

    A mounting for a ceramic scroll on a metal engine block of a gas turbine engine includes a first ceramic ring and a pair of cross key connections between the first ceramic ring, the ceramic scroll, and the engine block. The cross key connections support the scroll on the engine block independent of relative radial thermal growth and for bodily movement toward an annular mounting shoulder on the engine. The scroll has an uninterrupted annular shoulder facing the mounting shoulder on the engine block. A second ceramic ring is captured between mounting shoulder and the uninterrupted shoulder on the scroll when the latter is bodily shifted toward the mouting shoulder to define a gas seal between the scroll and the engine block.

  4. Mechanical strain isolator mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Gordon E. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Certain devices such as optical instruments must preserve their alignmental integrity while being subjected to mechanical strain. A mechanical strain isolator mount is provided to preserve the alignmental integrity of an alignment sensitive instrument. An alignment sensitive instrument is mounted on a rectangular base. Flexural legs are connected at their proximal ends to the rectangular base. Flexural legs are also spaced parallel to the sides. Mounting pads are connected to the legs at the distal end and the mechanical strain isolator mount is attached to the substrate by means of threaded bolts. When a mounting pad and its respective leg is subjected to lateral strain in either the X or Y direction via the substrate, the respective leg relieves the strain by bending in the direction of the strain. An axial strain on a mounting pad in the Z direction is relieved by a rotational motion of the legs in the direction of the strain. When the substrate is stress free, the flexural legs return to their original condition and thus preserve the original alignment integrity of the alignment sensitive instrument.

  5. A Numerical Program for Steady-State Flow of Magma-Gas Mixtures Through Vertical Eruptive Conduits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    Numerical Program for Flow in Eruptive Conduits Figure 6: Comparison of results for conduit flow of Mount St. Helens magma using a fragmentation...calculated by independent methods, for a Mount St. Helens magma at 830 C, with 4.6 wt% total water. These plots indicate the accuracy of Conflow in...Nonequilibrium flow in volcanic conduits and application to the eruptions of Mt. St. Helens on May 18, 1980 and Vesuvius in AD 79: Journal of Volcanology and

  6. Snake Filament Eruption

    NASA Video Gallery

    A very long solar filament that had been snaking around the Sun erupted on Dec. 6, 2010 with a flourish. NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) caught the action in dramatic detail in extreme ultr...

  7. Triple Solar Eruption

    NASA Video Gallery

    Solar activity surged on the morning of Dec 12, 2010 when the sun erupted three times in quick succession, hurling a trio of bright coronal mass ejections (CMEs) into space. Coronagraphs onboard th...

  8. The Novarupta-Katmai eruption of 1912 - largest eruption of the twentieth century; centennial perspectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judy

    2012-01-01

    The explosive outburst at Novarupta (Alaska) in June 1912 was the 20th century's most voluminous volcanic eruption. Marking its centennial, we illustrate and document the complex eruptive sequence, which was long misattributed to nearby Mount Katmai, and how its deposits have provided key insights about volcanic and magmatic processes. It was one of the few historical eruptions to produce a collapsed caldera, voluminous high-silica rhyolite, wide compositional zonation (51-78 percent SiO2), banded pumice, welded tuff, and an aerosol/dust veil that depressed global temperature measurably. It emplaced a series of ash flows that filled what became the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, sustaining high-temperature metal-transporting fumaroles for a decade. Three explosive episodes spanned ~60 hours, depositing ~17 km3 of fallout and 11±2 km3 of ignimbrite, together representing ~13.5 km3 of zoned magma. No observers were nearby and no aircraft were in Alaska, and so the eruption narrative was assembled from scattered villages and ship reports. Because volcanology was in its infancy and the early investigations (1915-23) were conducted under arduous expeditionary conditions, many provocative misapprehensions attended reports based on those studies. Fieldwork at Katmai was not resumed until 1953, but, since then, global advances in physical volcanology and chemical petrology have gone hand in hand with studies of the 1912 deposits, clarifying the sequence of events and processes and turning the eruption into one of the best studied in the world. To provide perspective on this century-long evolution, we describe the geologic and geographic setting of the eruption - in a remote, sparsely inhabited wilderness; we review the cultural and scientific contexts at the time of the eruption and early expeditions; and we compile a chronology of the many Katmai investigations since 1912. Products of the eruption are described in detail, including eight layers of regionwide fallout

  9. An erupted complex odontoma.

    PubMed

    Tozoglu, Sinan; Yildirim, Umran; Buyukkurt, M Cemil

    2010-01-01

    Odontomas are benign tumors of odontogenic origin. The cause of the odontoma is unknown, but it is believed to be hereditary or due to a disturbance in tooth development triggered by trauma or infection. Odontomas may be either compound or complex. Although these tumors are seen frequently, erupted odontomas are rare. The purpose of this study is to present a rare case of complex odontoma that erupted into the oral cavity.

