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Sample records for mount isa north

  1. Mount Isa statement on quad bike safety.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Richard C; Knight, Sabina; Lower, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Quad bikes are the leading cause of death in Australian agriculture, with half of these deaths resulting from rollovers. Between 2001 and 2012, there were more than 160 such deaths in Australia, representing a significant burden. There is a diversity of public opinions offered about quad bike safety. The Are You Remotely Interested … in Prevention; Building a Culture of Safety conference held in Mount Isa, Queensland, in August 2012 brought together subject matter experts from across Australia to discuss a range of issues relevant to rural Australia (including quad bikes). During this conference, the Mount Isa Statement for Quad Bike Safety was produced. The intent of the Statement was to draw on existing evidence to highlight solutions and provide a direction for future efforts to reduce the burden of death and injury related to quad bike use. The conference provided an opportunity for those with an interest in quad bike safety to come together in one location, discuss the issues and develop a common direction (the Statement). The Statement is presented in three sections: a statement of the facts that were available at the time of development; a set of recommendations; and what needs to happen next. We believe to the best of our knowledge this is the first time where many potential solutions for keeping people safe while operating quad bikes in agriculture have been explored in a public forum. There are some immediate solutions that people can undertake to keep themselves and those in their care safe when using a quad bike: initially selecting safer vehicles to use; fitting quad bikes with crush protection devices; not carrying passengers or overloading the quads; and wearing helmets.

  2. Asymmetric extension of the Middle Proterozoic lithosphere, Mount Isa terrane, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, P. G.; Lister, G. S.; O'Dea, M. G.

    1998-11-01

    The Middle Proterozoic Mount Isa Basin, of the Mount Isa terrane, hosts several large Pb-Zn-Ag deposits and is arguably one of the richest mineral provinces in the world. The deformed remnants of this basin extend from the eastern margin of the Leichhardt River Fault Trough through to the Murphy Tectonic Ridge in the far north of the terrane. The Mount Isa Basin initially evolved in response to NW-SE-directed extension during the Mount Isa Rift Event. This event began before ˜1708 Ma and had ceased by ˜1653 Ma. A sag basin continued to evolve thereafter until ˜1595 Ma. Regional analysis of the highest level cover rocks of the Mount Isa Basin reveals a notable difference in the locus of syn-rift sedimentation, syn-rift magmatism, and post-rift subsidence. Although crustal extension was widespread across the Mount Isa Basin, tectonic subsidence was focussed along the ˜N-S-oriented Mount Isa Rift. Approximately 3-5 km of fluvial to shallow marine clastic sediments were deposited into isolated rift basins. Bimodal volcanism and emplacement of shallow level plutons occurred along the western and northwestern margins of the Mount Isa Rift. Magmatic provinces mark the locus of significant subcrustal lithospheric thinning, asthenospheric upwelling, and mafic underplating. Within these magmatic provinces the syn-rift sequences are fewer and thinner (750-2000 m) and were dominantly deposited in subaerial environments, suggesting a relatively stable uplift and subsidence history. The position of maximum subcrustal lithospheric extension is determined by the position of greatest post-rift subsidence. This occurred beneath the northern Mount Isa terrane where the thickest post-rift sequences are preserved and the depositional history is more protracted. We propose that the evolution of the Mount Isa Basin is a consequence of asymmetric extension of the Middle Proterozoic lithosphere.

  3. A review of environmental lead exposure and management in Mount Isa, Queensland.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Malcolm; Taylor, Mark Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The public health leadership and management of lead exposure in a lead mining and smelting community in Mount Isa is an ongoing issue. There exists deficiencies in public health and environmental legal frameworks that regulate lead exposure and management in Mount Isa, Queensland. Although some positive practical measures on lead containment have been implemented, evidence suggests they are currently inadequate. Greater investments in public health leadership at a local and state level are required to address the ongoing issue of lead in Mount Isa.

  4. Hyperspectral remote sensing for mineral mapping of structural related mineralizations around Mount Isa, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakob, Sandra; Salati, Sanaz; Gloaguen, Richard

    2015-04-01

    investigation of the observed mineralizations for validation is important and can deliver such data, for instance by the investigation of rock samples or spectral measurements. Since mineralizations and alterations are often related to structures, their analysis and consideration can provide crucial hints. The most significant result throughout the study was the determination of a new site of gossanous, silicified ridges south of the Mount Isa mining complex. Their occurrence was validated through fieldwork observations including rock sampling and spectral measurements. The gathered information additionally supported the accurate mapping of those ridges using HyMap data, which confirmed the connection between the north-south trending ridges and the Mount Isa mine deposits. The observed ridges coincide compositionally and spectrally with the outcrops of mineralized parts of the Urquhart Shale, which form the mined Pb-Zn-Ag deposits and are probably related to structures. In samples of the new site, amounts of Pb, Zn, Ag and other metals could be detected. Contrary to the mineralized outcrops of the Urquhart Shale deposits, those ridges occur outside of the common host rock and are not mentioned as mineralizations in any available map or publication.

  5. A shortened intraplate rift system in the Proterozoic Mount Isa terrane, NW Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dea, Mark G.; Lister, Gordon S.; Betts, Peter G.; Pound, Katherine S.

    1997-06-01

    The Leichhardt River Fault Trough of the Mount Isa terrane developed a complex extensional architecture between approximately 1800 and 1600 Ma, forming the underlying template upon which compressional structures were superimposed during the 1590 to 1500 Ma Isan Orogeny. Basin-fill material accumulated during at least five multiphase periods of rifting and associated postrift subsidence forming a stacked succession of unconformity-bounded sequences. Initial E-W extension was associated with a massive magmatic event. Half graben greater than 50 km in width and of alternating asymmetry localized the extrusion of up to 4 km of continental tholeiites. Thereafter a period of N-S extension resulted in southward tapering north tilted half graben in which synrift basaltic and siliciclastic strata accumulated. N-S extension was followed by regional postrift subsidence and the deposition of a laterally continuous quartzite-carbonate package. A multiphase period of E-W to NW-SE extension ensued during which time two unconformity-bounded sequences accumulated. The stratal architectures of these sequences are strongly asymmetric in cross section, exhibiting a pronounced rotational thickening toward the east, consistent with their deposition in the hanging walls of east dipping tilt blocks between 15 and 40 km in width. Finally, a period of N-S extension resulted in the development of E-W trending F1 drag synclines in the highest level cover rocks. The association of angular unconformities and block-bounding faults, E-W trending synclines and E-W striking faults, and the unique internal fold geometries of fault blocks suggest that many fault-bounded blocks originated as coherent structural entities during rifting and continued to act as such during subsequent shortening.

  6. Mining and urban impacts on semi-arid freshwater aquatic systems: the example of Mount Isa, Queensland.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark P; Mackay, Alana; Kuypers, Tabitha; Hudson-Edwards, Karen

    2009-05-01

    This paper examines the environmental risk and impact of trace metals affecting river water and sediment in and around Mount Isa, Queensland, Australia. Bacterial indicator densities are also analysed throughout the catchment to assess the impacts and the potential hazards arising from agricultural activities, sewage treatment plant releases and urban runoff. The area is drained by the ephemeral Leichhardt River, which bisects Mount Isa City and the major Pb, Zn, Cu and Ag Mount Isa Mine. Runoff is captured downstream in Lake Moondarra, with the water being used following natural filtration via a lagoon-reed bed system for potable purposes by the residents of Mount Isa City. During the dry season, the channel is characterised by numerous pools that act as storage zones for sediment and water-soluble metals as well as urban and agriculturally derived nutrients and pathogens. Our results show that sediment and water quality within the Leichhardt River adjacent to and downstream of the mine frequently exceed Australian government sediment guidelines with average values of Cu, Pb and Zn found adjacent to the footprint of the mine being 1550, 510 and 470 mg kg(-1), respectively. Dry season analysis of water-soluble Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations within pools showed that Australian government low trigger guidelines are exceeded in 100, 46 and 100% cases, respectively. The densities of bacterial indicators in remnant pools throughout the Leichhardt River also exceeded acceptable guidelines. Maximum dry season faecal coliform densities of 2000 colony forming units (CFU) per 100 mL and Enterococcus counts of 900 organisms per 100 mL were recorded in dry season remnant pools compared to wet season maximum faecal coliform and Enterococcus densities of 119 000 CFU per 100 mL and 95 000 organisms per 100 mL, respectively. The impacts on biota were also examined by assessing the metal content of the tissue of seven fish from Lake Moondarra for their Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn

  7. Polymetamorphism accompanied switching in horizontal shortening during Isan Orogeny: Example from the Eastern Fold Belt, Mount Isa Inlier, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Sharib, A. S. A. A.; Sanislav, I. V.

    2013-03-01

    Mesoproterozoic low-P/high-T volcano-sedimentary rocks of the Soldiers Cap Group, the southeastern corner of Mount Isa Inlier, record a complex polymetamorphic history that accompanied four periods of bulk horizontal shortening directed NE-SW, N-S, W-E and NW-SE during the long-lived Isan Orogeny (~ 1650-1500 Ma). Low-P/high-T metamorphism (M1) prevailed during a period of NE-SW bulk horizontal shortening as indicated by the early growth of cordierite porphyroblasts, which entrap monazite grains that gave an average age of 1649 ± 12 Ma. This was followed by medium-P/high-T (M2) and high-P/high-T (M3) metamorphisms that accompanied periods of N-S and W-E bulk horizontal shortening, respectively. Growth of first generation garnet, andalusite and staurolite porphyroblasts having an average age of 1645 ± 7 Ma identify the former, whereas growth of the 1591 ± 10 Ma second generation garnet, staurolite and andalusite porphyroblasts together with fewer kyanite porphyroblasts characterizes the latter. The sediments of the Soldiers Cap Group were deposited in a tectonic setting that has the characteristics of an intra-continental rift basin. The upper limit of the age of sedimentation is constrained by detrital zircons at 1654 ± 4 Ma suggesting that tectonism and metamorphism were either active during the final stage of the basin filling or immediate after deposition. Introduction of mafic dykes and sills at different stratigraphic levels over a wide time span was the major source of heat.

  8. Copper mobility in the Eastern Creek Volcanics, Mount Isa, Australia: evidence from laser ablation ICP-MS of iron-titanium oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Melissa J.

    2006-10-01

    The Palaeoproterozoic Eastern Creek Volcanics are a series of copper-rich tholeiitic basalts which occur adjacent to the giant sediment-hosted Mount Isa copper deposit in Queensland, Australia. The volcanic rocks are often cited as the source of metals for the deposit. New laser ablation ICP-MS analyses of iron-titanium oxides from the basalts provide evidence for the local mobilisation of copper during regional greenschist facies metamorphism. This interpretation is based on the observation that copper-bearing magmatic titanomagnetite was destabilised during greenschist facies metamorphism, and the new magnetite which crystallised was copper poor. Petrological observations, regional geochemical signatures and geochemical modelling suggest that the mobilised copper was concentrated in syn-metamorphic epidote-rich alteration zones, creating a pre-concentration of copper before the main mineralisation event at Mount Isa. Geochemical modelling demonstrates this process is enhanced by the addition of CO2 from adjacent carbonate-rich sediments during metamorphic devolatilisation. Regional geochemical data illustrate elevated copper concentrations in epidote-rich zones (high CaO), but where these zones are overprinted by potassic alteration (high K2O), copper is depleted. A two-stage model is proposed whereby after metamorphic copper enrichment in epidote-titanite alteration zones, an oxidised potassium-rich fluid leached copper from the epidote-altered metabasalts and deposited it in the overlying sedimentary rocks to form the Mount Isa copper deposit. This ore-forming fluid is expressed regionally as potassium feldspar-rich veins and locally as biotite-rich alteration, which formed around major fluid conduits between the metabasalt metal source rocks and the overlying deposit host sequence. This model is consistent with the remobilisation of copper from mafic source rocks, as has been found at other world-class copper deposits.

  9. Rhenium-osmium systematics of the Mount Isa copper orebody and the Eastern Creek Volcanics, Queensland, Australia: implications for ore genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Melissa J.; Schaefer, Bruce F.; Keays, Reid R.; Wilde, Andy R.

    2008-07-01

    The syn-tectonic breccia-hosted Mount Isa Cu deposit in northwest Queensland is the largest sediment-hosted Cu deposit in Australia. Whole-rock samples of chalcopyrite-rich Cu ore form an isochron with a Re-Os age of 1,372 ± 41 Ma. This age is more than 100 Ma younger than the previously accepted age of Cu ore formation, an Ar-Ar mineral age for biotite separated from the host rocks within the alteration envelope to the Cu orebody. This discrepancy cannot be unequivocally resolved due to a lack of other absolute geochronological constraints for Cu mineralisation or the deformation event associated with Cu emplacement. The 1,372 ± 41 Ma date may reflect (a) the time of Cu deposition, (b) the time of a hydrothermal event that reset the Re-Os signature of the Cu ore or (c) mixing of the Re-Os isotope systematics between the host rocks and Cu-bearing fluids. However, a range of published Ar-Ar and Rb-Sr dates for potassic alteration associated with Cu mineralisation also records an event between 1,350 and 1,400 Ma and these are consistent with the 1,372 Ma Re-Os age. The 1.8 Ga Eastern Creek Volcanics are a series of tholeiitic basalts with a primary magmatic Cu enrichment which occur adjacent to the Mount Isa Cu deposit. The whole-rock Os isotopic signature of the Eastern Creek Volcanics ranges from mantle-like values for the upper Pickwick Member, to more radiogenic/crustal values for the lower Cromwell Member. The Re-Os isotope signature of the Cu ores overlaps with those calculated for the two volcanic members at 1,372 Ma; hence, the Os isotope data are supportive of the concept that the Os in the Cu ores was sourced from the Eastern Creek Volcanics. By inference, it is therefore postulated that the Eastern Creek Volcanics are the source of Cu in the Mount Isa deposit, as both Os and Cu are readily transported by oxidised hydrothermal fluids, such as those that are thought to have formed the Cu orebody. The Pickwick Member yields a Re-Os isochron age of 1,833

  10. DE LAVAUD CASTING FACING NORTH, NOTE CORE MOUNTED IN PREPARATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DE LAVAUD CASTING FACING NORTH, NOTE CORE MOUNTED IN PREPARATION FOR NEXT PIPE CASTING. - United States Pipe & Foundry Company Plant, Pipe Casting & Testing Area, 2023 St. Louis Avenue at I-20/59, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  11. VIEW FACING NORTH OF WEST QUARRY WALL, WITH METAL MOUNTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FACING NORTH OF WEST QUARRY WALL, WITH METAL MOUNTING BOLT FOR DERRICK VISIBLE - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 1, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  12. View north from inside historic Mount Zion Cemetery entrance area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north from inside historic Mount Zion Cemetery entrance area across a pile of removed gravestones along the subtle ridgeline to the Doughty-Beck monument. - Mount Zion Cemetery/ Female Union Band Cemetery, Bounded by 27th Street right-of-way N.W. (formerly Lyons Mill Road), Q Street N.W., & Mill Road N.W., Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  13. Assessing the origin of old apparent ages derived by Pb stepwise leaching of vein-hosted epidote from Mount Isa, northwest Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Robert J.; Maas, Roland

    2014-12-01

    Epidote metasomatism affected large areas of tholeiitic metabasalts of the ~1,780 Ma Eastern Creek Volcanics in the Western Fold Belt of the Proterozoic Mount Isa inlier. Hydrothermal epidote generally occurs in quartz veins parallel to or boudinaged within the dominant S2 fabrics which formed during the regional metamorphic peak at ~1,570 Ma associated with the Isan orogeny. Previously published stable isotopic and halogen data suggest that the fluids responsible for epidote formation are metamorphic in origin (with an evaporitic component). Application of the Pb stepwise leaching technique to the epidote does not separate radiogenic Pb4+ and common Pb2+, generating little spread in 206Pb/204Pb (between 16.0 and 30.5). The causes for this relatively low range are twofold: There is little radiogenic Pb in the epidotes (the most radiogenic steps account for <1 % of Pb released) and both Pb2+ and uranogenic Pb4+ substitute into the same site in the epidote crystal lattice. Consequently, age regressions using the Pb stepwise leaching data give ages between 150 and 1,500 myrs older than the host rocks and over 450 myrs older than the thermal metamorphic peak. These old ages are attributed to chemical inheritance from the host metabasalts, via radiogenic Pb release by breakdown of phases such as zircon, monazite, titanomagnetite, and ilmenite during metamorphism. This idea is supported by trace element data and chrondrite-normalized rare earth element patterns that are similar to both the metabasalts and epidotes (except for a variable Eu anomaly in the latter). Relatively high fO2 during vein formation (Fe3+ dominates in the epidote crystal lattice) would allow the incorporation of Th4+ and exclusion of U6+ and would explain elevated Th/U ratios (up to 12) in epidote compared with the host metabasalts. Non-incorporation of U would explain the relatively low U/Pb ratios and non-radiogenic character of the epidote. This process may provide a source of metal for the small

  14. General view, highpressure gas tank on concrete mounts, north of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view, high-pressure gas tank on concrete mounts, north of Building 277, view to northeast - Charlestown Navy Yard, Oxygen Plant, Midway along northern boundary of Charlestown Navy Yard, on Little Mystic Channel, near junction of Eighteenth Street & Fourth Avenue, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  15. View looking north showing Mount Hadley photographed during Apollo 15 EVA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-08-02

    AS15-90-12187 (31 July-2 Aug. 1971) --- This view, looking generally north, shows the tall Mount Hadley in the left background. The photograph was taken from the slope of Hadley Delta during Apollo 15 extravehicular activity (EVA). The crewmen of Apollo 15 noted the visible layering feature of the mountain. Note boulder in foreground. Mount Hadley rises approximately 14,765 feet (about 4,500 meters) above the plain.

  16. ISA virus in Chile: evidence of vertical transmission.

    PubMed

    Vike, Siri; Nylund, Stian; Nylund, Are

    2009-01-01

    Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV), genus Isavirus (family Orthomyxoviridae), is present in all large salmon (Salmo salar)-producing countries around the North Atlantic. The target species for this virus are members of the genus Salmo, but the virus may also replicate in other salmonids introduced to the North Atlantic (Oncorhychus spp.). Existing ISA virus isolates can be divided into two major genotypes, a North American (NA) and a European (EU) genotype, based on phylogenetic analysis of the genome. The EU genotype can be subdivided into several highly supported clades based on analysis of segments 5 (fusion protein gene) and 6 (hemagglutinin-esterase gene). In 1999 an ISA virus belonging to the NA genotype was isolated from Coho salmon in Chile, and in 2007 the first outbreaks of ISA in farmed Atlantic salmon was observed. Several salmon farms in Chile were affected by the disease in 2007, and even more farms in 2008. In this study, ISA virus has been isolated from salmon in a marine farm suffering an outbreak of the disease in 2008 and from smolts with no signs of ISA in a fresh water lake. Sequencing of the partial genome of these ISA viruses, followed by phylogenetic analysis including genome sequences from members of the NA and EU genotypes, showed that the Chilean ISA virus belongs to the EU genotype. The Chilean ISA virus groups in a clade with exclusively Norwegian ISA viruses, where one of these isolates was obtained from a Norwegian brood stock population. All salmonid species in the southern hemisphere have been introduced from Europe and North America. The absence of natural hosts for ISA viruses in Chile excludes the possibility of natural reservoirs in this country, and the close relationship between contemporary ISA virus strains from farmed Atlantic salmon in Chile and Norway suggest a recent transmission from Norway to Chile. Norway export large amounts of Atlantic salmon embryos every year to Chile; hence, the best explanation for the

  17. Pre- and post-drill comparison of the Mount Elbert gas hydrate prospect, Alaska North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, M.W.; Agena, W.F.; Collett, T.S.; Inks, T.L.

    2011-01-01

    In 2006, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) completed a detailed analysis and interpretation of available 2-D and 3-D seismic data, along with seismic modeling and correlation with specially processed downhole well log data for identifying potential gas hydrate accumulations on the North Slope of Alaska. A methodology was developed for identifying sub-permafrost gas hydrate prospects within the gas hydrate stability zone in the Milne Point area. The study revealed a total of 14 gas hydrate prospects in this area.In order to validate the gas hydrate prospecting protocol of the USGS and to acquire critical reservoir data needed to develop a longer-term production testing program, a stratigraphic test well was drilled at the Mount Elbert prospect in the Milne Point area in early 2007. The drilling confirmed the presence of two prominent gas-hydrate-bearing units in the Mount Elbert prospect, and high quality well logs and core data were acquired. The post-drill results indicate pre-drill predictions of the reservoir thickness and the gas-hydrate saturations based on seismic and existing well data were 90% accurate for the upper unit (hydrate unit D) and 70% accurate for the lower unit (hydrate unit C), confirming the validity of the USGS approach to gas hydrate prospecting. The Mount Elbert prospect is the first gas hydrate accumulation on the North Slope of Alaska identified primarily on the basis of seismic attribute analysis and specially processed downhole log data. Post-drill well log data enabled a better constraint of the elastic model and the development of an improved approach to the gas hydrate prospecting using seismic attributes. ?? 2009.

  18. Evolution of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISA virus).

    PubMed

    Plarre, Heidrun; Nylund, Are; Karlsen, Marius; Brevik, Øyvind; Sæther, Per Anton; Vike, Siri

    2012-12-01

    Infectious salmon anaemia virus, ISA virus (genus Isavirus, family Orthomyxoviridae), emerged in Norwegian salmon culture in the mid-80s. The genome consists of eight segments coding for at least 10 proteins. ISA viruses show many of similarities to influenza A viruses but differ in many important aspects such as the number of hosts, the host population structure and the route of transmission. The only known hosts and reservoirs for ISA viruses are salmonids found in countries surrounding the North Atlantic. In this study, four different segments of the genome of about 100 ISA viruses have been sequenced in an attempt to understand the evolution of ISA viruses and how these viruses are maintained in and transmitted between populations of farmed Atlantic salmon. The four gene segments code for the nucleoprotein (NP), the putative acid polymerase (PA), the fusion protein (F) and the haemagglutinin-esterase (HE). Analysis of these four genes showed that the substitution rates of the internal proteins (NP and PA) are lower than those of the two surface proteins (F and HE). All four segments are evolving at a lower rate than similar genes in influenza A viruses. The ISA virus populations consist of avirulent viruses and pathogenic strains with variable virulence in Atlantic salmon. Recombination resulting in inserts close to the proteolytic-cleavage site of the precursor F0 protein and deletions in the stalk region of the HE protein seem to be responsible for the transition from avirulent ISA viruses to pathogenic strains. It is also shown that reassortment is a frequent event among the dominating ISA viruses in farmed Atlantic salmon. The pattern that is obtained after phylogenetic analysis of the four gene segments from ISA viruses suggests that the variation is limited to a few distinct clades and that no major changes have occurred in the ISA virus population in Norway since the first viruses were isolated. Calculation of the time of most recent common ancestor

  19. Pore fluid geochemistry from the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torres, M.E.; Collett, T.S.; Rose, K.K.; Sample, J.C.; Agena, W.F.; Rosenbaum, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    The BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well was drilled and cored from 606.5 to 760.1. m on the North Slope of Alaska, to evaluate the occurrence, distribution and formation of gas hydrate in sediments below the base of the ice-bearing permafrost. Both the dissolved chloride and the isotopic composition of the water co-vary in the gas hydrate-bearing zones, consistent with gas hydrate dissociation during core recovery, and they provide independent indicators to constrain the zone of gas hydrate occurrence. Analyses of chloride and water isotope data indicate that an observed increase in salinity towards the top of the cored section reflects the presence of residual fluids from ion exclusion during ice formation at the base of the permafrost layer. These salinity changes are the main factor controlling major and minor ion distributions in the Mount Elbert Well. The resulting background chloride can be simulated with a one-dimensional diffusion model, and the results suggest that the ion exclusion at the top of the cored section reflects deepening of the permafrost layer following the last glaciation (???100 kyr), consistent with published thermal models. Gas hydrate saturation values estimated from dissolved chloride agree with estimates based on logging data when the gas hydrate occupies more than 20% of the pore space; the correlation is less robust at lower saturation values. The highest gas hydrate concentrations at the Mount Elbert Well are clearly associated with coarse-grained sedimentary sections, as expected from theoretical calculations and field observations in marine and other arctic sediment cores. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope: Coring operations, core sedimentology, and lithostratigraphy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, K.; Boswell, R.; Collett, T.

    2011-01-01

    In February 2007, BP Exploration (Alaska), the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Geological Survey completed the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well (Mount Elbert well) in the Milne Point Unit on the Alaska North Slope. The program achieved its primary goals of validating the pre-drill estimates of gas hydrate occurrence and thickness based on 3-D seismic interpretations and wireline log correlations and collecting a comprehensive suite of logging, coring, and pressure testing data. The upper section of the Mount Elbert well was drilled through the base of ice-bearing permafrost to a casing point of 594??m (1950??ft), approximately 15??m (50??ft) above the top of the targeted reservoir interval. The lower portion of the well was continuously cored from 606??m (1987??ft) to 760??m (2494??ft) and drilled to a total depth of 914??m. Ice-bearing permafrost extends to a depth of roughly 536??m and the base of gas hydrate stability is interpreted to extend to a depth of 870??m. Coring through the targeted gas hydrate bearing reservoirs was completed using a wireline-retrievable system. The coring program achieved 85% recovery of 7.6??cm (3??in) diameter core through 154??m (504??ft) of the hole. An onsite team processed the cores, collecting and preserving approximately 250 sub-samples for analyses of pore water geochemistry, microbiology, gas chemistry, petrophysical analysis, and thermal and physical properties. Eleven samples were immediately transferred to either methane-charged pressure vessels or liquid nitrogen for future study of the preserved gas hydrate. Additional offsite sampling, analyses, and detailed description of the cores were also conducted. Based on this work, one lithostratigraphic unit with eight subunits was identified across the cored interval. Subunits II and Va comprise the majority of the reservoir facies and are dominantly very fine to fine, moderately sorted, quartz, feldspar, and lithic fragment-bearing to

  1. Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope: Overview of scientific and technical program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, R.B.; Collett, T.S.; Boswell, R.; Anderson, B.J.; Digert, S.A.; Pospisil, G.; Baker, R.; Weeks, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well was drilled within the Alaska North Slope (ANS) Milne Point Unit (MPU) from February 3 to 19, 2007. The well was conducted as part of a Cooperative Research Agreement (CRA) project co-sponsored since 2001 by BP Exploration (Alaska), Inc. (BPXA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to help determine whether ANS gas hydrate can become a technically and commercially viable gas resource. Early in the effort, regional reservoir characterization and reservoir simulation modeling studies indicated that up to 0.34 trillion cubic meters (tcm; 12 trillion cubic feet, tcf) gas may be technically recoverable from 0.92 tcm (33 tcf) gas-in-place within the Eileen gas hydrate accumulation near industry infrastructure within ANS MPU, Prudhoe Bay Unit (PBU), and Kuparuk River Unit (KRU) areas. To further constrain these estimates and to enable the selection of a test site for further data acquisition, the USGS reprocessed and interpreted MPU 3D seismic data provided by BPXA to delineate 14 prospects containing significant highly-saturated gas hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs. The "Mount Elbert" site was selected to drill a stratigraphic test well to acquire a full suite of wireline log, core, and formation pressure test data. Drilling results and data interpretation confirmed pre-drill predictions and thus increased confidence in both the prospect interpretation methods and in the wider ANS gas hydrate resource estimates. The interpreted data from the Mount Elbert well provide insight into and reduce uncertainty of key gas hydrate-bearing reservoir properties, enable further refinement and validation of the numerical simulation of the production potential of both MPU and broader ANS gas hydrate resources, and help determine viability of potential field sites for future extended term production testing. Drilling and data acquisition operations demonstrated that gas hydrate

  2. Geologic map of the Sasquatch Steps area, north flank of Mount St. Helens, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hausback, Brian P.

    2000-01-01

    The 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens resulted in both new volcanic deposits and deeply incised exposures into pre-1980 deposits. These exposures were produced by excavation of the crater by the 1980 landslides and lateral explosion as well as the subsequent erosion of Step and Loowit creeks by northerly stream flow out of the horseshoe-shaped crater. The map covers the area known as the Sasquatch Steps (commonly called the Steps), which lies between the Pumice Plain on the north and the lowermost portion of the crater on the south. Rapid alluvial aggradation at the base of the Steps is presently burying some of the lowest exposures, and erosion is stripping many of the upland deposits. The stratigraphic sequence exposed in the map area includes deposits from the eruptive periods listed in table 1 (Crandell, 1987). Assignment of deposits to the various eruptive periods is based on lithology and ferromagnesian-mineral suites typical for each of the eruptive periods (Mullineaux and Crandell, 1981; Mullineaux, 1986), as well as three 14 C dates from wood found in the deposits. Faults displayed on the map are largely confined to the older part of the stratigraphic section. These older units are highly shattered, with an extremely complicated fracture pattern, and it is only possible to show the largest and most distinctive of these structures at the map scale. Interpretation of the stratigraphy and structure of this area is given in Hausback and Swanson (1990).

  3. Nonstationary analysis of geomagnetic time sequences from Mount Etna and North Palm Springs earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedi, M.; La Manna, M.; Palmieri, F.

    2003-10-01

    Volcanomagnetic and/or seismomagnetic effects are geomagnetic variations generated before eruptions and/or seismic events. Our aim is to analyze geomagnetic time series to detect the volcanomagnetic and/or seismomagnetic effects among a number of other variations. Two advanced signal-processing techniques are proposed to analyze the geomagnetic time series. The first technique, called Continuous Wavelet Transform Singularity Analysis (CWTSA), is based on the Continuous Wavelet Transform; the second, called Time-Variant Statistical Analysis of Nonstationary Signals (TVANS), is based on a time-varying adaptive algorithm (Recursive Least Squares). Both techniques are very effective in detecting the geomagnetic variations at the time instants likely linked to volcanic and/or seismic activity. The application of these methodologies to geomagnetic time sequences, respectively, recorded on Mount Etna during the volcanic activity of 1981 and in North Palm Springs during the seismic events of 8 July 1986 yields a good correspondence between events detected by both techniques and volcanic end seismic events. The statistical significance of geomagnetic time series was also assessed to verify the obtained results from CWTSA and TVANS. It was defined at significance level of 95% in the wavelet power spectrum for the difference of the geomagnetic time series aiming at distinguishing the most "significant" events when they are upon this one.

  4. Seasonal distribution and aerial surveys of mountain goats in Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic National Parks, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Kurt; Beirne, Katherine; Happe, Patricia; Hoffman, Roger; Rice, Cliff; Schaberl, Jim

    2011-01-01

    We described the seasonal distribution of Geographic Positioning System (GPS)-collared mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic National Parks to evaluate aerial survey sampling designs and provide general information for park managers. This work complemented a companion study published elsewhere of aerial detection biases of mountain goat surveys in western Washington. Specific objectives reported here were to determine seasonal and altitudinal movements, home range distributions, and temporal dynamics of mountain goat movements in and out of aerial survey sampling frames established within each park. We captured 25 mountain goats in Mount Rainier (9), North Cascades (5), and Olympic (11) National Parks, and fitted them with GPS-collars programmed to obtain 6-8 locations daily. We obtained location data on 23 mountain goats for a range of 39-751 days from 2003 to 2008. Altitudinal distributions of GPS-collared mountain goats varied individually and seasonally, but median altitudes used by individual goats during winter ranged from 817 to 1,541 meters in Olympic and North Cascades National Parks, and 1,215 to 1,787 meters in Mount Rainier National Park. Median altitudes used by GPS-collared goats during summer ranged from 1,312 to 1,819 meters in Olympic and North Cascades National Parks, and 1,780 to 2,061 meters in Mount Rainier National Park. GPS-collared mountain goats generally moved from low-altitude winter ranges to high-altitude summer ranges between June 11 and June 19 (range April 24-July 3) and from summer to winter ranges between October 26 and November 9 (range September 11-December 23). Seasonal home ranges (95 percent of adaptive kernel utilization distribution) of males and female mountain goats were highly variable, ranging from 1.6 to 37.0 kilometers during summers and 0.7 to 9.5 kilometers during winters. Locations of GPS-collared mountain goats were almost 100 percent within the sampling frame used for

  5. Downhole well log and core montages from the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, T.S.; Lewis, R.E.; Winters, W.J.; Lee, M.W.; Rose, K.K.; Boswell, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    The BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well was an integral part of an ongoing project to determine the future energy resource potential of gas hydrates on the Alaska North Slope. As part of this effort, the Mount Elbert well included an advanced downhole geophysical logging program. Because gas hydrate is unstable at ground surface pressure and temperature conditions, a major emphasis was placed on the downhole-logging program to determine the occurrence of gas hydrates and the in-situ physical properties of the sediments. In support of this effort, well-log and core data montages have been compiled which include downhole log and core-data obtained from the gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary section in the Mount Elbert well. Also shown are numerous reservoir parameters, including gas-hydrate saturation and sediment porosity log traces calculated from available downhole well log and core data. ?? 2010.

  6. Function of isoamylase-type starch debranching enzymes ISA1 and ISA2 in the Zea mays leaf.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qiaohui; Facon, Maud; Putaux, Jean-Luc; Dinges, Jason R; Wattebled, Fabrice; D'Hulst, Christophe; Hennen-Bierwagen, Tracie A; Myers, Alan M

    2013-12-01

    Conserved isoamylase-type starch debranching enzymes (ISAs), including the catalytic ISA1 and noncatalytic ISA2, are major starch biosynthesis determinants. Arabidopsis thaliana leaves require ISA1 and ISA2 for physiological function, whereas endosperm starch is near normal with only ISA1. ISA functions were characterized in maize (Zea mays) leaves to determine whether species-specific distinctions in ISA1 primary structure, or metabolic differences in tissues, are responsible for the differing ISA2 requirement. Genetic methods provided lines lacking ISA1 or ISA2. Biochemical analyses characterized ISA activities in mutant tissues. Starch content, granule morphology, and amylopectin fine structure were determined. Three ISA activity forms were observed in leaves, two ISA1/ISA2 heteromultimers and one ISA1 homomultimer. ISA1 homomultimer activity existed in mutants lacking ISA2. Mutants without ISA2 differed in leaf starch content, granule morphology, and amylopectin structure compared with nonmutants or lines lacking both ISA1 and ISA2. The data imply that both the ISA1 homomultimer and ISA1/ISA2 heteromultimer function in the maize leaf. The ISA1 homomultimer is present and functions in the maize leaf. Evolutionary divergence between monocots and dicots probably explains the ability of ISA1 to function as a homomultimer in maize leaves, in contrast to other species where the ISA1/ISA2 heteromultimer is the only active form.

  7. Geologic controls on gas hydrate occurrence in the Mount Elbert prospect, Alaska North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boswell, R.; Rose, K.; Collett, T.S.; Lee, M.; Winters, W.; Lewis, K.A.; Agena, W.

