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Sample records for mount bambouto cameroon

  1. Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Naturals Hazards in the Caldera of Mount Bambouto (West Cameroon)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zangmo Tefogoum, G.; Kagou Dongmo, A.; Nkouathio, D. G.; Wandji, P.

    2009-04-01

    Mount Bambouto is polygenic stratovolcano of the Cameroon Volcanic Line, build between 21 Ma and 4,5Ma (Nkouathio et al., 2008). It is situated at about 200 km NE of mount Cameroon, at 09°55' and 10°15' East and, 05°25' and 05°50' Nord. This volcano covers an area of 500 Km2 and culminates at 2740 m at Meletan hill and bears a collapse caldera (13 x 8 km). Fissural, extrusive and explosive dynamism are responsible of the construction in three main stages this volcano including the edification of a sommital large rim caldera. Mount Bambouto structure gives rise to different natural hazards, of volcanological origin and meteorological origin. In the past time, landslides, floodings, firebush, blocks collapse took place in this area with catastrophic impact on the population. New research program had been carried out in the caldera concerning qualitative and quantitative evaluation of natural risks and catastrophes. The main factors of instability are rain, structure of the basement, slopes, lithology and anthropic activities; particularly, the occurrence of exceptional rainfall due to global change are relevant; this gives opportunity to draw landslides hazards zonation map of the Bambouto caldera which is the main risk in this area. We evaluate the financial potential of the caldera base on the average income of breeding, farming, school fees and the cost of houses and equipments for each family. The method of calculation revealed that, the yearly economy of the mounts Bambouto caldera represents about 2 billions FCFA. Some recommendations have been made in order to prevent and reduced the potential losses and the number of victims in particular by better land use planning. These help us to estimate the importance of destruction of the environment and biodiversity in case of catastrophes. We conclude that in the Bambouto caldera there is moderate to high probability that destructive phenomena due to landslides occurs within the upcoming years with enormous

  2. Remote sensing and deforestation in humid tropical region: case of Bambouto mountain in West Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noël Leumbe Leumbe, Olivier; Bitom, Dieudonné; Joly Assako Assako, René

    2015-04-01

    A diachronic study of landscapes base on remote sensing data, has been realized on mount Bambouto in the humid tropical mountain region, through soil occupation analyses. It is a volcanic massif situated in the western part of Cameroon. It has an altitude of 2740 m. The objective is to evaluate the anthropic preasure on deforestation within this zone in order to predie the consequences on the area within a short period. The successive ways in which people occupy the soil within a period of about 30 years have thus been evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively on the bases of MSS images of 1978, Tm images of 1988, ETM+ of 2001 and 2007 of Landsat. In these images, the successive application of the index of vegetation and of a supervised classification couple with field observations, digital terrain model and with population data which display serious soils degradation of the volcanic massif from the 1980s, due to continous growing anthropic preasures. In all, between 1978 and 2007, the density of population became 17 times more important more than 43 000 ha of the massif soils has been deforested, this correspond to 1 483 ha/year. IF this velocity of deforestation is maintain, most of the natural vegetation in the Bambouto massif will disappear in 2029

  3. Deep to shallow crustal differentiation of within-plate alkaline magmatism at Mt. Bambouto volcano, Cameroon Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzoli, Andrea; Aka, Festus T.; Merle, Renaud; Callegaro, Sara; N'ni, Jean

    2015-04-01

    At Mt. Bambouto, a continental stratovolcano of the Cameroon Line, magmatic activity lasted for over 20 Ma and was characterized by at least two caldera formation events. Here we present detailed mineral and whole-rock compositions of Mt. Bambouto basanites, hawaiites, trachytes and phonolites, with emphasis on caldera related volcanic rocks. These data show that differentiation took place within a complex magma plumbing system, with magma chambers occurring at different depths within the crust. Though differentiation was chiefly dominated by fractional crystallization, chemical mineral zoning of olivines, clinopyroxenes, and feldspars is also indicative of open-system processes such as magma mixing and magma chamber recharge. Chemical zoning is evident mainly in the outer 100 microns of the analyzed crystals, suggesting that magma mixing occurred shortly before eruption. The last caldera collapse at about 15 Ma also marked a clear change in the magma plumbing system. Before caldera collapse, Mt. Bambouto was characterized by a dominant production of peralkaline quartz trachytic magmas in shallow magma chambers. During this phase, evolved basic magmas (hawaiites) and strongly evolved alkaline magmas were formed in middle and upper crustal magma chambers, respectively. After emptying of the shallow quartz trachytic magma chamber and caldera collapse, magmas from the deep magmatic plumbing system were mobilized and partially mixed. This triggered eruptions of magmas on the caldera rims.

  4. Two new butterfly species (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) from Mount Cameroon, Gulf of Guinea Highlands, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Sáfián, Szabolcs; Tropek, Robert

    2016-01-01

    A field survey of Mount Cameroon, South-West Province, Cameroon, revealed two butterfly species new to science. Lepidochrysops liberti sp. nov. (Lycaenidae) flies in the extensive mosaic of natural clearings in sub-montane forest above 1100 m a.s.l., whereas Ceratrichia fako sp. nov. (Hesperiidae) locally inhabits the forested narrow gullies in the same vegetation zone. Observations on the habitat and behaviour of both species are also presented. PMID:27515650

  5. Lava flow risk maps at Mount Cameroon volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favalli, M.; Fornaciai, A.; Papale, P.; Tarquini, S.

    2009-04-01

    Mount Cameroon, in the southwest Cameroon, is one of the most active volcanoes in Africa. Rising 4095 m asl, it has erupted nine times since the beginning of the past century, more recently in 1999 and 2000. Mount Cameroon documented eruptions are represented by moderate explosive and effusive eruptions occurred from both summit and flank vents. A 1922 SW-flank eruption produced a lava flow that reached the Atlantic coast near the village of Biboundi, and a lava flow from a 1999 south-flank eruption stopped only 200 m from the sea, threatening the villages of Bakingili and Dibunscha. More than 450,000 people live or work around the volcano, making the risk from lava flow invasion a great concern. In this work we propose both conventional hazard and risk maps and novel quantitative risk maps which relate vent locations to the expected total damage on existing buildings. These maps are based on lava flow simulations starting from 70,000 different vent locations, a probability distribution of vent opening, a law for the maximum length of lava flows, and a database of buildings. The simulations were run over the SRTM Digital Elevation Model (DEM) using DOWNFLOW, a fast DEM-driven model that is able to compute detailed invasion areas of lava flows from each vent. We present three different types of risk maps (90-m-pixel) for buildings around Mount Cameroon volcano: (1) a conventional risk map that assigns a probability of devastation by lava flows to each pixel representing buildings; (2) a reversed risk map where each pixel expresses the total damage expected as a consequence of vent opening in that pixel (the damage is expressed as the total surface of urbanized areas invaded); (3) maps of the lava catchments of the main towns around the volcano, within every catchment the pixels are classified according to the expected impact they might produce on the relative town in the case of a vent opening in that pixel. Maps of type (1) and (3) are useful for long term planning

  6. Nitrate contamination of groundwater in two areas of the Cameroon Volcanic Line (Banana Plain and Mount Cameroon area)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ako, Andrew Ako; Eyong, Gloria Eneke Takem; Shimada, Jun; Koike, Katsuaki; Hosono, Takahiro; Ichiyanagi, Kimpei; Richard, Akoachere; Tandia, Beatrice Ketchemen; Nkeng, George Elambo; Roger, Ntankouo Njila

    2014-06-01

    Water containing high concentrations of nitrate is unfit for human consumption and, if discharging to freshwater or marine habitats, can contribute to algal blooms and eutrophication. The level of nitrate contamination in groundwater of two densely populated, agro-industrial areas of the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) (Banana Plain and Mount Cameroon area) was evaluated. A total of 100 samples from boreholes, open wells and springs (67 from the Banana Plain; 33 from springs only, in the Mount Cameroon area) were collected in April 2009 and January 2010 and analyzed for chemical constituents, including nitrates. The average groundwater nitrate concentrations for the studied areas are: 17.28 mg/l for the Banana Plain and 2.90 mg/l for the Mount Cameroon area. Overall, groundwaters are relatively free from excessive nitrate contamination, with nitrate concentrations in only 6 % of groundwater resources in the Banana Plain exceeding the maximum admissible concentration for drinking water (50 mg/l). Sources of NO3 - in groundwater of this region may be mainly anthropogenic (N-fertilizers, sewerage, animal waste, organic manure, pit latrines, etc.). Multivariate statistical analyses of the hydrochemical data revealed that three factors were responsible for the groundwater chemistry (especially, degree of nitrate contamination): (1) a geogenic factor; (2) nitrate contamination factor; (3) ionic enrichment factor. The impact of anthropogenic activities, especially groundwater nitrate contamination, is more accentuated in the Banana Plain than in the Mount Cameroon area. This study also demonstrates the usefulness of multivariate statistical analysis in groundwater study as a supplementary tool for interpretation of complex hydrochemical data sets.

  7. A Ground Deformation Monitoring Approach to Understanding Magma Chamber Systems and Eruptive Cycles of Mount Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, S.; Clarke, A.

    2005-05-01

    Mount Cameroon is a 13,400ft basanite volcano on the passive margin of West Africa. It has erupted seven times in the past century making it one of the most active volcanoes in Africa. Most recently Mount Cameroon erupted in 1999 and 2000 first issuing strombolian explosions from vents near the summit, and later erupting effusively from a fissure running southwest from the summit (Suh et al., 2003). Prior to 2004, the only monitoring equipment on Mount Cameroon was a small seismometer network installed following the 1982 eruption. By 1999 only a single seismometer in the network was functional. Seismic activity did not rise above background levels until the few days immediately preceding the eruption. In an effort to raise awareness of the volcano's condition and provide a more efficient warning of impending eruptions we have begun constructing a ground deformation network on Mount Cameroon. The new network currently consists of two Applied Geomechanics 711-2A(4X) biaxial tiltmeters capable of resolving 0.1 microradians of tilt. One station is located approximately 500 m from the 2000 summit vent, and the other is approximately 1km away from the central fissure approximately 5km southwest of the 2000 summit vent. Three primary processes could precede eruptions at Mt. Cameroon, offering the opportunity for detection and prediction by our network. These processes are magma chamber pressurization, magma ascent via a central conduit, and/or propagation of magma along the central fissure. Magma chamber location, if a significant chamber exists, is poorly constrained, however, previous petrologic studies on Mount Cameroon (Suh et al., 2003; Fitton et al., 1983) suggest Mount Cameroon magmas originate at a depth less than 40km. Published seismic data (Ambeh, 1989) contains evidence of magmatic activity and possible chambers at depths ranging from 10km to 70km. Preliminary calculations using a simple Mogi model suggest deformation caused by pressurization of a large

  8. Cameroon.

    PubMed

    1992-06-01

    The US profile of Cameroon indicates brief statistics on the population, geography, government, and economy and brief descriptions of the population, the history, government, political conditions, the economy, foreign relations, defense, and relations with the US. Principal government and US officials are furnished. The 1991 estimated population of Cameroon was 11.7 million of which 60% is rural. There are 200 different tribes who speak many African languages and dialects. The French and English languages both have official status. Muslims live in the north and Christians in the south. 80% live in the formerly French east. The growth rate is 3%. There is 65% literacy. Infant mortality is 20%. 70% are agricultural workers, 13% industrial and commercial, and 17% other. The government is an independent republic with an executive and legislative branch. Independence was achieved in 1960. There is 1 ruling party. Traditional courts administer the laws. Traditional rulers are treated as administrative adjuncts. Suffrage is universal adult. The central government budget is 1.4 billion of which 8.7% is for defense. There are 10 provinces and 4 major cities. The seaport city Douala is the largest at 1.5 million. Gross domestic product (GDP) is $12.5 billion with an annual growth rate of 4.3% and an inflation rate of 2%. Growth has been variable since 1988 and reached a low of 2.4% in 1988-89. Oil, natural gas, bauxite, iron core, and timber are natural resources. 27% of the GDP is in agricultural products (cocoa, coffee, cotton, fishing, and forestry). 13% of the GDP is manufacturing and 24% is industry. Exports are valued at $2.9 billion and imports at $2.2 billion. Major markets are France, Netherlands, and the US. Imports include intermediate goods, capital goods, fuel and lubricants, foodstuffs, beverages, and tobacco. Early inhabitants were the Pygmies, followed later by Bantu speakers, and Muslim Fulani. Political consolidation was achieved in 1970 after a period of

  9. Spring water quality and usability in the Mount Cameroon area revealed by hydrogeochemistry.

    PubMed

    Ako, Andrew Ako; Shimada, Jun; Hosono, Takahiro; Kagabu, Makoto; Ayuk, Akoachere Richard; Nkeng, George Elambo; Eyong, Gloria Eneke Takem; Fouepe Takounjou, Alain L

    2012-10-01

    Groundwater is the only reliable water resource for drinking, domestic, and agricultural purposes for the people living in the Mount Cameroon area. Hydrogeochemical and R-mode factor analysis were used to identify hydrogeochemical processes controlling spring water quality and assess its usability for the above uses. Main water types in the study area are Ca-Mg-HCO(3) and Na-HCO(3). This study reveals that three processes are controlling the spring water quality. CO(2)-driven silicate weathering and reverse cation exchange are the most important processes affecting the hydrochemistry of the spring waters. While tropical oceanic monsoon chloride-rich/sulfate-rich rainwater seems to affect spring water chemistry at low-altitude areas, strong correlations exist between major ions, dissolved silica and the altitude of springs. In general, the spring waters are suitable for drinking and domestic uses. Total hardness (TH) values indicate a general softness of the waters, which is linked to the development of cardiovascular diseases. Based on Na %, residual sodium carbonate, sodium adsorption ratio, and the USSL classification, the spring waters are considered suitable for irrigation. Though there is wide spread use of chemical fertilizers and intense urban settlements at the lower flanks of the volcano, anthropogenic activities for now seem to have little impact on the spring water quality. PMID:22539220

  10. Spring water quality and usability in the Mount Cameroon area revealed by hydrogeochemistry.

    PubMed

    Ako, Andrew Ako; Shimada, Jun; Hosono, Takahiro; Kagabu, Makoto; Ayuk, Akoachere Richard; Nkeng, George Elambo; Eyong, Gloria Eneke Takem; Fouepe Takounjou, Alain L

    2012-10-01

    Groundwater is the only reliable water resource for drinking, domestic, and agricultural purposes for the people living in the Mount Cameroon area. Hydrogeochemical and R-mode factor analysis were used to identify hydrogeochemical processes controlling spring water quality and assess its usability for the above uses. Main water types in the study area are Ca-Mg-HCO(3) and Na-HCO(3). This study reveals that three processes are controlling the spring water quality. CO(2)-driven silicate weathering and reverse cation exchange are the most important processes affecting the hydrochemistry of the spring waters. While tropical oceanic monsoon chloride-rich/sulfate-rich rainwater seems to affect spring water chemistry at low-altitude areas, strong correlations exist between major ions, dissolved silica and the altitude of springs. In general, the spring waters are suitable for drinking and domestic uses. Total hardness (TH) values indicate a general softness of the waters, which is linked to the development of cardiovascular diseases. Based on Na %, residual sodium carbonate, sodium adsorption ratio, and the USSL classification, the spring waters are considered suitable for irrigation. Though there is wide spread use of chemical fertilizers and intense urban settlements at the lower flanks of the volcano, anthropogenic activities for now seem to have little impact on the spring water quality.

  11. Numerical experiments on the dynamics of channelised lava flows at Mount Cameroon volcano with the FLOWGO thermo-rheological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wantim, M. N.; Kervyn, M.; Ernst, G. G. J.; del Marmol, M. A.; Suh, C. E.; Jacobs, P.

    2013-03-01

    As for many other effusive volcanoes, Mount Cameroon (MC) is a volcano for which only limited information exists on lava flow properties and emplacement dynamics for recent eruptions. This study provides new quantitative constraints for rheological and dynamic characteristics of lava flow effusion for the 1982 and 2000 eruptive events, used to calibrate the FLOWGO thermo-rheological model for these lava flows. The FLOWGO 1-D physical model is used to simulate down-flow evolution of the geometry and rheology of channel-contained cooling-limited lava flows. Morphometric data from historical lava flows were acquired from the field, e.g. channel geometry, levee and background slope, in order to estimate lava yield strength, velocity and effusion rate. Lava density and viscosity were also estimated from compositional data and laboratory methods. To account for uncertainty in the input rheological and geometrical data, three end-member scenarios were used to bracket the potential range in lava channel initial dimension, initial lava temperature and phenocryst content. For each of these scenarios, two crustal growth models were used: one assuming strong insulation due to lava flow surface crusting, the other a much lower crusting rate. Twelve numerical simulations were made per flow and the results were compared against the channel geometry, microlite content, yield strength and viscosity estimates from field and laboratory investigations. Best-fit models where obtained for both the 1982 and 2000 lava flows using a low rate of surface crusting, high initial temperature and low phenocryst content. Model-predicted lengths were within 5% of the actual lengths. Modelled mean effusion rates for the 1982 (52-64 m3 s- 1) and 2000 (10 m3 s- 1) flows closely matched field data derived estimations (26-68 and 9.5 m3 s- 1 respectively). FLOWGO model results are highly sensitive to initial channel dimensions, phenocryst content and the FLOWGO model is unable to reproduce the observed

  12. The June 27, 2001 landslide on volcanic cones in Limbe, Mount Cameroon, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayonghe, S. N.; Ntasin, E. B.; Samalang, P.; Suh, C. E.

    2004-06-01

    On 27 June 2001, between 12:00 and 14:00 hours GMT, the worst ever recorded landslides and floods in the history of Cameroon occurred on volcanic cones in Limbe, killing 24 people. This brisk event, which from eyewitness reports, lasted for about 30 min, produced more than 43 landslide scars, several tension cracks, destroyed 120 houses and rendered over 2800 people homeless. Field studies indicated the alignment of the landslide scars along a northwest-southeast zone antithetic to the Mabeta fault previously identified by a linear pattern of earthquake epicentres along its length, although volcanic rocks cover this fault. The landslides occurred on slopes with dips ranging from 35° to 80°. The regolith from the slide surfaces destroyed trees and houses, and blocked gutters producing floods along the low-lying coastal parts of Limbe. The mechanism of sliding ranged from planar sliding or mud flows on impermeable surfaces of basaltic flows and/or compacted clayey volcanic tuff, to rotational sliding, or toppling failure on the steeper slopes. Intensive rainfall which preceded the event for two days as well as human intervention on slopes in the form of farming and terracing to build houses, were important contributory factors. On the basis of these findings, measures aimed at reducing the impact of future landslides on the population in the area are proposed.

  13. The Mount Manengouba, a complex volcano of the Cameroon Line: Volcanic history, petrological and geochemical features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouclet, André; Kagou Dongmo, Armand; Bardintzeff, Jacques-Marie; Wandji, Pierre; Chakam Tagheu, Pulchérie; Nkouathio, David; Bellon, Hervé; Ruffet, Gilles

    2014-09-01

    The volcanic story of Mount Manengouba is related to four chronological stages: (1) forming of the early Manengouba shield volcano between 1.55 and 0.94 Ma, (2) building of the Eboga strato-cone between 0.94 and 0.89 Ma, (3) caldera collapse and silicic extrusions of the Elengoum Complex between 0.89 and 0.70 Ma, and (4) intra-caldera and flank activity between 0.45 and 0.11 Ma. The volume of the volcano is calculated at 320 km3 ± 5%. The volcanic rocks are attributed to two magmatic outputs. The first and main magma generation produced the shield volcano, the strato-cone, and the syn- to post-caldera extrusions, displaying a complete series from basanites to trachytes (magmatic Group 1). The second magma generation is limited to the late and flank activity evolving from basanites to trachy-phonolite (magmatic Group 2). Both magmatic groups belong to the under-saturated alkaline sodic series. Petrological calculations locate the magmatic reservoir between 37 and 39 km in the upper mantle for the Group 1 lavas, and between 42 and 44 km for the Group 2 lavas. Trachytes were generated in a secondary crustal reservoir. Magmatic series evolve with medium to low pressure fractional crystallization of olivine, pyroxene, oxides, feldspar, and apatite. Significant crustal assimilation is evidenced in trachytes. The magma of Group 1 was generated with 3-6% of partial melting of a moderately enriched source containing 3-7% of garnet. Melting took place in the spinel to garnet transition zone located at 70-90 km and around 25 kb. The magma of Group 2 resulted from a slightly higher partial melting from a less garnet-rich source that indicates uprising of the melting column in the upper part of transition zone. Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope data of the Manengouba rocks and neighboring lavas are analyzed and compared with those of the mafic lavas of the CVL. Three source components are distinguished: a depleted component originated from the asthenospheric swell, a radiogenic component

  14. Phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Euphorbia golondrina L.C. Wheeler (Euphorbiaceae Juss.): an unexplored medicinal herb reported from Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ndam, Lawrence Monah; Mih, Afui Mathias; Tening, Aaron Suh; Fongod, Augustina Genla Nwana; Temenu, Nkegua Anna; Fujii, Yoshiharu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the phytochemical constituents of Euphorbia golondrina L.C. Wheeler, an alien invasive medicinal herb that is used for the treatment of gastroenteritis related ailments, diabetes, conjunctivitis, gastritis, enterocolitis, tonsillitis, vaginitis, hemorrhoids, prostatism, warts and painful swellings by the Mundani people of the mount Bambouto Caldera in SouthWestern Cameroon, and to evaluate its in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Susceptibility testing by agar well diffusion assay revealed good antibacterial activity with inhibition zone diameter of 20 ± 1.1 mm against Bacillus cereus followed by Staphylococcus aureus with inhibition zone diameter of 17 ± 1.6 mm which was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than the positive control (amoxicillin). None of the fungi was inhibited by the acetone extract of E. golondrina except Candida albicans wherein the zone of inhibition was not significantly different from that of the positive control (Amphotericin B). The ABTS scavenging activity of E. golondrina was higher than that of gallic acid and BHT at concentrations greater than 0.1 and 0.2 mg/mL respectively while at all concentrations, nitric oxide scavenging activity was higher than those of both rutin and vitamin C. GC-MS profile of E. golondrina steam distilled volatiles revealed that the plant has potent phytoconstituent classes such as sesquiterpenes, monoterpenes, alkaloids, phenolics and aromatic hydrocarbons. Among the 30 compounds identified, caryophyllene oxide (14.16 %), camphor (9.41 %) and phytol (5.75 %) were the major compounds. Further structural characterisation based on (1)H and (13)C NMR is required to demonstrate structural integrity including correct stereochemistry. The current study partially justifies the ethnomedicinal uses of E. golondrina in Cameroon. PMID:27006873

  15. Change vector analysis to categorise land cover change processes using the tasselled cap as biophysical indicator: description: implementing Landsat TM and ETM to detect land cover and land use changes in the mount Cameroon region using the CVA technique with the tasselled cap as biophysical indicator.

    PubMed

    Siwe, Rene Ngamabou; Koch, Barbara

    2008-10-01

    The continuous extraction of wood and the conversion of forest to small- and large-scale agricultural parcels is rapidly changing the land cover of the mount Cameroon region. The changes occur at varying spatial scales most often not more than 2ha for the small-scale subsistence farms and above 10ha for the extensive agricultural plantations of cocoa and palm. Given the importance of land use and land cover data in conservation planning, accurate and efficient techniques to provide up-to-date change information are required. A number of techniques for realising the detection of land cover dynamics using remotely sensed imagery have been formulated, tested and assessed with the results varying with respect to the change scenario under investigation, the information required and the imagery applied. In this study the Change Vector Analysis (CVA) technique was implemented on multitemporal multispectral Landsat data from the Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) sensors to monitor the dynamics of forest change in the mount Cameroon region. CVA was applied to multi-temporal data to compare the differences in the time-trajectory of the tasseled cap greenness and brightness for two successive time periods - 1987 and 2002. The tasseled cap was selected as biophysical indicator because it optimises the data viewing capabilities of vegetation, representing the basic types of land cover - vegetation, soil and water. Classes were created arbitrarily to predict the technique's potential in monitoring forest cover changes in the mount Cameroon region. The efficiency of the technique could not be fully assessed due to the inavailability of sufficient ground truth data. Assessment was based on the establishment of an error matrix of change versus no-change. The overall accuracy was 70%. The technique nevertheless demonstrated immense potentials in monitoring forest cover change dynamics especially when complemented with field studies.

  16. Structure of the Crust beneath Cameroon, West Africa, from the Joint Inversion of Rayleigh Wave Group Velocities and Receiver Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Tokam, A K; Tabod, C T; Nyblade, A A; Julia, J; Wiens, D A; Pasyanos, M E

    2010-02-18

    The Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) is a major geologic feature that cuts across Cameroon from the south west to the north east. It is a unique volcanic lineament which has both an oceanic and a continental sector and consists of a chain of Tertiary to Recent, generally alkaline volcanoes stretching from the Atlantic island of Pagalu to the interior of the African continent. The oceanic sector includes the islands of Bioko (formerly Fernando Po) and Sao Tome and Principe while the continental sector includes the Etinde, Cameroon, Manengouba, Bamboutos, Oku and Mandara mountains, as well as the Adamawa and Biu Plateaus. In addition to the CVL, three other major tectonic features characterize the region: the Benue Trough located northwest of the CVL, the Central African Shear Zone (CASZ), trending N70 degrees E, roughly parallel to the CVL, and the Congo Craton in southern Cameroon. The origin of the CVL is still the subject of considerable debate, with both plume and non-plume models invoked by many authors (e.g., Deruelle et al., 2007; Ngako et al, 2006; Ritsema and Allen, 2003; Burke, 2001; Ebinger and Sleep, 1998; Lee et al, 1994; Dorbath et al., 1986; Fairhead and Binks, 1991; King and Ritsema, 2000; Reusch et al., 2010). Crustal structure beneath Cameroon has been investigated previously using active (Stuart et al, 1985) and passive (Dorbath et al., 1986; Tabod, 1991; Tabod et al, 1992; Plomerova et al, 1993) source seismic data, revealing a crust about 33 km thick at the south-western end of the continental portion of the CVL (Tabod, 1991) and the Adamawa Plateau, and thinner crust (23 km thick) beneath the Garoua Rift in the north (Stuart et al, 1985) (Figure 1). Estimates of crustal thickness obtained using gravity data show similar variations between the Garoua rift, Adamawa Plateau, and southern part of the CVL (Poudjom et al., 1995; Nnange et al., 2000). In this study, we investigate further crustal structure beneath the CVL and the adjacent regions in

  17. English Teaching Profile: Cameroon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    A description of the role and status of the English language in Cameroon begins with an overview of the distribution of English speakers and the common uses of English. Subsequent sections outline (1) the use and status of English within the educational system at all levels, including teacher education; (2) the availability of English language…

  18. Vulnerability of settlements around Mt. Cameroon volcano, Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zogning, Appolinaire; Spinetti, Claudia; Ngouanet, Chretien; Tchoudam, David; Kouokam, Emmanuel; Thierry, Pierre; Bignami, Christian; Fabrizia Buongiorno, Maria; Ilaria Pannaccione Apa, Maria

    2010-05-01

    Located at the bottom of the Gulf of Guinea, Cameroon is exposed to a large variety of natural hazards, including volcanism. Most of the hazard are concentrated around the active volcano Mt. Cameroon which combines effusive and explosive types of activity. The threatened stakes are numerous and different exposed: people, settlements, industrial plantations, petrol refinery and many other factories and infrastructures. Until 2005, no risk management plans has been available. In 2006, the French Embassy in Cameroon, within the framework of a financial convention between Cameroon and France, put in place the GRINP (Management of Natural Risks and Civil Protection) project whose objective was to reinforce the capacity of Cameroon's civil protection department and thus, contribute to the improvement of the security of the population faced with catastrophes. The objective was to realize a Risk Prevention Plan at a local council scale, and taking into consideration the specific natural risks of each zone. The general objective of the RPP was to clearly draw land use maps for risks zones, showing the overlay of stakes with risk of different intensities. In 2008 European Commission funded the Mia-Vita project (Mitigating and Assessing Volcanic Impacts on Terrain and human Activities). The aim of the project is to improve the crisis management capabilities based on monitoring and early warning systems and secure communications; reduction of people's vulnerability and development of recovering capabilities after an event occurs for both local communities and ecological systems. Keyword: natural hazards, Mt. Cameroon, vulnerability, risk prevention plan

  19. Geraldocossus gen. nov. (Lepidoptera, Cossidae) from Mount Cameroon (West Africa).

    PubMed

    Yakovlev, Roman V; Sáfián, Szabolcs

    2016-01-01

    The cossid or the Carpenter Moths (Lepidoptera, Cossidae) include about 1000 species worldwide (van Nieukerken et al., 2011), of which 750 species belong to five subfamilies that occur in the Old World (Yakovlev 2011). The Cossidae are still relatively poorly known from vast areas of the African continent, despite recent reports on the fauna of Malawi (Yakovlev & Murphey 2014), Zimbabwe (Yakovlev & Lenz 2014), and Zambia (Yakovlev 2014). The first results of an ongoing revision of the South African Cossidae have also been published (Mey 2015). PMID:27395152

  20. Mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Humpal, Harold H.

    1987-01-01

    A mirror mount (10) is provided that allows free pitch, yaw and roll motion of the mirror (28) while keeping the location of a point (56) on the surface of the mirror (28) fixed in the rest frame of reference of the mount (10). Yaw movement is provided by two yaw cylinders (30,32) that are bearing (52) mounted to provide rotation. Pitch and roll motion is provided by a spherically annular shell (42) that is air bearing (72,74) mounted to move between a clamp (60) and an upper pedestal bearing (44). The centers of curvature of the spherical surfaces of the shell (42) lie upon the point (56). Pitch motion and roll motion are separately and independently imparted to mirror (28) by a pair of pitch paddles (34) and a pair of roll paddles (36) that are independently and separately moved by control rods (76,80) driven by motors (78,82).

  1. Mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Humpal, H.H.

    1986-03-21

    A mirror mount is provided that allows free pitch, yaw and roll motion of the mirror while keeping the location of a point on the surface of the mirror fixed in the rest frame of reference of the mount. Yaw movement is provided by two yaw cylinders that are bearing mounted to provide rotation. Pitch and roll motion is provided by a spherically annular shell that is air bearing mounted to move between a clamp and an upper pedestal bearing. The centers of curvature of the spherical surfaces of the shell lie upon the point. Pitch motion and roll motion are separately and independently imparted to mirror by a pair of pitch paddles and a pair of roll paddles that are independently and separately moved by control rods driven by motors.

  2. Mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Humpal, H.H.

    1987-11-10

    A mirror mount is provided that allows free pitch, yaw and roll motion of the mirror while keeping the location of a point on the surface of the mirror fixed in the rest frame of reference of the mount. Yaw movement is provided by two yaw cylinders that are bearing mounted to provide rotation. Pitch and roll motion is provided by a spherically annular shell that is air bearing mounted to move between a clamp and an upper pedestal bearing. The centers of curvature of the spherical surfaces of the shell lie upon the point. Pitch motion and roll motion are separately and independently imparted to mirror by a pair of pitch paddles and a pair of roll paddles that are independently and separately moved by control rods driven by motors. 5 figs.

  3. Communication of geohazard risks by focus group discussions in the Mount Cameroon area, Cameroon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Marmol, M.-A.; Suh Atanga, M. Bi; Njome, S.; Mafany Teke, G.; Jacobs, P.; Suh, C. E.

    2012-04-01

    The inappropriate translation of scientific information of geohazard (volcanic, landslide and crater lake outgassing) risks to any local population leaves people with incongruent views of the real dangers. Initial workshops organized under the supervision of the VLIR-OI (Flemish Interuniversity Council - Own Initiatives) members have led to the deployment of billboards as requested and drawn up by the locals. The VLIR-OI project has also organized focus group discussions (FGD) with the local stakeholders to find out in various cities, the state of preparedness, the response to emergency situations, the recovery from the emergency and the mitigation. Researchers have preferred open discussion with the local population and its representatives in order to elicit information that otherwise might not be found on a structured questionnaire. FGD provide a meaningful interactive opportunity to collect information and reflection on a wide range of input. The method provides an insight into problems that require a solution through a process of discovering the meaning attributed to certain events or issues. In this research four cardinal points as preparedness, response, recovery and mitigation (Fothergill, 1996) guided the FGD. The population (i.e. local town councils) were constituted by a mix of chiefs, engineers, technicians and civil servants and government officials. In all the three city councils concerned, the engineers in charge complained about the lack of strategic planning, and about the missing of an elaborated strategy for disasters. They are aware of the existence of an organigram in the "Département de l'Action Civile" in Yaounde but never received any "strategic" document. Therefore inappropriate actions might be taken by the municipalities themselves. Fortunately all people interrogated at the FDG always mentioned solidarity in any event. Fothergill, 1996, Gender, Risk, and Disasters, Intern. Jour. of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, vol.14, n°1, 33-56

  4. The Language Situation in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouega, Jean-Paul

    2007-01-01

    This monograph examines the language situation in Cameroon, a Central African country where fewer than 20 million people speak close to 250 languages. Specifically, the monograph addresses the issues of language use and spread, language policy and planning, and language maintenance and prospects. The study is divided into five parts. The…

  5. [The rural exodus in Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Barbier, J C; Courade, G; Gubry, P

    1981-01-01

    The authors first attempt to provide a definition of the concept of rural exodus. They then present an analysis of the phenomenon in Cameroon at the arrondissement level. The causes and consequences of this migration are considered, and some alternative steps that might be taken to direct the flows of the rural exodus are suggested. (summary in ENG)

  6. Thanking Responders in Cameroon English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouafeu, Yves Talla Sando

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of authentic or genuine interactions among Cameroon English speakers reveals that conversational routines in this variety of English differ a good deal from those obtained in other varieties of English, non-native varieties of English inclusive, and more specifically in native varieties of English. This paper looks at "thanking…

  7. Mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, Thomas C.; Bender, Donald A.

    1994-01-01

    A unique lens or mirror mount having adjustable constraints at two key locations to allow for "X" and "Y" tilts of the mirror only. The device uses two pair of flexures of a type such that the pivots of the mirror gimble are rigidly fixed in all planes allowing the device to have zero stacking tolerance and zero wear over time.

  8. Mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, T.C.; Bender, D.A.

    1994-10-04

    A unique lens or mirror mount having adjustable constraints at two key locations to allow for ''X'' and ''Y'' tilts of the mirror only is disclosed. The device uses two pair of flexures of a type such that the pivots of the mirror gimble are rigidly fixed in all planes allowing the device to have zero stacking tolerance and zero wear over time. 4 figs.

  9. English in Francophone Elementary Grades in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouega, Jean-Paul

    2003-01-01

    Since Reunification of French Cameroon and British Cameroons in 1961, the country has adopted French and English as its joint official languages and recommended the promotion of bilingualism in these two foreign languages in official domains. This paper focuses on the primary school level in the francophone sub system of education and examines the…

  10. Basals in Cameroon: Help or Hindrance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yenika-Agbaw, Vivian

    1999-01-01

    States that in "developing" countries such as Cameroon, educators struggle to overcome the remnants of colonial educational systems and instructional methods, which are not in keeping with current educational theory. Examines the inadequacies of the Evans English textbooks used for literacy instruction in West Cameroon schools as an example of how…

  11. [Tungiasis in Bangou (West Cameroon)].

    PubMed

    Bourée, P; Simeni Njonnou, R; Takougang, I; Kaptue, L

    2012-01-01

    Tungiasis is an ectoparasitosis caused by penetration into the skin of the sand or chigger flea, Tunga penetrans. The epidemiology in Cameroon of this disease, often associated with poverty, is unknown. Accordingly, in August 2008, we conducted a study in Bangou, in Western Cameroon, among a sample of 403 people, divided in 111 families. All data were collected and analyzed with Epi-Info 6.4 software. The prevalence in this population was 32.7%, with infestation more frequent in males (P = 0.013), mostly in children aged 1 to 5 years. The most frequent clinical features were simple inflammatory lesions (100%), infected lesions (2.27%) and necrosis (0.75%). Most patients had a moderate infestation (86.4%), lived in houses with mud floors and brick walls (OR = 2.57; 95%CI [1.67-3.96]), and had animals (dogs) in the household. The principal risk factors were sex- and age-related: boys younger than 15 years old (OR = 5.40; 95%CI [3.20-9.12]) and schoolchildren (OR = 2.57; 95%CI [1.67-3.96]). The main sequelae were toenail deformations (34%). PMID:23419286

  12. Dynamic evolution of the Mt. Cameroon volcanic edifice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barfod, Dan N.; Njome, Manga S.; Suh, Cheo E.; Godfrey Fitton, J.

    2014-05-01

    The growth and destruction of a volcanic edifice reflects dynamic processes that shape the Earth, including transport of mass and heat in a cooling planet versus the mechanical and chemical degradation of igneous material driving toward equilibrium. Central to understanding the nature of volcanoes are determinations of the rates of change in the volumes of these features. Through a quantitative temporal framework it is possible to elucidate the relative importance of competing processes that govern growth and destruction of volcanoes, e.g., magma production versus mass wasting. As the energetics of constructive and destructive processes are directly linked to the hazards that they pose to human populations and because volcanoes are stochastic systems, the only means of long-term forecast is via comprehensive understanding of volcanic history. Mount Cameroon is one of Africa's largest volcanoes and is currently the only active centre on the Cameroon line. The edifice is 4 km high with a volume of at least 1200 km3. Seventeen eruptions have been reported since 1800 and a time-averaged eruption volume of 6 x 106 m3/year is calculated from 7 eruptions over the past 91 years. Eight new Ar/Ar ages have been determined for basaltic rocks distributed across Mt. Cameroon; plateau ages are 4139±19 ka, 195±2 ka, 187±5 ka, 161±2 ka, 82±4, 68±3, 14±4 and 2±4 ka (1σ). The upper age from this set defines the oldest age yet measured for the Mt. Cameroon system. The data demonstrate activity through the mid to upper Pleistocene, continuing through to modern activity. Using recent estimates for basin-wide erosion of ca. 0.05 mm/a on a similar edifice (Kauai, Hawaii, Gayer et al 2008) and extrapolating over the Mt. Cameroon edifice yields an erosion rate of 5x104 m3/a, a factor of 30 times lower than the modern magma production rate. Considering these two fluxes implies that approximately 700 ka is required to construct an edifice of 1200 km3 (the current volume of Mt

  13. Assessment of trace metal pollution in sediments and intertidal fauna at the coast of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ngeve, Magdalene N; Leermakers, Martine; Elskens, Marc; Kochzius, Marc

    2015-06-01

    Coastal systems act as a boundary between land and sea. Therefore, assessing pollutant concentrations at the coast will provide information on the impact that land-based anthropogenic activities have on marine ecosystems. Sediment and fauna samples from 13 stations along the whole coast of Cameroon were analyzed to assess the level of trace metal pollution in sediments and intertidal fauna. Sediments showed enrichment of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn. However, pollution of greater concern was observed for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn at the northern stations. Some sites recorded trace metal levels higher than recommended in sediment quality guidelines. Species diversity was low, and high bioaccumulation of trace metals was observed in biological samples. Some edible gastropod species accumulated trace metals above the safety limits of the World Health Organization, European Medicine Agency, and the US Environment Protection Agency. Although industrial pollution is significant along Cameroon's coast, natural pollution from the volcano Mount Cameroon is also of concern.

  14. Assessment of trace metal pollution in sediments and intertidal fauna at the coast of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ngeve, Magdalene N; Leermakers, Martine; Elskens, Marc; Kochzius, Marc

    2015-06-01

    Coastal systems act as a boundary between land and sea. Therefore, assessing pollutant concentrations at the coast will provide information on the impact that land-based anthropogenic activities have on marine ecosystems. Sediment and fauna samples from 13 stations along the whole coast of Cameroon were analyzed to assess the level of trace metal pollution in sediments and intertidal fauna. Sediments showed enrichment of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn. However, pollution of greater concern was observed for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn at the northern stations. Some sites recorded trace metal levels higher than recommended in sediment quality guidelines. Species diversity was low, and high bioaccumulation of trace metals was observed in biological samples. Some edible gastropod species accumulated trace metals above the safety limits of the World Health Organization, European Medicine Agency, and the US Environment Protection Agency. Although industrial pollution is significant along Cameroon's coast, natural pollution from the volcano Mount Cameroon is also of concern. PMID:25957194

  15. Crop yield gaps in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Yengoh, Genesis T; Ardö, Jonas

    2014-03-01

    Although food crop yields per hectare have generally been increasing in Cameroon since 1961, the food price crisis of 2008 and the ensuing social unrest and fatalities raised concerns about the country's ability to meet the food needs of its population. This study examines the country's potential for increasing crop yields and food production to meet this food security challenge. Fuzzy set theory is used to develop a biophysical spatial suitability model for different crops, which in turn is employed to ascertain whether crop production is carried out in biophysically suited areas. We use linear regression to examine the trend of yield development over the last half century. On the basis of yield data from experimental stations and farmers' fields we assess the yield gap for major food crops. We find that yields have generally been increasing over the last half century and that agricultural policies can have significant effects on them. To a large extent, food crops are cultivated in areas that are biophysically suited for their cultivation, meaning that the yield gap is not a problem of biophysical suitability. Notwithstanding, there are significantly large yield gaps between actual yields on farmers' farms and maximum attainable yields from research stations. We conclude that agronomy and policies are likely to be the reasons for these large yield gaps. A key challenge to be addressed in closing the yield gaps is that of replenishing and properly managing soil nutrients.

  16. Age, geochemical characteristics and petrogenesis of Cenozoic intraplate alkaline volcanic rocks in the Bafang region, West Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchuimegnie Ngongang, Nicaise Blaise; Kamgang, Pierre; Chazot, Gilles; Agranier, Arnaud; Bellon, Hervé; Nonnotte, Philippe

    2015-02-01

    The origin of the volcanism in the Cameroon Volcanic Line and the nature of its mantle sources are still highly controversial. We present major and trace element compositions as well as Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic results on mafic and intermediate lavas from the Bafang area in the central part of the Cameroon Volcanic Line. The lavas range from basanites and basalts to hawaiites and mugearites with an alkaline affinity and were emplaced between 10 and 6 Ma ago. The evolution from basalts and basanites to more differentiated rocks involved fractionation of olivine, clinopyroxene and Fe-Ti oxides, but the isotopic compositions show that crustal contamination processes affected some magmas during their ascent in the crust. Basalts and basanites originated from a garnet-bearing mantle source and their differences are mostly due to variable degrees of partial melting. The isotopic composition of the uncontaminated samples imply the participation of three distinct mantle components, the depleted MORB mantle (not dominant), an enriched component and a Pb radiogenic component similar to the source of the Mount Cameroon. Combined with previously published isotopic data from the Cameroon Volcanic Line, our new results indicate that the source of the volcanism mostly reside in the lithospheric mantle and is different from what can be expected from the melting of a mantle accreted from or modified during the emplacement of the St. Helena mantle plume.

  17. PV module mounting method and mounting assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lenox, Carl J.S.; Johnson, Kurt M.

    2013-04-23

    A method for mounting PV modules to a deck includes selecting PV module layout pattern so that adjacent PV module edges are spaced apart. PV mounting and support assemblies are secured to the deck according to the layout pattern using fasteners extending into the deck. The PV modules are placed on the PV mounting and support assemblies. Retaining elements are located over and secured against the upper peripheral edge surfaces of the PV modules so to secure them to the deck with the peripheral edges of the PV modules spaced apart from the deck. In some examples a PV module mounting assembly, for use on a shingled deck, comprises flashing, a base mountable on the flashing, a deck-penetrating fastener engageable with the base and securable to the deck so to secure the flashing and the base to the shingled deck, and PV module mounting hardware securable to the base.

  18. Magnetic core mounting system

    DOEpatents

    Ronning, Jeffrey J.

    2002-01-01

    A mounting apparatus for an electromagnetic device such as a transformer of inductor includes a generally planar metallic plate as a first heat sink, and a metallic mounting cup as a second heat sink. The mounting cup includes a cavity configured to receive the electromagnetic device, the cavity being defined by a base, and an axially-extending annular sidewall extending from the base to a flange portion of the mounting cup. The mounting cup includes first and second passages for allowing the leads of first and second windings of the electromagnetic device to be routed out of the cavity. The cavity is filled with a polyurethane potting resin, and the mounting cup, including the potted electromagnetic device, is mounted to the plate heat sink using fasteners. The mounting cup, which surrounds the electromagnetic device, in combination with the potting resin provides improved thermal transfer to the plate heat sink, as well as providing resistance to vibration and shocks.

  19. Fixed mount wavefront sensor

    DOEpatents

    Neal, Daniel R.

    2000-01-01

    A rigid mount and method of mounting for a wavefront sensor. A wavefront dissector, such as a lenslet array, is rigidly mounted at a fixed distance relative to an imager, such as a CCD camera, without need for a relay imaging lens therebetween.

  20. English Pronunciation in Cameroon: Conflicts and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobda, A. Simo

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines some of the social and pedagogical problems caused by the conflicting forms of English pronunciation found in Cameroon. American, Nigerian, and local variations compete with British Received Pronunciation. The problems can be minimized through a more adequate training of broadcasters and teachers. (21 references) (MDM)

  1. The Reception of American Literature in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djockoua, Manyaka Toko

    2014-01-01

    In Cameroon, popular belief associates American literature with its country's economic and political greatness. Yet, if millions of Cameroonians show a growing enthusiasm for a visit to the US, just a few are interested in learning its literature. Using theories on the reading and teaching of literature, statistical data based on a questionnaire,…

  2. Women and Economic Development in Cameroon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryson, Judy C.

    Based on a survey of written sources and perspectives of knowledgeable individuals, the report provides information on women's economic roles in Cameroon, and on aspects of social life which effect their economic performance. A description of the importance of traditional social systems and their evolution over the last 30 years follows a brief…

  3. Photovoltaic module mounting system

    SciTech Connect

    Miros, Robert H. J.; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Seery, Martin N; Holland, Rodney H

    2012-09-18

    A solar array mounting system having unique installation, load distribution, and grounding features, and which is adaptable for mounting solar panels having no external frame. The solar array mounting system includes flexible, pedestal-style feet and structural links connected in a grid formation on the mounting surface. The photovoltaic modules are secured in place via the use of attachment clamps that grip the edge of the typically glass substrate. The panel mounting clamps are then held in place by tilt brackets and/or mid-link brackets that provide fixation for the clamps and align the solar panels at a tilt to the horizontal mounting surface. The tilt brackets are held in place atop the flexible feet and connected link members thus creating a complete mounting structure.

  4. Photovoltaic module mounting system

    SciTech Connect

    Miros, Robert H. J.; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Seery, Martin N.; Holland, Rodney H.

    2012-04-17

    A solar array mounting system having unique installation, load distribution, and grounding features, and which is adaptable for mounting solar panels having no external frame. The solar array mounting system includes flexible, pedestal-style feet and structural links connected in a grid formation on the mounting surface. The photovoltaic modules are secured in place via the use of attachment clamps that grip the edge of the typically glass substrate. The panel mounting clamps are then held in place by tilt brackets and/or mid-link brackets that provide fixation for the clamps and align the solar panels at a tilt to the horizontal mounting surface. The tilt brackets are held in place atop the flexible feet and connected link members thus creating a complete mounting structure.

  5. High bandwidth optical mount

    DOEpatents

    Bender, D.A.; Kuklo, T.

    1994-11-08

    An optical mount, which directs a laser beam to a point by controlling the position of a light-transmitting optic, is stiffened so that a lowest resonant frequency of the mount is approximately one kilohertz. The optical mount, which is cylindrically-shaped, positions the optic by individually moving a plurality of carriages which are positioned longitudinally within a sidewall of the mount. The optical mount is stiffened by allowing each carriage, which is attached to the optic, to move only in a direction which is substantially parallel to a center axis of the optic. The carriage is limited to an axial movement by flexures or linear bearings which connect the carriage to the mount. The carriage is moved by a piezoelectric transducer. By limiting the carriage to axial movement, the optic can be kinematically clamped to a carriage. 5 figs.

  6. High bandwidth optical mount

    DOEpatents

    Bender, Donald A.; Kuklo, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    An optical mount, which directs a laser beam to a point by controlling the position of a light-transmitting optic, is stiffened so that a lowest resonant frequency of the mount is approximately one kilohertz. The optical mount, which is cylindrically-shaped, positions the optic by individually moving a plurality of carriages which are positioned longitudinally within a sidewall of the mount. The optical mount is stiffened by allowing each carriage, which is attached to the optic, to move only in a direction which is substantially parallel to a center axis of the optic. The carriage is limited to an axial movement by flexures or linear bearings which connect the carriage to the mount. The carriage is moved by a piezoelectric transducer. By limiting the carriage to axial movement, the optic can be kinematically clamped to a carriage.

  7. Liner mounting assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halila, Ely E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A mounting assembly includes an annular supporting flange disposed coaxially about a centerline axis which has a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart supporting holes therethrough. An annular liner is disposed coaxially with the supporting flange and includes a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart mounting holes aligned with respective ones of the supporting holes. Each of a plurality of mounting pins includes a proximal end fixedly joined to the supporting flange through a respective one of the supporting holes, and a distal end disposed through a respective one of the liner mounting holes for supporting the liner to the supporting flange while unrestrained differential thermal movement of the liner relative to the supporting flange.

  8. AIDS prevention through drama in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    A play prepared by a group of Cameroon prostitutes, "Marriage to the Condom," represents an effective innovation in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevention. The prostitutes are part of a group, The Friends of Doug and Rose, that seeks to spread awareness of sexually transmitted diseases, especially AIDS, among their peers and the general public and to promote condom use. This group had its origins in an AIDS prevention campaign conducted in Yaounde in 1987 and targeted at prostitutes. Over 125 of these prostitutes, 7% of whom were positive for the AIDS virus, were trained as peer health educators. The idea to produce a play came out of a role-playing exercise aimed at teaching the prostitute peer health educators techniques for motivating their colleagues to use condoms during all commercial sexual encounters. The play presents a true picture of the working lives of prostitutes and the repercussions of sexually transmitted diseases. The play's characters agree to make condom use a prerequisite to accepting clients. The group is joining with a condom social marketing program to travel throughout Cameroon presenting the play to neighborhood associations, health centers, and sexually transmitted diseases clinics. The activity is in keeping with the African tradition of using street theater to spread messages on health and family planning. To ensure that those impacted by the play's message are actually able to obtain condoms, the US Agency for International Development has supplied the Government of Cameroon with 9 million condoms.

  9. Mounting for windmills

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, W. D.

    1980-08-12

    A windmill structure includes a mounting for supporting one or a large number of windmills in an elevated position above the ground so that the windmills can weathercock and align with the wind. The mounting arrangement limits movement continuously in one direction and returns the windmill to its original position.

  10. Stable mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, R.W.

    1983-11-04

    An improved mirror mount assembly is disclosed. The mirror mount assembly provides a post assembly slidable in a Y-axis orientation and a nut plate assembly slidable in an X-axis orientation and means for simultaneously locking said post assembly and said key assembly in a fixed position.

  11. Stable mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.

    1990-01-01

    An improved mirror mount assembly is disclosed. The mirror mount assembly provides a post assembly slidable in a Y-axis orientation and a nut plate assembly slidable in an X-axis orientation and a device for simultaneously locking the post assembly and the key assembly in a fixed position.

  12. Thermistor mount efficiency calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Cable, J.W.

    1980-05-01

    Thermistor mount efficiency calibration is accomplished by use of the power equation concept and by complex signal-ratio measurements. A comparison of thermistor mounts at microwave frequencies is made by mixing the reference and the reflected signals to produce a frequency at which the amplitude and phase difference may be readily measured.

  13. Spherical mirror mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Jay L. (Inventor); Messick, Glenn C. (Inventor); Nardell, Carl A. (Inventor); Hendlin, Martin J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A spherical mounting assembly for mounting an optical element allows for rotational motion of an optical surface of the optical element only. In that regard, an optical surface of the optical element does not translate in any of the three perpendicular translational axes. More importantly, the assembly provides adjustment that may be independently controlled for each of the three mutually perpendicular rotational axes.

  14. Optoelectronic Mounting Structure

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gene R.; Armendariz, Marcelino G.; Baca, Johnny R. F.; Bryan, Robert P.; Carson, Richard F.; Chu, Dahwey; Duckett, III, Edwin B.; McCormick, Frederick B.; Peterson, David W.; Peterson, Gary D.; Reber, Cathleen A.; Reysen, Bill H.

    2004-10-05

    An optoelectronic mounting structure is provided that may be used in conjunction with an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module. The mounting structure may be a flexible printed circuit board. Thermal vias or heat pipes in the head region may transmit heat from the mounting structure to the heat spreader. The heat spreader may provide mechanical rigidity or stiffness to the heat region. In another embodiment, an electrical contact and ground plane may pass along a surface of the head region so as to provide an electrical contact path to the optoelectronic devices and limit electromagnetic interference. In yet another embodiment, a window may be formed in the head region of the mounting structure so as to provide access to the heat spreader. Optoelectronic devices may be adapted to the heat spreader in such a manner that the devices are accessible through the window in the mounting structure.

  15. NIF small mirror mounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarville, Tom J.

    1999-11-01

    The most prominent physical characteristics of the 192-beam NIF laser are the 123 m length of the main laser and 400 mm aperture of each beam line. The main laser is illustrated in Figure 1, which shows half the total beam lines. Less visible are the many small optics (less than 100-mm diameter) used to align and diagnose each beam line. Commercial mounts can be used for most of the small aperture turning mirrors. This paper reviews the NIF projects effort to identify suitable commercial mirror mounts. The small mirror mounts have stability, wave front, space, and cleanliness requirements similar to the large aperture optics. While cost favors use of commercial mounts, there is little other than user experience to guide the mount qualification process. At present, there is no recognizable qualification standard with which to compare various products. In a large project like NIF, different user experience leads to different product selection. In some cases the differences are justified by application needs, but more often the selection process is somewhat random due to a lack of design standards. The result is redundant design and testing by project staff and suppliers. Identification of suitable mirror mounts for large projects like NIF would be streamlined if standards for physical and performance criteria were available, reducing cost for both the project and suppliers. Such standards could distinguish mounts for performance critical applications like NIF from laboratory applications, where ease of use and flexibility is important.

  16. Mounting for ceramic scroll

    DOEpatents

    Petty, Jack D.

    1993-01-01

    A mounting for a ceramic scroll on a metal engine block of a gas turbine engine includes a first ceramic ring and a pair of cross key connections between the first ceramic ring, the ceramic scroll, and the engine block. The cross key connections support the scroll on the engine block independent of relative radial thermal growth and for bodily movement toward an annular mounting shoulder on the engine. The scroll has an uninterrupted annular shoulder facing the mounting shoulder on the engine block. A second ceramic ring is captured between mounting shoulder and the uninterrupted shoulder on the scroll when the latter is bodily shifted toward the mouting shoulder to define a gas seal between the scroll and the engine block.

  17. The Attitudes of Anglophone and Francophone Cameroonians towards Cameroon English as a Model of English Language Teaching and Learning in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atechi, Samuel; Angwah, Julius

    2016-01-01

    Teachers of English in Cameroon are proficient speakers of Cameroon English and their non-native status militates against their usage of Standard British English in the English language classrooms. This makes the attainment of British English thorny and perhaps impossible in Cameroon. Standing on that premise, we were motivated to find out…

  18. Chemistry and origin of the Mayo Kila sapphires, NW region Cameroon (Central Africa): Their possible relationship with the Cameroon volcanic line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul Mbih, Kemeng; Meffre, Sebastien; Yongue, Rose Fouateu; Kanouo, Nguo Sylvestre; Jay, Thomson

    2016-06-01

    Mineralogical, chemical and geochronological studies constrained the origin of sapphires from Mayo Kila, Northwest Cameroon. The sapphires are mostly blue, with sizes ranging from 2 to 5 mm. The pale blue grains are transparent, whereas, other corundums are transparent to translucent and/or opaque. The sapphires are dominantly euhedral to sub-hedral with few polished lustrous grains, acquired features during moderate to short distance transport from a proximal source rock. Solid inclusions are limited to rutile and zircon. Trace element analysis of sapphires shows significant concentration (in ppm) in some elements: Fe (2208-14,473), Ti (82-1783), Ga (77-512), Mg (0.9-264.9), Cr (b.d.l -168) and V (1.3-82). The other elements (e.g. Sn, Nb, Ta, Th, Zr, Ni, Ce) are generally below 10 ppm. The calculated ratios for some of the selected elements show an extreme variation: Fe/Mg (43-3043), Fe/Ti (2-76), Ti/Mg (1-328), and Ga/Mg (0.4-363). They are dominantly corundum crystallized in alkaline magma (s) with few from metamorphic source (s). Trace elemental features with Hf (13,354-26,238 ppm), Th (4018-45,584 ppm) and U (7825-17,175 ppm), and Th/U (0.39-2.65) found in zircon inclusions are compatible with quantified values in magmatic crystallized zircons. The Cenozoic age (mean of 30.78 ± 0.28 Ma) obtained for zircon inclusions is close to the age of some igneous rocks found within the Cameroon Volcanic Line (e.g. rocks of the Mount Oku: 31-22 Ma), showing the same period of formation. The most probable source of the zircon host sapphires is the Oku Mountain located SW of Mayo Kila.

  19. MountPointAttributes

    2001-06-16

    MountPointAttributes is a software component that provides client code with a technique to raise the local namespace of a file to a global namespace. Its abstractions and mechanisms allow the client code to gather global properties of a file and to use them in devising an effective storage access strategy on this file.

  20. Transducer-Mounting Fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiegel, Kirk W.

    1990-01-01

    Transducer-mounting fixture holds transducer securely against stud. Projects only slightly beyond stud after installation. Flanged transducer fits into fixture when hinged halves open. When halves reclosed, fixture tightened onto threaded stud until stud makes contact with transducer. Knurled area on fixture aids in tightening fixture on stud.