  10. Psychiatric reactions to disaster: the Mount St. Helens experience.

    PubMed

    Shore, J H; Tatum, E L; Vollmer, W M

    1986-05-01

    Following the 1980 Mount St. Helens volcanic eruption, psychiatric reactions were studied in the disaster area and in a control community. Using the new criterion-based diagnostic method for psychiatric epidemiologic research, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, the authors found a significant prevalence of disaster-related psychiatric disorders. These Mount St. Helens disorders included depression, generalized anxiety, and posttraumatic stress reaction. There was a progressive "dose-response" relationship in the comparison of control, low-exposure, and high-exposure groups. The dose-response pattern occurred among both the bereaved and the property-loss victims.

  11. Violent strombolian and subplinian eruptions at Vesuvius during post-1631 activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrighi, Simone; Principe, Claudia; Rosi, Mauro

    2001-06-01

    On the basis of historical chronicles and field investigations the tephrostratigraphic sequence of post-1631 activity of Vesuvius is reconstructed. It has been established that, during this period, in addition to numerous totally effusive eruptions and/or normal strombolian activity, 16 explosive events produced well-traceable tephra deposits in the area outside the Mount Somma caldera. Ages of tephra beds were established on the basis of stratigraphic relationships with historical lava flows and comparison with chroniclers information. The dispersal and lithological characteristics of tephra deposits combined with description of explosive activity lead to the identification of three styles: (a) periods of violent strombolian activity; (b) violent strombolian eruptions; and (c) subplinian eruptions. Violent strombolian eruptions and periods of discrete activity are characterized by the formation of lapilli falls from eruptive columns only some kilometers high. Subplinian eruptions are defined on the basis of their lapilli fall volumes which is of the order of 107 m3, on eruptive column heights of approximately 10 km, bt higher than 1.5, and mass discharged rate values not lower than 106 kg/s. During the first century of activity after the 1631 eruption, two periods of violent strombolian activity occurred at Vesuvius (1682-1707 and 1707-1719) preceded, and followed, by a series of violent strombolian eruptions (1660, 1682, 1707, 1723, 1730, 1790, 1872). Between 1730 and 1779 a relevant change in the eruptive style of Vesuvius occurred by an increase in the explosivity of the eruptions. During the past two centuries of activity, only a few eruptions reached subplinian magnitude and only five eruptions had a phreatomagmatic phase (1779, 1794, 1822, 1906, 1944). Therefore, the previously accepted model of cyclic activity, in which each cycle is closed by an important explosive eruption with phreatomagmatic characteristics, is unfounded. The tephrostratigraphy of the

  12. Violent strombolian and subplinian eruptions at Vesuvius during post-1631 activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessandro, G.

    2001-05-01

    On the basis of historical chronicles and field investigations the tephrostratigraphic sequence of post-1631 activity of Vesuvius is reconstructed. It has been established that, during this period, in addition to numerous totally effusive eruptions and/or normal strombolian activity, 16 explosive events produced well-traceable tephra deposits in the area outside the Mount Somma caldera. Ages of tephra beds were established on the basis of stratigraphic relationships with historical lava flows and comparison with chroniclers information. The dispersal and lithological characteristics of tephra deposits combined with description of explosive activity lead to the identification of three styles: (a) periods of violent strombolian activity; (b) violent strombolian eruptions; and (c) subplinian eruptions. Violent strombolian eruptions and periods of discrete activity are characterized by the formation of lapilli falls from eruptive columns only some kilometers high. Subplinian eruptions are defined on the basis of their lapilli fall volumes which is of the order of 107 m3, on eruptive column heights of approximately 10 km, bt higher than 1.5, and mass discharged rate values not lower than 106 kg/s. During the first century of activity after the 1631 eruption, two periods of violent strombolian activity occurred at Vesuvius (1682-1707 and 1707-1719) preceded, and followed, by a series of violent strombolian eruptions (1660, 1682, 1707, 1723, 1730, 1790, 1872). Between 1730 and 1779 a relevant change in the eruptive style of Vesuvius occurred by an increase in the explosivity of the eruptions. During the past two centuries of activity, only a few eruptions reached subplinian magnitude and only five eruptions had a phreatomagmatic phase (1779, 1794, 1822, 1906, 1944). Therefore, the previously accepted model of cyclic activity, in which each cycle is closed by an important explosive eruption with phreatomagmatic characteristics, is unfounded. The tephrostratigraphy of the