    2011-01-01

    Data acquired at the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, drilled in the Milne Point area of the Alaska North Slope in February, 2007, indicates two zones of high gas hydrate saturation within the Eocene Sagavanirktok Formation. Gas hydrate is observed in two separate sand reservoirs (the D and C units), in the stratigraphically highest portions of those sands, and is not detected in non-sand lithologies. In the younger D unit, gas hydrate appears to fill much of the available reservoir space at the top of the unit. The degree of vertical fill with the D unit is closely related to the unit reservoir quality. A thick, low-permeability clay-dominated unit serves as an upper seal, whereas a subtle transition to more clay-rich, and interbedded sand, silt, and clay units is associated with the base of gas hydrate occurrence. In the underlying C unit, the reservoir is similarly capped by a clay-dominated section, with gas hydrate filling the relatively lower-quality sands at the top of the unit leaving an underlying thick section of high-reservoir quality sands devoid of gas hydrate. Evaluation of well log, core, and seismic data indicate that the gas hydrate occurs within complex combination stratigraphic/structural traps. Structural trapping is provided by a four-way fold closure augmented by a large western bounding fault. Lithologic variation is also a likely strong control on lateral extent of the reservoirs, particularly in the D unit accumulation, where gas hydrate appears to extend beyond the limits of the structural closure. Porous and permeable zones within the C unit sand are only partially charged due most likely to limited structural trapping in the reservoir lithofacies during the period of primary charging. The occurrence of the gas hydrate within the sands in the upper portions of both the C and D units and along the crest of the fold is consistent with an interpretation that these deposits are converted free gas accumulations

  8. Physical properties of sediment from the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winters, W.; Walker, M.; Hunter, R.; Collett, T.; Boswell, R.; Rose, K.; Waite, W.; Torres, M.; Patil, S.; Dandekar, A.

    2011-01-01

    This study characterizes cored and logged sedimentary strata from the February 2007 BP Exploration Alaska, Department of Energy, U.S. Geological Survey (BPXA-DOE-USGS) Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The physical-properties program analyzed core samples recovered from the well, and in conjunction with downhole geophysical logs, produced an extensive dataset including grain size, water content, porosity, grain density, bulk density, permeability, X-ray diffraction (XRD) mineralogy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and petrography.This study documents the physical property interrelationships in the well and demonstrates their correlation with the occurrence of gas hydrate. Gas hydrate (GH) occurs in three unconsolidated, coarse silt to fine sand intervals within the Paleocene and Eocene beds of the Sagavanirktok Formation: Unit D-GH (614.4. m-627.9. m); unit C-GH1 (649.8. m-660.8. m); and unit C-GH2 (663.2. m-666.3. m). These intervals are overlain by fine to coarse silt intervals with greater clay content. A deeper interval (unit B) is similar lithologically to the gas-hydrate-bearing strata; however, it is water-saturated and contains no hydrate.In this system it appears that high sediment permeability (k) is critical to the formation of concentrated hydrate deposits. Intervals D-GH and C-GH1 have average "plug" intrinsic permeability to nitrogen values of 1700 mD and 675 mD, respectively. These values are in strong contrast with those of the overlying, gas-hydrate-free sediments, which have k values of 5.7. mD and 49 mD, respectively, and thus would have provided effective seals to trap free gas. The relation between permeability and porosity critically influences the occurrence of GH. For example, an average increase of 4% in porosity increases permeability by an order of magnitude, but the presence of a second fluid (e.g., methane from dissociating gas hydrate) in the reservoir reduces permeability by more than

  9. Physical properties of sediment from the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winters, William J.; Walker, Michael; Hunter, Robert; Collett, Timothy S.; Boswell, Ray M.; Rose, Kelly K.; Waite, William F.; Torres, Marta; Patil, Shirish; Dandekar, Abhijit

    2011-01-01

    This study characterizes cored and logged sedimentary strata from the February 2007 BP Exploration Alaska, Department of Energy, U.S. Geological Survey (BPXA-DOE-USGS) Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The physical-properties program analyzed core samples recovered from the well, and in conjunction with downhole geophysical logs, produced an extensive dataset including grain size, water content, porosity, grain density, bulk density, permeability, X-ray diffraction (XRD) mineralogy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and petrography. This study documents the physical property interrelationships in the well and demonstrates their correlation with the occurrence of gas hydrate. Gas hydrate (GH) occurs in three unconsolidated, coarse silt to fine sand intervals within the Paleocene and Eocene beds of the Sagavanirktok Formation: Unit D-GH (614.4 m-627.9 m); unit C-GH1 (649.8 m-660.8 m); and unit C-GH2 (663.2 m-666.3 m). These intervals are overlain by fine to coarse silt intervals with greater clay content. A deeper interval (unit B) is similar lithologically to the gas-hydrate-bearing strata; however, it is water-saturated and contains no hydrate. In this system it appears that high sediment permeability (k) is critical to the formation of concentrated hydrate deposits. Intervals D-GH and C-GH1 have average "plug" intrinsic permeability to nitrogen values of 1700 mD and 675 mD, respectively. These values are in strong contrast with those of the overlying, gas-hydrate-free sediments, which have k values of 5.7 mD and 49 mD, respectively, and thus would have provided effective seals to trap free gas. The relation between permeability and porosity critically influences the occurrence of GH. For example, an average increase of 4% in porosity increases permeability by an order of magnitude, but the presence of a second fluid (e.g., methane from dissociating gas hydrate) in the reservoir reduces permeability by more than an

  10. Preamble to the Integrated Science Assessments (ISA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Preamble to the Integrated Science Assessments, or "Preamble", is an overview document outlining the basic steps and criteria used in developing the Integrated Science Assessments (ISA). Previously included as part of the ISA, it will now be referenced by each ISA as...

  11. Preamble to the Integrated Science Assessments (ISA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Preamble to the Integrated Science Assessments, or "Preamble", is an overview document outlining the basic steps and criteria used in developing the Integrated Science Assessments (ISA). Previously included as part of the ISA, it will now be referenced by each ISA as...

  12. GAME/ISAS development status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, M.; Riva, A.; Busonero, D.; Vecchiato, A.; Lattanzi, M. G.; Gallieni, D.; Lazzarini, P.; Guglieri, G.; Musso, Ivano; Navone, P.

    2014-08-01

    The Gravitation Astrometric Measurement Experiment (GAME) is a space mission for Fundamental Physics tests in the Solar system, through coronagraphy and Fizeau interferometry for differential astrometry. The precision goal on the γ and β General Relativity PPN parameters is respectively in the 10-8 and 10-6 range. The design is focused on systematic error control through multiple field simultaneous observation and calibration. The GAME instrument concept is based on multiple aperture Fizeau interferometry, observing simultaneously regions close to the Solar limb (requiring the adoption of coronagraphic techniques), and others away from the Sun. The diluted optics approach is selected to achieve an efficient rejection of the scattered solar radiation, while retaining an acceptable angular resolution on the science targets. The Interferometric Stratospheric Astrometry for Solar system (ISAS) project is a GAME technology demonstrator, providing milli-arcsec level astrometry on the main planets of the Solar System. The ISAS technical goal is the validation of basic concepts for GAME, in particular integration of Fizeau interferometry and coronagraphic techniques by means of pierced silicon carbide (SiC) mirrors, intermediate angle dual field astrometry, smart focal plane management for increased dynamic range and pointing correction. The ISAS instrument concept is a dual field, multiple aperture Fizeau interferometer, using coronagraphy for observation of Solar System planets also close to the Sun. A prototype SiC multi-aperture mirror was manufactured by Boostec (F), and has been investigated by thermo-elastic analysis to define the applicability to both GAME and ISAS designs. We describe the development status of both stratospheric and space options, as well as the current extrapolation of the SiC prototype characteristics to the GAME and ISAS optical configurations.

  13. 77 FR 59356 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Carolina: Approval of Rocky Mount...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ..., through the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Air Quality. North..., Air, Pesticides and Toxics Management Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 4, 61... Development Section, Air Planning Branch, Air, Pesticides and Toxics Management Division, U.S....

  14. Examining the relationship between atmospheric aerosols and light extinction at Mount Rainier and North Cascades National Parks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malm, W. C.; Gebhart, K. A.; Molenar, J.; Cahill, T.; Eldred, R.; Huffman, D.

    During the summer of 1990, the National Park Service carried out a study in the state of Washington called the Pacific Northwest Regional Visibility Experiment using Natural Tracers (PREVENT). The goal of the study was to apportion atmospheric aerosols to scattering and extinction and to source types at Mount Rainier and North Cascades National Parks. The study was designed to collect all necessary emissions, meteorology, ambient concentrations, and atmospheric optical data necessary to support a variety of source attribution techniques. This paper will report on the apportionment of various aerosol species to measured fine mass concentrations and ambient scattering coefficients. One highlight of this study was the near-ambient measurement of atmospheric scattering with a modified integrating nephelometer. It is therefore possible to explore the relationship between hygroscopic aerosols and scattering in the ambient atmosphere.

  15. Mount St. Helens eruptions: the acute respiratory effects of volcanic ash in a North American community.

    PubMed

    Baxter, P J; Ing, R; Falk, H; Plikaytis, B

    1983-01-01

    After the May 18, 1980 volcanic eruption of Mount St. Helens, increases were observed in the number of patients who, because of asthma or bronchitis, sought medical care at emergency rooms of major hospitals in areas of ashfall. An interview study of 39 asthma and 44 bronchitis patients who became sick during the 4 wk following the eruption and who attended the emergency rooms of two major hospitals in Yakima, Washington, and of healthy matched controls indicated that a history of asthma, and possibly of bronchitis, were risk factors for contracting respiratory problems. The interview study also indicated that the main exacerbating factor was the elevated level of airborne total suspended particulates (in excess of 30,000 micrograms/m3) after the eruption. An interview study of 97 patients who had chronic lung disease and who lived in the same area as the above-mentioned patients, but who did not go to a hospital, showed that the ashfall exacerbated the condition in about one-third of these. Emergency planners and their geologist advisers should be aware that special preventive measures are justified for people with a history of asthma or chronic lung disease who live in communities at risk to volcanic ashfalls.

  16. Environment management conflict in Mount Tangkuban Perahu Nature Reserve and Nature Park, North Bandung, West Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damanik, Demak Ely Riana; Sjarmidi, Achmad

    2014-03-01

    Nature Park Mount Tangkuban Perahu is part of the Nature Reserve that defined as utilization zone. Until now the nature park continues to experience disruption and threat caused by human activities such as tourists, local peoples, and administrators so that giving rise to the area conflict. The number of rules did not guarantee high protection of the area and even can lead conflict. The evaluation performance of stakeholder and analysis environmental sustainablity, seems that there are not sustainable. The performance score of stakeholders in conservation efforts in the field of preservation and protection are 1.5 and 2 respectively (low category), while the area of utilization is 2 (low category). Total score condition of management area are 1.75 (low category). Visitors assume that Tangkuban Perahu was categorized as cheap attraction (< Rp. 100,000 pervisit), but the benefits, comfort and safety are considerable (> 50%). Most visitors have a good perception of the facilities (66.2%), ticket price (64.6%), and ecosystems (78.5%). However this is not followed by magnitude of willingness to pay from the visitor to keep the preserved area (61.5% of visitors want to pay < 100,000). Most argue that the management of the area classified as good (78.5%), but approximately 38.5% of visitors said that need additional facilities such as children's play facilities in the area. This shows the lack of understanding of visitor of the meaning of natural recreation. Some visitors (47.69%) mentioned the need of management system implementation to ensure the region sustainability. The causes and alternative conflict resolution also discussed in this study.

  17. Environment management conflict in Mount Tangkuban Perahu Nature Reserve and Nature Park, North Bandung, West Java

    SciTech Connect

    Damanik, Demak Ely Riana E-mail: sjarmidi@sith.itb.ac.id; Sjarmidi, Achmad E-mail: sjarmidi@sith.itb.ac.id

    2014-03-24

    Nature Park Mount Tangkuban Perahu is part of the Nature Reserve that defined as utilization zone. Until now the nature park continues to experience disruption and threat caused by human activities such as tourists, local peoples, and administrators so that giving rise to the area conflict. The number of rules did not guarantee high protection of the area and even can lead conflict. The evaluation performance of stakeholder and analysis environmental sustainablity, seems that there are not sustainable. The performance score of stakeholders in conservation efforts in the field of preservation and protection are 1.5 and 2 respectively (low category), while the area of utilization is 2 (low category). Total score condition of management area are 1.75 (low category). Visitors assume that Tangkuban Perahu was categorized as cheap attraction (< Rp. 100,000 pervisit), but the benefits, comfort and safety are considerable (> 50%). Most visitors have a good perception of the facilities (66.2%), ticket price (64.6%), and ecosystems (78.5%). However this is not followed by magnitude of willingness to pay from the visitor to keep the preserved area (61.5% of visitors want to pay < 100,000). Most argue that the management of the area classified as good (78.5%), but approximately 38.5% of visitors said that need additional facilities such as children's play facilities in the area. This shows the lack of understanding of visitor of the meaning of natural recreation. Some visitors (47.69%) mentioned the need of management system implementation to ensure the region sustainability. The causes and alternative conflict resolution also discussed in this study.

  18. Impact of air mass histories on the chemical climate of Mount Mitchell, North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulman, J. C.; Saxena, V. K.

    1997-11-01

    Cloud water acidity and ionic content, as measured at the Mount Mitchell (35°44'05″N, 82°17'15″W, 2038 m msl (highest peak in the eastern United States)) State Park observing site, using a passive cloud water collector, are directly influenced by the trajectories of cloud-forming air masses which pass over areas of varying levels of pollutant emission. Regions of the United States which are emitters of high-level pollutants, such as SOx and NOx will thus serve to reduce observed pH levels in cloud water samples and raise the levels of acidifying ions, such as sulfate and nitrate. The 48-hour backward trajectories for all 39 cloud events during the 1993 field season (May 15, 1993 to October 14, 1993) were computed using the hybrid singleparticle Lagrangian integrated trajectories (HY-SPLIT) model. Three sectors, identified as the polluted sector, from 290° to 65° azimuth relative to the site, the continental sector, 240° to 290° azimuth, and the marine sector, 65° to 240° azimuth, were used to classify the cloud-forming air masses. The polluted sector was associated with the lowest overall pH averages, with the marine sector following closely behind. The highest average pH values were received from air masses indicated as having crossed the continental and the marine sectors (in combination), with the largest portions of those air mass trajectories passing through the continental sector (exclusively continental sector air masses were also the most frequent). These observations are in agreement with findings in Colorado where aerosols produced by wind erosion were responsible for decreasing the precipitation acidity.

  19. Palaeomagnetism of the Early Permian Mount Leyshon Intrusive Complex and Tuckers Igneous Complex, North Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. A.; Lackie, M. A.

    2003-06-01

    This study provides reliable, precisely defined and well-dated Early Permian (286 +/- 6 Ma) palaeomagnetic poles for Australia from the Mount Leyshon Intrusive Complex (MLIC) and the Tuckers Igneous Complex (TIC). Both complexes are associated with prominent negative magnetic anomalies, indicating the presence of rocks carrying stable remanence of reverse polarity, with a Koenigsberger ratio greater than unity. The characteristic remanence carried by the intrusive phases and by locally remagnetized, contact-metamorphosed host rocks is always of reverse polarity, consistent with acquisition during the Permo-Carboniferous (Kiaman) Reverse Superchron. The corresponding palaeopoles confirm that Australia occupied high latitudes in the Early Permian. The pole positions are: MLIC: lat. = 43.2 °S, long. = 137.3 °E dp = 6.0°, dm = 6.4° Q= 6; TIC: lat. = 47.5 °S, long. = 143.0 °E, dp = 6.0°, dm = 6.6° Q= 6. Permian palaeomagnetic overprinting is detectable at considerable distances from the MLIC (2-3 km), well beyond the zone of visible alteration. The primary nature of the Early Permian palaeomagnetic signature is established by full baked contact/aureole tests at both localities. Other new data from Australia are consistent with the poles reported here. Comparison of the Australian, African and South American Apparent Polar Wander Paths (APWP) suggests that mean Permian and Triassic poles from West Gondwana, particularly from South America, are biased by remagnetization in the Jurassic-Cretaceous and that the Late Palaeozoic-Mesozoic APWP for Gondwana is best defined by Australian data. The Australian APWP exhibits substantial movement through the Mesozoic. Provided only that the time-averaged palaeofield was zonal, the Early Triassic palaeomagnetic data from Australia provide an important palaeogeographic constraint that the south geographic pole was within, or very close to, SE Australia around 240 Ma. The new Early Permian poles are apparently more consistent

  20. Mount Logan Ice Cores : the Water Cycle of the North Pacific in the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, D. A.; Bourgeois, J.; Demuth, M.; Koerner, R. M.; Parnandi, M.; Sekerka, J.; Zdanowicz, C.; Zheng, J.; Wake, C.; Yalcin, K.; Mayewski, P.; Kreutz, C.; Osterberg, E.; Dahl-Jenssen, D.; Goto-Azuma, K.; Holdsworth, G.; Steig, E.; Ruper, S.; Wasckiewicz, M.

    2004-12-01

    The three ice cores recovered on , or near Mt Logan at 3 , 4.3 and 5.4 km above sea level (kasl), together with a high resolution lake record at 0.8 km asl cover variously 500 to 30000 years . The stable isotopic (18O/16 O, and D/H) records in particular are compared for the most recent 500 years that they all share. This suite of records offers a unique view of the lapse rate in stable isotopes from the lower to upper troposphere. The region is climatologically important , being beside the Cordilleran-pinning-point of the Rossby wave (jet stream) system and the biggest low pressure centre in the North Pacific , the Aleutian low. Comparison of the various sites' stable isotope series (delta(18O) , delta(D)) and model simulations suggest sudden and persistent shifts between meridional and zonal flow of water vapor . The last such shift was in 1845 AD. Prior to 1845 , the delta's at 5.4 kasl were 3.5 o/oo more positive than after. At the 0.8 kasl site the shift was 1.6 o/oo in the same direction and at the 3 kasl site there was virtually no shift . There are also shifts in deuterium excess and accumulation rate at 1845 AD. Model simulations for `pure' meridional and zonal flow , suggest that these shifts are consistent regime changes between these flow types, with predominantly zonal flow prior to 1845 and meridional after. The changes in predicted delta(18O) , deuterium excess and accumulation are altitude sensitive . The 5.4 and 0.8 kasl records show a shift at 1845 and another at 800 AD. One can speculate that the 1845 regime shift coincided with the end of the Little Ice Age and that the 800 AD shift the beginning of the Medieval Warm Period. The 5.4 kasl delta(18O) record shows a Holocene that contains many such regime shifts. These shifts are also recorded in lower resolution Pacific paleo-records from ocean and lake cores. The climate-ocean system must have a natural tendency to "ring" in the scale time of ~1 ka that these shifts suggest and there is probably

  1. linkedISA: semantic representation of ISA-Tab experimental metadata

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Reporting and sharing experimental metadata- such as the experimental design, characteristics of the samples, and procedures applied, along with the analysis results, in a standardised manner ensures that datasets are comprehensible and, in principle, reproducible, comparable and reusable. Furthermore, sharing datasets in formats designed for consumption by humans and machines will also maximize their use. The Investigation/Study/Assay (ISA) open source metadata tracking framework facilitates standards-compliant collection, curation, visualization, storage and sharing of datasets, leveraging on other platforms to enable analysis and publication. The ISA software suite includes several components used in increasingly diverse set of life science and biomedical domains; it is underpinned by a general-purpose format, ISA-Tab, and conversions exist into formats required by public repositories. While ISA-Tab works well mainly as a human readable format, we have also implemented a linked data approach to semantically define the ISA-Tab syntax. Results We present a semantic web representation of the ISA-Tab syntax that complements ISA-Tab's syntactic interoperability with semantic interoperability. We introduce the linkedISA conversion tool from ISA-Tab to the Resource Description Framework (RDF), supporting mappings from the ISA syntax to multiple community-defined, open ontologies and capitalising on user-provided ontology annotations in the experimental metadata. We describe insights of the implementation and how annotations can be expanded driven by the metadata. We applied the conversion tool as part of Bio-GraphIIn, a web-based application supporting integration of the semantically-rich experimental descriptions. Designed in a user-friendly manner, the Bio-GraphIIn interface hides most of the complexities to the users, exposing a familiar tabular view of the experimental description to allow seamless interaction with the RDF representation, and visualising

  2. linkedISA: semantic representation of ISA-Tab experimental metadata.

    PubMed

    González-Beltrán, Alejandra; Maguire, Eamonn; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Rocca-Serra, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Reporting and sharing experimental metadata- such as the experimental design, characteristics of the samples, and procedures applied, along with the analysis results, in a standardised manner ensures that datasets are comprehensible and, in principle, reproducible, comparable and reusable. Furthermore, sharing datasets in formats designed for consumption by humans and machines will also maximize their use. The Investigation/Study/Assay (ISA) open source metadata tracking framework facilitates standards-compliant collection, curation, visualization, storage and sharing of datasets, leveraging on other platforms to enable analysis and publication. The ISA software suite includes several components used in increasingly diverse set of life science and biomedical domains; it is underpinned by a general-purpose format, ISA-Tab, and conversions exist into formats required by public repositories. While ISA-Tab works well mainly as a human readable format, we have also implemented a linked data approach to semantically define the ISA-Tab syntax. We present a semantic web representation of the ISA-Tab syntax that complements ISA-Tab's syntactic interoperability with semantic interoperability. We introduce the linkedISA conversion tool from ISA-Tab to the Resource Description Framework (RDF), supporting mappings from the ISA syntax to multiple community-defined, open ontologies and capitalising on user-provided ontology annotations in the experimental metadata. We describe insights of the implementation and how annotations can be expanded driven by the metadata. We applied the conversion tool as part of Bio-GraphIIn, a web-based application supporting integration of the semantically-rich experimental descriptions. Designed in a user-friendly manner, the Bio-GraphIIn interface hides most of the complexities to the users, exposing a familiar tabular view of the experimental description to allow seamless interaction with the RDF representation, and visualising descriptors to

  3. Comparative study on the immunopotentiator effect of ISA 201, ISA 61, ISA 50, ISA 206 used in trivalent foot and mouth disease vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Ehab El-Sayed; Gamal, Wael Mossad; Hassan, Amr Ismail; Mahdy, Safy El-Din; Hegazy, Akram Zakria; Abdel-Atty, Magdy Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Aim: A comparison study was conducted to explore the best internationally available adjuvant that could be used in production of a highly potent foot and mouth disease (FMD) vaccine, that could stimulate a strong immune response and possibly give greater protection against FMD. Materials and Methods: Four experimental batches of trivalent FMD vaccine were prepared with different available oil adjuvants which included Montanide ISA 201, 206, 61 and 50. Results: The results indicated that vaccines emulsified using Montanide ISA 201 and Montanide ISA 206 adjuvants elicited a protective humoral immune response from the 2nd week postvaccination (WPV) as for ISA 201 with serum neutralization test (SNT) and enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) antibody titers of 1.62±0.047a and 1.8±0.049a, 1.59±0.076a and 1.836±0.077a, and 1.71±0.06b and 1.96±0.074b for serotypes O, A, SAT2, respectively, and for ISA 206 at SNT and ELISA antibody titers of 1.5±0.082a and 1.84±0.084a, 1.56±0.037a and 1.818±0.052a, and 1.5±0.106a,b and 1.81±0.104a,b for FMD virus serotypes O, A and SAT2, respectively. For ISA 61 and ISA 50, the protective antibody titer appeared in the 3rd WPV. In the ISA 61 FMD vaccine, SNT and ELISA titer were 1.59±0.076a and 1.9±0.094a, 1.53±0.056a and 1.83±0.070a, and 1.5±0.082a and 1.84±0.094a for serotypes O, A and SAT2, respectively, and in the case of ISA 50 FMD vaccine, the SNT, and ELISA titer were recorded for serotypes O, A and SAT2 respectively, 1.59±0.037a and 1.8±0.030a, 1.68±0.056a,b and 1.916±0.065a,b, and 1.65±0.082a and 1.9±0.09a. On estimating the cellular immune response, the highest delta optical density levels for ISA 201 (0.395-0.460) and ISA 206 (0.375-0.428) were observed on 14 and 21 days post vaccination (DPV) respectively, while the highest levels of lymphoproliferation for ISA 61 (0.375-0.455) and ISA 50 (0.411-0.430) were on 21 and 28 DPV, respectively. Conclusion: The duration of immunity from Montanide ISA oils

  4. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Sulfur Oxides ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This draft document provides EPA’s evaluation and synthesis of the most policy-relevant science related to the health effects of sulfur oxides. When final, it will provide a critical part of the scientific foundation for EPA’s decision regarding the adequacy of the current primary (health-based) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for sulfur dioxide. The references considered for inclusion in or cited in the external review draft ISA are available at https://hero.epa.gov/hero/sulfur-oxides. The intent of the ISA, according to the CAA, is to “accurately reflect the latest scientific knowledge expected from the presence of [a] pollutant in ambient air” (U.S. Code, 1970a, 1970b). It includes an assessment of scientific research from atmospheric sciences, exposure sciences, dosimetry, mode of action, animal and human toxicology, and epidemiology. Key information and judgments formerly found in the Air Quality Criteria Documents (AQCDs) for sulfur oxides (SOx) are included; Annexes provide additional details supporting the ISA. Together, the ISA and Annexes serve to update and revise the last SOx ISA which was published in 2008.

  5. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced that the First External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (CO) and related Annexes was made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA's decision regarding whether the current standards for CO sufficiently protect public health and the environment. The Integrated Plan for Review of the NAAQS for CO {U.S. EPA, 2008 #8615} identifies key policy-relevant questions that provide a framework for this review of the scientific evidence. These questions frame the entire review of the NAAQS, and thus are informed by both science and policy considerations. The ISA organizes and presents the scientific evidence such that it, when considered along with findings from risk analyses and policy considerations, will help the EPA address these questions during the NAAQS review:

  6. Specialized Function of Yeast Isa1 and Isa2 Proteins in the Maturation of Mitochondrial [4Fe-4S] Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Mühlenhoff, Ulrich; Richter, Nadine; Pines, Ophry; Pierik, Antonio J.; Lill, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Most eukaryotes contain iron-sulfur cluster (ISC) assembly proteins related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Isa1 and Isa2. We show here that Isa1 but not Isa2 can be functionally replaced by the bacterial relatives IscA, SufA, and ErpA. The specific function of these “A-type” ISC proteins within the framework of mitochondrial and bacterial Fe/S protein biogenesis is still unresolved. In a comprehensive in vivo analysis, we show that S. cerevisiae Isa1 and Isa2 form a complex that is required for maturation of mitochondrial [4Fe-4S] proteins, including aconitase and homoaconitase. In contrast, Isa1-Isa2 were dispensable for the generation of mitochondrial [2Fe-2S] proteins and cytosolic [4Fe-4S] proteins. Targeting of bacterial [2Fe-2S] and [4Fe-4S] ferredoxins to yeast mitochondria further supported this specificity. Isa1 and Isa2 proteins are shown to bind iron in vivo, yet the Isa1-Isa2-bound iron was not needed as a donor for de novo assembly of the [2Fe-2S] cluster on the general Fe/S scaffold proteins Isu1-Isu2. Upon depletion of the ISC assembly factor Iba57, which specifically interacts with Isa1 and Isa2, or in the absence of the major mitochondrial [4Fe-4S] protein aconitase, iron accumulated on the Isa proteins. These results suggest that the iron bound to the Isa proteins is required for the de novo synthesis of [4Fe-4S] clusters in mitochondria and for their insertion into apoproteins in a reaction mediated by Iba57. Taken together, these findings define Isa1, Isa2, and Iba57 as a specialized, late-acting ISC assembly subsystem that is specifically dedicated to the maturation of mitochondrial [4Fe-4S] proteins. PMID:21987576

  7. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Second ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Pb) has been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA’s decision regarding whether the current standards for Pb sufficiently protect public health and the environment. Lead (Pb) is one of six principal (or criteria) pollutants for which EPA has established NAAQS

  8. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter (PM) have been made available for independent peer review and public review. The ISA reflects the latest scientific knowledge useful in indicating the kind and extent of identifiable effects on public health which may be expected from the presence of [a] pollutant in ambient air (42 U.S.C. 7408). This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA's decision regarding whether the current National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for PM sufficiently protects public health and the environment. Key information and judgments formerly contained in an Air Quality Criteria Document (AQCD) for PM are incorporated in this assessment. Additional details of the pertinent literature published since the last review, as well as selected older studies of particular interest, are included in a series of annexes. This ISA thus serves to update and revise the evaluation of the scientific evidence available at the time of the previous review of the NAAQS for PM that was concluded in 2006.

  9. mzML2ISA & nmrML2ISA: generating enriched ISA-Tab metadata files from metabolomics XML data.

    PubMed

    Larralde, Martin; Lawson, Thomas N; Weber, Ralf J M; Moreno, Pablo; Haug, Kenneth; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Viant, Mark R; Steinbeck, Christoph; Salek, Reza M

    2017-08-15

    Submission to the MetaboLights repository for metabolomics data currently places the burden of reporting instrument and acquisition parameters in ISA-Tab format on users, who have to do it manually, a process that is time consuming and prone to user input error. Since the large majority of these parameters are embedded in instrument raw data files, an opportunity exists to capture this metadata more accurately. Here we report a set of Python packages that can automatically generate ISA-Tab metadata file stubs from raw XML metabolomics data files. The parsing packages are separated into mzML2ISA (encompassing mzML and imzML formats) and nmrML2ISA (nmrML format only). Overall, the use of mzML2ISA & nmrML2ISA reduces the time needed to capture metadata substantially (capturing 90% of metadata on assay and sample levels), is much less prone to user input errors, improves compliance with minimum information reporting guidelines and facilitates more finely grained data exploration and querying of datasets. mzML2ISA & nmrML2ISA are available under version 3 of the GNU General Public Licence at https://github.com/ISA-tools. Documentation is available from http://2isa.readthedocs.io/en/latest/. reza.salek@ebi.ac.uk or isatools@googlegroups.com. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  10. Intra-annual variations in atmospheric dust and tritium in the North Pacific region detected from an ice core from Mount Wrangell, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasunari, Teppei J.; Shiraiwa, Takayuki; Kanamori, Syosaku; Fujii, Yoshiyuki; Igarashi, Makoto; Yamazaki, Koji; Benson, Carl S.; Hondoh, Takeo

    2007-05-01

    The North Pacific is subject to various seasonal climate phenomena and material circulations. Therefore intra-annual ice core data are necessary for an assessment of the climate variations. To assess past variations, a 50-m ice core was drilled at the summit of Mount Wrangell Volcano, Alaska. The dust number, tritium concentrations, and stable hydrogen isotope were analyzed. The period covered was from 1992 to 2002. We found that the concentrations of both fine dust (0.52-1.00 μm), an indicator of long-range transport, and coarse dust (1.00-8.00 μm) increased together every spring. Moreover, their concentrations increased drastically after 2000, corresponding to the recent increase in Asian dust outbreaks in spring. Additionally, an increase in the spring of 2001 corresponded to the largest dust storm recorded in east Asia since 1979. Therefore our findings imply that Asian dust strongly polluted Mount Wrangell every spring. The stratospheric tracer, tritium, had late spring maxima almost every year, and we found this useful for ice core dating to identify late spring in the North Pacific region. We also found that a high positive annual correlation existed between the calculated tritium and fine dust fluxes from late spring to summer. We propose that an annual relationship between the stratosphere-troposphere exchange and Asian dust storm are most closely connected in late spring because their activities are weak in summer. The Mount Wrangell ice core is important and useful for assessing the dust and tritium circulation in the distant past around the North Pacific with probable intra-annual timescale information.

  11. Climate Change in the North Pacific Region Over the Last Three Centuries as Expressed in an ice Core From Mount Logan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, K.; Holdsworth, G.; Alverson, K.

    2002-12-01

    The relatively short length of most instrumental climate datasets restricts the study of variability that exists in the climate system. This is particularly true regarding the atmosphere where high quality spatially dense data exists only since the late 1940s. With this data, the Pacific North America pattern (PNA) has been identified as one of the dominant modes of variability in the atmosphere. The PNA is related to an inter-decadal mode of climate variability known as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The PDO has been shown to influence marine productivity in the North Pacific as well as modulating the impact of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation in North America and Australia. Here we present an updated 301-year ice core record from Mount Logan in northwestern North America that shows a statistically significant and accelerating positive trend in snow accumulation from the middle of the 19th century that appears to be associated with secular changes in the PNA and PDO. A manifestation of this trend has been a warming over northwestern North America both at the surface and throughout the lower atmosphere.

  12. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Sulfur Oxides ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Sulfur Oxides – Health Criteria final assessment. This report represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA’s decision regarding whether the current standard for oxides of sulfur (SO2) sufficiently protects public health. The Integrated Plan for Review of the Primary NAAQS for SOx U.S. 2: EPA (2007) identifies key policy-relevant questions that provide a framework for this review of the scientific evidence. These questions frame the entire review of the NAAQS, and thus are informed by both science and policy considerations. The ISA organizes and presents the scientific evidence such that, when considered along with findings from risk analyses and policy considerations, will help the EPA address these questions in completing the NAAQS review.

  13. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter (PM). This report is EPA’s latest evaluation of the scientific literature on the potential human health and welfare effects associated with ambient exposures to particulate matter (PM). The development of this document is part of the Agency's periodic review of the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for PM. The recently completed PM ISA and supplementary annexes, in conjunction with additional technical and policy assessments developed by EPA’s Office of Air and Radiation, will provide the scientific basis to inform EPA decisions related to the review of the current PM NAAQS. Key information and judgments formerly contained in an Air Quality Criteria Document (AQCD) for PM are incorporated in this assessment. Additional details of the pertinent literature published since the last review, as well as selected older studies of particular interest, are included in a series of annexes. This ISA thus serves to update and revise the evaluation of the scientific evidence available at the time of the previous review of the NAAQS for PM that was concluded in 2006.

  14. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (CO). This report is EPA’s latest evaluation of the scientific literature on the potential human health and welfare effects associated with ambient exposures to CO. The development of this document is part of the Agency's periodic review of the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for CO. The recently completed CO ISA and supplementary annexes, in conjunction with additional technical and policy assessments developed by EPA’s Office of Air and Radiation, will provide the scientific basis to inform EPA decisions related to the review of the current CO NAAQS. The integrated Plan for Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide (U.S. EPA, 2008, 193995) identifies key policy-relevant questions that provide a framework for this assessment of the scientific evidence. These questions frame the entire review of the NAAQS for CO and thus are informed by both science and policy considerations. The ISA organizes, presents, and integrates the scientific evidence which is considered along with findings from risk analyses and policy considerations to help the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) address these questions during the NAAQS review.

  15. Mount Logan Ice Core Evidence for Secular Changes in the Climate of the North Pacific Following the End of the Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, K.; Alverson, K.; Holdsworth, G.

    2003-12-01

    The relatively short length of most instrumental climate datasets restricts the study of variability and trends that exists in the climate system. This is particularly true regarding the atmosphere where high quality spatially dense data exists only since the late 1940s. With this data, the Pacific North America pattern (PNA) has been identified as one of the dominant modes of variability in the atmosphere that plays an important role in the climate of North America. This pattern consists of alternating regions of high and low geopotential height anomalies in the middle and upper troposphere arching from the tropical Pacific to North America. It is thought to be the result of a standing Rossby wave pattern forced by the upper-atmospheric convergence associated with the descending branch of the regional Hadley Circulation. We will describe the climate signal contained in a 301-year ice core record from a high elevation site on Mount Logan in the Yukon. This record has a statistically significant and accelerating positive trend in snow accumulation from the middle of the 19th century, the end of the Little Ice Age. As we will show, this record contains an expression of the Pacific North America (PNA) teleconnection as well as the regional Hadley and Walker circulations in the Pacific. We argue that the positive trend in snow accumulation in the ice core is a reflection of secular changes in the intensities of these circulations that has ongoing since the end of the Little Ice Age.

  16. Observing Future Changes in the Photochemical Environment over Western North America due to Changes in Foreign Emissions: Lessons from Mount Bachelor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, E. V.; Jaffe, D. A.; Weatherhead, E. C.