  1. Housing And Mounting Structure

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gene R.; Armendariz, Marcelino G.; Baca, Johnny R.F.; Bryan, Robert P.; Carson, Richard F.; Duckett, III, Edwin B.; McCormick, Frederick B.; Miller, Gregory V.; Peterson, David W.; Smith, Terrance T.

    2005-03-08

    This invention relates to an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module, and more particularly, to an apparatus for connecting a first optical connector to a second optical connector. The apparatus comprises: (1) a housing having at least a first end and at least a second end, the first end of the housing capable of receiving the first optical connector, and the second end of the housing capable of receiving the second optical connector; (2) a longitudinal cavity extending from the first end of the housing to the second end of the housing; and (3) an electromagnetic shield comprising at least a portion of the housing. This invention also relates to an apparatus for housing a flexible printed circuit board, and this apparatus comprises: (1) a mounting structure having at least a first surface and a second surface; (2) alignment ridges along the first and second surfaces of the mounting structure, the alignment ridges functioning to align and secure a flexible printed circuit board that is wrapped around and attached to the first and second surfaces of the mounting structure; and (3) a series of heat sink ridges adapted to the mounting structure, the heat sink ridges functioning to dissipate heat that is generated from the flexible printed circuit board.

  2. 76 FR 1660 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Art in Cameroon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Art in Cameroon: Sculptural... ``Art in Cameroon: Sculptural Dialogues,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within...

  3. Exposure to Nonhuman Primates in Rural Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Prosser, A. Tassy; Carr, Jean K.; Tamoufe, Ubald; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Torimiro, J. Ndongo; LeBreton, Matthew; McCutchan, Francine E.; Birx, Deborah L.; Burke, Donald S.

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to nonhuman primates has led to the emergence of important diseases, including Ebola hemorrhagic fever, AIDS, and adult T-cell leukemia. To determine the extent of exposure to nonhuman primates, persons were examined in 17 remote villages in Cameroon that represented three habitats (savanna, gallery forest, and lowland forest). Questionnaire data were collected to assess whether persons kept wild animal pets; hunted and butchered wild game; had experienced bites, scratches, or injuries from live animals; or had been injured during hunting or butchering. While all villages had substantial exposure to nonhuman primates, higher rates of exposure were seen in lowland forest sites. The study demonstrates that exposure is not limited to small groups of hunters. A high percentage of rural villagers report exposure to nonhuman primate blood and body fluids and risk acquiring infectious diseases. PMID:15663844

  4. Language Practices and Religious Rites in the Full Gospel Mission Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouega, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with language practices in one Pentecostal church in Cameroon, i.e. the Full Gospel Mission Cameroon (FGMC). The data are produced by some 80 pastors, church officials, choir leaders and congregants, and the settings are some 20 churches located in two anglophone regions and two francophone regions of Cameroon. The instruments…

  5. Cameroon: A Country Guide Series Report from the AACRAO-AID Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saidi, Jasmin

    This report on the educational system of Cameroon contains information for university admissions officers and registrars in the United States on the credentials and other documentation that would be minimally required for student entry from Cameroon to specified levels of study in the United States. In Cameroon French and English languages share…

  6. Floating mirror mount

    SciTech Connect

    Koop, D.E.

    1989-01-03

    This patent describes a floating mirror mount for a mirror of a laser is described consisting of: a mirror having a front surface and a back surface, a keeper encircling the mirror and having a peripheral flange engaging the front surface of the mirror when the mirror is not installed in a laser, a retainer positioned rearwardly of the back surface of the mirror and connected to the keeper and having a spring seating surface, spring means engageable with the spring seating surface of the retainer for exerting a resilient biasing force on the mirror, and fastening means for connecting the retainer to the mirror positioning structure of the laser on installation of the mirror mount in the laser.

  7. Mount St. Helens Rebirth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The catastrophic eruption of Mt. St. Helens 20 years ago today (on May 18, 1980), ranks among the most important natural events of the twentieth century in the United States. Because Mt. St. Helens is in a remote area of the Cascades Mountains, only a few people were killed by the eruption, but property damage and destruction totaled in the billions of dollars. Mount St. Helens is an example of a composite or stratovolcano. These are explosive volcanoes that are generally steep-sided, symmetrical cones built up by the accumulation of debris from previous eruptions and consist of alternating layers of lava flows, volcanic ash and cinder. Some of the most photographed mountains in the world are stratovolcanoes, including Mount Fuji in Japan, Mount Cotopaxi in Ecuador, Mount Hood in Oregon, and Mount Rainier in Washington. The recently erupting Mount Usu on the island of Hokkaido in Japan is also a stratovolcano. Stratovolcanoes are characterized by having plumbing systems that move magma from a chamber deep within the Earth's crust to vents at the surface. The height of Mt. St. Helens was reduced from about 2950 m (9677 ft) to about 2550 m (8364 ft) as a result of the explosive eruption on the morning of May 18. The eruption sent a column of dust and ash upwards more than 25 km into the atmosphere, and shock waves from the blast knocked down almost every tree within 10 km of the central crater. Massive avalanches and mudflows, generated by the near-instantaneous melting of deep snowpacks on the flanks of the mountain, devastated an area more than 20 km to the north and east of the former summit, and rivers choked with all sorts of debris were flooded more than 100 km away. The area of almost total destruction was about 600 sq. km. Ash from the eruption cloud was rapidly blown to the northeast and east producing lightning which started many small forest fires. An erie darkness caused by the cloud enveloped the landscape more than 200 km from the blast area, and ash

  8. Horizontally mounted solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, D. H. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Solar energy is collected by using a vertical deflector assembly, a stationary reflector and a horizontally mounted solar collector. The deflector assembly contains a plurality of vanes which change the direction of the solar energy to the vertical, while constantly keeping the same side of the deflector facing the sun. The vertical rays are then reflected off the stationary reflector and are then absorbed by the collector.

  9. Mount Wilson Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Mount Wilson Observatory, located in the San Gabriel Mountains near Pasadena, California, was founded in 1904 by George Ellery Hale with financial support from Andrew Carnegie. In the 1920s and 1930s, working at the 2.5 m Hooker telescope, Edwin Hubble made two of the most important discoveries in the history of astronomy: first, that `nebulae' are actually island universes—galaxies—each with bil...

  10. Plasma Screen Floating Mount

    DOEpatents

    Eakle, Robert F.; Pak, Donald J.

    2004-10-26

    A mounting system for a flat display screen, particularly a plasma display screen, suspends the screen separately in each of the x-, y- and z-directions. A series of frames located by linear bearings and isolated by springs and dampers allows separate controlled movement in each axis. The system enables the use of relatively larger display screens in vehicles in which plasma screen are subject to damage from vibration.

  11. EMU helmet mounted display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marmolejo, Jose (Inventor); Smith, Stephen (Inventor); Plough, Alan (Inventor); Clarke, Robert (Inventor); Mclean, William (Inventor); Fournier, Joseph (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A helmet mounted display device is disclosed for projecting a display on a flat combiner surface located above the line of sight where the display is produced by two independent optical channels with independent LCD image generators. The display has a fully overlapped field of view on the combiner surface and the focus can be adjusted from a near field of four feet to infinity.

  12. Monitoring Mount Baker Volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malone, S.D.; Frank, D.

    1976-01-01

    Hisotrically active volcanoes in the conterminous United States are restricted to the Cascade Range and extend to the Cascade Range and extend from Mount Baker near the Canadian border to Lassen Peak in northern California. Since 1800 A.D, most eruptive activity has been on a relatively small scale and has not caused loss of life or significant property damage. However, future  volcanism predictably will have more serious effects because of greatly increased use of land near volcanoes during the present century. (See "Appraising Volcanic Hazards of the Cascade Range of the Northwestern United States," Earthquake Inf. Bull., Sept.-Oct. 1974.) The recognition an impending eruption is highly important in order to minimize the potential hazard to people and property. Thus, a substantial increase in hydrothermal activity at Mount Baker in March 1975 ( see "Mount Baker Heating Up," July-Aug. 1975 issue) was regarded as a possible first signal that an eruption might occur, and an intensive monitoring program was undertaken. 

  13. Rebuilding Mount St. Helens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, Steve P.; Ramsey, David W.; Messerich, James A.; Thompson, Ren A.

    2006-01-01

    On May 18, 1980, Mount St. Helens, Washington exploded in a spectacular and devastating eruption that shocked the world. The eruption, one of the most powerful in the history of the United States, removed 2.7 cubic kilometers of rock from the volcano's edifice, the bulk of which had been constructed by nearly 4,000 years of lava-dome-building eruptions. In seconds, the mountain's summit elevation was lowered from 2,950 meters to 2,549 meters, leaving a north-facing, horseshoe-shaped crater over 2 kilometers wide. Following the 1980 eruption, Mount St. Helens remained active. A large lava dome began episodically extruding in the center of the volcano's empty crater. This dome-building eruption lasted until 1986 and added about 80 million cubic meters of rock to the volcano. During the two decades following the May 18, 1980 eruption, Crater Glacier formed tongues of ice around the east and west sides of the lava dome in the deeply shaded niche between the lava dome and the south crater wall. Long the most active volcano in the Cascade Range with a complex 300,000-year history, Mount St. Helens erupted again in the fall of 2004 as a new period of dome building began within the 1980 crater. Between October 2004 and February 2006, about 80 million cubic meters of dacite lava erupted immediately south of the 1980-86 lava dome. The erupting lava separated the glacier into two parts, first squeezing the east arm of the glacier against the east crater wall and then causing equally spectacular crevassing and broad uplift of the glacier's west arm. Vertical aerial photographs document dome growth and glacier deformation. These photographs enabled photogrammetric construction of a series of high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) showing changes from October 4, 2004 to February 9, 2006. From the DEMs, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications were used to estimate extruded volumes and growth rates of the new lava dome. The DEMs were also used to quantify dome

  14. MOUNT WASHINGTON WILDERNESS, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Edward M.; Causey, J. Douglas

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, Mount Washington Wilderness, Oregon has little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral or fossil fuel resources. Abundant cinder resources occur in the wilderness, but other large volume cinder deposits are available outside the wilderness and closer to markets. Analysis of the geothermal potential of the High Cascades province cannot be made without data on the subsurface thermal and hydrologic regimes which can only be provided by deep drill holes. Several deep holes could be drilled in areas outside the wildernesses of the High Cascades, from which extrapolations of the geothermal potential of the wildernesses could be made.

  15. General overview of the disaster management framework in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Bang, Henry Ngenyam

    2014-07-01

    Efficient and effective disaster management will prevent many hazardous events from becoming disasters. This paper constitutes the most comprehensive document on the natural disaster management framework of Cameroon. It reviews critically disaster management in Cameroon, examining the various legislative, institutional, and administrative frameworks that help to facilitate the process. Furthermore, it illuminates the vital role that disaster managers at the national, regional, and local level play to ease the process. Using empirical data, the study analyses the efficiency and effectiveness of the actions of disaster managers. Its findings reveal inadequate disaster management policies, poor coordination between disaster management institutions at the national level, the lack of trained disaster managers, a skewed disaster management system, and a top-down hierarchical structure within Cameroon's disaster management framework. By scrutinising the disaster management framework of the country, policy recommendations based on the research findings are made on the institutional and administrative frameworks.

  16. Surface mount component jig

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1990-08-07

    A device for bending and trimming the pins of a dual-inline-package component and the like for surface mounting rather than through mounting to a circuit board comprises, in a first part, in pin cutter astride a holder having a recess for holding the component, a first spring therebetween, and, in a second part, two flat members pivotally interconnected by a hinge and urged to an upward peaked position from a downward peaked position by a second spring. As a downward force is applied to the pin cutter it urges the holder downward, assisted by the first spring and a pair of ridges riding on shoulders of the holder, to carry the component against the upward peaked flat members which guide the pins outwardly. As the holder continues downwardly, the flat members pivot to the downward peaked position bending the pins upwardly against the sides of the holder. When the downward movement is met with sufficient resistance, the ridges of the pin cutter ride over the holder's shoulders to continue downward to cut any excess length of pin.

  17. Mount Vesuvius, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of Mt. Vesuvius, Italy was acquired September 26, 2000. The full-size false-color image covers an area of 36 by 45 km. Vesuvius overlooks the city of Naples and the Bay of Naples in central Italy. (Popocatepetl and Mount Fuji are other volcanos surrounded by dense urban areas.) In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, burying all of the surrounding cites with up to 30 m of ash. The towns of Pompeii and Herculanaeum were rediscovered in the 18th century, and excavated in the 20th century. They provide a snapshot of Roman life from 2000 years ago: perfectly preserved are wooden objects, food items, and the casts of hundreds of victims. Vesuvius is intensively monitored for potential signs of unrest that could signal the beginning of another eruption. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  18. Lead exposure from aluminum cookware in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D; Kobunski, Peter A; Kuepouo, Gilbert; Corbin, Rebecca W; Gottesfeld, Perry

    2014-10-15

    Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead during cooking. Source materials for this cookware included scrap metal such as engine parts, radiators, cans, and construction materials. The lead content of this cookware is relatively low (<1000 ppm by X-ray fluorescence), however significant amounts of lead, as well as aluminum and cadmium were released from many of the samples using dilute acetic acid extractions at boiling and ambient temperatures. Potential exposures to lead per serving were estimated to be as high as 260 μg, indicating that such cookware can pose a serious health hazard. We conclude that lead, aluminum and cadmium can migrate from this aluminum cookware during cooking and enter food at levels exceeding recommended public health guidelines. Our results support the need to regulate lead content of materials used to manufacture these pots. Artisanal aluminum cookware may be a major contributor to lead poisoning throughout the developing world. Testing of aluminum cookware in other developing countries is warranted. PMID:25087065

  19. Distribution of entomopathogenic nematodes in Southern Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Kanga, Françoise Ngo; Waeyenberge, Lieven; Hauser, Stefan; Moens, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    A first survey of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) was conducted in three agro-ecological zones of Southern Cameroon in 2007 and 2008. Entomopathogenic nematodes were recovered from 26 of 251 soil samples (10.4%). Three species, Heterorhabditis baujardi, Steinernema sp. A and Steinernema sp. B were found. The two steinernematids were considered unidentified species. Among the positive samples, 23 samples contained only H. baujardi (88.5%), two contained Steinernema sp. A co-occurring with H. baujardi (7.7%), and one sample contained Steinernema sp. B (3.9%). H. baujardi was frequent in forest and fruit crop (cocoa and oil palm plantations). Steinernema sp. A was found in a tree plantation of teak, Steinernema sp. B in a forest habitat. Nematodes were mostly present in acidic soils with pH ranging from 3.7 to 7.0. The highest EPN presence was recorded in sandy loam, sandy clay loam, sandy clay and clay soils. EPNs were not recovered in sand, loamy sand and clay loam soils. Using principal component analysis for elucidating the major variation patterns among sampling sites, four factors explaining for 73.64% of the overall variance were extracted. Factors were a combination of geographical (latitude, longitude, altitude), soil (pH, contents of sand, silt and clay, organic carbon, texture), and moisture (wilting point, field capacity) parameters as well as climatic parameters (mean annual rainfall, mean air temperature). Logistic regression and redundancy analyses (RDA) revealed that soil pH, longitude, available water and altitude were associated with presence and absence of EPN. Both logistic regression and RDA indicated that, increasing soil pH and longitude, associated with decreasing altitude, led to higher percentages of samples containing entomopathogenic nematodes.

  20. Mount Zion Cemetery, 1975 Plot Plan Mount Zion Cemetery/ ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Mount Zion Cemetery, 1975 Plot Plan - Mount Zion Cemetery/ Female Union Band Cemetery, Bounded by 27th Street right-of-way N.W. (formerly Lyons Mill Road), Q Street N.W., & Mill Road N.W., Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. Aspects of a Grammar of Makary Kotoko (Chadic, Cameroon)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Sean David

    2012-01-01

    Makary Kotoko (MK), a Central Chadic B language, is spoken in the north of Cameroon just south of Lake Chad. Published works on MK to date include about a dozen articles on different aspects of the grammar of the language, primarily by H. Tourneux. The present work, which is based on a substantial corpus of recorded texts, is a systematic…

  2. Linguistic Interference in a Multilingual Setting: The Case of Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julius, Nashipu

    2006-01-01

    Cameroon, a central African state is one of the few countries in the world where, in addition to a very rich linguistically diverse landscape (a little below 300 identified indigenous languages) there is English and French (all vestiges of colonial legacy) used as official languages. Coupled with this, there is pidgin English which plays the role…

  3. Does malaria epidemiology project Cameroon as 'Africa in miniature'?

    PubMed

    Mbenda, Huguette Gaelle Ngassa; Awasthi, Gauri; Singh, Poonam K; Gouado, Inocent; Das, Aparup

    2014-09-01

    Cameroon, a west-central African country with a ~ 20 million population, is commonly regarded as 'Africa in miniature' due to the extensive biological and cultural diversities of whole Africa being present in a single-country setting. This country is inhabited by ancestral human lineages in unique eco-climatic conditions and diverse topography. Over 90 percent Cameroonians are at risk of malaria infection, and ~ 41 percent have at least one episode of malaria each year. Historically, the rate of malaria infection in Cameroon has fluctuated over the years; the number of cases was about 2 million in 2010 and 2011. The Cameroonian malaria control programme faces an uphill task due to high prevalence of multidrug-resistant parasites and insecticide-resistant malaria vectors. Above all, continued human migration from the rural to urban areas as well as population exchange with adjoining countries, high rate of ecological instabilities caused by deforestation, poor housing, lack of proper sanitation and drainage system might have resulted in the recent increase in incidences of malaria and other vector-borne diseases in Cameroon. The available data on eco-environmental variability and intricate malaria epidemiology in Cameroon reflect the situation in the whole of Africa, and warrant the need for in-depth study by using modern surveillance tools for meaningful basic understanding of the malaria triangle (host-parasite-vector-environment). PMID:25116627

  4. Cattle ticks in Cameroon: is Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus absent in Cameroon and the Central African region?

    PubMed

    Awa, D N; Adakal, H; Luogbou, N D D; Wachong, K H; Leinyuy, I; Achukwi, M D

    2015-03-01

    In most parts of the world, ticks are rapidly developing resistance to commonly used acaricides thus rendering control difficult. This constraint is further compounded by the introduction of new species in areas where they did not exist before. Such is the case with the introduction into and rapid spread of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in some countries of West Africa. With the looming threat of its further spread in the region, the objective of the present study was to update knowledge on cattle ticks in Cameroon. Among 19,189 ticks collected monthly from 60 animals in 5 herds from March 2012 to February 2013, Rh. (B.) decoloratus was the most abundant species with a relative prevalence of 62.2%, followed by Amblyomma variegatum (28.4%), Rh. (B.) annulatus (0.2%), Rh. (B.) geigyi (0.03%), other Rhipicephalus spp. (8.4%) and Hyalomma spp. (0.3%). Rh. (B.) decoloratus and A. variegatum were also the most widely distributed in space. Infestation rate was generally high, with average tick count/animal of about 80 during peak periods. Tick distribution and abundance in the different sites was as varied as the underlying factors, among which the most important were management systems and climatic factors. The effects of rainfall and temperature were confounded by other factors and difficult to evaluate. However, it appears tick development depends among other factors, on a humidity threshold, above which there is not much more effect. Rh. microplus was not found during this study, but more extensive tick collections have to be done to confirm this. In conclusion, cattle tick infestation in Cameroon remains an important cause for concern. Farmers need assistance in the use and management of acaricides in order to increase their efficiency and reduce the development of resistance. Although Rh. microplus was not found, its introduction from other West African countries is imminent if adequate measures, especially in the control and limitation of animal movements

  5. Surface Mounted Neutron Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.

    2012-10-01

    A deuterium-tritium (DT) base reaction pulsed neutron generator packaged in a flat computer chip shape of 1.54 cm (0.600 in) wide by 3.175 cm (1.25 in) length and 0.3 cm (0.120 in) thick has been successfully demonstrated to produce 14 MeV neutrons at a rate of 10^9 neutrons per second. The neutron generator is based on a deuterium ion beam accelerated to impact a tritium loaded target. The accelerating voltage is in the 15 to 20 kV in a 3 mm (0.120 in) gap, the ion beam is shaped by using a lens design to produce a flat ion beam that conforms to the flat rectangular target. The ion source is a simple surface mounted deuterium filled titanium film with a fused gap that operates at a current-voltage design to release the deuterium during a pulse length of about 1 μs. We present the general description of the working prototypes, which we have labeled the ``NEUTRISTOR.''[4pt] Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration. Work funded by the LDRD office.

  6. Mount St. Helens Flyover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of Mt. St. Helens volcano in Washington State was acquired on August 8, 2000 and covers an area of 37 by 51 km. Mount Saint Helens, a volcano in the Cascade Range of southwestern Washington that had been dormant since 1857, began to show signs of renewed activity in early 1980. On 18 May 1980, it erupted with such violence that the top of the mountain was blown off, spewing a cloud of ash and gases that rose to an altitude of 19 kilometers. The blast killed about 60 people and destroyed all life in an area of some 180 square kilometers (some 70 square miles), while a much larger area was covered with ash and debris. It continues to spit forth ash and steam intermittently. As a result of the eruption, the mountain's elevation decreased from 2,950 meters to 2,549 meters. The simulated fly-over was produced by draping ASTER visible and near infrared image data over a digital topography model, created from ASTER's 3-D stereo bands. The color was computer enhanced to create a 'natural' color image, where the vegetation appears green. The topography has been exaggerated 2 times to enhance the appearance of the relief. Landsat7 aquired an image of Mt. St. Helens on August 22, 1999. Image and animation courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  7. Mouse Cochlear Whole Mount Immunofluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Akil, Omar; Lustig, Lawrence R.

    2016-01-01

    This protocol comprises the entire process of immunofluorescence staining on mouse cochlea whole mount, starting from tissue preparation to the mounting of the tissue. This technique provides “three-dimensional” views of the stained components in order to determine the localization of a protein of interest in the tissue in its natural state and environment. PMID:27547786

  8. Mount Rainier National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, Robert; Woodward, Andrea; Haggerty, Patricia K.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Griffin, Paul C.; Adams, Michael J.; Hagar, Joan; Cummings, Tonnie; Duriscoe, Dan; Kopper, Karen; Riedel, Jon; Samora, Barbara; Marin, Lelaina; Mauger, Guillaume S.; Bumbaco, Karen; Littell, Jeremy S.

    2014-01-01

    Natural Resource Condition Assessments (NRCAs) evaluate current conditions for a subset of natural resources and resource indicators in national parks. NRCAs also report on trends in resource condition (when possible), identify critical data gaps, and characterize a general level of confidence for study findings. The resources and indicators emphasized in a given project depend on the park’s resource setting, status of resource stewardship planning and science in identifying high-priority indicators, and availability of data and expertise to assess current conditions for a variety of potential study resources and indicators. Although the primary objective of NRCAs is to report on current conditions relative to logical forms of reference conditions and values, NRCAs also report on trends, when appropriate (i.e., when the underlying data and methods support such reporting), as well as influences on resource conditions. These influences may include past activities or conditions that provide a helpful context for understanding current conditions and present-day threats and stressors that are best interpreted at park, watershed, or landscape scales (though NRCAs do not report on condition status for land areas and natural resources beyond park boundaries). Intensive cause-andeffect analyses of threats and stressors, and development of detailed treatment options, are outside the scope of NRCAs. It is also important to note that NRCAs do not address resources that lack sufficient data for assessment. For Mount Rainier National Park, this includes most invertebrate species and many other animal species that are subject to significant stressors from climate change and other anthropogenic sources such as air pollutants and recreational use. In addition, we did not include an analysis of the physical hydrology associated with streams (such as riverine landforms, erosion and aggradation which is significant in MORA streams), due to a loss of staff expertise from the USGS

  9. Mount St. Helens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of Mount St. Helens was captured one week after the March 8, 2005, ash and steam eruption, the latest activity since the volcano's reawakening in September 2004. The new lava dome in the southeast part of the crater is clearly visible, highlighted by red areas where ASTER's infrared channels detected hot spots from incandescent lava. The new lava dome is 155 meters (500 feet) higher than the old lava dome, and still growing.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 21.9 by 24.4 kilometers (13.6 by 15.1 miles) Location: 46.2 degrees North latitude, 122.2 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 8, 3, and 1 Original Data Resolution

  10. Detector Mount Design for IGRINS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jae Sok; Park, Chan; Cha, Sang-Mok; Yuk, In-Soo; Park, Kwijong; Kim, Kang-Min; Chun, Moo-Young; Ko, Kyeongyeon; Oh, Heeyoung; Jeong, Ueejeong; Nah, Jakyoung; Lee, Hanshin; Jaffe, Daniel T.

    2014-06-01

    The Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrometer (IGRINS) is a near-infrared wide-band high-resolution spectrograph jointly developed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute and the University of Texas at Austin. IGRINS employs three HAWAII-2RG Focal Plane Array (H2RG FPA) detectors. We present the design and fabrication of the detector mount for the H2RG detector. The detector mount consists of a detector housing, an ASIC housing, a Field Flattener Lens (FFL) mount, and a support base frame. The detector and the ASIC housing should be kept at 65 K and the support base frame at 130 K. Therefore they are thermally isolated by the support made of GFRP material. The detector mount is designed so that it has features of fine adjusting the position of the detector surface in the optical axis and of fine adjusting yaw and pitch angles in order to utilize as an optical system alignment compensator. We optimized the structural stability and thermal characteristics of the mount design using computer-aided 3D modeling and finite element analysis. Based on the structural and thermal analysis, the designed detector mount meets an optical stability tolerance and system thermal requirements. Actual detector mount fabricated based on the design has been installed into the IGRINS cryostat and successfully passed a vacuum test and a cold test.

  11. SXI prototype mirror mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this contract was to provide optomechanical engineering and fabrication support to the Solar X-ray Imager (SXI) program in the areas of mirror, optical bench and camera assemblies of the telescope. The Center for Applied Optics (CAO) worked closely with the Optics and S&E technical staff of MSFC to develop and investigate the most viable and economical options for the design and fabrication of a number of parts for the various telescope assemblies. All the tasks under this delivery order have been successfully completed within budget and schedule. A number of development hardware parts have been designed and fabricated jointly by MSFC and UAH for the engineering model of SXI. The major parts include a nickel electroformed mirror and a mirror mount, plating and coating of the ceramic spacers, and gold plating of the contact rings and fingers for the camera assembly. An aluminum model of the high accuracy sun sensor (HASS) was also designed and fabricated. A number of fiber optic tapers for the camera assembly were also coated with indium tin oxide and phosphor for testing and evaluation by MSFC. A large number of the SXI optical bench parts were also redesigned and simplified for a prototype telescope. These parts include the forward and rear support flanges, front aperture plate, the graphite epoxy optical bench and a test fixture for the prototype telescope. More than fifty (50) drawings were generated for various components of the prototype telescope. Some of these parts were subsequently fabricated at UAH machine shop or at MSFC or by the outside contractors. UAH also provide technical support to MSFC staff for a number of preliminary and critical design reviews. These design reviews included PDR and CDR for the mirror assembly by United Technologies Optical Systems (UTOS), and the program quarterly reviews, and SXI PDR and CDR. UAH staff also regularly attended the monthly status reviews, and made a significant number of suggestions to improve

  12. SXI prototype mirror mount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-04-01

    The purpose of this contract was to provide optomechanical engineering and fabrication support to the Solar X-ray Imager (SXI) program in the areas of mirror, optical bench and camera assemblies of the telescope. The Center for Applied Optics (CAO) worked closely with the Optics and S&E technical staff of MSFC to develop and investigate the most viable and economical options for the design and fabrication of a number of parts for the various telescope assemblies. All the tasks under this delivery order have been successfully completed within budget and schedule. A number of development hardware parts have been designed and fabricated jointly by MSFC and UAH for the engineering model of SXI. The major parts include a nickel electroformed mirror and a mirror mount, plating and coating of the ceramic spacers, and gold plating of the contact rings and fingers for the camera assembly. An aluminum model of the high accuracy sun sensor (HASS) was also designed and fabricated. A number of fiber optic tapers for the camera assembly were also coated with indium tin oxide and phosphor for testing and evaluation by MSFC. A large number of the SXI optical bench parts were also redesigned and simplified for a prototype telescope. These parts include the forward and rear support flanges, front aperture plate, the graphite epoxy optical bench and a test fixture for the prototype telescope. More than fifty (50) drawings were generated for various components of the prototype telescope. Some of these parts were subsequently fabricated at UAH machine shop or at MSFC or by the outside contractors. UAH also provide technical support to MSFC staff for a number of preliminary and critical design reviews. These design reviews included PDR and CDR for the mirror assembly by United Technologies Optical Systems (UTOS), and the program quarterly reviews, and SXI PDR and CDR. UAH staff also regularly attended the monthly status reviews, and made a significant number of suggestions to improve

  13. Solar panel parallel mounting configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mutschler, Jr., Edward Charles (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A spacecraft includes a plurality of solar panels interconnected with a power coupler and an electrically operated device to provide power to the device when the solar cells are insolated. The solar panels are subject to bending distortion when entering or leaving eclipse. Spacecraft attitude disturbances are reduced by mounting each of the solar panels to an elongated boom made from a material with a low coefficient of thermal expansion, so that the bending of one panel is not communicated to the next. The boom may be insulated to reduce its bending during changes in insolation. A particularly advantageous embodiment mounts each panel to the boom with a single mounting, which may be a hinge. The single mounting prevents transfer of bending moments from the panel to the boom.

  14. Kinematic high bandwidth mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, T.C.

    1995-03-21

    An adjustable mirror mount system for a mirror is disclosed comprising a mirror support having a planar surface thereon, a mirror frame containing a mirror and having a planar surface behind the mirror facing the planar surface of the mirror support and parallel to the reflecting surface of the mirror and mounted pivotally to the mirror support at a point central to the frame, a first adjustment means between the mirror support and the mirror frame spaced from the central pivot mount for adjusting the movement of the mirror along one axis lying in the plane of the planar surface of the mirror frame; and a second adjustment means between the mirror support and the mirror frame spaced from the central pivot mount for adjusting the movement of the mirror along a second axis lying in the plane of the planar surface of the mirror frame and perpendicular to the first axis. 7 figures.

  15. Kinematic high bandwidth mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, Thomas C.

    1995-01-01

    An adjustable mirror mount system for a mirror is disclosed comprising a mirror support having a planar surface thereon, a mirror frame containing a mirror and having a planar surface behind the mirror facing the planar surface of the mirror support and parallel to the reflecting surface of the mirror and mounted pivotally to the mirror support at a point central to the frame, a first adjustment means between the mirror support and the mirror frame spaced from the central pivot mount for adjusting the movement of the mirror along one axis lying in the plane of the planar surface of the mirror frame; and a second adjustment means between the mirror support and the mirror frame spaced from the central pivot mount for adjusting the movement of the mirror along a second axis lying in the plane of the planar surface of the mirror frame and perpendicular to the first axis.

  16. Media reporting of tenofovir trials in Cambodia and Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Edward; Rachlis, Beth; Wu, Ping; Wong, Elaine; Wilson, Kumanan; Singh, Sonal

    2005-01-01

    Background Two planned trials of pre-exposure prophylaxis tenofovir in Cambodia and Cameroon to prevent HIV infection in high-risk populations were closed due to activist pressure on host country governments. The international news media contributed substantially as the primary source of knowledge transfer regarding the trials. We aimed to characterize the nature of reporting, specifically focusing on the issues identified by media reports regarding each trial. Methods With the aid of an information specialist, we searched 3 electronic media databases, 5 electronic medical databases and extensively searched the Internet. In addition we contacted stakeholder groups. We included media reports addressing the trial closures, the reasons for the trial closures, and who was interviewed. We extracted data using content analysis independently, in duplicate. Results We included 24 reports on the Cambodian trial closure and 13 reports on the Cameroon trial closure. One academic news account incorrectly reported that it was an HIV vaccine trial that closed early. The primary reasons cited for the Cambodian trial closure were: a lack of medical insurance for trial related injuries (71%); human rights considerations (71%); study protocol concerns (46%); general suspicions regarding trial location (37%) and inadequate prevention counseling (29%). The primary reasons cited for the Cameroon trial closure were: inadequate access to care for seroconverters (69%); participants not sufficiently informed of risks (69%); inadequate number of staff (46%); participants being exploited (46%) and an unethical study design (38%). Only 3/23 (13%) reports acknowledged interviewing research personnel regarding the Cambodian trial, while 4/13 (30.8%) reports interviewed researchers involved in the Cameroon trial. Conclusion Our review indicates that the issues addressed and validity of the media reports of these trials is highly variable. Given the potential impact of the media in formulation of

  17. [Return for HIV test results after voluntary screening in Cameroon].

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The results of this study indicate that individuals who voluntarily undergo an HIV test in PVTCCs of the Douala district hospitals in Cameroon perceived real advantages and very few disadvantages and barriers to know their HIV status. Particular attention should be given to organizational factors that may be responsible for failure to return for HIV test results and post-test counselling.. PMID:27531439

  18. Chemical and isotopic characteristics of fluids along the cameroon volcanic line, cameroon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanyileke, G.Z.; Kusakabe, M.; Evans, William C.

    1996-01-01

    Results of the chemical and isotopic analysis of the water and gases discharged from volcanic crater lakes and soda springs located along the Cameroon Volcanic Line were used to characterize and infer their genetic relationships. Variations in the solute compositions of the waters indicate the dominant influence of silicate hydrolysis. Na+ (40-95%) constitutes the major cation in the springs while Fe2+ + Mg2+ (70%) dominate in the CO2-rich lakes. The principal anion is HCO3 (>90%), except in the coastal springs where Cl predominates. Lakes Nyos and Monoun have Fe-Mg-Ca-HCO3 type signatures; the soda springs are essentially Na-HCO3 type, while all other lakes show similar ionic compositions to dilute surface waters. Dissolved gases show essentially CO2 (>90%), with small amounts of Ar and N2, while CH4 constitutes the principal component in the non-gassy lakes. Active volcanic gases are generally absent, except in the Lobe spring with detectable H2S. Stable isotope ratio evidence indicates that the bicarbonate waters are essentially of meteoric origin. CO2 (??13C = -2 to -8???) and He (3He/4He = 1 to 5.6Ra) infer a mantle contribution to the total CO2. CH4 has a biogenic source, while Ar and N2 are essentially atmospheric in origin, but mixing is quite common.

  19. Dry tilt network at Mount Rainier, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dzurisin, Daniel; Johnson, Daniel J.; Symonds, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    In addition to its primary responsibility of monitoring active Mount St. Helens, the David A. Johnston Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) has been charged with obtaining baseline geodetic and geochemical information at each of the other potentially active Cascade volcanoes. Dry tilt and/or trilateration networks were established during 1975-82 at Mount Baker, Mount St. Helens, Mount Hood, Mount Shasta, Lassen Peak, Crater Lake, and Long Valley caldera; coverage was extended during September 1982 to include Mount Rainier.

  20. National surveillance data on the epidemiology of cholera in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Djomassi, L Dempouo; Gessner, Bradford D; Andze, G Ondobo; Mballa, G A Etoundi

    2013-11-01

    Background. The cholera burden in Cameroon has increased during the past 2 decades. During 2010 and 2011, the largest number of cholera cases in Cameroon since February 1971 were reported. This article describes cholera outbreaks during 2010-2011. Methods. Data received from the national surveillance system from 2010 and 2011 were compiled and analyzed. Results. The first suspected cholera cases were reported in the Far North region on 6 May 2010. In 2010, 10 759 cholera cases were reported by 8 of the 10 regions in the country, with 657 deaths (case-fatality ratio [CFR], 6.1%). In 2011, through September 22, 17 121 suspected cholera cases, including 636 deaths (CFR, 3.7%), were reported all over the country. During 2010, the Far North region accounted for 87.6% of cases (9421/10 759) and 91.6% of deaths (602/657) recorded. By contrast, during 2011, 5 regions (Far North, North, Center, Southwest, and Littoral) accounted for 90.6% of cases (15 511/17 121) and 84.0% of deaths recorded. Vibrio cholerae was identified in 525 stool specimens, and all organisms were serogroup O1. Conclusions. The ongoing cholera outbreak in Cameroon increased in intensity and geographic spread from 2010 to 2011. Nevertheless, the overall CFR decreased during this period. Strengthening the early warning system and enhancing water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions and sensitization should be considered in addressing cholera outbreaks.

  1. High prevalence and predominance of hepatitis delta virus genotype 1 infection in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Foupouapouognigni, Yacouba; Noah, Dominique Noah; Sartre, Michèle Tagni; Njouom, Richard

    2011-03-01

    Antibodies to the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) were found in 17.6% of 233 hepatitis B virus surface antigen-positive subjects in Cameroon. Phylogenetic analyses showed the presence of HDV-1, HDV-5, HDV-6, and HDV-7 genotypes. These results enrich the limited data on HDV prevalence and molecular diversity in Cameroon.

  2. Adaptation of Regional Representative Soil Project and Soil Judging for Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Che, Celestine Akuma

    2013-01-01

    Representative regional soils have agricultural, cultural, economic, environmental, and historical importance to Cameroon. Twenty seven regional representative soils have been identified in Cameroon. A set of laboratory exercises, assignments and exam questions have been developed utilizing the Regional Representative Soil Project (RRSP) that…

  3. 78 FR 16029 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Cameroon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Cameroon Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Cameroon, and I hereby waive this restriction....

  4. 76 FR 61134 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Cameroon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Cameroon Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of... Section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to Cameroon and I hereby waive such restriction....

  5. Teachers' Perceptions of Students with Special Education Needs in Cameroon Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrah, Rosemary Oneke; Swain, Kristine D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined teachers' perceptions of including students with special education needs in Cameroon secondary schools. Teachers (N = 130) from five secondary government, denominational or lay private schools in Buea subdivision of Cameroon, Africa, completed a 26-item survey. The survey was analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-tests,…

  6. Solar panel truss mounting systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Al-Haddad, Tristan Farris; Cavieres, Andres; Gentry, Russell; Goodman, Joseph; Nolan, Wade; Pitelka, Taylor; Rahimzadeh, Keyan; Brooks, Bradley; Lohr, Joshua; Crooks, Ryan; Porges, Jamie; Rubin, Daniel

    2015-10-20

    An exemplary embodiment of the present invention provides a solar panel truss mounting system comprising a base and a truss assembly coupled to the base. The truss assembly comprises a first panel rail mount, second panel rail mount parallel to the first panel rail mount, base rail mount parallel to the first and second panel rail mounts, and a plurality of support members. A first portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first and second panel rail mounts. A second portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first panel rail mount and the base rail mount. A third portion of the plurality of support members extends between the second panel rail mount and the base rail mount. The system can further comprise a plurality of connectors for coupling a plurality of photovoltaic solar panels to the truss assembly.

  7. Solar panel truss mounting systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Al-Haddad, Tristan Farris; Cavieres, Andres; Gentry, Russell; Goodman, Joseph; Nolan, Wade; Pitelka, Taylor; Rahimzadeh, Keyan; Brooks, Bradley; Lohr, Joshua; Crooks, Ryan; Porges, Jamie; Rubin, Daniel

    2016-06-28

    An exemplary embodiment of the present invention provides a solar panel truss mounting system comprising a base and a truss assembly coupled to the base. The truss assembly comprises a first panel rail mount, second panel rail mount parallel to the first panel rail mount, base rail mount parallel to the first and second panel rail mounts, and a plurality of support members. A first portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first and second panel rail mounts. A second portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first panel rail mount and the base rail mount. A third portion of the plurality of support members extends between the second panel rail mount and the base rail mount. The system can further comprise a plurality of connectors for coupling a plurality of photovoltaic solar panels to the truss assembly.

  8. Ice Volumes on Cascade Volcanoes: Mount Rainier, Mount Hood, Three Sisters, and Mount Shasta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driedger, Carolyn L.; Kennard, Paul M.

    1986-01-01

    During the eruptions of Mount St. Helens the occurrence of floods and mudflows made apparent the need for predictive water-hazard analysis of other Cascade volcanoes. A basic requirement for such analysis is information about the volumes and distributions of snow and ice on other volcanoes. A radar unit contained in a backpack was used to make point measurements of ice thickness on major glaciers of Mount Rainier, Wash.; Mount Hood, Oreg.; the Three Sisters, Oreg.; and Mount Shasta, Calif. The measurements were corrected for slope and were used to develop subglacial contour maps from which glacier volumes were measured. These values were used to develop estimation methods for finding volumes of unmeasured glaciers. These methods require a knowledge of glacier slope, altitude, and area and require an estimation of basal shear stress, each estimate derived by using topographic maps updated by aerial photographs. The estimation methods were found to be accurate within ?20 percent on measured glaciers and to be within ?25 percent when applied to unmeasured glaciers on the Cascade volcanoes. The estimation methods may be applicable to other temperate glaciers in similar climatic settings. Areas and volumes of snow and ice are as follows: Mount Rainier, 991 million ft2, 156 billion ft3; Mount Hood, 145 million ft2, 12 billion ft3; Three Sisters, 89 million ft2, 6 billion ft3; and Mount Shasta, 74 million ft2, 5 billion ft3. The distribution of ice and firn patches within 58 glacierized basins on volcanoes is mapped and listed by altitude and by watershed to facilitate water-hazard analysis.

  9. VIBRATION DAMPING AND SHOCK MOUNT

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, D.J.; Forman, G.W.

    1963-12-10

    A shock absorbing mount in which vibrations are damped by an interference fit between relatively movable parts of the mount is described. A pair of generally cup-shaped parts or members have skirt portions disposed in an oppositely facing nesting relationship with the skirt of one member frictionally engaging the skirt of the other. The outermost skirt may be slotted to provide spring-like segments which embrace the inner skirt for effecting the interference fit. Belleville washers between the members provide yieldable support for a load carried by the mount. When a resonant frequency of vibration forces acting upon the moumt attains a certain level the kinetic energy of these forces is absorbed by sliding friction between the parts. (AEC)

  10. An improved instrument mounting arm.

    PubMed

    Gendeh, B S; Khalid, B A; Alberti, P W

    2001-02-01

    Although some form of commercial instrument mounting arm is available, a paucity of information in the literature may cause problems in selecting the most appropriate model for an ENT department wishing to trial their invention for use in the clinic or operating theatre. The instrument mounting arm described here is based on existing designs used by hobbyists and model makers for many years but the main benefit of this innovation is its multi-purpose use in the operating theatre and cost effectiveness since it is made of aluminum alloy. It is compact, stable and easily adjustable and can incorporate an endoscope holder or an operating end piece to mount various ENT instruments that offers considerable advantages to the unassisted operator.

  11. Mount St. Mary's College. Exemplars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannozzi, Maria

    This report describes the efforts of Mount St. Mary's College (California) to extend the benefits of a strong, traditional baccalaureate program to an underserved population of women in an urban region, including substantial numbers of minority and first-generation college students. To help realize its service mission and increase access to…

  12. Cryogenically cooled detector pin mount

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Jr., William E; Chrisp, Michael P

    2014-06-03

    A focal plane assembly facilitates a molybdenum base plate being mounted to another plate made from aluminum. The molybdenum pin is an interference fit (press fit) in the aluminum base plate. An annular cut out area in the base plate forms two annular flexures.

  13. 36 Views of Mount Rainier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortune, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Look for ways to take students on virtual journeys to faraway places, and then connect the experience to something they can relate to on a more personal level. In this article, the author describes a block-printing unit inspired by Japanese printmaker, Katsushika Hokusai (1760-1849), and his series of art prints, "Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji."…

  14. Mount Rainier active cascade volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mount Rainier is one of about two dozen active or recently active volcanoes in the Cascade Range, an arc of volcanoes in the northwestern United States and Canada. The volcano is located about 35 kilometers southeast of the Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area, which has a population of more than 2.5 million. This metropolitan area is the high technology industrial center of the Pacific Northwest and one of the commercial aircraft manufacturing centers of the United States. The rivers draining the volcano empty into Puget Sound, which has two major shipping ports, and into the Columbia River, a major shipping lane and home to approximately a million people in southwestern Washington and northwestern Oregon. Mount Rainier is an active volcano. It last erupted approximately 150 years ago, and numerous large floods and debris flows have been generated on its slopes during this century. More than 100,000 people live on the extensive mudflow deposits that have filled the rivers and valleys draining the volcano during the past 10,000 years. A major volcanic eruption or debris flow could kill thousands of residents and cripple the economy of the Pacific Northwest. Despite the potential for such danger, Mount Rainier has received little study. Most of the geologic work on Mount Rainier was done more than two decades ago. Fundamental topics such as the development, history, and stability of the volcano are poorly understood.

  15. [Water cults on Soratte Mount].

    PubMed

    Falchetti, Mario; Ottini, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Mount Soratte is a limestone ridge that rises on a lonely plateau of Pliocene tuff on the right of the Tiber, about forty kilometers North of Rome. Studies related to human settlements during prehistory in this territory have been sporadic and occasional. The first evidence of prehistoric cults on mount Soratte has been found in the early Fifties when ajar, dating back to Neolithic times, was discovered in the cave of the Meri. The jar was placed in a position to be always filled of water and indicates the existence of ancient practices of worship linked to groundwater. In the Middle Ages, although caves became a step towards the Hell, dripping caves were often associated with the magical-religious and therapeutic aspects of water linked to fertility in the popular imagination. In the cave church of the Saint Romana, on the eastern slope of Mount Soratte close to Meri, there is a small marble basin near the altar and the water drips from the rock above it. This water is taken out for devotion and drunk by mothers who did not get milk from their breasts. Recently, the water of the Saint Romana would have drained as a result of an act of sacrilege, albeit unintentionally, as reported in a oral testimony. Overall, the territory of Mount Soratte is characterized by a sharp and clear karst. This causes the water, that collects on the inside, coming out in many springs all around the valley. This water is collected to supply fountains used years ago by farmers and livestock and nowadays may represent a cultural space of social life with the aim to build a strong link with the territory and a new awareness of the past and history of the countryside around Mount Soratte. PMID:23057207

  16. Coverage and costs of childhood immunizations in Cameroon.

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Hugh R.; Dougherty, Leanne; Tegang, Simon-Pierre; Tran, Nhan; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Long, Kanya; Wolfe, Nathan D.; Burke, Donald S.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between household-level and provider-level determinants and childhood immunization rates in Cameroon while also calculating the cost of childhood immunizations. METHODS: This study uses multilevel regression analysis to calculate these relationships. The 1998 Cameroon Demographic and Health Survey and the 2000 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey are the main sources of household-level data. These surveys are supplemented by data from a 2002 survey of health facilities conducted in three provinces. At the national level, immunization financing data were collected from the Ministry of Health and donors that support the national Expanded Programme on Immunization. FINDINGS: The 1998 survey found that nationally 37% of children were fully immunized; the 2000 survey found that nationally 34% were fully immunized. These results are strongly correlated with both the mother's level of education and the household's economic status. Multilevel logistic regression shows that maternal education level is a stronger predictor of positive immunization status than is relative economic status. Children of mothers with secondary education or higher education were 3 times more likely to be fully vaccinated than children whose mothers had not completed primary education. At the health-facility level, both having art immunization plan and regular supervisory visits from someone at the health-district level are strongly positively associated with immunization rates. The cost of routine vaccinations for each fully immunized child is 12.73 U.S. dollars when donors' contributions are included but not the costs of immunization campaigns. CONCLUSION: Studies conducted in the 1980s and 1990s found that costs per fully immunized child varied from 2.19 U.S. dollars to 26.59 U.S. dollars (not adjusted for inflation) in a range of low-income and middle-income countries. The relatively low rates of immunization coverage in Cameroon, and the strong influence of

  17. The situation of women in physics in Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woulache, Rosalie Laure; Kom, Guillaume; Siebatcheu, Beatrice Couonang; Onana, Marthe Boyomo

    2013-03-01

    The progress of women in science has been widely discussed in recent years. Women have made great progress in the social sciences, but they lag in the field of physics. A survey of the situation of women in physics in Cameroon over the last three years shows some improvement and some areas of stagnation. For example, the statistics show an increase of women teaching physics in secondary school and a slight improvement in the numbers of women studying physics at the university level, but stagnation in the number of women lecturers in physics.

  18. Sample mounts for microcrystal crystallography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, Robert E. (Inventor); Stum, Zachary (Inventor); O'Neill, Kevin (Inventor); Kmetko, Jan (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Sample mounts (10) for mounting microcrystals of biological macromolecules for X-ray crystallography are prepared by using patterned thin polyimide films (12) that have curvature imparted thereto, for example, by being attached to a curved outer surface of a small metal rod (16). The patterned film (12) preferably includes a tapered tip end (24) for holding a crystal. Preferably, a small sample aperture is disposed in the film for reception of the crystal. A second, larger aperture can also be provided that is connected to the sample aperture by a drainage channel, allowing removal of excess liquid and easier manipulation in viscous solutions. The curvature imparted to the film (12) increases the film's rigidity and allows a convenient scoop-like action for retrieving crystals. The polyimide contributes minimally to background and absorption, and can be treated to obtain desired hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity.

  19. Sample mounts for microcrystal crystallography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, Robert E. (Inventor); Stum, Zachary (Inventor); O'Neill, Kevin (Inventor); Kmetko, Jan (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Sample mounts (10) for mounting microcrystals of biological macromolecules for X-ray crystallography are prepared by using patterned thin polyimide films (12) that have curvature imparted thereto, for example, by being attached to a curved outer surface of a small metal rod (16). The patterned film (12) preferably includes a tip end (24) for holding a crystal. Preferably, a small sample aperture is disposed in the film for reception of the crystal. A second, larger aperture can also be provided that is connected to the sample aperture by a drainage channel, allowing removal of excess liquid and easier manipulation in viscous solutions. The curvature imparted to the film (12) increases the film's rigidity and allows a convenient scoop-like action for retrieving crystals. The polyimide contributes minimally to background and absorption, and can be treated to obtain desired hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity.

  20. Overcoming Underrepresentation of Women Physics Teachers in Cameroon: Preliminary Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyomo, M.; Kom, G. H.; Siebatcheu, B.; Asse, M. L.; Woulache, R.; Mvoudjo, E.

    2009-04-01

    At a time when much energy is being spent all over the world to bring women into the fast-developing world of science, it is regrettable that these efforts are still at their genesis in Cameroon. It is however, worth noting that efforts geared toward the education of the girl child are yielding fruit, even if much remains to be done in rural areas. The only unfortunate revelation is that increase in the number of young girls in scientific classes observed in high school is not reflected at the tertiary level in physics. Thus, young women are almost completely absent when it comes to recruiting lecturers and researchers in the subject. It is time a serious study is carried out on the status of the woman physicist in Cameroon. It is time to evaluate the importance of the woman physicist to our society and to the field of study as well. It is also necessary to develop a new policy geared toward encouraging young girls to take up a career in physics.

  1. Mounting support for a photovoltaic module

    DOEpatents

    Brandt, Gregory Michael; Barsun, Stephan K.; Coleman, Nathaniel T.; Zhou, Yin

    2013-03-26

    A mounting support for a photovoltaic module is described. The mounting support includes a foundation having an integrated wire-way ledge portion. A photovoltaic module support mechanism is coupled with the foundation.

  2. Flush Mounting Of Thin-Film Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas C., Sr.

    1992-01-01

    Technique developed for mounting thin-film sensors flush with surfaces like aerodynamic surfaces of aircraft, which often have compound curvatures. Sensor mounted in recess by use of vacuum pad and materials selected for specific application. Technique involves use of materials tailored to thermal properties of substrate in which sensor mounted. Together with customized materials, enables flush mounting of thin-film sensors in most situations in which recesses for sensors provided. Useful in both aircraft and automotive industries.

  3. Mount St. Helens and Kilauea volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrat, J.

    1989-01-01

    From the south, snow-covered Mount St. Helens looms proudly under a fleecy halo of clouds, rivaling the majestic beauty of neighboring Mount Rainer, Mount Hood, and Mount Adams. Salmon fishermen dot the shores of lakes and streams in the mountain's shadow, trucks loaded with fresh-cut timber barrel down backroads, and deer peer out from stands of tall fir trees. 

  4. Holding fixture for metallographic mount polishing

    DOEpatents

    Barth, Clyde H.; Cramer, Charles E.

    1997-01-01

    A fixture for holding mounted specimens for polishing, having an arm; a body attached to one end of the arm, the body having at least one flange having an opening to accommodate a mounted specimen; and a means applying pressure against the outer surface of the mounted specimen to hold the specimen in contact with the polishing surface.

  5. Seroprevalence of Human Herpesvirus-8 in HIV-1 Infected and Uninfected Individuals in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Mbondji-Wonje, Christelle; Ragupathy, Viswanath; Lee, Sherwin; Wood, Owen; Awazi, Bih; Hewlett, Indira K.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the prevalence of HHV-8 antibodies in 516 plasma samples collected from HIV positive and negative patients from blood banks and urban areas of Cameroon. Among HIV-1 positive samples, HHV-8 seropositivity rate was 61% based on combined reactivity using both ELISA and IFA techniques. HIV negative samples showed 62% seropositivity rate for HHV-8 antibodies. Our results indicate a high HHV-8 prevalence rate in both HIV infected and uninfected individuals in Cameroon. PMID:24056671

  6. Comparative avian phylogeography of Cameroon and equatorial Guinea mountains: implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Smith, T B; Holder, K; Girman, D; O'Keefe, K; Larison, B; Chan, Y

    2000-10-01

    We illustrate the use of Faith's 'Phylogenetic Diversity' measure to compare the phylogeographic structure of two bird species with patterns of avian endemism across six mountains in Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea. The Mountain Greenbul and Cameroon Blue-headed Sunbird showed phylogeographic patterns that together defined three biogeographic regions: Bioko, Mt. Cameroon, and the northern mountains of Cameroon. In contrast, the distributions of endemic species were largely a function of geographical distance, with close mountains sharing more endemic species than distant mountains. Moreover, for both species, populations on Mt. Cameroon were distinctive with respect to the ecologically relevant character bill size. Our results, while preliminary, illustrate the utility of a comparative approach for identifying geographical regions that harbour evolutionarily distinct populations and caution against using only the distributional patterns of endemics to prioritize regions for conservation. Results show that patterns of endemism may not be concordant with patterns of phylogenetic diversity nor morphological variation in a character important in fitness. While incorporation of additional species from unrelated taxa will be necessary to draw definitive conclusions about evolutionarily distinct regions, our preliminary results suggest a conservation approach for the Afromontane region of the Gulf of Guinea that would: (i) emphasize protection of both Bioko and Mt. Cameroon, thereby maximizing preservation of within-species phylogenetic and morphologic diversity; (ii) emphasize protection within the northern mountains to further conserve intraspecific phylogenetic diversity and maximize protection of endemic species.

  7. Lahars of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newhall, Christopher G.; Stauffer, Peter H.; Hendley, James W.

    1997-01-01

    On June 15, 1991, Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines exploded in the second largest volcanic eruption on Earth this century. This eruption deposited more than 1 cubic mile (5 cubic kilometers) of volcanic ash and rock fragments on the volcano's slopes. Within hours, heavy rains began to wash this material down into the surrounding lowlands in giant, fast-moving mudflows called lahars. In the next four rainy seasons, lahars carried about half of the deposits off the volcano, causing even more destruction in the lowlands than the eruption itself.

  8. Apollo Telescope Mount Thermal Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) was designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and served as the primary scientific instrument unit aboard Skylab (1973-1979). The ATM consisted of eight scientific instruments as well as a number of smaller experiments. This image is of the ATM thermal unit being tested in MSFC's building 4619. The thermal unit consisted of an active fluid-cooling system of water and methanol that was circulated to radiators on the outside of the canister. The thermal unit provided temperature stability to the ultrahigh resolution optical instruments that were part of the ATM.