  13. Catalog of earthquake hypocenters for Augustine, Redoubt, Iliamna, and Mount Spurr volcanoes, Alaska: January 1, 1991 - December 31, 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jolly, Arthur D.; Power, John A.; Stihler, Scott D.; Rao, Lalitha N.; Davidson, Gail; Paskievitch, John F.; Estes, Steve; Lahr, John C.

    1996-01-01

    The 1992 eruptions at Mount Spurr's Crater Peak vent provided the highlight of the catalog period. The crisis included three sub-plinian eruptions, which occurred on June 27, August 18, and September 16-17, 1992. The three eruptions punctuated a complex seismic sequence which included volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes, tremor, and both deep and shallow long period (LP) earthquakes. The seismic sequence began on August 18, 1991, with a small swarm of volcano-tectonic events beneath Crater Peak, and spread throughout the volcanic complex by November of the same year. Elevated levels of seismicity persisted at Mount Spurr beyond the catalog time period.

  14. Vibration isolation mounting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Sam D. (Inventor); Bastin, Paul H. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A system is disclosed for mounting a vibration producing device onto a spacecraft structure and also for isolating the vibration forces thereof from the structure. The system includes a mount on which the device is securely mounted and inner and outer rings. The rings and mount are concentrically positioned. The system includes a base (secured to the structure) and a set of links which are interconnected by a set of torsion bars which allow and resist relative rotational movement therebetween. The set of links are also rotatably connected to a set of brackets which are rigidly connected to the outer ring. Damped leaf springs interconnect the inner and outer rings and the mount allow relative translational movement therebetween in X and Y directions. The links, brackets and base are interconnected and configured so that they allow and resist translational movement of the device in the Z direction so that in combination with the springs they provide absorption of vibrational energy produced by the device in all three dimensions while providing rotational stiffness about all three axes to prevent undesired rotational motions.

  15. Lead 210 and polonium 210 in Mount St. Helens ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevissi, A. E.

    1984-07-01

    During the Mount St. Helens eruptions, lead 210 and polonium 210 were measured in volcanic ash samples. Polonium 210 was consistently higher than lead 210 in all samples, with the 210Po/210Pb ratios ranging from 2 to 12. The overequilibrium of the ratios is due to the enrichment of polonium compounds in the volcanic gases from hot magma relative to less volatile lead compounds.

  16. Pressure vessel bottle mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingett, Paul (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A mounting assembly for mounting a composite pressure vessel to a vehicle includes a saddle having a curved surface extending between two pillars for receiving the vessel. The saddle also has flanged portions which can be bolted to the vehicle. Each of the pillars has hole in which is mounted the shaft portion of an attachment member. A resilient member is disposed between each of the shaft portions and the holes and loaded by a tightening nut. External to the holes, each of the attachment members has a head portion to which a steel band is attached. The steel band circumscribes the vessel and translates the load on the springs into a clamping force on the vessel. As the vessel expands and contracts, the resilient members expand and contract so that the clamping force applied by the band to the vessel remains constant.

  17. Mounted drilling apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Manten, H.

    1982-07-20

    The drilling apparatus includes a mount in the form of a cylindrical member defining an elongated passageway and being provided with two opposite guiding rails each being formed with an elongated recessed channel communicating with the passageway; a rotary drive for holding a drill rod has a non-rotating casing provided with guiding elements movable in the recesses of the guiding rails; a feeding mechanism for advancing the rotary drive includes either tooth racks arranged in the recesses of the guiding rails and driving pinions mounted on the casing of the rotary drive or cylinder and piston units located in the recesses of the guide rails and cooperating with feed cables or chains. The mount is supported on a mobile undercarriage which is provided with two pairs of vertically adjustable supporting legs.