    2011-12-01

    There are multiple lines of evidence that springtime O3 mixing ratios are increasing over western North America, and rising O3 precursor emissions in East Asia are cited as potentially responsible. The Asian contribution to background O3 has two components: 1) O3 has a sufficient lifetime in spring such that O3 formed in the Asian boundary layer can cross the Pacific, and 2) O3 can be formed en-route as a result of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) decomposition. To confidently detect a trend in a trace species such as O3, the trend must be large relative to both the natural variability and to the long-term measurement uncertainty, or alternatively one needs many years of observations. Detection of changes to the O3 budget in the air entering North America is challenging because consistent long-term observations are sparse. We report on measurements of PAN and O3 from the summit of Mount Bachelor (43.979°N, 121.687°W; 2.7 km a.s.l). These are the first consistent multi-year springtime measurements of PAN in the free troposphere over the U.S. Pacific Northwest. We combine the observed variability in PAN and O3 at Mount Bachelor with a range of possible future trends in these species to determine the observational requirements to detect such trends. A previous study using a global chemical transport model suggested that rising Asian emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) will result in a relatively larger positive trend in PAN than O3 over western North America. We show that the timescale for PAN and O3 trend detection is equivalent when the PAN trend is approximately 4 times larger than the O3 trend. This reflects greater observed relative variability in PAN than O3. Our analysis suggests that if the true O3 trend over western North America due to rising Asian precursor emissions is on the order of 1% per year, it could be corroborated at a strategic representative site like Mount Bachelor in a relatively short timeframe

  17. Pay as You Speed, ISA with incentives for not speeding: a case of test driver recruitment.

    PubMed

    Lahrmann, Harry; Agerholm, Niels; Tradisauskas, Nerius; Næss, Teresa; Juhl, Jens; Harms, Lisbeth

    2012-09-01

    The Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) project we describe in this article is based on Pay as You Drive principles. These principles assume that the ISA equipment informs a driver of the speed limit, warns the driver when speeding and calculates penalty points. Each penalty point entails the reduction of a 30% discount on the driver's car insurance premium, which therefore produced the name, Pay as You Speed. The ISA equipment consists of a GPS-based On Board Unit with a mobile phone connection to a web server. The project was planned for a three-year test period with 300 young car drivers, but it never succeeded in recruiting that number of drivers. After several design changes, the project eventually went forward with 153 test drivers of all ages. This number represents approximately one thousandth of all car owners in the proving ground of North Jutland in Denmark. Furthermore the project was terminated before its scheduled closing date. This article describes the project with an emphasis on recruitment efforts and the project's progress. We include a discussion of possible explanations for the failure to recruit volunteers for the project and reflect upon the general barriers to using ISA with ordinary drivers.

  18. High-resolution well-log derived dielectric properties of gas-hydrate-bearing sediments, Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sun, Y.; Goldberg, D.; Collett, T.; Hunter, R.

    2011-01-01

    A dielectric logging tool, electromagnetic propagation tool (EPT), was deployed in 2007 in the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well (Mount Elbert Well), North Slope, Alaska. The measured dielectric properties in the Mount Elbert well, combined with density log measurements, result in a vertical high-resolution (cm-scale) estimate of gas hydrate saturation. Two hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs about 20 m thick were identified using the EPT log and exhibited gas-hydrate saturation estimates ranging from 45% to 85%. In hydrate-bearing zones where variation of hole size and oil-based mud invasion are minimal, EPT-based gas hydrate saturation estimates on average agree well with lower vertical resolution estimates from the nuclear magnetic resonance logs; however, saturation and porosity estimates based on EPT logs are not reliable in intervals with substantial variations in borehole diameter and oil-based invasion.EPT log interpretation reveals many thin-bedded layers at various depths, both above and below the thick continuous hydrate occurrences, which range from 30-cm to about 1-m thick. Such thin layers are not indicated in other well logs, or from the visual observation of core, with the exception of the image log recorded by the oil-base microimager. We also observe that EPT dielectric measurements can be used to accurately detect fine-scale changes in lithology and pore fluid properties of hydrate-bearing sediments where variation of hole size is minimal. EPT measurements may thus provide high-resolution in-situ hydrate saturation estimates for comparison and calibration with laboratory analysis. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Hydrologic data for computation of sediment discharge : Toutle and North Fork Toutle Rivers near Mount St. Helens, Washington, water years 1980-84

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childers, Dallas; Hammond, Stephen E.; Johnson, William P.

    1988-01-01

    Immediately after the devastating May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens, a program was initiated by the U.S. Geological Survey to study the streamflow and sediment characteristics of streams impacted by the eruption. Some of the data gathered in that program are presented in this report. Data are presented for two key sites in the Toutle River basin: North Fork Toutle River near Kid Valley, and Toutle River at Tower Road, near Silver Lake. The types of data presented are appropriate for use with sediment transport formulas; however, the data are also intended for use in a wide variety of additional applications. The data presented in this report are unique because they delineate flow conditions possessing great potential fo sediment transport. The data define unusually high suspended-sediment concentration. Data defining hydraulic, peak discharge, suspended-sediment, and bed-material characteristics are presented. (USGS)

  20. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (CO) and related Annexes was made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA's decision regarding whether the current standards for CO sufficiently protect public health and the environment. Section 108(a) of the Clean Air Act directs the EPA Administrator to identify certain pollutants that “cause or contribute to air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health or welfare” and to issue air quality criteria for them. These air quality criteria are to “accurately reflect the latest scientific knowledge useful in indicating the kind and extent of all identifiable effects on public health or welfare which may be expected from the presence of such pollutant in the ambient air….” Under section 109 of the Act, EPA is to establish national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for each pollutant for which EPA has issued criteria. Section 109(d) of the Act requires periodic review and, if appropriate, revision of existing air quality criteria to reflect advances in scientific knowledge on the effects of the pollutant on public health or welfare. EPA is also to revise the NAAQS, if appropriate, based on the revised air quality criteria.

  1. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (CO) and related Annexes was made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA's decision regarding whether the current standards for CO sufficiently protect public health and the environment. Section 108(a) of the Clean Air Act directs the EPA Administrator to identify certain pollutants that “cause or contribute to air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health or welfare” and to issue air quality criteria for them. These air quality criteria are to “accurately reflect the latest scientific knowledge useful in indicating the kind and extent of all identifiable effects on public health or welfare which may be expected from the presence of such pollutant in the ambient air….” Under section 109 of the Act, EPA is to establish national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for each pollutant for which EPA has issued criteria. Section 109(d) of the Act requires periodic review and, if appropriate, revision of existing air quality criteria to reflect advances in scientific knowledge on the effects of the pollutant on public health or welfare. EPA is also to revise the NAAQS, if appropriate, based on the revised air quality criteria.

  2. Atmospheric Deposition and Surface-Water Chemistry in Mount Rainier and North Cascades National Parks, U.S.A., Water Years 2000 and 2005-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clow, David W.; Campbell, Donald H.

    2008-01-01

    High-elevation aquatic ecosystems in Mount Rainier and North Cascades National Parks are highly sensitive to atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and sulfur. Thin, rocky soils promote fast hydrologic flushing rates during snowmelt and rain events, limiting the ability of basins to neutralize acidity and assimilate nitrogen deposited from the atmosphere. Potential effects of nitrogen and sulfur deposition include episodic or chronic acidification of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. In addition, nitrogen deposition can cause eutrophication of water bodies and changes in species composition in lakes and streams. This report documents results of a study performed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, of the effects of atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and sulfur on surface-water chemistry in Mount Rainier and North Cascades National Parks. Inorganic nitrogen in wet deposition was highest in the vicinity of North Cascades National Park, perhaps due to emissions from human sources and activities in the Puget Sound area. Sulfur in wet deposition was highest near the Pacific coast, reflecting the influence of marine aerosols. Dry deposition generally accounted for less than 30 percent of wet plus dry inorganic nitrogen and sulfur deposition, but occult deposition (primarily fog) represents a potentially substantial unmeasured component of total deposition. Trend analyses indicate inorganic nitrogen in wet deposition was relatively stable during 1986-2005, but sulfur in wet deposition declined substantially during that time, particularly after 2001, when emissions controls were added to a large powerplant in western Washington. Surface-water sulfate concentrations at the study site nearest the powerplant showed a statistically significant decrease between 2000 and 2005-06, but there was no statistically significant change in alkalinity, indicating a delayed response in surface-water alkalinity. Seasonal patterns in surface

  3. Combustor mount

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, H.S.

    1986-07-01

    For a gas turbine engine, mounting means are described for attaching the annular burner to the engine case including a mount lug having a relatively flat surface extending from and secured to the annular burner, a mount pin attached to the engine case having one end extending through an opening in the flat surface of the mount lug, a bushing frictionally engaging the pin and extending through the opening, and having a flange surrounding the opening and bearing against one side of the flat surface, a washer fitted over the pin and bearing against the opposite side of the flat surface to sandwich with the flange the mount lug, and the bushing having an increased internal diameter portion adjacent the washer and weldment means securing the washer to the mount lug.

  4. The characteristics of gas hydrates recovered from the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, H.; Lorenson, T.D.; Moudrakovski, I.L.; Ripmeester, J.A.; Collett, T.S.; Hunter, R.B.; Ratcliffe, C.I.

    2011-01-01

    Systematic analyses have been carried out on two gas hydrate-bearing sediment core samples, HYPV4, which was preserved by CH4 gas pressurization, and HYLN7, which was preserved in liquid-nitrogen, recovered from the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Stratigraphic Test Well. Gas hydrate in the studied core samples was found by observation to have developed in sediment pores, and the distribution of hydrate saturation in the cores imply that gas hydrate had experienced stepwise dissociation before it was stabilized by either liquid nitrogen or pressurizing gas. The gas hydrates were determined to be structure Type I hydrate with hydration numbers of approximately 6.1 by instrumentation methods such as powder X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and solid state 13C NMR. The hydrate gas composition was predominantly methane, and isotopic analysis showed that the methane was of thermogenic origin (mean ??13C=-48.6??? and ??D=-248??? for sample HYLN7). Isotopic analysis of methane from sample HYPV4 revealed secondary hydrate formation from the pressurizing methane gas during storage. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. High-resolution digital elevation model of Mount St. Helens crater and upper North Fork Toutle River basin, Washington, based on an airborne lidar survey of September 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosbrucker, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The lateral blast, debris avalanche, and lahars of the May 18th, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington, dramatically altered the surrounding landscape. Lava domes were extruded during the subsequent eruptive periods of 1980–1986 and 2004–2008. More than three decades after the emplacement of the 1980 debris avalanche, high sediment production persists in the North Fork Toutle River basin, which drains the northern flank of the volcano. Because this sediment increases the risk of flooding to downstream communities on the Toutle and Cowlitz Rivers, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), under the direction of Congress to maintain an authorized level of flood protection, built a sediment retention structure on the North Fork Toutle River in 1989 to help reduce this risk and to prevent sediment from clogging the shipping channel of the Columbia River. From September 16–20, 2009, Watershed Sciences, Inc., under contract to USACE, collected high-precision airborne lidar (light detection and ranging) data that cover 214 square kilometers (83 square miles) of Mount St. Helens and the upper North Fork Toutle River basin from the sediment retention structure to the volcano's crater. These data provide a digital dataset of the ground surface, including beneath forest cover. Such remotely sensed data can be used to develop sediment budgets and models of sediment erosion, transport, and deposition. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) used these lidar data to develop digital elevation models (DEMs) of the study area. DEMs are fundamental to monitoring natural hazards and studying volcanic landforms, fluvial and glacial geomorphology, and surface geology. Watershed Sciences, Inc., provided files in the LASer (LAS) format containing laser returns that had been filtered, classified, and georeferenced. The USGS produced a hydro-flattened DEM from ground-classified points at Castle, Coldwater, and Spirit Lakes. Final results averaged about five laser last

  6. Interior search algorithm (ISA): a novel approach for global optimization.

    PubMed

    Gandomi, Amir H

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents the interior search algorithm (ISA) as a novel method for solving optimization tasks. The proposed ISA is inspired by interior design and decoration. The algorithm is different from other metaheuristic algorithms and provides new insight for global optimization. The proposed method is verified using some benchmark mathematical and engineering problems commonly used in the area of optimization. ISA results are further compared with well-known optimization algorithms. The results show that the ISA is efficiently capable of solving optimization problems. The proposed algorithm can outperform the other well-known algorithms. Further, the proposed algorithm is very simple and it only has one parameter to tune. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Gas Production From a Cold, Stratigraphically Bounded Hydrate Deposit at the Mount Elbert Site, North Slope, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Moridis, G.J.; Silpngarmlert, S.; Reagan, M. T.; Collett, T.S.; Zhang, K.

    2009-09-01

    As part of an effort to identify suitable targets for a planned long-term field test, we investigate by means of numerical simulation the gas production potential from unit D, a stratigraphically bounded (Class 3) permafrost-associated hydrate occurrence penetrated in the ount Elbert well on North Slope, Alaska. This shallow, low-pressure deposit has high porosities, high intrinsic permeabilities and high hydrate saturations. It has a low temperature because of its proximity to the overlying permafrost. The simulation results indicate that vertical ells operating at a constant bottomhole pressure would produce at very low rates for a very long period. Horizontal wells increase gas production by almost two orders of magnitude, but production remains low. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the initial deposit temperature is y the far the most important factor determining production performance (and the most effective criterion for target selection) because it controls the sensible heat available to fuel dissociation.

  8. MOUNT BALDY WILDERNESS, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finnell, Tommy L.; Soule, John H.

    1984-01-01

    The Mount Baldy Wilderness, Arizona, was surveyed for mineral resources and was judged to have little or no promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. No mineral deposits, mining claims, or concentrations of trace metals were recognized within the area. No oil test holes have been drilled within the area; holes drilled about 35 mi north of the area were not productive. Further study of the Mount Baldy Wilderness would seem warranted only in the event that economic deposits of minerals or petroleum are found in nearby areas.

  9. Mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Humpal, H.H.

    1987-11-10

    A mirror mount is provided that allows free pitch, yaw and roll motion of the mirror while keeping the location of a point on the surface of the mirror fixed in the rest frame of reference of the mount. Yaw movement is provided by two yaw cylinders that are bearing mounted to provide rotation. Pitch and roll motion is provided by a spherically annular shell that is air bearing mounted to move between a clamp and an upper pedestal bearing. The centers of curvature of the spherical surfaces of the shell lie upon the point. Pitch motion and roll motion are separately and independently imparted to mirror by a pair of pitch paddles and a pair of roll paddles that are independently and separately moved by control rods driven by motors. 5 figs.

  10. Mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Humpal, H.H.

    1986-03-21

    A mirror mount is provided that allows free pitch, yaw and roll motion of the mirror while keeping the location of a point on the surface of the mirror fixed in the rest frame of reference of the mount. Yaw movement is provided by two yaw cylinders that are bearing mounted to provide rotation. Pitch and roll motion is provided by a spherically annular shell that is air bearing mounted to move between a clamp and an upper pedestal bearing. The centers of curvature of the spherical surfaces of the shell lie upon the point. Pitch motion and roll motion are separately and independently imparted to mirror by a pair of pitch paddles and a pair of roll paddles that are independently and separately moved by control rods driven by motors.

  11. Mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Humpal, Harold H.

    1987-01-01

    A mirror mount (10) is provided that allows free pitch, yaw and roll motion of the mirror (28) while keeping the location of a point (56) on the surface of the mirror (28) fixed in the rest frame of reference of the mount (10). Yaw movement is provided by two yaw cylinders (30,32) that are bearing (52) mounted to provide rotation. Pitch and roll motion is provided by a spherically annular shell (42) that is air bearing (72,74) mounted to move between a clamp (60) and an upper pedestal bearing (44). The centers of curvature of the spherical surfaces of the shell (42) lie upon the point (56). Pitch motion and roll motion are separately and independently imparted to mirror (28) by a pair of pitch paddles (34) and a pair of roll paddles (36) that are independently and separately moved by control rods (76,80) driven by motors (78,82).

  12. Mount Cameroon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-09

    NASA Terra spacecraft shows Mount Cameroon, an active volcano in Cameroon near the Gulf of Guinea. It is one of Africa largest volcanoes, rising over 4,000 meters, with more than 100 small cinder cones.

  13. Gas hydrate characterization and grain-scale imaging of recovered cores from the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stern, L.A.; Lorenson, T.D.; Pinkston, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Using cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (CSEM), powder X-ray diffraction, and gas chromatography methods, we investigated the physical states, grain characteristics, gas composition, and methane isotopic composition of two gas-hydrate-bearing sections of core recovered from the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well situated on the Alaska North Slope. The well was continuously cored from 606.5. m to 760.1. m depth, and sections investigated here were retrieved from 619.9. m and 661.0. m depth. X-ray analysis and imaging of the sediment phase in both sections shows it consists of a predominantly fine-grained and well-sorted quartz sand with lesser amounts of feldspar, muscovite, and minor clays. Cryogenic SEM shows the gas-hydrate phase forming primarily as a pore-filling material between the sediment grains at approximately 70-75% saturation, and more sporadically as thin veins typically several tens of microns in diameter. Pore throat diameters vary, but commonly range 20-120 microns. Gas chromatography analyses of the hydrate-forming gas show that it is comprised of mainly methane (>99.9%), indicating that the gas hydrate is structure I. Here we report on the distribution and articulation of the gas-hydrate phase within the cores, the grain morphology of the hydrate, the composition of the sediment host, and the composition of the hydrate-forming gas. ?? 2009.

  14. Alicyclobacillus pohliae sp. nov., a thermophilic, endospore-forming bacterium isolated from geothermal soil of the north-west slope of Mount Melbourne (Antarctica).

    PubMed

    Imperio, Tatiana; Viti, Carlo; Marri, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Gram-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming, thermophilic bacteria were isolated from a geothermal soil collected on the north-west slope of Mount Melbourne in Antarctica. They grew aerobically at 42-60 degrees C (optimum 55 degrees C) and at pH 4.5-7.5 (optimum pH 5.5). Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that these isolates were related most closely to the type strain of Alicyclobacillus pomorum (91% similarity). Growth occurred in the presence of ferrous iron at micromolar concentrations and acid was produced from various sugars. Iso-branched fatty acids C(15:0) (45.56%) and C(17:0) (35.81%) were the most abundant cellular fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 55.1 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, it is concluded that these strains represent a novel species of the genus Alicyclobacillus, for which the name Alicyclobacillus pohliae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MP4(T) (=CIP 109385(T) =NCIMB 14276(T)).

  15. Gas production from a cold, stratigraphically-bounded gas hydrate deposit at the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope: Implications of uncertainties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moridis, G.J.; Silpngarmlert, S.; Reagan, M.T.; Collett, T.; Zhang, K.

    2011-01-01

    As part of an effort to identify suitable targets for a planned long-term field test, we investigate by means of numerical simulation the gas production potential from unit D, a stratigraphically bounded (Class 3) permafrost-associated hydrate occurrence penetrated in the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well on North Slope, Alaska. This shallow, low-pressure deposit has high porosities (?? = 0.4), high intrinsic permeabilities (k = 10-12 m2) and high hydrate saturations (SH = 0.65). It has a low temperature (T = 2.3-2.6 ??C) because of its proximity to the overlying permafrost. The simulation results indicate that vertical wells operating at a constant bottomhole pressure would produce at very low rates for a very long period. Horizontal wells increase gas production by almost two orders of magnitude, but production remains low. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the initial deposit temperature is by the far the most important factor determining production performance (and the most effective criterion for target selection) because it controls the sensible heat available to fuel dissociation. Thus, a 1 ??C increase in temperature is sufficient to increase the production rate by a factor of almost 8. Production also increases with a decreasing hydrate saturation (because of a larger effective permeability for a given k), and is favored (to a lesser extent) by anisotropy. ?? 2010.

  16. Gas hydrate characterization and grain-scale imaging of recovered cores from the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stern, Laura A.; Lorenson, T.D.; Pinkston, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Using cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (CSEM), powder X-ray diffraction, and gas chromatography methods, we investigated the physical states, grain characteristics, gas composition, and methane isotopic composition of two gas-hydrate-bearing sections of core recovered from the BPXA–DOE–USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well situated on the Alaska North Slope. The well was continuously cored from 606.5 m to 760.1 m depth, and sections investigated here were retrieved from 619.9 m and 661.0 m depth. X-ray analysis and imaging of the sediment phase in both sections shows it consists of a predominantly fine-grained and well-sorted quartz sand with lesser amounts of feldspar, muscovite, and minor clays. Cryogenic SEM shows the gas-hydrate phase forming primarily as a pore-filling material between the sediment grains at approximately 70–75% saturation, and more sporadically as thin veins typically several tens of microns in diameter. Pore throat diameters vary, but commonly range 20–120 microns. Gas chromatography analyses of the hydrate-forming gas show that it is comprised of mainly methane (>99.9%), indicating that the gas hydrate is structure I. Here we report on the distribution and articulation of the gas-hydrate phase within the cores, the grain morphology of the hydrate, the composition of the sediment host, and the composition of the hydrate-forming gas.

  17. Evaluation of Montanide ISA 71 VG adjuvant during profilin vaccination against experimental coccidiosis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chickens were immunized subcutaneously with an Eimeria recombinant profilin protein plus ISA 70 VG (ISA 70) or ISA 71 VG (ISA 71) water-in-oil adjuvants, or with profilin alone, and comparative RNA microarray hybridizations were performed to ascertain global transcriptome changes induced by profilin...

  18. The ISA accelerometer for BepiColombo mission .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, V.; Fiorenza, E.; Lefevre, C.; Nozzoli, S.; Peron, R.; Reale, A.; Santoli, F.

    The Italian Spring Accelerometer (ISA) will give a fundamental contribution to the Radio Science Experiments of BepiColombo mission, enabling substantial improvement of the knowledge of Mercury's orbit and rotation, and of the relativistic dynamics in the solar system. ISA is a three-axis accelerometer devoted to the measurement of the non-gravitational acceleration of Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO), whose knowledge is important in order to fully exploit the quality of the tracking data. ISA shall have an intrinsic noise level of (10^{-9} m/s^2/&sqrt;{Hz}) in the (3 \\cdot 10^{-5}) Hz to (10^{-1}) Hz frequency range, to guarantee the fulfilment of the RSE scientific goals. A comprehensive presentation of ISA accelerometer is given, including details about its scientific and technological features, the updated measurement error budget, the ongoing experimental activities and foreseen calibration and science operations strategies.

  19. Integrated Sensor Architecture (ISA) for Live Virtual Constructive (LVC) environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulton, Christine L.; Harkrider, Susan; Harrell, John; Hepp, Jared

    2014-06-01

    The Integrated Sensor Architecture (ISA) is an interoperability solution that allows for the sharing of information between sensors and systems in a dynamic tactical environment. The ISA created a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) that identifies common standards and protocols which support a net-centric system of systems integration. Utilizing a common language, these systems are able to connect, publish their needs and capabilities, and interact with other systems even on disadvantaged networks. Within the ISA project, three levels of interoperability were defined and implemented and these levels were tested at many events. Extensible data models and capabilities that are scalable across multi-echelons are supported, as well as dynamic discovery of capabilities and sensor management. The ISA has been tested and integrated with multiple sensors, platforms, and over a variety of hardware architectures in operational environments.

  20. The ISAS Synchrotron Microprobe at DELTA

    SciTech Connect

    Bohlen, Alex von; Kraemer, Markus; Hergenroeder, Roland; Berges, Ulf

    2007-01-19

    Since 2004 ISAS operates a dipole beamline at the synchrotron radiation facility DELTA at University of Dortmund. Synchrotron radiation is used at this beamline as an excellent excitation source for X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). Among others, the high brilliance of the synchrotron radiation in contrast to conventional X-ray tubes, the strong polarization of the synchrotron radiation and the low divergence of the electron beam can be applied to XRF offering several advantages for spectroscopy. These outstanding features encouraged us to develop and operate a synchrotron radiation induced X-ray micro fluorescence probe connected to a wavelength dispersive spectrometer (SR-WDXRF). A relevant characteristic of such a device, namely, good lateral resolution at high spectral resolution can be applied for single spot-, line-scan and area map analyses of a variety of objects. The instrumentation of the SR-WDXRF and the performed experiments will be presented. Main task is the detection of light elements by their fluorescence K-lines and the specification of element compounds.

  1. ISAS: interferometric stratospheric astrometry for solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, M.; Fienga, A.; Lattanzi, M. G.; Riva, A.; Vecchiato, A.; Gallieni, D.; Chaillot, S.; Ligori, S.; Loreggia, D.

    2012-09-01

    The Interferometric Stratospheric Astrometry for Solar system (ISAS) project is designed for high precision astrometry on the brightest planets of the Solar System, with reference to many field stars, at the milli-arcsec (mas) level or better. The science goal is the improvement on our knowledge of the dynamics of the Solar System, complementing the Gaia observations of fainter objects. The technical goal is the validation of basic concepts for the proposed Gamma Astrometric Measurement Experiment (GAME) space mission, in particular, combination of Fizeau interferometry and coronagraphic techniques by means of pierced mirrors, intermediate angle dual field astrometry, smart focal plane management for increased dynamic range and pointing correction. We discuss the suitability of the stratospheric environment, close to space conditions, to the astrometric requirements. The instrument concept is a multiple field, multiple aperture Fizeau interferometer, observing simultaneously four fields, in order to improve on the available number of reference stars. Coronagraphic solutions are introduced to allow observation of internal planets (Mercury and Venus), as well as of external planets over a large fraction of their orbit, i.e. also close to conjunction with the Sun. We describe the science motivation, the proposed experiment profile and the expected performance.

  2. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA’s decision on retaining or revising the current secondary standards for NO2, SO2, PM 2.5 and PM 10 since the prior release of the assessment. The intent of the ISA, according to the CAA, is to “accurately reflect the latest scientific knowledge expected from the presence of [a] pollutant in ambient air” (U.S. Code, 1970a, 1970b). It includes scientific research from atmospheric sciences, exposure and deposition, biogeochemistry, hydrology, soil science, marine science, plant physiology, animal physiology, and ecology conducted at multiple scales (e.g., population, community, ecosystem, landscape levels). Key information and judgments formerly found in the Air Quality Criteria Documents (AQCDs) for oxides of nitrogen, oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter for ecological effects are included; Appendixes provide additional details supporting the ISA. Together, the ISA and Appendixes serve to update and revise the last oxides of nitrogen and oxides of sulfur ISA which was published in 2008 and the ecological portion of the last particulate matter ISA, which was published in 2009.

  3. Mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, Thomas C.; Bender, Donald A.

    1994-01-01

    A unique lens or mirror mount having adjustable constraints at two key locations to allow for "X" and "Y" tilts of the mirror only. The device uses two pair of flexures of a type such that the pivots of the mirror gimble are rigidly fixed in all planes allowing the device to have zero stacking tolerance and zero wear over time.

  4. Mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, T.C.; Bender, D.A.

    1994-10-04

    A unique lens or mirror mount having adjustable constraints at two key locations to allow for ''X'' and ''Y'' tilts of the mirror only is disclosed. The device uses two pair of flexures of a type such that the pivots of the mirror gimble are rigidly fixed in all planes allowing the device to have zero stacking tolerance and zero wear over time. 4 figs.

  5. Adapting ISA system warnings to enhance user acceptance.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Felipe; Liang, Yingzhen; Aparicio, Francisco

    2012-09-01

    Inappropriate speed is a major cause of traffic accidents. Different measures have been considered to control traffic speed, and intelligent speed adaptation (ISA) systems are one of the alternatives. These systems know the speed limits and try to improve compliance with them. This paper deals with an informative ISA system that provides the driver with an advance warning before reaching a road section with singular characteristics that require a lower safe speed than the current speed. In spite of the extensive tests performed using ISA systems, few works show how warnings can be adapted to the driver. This paper describes a method to adapt warning parameters (safe speed on curves, zone of influence of a singular stretch, deceleration process and reaction time) to normal driving behavior. The method is based on a set of tests with and without the ISA system. This adjustment, as well as the analysis of driver acceptance before and after the adaptation and changes in driver behavior (changes in speed and path) resulting from the tested ISA regarding a driver's normal driving style, is shown in this paper. The main conclusion is that acceptance by drivers increased significantly after redefining the warning parameters, but the effect of speed homogenization was not reduced.

  6. Gas geochemistry of the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope: implications for gas hydrate exploration in the Arctic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenson, T.D.; Collett, T.S.; Hunter, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Gases were analyzed from well cuttings, core, gas hydrate, and formation tests at the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, drilled within the Milne Point Unit, Alaska North Slope. The well penetrated a portion of the Eileen gas hydrate deposit, which overlies the more deeply buried Prudhoe Bay, Milne Point, West Sak, and Kuparuk River oil fields. Gas sources in the upper 200 m are predominantly from microbial sources (C1 isotopic compositions ranging from −86.4 to −80.6‰). The C1 isotopic composition becomes progressively enriched from 200 m to the top of the gas hydrate-bearing sands at 600 m. The tested gas hydrates occur in two primary intervals, units D and C, between 614.0 m and 664.7 m, containing a total of 29.3 m of gas hydrate-bearing sands. The hydrocarbon gases in cuttings and core samples from 604 to 914 m are composed of methane with very little ethane. The isotopic composition of the methane carbon ranges from −50.1 to −43.9‰ with several outliers, generally decreasing with depth. Gas samples collected by the Modular Formation Dynamics Testing (MDT) tool in the hydrate-bearing units were similarly composed mainly of methane, with up to 284 ppm ethane. The methane isotopic composition ranged from −48.2 to −48.0‰ in the C sand and from −48.4 to −46.6‰ in the D sand. Methane hydrogen isotopic composition ranged from −238 to −230‰, with slightly more depleted values in the deeper C sand. These results are consistent with the concept that the Eileen gas hydrates contain a mixture of deep-sourced, microbially biodegraded thermogenic gas, with lesser amounts of thermogenic oil-associated gas, and coal gas. Thermal gases are likely sourced from existing oil and gas accumulations that have migrated up-dip and/or up-fault and formed gas hydrate in response to climate cooling with permafrost formation.

  7. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is announcing that the First External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur – Environmental Criteria has been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA’s decision on retaining or revising the current secondary standards for NO2 and SO2. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA’s decision on retaining or revising the current secondary standards for NO2 and SO2.

  8. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Third External ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced that the Third External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Pb) was made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA’s decision regarding whether the current standards for Pb sufficiently protect public health and the environment. Lead (Pb) is one of six principal (or criteria) pollutants for which EPA has established NAAQS

  9. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (First External ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced that the First External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Pb) was made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA’s decision regarding whether the current standards for Pb sufficiently protect public health and the environment. Lead (Pb) is one of six principal (or criteria) pollutants for which EPA has established NAAQS.

  10. Evaluation of Montanide™ ISA 71 VG adjuvant during profilin vaccination against experimental coccidiosis.

    PubMed

    Jang, Seung I; Kim, Duk Kyung; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Lee, Sung Hyen; Lee, Kyung Woo; Bertrand, François; Dupuis, Laurent; Deville, Sébastien; Ben Arous, Juliette; Lillehoj, Erik P

    2013-01-01

    Chickens were immunized subcutaneously with an Eimeria recombinant profilin protein plus Montanide™ ISA 70 VG (ISA 70) or Montanide™ ISA 71 VG (ISA 71) water-in-oil adjuvants, or with profilin alone, and comparative RNA microarray hybridizations were performed to ascertain global transcriptome changes induced by profilin/ISA 70 vs. profilin alone and by profilin/ISA 71 vs. profilin alone. While immunization with profilin/ISA 70 vs. profilin alone altered the levels of more total transcripts compared with profilin/ISA 71 vs. profilin alone (509 vs. 296), the latter was associated with a greater number of unique biological functions, and a larger number of genes within these functions, compared with the former. Further, canonical pathway analysis identified 10 pathways that were associated with genes encoding the altered transcripts in animals immunized with profilin/ISA 71 vs. profilin alone, compared with only 2 pathways in profilin/ISA 70 vs. profilin alone. Therefore, ISA 71 was selected as a candidate adjuvant in conjunction with profilin vaccination for in vivo disease protection studies. Vaccination with profilin/ISA 71 was associated with greater body weight gain following E. acervulina infection, and decreased parasite fecal shedding after E. maxima infection, compared with profilin alone. Anti-profilin antibody levels were higher in sera of E. maxima- and E. tenella-infected chickens vaccinated with profilin/ISA 71 compared with profilin alone. Finally, the levels of transcripts encoding interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-10, and IL-17A were increased in intestinal lymphocytes from E. acervulina-, E. maxima-, and/or E. tenella-infected chickens vaccinated with profilin/ISA 71 compared with profilin alone. None of these effects were seen in chickens injected with ISA 71 alone indicating that the adjuvant was not conferring non-specific immune stimulation. These results suggest that profilin plus ISA 71 augments protective immunity against selective

  11. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Final Report, Jul 2013)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Pb). This document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA’s decision regard...

  12. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Final Report, Jul 2013)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Pb). This document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA’s decision regard...

  13. 2008 Final Report: Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has released the final report, Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur - Ecological Criteria. This final ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA's decision on retaining or revising the current secondary standards for NO2 and SO2. The intent of the ISA, according to the CAA, is to “accurately reflect the latest scientific knowledge expected from the presence of [a] pollutant in ambient air” (U.S. Code, 1970a, 1970b). It includes scientific research from atmospheric sciences, exposure and deposition, biogeochemistry, hydrology, soil science, marine science, plant physiology, animal physiology, and ecology conducted at multiple scales (e.g., population, community, ecosystem, landscape levels). Key information and judgments formerly found in the Air Quality Criteria Documents (AQCDs) for NOX and SOX are included; Annexes provide a more detailed discussion of the most pertinent scientific literature. Together, the ISA and Annexes serve to update and revise the last NOX and SOX AQCDs which were published in 1993 and 1982, respectively.

  14. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen – Health Criteria has been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA’s decision regarding whether the current standard for NO2 sufficiently protects public health. The Clean Air Act (CAA) requires EPA to periodically review and revise, as appropriate, existing air quality criteria and NAAQS. The CAA also requires an independent scientific committee to review the criteria and to advise the Administrator regarding any recommended revisions to the existing criteria and standards, as may be appropriate. The Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) of EPA’s Science Advisory Board serves as this independent scientific committee. The ISA is one of the four major elements of the NAAQS review process that will inform the Agency’s final decisions; other components of the process are an integrated plan highlighting the key policy-relevant issues; a risk/exposure assessment; and an advance notice of proposed rulemaking (ANPRM) reflecting the Agency’s views regarding options to retain or revise the NOx NAAQS based on the evaluation of key information contained in the ISA and Risk/Exposure Assessment, as well as additional appropriate technical analysis.

  15. 2008 Final Report: Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Sulfur Oxides – Health Criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    isa_cover.jpg" vspace = "2" hspace="2" align="right" width="195" height="277" border="1" alt="Cover of the SOx ISA 2008 Report"> EPA has announced the release of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Su...