  9. Gas bursts from cameroon crater lakes: a new natural hazard.

    PubMed

    Sigurdsson, H

    1988-06-01

    Gas bursts from tropical crater lakes constitute a hitherto unrecognized natural hazard, which claimed 37 lives around Lake Monoun in 1984 and 1,746 lives in 1986 around Lake Nyos in Cameroon, west Africa. Studies of these events indicate that the lethal gas clouds were dominantly CO(2) which exsolved catastrophically from deep waters of the lakes, producing in the case of Lake Nyos a gas cloud of 1.94 times 10(6) tons CO(2) . Carbon-isotope data indicate a magmatic source of the carbon dioxide, but the geochemistry of deep water and gases does not support a sudden injection of volcanic gas from a deep source into the lakes. Rather, it is proposed that the gas bursts were preceded by gradual build-up of dissolved bicarbonate in deep waters, where anoxic conditions in enclosed and stagnant basins led to low pH and pCO(2) close to saturation. Steady input from the Earth's mantle to submerged mofettes or CO(2) -rich soda springs within the lakes is most likely the primary source of carbon dioxide. Lethal effects of the gas bursts are almost entirely due to CO(2) -induced asphyxia. A small percentage of victims awoke from coma one or two days after the event, but most died. Unusual skin lesions on about 5% of victims arose from the comatose state. It is shown that the mass of gas required to account for the lethal effects and observed gas clouds is an order of magnitude less than the potential gas yield from the lakes. In view of the lethal gas bursts from the small Cameroon lakes, the potential hazard of future gas bursts from other much larger density-stratified equatorial lakes must be seriously considered, particularly in Lake Kivu in east Africa, where methane and carbon dioxide gas content is higher by two to four orders of magnitude than that of the Cameroon lakes. A gas burst from Lake Kivu would form a carbon dioxide cloud up to 340 km(3) in volume and expansion of the exsolving gas from deep water to atmospheric pressure would correspond to an energy release

  10. Gas bursts from cameroon crater lakes: a new natural hazard.

    PubMed

    Sigurdsson, H

    1988-06-01

    Gas bursts from tropical crater lakes constitute a hitherto unrecognized natural hazard, which claimed 37 lives around Lake Monoun in 1984 and 1,746 lives in 1986 around Lake Nyos in Cameroon, west Africa. Studies of these events indicate that the lethal gas clouds were dominantly CO(2) which exsolved catastrophically from deep waters of the lakes, producing in the case of Lake Nyos a gas cloud of 1.94 times 10(6) tons CO(2) . Carbon-isotope data indicate a magmatic source of the carbon dioxide, but the geochemistry of deep water and gases does not support a sudden injection of volcanic gas from a deep source into the lakes. Rather, it is proposed that the gas bursts were preceded by gradual build-up of dissolved bicarbonate in deep waters, where anoxic conditions in enclosed and stagnant basins led to low pH and pCO(2) close to saturation. Steady input from the Earth's mantle to submerged mofettes or CO(2) -rich soda springs within the lakes is most likely the primary source of carbon dioxide. Lethal effects of the gas bursts are almost entirely due to CO(2) -induced asphyxia. A small percentage of victims awoke from coma one or two days after the event, but most died. Unusual skin lesions on about 5% of victims arose from the comatose state. It is shown that the mass of gas required to account for the lethal effects and observed gas clouds is an order of magnitude less than the potential gas yield from the lakes. In view of the lethal gas bursts from the small Cameroon lakes, the potential hazard of future gas bursts from other much larger density-stratified equatorial lakes must be seriously considered, particularly in Lake Kivu in east Africa, where methane and carbon dioxide gas content is higher by two to four orders of magnitude than that of the Cameroon lakes. A gas burst from Lake Kivu would form a carbon dioxide cloud up to 340 km(3) in volume and expansion of the exsolving gas from deep water to atmospheric pressure would correspond to an energy release

  11. Mapping of Bancroftian Filariasis in Cameroon: Prospects for Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Nana-Djeunga, Hugues C.; Tchatchueng-Mbougua, Jules B.; Bopda, Jean; Mbickmen-Tchana, Steve; Elong-Kana, Nathalie; Nnomzo’o, Etienne; Akame, Julie; Tarini, Ann; Zhang, Yaobi; Njiokou, Flobert; Kamgno, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is one of the most debilitating neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). It still presents as an important public health problem in many countries in the tropics. In Cameroon, where many NTDs are endemic, only scant data describing the situation regarding LF epidemiology was available. The aim of this study was to describe the current situation regarding LF infection in Cameroon, and to map this infection and accurately delineate areas where mass drug administration (MDA) was required. Methodology The endemicity status and distribution of LF was assessed in eight of the ten Regions of Cameroon by a rapid-format card test for detection of W. bancrofti antigen (immunochromatographic test, ICT). The baseline data required to monitor the effectiveness of MDA was collected by assessing microfilariaemia in nocturnal calibrated thick blood smears in sentinel sites selected in the health districts where ICT positivity rate was ≥ 1%. Principal findings Among the 120 health districts visited in the eight Regions during ICT survey, 106 (88.3%) were found to be endemic for LF (i.e. had ICT positivity rate ≥ 1%), with infection rate from 1.0% (95% CI: 0.2–5.5) to 20.0% (95% CI: 10–30). The overall infection rate during the night blood survey was 0.11% (95% CI: 0.08–0.16) in 11 health districts out of the 106 surveyed; the arithmetic mean for microfilaria density was 1.19 mf/ml (95% CI: 0.13–2.26) for the total population examined. Conclusion/significance ICT card test results showed that LF was endemic in all the Regions and in about 90% of the health districts surveyed. All of these health districts qualified for MDA (i.e. ICT positivity rate ≥ 1%). Microfilariaemia data collected as part of this study provided the national program with baseline data (sentinel sites) necessary to measure the impact of MDA on the endemicity level and transmission of LF important for the 2020 deadline for global elimination. PMID:26353087

  12. Dual resolution, vacuum compatible optical mount

    DOEpatents

    Halpin, John Michael

    2011-10-04

    An optical mount for an optical element includes a mounting plate, a lever arm pivot coupled to mounting plate, and an adjustment plate. The optical mount also includes a flexure pivot mechanically coupling the adjustment plate to the mounting plate and a lever arm. The optical mount further includes a first adjustment device extending from the adjustment plate to make contact with the lever arm at a first contact point. A projection of a line from the first contact point to a pivot point, measured along the lever arm, is a first predetermined distance. The optical mount additionally includes a second adjustment device extending from the adjustment plate to make contact with the lever arm at a second contact point. A projection of a line from the second contact point to the pivot point, measured along the lever arm, is a second predetermined distance greater than the first predetermined distance.

  13. Nozzle and shroud assembly mounting structure

    DOEpatents

    Faulder, Leslie J.; Frey, deceased, Gary A.; Nielsen, Engward W.; Ridler, Kenneth J.

    1997-01-01

    The present nozzle and shroud assembly mounting structure configuration increases component life and reduces maintenance by reducing internal stress between the mounting structure having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion and the nozzle and shroud assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being less than that of the mounting structure. The mounting structure includes an outer sealing portion forming a cradling member in which an annular ring member is slidably positioned. The mounting structure further includes an inner mounting portion to which a hooked end of the nozzle and shroud assembly is attached. As the inner mounting portion expands and contracts, the nozzle and shroud assembly slidably moves within the outer sealing portion.

  14. Nozzle and shroud assembly mounting structure

    DOEpatents

    Faulder, L.J.; Frey, G.A.; Nielsen, E.W.; Ridler, K.J.

    1997-08-05

    The present nozzle and shroud assembly mounting structure configuration increases component life and reduces maintenance by reducing internal stress between the mounting structure having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion and the nozzle and shroud assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being less than that of the mounting structure. The mounting structure includes an outer sealing portion forming a cradling member in which an annular ring member is slidably positioned. The mounting structure further includes an inner mounting portion to which a hooked end of the nozzle and shroud assembly is attached. As the inner mounting portion expands and contracts, the nozzle and shroud assembly slidably moves within the outer sealing portion. 3 figs.

  15. Liver transplantation at Mount Sinai.

    PubMed

    Kim-Schluger, L; Florman, S S; Gondolesi, G; Emre, S; Sheiner, P A; Fishbein, T M; Schwartz, M E; Miller, C M

    2000-01-01

    Nearly 2000 liver transplants have been performed over the past 12 years at Mount Sinai, with a recent exponential growth in living donor surgeries. Living-donor liver transplantation has emerged as an important option for our patients with end-stage liver disease. We are only beginning to recognize fully the advantages that 'scheduled' liver transplantation can offer. In this era of severe cadaver organ shortages, living donation offers patients the option of liver replacement in a timely fashion, before life-threatening complications of hepatic failure and/or carcinoma progression prohibit transplantation. The next era of transplantation at Mount Sinai will bring significant increases in the number of transplants performed with living donors, with projections of over 50% of the total transplants each year expected to involve living donations. We are committed to offering this option while recognizing that donor safety remains paramount and cannot be overemphasized. Proper donor and recipient selection, as well as surgical experience are imperative to success with this technically demanding procedure. Recurrent disease after transplantation, particularly with hepatitis C, remains a challenge clinically. Further investigations into the pathogenesis of the rapid progression of recurrent hepatitis C need to be addressed. Living donor transplantation could be an important option for these patients and would allow timely transplantation and the potential for improved survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:11512318

  16. Side mount universal battery terminal

    SciTech Connect

    Byfield, D. Jr.

    1987-06-16

    An automobile battery is described of the type having side mounted, threaded bolt hole terminal connectors, battery cables having bored disc shaped terminals with peripheral insulating covers and, an improved terminal connector bolt adapted to accommodate the battery cable terminals and other electrical accessory terminals comprising: an elongated body of electrically conducting material having a longitudinal axis and an inner end and an outer end; a first generally cylindrical threaded stud formed on the inner end of the body. The first stud has a length and diameter disposed to permit thread engagement of the stud with one of the side mounted terminal connectors on the battery in electrical connection therewith, and pass through the bore in one of the battery cable terminals; a central portion on the body adjacent to and outwardly from the first stud, the central portion has a peripheral diameter greater than the first stud portion and has a first shoulder surface generally normal to the longitudinal axis of the body facing toward the inner end of the body and disposed to engage the face surface of one of the battery cable terminals in an electrically conducting relationship.

  17. Mount Rainier, a decade volcano

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehn, S.C.; Hooper, P.R. . Dept. of Geology); Eggers, A.E. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Mount Rainier, recently designated as a decade volcano, is a 14,410 foot landmark which towers over the heavily populated southern Puget Sound Lowland of Washington State. It last erupted in the mid-1800's and is an obvious threat to this area, yet Rainier has received little detailed study. Previous work has divided Rainier into two distinct pre-glacial eruptive episodes and one post-glacial eruptive episode. In a pilot project, the authors analyzed 253 well-located samples from the volcano for 27 major and trace elements. Their objective is to test the value of chemical compositions as a tool in mapping the stratigraphy and understanding the eruptive history of the volcano which they regard as prerequisite to determining the petrogenesis and potential hazard of the volcano. The preliminary data demonstrates that variation between flows is significantly greater than intra-flow variation -- a necessary condition for stratigraphic use. Numerous flows or groups of flows can be distinguished chemically. It is also apparent from the small variation in Zr abundances and considerable variation in such ratios as Ba/Nb that fractional crystallization plays a subordinate role to some form of mixing process in the origin of the Mount Rainier lavas.

  18. Performance effects of mounting a helmet-mounted display on the ANVIS mount of the HGU-56P helmet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Thomas H.; Martin, John S.; Rash, Clarence E.

    2006-05-01

    The U.S. Army, under the auspices of the Air Warrior Product Office, is developing a modular helmet-mounted display (HMD) for four aircraft series within its helicopter fleet. A design consideration is mounting the HMDs to the HGU- 56P Aviator's Night Vision Imaging System (ANVIS) mount. This particular mount is being considered, presumably due to its inherent cost savings, as the mount is already part of the helmet. Mounting the HMD in this position may have consequences for the daylight performance of these HMDs, as well as increasing the forward weight of the HMD. The latter would have consequences for helmet weight and center-of-mass biodynamic issues. Calculations were made of the increased luminance needed as a consequence of mounting the HMD in front of an HGU-56P tinted visor as opposed to mounting it behind the visor. By mounting in front of the helmet's visor, the HMD's light output will be filtered as light coming from the outside world. Special consideration then would have to be given to the HMD's light source selection process, as not to select a source that would differentially reduce luminance by a mounted visor (e.g., laser protection visors) compared to the ambient light in the aviator's field-of-view.

  19. Parameter Identification in a Tuberculosis Model for Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Moualeu-Ngangue, Dany Pascal; Röblitz, Susanna; Ehrig, Rainald; Deuflhard, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A deterministic model of tuberculosis in Cameroon is designed and analyzed with respect to its transmission dynamics. The model includes lack of access to treatment and weak diagnosis capacity as well as both frequency- and density-dependent transmissions. It is shown that the model is mathematically well-posed and epidemiologically reasonable. Solutions are non-negative and bounded whenever the initial values are non-negative. A sensitivity analysis of model parameters is performed and the most sensitive ones are identified by means of a state-of-the-art Gauss-Newton method. In particular, parameters representing the proportion of individuals having access to medical facilities are seen to have a large impact on the dynamics of the disease. The model predicts that a gradual increase of these parameters could significantly reduce the disease burden on the population within the next 15 years. PMID:25874885

  20. Bacterial and archaeal communities in Lake Nyos (Cameroon, Central Africa)

    PubMed Central

    Tiodjio, Rosine E.; Sakatoku, Akihiro; Nakamura, Akihiro; Tanaka, Daisuke; Fantong, Wilson Y.; Tchakam, Kamtchueng B.; Tanyileke, Gregory; Ohba, Takeshi; Hell, Victor J.; Kusakabe, Minoru; Nakamura, Shogo; Ueda, Akira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the microbial diversity associated with Lake Nyos, a lake with an unusual chemistry in Cameroon. Water samples were collected during the dry season on March 2013. Bacterial and archaeal communities were profiled using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) approach of the 16S rRNA gene. The results indicate a stratification of both communities along the water column. Altogether, the physico-chemical data and microbial sequences suggest a close correspondence of the potential microbial functions to the physico-chemical pattern of the lake. We also obtained evidence of a rich microbial diversity likely to include several novel microorganisms of environmental importance in the large unexplored microbial reservoir of Lake Nyos. PMID:25141868

  1. Tracing the origins of rescued chimpanzees reveals widespread chimpanzee hunting in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background While wild chimpanzees are experiencing drastic population declines, their numbers at African rescue and rehabilitation projects are growing rapidly. Chimpanzees follow complex routes to these refuges; and their geographic origins are often unclear. Identifying areas where hunting occurs can help law enforcement authorities focus scarce resources for wildlife protection planning. Efficiently focusing these resources is particularly important in Cameroon because this country is a key transportation waypoint for international wildlife crime syndicates. Furthermore, Cameroon is home to two chimpanzee subspecies, which makes ascertaining the origins of these chimpanzees important for reintroduction planning and for scientific investigations involving these chimpanzees. Results We estimated geographic origins of 46 chimpanzees from the Limbe Wildlife Centre (LWC) in Cameroon. Using Bayesian approximation methods, we determined their origins using mtDNA sequences and microsatellite (STRP) genotypes compared to a spatial map of georeferenced chimpanzee samples from 10 locations spanning Cameroon and Nigeria. The LWC chimpanzees come from multiple regions of Cameroon or forested areas straddling the Cameroon-Nigeria border. The LWC chimpanzees were partitioned further as originating from one of three biogeographically important zones occurring in Cameroon, but we were unable to refine these origin estimates to more specific areas within these three zones. Conclusions Our findings suggest that chimpanzee hunting is widespread across Cameroon. Live animal smuggling appears to occur locally within Cameroon, despite the existence of local wildlife cartels that operate internationally. This pattern varies from the illegal wildlife trade patterns observed in other commercially valuable species, such as elephants, where specific populations are targeted for exploitation. A broader sample of rescued chimpanzees compared against a more comprehensive grid of georeferenced

  2. Epidemiological and histopathological patterns of salivary gland tumors in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Sando, Zacharie; Fokouo, Jean Valentin; Mebada, Arlette Onomo; Djomou, François; NDjolo, Alexis; Oyono, Jean Louis Essame

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tumors of salivary glands are rare. According to Johns and Goldsmith in 1989, their annual incidence is less than 1/100000 without noteworthy geographical gap. But other authors suggest that their distribution may vary according to the race and geographical location. In Cameroon, existing studies give incomplete data. Hence, we underwent this study in order to draw the general profile of salivary gland tumors in Cameroon. Methods A retrospective study was carried out on the period spanning from January 2000 to December 2010 (11 years). It was done in nine Pathology services of different hospitals in Yaoundé, Douala and Bamenda. We consulted the archive registers of those services, retaining any patient with salivary gland tumor, whatever the histological type or location. Information gathered was the year of diagnosis, the service, the age and sex, the site of the tumor (gland) the histological type and the benign/ malignant character. Results We recruited a total of 275 files. Women were 56% (154/275) and men 44% (121/275) of the sample. Fifty eight tumors were malignant (21.9%) while 217 were benign (78.1%). The overall mean age was 37.44 years, with extremes between 1 and 84 years. Pleomorphic adenoma (60.36%) was the most common benign tumor. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (31%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (22.4%) and adenocarcinoma (19%) were the most common malignant tumors. Palate (66.7%), cheek (30%) and lips (3.3%) were the sites were the minor salivary glands were mostly involved. Conclusion The differences with western world authors suggest a geographical variability of salivary gland tumors. PMID:27217890

  3. Anxiolytic activity evaluation of four medicinal plants from Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Bum, E Ngo; Soudi, S; Ayissi, E R; Dong, C; Lakoulo, N H; Maidawa, F; Seke, P F E; Nanga, L D; Taiwe, G S; Dimo, T; Njikam, Njifutie; Rakotonirina, A; Rakotonirina, S V; Kamanyi, A

    2011-01-01

    Afrormosia laxiflora (A. laxiflora), Chenopodium ambrosioides (C. ambrosioides), Microglossa pyrifolia (M. pyrifolia) and Mimosa pudica (M. pudica) are plants used in traditional medicine in Cameroon to treat insomnia, epilepsy, anxiety, and agitation. They were evaluated for their anxiolytic like activity in mice. Animal models (elevated plus maze and stress-induced hyperthermia tests) were used. The four plants showed anxiolytic activity. In stress-induced hyperthermia test, A. laxiflora, C. ambrosioides, M. pyrifolia and M. pudica significantly antagonised the increase of temperature. ΔT° decreased from 0.75°C in the control group to 0.36°C at the dose of 110 mg/kg for A. laxiflora; from 1°C in the control group to -1.1°C at the dose of 120 mg/kg for C. ambrosioides; from 1.7°C in the control group to 0.2°C at the dose of 128 mg/kg for M. pyrifolia and from 1.3°C in the control group to 0.5°C at the dose of 180 mg/kg for M. pudica. In the elevated plus maze test, the four plants increased the number of entries into, percentage of entries into, and percentage of time in open arms. A. laxiflora, C. ambrosioides and M. pudica also reduced the percentage of entries and time in closed arms. In addition, C. ambrosioides, M. pyrifolia and M. pudica showed antipyretic activity by reducing the body temperature. The results suggested that C. ambrosioides, M. pyrifolia and M. pudica posses anxiolytic-like and antipyretic activities while A. laxiflora possesses only anxiolytic-like properties. These plants could be helpful in the treatment of anxiety and fever in traditional medicine in Cameroon.

  4. Maternal mortality in Cameroon: a university teaching hospital report.

    PubMed

    Tebeu, Pierre-Marie; Pierre-Marie, Tebeu; Halle-Ekane, Gregory; Gregory, Halle-Ekane; Da Itambi, Maxwell; Maxwell, Da Itambi; Enow Mbu, Robinson; Robinson, Enow Mbu; Mawamba, Yvette; Yvette, Mawamba; Fomulu, Joseph Nelson; Nelson, Fomulu Joseph

    2015-01-01

    More than 550,000 women die yearly from pregnancy-related causes. Fifty percent (50%) of the world estimate of maternal deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa alone. There is insufficient information on the risk factors of maternal mortality in Cameroon. This study aimed at establishing causes and risk factors of maternal mortality. This was a case-control study from 1st January, 2006 to 31st December, 2010 after National Ethical Committee Approval. Cases were maternal deaths; controls were women who delivered normally. Maternal deaths were obtained from the delivery room registers and in-patient registers. Controls for each case were two normal deliveries following identified maternal deaths on the same day. Variables considered were socio-demographic and reproductive health characteristics. Epi Info 3.5.1 was used for analysis. The mean MMR was 287.5/100,000 live births. Causes of deaths were: postpartum hemorrhage (229.2%), unsafe abortion (25%), ectopic pregnancy (12.5%), hypertension in pregnancy (8.3%), malaria (8.3%), anemia (8.3%), heart disease (4.2%), and pneumonia (4.2%), and placenta praevia (4.2%). Ages ranged from 18 to 41 years, with a mean of 27.7 ± 5.14 years. Lack of antenatal care was a risk factor for maternal death (OR=78.33; CI: (8.66- 1802.51)). The mean MMR from 2006 to 2010 was 287.5/100,000 live births. Most of the causes of maternal deaths were preventable. Lack of antenatal care was a risk factor for maternal mortality. Key words: Maternal mortality, causes, risk factors, Cameroon.

  5. Lead concentrations and labeling of new paint in cameroon.

    PubMed

    Gottesfeld, P; Kuepouo, G; Tetsopgang, S; Durand, K

    2013-01-01

    In spite of the availability of substitutes for lead compounds used in paints, manufacturers continue to produce these paints for decorative and industrial applications. We report here on the concentration of lead in new paint sold in Cameroon and provide a summary of labeling practices on paints available in the country, based on a market survey. Investigators visited 76 retail and wholesale paint suppliers in Cameroon to collect information from paint product labels and to collect samples of paints to analyze for lead content. Only 8.5% of paints had labels identifying any of the ingredients, and none of the lead paints included any warning language. Based on a convenience sample (weighted to include multiple colors from the most common brands), 61 mostly enamel paints were purchased from retail outlets and analyzed for lead content (median: 2150 ppm; range: <21-500,000 ppm). Sixty-six percent of the new paint samples had concentrations exceeding the U.S. standard of 90 ppm total lead. All but one of the samples with lead concentrations greater than 90 ppm were also greater than 600 ppm. The largest manufacturer in the country-Seigneurie, a subsidiary of the U.S.-based company PPG-had significant lead concentrations in 9 out of 22 (41%) paints tested. There is an immediate need to adopt mandatory standards to limit the lead content of paint manufactured, imported, and sold in the country. To promote safer paint products we recommend the development of a third-party certification program for paints without added lead. These recommendations are consistent with the objectives of the Global Alliance to Eliminate Lead Paint established under the auspices of the United Nations to address this problem on a global scale.

  6. Abattoir-based estimates of mycobacterial infections in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Egbe, N. F.; Muwonge, A.; Ndip, L.; Kelly, R. F.; Sander, M.; Tanya, V.; Ngwa, V. Ngu; Handel, I. G.; Novak, A.; Ngandalo, R.; Mazeri, S.; Morgan, K. L.; Asuquo, A.; Bronsvoort, B. M. de C.

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacteria cause major diseases including human tuberculosis, bovine tuberculosis and Johne’s disease. In livestock, the dominant species is M. bovis causing bovine tuberculosis (bTB), a disease of global zoonotic importance. In this study, we estimated the prevalence of Mycobacteria in slaughter cattle in Cameroon. A total of 2,346 cattle were examined in a cross-sectional study at four abattoirs in Cameroon. Up to three lesions per animal were collected for further study and a retropharyngeal lymph node was collected from a random sample of non-lesioned animals. Samples were cultured on Lowenstein Jensen media and the BACTEC MGIT 960 system, and identified using the Hain® Genotype kits. A total of 207/2,346 cattle were identified with bTB-like lesions, representing 4.0% (45/1,129), 11.3% (106/935), 23.8% (38/160) and 14.8% (18/122) of the cattle in the Bamenda, Ngaoundere, Garoua and Maroua abattoirs respectively. The minimum estimated prevalence of M. bovis was 2.8% (1.9–3.9), 7.7% (6.1–9.6), 21.3% (15.2–28.4) and 13.1% (7.7–20.4) in the four abattoirs respectively. One M. tuberculosis and three M. bovis strains were recovered from non-lesioned animals. The high prevalence of M. bovis is of public health concern and limits the potential control options in this setting without a viable vaccine as an alternative. PMID:27075056

  7. In Brief: Mount Wilson centennial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-11-01

    The 60-inch reflecting telescope at Mount Wilson Observatory, in southern California, which helped scientists measure the Milky Way and determine our solar system's position within it, celebrates its 100th anniversary in December. ``The 60-inch continued the Copernican Revolution by dethroning the Sun from the center of our galaxy,'' noted observatory director Harold McAlister. The telescope, with its silver-on-glass reflectors, also established the basic design for observatory telescopes on Earth. Capable of operating in several different optical configurations, the telescope was the first one built primarily for photographic and spectrographic use. With its 5-foot-diameter mirror, the telescope was the largest in the world until 1917. The telescope is retired from active science but is made available to groups for viewing astronomical objects. The observatory was founded by astronomer George Ellery Hale under the auspices of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. For more information, visit http://www.mtwilson.edu.

  8. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in amphibians of Cameroon, including first records for caecilians.

    PubMed

    Doherty-Bone, T M; Gonwouo, N L; Hirschfeld, M; Ohst, T; Weldon, C; Perkins, M; Kouete, M T; Browne, R K; Loader, S P; Gower, D J; Wilkinson, M W; Rödel, M O; Penner, J; Barej, M F; Schmitz, A; Plötner, J; Cunningham, A A

    2013-02-28

    Amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been hypothesised to be an indigenous parasite of African amphibians. In Cameroon, however, previous surveys in one region (in the northwest) failed to detect this pathogen, despite the earliest African Bd having been recorded from a frog in eastern Cameroon, plus one recent record in the far southeast. To reconcile these contrasting results, we present survey data from 12 localities across 6 regions of Cameroon from anurans (n = 1052) and caecilians (n = 85) of ca. 108 species. Bd was detected in 124 amphibian hosts at 7 localities, including Mt. Oku, Mt. Cameroon, Mt. Manengouba and lowland localities in the centre and west of the country. None of the hosts were observed dead or dying. Infected amphibian hosts were not detected in other localities in the south and eastern rainforest belt. Infection occurred in both anurans and caecilians, making this the first reported case of infection in the latter order (Gymnophiona) of amphibians. There was no significant difference between prevalence and infection intensity in frogs and caecilians. We highlight the importance of taking into account the inhibition of diagnostic qPCR in studies on Bd, based on all Bd-positive hosts being undetected when screened without bovine serum albumin in the qPCR mix. The status of Bd as an indigenous, cosmopolitan amphibian parasite in Africa, including Cameroon, is supported by this work. Isolating and sequencing strains of Bd from Cameroon should now be a priority. Longitudinal host population monitoring will be required to determine the effects, if any, of the infection on amphibians in Cameroon.

  9. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in amphibians of Cameroon, including first records for caecilians.

    PubMed

    Doherty-Bone, T M; Gonwouo, N L; Hirschfeld, M; Ohst, T; Weldon, C; Perkins, M; Kouete, M T; Browne, R K; Loader, S P; Gower, D J; Wilkinson, M W; Rödel, M O; Penner, J; Barej, M F; Schmitz, A; Plötner, J; Cunningham, A A

    2013-02-28

    Amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been hypothesised to be an indigenous parasite of African amphibians. In Cameroon, however, previous surveys in one region (in the northwest) failed to detect this pathogen, despite the earliest African Bd having been recorded from a frog in eastern Cameroon, plus one recent record in the far southeast. To reconcile these contrasting results, we present survey data from 12 localities across 6 regions of Cameroon from anurans (n = 1052) and caecilians (n = 85) of ca. 108 species. Bd was detected in 124 amphibian hosts at 7 localities, including Mt. Oku, Mt. Cameroon, Mt. Manengouba and lowland localities in the centre and west of the country. None of the hosts were observed dead or dying. Infected amphibian hosts were not detected in other localities in the south and eastern rainforest belt. Infection occurred in both anurans and caecilians, making this the first reported case of infection in the latter order (Gymnophiona) of amphibians. There was no significant difference between prevalence and infection intensity in frogs and caecilians. We highlight the importance of taking into account the inhibition of diagnostic qPCR in studies on Bd, based on all Bd-positive hosts being undetected when screened without bovine serum albumin in the qPCR mix. The status of Bd as an indigenous, cosmopolitan amphibian parasite in Africa, including Cameroon, is supported by this work. Isolating and sequencing strains of Bd from Cameroon should now be a priority. Longitudinal host population monitoring will be required to determine the effects, if any, of the infection on amphibians in Cameroon. PMID:23446968

  10. Advanced centering of mounted optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, Christian; Winkelmann, Ralf; Klar, Rainer; Philippen, Peter; Garden, Ron; Pearlman, Sasha; Pearlman, Guy

    2016-03-01

    Camera objectives or laser focusing units consist of complex lens systems with multiple lenses. The optical performance of such complex lens systems is dependent on the correct positioning of lenses in the system. Deviations in location or angle within the system directly affect the achievable image quality. To optimize the achievable performance of lens systems, these errors can be corrected by machining the mount of the lens with respect to the optical axis. The Innolite GmbH and Opto Alignment Technology have developed a novel machine for such center turning operation. A confocal laser reflection measurement sensor determines the absolute position of the optical axis with reference to the spindle axis. As a strong advantage compared to autocollimator measurements the utilized Opto Alignment sensor is capable of performing centration and tilt measurements without changing objectives on any radius surface from 2 mm to infinity and lens diameters from 0.5 mm to 300 mm, including cylinder, aspheric, and parabolic surfaces. In addition, it performs significantly better on coated lenses. The optical axis is skewed and offset in reference to the spindle axis as determined by the measurement. Using the information about the mount and all reference surfaces, a machine program for an untrue turning process is calculated from this data in a fully automated manner. Since the optical axis is not collinear with the spindle axis, the diamond tool compensates for these linear and tilt deviations with small correction movements. This results in a simple machine setup where the control system works as an electronic alignment chuck. Remaining eccentricity of <1 μm and angular errors of < 10 sec are typical alignment results.

  11. [Yellow fever epidemic in the extreme North of Cameroon in 1990: first yellow fever virus isolation in Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Vicens, R; Robert, V; Pignon, D; Zeller, H; Ghipponi, P M; Digoutte, J P

    1993-01-01

    Some two years ago, suspicious cases of yellow fever (YF) were reported in northern Cameroon. A deadly epidemic broke out during the second half of the rainy season (from 15 September to 22 December 1990) with 180 known cases, of which 125 died. The real figures could have been between 5000 and 20,000 cases with between 500 and 1000 deaths. The affected area was within the yellow fever belt, which is situated around latitude 11 degrees North and 14 degrees East. In this mountainous area (altitude, about 800 m) the rural inhabitants are scattered, with a high density of 200,000 people per 1000 km2. Investigations began at the start of the dry season and a strain of yellow fever virus was isolated for the first time in Cameroon. A study of 107 serum samples (23 families in 11 villages) was carried out by immunofluorescence and ELISA, which showed 20% IgM carriers for yellow fever virus and nothing for the three other flaviviruses, although these were largely present; there were up to 98% crossed reactions in IgG with dengue 2 and West Nile strains. The under-10 age group represented 63% of the IgM carriers. An entomological study was carried out at the same time. It permitted the capture of Aedes aegypti, A. furcifer, A. luteocephalus and the identification of numerous potential larval sites, at times still in the productive phase of A. aegypti which is considered to be the principal vector.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Characterization of accelerometer mountings in shock environments

    SciTech Connect

    Boatman, V.I.; Solomon, O.M. Jr.

    1986-08-01

    This report describes the shock test characterization of four accelerometer mounting techniques which are: adiprene and wax, polysulfide rubber and wax, restrained adiprene, and hard mount. The mountings have all been used in field tests, and the shock testing provides some simulation of the field test environments. The characteristics of these mountings are analyzed in the time-domain and in the frequency-domain and are compared to the response of a reference accelerometer at two different shock levels, approximately 2 kg and 7 kg. While soft mounting techniques can be used to guarantee acceleratometers survival in severe mechanical environments, this report documents the tested mounting materials to be highly nonlinear. These nonlinearities result in significant data distortion at frequencies above a few hundred hertz.

  13. The Fallacy of Promoting Non Native Varieties of English in Postcolonial Multilingual Settings: The Case of Cameroon English (CamE) in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essossomo, Serges Moïse

    2015-01-01

    This research endeavour is a major contribution to the current debate on the integration of non-native varieties into the school curriculum in non-native settings. Taking the specific case of Cameroon, this work rests on the solid assumption that the promotion of CamE to the detriment of Standard British English accent is definitely a fallacy. The…

  14. Ocean floor mounting of wave energy converters

    DOEpatents

    Siegel, Stefan G

    2015-01-20

    A system for mounting a set of wave energy converters in the ocean includes a pole attached to a floor of an ocean and a slider mounted on the pole in a manner that permits the slider to move vertically along the pole and rotate about the pole. The wave energy converters can then be mounted on the slider to allow adjustment of the depth and orientation of the wave energy converters.

  15. Optical Mounts for Cryogenic Beam Splitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudman, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Spring-loaded optical mounts maintain flatness and alinement of rigid, framed, or pellicle beam splitters over wide temperature range, despite differences in thermal expansion amoung materials. Mounts permit optical adjustments at ambient temperature even though optical system operated subsequently within few degrees of absolute zero. Mounts useful as holders for integrated-circuit master patterns, survey targets, vibrating membranes, noise- or pressure-sensing membranes, osmosis filters, and fuel-cell elements.

  16. Mounting and Alignment of IXO Mirror Segments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Kai-Wing; Zhang, William; Evans, Tyler; McClelland, Ryan; Hong, Melinda; Mazzarella, James; Saha, Timo; Jalota, Lalit; Olsen, Lawrence; Byron, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    A suspension-mounting scheme is developed for the IXO (International X-ray Observatory) mirror segments in which the figure of the mirror segment is preserved in each stage of mounting. The mirror, first fixed on a thermally compatible strongback, is subsequently transported, aligned and transferred onto its mirror housing. In this paper, we shall outline the requirement, approaches, and recent progress of the suspension mount processes.

  17. Bonded mounts for small cryogenic optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukobratovich, Daniel; Fetterhoff, Ken A.; Myers, James R.; Wheelwright, Paul D.; Cunnington, George R.

    2000-11-01

    Adhesive bonded mounting of small optics for use at cryogenic temperatures provides improved heat transfer, low optical surface distortion, and reduced cost in comparison with conventional flexural mounts. A design methodology based on the thermo-elastic properties of the adhesive and its interaction with the mounted optic is presented. Key factors in the selection of the appropriate adhesive are high thermal conductivity, a low elastic modulus, a low glass-transition temperature, good adhesion characteristics to optic and substrate, and low outgassing. A design example of 17-mm diameter, 2-mm thick circular polycrystalline germanium window used at a temperature of below 100 K is discussed. During cooling at a rate of more than 3 K/sec the temperature at the center of the window mounted in this way lags behind the mount by no more than 20 K at any instant, and reaches equilibrium with the mount in about 50 sec. Maximum optical surface deformation of the mounted optic is less than 0.031 waves RMS differential (1 wave equals 633 nm) for a temperature change of 300 K to 102 K. Predicted peak tensile stress is less than 17 MPa. The adhesive bonded mount is also simple and economical in comparison with the complex flexural mounts often used for cryogenic optics.

  18. Using weight-for-age for predicting wasted children in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Kien, Agatha Tanya Nguti; Fokunang, Charles Ntungwen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The equipment for taking body weights (scales) are more frequently used in Cameroon health centres than measuring boards for heights. Even when the later exist there are some difficulties inherent in their qualities; thus the height measurement is not always available or accurate. Our objective for this study was to construct statistical models for predicting wasting from weight-for-age. Methods 3742 children aged 0 to 59 months were enrolled in a cross-sectional household survey (2004 Cameroon Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS)) covering the entire Cameroon national territory. Results There were highly significant association between underweight and wasting. For all discriminant statistical methods used, the test error rates (using an independent testing sample) were less than 5%; the Area Under Curve (AUC) using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) was 0.86. Conclusion The study showed that weight-for-age can be used for accurately classifying a child whose wasting status is unknown. The result is useful in Cameroon as too often the height measurements may not be feasible, thus the need for estimating wasted children. This study provides baseline information that will help to design a preliminary pivotal study on an immediate nutrition intervention for acute undernutrition. Its complications that could lead to morbidity and mortality can be greatly reduced or set up a management control strategy that will go a long way in reducing the cost of health care in Cameroon. PMID:23717712

  19. 40Ar/39Ar dating of basaltic dykes swarm in Western Cameroon: Evidence of Late Paleozoic and Mesozoic magmatism in the corridor of the Cameroon Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchouankoue, Jean Pierre; Simeni Wambo, Nicole Armelle; Kagou Dongmo, Armand; Li, Xian-Hua

    2014-05-01

    40Ar/39Ar ages of three basalt dykes that intrude the Precambrian basement in the southern continental part of the Cretaceous Cameroon Line are presented. Specimen were sampled at Dschang, Maham and Kendem (Cameroon). The ages obtained are 421.3 ± 3.5 Ma (Dschang), 404.22 ± 3.51 Ma (Maham), and 192.10 ± 7.45 Ma (Kendem). The Dschang and Maham samples yield a relatively undisturbed spectrum while the Kendem sample shows an excess of argon but with plateau ages in the frame of the Mesozoic. Plateau ages at Dschang, Maham and Kendem represent more than 80% of the total 39Ar released and are interpreted as emplacement ages. 40Ar/39Ar dating results confirm Devonian and Jurassic K/Ar ages obtained from similar dykes of the same region. Geochemically, the basalt dykes are subalkaline in composition with 45-50 wt.% SiO2. Incompatible trace elements and rare earth elements are lower than that of the Cameroon Line basalts. Overall geochemical characteristics of the basalt dykes much more closely resemble those of tholeiites of the Benue Through in Nigeria that are interpreted as related to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean. The combination of 40Ar/39Ar ages, major, trace and rare earth elements geochemistry data demonstrate a magmatic phase that is significantly older and different of that of the Cretaceous Cameroon Line and younger than the dominantly granitic Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic magmatism in the region. These findings offer new clues for a better understanding of the tectonic history of the region, particularly the origin of the Cameroon Line and Africa-South America pre-drift reconstitutions.

  20. Structural considerations in designing magnetorheological fluid mounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, The; Ciocanel, Constantin; Elahinia, Mohammad

    2010-04-01

    Modern vehicles have been increasingly equipped with advanced technologies such as hybrid and cylinder-on-demand to enhance fuel efficiency. These technologies also come with vibration problems due to the switching between the power sources or the variation of the number of active cylinders. To mitigate these vibrations, a large variety of vibration isolators have been proposed, ranging from passive to active isolators. Semi-active mounts are often preferred to other solutions because of their overall low power requirement in operation as well as relatively simpler configurations. Among the semi-active categories, the magnetorheological fluid (MRF) mounts have been proven to be a viable solution for modern vehicle vibration isolation. These mounts can change their stiffness and damping characteristic without involving moving parts, by controlling the yield stress of the MRF housed inside the mount by means of magnetic field. This study looked into several innovative designs for MRF mounts. The characteristics of the mount depend significantly on the compliances of the rubber, the number and arrangement of the fluid chambers and the number of flow passages connecting the chambers. These parameters provide the designers with various options to design the mounts to function in various conditions and over a wide range of frequencies. Different values of the aforementioned parameters were selected to form specific designs with certain characteristics. Mathematical models have been developed for each design and MATLAB/Simulink was used to simulate the response of each mount to certain excitations. As the hydraulic and magnetorheological (MR) effects are dominant in the mount, the elastomer behavior is considered linear. A discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of each design, based on the simulated response, is presented. The outcomes of this study can be a useful reference for MRF mount designers and leads to the development of a general MRF mount design

  1. Seeing measurements on Mount Graham

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulich, B. L.; Davison, W. B.

    1985-07-01

    A transportable 30-cm aperture telescope was constructed and used with a CCD camera to measure stellar image motion as seen from the summit of Mount Graham in southeastern Arizona. Based on observations during eight nights in October and November 1984, the average value of Fried's length r0 (Fried, 1967) at 0.5 micron wavelength is 13 cm at the zenith, implying a long-exposure visual image full width at half maximum of 0.8 arc second. Since only a small number of nights have been tested, the statistical uncertainty in the average seeing conditions is large and these results should be regarded as preliminary. No large differences were found among three different sites or between different heights of the telescope above the ground. Direct measurements of thermal turbulence in the first few tens of meters above ground indicate that telescopes may be located within a few meters of the ground and well below treetop height without significant seeing degradation.

  2. Measuring ambient particulate matter in three cities in Cameroon, Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonel, Jessica; Chowdhury, Zohir

    2014-10-01

    This is the first study of particulate matter (PM) air pollution in Cameroon. In this study, mass concentration and PM size fractions as well as carbonaceous contribution to PM are measured in Bafoussam, Bamenda, and Yaoundé, Cameroon. Average concentrations in Bafoussam, Bamenda, and Yaoundé of PM2.5 are 67 ± 14, 132 ± 64, and 49 ± 12 μg/m3 and PM10 are 105 ± 29, 141 ± 107, and 65 ± 21 μg/m3, respectively. Daytime levels of PM2.5 and PM10 are seen to be higher than nighttime levels in all cities except Bamenda where nighttime levels are higher for both PM sizes. In Bafoussam, the average PM1.0 particle number concentration during the day is 19,800 pt/cc and during the evening is 15,200 pt/cc. PM2.5/PM10 mass ratios are 0.65 ± 0.05, 0.75 ± 0.05, and 0.78 ± 0.09 for Bafoussam, Bamenda, and Yaounde, respectively. Elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) contribution to PM2.5 in Bafoussam, Bamenda, and Yaoundé are 3.9%, 2.9% and 12% for EC and 17.7%, 23.6%, and 34.2% for OC, respectively. After conducting spatial variability of PM mass concentration and size fractionation sampling at various locations within each of the three cities, we find that PM2.5 averages are highest during commercial meal preparation in Bafoussam (684 ± 546 μg/m3), and on the road in Bamenda (417 ± 113 μg/m3) and Yaoundé (110 ± 57 μg/m3). Additional air quality research in Central and West Africa is necessary to begin implementing policy steps that influence change and to advocate for improved health conditions in this rapidly expanding region of the world.

  3. A flexible cruciform journal bearing mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, A. E.; Geiger, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    Flexible mount achieves low roll, pitch and yaw stiffnesses while maintaining high radial stiffness by holding bearing pad in fixed relationship to deep web cruciform member and holding this member in fixed relationship to bearing support. This mount has particular application in small, high performance gas turbines.

  4. Mm-wave power meter mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullen, D. L.; Oltmans, D. A.; Stelzried, C. T.

    1968-01-01

    E-band thermistor mount and a technique for adjusting a temperature compensating thermistor to provide an electrically balanced bridge are used for measuring RF power in the mm-wavelength. The mount is relatively insensitive to temperature effects that cause measurement errors in single ended circuits.

  5. Three-point spherical mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.

    1990-01-01

    A three-point spherical mirror mount for use with lasers is disclosed. The improved mirror mount is adapted to provide a pivot ring having an outer surface with at least three spaced apart mating points to engage an inner spherical surface of a support housing.

  6. Helmet-Mounted Liquid-Crystal Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Steve; Plough, Alan; Clarke, Robert; Mclean, William; Fournier, Joseph; Marmolejo, Jose A.

    1991-01-01

    Helmet-mounted binocular display provides text and images for almost any wearer; does not require fitting for most users. Accommodates users from smallest interpupillary distance to largest. Two liquid-crystal display units mounted in helmet. Images generated seen from any position head can assume inside helmet. Eyes directed to position for best viewing.

  7. Three-point spherical mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, R.W.

    1984-01-23

    A three-point spherical mirror mount for use with lasers is disclosed. The improved mirror mount is adapted to provide a pivot ring having an outer surface with at least three spaced apart mating points to engage an inner spherical surface of a support housing.

  8. Sting-Mounted Flow Survey Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, G. C., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Flow survey instrumentation integral part of model support system. Drive motor, limit switches, and position transducer contained within streamlined housing and operable in near vacuum wing-tunnel environment. Sting-mounted system has advantages over conventional wall-mounted flow-field survey equipment, include more efficiently utilized run time, higher position accuracy, and fewer runs to map flow field.

  9. 49 CFR 179.10 - Tank mounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank mounting. 179.10 Section 179.10... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS General Design Requirements § 179.10 Tank mounting. (a) The manner in which tanks are attached to the...

  10. 78 FR 59954 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Michigan State Police, Mount Pleasant Post, Mount Pleasant, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Michigan State Police, Mount Pleasant Post, Mount Pleasant, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Michigan State Police... the Michigan State Police, Mount Pleasant Post. If no additional requestors come forward, transfer...

  11. New and little known species of ptyctimous mites (Acari, Oribatida) from Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Niedbała, Wojciech; Starý, Josef

    2014-11-28

    Altogether 24 species of ptyctimous mites were found in sifting litter samples from the Cameroon. Twelve new species of the ptyctimous mites, Indotritia montkoupensis sp. nov., Acrotritia furca sp. nov., Acrotritia quasidivida sp. nov., Hoplophthiracarus kumboensis sp. nov., Hoplophthiracarus reticulatus sp. nov., Hoplophthiracarus spinus sp. nov., Steganacarus (Rhacaplacarus) quaternarius sp. nov., Austrophthiracarus bicarinatus sp. nov., Protophthiracarus diatropos sp. nov., Protophthiracarus korupensis sp. nov., Protophthiracarus preptos sp. nov., Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) gibbus sp. nov., from the Cameroon are described and figured. Seven species are recorded for the first time for the Cameroon oribatid mite fauna. A comparison of morphological similarities with the most closely related species is presented. Taxonomical notes and additional information for two ptyctimous species: Acrotritia ardua (C.L.Koch, 1841), Arphthicarus sculptilis (Niedbała, 1988), were added. Keys for Afrotropical species of genera Hoplophthiracarus and Protophthiracarus are presented. 

  12. A miniaturized pointing mount for Spacelab missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritz, C. G.; Howell, T., Jr.; Nicaise, P. D.; Parker, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    A Miniaturized Pointing Mount (MPM) for Spacelab missions is defined and simulation results are described. This mount is proposed to complement the Spacelab Instrument Pointing System (IPS). It uses the same mount isolator concept as the Spacelab IPS but is much more efficient and economical for the accommodation of small shuttle payloads. The MPM is built from star tracker assemblies left over from the Apollo Telescope Mount program thereby assuring low cost and development risk. Simulation results indicate a high level of instrument stability can be expected. The short development time of the MPM would permit it to serve as a precursor to the Spacelab IPS for verifying critical new concepts such as the mount isolation and hold down mechanisms.

  13. Drill cuttings mount formation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teh, Su Yean; Koh, Hock Lye

    2014-07-01

    Oil, Gas and Energy sector has been identified as an essential driving force in the Malaysian Economic Transformation Programs (ETP). Recently confirmed discovery of many offshore oil and gas deposits in Malaysian waters has ignited new confidence in this sector. However, this has also spurred intense interest on safeguarding the health and environment of coastal waters in Malaysia from adverse impact resulting from offshore oil and gas production operation. Offshore discharge of spent drilling mud and rock cuttings is the least expensive and simplest option to dispose of large volumes of drilling wastes. But this onsite offshore disposal may have adverse environmental impacts on the water column and the seabed. It may also pose occupational health hazards to the workers living in the offshore platforms. It is therefore important to model the transport and deposition of drilling mud and rock cuttings in the sea to enable proper assessment of their adverse impacts on the environment and the workers. Further, accumulation of drill particles on the seabed may impede proper operation of pipelines on the seabed. In this paper, we present an in-house application model TUNA-PT developed to cater to local oil and gas industry needs to simulate the dispersion and mount formation of drill cuttings by offshore oil and gas exploration and production platforms. Using available data on Malaysian coastal waters, simulation analyses project a pile formation on the seabed with a maximum height of about 1 m and pile radius of around 30 to 50 m. Simulated pile heights are not sensitive to the heights of release of the cuttings as the sensitivity has been mitigated by the depth of water.

  14. Primary succession in Mount Pinatubo

    PubMed Central

    Marler, Thomas E; del Moral, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Vegetation structure on the east flank of Mount Pinatubo was investigated to determine the inventory of species at 15 y post-eruption, then to ascertain environmental variables that have influenced the early patterns of primary succession. Unconstrained and constrained ordination methods were used to determine the influence of spatial, elevation, and substrate patterns on vegetation. Vegetation was assigned to one of 3 habitat types. Scours were eroded flat surfaces, terraces were perched flat surfaces, and talus piles were created along the canyon edges as mass waste events. The influence of habitat type on vegetation was multifaceted because they represent different conditions and different histories. The talus piles have preferential access to colonists from the vegetation on the canyon walls above and a more benign microclimate than the exposed terrace and scour sites. Scoured sites on the valley floor exhibited the least vegetation cover, as these substrates had the least mature surfaces and the most restricted capacity for root exploration. Perched terraces exhibited greater plant dominance than did the other habitats in the early stages of succession because of the ubiquitous appearance of Parasponia rugosa as initial colonists on these relatively flat surfaces. Polynomial canonical correspondence analysis was more closely aligned with the pattern of vegetation than linear canonical correspondence analysis, and therefore more closely approximated accurate descriptions of correlations among site ordination positions and measured variables. These results confirm that a variety of statistical approaches can clarify applications for restoration ecology following landslide and volcanic disturbances or agriculture and forestry anthropogenic disturbances in the lowland tropics. PMID:24505499

  15. Origin and age of the Lake Nyos maar, Cameroon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockwood, J.P.; Rubin, M.

    1989-01-01

    Lake Nyos occupies a young maar crater in the Precambrian granitic terrane of northwest Cameroon. The lake is partly surrounded by poorly consolidated, ultramafic nodule-bearing pyroclastic surge deposits that were explosively ejected from the Nyos crater at the time of its formation. Radiocarbon dates show that the maar probably formed about 400 years ago. Field evidence suggests that carbon dioxide could have been the principal volatile involved in the formation of the Nyos maar, and that the role of water may have been minor. The formation of the Nyos maar was preceded by a brief period of effusive basaltic volcanism, but the maar itself may have largely formed by cold, 'dry' explosive processes. Carbon dioxide may still be trapped interstitially in a diatreme inferred to underlie Lake Nyos; its gradual release into the waters of Lake Nyos may have set the stage for the tragic gas-release event of August 21, 1986. Only young maar lakes such as Nyos may pose a danger of future lethal gas releases. ?? 1989.

  16. A lithospheric instability origin for the Cameroon Volcanic Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milelli, L.; Fourel, L.; Jaupart, C.

    2012-06-01

    The Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) is an enigmatic structure that defies common dynamic models of melt generation and volcanic activity on Earth. There, magma generation and intrusion has been sustained for more than 70 Myr over a 1600 km long chain straddling the ocean-continent boundary, with no detectable spatial age progression. The chain is nearly perpendicular to the coastline and terminates in a Y-shaped structure that has not been affected by absolute plate motions, implying that the mantle upwelling that feeds magmatic activity is attached to the continent. We propose that this form of volcanism is due to a new type of instability that may develop within the subcontinental lithospheric mantle at the edge of a continent. Laboratory experiments document how lithosphere beneath a continental block of finite size can become unstable due to cooling from above. The instability pattern is made of linear upwellings and downwellings that converge radially towards the center of the continent in an outer region and an array of polygonal cells in a central region. The pattern is characterized by branching structures that are reminiscent of the strike and Y-shaped outline of the CVL. The instability develops over long timescales with small rates of upwelling and melting, and is attached to the continent by construction. Downwellings adjacent to upwellings induce compression in the crust, which may account for deformation in the Benue trough just before the onset of CVL magmatism.

  17. Compatibility of Schistosoma mansoni Cameroon and Biomphalaria pfeifferi Senegal.

    PubMed

    Southgate, V R; Tchuenté, L A; Théron, A; Jourdane, J; Ly, A; Moncrieff, C B; Gryseels, B

    2000-11-01

    The vectorial capacity of Biomphalaria pfeifferi from Ndiangue, Senegal, was investigated with an allopatric isolate of Schistosoma mansoni from Nkolbisson, Cameroon. The snail infection rate after exposure to a single miracidium per snail (MD1) was 56. 3 %, and 91.6%, for snails exposed to 5 miracidia per snail (MD5). The minimum pre-patent period was 21 days. The mean total cercarial production for the MDI group was 18,511 cercariae per snail, and 9757 cercariae for the MD5 group. The maximum production of cercariae for 1 day was 4892 observed in a snail from the MDI group at day 43 post-infection. The mean longevity of snails was higher in group MD1 (88 days p.i.) than in group MD5 (65 days p.i.). The chronobiological emergence pattern revealed a circadian rhythm with one shedding peak at mid-day. Comparisons are made with the vectorial capacity of the sympatric combination of B. pfeifferi Senegal/S. mansoni Senegal.

  18. [Judicial proceedings involving sexual abuse of minors in Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Mbassa Menick, D

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate how courts in Cameroon treat cases involving sexual abuse on minors by comparing the incidence of hospital examinations and legal proceedings for sexual abuse. This retrospective study is based on a review of public records at the Yaoundé Court of Justice covering the period from October 1, 1994 to January 6, 1999. Of the 2345 criminal cases recorded during the study period, 224 involved sexual abuse on minors under the age of 16 years (9.5 p. 100 of cases). The victims were all female ranging from 3 to 15 years of age (mean, 9 years) with a peak incidence between 10 and 15 years (70 p. 100). All offenders were adults between 21 and 50 years of age (mean, 30 years) at the time of the crime. This study showed that the incidence of court proceedings for sexual abuse is higher than that of hospital examinations for sexual abuse. Most offenders convicted of sexual abuse on minors received long prison sentences, i.e. 15 years or more. No reconciliatory action or mediation was initiated by the court or third parties. PMID:11100448

  19. Ethnobotanical survey of trees in Fundong, Northwest Region, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Focho, Derek A; Newu, Muh C; Anjah, Mendi G; Nwana, Fongod A; Ambo, Fonge B

    2009-01-01

    Ethnobotanical investigations were conducted in Fundong Central Subdivision in the Northwest Region of Cameroon to identify trees growing in the area and collect information on their uses by the local people. This research covered a period of 12 months from May 2007 to April 2008. Ethnobotanical information was collected through the show-and-tell/semi-structured method and personal interviews during field trips. Three villages were investigated. A total of 82 tree species were identified belonging to 70 genera and 42 families. Among these species, 40 were widely used by the local people in traditional medicine to treat 48 human ailments. Tree species were also used for fuel wood, construction materials, wood carving and honey production. Leaves and barks were commonly used in traditional medicine while the wood, branches and the entire plants were commonly used for other purposes. In spite of the scarcity of natural forests in the study area, the local populations continue to depend on indigenous and exotic trees in their surroundings for their survival. There is therefore need for cultivation, protection and sustainable management of these valuable resources for rural livelihoods. PMID:19555468

  20. Perspectives in genetics and sickle cell disease prevention in Africa: beyond the preliminary data from Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Wonkam, Ambroise; Bitoungui, Valentina Josiane Ngo; Ngogang, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    Cameroon is a country of 20 million inhabitants with a carrier frequency of Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) ranging from 8 to 34 % [1]. Despite the exceptional severity, illustrated by a high prevalence of stroke (6·7%) among SCD patients [2], there are no specialized centres for lifelong medical care in Cameroon. Therefore, management needs to be accompanied by various preventive strategies. Prevention also extends to early detection with the aim to identify SCD in the foetus, provide reproductive options and options for treatment and prognosis. PMID:26044545

  1. An improved loopless mounting method for cryocrystallography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Jian-Xun; Jiang, Fan

    2010-01-01

    Based on a recent loopless mounting method, a simplified loopless and bufferless crystal mounting method is developed for macromolecular crystallography. This simplified crystal mounting system is composed of the following components: a home-made glass capillary, a brass seat for holding the glass capillary, a flow regulator, and a vacuum pump for evacuation. Compared with the currently prevalent loop mounting method, this simplified method has almost the same mounting procedure and thus is compatible with the current automated crystal mounting system. The advantages of this method include higher signal-to-noise ratio, more accurate measurement, more rapid flash cooling, less x-ray absorption and thus less radiation damage to the crystal. This method can be extended to the flash-freeing of a crystal without or with soaking it in a lower concentration of cryoprotectant, thus it may be the best option for data collection in the absence of suitable cryoprotectant. Therefore, it is suggested that this mounting method should be further improved and extensively applied to cryocrystallographic experiments.

  2. Decoupling analysis for a powertrain mounting system with a combination of hydraulic mounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jinfang; Chen, Wuwei; Huang, He

    2013-07-01

    The existing torque roll axis(TRA) decoupling theories for a powertrain mounting system assume that the stiffness and viscous damping properties are constant. However, real-life mounts exhibit considerable spectrally varying stiffness and damping characteristics, and the influence of the spectrally-varying properties of the hydraulic mounts on the powertrain system cannot be ignored. To overcome the deficiency, an analytical quasi-linear model of the hydraulic mount and the coupled properties of the powertrain and hydraulic mounts system are formulated. The influence of the hydraulic mounts on the TRA decoupling of a powertrain system is analytically examined in terms of eigensolutions, frequency, and impulse responses, and then a new analytical axiom is proposed based on the TRA decoupling indices. With the experimental setup of a fixed decoupler hydraulic mount in the context of non-resonant dynamic stiffness testing procedure, the quasi-linear model of the hydraulic mount is verified by comparing the predictions with the measurement. And the quasi-linear formulation of the coupled system is also verified by comparing the frequency responses with the numerical results obtained by the direct inversion method. Finally, the mounting system with a combination of hydraulic mounts is redesigned in terms of the stiffness, damping and mount locations by satisfying the new axiom. The frequency and time domain results of the redesigned system demonstrate that the torque roll axis of the redesigned powertrain mounting system is indeed decoupled in the presence of hydraulic mounts (given oscillating torque or impulsive torque excitation). The proposed research provides an important basis and method for the research on a powertrain system with spectrally-varying mount properties, especially for the TRA decoupling.

  3. The Burden of Orphans and Vulnerable Children Due to HIV/AIDS in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Nsagha, Dickson S; Bissek, Anne-Cécile ZK; Nsagha, Sarah M; Assob, Jules-Clement N; Kamga, Henri-Lucien F; Njamnshi, Dora M; Njunda, Anna L; Obama, Marie-Thérèse O; Njamnshi, Alfred K

    2012-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is a major public health problem in Cameroon and Africa, and the challenges of orphans and vulnerable children are a threat to child survival, growth and development. The HIV prevalence in Cameroon was estimated at 5.1% in 2010. The objective of this study was to assess the burden of orphans and vulnerable children due to HIV/AIDS in Cameroon. A structured search to identify publications on orphans and other children made vulnerable by AIDS was carried out. A traditional literature search on google, PubMed and Medline using the keywords: orphans, vulnerable children, HIV/AIDS and Cameroon was conducted to identify potential AIDS orphans publications, we included papers on HIV prevalence in Cameroon, institutional versus integrated care of orphans, burden of children orphaned by AIDS and projections, impact of AIDS orphans on Cameroon, AIDS orphans assisted through the integrated care approach, and comparism of the policies of orphans care in the central African sub-region. We also used our participatory approach working experience with traditional rulers, administrative authorities and health stakeholders in Yaounde I and Yaounde VI Councils, Nanga Eboko Health District, Isangelle and Ekondo Titi Health Areas, Bafaka-Balue, PLAN Cameroon, the Pan African Institute for Development-West Africa, Save the orphans Foundation, Ministry of Social Affairs, and the Ministry of Public Health. Results show that only 9% of all OVC in Cameroon are given any form of support. AIDS death continue to rise in Cameroon. In 1995, 7,900 people died from AIDS in the country; and the annual number rose to 25,000 in 2000. Out of 1,200,000 orphans and vulnerable children in Cameroon in 2010, 300,000(25%) were AIDS orphans. Orphans and the number of children orphaned by AIDS has increased dramatically from 13,000 in 1995 to 304,000 in 2010. By 2020, this number is projected to rise to 350,000. These deaths profoundly affect families, which often are split up and left without any

  4. Two degree of freedom camera mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A two degree of freedom camera mount. The camera mount includes a socket, a ball, a first linkage and a second linkage. The socket includes an interior surface and an opening. The ball is positioned within an interior of the socket. The ball includes a coupling point for rotating the ball relative to the socket and an aperture for mounting a camera. The first and second linkages are rotatably connected to the socket and slidably connected to the coupling point of the ball. Rotation of the linkages with respect to the socket causes the ball to rotate with respect to the socket.