  18. Volcano hazards in the Mount Hood region, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, W.E.; Pierson, T.C.; Schilling, S.P.; Costa, J.E.; Gardner, C.A.; Vallance, J.W.; Major, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    Mount Hood is a potentially active volcano close to rapidly growing communities and recreation areas. The most likely widespread and hazardous consequence of a future eruption will be for lahars (rapidly moving mudflows) to sweep down the entire length of the Sandy (including the Zigzag) and White River valleys. Lahars can be generated by hot volcanic flows that melt snow and ice or by landslides from the steep upper flanks of the volcano. Structures close to river channels are at greatest risk of being destroyed. The degree of hazard decreases as height above a channel increases, but large lahars can affect areas more than 30 vertical meters (100 vertical feet) above river beds. The probability of eruption-generated lahars affecting the Sandy and White River valleys is 1-in-15 to l-in-30 during the next 30 years, whereas the probability of extensive areas in the Hood River Valley being affected by lahars is about ten times less. The accompanying volcano-hazard-zonation map outlines areas potentially at risk and shows that some areas may be too close for a reasonable chance of escape or survival during an eruption. Future eruptions of Mount Hood could seriously disrupt transportation (air, river, and highway), some municipal water supplies, and hydroelectric power generation and transmission in northwest Oregon and southwest Washington.

  19. MOUNT BALDY WILDERNESS, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finnell, Tommy L.; Soule, John H.

    1984-01-01

    The Mount Baldy Wilderness, Arizona, was surveyed for mineral resources and was judged to have little or no promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. No mineral deposits, mining claims, or concentrations of trace metals were recognized within the area. No oil test holes have been drilled within the area; holes drilled about 35 mi north of the area were not productive. Further study of the Mount Baldy Wilderness would seem warranted only in the event that economic deposits of minerals or petroleum are found in nearby areas.

  20. Eruption column physics

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, G.A.

    1997-03-01

    In this paper the author focuses on the fluid dynamics of large-scale eruption columns. The dynamics of these columns are rooted in multiphase flow phenomena, so a major part of the paper sets up a foundation on that topic that allows one to quickly assess the inherent assumptions made in various theoretical and experimental approaches. The first part is centered on a set of complex differential equations that describe eruption columns, but the focus is on a general understanding of important physical processes rather than on the mathematics. The author discusses briefly the relative merits and weaknesses of different approaches, emphasizing that the largest advances in understanding are made by combining them. He then focuses on dynamics of steady eruption columns and then on transient phenomena. Finally he briefly reviews the effects of varying behavior of the ambient medium through which an eruption column moves. These final sections will emphasize concepts and a qualitative understanding of eruption dynamics. This paper relies on principles of continuum mechanics and transport processes but does not go into detail on the development of those principles. 36 refs., 36 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Holocene geomagnetic secular variation recorded by volcanic deposits at Mount St. Helens, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagstrum, J.T.; Hoblitt, R.P.; Gardner, C.A.; Gray, T.E.

    2002-01-01

    A compilation of paleomagnetic data from volcanic deposits of Mount St. Helens is presented in this report. The database is used to determine signature paleomagnetic directions of products from its Holocene eruptive events, to assign sampled units to their proper eruptive period, and to begin the assembly of a much larger database of paleomagnetic directions from Holocene volcanic rocks in western North America. The paleomagnetic results from Mount St. Helens are mostly of high quality, and generally agree with the division of its volcanic deposits into eruptive episodes based on previous geologic mapping and radiocarbon dates. The Muddy River andesite's paleomagnetic direction, however, indicates that it is more likely part of the Pine Creek eruptive period rather than the Castle Creek period. In addition, the Two-Fingers andesite flow is more likely part of the Middle Kalama eruptive period and not part of the Goat Rocks period. The paleomagnetic data from Mount St. Helens and Mount Hood document variation in the geomagnetic field's pole position over the last ~2,500 years. A distinct feature of the new paleosecular variation (PSV) record, similar to the Fish Lake record (Oregon), indicates a sudden change from rapid clockwise movement of the pole about the Earth's spin axis to relatively slow counterclockwise movement at ???800 to 900 years B.P.

  2. On the use of remote infrasound and seismic stations to constrain the eruptive sequence and intensity for the 2014 Kelud eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caudron, Corentin; Taisne, Benoít; Garcés, Milton; Alexis, Le Pichon; Mialle, Pierrick

    2015-08-01

    The February 2014 eruption of Kelud volcano (Indonesia) destroyed most of the instruments near it. We use remote seismic and infrasound sensors to reconstruct the eruptive sequence. The first explosions were relatively weak seismic and infrasound events. A major stratospheric ash injection occurred a few minutes later and produced long-lasting atmospheric and ground-coupled acoustic waves that were detected as far as 11,000 km by infrasound sensors and up to 2300 km away on seismometers. A seismic event followed ˜12 minutes later and was recorded 7000 km away by seismometers. We estimate a volcanic intensity around 10.9, placing the 2014 Kelud eruption between the 1980 Mount St. Helens and 1991 Pinatubo eruptions intensities. We demonstrate how remote infrasound and seismic sensors are critical for the early detection of volcanic explosions, and how they can help to constrain and understand eruptive sequences.