  16. Regional long-term production modeling from a single well test, Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Brian J.; Kurihara, Masanori; White, Mark D.; Moridis, George J.; Wilson, Scott J.; Pooladi-Darvish, Mehran; Gaddipati, Manohar; Masuda, Yoshihiro; Collett, Timothy S.; Hunter, Robert B.; Narita, Hideo; Rose, Kelly; Boswell, Ray

    2011-02-01

    Following the results from the open-hole formation pressure response test in the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well (Mount Elbert well) using Schlumberger's Modular Dynamics Formation Tester (MDT) wireline tool, the International Methane Hydrate Reservoir Simulator Code Comparison project performed long-term reservoir simulations on three different model reservoirs. These descriptions were based on 1) the Mount Elbert gas hydrate accumulation as delineated by an extensive history-matching exercise, 2) an estimation of the hydrate accumulation near the Prudhoe Bay L-pad, and 3) a reservoir that would be down-dip of the Prudhoe Bay L-pad and therefore warmer and deeper. All of these simulations were based, in part, on the results of the MDT results from the Mount Elbert Well. The comparison group's consensus value for the initial permeability of the hydrate-filled reservoir (k = 0.12 mD) and the permeability model based on the MDT history match were used as the basis for subsequent simulations on the three regional scenarios. The simulation results of the five different simulation codes, CMG STARS, HydrateResSim, MH-21 HYDRES, STOMP-HYD, and TOUGH+HYDRATE exhibit good qualitative agreement and the variability of potential methane production rates from gas hydrate reservoirs is illustrated. As expected, the predicted methane production rate increased with increasing in situ reservoir temperature; however, a significant delay in the onset of rapid hydrate dissociation is observed for a cold, homogeneous reservoir and it is found to be repeatable. The inclusion of reservoir heterogeneity in the description of this cold reservoir is shown to eliminate this delayed production. Overall, simulations utilized detailed information collected across the Mount Elbert reservoir either obtained or determined from geophysical well logs, including thickness (37 ft), porosity (35%), hydrate saturation (65%), intrinsic permeability (1000 mD), pore water

  17. Regional long-term production modeling from a single well test, Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, B.J.; Kurihara, M.; White, M.D.; Moridis, G.J.; Wilson, S.J.; Pooladi-Darvish, M.; Gaddipati, M.; Masuda, Y.; Collett, T.S.; Hunter, R.B.; Narita, H.; Rose, K.; Boswell, R.

    2011-01-01

    Following the results from the open-hole formation pressure response test in the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well (Mount Elbert well) using Schlumberger's Modular Dynamics Formation Tester (MDT) wireline tool, the International Methane Hydrate Reservoir Simulator Code Comparison project performed long-term reservoir simulations on three different model reservoirs. These descriptions were based on 1) the Mount Elbert gas hydrate accumulation as delineated by an extensive history-matching exercise, 2) an estimation of the hydrate accumulation near the Prudhoe Bay L-pad, and 3) a reservoir that would be down-dip of the Prudhoe Bay L-pad and therefore warmer and deeper. All of these simulations were based, in part, on the results of the MDT results from the Mount Elbert Well. The comparison group's consensus value for the initial permeability of the hydrate-filled reservoir (k = 0.12 mD) and the permeability model based on the MDT history match were used as the basis for subsequent simulations on the three regional scenarios. The simulation results of the five different simulation codes, CMG STARS, HydrateResSim, MH-21 HYDRES, STOMP-HYD, and TOUGH+HYDRATE exhibit good qualitative agreement and the variability of potential methane production rates from gas hydrate reservoirs is illustrated. As expected, the predicted methane production rate increased with increasing in situ reservoir temperature; however, a significant delay in the onset of rapid hydrate dissociation is observed for a cold, homogeneous reservoir and it is found to be repeatable. The inclusion of reservoir heterogeneity in the description of this cold reservoir is shown to eliminate this delayed production. Overall, simulations utilized detailed information collected across the Mount Elbert reservoir either obtained or determined from geophysical well logs, including thickness (37 ft), porosity (35%), hydrate saturation (65%), intrinsic permeability (1000 mD), pore water

  18. Replacement of the Endogenous Starch Debranching Enzymes ISA1 and ISA2 of Arabidopsis with the Rice Orthologs Reveals a Degree of Functional Conservation during Starch Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Streb, Sebastian; Zeeman, Samuel C.

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the interchangeability of enzymes in starch metabolism between dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plant species. Amylopectin - a branched glucose polymer - is the major component of starch and is responsible for its semi-crystalline property. Plants synthesize starch with distinct amylopectin structures, varying between species and tissues. The structure determines starch properties, an important characteristic for cooking and nutrition, and for the industrial uses of starch. Amylopectin synthesis involves at least three enzyme classes: starch synthases, branching enzymes and debranching enzymes. For all three classes, several enzyme isoforms have been identified. However, it is not clear which enzyme(s) are responsible for the large diversity of amylopectin structures. Here, we tested whether the specificities of the debranching enzymes (ISA1 and ISA2) are major determinants of species-dependent differences in amylopectin structure by replacing the dicotyledonous Arabidopsis isoamylases (AtISA1 and AtISA2) with the monocotyledonous rice (Oryza sativa) isoforms. We demonstrate that the ISA1 and ISA2 are sufficiently well conserved between these species to form heteromultimeric chimeric Arabidopsis/rice isoamylase enzymes. Furthermore, we were able to reconstitute the endosperm-specific rice OsISA1 homomultimeric complex in Arabidopsis isa1isa2 mutants. This homomultimer was able to facilitate normal rates of starch synthesis. The resulting amylopectin structure had small but significant differences in comparison to wild-type Arabidopsis amylopectin. This suggests that ISA1 and ISA2 have a conserved function between plant species with a major role in facilitating the crystallization of pre-amylopectin synthesized by starch synthases and branching enzymes, but also influencing the final structure of amylopectin. PMID:24642810

  19. Collisions in space: A retrospective overview of ISAS studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uesugi, K.

    A chronological review of studies in ISAS concerning collisions in space is presented. The collision probability in space with artificial orbiting bodies was estimated, and a Space Traffic Control System was proposed, in 1971. The design of a space station for safety against collision hazards was discussed in 1972. A trajectory optimization technique for low-thrust multiple rendezvous mission in order ti sweep space debris around the earth was developed in 1977. In 1984, the collision probability was reestimated using space bedris data accumulated for more than a decade. Several experimental projects in ISAS, such as hypervelocity impact experiments using a railgun system, sampling and measuring of alumina particles in exhaust plume of solid-propellant propellant rocket motors, and a result of analysis on the behavior of such alumina particles in orbit are also introduced.

  20. Integrated Sensor Architecture (ISA) for Live Virtual Constructive (LVC) Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    of information between sensors and systems in a dynamic tactical environment. The ISA created a Service Oriented Architecture ( SOA ) that identifies...interoperability were defined and implemented and these levels were tested at many events. Extensible data models and capabilities that are scalable...uniformly considered essential in DoD programs7 they are rarely -- implemented while a system is being designed. Adding such measures afterwards can be a

  1. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Final Report ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Pb). This document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA’s decision regarding whether the current standards for Pb sufficiently protect public health and the environment. Lead (Pb) is one of six principal (or criteria) pollutants for which EPA has established NAAQS

  2. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Final Report ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Pb). This document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA’s decision regarding whether the current standards for Pb sufficiently protect public health and the environment. Lead (Pb) is one of six principal (or criteria) pollutants for which EPA has established NAAQS

  3. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur - Ecological Criteria. This document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA's decision on retaining or revising the current secondary standards for oxides of nitrogen (NO2 and SO2). The intent of the ISA, according to the CAA, is to “accurately reflect the latest scientific knowledge expected from the presence of [a] pollutant in ambient air” (U.S. Code, 1970a, 1970b). It includes scientific research from atmospheric sciences, exposure and deposition, biogeochemistry, hydrology, soil science, marine science, plant physiology, animal physiology, and ecology conducted at multiple scales (e.g., population, community, ecosystem, landscape levels). Key information and judgments formerly found in the Air Quality Criteria Documents (AQCDs) for NOX and SOX are included; Annexes provide a more detailed discussion of the most pertinent scientific literature. Together, the ISA and Annexes serve to update and revise the last NOX and SOX AQCDs which were published in 1993 and 1982, respectively.

  4. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This draft document provides EPA’s evaluation and synthesis of the most policy-relevant science related to the health effects of oxides of nitrogen. When final, it will provide a critical part of the scientific foundation for EPA’s decision regarding the adequacy of the current primary (health-based) national ambient air quality standards for nitrogen dioxide. The references considered for inclusion in or cited in the first and second external review drafts of the ISA are available at http://hero.epa.gov/oxides-of-nitrogen. The Clean Air Act (CAA) requires EPA to periodically review and revise, as appropriate, existing air quality criteria and NAAQS. The CAA also requires an independent scientific committee to review the criteria and to advise the Administrator regarding any recommended revisions to the existing criteria and standards, as may be appropriate. The Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) of EPA’s Science Advisory Board serves as this independent scientific committee. The ISA is one of the four major elements of the NAAQS review process that will inform the Agency’s final decisions; other components of the process are an integrated plan highlighting the key policy-relevant issues; a risk/exposure assessment if warranted; and an advance notice of proposed rulemaking (ANPRM) reflecting the Agency’s views regarding options to retain or revise the NO2 NAAQS based on the evaluation of key information contained in the ISA and Risk/Ex

  5. Mount St. Helens Rebirth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The catastrophic eruption of Mt. St. Helens 20 years ago today (on May 18, 1980), ranks among the most important natural events of the twentieth century in the United States. Because Mt. St. Helens is in a remote area of the Cascades Mountains, only a few people were killed by the eruption, but property damage and destruction totaled in the billions of dollars. Mount St. Helens is an example of a composite or stratovolcano. These are explosive volcanoes that are generally steep-sided, symmetrical cones built up by the accumulation of debris from previous eruptions and consist of alternating layers of lava flows, volcanic ash and cinder. Some of the most photographed mountains in the world are stratovolcanoes, including Mount Fuji in Japan, Mount Cotopaxi in Ecuador, Mount Hood in Oregon, and Mount Rainier in Washington. The recently erupting Mount Usu on the island of Hokkaido in Japan is also a stratovolcano. Stratovolcanoes are characterized by having plumbing systems that move magma from a chamber deep within the Earth's crust to vents at the surface. The height of Mt. St. Helens was reduced from about 2950 m (9677 ft) to about 2550 m (8364 ft) as a result of the explosive eruption on the morning of May 18. The eruption sent a column of dust and ash upwards more than 25 km into the atmosphere, and shock waves from the blast knocked down almost every tree within 10 km of the central crater. Massive avalanches and mudflows, generated by the near-instantaneous melting of deep snowpacks on the flanks of the mountain, devastated an area more than 20 km to the north and east of the former summit, and rivers choked with all sorts of debris were flooded more than 100 km away. The area of almost total destruction was about 600 sq. km. Ash from the eruption cloud was rapidly blown to the northeast and east producing lightning which started many small forest fires. An erie darkness caused by the cloud enveloped the landscape more than 200 km from the blast area, and ash

  6. The effect of isosaccharinic acid (ISA) on the mobilization of metals in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) dry scrubber residue.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Malin; Berg, Magnus; Ifwer, Karin; Sjöblom, Rolf; Ecke, Holger

    2007-06-01

    Co-landfilling of incineration ash and cellulose might facilitate the alkaline degradation of cellulose. A major degradation product is isosaccharinic acid (ISA), a complexing agent for metals. The impact of ISA on the mobility of Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu and Cd from a municipal solid waste incineration dry scrubber residue was studied at laboratory using a reduced 2(5-1) factorial design. Factors investigated were the amount of calcium isosaccharinate (Ca(ISA)(2)), L/S ratio, temperature, contact time and type of atmosphere (N(2), air, O(2)). The effects of pH and Ca(ISA)(2) as well as other factors on the leaching of metals were quantified and modelled using multiple linear regression (alpha=0.05). Cd was excluded from the study since the concentrations were below the detection limit. The presence of Ca(ISA)(2) resulted in a higher leaching of Cu indicating complex formation. Ca(ISA)(2) alone had no effect on the leaching of Pb, Zn and Cr. A secondary effect on the mobilization was predicted to occur since Ca(ISA)(2) had a positive effect on the pH and the leaching of Pb, Zn and Cr increased with increasing pH. The leaching of Pb varied from 24 up to 66 wt.% of the total Pb amount (1.74+/-0.02 g(kgTS)(-1)) in the dry scrubber residue. The corresponding interval for Zn (7.29+/-0.07 g(kgTS)(-1)) and Cu (0.50+/-0.02 g(kgTS)(-1)) were 0.5-14 wt.% of Zn and 0.8-70wt.% of Cu. Maximum leaching of Cr (0.23+/-0.03 g(kgTS)(-1)) was 4.0 wt.%. At conditions similar to a compacted and covered landfill (4 degrees C, 7 days, 0 vol.% O(2)) the presence of ISA can increase the leaching of Cu from 2 to 46 wt.% if the amount of cellulose-based waste increases 20 times, from the ratio 1:100 to 1:5. As well, the leaching of Pb, Zn, and Cr can increase from 32 to 54 wt.% (Pb), 0.8-8.0 wt.% (Zn), and 0.5 to 4.0 wt.% (Cr) depending on the amount of cellulose and L/S ratio and pH value. Therefore, a risk (alpha=0.05) exists that higher amounts of metals are leached from landfills where cellulose

  7. Pay as You Speed, ISA with incentive for not speeding: results and interpretation of speed data.

    PubMed

    Lahrmann, Harry; Agerholm, Niels; Tradisauskas, Nerius; Berthelsen, Kasper K; Harms, Lisbeth

    2012-09-01

    To simulate a market introduction of Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) and to study the effect of a Pay as You Speed (PAYS) concept, a field trial with 153 drivers was conducted during 2007-2009. The participants drove under PAYS conditions for a shorter or a longer period. The PAYS concept consisted of informative ISA linked with economic incentive for not speeding, measured through automatic count of penalty points whenever the speed limit was exceeded. The full incentive was set to 30% of a participant's insurance premium. The participants were exposed to different treatments, with and without incentive crossed with informative ISA present or absent. The results showed that ISA is an efficient tool for reducing speeding particularly on rural roads. The analysis of speed data demonstrated that the proportion of distance driven above the speed where the ISA equipment responded (PDA) was a sensitive measure for reflecting the effect of ISA, whereas mean free flow speed and the 85th percentile speed, were less sensitive to ISA effects. The PDA increased a little over time but still remained at a low level; however, when ISA was turned off, the participants' speeding relapsed to the baseline level. Both informative ISA and incentive ISA reduced the PDA, but there was no statistically significant interaction. Informative reduced it more than the incentive.

  8. IsaB inhibits autophagic flux to promote host transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pei-Feng; Cheng, Jin-Shiung; Sy, Cheng-Len; Huang, Wei-Chun; Yang, Hsiu-Chen; Gallo, Richard L.; Huang, Chun-Ming; Shu, Chih-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a major nosocomial pathogen that is widespread in both health care facilities and the community at large as a result of direct host-to-host transmission. Several virulence factors are associated with pathogen transmission to naive hosts. Immunodominant surface antigen B (IsaB) is a virulence factor that helps Staphylococcus aureus to evade the host defense system. However, the mechanism of IsaB on host transmissibility remains unclear. We found that IsaB expression was elevated in transmissible MRSA. Wild-type isaB strains inhibited autophagic flux to promote bacterial survival and elicit inflammation in THP-1 cells and mouse skin. MRSA isolates with increased IsaB expression showed decreased autophagic flux, and the MRSA isolate with the lowest IsaB expression showed increased autophagic flux. In addition, recombinant IsaB rescued the virulence of the isaB deletion strain and increased the Group A streptococcus (GAS) virulence in vivo. Together, these results reveal that IsaB diminishes autophagic flux, thereby allowing MRSA to evade host degradation. These findings suggest that IsaB is a suitable target for preventing or treating MRSA infection. PMID:26134948

  9. BATON ROUGE NATIONAL CEMETERY PLAQUE MOUNTED ON BASE OF FLAGPOLE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BATON ROUGE NATIONAL CEMETERY PLAQUE MOUNTED ON BASE OF FLAGPOLE, WITH NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES PLAQUE AT RIGHT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Baton Rouge National Cemetery, 220 North 19th Street, Baton Rouge, East Baton Rouge Parish, LA

  10. Rebuilding Mount St. Helens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, Steve P.; Ramsey, David W.; Messerich, James A.; Thompson, Ren A.

    2006-01-01

    On May 18, 1980, Mount St. Helens, Washington exploded in a spectacular and devastating eruption that shocked the world. The eruption, one of the most powerful in the history of the United States, removed 2.7 cubic kilometers of rock from the volcano's edifice, the bulk of which had been constructed by nearly 4,000 years of lava-dome-building eruptions. In seconds, the mountain's summit elevation was lowered from 2,950 meters to 2,549 meters, leaving a north-facing, horseshoe-shaped crater over 2 kilometers wide. Following the 1980 eruption, Mount St. Helens remained active. A large lava dome began episodically extruding in the center of the volcano's empty crater. This dome-building eruption lasted until 1986 and added about 80 million cubic meters of rock to the volcano. During the two decades following the May 18, 1980 eruption, Crater Glacier formed tongues of ice around the east and west sides of the lava dome in the deeply shaded niche between the lava dome and the south crater wall. Long the most active volcano in the Cascade Range with a complex 300,000-year history, Mount St. Helens erupted again in the fall of 2004 as a new period of dome building began within the 1980 crater. Between October 2004 and February 2006, about 80 million cubic meters of dacite lava erupted immediately south of the 1980-86 lava dome. The erupting lava separated the glacier into two parts, first squeezing the east arm of the glacier against the east crater wall and then causing equally spectacular crevassing and broad uplift of the glacier's west arm. Vertical aerial photographs document dome growth and glacier deformation. These photographs enabled photogrammetric construction of a series of high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) showing changes from October 4, 2004 to February 9, 2006. From the DEMs, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications were used to estimate extruded volumes and growth rates of the new lava dome. The DEMs were also used to quantify dome

  11. ISA implementation and uncertainty: a literature review and expert elicitation study.

    PubMed

    van der Pas, J W G M; Marchau, V A W J; Walker, W E; van Wee, G P; Vlassenroot, S H

    2012-09-01

    Each day, an average of over 116 people die from traffic accidents in the European Union. One out of three fatalities is estimated to be the result of speeding. The current state of technology makes it possible to make speeding more difficult, or even impossible, by placing intelligent speed limiters (so called ISA devices) in vehicles. Although the ISA technology has been available for some years now, and reducing the number of road traffic fatalities and injuries has been high on the European political agenda, implementation still seems to be far away. Experts indicate that there are still too many uncertainties surrounding ISA implementation, and dealing with these uncertainties is essential for implementing ISA. In this paper, a systematic and representative inventory of the uncertainties is made based upon the literature. Furthermore, experts in the field of ISA were surveyed and asked which uncertainties are barriers for ISA implementation, and how uncertain these uncertainties are. We found that the long-term effects and the effects of large-scale implementation of ISA are still uncertain and are the most important barriers for the implementation of the most effective types of ISA. One way to deal with these uncertainties would be to start implementation on a small scale and gradually expand the penetration, in order to learn how ISA influences the transport system over time.

  12. Research and development of space transportation systems in ISAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onoda, Junjirou

    1993-03-01

    An overview of the research and development activities in the ISAS (the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science) focusing on the Mu-5 launch vehicle, the winged space vehicle, and the ATR (Air Turbo Ramjet) engine is presented. The design guidelines, characteristics, dimensions, and subsystems, such as rocket motor, nose fairing, and attitude control subsystem of the Mu-5 launch vehicle, one of the versions of Mu series rocket, which is capable of launching 1.8 tons of payload into LEO (Low Earth Orbit) are outlined. The research and development activities on winged space vehicle called the HIMES (Highly Maneuverable Experimental Space) Vehicle and the ATR propulsion system are outlined.

  13. A dual infection of infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) virus and a togavirus-like virus in ISA of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in New Brunswick, Canada.

    PubMed

    Kibenge, F S; Whyte, S K; Hammell, K L; Rainnie, D; Kibenge, M T; Martin, C K

    2000-08-10

    Two viruses, infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) virus and a novel togavirus-like virus, were isolated from ISA disease outbreaks that were first reported as a new syndrome, haemorrhagic kidney syndrome (HKS) affecting farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. on the East coast of Canada. Laboratory confirmation of ISA diagnosis was initially complicated by isolation of only the togavirus-like agent using the CHSE-214 cell line. Here we demonstrate that a clinical sample from a disease outbreak of ISA contained a mixture of ISA virus and togavirus-like virus. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed the presence of both viruses during serial passage of cultures in SHK-1 and CHSE-214 cells. Virus harvested at passage level 3 in both cell lines caused high mortalities and severe gross pathology consistent with ISA virus infection in experimentally inoculated Atlantic salmon parr (approximately 35 g) in freshwater, beginning 12 d post inoculation. ISA virus was detected by virus isolation from kidney and liver tissues of all dead or moribund fish tested. A comparison of virus isolation, 1-step procedure RT-PCR and RNA dot-blot hybridization for detection of ISA virus (ISAV) in fish tissues showed virus isolation to have 100% sensitivity, followed by RT-PCR (66 and 28% sensitivity in kidney and liver, respectively), with RNA dot-blot hybridization as the least sensitive method (20 and 10% sensitivity in kidney and liver, respectively). No togavirus-like virus was detected in these samples by virus isolation. Moreover, another togavirus-like virus isolate grown in CHSE-214 cells in the absence of any other detectable pathogen was non-pathogenic in experimentally inoculated fish. This study confirms that the original ISA outbreaks in New Brunswick, Canada, were caused solely by ISAV.

  14. Chemical characteristics of PM1/PM2.5 and influence on visual range at the summit of Mount Tai, North China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tong; Yang, Lingxiao; Yan, Weida; Zhang, Junmei; Lu, Wei; Yang, Yumeng; Chen, Jianmin; Wang, Wenxing

    2017-01-01

    Daytime and night-time PM1 and PM2.5 samples were simultaneously collected at the summit of Mount Tai during summer and autumn 2014. The mass concentrations and chemical compositions were analysed to determine the temporal variations of PM1 and PM2.5 and their contributions to visibility impairment. In summer, the average mass concentrations of PM1 and PM2.5 were 38.16μg/m(3) and 53.33μg/m(3), respectively. In autumn, the values were 42.75μg/m(3) and 59.16μg/m(3). Water-soluble inorganic ions were the most abundant species in both PM1 and PM2.5, followed by organic mass (OM). Among the major water-soluble ions, SO4(2-) and NH4(+) had higher concentrations in summer than in autumn, whereas the concentration of NO3(-) showed the opposite seasonal trend. Lower concentrations of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) were obtained in summer than in autumn. The water-soluble components (SO4(2-), NO3(-), NH4(+) and WSOC) showed a clear diurnal variation due to the specific meteorological conditions of Mount Tai. The water content in PM1 and PM2.5 was enhanced by the water-soluble components, especially NH4NO3. The decreased visibility resulted from the combined influence of particulate matter and relative humidity (RH). The threshold PM2.5 concentration corresponding to a visibility of <10km was 56.60μg/m(3), which decreased with an increase in RH. A revised IMPROVE equation was applied to estimate the light-extinction coefficient bext, which was found to be lower for these chemicals in autumn (364Mm(-1)) than in summer (482Mm(-1)). (NH4)2SO4 made the largest contribution to bext in both summer and autumn, with an average rate of 56.97%. OM (17.32%) and NH4NO3 (15.13%) were also important contributors, with similar contribution rates. The contribution of NH4NO3 to bext was higher during summer, and OM contributions were higher during autumn. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. In-situ gas hydrate hydrate saturation estimated from various well logs at the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, M.W.; Collett, T.S.

    2011-01-01

    In 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed detailed analysis and interpretation of available 2-D and 3-D seismic data and proposed a viable method for identifying sub-permafrost gas hydrate prospects within the gas hydrate stability zone in the Milne Point area of northern Alaska. To validate the predictions of the USGS and to acquire critical reservoir data needed to develop a long-term production testing program, a well was drilled at the Mount Elbert prospect in February, 2007. Numerous well log data and cores were acquired to estimate in-situ gas hydrate saturations and reservoir properties.Gas hydrate saturations were estimated from various well logs such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), P- and S-wave velocity, and electrical resistivity logs along with pore-water salinity. Gas hydrate saturations from the NMR log agree well with those estimated from P- and S-wave velocity data. Because of the low salinity of the connate water and the low formation temperature, the resistivity of connate water is comparable to that of shale. Therefore, the effect of clay should be accounted for to accurately estimate gas hydrate saturations from the resistivity data. Two highly gas hydrate-saturated intervals are identified - an upper ???43 ft zone with an average gas hydrate saturation of 54% and a lower ???53 ft zone with an average gas hydrate saturation of 50%; both zones reach a maximum of about 75% saturation. ?? 2009.

  16. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur - Environmental Criteria has been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA's decision on retaining or revising the current secondary standards for NO2 and SO2. The current secondary NAAQS for SOX, set in 1973, is a 3-h average 0.5 ppm of SO2, not to be exceeded more than once per year. The secondary NOX NAAQS is identical to the primary standard set in 1971: 0.053 ppm NO2 as an annual average. These secondary standards are intended to protect against direct damage to vegetation by exposure to gas-phase NOX or SOX. Acute and chronic exposures to SO2 can have phytotoxic effects on vegetation, such as foliar injury, decreased photosynthesis and decreased growth. Similarly, exposure to sufficient concentrations of NO2, NO, PAN, and HNO3 can cause foliar injury, decreased photosynthesis and decreased growth. In addition, these gas-phase NOX may contribute to N saturation in some areas of the U.S. There is little new evidence overall for direct effects of exposure to gas-phase NOX or SOX on vegetation at current concentrations. However, there is some evidence that vegetation in regions with high concentrations of photochemical oxidants may be affected by HN

  17. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur - Environmental Criteria has been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA's decision on retaining or revising the current secondary standards for NO2 and SO2. The current secondary NAAQS for SOX, set in 1973, is a 3-h average 0.5 ppm of SO2, not to be exceeded more than once per year. The secondary NOX NAAQS is identical to the primary standard set in 1971: 0.053 ppm NO2 as an annual average. These secondary standards are intended to protect against direct damage to vegetation by exposure to gas-phase NOX or SOX. Acute and chronic exposures to SO2 can have phytotoxic effects on vegetation, such as foliar injury, decreased photosynthesis and decreased growth. Similarly, exposure to sufficient concentrations of NO2, NO, PAN, and HNO3 can cause foliar injury, decreased photosynthesis and decreased growth. In addition, these gas-phase NOX may contribute to N saturation in some areas of the U.S. There is little new evidence overall for direct effects of exposure to gas-phase NOX or SOX on vegetation at current concentrations. However, there is some evidence that vegetation in regions with high concentrations of photochemical oxidants may be affected by HN

  18. Improving automation standards via semantic modelling: Application to ISA88.

    PubMed

    Dombayci, Canan; Farreres, Javier; Rodríguez, Horacio; Espuña, Antonio; Graells, Moisès

    2017-03-01

    Standardization is essential for automation. Extensibility, scalability, and reusability are important features for automation software that rely in the efficient modelling of the addressed systems. The work presented here is from the ongoing development of a methodology for semi-automatic ontology construction methodology from technical documents. The main aim of this work is to systematically check the consistency of technical documents and support the improvement of technical document consistency. The formalization of conceptual models and the subsequent writing of technical standards are simultaneously analyzed, and guidelines proposed for application to future technical standards. Three paradigms are discussed for the development of domain ontologies from technical documents, starting from the current state of the art, continuing with the intermediate method presented and used in this paper, and ending with the suggested paradigm for the future. The ISA88 Standard is taken as a representative case study. Linguistic techniques from the semi-automatic ontology construction methodology is applied to the ISA88 Standard and different modelling and standardization aspects that are worth sharing with the automation community is addressed. This study discusses different paradigms for developing and sharing conceptual models for the subsequent development of automation software, along with presenting the systematic consistency checking method.

  19. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This final report provides the U.S. EPA’s evaluation and synthesis of the most policy-relevant science related to the health effects of gaseous oxides of nitrogen. It provides a critical part of the scientific foundation for the U.S. EPA’s decision regarding the adequacy of the current primary (health-based) national ambient air quality standards for nitrogen dioxide. The Clean Air Act (CAA) requires EPA to periodically review and revise, as appropriate, existing air quality criteria and NAAQS. The CAA also requires an independent scientific committee to review the criteria and to advise the Administrator regarding any recommended revisions to the existing criteria and standards, as may be appropriate. The Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) of EPA’s Science Advisory Board serves as this independent scientific committee. The ISA is one of the four major elements of the NAAQS review process that will inform the Agency’s final decisions; other components of the process are an integrated plan highlighting the key policy-relevant issues; a risk/exposure assessment if warranted; and an advance notice of proposed rulemaking (ANPRM) reflecting the Agency’s views regarding options to retain or revise the NO2 NAAQS based on the evaluation of key information contained in the ISA and Risk/Exposure Assessment, as well as additional appropriate technical analysis.

  20. PV module mounting method and mounting assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lenox, Carl J.S.; Johnson, Kurt M.

    2013-04-23

    A method for mounting PV modules to a deck includes selecting PV module layout pattern so that adjacent PV module edges are spaced apart. PV mounting and support assemblies are secured to the deck according to the layout pattern using fasteners extending into the deck. The PV modules are placed on the PV mounting and support assemblies. Retaining elements are located over and secured against the upper peripheral edge surfaces of the PV modules so to secure them to the deck with the peripheral edges of the PV modules spaced apart from the deck. In some examples a PV module mounting assembly, for use on a shingled deck, comprises flashing, a base mountable on the flashing, a deck-penetrating fastener engageable with the base and securable to the deck so to secure the flashing and the base to the shingled deck, and PV module mounting hardware securable to the base.

  1. Examination of core samples from the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope: Effects of retrieval and preservation

    SciTech Connect

    Kneafsey, T.J.; Liu, T.J. H.; Winters, W.; Boswell, R.; Hunter, R.; Collett, T.S.

    2011-06-01

    Collecting and preserving undamaged core samples containing gas hydrates from depth is difficult because of the pressure and temperature changes encountered upon retrieval. Hydrate-bearing core samples were collected at the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well in February 2007. Coring was performed while using a custom oil-based drilling mud, and the cores were retrieved by a wireline. The samples were characterized and subsampled at the surface under ambient winter arctic conditions. Samples thought to be hydrate bearing were preserved either by immersion in liquid nitrogen (LN), or by storage under methane pressure at ambient arctic conditions, and later depressurized and immersed in LN. Eleven core samples from hydrate-bearing zones were scanned using x-ray computed tomography to examine core structure and homogeneity. Features observed include radial fractures, spalling-type fractures, and reduced density near the periphery. These features were induced during sample collection, handling, and preservation. Isotopic analysis of the methane from hydrate in an initially LN-preserved core and a pressure-preserved core indicate that secondary hydrate formation occurred throughout the pressurized core, whereas none occurred in the LN-preserved core, however no hydrate was found near the periphery of the LN-preserved core. To replicate some aspects of the preservation methods, natural and laboratory-made saturated porous media samples were frozen in a variety of ways, with radial fractures observed in some LN-frozen sands, and needle-like ice crystals forming in slowly frozen clay-rich sediments. Suggestions for hydrate-bearing core preservation are presented.

  2. Examination of core samples from the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope: Effects of retrieval and preservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kneafsey, T.J.; Lu, H.; Winters, W.; Boswell, R.; Hunter, R.; Collett, T.S.

    2011-01-01

    Collecting and preserving undamaged core samples containing gas hydrates from depth is difficult because of the pressure and temperature changes encountered upon retrieval. Hydrate-bearing core samples were collected at the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well in February 2007. Coring was performed while using a custom oil-based drilling mud, and the cores were retrieved by a wireline. The samples were characterized and subsampled at the surface under ambient winter arctic conditions. Samples thought to be hydrate bearing were preserved either by immersion in liquid nitrogen (LN), or by storage under methane pressure at ambient arctic conditions, and later depressurized and immersed in LN. Eleven core samples from hydrate-bearing zones were scanned using x-ray computed tomography to examine core structure and homogeneity. Features observed include radial fractures, spalling-type fractures, and reduced density near the periphery. These features were induced during sample collection, handling, and preservation. Isotopic analysis of the methane from hydrate in an initially LN-preserved core and a pressure-preserved core indicate that secondary hydrate formation occurred throughout the pressurized core, whereas none occurred in the LN-preserved core, however no hydrate was found near the periphery of the LN-preserved core. To replicate some aspects of the preservation methods, natural and laboratory-made saturated porous media samples were frozen in a variety of ways, with radial fractures observed in some LN-frozen sands, and needle-like ice crystals forming in slowly frozen clay-rich sediments. Suggestions for hydrate-bearing core preservation are presented.

  3. Formation pressure testing at the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope: Operational summary, history matching, and interpretations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, B.; Hancock, S.; Wilson, S.; Enger, C.; Collett, T.; Boswell, R.; Hunter, R.

    2011-01-01

    In February 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy, BP Exploration (Alaska), and the U.S. Geological Survey, collected open-hole pressure-response data, as well as gas and water sample collection, in a gas hydrate reservoir (the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well) using Schlumberger's Modular Dynamics Formation Tester (MDT) wireline tool. Four such MDT tests, ranging from six to twelve hours duration, and including a series of flow, sampling, and shut-in periods of various durations, were conducted. Locations for the testing were selected based on NMR and other log data to assure sufficient isolation from reservoir boundaries and zones of excess free water. Test stages in which pressure was reduced sufficiently to mobilize free water in the formation (yet not cause gas hydrate dissociation) produced readily interpretable pressure build-up profiles. Build-ups following larger drawdowns consistently showed gas-hydrate dissociation and gas release (as confirmed by optical fluid analyzer data), as well as progressive dampening of reservoir pressure build-up during sequential tests at a given MDT test station.History matches of one multi-stage, 12-h test (the C2 test) were accomplished using five different reservoir simulators: CMG-STARS, HydrateResSim, MH21-HYDRES, STOMP-HYD, and TOUGH. +. HYDRATE. Simulations utilized detailed information collected across the reservoir either obtained or determined from geophysical well logs, including thickness (11.3. m, 37 ft.), porosity (35%), hydrate saturation (65%), both mobile and immobile water saturations, intrinsic permeability (1000 mD), pore water salinity (5 ppt), and formation temperature (3.3-3.9 ??C). This paper will present the approach and preliminary results of the history-matching efforts, including estimates of initial formation permeability and analyses of the various unique features exhibited by the MDT results. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen – Health Criteria (First External Review Draft, 2007)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced that the First External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen – Health Criteria has been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and eva...

  5. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Sulfur Oxides – Health Criteria (First External Review Draft, Sep 2007)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced that the First External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Sulfur Oxides – Health Criteria has been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluatio...

  6. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen – Health Criteria (Second External Review Draft, 2008)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen – Health Criteria has been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation...

  7. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Sulfur Oxides – Health Criteria (Second External Review Draft, May 2008)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Sulfur Oxides – Health Criteria has been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluati...

  8. 2008 Final Report: Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Sulfur Oxides – Health Criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced the release of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Sulfur Oxides – Health Criteria final assessment. This ISA represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EP...

  9. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter (First External Review Draft, Dec 2008)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced that the First External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter and related Annexes have been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and e...

  10. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (First External Review Draft, Mar 2009)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced that the First External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (CO) and related Annexes was made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of th...

  11. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (Second External Review Draft, Sep 2009)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (CO) and related Annexes was made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of t...

  12. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter (Second External Review Draft, Jul 2009)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter (PM) have been made available for independent peer review and public review. The ISA reflects the latest scientific knowledge useful in indicating the kind...

  13. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (First External Review Draft, May 2011)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced that the First External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Pb) was made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ...

  14. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Second External Review Draft, Mar 2012)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Pb) has been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science...

  15. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Third External Review Draft, Nov 2012)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced that the Third External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Pb) was made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ...

  16. 2008 Final Report: Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur Ecological Criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has released the final report, Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur - Ecological Criteria. This final ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scienti...

  17. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Third External Review Draft, Nov 2012)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced that the Third External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Pb) was made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ...