  5. Mounting with compliant cylinders for deformable mirrors.

    PubMed

    Reinlein, Claudia; Goy, Matthias; Lange, Nicolas; Appelfelder, Michael

    2015-04-01

    A method is presented to mount large aperture unimorph deformable mirrors by compliant cylinders (CC). The CCs are manufactured from a soft silicone, and shear testing is performed in order to evaluate the Young's modulus. A scale mirror model is assembled to evaluate mount-induced change of piezoelectric deformation, and its applicability for tightly focusing mirrors. Experiments do not show any decrease of piezoelectric stroke. Further it is shown that the changes of surface fidelity by the attachment of the deformable mirror to its mount are neglectable.

  6. NIRCam filter wheel optic mount design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Privári, Béla I.; Hom, Craig; Jacoby, Michael

    2009-08-01

    The mechanical design of any optic mount requires an understanding of the sensitivities of the optical design. The design of the filter optic mounts used on the James Webb Space Telescope - NIRCam filter wheel assemblies have been designed to support the optics in a manner that does not compromise optical performance, while coping with several environmental conditions. We will review the design of the NIRCam filter optic assemblies and confirm the merits of the approach chosen to mount the optics, considering thermal, vibration and stress effects.

  7. Mount Shasta Wilderness study area, California

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, R.L.; Tuchek, E.T.

    1984-01-01

    The Mount Shasta Wilderness study area was surveyed in 1975. It lies wholly on the slopes and summit area of Mount Shasta and consists almost entirely of the products of geologically young volcanism. Small deposits of volcanic cinders and pumice are present. The volcanic system of Mount Shasta is judged to have probable resource potential for geothermal energy but that potential is least within the wilderness study area boundaries. Because any geothermal energy resource beneath the volcano would lie at considerable depths, exploration or development would be most likely at lower altitudes on the gentler slopes outside the study area.

  8. MOUNT SHASTA WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christiansen, Robert L.; Tuchek, Ernest T.

    1984-01-01

    The Mount Shasta Wilderness lies wholly on the slopes and summit area of Mount Shasta and consists almost entirely of the products of geologically young volcanism. Small deposits of volcanic cinders and pumice are present. The volcanic system of Mount Shasta is judged to have probable resource potential for geothermal energy but that potential is least within the wilderness study area boundaries. Because any geothermal energy resource beneath the volcano would lie at considerable depths, exploration or development would be most likely at lower altitudes on the gentler slopes outside the study area.

  9. Vibration dissipation mount for motors or the like

    DOEpatents

    Small, Thomas R.

    1987-01-01

    A vibration dissipation mount which permits the mounting of a motor, generator, or the like such that the rotatable shaft thereof passes through the mount and the mount permits the dissipation of self-induced and otherwise induced vibrations wherein the mount comprises a pair of plates having complementary concave and convex surfaces, a semi-resilient material being disposed therebetween.

  10. The 1991 eruptions of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfe, Edward W.

    1992-01-01

    Recognition of the volcanic unrest at Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines began when steam explosions occurred on April 2, 1991. The unrest culminated ten weeks later in the world's largest eruption in more than half a century. 

  11. Apollo Telescope Mount of Skylab: an overview.

    PubMed

    Tousey, R

    1977-04-01

    This introductory paper describes Skylab and the course of events that led to this complex space project. In particular it covers the Apollo Telescope Mount and its instruments and the method of operation of the ATM mission.

  12. Progress made in understanding Mount Rainier's hazards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sisson, T.W.; Vallance, J.W.; Pringle, P.T.

    2001-01-01

    At 4392 m high, glacier-clad Mount Rainier dominates the skyline of the southern Puget Sound region and is the centerpiece of Mount Rainier National Park. About 2.5 million people of the greater Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area can see Mount Rainier on clear days, and 150,000 live in areas swept by lahars and floods that emanated from the volcano during the last 6,000 years (Figure 1). These lahars include the voluminous Osceola Mudflow that floors the lowlands south of Seattle and east of Tacoma, and which was generated by massive volcano flank-collapse. Mount Rainier's last eruption was a light dusting of ash in 1894; minor pumice last erupted between 1820 and 1854; and the most recent large eruptions we know of were about 1100 and 2300 years ago, according to reports from the U.S. Geological Survey.

  13. Microgravity isolation mounts based upon Piezoelectric film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonflotow, Andreas

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) actuator; a semi-active soft mount; a 3-axis experiment; low frequency disturbance attenuation; the control problem; and a 6-axis laboratory prototype.

  14. Raster graphic helmet-mounted display study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beamon, William S.; Moran, Susanna I.

    1990-01-01

    A design of a helmet mounted display system is presented, including a design specification and development plan for the selected design approach. The requirements for the helmet mounted display system and a survey of applicable technologies are presented. Three helmet display concepts are then described which utilize lasers, liquid crystal display's (LCD's), and subminiature cathode ray tubes (CRT's), respectively. The laser approach is further developed in a design specification and a development plan.

  15. Isolation Mounting for Charge-Coupled Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goss, W. C.; Salomon, P. M.

    1985-01-01

    CCD's suspended by wires under tension. Remote thermoelectric cooling of charge coupled device allows vibration isolating mounting of CCD assembly alone, without having to suspend entire mass and bulk of thermoelectric module. Mounting hardware simple and light. Developed for charge-coupled devices (CCD's) in infrared telescope support adaptable to sensors in variety of environments, e.g., sensors in nuclear reactors, engine exhausts and plasma chambers.

  16. Mount Rainier: living with perilous beauty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Kevin M.; Wolfe, Edward W.; Driedger, Carolyn L.

    1998-01-01

    Mount Rainier is an active volcano reaching more than 2.7 miles (14,410 feet) above sea level. Its majestic edifice looms over expanding suburbs in the valleys that lead to nearby Puget Sound. USGS research over the last several decades indicates that Mount Rainier has been the source of many volcanic mudflows (lahars) that buried areas now densely populated. Now the USGS is working cooperatively with local communities to help people live more safely with the volcano.

  17. Motorized control for mirror mount apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.

    1989-01-01

    A motorized control and automatic braking system for adjusting mirror mount apparatus is disclosed. The motor control includes a planetary gear arrangement to provide improved pitch adjustment capability while permitting a small packaged design. The motor control for mirror mount adjustment is suitable for laser beam propagation applications. The brake is a system of constant contact, floating detents which engage the planetary gear at selected between-teeth increments to stop rotation instantaneously when the drive motor stops.

  18. Volcanic hazards at Mount Shasta, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crandell, Dwight R.; Nichols, Donald R.

    1989-01-01

    The eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Washington, in 1980 served as a reminder that long-dormant volcanoes can come to life again. Those eruptions, and their effects on people and property, also showed the value of having information about volcanic hazards well in advance of possible volcanic activity. This pamphlet about Mount Shasta provides such information for the public, even though the next eruption may still be far in the future.

  19. Mount Sinai Hospital's journey into TQM.

    PubMed

    Freedman, T; Mapa, J; Droppo, L

    1994-01-01

    Toronto's Mount Sinai Hospital commenced its total quality management journey in the late 1980s as a complement to its extensive experience in quality assurance. This article focuses on Phase I--the process of setting up teams. This phase includes project nomination and selection; team membership selection and education; and the quality improvement process. The authors share the lessons they learned during the course of the journey and present the directions that TQM at Mount Sinai will take in the future.

  20. Deep seismic imaging across the Cameroon Volcanic Line

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, J.B.; Rosendahl, B.R. )

    1991-03-01

    The Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) is a southwest-trending line of volcanic centers that extends from near Lake Chad to at least the island of Pagalu. The Sao Tome and Principe Islands along the CVL have intrigued explorationists for decades because oil seeps and windows of sediments occur on them. Recently the 'PROBE Study' acquired a grid of deep-imagining multifold seismic data cross submarine portions of the CVL. Profiles crossing the CVL show upward flexure of oceanic crust and Moho reflections of more than 3 km locally. Upper Cretaceous/lower Tertiary drift sequence reflectors are concordant to crustal uplift, and shoal toward the islands where they are enmeshed with volcanics. These sediments are apparently the source of oil seeps on Sao Tome and Principe. On the flanks of CVL islands and seamounts, regionally continuous sequence boundaries are observed onlapping rotated older sediment reflectors. These sequence boundaries display either base-discordant onlap patterns or divergent onlap patterns, both indicative of uplift, not eustatic fluctuation. The 'uplift sequence boundaries' probably result from uplift associated with pulses of colcanism in the Miocene. It is likely this arching is the equivalent of the Miocene Adamawa uplift that occurs on land. The authors hypothesize crustal uplift was produced by upwelling of the asthenosphere and upward percolation of light mantle fluids. Features which may be the tops of magma bodies 2-20 km wide are imaged in some of the reflection profiles, and possible shear zones and fluid conduits are observed as sub-Moho dipping reflector events.

  1. [Epidemiology of obesity in the work milieu, Douala, Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Fouda, A A Bita; Lemogoum, D; Manga, J Owona; Il Dissongo, J; Tobbit, R; Moyo, D F Ngounou; Sume, G Etapelong; Kollo, B

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a worldwide public health problem, and its burden has been poorly explored in Cameroon, especially in work place. We therefore carried out in April 2010, an analytic cross-sectional study aiming to determine the prevalence of obesity, associated risk factors and health risk in six randomly selected enterprises based in Douala. Among the 552 participants, 383 (69.4%) were males. Most of the workers (55.4%) were aged less than 35 years old. There was 191 (34.60%) office staff as against 361 (65.40%) labourers. In each participant, blood pressures, and fasting blood glucose were recorded, as well as obesity indexes comprising body mass index and waist circumference. They were calculated and data analyzed using SPSS 16 and Win Pepi 11.8. The prevalence of obesity in workers was 23.4%, and was more pronounced in women than in men (36.1% vs 17.8%; P < 0.005). The workers aged > or = 45 years old exhibited highest obesity rate than other age group (P = 0.03). Importantly, the prevalence of hypertension was two fold greater in obese workers than non obese (P < 0.005; RR = 2.1; IC 95%: 1.57-2.83). 271 (49.1%) of the workers were overweight. Among the obese subjects, those with visceral obesity: 56 (43.4%) females with a waist circumference > 88 cm and 41 (31.8%) men with a waist circumference > 102 cm were at very high health risk. Obesity was significantly associated with excessive alcohol consumption (P = 0.013) and high salt diet (P = 0.022). This study reveals a high burden of obesity in the work place in Douala and outlines the urgent needs of implementation of prevention programme in that milieu. PMID:22891584

  2. Byssinosis in a textile factory in Cameroon: a preliminary study.

    PubMed Central

    Takam, J; Nemery, B

    1988-01-01

    To assess the risk of byssinosis in a cotton textile factory in Cameroon a preliminary study was conducted on a random sample of 125 men from production areas and 68 men from non-production areas. Symptoms were assessed by a questionnaire, which also included questions regarding sleep; peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) was measured with a miniature peak flow meter at the end of a working day and total dust concentrations were assessed by static and personal sampling with Casella dust samplers giving values of 6.4 +/- 2.6 mg/m3 (m +/- SD) in production areas and 1.7 +/- 0.7 mg/m3 in control areas. Exposed subjects had significantly more symptoms (particularly in smokers) and lower PEF values than controls (408 +/- 961/min v 468 +/- 701/min, p less than 0.001). Twenty three exposed subjects (18%) reported chest tightness on returning to work after the weekly break (compared with one control, p less than 0.01). Subjects with byssinosis had lower PEF values than those without chest tightness (356 +/- 501/min v 426 +/- 951/min, p less than 0.01), more chronic bronchitis (52% v 6%, p less than 0.001), they were more often smokers (61% v 31%, p less than 0.05), and came generally, though not exclusively, from the opening carding spinning department with the highest concentrations of total dust (8 +/- 2 mg/m3) and an estimated prevalence of byssinosis of 28%. There were no significant differences in sleep related symptoms between the exposed and controls, though the 23 subjects with byssinosis tended to report more snoring (48%), early morning headache (48%), and sleep improvement over the working week (44%) than all the other subjects (28%, 24%, and 24% respectively, p less than 0.1). PMID:3219305

  3. Seasonal variations of surface duct conditions in Ngaoundere, North Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaissassou, Samuel; Lenouo, André; Nzeukou, Armand; Tchawoua, Clément; Vondou, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The seasonal variations of refractivity gradients from 104 to 3000 m above ground level in the troposphere layer are presented based on observations from the radiosonde station located in Ngaoundere (13.5°E, 7.3°N), a middle belt savannah region of Cameroon. Six years (2006-2011) of data from in situ measurements made by Agency for the Safety of Air Navigation in Africa and Madagascar (ASECNA) of the temperature, moisture, and pressure are used to determine the surface duct conditions over Ngaoundere region. Each time that a negative gradient from the Abel-retrieved refractivity profiles is seen, it implies the presence of a duct in this study. The occurrence of ducts strongly depends on the local climate and synoptic weather conditions which have an appreciable influence on the refractivity vertical profile, especially the seasonal north-south movement of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) which provides wet and dry seasons to the region. Monthly and seasonal variations of ducts were also determined from the measured data. The highest and the lowest occurrence rate of surface ducts were observed during the wet and the dry seasons, respectively. September appears as the month when most of the ducts occur at the rate of at least one duct per day. The median duct thickness and duct strength are high and strong during the wet season, whereas they are low and weak during the dry season. When the data are separated into stable and unstable atmospheric conditions, we noticed that surface duct characteristics show some seasonal differences. Surface ducts are found to be more frequent in a stable atmosphere than in an unstable atmosphere. Statistical results are discussed alongside with local meteorological conditions and weather systems affecting the town of Ngaoundere. Besides, comments are made on their prospective significance in the region.

  4. Students' Indiscipline: Types, Causes and Possible Solutions: The Case of Secondary Schools in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngwokabuenui, Ponfua Yhayeh

    2015-01-01

    This study explores students' indiscipline in secondary schools in Cameroon. The purpose of this research is to examine the familiar or common forms, the causes and probable ways to curb indiscipline in schools. The study made use of descriptive survey research design. The study was guided by four research questions whereas two hypotheses were…

  5. [Intestinal parasite diagnoses in Chad and North Cameroon, 1963-2009].

    PubMed

    Massenet, D; Gamougam, K; Djerané, L; Toukour, A

    2012-01-01

    The authors report the results of parasitological analyses of stool samples in N'Djamena (Chad) since 1963 and in Garoua (North Cameroon) since 1990. The number of positive stool examinations has fallen, with a significant decline in helminthiases, although the level of protozoan infections has remained essentially the same.

  6. Lolodorfus, a new genus of net-winged beetles (Coleoptera: Lycidae: Dexorinae) from Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Bocakova, Milada

    2014-06-04

    A new genus Lolodorfus is proposed within the subfamily Dexorinae and Lolodorfus flavus sp. nov. from Cameroon is described. Illustrations of diagnostic characters are given. The genus Mimolibnetis Pic, 1936 is transferred to the Dexorinae Bocak et Bocakova, 1989, and consequently the subfamily Mimolibnetinae Kazantsev, 2013 is considered to be a younger synonym of Dexorinae Bocak et Bocakova, 1989.

  7. Teaching Practice in Cameroon: The Effectiveness of the University of Buea Model and Implications for Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endeley, Margaret Nalova

    2014-01-01

    The paper aimed at assessing the effectiveness of the teaching practice model in the University of Buea, which is different from that of other teacher education institutions in Cameroon. Teaching Practice is an important component of a teacher education programme and the quality of supervision and duration are key in achieving effectiveness which…

  8. The Emotional World of Kinship: Children's Experiences of Fosterage in East Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notermans, Catrien

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on children's narrated experiences of fosterage in East Cameroon. It seeks to complement the predominantly adult approaches to fosterage with children's views of the intimate, emotional and competitive aspects of kinship in everyday life. As kinship evolves in homes through sharing food and intimacy, children directly…

  9. [Biogeographical distribution of snakes in Cameroon: the case of venomous snakes].

    PubMed

    Gonwouo, N L; LeBreton, M; Chirio, L; Ngassam, P; Ngoa, L E; Dzikouk, G

    2005-11-01

    A preliminary analysis of the distribution of snakes captured in Cameroon between 1999 and 2004 is presented in this study. This work helps to provide a better understanding of the distribution of the venomous snakes. The main focus of this study was to identify regions of high diversity of venomous species, a useful step towards developing a national strategy of snakebite care and antivenom distribution. We recorded 4,910 specimens of 150 species from 361 localities throughout Cameroon. Among the ten provinces in Cameroon, the southwest province recorded the highest number of venomous snakes. Diversity was less in the far-north province, but the high abundance of Echis ocellatus seems to be responsible for many snake bites in the region. Of all venomous snakes, the forest cobra Naja melanoleuca was the most abundant in the forest region. The humid savannah region was dominated by Causus maculatus while the Sahelian part by Echis ocellatus. Given the abundance and high snake bite cases of the latter in the region, snakebite care from a national point of view should begin from the far-north towards the forest region of the south-west Cameroon.

  10. Technical and Vocational Education in Cameroon and Critical Avenues for Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Che, S. Megan

    2007-01-01

    Technical and vocational education (TVE) can influence development and economic progress for post-colonial societies. Some newly independent sub-Saharan African countries attempted curricular transformation that might produce a skilled workforce through widespread access to versions of TVE. In Cameroon, no such post-colonial curricular revolution…

  11. Learner Orientation through Professional Development of Teachers? Empirical Results from Cascade Training in Anglophone Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of a professional development programme on the attitudes towards the teaching and learning of teachers in the Anglophone part of Cameroon. The development programme combines a multiplier system with school-based in-service training. The research compares the effects that the training had on the attitudes of three…

  12. Parentage analysis and outcrossing patterns in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) farms in Cameroon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study investigates the parentage of farm accessions in Cameroon using data from 12 microsatellite loci. Bayesian analysis suggests that 25.5% of the 400 farm accessions studies are still closely related to the traditinal Amelonado variety called 'German Cocoa' by the farmers. Another 46....

  13. An Emerging Donor in Education and Development: A Case Study of China in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordtveit, Bjorn H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes China's new approaches of education aid to Africa through a case study of Cameroon. China's cooperation has been characterized by different discourses and different historic relationships with recipient countries than those of traditional donors. Sino-African policies have gone through different stages, each connected to wider…

  14. The Dynamics of Political Competition and the Future of Democratization Process in Cameroon: Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forje, John W.

    2006-01-01

    The paper looks at the process of democratisation in Cameroon and its failure to respond to the basic tenets of democracy that meets the aspirations of the people. It argues that though there have been some quasi moves following the collapse of the Soviet Union in trying to open the political space, this has been done to meet donors wish and not…

  15. Implications of Local Literacy Practices for Literacy Programmes in a Multilingual Community in Northern Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheffy, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Research in a rural area of northern Cameroon where most adults describe themselves as illiterate reveals a complex picture in which three languages are used in different ways and in different domains of life. The profile of the literacy practices associated with these languages is correspondingly complex. This paper argues that it is important…

  16. Dieback due to Lasiodiplodia theobromae, a new phytosanitary constraint to cocoa culture in Cameroon.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the introduction of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) in Cameroon in 1886, the only serious disease has been Phytophthora pod rot. Recently, cocoa orchards have been subjected to an increasingly important decline due to an uncommon dieback disease. Irrespective of age, affected cocoa trees manifest ...

  17. Frequency and Use of Modals in Cameroon English and Application to Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nkemleke, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This contribution investigates the frequency patterns of the modal verbs as they occur in the one-million-word corpus of Cameroon written English. An analysis of dominant senses of some of the modals is also attempted. I have used results and statistical figures from British and American English (as reported in studies such as Biber et al. 1999…

  18. Instructors' Perceptions of the Bologna Model of Higher Education Reform in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mngo, Zachary Y.

    2011-01-01

    Problem Statement. The literature on education in Cameroon suggests that there is a deep-rooted history of resistance to educational reform and harmonization both at the K12 and higher education levels. Attempts by political and educational leaders to reform and harmonize the two very distinct systems of education, inherited from former colonizers…

  19. 78 FR 76698 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Cameroon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Cameroon Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act and similar provisions of law in prior year Acts with respect to...

  20. [An inventory of activities related to the collection of demographic data concerning households in Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Fotso, E

    1984-01-01

    The author attempts to list, following a brief introduction, all the projects undertaken since 1921 that have included the collection of demographic data concerning Cameroon. Information is included on the title of the census or survey, date, geographic coverage, executing agency, and publication of results. PMID:12339838

  1. Language Ideology and the Colonial Legacy in Cameroon Schools: A Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nana, Genevoix

    2016-01-01

    Cameroon prior to colonization had many languages, with none having precedence over the other. With the development of trade and the installation of missionaries along its coast, a number of local and European languages gained prominence. English became the most widely used western language. It established itself as the language of trade and of…

  2. Buruli Ulcer in Cameroon: The Development and Impact of the National Control Programme

    PubMed Central

    Tabah, Earnest Njih; Nsagha, Dickson Shey; Bissek, Anne-Cécile Zoung-Kanyi; Njamnshi, Alfred Kongnyu; Bratschi, Martin W.; Pluschke, Gerd; Um Boock, Alphonse

    2016-01-01

    Background Cameroon is endemic for Buruli ulcer (BU) and organised institutional BU control began in 2002. The objective was to describe the evolution, achievements and challenges of the national BU control programme (NBUCP) and to make suggestions for scaling up the programme. Methods We analysed collated data on BU from 2001 to 2014 and reviewed activity reports NBUCP in Cameroon. Case-detection rates and key BU control indicators were calculated and plotted on a time scale to determine trends in performance. A linear regression analysis of BU detection rate from 2005–2014 was done. The regression coefficient was tested statistically for the significance in variation of BU detection rate. Principal findings In 14 years of BU control, 3700 cases were notified. The BU detection rate dropped significantly from 3.89 to 1.45 per 100 000 inhabitants. The number of BU endemic health districts rose from two to 64. Five BU diagnostic and treatment centres are functional and two more are planned for 2015. The health system has been strengthened and BU research and education has gained more interest in Cameroon. Conclusion/Significance Although institutional BU control Cameroon only began 30 years after the first cases were reported in 1969, a number of milestones have been attained. These would serve as stepping stones for charting the way forward and improving upon control activities in the country if the major challenge of resource allocation is dealt with. PMID:26760499

  3. The Position of English Globally and Nationally: A Comparison of Cameroon and Vanuatu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abongdia, Jane-Francis A.; Willans, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates language ideologies relevant to medium of instruction policy within two postcolonial countries: Cameroon and Vanuatu. Each country experienced British and French rule, and has retained both English and French as official languages and media of instruction. However, since Independence, there has been a difference in the way…

  4. "A Child has Many Mothers": Views of Child Fostering in Northwestern Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoef, Heidi

    2005-01-01

    This article examines 20 fostering arrangements in a growing urban community in northwestern Cameroon from the perspectives of those involved. Analysis of interviews with caregivers and birth mothers suggests that the nature of adult relationships is central to children's living arrangements. Three caregiver-mother relationship profiles are…

  5. Exploring the Game of "Julirde": A Mathematical-Educational Game Played by Fulbe Children in Cameroon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Paulus

    2001-01-01

    Presents an educational mathematical activity from Africa. Shows how one child explored the game of Julirde, a game of the mosque emphasizing problem solving and symmetry. Offers several suggestions for exploring the game from the central African country of Cameroon in the elementary school mathematics classroom. (ASK)

  6. The Impact of a Community Mobilization Project on Health-Related Knowledge and Practices in Cameroon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babalola, Stella; Sakolsky, Natasha; Vondrasek, Claudia; Mounlom, Damaris; Brown, Jane; Tchupo, Jean-Paul

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated the impact of a reproductive health community mobilization initiative in Cameroon. Baseline and followup survey data indicated that at a rural site, the intervention positively influenced family planning knowledge and practices, HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted disease knowledge and attitudes, and use of health services. At an urban…

  7. Is Language Planning an Indispensable Tool for Developing Nations? The Case of Cameroon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enoch, Tabe Florence Ako

    2000-01-01

    Suggest that because language planning is a tool in the service of many different latent goals, it rarely conforms to a rational paradigm of decision-making or problem-solving. This article presents a linguistic profile of Cameroon. (Author/VWL)

  8. Local Agency in the Development of Minority Languages: Three Language Committees in Northwest Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudell, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Examples of effective community-based action in defence of minority indigenous language are relatively few. However, three indigenous language committees of Northwest Cameroon, the Bafut, Kom and Nso' language committees, provide dynamic models of the role that community-based organisations can play in the development and maintenance of minority…

  9. Fish Pond Aquaculture in Cameroon: A Field Survey of Determinants for Farmers' Adoption Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndah, Hycenth Tim; Knierim, Andrea; Ndambi, Oghaiki Asaah

    2011-01-01

    Although fish farming in Cameroon started in the late 1940s, currently the country meets only half of its domestic demand for fish. This article examines the complex issue of farmers' adoption decisions and attempts to answer why there is a lag in the diffusion process. The theory of behaviour modification and key variables of adoption form the…

  10. Gas emission from diffuse degassing structures (DDS) of the Cameroon volcanic line (CVL): Implications for the prevention of CO2-related hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issa; Ohba, T.; Chako Tchamabé, B.; Padrón, E.; Hernández, P.; Eneke Takem, E. G.; Barrancos, J.; Sighomnoun, D.; Ooki, S.; Nkamdjou, Sigha; Kusakabe, M.; Yoshida, Y.; Dionis, S.

    2014-08-01

    In the mid-1980s, lakes Nyos and Monoun violently released massive gas, mainly magmatic CO2 killing about 1800 people. Subsequent geochemical surveys and social studies indicate that lakes Nyos and Monoun event is cyclic in nature and may occur anywhere in the about 37 other volcanic lakes located in the corridor of the Cameroon volcanic line (CVL). This potential threat motivated us to check if, alike Nyos and Monoun, the internal dynamic of the other lakes is also controlled by inputs of deep-seated-derived CO2 and attempt to measure and provide comprehensive insights on the passive gas emission along the CVL. This knowledge shall contribute to the prevention of volcanic lake-related hazards in Cameroon and the refinement of the Global Carbon Cycle. We used in situ fixation and dry gas phase sampling methods to determine CO2 origin and the concentration, and the accumulation chamber technique to measure diffuse CO2 emission from nine lakes and on soil at Nyos Valley and Mount Manenguba Caldera. The results suggest that, although in minor concentrations (compared to Nyos and Monoun), ranging from 0.56 mmol kg- 1 to 8.75 mmol kg- 1, the bottom waters of some lakes also contain measurable magmatic CO2 with δ13C varies from - 4.42‰ to - 9.16‰ vs. PDB. That finding implies that, under certain circumstances, e.g. increase to volcanic and/or tectonic activities along the CVL, the concerned lakes could develop a Nyos-type behavioural scheme. The diffuse gas emission results indicate that the nine surveyed lakes release approximately 3.69 ± 0.37 kt km- 2 yr- 1 of CO2 to the atmosphere; extrapolation to the approximately 39 volcanic lakes located on the CVL yields an approximate CO2 output of 27.37 ± 0.5 kt km- 2 yr- 1, representing 0.023% of the global CO2 output from volcanic lakes. In addition to the precedent value, the gas removal operation in lakes Nyos and Monoun released approximately 2.52 ± 0.46 × 108 mol km- 2 yr- 1 CO2 to the atmosphere from January

  11. Access to potable water and sanitation in Cameroon within the context of Millennium Development Goals (MDGS).

    PubMed

    Ako, Andrew Ako; Shimada, Jun; Eyong, Gloria Eneke Takem; Fantong, Wilson Yetoh

    2010-01-01

    Cameroon has been fully engaged with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) since their inception in 2000. This paper examines the situation of access to potable water and sanitation in Cameroon within the context of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), establishes whether Cameroon is on the track of meeting the MDGs in these domains and proposes actions to be taken to bring it closer to these objectives. Based on analyzed data obtained from national surveys, government ministries, national statistical offices, bibliographic research, reports and interviews, it argues that Cameroon will not reach the water and sanitation MGDs. While Cameroon is not yet on track to meet the targets of the MDGs for water and sanitation, it has made notable progress since 1990, much more needs to be done to improve the situation, especially in rural areas. In 2006, 70% of the population had access to safe drinking water and the coverage in urban centres is 88%, significantly better than the 47% in rural areas. However, rapid urbanization has rendered existing infrastructure inadequate with periurban dwellers also lacking access to safe drinking water. Sanitation coverage is also poor. In urban areas only 58% of the population has access to improved sanitation facilities, and the rate in rural areas is 42%. Women and girls shoulder the largest burden in collecting water, 15% of urban and 18% rural populations use improved drinking water sources over 30 minutes away. Cameroon faces the following challenges in reaching the water and sanitation MDGs: poor management and development of the resources, coupled with inadequate political will and commitment for the long term; rapid urbanization; urban and rural poverty and regulation and legislative lapses. The authors propose that: bridging the gap between national water policies and water services; recognizing the role played by Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) in the attainment of MDGs; developing a Council Water Resource Management

  12. ETINDE. Improving the role of a methodological approach and ancillary ethnoarchaeological data application for place vulnerability and resilience to a multi-hazard environment: Mt. Cameroon volcano case study [MIA-VITA project -FP7-ENV-2007-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilaria Pannaccione Apa, Maria; Kouokam, Emmanuel; Mbe Akoko, Robert; Peppoloni, Silvia; Fabrizia Buongiorno, Maria; Thierry, Pierre

    2013-04-01

    The FP7 MIA-VITA [Mitigate and assess risk from volcanic impact on terrain and human activities] project has been designed to address multidisciplinary aspects of volcanic threat assessment and management from prevention to crisis management recovery. In the socio-economic analysis carried out at Mt. Cameroon Bakweri and Bakossi ethnic groups, ancillary ethnoarchaeological information has been included to point out the cultural interaction between the volcano and its residents. In 2009-2011, ethnoanthropological surveys and interviews for data collection were carried out at Buea, Limbe, West Coast, Tiko and Muyuka sub-divisions adjacent to Mt. Cameroon. One of the outstanding, results from the Bakweri and Bakossi cultural tradition study: natural hazards are managed and produced by supernatural forces, as: Epasa Moto, God of the Mountain (Mt. Cameroon volcano) and Nyango Na Nwana , Goddess of the sea (Gulf of Guinea). In the case of Mount Cameroon, people may seek the spirit or gods of the mountain before farming, hunting and most recently the undertaking of the Mount Cameroon annual race are done. The spirit of this mountain must be seek to avert or stop a volcanic eruption because the eruption is attributed to the anger of the spirit. Among the Northern Bakweri, the association of spirits with the mountain could also be explained in terms of the importance of the mountain to the people. Most of their farming and hunting is done on the Mountain. Some forest products, for instance, wood for building and furniture is obtained from the forest of the mountain; this implies that the people rely on the Mountain for food, game and architecture/furniture etc. In addition, the eruption of the mountain is something which affects the people. It does not only destroy property, it frustrates people and takes away human lives when it occurs. Because of this economic importance of the Mountain and its unexpected and unwanted eruption, the tendency is to believe that it has some

  13. Modal analysis of gear housing and mounts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Teik C.; Singh, RAJ.; Zakrajsek, James J.

    1989-01-01

    Dynamic finite element analysis of a real gear housing is presented. The analysis was conducted for the housing without the rotating components (gears, shafts, and bearings). Both rigid and flexible mounting conditions for the gear housing are considered in this analysis. The flexible support simulates the realistic mounting condition on a rotorcraft, and the rigid one is analyzed for comparison purposes. The effect of gear housing stiffeners is also evaluated. The results indicate that the first six natural modes of the flexibly mounted gear housing in the 0 to 200 Hz range correspond to the translational and rotational rigid body vibration modes of the housing. Above this range, the housing plate elastic modes begin to occur. In the case of the rigid mount, only the housing plate elastic modes are observed which are verified by modal analysis experiments. Parametric studies show that the housing plate stiffeners and rigid mounts tend to increase most of the natural frequencies, the lower ones being affected the most.

  14. Mounting system for optical frequency reference cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Notcutt, Mark (Inventor); Hall, John L. (Inventor); Ma, Long-Sheng (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A technique for reducing the vibration sensitivity of laser-stabilizing optical reference cavities is based upon an improved design and mounting method for the cavity, wherein the cavity is mounted vertically. It is suspended at one plane, around the spacer cylinder, equidistant from the mirror ends of the cavity. The suspension element is a collar of an extremely low thermal expansion coefficient material, which surrounds the spacer cylinder and contacts it uniformly. Once the collar has been properly located, it is cemented in place so that the spacer cylinder is uniformly supported and does not have to be squeezed at all. The collar also includes a number of cavities partially bored into its lower flat surface, around the axial bore. These cavities are support points, into which mounting base pins will be inserted. Hence the collar is supported at a minimum of three points.

  15. 14 CFR 33.23 - Engine mounting attachments and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine mounting attachments and structure... mounting attachments and structure. (a) The maximum allowable limit and ultimate loads for engine mounting attachments and related engine structure must be specified. (b) The engine mounting attachments and...

  16. Mounting small optics for cryogenic space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammini, Paul V.; Holmes, Howard C.; Jacoby, Mike S.; Kvamme, E. Todd

    2011-09-01

    The Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam) instrument for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) includes numerous optical assemblies. The instrument will operate at 35K after experiencing launch loads at ~293K and the optic mounts must accommodate all associated thermal and mechanical stresses, plus maintain exceptional optical quality during operation. Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) conceived, designed, analyzed, assembled, tested, and integrated the optical assemblies for the NIRCam instrument. With using examples from NIRCam, this paper covers techniques for mounting small mirrors and lenses for cryogenic space missions.

  17. 3D-additive manufactured optical mount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammini, Paul V.; Ciscel, David; Wooten, John

    2015-09-01

    The Area Defense Anti-Munitions (ADAM) is a low cost and effective high power laser weapon system. It's designed to address and negate important threats such as short-range rockets, UAVs, and small boats. Many critical optical components operate in the system. The optics and mounts must accommodate thermal and mechanical stresses, plus maintain an exceptional wave front during operation. Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) developed, designed, and currently operates ADAM. This paper covers the design and development of a key monolithic, flexured, titanium mirror mount that was manufactured by CalRAM using additive processes.

  18. Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Miller, David H.

    2012-04-10

    Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies are provided. In an embodiment, by way of example only, a sensor mount assembly includes a busbar, a main body, a backing surface, and a first finger. The busbar has a first end and a second end. The main body is overmolded onto the busbar. The backing surface extends radially outwardly relative to the main body. The first finger extends axially from the backing surface, and the first finger has a first end, a second end, and a tooth. The first end of the first finger is disposed on the backing surface, and the tooth is formed on the second end of the first finger.

  19. MOUNT NAOMI ROADLESS AREA, UTAH AND IDAHO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dover, James H.; Bigsby, Philip R.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, geophysical, and geochemical surveys, and an examination of mines and prospects were made in the Mount Naomi Roadless Area, Utah and Idaho. No significant precious-metal, base-metal, other trace-metal, or uranium anomalies are apparent in the geochemical data from the Mount Naomi Roadless Area, and no exploration targets were detected. However, a belt of probable resource potential for stratabound copper, lead, and zinc occurrences exists on the west side of the area in limestone and shale. The possibility that oil and gas concentration lie deeply buried beneath the roadless area cannot be evaluated from available data.

  20. Seismic Anisotropy Beneath the Cameroon Volcanic Line from SKS and SKKS Splitting Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, F. W.; Wiens, D. A.; Nyblade, A.; Reusch, A. M.; Euler, G. G.; Shore, P.

    2009-12-01

    The Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) is an 1800-km-long line of Cenozoic volcanism that runs from the island of Annobòn in the Atlantic to northeast Cameroon. It does not show a chronological progression consistent with hotspot-related volcanism. We investigate seismic anisotropy to determine the upper mantle lattice preferred orientation and constrain the mantle flow pattern. For this study, we use a temporary array of 32 broadband seismographs deployed throughout Cameroon for 1 to 2 years between 2005 and 2007 along with two additional permanent seismographs in adjacent countries. Using the SKS splitting method described by Silver and Chan (1991) and the analysis program of George Helffrich, we investigate SKS and SKKS arrivals from 44 earthquakes with sources 95 to 145 degrees away and magnitudes greater than 6.0. First we determine the fast direction and lag time indicated beneath each station for each event, and then we stack the high-quality measurements for each station to find the final fast axis and lag time. We interpret the fast directions as indicating the direction of flow in the upper mantle, as suggested by laboratory experiments and previous studies of mantle xenoliths. Our results indicate four regions with different anisotropic parameters in the upper mantle. Two regions indicate anisotropy with a northeast-southwest-oriented fast direction and split time of about 1 s: the Congo craton in Southern Cameroon and the eastern end of the CVL. Between the Congo craton and the CVL, in central Cameroon, the fast direction is variable and has a small lag time of about 0.3 s. Along the CVL, the fast direction has an approximate north-south orientation, with a lag time of about 0.7 s. The splitting values in Southern Cameroon are consistent with large splitting times and NE directions found at GSN stations in Gabon and the Central African Republic and probably indicate a strong consistent anisotropic fabric frozen into the cratonic lithosphere. Splitting

  1. A new specimen of the Mount Dooling iron meteorite from Mount Manning, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Laeter, J. R.

    1980-06-01

    The discovery of an iron meteorite near the Mount Manning Range in Western Australia which has been identified with the Mount Dooling meteorite is reported. The 701-kg iron meteorite was found embedded in the ground at a site 3 km east of the Mount Manning Range and approximately 6 km from the probable discovery site of Mount Dooling. The meteorite has a fan-shaped or delta wing configuration, with one side smooth and slightly concave with a well defined fusion crust and the other side rough, convex and possessing numerous regmaglypts; it is suggested that the meteorite performed a delta-wing-like flight at high angle of attack through much of the atmosphere. A comparison of the chemical composition, surface features, microstructure and location of the present meteorite with those of the Mount Dooling siderite confirms that the find represents a larger specimen of Mount Dooling. In light of the present discovery and that of another Mount Dooling fragment, Gosnells, it is predicted that other specimens may be discovered in the future.

  2. Fixture for mounting small parts for processing

    DOEpatents

    Foreman, Larry R.; Gomez, Veronica M.; Thomas, Michael H.

    1990-01-01

    A fixture for mounting small parts, such as fusion target spheres or microelectronic components. A glass stalk is drawn and truncated near its tip. The truncated end of the glass stalk is dipped into silicone rubber forming an extending streamer. After the rubber cures for approximately 24 hours, a small part is touched to the streamer, and will be held securely throughout processing.

  3. PC board mount corrosion sensitive sensor

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, Alex L.; Casias, Adrian L.; Pfeifer, Kent B.; Laguna, George R.

    2016-03-22

    The present invention relates to surface mount structures including a capacitive element or a resistive element, where the element has a property that is responsive to an environmental condition. In particular examples, the structure can be optionally coupled to a printed circuit board. Other apparatuses, surface mountable structures, and methods of use are described herein.

  4. Dish-mounted latent heat buffer storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manvi, R.

    1981-01-01

    Dish-mounted latent heat storage subsystems for Rankine, Brayton, and Stirling engines operating at 427 C, 816 C, and 816 C respectively are discussed. Storage requirements definition, conceptual design, media stability and compatibility tests, and thermal performance analyses are considered.

  5. Apollo Telescope Mount Sun End Canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) was designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and served as the primary scientific instrument unit aboard Skylab (1973-1979). The ATM consisted of eight scientific instruments as well as a number of smaller experiments. This image is of the ATM flight unit sun end canister in MSFC's building 4755.

  6. Seventeen years of annual distribution of ivermectin has not interrupted onchocerciasis transmission in North Region, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Katabarwa, Moses N; Eyamba, Albert; Nwane, Philippe; Enyong, Peter; Yaya, Souleymanou; Baldiagaï, Jean; Madi, Théodore Kambaba; Yougouda, Abdoulaye; Andze, Gervais Ondobo; Richards, Frank O

    2011-12-01

    We studied onchocerciasis transmission and impact on ocular morbidity in three health districts in North Region, Cameroon, where annual mass ivermectin treatment has been provided for 12-17 years. The studies, which took place from 2008 to 2010, consisted of skin snips for microfilariae (mf), palpation examinations for nodules, slit lamp examinations for mf in the eye, and Simulium vector dissections for larval infection rates. Adults had mf and nodule rates of 4.8% and 13.5%, respectively, and 5.5% had mf in the anterior chamber of the eye. Strong evidence of ongoing transmission was found in one health district, where despite 17 years of annual treatments, the annual transmission potential was 543 L3/person per year; additionally, children under 10 years of age had a 2.6% mf prevalence. Halting ivermectin treatments in North Cameroon now might risk recrudescence of transmission and ocular disease. PMID:22144441

  7. Tree diversity of the Dja Faunal Reserve, southeastern Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Sonké, Bonaventure; Couvreur, Thomas L P

    2014-01-01

    The Dja Faunal Reserve located in southeastern Cameroon represents the largest and best protected rainforest patch in Cameroon. Here we make available a dataset on the inventory of tree species collected across the Dja. For this study nine 5 km long and 5 m wide transects were installed. All species with a diameter at breast height greater than 10 cm were recorded, identified and measured. A total of 11546 individuals were recorded, corresponding to a total of 312 species identified with 60 genera containing unidentified taxa. Of the 54 identified families Fabaceae, Rubiaceae and Malvaceae were the most species rich, whereas Fabaceae, Phyllantaceae and Olacaceae were the most abundant. Finally, Tabernaemontanacrassa was the most abundant species across the Reserve. This dataset provides a unique insight into the tree diversity of the Dja Faunal Reserve and is now publically available and usable. PMID:24855441

  8. The urgent need for environmental sanitation and a safe drinking water supply in Mbandjock, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Tchounwou, P B; Lantum, D M; Monkiedje, A; Takougang, I; Barbazan, P

    1997-07-01

    Studies were conducted to assess the physical, chemical, and bacteriological qualities of drinking water in Mbandjock, Cameroon. Study results indicated that the vast majority of drinking water sources possessed acceptable physical and chemical qualities, according to the World Health Organization standards. However, microbiological analyses revealed that only the waters treated by the Cameroon National Water Company (SNEC) and the Sugar Processing Company (SOSUCAM) were acceptable for human consumption. All spring and well waters presented evidences of fecal contamination from human and/or animal origin. Water from these sources should, therefore, be treated before use for drinking. Since the majority of the population gets its water from wells and springs, there is an urgent need to develop a health education program, within the framework of primary health care, with respect to environmental sanitation and safe drinking water supply in this community. PMID:9216865

  9. Tree diversity of the Dja Faunal Reserve, southeastern Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Dja Faunal Reserve located in southeastern Cameroon represents the largest and best protected rainforest patch in Cameroon. Here we make available a dataset on the inventory of tree species collected across the Dja. For this study nine 5 km long and 5 m wide transects were installed. All species with a diameter at breast height greater than 10 cm were recorded, identified and measured. A total of 11546 individuals were recorded, corresponding to a total of 312 species identified with 60 genera containing unidentified taxa. Of the 54 identified families Fabaceae, Rubiaceae and Malvaceae were the most species rich, whereas Fabaceae, Phyllantaceae and Olacaceae were the most abundant. Finally, Tabernaemontana crassa was the most abundant species across the Reserve. This dataset provides a unique insight into the tree diversity of the Dja Faunal Reserve and is now publically available and usable. PMID:24855441

  10. Phytochemical analysis and biological evaluation of selected African propolis samples from Cameroon and Congo.

    PubMed

    Papachroni, Danai; Graikou, Konstantia; Kosalec, Ivan; Damianakos, Harilaos; Ingram, Verina; Chinou, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was the chemical analysis of four selected samples of African propolis (Congo and Cameroon) and their biological evaluation. Twenty-one secondary metabolites belonging to four different chemical groups were isolated from the 70% ethanolic extracts of propolis and their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral evidence. Three triterpenes and two diprenyl-flavonoids were identified from Congo propolis, which has been investigated for the first time, while thirteen triterpenes, three diprenyl-flavonoids, two monoterpenic alcohols and one fatty acid ester have been identified from Cameroon propolis samples. To our knowledge, the identified diprenyl-flavonoids, as well as five of the isolated and determined triterpenes, are reported for the first time in propolis. Moreover, the total polyphenol content was estimated in all extracts and the antimicrobial activities of all four extracts were studied against six Gram-positive and -negative bacteria and three pathogenic fungi, showing an interesting antibacterial profile.

  11. Doassansiopsis caldesiae sp. nov. and Doassansiopsis tomasii: two remarkable smut fungi from Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Piatek, Marcin; Vánky, Kálmán; Mossebo, Dominique C; Piatek, Jolanta

    2008-01-01

    Three recent collections of Doassansiopsis from western Cameroon are assessed taxonomically. Doassansiopsis caldesiae M. Piatek & Vánky is described as a new species from infected leaves of Caldesia reniformis (D. Don) Makino. Its diagnostic characters are flat, nonthickened sori with spore balls as blackish, slightly elevated dots, more or less globoid spores, conspicuous cortical sterile cells and parasitism on Caldesia reniformis of family Alismataceae. The species is compared to another Doassansiopsis species on host plants belonging to family Alismataceae. Doassansiopsis tomasii Vánky is described from two localities on Nymphaea nouchali Burm.f. var. caerulea (Savigny) Verdc. (Nymphaeaceae), which represents the first report of this smut from Cameroon and western Africa. Similarities between this species and Doassansiopsis nymphaeae (Syd. & P. Syd.) Thirum. and D. ticonis M. Piepenbr. are outlined and the global distribution of the three taxa is mapped. The species concept in the genus Doassansiopsis is discussed, and a key to all known species of the genus is provided.

  12. The Burden of Leprosy in Cameroon: Fifteen Years into the Post-elimination Era

    PubMed Central

    Tabah, Earnest Njih; Nsagha, Dickson Shey; Bissek, Anne-Cecile Zoung-Kanyi; Bratschi, Martin W.; Njamnshi, Theophilus Ngeh; Plushke, Gerd; Njamnshi, Alfred Kongnyu

    2016-01-01

    Background Cameroon achieved the elimination target of leprosy in 2000, and has maintained this status ever since. However, a number of health districts in the country continue to report significant numbers of leprosy cases. The aim of this study was to assess the burden of leprosy in Cameroon from 2000 to 2014. Methods We obtained and analysed using the new leprosy burden concept of analysis, leprosy surveillance data collected between 2000 and 2014 from the National Leprosy Control Programme. Principal findings Cameroon achieved leprosy elimination in 2000, registering a prevalence rate of 0.94/10,000 population. The prevalence rate dropped further to reach 0.20/10,000 population (78% reduction) in 2014. Similarly, the new case detection rate dropped from 4.88/100,000 population in 2000 to 1.46/100,000 population (85.3% reduction) in 2014. All 10 regions of the country achieved leprosy elimination between 2000 and 2014; however, 10 health districts were still to do so by 2014. The number of high-leprosy-burden regions decreased from 8 in 2000 to 1 in 2014. Seven and two regions were respectively medium and low-burdened at the end of 2014. At the health districts level, 18 remained at the high-leprosy-burdened level in 2014. Conclusion The leprosy prevalence and detection rates as well as the overall leprosy burden in Cameroon have dropped significantly between 2000 and 2014. However, a good number of health districts remain high-leprosy-burdened. The National Leprosy Control Programme should focus efforts on these health districts in the next coming years in order to further reduce the burden of leprosy in the country. PMID:27732603

  13. Cadmium content of Cameroonian cigarettes: Comparison with other foreign brands sold in Cameroon

    SciTech Connect

    Tamboue, H.S. ); Tamboue, E.D.; Leno, M. )

    1991-07-01

    Given the increasing concern about heavy metal and in particular cadmium toxicity, the present study has two objectives. First, the authors wanted to measure and compare the amount of cadmium found in Cameroonian cigarettes and in foreign brands sold in Cameroon. Secondly, they measured the amount of cadmium in smoke, ashes and the amount retained by filters of some Cameroonian cigarettes after using a smoking machine.

  14. Genetic Structure of the Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus, in Cameroon (Central Africa)

    PubMed Central

    Kamgang, Basile; Brengues, Cécile; Fontenille, Didier; Njiokou, Flobert; Simard, Frédéric; Paupy, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Background Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1884) (Diptera: Culicidae), a mosquito native to Asia, has recently invaded all five continents. In Central Africa it was first reported in the early 2000s, and has since been implicated in the emergence of arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya in this region. Recent genetic studies of invasive species have shown that multiple introductions are a key factor for successful expansion in new areas. As a result, phenotypic characters such as vector competence and insecticide susceptibility may vary within invasive pest species, potentially affecting vector efficiency and pest management. Here we assessed the genetic variability and population genetics of Ae. albopictus isolates in Cameroon (Central Africa), thereby deducing their likely geographic origin. Methods and Results Mosquitoes were sampled in 2007 in 12 localities in southern Cameroon and analyzed for polymorphism at six microsatellite loci and in two mitochondrial DNA regions (ND5 and COI). All the microsatellite markers were successfully amplified and were polymorphic, showing moderate genetic structureamong geographic populations (FST = 0.068, P<0.0001). Analysis of mtDNA sequences revealed four haplotypes each for the COI and ND5 genes, with a dominant haplotype shared by all Cameroonian samples. The weak genetic variation estimated from the mtDNA genes is consistent with the recent arrival of Ae. albopictus in Cameroon. Phylogeographic analysis based on COI polymorphism indicated that Ae. albopictus populations from Cameroon are related to tropical rather than temperate or subtropical outgroups. Conclusion The moderate genetic diversity observed among Cameroonian Ae. albopictus isolates is in keeping with recent introduction and spread in this country. The genetic structure of natural populations points to multiple introductions from tropical regions. PMID:21629655

  15. Distribution and heterogeneity of hepatitis C genotypes in hepatitis patients in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Pasquier, Christophe; Njouom, Richard; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Dubois, Martine; Sartre, Michèle Tagni; Vessière, Aurelia; Timba, Isabelle; Thonnon, Jocelyn; Izopet, Jacques; Nerrienet, Eric

    2005-11-01

    Hepatitis C virus infects humans world-wide. The virus genome varies greatly and it has several genotypes. HCV infection is highly prevalent in Central Africa and Cameroon. Initial studies on the genetic variability of HCV showed infection with HCV genotypes 1, 2, and 4. We have now sequenced the NS5b and E2 regions of 156 HCV isolates collected from patients presenting for diagnosis in Yaounde and used the data to describe the distribution of HCV genotypes and subtypes in patients with hepatitis in Cameroon. Genotype 1 was more frequent than Genotypes 4 and 2. Genotypes 1 and 4 were highly heterogeneous, containing many subtypes described previously (1b, 1c, 1e, 1h, 1l, 4f, 4t, 4p, 4k) and unsubtyped groups. There was a systematic phylogenetic concordance between NS5b and E2 sequence clustering. The Genotype 2 sequences did not vary. Neither subject age nor gender influenced HCV distribution. HCV Genotypes 1 and 4 are very heterogeneous in Cameroon, perhaps due to ancient infections. The homogeneity of HCV Genotype 2 indicates its more recent introduction from western Africa.

  16. Nutritional composition, bioactive compounds and volatile profile of cocoa beans from different regions of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Fiorini, Dennis; Maggi, Filippo; Nicoletti, Marcello; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Toniolo, Chiara; Prosper, Biapa; Vittori, Sauro; Sagratini, Gianni

    2016-06-01

    Analysis of the complex composition of cocoa beans provides fundamental information for evaluating the quality and nutritional aspects of cocoa-based food products, nutraceuticals and supplements. Cameroon, the world's fourth largest producer of cocoa, has been defined as "Africa in miniature" because of the variety it habitats. In order to evaluate the nutritional characteristics of cocoa beans from five different regions of Cameroon, we studied their polyphenolic content, volatile compounds and fatty acids composition. The High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) analysis showed that the Mbalmayo sample had the highest content of theobromine (11.6 mg/g) and caffeic acid (2.1 mg/g), while the Sanchou sample had the highest level of (-)-epicatechin (142.9 mg/g). Concerning fatty acids, the lowest level of stearic acid was found in the Mbalmayo sample while the Bertoua sample showed the highest content of oleic acid. Thus, we confirmed that geographical origin influences the quality and nutritional characteristics of cocoa from these regions of Cameroon.

  17. Public awareness, perceptions, and attitudes with respect to epilepsy in Ebolowa and Sangmelima--Urban Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Njamnshi, Alfred K; Yepnjio, Faustin N; Tabah, Earnest N; Dema, Fidèle; Angwafor, Samuel A; Fonsah, Julius Y; Angwafo, Fru F; Muna, Walinjom F T

    2009-04-01

    Within the framework of a series of studies mandated by the Ministry of Public Health of Cameroon to obtain baseline data for an epilepsy education program adapted to our communities, we interviewed 456 subjects without epilepsy in the Ebolowa Regional and Sangmelima District Hospitals. We found that 99.6 and 72.6% had heard or knew a person or people with epilepsy (PWE) and 76.8% had seen a seizure. About 58% of respondents would offer equal employment opportunities to PWE; 39.6% and 33.6% would respectively object to their children associating with or marrying PWE; 13% associated epilepsy with insanity and witchcraft, whereas 82.5% would recommend modern treatment for epilepsy. Predictors of negative attitudes were the beliefs that epilepsy is hereditary (26.3%) and epilepsy is a form of insanity (13%). Familiarity with epilepsy in Ebolowa and Sangmelima is high, and attitudes toward PWE are better there than in other areas of Cameroon. These results demonstrate a regional variation in public awareness and attitudes toward epilepsy and suggest that urban populations may constitute targets as well as channels for epilepsy sensitization campaigns in Cameroon.

  18. Epidemiology of chicken anemia virus in Central African Republic and Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although chicken anemia virus (CAV) has been detected on all continents, little is known about this virus in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to detect and characterize CAV for the first time in Central African Republic and in Cameroon. Results An overall flock seroprevalence of 36.7% was found in Central African Republic during the 2008–2010 period. Virus prevalences were 34.2% (2008), 14.3% (2009) and 10.4% (2010) in Central African Republic and 39% (2007) and 34.9% (2009) in Cameroon. CAV DNA was found in cloacal swabs of 76.9% of seropositive chickens, suggesting that these animals excreted the virus despite antibodies. On the basis of VP1 sequences, most of the strains in Central African Republic and Cameroon belonged to 9 distinct phylogenetic clusters at the nucleotide level and were not intermixed with strains from other continent. Several cases of mixed infections in flocks and individual chickens were identified. Conclusions Our results suggest multiple introductions of CAV in each country that later spread and diverged locally. Mixed genotype infections together with the observation of CAV DNA in cloacal samples despite antibodies suggest a suboptimal protection by antibodies or virus persistence. PMID:22958546

  19. [Vesicular contact dermatitis due to Paederus in Cameroon and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Vanhecke, C; Le Gall, P; Gaüzère, B-A

    2015-12-01

    This irritant blister dermatitis is caused by the genus Paederus whose geographical distribution is worldwide, with a higher incidence in tropical areas. It is induced by direct skin contact with pederin, a blistering and caustic substance found in the abdomen (coelome) of Paederus insects (insect order Coleoptera: family Staphylinidae). The diagnosis is based on the presence of typical clinical features combined with compatible epidemiological features. Our goal is to describe the epidemiological and clinical features of this irritant contact dermatitis in Cameroon through a retrospective study conducted at the end of the rainy season at the Oku Hospital in Northwest Cameroon and to also include cases reported at the medical center of the French Embassy in Yaounde during this same timeframe. In addition, we conducted a literature review of paederus dermatitis. Nineteen patients were included in this study. More than half of the patients presented with more than two lesions predominantly localized to the face or the neck; less than half had complications manifesting as either localized or respiratory reactions and three patients presented periorbital involvement. This study confirms the presence of paederus dermatitis in Cameroon. It is mainly localized in the unusual geoclimatic region of the western high mountains within the country, as well as the usual warm, moist areas of Yaounde. The clinical evolution of this dermatitis is usually one of spontaneous and uneventful resolution with complications being rare. Curative treatment is one of localized topical therapies while oral antibiotic therapy should be reserved for more complicated cases.

  20. Nutritional composition, bioactive compounds and volatile profile of cocoa beans from different regions of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Fiorini, Dennis; Maggi, Filippo; Nicoletti, Marcello; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Toniolo, Chiara; Prosper, Biapa; Vittori, Sauro; Sagratini, Gianni

    2016-06-01

    Analysis of the complex composition of cocoa beans provides fundamental information for evaluating the quality and nutritional aspects of cocoa-based food products, nutraceuticals and supplements. Cameroon, the world's fourth largest producer of cocoa, has been defined as "Africa in miniature" because of the variety it habitats. In order to evaluate the nutritional characteristics of cocoa beans from five different regions of Cameroon, we studied their polyphenolic content, volatile compounds and fatty acids composition. The High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) analysis showed that the Mbalmayo sample had the highest content of theobromine (11.6 mg/g) and caffeic acid (2.1 mg/g), while the Sanchou sample had the highest level of (-)-epicatechin (142.9 mg/g). Concerning fatty acids, the lowest level of stearic acid was found in the Mbalmayo sample while the Bertoua sample showed the highest content of oleic acid. Thus, we confirmed that geographical origin influences the quality and nutritional characteristics of cocoa from these regions of Cameroon. PMID:27055484

  1. Systems and methods for mirror mounting with minimized distortion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antonille, Scott R. (Inventor); Wallace, Thomas E. (Inventor); Content, David A. (Inventor); Wake, Shane W. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method for mounting a mirror for use in a telescope includes attaching the mirror to a plurality of adjustable mounts; determining a distortion in the mirror caused by the plurality adjustable mounts, and, if the distortion is determined to be above a predetermined level: adjusting one or more of the adjustable mounts; and determining the distortion in the mirror caused by the adjustable mounts; and in the event the determined distortion is determined to be at or below the predetermined level, rigidizing the adjustable mounts.