  3. On the use of remote infrasound and seismic stations to constrain the eruptive sequence and intensity for the 2014 Kelud eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taisne, B.; Caudron, C.; Garces, M. A.; Mialle, P.; LE Pichon, A.

    2015-12-01

    The February 2014 eruption of Kelud volcano (Indonesia) destroyed most of the instruments near it. We use remote seismic and infrasound sensors to reconstruct the eruptive sequence. The first explosions were relatively weak seismic and infrasound events. A major stratospheric ash injection occurred a few minutes later and produced long-lasting atmospheric and ground-coupled acoustic waves that were detected as far as 11,000 km by infrasound sensors, and up to 2,300 km away on seismometers. A seismic event followed ~12 minutes later and was recorded 7,000 km away by seismometers. We estimate a volcanic intensity [Pyle,2000] around 10.9, placing the 2014 Kelud eruption between the 1980 Mount St. Helens and 1991 Pinatubo eruptions intensities. We demonstrate how remote infrasound and seismic sensors are critical for the early detection of volcanic explosions, and how they can help to constrain and understand eruptive sequences.

  4. Primary succession in Mount Pinatubo

    PubMed Central

    Marler, Thomas E; del Moral, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Vegetation structure on the east flank of Mount Pinatubo was investigated to determine the inventory of species at 15 y post-eruption, then to ascertain environmental variables that have influenced the early patterns of primary succession. Unconstrained and constrained ordination methods were used to determine the influence of spatial, elevation, and substrate patterns on vegetation. Vegetation was assigned to one of 3 habitat types. Scours were eroded flat surfaces, terraces were perched flat surfaces, and talus piles were created along the canyon edges as mass waste events. The influence of habitat type on vegetation was multifaceted because they represent different conditions and different histories. The talus piles have preferential access to colonists from the vegetation on the canyon walls above and a more benign microclimate than the exposed terrace and scour sites. Scoured sites on the valley floor exhibited the least vegetation cover, as these substrates had the least mature surfaces and the most restricted capacity for root exploration. Perched terraces exhibited greater plant dominance than did the other habitats in the early stages of succession because of the ubiquitous appearance of Parasponia rugosa as initial colonists on these relatively flat surfaces. Polynomial canonical correspondence analysis was more closely aligned with the pattern of vegetation than linear canonical correspondence analysis, and therefore more closely approximated accurate descriptions of correlations among site ordination positions and measured variables. These results confirm that a variety of statistical approaches can clarify applications for restoration ecology following landslide and volcanic disturbances or agriculture and forestry anthropogenic disturbances in the lowland tropics. PMID:24505499

  5. The Geologic Story of Mount Rainier

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crandell, Dwight Raymond

    1969-01-01

    Ice-clad Mount Rainier, towering over the landscape of western Washington, ranks with Fuji-yama in Japan, Popocatepeti in Mexico, and Vesuvius in Italy among the great volcanoes of the world. At Mount Rainier, as at other inactive volcanoes, the ever-present possibility of renewed eruptions gives viewers a sense of anticipation, excitement, and apprehension not equaled by most other mountains. Even so, many of us cannot imagine the cataclysmic scale of the eruptions that were responsible for building the giant cone which now stands in silence. We accept the volcano as if it had always been there, and we appreciate only the beauty of its stark expanses of rock and ice, its flower-strewn alpine meadows, and its bordering evergreen forests. Mount Rainier owes its scenic beauty to many features. The broad cone spreads out on top of a major mountain range - the Cascades. The volcano rises about 7,000 feet above its 7,000-foot foundation, and stands in solitary splendor - the highest peak in the entire Cascade Range. Its rocky ice-mantled slopes above timberline contrast with the dense green forests and give Mount Rainier the appearance of an arctic island in a temperate sea, an island so large that you can see its full size and shape only from the air. The mountain is highly photogenic because of the contrasts it offers among bare rock, snowfields, blue sky, and the incomparable flower fields that color its lower slopes, shadows cast by the multitude of cliffs, ridges, canyons, and pinnacles change constantly from sunrise to sunset, endlessly varying the texture and mood of the mountain. The face of the mountain also varies from day to day as its broad snowfields melt during the summer. The melting of these frozen reservoirs makes Mount Rainier a natural resource in a practical as well as in an esthetic sense, for it ensures steady flows of water for hydroelectric power in the region, regardless of season. Seen from the Puget Sound country to the west, Mount Rainier has