  18. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (First External Review Draft, Mar 2009)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced that the First External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (CO) and related Annexes was made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of th...

  19. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Second External Review Draft, Mar 2012)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Pb) has been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science...

  20. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter (First External Review Draft, Dec 2008)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced that the First External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter and related Annexes have been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and e...

  1. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (First External Review Draft, May 2011)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced that the First External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Pb) was made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ...

  2. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (Second External Review Draft, Sep 2009)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (CO) and related Annexes was made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of t...

  3. ISAS: The Instructional Systems Analysis and Selection Procedures. Part I: Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Kenneth I.; Matlick, Richard K.

    Litton Industries has been investigating methods for analyzing training problems and designing appropriate systems of individualized instruction to address those problems. This work can be referred to as the development of the Instructional Systems Analysis and Selection (ISAS) procedures. ISAS is a collection of questions, comparison matrices,…

  4. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter (Second External Review Draft, Jul 2009)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter (PM) have been made available for independent peer review and public review. The ISA reflects the latest scientific knowledge useful in indicating the kind...

  5. Magnetic core mounting system

    DOEpatents

    Ronning, Jeffrey J.

    2002-01-01

    A mounting apparatus for an electromagnetic device such as a transformer of inductor includes a generally planar metallic plate as a first heat sink, and a metallic mounting cup as a second heat sink. The mounting cup includes a cavity configured to receive the electromagnetic device, the cavity being defined by a base, and an axially-extending annular sidewall extending from the base to a flange portion of the mounting cup. The mounting cup includes first and second passages for allowing the leads of first and second windings of the electromagnetic device to be routed out of the cavity. The cavity is filled with a polyurethane potting resin, and the mounting cup, including the potted electromagnetic device, is mounted to the plate heat sink using fasteners. The mounting cup, which surrounds the electromagnetic device, in combination with the potting resin provides improved thermal transfer to the plate heat sink, as well as providing resistance to vibration and shocks.

  6. 11. OLD BRIDGE AND ROADBED NEAR NORTH FORK VIRGIN RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. OLD BRIDGE AND ROADBED NEAR NORTH FORK VIRGIN RIVER BRIDGE, FACING NORTH - Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Virgin River Bridge, Spanning North Fork of Virgin River on Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Springdale, Washington County, UT

  7. Fixed mount wavefront sensor

    DOEpatents

    Neal, Daniel R.

    2000-01-01

    A rigid mount and method of mounting for a wavefront sensor. A wavefront dissector, such as a lenslet array, is rigidly mounted at a fixed distance relative to an imager, such as a CCD camera, without need for a relay imaging lens therebetween.

  8. Mount St. Helens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of Mount St. Helens was captured one week after the March 8, 2005, ash and steam eruption, the latest activity since the volcano's reawakening in September 2004. The new lava dome in the southeast part of the crater is clearly visible, highlighted by red areas where ASTER's infrared channels detected hot spots from incandescent lava. The new lava dome is 155 meters (500 feet) higher than the old lava dome, and still growing.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 21.9 by 24.4 kilometers (13.6 by 15.1 miles) Location: 46.2 degrees North latitude, 122.2 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 8, 3, and 1 Original Data Resolution

  9. ISA accelerometer onboard the Mercury Planetary Orbiter: error budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, Valerio; Lucchesi, David M.; Nozzoli, Sergio; Santoli, Francesco

    2007-03-01

    We have estimated a preliminary error budget for the Italian Spring Accelerometer (ISA) that will be allocated onboard the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) of the European Space Agency (ESA) space mission to Mercury named BepiColombo. The role of the accelerometer is to remove from the list of unknowns the non-gravitational accelerations that perturb the gravitational trajectory followed by the MPO in the strong radiation environment that characterises the orbit of Mercury around the Sun. Such a role is of fundamental importance in the context of the very ambitious goals of the Radio Science Experiments (RSE) of the BepiColombo mission. We have subdivided the errors on the accelerometer measurements into two main families: (i) the pseudo-sinusoidal errors and (ii) the random errors. The former are characterised by a periodic behaviour with the frequency of the satellite mean anomaly and its higher order harmonic components, i.e., they are deterministic errors. The latter are characterised by an unknown frequency distribution and we assumed for them a noise-like spectrum, i.e., they are stochastic errors. Among the pseudo-sinusoidal errors, the main contribution is due to the effects of the gravity gradients and the inertial forces, while among the random-like errors the main disturbing effect is due to the MPO centre-of-mass displacements produced by the onboard High Gain Antenna (HGA) movements and by the fuel consumption and sloshing. Very subtle to be considered are also the random errors produced by the MPO attitude corrections necessary to guarantee the nadir pointing of the spacecraft. We have therefore formulated the ISA error budget and the requirements for the satellite in order to guarantee an orbit reconstruction for the MPO spacecraft with an along-track accuracy of about 1 m over the orbital period of the satellite around Mercury in such a way to satisfy the RSE requirements.

  10. Photovoltaic module mounting system

    DOEpatents

    Miros, Robert H. J. [Fairfax, CA; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham [Oakland, CA; Seery, Martin N [San Rafael, CA; Holland, Rodney H [Novato, CA

    2012-04-17

    A solar array mounting system having unique installation, load distribution, and grounding features, and which is adaptable for mounting solar panels having no external frame. The solar array mounting system includes flexible, pedestal-style feet and structural links connected in a grid formation on the mounting surface. The photovoltaic modules are secured in place via the use of attachment clamps that grip the edge of the typically glass substrate. The panel mounting clamps are then held in place by tilt brackets and/or mid-link brackets that provide fixation for the clamps and align the solar panels at a tilt to the horizontal mounting surface. The tilt brackets are held in place atop the flexible feet and connected link members thus creating a complete mounting structure.

  11. Photovoltaic module mounting system

    DOEpatents

    Miros, Robert H. J.; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Seery, Martin N; Holland, Rodney H

    2012-09-18

    A solar array mounting system having unique installation, load distribution, and grounding features, and which is adaptable for mounting solar panels having no external frame. The solar array mounting system includes flexible, pedestal-style feet and structural links connected in a grid formation on the mounting surface. The photovoltaic modules are secured in place via the use of attachment clamps that grip the edge of the typically glass substrate. The panel mounting clamps are then held in place by tilt brackets and/or mid-link brackets that provide fixation for the clamps and align the solar panels at a tilt to the horizontal mounting surface. The tilt brackets are held in place atop the flexible feet and connected link members thus creating a complete mounting structure.

  12. Evaluating turbidity and suspended-sediment concentration relations from the North Fork Toutle River basin near Mount St. Helens, Washington; annual, seasonal, event, and particle size variations - a preliminary analysis.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uhrich, Mark A.; Spicer, Kurt R.; Mosbrucker, Adam; Christianson, Tami

    2015-01-01

    Regression of in-stream turbidity with concurrent sample-based suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) has become an accepted method for producing unit-value time series of inferred SSC (Rasmussen et al., 2009). Turbidity-SSC regression models are increasingly used to generate suspended-sediment records for Pacific Northwest rivers (e.g., Curran et al., 2014; Schenk and Bragg, 2014; Uhrich and Bragg, 2003). Recent work developing turbidity-SSC models for the North Fork Toutle River in Southwest Washington (Uhrich et al., 2014), as well as other studies (Landers and Sturm, 2013, Merten et al., 2014), suggests that models derived from annual or greater datasets may not adequately reflect shorter term changes in turbidity-SSC relations, warranting closer inspection of such relations. In-stream turbidity measurements and suspended-sediment samples have been collected from the North Fork Toutle River since 2010. The study site, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgage 14240525 near Kid Valley, Washington, is 13 river km downstream of the debris avalanche emplaced by the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens (Lipman and Mullineaux, 1981), and 2 river km downstream of the large sediment retention structure (SRS) built from 1987–1989 to mitigate the associated sediment hazard. The debris avalanche extends roughly 25 km down valley from the edifice of the volcano and is the primary source of suspended sediment moving past the streamgage (NF Toutle-SRS). Other significant sources are debris flow events and sand deposits upstream of the SRS, which are periodically remobilized and transported downstream. Also, finer material often is derived from the clay-rich original debris avalanche deposit, while coarser material can derive from areas such as fluvially reworked terraces.

  13. [Water cults on Soratte Mount].

    PubMed

    Falchetti, Mario; Ottini, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Mount Soratte is a limestone ridge that rises on a lonely plateau of Pliocene tuff on the right of the Tiber, about forty kilometers North of Rome. Studies related to human settlements during prehistory in this territory have been sporadic and occasional. The first evidence of prehistoric cults on mount Soratte has been found in the early Fifties when ajar, dating back to Neolithic times, was discovered in the cave of the Meri. The jar was placed in a position to be always filled of water and indicates the existence of ancient practices of worship linked to groundwater. In the Middle Ages, although caves became a step towards the Hell, dripping caves were often associated with the magical-religious and therapeutic aspects of water linked to fertility in the popular imagination. In the cave church of the Saint Romana, on the eastern slope of Mount Soratte close to Meri, there is a small marble basin near the altar and the water drips from the rock above it. This water is taken out for devotion and drunk by mothers who did not get milk from their breasts. Recently, the water of the Saint Romana would have drained as a result of an act of sacrilege, albeit unintentionally, as reported in a oral testimony. Overall, the territory of Mount Soratte is characterized by a sharp and clear karst. This causes the water, that collects on the inside, coming out in many springs all around the valley. This water is collected to supply fountains used years ago by farmers and livestock and nowadays may represent a cultural space of social life with the aim to build a strong link with the territory and a new awareness of the past and history of the countryside around Mount Soratte.

  14. Viewpoint on ISA TR84.0.02--simplified methods and fault tree analysis.

    PubMed

    Summers, A E

    2000-01-01

    ANSI/ISA-S84.01-1996 and IEC 61508 require the establishment of a safety integrity level for any safety instrumented system or safety related system used to mitigate risk. Each stage of design, operation, maintenance, and testing is judged against this safety integrity level. Quantitative techniques can be used to verify whether the safety integrity level is met. ISA-dTR84.0.02 is a technical report under development by ISA, which discusses how to apply quantitative analysis techniques to safety instrumented systems. This paper discusses two of those techniques: (1) Simplified equations and (2) Fault tree analysis.

  15. High bandwidth optical mount

    DOEpatents

    Bender, Donald A.; Kuklo, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    An optical mount, which directs a laser beam to a point by controlling the position of a light-transmitting optic, is stiffened so that a lowest resonant frequency of the mount is approximately one kilohertz. The optical mount, which is cylindrically-shaped, positions the optic by individually moving a plurality of carriages which are positioned longitudinally within a sidewall of the mount. The optical mount is stiffened by allowing each carriage, which is attached to the optic, to move only in a direction which is substantially parallel to a center axis of the optic. The carriage is limited to an axial movement by flexures or linear bearings which connect the carriage to the mount. The carriage is moved by a piezoelectric transducer. By limiting the carriage to axial movement, the optic can be kinematically clamped to a carriage.

  16. High bandwidth optical mount

    DOEpatents

    Bender, D.A.; Kuklo, T.

    1994-11-08

    An optical mount, which directs a laser beam to a point by controlling the position of a light-transmitting optic, is stiffened so that a lowest resonant frequency of the mount is approximately one kilohertz. The optical mount, which is cylindrically-shaped, positions the optic by individually moving a plurality of carriages which are positioned longitudinally within a sidewall of the mount. The optical mount is stiffened by allowing each carriage, which is attached to the optic, to move only in a direction which is substantially parallel to a center axis of the optic. The carriage is limited to an axial movement by flexures or linear bearings which connect the carriage to the mount. The carriage is moved by a piezoelectric transducer. By limiting the carriage to axial movement, the optic can be kinematically clamped to a carriage. 5 figs.

  17. 3. DETAIL VIEW OF SOUTHWEST ABUTMENT, LOOKING NORTHEAST ZionMount ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DETAIL VIEW OF SOUTHWEST ABUTMENT, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Virgin River Bridge, Spanning North Fork of Virgin River on Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Springdale, Washington County, UT

  18. Mount Everest as seen from STS-58

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The best, nearly cloud-free Shuttle view yet of Mount Everest, the highest mountain in the world at 29,028 feet. The peak, on the border between Nepal and China, is almost exactly in the center of the photograph. The challenging North Face is in shadow; valley glaciers radiate in all directions from the central massif.

  19. Phase I Safety and Immunogenicity Trial of Plasmodium vivax CS Derived Long Synthetic Peptides Adjuvanted with Montanide ISA 720 or Montanide ISA 51

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Sócrates; Fernández, Olga Lucía; Vera, Omaira; Cárdenas, William; Ramírez, Oscar; Palacios, Ricardo; Chen-Mok, Mario; Corradin, Giampietro; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a mixture of three synthetic peptides derived from the Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite protein formulated in Montanide ISA 720 or Montanide ISA 51. Forty healthy malaria-naive volunteers were allocated to five experimental groups (A–E): four groups (A–D) were immunized intramuscularly with 50 and 100 μg/dose injections of a mixture of N, R, and C peptides formulated in the two different adjuvants at 0, 2, and 4 months and one group was administered placebo. Vaccines were immunogenic, safe, well tolerated, and no serious adverse events related to the vaccine occurred. Seroconversion occurred in > 90% of the vaccines and antibodies recognized the sporozoite protein on immunofluorescent antibody test. Vaccines in Montanide ISA 51 showed a higher sporozoite protein recognition and interferon production. Results encourage further testing of the vaccine protective efficacy. PMID:21292873

  20. Measuring gravitation near Mercury: the contribution of ISA accelerometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, Valerio; Peron, Roberto; Lucchesi, David; Santoli, Francesco; Lefevre, Carlo; Fiorenza, Emiliano; Nozzoli, Sergio; Lucente, Marco; Magnafico, Carmelo

    2012-07-01

    The forthcoming BepiColombo mission for the exploration of the planet Mercury will include a comprehensive set of experiments --- the so--called Radio Science Experiments (RSE) --- in order to measure the gravitational field of the planet, its rotation, and to perform precise tests of Einstein's general theory of relativity. Fundamental piece of RSE is the high--sensitivity ISA (Italian Spring Accelerometer) accelerometer. It will directly measure the strong non--gravitational perturbations acting on Mercury Planetary Orbiter spacecraft, which are an important source of error in the RSE meaurements. Being the first time for an high--sensitivity accelerometer onboard an interplanetary mission, a number of choices had to be made and several issues had to be faced in the design phases. Following a general description of the instrument scientific objectives, its working and operations will be described. Emphasis will be given on the complex calibration procedures required in the various mission phases and on the integration of the measurements with the overall RSE operations and data analysis.

  1. BepiColombo ISA accelerometer: ready for launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francesco, Santoli; Valerio, Iafolla; Emiliano, Fiorenza; Carlo, Lefevre; Lucchesi David, M.; Marco, Lucente; Carmelo, Magnafico; Sergio, Nozzoli; Roberto, Peron

    2016-04-01

    To be launched in 2017, ESA mission BepiColombo will perform a thorough study of the planet Mercury and its environment. Among the wide range of its scientific objectives, an important set is constituted by the so-called Radio Science Experiments (RSE), which will study the gravitational field and rotation of the planet, and will perform very precise tests of general relativity theory. The fulfilment of these scientific objectives will be made possible by a precise orbit determination of the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO), at the same time estimating a number of relevant parameters. In order to reach the required level of accuracy in recovering these parameters, the data coming from the high-sensitivity ISA (Italian Spring Accelerometer) instrument onboard the MPO probe will be used: the first time for a deep-space probe. After a long path of design and development, the instrument is now ready for integration into MPO. Following a brief description of the RSE in the context of the mission, the instrument and its capabilities will be reviewed. Emphasis will be given to the foreseen strategies for its operation in the various phases of the mission, along with the manifold calibration possibilities.

  2. ISA accelerometer: fundamental support for the exploration of planet Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, Valerio; Fiorenza, Emiliano; Lefevre, Carlo; Nozzoli, Sergio; Peron, Roberto; Reale, Andrea; Santoli, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    The development of BepiColombo mission is proceeding, in view of the launch, foreseen for 2014. This mission will perform a thorough study of the planet Mercury and its environment. An important set of scientific objectives is constituted by the so-called Radio Science Experiments (RSE), which will study the gravitational field and rotation of the planet, and will perform very precise tests of general relativity theory. In order to reach the required level of accuracy in recovering the relevant parameters, the data coming from the high-sensitivity ISA (Italian Spring Accelerometer) instrument onboard the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) will be used: this will be the first time for a deep-space probe. Following a brief description of the mission and RSE, the instrument and its wide capabilities will be reviewed. The focus will be in particular on the updated error budget, operational procedures and extended use of the instrument in the various parts of the RSE. It will be also described the procedure for on-ground calibration of the accelerometer.

  3. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is announcing the availability of the First External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment for Oxides of Nitrogen – Health Criteria for public comment and independent peer review. This draft document provides EPA’s evaluation and synthesis of the most policy-relevant science related to the health effects of oxides of nitrogen. When final, it will provide a critical part of the scientific foundation for EPA’s decision regarding the adequacy of the current primary (health-based) national ambient air quality standards for nitrogen dioxide. The Clean Air Act (CAA) requires EPA to periodically review and revise, as appropriate, existing air quality criteria and NAAQS. The CAA also requires an independent scientific committee to review the criteria and to advise the Administrator regarding any recommended revisions to the existing criteria and standards, as may be appropriate. The Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) of EPA’s Science Advisory Board serves as this independent scientific committee. The ISA is one of the four major elements of the NAAQS review process that will inform the Agency’s final decisions; other components of the process are an integrated plan highlighting the key policy-relevant issues; a risk/exposure assessment if warranted; and an advance notice of proposed rulemaking (ANPRM) reflecting the Agency’s views regarding options to retain or revise the NO2 NAAQS based on the evaluation of key information cont

  4. Thermistor mount efficiency calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Cable, J.W.

    1980-05-01

    Thermistor mount efficiency calibration is accomplished by use of the power equation concept and by complex signal-ratio measurements. A comparison of thermistor mounts at microwave frequencies is made by mixing the reference and the reflected signals to produce a frequency at which the amplitude and phase difference may be readily measured.

  5. Spherical mirror mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Jay L. (Inventor); Messick, Glenn C. (Inventor); Nardell, Carl A. (Inventor); Hendlin, Martin J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A spherical mounting assembly for mounting an optical element allows for rotational motion of an optical surface of the optical element only. In that regard, an optical surface of the optical element does not translate in any of the three perpendicular translational axes. More importantly, the assembly provides adjustment that may be independently controlled for each of the three mutually perpendicular rotational axes.

  6. Stable mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, R.W.

    1983-11-04

    An improved mirror mount assembly is disclosed. The mirror mount assembly provides a post assembly slidable in a Y-axis orientation and a nut plate assembly slidable in an X-axis orientation and means for simultaneously locking said post assembly and said key assembly in a fixed position.

  7. Stable mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.

    1990-01-01

    An improved mirror mount assembly is disclosed. The mirror mount assembly provides a post assembly slidable in a Y-axis orientation and a nut plate assembly slidable in an X-axis orientation and a device for simultaneously locking the post assembly and the key assembly in a fixed position.

  8. 'Standing on the shoulders of giants' at the ISAE international congress.

    PubMed

    2016-09-17

    The 50th anniversary of the International Society for Applied Ethology (ISAE) was celebrated in July, with the return of its annual international congress to Edinburgh, the city where the society was founded in 1966. Scientific legacy was a prevalent topic at the meeting, in line with the congress theme: standing on the shoulders of giants. The event was the biggest in the ISAE's history, spanning five days, from July 12 to 16, and comprising almost 200 talks. Rachel Orritt reflects on proceedings.

  9. ISA extensions for high-radix online floating-point addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dormiani, Pouya; Ercegovac, Miloš D.; Colavin, O.

    2007-09-01

    ISA extensions for DLX type architectures are proposed to perform high radix online floating point addition on fixed point units with extended feature sets. Online arithmetic allows most significant digit first computation of results, allowing overlapped execution of dependent operations and offers greater instruction scheduling opportunities than software implementations of conventional floating point addition. In this paper we seek an ISA formulation to find a middle ground between full hardware floating point addition units and software implementations strictly based on available ALU logic.

  10. 11. Submersible torpedo tube mounted on platform of elevator at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Submersible torpedo tube mounted on platform of elevator at northeast (starboard) elevator tower. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  11. Optoelectronic Mounting Structure

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gene R.; Armendariz, Marcelino G.; Baca, Johnny R. F.; Bryan, Robert P.; Carson, Richard F.; Chu, Dahwey; Duckett, III, Edwin B.; McCormick, Frederick B.; Peterson, David W.; Peterson, Gary D.; Reber, Cathleen A.; Reysen, Bill H.

    2004-10-05

    An optoelectronic mounting structure is provided that may be used in conjunction with an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module. The mounting structure may be a flexible printed circuit board. Thermal vias or heat pipes in the head region may transmit heat from the mounting structure to the heat spreader. The heat spreader may provide mechanical rigidity or stiffness to the heat region. In another embodiment, an electrical contact and ground plane may pass along a surface of the head region so as to provide an electrical contact path to the optoelectronic devices and limit electromagnetic interference. In yet another embodiment, a window may be formed in the head region of the mounting structure so as to provide access to the heat spreader. Optoelectronic devices may be adapted to the heat spreader in such a manner that the devices are accessible through the window in the mounting structure.

  12. Review of the complexation of tetravalent actinides by ISA and gluconate under alkaline to hyperalkaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Gaona, X; Montoya, V; Colàs, E; Grivé, M; Duro, L

    2008-12-12

    Isosaccharinic (ISA) and gluconic acids (GLU) are polyhydroxy carboxylic compounds showing a high affinity to metal complexation. Both organic ligands are expected in the cementitious environments usually considered for the disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The hyperalkaline conditions imposed by cementitious materials contribute to the formation of ISA through cellulose degradation, whereas GLU is commonly used as a concrete additive. Despite the high stability attributed to ISA/GLU complexes of tetravalent actinides, the number and reliability of available experimental studies is still limited. This work aims at providing a general and comprehensive overview of the state of the art regarding Th, U(IV), Np(IV), and Pu(IV) complexes with ISA and GLU. In the presence of ISA/GLU concentrations in the range 10(-5)-10(-2) M and absence of calcium, An(IV)(OH)x(L)y complexes (An(IV)=Th, U(IV), Np(IV), Pu(IV); L=ISA, GLU) are expected to dominate the aqueous speciation of tetravalent actinides in the alkaline pH range. There is a moderate agreement among their stability, although the stoichiometry of certain An(IV)-GLU complexes is still ill-defined. Under hyperalkaline conditions and presence of calcium, the species CaTh(OH)4(L)2(aq) has been described for both ISA and GLU, and similar complexes may be expected to form with other tetravalent actinides. In the present work, the available thermodynamic data for An(IV)-ISA/GLU complexes have been reviewed and re-calculated to ensure the internal consistency of the stability constants assessed. Further modelling exercises, estimations based on Linear Free-Energy Relationships (LFER) among tetravalent actinides, as well as direct analogies between ISA and GLU complexes have also been performed. This approach has led to the definition of a speciation scheme for the complexes of Th, U(IV), Np(IV) and Pu(IV) with ISA and GLU forming in alkaline to hyperalkaline pH conditions, both in the absence and

  13. Review of the complexation of tetravalent actinides by ISA and gluconate under alkaline to hyperalkaline conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaona, X.; Montoya, V.; Colàs, E.; Grivé, M.; Duro, L.

    2008-12-01

    Isosaccharinic (ISA) and gluconic acids (GLU) are polyhydroxy carboxylic compounds showing a high affinity to metal complexation. Both organic ligands are expected in the cementitious environments usually considered for the disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The hyperalkaline conditions imposed by cementitious materials contribute to the formation of ISA through cellulose degradation, whereas GLU is commonly used as a concrete additive. Despite the high stability attributed to ISA/GLU complexes of tetravalent actinides, the number and reliability of available experimental studies is still limited. This work aims at providing a general and comprehensive overview of the state of the art regarding Th, U(IV), Np(IV), and Pu(IV) complexes with ISA and GLU. In the presence of ISA/GLU concentrations in the range 10 - 5 -10 - 2 M and absence of calcium, An(IV)(OH) x(L) y complexes (An(IV) = Th, U(IV), Np(IV), Pu(IV); L = ISA, GLU) are expected to dominate the aqueous speciation of tetravalent actinides in the alkaline pH range. There is a moderate agreement among their stability, although the stoichiometry of certain An(IV)-GLU complexes is still ill-defined. Under hyperalkaline conditions and presence of calcium, the species CaTh(OH) 4(L) 2(aq) has been described for both ISA and GLU, and similar complexes may be expected to form with other tetravalent actinides. In the present work, the available thermodynamic data for An(IV)-ISA/GLU complexes have been reviewed and re-calculated to ensure the internal consistency of the stability constants assessed. Further modelling exercises, estimations based on Linear Free-Energy Relationships (LFER) among tetravalent actinides, as well as direct analogies between ISA and GLU complexes have also been performed. This approach has led to the definition of a speciation scheme for the complexes of Th, U(IV), Np(IV) and Pu(IV) with ISA and GLU forming in alkaline to hyperalkaline pH conditions, both in the

  14. NIF small mirror mount

    SciTech Connect

    McCarville, T

    1999-07-01

    A number of small mirror mounts have been identified that meet the stringent stability, wave front, and cleanliness standards of the NIF. These requirements are similar to those required in other performance critical optical design applications. Future design teams would conserve time and effort if recognized standards were established for mirror mount design and performance characteristics. Standards for stability, physical features, wave front distortion, and cleanliness would simplify the qualification process considerably. At this point such standards are not difficult to define, as the technical support work has been performed repeatedly by mirror mount consumers and suppliers.

  15. Life sciences building, north rear, also showing north hall to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Life sciences building, north rear, also showing north hall to the right, and the library in the center distance. - San Bernardino Valley College, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  16. Preclinical Vaccine Study of Plasmodium vivax Circumsporozoite Protein Derived-Synthetic Polypeptides Formulated in Montanide ISA 720 and Montanide ISA 51 Adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Vera, Omaira; Castellanos, Angélica; Céspedes, Nora; Soto, Liliana; Corradin, Giampietro; Herrera, Sócrates

    2011-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite (CS) protein is a leading malaria vaccine candidate previously assessed in animals and humans. Here, combinations of three synthetic polypeptides corresponding to amino (N), central repeat (R), and carboxyl (C) regions of the CS protein formulated in Montanide ISA 720 or Montanide ISA 51 adjuvants were assessed for immunogenicity in rodents and primates. BALB/c mice and Aotus monkeys were divided into test and control groups and were immunized three times with doses of 50 and 100 μg of vaccine or placebo. Antigen-specific antimalarial antibodies were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunofluorescent antibody test, and IFN-γ responses by enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELIspot). Both vaccine formulations were highly immunogenic in both species. Mice developed better antibody responses against C and R polypeptides, whereas the N polypeptide was more immunogenic in monkeys. Anti-peptide antibodies remained detectable for several months and recognized native proteins on sporozoites. Differences between Montanide ISA 720 and Montanide ISA 51 formulations were not significant. PMID:21292874

  17. Functional Diversity of Isoamylase Oligomers: The ISA1 Homo-Oligomer Is Essential for Amylopectin Biosynthesis in Rice Endosperm1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Utsumi, Yoshinori; Utsumi, Chikako; Sawada, Takayuki; Fujita, Naoko; Nakamura, Yasunori

    2011-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) endosperm has two isoamylase (ISA) oligomers, ISA1 homo-oligomer and ISA1-ISA2 hetero-oligomer. To examine their contribution to starch synthesis, expression of the ISA1 or ISA2 gene was differently regulated in various transgenic plants. Although suppression of ISA2 gene expression caused the endosperm to have only the homo-oligomer, no significant effects were detected on the starch phenotypes. In contrast, ISA2 overexpression led to endosperm having only the hetero-oligomer, and starch synthesis in the endosperm was drastically impaired, both quantitatively and qualitatively, because the starch was devoid of typical starch features, such as thermal and x-ray diffraction properties, and water-soluble highly branched maltodextrins were accumulated. In the ISA2 overexpressed line, about 60% to 70% of the ISA1-ISA2 hetero-oligomer was bound to starch, while the ISA homo- and hetero-oligomers from the wild type were mostly present in the soluble form at the early milking stage of the endosperm. Detailed analysis of the relative amounts of homo- and hetero-oligomers in various lines also led us to the conclusion that the ISA1 homo-oligomer is essential, but not the ISA1-ISA2 oligomer, for starch production in rice endosperm. The relative amounts of ISA1 and ISA2 proteins were shown to determine the ratio of both oligomers and the stoichiometry of both ISAs in the hetero-oligomer. It was noted when compared with the homo-oligomer that all the hetero-oligomers from rice endosperm and leaf and potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber were much more stable at 40°C. This study provides substantial data on the structural and functional diversity of ISA oligomers between plant tissues and species. PMID:21436381

  18. Mounting for ceramic scroll

    DOEpatents

    Petty, Jack D.

    1993-01-01

    A mounting for a ceramic scroll on a metal engine block of a gas turbine engine includes a first ceramic ring and a pair of cross key connections between the first ceramic ring, the ceramic scroll, and the engine block. The cross key connections support the scroll on the engine block independent of relative radial thermal growth and for bodily movement toward an annular mounting shoulder on the engine. The scroll has an uninterrupted annular shoulder facing the mounting shoulder on the engine block. A second ceramic ring is captured between mounting shoulder and the uninterrupted shoulder on the scroll when the latter is bodily shifted toward the mouting shoulder to define a gas seal between the scroll and the engine block.

  19. Thermal compensating mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalink, Antony, Jr. (Inventor); Campbell, Scott R. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The main objective is to provide a device for maintaining the alignment integrity of an alignment sensitive component over a wide range of temperatures. A thermal compensating mount is presented. A cylindrical extension is integrally formed to the alignment sensitive component. Both the extension and component share the same coefficient of thermal expansion. The cylindrical extension is placed into a mounting structure which has a diameter greater than that of the extension. An adhesive secures the cylindrical extension to the mount. The difference between the diameters of the cylindrical extension and the cylindrical receptacle is such that the differential thermal expansion across the extension and the receptacle edges is exactly compensated for by the thermal compensation of the adhesive between them. Accordingly, the alignment sensitive component does not change position when subjected to temperature variations. One application of this invention is laser optical-path folding prisms, which are fixed to the mounting surface by a small amount of epoxy adhesive.

  20. Mechanical strain isolator mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Gordon E. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Certain devices such as optical instruments must preserve their alignmental integrity while being subjected to mechanical strain. A mechanical strain isolator mount is provided to preserve the alignmental integrity of an alignment sensitive instrument. An alignment sensitive instrument is mounted on a rectangular base. Flexural legs are connected at their proximal ends to the rectangular base. Flexural legs are also spaced parallel to the sides. Mounting pads are connected to the legs at the distal end and the mechanical strain isolator mount is attached to the substrate by means of threaded bolts. When a mounting pad and its respective leg is subjected to lateral strain in either the X or Y direction via the substrate, the respective leg relieves the strain by bending in the direction of the strain. An axial strain on a mounting pad in the Z direction is relieved by a rotational motion of the legs in the direction of the strain. When the substrate is stress free, the flexural legs return to their original condition and thus preserve the original alignment integrity of the alignment sensitive instrument.

  1. 12. PLANK BRIDGE ON OLD ROAD NEAR NORTH FORK VIRGIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. PLANK BRIDGE ON OLD ROAD NEAR NORTH FORK VIRGIN RIVER BRIDGE, FACING EAST - Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Virgin River Bridge, Spanning North Fork of Virgin River on Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Springdale, Washington County, UT

  2. 13. ORIGINAL NORTH FORK VIRGIN RIVER BRIDGE, FACING NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. ORIGINAL NORTH FORK VIRGIN RIVER BRIDGE, FACING NORTHWEST - Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Virgin River Bridge, Spanning North Fork of Virgin River on Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Springdale, Washington County, UT

  3. convISA: A simple, convoluted method for isotopomer spectral analysis of fatty acids and cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Tredwell, Gregory D; Keun, Hector C

    2015-11-01

    Isotopomer spectral analysis (ISA) is a simple approach for modelling the cellular synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol in a stable isotope labelling experiment. In the simplest model, fatty acid biosynthesis is described by two key parameters: the fractional enrichment of acetyl-CoA from the labelled substrate, D, and the fractional de novo synthesis of the fatty acid during the exposure to the labelled substrate, g(t). The model can also be readily extended to include synthesis via elongation of unlabelled shorter fatty acids. This modelling strategy is less complex than metabolic flux analysis and only requires the measurement of the mass isotopologues of a single metabolite. However, software tools to perform these calculations are not freely available. We have developed an algorithm (convISA), implemented in MATLAB(™), which employs the convolution (Cauchy product) of mass isotopologue distributions (MIDs) for ISA of fatty acids and cholesterol. In our method, the MIDs of each molecule are constructed as a single entity rather than deriving equations for individual isotopologues. The flexibility of this method allows the model to be applied to raw data as well as to data that has been corrected for natural isotope abundance. To test the algorithm, convISA was applied to 238 MIDs of methyl palmitate available from the literature, for which ISA parameters had been calculated via other methods. A very high correlation was observed between estimates of the D and g(t) parameters from convISA with both published values, and estimates generated by our own metabolic flux analysis using a simplified stoichiometric model (r=0.981 and 0.944, and 0.996 and 0.942). We also demonstrate the application of the convolution ISA approach to cholesterol biosynthesis; the model was applied to measurements made on MCF7 cells cultured in U-(13)C-glucose. In conclusion, we believe that convISA offers a convenient, flexible and transparent framework for metabolic modelling that

  4. Processes and outcomes for a successful engagement between a medical school and a remote Indigenous community in North Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Glenda; Ross, Simone J; Woolley, Torres S; Sivamalai, Sundram; Whaleboat, Donald; Miller, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Medical students should be equipped with the necessary knowledge, skills and attitudes to engage with local communities on placement, and later act as agents of change in addressing health system priorities and inequities. Determining what are the necessary knowledge, skills and attitudes requires the medical school to collect input from the local communities they serve. This study describes the steps taken by the James Cook University (JCU) School of Medicine & Dentistry (SMD) to develop a systematic process for collecting input from a local Indigenous community. This 2011 study utilised a participatory action research design. An Indigenous Reference Group (IRG) consisting of 13 local Indigenous people including health professionals, Elders and community members was established by the JCU SMD in the North Queensland town of Mount Isa. 'Yarning Circle' discussions between SMD representatives and the IRG developed a Terms of Reference (ToR) to guide the engagement process, and negotiated reciprocal benefits to compensate participants for time involved in consultations and to promote sustainability. A framework for engaging with the Mount Isa Indigenous community was developed. Benefits for the SMD included a list of the good and bad engagement strategies with the local Indigenous community. Benefits for the IRG members included assistance with grant applications, media skills and organizing a community-wide health event. Successful and sustainable community partnerships between a medical school and an Indigenous community can be achieved, with Indigenous researchers and community members guiding the engagement process, and for stakeholders to follow through in providing the negotiated reciprocal benefits. Having an established IRG should increase Indigenous input and participation into the medical curriculum, and into future research and community activities to improve the health of the Indigenous people.