  2. Adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems

    DOEpatents

    Hale, Layton C.

    1997-01-01

    An adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems. The adjustable link is a low-cost, passive device that provides backlash-free adjustment along its single constraint direction and flexural freedom in all other directions. The adjustable link comprises two spheres, two sockets in which the spheres are adjustable retain, and a connection link threadly connected at each end to the spheres, to provide a single direction of restraint and to adjust the length or distance between the sockets. Six such adjustable links provide for six degrees of freedom for mounting an instrument on a support. The adjustable link has applications in any machine or instrument requiring precision adjustment in six degrees of freedom, isolation from deformations of the supporting platform, and/or additional structural damping. The damping is accomplished by using a hollow connection link that contains an inner rod and a viscoelastic separation layer between the two.

  3. Adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems

    DOEpatents

    Hale, L.C.

    1997-07-01

    An adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems is disclosed. The adjustable link is a low-cost, passive device that provides backlash-free adjustment along its single constraint direction and flexural freedom in all other directions. The adjustable link comprises two spheres, two sockets in which the spheres are adjustable retain, and a connection link threadly connected at each end to the spheres, to provide a single direction of restraint and to adjust the length or distance between the sockets. Six such adjustable links provide for six degrees of freedom for mounting an instrument on a support. The adjustable link has applications in any machine or instrument requiring precision adjustment in six degrees of freedom, isolation from deformations of the supporting platform, and/or additional structural damping. The damping is accomplished by using a hollow connection link that contains an inner rod and a viscoelastic separation layer between the two. 3 figs.

  4. The Geologic Story of Mount Rainier

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crandell, Dwight Raymond

    1969-01-01

    Ice-clad Mount Rainier, towering over the landscape of western Washington, ranks with Fuji-yama in Japan, Popocatepeti in Mexico, and Vesuvius in Italy among the great volcanoes of the world. At Mount Rainier, as at other inactive volcanoes, the ever-present possibility of renewed eruptions gives viewers a sense of anticipation, excitement, and apprehension not equaled by most other mountains. Even so, many of us cannot imagine the cataclysmic scale of the eruptions that were responsible for building the giant cone which now stands in silence. We accept the volcano as if it had always been there, and we appreciate only the beauty of its stark expanses of rock and ice, its flower-strewn alpine meadows, and its bordering evergreen forests. Mount Rainier owes its scenic beauty to many features. The broad cone spreads out on top of a major mountain range - the Cascades. The volcano rises about 7,000 feet above its 7,000-foot foundation, and stands in solitary splendor - the highest peak in the entire Cascade Range. Its rocky ice-mantled slopes above timberline contrast with the dense green forests and give Mount Rainier the appearance of an arctic island in a temperate sea, an island so large that you can see its full size and shape only from the air. The mountain is highly photogenic because of the contrasts it offers among bare rock, snowfields, blue sky, and the incomparable flower fields that color its lower slopes, shadows cast by the multitude of cliffs, ridges, canyons, and pinnacles change constantly from sunrise to sunset, endlessly varying the texture and mood of the mountain. The face of the mountain also varies from day to day as its broad snowfields melt during the summer. The melting of these frozen reservoirs makes Mount Rainier a natural resource in a practical as well as in an esthetic sense, for it ensures steady flows of water for hydroelectric power in the region, regardless of season. Seen from the Puget Sound country to the west, Mount Rainier has

  5. Mount St. Helens and Kilauea volcanoes

    SciTech Connect

    Barrat, J. )

    1989-01-01

    Mount St. Helens' eruption has taught geologists invaluable lessons about how volcanoes work. Such information will be crucial in saving lives and property when other dormant volcanoes in the northwestern United States--and around the world--reawaken, as geologists predict they someday will. Since 1912, scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey's Hawaiian Volcano Observatory have pioneered the study of volcanoes through work on Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes on the island of Hawaii. In Vancouver, Wash., scientists at the Survey's Cascades Volcano Observatory are studying the after-effects of Mount St. Helens' catalysmic eruption as well as monitoring a number of other now-dormant volcanoes in the western United States. This paper briefly reviews the similarities and differences between the Hawaiian and Washington volcanoes and what these volcanoes are teaching the volcanologists.

  6. The AMiBA Hexapod Telescope Mount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Patrick M.; Kesteven, Michael; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Jiang, Homin; Lin, Kai-Yang; Umetsu, Keiichi; Huang, Yau-De; Raffin, Philippe; Chen, Ke-Jung; Ibañez-Romano, Fabiola; Chereau, Guillaume; Huang, Chih-Wei Locutus; Chen, Ming-Tang; Ho, Paul T. P.; Pausch, Konrad; Willmeroth, Klaus; Altamirano, Pablo; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, Su-Wei; Han, Chih-Chiang; Kubo, Derek; Li, Chao-Te; Liao, Yu-Wei; Liu, Guo-Chin; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Oshiro, Peter; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Wei, Ta-Shun; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty; Birkinshaw, Mark; Chiueh, Tzihong; Lancaster, Katy; Lo, Kwok Yung; Martin, Robert N.; Molnar, Sandor M.; Patt, Ferdinand; Romeo, Bob

    2009-04-01

    The Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) is the largest hexapod astronomical telescope in current operation. We present a description of this novel hexapod mount with its main mechanical components—the support cone, universal joints, jack screws, and platform—and outline the control system with the pointing model and the operating modes that are supported. The AMiBA hexapod mount performance is verified based on optical pointing tests and platform photogrammetry measurements. The photogrammetry results show that the deformations in the inner part of the platform are less than 120 μm rms. This is negligible for optical pointing corrections, radio alignment, and radio phase errors for the currently operational seven-element compact configuration. The optical pointing error in azimuth and elevation is successively reduced by a series of corrections to about 0farcm 4 rms which meets our goal for the seven-element target specifications.

  7. Micro-inverter solar panel mounting

    DOEpatents

    Morris, John; Gilchrist, Phillip Charles

    2016-02-02

    Processes, systems, devices, and articles of manufacture are provided. Each may include adapting micro-inverters initially configured for frame-mounting to mounting on a frameless solar panel. This securement may include using an adaptive clamp or several adaptive clamps secured to a micro-inverter or its components, and using compressive forces applied directly to the solar panel to secure the adaptive clamp and the components to the solar panel. The clamps can also include compressive spacers and safeties for managing the compressive forces exerted on the solar panels. Friction zones may also be used for managing slipping between the clamp and the solar panel during or after installation. Adjustments to the clamps may be carried out through various means and by changing the physical size of the clamps themselves.

  8. Fixture for mounting small parts for processing

    DOEpatents

    Foreman, L.R.; Gomez, V.M.; Thomas, M.H.

    1990-05-29

    A fixture for mounting small parts, such as fusion target spheres or microelectronic components is disclosed. A glass stalk is drawn and truncated near its tip. The truncated end of the glass stalk is dipped into silicone rubber forming an extending streamer. After the rubber cures for approximately 24 hours, a small part is touched to the streamer, and will be held securely throughout processing. 5 figs.

  9. Cantilever mounted resilient pad gas bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etsion, I. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A gas-lubricated bearing is described, employing at least one pad mounted on a rectangular cantilever beam to produce a lubricating wedge between the face of the pad and a moving surface. The load-carrying and stiffness characteristics of the pad are related to the dimensions and modulus of elasticity of the beam. The bearing is applicable to a wide variety of types of hydrodynamic bearings.

  10. MOUNT ZIRKEL WILDERNESS AND VICINITY, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, George L.; Patten, Lowell L.

    1984-01-01

    Several areas of metallic and nonmetallic mineralization have been identified from surface occurrences within the Mount Zirkel Wilderness and vicinity, Colorado. Three areas of probable copper-lead-zinc-silver-gold resource potential, two areas of probable chrome-platinum resource potential, four areas of probable uranium-thorium resource potential, two areas of probable molybdenum resource potential, and one area of probable fluorspar potential were identified. No potential for fossil fuel or geothermal resources was identified.

  11. Holographic Helmet-Mounted Display Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, James R., II; Larussa, Joseph A.

    1995-01-01

    Helmet-mounted display unit designed for use in testing innovative concepts for display of information to aircraft pilots. Operates in conjunction with computers generating graphical displays. Includes two ocular subunits containing miniature cathoderay tubes and optics providing 40 degrees vertical, 50 degrees horizontal field of view to each eye, with or without stereopsis. In future color application, each ocular subunit includes trichromatic holographic combiner tuned to red, green, and blue wavelengths of phosphors used in development of miniature color display devices.

  12. Mounts For Selective Rotation And Translation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Blade-in-groove bearings stacked to obtain necessary degrees of freedom. Mounting system allows panels to be tilted, rotated, and translated selectively. Developed for large solar reflectors or antennas composed of hexagonal panels about 6 ft. wide and 6 in. thick. With system, each panel tilted around two axes to focus antenna. At same time, each panel translates along these axes to accommodate thermal expansion and contraction without affecting focus.

  13. Conceptual design for PSP mounting bracket

    SciTech Connect

    Ransom, G.; Stein, R.

    1991-12-31

    Protective structural packages (PSP`s or overpacks) used to ship 2 1/2-ton UF{sub 6} product cylinders are bolted to truck trailers. All bolts penetrate two longitudinal rows of wooden planks. Removal and replacement is required at various intervals for maintenance and routine testing. A conceptual design is presented for mounting brackets which would securely attach PSP`s to trailer frames, reduce removal and replacement time, and minimize risk of personnel injury.

  14. Dynamics of the Mount Nyiragongo lava lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgi, P.-Y.; Darrah, T. H.; Tedesco, D.; Eymold, W. K.

    2014-05-01

    The permanent and presently rising lava lake at Mount Nyiragongo constitutes a major potential geological hazard to the inhabitants of the Virunga volcanic region in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Rwanda. Based on two field campaigns in June 2010 and 2011, we estimate the lava lake level from the southeastern crater rim (~400 m diameter) and lava lake area (~46,550 m2), which constrains, respectively, the lava lake volume (~9 × 106 m3) and volume flow rate needed to keep the magma in a molten state (0.6 to 3.5 m3 s-1). A bidirectional magma flow model, which includes the characterization of the conduit diameter and funnel-shaped lava lake geometry, is developed to constrain the amount of magma intruded/emplaced within the magmatic chamber and rift-related structures that extend between Mount Nyiragongo's volcanic center and the city of Goma, DRC, since Mount Nyiragongo's last eruption (17 January 2002). Besides matching field data of the lava lake level covering the period 1977 to 2002, numerical solutions of the model indicate that by 2022, 20 years after the January 2002 eruption, between 300 and 1700 × 106 m3 (0.3 to 1.7 km3) of magma could have intruded/emplaced underneath the edifice, and the lava lake volume could exceed 15 × 106 m3.

  15. MEMS accelerometers in accurate mount positioning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mészáros, László; Pál, András.; Jaskó, Attila

    2014-07-01

    In order to attain precise, accurate and stateless positioning of telescope mounts we apply microelectromechanical accelerometer systems (also known as MEMS accelerometers). In common practice, feedback from the mount position is provided by electronic, optical or magneto-mechanical systems or via real-time astrometric solution based on the acquired images. Hence, MEMS-based systems are completely independent from these mechanisms. Our goal is to investigate the advantages and challenges of applying such devices and to reach the sub-arcminute range { that is well smaller than the field-of-view of conventional imaging telescope systems. We present how this sub-arcminute accuracy can be achieved with very cheap MEMS sensors. Basically, these sensors yield raw output within an accuracy of a few degrees. We show what kind of calibration procedures could exploit spherical and cylindrical constraints between accelerometer output channels in order to achieve the previously mentioned accuracy level. We also demonstrate how can our implementation be inserted in a telescope control system. Although this attainable precision is less than both the resolution of telescope mount drive mechanics and the accuracy of astrometric solutions, the independent nature of attitude determination could significantly increase the reliability of autonomous or remotely operated astronomical observations.

  16. 1. View looking northwest, from Middle Mount Vernon Road, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View looking northwest, from Middle Mount Vernon Road, showing the slight rise upon which the building was constructed. - Perry Township School No. 3, Middle Mount Vernon & Eickhoff Roads, Evansville, Vanderburgh County, IN

  17. 4. Panama Mount. Note concrete ring and metal rail. Note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Panama Mount. Note concrete ring and metal rail. Note cliff erosion under foundation at left center. Looking 297° W. - Fort Funston, Panama Mounts for 155mm Guns, Skyline Boulevard & Great Highway, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. Historic Image: Aerial view of Mount of Victory Plot. Photograph ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Historic Image: Aerial view of Mount of Victory Plot. Photograph 1961. NCA History Collection - Cypress Hills National Cemetery, Mount of Victory Plot Unit, 625 Jamaica Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  19. Adhesive-backed terminal board eliminates mounting screws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Low-profile terminal board is used in dense electronic circuits where mounting and working space is limited. The board has a thin layer of pressure-sensitive adhesive backing which eliminates the need for mounting screws.

  20. 7. Alternate view of collapsed Panama Mount on beach. Note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Alternate view of collapsed Panama Mount on beach. Note concrete ring, metal rail and exposed rebar. Looking 320° NW. - Fort Funston, Panama Mounts for 155mm Guns, Skyline Boulevard & Great Highway, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  1. Integral Flexure Mounts for Metal Mirrors for Cryogenic Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zewari, S. Wahid; Hylan, Jason E.; Irish, Sandra M.; Ohl, Raymond G.; Conkey, Shelly B.

    2006-01-01

    Semi-kinematic, six-degree-of-freedom flexure mounts have been incorporated as integral parts of metal mirrors designed to be used under cryogenic conditions as parts of an astronomical instrument. The design of the mirrors and their integral flexure mounts can also be adapted to other instruments and other operating temperatures. In comparison with prior kinematic cryogenic mirror mounts, the present mounts are more compact and can be fabricated easily using Ram-EDM (electrical discharge machining) process

  2. Mounting apparatus for a nozzle guide vane assembly

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, Gary L.; Shaffer, James E.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention provides a ceramic nozzle guide assembly with an apparatus for mounting it to a metal nozzle case that includes an intermediate ceramic mounting ring. The mounting ring includes a plurality of projections that are received within a plurality of receptacles formed in the nozzle case. The projections of the mounting ring are secured within the receptacles by a ceramic retainer that allows contact between the two components only along arcuate surfaces thus eliminating sliding contact between the components.

  3. Mounting apparatus for a nozzle guide vane assembly

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, G.L.; Shaffer, J.E.

    1995-09-12

    The present invention provides a ceramic nozzle guide assembly with an apparatus for mounting it to a metal nozzle case that includes an intermediate ceramic mounting ring. The mounting ring includes a plurality of projections that are received within a plurality of receptacles formed in the nozzle case. The projections of the mounting ring are secured within the receptacles by a ceramic retainer that allows contact between the two components only along arcuate surfaces thus eliminating sliding contact between the components. 8 figs.

  4. 29 CFR 1926.553 - Base-mounted drum hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Base-mounted drum hoists. 1926.553 Section 1926.553 Labor... § 1926.553 Base-mounted drum hoists. (a) General requirements. (1) Exposed moving parts such as gears... is ineffective. (4) All base-mounted drum hoists in use shall meet the applicable requirements...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.553 - Base-mounted drum hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Base-mounted drum hoists. 1926.553 Section 1926.553 Labor... § 1926.553 Base-mounted drum hoists. (a) General requirements. (1) Exposed moving parts such as gears... is ineffective. (4) All base-mounted drum hoists in use shall meet the applicable requirements...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.553 - Base-mounted drum hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Base-mounted drum hoists. 1926.553 Section 1926.553 Labor... § 1926.553 Base-mounted drum hoists. (a) General requirements. (1) Exposed moving parts such as gears... is ineffective. (4) All base-mounted drum hoists in use shall meet the applicable requirements...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.553 - Base-mounted drum hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Base-mounted drum hoists. 1926.553 Section 1926.553 Labor... § 1926.553 Base-mounted drum hoists. (a) General requirements. (1) Exposed moving parts such as gears... is ineffective. (4) All base-mounted drum hoists in use shall meet the applicable requirements...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.553 - Base-mounted drum hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Base-mounted drum hoists. 1926.553 Section 1926.553 Labor... § 1926.553 Base-mounted drum hoists. (a) General requirements. (1) Exposed moving parts such as gears... is ineffective. (4) All base-mounted drum hoists in use shall meet the applicable requirements...

  9. 46 CFR 61.05-15 - Boiler mountings and attachments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boiler mountings and attachments. 61.05-15 Section 61.05... TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Boilers § 61.05-15 Boiler mountings and attachments. (a..., bolts, or other means of attachment, can be performed by opening up the valves, such mountings or...

  10. [The controversy of routine articulator mounting in orthodontics].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Han, Xianglong; Bai, Ding

    2013-06-01

    Articulators have been widely used by clinicians of dentistry. But routine articulator mounting is still controversial in orthodontics. Orthodontists oriented by gnathology approve routine articulator mounting while nongnathologic orthodontists disapprove it. This article reviews the thoughts of orthodontist that they agree or disagree with routine articulator mounting based on the considerations of biting, temporomandibular disorder (TMD), periodontitis, and so on.

  11. 36 CFR 7.77 - Mount Rushmore National Memorial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mount Rushmore National... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.77 Mount Rushmore National Memorial. (a) Climbing Mount Rushmore is prohibited....

  12. 36 CFR 7.77 - Mount Rushmore National Memorial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mount Rushmore National... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.77 Mount Rushmore National Memorial. (a) Climbing Mount Rushmore is prohibited....

  13. 36 CFR 7.77 - Mount Rushmore National Memorial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mount Rushmore National... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.77 Mount Rushmore National Memorial. (a) Climbing Mount Rushmore is prohibited....

  14. 36 CFR 7.77 - Mount Rushmore National Memorial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mount Rushmore National... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.77 Mount Rushmore National Memorial. (a) Climbing Mount Rushmore is prohibited....

  15. 36 CFR 7.77 - Mount Rushmore National Memorial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mount Rushmore National... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.77 Mount Rushmore National Memorial. (a) Climbing Mount Rushmore is prohibited....

  16. 5. Panama Mount. Note concrete ring and metal rail. Foundation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Panama Mount. Note concrete ring and metal rail. Foundation for ammunition depot noted in photograph no.3 is seen at center rear of mount. Camera position for photograph no. 1 is seen on road at left center distance. Looking 163° S. - Fort Funston, Panama Mounts for 155mm Guns, Skyline Boulevard & Great Highway, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  17. 30 Cool Facts about Mount St. Helens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driedger, Carolyn; Liz, Westby; Faust, Lisa; Frenzen, Peter; Bennett, Jeanne; Clynne, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Commemorating the 30th anniversary of the 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens 1-During the past 4,000 years, Mount St. Helens has erupted more frequently than any other volcano in the Cascade Range. 2-Most of Mount St. Helens is younger than 3,000 years old (younger than the pyramids of Egypt). 3-Some Native American names that refer to smoke at the volcano include- Lawala Clough, Low-We- Lat-Klah, Low-We-Not- Thlat, Loowit, Loo-wit, Loo-wit Lat-kla, and Louwala-Clough. 4-3,600 years ago-Native Americans abandoned hunting grounds devastated by an enormous eruption four times larger than the May 18, 1980 eruption. 5-1792-Captain George Vancouver named the volcano for Britain's ambassador to Spain, Alleyne Fitzherbert, also known as Baron St. Helens. 6-1975-U.S. Geological Survey geologists forecasted that Mount St. Helens would erupt again, 'possibly before the end of the century.' 7-March 20, 1980-A magnitude 4.2 earthquake signaled the reawakening of the volcano after 123 years. 8-Spring 1980-Rising magma pushed the volcano's north flank outward 5 feet per day. 9-Morning of May 18, 1980- The largest terrestrial landslide in recorded history reduced the summit by 1,300 feet and triggered a lateral blast. 10-Within 3 minutes, the lateral blast, traveling at more than 300 miles per hour, blew down and scorched 230 square miles of forest. 11-Within 15 minutes, a vertical plume of volcanic ash rose over 80,000 feet. 12-Afternoon of May 18, 1980-The dense ash cloud turned daylight into darkness in eastern Washington, causing streetlights to turn on in Yakima and Ritzville. 13-The volcanic ash cloud drifted east across the United States in 3 days and encircled Earth in 15 days. 14-Lahars (volcanic mudflows) filled rivers with rocks, sand, and mud, damaging 27 bridges and 200 homes and forcing 31 ships to remain in ports upstream. 15-The May 18, 1980 eruption was the most economically destructive volcanic event in U.S. history. 16-Small plants and trees beneath winter snow

  18. HIV type 1 group M clades infecting subjects from rural villages in equatorial rain forests of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Ping; Burda, Sherri; Urbanski, Mateusz; Kenfack, Henriette; Tongo, Marcel; Heyndrickx, Leo; Nanfack, Aubin; Shang, Judith; Agyingi, Lucy; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Zekeng, Leopold; Nyambi, Phillipe

    2002-12-15

    Though the HIV-1 subtypes infecting patients living in urban and semi-urban areas in Cameroon have been reported, information on the subtypes infecting patients in rural villages is lacking. To begin to understand the diversity of the HIV-1 group M subtypes infecting persons living in rural villages in the equatorial rain forest regions of Cameroon, 49 plasma samples from 14 rural villages in four provinces of Cameroon were analyzed using heteroduplex mobility analysis (HMA), DNA sequencing, and phylogenetic tree analysis on the basis of env C2V5, gag, or pol regions. Sixty-one percent of the group M infections were clade A or CRF02_AG-like as subtyped by env and gag. Of the remaining group M infections, 12% were either A or CRF02_AG-like or CRF01_AE-like in recombination with other clades; 25% were infections that were entirely non-A or non-CRF02_AG-like; and 2% were CRF11_cpx. The HIV-1 group M clades identified included A, D, F (F2), G, and H. The CRF strains identified were CRF02_AG-like, CRF01_AE-like, and CRF11_cpx. Two new intersubtype recombinant infections, H/G and A/F2, were identified. This study suggests that the HIV-1 diversity in rural villages in the equatorial rain forest of Cameroon is at least as broad as has been observed in major cities of Cameroon and that multiple HIV-1 group M subtypes are infecting persons living in the countryside of Cameroon.

  19. Ambient noise tomography of the Cameroon Volcanic Line and Northern Congo craton: new constraints on the structure of the lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidarelli, M.; Aoudia, A.

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the lithospheric structure of Cameroon inverting Rayleigh waves obtained from the cross-correlation of ambient seismic noise. We correlate seismic records between 32 broad-band stations and we obtain good quality Rayleigh waves for 310 interstation paths. We measure group velocity dispersion curves from the reconstructed Rayleigh waves in the period range 10-35 s and we invert the group velocities for tomographic images. After the tomography the group velocities are then inverted, together with longer period group velocity measurements from existing literature, to compute a 3-D S-wave velocity model of the Cameroon lithosphere down to 100 km depth. Our results provide an unprecedented mapping of the physical properties of the different crustal units and their correlations with surface geology, as well as with mantle lithospheric variations. The Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) appears as a segmented feature exhibiting different physical properties along strike. The active Mt Cameroon volcano is underlain by very low velocities, unlike the other segments of the CVL. The along-strike variations in crustal structure suggest that lateral heterogeneities in lithospheric thickness and physical properties have influenced the location and distribution of magmatism. The crust beneath the Central African Shear Zone exhibits a sizeable low velocity anomaly. The lithosphere beneath Cameroon is characterised by a heterogeneous crust with a relatively constant thickness and a low velocity uppermost mantle at the edge of the Congo Craton. Our results favour processes combining small-scale upwelling at the edge of a thick lithosphere and reactivation of Precambrian basement structures to explain the distribution of Holocene-Recent magmatism and plateau uplift. Our results also indicate that Mt Cameroon and surroundings areas are the most at risk zones for magmatic activity during this stage of CVL development.

  20. ATST telescope mount: telescope of machine tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffers, Paul; Stolz, Günter; Bonomi, Giovanni; Dreyer, Oliver; Kärcher, Hans

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the largest solar telescope in the world, and will be able to provide the sharpest views ever taken of the solar surface. The telescope has a 4m aperture primary mirror, however due to the off axis nature of the optical layout, the telescope mount has proportions similar to an 8 meter class telescope. The technology normally used in this class of telescope is well understood in the telescope community and has been successfully implemented in numerous projects. The world of large machine tools has developed in a separate realm with similar levels of performance requirement but different boundary conditions. In addition the competitive nature of private industry has encouraged development and usage of more cost effective solutions both in initial capital cost and thru-life operating cost. Telescope mounts move relatively slowly with requirements for high stability under external environmental influences such as wind buffeting. Large machine tools operate under high speed requirements coupled with high application of force through the machine but with little or no external environmental influences. The benefits of these parallel development paths and the ATST system requirements are being combined in the ATST Telescope Mount Assembly (TMA). The process of balancing the system requirements with new technologies is based on the experience of the ATST project team, Ingersoll Machine Tools who are the main contractor for the TMA and MT Mechatronics who are their design subcontractors. This paper highlights a number of these proven technologies from the commercially driven machine tool world that are being introduced to the TMA design. Also the challenges of integrating and ensuring that the differences in application requirements are accounted for in the design are discussed.

  1. Next-generation head-mounted display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, James P., Jr.

    2010-02-01

    Head Mounted Displays (HMDs) have been utilized by the military for various applications since the 1980's. In the 1990's, this technology migrated to the consumer market. Most of these early systems suffered the major drawback that they were "look-at" versus "see through" systems, which prevented the user from seeing their environment. This reduced the utility of the devices and could potentially lead to safety issues. This presentation discusses the optical design of a novel see-through High Definition display device with a 40 degree field of view.

  2. Habitat changes: Mount Haggin Wildlife Management Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frisina, M.R.; Keigley, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    In 1984, a rest-rotation grazing system was established on the Mount Haggin Wildlife Management Area (MHWMA) in southwest Montana. The area is a mixture of wet and dry meadow types, grass/shrublands, and forest. Prior to implementing the grazing system, photo-monitoring points were established on the MHWMA at locations were cattle concentrate were grazing. The area consists of a three pasture rest-rotation system incorporating 20,000 acres. Photo essays revealed changes in riparian, lowland, and upland sites within the grazing system. In addition, gross changes in the amount of willow present were documented.

  3. Star tracker for the Apollo telescope mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. E.

    1971-01-01

    The star tracker for the Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) has been designed specifically to meet the requirements of the Skylab vehicle and mission. The functions of the star tracker are presented, as well as descriptions of the optical-mechanical assembly (OMA) and the star tracker electronics (STE). Also included are the electronic and mechanical specifications, interface and operational requirements, support equipment and test requirements, and occultation information. Laboratory functional tests, environmental qualification tests, and life tests have provided a high confidence factor in the performance of the star tracker in the laboratory and on the Skylab mission.

  4. Design concepts for the EST mount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kärcher, Hans J.; Süss, Martin; Fischer, David

    2012-09-01

    The EST has unique an optical layout, with an on-axis Gregorian tube system and the altitude axis behind the M1 mirror unit - a great challenge for the mount designer in regard of balancing. Three different structural design concepts and various alternatives for the bearing and drive systems were investigated. Hydrostatic bearings with direct drives are compared with roller bearings and geared drives. The influence of available bearing and drive technology were investigated by FE calculations, dynamic analysis and end-to-end simulations. The finally recommended design concept is based on large-diameter segmented roller bearings and so-called pinion motors in both axes.

  5. Early Infant Male Circumcision in Cameroon and Senegal: Demand, Service Provision, and Cultural Context

    PubMed Central

    Kenu, Ernest; Sint, Tin Tin; Kamenga, Claude; Ekpini, Rene

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Male circumcision is almost universal in North and West Africa, and practiced for various reasons. Yet there is little documentation on service delivery, clinical procedures, policies, and programmatic strategies. The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) commissioned country program reviews in 2014 to shed light on the delivery of male circumcision services for infants in Cameroon and Senegal. Methods: We conducted a policy desk review, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions at health centers and in communities. Between December 2014 and January 2015, we conducted 21 key informant interviews (13 with regional and district officers, 5 with national officers, and 3 with UNICEF officials) and 36 focus group discussions (6 with men, 6 with women, 12 with adolescent boys, and 12 with service providers). Some of the men and women were parents of the adolescents who participated in the focus group discussions. In the French-speaking areas, the focus group discussions were conducted in French through an accredited translator, audio recorded, and transcribed into English. Results: All of the facilities we visited in Cameroon and Senegal offer medical male circumcision, with 10 out of 12 performing early infant male circumcision (EIMC) routinely. Neither country has policies, guidelines, or strategies for EIMC. The procedure is done mainly by untrained service providers, with some providers using modern circumcision devices. There are no key messages on EIMC for families; the increasing demand for EIMC is led by the community. Conclusion: Despite the absence of national policies and strategies, EIMC is routinely offered at all levels of the health care system in Cameroon and Senegal, mainly by untrained service providers. Improving circumcision services will require guidelines for EIMC and improvements in training, equipment, supply chains, recordkeeping, and demand creation. PMID:27413080

  6. Molecular Species Delimitation and Morphology of Aquatic and Sub-Aquatic Bugs (Heteroptera) in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Meyin A Ebong, Solange; Petit, Elsa; Le Gall, Philippe; Chen, Ping-Ping; Nieser, Nico; Guilbert, Eric; Njiokou, Flobert; Marsollier, Laurent; Guégan, Jean-François; Pluot-Sigwalt, Dominique; Eyangoh, Sara; Harry, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic and semi-aquatic bugs (Heteroptera) represent a remarkable diversity and a resurging interest has been given to documenting at the species level these insects inhabiting Cameroon in Central Africa due to their potential implication in the transmission of the bacterium Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causal agent of Buruli ulcer, an emerging human disease. A survey was carried out over two years in Cameroon. Morphological analyses were done in two steps. A first step consisted in separating the specimens based on broadly shared characters into morphotypes. The specimens were then separated into two independent batches containing each the same representation of each morphotype. One batch (309 specimens) was used by taxonomy experts on aquatic bugs for species level identification and/or to reconcile nymph with their corresponding adult species. The second batch (188 specimens) was used to define species based on the COI DNA sequences (standard sequence used for "DNA barcoding") and using the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) method. The first morphological analysis step separated the specimens into 63 different morphotypes (49 adults and 14 nymphs), which were then found to belong to 54 morphological species in the infra-orders Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha based on the species-level morphological identification, and 41-45 putative molecular species according to the gap value retained in the ABGD. Integrating morphology and "DNA barcoding" reconciled all the specimens into 62 aquatic bug species in Cameroon. Generally, we obtained a good congruence between species a priori identified based on morphology from adult morphotypes and molecular putative species. Moreover, molecular identification has allowed the association of 86% of nymphs with adults. This work illustrates the importance of integrative taxonomy.

  7. Cure or control: complying with biomedical regime of diabetes in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Awah, Paschal Kum; Unwin, Nigel; Phillimore, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Background The objective of the study was to explore the cultural aspect of compliance, its underlying principles and how these cultural aspects can be used to improve patient centred care for diabetes in Cameroon. Methods We used participant observation to collect data from a rural and an urban health district of Cameroon from June 2001 to June 2003. Patients were studied in their natural settings through daily interactions with them. The analysis was inductive and a continuous process from the early stages of fieldwork. Results The ethnography revealed a lack of basic knowledge about diabetes and diabetes risk factors amongst people with diabetes. The issue of compliance was identified as one of the main themes in the process of treating diabetes. Compliance emerged as part of the discourse of healthcare providers in clinics and filtered into the daily discourses of people with diabetes. The clinical encounters offered treatment packages that were socially inappropriate therefore rejected or modified for most of the time by people with diabetes. Compliance to biomedical therapy suffered a setback for four main reasons: dealing with competing regimes of treatment; coming to terms with biomedical treatment of diabetes; the cost of biomedical therapy; and the impact of AIDS on accepting weight loss as a lifestyle measure in prescription packages. People with diabetes had fears about and negative opinions of accepting certain prescriptions that they thought could interfere with their accustomed social image especially that which had to do with bridging their relationship with ancestors and losing weight in the era of HIV/AIDS. Conclusion The cultural pressures on patients are responsible for patients' partial acceptance of and adherence to prescriptions. Understanding the self-image of patients and their background cultures are vital ingredients to improve diabetes care in low-income countries of Sub-Sahara Africa like Cameroon. PMID:18298835

  8. Near full-length HIV type 1M genomic sequences from Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Tongo, Marcel; Dorfman, Jeffrey R.; Abrahams, Melissa-Rose; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Burgers, Wendy A.; Martin, Darren P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cameroon is the country in which HIV-1 group M (HIV-1M) likely originated and is today a major hotspot of HIV-1M genetic diversity. It remains unclear, however, whether the highly divergent HIV-1M lineages found in this country arose during the earliest phases of the global HIV-1M epidemic, or whether they arose more recently as a result of recombination events between globally circulating HIV-1M lineages. Methodology: To differentiate between these two possibilities, we performed phylogenetic analyses of the near full genome sequences of nine newly sequenced divergent HIV-1M isolates and 15 previously identified, apparently unique recombinant forms (URFs) from Cameroon. Results: Although two of the new genome sequences were clearly classifiable within subtype G, the remaining seven were highly divergent and phylogenetically branched either outside of, or very near the bases of clades containing the well characterised globally circulating viral lineages that they were most closely related to. Recombination analyses further revealed that these divergent viruses were likely complex URFs. We show, however that substantial portions (>1 Kb) of three of the new genome sequences and 15 of the previously characterised Cameroonian URFs have apparently been derived from divergent parental viruses that branch phylogenetically near the bases of the major HIV-1M clades. Conclusions and implications: Our analyses indicate the presence in Cameroon of contemporary descendants of numerous early-diverging HIV-1M lineages. Further efforts to sample and sequence viruses from such lineages could be crucial both for retracing the earliest evolutionary steps during the emergence of HIV-1M in humans, and accurately reconstructing the ancestral sequences of the major globally circulating HIV-1M lineages. PMID:26354000

  9. A comprehensive mapping of the current capacity for human nutrition training in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Sodjinou, Roger; Lezama, Ines; Asse, Marie-Louise; Okala, Georges; Bosu, William K.; Fanou, Nadia; Mbala, Ludvine; Zagre, Noel Marie; Tchibindat, Félicité

    2016-01-01

    Background There is consensus among stakeholders in Cameroon on the need to develop and strengthen human resource capacity for nutrition. This study was conducted to provide a comprehensive mapping of the current capacity for tertiary-level human nutrition training in Cameroon. Design Participating institutions included university-level institutions offering dedicated nutrition degree programs or other programs in which nutrition courses were taught. A semi-structured questionnaire administered during in-person interviews was used to collect data on existing programs and content of training curricula. Nutrition curricula were reviewed against the following criteria: intended objectives, coverage of nutrition topics, and teaching methods. Results In total, five nutrition degree programs (four undergraduate programs and one master's program) were identified. Three additional programs were about to be launched at the time of data collection. We did not find any doctorate degree programs in nutrition. All the undergraduate programs only had little focus on public health nutrition whereas the master's program in our sample offered a good coverage of all dimensions of human nutrition including basic and applied nutrition. The predominant teaching method was didactic lecture in all the programs. We did not find any formal documentation outlining the competencies that students were expected to gain upon completion of these programs. Nutrition courses in agricultural and health schools were limited in terms of contact hours and scope. Public health nutrition was not covered in any of the health professional schools surveyed. We found no institution offering in-service nutrition training at the time of the study. Conclusions Based on our findings, we recommend that nutrition training programs in Cameroon be redesigned to make them more responsive to the public health needs of the country. PMID:26818193

  10. Petroleum geology of the deltaic sequence, Rio Del Rey basin, offshore Cameroon

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, R.M.; Bement, W.O.; Maloney, W.V. )

    1993-09-01

    The Rio Del Rey Basin of offshore Cameroon comprises the easternmost portion of the Niger delta complex. In the delta flank setting, the overall package is thinner and stratigraphic correlation simpler than in the depocenter to the west so the distribution of reservoirs and seals is well defined. Productive reservoirs are shallow, typically less than 2000 m, and mostly hydropressured to slightly overpressured. Reservoir properties generally are excellent and seismic bright-spot technology has played a major role in exploration and development efforts. Rio Del Rey is characterized by three main structural styles from north to south: (1) detachment-based growth faults, (2) highly faulted, mobile shale cored domes and ridges, and (3) toe thrusts and folds. Virtually all individual traps are fault dependent and lack of sufficient internal seals in sand-rich wave-dominated deltaic sequences can limit the objective window. Most fields are downthrown fault traps in which hanging-wall reservoirs are effectively sealed against older prodelta and marine shales. All large oil fields are located in the dome and ridge province and are potential analogs for similar structures now being explored on the upper slope off Nigeria. The best quality source rocks identified thus far are Paleocene to Eocene marine shales. Oil vs. gas distribution in the basin is a function of variations in the kerogen type, organic richness, and maturity of these source rocks. A significant quantity of the gas found to date in Rio Del Rey is biogenic in origin. The Cameroon charge model may aid in better understanding hydrocarbon distribution on offshore Nigeria, where the Miocene deltaic section is much thicker and potential Paleocene-Eocene source rocks likely are unpenetrated. The shallow deltaic play in Cameroon is relatively mature. Future exploration likely will focus on identifying deeper, nonbright-spot-supported opportunities including potential stratigraphic traps.

  11. Molecular Species Delimitation and Morphology of Aquatic and Sub-Aquatic Bugs (Heteroptera) in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Le Gall, Philippe; Chen, Ping-Ping; Nieser, Nico; Guilbert, Eric; Njiokou, Flobert; Marsollier, Laurent; Guégan, Jean-François; Pluot-Sigwalt, Dominique; Eyangoh, Sara; Harry, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic and semi-aquatic bugs (Heteroptera) represent a remarkable diversity and a resurging interest has been given to documenting at the species level these insects inhabiting Cameroon in Central Africa due to their potential implication in the transmission of the bacterium Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causal agent of Buruli ulcer, an emerging human disease. A survey was carried out over two years in Cameroon. Morphological analyses were done in two steps. A first step consisted in separating the specimens based on broadly shared characters into morphotypes. The specimens were then separated into two independent batches containing each the same representation of each morphotype. One batch (309 specimens) was used by taxonomy experts on aquatic bugs for species level identification and/or to reconcile nymph with their corresponding adult species. The second batch (188 specimens) was used to define species based on the COI DNA sequences (standard sequence used for “DNA barcoding”) and using the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) method. The first morphological analysis step separated the specimens into 63 different morphotypes (49 adults and 14 nymphs), which were then found to belong to 54 morphological species in the infra-orders Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha based on the species-level morphological identification, and 41–45 putative molecular species according to the gap value retained in the ABGD. Integrating morphology and “DNA barcoding” reconciled all the specimens into 62 aquatic bug species in Cameroon. Generally, we obtained a good congruence between species a priori identified based on morphology from adult morphotypes and molecular putative species. Moreover, molecular identification has allowed the association of 86% of nymphs with adults. This work illustrates the importance of integrative taxonomy. PMID:27149077

  12. Forest Conversion, Agricultural Transitions and the Influence of Multi-scale Market Factors in Southwest Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordway, E.; Lambin, E.; Asner, G. P.

    2015-12-01

    The changing structure of demand for commodities associated with food security and energy has had a startling impact on land use change in tropical forests in recent decades. Yet, the composition of conversion in the Congo basin remains a major uncertainty, particularly with regards to the scale of drivers of change. Owing to rapid expansion of production globally and longstanding historical production locally in the Congo basin, oil palm offers a lens through which to evaluate local land use decisions across a spectrum of small- to large-scales of production as well as interactions with regional and global supply chains. We examined the effect of global commodity crop expansion on land use change in Southwest Cameroon using a mixed-methods approach to integrate remote sensing, field surveys and socioeconomic data. Southwest Cameroon (2.5 Mha) has a long history of large- and small-scale agriculture, ranging from mixed crop subsistence agriculture to large monocrop plantations of oil palm, cocoa, and rubber. Trends and spatial patterns of forest conversion and agricultural transitions were analyzed from 2000-2015 using satellite imagery. We used economic, demographic and field survey datasets to assess how regional and global market factors and local commodity crop decisions affect land use patterns. Our results show that oil palm is a major commodity crop expanding in this region, and that conversion is occurring primarily through expansion by medium-scale producers and local elites. Results also indicate that global and regional supply chain dynamics influence local land use decision making. This research contributes new information on land use patterns and dynamics in the Congo basin, an understudied region. More specifically, results from this research contribute information on recent trends of oil palm expansion in Cameroon that will be used in national land use planning strategies.

  13. Side-mounted monorail transportation system

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, W.E.

    1987-09-01

    A monorail transit system is described comprising: a beam adapted to be supported on a ground-supported foundation, the beam having two opposite sides, at least one of which has respective truck means provided thereon; a transit car body; at least one transit car truck and a transit car guide means for each transit car body; each transit car truck and each transit car guide means comprising a frame having first wheel means mounted thereon for rotation and disposed in rolling engagement with the track means for providing vertical support, and second and third wheel means mounted thereon for rotation and disposed in rolling engagement with the track means for providing horizontal support; each transit car truck and the transit car guide means further including an arm based on the respective the frame and arching upwardly and outwardly therefrom to an upper outer end at which a respective first securement means is provided; each transit car truck and transit car guide means for each car body being spaced from one another longitudinally of the respective track means.

  14. Eruptive history of Mount Katmai, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hildreth, Edward; Fierstein, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Compositionally, products of Mount Katmai represent an ordinary medium-K arc array, both tholeiitic and calcalkaline, that extends from 51.6% to 72.3% SiO2. Values of 87Sr/86Sr range from 0.70335 to 0.70372, correlating loosely with fractionation indices. The 5–6 km3 of continuously zoned andesite-dacite magma (58%–68% SiO2) that erupted at Novarupta in 1912 was withdrawn from beneath Mount Katmai and bears close compositional affinity with products of that edifice, not with pre-1912 products of the adjacent Trident cluster. Evidence is presented that the 7–8 km3 of high-silica rhyolite (77% SiO2) released in 1912 is unlikely to have been stored under Novarupta or Trident. Pre-eruptive contiguity with the andesite-dacite reservoir is suggested by (1) eruption of ∼3 km3 of rhyolite magma first, followed by mutual mingling in fluctuating proportions; (2) thermal and redox continuity of the whole zoned sequence despite the wide compositional gap; (3) Nd, Sr, O isotopic, and rare earth element (REE) affinities of the whole array; (4) compositional continuity of the nearly aphyric rhyolite with the glass (melt) phase of the phenocryst-rich dacite; and (5) phase-equilibrium experiments that indicate similar shallow pre-eruptive storage depths (3–6 km) for rhyolite, dacite, and andesite.

  15. Cameroon mid-level providers offer a promising public health dentistry model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Oral health services are inadequate and unevenly distributed in many developing countries, particularly those in sub-Saharan Africa. Rural areas in these countries and poorer sections of the population in urban areas often do not have access to oral health services mainly because of a significant shortage of dentists and the high costs of care. We reviewed Cameroon’s experience with deploying a mid-level cadre of oral health professionals and the feasibility of establishing a more formal and predictable role for these health workers. We anticipate that a task-shifting approach in the provision of dental care will significantly improve the uneven distribution of oral health services particularly in the rural areas of Cameroon, which is currently served by only 3% of the total number of dentists. Methods The setting of this study was the Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Board (BCHB), which has four dentists and 42 mid-level providers. De-identified data were collected manually from the registries of 10 Baptist Convention clinics located in six of Cameroon’s 10 regions and then entered into an Excel format before importing into STATA. A retrospective abstraction of all entries for patient visits starting October 2010, and going back in time until 1500 visits were extracted from each clinic. Results This study showed that mid-level providers in BCHB clinics are offering a full scope of dental work across the 10 clinics, with the exception of treatment for major facial injuries. Mid-level providers alone performed 93.5% of all extractions, 87.5% of all fillings, 96.5% of all root canals, 97.5% of all cleanings, and 98.1% of all dentures. The dentists also typically played a teaching role in training the mid-level providers. Conclusions The Ministry of Health in Cameroon has an opportunity to learn from the BCHB model to expand access to oral health care across the country. This study shows the benefits of using a simple, workable, low-cost way to

  16. [Commercial sexual exploitation of minor girls. A multifocal, exploratory and prospective study in Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Mbassa Menick, D; Dassa, K S; Kenmogne, J B; Abanda Ngon, G

    2009-02-01

    To obtain reliable information on commercial sexual exploitation of minor girls under the age of 21, a multifocal, exploratry and prospective using a questionnaire was undertaken in Cameroon. This investigation was initiated and funded by the Cercle International pour la Promotion de la Création (CIPCRE) and carried out by the Cameroon Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (CASPCAN). The survey was performed during the last quarter of year 2004 in four major cities of Cameroon, i.e. Yaoundé, Douala, Bamenca and Bafoussam. Of the 800 questionnaires that were distributed, 722 were considered as suitable for analysis (90.3%). A total of 291 minor girls were victims of commercial sexual exploitation, i.e., 40% of the population studied. The mean age of the victims was 16.6 years (range, 9-20 years). The main reason given for entering prostitution was poverty. The victims were fairly well educated but the level of instruction was not sufficient to find a job paying an income comparable to prostitution. Many were from large families (mean, 7.1 children). The victims' family was monogamous in 40.2% of cases, polygamous in 24.4%, and monoparental in 35.4%. Eighty percent of the victims already had run away from home at least once due to problems in their families ranging from severe corporal punishment (25.8%) and mistreatment linked to parental alcohol and drug abuse to forced early marriage (27.5%) and intrafamilial sexual abuse. A large proportion of the victims (36.4%) were mothers who could not attend school and could not find work. Many victims were completely neglected by their own parents with 43.4% of parents being aware of the activities of their daughters but only 10.6% being opposed to it. Most (78.5%) had good knowledge of the risk of HIV and used condoms regular. These results confirms the general hypothesis of the authors that commercial exploitation of minor girls is widespread in Cameroon. The authors recommend development of a national

  17. A practical approach to low protein diets for patients with chronic kidney disease in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ashuntantang, Gloria Enow; Fouda, Hermine; Kaze, Francois Folefack; Halle, Marie-Patrice; Tabi-Arrey, Crista; Biwole-Sida, Magloire

    2016-09-07

    Cameroon is a low-middle income country with a rich diversity of culture and cuisine. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common in Cameroon and over 80 % of patients present late for care, precluding the use of therapies such as low protein diets (LPDs) that slow its progression. Moreover, the prescription of LPDs is challenging in Cameroon because dieticians are scarce, there are no renal dieticians, and people often have to fund their own healthcare. The few nephrologists that provide care for CKD patients have limited expertise in LPD design. Therefore, only moderate LPDs of 0.6 g protein per kg bodyweight per day, or relatively mild LPDs of 0.7-0.8 g protein per kg bodyweight per day are prescribed. The moderate LPD is prescribed to patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD with non-nephrotic proteinuria, no evidence of malnutrition and no interrcurrent acute illnesses. The mild LPD is prescribed to patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD with nephrotic proteinuria, non-symptomatic stage 5 CKD patients or stage 5 CKD patients on non-dialysis treatment. In the absence of local sources of amino and keto acid supplements, traditional mixed LPDs are used. For patients with limited and sporadic access to animal proteins, the prescribed LPDs do not restrict vegetable proteins, but limit intake of animal proteins (when available) to 70 % of total daily protein intake. For those with better access to animal proteins, the prescribed LPDs limit intake of animal proteins to 50-70 % of total daily protein intake, depending on their meal plan. Images of 100 g portions of meat, fish and readily available composite meals serve as visual guides of quantities for patients. Nutritional status is assessed before LPD prescription and during follow up using a subjective global assessment and serum albumin. In conclusion, LPDs are underutilised and challenging to prescribe in Cameroon because of weakness in the health system, the rarity of dieticians, a wide diversity of dietary habits, the limited

  18. A practical approach to low protein diets for patients with chronic kidney disease in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ashuntantang, Gloria Enow; Fouda, Hermine; Kaze, Francois Folefack; Halle, Marie-Patrice; Tabi-Arrey, Crista; Biwole-Sida, Magloire

    2016-01-01

    Cameroon is a low-middle income country with a rich diversity of culture and cuisine. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common in Cameroon and over 80 % of patients present late for care, precluding the use of therapies such as low protein diets (LPDs) that slow its progression. Moreover, the prescription of LPDs is challenging in Cameroon because dieticians are scarce, there are no renal dieticians, and people often have to fund their own healthcare. The few nephrologists that provide care for CKD patients have limited expertise in LPD design. Therefore, only moderate LPDs of 0.6 g protein per kg bodyweight per day, or relatively mild LPDs of 0.7-0.8 g protein per kg bodyweight per day are prescribed. The moderate LPD is prescribed to patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD with non-nephrotic proteinuria, no evidence of malnutrition and no interrcurrent acute illnesses. The mild LPD is prescribed to patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD with nephrotic proteinuria, non-symptomatic stage 5 CKD patients or stage 5 CKD patients on non-dialysis treatment. In the absence of local sources of amino and keto acid supplements, traditional mixed LPDs are used. For patients with limited and sporadic access to animal proteins, the prescribed LPDs do not restrict vegetable proteins, but limit intake of animal proteins (when available) to 70 % of total daily protein intake. For those with better access to animal proteins, the prescribed LPDs limit intake of animal proteins to 50-70 % of total daily protein intake, depending on their meal plan. Images of 100 g portions of meat, fish and readily available composite meals serve as visual guides of quantities for patients. Nutritional status is assessed before LPD prescription and during follow up using a subjective global assessment and serum albumin. In conclusion, LPDs are underutilised and challenging to prescribe in Cameroon because of weakness in the health system, the rarity of dieticians, a wide diversity of dietary habits, the limited

  19. A case of abdominal textiloma following gynecologic surgery at the Yaounde Central Hospital, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Fouelifack, Florent Ymele; Fouogue, Jovanny Tsuala; Fouedjio, Jeanne Hortence; Sando, Zacharie

    2013-01-01

    Textiloma is the inadvertent retention of a textile foreign body on the surgical site. It is a rare complication of surgery but which carries severe consequences for both patients and surgeons in terms of morbi-mortality and medico-legal procedures respectively. We herein report the case of an abdominal textiloma in a 42 year old woman who underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy for symptomatic leiomyomas. We also depict the errors that led to this mishap in a tertiary hospital in Yaounde (Cameroon). The textiloma was recognized six weeks after the causative surgery and removed by laparotomy without further complications. PMID:24876905

  20. Anaglyph with Landsat Overlay, Mount Meru, Tanzania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Mount Meru is an active volcano located just 70 kilometers (44 miles) west of Mount Kilimanjaro. It reaches 4,566 meters (14,978 feet) in height but has lost much of its bulk due to an eastward volcanic blast sometime in its distant past, perhaps similar to the eruption of Mount Saint Helens in Washington State in 1980. Mount Meru most recently had a minor eruption about a century ago. The several small cones and craters seen in the vicinity probably reflect numerous episodes of volcanic activity. Mount Meru is the topographic centerpiece of Arusha National Park, but Ngurdoto Crater to the east (image top) is also prominent. The fertile slopes of both volcanoes rise above the surrounding savanna and support a forest that hosts diverse wildlife, including nearly 400 species of birds, and also monkeys and leopards, while the floor of Ngurdoto Crater hosts herds of elephants and buffaloes.

    The stereoscopic effect of this anaglyph was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image over a digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space

  1. Volcanic hazards at Mount Rainier, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crandell, Dwight Raymond; Mullineaux, Donal Ray

    1967-01-01

    Mount Rainier is a large stratovolcano of andesitic rock in the Cascade Range of western Washington. Although the volcano as it now stands was almost completely formed before the last major glaciation, geologic formations record a variety of events that have occurred at the volcano in postglacial time. Repetition of some of these events today without warning would result in property damage and loss of life on a catastrophic scale. It is appropriate, therefore, to examine the extent, frequency, and apparent origin of these phenomena and to attempt to predict the effects on man of similar events in the future. The present report was prompted by a contrast that we noted during a study of surficial geologic deposits in Mount Rainier National Park, between the present tranquil landscape adjacent to the volcano and the violent events that shaped parts of that same landscape in the recent past. Natural catastrophes that have geologic causes - such as eruptions, landslides, earthquakes, and floods - all too often are disastrous primarily because man has not understood and made allowance for the geologic environment he occupies. Assessment of the potential hazards of a volcanic environment is especially difficult, for prediction of the time and kind of volcanic activity is still an imperfect art, even at active volcanoes whose behavior has been closely observed for many years. Qualified predictions, however, can be used to plan ways in which hazards to life and property can be minimized. The prediction of eruptions is handicapped because volcanism results from conditions far beneath the surface of the earth, where the causative factors cannot be seen and, for the most part, cannot be measured. Consequently, long-range predictions at Mount Rainier can be based only on the past behavior of the volcano, as revealed by study of the deposits that resulted from previous eruptions. Predictions of this sort, of course, cannot be specific as to time and locale of future events, and

  2. 76 FR 76689 - Cibola National Forest, Mount Taylor Ranger District, NM, Mount Taylor Combined Exploratory Drilling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... exploratory uranium drilling on the Cibola National Forest, Mount Taylor Ranger District. There are two areas identified for exploration; the Bajillos project area is approximately 2,894 acres and is located in T. 12 N, R. 8 W, Sections 6, 7, & 8 and T. 12 N, R. 9 W, Sections 1, 12, & . The Endy project area...

  3. Deposits of large volcanic debris avalanches at Mount St. Helens and Mount Shasta volcanoes

    SciTech Connect

    Glicken, H.

    1985-01-01

    Large volcanic debris avalanches are among the world's largest mass movements. The rockslide-debris avalanche of the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens produced a 2.8 km/sup 3/ deposit and is the largest historic mass movement. A Pleistocene debris avalanche at Mount Shasta produced a 26 km/sup 3/ deposit that may be the largest Quaternary mass movement. The hummocky deposits at both volcanoes consist of rubble divided into (1) block facies that comprises unconsolidated pieces of the old edifice transported relatively intact, and (2) matrix facies that comprises a mixture of rocks from the old mountain and material picked up from the surrounding terrain. At Mount St. Helens, the juvenile dacite is found in the matrix facies, indicating that matrix facies formed from explosions of the erupting magma as well as from disaggregation and mixing of blocks. The block facies forms both hummocks and interhummock areas in the proximal part of the St. Helens avalanche deposit. At Mount St. Helens, the density of the old cone is 21% greater than the density of the avalanche deposit. Block size decreases with distance. Clast size, measured in the field and by sieving, coverages about a mean with distance, which suggests that blocks disaggregated and mixed together during transport.

  4. Fire and forest history at Mount Rushmore.

    PubMed

    Brown, Peter M; Wienk, Cody L; Symstad, Amy J

    2008-12-01

    Mount Rushmore National Memorial in the Black Hills of South Dakota is known worldwide for its massive sculpture of four of the United States' most respected presidents. The Memorial landscape also is covered by extensive ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest that has not burned in over a century. We compiled dendroecological and forest structural data from 29 plots across the 517-ha Memorial and used fire behavior modeling to reconstruct the historical fire regime and forest structure and compare them to current conditions. The historical fire regime is best characterized as one of low-severity surface fires with occasional (> 100 years) patches (< 100 ha) of passive crown fire. We estimate that only approximately 3.3% of the landscape burned as crown fire during 22 landscape fire years (recorded at > or = 25% of plots) between 1529 and 1893. The last landscape fire was in 1893. Mean fire intervals before 1893 varied depending on spatial scale, from 34 years based on scar-to-scar intervals on individual trees to 16 years between landscape fire years. Modal fire intervals were 11-15 years and did not vary with scale. Fire rotation (the time to burn an area the size of the study area) was estimated to be 30 years for surface fire and 800+ years for crown fire. The current forest is denser and contains more small trees, fewer large trees, lower canopy base heights, and greater canopy bulk density than a reconstructed historical (1870) forest. Fire behavior modeling using the NEXUS program suggests that surface fires would have dominated fire behavior in the 1870 forest during both moderate and severe weather conditions, while crown fire would dominate in the current forest especially under severe weather. Changes in the fire regime and forest structure at Mount Rushmore parallel those seen in ponderosa pine forests from the southwestern United States. Shifts from historical to current forest structure and the increased likelihood of crown fire justify the need for

  5. Space radar image of Mount Everest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    These are two comparison images of Mount Everest and its surroundings, along the border of Nepal and Tibet. The peak of Mount Everest, the highest elevation on Earth at 8,848 meters (29,028 feet), can be seen near the center of each image. The image at the top was acquired through thick cloud cover by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 16, 1994. The image on the bottom is an optical photograph taken by the Endeavour crew under clear conditions during the second flight of SIR-C/X-SAR on October 10, 1994. Both images show an area approximately 70 kilometers by 38 kilometers (43 miles by 24 miles) that is centered at 28.0 degrees north latitude and 86.9 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors in the radar image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). Radar illumination is from the top of the frame. The optical photograph has been geometrically adjusted to better match the area shown in the radar image. Many features of the Himalayan terrain are visible in both images. Snow covered areas appear white in the optical photograph while the same areas appear bright blue in the radar image. The radar image was taken in early spring and shows deep snow cover, while the optical photograph was taken in late summer and shows minimum snow cover. The curving and branching features seen in both images are glaciers. The two wavelengths and multiple polarizations of the SIR-C radar are sensitive to characteristics of the glacier surfaces that are not detected by conventional photography, such as the ice roughness, water content and stratification. For this reason, the glaciers show a variety of colors in the radar image (blue, purple, red

  6. Fire and forest history at Mount Rushmore.

    PubMed

    Brown, Peter M; Wienk, Cody L; Symstad, Amy J

    2008-12-01

    Mount Rushmore National Memorial in the Black Hills of South Dakota is known worldwide for its massive sculpture of four of the United States' most respected presidents. The Memorial landscape also is covered by extensive ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest that has not burned in over a century. We compiled dendroecological and forest structural data from 29 plots across the 517-ha Memorial and used fire behavior modeling to reconstruct the historical fire regime and forest structure and compare them to current conditions. The historical fire regime is best characterized as one of low-severity surface fires with occasional (> 100 years) patches (< 100 ha) of passive crown fire. We estimate that only approximately 3.3% of the landscape burned as crown fire during 22 landscape fire years (recorded at > or = 25% of plots) between 1529 and 1893. The last landscape fire was in 1893. Mean fire intervals before 1893 varied depending on spatial scale, from 34 years based on scar-to-scar intervals on individual trees to 16 years between landscape fire years. Modal fire intervals were 11-15 years and did not vary with scale. Fire rotation (the time to burn an area the size of the study area) was estimated to be 30 years for surface fire and 800+ years for crown fire. The current forest is denser and contains more small trees, fewer large trees, lower canopy base heights, and greater canopy bulk density than a reconstructed historical (1870) forest. Fire behavior modeling using the NEXUS program suggests that surface fires would have dominated fire behavior in the 1870 forest during both moderate and severe weather conditions, while crown fire would dominate in the current forest especially under severe weather. Changes in the fire regime and forest structure at Mount Rushmore parallel those seen in ponderosa pine forests from the southwestern United States. Shifts from historical to current forest structure and the increased likelihood of crown fire justify the need for

  7. English-Medium Instruction in an English-French Bilingual Setting: Issues of Quality and Equity in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuchah, Kuchah

    2016-01-01

    Despite its multilingual nature Cameroon's educational system provides for full immersion into either French-medium or English-medium education from the first year schooling. Following political tensions in the early 1990s the country decided to reaffirm its commitment to promote bilingualism in the educational system with the outcome being the…

  8. ''I Eat to Be Happy, to Be Strong, and to Live.'' Perceptions of Rural and Urban Adolescents in Cameroon, Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dapi, Leonie N.; Omoloko, Cecile; Janlert, Urban; Dahlgren, Lars; Haglin, Lena

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate factors influencing rural and urban adolescents' food perceptions during a time of nutritional transition in Cameroon, Africa. Design: Qualitative in-depth interviews. Settings: Yaounde urban and Bandja rural areas. Participants: Fifteen adolescents 12 to 15 years old purposely selected from schools in urban and rural…

  9. Women Farmers' Perceptions of the Economic Problems Influencing Their Productivity in Agricultural Systems: Meme Division of the Southwest Province, Cameroon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endeley, Joyce B.