  6. Apollo Telescope Mount Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) served as the first marned astronomical observatory in space. It was designed for solar research from Earth orbit aboard the Skylab. This image is a cutaway illustration of the ATM canister with callouts and characteristics. The ATM was designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  7. Apollo Telescope Mount Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) served as the first marned astronomical observatory in space. It was designed for solar research from Earth orbit aboard the Skylab. This image is a cutaway illustration of the ATM canister. The ATM was designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  8. Apollo Telescope Mount Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) served as the first marned astronomical observatory in space. It was designed for solar research from Earth orbit aboard the Skylab. This image is a cutaway illustration of the ATM canister with callouts. The ATM was designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  9. Housing And Mounting Structure

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gene R.; Armendariz, Marcelino G.; Baca, Johnny R.F.; Bryan, Robert P.; Carson, Richard F.; Duckett, III, Edwin B.; McCormick, Frederick B.; Miller, Gregory V.; Peterson, David W.; Smith, Terrance T.

    2005-03-08

    This invention relates to an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module, and more particularly, to an apparatus for connecting a first optical connector to a second optical connector. The apparatus comprises: (1) a housing having at least a first end and at least a second end, the first end of the housing capable of receiving the first optical connector, and the second end of the housing capable of receiving the second optical connector; (2) a longitudinal cavity extending from the first end of the housing to the second end of the housing; and (3) an electromagnetic shield comprising at least a portion of the housing. This invention also relates to an apparatus for housing a flexible printed circuit board, and this apparatus comprises: (1) a mounting structure having at least a first surface and a second surface; (2) alignment ridges along the first and second surfaces of the mounting structure, the alignment ridges functioning to align and secure a flexible printed circuit board that is wrapped around and attached to the first and second surfaces of the mounting structure; and (3) a series of heat sink ridges adapted to the mounting structure, the heat sink ridges functioning to dissipate heat that is generated from the flexible printed circuit board.

  10. Seasonality of Volcanic Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, B.; Pyle, D. M.; Dade, W. B.; Jupp, T.

    2001-12-01

    An analysis of volcanic activity in the last three hundred years reveals that the frequency of onset of volcanic eruptions varies systematically with the time of year. We analysed the Smithsonian catalogue of more than 3200 subaerial eruptions recorded during the last 300 years. We also investigated continuous records, which are not part of the general catalogue, of individual explosions at Sakurajima volcano (Japan, 150 events per year since 1955) and Semeru (Indonesia, 100,000 events during the period 1997-2000). A higher proportion (as much as 18 percent of the average monthly rate) of eruptions occur worldwide between December and March. This observation is statistically significant at above the 99 percent level. This pattern is independent of the time interval considered, and emerges whether individual eruptions are counted with equal weight or with weights proportional to event explosivity. Elevated rates of eruption onset in boreal winter months are observed in northern and southern hemispheres alike, as well as in most volcanically-active regions including, most prominently, the 'Ring of Fire' surrounding the Pacific basin. Key contributors to this regional pattern include volcanoes in Central and South America, the volcanic provinces of the northwest Pacific rim, Indonesia and the southwest Pacific basin. On the smallest spatial scales, some individual volcanoes for which detailed histories exist exhibit peak levels in eruption activity during November-January. Seasonality is attributed to one or more mechanisms associated with the annual hydrological cycle, and may correspond to the smallest time-scale over which fluctuations in stress due to the redistribution of water-masses are felt by the Earth's crust. Our findings have important ramifications for volcanic risk assessment, and offer new insight into possible changes in volcanic activity during periods of long-term changes in global sea level.

  11. Seasonality of volcanic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, B.; Pyle, D.; Dade, B.; Jupp, T.

    2003-04-01

    An analysis of volcanic activity in the last three hundred years reveals that the frequency of onset of volcanic eruptions varies systematically with the time of year. We analysed the Smithsonian catalogue of more than 3200 subaerial eruptions recorded during the last 300 years. We also investigated continuous records, which are not part of the general catalogue, of individual explo