  5. Vibration isolation mounting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Sam D. (Inventor); Bastin, Paul H. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A system is disclosed for mounting a vibration producing device onto a spacecraft structure and also for isolating the vibration forces thereof from the structure. The system includes a mount on which the device is securely mounted and inner and outer rings. The rings and mount are concentrically positioned. The system includes a base (secured to the structure) and a set of links which are interconnected by a set of torsion bars which allow and resist relative rotational movement therebetween. The set of links are also rotatably connected to a set of brackets which are rigidly connected to the outer ring. Damped leaf springs interconnect the inner and outer rings and the mount allow relative translational movement therebetween in X and Y directions. The links, brackets and base are interconnected and configured so that they allow and resist translational movement of the device in the Z direction so that in combination with the springs they provide absorption of vibrational energy produced by the device in all three dimensions while providing rotational stiffness about all three axes to prevent undesired rotational motions.

  6. "Fly-by-Wireless" Vehicles and Evaluations of ISA 100 Applications to Space-Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studor, George F.

    2009-01-01

    "Fly-by-Wireless" (What is it?) Vision: To minimize cables and connectors and increase functionality across the aerospace industry by providing reliable, lower cost, modular, and higher performance alternatives to wired data connectivity to benefit the entire vehicle/program life-cycle. Focus Areas: 1. System Engineering and Integration to reduce cables and connectors. 2. Provisions for modularity and accessibility in the vehicle architecture. 3. Develop Alternatives to wired connectivity (the "tool box").NASA and Aerospace depend more and more on cost-effective solutions that can meet our requirements. ISA-100.11 a is a promising new standard and NASA wants to evaluate it. NASA should be involved in understanding and contributing to other ISA-100 efforts that contribute to "Fly-by-Wireless" and it's objectives. ISA can engage other aerospace groups that are working on similar goals and obtain more aerospace industry perspective.

  7. Mounted drilling apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Manten, H.

    1982-07-20

    The drilling apparatus includes a mount in the form of a cylindrical member defining an elongated passageway and being provided with two opposite guiding rails each being formed with an elongated recessed channel communicating with the passageway; a rotary drive for holding a drill rod has a non-rotating casing provided with guiding elements movable in the recesses of the guiding rails; a feeding mechanism for advancing the rotary drive includes either tooth racks arranged in the recesses of the guiding rails and driving pinions mounted on the casing of the rotary drive or cylinder and piston units located in the recesses of the guide rails and cooperating with feed cables or chains. The mount is supported on a mobile undercarriage which is provided with two pairs of vertically adjustable supporting legs.

  8. Pressure vessel bottle mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingett, Paul (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A mounting assembly for mounting a composite pressure vessel to a vehicle includes a saddle having a curved surface extending between two pillars for receiving the vessel. The saddle also has flanged portions which can be bolted to the vehicle. Each of the pillars has hole in which is mounted the shaft portion of an attachment member. A resilient member is disposed between each of the shaft portions and the holes and loaded by a tightening nut. External to the holes, each of the attachment members has a head portion to which a steel band is attached. The steel band circumscribes the vessel and translates the load on the springs into a clamping force on the vessel. As the vessel expands and contracts, the resilient members expand and contract so that the clamping force applied by the band to the vessel remains constant.

  9. Mount Everest as seen from STS-58

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-10-30

    STS058-101-014 (18 Oct-1 Nov 1993) --- The best, most-nearly cloud-free, shuttle view yet of Mount Everest, the highest mountain in the world at 29,028 feet. The peak, on the border between Nepal and China, is almost exactly in the center of the photograph. The challenging North Face is in shadow; valley glaciers radiate in all directions from the central massif.

  10. ISA-TAB-Nano: a specification for sharing nanomaterial research data in spreadsheet-based format.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Dennis G; Gaheen, Sharon; Harper, Stacey L; Fritts, Martin; Klaessig, Fred; Hahn-Dantona, Elizabeth; Paik, David; Pan, Sue; Stafford, Grace A; Freund, Elaine T; Klemm, Juli D; Baker, Nathan A

    2013-01-14

    The high-throughput genomics communities have been successfully using standardized spreadsheet-based formats to capture and share data within labs and among public repositories. The nanomedicine community has yet to adopt similar standards to share the diverse and multi-dimensional types of data (including metadata) pertaining to the description and characterization of nanomaterials. Owing to the lack of standardization in representing and sharing nanomaterial data, most of the data currently shared via publications and data resources are incomplete, poorly-integrated, and not suitable for meaningful interpretation and re-use of the data. Specifically, in its current state, data cannot be effectively utilized for the development of predictive models that will inform the rational design of nanomaterials. We have developed a specification called ISA-TAB-Nano, which comprises four spreadsheet-based file formats for representing and integrating various types of nanomaterial data. Three file formats (Investigation, Study, and Assay files) have been adapted from the established ISA-TAB specification; while the Material file format was developed de novo to more readily describe the complexity of nanomaterials and associated small molecules. In this paper, we have discussed the main features of each file format and how to use them for sharing nanomaterial descriptions and assay metadata. The ISA-TAB-Nano file formats provide a general and flexible framework to record and integrate nanomaterial descriptions, assay data (metadata and endpoint measurements) and protocol information. Like ISA-TAB, ISA-TAB-Nano supports the use of ontology terms to promote standardized descriptions and to facilitate search and integration of the data. The ISA-TAB-Nano specification has been submitted as an ASTM work item to obtain community feedback and to provide a nanotechnology data-sharing standard for public development and adoption.

  11. ISA-TAB-Nano: A Specification for Sharing Nanomaterial Research Data in Spreadsheet-based Format

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and motivation The high-throughput genomics communities have been successfully using standardized spreadsheet-based formats to capture and share data within labs and among public repositories. The nanomedicine community has yet to adopt similar standards to share the diverse and multi-dimensional types of data (including metadata) pertaining to the description and characterization of nanomaterials. Owing to the lack of standardization in representing and sharing nanomaterial data, most of the data currently shared via publications and data resources are incomplete, poorly-integrated, and not suitable for meaningful interpretation and re-use of the data. Specifically, in its current state, data cannot be effectively utilized for the development of predictive models that will inform the rational design of nanomaterials. Results We have developed a specification called ISA-TAB-Nano, which comprises four spreadsheet-based file formats for representing and integrating various types of nanomaterial data. Three file formats (Investigation, Study, and Assay files) have been adapted from the established ISA-TAB specification; while the Material file format was developed de novo to more readily describe the complexity of nanomaterials and associated small molecules. In this paper, we have discussed the main features of each file format and how to use them for sharing nanomaterial descriptions and assay metadata. Conclusion The ISA-TAB-Nano file formats provide a general and flexible framework to record and integrate nanomaterial descriptions, assay data (metadata and endpoint measurements) and protocol information. Like ISA-TAB, ISA-TAB-Nano supports the use of ontology terms to promote standardized descriptions and to facilitate search and integration of the data. The ISA-TAB-Nano specification has been submitted as an ASTM work item to obtain community feedback and to provide a nanotechnology data-sharing standard for public development and adoption. PMID

  12. Tannic acid inhibits Staphylococcus aureus surface colonization in an IsaA-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Payne, David E; Martin, Nicholas R; Parzych, Katherine R; Rickard, Alex H; Underwood, Adam; Boles, Blaise R

    2013-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a human commensal and pathogen that is capable of forming biofilms on a variety of host tissues and implanted medical devices. Biofilm-associated infections resist antimicrobial chemotherapy and attack from the host immune system, making these infections particularly difficult to treat. In order to gain insight into environmental conditions that influence S. aureus biofilm development, we screened a library of small molecules for the ability to inhibit S. aureus biofilm formation. This led to the finding that the polyphenolic compound tannic acid inhibits S. aureus biofilm formation in multiple biofilm models without inhibiting bacterial growth. We present evidence that tannic acid inhibits S. aureus biofilm formation via a mechanism dependent upon the putative transglycosylase IsaA. Tannic acid did not inhibit biofilm formation of an isaA mutant. Overexpression of wild-type IsaA inhibited biofilm formation, whereas overexpression of a catalytically dead IsaA had no effect. Tannin-containing drinks like tea have been found to reduce methicillin-resistant S. aureus nasal colonization. We found that black tea inhibited S. aureus biofilm development and that an isaA mutant resisted this inhibition. Antibiofilm activity was eliminated from tea when milk was added to precipitate the tannic acid. Finally, we developed a rodent model for S. aureus throat colonization and found that tea consumption reduced S. aureus throat colonization via an isaA-dependent mechanism. These findings provide insight into a molecular mechanism by which commonly consumed polyphenolic compounds, such as tannins, influence S. aureus surface colonization.

  13. Tannic Acid Inhibits Staphylococcus aureus Surface Colonization in an IsaA-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Payne, David E.; Martin, Nicholas R.; Parzych, Katherine R.; Rickard, Alex H.; Underwood, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a human commensal and pathogen that is capable of forming biofilms on a variety of host tissues and implanted medical devices. Biofilm-associated infections resist antimicrobial chemotherapy and attack from the host immune system, making these infections particularly difficult to treat. In order to gain insight into environmental conditions that influence S. aureus biofilm development, we screened a library of small molecules for the ability to inhibit S. aureus biofilm formation. This led to the finding that the polyphenolic compound tannic acid inhibits S. aureus biofilm formation in multiple biofilm models without inhibiting bacterial growth. We present evidence that tannic acid inhibits S. aureus biofilm formation via a mechanism dependent upon the putative transglycosylase IsaA. Tannic acid did not inhibit biofilm formation of an isaA mutant. Overexpression of wild-type IsaA inhibited biofilm formation, whereas overexpression of a catalytically dead IsaA had no effect. Tannin-containing drinks like tea have been found to reduce methicillin-resistant S. aureus nasal colonization. We found that black tea inhibited S. aureus biofilm development and that an isaA mutant resisted this inhibition. Antibiofilm activity was eliminated from tea when milk was added to precipitate the tannic acid. Finally, we developed a rodent model for S. aureus throat colonization and found that tea consumption reduced S. aureus throat colonization via an isaA-dependent mechanism. These findings provide insight into a molecular mechanism by which commonly consumed polyphenolic compounds, such as tannins, influence S. aureus surface colonization. PMID:23208606

  14. The ISA-MIP Historical Eruption SO2 Emissions Assessment (HErSEA): an intercomparison for interactive stratospheric aerosol models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Graham; Dhomse, Sandip; Sheng, Jianxiong; Mills, Mike

    2016-04-01

    Major historical volcanic eruptions have injected huge amounts of sulphur dioxide into the stratosphere with observations showing an enhancement of the stratospheric aerosol layer for several years (ASAP, 2006). Such long-lasting increases in stratospheric aerosol loading cool the Earth's surface by scattering incoming solar radiation and warm the stratosphere via absorption of near infra-red solar and long-wave terrestrial radiation with complex effects on climate (e.g. Robock, 2000). Two recent modelling studies of Mount Pinatubo (Dhomse et al., 2014; Sheng et al. 2015) have highlighted that observations suggest the sulphur loading of the volcanically enhanced stratospheric aerosol may have been considerably lower than suggested by measurements of the injected SO2. This poster describes a new model intercomparison activity "ISA-MIP" for interactive stratospheric aerosol models within the framework of the SPARC initiative on Stratospheric Sulphur and its Role in Climate (SSiRC). The new "Historical Eruption SO2 emissions Assessment" (HErSEA) will intercompare model simulations of the three largest volcanic perturbations to the stratosphere in the last 50 years, 1963 Mt Agung, 1982 El Chichon and 1991 Mt Pinatubo. The aim is to assess how effectively the emitted SO2 translates into perturbations to stratospheric aerosol properties and simulated radiative forcings in different composition-climate models with interactive stratospheric aerosol (ISA). Each modelling group will run a mini-ensemble of transient AMIP-type runs for the 3 eruptions with a control no-eruption run followed by upper and lower bound injection amount estimates and 3 different injection height settings for two shallow (e.g. 19-21km amd 23-25km) and one deep (e.g. 19-25km) injection. First order analysis will intercompare stratospheric aerosol metrics such as 2D-monthly AOD(550nm, 1020nm) and timeseries of tropical and NH/SH mid-visible extinction at three different models levels (15, 20 and 25km

  15. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur - Environmental Criteria (Second External Review Draft, Aug 2008)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur - Environmental Criteria has been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a conci...

  16. One-Year Test-Retest Reliability of the Inventory of Statements about Self-Injury (ISAS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Catherine R.; Klonsky, E. David

    2011-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a growing public health problem among adolescents and young adults. The Inventory of Statements About Self-Injury (ISAS) is a self-report measure designed to assess NSSI behaviors and functions. The current study examines the one-year test-retest reliability of the ISAS in a sample of young adult self-injurers.…

  17. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur - Environmental Criteria (First External Review Draft, Dec 2007)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is announcing that the First External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur – Environmental Criteria has been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise ...

  18. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur - Environmental Criteria (First External Review Draft, Dec 2007)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is announcing that the First External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur – Environmental Criteria has been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise ...

  19. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur - Environmental Criteria (Second External Review Draft, Aug 2008)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur - Environmental Criteria has been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a conci...

  20. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur Environmental Criteria (Second External Review Draft, Aug 2008)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur - Environmental Criteria has been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a conci...

  1. Housing And Mounting Structure

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gene R.; Armendariz, Marcelino G.; Baca, Johnny R.F.; Bryan, Robert P.; Carson, Richard F.; Duckett, III, Edwin B.; McCormick, Frederick B.; Miller, Gregory V.; Peterson, David W.; Smith, Terrance T.

    2005-03-08

    This invention relates to an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module, and more particularly, to an apparatus for connecting a first optical connector to a second optical connector. The apparatus comprises: (1) a housing having at least a first end and at least a second end, the first end of the housing capable of receiving the first optical connector, and the second end of the housing capable of receiving the second optical connector; (2) a longitudinal cavity extending from the first end of the housing to the second end of the housing; and (3) an electromagnetic shield comprising at least a portion of the housing. This invention also relates to an apparatus for housing a flexible printed circuit board, and this apparatus comprises: (1) a mounting structure having at least a first surface and a second surface; (2) alignment ridges along the first and second surfaces of the mounting structure, the alignment ridges functioning to align and secure a flexible printed circuit board that is wrapped around and attached to the first and second surfaces of the mounting structure; and (3) a series of heat sink ridges adapted to the mounting structure, the heat sink ridges functioning to dissipate heat that is generated from the flexible printed circuit board.

  2. Transducer-Mounting Fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiegel, Kirk W.

    1990-01-01

    Transducer-mounting fixture holds transducer securely against stud. Projects only slightly beyond stud after installation. Flanged transducer fits into fixture when hinged halves open. When halves reclosed, fixture tightened onto threaded stud until stud makes contact with transducer. Knurled area on fixture aids in tightening fixture on stud.

  3. Apollo Telescope Mount Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) served as the first marned astronomical observatory in space. It was designed for solar research from Earth orbit aboard the Skylab. This image is a cutaway illustration of the ATM canister with callouts and characteristics. The ATM was designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  4. Apollo Telescope Mount Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) served as the first marned astronomical observatory in space. It was designed for solar research from Earth orbit aboard the Skylab. This image is a cutaway illustration of the ATM canister. The ATM was designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  5. Apollo Telescope Mount Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) served as the first marned astronomical observatory in space. It was designed for solar research from Earth orbit aboard the Skylab. This image is a cutaway illustration of the ATM canister with callouts. The ATM was designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  6. Simultaneous silencing of isoamylases ISA1, ISA2 and ISA3 by multi-target RNAi in potato tubers leads to decreased starch content and an early sprouting phenotype.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Stephanus J; Senning, Melanie; Fischer-Stettler, Michaela; Streb, Sebastian; Ast, Michelle; Neuhaus, H Ekkehard; Zeeman, Samuel C; Sonnewald, Sophia; Sonnewald, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Isoamylases hydrolyse (1-6)-alpha-D-glucosidic linkages in starch and are involved in both starch granule formation and starch degradation. In plants, three isoamylase isoforms with distinct functions in starch synthesis (ISA1 and ISA2) and degradation (ISA3) have been described. Here, we created transgenic potato plants with simultaneously decreased expression of all three isoamylases using a chimeric RNAi construct targeting all three isoforms. Constitutive expression of the hairpin RNA using the 35S CaMV promoter resulted in efficient silencing of all three isoforms in leaves, growing tubers, and sprouting tubers. Neither plant growth nor tuber yield was effected in isoamylase-deficient potato lines. Interestingly, starch metabolism was found to be impaired in a tissue-specific manner. While leaf starch content was unaffected, tuber starch was significantly reduced. The reduction in tuber starch content in the transgenic plants was accompanied by a decrease in starch granules size, an increased sucrose content and decreased hexose levels. Despite the effects on granule size, only little changes in chain length composition of soluble and insoluble glucose polymers were detected. The transgenic tubers displayed an early sprouting phenotype that was accompanied by an increased level of sucrose in parenchyma cells below the outgrowing bud. Since high sucrose levels promote sprouting, we propose that the increased number of small starch granules may cause an accelerated turnover of glucan chains and hence a more rapid synthesis of sucrose. This observation links alterations in starch structure/degradation with developmental processes like meristem activation and sprout outgrowth in potato tubers.

  7. Simultaneous silencing of isoamylases ISA1, ISA2 and ISA3 by multi-target RNAi in potato tubers leads to decreased starch content and an early sprouting phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Stephanus J.; Senning, Melanie; Fischer-Stettler, Michaela; Streb, Sebastian; Ast, Michelle; Neuhaus, H. Ekkehard; Zeeman, Samuel C.; Sonnewald, Sophia

    2017-01-01

    Isoamylases hydrolyse (1–6)-alpha-D-glucosidic linkages in starch and are involved in both starch granule formation and starch degradation. In plants, three isoamylase isoforms with distinct functions in starch synthesis (ISA1 and ISA2) and degradation (ISA3) have been described. Here, we created transgenic potato plants with simultaneously decreased expression of all three isoamylases using a chimeric RNAi construct targeting all three isoforms. Constitutive expression of the hairpin RNA using the 35S CaMV promoter resulted in efficient silencing of all three isoforms in leaves, growing tubers, and sprouting tubers. Neither plant growth nor tuber yield was effected in isoamylase-deficient potato lines. Interestingly, starch metabolism was found to be impaired in a tissue-specific manner. While leaf starch content was unaffected, tuber starch was significantly reduced. The reduction in tuber starch content in the transgenic plants was accompanied by a decrease in starch granules size, an increased sucrose content and decreased hexose levels. Despite the effects on granule size, only little changes in chain length composition of soluble and insoluble glucose polymers were detected. The transgenic tubers displayed an early sprouting phenotype that was accompanied by an increased level of sucrose in parenchyma cells below the outgrowing bud. Since high sucrose levels promote sprouting, we propose that the increased number of small starch granules may cause an accelerated turnover of glucan chains and hence a more rapid synthesis of sucrose. This observation links alterations in starch structure/degradation with developmental processes like meristem activation and sprout outgrowth in potato tubers. PMID:28708852

  8. Year 2000 compliance concerns with the ISA Thermoluminescent Dosimetry Data Processing (TL-DP) software system

    SciTech Connect

    Saviz, K.

    1998-05-26

    The year 2000 is rapidly approaching, and there is a good chance that computer systems that utilize two digit year dates will experience problems in retrieval of date information. The ISA Thermoluminescent Dosimetry Data Processing (TL-DP) software and computer system has been reviewed for Year 2000 compliance issues.

  9. 75 FR 69078 - Workshop To Review Draft Materials for the Lead (Pb) Integrated Science Assessment (ISA)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Workshop To Review Draft Materials for the Lead (Pb) Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) AGENCY... quality criteria and National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Lead (Pb), EPA is announcing that...

  10. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (Final Report, Jan 2010)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (CO). This report is EPA’s latest evaluation of the scientific literature on the potential human health and welfare effects associated with ambient exposures to CO...

  11. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter (Final Report, Dec 2009)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter (PM). This report is EPA’s latest evaluation of the scientific literature on the potential human health and welfare effects associated with ambient exposures to p...

  12. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Sulfur Oxides – Health Criteria (Final Report, Sep 2008)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Sulfur Oxides – Health Criteria final assessment. This report represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scien...

  13. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur - Ecological Criteria (Final Report, Dec 2008)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur - Ecological Criteria. This document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the ...

  14. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur - Ecological Criteria (Final Report, Dec 2008)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur - Ecological Criteria. This document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the ...

  15. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (Final Report, Jan 2010)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (CO). This report is EPA’s latest evaluation of the scientific literature on the potential human health and welfare effects associated with ambient exposures to CO...

  16. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Sulfur Oxides – Health Criteria (Final Report, Sep 2008)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Sulfur Oxides – Health Criteria final assessment. This report represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scien...

  17. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter (Final Report, Dec 2009)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter (PM). This report is EPA’s latest evaluation of the scientific literature on the potential human health and welfare effects associated with ambient exposures to p...

  18. Mount Pinatubo, Philippines

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-09-30

    STS068-232-083 (30 September-11 October 1994) --- This is a view of Mount Pinatubo, Philippine Islands, orient with the coast to the top. View westward across central Luzon and Mount Pinatubo. Manilla Bay is in partial sunglint along the left edge of the frame. The extensive flows of volcanic ash (lahars) extending from the mountain are readily seen despite partial cloud cover. The ash is mobilized with every rain in this typhoon-ridden region, flowing down valleys, filling drainage channels, and covering fields and towns. The STS-68 crew obtained excellent photographs of the region, for comparison to the radar data also obtained on the mission. Photographs in sunglint have proven particularly helpful because they show the exact outlines of surface water, which provides a datum point for the radar returns.

  19. Mount Erebus activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An international team of scientists reports that unusually high seismic activity joggled Mount Erebus last fall. However, the Antarctic volcano showed no external signs of an eruption.When scientists from the United States, Japan, and New Zealand returned to the world's southernmost active volcano last November for their annual field expedition, they found that seismic stations recorded 650 small tremors on October 8; prior to that, the number of quakes had averaged between 20 and 80 per day. The October 8 maximum was followed by 140 on October 9 and 120 on October 10. Philip R. Kyle, assistant professor of geochemistry at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology in Socorro and leader of the team studying Mount Erebus, noted that some of the strongest earthquakes recorded during the team's 3 years of observations occurred on October 8; these registered less than 2 on the Richter scale.

  20. Plasma Screen Floating Mount

    DOEpatents

    Eakle, Robert F.; Pak, Donald J.

    2004-10-26

    A mounting system for a flat display screen, particularly a plasma display screen, suspends the screen separately in each of the x-, y- and z-directions. A series of frames located by linear bearings and isolated by springs and dampers allows separate controlled movement in each axis. The system enables the use of relatively larger display screens in vehicles in which plasma screen are subject to damage from vibration.

  1. Mount Wilson Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Mount Wilson Observatory, located in the San Gabriel Mountains near Pasadena, California, was founded in 1904 by George Ellery Hale with financial support from Andrew Carnegie. In the 1920s and 1930s, working at the 2.5 m Hooker telescope, Edwin Hubble made two of the most important discoveries in the history of astronomy: first, that `nebulae' are actually island universes—galaxies—each with bil...

  2. EMU helmet mounted display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marmolejo, Jose (Inventor); Smith, Stephen (Inventor); Plough, Alan (Inventor); Clarke, Robert (Inventor); Mclean, William (Inventor); Fournier, Joseph (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A helmet mounted display device is disclosed for projecting a display on a flat combiner surface located above the line of sight where the display is produced by two independent optical channels with independent LCD image generators. The display has a fully overlapped field of view on the combiner surface and the focus can be adjusted from a near field of four feet to infinity.

  3. All-terrain vehicle crashes and associated injuries in north Queensland: findings from the Rural and Remote Road Safety Study.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Teresa; Hanks, Heather; Steinhardt, Dale

    2009-10-01

    To define characteristics of all-terrain vehicle (ATV) crashes occurring in north Queensland from March 2004 till June 2007 with the exploration of associated risk factors. Descriptive analysis of ATV crash data collected by the Rural and Remote Road Safety Study. Rural and remote north Queensland. Forty-two ATV drivers and passengers aged 16 years or over hospitalised at Atherton, Cairns, Mount Isa or Townsville for at least 24 hours as a result of a vehicle crash. Demographics of participants, reason for travel, nature of crash, injuries sustained and risk factors associated with ATV crash. The majority of casualties were men aged 16-64. Forty-one per cent of accidents occurred while performing agricultural tasks. Furthermore, 39% of casualties had less than one year's experience riding ATVs. Over half the casualties were not wearing a helmet at the time of the crash. Common injuries were head and neck and upper limb injuries. Rollovers tended to occur while performing agricultural tasks and most commonly resulted in multiple injuries. Considerable trauma results from ATV crashes in rural and remote north Queensland. These crashes are not included in most general vehicle crash data sets, as they are usually limited to events occurring on public roads. Minimal legislation and regulation currently applies to ATV use in agricultural, recreational and commercial settings. Legislation on safer design of ATVs and mandatory courses for riders is an essential part of addressing the burden of ATV crashes on rural and remote communities.

  4. Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-20

    STS072-722-004 (11-20 Jan. 1996) --- Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania is featured in this 70mm frame exposed from the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavour. Orient with the clouds trailing to the left; then the view is southwest from Kenya past Kilimanjaro to Mount Meru, in Tanzania. Mount Kilimanjaro is about three degrees south of the Equator, but at nearly 6,000 meters has a permanent snowfield. The mountain displays a classic zonation of vegetation types from seasonally dry savannah on the plains at 1,000 meters, to the cloud forest near the top. The mountain is being managed experimentally as an international biosphere reserve. A buffer zone of "traditional" agriculture and pastoral land use is designated around the closed-canopy forest reserve. Specialists familiar with this area say management is partially successful so far, but cleared areas of the forest can be seen on this photograph as light green "nibbles" or "cookie cuts" extending into the dark forest region.

  5. Monitoring Mount Baker Volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malone, S.D.; Frank, D.

    1976-01-01

    Hisotrically active volcanoes in the conterminous United States are restricted to the Cascade Range and extend to the Cascade Range and extend from Mount Baker near the Canadian border to Lassen Peak in northern California. Since 1800 A.D, most eruptive activity has been on a relatively small scale and has not caused loss of life or significant property damage. However, future  volcanism predictably will have more serious effects because of greatly increased use of land near volcanoes during the present century. (See "Appraising Volcanic Hazards of the Cascade Range of the Northwestern United States," Earthquake Inf. Bull., Sept.-Oct. 1974.) The recognition an impending eruption is highly important in order to minimize the potential hazard to people and property. Thus, a substantial increase in hydrothermal activity at Mount Baker in March 1975 ( see "Mount Baker Heating Up," July-Aug. 1975 issue) was regarded as a possible first signal that an eruption might occur, and an intensive monitoring program was undertaken. 

  6. Solar panel mounting assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Eiden, G.E.

    1990-01-02

    This patent describes a mounting assembly for pivotally connecting a solar panel or collector to a base. The mounting assembly comprising: a frame whereupon the solar panel or collector can be mounted; a first plate connected to the frame, the plate having a pivot hole and a plurality of angle displacement holes each being equidistant from the pivot hole; a second plate connected to the base and situated substantially parallel to the first plate. The second plate having a pivot hole and an angle displacement hole being situated substantially the same distance apart from the second plate pivot hole as the distance between the pivot and displacement holes of the first plate; a pivot shaft received through the plate pivot hole and the second plate pivot hole whereby the frame and first plate can pivot with respect to the second plate and the base; an angle displacement shaft selectively received through the second plate angle displacement hole and any one of the first plate angle displacement holes whereby the frame and first plate can be selectively angularly fixed with respect to the second plate and the base; a U-member having two legs, the second plate being connected to the U-member; and, a selectively rotable shaft.

  7. Manipulator mounted transfer platform

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbins, J.C.; Hoover, M.A.; May, K.W.; Ross, M.J.

    1990-01-23

    The patent describes in a manipulator system for use in hazardous environments including a manipulator adapted for reciprocal movement upon a guide device, a transfer platform. It comprises: a bed frame defining a generally horizontal bed projecting outwardly from the manipulator; and frame mounting means securing the bed frame to the manipulator in a generally cantilevered fashion, thereby essentially minimizing the structure necessary to support the platform outwardly of the manipulator while enhancing operator visibility of the platform and the manipulator during use of the manipulator system.

  8. MOUNT WASHINGTON WILDERNESS, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Edward M.; Causey, J. Douglas

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, Mount Washington Wilderness, Oregon has little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral or fossil fuel resources. Abundant cinder resources occur in the wilderness, but other large volume cinder deposits are available outside the wilderness and closer to markets. Analysis of the geothermal potential of the High Cascades province cannot be made without data on the subsurface thermal and hydrologic regimes which can only be provided by deep drill holes. Several deep holes could be drilled in areas outside the wildernesses of the High Cascades, from which extrapolations of the geothermal potential of the wildernesses could be made.

  9. The Mount Wilson magnetograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, R.; Boyden, J. E.; Bruning, D. H.; Clark, M. K.; Crist, H. W.; Labonte, B. J.

    1983-01-01

    In the summer of 1957, an instrument quite similar to the prototype solar magnetograph described by Babcock (1953) was installed at the 150-foot tower telescope at the Mount Wilson Observatory, and daily magnetograph observations of the full disk of the sun were started. During the following years, the instrument was modified and improved on several occasions. The present investigation is concerned with the present state of the magnetograph, which was largely rebuilt during 1981. Attention is given to the spectrograph entrance slit, the diffraction grating, the exit slit, the employed microprocessor, the setup procedure, the magnetic signal, the Doppler signal, and a solar magnetogram.

  10. 19. Interior first level view looking north within forward (north) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Interior first level view looking north within forward (north) section of firing pier. Objects pictured include torpedo cart (left), floor-mounted roller tray (extending to lower right), and (at center rear), deck-type firing tube. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  11. Surface mount component jig

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1990-08-07

    A device for bending and trimming the pins of a dual-inline-package component and the like for surface mounting rather than through mounting to a circuit board comprises, in a first part, in pin cutter astride a holder having a recess for holding the component, a first spring therebetween, and, in a second part, two flat members pivotally interconnected by a hinge and urged to an upward peaked position from a downward peaked position by a second spring. As a downward force is applied to the pin cutter it urges the holder downward, assisted by the first spring and a pair of ridges riding on shoulders of the holder, to carry the component against the upward peaked flat members which guide the pins outwardly. As the holder continues downwardly, the flat members pivot to the downward peaked position bending the pins upwardly against the sides of the holder. When the downward movement is met with sufficient resistance, the ridges of the pin cutter ride over the holder's shoulders to continue downward to cut any excess length of pin.

  12. A microgravity isolation mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, D. I.; Owens, A. R.; Owen, R. G.; Roberts, G.; Wyn-Roberts, D. W.; Robinson, A. A.

    1987-01-01

    The design and preliminary testing of a system for isolating microgravity sensitive payloads from spacecraft vibrational and impulsive disturbances is discussed. The Microgravity Isolation Mount (MGIM) concept consists of a platform which floats almost freely within a limited volume inside the spacecraft, but which is constrained to follow the spacecraft in the long term by means of very weak springs. The springs are realized magnetically and form part of a six degree of freedom active magnetic suspension system. The latter operates without any physical contact between the spacecraft and the platform itself. Power and data transfer is also performed by contactless means. Specifications are given for the expected level of input disturbances and the tolerable level of platform acceleration. The structural configuration of the mount is discussed and the design of the principal elements, i.e., actuators, sensors, control loops and power/data transfer devices are described. Finally, the construction of a hardware model that is being used to verify the predicted performance of the MGIM is described.

  13. Metamorphic Mountain, Mount Jefferson State Park: An Environmental Education Learning Experience Designed for Grades 5-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, George K., II; Hubbard, William F.; Lambert, Michael D.; Beazley, Lea J.

    Mount Jefferson State Natural Area is located in the southern Blue Ridge highlands of North Carolina and covers 489 acres, which includes peaks and upper slopes to the Mount Jefferson mountain. This document introduces students to the geology of Mount Jefferson State Park and focuses on the geologic processes and rocks and minerals of Mount…

  14. Insertion sequence AS5 (ISAS5) is involved in the genomic plasticity of Aeromonas salmonicida

    PubMed Central

    Trudel, Mélanie V.; Tanaka, Katherine H.; Filion, Geneviève; Daher, Rana K.; Frenette, Michel; Charette, Steve J.

    2013-01-01

    The genome of the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida subsp salmonicida harbors a large number of insertion sequences (ISs), many of which are located on plasmids. In the present study, we analyzed the small plasmid profile of A. salmonicida strains to identify evidences of plasmid alterations. Ten out of 78 strains analyzed displayed an unconventional plasmid profile. However the HER1104 strain was unique, having a positive PCR signal for pAsal1 plasmid despite not carrying this plasmid. Instead, HER1104 was bearing a plasmid at higher molecular weight than pAsal1. We characterized this new larger plasmid, which we called pAsal1B since it is a derivative of pAsal1 containing one more complete IS (ISAS5) than the parental plasmid. An additional 96 bp relic of ISAS5 was also present in pAsal1B. These results propose that ISAS5 is another active mobile genetic element in A. salmonicida subsp salmonicida and provided further proof of the genomic plasticity of this bacterium. PMID:23956951

  15. Changes in Soil Chemistry and Agricultural Return Flow in an Integrated Seawater Agriculture System (ISAS) Demonstration in Abu Dhabi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Q.; Matiin, W. A.; Ahmad, F.

    2012-12-01

    Growing halophytes using Integrated Seawater Agriculture Systems (ISAS) offers a sustainable solution for the generation of biomass feedstock for carbon neutral biofuels - halophytes do not enter the foodchain and they do not compete with food-crops for natural resources. A field demonstration of ISAS in the coastal regions of Abu Dhabi, UAE, scheduled to start in 2013, will likely face a number of region-specific challenges not encountered in past demonstrations of ISAS at coastal locations in Mexico and Eritrea. The arid climate, unique soil chemistry (evaporite deposits, especially gypsum), and hypersaline coastal hydrogeology of Abu Dhabi will affect long-term halophyte agricultural productivity when Arabian Gulf seawater is applied to coastal soils as part of ISAS. Therefore, the changes in irrigation return flow quality and soil chemistry must be monitored closely over time to establish transient salt and water balances in order to assess the sustainability of ISAS in the region. As an initial phase of the ISAS demonstration project, numerical modeling of different seawater loadings onto coastal soils was conducted to estimate the chemical characteristics of soil and the irrigation return flow over time. These modeling results will be validated with field monitoring data upon completion of one year of ISAS operation. The results from this study could be used to (i) determine the optimal saline water loading that the soils at the ISAS site can tolerate, (ii) potential for sodicity of the soil with saline water application, (iii) impacts of land application of saline water on underlying coastal groundwater, and (iv) develop strategies to control soil water activities in favor of halophyte agricultural productivity.