    Women farmers produce about 60% of the food in Cameroon, but face more problems and constraints than men in performing their agricultural activities. Cash crop farmers (mostly men) are the targeted beneficiaries of government and international aids, and have better access to extension services, loans, subsidized production input (herbicides,…

  10. "This Is No French School": Language and Education Traditions in Primary Schooling in Cameroon -- A Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nana, Genevoix

    2013-01-01

    This study draws on the concepts of instrumental and expressive orders to analyse school practice in two Anglophone and two Francophone primary schools in Cameroon, and how micro processes of language socialisation in the schools studied instantiated Anglophone and Francophone education traditions and related to macro processes of systems of…

  11. Molecular Epidemiology of HIV Type 1 CRF02_AG in Cameroon and African Patients Living in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Véras, Nazle Mendonca Collaço; Santoro, Maria Mercedes; Gray, Rebecca R.; Tatem, Andrew J.; Presti, Alessandra Lo; Olearo, Flaminia; Cappelli, Giulia; Colizzi, Vittorio; Takou, Desiré; Torimiro, Judith; Russo, Gianluca; Callegaro, Annapaola; Salpini, Romina; D'Arrigo, Roberta; Perno, Carlo-Federico; Goodenow, Maureen M.; Ciccozzi, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract HIV-1 CRF02_AG accounts for >50% of infected individuals in Cameroon. CRF02_AG prevalence has been increasing both in Africa and Europe, particularly in Italy because of migrations from the sub-Saharan region. This study investigated the molecular epidemiology of CRF02_AG in Cameroon by employing Bayesian phylodynamics and analyzed the relationship between HIV-1 CRF02_AG isolates circulating in Italy and those prevalent in Africa to understand the link between the two epidemics. Among 291 Cameroonian reverse transcriptase sequences analyzed, about 70% clustered within three distinct clades, two of which shared a most recent common ancestor, all related to sequences from Western Africa. The major Cameroonian clades emerged during the mid-1970s and slowly spread during the next 30 years. Little or no geographic structure was detected within these clades. One of the major driving forces of the epidemic was likely the high accessibility between locations in Southern Cameroon contributing to the mobility of the population. The remaining Cameroonian sequences and the new strains isolated from Italian patients were interspersed mainly within West and Central African sequences in the tree, indicating a continuous exchange of CRF02_AG viral strains between Cameroon and other African countries, as well as multiple independent introductions in the Italian population. The evaluation of the spread of CRF02_AG may provide significant insight about the future dynamics of the Italian and European epidemic. PMID:21453131

  12. An Exploration of the Relationship between Language Attitudes and Ideologies in a Study of Francophone Students of English in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyers, Charlyn; Abongdia, Jane-Francis

    2010-01-01

    What are the similarities and differences between the concepts "language attitudes" (LAs) and "language ideologies" (LIs)? The need to answer this question arose from a study done by Abongdia in Cameroon with Francophone high school students of English to determine their attitudes towards English as well as their motivation for learning the…

  13. Barriers to Community Participation in Development Planning: Lessons from the Mutengene (Cameroon) Self-Help Water Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Njoh, Ambe J.

    2002-01-01

    A community water supply project in Cameroon illustrates the following constraints on community participation in development: paternalistic authorities, prescriptive role of the state, selective participation, bias toward "hard" issues, inattention to negative results, group conflicts, gatekeeping, pressure for immediate results, population size,…

  14. The determinants of the willingness-to-pay for community-based prepayment scheme in rural Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Donfouet, Hermann Pythagore Pierre; Makaudze, Ephias; Mahieu, Pierre-Alexandre; Malin, Eric

    2011-09-01

    In rural Cameroon, many people have no access to quality healthcare services. This is largely attributed to lack of private out-of-pocket payment to finance healthcare services. A community-based prepayment health insurance scheme may be implemented to improve healthcare access in rural areas. This study examines the determinants of willingness-to-pay for a community-based prepayment healthcare system using a contingent valuation method conducted in rural Cameroon. To mitigate potential hypothetical bias, a consequential script is introduced in the questionnaire. The results indicate age, religion, profession, knowledge of community-based health insurance, awareness of usual practice in rural areas, involvement in association and disposable income are the key determinants of willingness to pay for a prepayment health scheme. On average, willingness to pay for the scheme by rural households is 1011 CFA francs/person/month (2.15 US dollars). The results underlie two important implications: first, there is substantial demand for a community healthcare prepayment scheme by rural poor households in Cameroon; second, rural households are averse to health shocks and hence they are willing to sacrifice monthly premium payments to protect themselves (and their households) from unforeseen health-related risks. If government could engage in social marketing strategies such as mass media campaigns and awareness, this could prove vital for encouraging participation by the rural poor in healthcare prepayment scheme in Cameroon. PMID:21874541

  15. From Chicken Breath to the Killers Lake of Cameroon: Uniting Seven Interesting Phenomena with a Single Chemical Underpinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delorenzo, Ron

    2001-02-01

    By using a single equation prototype, seven interesting mysteries and phenomena can be seen as sharing a common chemical underpinning. The applications discussed are the Killer Lakes of Cameroon, chicken breath, the Permian Ocean, the snow line, boiler scale, the Fizz Keeper, and stalactites and stalagmites.

  16. From Chicken Breath to the Killer Lakes of Cameroon: Uniting Seven Interesting Phenomena with a Single Chemical Underpinning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLorenzo, Ron

    2001-01-01

    Recommends integrating different applications to serve the need for students to know the relevancy of the course of their future. Uses different and unrelated phenomena to teach equilibria. Introduces six phenomena; (1) Killer Lakes of Cameroon, (2) Chicken Breath, (3) The Permian Ocean, (4) Snow Line, (5) Hard-Water Boiler Scale, and (6)…

  17. The determinants of the willingness-to-pay for community-based prepayment scheme in rural Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Donfouet, Hermann Pythagore Pierre; Makaudze, Ephias; Mahieu, Pierre-Alexandre; Malin, Eric

    2011-09-01

    In rural Cameroon, many people have no access to quality healthcare services. This is largely attributed to lack of private out-of-pocket payment to finance healthcare services. A community-based prepayment health insurance scheme may be implemented to improve healthcare access in rural areas. This study examines the determinants of willingness-to-pay for a community-based prepayment healthcare system using a contingent valuation method conducted in rural Cameroon. To mitigate potential hypothetical bias, a consequential script is introduced in the questionnaire. The results indicate age, religion, profession, knowledge of community-based health insurance, awareness of usual practice in rural areas, involvement in association and disposable income are the key determinants of willingness to pay for a prepayment health scheme. On average, willingness to pay for the scheme by rural households is 1011 CFA francs/person/month (2.15 US dollars). The results underlie two important implications: first, there is substantial demand for a community healthcare prepayment scheme by rural poor households in Cameroon; second, rural households are averse to health shocks and hence they are willing to sacrifice monthly premium payments to protect themselves (and their households) from unforeseen health-related risks. If government could engage in social marketing strategies such as mass media campaigns and awareness, this could prove vital for encouraging participation by the rural poor in healthcare prepayment scheme in Cameroon.

  18. Will Economic Crises in Africa Weaken Rural-Urban Ties? Insights from Child Fosterage Trends in Cameroon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eloundou-Enyegue, Parfait M.; Stokes, C. Shannon

    2002-01-01

    In many African countries, rural-urban kinship ties support the education and economic mobility of rural children through fosterage into urban families. Demographic survey data from central Cameroon indicate major rural-urban differences in child fosterage relative to family characteristics and child's school performance, and show lower rural…

  19. Article mounting and position adjustment stage

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, R.W.; Silva, L.L.

    1988-05-10

    An improved adjustment and mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A ring sensor holder has locating pins on a first side thereof which are positioned within a linear keyway in a surrounding housing for permitting reciprocal movement of the ring along the keyway. A rotatable ring gear is positioned within the housing on the other side of the ring from the linear keyway and includes an oval keyway which drives the ring along the linear keyway upon rotation of the gear. Motor-driven single-stage and dual (x, y) stage adjustment systems are disclosed which are of compact construction and include a large laser transmission hole. 6 figs.

  20. Article mounting and position adjustment stage

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.; Silva, Leonard L.

    1988-01-01

    An improved adjustment and mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A ring sensor holder has locating pins on a first side thereof which are positioned within a linear keyway in a surrounding housing for permitting reciprocal movement of the ring along the keyway. A rotatable ring gear is positioned within the housing on the other side of the ring from the linear keyway and includes an oval keyway which drives the ring along the linear keyway upon rotation of the gear. Motor-driven single-stage and dual (x, y) stage adjustment systems are disclosed which are of compact construction and include a large laser transmission hole.

  1. A visit to Mount St. Helens

    SciTech Connect

    Meadows, D.G.

    1994-04-01

    The May 18, 1980, eruption displaced roughly 2.6 km[sup 3] of rock and devastated more than 500 km[sup 2] of forest, mostly to the north of the mountain. Trees within 10--15 km of the mountain peak were burned and uprooted. Beyond that, high winds and flying debris created a blowdown zone. Up to 150 m of rock and ice covered some areas. Accumulations of ash were measured as much as 330 km from the volcano. Mud flows choked nearby rivers and streams. Two years later, the US Congress established the 44,000-hectare Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument. The Act essentially directed the USDA Forest Service to allow the area to recover naturally. The paper reviews what changes the ecosystem has been going through since the eruption and the lessons learned that suggest some new resource management techniques.

  2. Reusable vibration resistant integrated circuit mounting socket

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, C.N.

    1993-12-31

    This invention discloses a novel form of socket for integrated circuits to be mounted on printed circuit boards. The socket uses a novel contact which is fabricated out of a bimetallic strip with a shape which makes the end of the strip move laterally as temperature changes. The end of the strip forms a barb which digs into an integrated circuit lead at normal temperatures and hold it firmly in the contact, preventing loosening and open circuits from vibration. By cooling the contact containing the bimetallic strip the barb end can be made to release so that the integrated circuit lead can be removed from the socket without damage either to the lead or to the socket components.

  3. Solder Mounting Technologies for Electronic Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    VIANCO, PAUL T.

    1999-09-23

    Soldering provides a cost-effective means for attaching electronic packages to circuit boards using both small scale and large scale manufacturing processes. Soldering processes accommodate through-hole leaded components as well as surface mount packages, including the newer area array packages such as the Ball Grid Arrays (BGA), Chip Scale Packages (CSP), and Flip Chip Technology. The versatility of soldering is attributed to the variety of available solder alloy compositions, substrate material methodologies, and different manufacturing processes. For example, low melting temperature solders are used with temperature sensitive materials and components. On the other hand, higher melting temperature solders provide reliable interconnects for electronics used in high temperature service. Automated soldering techniques can support large-volume manufacturing processes, while providing high reliability electronic products at a reasonable cost.

  4. Reusable vibration resistant integrated circuit mounting socket

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Craig N.

    1995-01-01

    This invention discloses a novel form of socket for integrated circuits to be mounted on printed circuit boards. The socket uses a novel contact which is fabricated out of a bimetallic strip with a shape which makes the end of the strip move laterally as temperature changes. The end of the strip forms a barb which digs into an integrated circuit lead at normal temperatures and holds it firmly in the contact, preventing loosening and open circuits from vibration. By cooling the contact containing the bimetallic strip the barb end can be made to release so that the integrated circuit lead can be removed from the socket without damage either to the lead or to the socket components.

  5. MOUNT HOOD WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT AREAS, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keith, T.E.C.; Causey, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Mount Hood Wilderness, Oregon, was conducted. Geochemical data indicate two areas of substantiated mineral-resource potential containing weak epithermal mineralization: an area of the north side of Zigzag Mountain where vein-type lead-zinc-silver deposits occur and an area of the south side of Zigzag Mountain, where the upper part of a quartz diorite pluton has propylitic alteration associated with mineralization of copper, gold, silver, lead, and zinc in discontinuous veins. Geothermal-resource potential for low- to intermediate-temperature (less than 248 degree F) hot-water systems in the wilderness is probable in these areas. Part of the wilderness is classified as a Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA), which is considered to have probable geothermal-resource potential, and two parts of the wilderness have been included in geothermal lease areas.

  6. Mount Hood Wilderness and adjacent areas, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, T.E.C.; Causey, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Mount Hood Wilderness, Oregon, was conducted in 1980. Geochemical data indicate two areas of substantiated mineral-resource potential containing weak epithermal mineralization: an area on the north side of Zigzag Mountain, where vein-type lead-zinc-silver deposits occur and an area on the south side of Zigzag Mountain, where the upper part of a quartz diorite pluton has propylitic alteration associated with mineralization of copper, gold, silver, lead, and zinc in discontinuous veins. Geothermal-resource potential for low- to intermediate-temperature (less than 248/sup 0/F) hot-water systems in the wilderness is probable in three areas. Part of the wilderness is classified as a Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA), which is considered to have probable geothermal-resource potential, and two parts of the wilderness have been included in geothermal lease areas.

  7. Temperature compensated sleeve type mirror mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The primary mirror of a large (26-inch diameter aperture) solar telescope was made of glass ceramic and designed with an integral hub on the back of the center of the mirror. This permits heat from the mirror to radiate off its back to a nearby cold plate. To permit mounting without high stresses, the hub was ground down to a smooth cylindrical surface 3.5 inch in diameter. The ground surface was then acid-etched to remove 0.007 inch (on the diameter) by immersion for five minutes in a mixture of four parts 92% sulfuric acid and three parts 50% hydrofluoric acid. The acid etching removes microcracks from the ground Cer-Vit surface. An Invar sleeve was fabricated to fit over the hub with about 0.010 inch radial (0.020 inch diametral) clearance.

  8. Accurate Telescope Mount Positioning with MEMS Accelerometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mészáros, L.; Jaskó, A.; Pál, A.; Csépány, G.

    2014-08-01

    This paper describes the advantages and challenges of applying microelectromechanical accelerometer systems (MEMS accelerometers) in order to attain precise, accurate, and stateless positioning of telescope mounts. This provides a completely independent method from other forms of electronic, optical, mechanical or magnetic feedback or real-time astrometry. Our goal is to reach the subarcminute range which is considerably smaller than the field-of-view of conventional imaging telescope systems. Here we present how this subarcminute accuracy can be achieved with very cheap MEMS sensors and we also detail how our procedures can be extended in order to attain even finer measurements. In addition, our paper discusses how can a complete system design be implemented in order to be a part of a telescope control system.

  9. Photovoltaic array mounting apparatus, systems, and methods

    DOEpatents

    West, John Raymond; Atchley, Brian; Hudson, Tyrus Hawkes; Johansen, Emil

    2014-12-02

    An apparatus for mounting a photovoltaic (PV) module on a surface, including a support with an upper surface, a lower surface, tabs, one or more openings, and a clip comprising an arm and a notch, where the apparatus resists wind forces and seismic forces and creates a grounding electrical bond between the PV module, support, and clip. The invention further includes a method for installing PV modules on a surface that includes arranging supports in rows along an X axis and in columns along a Y axis on a surface such that in each row the distance between two neighboring supports does not exceed the length of the longest side of a PV module and in each column the distance between two neighboring supports does not exceed the length of the shortest side of a PV module.

  10. Rack assembly for mounting solar modules

    DOEpatents

    Plaisted, Joshua Reed; West, Brian

    2010-12-28

    A rack assembly is provided for mounting solar modules over an underlying body. The rack assembly may include a plurality of rail structures that are arrangeable over the underlying body to form an overall perimeter for the rack assembly. One or more retention structures may be provided with the plurality of rail structures, where each retention structure is configured to support one or more solar modules at a given height above the underlying body. At least some of the plurality of rail structures are adapted to enable individual rail structures o be sealed over the underlying body so as to constrain air flow underneath the solar modules. Additionally, at least one of (i) one or more of the rail structures, or (ii) the one or more retention structures are adjustable so as to adapt the rack assembly to accommodate solar modules of varying forms or dimensions.

  11. Rack assembly for mounting solar modules

    DOEpatents

    Plaisted, Joshua Reed; West, Brian

    2014-06-10

    A rack assembly is provided for mounting solar modules over an underlying body. The rack assembly may include a plurality of rail structures that are arrangeable over the underlying body to form an overall perimeter for the rack assembly. One or more retention structures may be provided with the plurality of rail structures, where each retention structure is configured to support one or more solar modules at a given height above the underlying body. At least some of the plurality of rail structures are adapted to enable individual rail structures o be sealed over the underlying body so as to constrain air flow underneath the solar modules. Additionally, at least one of (i) one or more of the rail structures, or (ii) the one or more retention structures are adjustable so as to adapt the rack assembly to accommodate solar modules of varying forms or dimensions.

  12. Rack assembly for mounting solar modules

    DOEpatents

    Plaisted, Joshua Reed; West, Brian

    2012-09-04

    A rack assembly is provided for mounting solar modules over an underlying body. The rack assembly may include a plurality of rail structures that are arrangeable over the underlying body to form an overall perimeter for the rack assembly. One or more retention structures may be provided with the plurality of rail structures, where each retention structure is configured to support one or more solar modules at a given height above the underlying body. At least some of the plurality of rail structures are adapted to enable individual rail structures to be sealed over the underlying body so as to constrain air flow underneath the solar modules. Additionally, at least one of (i) one or more of the rail structures, or (ii) the one or more retention structures are adjustable so as to adapt the rack assembly to accommodate solar modules of varying forms or dimensions.

  13. Helmet-mounted display (day/night)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Givens, Gerald S.; Yona, Zvi

    1996-06-01

    A dangerous situation is created when the pilot looks inside the cockpit for instrument information when flying combat and low altitude missions. While looking at instruments, a pilot cannot be performing situation analysis; yet not looking at instruments runs such risks as flying into the ground, particularly in low visibility conditions or in relatively featureless terrain where visual cues for altitude and attitude are inadequate or deceptive. The AN/AVS-7 HMD solves this problem for night flight for both helicopters and fixed wing aircraft which must operate in a 'nap of the earth' flight regime. The display unit mounts on the AN/AVS-6 night vision goggles and provides symbology overlaid on the pilot's outside view; cockpit instrument information is thus provided through the goggles. The pilot is immediately aware of changes in either his surroundings or the instrument readings. This minimizes the risk of critical information being missed in one area while the pilot is looking in the other. The 'day' HMD version of the AN/AVS-7 display now carries these advantages into daytime flights. This display unit operates in conditions from full sunlight to dusk, provides the same symbology as the night display, and connects to the night display interface with no aircraft modification. The day HMD mounts to the helmet using the attachment points previously reserved for the night vision goggles. This display improves the safety of daytime operations by keeping the eyes 'out of the cockpit' in difficult situations such as those presented during landings, cargo lifting and flight utilizing terrain masking. It offers the possibility of a less stressful way of familiarizing the pilot with the symbology and of the dynamic relationships it has to the aircraft and background motions. This familiarization is now accomplished during night flights using night vision goggles. The 'day' HMD is also a useful maintenance aid, easing the ground crew's checkout of the aircraft systems

  14. Hydrothermal processes at Mount Rainier, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    Field studies and thermal-infrared mapping at Mount Rainier indicate areas of active hydrothermal alteration where excess surface heat flux is about 9 megawatts. Three representative settings include: (1) An extensive area (greater than 12,000 m/sup 2/) of heated ground and slightly acidic boiling-point fumaroles at 76-82/sup 0/C at East and West Craters on the volcano's summit; (2) A small area (less than 500 m/sup 2/) of heated ground and sub-boiling-point fumaroles at 55-60/sup 0/C on the upper flank at Disappointment Cleaver, and other probably similar areas at Willis Wall, Sunset Amphitheater, and the South Tahoma and Kautz headwalls; (3) Sulfate and carbon dioxide enriched thermal springs at 9-24/sup 0/C on the lower flank of the volcano in valley walls beside the Winthrop and Paradise Glaciers. In addition, chloride- and carbon dioxide-enriched thermal springs issue from thin sediments that overlie Tertiary rocks at, or somewhat beyond, the base of the volcanic edifice in valley bottoms of the Nisqually and Ohanapecosh Rivers where maximum spring temperatures are 19-25/sup 0/C, respectively, and where extensive travertine deposits have developed. The heat flow, distribution of thermal activity, and nature of alteration products indicate that a narrow, central hydrothermal system exists within Mount Rainier forming steam-heated snowmelt at the summit craters and localized leakage of steam-heated fluids within 2 kilometers of the summit. The lateral extent of the hydrothermal system is limited in that only sparse, neutral sulfate-enriched thermal water issues from the lower flank of the cone. Simulations of geochemical mass transfer suggest that the thermal springs may be derived from an acid sulfate-chloride parent fluid which has been neutralized by reaction with andesite and highly diluted with shallow ground water.

  15. The Mount Rainier Lahar Detection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockhart, A. B.; Murray, T. L.

    2003-12-01

    To mitigate the risk of unheralded lahars from Mount Rainier, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Pierce County, Washington, installed a lahar-detection system on the Puyallup and Carbon rivers that originate on Mount Rainier's western slopes. The system, installed in 1998, is designed to automatically detect the passage of lahars large enough to potentially affect populated areas downstream (approximate volume threshold 40 million cubic meters), while ignoring small lahars, earthquakes, extreme weather and floods. Along each river valley upstream, arrays of independent lahar-monitoring stations equipped with geophones and short tripwires telemeter data to a pair of redundant computer base stations located in and near Tacoma at existing public safety facilities that are staffed around the clock. Monitored data consist of ground-vibration levels, tripwire status, and transmissions at regular intervals. The base stations automatically evaluate these data to determine if a dangerous lahar is passing through the station array. The detection algorithm requires significant ground vibration to occur at those stations in the array that are above the anticipated level of inundation, while lower level `deadman' stations, inundated by the flow, experience tripwire breakage or are destroyed. Once a base station detects a lahar, it alerts staff who execute a call-down of public-safety officials and schools, initiating evacuation of areas potentially at risk. Because the system's risk-mitigation task imposes high standards of reliability on all components, it has been under test for several years. To date, the system has operated reliably and without false alarms, including during the nearby M6.8 Nisqually Earthquake on February 28, 2001. The system is being turned over to Pierce County, and activated as part of their lahar warning system.

  16. An Examination of Forest Certification Status among Logging Companies in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Nukpezah, Daniel; Alemagi, Dieudonne; Duguma, Lalisa; Minang, Peter; Mbosso, Charlie; Tchoundjeu, Zac

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the level of interest, awareness, and adoption of ISO 14001 and Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification schemes among logging companies in Cameroon. Eleven logging companies located in Douala in the Littoral Region of Cameroon were assessed through a structured interview using an administered questionnaire which was mostly analyzed qualitatively thereafter. The findings indicated that none of the companies was certified for ISO 14001; however 63.64% of them were already FSC-certified. Four companies (36.36%) were neither FSC- nor ISO 14001 EMS-certified. Among the factors found to influence the adoption rate was the level of awareness about ISO 14001 and FSC certification schemes. The main drivers for pursuing FSC certification were easy penetration into international markets, tax holiday benefits, and enhancement of corporate image of the logging companies through corporate social responsibility fulfillments. Poor domestic market for certified products was found to be the major impediment to get certified. To make logging activities more environmentally friendly and socially acceptable, logging companies should be encouraged to get certified through the ISO 14001 EMS scheme which is almost nonexistent so far. This requires awareness creation about the scheme, encouraging domestic markets for certified products and creating policy incentives. PMID:27355041

  17. Serological and molecular tools to detect neurologic parasitic zoonoses in rural Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Nkouawa, Agathe; Sako, Yasuhito; Moyou-Somo, Roger; Ito, Akira

    2011-11-01

    Parasitic helminthiases, such as toxocariasis, cysticercosis and paragonimiasis are a public health threat, since they can affect the brain leading to neurological disorders. Epilepsy and paragonimiasis are common in southwestern Cameroon. We reviewed the literature for studies using antigens to diagnose toxocariasis, cysticercosis, and paragonimiasis. Serology revealed that 61 (36.3%), 26 (15.5%) and 2 (1.2%) of 168 persons examined [78 males (15.2 +/- 8.2 years old), 90 females (12.9 +/- 5.9 years old), 143 persons < 20 years old] had antibody responses to toxocariasis, paragonimiasis and cysticercosis, respectively. Of the 14 people with epilepsy, 5 were seropositive for Toxocara antigens and 1 was positive for both Toxocara and Paragonimus antigens. Two children were serologically confirmed to have cysticercosis. Serologic screening for cysticercosis may be feasible to detect asymptomatic cysticercosis in children in endemic areas leading to early treatment. The causative Paragonimus species was confirmed to be P. africanus by molecular sequencing. Education, screening and confirmation test for these diseases may be needed for control in Cameroon.

  18. Locating the depth of magma supply for volcanic eruptions, insights from Mt. Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Geiger, Harri; Barker, Abigail K.; Troll, Valentin R.

    2016-01-01

    Mt. Cameroon is one of the most active volcanoes in Africa and poses a possible threat to about half a million people in the area, yet knowledge of the volcano’s underlying magma supply system is sparse. To characterize Mt. Cameroon’s magma plumbing system, we employed mineral-melt equilibrium thermobarometry on the products of the volcano’s two most recent eruptions of 1999 and 2000. Our results suggest pre-eruptive magma storage between 20 and 39 km beneath Mt. Cameroon, which corresponds to the Moho level and below. Additionally, the 1999 eruption products reveal several shallow magma pockets between 3 and 12 km depth, which are not detected in the 2000 lavas. This implies that small-volume magma batches actively migrate through the plumbing system during repose intervals. Evolving and migrating magma parcels potentially cause temporary unrest and short-lived explosive outbursts, and may be remobilized during major eruptions that are fed from sub-Moho magma reservoirs. PMID:27713494

  19. An Examination of Forest Certification Status among Logging Companies in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Nukpezah, Daniel; Alemagi, Dieudonne; Duguma, Lalisa; Minang, Peter; Mbosso, Charlie; Tchoundjeu, Zac

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the level of interest, awareness, and adoption of ISO 14001 and Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification schemes among logging companies in Cameroon. Eleven logging companies located in Douala in the Littoral Region of Cameroon were assessed through a structured interview using an administered questionnaire which was mostly analyzed qualitatively thereafter. The findings indicated that none of the companies was certified for ISO 14001; however 63.64% of them were already FSC-certified. Four companies (36.36%) were neither FSC- nor ISO 14001 EMS-certified. Among the factors found to influence the adoption rate was the level of awareness about ISO 14001 and FSC certification schemes. The main drivers for pursuing FSC certification were easy penetration into international markets, tax holiday benefits, and enhancement of corporate image of the logging companies through corporate social responsibility fulfillments. Poor domestic market for certified products was found to be the major impediment to get certified. To make logging activities more environmentally friendly and socially acceptable, logging companies should be encouraged to get certified through the ISO 14001 EMS scheme which is almost nonexistent so far. This requires awareness creation about the scheme, encouraging domestic markets for certified products and creating policy incentives.

  20. Locally Confined Clonal Complexes of Mycobacterium ulcerans in Two Buruli Ulcer Endemic Regions of Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Kerber, Sarah; Minyem, Jacques C.; Um Boock, Alphonse; Vogel, Moritz; Bayi, Pierre Franklin; Junghanss, Thomas; Brites, Daniela; Harris, Simon R.; Parkhill, Julian; Pluschke, Gerd; Lamelas Cabello, Araceli

    2015-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium ulcerans is the causative agent of the necrotizing skin disease Buruli ulcer (BU), which has been reported from over 30 countries worldwide. The majority of notified patients come from West African countries, such as Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Benin and Cameroon. All clinical isolates of M. ulcerans from these countries are closely related and their genomes differ only in a limited number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a molecular epidemiological study with clinical isolates from patients from two distinct BU endemic regions of Cameroon, the Nyong and the Mapé river basins. Whole genome sequencing of the M. ulcerans strains from these two BU endemic areas revealed the presence of two phylogenetically distinct clonal complexes. The strains from the Nyong river basin were genetically more diverse and less closely related to the M. ulcerans strain circulating in Ghana and Benin than the strains causing BU in the Mapé river basin. Conclusions Our comparative genomic analysis revealed that M. ulcerans clones diversify locally by the accumulation of SNPs. Case isolates coming from more recently emerging BU endemic areas, such as the Mapé river basin, may be less diverse than populations from longer standing disease foci, such as the Nyong river basin. Exchange of strains between distinct endemic areas seems to be rare and local clonal complexes can be easily distinguished by whole genome sequencing. PMID:26046531

  1. Doassansiopsis caldesiae sp. nov. and Doassansiopsis tomasii: two remarkable smut fungi from Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Piatek, Marcin; Vánky, Kálmán; Mossebo, Dominique C; Piatek, Jolanta

    2008-01-01

    Three recent collections of Doassansiopsis from western Cameroon are assessed taxonomically. Doassansiopsis caldesiae M. Piatek & Vánky is described as a new species from infected leaves of Caldesia reniformis (D. Don) Makino. Its diagnostic characters are flat, nonthickened sori with spore balls as blackish, slightly elevated dots, more or less globoid spores, conspicuous cortical sterile cells and parasitism on Caldesia reniformis of family Alismataceae. The species is compared to another Doassansiopsis species on host plants belonging to family Alismataceae. Doassansiopsis tomasii Vánky is described from two localities on Nymphaea nouchali Burm.f. var. caerulea (Savigny) Verdc. (Nymphaeaceae), which represents the first report of this smut from Cameroon and western Africa. Similarities between this species and Doassansiopsis nymphaeae (Syd. & P. Syd.) Thirum. and D. ticonis M. Piepenbr. are outlined and the global distribution of the three taxa is mapped. The species concept in the genus Doassansiopsis is discussed, and a key to all known species of the genus is provided. PMID:18833759

  2. Locating the depth of magma supply for volcanic eruptions, insights from Mt. Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiger, Harri; Barker, Abigail K.; Troll, Valentin R.

    2016-10-01

    Mt. Cameroon is one of the most active volcanoes in Africa and poses a possible threat to about half a million people in the area, yet knowledge of the volcano’s underlying magma supply system is sparse. To characterize Mt. Cameroon’s magma plumbing system, we employed mineral-melt equilibrium thermobarometry on the products of the volcano’s two most recent eruptions of 1999 and 2000. Our results suggest pre-eruptive magma storage between 20 and 39 km beneath Mt. Cameroon, which corresponds to the Moho level and below. Additionally, the 1999 eruption products reveal several shallow magma pockets between 3 and 12 km depth, which are not detected in the 2000 lavas. This implies that small-volume magma batches actively migrate through the plumbing system during repose intervals. Evolving and migrating magma parcels potentially cause temporary unrest and short-lived explosive outbursts, and may be remobilized during major eruptions that are fed from sub-Moho magma reservoirs.

  3. Konzo outbreak among refugees from Central African Republic in Eastern region, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ciglenečki, I; Eyema, R; Kabanda, C; Taafo, F; Mekaoui, H; Urbaniak, V

    2011-03-01

    Konzo is a spastic paraparesis of sudden onset, linked to the exclusive consumption of insufficiently processed bitter cassava as staple food combined with low protein intake. Around 60,000 refugees from the Central African Republic sought refuge in villages in eastern Cameroon between 2005 and 2007. Médecins Sans Frontières was providing nutritional and medical assistance in the villages affected by displacement. We describe cases of konzo seen at the mobile clinics organized in these villages. Basic information including demographic data, history and clinical presentation was recorded for each konzo patient. All patients were given nutritional supplements, and selected cases were referred for physiotherapy to a rehabilitation center. A total of 469 patients were diagnosed with konzo. The majority (80%) were refugees. Children and women of reproductive age predominated. Most of the patients developed symptoms after 2007 in a seasonal pattern with most of the cases occurring during the dry winter season. Most of the patients complained about walking difficulties and weight loss and had exaggerated lower limb reflexes and muscle wasting on observation. Eastern Cameroon is an area with konzo. More effort needs to be put into preventive and educational measures. In addition, timely balanced food rations have to be provided to refugees.

  4. Community Capacity for Implementing Clean Development Mechanism Projects Within Community Forests in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Michael K.; Bressers, Hans Th. A.

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing assumption that payments for environmental services including carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emission reduction provide an opportunity for poverty reduction and the enhancement of sustainable development within integrated natural resource management approaches. Yet in experiential terms, community-based natural resource management implementation falls short of expectations in many cases. In this paper, we investigate the asymmetry between community capacity and the Land Use Land Use Change Forestry (LULUCF) provisions of the Clean Development Mechanism within community forests in Cameroon. We use relevant aspects of the Clean Development Mechanism criteria and notions of “community capacity” to elucidate determinants of community capacity needed for CDM implementation within community forests. The main requirements are for community capacity to handle issues of additionality, acceptability, externalities, certification, and community organisation. These community capacity requirements are further used to interpret empirically derived insights on two community forestry cases in Cameroon. While local variations were observed for capacity requirements in each case, community capacity was generally found to be insufficient for meaningful uptake and implementation of Clean Development Mechanism projects. Implications for understanding factors that could inhibit or enhance community capacity for project development are discussed. We also include recommendations for the wider Clean Development Mechanism/Kyoto capacity building framework. PMID:17377732

  5. 'The vagina does not talk': conception concealed or deliberately disclosed in eastern Cameroon.

    PubMed

    van der Sijpt, Erica

    2012-01-01

    In the East Province of Cameroon, respectable womanhood has long been intrinsically related to ethics of production and reproduction: women attain social standing through productive work in the fields and through the reproduction of children - preferably within a marital setting. Yet, in the face of current alternative 'horizons of honour' such as schooling, employment or relationships with rich urban men, women's intentions with regard to marriage and motherhood acquire different meanings. On their pathways to urban forms of honour, formal engagements and childbearing are often postponed, while premarital sexual encounters proliferate. This paper explores the meanings of pregnancy within the context of these fragile relationships and women's urban aspirations; fertility will be shown to be a 'bet' that may either disrupt or stabilize urban affairs and ambitions. As such, pregnancies can be strategically anticipated and deliberately disclosed or unexpectedly encountered and secretly disrupted. This paper sheds light on women's strategies of concealment and disclosure of pregnancies and shows that these practices are often inspired by a notion of the 'right timing' of particular reproductive conjunctures - a notion that is of increasing relevance in current frames of female honour in Cameroon. PMID:22118422

  6. Characteristics associated with prevalent HIV infection among a cohort of sex workers in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, K. A.; Roddy, R. E.; Zekeng, L.; Weir, S. S.; Tamoufe, U.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine prevalence of HIV infection in a cohort of female sex workers in Cameroon, and to describe characteristics associated with HIV infection in this population. METHODS: In a cross sectional study, 2260 female sex workers in Cameroon were interviewed and screened for HIV serostatus. A standardised questionnaire was used to collect information on sociodemographic characteristics and sexual and health behaviours. RESULTS: Seropositive participants (18%) were more likely to be over age 25, have four or more children, live in Yaounde or Douala for 5 years or less, solicit clients in their homes or on the street, have a low educational level, earn a weekly income of less than $24, and have no other occupation outside of sex work. A logistic regression model of selected sociodemographic characteristics indicated that women at particularly high odds of HIV infection were older, poorer, and new immigrants to their city of residence. CONCLUSION: This seroprevalence study found a lower HIV prevalence than had been previously reported. Although our results are different, this group is still at much higher risk of HIV infection than the population as a whole. 




 PMID:9634326

  7. Understanding of research, genetics and genetic research in a rapid ethical assessment in north west Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Kengne-Ouafo, Jonas A.; Millard, James D.; Nji, Theobald M.; Tantoh, William F.; Nyoh, Doris N.; Tendongfor, Nicholas; Enyong, Peter A.; Newport, Melanie J.; Davey, Gail; Wanji, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Background There is limited assessment of whether research participants in low-income settings are afforded a full understanding of the meaning of medical research. There may also be particular issues with the understanding of genetic research. We used a rapid ethical assessment methodology to explore perceptions surrounding the meaning of research, genetics and genetic research in north west Cameroon. Methods Eleven focus group discussions (including 107 adults) and 72 in-depth interviews were conducted with various stakeholders in two health districts in north west Cameroon between February and April 2012. Results Most participants appreciated the role of research in generating knowledge and identified a difference between research and healthcare but gave varied explanations as to this difference. Most participants' understanding of genetics was limited to concepts of hereditary, with potential benefits limited to the level of the individual or family. Explanations based on supernatural beliefs were identified as a special issue but participants tended not to identify any other special risks with genetic research. Conclusion We demonstrated a variable level of understanding of research, genetics and genetic research, with implications for those carrying out genetic research in this and other low resource settings. Our study highlights the utility of rapid ethical assessment prior to complex or sensitive research. PMID:25969503

  8. Campano-Maastrichtian foraminifera from onshore sediments in the Rio del Rey Basin, Southwest Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Njoh, Oliver Anoh; Victor, Obiosio; Christopher, Agyingi

    2013-03-01

    Campanian-Maastrichtian marine sediments outcrop in five genetically linked sedimentary basins along the West African coast in the Gulf of Guinea, from the Douala Basin in Cameroon to the Anambra Basin in Nigeria. These sediments in the more centrally located Rio del Rey Basin have been the least studied. Therefore, the geologic history of this region has merely been speculative. The Rio del Rey Basin like the adjacent Niger Delta is producing hydrocarbon from the offshore Tertiary sedimentary interval in which all studies have been focused, neglecting the onshore Cretaceous sediments. Outcrops in the basin are rare, small and highly weathered. Samples from some of these sediments have yielded a few Planktonic and dominantly benthonic foraminiferal assemblages. The long-ranging heterohelix and hedbergellids characterized the planktics while the species Afrobolivina afra which is a well known diagnostic taxon for Campanian-Maastrichtian sediments in West African basins clearly dominate the benthic assemblage. Its occurrence in association with other Upper Cretaceous forms such as Bolivina explicata, Praebulimina exiqua, Gabonita lata, Ammobaculites coprolithiformis amongst others, formed the basis on which this age was assigned to the sediments sampled from the Rio del Rey Basin. Hence, this work has undoubtedly established the much needed link in this regional geologic history and correlates these sediments with the Logbaba and Nkporo Formations in the Douala Basin in Cameroon and the southeastern Nigerian Sedimentary Basins. Thus, these units were all deposited during this same geologic period and probably controlled by the same geologic event.

  9. Ethnomedicinal Plants Used by Traditional Healers to Treat Oral Health Problems in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ashu Agbor, Michael; Naidoo, Sudeshni

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The objective of the study was to determine the therapeutic methods used by traditional healers to treat oral diseases in Cameroon. Methods. A total of 200 traditional healers with a mean age of 50.4 ± 14.2 years from all the provinces of Cameroon were studied using questionnaires. Information elicited was the local names of the medicinal plants used for the management of oral problems, their routes of administration, and methods of usage. Identification of live or dried plants or photographs of sample of the plants was done by a taxonomist. Results. The majority of the participants were males urban dwellers aged 41-50 years, 112 (56.0%) practice as herbalists and 56 (28.0%) were trained on medications preservation, 77(56.6%) treat diseases inside or outside the mouth, and 9.0% reported being specialist in oral diseases treatment. Of the 52 plants identified, 48 are used in the management of toothache, sore throat, mouth sores, abscess, broken tooth and jaw, tooth sensitivity, mouth thrush, dental caries, gingivitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis, xerostomia, oral syphilis, oral cancer, TMJ pain, halitosis, and tooth bleaching and 4 plants are used for dental extraction. Roots, leaves, and bark were the parts of plants used and some minerals as adjuncts. Conclusion. The study provides comprehensive information on therapeutic methods employed by traditional healers for the treatment of oral diseases. PMID:26495020

  10. The Two-Phase Emergence of Non Pandemic HIV-1 Group O in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Leoz, Marie; Feyertag, Felix; Kfutwah, Anfumbom; Mauclère, Philippe; Lachenal, Guillaume; Damond, Florence; De Oliveira, Fabienne; Lemée, Véronique; Simon, François; Robertson, David L; Plantier, Jean-Christophe

    2015-08-01

    Unlike the pandemic form of HIV-1 (group M), group O viruses are endemic in west central Africa, especially in Cameroon. However, little is known about group O's genetic evolution, and why this highly divergent lineage has not become pandemic. Using a unique and large set of group O sequences from samples collected from 1987 to 2012, we find that this lineage has evolved in successive slow and fast phases of diversification, with a most recent common ancestor estimated to have existed around 1930 (1914-1944). The most rapid periods of diversification occurred in the 1950s and in the 1980s, and could be linked to favourable epidemiological contexts in Cameroon. Group O genetic diversity reflects this two-phase evolution, with two distinct populations potentially having different viral properties. The currently predominant viral population emerged in the 1980s, from an ancient population which had first developed in the 1950s, and is characterized by higher growth and evolutionary rates, and the natural presence of the Y181C resistance mutation, thought to confer a phenotypic advantage. Our findings show that although this evolutionary pattern is specific to HIV-1 group O, it paralleled the early spread of HIV-1 group M in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Both viral lineages are likely to have benefited from similar epidemiological contexts. The relative role of virological and social factors in the distinct epidemic histories of HIV-1 group O and M needs to be reassessed. PMID:26241860

  11. Characterization of Hepatitis C Virus Recombination in Cameroon by Use of Nonspecific Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Iles, James C.; Njouom, Richard; Foupouapouognigni, Yacouba; Bonsall, David; Bowden, Rory; Trebes, Amy; Piazza, Paolo; Barnes, Ellie; Pépin, Jacques; Klenerman, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The importance of recombination in the evolution and genetic diversity of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is currently uncertain. Only a small number of intergenotypic recombinants have been identified so far, and each has core and envelope genes classified as belonging to genotype 2. Here, we investigated two putative genotype 4/1 recombinants from southern Cameroon using a number of approaches, including standard Sanger sequencing, genotype-specific PCR amplification, and non-HCV-specific Illumina RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Recombination between genotypes 1 and 4 was confirmed in both samples, and the parental lineages of each recombinant belong to HCV subtypes that are cocirculating at a high prevalence in Cameroon. Using the RNA-seq approach, we obtained a complete genome for one sample, which contained a recombination breakpoint at the E2/P7 gene junction. We developed and applied a new method, called Deep SimPlot, which can be used to visualize and identify viral recombination directly from the short sequence reads created by next-generation sequencing in conjunction with a consensus sequence. PMID:26202126

  12. Characterization of Hepatitis C Virus Recombination in Cameroon by Use of Nonspecific Next-Generation Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Iles, James C; Njouom, Richard; Foupouapouognigni, Yacouba; Bonsall, David; Bowden, Rory; Trebes, Amy; Piazza, Paolo; Barnes, Ellie; Pépin, Jacques; Klenerman, Paul; Pybus, Oliver G

    2015-10-01

    The importance of recombination in the evolution and genetic diversity of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is currently uncertain. Only a small number of intergenotypic recombinants have been identified so far, and each has core and envelope genes classified as belonging to genotype 2. Here, we investigated two putative genotype 4/1 recombinants from southern Cameroon using a number of approaches, including standard Sanger sequencing, genotype-specific PCR amplification, and non-HCV-specific Illumina RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Recombination between genotypes 1 and 4 was confirmed in both samples, and the parental lineages of each recombinant belong to HCV subtypes that are cocirculating at a high prevalence in Cameroon. Using the RNA-seq approach, we obtained a complete genome for one sample, which contained a recombination breakpoint at the E2/P7 gene junction. We developed and applied a new method, called Deep SimPlot, which can be used to visualize and identify viral recombination directly from the short sequence reads created by next-generation sequencing in conjunction with a consensus sequence.

  13. Ethnomedicinal Plants Used by Traditional Healers to Treat Oral Health Problems in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Ashu Agbor, Michael; Naidoo, Sudeshni

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The objective of the study was to determine the therapeutic methods used by traditional healers to treat oral diseases in Cameroon. Methods. A total of 200 traditional healers with a mean age of 50.4 ± 14.2 years from all the provinces of Cameroon were studied using questionnaires. Information elicited was the local names of the medicinal plants used for the management of oral problems, their routes of administration, and methods of usage. Identification of live or dried plants or photographs of sample of the plants was done by a taxonomist. Results. The majority of the participants were males urban dwellers aged 41–50 years, 112 (56.0%) practice as herbalists and 56 (28.0%) were trained on medications preservation, 77(56.6%) treat diseases inside or outside the mouth, and 9.0% reported being specialist in oral diseases treatment. Of the 52 plants identified, 48 are used in the management of toothache, sore throat, mouth sores, abscess, broken tooth and jaw, tooth sensitivity, mouth thrush, dental caries, gingivitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis, xerostomia, oral syphilis, oral cancer, TMJ pain, halitosis, and tooth bleaching and 4 plants are used for dental extraction. Roots, leaves, and bark were the parts of plants used and some minerals as adjuncts. Conclusion. The study provides comprehensive information on therapeutic methods employed by traditional healers for the treatment of oral diseases. PMID:26495020

  14. Independent origins and incipient speciation among host-associated populations of Thielaviopsis ethacetica in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Mbenoun, Michael; Wingfield, Michael J; Letsoalo, Teboho; Bihon, Wubetu; Wingfield, Brenda D; Roux, Jolanda

    2015-11-01

    Thielaviopsis ethacetica was recently reinstated as a distinct taxon using DNA phylogenies. It is widespread affecting several crop plants of global economic importance. In this study, microsatellite markers were developed and used in conjunction with sequence data to investigate the genetic diversity and structure of Th. ethacetica in Cameroon. A collection of 71 isolates from cacao, oil palm, and pineapple, supplemented with nine isolates from other countries were analysed. Four genetic groups were identified. Two of these were associated with oil palm in Cameroon and showed high genetic diversity, suggesting that they might represent an indigenous population of the pathogen. In contrast, the remaining two groups, associated with cacao and pineapple, had low genetic diversity and, most likely, represent introduced populations. There was no evidence of gene flow between these groups. Phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of the tef1-α as well as the combined flanking regions of six microsatellite loci were consistent with population genetic analyses and suggested that Th. ethacetica is comprised of two divergent genetic lineages. PMID:26466872

  15. Sexual vulnerability and HIV seroprevalence among the deaf and hearing impaired in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This quantitative cross-sectional study examines sexual behaviour of a target group of hearing-impaired persons in Yaounde, the capital city of the Republic of Cameroon. It measures their HIV prevalence to enable assessment of their sexual vulnerability and to help reduce the gap in existing HIV serology data among people with disabilities in general and the deaf in particular. Methods The snowball sampling procedure was adopted as an adequate approach to meet this hard-to-reach group. A total of 118 deaf participants were interviewed for the behavioural component, using sign language as a means of data collection, while 101 participants underwent HIV serology testing. Descriptive analyses were done for behavioural data with Epi info software, while sera were tested by health personnel, using rapid and confirmation test reagents. Results From the results, it was clear that the hearing impaired were highly involved in risky sexual practices, as observed through major sexual indicators, such as: age at first sexual intercourse; condom use; and knowledge of sexually transmitted infections and AIDS. Furthermore, it was noted that the HIV prevalence rate of the hearing impaired in the capital of Cameroon was 4%, close to the prevalence in the city's general population (4.7%). Conclusions Such results suggest that there is a need for in-depth behavioural research and serological studies in this domain to better understand the determinants of risky sexual behaviour among the hearing impaired, and to propose operational prevention approaches for this group. PMID:20181091

  16. An Examination of Forest Certification Status among Logging Companies in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Nukpezah, Daniel; Alemagi, Dieudonne; Duguma, Lalisa; Minang, Peter; Mbosso, Charlie; Tchoundjeu, Zac

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the level of interest, awareness, and adoption of ISO 14001 and Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification schemes among logging companies in Cameroon. Eleven logging companies located in Douala in the Littoral Region of Cameroon were assessed through a structured interview using an administered questionnaire which was mostly analyzed qualitatively thereafter. The findings indicated that none of the companies was certified for ISO 14001; however 63.64% of them were already FSC-certified. Four companies (36.36%) were neither FSC- nor ISO 14001 EMS-certified. Among the factors found to influence the adoption rate was the level of awareness about ISO 14001 and FSC certification schemes. The main drivers for pursuing FSC certification were easy penetration into international markets, tax holiday benefits, and enhancement of corporate image of the logging companies through corporate social responsibility fulfillments. Poor domestic market for certified products was found to be the major impediment to get certified. To make logging activities more environmentally friendly and socially acceptable, logging companies should be encouraged to get certified through the ISO 14001 EMS scheme which is almost nonexistent so far. This requires awareness creation about the scheme, encouraging domestic markets for certified products and creating policy incentives. PMID:27355041

  17. Cholera public health surveillance in the Republic of Cameroon-opportunities and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Ngwa, Moise Chi; Liang, Song; Mbam, Leonard Mbam; Mouhaman, Arabi; Teboh, Andrew; Brekmo, Kaousseri; Mevoula, Onana; Morris, John Glenn

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In Cameroon, cholera has periodically resurfaced since it was first reported in 1971. In 2003, Cameroon adapted the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy to strengthen surveillance in the country. This study was an in-depth description and assessment of the structure, core and support functions, and attributes of the current cholera surveillance system in Cameroon. It also discussed its strengths and challenges with hope that lessons learned could improve the system in Cameroon and in other countries in Africa implementing the IDSR strategy. Methods Semi-structured key informant interviews, peer reviewed articles, and government record review were conducted in the Far North and Centre Regions of Cameroon. We used the matrix and conceptual framework from the World Health Organization (WHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, WHO Regional Office for Africa Technical Guidelines to frame the study. Site visits included the WHO country office, the ministry of public health (MoPH), two Regional Public Health Delegations (RPHDs), eight health districts (HDs) and health facilities (HFs) including two labs. Results Cholera surveillance is passive but turns active during outbreaks and follows a hierarchical structure. Cholera data are collected at HFs and sent to HDs where data are compiled and sent to the RPHD in paper format. RPHDs de-identify, digitalize, and send the data to the MoPH via internet and from there to the WHO. The case definition was officially changed in 2010 but the outdated definition was still in use in 2013. Nationally, there are 3 laboratories that have the ability to confirm cholera cases; the lack of laboratory capacity at HFs hampers case and outbreak confirmation. The absence of structured data analysis at the RPHD, HD, and HF further compounds the situation, making the goal of IDSR of data analysis and rapid response at the HD very challenging. Feedback is strongest at the central level (MoPH) and

  18. Camera Mount for a Head-Up Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geoge, Wayne; Barnes, Monica; Johnson, Larry; Shelton, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    A mounting mechanism was designed and built to satisfy requirements specific to a developmental head-up display (HUD) to be used by pilots in a Boeing 757 airplane. This development was necessitated by the fact that although such mounting mechanisms were commercially available for other airplanes, there were none for the 757. The mounting mechanism supports a miniature electronic camera that provides a forward view. The mechanism was designed to be integrated with the other HUD instrumentation and to position the camera so that what is presented to the pilot is the image acquired by the camera, overlaid with alphanumeric and/or graphical symbols, from a close approximation of the pilot s natural forward perspective. The mounting mechanism includes an L-shaped mounting arm that can be adjusted easily to the pilot s perspective, without prior experience. The mounting mechanism is lightweight and flexible and presents little hazard to the pilot.

  19. A multiple pointing-mount control strategy for space platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. D.

    1992-01-01

    A new disturbance-adaptive control strategy for multiple pointing-mount space platforms is proposed and illustrated by consideration of a simplified 3-link dynamic model of a multiple pointing-mount space platform. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the new platform control strategy. The simulation results also reveal a system 'destabilization phenomena' that can occur if the set of individual platform-mounted experiment controllers are 'too responsive.'

  20. Retired NASA F-18 being mounted on pedestal mount at Lancaster California Municipal Baseball Stadium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    While workers on the ground steady the craft with guy ropes, workers atop a high-lift truck align the mounting plates as an F/A-18 Hornet airplane formerly flown by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center is mounted on a 28-foot-tall pedestal in front of the municipal baseball stadium in the city of Lancaster, California. The aircraft was loaned to the city for pulbic display after its recent retirement by Dryden, which is located at nearby Edwards, California. The blue-and-white twin-jet aircraft was flown as a safety chase and support aircraft by NASA Dryden for about nine years before being retired. Known as 'The Hangar,' the stadium is the home field of the Lancaster Jethawks, a Class-A farm team of the Seattle Mariners.

  1. Static Performance of a Wing-Mounted Thrust Reverser Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asbury, Scott C.; Yetter, Jeffrey A.

    1998-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted in the Jet-Exit Test Facility at NASA Langley Research Center to study the static aerodynamic performance of a wing-mounted thrust reverser concept applicable to subsonic transport aircraft. This innovative engine powered thrust reverser system is designed to utilize wing-mounted flow deflectors to produce aircraft deceleration forces. Testing was conducted using a 7.9%-scale exhaust system model with a fan-to-core bypass ratio of approximately 9.0, a supercritical left-hand wing section attached via a pylon, and wing-mounted flow deflectors attached to the wing section. Geometric variations of key design parameters investigated for the wing-mounted thrust reverser concept included flow deflector angle and chord length, deflector edge fences, and the yaw mount angle of the deflector system (normal to the engine centerline or parallel to the wing trailing edge). All tests were conducted with no external flow and high pressure air was used to simulate core and fan engine exhaust flows. Test results indicate that the wing-mounted thrust reverser concept can achieve overall thrust reverser effectiveness levels competitive with (parallel mount), or better than (normal mount) a conventional cascade thrust reverser system. By removing the thrust reverser system from the nacelle, the wing-mounted concept offers the nacelle designer more options for improving nacelle aero dynamics and propulsion-airframe integration, simplifying nacelle structural designs, reducing nacelle weight, and improving engine maintenance access.

  2. Motorized Panoramic Camera Mount - Calibration and Image Capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauhanen, H.; Rönnholm, P.; Lehtola, V. V.

    2016-06-01

    interesting applications. Among the large variation of panoramic camera systems, we have focused on concentric panoramic imaging with a frame camera. In order to establish the concentric image acquisition, the camera mount must be calibrated so that the projection centre of the camera is located at the rotation centre of the mount. For this purpose, we developed a novel mount calibration method, which allows an accurate recovery of the rotation centre in two image acquisition steps. In addition, we have built a motorized camera mount that can self-calibrate the camera position within the mount, given the previously solved rotation centre, and then be used to automatically capture panoramic images. Hence, we have streamlined the previously laborious manual phase of iterative position calibration, but also automated the capturing of panoramic images. For validation purposes, reference results from a conventional manual mount are provided. In the case of non-motorized mount, the average distance between the projection centre of the camera and the rotation centre of the mount was 0.253 mm and the standard deviation was 0.161 mm. For the motorized mount, the corresponding average distance and standard deviation were 0.549 mm and 0.404 mm, respectively.

  3. Convenient mounting method for electrical measurements of thin samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matus, L. G.; Summers, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    A method for mounting thin samples for electrical measurements is described. The technique is based on a vacuum chuck concept in which the vacuum chuck simultaneously holds the sample and established electrical contact. The mounting plate is composed of a glass-ceramic insulating material and the surfaces of the plate and vacuum chuck are polished. The operation of the vacuum chuck is examined. The contacts on the sample and mounting plate, which are sputter-deposited through metal masks, are analyzed. The mounting method was utilized for van der Pauw measurements.