  16. Mount Vesuvius, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of Mt. Vesuvius, Italy was acquired September 26, 2000. The full-size false-color image covers an area of 36 by 45 km. Vesuvius overlooks the city of Naples and the Bay of Naples in central Italy. (Popocatepetl and Mount Fuji are other volcanos surrounded by dense urban areas.) In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, burying all of the surrounding cites with up to 30 m of ash. The towns of Pompeii and Herculanaeum were rediscovered in the 18th century, and excavated in the 20th century. They provide a snapshot of Roman life from 2000 years ago: perfectly preserved are wooden objects, food items, and the casts of hundreds of victims. Vesuvius is intensively monitored for potential signs of unrest that could signal the beginning of another eruption. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  17. Mount Vesuvius, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of Mt. Vesuvius, Italy was acquired September 26, 2000. The full-size false-color image covers an area of 36 by 45 km. Vesuvius overlooks the city of Naples and the Bay of Naples in central Italy. (Popocatepetl and Mount Fuji are other volcanos surrounded by dense urban areas.) In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, burying all of the surrounding cites with up to 30 m of ash. The towns of Pompeii and Herculanaeum were rediscovered in the 18th century, and excavated in the 20th century. They provide a snapshot of Roman life from 2000 years ago: perfectly preserved are wooden objects, food items, and the casts of hundreds of victims. Vesuvius is intensively monitored for potential signs of unrest that could signal the beginning of another eruption. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  18. Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) isolated from the ISA disease outbreaks in Chile diverged from ISAV isolates from Norway around 1996 and was disseminated around 2005, based on surface glycoprotein gene sequences

    PubMed Central

    Kibenge, Frederick SB; Godoy, Marcos G; Wang, Yingwei; Kibenge, Molly JT; Gherardelli, Valentina; Mansilla, Soledad; Lisperger, Angelica; Jarpa, Miguel; Larroquete, Geraldine; Avendaño, Fernando; Lara, Marcela; Gallardo, Alicia

    2009-01-01

    Background Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) virus (ISAV) is a pathogen of marine-farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar); a disease first diagnosed in Norway in 1984. For over 25 years ISAV has caused major disease outbreaks in the Northern hemisphere, and remains an emerging fish pathogen because of the asymptomatic infections in marine wild fish and the potential for emergence of new epidemic strains. ISAV belongs to the family Orthomyxoviridae, together with influenza viruses but is sufficiently different to be assigned to its own genus, Isavirus. The Isavirus genome consists of eight single-stranded RNA species, and the virions have two surface glycoproteins; fusion (F) protein encoded on segment 5 and haemagglutinin-esterase (HE) protein encoded on segment 6. However, comparision between different ISAV isolates is complicated because there is presently no universally accepted nomenclature system for designation of genetic relatedness between ISAV isolates. The first outbreak of ISA in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon in the Southern hemisphere occurred in Chile starting in June 2007. In order to describe the molecular characteristics of the virus so as to understand its origins, how ISAV isolates are maintained and spread, and their virulence characteristics, we conducted a study where the viral sequences were directly amplified, cloned and sequenced from tissue samples collected from several ISA-affected fish on the different fish farms with confirmed or suspected ISA outbreaks in Chile. This paper describes the genetic characterization of a large number of ISAV strains associated with extensive outbreaks in Chile starting in June 2007, and their phylogenetic relationships with selected European and North American isolates that are representative of the genetic diversity of ISAV. Results RT-PCR for ISAV F and HE glycoprotein genes was performed directly on tissue samples collected from ISA-affected fish on different farms among 14 fish companies in Chile during the

  19. ISA-MIP: A co-ordinated intercomparison of Interactive Stratospheric Aerosol models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmreck, Claudia; Mann, Graham; Aquila, Valentina; Bruehl, Christoph; Chin, Mian; Dohmse, Sandip; English, Jason; Lee, Lindsay; Mills, Michael; Hommel, Rene; Neely, Ryan; Schmidt, Anja; Sheng, Jianxiong; Toohey, Matthew; Weisenstein, Debra

    2016-04-01

    The SPARC activity, "Stratospheric Sulfur and its Role in Climate" (SSiRC) was initiated to coordinate international research activities on modelling and observation of stratospheric sulphate aerosols (and precursor gases) in order to assess its climate forcing and feedback. With several international activities to extend and improve observational stratospheric aerosol capabilities and data sets, and a growing number of global models treating stratospheric aerosol interactively, a new model intercomparison activity "ISA-MIP" has been established in the frame of SSIRC. ISA-MIP will compare interactive stratospheric aerosol (ISA) models using a range of observations to constrain and improve the models and to provide a sound scientific basis for future work. Four ISA-MIP experiments have been designed to assess different periods of the obervational stratospheric aerosol record, and to explore key processes which influence the formation and temporal development of stratospheric aerosol. The "Background" experiment will focus on the role of microphysical and transport processes under volcanically quiescent conditions, where the stratospheric aerosol size distribution is only modulated by seasonal circulations. The "Model intercomparison of Transient Aerosol Record" (MiTAR) experiment will focus on addressing the role of small- to moderate-magnitude volcanic eruptions and transport processes in the upper troposphere - lower stratosphere (UTLS) aerosols loading over the period 1998-2011. Background and MiTAR simulations will be compared to recent in-situ and satellite observations to evaluate the performances of the model and understand their strengths and weaknesses. Two further experiments investigate the radiative forcing from historical major eruptions. The Historical Eruptions SO2 Emission Assessment (HErSEA) will involve models carrying out mini-ensembles of the stratospheric aerosol perturbations from each of the 1963 Agung, 1982 El Chichon and 1991 Pinatubo

  20. Mount St. Helens 30 years later: a landscape reconfigured.

    Treesearch

    Rhonda Mazza

    2010-01-01

    On May 18, 1980, after two months of tremors, Mount St. Helens erupted spectacularly and profoundly changed a vast area surrounding the volcano. The north slope of the mountain catastrophically failed, forming the largest landslide witnessed in modern times. The largest lobe of this debris avalanche raced 14 miles down the Toutle River...

  1. View of the Radiator Mount (Feature 13), looking eastnortheast. The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the Radiator Mount (Feature 13), looking east-northeast. The Tram Support remains (Feature 21) are in background - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  2. Closeup view of subarray driver module, mounted on girder at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Closeup view of sub-array driver module, mounted on girder at back of array - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Techinical Equipment Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  3. Mount Zion Cemetery, 1975 Plot Plan Mount Zion Cemetery/ ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Mount Zion Cemetery, 1975 Plot Plan - Mount Zion Cemetery/ Female Union Band Cemetery, Bounded by 27th Street right-of-way N.W. (formerly Lyons Mill Road), Q Street N.W., & Mill Road N.W., Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  4. Volcano hazards in the Mount Jefferson region, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walder, Joseph S.; Gardner, Cynthia A.; Conrey, Richard M.; Fisher, Bruce J.; Schilling, Steven P.

    1999-01-01

    Mount Jefferson is a prominent feature of the landscape seen from highways east and west of the Cascades. Mount Jefferson (one of thirteen major volcanic centers in the Cascade Range) has erupted repeatedly for hundreds of thousands of years, with its last eruptive episode during the last major glaciation which culminated about 15,000 years ago. Geologic evidence shows that Mount Jefferson is capable of large explosive eruptions. The largest such eruption occurred between 35,000 and 100,000 years ago, and caused ash to fall as far away as the present-day town of Arco in southeast Idaho. Although there has not been an eruption at Mount Jefferson for some time, experience at explosive volcanoes elsewhere suggests that Mount Jefferson cannot be regarded as extinct. If Mount Jefferson erupts again, areas close to the eruptive vent will be severely affected, and even areas tens of kilometers (tens of miles) downstream along river valleys or hundreds of kilometers (hundreds of miles) downwind may be at risk. Numerous small volcanoes occupy the area between Mount Jefferson and Mount Hood to the north, and between Mount Jefferson and the Three Sisters region to the south. These small volcanoes tend not to pose the far-reaching hazards associated with Mount Jefferson, but are nonetheless locally important. A concern at Mount Jefferson, but not at the smaller volcanoes, is the possibility that small to- moderate sized landslides could occur even during periods of no volcanic activity. Such landslides may transform as they move into lahars (watery flows of rock, mud, and debris) that can inundate areas far downstream. The population at immediate risk in the Mount Jefferson region is small, but these residents as well as other people who visit the area for recreation and work purposes should be aware of the potential hazards. Probably the greatest concern in the Mount Jefferson region is the possibility that large lahars might enter reservoirs on either side of the volcano

  5. View looking north along the balustrade at the east end ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking north along the balustrade at the east end of West Mount Vernon Place; view includes the lion statue and the statue "Peace" - Mount Vernon Place, Charles & Monument Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  6. 222. NORTH END OF DIVIDING STRIP LOCATED NEAR LITTLE HUNTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    222. NORTH END OF DIVIDING STRIP LOCATED NEAR LITTLE HUNTING CREEK ON GWMP LOOKING SOUTH, 1946. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  7. Floods at Mount Clemens, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiitala, S.W.; Ash, Arlington D.

    1962-01-01

    The approximate areas inundated during the flood of April 5-6, 1947, by Clinton River, North Branch and Middle Branch of Clinton River, and Harrington Drain, in Clinton Township, Macomb County, Mich., are shown on a topographic map base to record the flood hazard in graphical form. The flood of April 1947 is the highest known since 1934 and probably since 1902. Greater floods are possible, but no attempt was made to define their probable overflow limits.The Clinton River Cut-Off Canal, a flood-relief channel which diverts flow directly into Lake St. Clair from a point about 1500 feet downstream from Gratiot Avenue (about 9 miles upstream from the mouth) has been in operation since October 1951. The approximate limits of overflow that would results from a flood equivalent in discharge to that of April 1947, and occurring with the Cut-Off Canal in operation, are also shown. Although the Cut-Off Canal may reduce the frequency and depth of flooding it will not necessarily eliminate future flooding in the area. Improvements and additions to the drainage systems in the basin, expanding urbanization, new highways, and other cultural changes may influence the inundation pattern of future floods.The preparation of this flood inundation map was financed through a cooperative agreement between Clinton Township, Macomb County, Mich., and the U.S. Geological Survey.Backwater curves used to define the profile for a hypothetical flood on the Clinton River downstream from Moravian Drive, equivalent in discharge to the 1947 flood, but occurring with the present Cut-Off Canal in operation; flood stage established at the gaging station on Clinton River at Mount Clemens; and supplementary floodmark elevations were furnished by the Corps of Engineers.Bench-mark elevations and field survey data, used in the analysis of floods on Harrington Drain, were furnished by the Macomb County Drain Commission.

  8. Monothiol glutaredoxin Grx5 interacts with Fe-S scaffold proteins Isa1 and Isa2 and supports Fe-S assembly and DNA integrity in mitochondria of fission yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyoung-Dong; Chung, Woo-Hyun; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Lee, Kyung-Chang; Roe, Jung-Hye

    2010-02-12

    Mitochondrial monothiol glutaredoxins that bind Fe-S cluster are known to participate in Fe-S cluster assembly. However, their precise role has not been well understood. Among three monothiol glutaredoxins (Grx3, 4, and 5) in Schizosaccharomyces pombe only Grx5 resides in mitochondria. The {Delta}grx5 mutant requires cysteine on minimal media, and does not grow on non-fermentable carbon source such as glycerol. We found that the mutant is low in the activity of Fe-S enzymes in mitochondria as well as in the cytoplasm. Screening of multi-copy suppressor of growth defects of the mutant identified isa1{sup +} gene encoding a putative A-type Fe-S scaffold, in addition to mas5{sup +} and hsc1{sup +} genes encoding putative chaperones for Fe-S assembly process. Examination of other scaffold and chaperone genes revealed that isa2{sup +}, but not isu1{sup +} and ssc1{sup +}, complemented the growth phenotype of {Delta}grx5 mutant as isa1{sup +} did, partly through restoration of Fe-S enzyme activities. The mutant also showed a significant decrease in the amount of mitochondrial DNA. We demonstrated that Grx5 interacts in vivo with Isa1 and Isa2 proteins in mitochondria by observing bimolecular fluorescence complementation. These results indicate that Grx5 plays a central role in Fe-S assembly process through interaction with A-type Fe-S scaffold proteins Isa1 and Isa2, each of which is an essential protein in S. pombe, and supports mitochondrial genome integrity as well as Fe-S assembly.

  9. Mount St. Helens Flyover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of Mt. St. Helens volcano in Washington State was acquired on August 8, 2000 and covers an area of 37 by 51 km. Mount Saint Helens, a volcano in the Cascade Range of southwestern Washington that had been dormant since 1857, began to show signs of renewed activity in early 1980. On 18 May 1980, it erupted with such violence that the top of the mountain was blown off, spewing a cloud of ash and gases that rose to an altitude of 19 kilometers. The blast killed about 60 people and destroyed all life in an area of some 180 square kilometers (some 70 square miles), while a much larger area was covered with ash and debris. It continues to spit forth ash and steam intermittently. As a result of the eruption, the mountain's elevation decreased from 2,950 meters to 2,549 meters. The simulated fly-over was produced by draping ASTER visible and near infrared image data over a digital topography model, created from ASTER's 3-D stereo bands. The color was computer enhanced to create a 'natural' color image, where the vegetation appears green. The topography has been exaggerated 2 times to enhance the appearance of the relief. Landsat7 aquired an image of Mt. St. Helens on August 22, 1999. Image and animation courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  10. Surface Mounted Neutron Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.

    2012-10-01

    A deuterium-tritium (DT) base reaction pulsed neutron generator packaged in a flat computer chip shape of 1.54 cm (0.600 in) wide by 3.175 cm (1.25 in) length and 0.3 cm (0.120 in) thick has been successfully demonstrated to produce 14 MeV neutrons at a rate of 10^9 neutrons per second. The neutron generator is based on a deuterium ion beam accelerated to impact a tritium loaded target. The accelerating voltage is in the 15 to 20 kV in a 3 mm (0.120 in) gap, the ion beam is shaped by using a lens design to produce a flat ion beam that conforms to the flat rectangular target. The ion source is a simple surface mounted deuterium filled titanium film with a fused gap that operates at a current-voltage design to release the deuterium during a pulse length of about 1 μs. We present the general description of the working prototypes, which we have labeled the ``NEUTRISTOR.''[4pt] Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration. Work funded by the LDRD office.

  11. Map of Lower Mount Sharp

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-11

    This is a map of lower Mount Sharp on Mars, showing the major geologic units identified from orbit. The rocks of the Murray Formation, mapped in green, likely represent the oldest layers of Mount Sharp that NASA Curiosity rover will explore.

  12. Vaccination with Clostridium perfringens recombinant proteins in combination with Montanide™ ISA 71 VG adjuvant increases protection against experimental necrotic enteritis in commercial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Jang, Seung I; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Lee, Sung-Hyen; Lee, Kyung Woo; Lillehoj, Erik P; Hong, Yeong Ho; An, Dong-Jun; Jeong, Wooseog; Chun, Ji-Eun; Bertrand, François; Dupuis, Laurent; Deville, Sébastien; Arous, Juliette Ben

    2012-08-03

    This study was performed to compare four Clostridium perfringens recombinant proteins as vaccine candidates using the Montanide™ ISA 71 VG adjuvant in an experimental model of necrotic enteritis. Broiler chickens were immunized subcutaneously with purified clostridial recombinant NetB toxin, pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFO), α-toxin, or elongation factor-Tu (EF-Tu), or with vehicle control, in conjunction with ISA 71 VG, and intestinal lesion scores, body weight gains, NetB toxin and PFO antibody levels, and proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels were measured as outcomes of protection following oral co-infection with C. perfringens and Eimeria maxima. Birds immunized with all recombinant proteins plus ISA 71 VG showed significantly reduced gut lesions compared with the ISA 71 VG-only group. Birds immunized with NetB toxin or PFO plus ISA 71 VG exhibited significantly increased body weight gains compared with the ISA 71 VG alone group. Greater NetB toxin antibody titers were observed in the NetB/ISA 71 VG group, and greater PFO antibody titers were evident in the PFO/ISA 71 VG group, each compared with the other three vaccine/adjuvant groups. Finally, decreased levels of gene transcripts encoding interleukin-8, tumor necrosis factor superfamily 15, and LPS-induced TNF-α factor were observed in the intestinal lymphocytes of chickens immunized with NetB toxin, PFO, α-toxin, and/or EF-Tu in the presence of ISA 71 VG compared with ISA 71 VG alone. All parameters evaluated were equal in co-infected chickens given ISA 71 VG alone compared with infected/adjuvant-free birds, indicating that the adjuvant itself did not have a disease protective effect. These results suggest that vaccination with clostridial recombinant proteins, particularly NetB toxin or PFO, in combination with ISA 71 VG enhances protective immunity against experimental necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Mount Rainier National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, Robert; Woodward, Andrea; Haggerty, Patricia K.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Griffin, Paul C.; Adams, Michael J.; Hagar, Joan; Cummings, Tonnie; Duriscoe, Dan; Kopper, Karen; Riedel, Jon; Samora, Barbara; Marin, Lelaina; Mauger, Guillaume S.; Bumbaco, Karen; Littell, Jeremy S.

    2014-01-01

    Natural Resource Condition Assessments (NRCAs) evaluate current conditions for a subset of natural resources and resource indicators in national parks. NRCAs also report on trends in resource condition (when possible), identify critical data gaps, and characterize a general level of confidence for study findings. The resources and indicators emphasized in a given project depend on the park’s resource setting, status of resource stewardship planning and science in identifying high-priority indicators, and availability of data and expertise to assess current conditions for a variety of potential study resources and indicators. Although the primary objective of NRCAs is to report on current conditions relative to logical forms of reference conditions and values, NRCAs also report on trends, when appropriate (i.e., when the underlying data and methods support such reporting), as well as influences on resource conditions. These influences may include past activities or conditions that provide a helpful context for understanding current conditions and present-day threats and stressors that are best interpreted at park, watershed, or landscape scales (though NRCAs do not report on condition status for land areas and natural resources beyond park boundaries). Intensive cause-andeffect analyses of threats and stressors, and development of detailed treatment options, are outside the scope of NRCAs. It is also important to note that NRCAs do not address resources that lack sufficient data for assessment. For Mount Rainier National Park, this includes most invertebrate species and many other animal species that are subject to significant stressors from climate change and other anthropogenic sources such as air pollutants and recreational use. In addition, we did not include an analysis of the physical hydrology associated with streams (such as riverine landforms, erosion and aggradation which is significant in MORA streams), due to a loss of staff expertise from the USGS

  14. School of the Air by Satellite. A Study of the Improvement of Distance Education in North-west Queensland Using the Australian Communications Satellite System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitt, John; And Others

    As part of an assessment of the educational uses of the Australian Communications Satellite System to be launched in mid-1985, this report focuses on the Mount Isa School of the Air. A general discussion assesses the mechanisms for delivery of distance education for isolated students in Northwest Queensland and considers possible functional…

  15. School of the Air by Satellite. A Study of the Improvement of Distance Education in North-west Queensland Using the Australian Communications Satellite System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitt, John; And Others

    As part of an assessment of the educational uses of the Australian Communications Satellite System to be launched in mid-1985, this report focuses on the Mount Isa School of the Air. A general discussion assesses the mechanisms for delivery of distance education for isolated students in Northwest Queensland and considers possible functional…

  16. Erupting Volcano Mount Etna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Expedition Five crew members aboard the International Space Station (ISS) captured this overhead look at the smoke and ash regurgitated from the erupting volcano Mt. Etna on the island of Sicily, Italy in October 2002. Triggered by a series of earthquakes on October 27, 2002, this eruption was one of Etna's most vigorous in years. This image shows the ash plume curving out toward the horizon. The lighter-colored plumes down slope and north of the summit seen in this frame are produced by forest fires set by flowing lava. At an elevation of 10,990 feet (3,350 m), the summit of the Mt. Etna volcano, one of the most active and most studied volcanoes in the world, has been active for a half-million years and has erupted hundreds of times in recorded history.

  17. Erupting Volcano Mount Etna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Expedition Five crew members aboard the International Space Station (ISS) captured this overhead look at the smoke and ash regurgitated from the erupting volcano Mt. Etna on the island of Sicily, Italy in October 2002. Triggered by a series of earthquakes on October 27, 2002, this eruption was one of Etna's most vigorous in years. This image shows the ash plume curving out toward the horizon. The lighter-colored plumes down slope and north of the summit seen in this frame are produced by forest fires set by flowing lava. At an elevation of 10,990 feet (3,350 m), the summit of the Mt. Etna volcano, one of the most active and most studied volcanoes in the world, has been active for a half-million years and has erupted hundreds of times in recorded history.

  18. Detector Mount Design for IGRINS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jae Sok; Park, Chan; Cha, Sang-Mok; Yuk, In-Soo; Park, Kwijong; Kim, Kang-Min; Chun, Moo-Young; Ko, Kyeongyeon; Oh, Heeyoung; Jeong, Ueejeong; Nah, Jakyoung; Lee, Hanshin; Jaffe, Daniel T.

    2014-06-01

    The Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrometer (IGRINS) is a near-infrared wide-band high-resolution spectrograph jointly developed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute and the University of Texas at Austin. IGRINS employs three HAWAII-2RG Focal Plane Array (H2RG FPA) detectors. We present the design and fabrication of the detector mount for the H2RG detector. The detector mount consists of a detector housing, an ASIC housing, a Field Flattener Lens (FFL) mount, and a support base frame. The detector and the ASIC housing should be kept at 65 K and the support base frame at 130 K. Therefore they are thermally isolated by the support made of GFRP material. The detector mount is designed so that it has features of fine adjusting the position of the detector surface in the optical axis and of fine adjusting yaw and pitch angles in order to utilize as an optical system alignment compensator. We optimized the structural stability and thermal characteristics of the mount design using computer-aided 3D modeling and finite element analysis. Based on the structural and thermal analysis, the designed detector mount meets an optical stability tolerance and system thermal requirements. Actual detector mount fabricated based on the design has been installed into the IGRINS cryostat and successfully passed a vacuum test and a cold test.

  19. Adjustable Optical Mount Is More Rigid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asbury, Bill G.; Coombs, David S.; Jones, Irby W.; Moore, Alvah S., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Improved mount for lens or mirror in laser offers rigidity similar to that of nonadjustable optical mount. In comparison with older adjustable optical mounts, this one less susceptible to movements and distortions caused by vibrations and by thermal expansions and contractions. Mount contains neither adjustment rods (which grow or shrink as temperature varies) nor springs (which transmit vibrations to mounted optic).

  20. Montanide ISA 71 VG is Advantageous to Freund's Adjuvant in Immunization Against S. aureus Infection of Mice.

    PubMed

    Klimka, A; Michels, L; Glowalla, E; Tosetti, B; Krönke, M; Krut, O

    2015-05-01

    The enormous capacity of Staphylococcus aureus to acquire antibiotic resistance makes it a permanent task to search for and to develop new anti-infectives. One of the possible approaches is the early active immunization of risk patients and animal stocks to prevent S. aureus infections. Based on a S. aureus proteome screen with S. aureus-specific human antiserum, we have previously identified several anchorless cell wall proteins to be used as novel vaccine candidates. To develop an efficient anti-S. aureus vaccine, the supplemented adjuvants Montanide(™) ISA 71 VG and ISA 206 were compared to Freund's adjuvant in terms of handling, induction of cytokine profile, triggering antigen-specific immunoglobulin production of different IgG subclasses and provision of increased survival rates in our S. aureus sepsis mouse model. Immunization with ISA 71 VG in comparison with Freund's adjuvant induced slightly delayed but comparably strong increase of antigen-specific antibody titres and conferred protective effect against S. aureus challenge. In contrast using ISA 206 as adjuvant, significantly lower IgG titres and consequently, no protective effect against S. aureus infection were observed. Handling and tolerability of the Montanide is superior to Freund's adjuvant. Montanide(™) ISA 71 VG can serve as an effective adjuvant replacement for Freund's adjuvant in research with a prospective usage in animal and human vaccines against bacterial pathogens. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Apollo Telescope Mount Spar Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM), designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center, served as the primary scientific instrument unit aboard the Skylab. The ATM contained eight complex astronomical instruments designed to observe the Sun over a wide spectrum from visible light to x-rays. This image shows the ATM spar assembly. All solar telescopes, the fine Sun sensors, and some auxiliary systems are mounted on the spar, a cruciform lightweight perforated metal mounting panel that divides the 10-foot long canister lengthwise into four equal compartments. The spar assembly was nested inside a cylindrical canister that fit into the rack, a complex frame, and was protected by the solar shield.

  2. SXI prototype mirror mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this contract was to provide optomechanical engineering and fabrication support to the Solar X-ray Imager (SXI) program in the areas of mirror, optical bench and camera assemblies of the telescope. The Center for Applied Optics (CAO) worked closely with the Optics and S&E technical staff of MSFC to develop and investigate the most viable and economical options for the design and fabrication of a number of parts for the various telescope assemblies. All the tasks under this delivery order have been successfully completed within budget and schedule. A number of development hardware parts have been designed and fabricated jointly by MSFC and UAH for the engineering model of SXI. The major parts include a nickel electroformed mirror and a mirror mount, plating and coating of the ceramic spacers, and gold plating of the contact rings and fingers for the camera assembly. An aluminum model of the high accuracy sun sensor (HASS) was also designed and fabricated. A number of fiber optic tapers for the camera assembly were also coated with indium tin oxide and phosphor for testing and evaluation by MSFC. A large number of the SXI optical bench parts were also redesigned and simplified for a prototype telescope. These parts include the forward and rear support flanges, front aperture plate, the graphite epoxy optical bench and a test fixture for the prototype telescope. More than fifty (50) drawings were generated for various components of the prototype telescope. Some of these parts were subsequently fabricated at UAH machine shop or at MSFC or by the outside contractors. UAH also provide technical support to MSFC staff for a number of preliminary and critical design reviews. These design reviews included PDR and CDR for the mirror assembly by United Technologies Optical Systems (UTOS), and the program quarterly reviews, and SXI PDR and CDR. UAH staff also regularly attended the monthly status reviews, and made a significant number of suggestions to improve

  3. SXI prototype mirror mount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-04-01

    The purpose of this contract was to provide optomechanical engineering and fabrication support to the Solar X-ray Imager (SXI) program in the areas of mirror, optical bench and camera assemblies of the telescope. The Center for Applied Optics (CAO) worked closely with the Optics and S&E technical staff of MSFC to develop and investigate the most viable and economical options for the design and fabrication of a number of parts for the various telescope assemblies. All the tasks under this delivery order have been successfully completed within budget and schedule. A number of development hardware parts have been designed and fabricated jointly by MSFC and UAH for the engineering model of SXI. The major parts include a nickel electroformed mirror and a mirror mount, plating and coating of the ceramic spacers, and gold plating of the contact rings and fingers for the camera assembly. An aluminum model of the high accuracy sun sensor (HASS) was also designed and fabricated. A number of fiber optic tapers for the camera assembly were also coated with indium tin oxide and phosphor for testing and evaluation by MSFC. A large number of the SXI optical bench parts were also redesigned and simplified for a prototype telescope. These parts include the forward and rear support flanges, front aperture plate, the graphite epoxy optical bench and a test fixture for the prototype telescope. More than fifty (50) drawings were generated for various components of the prototype telescope. Some of these parts were subsequently fabricated at UAH machine shop or at MSFC or by the outside contractors. UAH also provide technical support to MSFC staff for a number of preliminary and critical design reviews. These design reviews included PDR and CDR for the mirror assembly by United Technologies Optical Systems (UTOS), and the program quarterly reviews, and SXI PDR and CDR. UAH staff also regularly attended the monthly status reviews, and made a significant number of suggestions to improve

  4. Igneous activity, metamorphism, and deformation in the Mount Rogers area of SW Virginia and NW North Carolina: A geologic record of Precambrian tectonic evolution of the southern Blue Ridge Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tollo, Richard P.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Mundil, Roland; Southworth, C. Scott; Cosca, Michael A.; Rankin, Douglas W.; Rubin, Allison E.; Kentner, Adrienne; Parendo, Christopher A.; Ray, Molly S.

    2012-01-01

    Mesoproterozoic basement in the vicinity of Mount Rogers is characterized by considerable lithologic variability, including major map units composed of gneiss, amphibolite, migmatite, meta-quartz monzodiorite and various types of granitoid. SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology and field mapping indicate that basement units define four types of occurrences, including (1) xenoliths of ca. 1.33 to ≥1.18 Ga age, (2) an early magmatic suite including meta-granitoids of ca. 1185–1140 Ma age that enclose or locally intrude the xenoliths, (3) metasedimentary rocks represented by layered granofels and biotite schist whose protoliths were likely deposited on the older meta-granitoids, and (4) a late magmatic suite composed of younger, ca. 1075–1030 Ma intrusive rocks of variable chemical composition that intruded the older rocks. The magmatic protolith of granofels constituting part of a layered, map-scale xenolith crystallized at ca. 1327 Ma, indicating that the lithology represents the oldest, intact crust presently recognized in the southern Appalachians. SHRIMP U-Pb data indicate that periods of regional Mesoproterozoic metamorphism occurred at 1170–1140 and 1070–1020 Ma. The near synchroneity in timing of regional metamorphism and magmatism suggests that magmas were emplaced into crust that was likely at near-solidus temperatures and that melts might have contributed to the regional heat budget. Much of the area is cut by numerous, generally east- to northeast-striking Paleozoic fault zones characterized by variable degrees of ductile deformation and recrystallization. These high-strain fault zones dismember the terrane, resulting in juxtaposition of units and transformation of basement lithologies to quartz- and mica-rich tectonites with protomylonitic and mylonitic textures. Mineral assemblages developed within such zones indicate that deformation and recrystallization likely occurred at greenschist-facies conditions at ca. 340 Ma.

  5. Geologic map of Mount Gareloi, Gareloi Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coombs, Michelle L.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Browne, Brandon L.

    2012-01-01

    As part of an effort to both monitor and study all historically active volcanoes in Alaska, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) undertook a field program at Mount Gareloi in the summer of 2003. During a month-long period, seismic networks were installed at Mount Gareloi and the neighboring Tanaga volcanic cluster. During this time, we undertook the first geologic field study of the volcano since Robert Coats visited Gareloi Island for four days in 1946. Understanding the geology of this relatively small island is important from a hazards perspective, because Mount Gareloi lies beneath a heavily trafficked air route between North America and Asia and has frequently erupted airborne ash since 1760. At least two landslides from the island have deposited debris on the sea floor; thus, landslide-generated tsunamis are also a potential hazard. Since seismic instruments were installed in 2003, they have detected small but consistent seismic signals from beneath Mount Gareloi's edifice, suggesting an active hydrothermal system. Mount Gareloi is also important from the standpoint of understanding subduction-related volcanism, because it lies in the western portion of the volcanically active arc, where subduction is oblique to the arc front. Understanding the compositional evolution of Mount Gareloi fills a spatial gap in along-arc studies.

  6. Kinematic high bandwidth mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, Thomas C.

    1995-01-01

    An adjustable mirror mount system for a mirror is disclosed comprising a mirror support having a planar surface thereon, a mirror frame containing a mirror and having a planar surface behind the mirror facing the planar surface of the mirror support and parallel to the reflecting surface of the mirror and mounted pivotally to the mirror support at a point central to the frame, a first adjustment means between the mirror support and the mirror frame spaced from the central pivot mount for adjusting the movement of the mirror along one axis lying in the plane of the planar surface of the mirror frame; and a second adjustment means between the mirror support and the mirror frame spaced from the central pivot mount for adjusting the movement of the mirror along a second axis lying in the plane of the planar surface of the mirror frame and perpendicular to the first axis.

  7. Mount Rainier: A decade volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, Donald A.; Malone, Stephen D.; Samora, Barbara A.

    Mount Rainier, the highest (4392 m) volcano in the Cascade Range, towers over a population of more than 2.5 million in the Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area, and its drainage system via the Columbia River potentially affects another 500,000 residents of southwestern Washington and northwestern Oregon (Figure 1). Mount Rainier is the most hazardous volcano in the Cascades in terms of its potential for magma-water interaction and sector collapse. Major eruptions, or debris flows even without eruption, pose significant dangers and economic threats to the region. Despite such hazard and risk, Mount Rainier has received little study; such important topics as its petrologic and geochemical character, its proximal eruptive history, its susceptibility to major edifice failure, and its development over time have been barely investigated. This situation may soon change because of Mount Rainier's recent designation as a “Decade Volcano.”

  8. Kinematic high bandwidth mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, T.C.

    1995-03-21

    An adjustable mirror mount system for a mirror is disclosed comprising a mirror support having a planar surface thereon, a mirror frame containing a mirror and having a planar surface behind the mirror facing the planar surface of the mirror support and parallel to the reflecting surface of the mirror and mounted pivotally to the mirror support at a point central to the frame, a first adjustment means between the mirror support and the mirror frame spaced from the central pivot mount for adjusting the movement of the mirror along one axis lying in the plane of the planar surface of the mirror frame; and a second adjustment means between the mirror support and the mirror frame spaced from the central pivot mount for adjusting the movement of the mirror along a second axis lying in the plane of the planar surface of the mirror frame and perpendicular to the first axis. 7 figures.

  9. Solar panel parallel mounting configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mutschler, Jr., Edward Charles (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A spacecraft includes a plurality of solar panels interconnected with a power coupler and an electrically operated device to provide power to the device when the solar cells are insolated. The solar panels are subject to bending distortion when entering or leaving eclipse. Spacecraft attitude disturbances are reduced by mounting each of the solar panels to an elongated boom made from a material with a low coefficient of thermal expansion, so that the bending of one panel is not communicated to the next. The boom may be insulated to reduce its bending during changes in insolation. A particularly advantageous embodiment mounts each panel to the boom with a single mounting, which may be a hinge. The single mounting prevents transfer of bending moments from the panel to the boom.

  10. 1. EXTERIOR OF CENTRAL HEATING STATION, BUILDING 102, LOOKING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR OF CENTRAL HEATING STATION, BUILDING 102, LOOKING NORTH. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Central Heating Station, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  11. Mounting clips for panel installation

    DOEpatents

    Cavieres, Andres; Al-Haddad, Tristan; Goodman, Joseph

    2017-07-11

    A photovoltaic panel mounting clip comprising a base, central indexing tabs, flanges, lateral indexing tabs, and vertical indexing tabs. The mounting clip removably attaches one or more panels to a beam or the like structure, both mechanically and electrically. It provides secure locking of the panels in all directions, while providing guidance in all directions for accurate installation of the panels to the beam or the like structure.

  12. Italian spring accelerometer (ISA) a high sensitive accelerometer for ``BepiColombo'' ESA CORNERSTONE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, V.; Nozzoli, S.

    2001-12-01

    The targets of the ESA CORNERSTONE mission to Mercury "BepiColombo" are concerned with both planetary and magnetospheric physics and to test some aspects of the general relativity. A payload devoted to a set of experiments named radio science is located within one of the three proposed modules, the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO). In particular, a high sensitivity accelerometer ( a min<10 -9√g/ Hz in the range 10 -4- 10 -1 Hz) will measure the inertial acceleration acting on the MPO. Such data, together with tracking data are used to evaluate the purely gravitational trajectory of the MPO, transforming it to a virtual drag-free satellite system. The ISA accelerometer, considered for this mission, is a well-studied instrument developed at the Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario (IFSI), with the financial support of the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI). A prototype of such an instrument was constructed, matching the requirements of the radio science experiment. Results of the study concerning the use of ISA in the BepiColombo mission are reported here, particular care being devoted to the description of the instrument and to its sensitivity and thermal stabilisation.

  13. A unified approach for debugging is-a structure and mappings in networked taxonomies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background With the increased use of ontologies and ontology mappings in semantically-enabled applications such as ontology-based search and data integration, the issue of detecting and repairing defects in ontologies and ontology mappings has become increasingly important. These defects can lead to wrong or incomplete results for the applications. Results We propose a unified framework for debugging the is-a structure of and mappings between taxonomies, the most used kind of ontologies. We present theory and algorithms as well as an implemented system RepOSE, that supports a domain expert in detecting and repairing missing and wrong is-a relations and mappings. We also discuss two experiments performed by domain experts: an experiment on the Anatomy ontologies from the Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative, and a debugging session for the Swedish National Food Agency. Conclusions Semantically-enabled applications need high quality ontologies and ontology mappings. One key aspect is the detection and removal of defects in the ontologies and ontology mappings. Our system RepOSE provides an environment that supports domain experts to deal with this issue. We have shown the usefulness of the approach in two experiments by detecting and repairing circa 200 and 30 defects, respectively. PMID:23548155

  14. The in-depth safety assessment (ISA) pilot projects in Ukraine.

    SciTech Connect

    Kot, C. A.