  4. Prevalence, correlates and pattern of Hepatitis B among antenatal clinic attenders in Yaounde-Cameroon: is perinatal transmission of HBV neglected in Cameroon?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies have evaluated the prevalence of HBV in the general Cameroonian population or among antenatal attendants. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, correlates and patterns of Hepatitis B surface antigen among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Yaounde-Cameroon. Methods This was a cross-sectional multicenter study carried out in a referral hospital and two secondary hospitals in Yaounde, the capital of Cameroon. The study lasted 15 months (March 2011 to June 2012), and recruited 959 pregnant women. Patient recruitment was consecutive. The HBsAg was tested using the Monalisa HBsAg Ultra ELISA kit. Other hepatitis B markers were equally tested. We used the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 14.0 software to conduct a quantitative analysis of the derived data. Simple descriptive statistics such as means, standard deviations, and proportions were used to describe the data. We tested for association in categorical variables using the chi-squared (χ2) test. The odds ratio (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were used to summarise the strength of association between specific binary exposure and outcome variables. The level of statistical significance for the study was set at p < 0.05. Results The prevalence of hepatitis B infection (HBsAg) among antenatal clinic attenders in our setting was 7.7%. Amongst these women, just 5.4% were previously aware of their HBsAg status. The rate of HBV infectivity was high, with 28% of HBsAg positive women having evidence of HBeAg in their plasma, and up to 45.8% of these women lacking antibodies against hepatitis B e antigen (anti-HBe). About 41% of the pregnant women had had previous contact with HBV as evidenced by the positive status for anti-HBc. Just 2.7% of the pregnant women had previously been vaccinated against HBV. The mean age for HBsAg positivity in our setting was 26.9 ±4.7 years, and the most affected age group was the 25 – 29

  5. Distribution of melt beneath Mount St Helens and Mount Adams inferred from magnetotelluric data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, G.J.; Caldwell, T.G.; Heise, W.; Chertkoff, D.G.; Bibby, H.M.; Burgess, M.K.; Cull, J.P.; Cas, Ray A.F.

    2009-01-01

    Three prominent volcanoes that form part of the Cascade mountain range in Washington State (USA)Mounts StHelens, Adams and Rainierare located on the margins of a mid-crustal zone of high electrical conductivity1,5. Interconnected melt can increase the bulk conductivity of the region containing the melt6,7, which leads us to propose that the anomalous conductivity in this region is due to partial melt associated with the volcanism. Here we test this hypothesis by using magnetotelluric data recorded at a network of 85 locations in the area of the high-conductivity anomaly. Our data reveal that a localized zone of high conductivity beneath thisvolcano extends downwards to join the mid-crustal conductor. As our measurements were made during the recent period of lava extrusion at Mount St Helens, we infer that the conductivity anomaly associated with the localized zone, and by extension with the mid-crustal conductor, is caused by the presence of partial melt. Our interpretation is consistent with the crustal origin of silicic magmas erupting from Mount St Helens8, and explains the distribution of seismicity observed at the time of the catastrophic eruption in 1980 (refs9, 10). ?? 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  6. Geology of Mount Rainier National Park, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fiske, Richard S.; Hopson, Clifford Andrae; Waters, Aaron Clement

    1963-01-01

    Mount Rainier National Park includes 378 square miles of rugged terrain on the west slope of the Cascade Mountains in central Washington. Its mast imposing topographic and geologic feature is glacier-clad Mount Rainier. This volcano, composed chiefly of flows of pyroxene andesite, was built upon alt earlier mountainous surface, carved from altered volcanic and sedimentary rocks invaded by plutonic and hypabyssal igneous rocks of great complexity. The oldest rocks in the park area are those that make up the Olmnapecosh Formation of late Eocene age. This formation is more than 10,000 feet thick, and consists almost entirely of volcanic debris. It includes some lensoid accumulations of lava and coarse mudflows, heaped around volcanic centers., but these are surrounded by vastly greater volumes of volcanic clastic rocks, in which beds of unstratified coarse tuff-breccia, about 30 feet in average thickness, alternate with thin-bedded breccias, sandstones, and siltstones composed entirely of volcanic debris. The coarser tuff-breccias were probably deposited from subaqueous volcanic mudflows generated when eruption clouds were discharged directly into water, or when subaerial ash flows and mudflows entered bodies of water. The less mobile mudflows and viscous lavas built islands surrounded by this sea of thinner bedded water-laid clastics. In compostion the lava flows and coarse lava fragments of the Ohanapecosh Formation are mostly andesite, but they include less abundant dacite, basalt, and rhyolite. The Ohanapecosh Formation was folded, regionally altered to minerals characteristic of the zeolite facies of metamorphism, uplifted, and deeply eroded before the overlying Stevens Ridge Formation of Oligocene or early Miocene age was deposited upon it. The Stevens Ridge rocks, which are about 3,000 feet in maximum total thickness, consist mainly of massive ash flows. These are now devitrified and altered, but they originally consisted of rhyodacite pumice lapilli and glass

  7. Flow Through Surface Mounted Continuous Slits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tariq, A.; Ali, M. A.; Gad-El-Hak, M.

    2014-11-01

    Ribs are used inside certain gas-turbine blades as passive devices to enhance heat transfer. Slits in those ribs are utilized to control the primary shear layer. The role of secondary flow through a continuous slit behind a surface mounted rib is investigated herein in a rectangular duct using hotwire anemometry and particle image velocimetry. Changing the open-area-ratio and the slit's location within the rib dominate the observed shear layer. The behavior of discrete Fourier modes of the velocity fluctuations generated by different configurations is explored. Two distinct flow mechanisms are observed in the rib's wake. Both mechanisms are explained on the basis of large-scale spectral peak in the shear layer. The results show the successful impact of changing the open-area-ratio by manipulating the small-scale vortices at the leeward corner of the rib, which is suspected to be the potential cause of surface ``hot spots'' in a variety of engineering devices with heat transfer. Eventually, the size and location of the slit are seen to be an additional parameter that can be used to control the fluid flow structures behind rib turbulators.

  8. Magnetotelluric investigations at Mount Hood, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Mozley, E.C.; Goldstein, N.E.; Morrison, H.F.

    1986-10-01

    Magnetotelluric data, with both electric and magnetic field references for noise cancellation, were collected at accessible locations around and as close as possible to the Mount Hood andesite-dacite volcano. The purpose of the study was to identify and map conductive features and to relate them to the thermal regime of the region. Several conductors could be discerned. The shallowest, at a depth of around 500 m below the surface, was identified as a flow of heated water moving away from the summit: the deepest (--50 km) might be a melt zone in the upper mantle. Of particular interest is an elongate conductor that strikes N 10/sup 0/ W and extends from a depth of 12 km down to 22 km. Because the conductor strike is close to the trend of the chain of Cascade volcanoes and because of the high conductive thermal gradients reported for the area, this feature was initially believed to be a zone of partial melt following the volcanic axis. However, because no teleseismic P wave velocity anomaly has been found, the cause of the conductor is more problematic. While the existence of small zones of melt cannot be ruled out, it is possible that the conductor is caused by a large volume of intensely deformed rocks with brine-filled microfractures.

  9. Flush mounting of thin film sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Thomas C., Sr.

    1991-05-01

    Flush mounting of a sensor on a surface is provided by first forming a recessed area on the surface. Next an adhesive bonding mixture is introduced into the recessed area. The adhesive bonding mixture is chosen to provide thermal expansion matching with the surface surrounding the recessed area. A strip of high performance polymeric tape is provided, with the sensor attached to the underside thereof, and the tape is positioned over the recessed area so that it acts as a carrier of the sensor. A shim having flexibility so that it will conform to the surface surrounding the recessed area is placed over the tape, and a vacuum pad is placed over the shim. The area above the surface is then evacuated while holding the sensor flush with the surface during curing of the adhesive bonding mixture. After such curing, the pad, shim, and tape are removed from the sensor, electrical connections for the sensor are provided, after which the remaining space in the recessed area is filled with a polymeric foam.

  10. Flush mounting of thin film sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Thomas C., Sr.

    1992-09-01

    Flush mounting of a sensor on a surface is provided by first forming a recessed area on the surface. Next, an adhesive bonding mixture is introduced into the recessed area. The adhesive bonding mixture is chosen to provide thermal expansion matching with the surface surrounding the recessed area. A strip of high performance polymeric tape is provided, with the sensor attached to the underside thereof, and the tape is positioned over the recessed area so that it acts as a carrier of the sensor. A shim having flexibility so that it will conform to the surface surrounding the recessed area is placed over the tape, and a vacuum pad is placed over the shim. The area above the surface is then evacuated while holding the sensor flush with the surface during curing of the adhesive bonding mixture. After such curing, the pad, shim, and tape are removed from the sensor, electrical connections for the sensor are provided, after which the remaining space in the recessed area is filled with a polymeric foam.

  11. The Mount Kozak magmatic complex, Western Anatolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altunkaynak, Ş.; Yılmaz, Y.

    1998-10-01

    The Mount Kozak igneous complex is located close to the towns of Ayvalık, Bergama and Burhaniye in the Western Anatolia, Turkey. Magmatic activity occurred during the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene, beginning with the emplacement of the Kozak pluton. Sheet intrusive rocks formed around it coevally. They are surrounded by the volcanic rocks, partly contemporaneously with the emplacement of the granitic rocks during the Early Miocene. The Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene magmatic rocks of the Kozak region are represented by a high-K, calc-alkaline suite of predominantly intermediate and acidic composition. Their geochemical characteristics suggest that the magmas are hybrid, and were formed from a similar source, representing mantle-derived magmas, contaminated by crustal materials. The cogenetic plutonic rocks, the hypabyssal rocks and the overlying volcanic associations are related to one another in space and time, and appear to have been connected to a shallow level granitic intrusion in a caldera collapse setting. The calc-alkaline magmatic activity waned during the Middle Miocene. When the volcanism was rejuvenated during the Late Miocene-Pliocene, alkaline basalt lavas were formed as fissure eruptions.

  12. Virtual sine arm kinematic mount system

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Z.; Randall, K.J.

    1997-09-01

    A novel kinematic mount system for a vertical focusing mirror of the soft x-ray spectroscopy beamline at the Advanced Photon Source is described. The system contains three points in a horizontal plane. Each point consists of two horizontal linear precision stages, a spherical ball bearing, and a vertical precision stage. The horizontal linear stages are aligned orthogonally and are conjoined by a spherical ball bearing, supported by the vertical linear stage at each point. The position of each confined horizontal stage is controlled by a motorized micrometer head by spring-loading the flat tip of the micrometer head onto a tooling ball fixing on the carriage of the stage. A virtual sine arm is formed by tilting the upstream horizontal stage down and the two downstream horizontal stages up by a small angle. The fine pitch motion is achieved by adjusting the upstream stage. This supporting structure is extremely steady due to a relatively large span across the supporting points and yields extremely high resolution on the pitch motion. With a one degree tilt and a microstepping motor, the authors achieved a 0.4 nanoradian resolution on the mirror pitch motion.

  13. Alternative Mounting Systems for the Galileoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welling, Christine; Pompea, S.; Sparks, R.

    2012-01-01

    The Galileoscope is a kit telescope produced for the International Year of Astronomy (IYA) in 2009. As an educational tool, it has been distributed across the world. In order to successfully observe with the Galileoscope, it must be steadied in some way. The preferred method for stabilizing the Galileoscope is to use a tripod. However, this is not always possible, and other stabilization methods are needed. Alternative systems were designed to be constructable worldwide, and cost less than $5 to build. Seventeen alternative mounting systems were built and tested. Comparisons were made based on price to build, ease of construction, ease of use, and whether the system would remain pointed. This research was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program and the Department of Defense ASSURE program through Scientific Program Order No. 13 (AST-0754223) of the Cooperative Agreement No. AST-0132798 between the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) and the NSF.

  14. Helmet-Mounted Display Design Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Richard L.; Greeley, Kevin W.

    1997-01-01

    Helmet Mounted Displays (HMDs) present flight, navigation, and weapon information in the pilot's line of sight. The HMD was developed to allow the pilot to retain aircraft and weapon information while looking off boresight. This document reviews current state of the art in HMDs and presents a design guide for the HMD engineer in identifying several critical HMD issues: symbol stabilization, inadequate definitions, undefined symbol drive laws, helmet considerations, and Field Of View (FOV) vs. resolution tradeoff requirements. In particular, display latency is a key issue for HMDs. In addition to requiring further experimental studies, it impacts the definition and control law issues. Symbol stabilization is also critical. In the case of the Apache helicopter, the lack of compensation for pilot head motion creates excessive workload during hovering and Nap Of the Earth (NOE) flight. This translates into excessive training requirements. There is no agreed upon set of definitions or descriptions for how HMD symbols are driven to compensate for pilot head motion. A set of definitions is proposed to address this. There are several specific areas where simulation and flight experiments are needed: development of hover and NOE symbologies which compensate for pilot head movement; display latency and sampling, and the tradeoff between FOV, sensor resolution and symbology.

  15. Examiner's finger-mounted fetal tissue oximetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanayama, Naohiro; Niwayama, Masatsugu

    2014-06-01

    The best way to assess fetal condition is to observe the oxygen status of the fetus (as well as to assess the condition of infants, children, and adults). Previously, several fetal oximeters have been developed; however, no instrument has been utilized in clinical practice because of the low-capturing rate of the fetal oxygen saturation. To overcome the problem, we developed a doctor's finger-mounted fetal tissue oximeter, whose sensor volume is one hundredth of the conventional one. Additionally, we prepared transparent gloves. The calculation algorithm of the hemoglobin concentration was derived from the light propagation analysis based on the transport theory. We measured neonatal and fetal oxygen saturation (StO2) with the new tissue oximeter. Neonatal StO was measured at any position of the head regardless of amount of hair. Neonatal StO was found to be around 77%. Fetal StO was detected in every position of the fetal head during labor regardless of the presence of labor pain. Fetal StO without labor pain was around 70% in the first stage of labor and around 60% in the second stage of labor. We concluded that our new concept of fetal tissue oximetry would be useful for detecting fetal StO in any condition of the fetus.

  16. Nd:YAG breech mounted laser igniter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Christopher R.; Myers, Michael J.; Myers, John D.; Gadson, Robert L.; Leone, Joseph; Fay, Josiah W.; Boyd, Kevin

    2005-09-01

    Nd:YAG lasers have been successfully used to demonstrate laser ignition of howitzer propellant charges including bag, stick, and the Modular Artillery Charge System (MACS). Breech Mount Laser Ignition Systems (BMLIS) have been designed, installed and tested on many artillery systems, including the US Army's M109A6 Paladin, M198, M777 Light Weight, Crusader, and Non-Line-of-Sight Cannon (NLOS-C). The NLOS-C incorporates advanced weapon technologies, to include a BMLIS. United Defense's Armament Systems Division has recently designed and built a NLOS-C System Demonstrator that uses a BMLIS that incorporates Kigre's patented square pulse technology. NLOS-C is one of the weapon systems being developed for use with the US Army's "systems of systems" Future Combat System (FCS), Manned Ground Vehicles (MGV) program, and is currently undergoing development testing at Yuma Proving Grounds. In this paper we discuss many technical aspects of an artillery laser ignition system and present BMLIS test data obtained from actual gun firings conducted with a number of different US Army howitzer platforms.

  17. Electro-optic component mounting device

    DOEpatents

    Gruchalla, M.E.

    1994-09-13

    A technique is provided for integrally mounting a device such as an electro-optic device in a transmission line to avoid series resonant effects. A center conductor of the transmission line has an aperture formed therein for receiving the device. The aperture splits the center conductor into two parallel sections on opposite sides of the device. For a waveguide application, the center conductor is surrounded by a conductive ground surface which is spaced apart from the center conductor with a dielectric material. One set of electrodes formed on the surface of the electro-optic device is directly connected to the center conductor and an electrode formed on the surface of the electro-optic device is directly connected to the conductive ground surface. The electrodes formed on the surface of the electro-optic device are formed on curved sections of the surface of the device to mate with correspondingly shaped electrodes on the conductor and ground surface to provide a uniform electric field across the electro-optic device. The center conductor includes a passage formed therein for passage of optical signals to an electro-optic device. 10 figs.

  18. Electro-optic component mounting device

    DOEpatents

    Gruchalla, Michael E.

    1994-01-01

    A technique is provided for integrally mounting a device such as an electro-optic device (50) in a transmission line to avoid series resonant effects. A center conductor (52) of the transmission line has an aperture (58) formed therein for receiving the device (50). The aperture (58) splits the center conductor into two parallel sections on opposite sides of the device. For a waveguide application, the center conductor is surrounded by a conductive ground surface (54), which is spaced apart from the center conductor with a dielectric material (56). One set of electrodes formed on the surface of the electro-optic device (50) is directly connected to the center conductor 52 and an electrode formed on the surface of the electro-optic device is directly connected to the conductive ground surface (54). The electrodes formed on the surface of the electro-optic device are formed on curved sections of the surface of the device to mate with correspondingly shaped electrodes on the conductor and ground surface to provide a uniform electric field across the electro-optic device. The center conductor includes a passage ( 60) formed therein for passage of optical signals to an electro-optic device.

  19. Why Are Nigeria-Cameroon Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes ellioti) Free of SIVcpz Infection?

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Sabrina; Harrigan, Ryan J; Sesink Clee, Paul R; Mitchell, Matthew W; McKean, Kurt A; Smith, Thomas B; Gonder, Mary Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) naturally infects two subspecies of chimpanzee: Pan troglodytes troglodytes from Central Africa (SIVcpzPtt) and P. t. schweinfurtii from East Africa (SIVcpzPts), but is absent in P. t. verus from West Africa and appears to be absent in P. t. ellioti inhabiting Nigeria and western Cameroon. One explanation for this pattern is that P. t. troglodytes and P. t schweinfurthii may have acquired SIVcpz after their divergence from P. t. verus and P. t. ellioti. However, all of the subspecies, except P. t. verus, still occasionally exchange migrants making the absence of SIVcpz in P. t. ellioti puzzling. Sampling of P. t. ellioti has been minimal to date, particularly along the banks of the Sanaga River, where its range abuts that of P. t. troglodytes. This study had three objectives. First, we extended the sampling of SIVcpz across the range of chimpanzees north of the Sanaga River to address whether under-sampling might account for the absence of evidence for SIVcpz infection in P. t. ellioti. Second, we investigated how environmental variation is associated with the spread and prevalence of SIVcpz in the two chimpanzee subspecies inhabiting Cameroon since environmental variation has been shown to contribute to their divergence from one another. Finally, we compared the prevalence and distribution of SIVcpz with that of Simian Foamy Virus (SFV) to examine the role of ecology and behavior in shaping the distribution of diseases in wild host populations. The dataset includes previously published results on SIVcpz infection and SFVcpz as well as newly collected data, and represents over 1000 chimpanzee fecal samples from 41 locations across Cameroon. Results revealed that none of the 181 P. t. ellioti fecal samples collected across the range of P. t. ellioti tested positive for SIVcpz. In addition, species distribution models suggest that environmental variation contributes to differences in the distribution and prevalence of SIVcpz and

  20. Increased Carotid Thickness in Subjects with Recently-Diagnosed Diabetes from Rural Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Napoli, Nicola; Zardi, Enrico; Strollo, Rocky; Arigliani, Michele; Daverio, Andrea; Olearo, Flaminia; Tosi, Daniele; Dicuonzo, Giordano; Scarpa, Filomena; Pedone, Claudio; Tegue Simo, Hervé Hilaire; Mottini, Giovanni; Pozzilli, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Background We have recently shown a high prevalence of diabetes and obesity in rural Cameroon, despite an improved lifestyle. Diabetes in rural Africa remains underdiagnosed and its role in increasing risk of atherosclerosis in these populations is unknown. We investigated the prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk factors in a population of subjects with recently-diagnosed diabetes from rural Cameroon. Methodology/Principal Findings In a case-control study, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) was measured in 74 subjects with diabetes (diagnosed <2 years), aged 47–85 and 109 controls comparable for age and sex. Subjects were recruited during a health campaign conducted in April 2009. Blood glucose control (HbA1c, fasting blood glucose) and major cardiovascular risk factors (complete lipid panel, blood pressure) were also measured. Mean carotid IMT was higher in subjects with diabetes than healthy controls at each scanned segment (common, internal carotid and bulb) (P<0.05), except the near wall of the left bulb. Vascular stiffness tended to be higher and pressure-strain elastic modulus of the left carotid was increased in subjects with diabetes than controls (P<0.05), but distensibility was similar between the two groups. At least one plaque >0.9 mm was found in 4%, 45.9% and 20% of diabetic subjects at the common, bulb or internal carotid, respectively. Only 25% of patients had an HbA1c<7%, while over 41.6% presented with marked hyperglycemia (HbA1c>9%). The prevalence of diabetic subjects with abnormal levels of LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol or blood pressure was 45%, 16.6%, 15% and 65.7%, respectively. Conclusions Carotid thickness is increased in subjects with diabetes from a rural area of Cameroon, despite the relatively recent diagnosis. These findings and the high rate of uncontrolled diabetes in this population support the increasing concern of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in African countries and indicate

  1. Why Are Nigeria-Cameroon Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes ellioti) Free of SIVcpz Infection?

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Sabrina; Harrigan, Ryan J; Sesink Clee, Paul R; Mitchell, Matthew W; McKean, Kurt A; Smith, Thomas B; Gonder, Mary Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) naturally infects two subspecies of chimpanzee: Pan troglodytes troglodytes from Central Africa (SIVcpzPtt) and P. t. schweinfurtii from East Africa (SIVcpzPts), but is absent in P. t. verus from West Africa and appears to be absent in P. t. ellioti inhabiting Nigeria and western Cameroon. One explanation for this pattern is that P. t. troglodytes and P. t schweinfurthii may have acquired SIVcpz after their divergence from P. t. verus and P. t. ellioti. However, all of the subspecies, except P. t. verus, still occasionally exchange migrants making the absence of SIVcpz in P. t. ellioti puzzling. Sampling of P. t. ellioti has been minimal to date, particularly along the banks of the Sanaga River, where its range abuts that of P. t. troglodytes. This study had three objectives. First, we extended the sampling of SIVcpz across the range of chimpanzees north of the Sanaga River to address whether under-sampling might account for the absence of evidence for SIVcpz infection in P. t. ellioti. Second, we investigated how environmental variation is associated with the spread and prevalence of SIVcpz in the two chimpanzee subspecies inhabiting Cameroon since environmental variation has been shown to contribute to their divergence from one another. Finally, we compared the prevalence and distribution of SIVcpz with that of Simian Foamy Virus (SFV) to examine the role of ecology and behavior in shaping the distribution of diseases in wild host populations. The dataset includes previously published results on SIVcpz infection and SFVcpz as well as newly collected data, and represents over 1000 chimpanzee fecal samples from 41 locations across Cameroon. Results revealed that none of the 181 P. t. ellioti fecal samples collected across the range of P. t. ellioti tested positive for SIVcpz. In addition, species distribution models suggest that environmental variation contributes to differences in the distribution and prevalence of SIVcpz and

  2. [Iodine levels in food and soil in different regions in Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Taga, Ibrahim; Sameza, Modeste Lambert; Kayo, Anne Valerie; Ngogang, Jeanne

    2004-01-01

    Iodine deficiency diseases (IDD) are a public health problem in many developing countries, such as Cameroon. They are often the consequence of insufficient iodine intake and/or the effect of thiocyanate in foods such as cassava; this chemical inhibits iodine fixation by the thyroid gland. One method of combatting these diseases is to counsel and encourage the consumptions of iodine-rich foods. We accordingly undertook an evaluation of the iodine content of staple foods, the soil, and the salt in some zones of western Cameroon and in the capital. Food (63), salt (04) and soil (05) samples were collected in four villages of western Cameroon, and food (20), water (18) and salt samples (14) were collected in Yaoundé (central province). Iodine content in foods and soils was assessed by the catalytic destructive testing of thiocyanate by nitrate in the presence of iodine. Iodine content in water was determined colorimetrically after mineralization and in salt by volumetric methods. Results show that iodine levels in salt depend on its origin, but was much lower than the 50-100 ppm recommended by the WHO. Soil and water levels depended on the stream and the origin. Several of the more than 20 foods sampled from Yaoundé had iodine concentrations higher than 10 microg/100 g: plantain (22.5 microg/100 g), wheat flour (21 microg/100 g), corn flour (17.75 microg/100 g), groundnuts (12.5 microg/100 g), sweet potatoes (12.25 microg/100 g), zoom (11.34 microg/100 g) and rice (10.45 microg /100 g). In western villages, we noted that iodine levels in food crops depended on the soil levels. Nevertheless, it was high in cocoyam (79.5 microg/100 g), yarns (68 microg/100 g), potatoes (62 microg/100 g), plantains (58.15 microg/100 g), and red beans (53.93 microg/100 g). In general, these crops contain more iodine than the food in Yaoundé; these results can be used to combat IDD, especially among young children, teenagers and pregnant women.

  3. Identification of new, emerging HIV-1 unique recombinant forms and drug resistant viruses circulating in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The HIV epidemic in Cameroon is characterized by a high degree of viral genetic diversity with circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) being predominant. The goal of our study was to determine recent trends in virus evolution and emergence of drug resistance in blood donors and HIV positive patients. Methodology Blood specimens of 73 individuals were collected from three cities and a few villages in Cameroon and viruses were isolated by co-cultivation with PBMCs. Nested PCR was performed for gag p17 (670 bp) pol (840 bp) and Env gp41 (461 bp) genes. Sequences were phylogenetically analyzed using a reference set of sequences from the Los Alamos database. Results Phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequences revealed that 65% (n = 48) of strains were CRF02_AG, 4% (n = 3) subtype F2, 1% each belonged to CRF06 (n = 1), CRF11 (n = 1), subtype G (n = 1), subtype D (n = 1), CRF22_01A1 (n = 1), and 26% (n = 18) were Unique Recombinant Forms (URFs). Most URFs contained CRF02_AG in one or two HIV gene fragments analyzed. Furthermore, pol sequences of 61 viruses revealed drug resistance in 55.5% of patients on therapy and 44% of drug naïve individuals in the RT and protease regions. Overall URFs that had a primary HIV subtype designation in the pol region showed higher HIV-1 p24 levels than other recombinant forms in cell culture based replication kinetics studies. Conclusions Our results indicate that although CRF02_AG continues to be the predominant strain in Cameroon, phylogenetically the HIV epidemic is continuing to evolve as multiple recombinants of CRF02_AG and URFs were identified in the individuals studied. CRF02_AG recombinants that contained the pol region of a primary subtype showed higher replicative advantage than other variants. Identification of drug resistant strains in drug-naïve patients suggests that these viruses are being transmitted in the population studied. Our findings support the need for continued molecular surveillance in this region

  4. Why Are Nigeria-Cameroon Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes ellioti) Free of SIVcpz Infection?

    PubMed Central

    Locatelli, Sabrina; Harrigan, Ryan J.; Sesink Clee, Paul R.; Mitchell, Matthew W; McKean, Kurt A.; Smith, Thomas B.; Gonder, Mary Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) naturally infects two subspecies of chimpanzee: Pan troglodytes troglodytes from Central Africa (SIVcpzPtt) and P. t. schweinfurtii from East Africa (SIVcpzPts), but is absent in P. t. verus from West Africa and appears to be absent in P. t. ellioti inhabiting Nigeria and western Cameroon. One explanation for this pattern is that P. t. troglodytes and P. t schweinfurthii may have acquired SIVcpz after their divergence from P. t. verus and P. t. ellioti. However, all of the subspecies, except P. t. verus, still occasionally exchange migrants making the absence of SIVcpz in P. t. ellioti puzzling. Sampling of P. t. ellioti has been minimal to date, particularly along the banks of the Sanaga River, where its range abuts that of P. t. troglodytes. This study had three objectives. First, we extended the sampling of SIVcpz across the range of chimpanzees north of the Sanaga River to address whether under-sampling might account for the absence of evidence for SIVcpz infection in P. t. ellioti. Second, we investigated how environmental variation is associated with the spread and prevalence of SIVcpz in the two chimpanzee subspecies inhabiting Cameroon since environmental variation has been shown to contribute to their divergence from one another. Finally, we compared the prevalence and distribution of SIVcpz with that of Simian Foamy Virus (SFV) to examine the role of ecology and behavior in shaping the distribution of diseases in wild host populations. The dataset includes previously published results on SIVcpz infection and SFVcpz as well as newly collected data, and represents over 1000 chimpanzee fecal samples from 41 locations across Cameroon. Results revealed that none of the 181 P. t. ellioti fecal samples collected across the range of P. t. ellioti tested positive for SIVcpz. In addition, species distribution models suggest that environmental variation contributes to differences in the distribution and prevalence of SIVcpz and

  5. The CF6 jet engine performance improvement: New front mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasching, W. A.

    1979-01-01

    The New Front Mount was evaluated in component tests including stress, deflection/distortion and fatigue tests. The test results demonstrated a performance improvement of 0.1% in cruise sfc, 16% in compressor stall margin and 10% in compressor stator angle margin. The New Front Mount hardware successfully completed 35,000 simulated flight cycles endurance testing.

  6. AERIAL VIEW, LAUREL HILL CEMETERY (LEFT) AND MOUNT PEACE CEMETERY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LAUREL HILL CEMETERY (LEFT) AND MOUNT PEACE CEMETERY (RIGHT). LOCATED ACROSS RIDGE AVENUE FROM LAUREL HILL CEMETERY, MOUNT PEACE CEMETERY WAS FOUNDED BY THE ODD FELLOWS CEMETERY COMPANY IN 1865. - Laurel Hill Cemetery, 3822 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. View looking northeast across the east end of West Mount ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking northeast across the east end of West Mount Vernon Place; view includes the lion statue (also designed by Antoine Louis-Barye) as well as the Washington Apartments and Methodist Church in the background - Mount Vernon Place, Charles & Monument Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  8. Alternative mounting media for preservation of some protozoa.

    PubMed

    Criado-Fornelio, A; Heredero-Bermejo, I; Pérez-Serrano, J

    2014-10-01

    Protozoa resistant stages are disintegrated when mounted in toluene-based media. To overcome such problem, three toluene-free mountants were tested on preserve Acanthamoeba spp and gregarines. Two commercial glues based on cyanoacrylate or trimethoxysilane were suitable for preserving both cysts and trophozoites. Hoyer's medium showed good results for mounting gregarine oocysts.

  9. Maintenance Procedure Display: Head Mounted Display (HMD) Evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Milrian; Litaker, Harry L., Jr.; Solem, Jody A.; Holden, Kritina L.; Hoffman, Ronald R.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing maintenance procedures for head mounted displays is shown. The topics include: 1) Study Goals; 2) Near Eye Displays (HMDs); 3) Design; 4) Phase I-Evaluation Methods; 5) Phase 1 Results; 6) Improved HMD Mounting; 7) Phase 2 -Evaluation Methods; 8) Phase 2 Preliminary Results; and 9) Next Steps.

  10. Hole-thru-laminate mounting supports for photovoltaic modules

    DOEpatents

    Wexler, Jason; Botkin, Jonathan; Culligan, Matthew; Detrick, Adam

    2015-02-17

    A mounting support for a photovoltaic module is described. The mounting support includes a pedestal having a surface adaptable to receive a flat side of a photovoltaic module laminate. A hole is disposed in the pedestal, the hole adaptable to receive a bolt or a pin used to couple the pedestal to the flat side of the photovoltaic module laminate.

  11. 46 CFR 61.05-15 - Boiler mountings and attachments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... gauge for a boiler or a main steam line may be examined and checked for accuracy by the marine inspector... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Boiler mountings and attachments. 61.05-15 Section 61.05... TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Boilers § 61.05-15 Boiler mountings and attachments....

  12. 36 CFR 7.5 - Mount Rainier National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mount Rainier National Park. 7.5 Section 7.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.5 Mount Rainier National Park....

  13. Mount Pinatubo, Philippine Islands as seen from STS-59

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    View of Mount Pinatubo, Philippine Islands. Subic Bay is at the lower left corner, with the sea at the left and Clark Air Force Base (abandoned after the eruption) is to the lower right of the volcano. A turquoise lake occupies the caldera just below the center of the photograph. Mount Pinatubo erupted in June, 1991 after several hundred years of quiet.

  14. Tilt networks of Mount Shasta and Lassen Peak, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dzurisin, Daniel; Johnson, Daniel J.; Murray, T.L.; Myers, Barbara

    1982-01-01

    In response to recent eruptions at Mount St. Helens and with support from the USGS Volcanic Hazards Program, the Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) has initiated a program to monitor all potentially-active volcanoes of the Cascade Range. As part of that effort, we installed tilt networks and obtained baseline measurements at Mount Shasta and Lassen Peak, California during July 1981. At the same time, baseline electronic distance measurements (EDM) were made and fumarole surveys were conducted by other crews from CVO. Annual surveys are planned initially, with subsequent visits as conditions warrant. These geodetic and geochemical measurements supplement a program of continuous seismic monitoring of Cascade volcanoes by the USGS Office of Earthquake Studies in cooperation with local universities. Other tilt networks were established at Mount Baker in 1975 and at Mount St. Helens in 1981. EDM networks were established at Mount Baker in 1975, Mount St. Helens in 1980, and Crater Lake in 1981. Additional tilt and/or EDM networks are planned for Mount Rainier, Mount Hood, Glacier Peak, Three Sisters, and Crater Lake as funds permit.

  15. Volcano hazards in the Mount Jefferson region, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walder, Joseph S.; Gardner, Cynthia A.; Conrey, Richard M.; Fisher, Bruce J.; Schilling, Steven P.

    1999-01-01

    Mount Jefferson is a prominent feature of the landscape seen from highways east and west of the Cascades. Mount Jefferson (one of thirteen major volcanic centers in the Cascade Range) has erupted repeatedly for hundreds of thousands of years, with its last eruptive episode during the last major glaciation which culminated about 15,000 years ago. Geologic evidence shows that Mount Jefferson is capable of large explosive eruptions. The largest such eruption occurred between 35,000 and 100,000 years ago, and caused ash to fall as far away as the present-day town of Arco in southeast Idaho. Although there has not been an eruption at Mount Jefferson for some time, experience at explosive volcanoes elsewhere suggests that Mount Jefferson cannot be regarded as extinct. If Mount Jefferson erupts again, areas close to the eruptive vent will be severely affected, and even areas tens of kilometers (tens of miles) downstream along river valleys or hundreds of kilometers (hundreds of miles) downwind may be at risk. Numerous small volcanoes occupy the area between Mount Jefferson and Mount Hood to the north, and between Mount Jefferson and the Three Sisters region to the south. These small volcanoes tend not to pose the far-reaching hazards associated with Mount Jefferson, but are nonetheless locally important. A concern at Mount Jefferson, but not at the smaller volcanoes, is the possibility that small to- moderate sized landslides could occur even during periods of no volcanic activity. Such landslides may transform as they move into lahars (watery flows of rock, mud, and debris) that can inundate areas far downstream. The population at immediate risk in the Mount Jefferson region is small, but these residents as well as other people who visit the area for recreation and work purposes should be aware of the potential hazards. Probably the greatest concern in the Mount Jefferson region is the possibility that large lahars might enter reservoirs on either side of the volcano

  16. Measuring Disability in Population Based Surveys: The Interrelationship between Clinical Impairments and Reported Functional Limitations in Cameroon and India

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the relationship between two distinct measures of disability: self-reported functional limitations and objectively-screened clinical impairments. Methods We undertook an all age population-based survey of disability in two areas: North-West Cameroon (August/October 2013) and Telangana State, India (Feb/April 2014). Participants were selected for inclusion via two-stage cluster randomised sampling (probability proportionate to size cluster selection and compact segment sampling within clusters). Disability was defined as the presence of self-reported functional limitations across eight domains, or presence of moderate or greater clinical impairments. Clinical impairment screening comprised of visual acuity testing for vision impairment, pure tone audiometry for hearing impairment, musculoskeletal functioning assessment for musculoskeletal impairment, reported seizure history for epilepsy and reported symptoms of clinical depression (depression adults only). Information was collected using structured questionnaires, observations and examinations. Results Self-reported disability prevalence was 5.9% (95% CI 4.7–7.4) and 7.5% (5.9–9.4) in Cameroon and India respectively. The prevalence of moderate or greater clinical impairments in the same populations were 8.4% (7.5–9.4) in Cameroon and 10.5% (9.4–11.7) in India. Overall disability prevalence (self-report and/or screened positive to a moderate or greater clinical impairment) was 10.5% in Cameroon and 12.2% in India, with limited overlap between the sub-populations identified using the two types of tools. 33% of participants in Cameroon identified to have a disability, and 45% in India, both reported functional limitations and screened positive to objectively-screened impairments, whilst the remainder were identified via one or other tool only. A large proportion of people with moderate or severe clinical impairments did not self-report functional difficulties despite reporting

  17. Late Cretaceous intraplate silicic volcanism in the Lake Chad region: incipient continental rift volcanism vs. Cameroon Line volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shellnutt, G.; Lee, T. Y.; Torng, P. K.; Yang, C. C.

    2015-12-01

    The crustal evolution of west-central Africa during the Cretaceous was directly related to plate motion associated with the opening of the central Atlantic Ocean. Late Cretaceous (~66 Ma) to recent magmatism related to the Cameroon Line stretches from Northern Cameroon (i.e. Golda Zuelva) to the Gulf of Guinea (i.e. Pagalu) and is considered to be due to mantle-crust interaction. The volcanic rocks at Hadjer el Khamis, west-central Chad, are considered to be amongst the oldest volcanic rocks of the Cameroon Line but their relationship is uncertain because they erupted during a period of a regional extension associated with the opening of the Late Cretaceous (~75 Ma) Termit basin. The silicic volcanic rocks can be divided into a peraluminous group and a peralkaline group with both rock types having similar chemical characteristics as within-plate granitoids. In situ U/Pb zircon dating yielded a mean 206Pb/238U age of 74.4 ± 1.3 Ma and indicates the rocks erupted ~10 million years before the next oldest eruption attributed to the Cameroon Line. The Sr isotopes (i.e. ISr = 0.7050 to 0.7143) show a wide range but the Nd isotopes (i.e. 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51268 to 0.51271) are more uniform and indicate that the rocks were derived from a moderately depleted mantle source. Major and trace elemental modeling show that the silicic rocks likely formed by shallow fractionation of a mafic parental magma where the peraluminous rocks experienced crustal contamination and the peralkaline rocks did not. The silicic rocks are more isotopically similar to Late Cretaceous basalts in the Doba and Bongor basins (i.e. ISr = 0.7040 to 0.7060; 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51267 to 0.51277) of southern Chad than to rocks of the Cameroon Line (i.e. ISr = 0.7026 to 0.7038; 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51270 to 0.51300). Given the age and isotopic compositions, it is likely that the silicic volcanic rocks of the Lake Chad area are related to Late Cretaceous extensional tectonics rather than to Cameroon Line magmatism.

  18. Measurements of slope distances and vertical angles at Mount Baker and Mount Rainier, Washington, Mount Hood and Crater Lake, Oregon, and Mount Shasta and Lassen Peak, California, 1980-1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chadwick, W.W.

    1985-01-01

    Personnel of the U.S.Geological Survey's Cascades Volcano Observatory established trilateration networks at Mount Baker, Mount Rainier, Mount Hood, Crater Lake, Mount Shasta, and Lassen Peak in 1980-1984. These networks are capable of detecting changes in slope distance of several centimeters or more. The networks were established to provide baseline information on potentially active volcanoes and were designed along guidelines found useful at Mount St. Helens. Periodic reoccupation of the networks is planned as part of the overall monitoring program of Cascades volcanoes. Methodology, slope distance and vertical angle data, maps of the networks, and benchmark descriptions are presented in this report. Written benchmark descriptions are augmented by photographs, which we have found by experience to very useful in relocating the marks. All repeat measurements at the six volcanoes are probably within measurement error.

  19. Perspective with Landsat Overlay, Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Mount Kilimanjaro (Kilima Njaro or 'shining mountain' in Swahili), the highest point in Africa, reaches 5,895 meters (19,340 feet) above sea level, tall enough to maintain a permanent snow cap despite being just 330 kilometers (210 miles) south of the equator. It is the tallest free-standing mountain on the Earth's land surface world, rising about 4,600 meters (15,000 feet) above the surrounding plain. Kilimanjaro is a triple volcano (has three peaks) that last erupted perhaps more than 100,000 years ago but still exudes volcanic gases. It is accompanied by about 20 other nearby volcanoes, some of which are seen to the west (left) in this view, prominently including Mount Meru, which last erupted only about a century ago. The volcanic mountain slopes are commonly fertile and support thick forests, while the much drier grasslands of the plains are home to elephants, lions, and other savanna wildlife.

    This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), a Landsat 7 satellite image, and a false sky. Topographic expression is vertically exaggerated two times.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved

  20. Ecological status and sources of anthropogenic contaminants in mangroves of the Wouri River Estuary (Cameroon).

    PubMed

    Fusi, Marco; Beone, Gian Maria; Suciu, Nicoleta Alina; Sacchi, Angela; Trevisan, Marco; Capri, Ettore; Daffonchio, Daniele; Din, Ndongo; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Cannicci, Stefano

    2016-08-30

    Mangroves are critically threatened by human activities, despite the important ecosystem functions and services they provide. Mangroves in Cameroon represent no exception to the worldwide trend of mangrove destruction, especially around Douala, on the Wouri river estuary. In two sites around Douala, we assessed the presence of sterols, PAHs, PCBs, DEHP, DDT and its metabolite p,p'-DDE and potentially toxic metals in sediment samples. As a proxy of ecological quality, we measured the diversity and abundance of macrobenthos assemblages. We detected p,p'-DDE contamination, with concentrations higher than 3μgkg(-1) in 16 out of 26 samples which were attributed to recent widespread use of DDT. The detection of sterols revealed faecal contamination. Significant sensitivity of the macrobenthos to contaminants was revealed, with possible implications on the overall mangrove vulnerability to climate change and on the provision of ecosystem services to local populations. PMID:27394634

  1. Mycorrhiza status of Gnetum spp. in Cameroon: evaluating diversity with a view to ameliorating domestication efforts.

    PubMed

    Bechem, Eneke Esoeyang Tambe; Alexander, Ian James

    2012-02-01

    A field survey was carried out to investigate the diversity of mycorrhizal fungi associated with Gnetum spp. in Cameroon. The extent and variation of ectomycorrhizal colonisation as well as the degree of host specificity were evaluated. Gnetum spp. were found to be almost always ectomycorrhizal in all sites visited. There were just two ectomycorrhizal morphotypes ('yellow' and 'white') associated with this plant. Such low diversity is unusual for an ectomycorrhizal plant. The yellow morphotype was the most widespread and prevalent and was identified by morphological and molecular methods to have been formed with Scleroderma sinnamariense. Propagules of this fungus were present in soil collected from farm lands, cocoa plantations, Chromolaena and bush fallows, as well as in a relatively undisturbed forest harbouring ectomycorrhizal legumes. The fungus responsible for the white morphotype was identified as also belonging to the genus Scleroderma by ITS sequence similarity. Arbuscular mycorrhizal structures were absent in cleared and stained portions of the roots.

  2. [Two new species of Myxidium (Myxosporea: Myxidiidae) parasites of fresh water fish in Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Fomena, A; Lekeufack, Folefack G B; Bouix, G

    2010-03-01

    The study of Myxosporidia infecting Clarias pachynema Boulenger, 1903 (Clariidae), Ctenopoma petherici Günther, 1864 (Anabantidae) and Parachanna obscura (Günther, 1861) (Channidae) from the basin of Nkam in Cameroon, revealed the presence of two new species of Myxosporidia of the genus Myxidium Bütschli, 1882, all found in the gall bladder of their hosts. These new species were: Myxidium nkamensis n. sp., found in Clarias pachynema and M. sangei n. sp. found in the gall bladder wall of Parachanna obscura. Two other species, Myxidium petrocephali Fomena and Bouix, 1986 and M. distichodi Kostoïngué, Faye and Toguebaye, 1998 were found in new hosts. The list of Myxidium species parasitizing African fresh water fishes is given.

  3. Environmental transmission of Mycobacterium ulcerans drives dynamics of Buruli ulcer in endemic regions of Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garchitorena, Andrés; Ngonghala, Calistus N.; Texier, Gaëtan; Landier, Jordi; Eyangoh, Sara; Bonds, Matthew H.; Guégan, Jean-François; Roche, Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    Buruli Ulcer is a devastating skin disease caused by the pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans. Emergence and distribution of Buruli ulcer cases is clearly linked to aquatic ecosystems, but the specific route of transmission of M. ulcerans to humans remains unclear. Relying on the most detailed field data in space and time on M. ulcerans and Buruli ulcer available today, we assess the relative contribution of two potential transmission routes -environmental and water bug transmission- to the dynamics of Buruli ulcer in two endemic regions of Cameroon. The temporal dynamics of Buruli ulcer incidence are explained by estimating rates of different routes of transmission in mathematical models. Independently, we also estimate statistical models of the different transmission pathways on the spatial distribution of Buruli ulcer. The results of these two independent approaches are corroborative and suggest that environmental transmission pathways explain the temporal and spatial patterns of Buruli ulcer in our endemic areas better than the water bug transmission.

  4. Survey of water bugs in bankim, a new buruli ulcer endemic area in cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ebong, Solange Meyin A; Eyangoh, Sara; Marion, Estelle; Landier, Jordi; Marsollier, Laurent; Guégan, Jean-François; Legall, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Buruli ulcer is a debitliating human skin disease with an unknown transmission mode although epidemiological data link it with swampy areas. Data available suggest that aquatic insects play a role in the dissemination and/or transmission of this disease. However, their biodiversity and biology remain poorly documented. We conducted an entomological survey in Bankim, Cameroon, an area recently described as endemic for Buruli ulcer in order to identify the commonly occurring aquatic bugs and document their relative abundance, diversity, and spatial distribution. Collection of aquatic bugs was realized over a period of one month by daily direct capture in different aquatic environments (streams, ponds, and rivers) and through light traps at night. Globally, the data obtained showed the presence of five families (Belostomatidae, Naucoridae, Nepidae, Notonectidae, and Gerridae), their abundance, distribution and diversity varying according to the type of aquatic environments and light attraction.

  5. General public knowledge, attitudes, and practices with respect to epilepsy in the Batibo Health District, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Njamnshi, Alfred K; Angwafor, Samuel A; Tabah, Earnest N; Jallon, Pierre; Muna, Walinjom F T

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to obtain baseline data for an epilepsy education program adapted to communities in Cameroon. We conducted 302 face-to-face interviews with patients without epilepsy, caregivers, and visitors in the Batibo District Hospital. Most respondents (99.3%) had heard or read about epilepsy, 89.7% knew someone with epilepsy, and 87.7% had witnessed a seizure. About 43% would object to associating with people with epilepsy (PWE) and 75.8% would object to their children marrying PWE, whereas 35.1% would offer PWE equal employment. Predictors of negative attitudes were: advanced age, lack of formal education, and the belief that epilepsy is hereditary, contagious, or a form of insanity. In conclusion, the high level of public awareness of epilepsy in the Batibo Health District may reflect the magnitude of the condition, contrasting with the prevalent negative attitudes. A successful epilepsy education program must take into account the beliefs and value systems of the community.

  6. Geodynamic model for the development of the Cameroon Hot Line (Equatorial Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nkono, Collin; Féménias, Olivier; Demaiffe, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    This work proposes a new geodynamic model for the development of the Cameroon Hot Line (CHL) in Equatorial Africa. It is based on the analysis of the distribution of lineaments and of magmatic bodies (Paleogene anorogenic ring-complexes and Neogene volcanic centres). Two successive geodynamic models are proposed to explain the distribution of the Cainozoic to recent magmatic activity. They are both sinistral. The first one, during the Paleogene, developed around the N ∼ 70°E direction while the second one (Neogene) is oriented around the N ∼ 130°E direction. The two periods are separated by a short transition. The emplacement follows the local reactivation of pre-existing (Pan-African) faults in relation to the collision between the Afro-Arabian and Eurasian plates, during the Alpine history.

  7. Measuring the impact of health education modules in Cameroon, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Chaponniere, Paulette A; Cherup, Susan M; Lodge, Lillie

    2013-07-01

    Each year, more than two million people die from diarrhea-associated diseases. Although there is a global need for safe drinking water, culturally appropriate health teaching is essential to behavior change. This study evaluated the impact of a health education program in a small rural community in Cameroon. Flash cards and a modified version of the CDC-KPC 2000 survey were used to collect data in 57 homes. Children who lived in households with working Manz BioSand filters were less likely to have had diarrhea in the 2 weeks prior to the evaluation. There remained a gap between health knowledge and healthy behaviors for hand hygiene and malaria prevention. This gap was significant in the diarrheal treatment (McNemar's test, p < .000). The interdisciplinary program and 7-year time frame were crucial to sustainability. Faculty and students learned the importance of pairing service learning and research that respect local cultures in fostering a healthier global community. PMID:23765564

  8. Contrasting modes of rifting: The Benue Trough and Cameroon Volcanic Line, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okereke, C. S.

    1988-08-01

    The Benue trough of west Africa is commonly believed to be a rift feature that originated in the Cretaceous at about the time that Africa and South America began to separate. Bouguer gravity and available geological data in the trough indicate that its formation was probably the result of regional horizontal stresses in the lithosphere, causing crustal extension and surface subsidence. By contrast, the data for the adjoining Cameroon volcanic line suggests that the associated tensional stresses relate to mantle upwarp causing thinning of the lithosphere and regional crustal uplift similar to that associated with the Kenya rift. Thus the association of passive and active rifts seen in the Afro-Arabia rift system is also a feature of the Cretaceous rift system in west Africa.

  9. Survey of water bugs in bankim, a new buruli ulcer endemic area in cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ebong, Solange Meyin A; Eyangoh, Sara; Marion, Estelle; Landier, Jordi; Marsollier, Laurent; Guégan, Jean-François; Legall, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Buruli ulcer is a debitliating human skin disease with an unknown transmission mode although epidemiological data link it with swampy areas. Data available suggest that aquatic insects play a role in the dissemination and/or transmission of this disease. However, their biodiversity and biology remain poorly documented. We conducted an entomological survey in Bankim, Cameroon, an area recently described as endemic for Buruli ulcer in order to identify the commonly occurring aquatic bugs and document their relative abundance, diversity, and spatial distribution. Collection of aquatic bugs was realized over a period of one month by daily direct capture in different aquatic environments (streams, ponds, and rivers) and through light traps at night. Globally, the data obtained showed the presence of five families (Belostomatidae, Naucoridae, Nepidae, Notonectidae, and Gerridae), their abundance, distribution and diversity varying according to the type of aquatic environments and light attraction. PMID:22666273

  10. Complete genome sequence of a new bipartite begomovirus infecting fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) plants in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Leke, Walter N; Khatabi, Behnam; Fondong, Vincent N; Brown, Judith K

    2016-08-01

    The complete genome sequence was determined and characterized for a previously unreported bipartite begomovirus from fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis, family Cucurbitaceae) plants displaying mosaic symptoms in Cameroon. The DNA-A and DNA-B components were ~2.7 kb and ~2.6 kb in size, and the arrangement of viral coding regions on the genomic components was like those characteristic of other known bipartite begomoviruses originating in the Old World. While the DNA-A component was more closely related to that of chayote yellow mosaic virus (ChaYMV), at 78 %, the DNA-B component was more closely related to that of soybean chlorotic blotch virus (SbCBV), at 64 %. This newly discovered bipartite Old World virus is herein named telfairia mosaic virus (TelMV). PMID:27262944

  11. [Telemedicine, a medical social network for humanitarian aid between Spain and Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Manchón, David

    2015-01-01

    The application of information technologies and telecommunications in healthcare in southern countries can improve the health of millions of people living in poverty without access to high-quality health services. Specifically, telemedicine not synchronized with internet platforms is a very efficient option for international cooperation projects. Since its inception, the project Health 2.0: professionals from Africa-Spain connected, of the Spanish organization, Foundation Recover, Hospitals for Africa, has managed to connect health professionals from both continents with the goal of improving health in Cameroon. Thanks to a social network with the scientific format of case management and clinical updates, Spanish physicians collaborate through volunteer e-health in the training of their African colleagues to improve the quality of care provided to residents and also create sources of knowledge and research.

  12. Environmental transmission of Mycobacterium ulcerans drives dynamics of Buruli ulcer in endemic regions of Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Garchitorena, Andrés; Ngonghala, Calistus N.; Texier, Gaëtan; Landier, Jordi; Eyangoh, Sara; Bonds, Matthew H.; Guégan, Jean-François; Roche, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Buruli Ulcer is a devastating skin disease caused by the pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans. Emergence and distribution of Buruli ulcer cases is clearly linked to aquatic ecosystems, but the specific route of transmission of M. ulcerans to humans remains unclear. Relying on the most detailed field data in space and time on M. ulcerans and Buruli ulcer available today, we assess the relative contribution of two potential transmission routes –environmental and water bug transmission– to the dynamics of Buruli ulcer in two endemic regions of Cameroon. The temporal dynamics of Buruli ulcer incidence are explained by estimating rates of different routes of transmission in mathematical models. Independently, we also estimate statistical models of the different transmission pathways on the spatial distribution of Buruli ulcer. The results of these two independent approaches are corroborative and suggest that environmental transmission pathways explain the temporal and spatial patterns of Buruli ulcer in our endemic areas better than the water bug transmission. PMID:26658922

  13. Snakebite in bedroom kills a physician in Cameroon: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Nkwescheu, Armand; Mbasso, Leopold Cyriaque Donfack; Pouth, Franky Baonga Ba; Dzudie, Anastase; Billong, Serge Clotaire; Ngouakam, Hermann; Diffo, Joseph Le Doux; Eyongorock, Hanny; Mbacham, Wilfred

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies snake bites as neglected public health problem affecting mostly tropical and subtropical countries. In Africa there are an estimated 1 million snake bites annually with about half needing a specific treatment. Women, children and farmers in poor rural communities in developing countries are the most affected. Case management of snake bites are not adequate in many health facilities in developing countries where personnel are not always abreast with the new developments in snake bite management and in addition, quite often the anti-venom serum is lacking. We report the case of a medical doctor bitten by a cobra in the rural area of Poli, Cameroon while asleep in his bedroom. Lack of facilities coupled with poor case management resulted in a fatal outcome. PMID:27800086

  14. Ecological status and sources of anthropogenic contaminants in mangroves of the Wouri River Estuary (Cameroon).

    PubMed

    Fusi, Marco; Beone, Gian Maria; Suciu, Nicoleta Alina; Sacchi, Angela; Trevisan, Marco; Capri, Ettore; Daffonchio, Daniele; Din, Ndongo; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Cannicci, Stefano

    2016-08-30

    Mangroves are critically threatened by human activities, despite the important ecosystem functions and services they provide. Mangroves in Cameroon represent no exception to the worldwide trend of mangrove destruction, especially around Douala, on the Wouri river estuary. In two sites around Douala, we assessed the presence of sterols, PAHs, PCBs, DEHP, DDT and its metabolite p,p'-DDE and potentially toxic metals in sediment samples. As a proxy of ecological quality, we measured the diversity and abundance of macrobenthos assemblages. We detected p,p'-DDE contamination, with concentrations higher than 3μgkg(-1) in 16 out of 26 samples which were attributed to recent widespread use of DDT. The detection of sterols revealed faecal contamination. Significant sensitivity of the macrobenthos to contaminants was revealed, with possible implications on the overall mangrove vulnerability to climate change and on the provision of ecosystem services to local populations.

  15. Gravity Probe B Detector Mount Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    In this photo, the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) detector mount assembly is shown in comparison to the size of a dime. The assembly is used to detect exactly how much starlight is coming through different beams from the beam splitter in the telescope. The measurements from the tiny chips inside are what keeps GP-B aimed at the guide star. The GP-B is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Paul Ehrensberger, Stanford University.)

  16. Installation of a Roof Mounted Photovoltaic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, M.

    2015-12-01

    In order to create a safe and comfortable environment for students to learn, a lot of electricity, which is generated from coal fired power plants, is used. Therefore, ISF Academy, a school in Hong Kong with approximately 1,500 students, will be installing a rooftop photovoltaic (PV) system with 302 solar panels. Not only will these panels be used to power a classroom, they will also serve as an educational opportunity for students to learn about the importance of renewable energy technology and its uses. There were four different options for the installation of the solar panels, and the final choice was made based on the loading capacity of the roof, considering the fact that overstressing the roof could prove to be a safety hazard. Moreover, due to consideration of the risk of typhoons in Hong Kong, the solar panel PV system will include concrete plinths as counterweights - but not so much that the roof would be severely overstressed. During and after the installation of the PV system, students involved would be able to do multiple calculations, such as determining the reduction of the school's carbon footprint. This can allow students to learn about the impact renewable energy can have on the environment. Another project students can participate in includes measuring the efficiency of the solar panels and how much power can be produced per year, which in turn can help with calculate the amount of money saved per year and when we will achieve economic parity. In short, the installation of the roof mounted PV system will not only be able to help save money for the school but also provide learning opportunities for students studying at the ISF Academy.

  17. Multifocal planes head-mounted displays.

    PubMed

    Rolland, J P; Krueger, M W; Goon, A

    2000-07-01

    Stereoscopic head-mounted displays (HMD's) provide an effective capability to create dynamic virtual environments. For a user of such environments, virtual objects would be displayed ideally at the appropriate distances, and natural concordant accommodation and convergence would be provided. Under such image display conditions, the user perceives these objects as if they were objects in a real environment. Current HMD technology requires convergent eye movements. However, it is currently limited by fixed visual accommodation, which is inconsistent with real-world vision. A prototype multiplanar volumetric projection display based on a stack of laminated planes was built for medical visualization as discussed in a paper presented at a 1999 Advanced Research Projects Agency workshop (Sullivan, Advanced Research Projects Agency, Arlington, Va., 1999). We show how such technology can be engineered to create a set of virtual planes appropriately configured in visual space to suppress conflicts of convergence and accommodation in HMD's. Although some scanning mechanism could be employed to create a set of desirable planes from a two-dimensional conventional display, multiplanar technology accomplishes such function with no moving parts. Based on optical principles and human vision, we present a comprehensive investigation of the engineering specification of multiplanar technology for integration in HMD's. Using selected human visual acuity and stereoacuity criteria, we show that the display requires at most 27 equally spaced planes, which is within the capability of current research and development display devices, located within a maximal 26-mm-wide stack. We further show that the necessary in-plane resolution is of the order of 5 microm.

  18. Retired NASA F-18 being mounted on pedestal mount at Lancaster California Municipal Baseball Stadium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    An F/A-18 Hornet aircraft formerly flown by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is sandwiched between two groups of workers as they mount it atop a pedestal at the municipal baseball stadium in the city of Lancaster, California. NASA Dryden had flown the blue-and-white twin-jet as a safety chase and support aircraft for about nine years prior to its recent retirement. The aircraft is now in loan to the city for public display. Known as 'The Hangar,' the stadium is the home field of the Lancaster Jethawks, a Class-A farm team of the Seattle Mariners.

  19. Retired NASA F-18 being mounted on pedestal mount at Lancaster California Municipal Baseball Stadium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Workers carefully align a mounting bracket attached to an F/A-18 Hornet aircraft with the top of a pedestal in front of the municipal baseball stadium in the city of Lancaster, California. The Blue-and-white twin-jet aircraft, formerly flown as a safety chase and support aircraft by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was loaned to the city for display following its recent retirement. Known as 'The Hangar,' the stadium is the home field of the Lancaster Jethawks, a Class-A farm team of the Seattle Mariners.

  20. Hepatitis B, HIV, and Syphilis Seroprevalence in Pregnant Women and Blood Donors in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Mbah, Rahel; Rembert, Nicole J.; Tancho, Samuel; Halle-Ekane, Gregory E.; Enah, Comfort; Welty, Thomas K.; Tih, Pius M.; Tita, Alan T. N.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated seroprevalence and correlates of selected infections in pregnant women and blood donors in a resource-limited setting. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of laboratory seroprevalence data from pregnant women and voluntary blood donors from facilities in Cameroon in 2014. Rapid tests were performed to detect hepatitis B surface antigen, syphilis treponemal antibodies, and HIV-1/2 antibodies. Blood donations were also tested for hepatitis C and malaria. Results. The seroprevalence rates and ranges among 7069 pregnant women were hepatitis B 4.4% (1.1–9.6%), HIV 6% (3.0–10.2%), and syphilis 1.7% (1.3–3.8%) with significant variability among the sites. Correlates of infection in pregnancy in adjusted regression models included urban residence for hepatitis B (aOR 2.9, CI 1.6–5.4) and HIV (aOR 3.5, CI 1.9–6.7). Blood donor seroprevalence rates and ranges were hepatitis B 6.8% (5.0–8.8%), HIV 2.2% (1.4–2.8%), syphilis 4% (3.3–4.5%), malaria 1.9%, and hepatitis C 1.7% (0.5–2.5%). Conclusions. Hepatitis B, HIV, and syphilis infections are common among pregnant women and blood donors in Cameroon with higher rates in urban areas. Future interventions to reduce vertical transmission should include universal screening for these infections early in pregnancy and provision of effective prevention tools including the birth dose of univalent hepatitis B vaccine. PMID:27578957

  1. Oral Health Status of the Elderly at Tonga, West Region, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Michele Lolita, Yotat; Ashu Michael, Agbor; Hubert, Ntumba; Florence, Djachechi; Jacques, Bolenge

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine the oral health status of elderly persons in Tonga, West Region of Cameroon. Methodology. This is a cross-sectional study of persons of at least 65 years, living in Tonga village, West Region of Cameroon. Results. A total of 183 persons aged between 65 and 94 years, mean age of 73 years ±7 s.d., 83 (45,4%) males, and 100 (54,6%) females participated in the study. The most represented age range was 65–74 years (60.1%); 86 (47.3%) and elders above 65 constituted 1.8% of the total population. More than a third 117 (41.4%) had visible dental plaque, 117 (48,6%) had periodontal pockets >4 mm, 153 (54,1%) had teeth with total crown destruction, 70 (38.3%) had not lost a tooth, 23 (12.6%) had lost 1 tooth, 19 (10.4%) have lost at least 2 teeth, 100 (55.7%) were partially edentulous at the maxilla and 98 (53.6%) at the mandible, 2 (1.1%) were completely edentulous at the maxilla and 3 (1.6%) at the mandible, and 3.8% had removable dentures. The mean DMF index was 6.11 and 69.4% had dental caries. Risk factors to dental caries were toothbrushing and tobacco consumption while dental plaque was associated to pocket depth of 4–6 mm. Barriers to oral health care included ignorance 47 (25.7%), financial difficulties 124 (67.8%), and distance to the nearest clinic 12 (6.5%). Conclusion. The oral status of the elderly was generally poor. PMID:26633972

  2. Effect of agropesticides use on male reproductive function: a study on farmers in Djutitsa (Cameroon).

    PubMed

    Manfo, Faustin Pascal Tsagué; Moundipa, Paul Fewou; Déchaud, Henri; Tchana, Angéle Nkouatchoua; Nantia, Edouard Akono; Zabot, Marie-Thérèse; Pugeat, Michel

    2012-07-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of agropesticides on male reproductive function in farmers in Djutitsa (West Cameroon). To this end, 47 farmers in Djutitsa were asked questions on their health status and pesticide use in agriculture. Thereafter, their blood samples were collected for assessment of sex hormones including serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), androstenedione, testosterone, as well as sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Their serum triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels were also measured. Thirty seven men not exposed to agropesticides were recruited as control group. Fifty six pesticides containing 25 active substances were currently used by farmers enrolled in our study, and most of their symptoms were related to spread/use of these chemicals. Compared to the control group, there was no significant difference in FSH, LH, SHBG, estradiol, and thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) levels. Farmers had significantly lower serum testosterone (20.93 ± 1.03 nM vs. 24.32 ± 1.32 nM; P < 0.05) and higher androstenedione level (3.83 ± 0.20 nM vs. 2.80 ± 0.15 nM; P < 0.001). Their serum free testosterone as well as bioavailable testosterone were unchanged, while estradiol/testosterone and androstenedione/testosterone ratios were significantly increased (0.45 ± 0.03% vs. 0.33 ± 0.02%; P < 0.01 and 12.26 ± 3.64 vs 19.31 ± 6.82; P < 0.001, respectively). Our results suggest that male farmers of Djutitsa (West Cameroon) are exposed to agropesticides due to improper protective tool, and this exposure may impair their reproductive function through inhibition of testosterone synthesis; probably by inhibition of testicular 17β- hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17HSD3) and induction of aromatase (CYP19).

  3. [HIV and risk factors for the blood donors at the central hospital of Yaounde, Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Mole, S; Onana, E; Biholong, D

    2011-08-01

    The HIV/AIDS infection is in a permanent progress in Cameroon. Through this descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study, we aimed to compare the occurrence of the HIV by taking into account the risks factors that are significantly associated with HIV. The investigation was carried out from 1 January till 31 December 2009 in the Blood Bank of the Central Hospital of Yaounde in Cameroon. A structured questionnaire was proposed to collect socio-demographic and risk behavioral information. Venous blood was collected for HIV antibody testing. Generalized estimating equation with logistic regression was used to analyze the risk factors for HIV infection. In all, 5 058 persons were included in this study. Serological examination revealed a total prevalence of 5.4% of HIV infection in the population studied. The family/replacement donors constituted the majority (69.5%) and showed a higher risk of seropositivity of HIV than the benevolent donors in raw analysis; but after adjustment, the family donors had the same risk of seropositivity of HIV than voluntary blood donors (aOR = 1.00). Variables such as homosexual intercourse (aOR = 1.61), to have already made a screening test of HIV (aOR = 1.83), mobility (aOR = 2.24), treatment and records of STI (aOR = 3.81), use of the condom (aOR = 6.63), more than one sexual partner (aOR = 8.40) remained significantly linked to the result of the HIV serology and constituted risk factors that will be emphasized during the selection of the donors. PMID:21695495

  4. Anopheles ziemanni a locally important malaria vector in Ndop health district, north west region of Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria transmission in Cameroon is mediated by a plethora of vectors that are heterogeneously distributed across the country depending on the biotope. To effectively guide malaria control operations, regular update on the role of local Anopheles species is essential. Therefore, an entomological survey was conducted between August 2010 and May 2011 to evaluate the role of the local anopheline population in malaria transmission in three villages of the Ndop health district in the northwest region of Cameroon where malaria is holoendemic, as a means to acquiring evidence based data for improved vector intervention. Methods Mosquitoes were sampled both indoor and outdoor for four consecutive nights in each locality during each month of survey. Sampling was done by the human landing catch method on volunteers. Anopheles species were identified morphologically and their ovaries randomly dissected for parity determination. Infection with Plasmodium falciparum was detected by Circumsporozoite protein ELISA. Members of An. gambiae complex were further identified to molecular level by PCR and RFLP PCR. Results An. ziemanni was the main malaria vector and whether outdoor or indoor. The man biting rate for the vectors ranged from 6.75 to 8.29 bites per person per night (b/p/n). The entomological inoculation rate for this vector species was 0.0278 infectious bites per person per night (ib/p/n) in Mbapishi, 0.034 ib/p/n in Mbafuh, and 0.063 ib/p/n in Backyit. These were by far greater than that for An. gambiae. No difference was observed in the parity rate of these two vectors. PCR analysis revealed the presence of only An. colluzzi (M- form). Conclusions An. ziemanni is an important local malaria vector in Ndop health district. The findings provide useful baseline information on the anopheles species composition, their distribution and role in malaria transmission that would guide the implementation of integrated vector management strategies in the locality. PMID

  5. Floods and mangrove forests, friends or foes? Perceptions of relationships and risks in Cameroon coastal mangroves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munji, Cecilia A.; Bele, Mekou Y.; Idinoba, Monica E.; Sonwa, Denis J.

    2014-03-01

    Faced with the growing influence of climate change on climate driven perturbations such as flooding and biodiversity loss, managing the relationship between mangroves and their environment has become imperative for their protection. Hampering this is the fact that the full scope of the threats faced by specific mangrove forests is not yet well documented. Amongst some uncertainties is the nature of the relationship/interaction of mangroves with climate driven perturbations prevalent in their habitat such as coastal floods. We investigated the relationship between coastal flooding and mangrove forest stabilization, identify perceptions of flood risk and responses to offset identified effects. Random household surveys were carried out within four communities purposively sampled within the Cap Cameroon. Coastal changes were investigated over a period of 43 years (1965-2008). Seasonal flooding improved access to mangrove forests and hence promoted their exploitation for non-timber forest products (NTFPs) such as fuel wood and mangrove poles. 989 ha of mangrove forests were estimated to be lost over a period of 43 years in Cap Cameroon with implications on forest resources base, ecosystem stability, and livelihoods. Alternative livelihood activities were found to be carried out to moderate interruptions in fishing, with associated implications for mangrove forest dynamics. Respondents were of the opinion that risks associated with floods and mangrove deforestation will pose a major challenge for sustainable management of mangroves. These locally relevant perceptions and responses should however enable the identification of pertinent needs, challenges and opportunities to inform and orient effective decision-making, and to facilitate the development and participation in adaptive management strategies.

  6. Molecular Epidemiology of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses in the Adamawa Province of Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Bronsvoort, B. M. de C.; Radford, A. D.; Tanya, V. N.; Nfon, C.; Kitching, R. P.; Morgan, K. L.

    2004-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious viral disease of even-toed ungulates and is one of the most important economic diseases of livestock. Most studies of FMDV are done in countries where control measures are being implemented. In contrast, in areas such as sub-Saharan Africa, where FMDV is endemic and new strains are likely to emerge, there are only sporadic submissions to the World Reference Laboratory, Pirbright, United Kingdom. This paper describes the molecular epidemiology of FMDV in the Adamawa province of Cameroon based on a population sample of cattle herds. Serotypes SAT2 and A were isolated in the cross-sectional study. SAT2 isolates were all similar, with phylogenetic distances of <6%, and were most closely related to published sequences of isolates from Eritrea and Saudi Arabia. Serotype A isolates were more variable, with phylogenetic distances of 0 to 11%, and were most closely related to historic isolates from Cameroon. Use of a population-based sample gives a representative sample of virus diversity and will improve our understanding of the evolution of FMDV and its epidemiology. A supplementary study of pigs passing through the railhead collection yard at Ngaoundere detected a serotype O virus. A third pilot longitudinal study monitored viral persistence in three cattle herds over 12 months, and serotype O and A viruses were recovered from a herd 12 months after it was first recorded as being infected with SAT2 virus. The pig type O isolate was not closely related to that recovered from the cattle, suggesting that the pigs had not introduced the O virus into the cattle herds. PMID:15131187

  7. Molecular characterization of begomoviruses and DNA satellites associated with okra leaf curl disease in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Leke, Walter N; Sattar, Muhammad N; Ngane, Emilia B; Ngeve, Jacob M; Kvarnheden, Anders; Brown, Judith K

    2013-06-01

    Okra leaf curl disease (OLCD) is the most important viral disease of okra in West Africa. In this study, a complex of begomoviruses and associated DNA satellites were identified in symptomatic okra plants from southwestern Cameroon. Sequence analyses showed that two of the plants (Lik1 and Njo5) were infected with a begomovirus being a recombinant of cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGeV) and okra yellow crinkle virus (OYCrV). The recombinant genome shared highest nucleotide identity with isolates of CLCuGeV at 87.8% and is therefore considered to be member of a new begomovirus species, Okra leaf curl Cameroon virus (OLCuCMV). One plant (Mue5) was infected by a begomovirus with 95.8% nucleotide identy to CLCuGeV, while in the plants Lik1, Mue1 and Njo5, a begomovirus was identified showing highest nucleotide identity at 93.7% with OYCrV. The nucleotide comparisons and phylogenetic analyses suggest that these isolates represent new Cameroonian strains of CLCuGeV and OYCrV (CLCuGeV-CM and OYCrV-CM). Mixed infection of OLCuCMV and OYCrV-CM was found in two of the plants. A betasatellite and two divergent alphasatellites were also associated with the begomoviruses. The betasatellite was identified as cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite (CLCuGeB) with the highest nucleotide identity at 93.3% to other African isolates of CLCuGeB. The alphasatellites, herein named Alpha-1 and Alpha-2, shared 97.3% and 95.2% identity, respectively, with cotton leaf curl Gezira alphasatellite (CLCuGeA) and okra leaf curl Burkina Faso alphasatellite (OLCuBFA). These collective results emphasize the extent of diversity among okra-infecting begomovirus-satellite complexes in western Africa.

  8. Household and community socioeconomic and environmental determinants of child nutritional status in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Pongou, Roland; Ezzati, Majid; Salomon, Joshua A

    2006-01-01

    Background Undernutrition is a leading cause of child mortality in developing countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. We examine the household and community level socioeconomic and environmental factors associated with child nutritional status in Cameroon, and changes in the effects of these factors during the 1990s economic crisis. We further consider age-specific effects of household economic status on child nutrition. Methods Child nutritional status was measured by weight-for-age (WAZ) and height-for-age (HAZ) z-scores. Data were from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 1991 and 1998. We used analysis of variance to assess the bivariate association between the explanatory factors and nutritional status. Multivariate, multilevel analyses were undertaken to estimate the net effects of both household and community factors. Results Average WAZ and HAZ declined respectively from -0.70 standard deviations (SD), i.e. 0.70 SD below the reference median, to -0.83 SD (p = 0.006) and from -1.03 SD to -1.14 SD (p = 0.026) between 1991 and 1998. These declines occurred mostly among boys, children over 12 months of age, and those of low socioeconomic status. Maternal education and maternal health seeking behavior were associated with better child nutrition. Household economic status had an overall positive effect that increased during the crisis, but it had little effect in children under 6 months of age. Improved household (water, sanitation and cooking fuel) and community environment had positive effects. Children living in the driest regions of the country were consistently worst off, and those in the largest cities were best off. Conclusion Both household and community factors have significant impact on child health in Cameroon. Understanding these relationships can facilitate design of age- and community-specific intervention programs. PMID:16618370

  9. Factors influencing consumption of nutrient rich forest foods in rural Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Fungo, Robert; Muyonga, John H; Kabahenda, Margaret; Okia, Clement A; Snook, Laura

    2016-02-01

    Studies show that a number of forest foods consumed in Cameroon are highly nutritious and rich in health boosting bioactive compounds. This study assessed the knowledge and perceptions towards the nutritional and health promoting properties of forest foods among forest dependent communities. The relationship between knowledge, perceptions and socio-demographic attributes on consumption of forest foods was also determined. A total of 279 females in charge of decision making with respect to food preparation were randomly selected from 12 villages in southern and eastern Cameroon and interviewed using researcher administered questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors affecting consumption of forest foods. Baillonella toxisperma (98%) and Irvingia gabonesis (81%) were the most known nutrient rich forest foods by the respondents. About 31% of the respondents were aware of the nutritional value and health benefits of forest foods. About 10%-61% of the respondents expressed positive attitudes to questions related with health benefits of specific forest foods. Consumption of forest foods was found to be higher among polygamous families and also positively related to length of stay in the forest area and age of respondent with consumption of forest foods. Education had an inverse relationship with use of forest foods. Knowledge and positive attitude towards the nutritional value of forest foods were also found to positively influence consumption of forest foods. Since knowledge was found to influence attitude and consumption, there is need to invest in awareness campaigns to strengthen the current knowledge levels among the study population. This should positively influence the attitudes and perceptions towards increased consumption of forest foods.

  10. Molecular surveillance of rotavirus strains circulating in Yaoundé, Cameroon, September 2007-December 2012.

    PubMed

    Boula, Angeline; Waku-Kouomou, Diane; Njiki Kinkela, Mina; Esona, Mathew D; Kemajou, Grace; Mekontso, David; Seheri, Mapaseka; Ndze, Valantine Ngum; Emah, Irene; Ela, Serge; Dahl, Benjamin A; Kobela, Marie; Cavallaro, Kathleen F; Etoundi Mballa, Georges Alain; Genstch, Jon R; Bowen, Michael D; Koki Ndombo, Paul

    2014-12-01

    Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrheal disease in children under 5 years of age worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that 453,000 rotavirus-attributable deaths occur annually. Through the WHO, the Rotavirus Sentinel Surveillance Program was established in Cameroon in September 2007 with the Mother and Child Center (MCC) in Yaoundé playing the role of sentinel site and national laboratory for this program. The objectives of this surveillance were to assess the rotavirus disease burden and collect baseline information on rotavirus strains circulating in Cameroon. Diarrheal stool samples were collected in a pediatric hospital from children under 5, using the WHO case definition for rotavirus diarrhea. Antigen detection of rotavirus was performed by using an enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The genotypic characterization was performed using multiplexed semi-nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays. Between September 2007 and December 2012, 2444 stool samples were received at the MCC laboratory for rotavirus antigen detection, of which 999 (41%) were EIA positive. Among EIA positive samples 898 were genotyped. Genotype prevalence varied each year. Genotype G9P[8] was the dominant type during 2007 (32%) and 2008 (24%), genotype G3P[6] predominated in 2010 (36%) and 2011 (25%), and G1P[8] was predominant in 2012 (44%). The findings showed that the rotavirus disease burden is high and there is a broad range of rotavirus strains circulating in Yaoundé. These data will help measure the impact of vaccination in the future.

  11. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Wild-Caught Chimpanzees from Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Nerrienet, Eric; Santiago, Mario L.; Foupouapouognigni, Yacouba; Bailes, Elizabeth; Mundy, Nicolas I.; Njinku, Bernadette; Kfutwah, Anfumbom; Muller-Trutwin, Michaela C.; Barre-Sinoussi, Françoise; Shaw, George M.; Sharp, Paul M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Ayouba, Ahidjo

    2005-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVcpz) infecting chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in west central Africa are the closest relatives to all major variants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ([HIV-1]; groups M, N and O), and have thus been implicated as the source of the human infections; however, information concerning the prevalence, geographic distribution, and subspecies association of SIVcpz still remains limited. In this study, we tested 71 wild-caught chimpanzees from Cameroon for evidence of SIVcpz infection. Thirty-nine of these were of the central subspecies (Pan troglodytes troglodytes), and 32 were of the Nigerian subspecies (Pan troglodytes vellerosus), as determined by mitochondrial DNA analysis. Serological analysis determined that one P. t. troglodytes ape (CAM13) harbored serum antibodies that cross-reacted strongly with HIV-1 antigens; all other apes were seronegative. To characterize the newly identified virus, 14 partially overlapping viral fragments were amplified from fecal virion RNA and concatenated to yield a complete SIVcpz genome (9,284 bp). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that SIVcpzCAM13 fell well within the radiation of the SIVcpzPtt group of viruses, as part of a clade including all other SIVcpzPtt strains as well as HIV-1 groups M and N. However, SIVcpzCAM13 clustered most closely with SIVcpzGAB1 from Gabon rather than with SIVcpzCAM3 and SIVcpzCAM5 from Cameroon, indicating the existence of divergent SIVcpzPtt lineages within the same geographic region. These data, together with evidence of recombination among ancestral SIVcpzPtt lineages, indicate long-standing endemic infection of central chimpanzees and reaffirm a west central African origin of HIV-1. Whether P. t. vellerosus apes are naturally infected with SIVcpz requires further study. PMID:15613358

  12. Motorcycle injury among secondary school students in the Tiko municipality, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Nyagwui, Asonganyi Edwin; Fredinah, Namatovu; Che, Longho Bernard; Yulia, Blomstedt

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Injury from motorcycle is a considerable cause of disability and death in the world and especially in low and middle-income countries; it is one of the most serious public health problems. In Cameroon, motorcycle is commonly used for transportation particularly among students. The aim of this paper is to study the risk-factors of the motorcycle-related accidents and injuries among secondary school students’ in the Tiko municipality, Cameroon. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in January 2012 on 391 students age 16-24 from public and private schools in the Tiko Municipality. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between risk factors and injuries. A closed-ended and few open-ended questionnaire was used to collect data. Results The study showed that over 70% of students used motorcycles always or often. Few had undergone any formal training for driving a motorcycle. The vast majority reported not wearing protective gear while driving or riding a motorcycle. Usage of protective gear was particularly low among girls. Over 16% reported using a motorbike always or occasionally under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Over 58% of respondents reported having an accident and over 35% were injured when driving or riding a motorcycle. Those who lived at the Tiko-Douala road have three times higher probability to sustain accidents and injuries than students residing elsewhere (OR 3.19 (1.20-8.46). Conclusion It is deeply alarming that every second respondent in the study reported having been in an accident and every third motorcycle user was somehow injured. We therefore call for an immediate attention and a deeper investigation into the highlighted situation, particularly at Tiko-Douala road. PMID:27642454

  13. Hepatitis B, HIV, and Syphilis Seroprevalence in Pregnant Women and Blood Donors in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Dionne-Odom, Jodie; Mbah, Rahel; Rembert, Nicole J; Tancho, Samuel; Halle-Ekane, Gregory E; Enah, Comfort; Welty, Thomas K; Tih, Pius M; Tita, Alan T N

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated seroprevalence and correlates of selected infections in pregnant women and blood donors in a resource-limited setting. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of laboratory seroprevalence data from pregnant women and voluntary blood donors from facilities in Cameroon in 2014. Rapid tests were performed to detect hepatitis B surface antigen, syphilis treponemal antibodies, and HIV-1/2 antibodies. Blood donations were also tested for hepatitis C and malaria. Results. The seroprevalence rates and ranges among 7069 pregnant women were hepatitis B 4.4% (1.1-9.6%), HIV 6% (3.0-10.2%), and syphilis 1.7% (1.3-3.8%) with significant variability among the sites. Correlates of infection in pregnancy in adjusted regression models included urban residence for hepatitis B (aOR 2.9, CI 1.6-5.4) and HIV (aOR 3.5, CI 1.9-6.7). Blood donor seroprevalence rates and ranges were hepatitis B 6.8% (5.0-8.8%), HIV 2.2% (1.4-2.8%), syphilis 4% (3.3-4.5%), malaria 1.9%, and hepatitis C 1.7% (0.5-2.5%). Conclusions. Hepatitis B, HIV, and syphilis infections are common among pregnant women and blood donors in Cameroon with higher rates in urban areas. Future interventions to reduce vertical transmission should include universal screening for these infections early in pregnancy and provision of effective prevention tools including the birth dose of univalent hepatitis B vaccine. PMID:27578957

  14. Chronic non-communicable diseases in Cameroon - burden, determinants and current policies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Cameroon is experiencing an increase in the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs), which accounted for 43% of all deaths in 2002. This article reviews the published literature to critically evaluate the evidence on the frequency, determinants and consequences of NCDs in Cameroon, and to identify research, intervention and policy gaps. The rising trends in NCDs have been documented for hypertension and diabetes, with a 2-5 and a 10-fold increase in their respective prevalence between 1994 and 2003. Magnitudes are much higher in urban settings, where increasing prevalence of overweight/obesity (by 54-82%) was observed over the same period. These changes largely result from the adoption of unfavorable eating habits, physical inactivity, and a probable increasing tobacco use. These behavioral changes are driven by the economic development and social mobility, which are part of the epidemiologic transition. There is still a dearth of information on chronic respiratory diseases and cancers, as well as on all NDCs and related risk factors in children and adolescents. More nationally representative data is needed to tract risk factors and consequences of NCDs. These conditions are increasingly been recognized as a priority, mainly through locally generated evidence. Thus, national-level prevention and control programs for chronic diseases (mainly diabetes and hypertension) have been established. However, the monitoring and evaluation of these programs is necessary. Budgetary allocations data by the ministry of health would be helpful, to evaluate the investment in NCDs prevention and control. Establishing more effective national-level tobacco control measures and food policies, as well as campaigns to promote healthy diets, physical activity and tobacco cessation would probably contribute to reducing the burden of NCDs. PMID:22112686

  15. Heat impact on schoolchildren in Cameroon, Africa: potential health threat from climate change

    PubMed Central

    Dapi, Léonie N.; Rocklöv, Joacim; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Tetanye, Ekoe; Kjellstrom, Tord

    2010-01-01

    Background Health impacts related to climate change are potentially an increasing problem in Cameroon, especially during hot seasons when there are no means for protective and adaptive actions. Objective To describe environmental conditions in schools and to evaluate the impact of heat on schoolchildren's health during school days in the Cameroon cities of Yaoundé and Douala. Methods Schoolchildren (N = 285) aged 12–16 years from public secondary schools completed a questionnaire about their background, general symptoms, and hot feelings in a cross-sectional study. In Yaoundé, 50 schoolchildren were individually interviewed during school days about hourly symptoms (fatigue, headache, and feeling very hot) and performance. Lascar dataloggers were used to measure indoor classroom temperatures and humidity. Results There was a significant correlation between daily indoor temperature and the percentages of schoolchildren who felt very hot, had fatigue, and headaches in Yaoundé. A high proportion of schoolchildren felt very hot (48%), had fatigue (76%), and headaches (38%) in Yaoundé. Prevalences (%) were higher among girls than boys for headaches (58 vs 39), feeling ‘very hot overall’ (37 vs 21), and ‘very hot in head’ (21 vs 18). Up to 62% were absentminded and 45% had slow writing speed. High indoor temperatures of 32.5°C in Yaoundé and 36.6°C in Douala were observed in school. Conclusions Headache, fatigue, and feeling very hot associated with high indoor air temperature were observed among schoolchildren in the present study. Longitudinal data in schools are needed to confirm these results. School environmental conditions should be improved in order to enhance learning. PMID:21139702

  16. Measles outbreak in a poorly vaccinated region in Cameroon: a case series study, public health challenges and recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Njim, Tsi; Aminde, Leopold Ndemnge; Feteh, Fambombi Vitalis; Ngum, Joel Mbigha; Moustapha, Chandini Aliyou

    2015-01-01

    Measles is a highly contagious viral infection and still a leading cause of vaccine-preventable deaths in Africa; especially in unvaccinated populations. We reviewed the medical reports of the measles outbreak that occurred in Misaje, in the North west region of Cameroon from 11/03/2015 to 14/05/2015. Six measles cases were recorded during this period; three of them complicated by bacterial infections. Measles should be considered as a differential diagnosis for any febrile rash especially among poorly vaccinated populations. Primary preventive methods implemented by clinicians could help control outbreaks; especially with delays in public health intervention. Also, gaps in health policies in Cameroon should be addressed to scale up vaccination coverage in remote communities like Misaje to reduce the incidence of measles outbreaks. PMID:26893797

  17. Measles outbreak in a poorly vaccinated region in Cameroon: a case series study, public health challenges and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Njim, Tsi; Aminde, Leopold Ndemnge; Feteh, Fambombi Vitalis; Ngum, Joel Mbigha; Moustapha, Chandini Aliyou

    2015-01-01

    Measles is a highly contagious viral infection and still a leading cause of vaccine-preventable deaths in Africa; especially in unvaccinated populations. We reviewed the medical reports of the measles outbreak that occurred in Misaje, in the North west region of Cameroon from 11/03/2015 to 14/05/2015. Six measles cases were recorded during this period; three of them complicated by bacterial infections. Measles should be considered as a differential diagnosis for any febrile rash especially among poorly vaccinated populations. Primary preventive methods implemented by clinicians could help control outbreaks; especially with delays in public health intervention. Also, gaps in health policies in Cameroon should be addressed to scale up vaccination coverage in remote communities like Misaje to reduce the incidence of measles outbreaks. PMID:26893797

  18. Silicon Carbide Mounts for Fabry-Perot Interferometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindemann, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Etalon mounts for tunable Fabry- Perot interferometers can now be fabricated from reaction-bonded silicon carbide structural components. These mounts are rigid, lightweight, and thermally stable. The fabrication of these mounts involves the exploitation of post-casting capabilities that (1) enable creation of monolithic structures having reduced (in comparison with prior such structures) degrees of material inhomogeneity and (2) reduce the need for fastening hardware and accommodations. Such silicon carbide mounts could be used to make lightweight Fabry-Perot interferometers or could be modified for use as general lightweight optical mounts. Heretofore, tunable Fabry-Perot interferometer structures, including mounting hardware, have been made from the low-thermal-expansion material Invar (a nickel/iron alloy) in order to obtain the thermal stability required for spectroscopic applications for which such interferometers are typically designed. However, the high mass density of Invar structures is disadvantageous in applications in which there are requirements to minimize mass. Silicon carbide etalon mounts have been incorporated into a tunable Fabry-Perot interferometer of a prior design that originally called for Invar structural components. The strength, thermal stability, and survivability of the interferometer as thus modified are similar to those of the interferometer as originally designed, but the mass of the modified interferometer is significantly less than the mass of the original version.

  19. Apparent Brecciation Gradient, Mount Desert Island, Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, A. T.; Johnson, S. E.

    2004-05-01

    Mount Desert Island, Maine, comprises a shallow level, Siluro-Devonian igneous complex surrounded by a distinctive breccia zone ("shatter zone" of Gilman and Chapman, 1988). The zone is very well exposed on the southern and eastern shores of the island and provides a unique opportunity to examine subvolcanic processes. The breccia of the Shatter Zone shows wide variation in percent matrix and clast, and may represent a spatial and temporal gradient in breccia formation due to a single eruptive or other catastrophic volcanic event. The shatter zone was divided into five developmental stages based on the extent of brecciation: Bar Harbor Formation, Sols Cliffs breccia, Seeley Road breccia, Dubois breccia, and Great Head breccia. A digital camera was employed to capture scale images of representative outcrops using a 0.5 m square Plexiglas frame. Individual images were joined in Adobe Photoshop to create a composite image of each outcrop. The composite photo was then exported to Adobe Illustrator, which was used to outline the clasts and produce a digital map of the outcrop for analysis. The fractal dimension (Fd) of each clast was calculated using NIH Image and a Euclidean distance mapping method described by Bérubé and Jébrak (1999) to quantify the morphology of the fragments, or the complexity of the outline. The more complex the fragment outline, the higher the fractal dimension, indicating that the fragment is less "mature" or has had less exposure to erosional processes, such as the injection of an igneous matrix. Sols Cliffs breccia has an average Fd of 1.125, whereas Great Head breccia has an average Fd of 1.040, with the stages between having intermediate values. The more complex clasts of the Sols Cliffs breccia with a small amount (26.38%) of matrix material suggests that it is the first stage in a sequence of brecciation ending at the more mature, matrix-supported (71.37%) breccia of Great Head. The results of this study will be used to guide isotopic

  20. Evaluation of engineering plastic for rollover protective structure (ROPS) mounting.

    PubMed

    Comer, R S; Ayers, P D; Liu, J

    2007-04-01

    Agriculture has one of the highest fatality rates of any industry in America. Tractor rollovers are a significant contributor to the high death rate. Rollover protective structures (ROPS) have helped lower these high fatality rates on full-size tractors. However, a large number of older tractors still do not use ROPS due to the difficulty of designing and creating a mounting structure. To help reduce this difficulty, engineering plastics were evaluated for use in a ROPS mounting structure on older tractors. The use of engineering plastics around axle housings could provide a uniform mounting configuration as well as lower costs for aftermarket ROPS. Various plastics were examined through shear testing, scale model testing, and compressive strength testing. Once a material was chosen based upon strength and cost, full-scale testing of the plastic's strength on axle housings was conducted. Finally, a mounting structure was tested in static ROPS tests, and field upset tests were performed in accordance with SAE Standard J2194. Initial tests revealed that the ROPS mounting structure and axle housing combination had higher torsional strength with less twisting than the axle housing alone. An engineering plastic ROPS mounting structure was easily successful in withstanding the forces applied during the static longitudinal and lateral ROPS tests. Field upset testing revealed that the mounting structure could withstand the impact loads seen during actual upsets without a failure. During both static testing and field upset testing, no permanent twisting of the mounting structure was found. Engineering plastic could therefore be a viable option for a universal ROPS mounting structure for older tractors.

  1. HIV-1 group O infection in Cameroon from 2006 to 2013: Prevalence, genetic diversity, evolution and public health challenges

    PubMed Central

    Villabona-Arenas, Christian Julian; Domyeum, Jenny; Mouacha, Fatima; Butel, Christelle; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Aghokeng, Avelin Fobang

    2015-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus, HIV, is characterized by a tremendously high genetic diversity, leading to the currently known circulating HIV types, groups, subtypes, and recombinant forms. HIV-1 group O is one of the most diverse forms of HIV-1 and has been so far related to Cameroon or individuals originating from Cameroon. In this study, we investigated in Cameroon, the evolution of this viral group from 2006 to 2013, in terms of prevalence, genetic diversity and public health implications. Our results confirmed the predominance of HIV-1 group M (98.5%), a very low prevalence (<0.02%) for HIV-1 group N and P, and HIV-2 in this country. HIV-1 group O was found at around 0.6% (95% confidence interval: 0.4–0.8%), indicating that the frequency of this virus in Cameroon has remained stable over the last decades. However, we found an extensive high genetic diversity within this HIV-1 group, that resulted from previous steady increase on the effective number of HIV-1 group O infections through time, and the current distribution of the circulating viral strains still does not allow classification as subtypes. The frequency of dual infections with HIV-1 group M and group O was 0.8% (95% confidence interval: 0.6–1.0%), but we found no recombinant forms in co-infected patients. Natural resistance to integrase inhibitors was not identified, although we found several mutations considered as natural polymorphisms. Our study shows that infections with HIV-1 group O can be adequately managed in countries where the virus circulates, but this complex virus still represents a challenge for diagnostics and monitoring strategies. PMID:26371064

  2. [History of the onset and spread of sleeping sickness in Bipindi (southern Cameroon), from 1896 to today].

    PubMed

    Sonne, W

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide historical background on the onset and spread of sleeping sickness in the Bipindi area of southern Cameroon, from the first suspected cases in 1896 until today. Two recent events have created the need for historical perspective on this topic. In December 1994, an OCEAC mission led by Francis Louis discovered 7 cases in the area between the Lolodorf and Bipindi districts. The epicentre was the village of Bidjouka. Five years later, mass screening of all residents in the Bipindi district revealed a total of 44 cases. Although no previous medical studies are available, historical research indicates that the disease has always present in Bipindi area in a less prevalent and virulent form than in neighboring regions along the Nyong River. Bipindi is located about 140 kilometers northeast of Campo, an area on the border between Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea where sleeping sickness has been a low-grade health problem since the 1880s. Many Cameroonian refugees forced to live in Campo during a war that ended in February 1916 returned with the trypanosome and subsequently contaminated people who stayed in Bipindi. Transmission of sleeping sickness in Bipindi can also be attributed to economic development since the end of the nineteenth century. Numerous plantations have been installed in the area. Migration and trade with the Gulf of Guinea have expanded greatly, especially involving areas on the border between Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea. This study is based on written documentations obtained from the National Archives in Yaoundé (Cameroon) and the "Colegio Claret" Library, in Luba (Republic of Equatorial Guinea) and on firsthand reports from reliable sources in the Bipindi area. PMID:11803831

  3. [History of the onset and spread of sleeping sickness in Bipindi (southern Cameroon), from 1896 to today].

    PubMed

    Sonne, W

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide historical background on the onset and spread of sleeping sickness in the Bipindi area of southern Cameroon, from the first suspected cases in 1896 until today. Two recent events have created the need for historical perspective on this topic. In December 1994, an OCEAC mission led by Francis Louis discovered 7 cases in the area between the Lolodorf and Bipindi districts. The epicentre was the village of Bidjouka. Five years later, mass screening of all residents in the Bipindi district revealed a total of 44 cases. Although no previous medical studies are available, historical research indicates that the disease has always present in Bipindi area in a less prevalent and virulent form than in neighboring regions along the Nyong River. Bipindi is located about 140 kilometers northeast of Campo, an area on the border between Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea where sleeping sickness has been a low-grade health problem since the 1880s. Many Cameroonian refugees forced to live in Campo during a war that ended in February 1916 returned with the trypanosome and subsequently contaminated people who stayed in Bipindi. Transmission of sleeping sickness in Bipindi can also be attributed to economic development since the end of the nineteenth century. Numerous plantations have been installed in the area. Migration and trade with the Gulf of Guinea have expanded greatly, especially involving areas on the border between Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea. This study is based on written documentations obtained from the National Archives in Yaoundé (Cameroon) and the "Colegio Claret" Library, in Luba (Republic of Equatorial Guinea) and on firsthand reports from reliable sources in the Bipindi area.

  4. Absence of Ornithodoros moubata, the vector of African swine fever virus, from the main pig producing area of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ekue, N F; Wilkinson, P J

    1990-05-01

    No evidence for the presence of soft ticks of the Ornithodoros moubata complex was found during a survey of African swine fever carried out between 1985 and 1988 in the West Province and southern parts of the North West and South West Provinces of Cameroon. The survey consisted of interviews of veterinary assistants and farmers, distribution of a questionnaire and tick searches both manually and with carbon dioxide traps. The absence of warthogs (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) from these areas was also recorded. PMID:2371751

  5. Methods and apparatus for radially compliant component mounting

    DOEpatents

    Bulman, David Edward; Darkins, Jr., Toby George; Stumpf, James Anthony; Schroder, Mark S.; Lipinski, John Joseph

    2012-03-27

    Methods and apparatus for a mounting assembly for a liner of a gas turbine engine combustor are provided. The combustor includes a combustor liner and a radially outer annular flow sleeve. The mounting assembly includes an inner ring surrounding a radially outer surface of the liner and including a plurality of axially extending fingers. The mounting assembly also includes a radially outer ring coupled to the inner ring through a plurality of spacers that extend radially from a radially outer surface of the inner ring to the outer ring.

  6. Design of infrared astronomical satellite /IRAS/ primary mirror mounts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreibman, M.; Young, P.

    1980-01-01

    The design of an operational mount to rigidly secure the primary mirror to its baseplate without the introduction of figure error always proves to be a major task on diffraction limited optical systems. A summary of the design of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) primary mirror mount is given. The mirror was designed to be alligned and tested at room temperature and operated in a zero 'g' field at temperatures of 2K. To minimize overstressing, a stiffness requirement of greater than 150 Hz was required for cold launch and room temperature vibration acceptance testing. Additional isolation was required to minimize strains, introduced via the mounting base, due to thermal and mechanical distortions.

  7. Side mounted V-type 4-cycle engine

    SciTech Connect

    Asano, A.; Kato, K.

    1987-06-09

    This patent describes a V-type four-cycle engine having overhead camshafts and a crankshaft, comprising: idle gear trains, the idle gear tram extending between the crankshaft and a camshaft and including idle gears; a gear retainer having first and second axles for rotatably mounting the idle gears; the first axle including a journal portion having a cylindrical surface about a first axial centerline and mounting portions having a cylindrical surface about a second axial centerline displaced from the first axial centerline; the mounting portions being supported by the gear retainer; and means for retaining the journal portion in selectable angular orientation with respect to the gear retainer.

  8. Effects of mounting and exciter coupling on vibrothermographic NDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaddi, Jyani S.; Murray, Gabriel; Holland, Stephen D.

    2015-03-01

    Vibrothermography, also known as Sonic IR and Thermosonics, is notoriously sensitive to extrinsic parameters such as specimen mounting and transducer coupling. This is a result of the complicated resonances which deliver vibrational energy and allow the crack to heat up. We present an approximate theory which explains how the mechanical mounting and transducer coupling affect the resonances of the specimen, and compare this theory with simulation and experiment. Based on these explanations we suggest guidelines to assist practitioners in minimizing the sensitivity of their vibrothermography tests to specimen mounting and transducer coupling.

  9. The substitution of mineral fertilizers by compost from household waste in Cameroon: economic analysis with a partial equilibrium model.

    PubMed

    Jaza Folefack, Achille Jean

    2009-05-01

    This paper analyses the possibility of substitution between compost and mineral fertilizer in order to assess the impact on the foreign exchange savings in Cameroon of increasing the use of compost. In this regard, a partial equilibrium model was built up and used as a tool for policy simulations. The review of existing literature already suggests that, the compost commercial value i.e. value of substitution (33,740 FCFA tonne(-1)) is higher compared to the compost real price (30,000 FCFA tonne(-1)), proving that it could be profitable to substitute the mineral fertilizer by compost. Further results from the scenarios used in the modelling exercise show that, increasing the compost availability is the most favourable policy for the substitution of mineral fertilizer by compost. This policy helps to save about 18.55% of the annual imported mineral fertilizer quantity and thus to avoid approximately 8.47% of the yearly total import expenditure in Cameroon. The policy of decreasing the transport rate of compost in regions that are far from the city is also favourable to the substitution. Therefore, in order to encourage the substitution of mineral fertilizer by compost, programmes of popularization of compost should be highlighted and be among the top priorities in the agricultural policy of the Cameroon government. PMID:19423599

  10. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hypertension in Urban Areas of Cameroon: A Nationwide Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Kingue, Samuel; Ngoe, Constant Ndong; Menanga, Alain Patrick; Jingi, Ahmadou M; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Fesuh, Betrand; Nouedoui, Christophe; Andze, Gervais; Muna, Walinjom F T

    2015-10-01

    Accurate estimates of the prevalence rate of hypertension and determinants in Cameroon are crucial to inform efficient prevention and control policies. The authors carried out a cluster-specific cross-sectional survey in urban areas of the 10 regions of Cameroon to assess the prevalence and risk factors of hypertension in Cameroonian adults using the WHO STEPwise approach to Surveillance (STEPS). Sociodemographic data were collected and blood pressure and glycemia were measured using standardized methods. Participants were adults of both sexes aged 16 years or older. A total of 15,470 participants were surveyed. The age-standardized prevalence rate of hypertension was 29.7%. The awareness rate was 14.1%. Independent correlates of hypertension included higher age, male sex, obesity, hyperglycemia, and living in the Savannah zone. The prevalence of hypertension is high in urban areas of Cameroon, with very low awareness. Prevention and control strategies should emphasize on improvement and vulgarization of population opportunistic screening and education. PMID:26140673

  11. Stereo Pair, Mount St Helens, Washington State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On May 18, 1980, Mount St. Helens catastrophically erupted, causing the worst volcanic disaster in the recorded history of the United States. An earthquake shook loose the northern flank of the volcano, and about 2.8 cubic kilometers (0.67 cubic miles) of rock slid downslope in the world's largest recorded landslide. The avalanche released pressure on the volcano and unleashed a huge explosion, which was directed generally northward. The mountain ultimately lost 227 meters (1314 feet) of its height and devastated about 600 square kilometers (230 square miles) of forest.

    This stereoscopic view combines a Landsat satellite image with a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission elevation model to show the volcanic crater and most of the zone of devastation. Areas now relatively devoid of vegetation appear bright. Note the landslide debris clogging the northern drainages and forming natural dams (or enlarging previously existing ones). Also note the volcanic dome built up within the crater, and the extensive floating debris still present on Spirit Lake (northeast of the crater) 12 years after the eruption.

    This stereoscopic image was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model. Two differing perspectives were then calculated, one for each eye. They can be seen in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing or by downloading and printing the image pair and viewing them with a stereoscope. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was

  12. Anaglyph, Mount St Helens, Washington State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On May 18, 1980, Mount St. Helens catastrophically erupted, causing the worst volcanic disaster in the recorded history of the United States. An earthquake shook loose the northern flank of the volcano, and about 2.8 cubic kilometers (0.67 cubic miles) of rock slid downslope in the world's largest recorded landslide. The avalanche released pressure on the volcano and unleashed a huge explosion, which was directed generally northward. The mountain ultimately lost 227 meters (1314 feet) of its height and devastated about 600 square kilometers (230 square miles) of forest.

    This anaglyph combines a Landsat satellite image with a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission elevation model to show the volcanic crater and most of the zone of devastation. Areas now relatively devoid of vegetation appear bright. Note the landslide debris clogging the northern drainages and forming natural dams (or enlarging previously existing ones). Also note the volcanic dome built up within the crater, and the extensive floating debris still present on Spirit Lake (northeast of the crater) 12 years after the eruption.

    The stereoscopic effect of this anaglyph was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image over a digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot)resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space

  13. Mounting technique for pressure transducers minimizes measurement interferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanham, R. N.; Taylor, C. E.; Balmer, C. E.; Hwang, C.

    1975-01-01

    Miniaturized transducers are fabricated from commercially available four-arm semiconductor gages; transducers are connected as bridge circuit and mounted on internal face of small diaphragm. Jacket made of conductive plastic may be needed to avoid buildup or static charges.

  14. Angular Alignment Testing of Laser Mirror Mounts Under Temperature Cycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullock, K. T.; DeYoung, R. J.; Sandford, S. P.

    1997-01-01

    A number of commercial and custom-built laser mirror mounts were tested for angular alignment sensitivity during temperature cycling from room temperature (20 C) to 40 C. A Nd:YAG laser beam was reflected off a mirror that was held by the mount under test and was directed to a position-sensitive detector. Horizontal and vertical movement of the reflected beam was recorded, and the angular movement, as a function of temperature (coefficient of thermal tilt (CTT)) was calculated from these data. In addition, the amount of hysteresis in the movement after cycling from room temperature to 40 C and back was determined. All commercial mounts showed greater angular movement than the simpler National Aeronautics and Space Administration Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (NASA LASE) custom mirror mounts.

  15. BATON ROUGE NATIONAL CEMETERY PLAQUE MOUNTED ON BASE OF FLAGPOLE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BATON ROUGE NATIONAL CEMETERY PLAQUE MOUNTED ON BASE OF FLAGPOLE, WITH NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES PLAQUE AT RIGHT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Baton Rouge National Cemetery, 220 North 19th Street, Baton Rouge, East Baton Rouge Parish, LA

  16. 51. photocopy of Indian figure which later was mounted on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. photocopy of Indian figure which later was mounted on Tower. Photograph taken at Tacony Iron and Metal Co. works, c. 1892. PCA - The New Public Buildings, Penn Square, Broad & Market Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. 14. BRIDGE ABUTMENT AND ARCH TRUSS MOUNTING PLATE SHOWING EYEBAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. BRIDGE ABUTMENT AND ARCH TRUSS MOUNTING PLATE SHOWING EYE-BAR CONNECTION AND EYE-BAR PIN LOCATION - Spruce Street Bridge, East Spruce Street, 500 Block, spanning Power Canal, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  18. Inexpensive mount for a large millimeter-wavelength telescope.

    PubMed

    Padin, S

    2014-07-10

    A telescope mount with a single-point force support at the center of gravity of the primary mirror is proposed in order to eliminate much of the structure and cost of a large, millimeter-wavelength telescope. The single-point support gives repeatable thermal and gravitational deformation, so the surface of the primary can be controlled based on lookup tables for elevation and temperature. The new design is most appropriate for a survey telescope because locating the support above the vertex of the primary limits the range of motion of the mount to about 1 rad. A 30 m diameter, λ=850  μm telescope with the proposed mount is a factor of 4 lighter than a design with a conventional elevation-over-azimuth mount, and roughly half the cost. PMID:25090062

  19. 2. DETAIL OF CEILING MOUNTED EXHAUST FAN USED TO REMOVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DETAIL OF CEILING MOUNTED EXHAUST FAN USED TO REMOVE STEAM FROM SCALDING/SCRAPING AREA ON LEVEL 4 - Rath Packing Company, Hog Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  20. 11. Submersible torpedo tube mounted on platform of elevator at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Submersible torpedo tube mounted on platform of elevator at northeast (starboard) elevator tower. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  1. 10. ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING INTERIOR. CELL 4, MOUNTING STAND. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING INTERIOR. CELL 4, MOUNTING STAND. LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Fairchild Air Force Base, Engine Test Cell Building, Near intersection of Arnold Street & George Avenue, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  2. 13. Photocopy of photograph mounted on Christmas card (from St. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of photograph mounted on Christmas card (from St. Paul's Church) Photographer unknown 1906 INTERIOR LOOKING EAST - St. Paul's Episcopal Church, 120 East J Street, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  3. 7. VAL CAMERA STATION, INTERIOR VIEW OF CAMERA MOUNT, COMMUNICATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VAL CAMERA STATION, INTERIOR VIEW OF CAMERA MOUNT, COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT AND STORAGE CABINET. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Camera Stations, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 6. ROOF DETAIL OF MIRROR MOUNTS FOR VIEWING LAUNCH FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. ROOF DETAIL OF MIRROR MOUNTS FOR VIEWING LAUNCH FROM INSIDE BLOCKHOUSE, PAD A IN BACKGROUND; VIEW TO EAST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28401, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  5. Low radioactivity material for use in mounting radiation detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Marshall; Metzger, Albert E.; Fox, Richard L.

    1988-01-01

    Two materials, sapphire and synthetic quartz, have been found for use in Ge detector mounting assemblies. These materials combine desirable mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties with the radioactive cleanliness required to detect minimal amounts of K, Th, and U.

  6. 212. MOUNT SINAI CHURCH OF GOD AT 530 SOUTH TWENTIETH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    212. MOUNT SINAI CHURCH OF GOD AT 530 SOUTH TWENTIETH STREET, SOUTH SIDE - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  7. Helmet-Mounted Display Of Clouds Of Harmful Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, Daniel B.; Barengoltz, Jack B.; Schober, Wayne R.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed helmet-mounted opto-electronic instrument provides real-time stereoscopic views of clouds of otherwise invisible toxic, explosive, and/or corrosive gas. Display semitransparent: images of clouds superimposed on scene ordinarily visible to wearer. Images give indications on sizes and concentrations of gas clouds and their locations in relation to other objects in scene. Instruments serve as safety devices for astronauts, emergency response crews, fire fighters, people cleaning up chemical spills, or anyone working near invisible hazardous gases. Similar instruments used as sensors in automated emergency response systems that activate safety equipment and emergency procedures. Both helmet-mounted and automated-sensor versions used at industrial sites, chemical plants, or anywhere dangerous and invisible or difficult-to-see gases present. In addition to helmet-mounted and automated-sensor versions, there could be hand-held version. In some industrial applications, desirable to mount instruments and use them similarly to parking-lot surveillance cameras.

  8. FEATURE B. MACHINE GUN POSITION WITH LEWIS MOUNT, VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE B. MACHINE GUN POSITION WITH LEWIS MOUNT, VIEW FACING NORTHWEST (with scale stick). - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Battery-Machine Gun Positions, South of Point Cruz Road & west of Coral Sea Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  9. FEATURE B. MACHINE GUN POSITION WITH LEWIS MOUNT, VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE B. MACHINE GUN POSITION WITH LEWIS MOUNT, VIEW FACING NORTHWEST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Battery-Machine Gun Positions, South of Point Cruz Road & west of Coral Sea Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  10. FEATURE C. MACHINE GUN POSITION WITH REMNANT OF MOUNT, VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE C. MACHINE GUN POSITION WITH REMNANT OF MOUNT, VIEW FACING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Battery-Machine Gun Positions, South of Point Cruz Road & west of Coral Sea Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  11. 6. INTERIOR DETAIL OF GUN MOUNT ON TERRACE, LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. INTERIOR DETAIL OF GUN MOUNT ON TERRACE, LOOKING EAST (1992). - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Building 22, Armament Laboratory & Gun Range, On flightline between Tenth & Eleventh Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

  12. Evaluation of Hewlett Packard rf thermistor mounts for power linearity

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, D.W.

    1988-04-01

    A method has been developed for evaluating the power sensitivity linearity of Model 478A, 478A-H75, and 8478A, thermistor mounts manufactured by Hewlet Packard Company Inc., Palo Alto. This method provides the thermistor mount power sensitivity curve as measured power approaches the maximum rated power of the thermistor mount. This characteristic is essential to the accuracy of power ratio measurements. Selection of thermistor mounts, linerar within 0.001 dB over a 15 dB range, is possible. This is a ten-fold improvement over the previous 0.01 dB value used. This improvement was required for the enhanced certification of 10 dB attenuators needed in the calibration support of attenuation measurement, power calibration, and network analyzer systems.

  13. Support for equipment - Quick mounting with quick release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, W. W., II; Jacobson, H. B.

    1970-01-01

    Temporary support device for equipment consists of pin bracket for attachment to item and socket bracket for mounting on any structure. System is adaptable to broad range of temporary storage media. No engagement, release, or adjustment of components is required.

  14. VIEW FACING NORTH OF WEST QUARRY WALL, WITH METAL MOUNTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FACING NORTH OF WEST QUARRY WALL, WITH METAL MOUNTING BOLT FOR DERRICK VISIBLE - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 1, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  15. 17. DETAIL VIEW OF CUPOLA ATOP OPERATOR'S CABIN WHICH MOUNTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. DETAIL VIEW OF CUPOLA ATOP OPERATOR'S CABIN WHICH MOUNTS SIGNAL HORNS, WEATHER VANE - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  16. 49 CFR 178.255-11 - Tank mountings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... provide a secure base in transit. “Skids” or similar devices shall be deemed to comply with this requirement. (b) All tank mountings such as skids, fastenings, brackets, cradles, lifting lugs, etc.,...

  17. 49 CFR 178.255-11 - Tank mountings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... provide a secure base in transit. “Skids” or similar devices shall be deemed to comply with this requirement. (b) All tank mountings such as skids, fastenings, brackets, cradles, lifting lugs, etc.,...

  18. Inexpensive mount for a large millimeter-wavelength telescope.

    PubMed

    Padin, S

    2014-07-10

    A telescope mount with a single-point force support at the center of gravity of the primary mirror is proposed in order to eliminate much of the structure and cost of a large, millimeter-wavelength telescope. The single-point support gives repeatable thermal and gravitational deformation, so the surface of the primary can be controlled based on lookup tables for elevation and temperature. The new design is most appropriate for a survey telescope because locating the support above the vertex of the primary limits the range of motion of the mount to about 1 rad. A 30 m diameter, λ=850  μm telescope with the proposed mount is a factor of 4 lighter than a design with a conventional elevation-over-azimuth mount, and roughly half the cost.

  19. Vibration isolation of automotive vehicle engine using periodic mounting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asiri, S.

    2005-05-01

    Customer awareness and sensitivity to noise and vibration levels have been raised through increasing television advertisement, in which the vehicle noise and vibration performance is used as the main market differentiation. This awareness has caused the transportation industry to regard noise and vibration as important criteria for improving market shares. One industry that tends to be in the forefront of the technology to reduce the levels of noise and vibration is the automobile industry. Hence, it is of practical interest to reduce the vibrations induced structural responses. The automotive vehicle engine is the main source of mechanical vibrations of automobiles. The engine is vulnerable to the dynamic action caused by engine disturbance force in various speed ranges. The vibrations of the automotive vehicle engines may cause structural failure, malfunction of other parts, or discomfort to passengers because of high level noise and vibrations. The mounts of the engines act as the transmission paths of the vibrations transmitted from the excitation sources to the body of the vehicle and passengers. Therefore, proper design and control of these mounts are essential to the attenuation of the vibration of platform structures. To improve vibration resistant capacities of engine mounting systems, vibration control techniques may be used. For instance, some passive and semi-active dissipation devices may be installed at mounts to enhance vibration energy absorbing capacity. In the proposed study, a radically different concept is presented whereby periodic mounts are considered because these mounts exhibit unique dynamic characteristics that make them act as mechanical filters for wave propagation. As a result, waves can propagate along the periodic mounts only within specific frequency bands called the "Pass Bands" and wave propagation is completely blocked within other frequency bands called the "Stop Bands". The experimental arrangements, including the design of

  20. Taking Charge: Walter Sydney Adams and the Mount Wilson Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brashear, R.

    2004-12-01

    The growing preeminence of American observational astronomy in the first half of the 20th century is a well-known story and much credit is given to George Ellery Hale and his skill as an observatory-building entrepreneur. But a key figure who has yet to be discussed in great detail is Walter Sydney Adams (1876-1956), Hale's Assistant Director at Mount Wilson Observatory. Due to Hale's illnesses, Adams was Acting Director for much of Hale's tenure, and he became the second Director of Mount Wilson from 1923 to 1946. Behind his New England reserve Adams was instrumental in the growth of Mount Wilson and thus American astronomy in general. Adams was hand-picked by Hale to take charge of stellar spectroscopy work at Yerkes and Mount Wilson and the younger astronomer showed tremendous loyalty to Hale and Hale's vision throughout his career. As Adams assumed the leadership role at Mount Wilson he concentrated on making the observatory a place where researchers worked with great freedom but maintain a high level of cooperation. This paper will concentrate on Adams's early years and look at his growing relationship with Hale and how he came to be the central figure in the early history of Mount Wilson as both a solar and stellar observatory. His education, his years at Dartmouth and Yerkes (including his unfortunate encounter with epsilon Leonis), and his formative years on Mount Wilson are all important in learning how he shaped the direction of Mount Wilson and the development of American astronomy in the first half of the 20th century. This latter history cannot be complete until we bring Adams into better focus.