    1998-02-10

    Ukraine operates pressurized water reactors of the Soviet-designed type, VVER. All Ukrainian plants are currently operating with annually renewable permits until they update their safety analysis reports (SARs). After approval of the SARS by the Ukrainian Nuclear Regulatory Authority, the plants will be granted longer-term operating licenses. In September 1995, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority and the Government Nuclear Power Coordinating Committee of Ukraine issued a new contents requirement for the safety analysis reports of VVERs in Ukraine. It contains requirements in three major areas: design basis accident (DBA) analysis, probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), and beyond design-basis accident (BDBA) analysis. The DBA requirements are an expanded version of the older SAR requirements. The last two requirements, on PRA and BDBA, are new. The US Department of Energy (USDOE), through the International Nuclear Safety Program (INSP), has initiated an assistance and technology transfer program to Ukraine to assist their nuclear power stations in developing a Western-type technical basis for the new SARS. USDOE sponsored In-Depth Safety Assessments (ISAs) have been initiated at three pilot nuclear reactor units in Ukraine, South Ukraine Unit 1, Zaporizhzhya Unit 5, and Rivne Unit 1. USDOE/INSP have structured the ISA program in such a way as to provide maximum assistance and technology transfer to Ukraine while encouraging and supporting the Ukrainian plants to take the responsibility and initiative and to perform the required assessments.

  15. Dry tilt network at Mount Rainier, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dzurisin, Daniel; Johnson, Daniel J.; Symonds, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    In addition to its primary responsibility of monitoring active Mount St. Helens, the David A. Johnston Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) has been charged with obtaining baseline geodetic and geochemical information at each of the other potentially active Cascade volcanoes. Dry tilt and/or trilateration networks were established during 1975-82 at Mount Baker, Mount St. Helens, Mount Hood, Mount Shasta, Lassen Peak, Crater Lake, and Long Valley caldera; coverage was extended during September 1982 to include Mount Rainier.

  16. The head-mounted microscope.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting; Dailey, Seth H; Naze, Sawyer A; Jiang, Jack J

    2012-04-01

    Microsurgical equipment has greatly advanced since the inception of the microscope into the operating room. These advancements have allowed for superior surgical precision and better post-operative results. This study focuses on the use of the Leica HM500 head-mounted microscope for the operating phonosurgeon. The head-mounted microscope has an optical zoom from 2× to 9× and provides a working distance from 300 mm to 700 mm. The headpiece, with its articulated eyepieces, adjusts easily to head shape and circumference, and offers a focus function, which is either automatic or manually controlled. We performed five microlaryngoscopic operations utilizing the head-mounted microscope with successful results. By creating a more ergonomically favorable operating posture, a surgeon may be able to obtain greater precision and success in phonomicrosurgery. Phonomicrosurgery requires the precise manipulation of long-handled cantilevered instruments through the narrow bore of a laryngoscope. The head-mounted microscope shortens the working distance compared with a stand microscope, thereby increasing arm stability, which may improve surgical precision. Also, the head-mounted design permits flexibility in head position, enabling operator comfort, and delaying musculoskeletal fatigue. A head-mounted microscope decreases the working distance and provides better ergonomics in laryngoscopic microsurgery. These advances provide the potential to promote precision in phonomicrosurgery.

  17. Mount Hood Wilderness and adjacent areas, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, T.E.C.; Causey, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Mount Hood Wilderness, Oregon, was conducted in 1980. Geochemical data indicate two areas of substantiated mineral-resource potential containing weak epithermal mineralization: an area on the north side of Zigzag Mountain, where vein-type lead-zinc-silver deposits occur and an area on the south side of Zigzag Mountain, where the upper part of a quartz diorite pluton has propylitic alteration associated with mineralization of copper, gold, silver, lead, and zinc in discontinuous veins. Geothermal-resource potential for low- to intermediate-temperature (less than 248/sup 0/F) hot-water systems in the wilderness is probable in three areas. Part of the wilderness is classified as a Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA), which is considered to have probable geothermal-resource potential, and two parts of the wilderness have been included in geothermal lease areas.

  18. MOUNT HOOD WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT AREAS, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keith, T.E.C.; Causey, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Mount Hood Wilderness, Oregon, was conducted. Geochemical data indicate two areas of substantiated mineral-resource potential containing weak epithermal mineralization: an area of the north side of Zigzag Mountain where vein-type lead-zinc-silver deposits occur and an area of the south side of Zigzag Mountain, where the upper part of a quartz diorite pluton has propylitic alteration associated with mineralization of copper, gold, silver, lead, and zinc in discontinuous veins. Geothermal-resource potential for low- to intermediate-temperature (less than 248 degree F) hot-water systems in the wilderness is probable in these areas. Part of the wilderness is classified as a Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA), which is considered to have probable geothermal-resource potential, and two parts of the wilderness have been included in geothermal lease areas.

  19. A visit to Mount St. Helens

    SciTech Connect

    Meadows, D.G.

    1994-04-01

    The May 18, 1980, eruption displaced roughly 2.6 km[sup 3] of rock and devastated more than 500 km[sup 2] of forest, mostly to the north of the mountain. Trees within 10--15 km of the mountain peak were burned and uprooted. Beyond that, high winds and flying debris created a blowdown zone. Up to 150 m of rock and ice covered some areas. Accumulations of ash were measured as much as 330 km from the volcano. Mud flows choked nearby rivers and streams. Two years later, the US Congress established the 44,000-hectare Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument. The Act essentially directed the USDA Forest Service to allow the area to recover naturally. The paper reviews what changes the ecosystem has been going through since the eruption and the lessons learned that suggest some new resource management techniques.

  20. Optical mounts for harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimovich, Mark E.; Griffee, Jonathan C.; Goodding, James C.

    2009-08-01

    Development and testing of a lightweight-kinematic optical mount with integrated passive vibration-and-shock mitigation technologies and simple / robust optical alignment functionality is presented. Traditionally, optical mounts are designed for use in laboratory environments where the thermal-mechanical environments are carefully controlled to preserve beam path conditions and background disturbances are minimized to facilitate precise optically based measurements. Today's weapon and surveillance systems, however, have optical sensor suites where static and dynamic alignment performance in the presence of harsh operating environments is required to nearly the same precision and where the system cannot afford the mass of laboratory-grade stabilized mounting systems. Jitter and alignment stability is particularly challenging for larger optics operating within moving vehicles and aircraft where high shock and significant temperature excursions occur. The design intent is to have the mount be suitable for integration into existing defense and security optical systems while also targeting new commercial and military components for improved structural dynamic and thermal distortion performance. A mount suitable for moderate-sized optics and an integrated disturbance-optical metrology system are described. The mount design has performance enhancements derived from the integration of proven aerospace mechanical vibration and shock mitigation technologies (i.e. multi-axis passive isolation and integral damping), precision alignment adjustment and lock-out functionality, high dimensional stability materials and design practices which provide benign optical surface figure errors under harsh thermal-mechanical loading. Optical jitter, alignment, and wave-front performance testing of an eight-inch-aperture optical mount based on this design approach are presented to validate predicted performance improvements over an existing commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) design.

  1. Solar panel truss mounting systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Al-Haddad, Tristan Farris; Cavieres, Andres; Gentry, Russell; Goodman, Joseph; Nolan, Wade; Pitelka, Taylor; Rahimzadeh, Keyan; Brooks, Bradley; Lohr, Joshua; Crooks, Ryan; Porges, Jamie; Rubin, Daniel

    2015-10-20

    An exemplary embodiment of the present invention provides a solar panel truss mounting system comprising a base and a truss assembly coupled to the base. The truss assembly comprises a first panel rail mount, second panel rail mount parallel to the first panel rail mount, base rail mount parallel to the first and second panel rail mounts, and a plurality of support members. A first portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first and second panel rail mounts. A second portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first panel rail mount and the base rail mount. A third portion of the plurality of support members extends between the second panel rail mount and the base rail mount. The system can further comprise a plurality of connectors for coupling a plurality of photovoltaic solar panels to the truss assembly.

  2. Solar panel truss mounting systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Al-Haddad, Tristan Farris; Cavieres, Andres; Gentry, Russell; Goodman, Joseph; Nolan, Wade; Pitelka, Taylor; Rahimzadeh, Keyan; Brooks, Bradley; Lohr, Joshua; Crooks, Ryan; Porges, Jamie; Rubin, Daniel

    2016-06-28

    An exemplary embodiment of the present invention provides a solar panel truss mounting system comprising a base and a truss assembly coupled to the base. The truss assembly comprises a first panel rail mount, second panel rail mount parallel to the first panel rail mount, base rail mount parallel to the first and second panel rail mounts, and a plurality of support members. A first portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first and second panel rail mounts. A second portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first panel rail mount and the base rail mount. A third portion of the plurality of support members extends between the second panel rail mount and the base rail mount. The system can further comprise a plurality of connectors for coupling a plurality of photovoltaic solar panels to the truss assembly.

  3. Vaccination with Clostridium perfringens recombinant proteins in combination with Montanide™ ISA 71 VG adjuvant increases protection against experimental necrotic enteritis in commercial broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was performed to compare four Clostridium perfringens recombinant proteins as vaccine candidates using the Montanide™ ISA 71 VG adjuvant in an experimental model of necrotic enteritis. Broiler chickens were immunized with clostridial recombinant proteins with ISA 71 VG, and intestinal le...

  4. Montanide ISA 71 VG adjuvant enhances antibody and cell-ediated immune responses to profilin subunit antigen vaccination and promotes protection against Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria tenella

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The present study was conducted to investigate the immunoenhancing effects of ISA 71 VG adjuvant on profilin subunit antigen vaccination. Broiler chickens were immunized subcutaneously with a purified Eimeria acervulina recombinant profilin protein, either alone or mixed with ISA 71 VG, and host imm...

  5. Montanide™ ISA 71 VG adjuvant enhances antibody and cell-mediated immune responses to profilin subunit antigen vaccination and promotes protection against Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria tenella.

    PubMed

    Jang, Seung I; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Lee, Sung Hyen; Lee, Kyung Woo; Lillehoj, Erik P; Bertrand, François; Dupuis, Laurent; Deville, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the immunoenhancing effects of Montanide™ ISA 71 VG adjuvant on profilin subunit antigen vaccination. Broiler chickens were immunized subcutaneously with a purified Eimeria acervulina recombinant profilin protein, either alone or mixed with ISA 71 VG, and host immune responses were evaluated. After secondary immunization, antigen-specific antibody and T-cell responses were higher in the group which received profilin plus ISA 71 VG compared with the other groups. Furthermore, body weight gains and fecal oocyst shedding were evaluated following oral challenge infection with live E. acervulina or Eimeria tenella oocysts. Vaccination with profilin plus ISA 71 VG reduced oocyst shedding compared with animals immunized with profilin alone. These results demonstrate that the recombinant profilin subunit vaccine, when given in combination with Montanide™ ISA 71 VG, augments protective immunity against E. acervulina and E. tenella. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Risk factors perceived predictive of ISA spread in Chile: applications to decision support.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, L; Antognoli, M; Lara Fica, M; Ibarra, R; Mancilla, J; Sandoval Del Valle, O; Enriquez Sais, R; Perez, A; Aguilar, D; Madrid, E; Bustos, P; Clement, A; Godoy, M G; Johnson, C; Remmenga, M

    2014-11-01

    Aquaculture is anticipated to be a critical element in future solutions to global food shortage. However, diseases can impede industry efficiency and sustainability. Consequently, diseases can and have led to dramatic re-structuring in industry or regulatory practices. The emergence of infectious salmon anemia (ISA) in Chile is one such example. As in other countries, many mitigations were instituted universally, and many incurred considerable costs as they introduced a new layer of coordination of farming activities of marine sites within common geographic areas (termed 'neighborhoods' or 'barrios'). The aggregate response led to a strong reduction in ISA incidence and impact. However, the relative value of individual mitigations is less clear, especially where response policies were universally applied and retrospective analyses are missing 'controls' (i.e., areas where a mitigation was not applied). Further, re-focusing policies around disease prevention following resolution of an outbreak is important to renew sustainable production; though, again, field data to guide this shift in purpose are often lacking. Expert panels can offer timely decision support in the absence of empirical data. We convened a panel of fish health experts to weight risk factors predictive of ISA virus (ISAV) introduction or spread between Atlantic salmon barrios in Chile. Barrios, rather than sites, were the unit of interest because many of the new mitigations operate at this level and few available studies examine their efficacy. Panelists identified barrio processing plant biosecurity, fallowing strategies, adult live fish transfers, fish and site density, smolt quality, hydrographic connection with other neighborhoods, presence of sea lice (Caligus rogercresseyi), and harvest vessel biosecurity as factors with the greatest predictive strength for ISAV virulent genotype ('HPR-deleted') occurrence. Fewer factors were considered predictive of ISAV HPR0 genotype ('HPR0') occurrence

  7. Room 205, looking north into a faculty office on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Room 205, looking north into a faculty office on the north side, near the west end. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  8. Perspective view of north rear and west side, also showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of north rear and west side, also showing north hall at far left. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  9. Ice Volumes on Cascade Volcanoes: Mount Rainier, Mount Hood, Three Sisters, and Mount Shasta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driedger, Carolyn L.; Kennard, Paul M.

    1986-01-01

    During the eruptions of Mount St. Helens the occurrence of floods and mudflows made apparent the need for predictive water-hazard analysis of other Cascade volcanoes. A basic requirement for such analysis is information about the volumes and distributions of snow and ice on other volcanoes. A radar unit contained in a backpack was used to make point measurements of ice thickness on major glaciers of Mount Rainier, Wash.; Mount Hood, Oreg.; the Three Sisters, Oreg.; and Mount Shasta, Calif. The measurements were corrected for slope and were used to develop subglacial contour maps from which glacier volumes were measured. These values were used to develop estimation methods for finding volumes of unmeasured glaciers. These methods require a knowledge of glacier slope, altitude, and area and require an estimation of basal shear stress, each estimate derived by using topographic maps updated by aerial photographs. The estimation methods were found to be accurate within ?20 percent on measured glaciers and to be within ?25 percent when applied to unmeasured glaciers on the Cascade volcanoes. The estimation methods may be applicable to other temperate glaciers in similar climatic settings. Areas and volumes of snow and ice are as follows: Mount Rainier, 991 million ft2, 156 billion ft3; Mount Hood, 145 million ft2, 12 billion ft3; Three Sisters, 89 million ft2, 6 billion ft3; and Mount Shasta, 74 million ft2, 5 billion ft3. The distribution of ice and firn patches within 58 glacierized basins on volcanoes is mapped and listed by altitude and by watershed to facilitate water-hazard analysis.

  10. VIBRATION DAMPING AND SHOCK MOUNT

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, D.J.; Forman, G.W.

    1963-12-10

    A shock absorbing mount in which vibrations are damped by an interference fit between relatively movable parts of the mount is described. A pair of generally cup-shaped parts or members have skirt portions disposed in an oppositely facing nesting relationship with the skirt of one member frictionally engaging the skirt of the other. The outermost skirt may be slotted to provide spring-like segments which embrace the inner skirt for effecting the interference fit. Belleville washers between the members provide yieldable support for a load carried by the mount. When a resonant frequency of vibration forces acting upon the moumt attains a certain level the kinetic energy of these forces is absorbed by sliding friction between the parts. (AEC)

  11. Mounting clips for panel installation

    DOEpatents

    Cavieres, Andres; Al-Haddad, Tristan; Goodman, Joseph; Valdes, Francisco

    2017-02-14

    An exemplary mounting clip for removably attaching panels to a supporting structure comprises a base, spring locking clips, a lateral flange, a lever flange, and a spring bonding pad. The spring locking clips extend upwardly from the base. The lateral flange extends upwardly from a first side of the base. The lateral flange comprises a slot having an opening configured to receive at least a portion of one of the one or more panels. The lever flange extends outwardly from the lateral flange. The spring bonding flange extends downwardly from the lever flange. At least a portion of the first spring bonding flange comprises a serrated edge for gouging at least a portion of the one or more panels when the one or more panels are attached to the mounting clip to electrically and mechanically couple the one or more panels to the mounting clip.

  12. Space radar image of Mount Everest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    These are two comparison images of Mount Everest and its surroundings, along the border of Nepal and Tibet. The peak of Mount Everest, the highest elevation on Earth at 8,848 meters (29,028 feet), can be seen near the center of each image. The image at the top was acquired through thick cloud cover by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 16, 1994. The image on the bottom is an optical photograph taken by the Endeavour crew under clear conditions during the second flight of SIR-C/X-SAR on October 10, 1994. Both images show an area approximately 70 kilometers by 38 kilometers (43 miles by 24 miles) that is centered at 28.0 degrees north latitude and 86.9 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors in the radar image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). Radar illumination is from the top of the frame. The optical photograph has been geometrically adjusted to better match the area shown in the radar image. Many features of the Himalayan terrain are visible in both images. Snow covered areas appear white in the optical photograph while the same areas appear bright blue in the radar image. The radar image was taken in early spring and shows deep snow cover, while the optical photograph was taken in late summer and shows minimum snow cover. The curving and branching features seen in both images are glaciers. The two wavelengths and multiple polarizations of the SIR-C radar are sensitive to characteristics of the glacier surfaces that are not detected by conventional photography, such as the ice roughness, water content and stratification. For this reason, the glaciers show a variety of colors in the radar image (blue, purple, red

  13. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen, Oxides of Sulfur and Particulate Matter Ecological Criteria (First External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA’s decision on retaining or revising the current secondary standards for NO2, SO2, PM 2.5 and PM 10 since the prior re...

  14. An ISA-TAB-Nano based data collection framework to support data-driven modelling of nanotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Marchese Robinson, Richard L; Cronin, Mark T D; Richarz, Andrea-Nicole; Rallo, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of trends in nanotoxicology data and the development of data driven models for nanotoxicity is facilitated by the reporting of data using a standardised electronic format. ISA-TAB-Nano has been proposed as such a format. However, in order to build useful datasets according to this format, a variety of issues has to be addressed. These issues include questions regarding exactly which (meta)data to report and how to report them. The current article discusses some of the challenges associated with the use of ISA-TAB-Nano and presents a set of resources designed to facilitate the manual creation of ISA-TAB-Nano datasets from the nanotoxicology literature. These resources were developed within the context of the NanoPUZZLES EU project and include data collection templates, corresponding business rules that extend the generic ISA-TAB-Nano specification as well as Python code to facilitate parsing and integration of these datasets within other nanoinformatics resources. The use of these resources is illustrated by a "Toy Dataset" presented in the Supporting Information. The strengths and weaknesses of the resources are discussed along with possible future developments.

  15. An ISA-TAB-Nano based data collection framework to support data-driven modelling of nanotoxicology

    PubMed Central

    Marchese Robinson, Richard L; Richarz, Andrea-Nicole; Rallo, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Summary Analysis of trends in nanotoxicology data and the development of data driven models for nanotoxicity is facilitated by the reporting of data using a standardised electronic format. ISA-TAB-Nano has been proposed as such a format. However, in order to build useful datasets according to this format, a variety of issues has to be addressed. These issues include questions regarding exactly which (meta)data to report and how to report them. The current article discusses some of the challenges associated with the use of ISA-TAB-Nano and presents a set of resources designed to facilitate the manual creation of ISA-TAB-Nano datasets from the nanotoxicology literature. These resources were developed within the context of the NanoPUZZLES EU project and include data collection templates, corresponding business rules that extend the generic ISA-TAB-Nano specification as well as Python code to facilitate parsing and integration of these datasets within other nanoinformatics resources. The use of these resources is illustrated by a “Toy Dataset” presented in the Supporting Information. The strengths and weaknesses of the resources are discussed along with possible future developments. PMID:26665069

  16. Eruptions of Mount St. Helens : Past, present, and future

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tilling, Robert I.; Topinka, Lyn J.; Swanson, Donald A.

    1990-01-01

    Mount St. Helens, located in southwestern Washington about 50 miles northeast of Portland, Oregon, is one of several lofty volcanic peaks that dominate the Cascade Range of the Pacific Northwest; the range extends from Mount Garibaldi in British Columbia, Canada, to Lassen Peak in northern California. Geologists call Mount St. Helens a composite volcano (or stratovolcano), a term for steepsided, often symmetrical cones constructed of alternating layers of lava flows, ash, and other volcanic debris. Composite volcanoes tend to erupt explosively and pose considerable danger to nearby life and property. In contrast, the gently sloping shield volcanoes, such as those in Hawaii, typically erupt nonexplosively, producing fluid lavas that can flow great distances from the active vents. Although Hawaiian-type eruptions may destroy property, they rarely cause death or injury. Before 1980, snow-capped, gracefully symmetrical Mount St. Helens was known as the "Fujiyama of America." Mount St. Helens, other active Cascade volcanoes, and those of Alaska form the North American segment of the circum-Pacific "Ring of Fire," a notorious zone that produces frequent, often destructive, earthquake and volcanic activity.

  17. Whole-Mount Skeletal Staining

    PubMed Central

    Rigueur, Diana; Lyons, Karen M.

    2017-01-01

    The first step in almost every investigation of skeletal phenotypes is analysis of whole-mount skeletal preparations. Whole-mount skeletal staining permits evaluation of the shapes and sizes of skeletal elements in their appropriate locations. The technique is thus the major method for detecting changes in skeletal patterning. Because cartilage and bone can be distinguished by differential staining, this technique is also a powerful means to assess the pace of skeletal maturation. This protocol covers staining of the pre- and postnatal mouse skeleton using Alcian blue and Alizarin red to identify cartilage and bone, respectively. PMID:24482169

  18. Precision alignment and mounting apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preston, Dennis R. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An alignment and mounting apparatus for mounting two modules (10,12) includes a first portion having a cylindrical alignment pin (16) projecting normal to a module surface, a second portion having a three-stage alignment guide (18) including a shoehorn flange (34), a Y-slot (42) and a V-block (22) which sequentially guide the alignment pin (16) with successively finer precision and a third portion in the form of a spring-loaded captive fastener (20) for connecting the two modules after alignment is achieved.

  19. [Happiness in the elderly: an epidemiological approach in the ISA-Camp 2008 study].

    PubMed

    Lima, Margareth Guimarães; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; Alves, Maria Cecilia Goi Porto

    2012-12-01

    The objective was to identify factors associated with happiness in the elderly. A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted in 1,431 elderly under the ISA-Camp 2008 project. The survey used a two-stage probabilistic cluster sample. Prevalence of happiness was measured over time according to socio-demographics variables, health behaviors, and health conditions. High prevalence of happiness was associated with: marital status (married), active working, activity and insufficient leisure-time activity, occasional consumption of alcoholic beverages, daily consumption of fruit, vegetables, and leafy vegetables, normal body mass index, and sleeping less than 10 hours/night and sleeping well. The highest prevalence of long-term happiness was observed among elderly with no reported illness, with better self-rated health, and with less disability. Happiness was strongly related to health indicators, suggesting the adequacy of complementary use of this indicator for evaluating health promotion programs in the elderly.

  20. Italian Spring Accelerometer (ISA): A fundamental support to BepiColombo Radio Science Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, V.; Fiorenza, E.; Lefevre, C.; Morbidini, A.; Nozzoli, S.; Peron, R.; Persichini, M.; Reale, A.; Santoli, F.

    2010-01-01

    The Radio Science Experiments of the BepiColombo mission will enable substantial improvement of the knowledge of Mercury's orbit and rotation, and the relativistic dynamics in the solar system. A fundamental support to the spacecraft tracking data will be given by the Italian Spring Accelerometer (ISA). This is a three-axis accelerometer devoted to the measurement of the non-gravitational perturbations acting on the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO), whose knowledge is important in order to fully exploit the quality of the tracking data. The intrinsic noise level of the instrument that will be onboard MPO, 10-9m/s2/√{Hz} in the 3×10-5 to 10-1Hz frequency range, guarantees the fulfilment of the RSE requirements. The main scientific and technological features of the instrument are discussed, together with its current error budget, experimental activities and foreseen calibration strategies.

  1. Geomorphological Analysis of North Fork, Toutle River, Washington: 1980- 1984

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    north flank of Mount St. Helens and included glacial ice, modern dacite dome, and a mixture of andesite and minor amounts of basalt lava flows...and basalt form the former domes. During emplacement this deposit also consisted of snow and large blocks of ice from the glaciers on the north flank of...north side of Mount St. Helens. Consequently,the North Fork Unit features as its dominant 23 materials the dark colored mixed basalt deposits and the

  2. Preliminary volcano-hazard assessment for Mount Spurr Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Nye, Christopher J.

    2001-01-01

    Mount Spurr volcano is an ice- and snow-covered stratovolcano complex located in the north-central Cook Inlet region about 100 kilometers west of Anchorage, Alaska. Mount Spurr volcano consists of a breached stratovolcano, a lava dome at the summit of Mount Spurr, and Crater Peak vent, a small stratocone on the south flank of Mount Spurr volcano. Historical eruptions of Crater Peak occurred in 1953 and 1992. These eruptions were relatively small but explosive, and they dispersed volcanic ash over areas of interior, south-central, and southeastern Alaska. Individual ash clouds produced by the 1992 eruption drifted east, north, and south. Within a few days of the eruption, the south-moving ash cloud was detected over the North Atlantic. Pyroclastic flows that descended the south flank of Crater Peak during both historical eruptions initiated volcanic-debris flows or lahars that formed temporary debris dams across the Chakachatna River, the principal drainage south of Crater Peak. Prehistoric eruptions of Crater Peak and Mount Spurr generated clouds of volcanic ash, pyroclastic flows, and lahars that extended to the volcano flanks and beyond. A flank collapse on the southeast side of Mount Spurr generated a large debris avalanche that flowed about 20 kilometers beyond the volcano into the Chakachatna River valley. The debris-avalanche deposit probably formed a large, temporary debris dam across the Chakachatna River. The distribution and thickness of volcanic-ash deposits from Mount Spurr volcano in the Cook Inlet region indicate that volcanic-ash clouds from most prehistoric eruptions were as voluminous as those produced by the 1953 and 1992 eruptions. Clouds of volcanic ash emitted from the active vent, Crater Peak, would be a major hazard to all aircraft using Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport and other local airports and, depending on wind direction, could drift a considerable distance beyond the volcano. Ash fall from future eruptions could disrupt many

  3. Mount St. Helens aerosol evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberbeck, V. R.; Farlow, N. H.; Fong, W.; Snetsinger, K. G.; Ferry, G. V.; Hayes, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    Stratospheric aerosol samples were collected using a wire impactor during the year following the eruption of Mount St. Helens. Analysis of samples shows that aerosol volume increased for 6 months due to gas-to-particle conversion and then decreased to background levels in the following 6 months.

  4. Mount Rainier active cascade volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mount Rainier is one of about two dozen active or recently active volcanoes in the Cascade Range, an arc of volcanoes in the northwestern United States and Canada. The volcano is located about 35 kilometers southeast of the Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area, which has a population of more than 2.5 million. This metropolitan area is the high technology industrial center of the Pacific Northwest and one of the commercial aircraft manufacturing centers of the United States. The rivers draining the volcano empty into Puget Sound, which has two major shipping ports, and into the Columbia River, a major shipping lane and home to approximately a million people in southwestern Washington and northwestern Oregon. Mount Rainier is an active volcano. It last erupted approximately 150 years ago, and numerous large floods and debris flows have been generated on its slopes during this century. More than 100,000 people live on the extensive mudflow deposits that have filled the rivers and valleys draining the volcano during the past 10,000 years. A major volcanic eruption or debris flow could kill thousands of residents and cripple the economy of the Pacific Northwest. Despite the potential for such danger, Mount Rainier has received little study. Most of the geologic work on Mount Rainier was done more than two decades ago. Fundamental topics such as the development, history, and stability of the volcano are poorly understood.

  5. Mount Rainier active cascade volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mount Rainier is one of about two dozen active or recently active volcanoes in the Cascade Range, an arc of volcanoes in the northwestern United States and Canada. The volcano is located about 35 kilometers southeast of the Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area, which has a population of more than 2.5 million. This metropolitan area is the high technology industrial center of the Pacific Northwest and one of the commercial aircraft manufacturing centers of the United States. The rivers draining the volcano empty into Puget Sound, which has two major shipping ports, and into the Columbia River, a major shipping lane and home to approximately a million people in southwestern Washington and northwestern Oregon. Mount Rainier is an active volcano. It last erupted approximately 150 years ago, and numerous large floods and debris flows have been generated on its slopes during this century. More than 100,000 people live on the extensive mudflow deposits that have filled the rivers and valleys draining the volcano during the past 10,000 years. A major volcanic eruption or debris flow could kill thousands of residents and cripple the economy of the Pacific Northwest. Despite the potential for such danger, Mount Rainier has received little study. Most of the geologic work on Mount Rainier was done more than two decades ago. Fundamental topics such as the development, history, and stability of the volcano are poorly understood.

  6. Cryogenically cooled detector pin mount

    DOEpatents

    Hunt, Jr., William E; Chrisp, Michael P

    2014-06-03

    A focal plane assembly facilitates a molybdenum base plate being mounted to another plate made from aluminum. The molybdenum pin is an interference fit (press fit) in the aluminum base plate. An annular cut out area in the base plate forms two annular flexures.

  7. Mount St. Helens aerosol evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Oberbeck, V.R.; Farlow, N.H.

    1982-08-01

    Stratospheric aerosol samples were collected using a wire impactor during the year following the eruption of Mount St. Helens. Analysis of samples shows that aerosol volume increased for 6 months due to gas-to-particle conversion and then decreased to background levels in the following 6 months.

  8. Eruption-triggered avalanche, flood, and lahar at mount st. Helens--effects of winter snowpack.

    PubMed

    Waitt, R B; Pierson, T C; Macleod, N S; Janda, R J; Voight, B; Holcomb, R T

    1983-09-30

    An explosive eruption of Mount St. Helens on 19 March 1982 had substantial impact beyond the vent because hot eruption products interacted with a thick snowpack. A blast of hot pumice, dome rocks, and gas dislodged crater-wall snow that avalanched through the crater and down the north flank. Snow in the crater swiftly melted to form a transient lake, from which a destructive flood and lahar swept down the north flank and the North Fork Toutle River.

  9. Eruption-triggered avalanche, flood, and lahar at Mount St. Helens - Effects of winter snowpack

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waitt, R.B.; Pierson, T.C.; MacLeod, N.S.; Janda, R.J.; Voight, B.; Holcomb, R.T.

    1983-01-01

    An explosive eruption of Mount St. Helens on 19 March 1982 had substantial impact beyond the vent because hot eruption products interacted with a thick snowpack. A blast of hot pumice, dome rocks, and gas dislodged crater-wall snow that avalanched through the crater and down the north flank. Snow in the crater swiftly melted to form a transient lake, from which a destructive flood and lahar swept down the north flank and the North Fork Toutle River.

  10. 30 Cool Facts about Mount St. Helens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driedger, Carolyn; Liz, Westby; Faust, Lisa; Frenzen, Peter; Bennett, Jeanne; Clynne, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Commemorating the 30th anniversary of the 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens 1-During the past 4,000 years, Mount St. Helens has erupted more frequently than any other volcano in the Cascade Range. 2-Most of Mount St. Helens is younger than 3,000 years old (younger than the pyramids of Egypt). 3-Some Native American names that refer to smoke at the volcano include- Lawala Clough, Low-We- Lat-Klah, Low-We-Not- Thlat, Loowit, Loo-wit, Loo-wit Lat-kla, and Louwala-Clough. 4-3,600 years ago-Native Americans abandoned hunting grounds devastated by an enormous eruption four times larger than the May 18, 1980 eruption. 5-1792-Captain George Vancouver named the volcano for Britain's ambassador to Spain, Alleyne Fitzherbert, also known as Baron St. Helens. 6-1975-U.S. Geological Survey geologists forecasted that Mount St. Helens would erupt again, 'possibly before the end of the century.' 7-March 20, 1980-A magnitude 4.2 earthquake signaled the reawakening of the volcano after 123 years. 8-Spring 1980-Rising magma pushed the volcano's north flank outward 5 feet per day. 9-Morning of May 18, 1980- The largest terrestrial landslide in recorded history reduced the summit by 1,300 feet and triggered a lateral blast. 10-Within 3 minutes, the lateral blast, traveling at more than 300 miles per hour, blew down and scorched 230 square miles of forest. 11-Within 15 minutes, a vertical plume of volcanic ash rose over 80,000 feet. 12-Afternoon of May 18, 1980-The dense ash cloud turned daylight into darkness in eastern Washington, causing streetlights to turn on in Yakima and Ritzville. 13-The volcanic ash cloud drifted east across the United States in 3 days and encircled Earth in 15 days. 14-Lahars (volcanic mudflows) filled rivers with rocks, sand, and mud, damaging 27 bridges and 200 homes and forcing 31 ships to remain in ports upstream. 15-The May 18, 1980 eruption was the most economically destructive volcanic event in U.S. history. 16-Small plants and trees beneath winter snow

  11. 14. NORTH FORK VIRGIN RIVER BRIDGE DECK UNDER RECONSTRUCTION. REINFORCING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. NORTH FORK VIRGIN RIVER BRIDGE DECK UNDER RECONSTRUCTION. REINFORCING ROD IN PLACE. PHOTO BY CARL E. JEPSON, 29 JANUARY 1960. - Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Virgin River Bridge, Spanning North Fork of Virgin River on Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Springdale, Washington County, UT

  12. Overview of the tectonic setting and recent studies of eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Craig S.; Malone, Stephen D.

    1987-09-01

    Mount St. Helens lies along the western front of the Cascade Range between Mount Rainier, Washington, and Mount Hood, Oregon. This is an area of transition, both geologically and geophysically. North of Mount Rainier, late Cenozoic volcanism is limited to the major stratovolcanoes, whereas south of Mount Hood the volcanic cover from both stratovolcanoes and monogenetic vents is nearly continuous for 300 km. The dominant stratovolcanoes in the southern Washington Cascade Range are physio-graphically similar to those in the North Cascades, but the volcanic cover is similar to the Oregon Cascades. A saddle occurs in the Bouguer gravity data over the Columbia River, interrupting a west-east gravity gradient observed along the rest of the Oregon Cascade Range. Heat flow values are intermediate, being lower than those observed in Oregon but higher than those observed north of Mount Rainier. Seismicity is mostly concentrated along the St. Helens zone (SHZ), and all crustal earthquakes greater than magnitude 5 since 1960 in Washington and northern Oregon have occurred between Mount Rainier and Mount Hood. Little seismicity is known within the Cascade Range south of Mount Hood, and few earthquakes occur within the North Cascades of Washington. Magnetotelluric studies indicate a conductor within the area bounded by Mount Rainier, Mount Adams, and Mount St. Helens, and the conductor is interpreted as an east dipping, compressed marine terrain in the upper plate. Mount St. Helens is located at a dextral offset in the SHZ where the SHZ intersects a set of older, mapped fractures that are preferentially aligned with the contemporary regional principal stress direction. Aeromagnetic and gravity data suggest the presence of an intrusive body beneath the volcano; petrogenesis studies favor multiple intrusions of small batches of magma into the shallow volcanic system. Studies of pyroclastic flows indicate that turbulence within the head of pyroclastic flows may be important for the

  13. A passive vibration-cancelling isolation mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sykes, Alan O.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis of an idealized passive vibration-cancelling two-terminal mount with one degree of freedom at each mechanical terminal isolating a nonrigid machine from a nonrigid foundation is presented. To evaluate a vibration-cancelling (VC) mount, its effectiveness as a function of frequency is compared with the effectiveness of both conventional and compound mounts isolating a rigid machine from a nonrigid foundation. The comparisons indicate that a carefully designed and manufactured VC mount should provide substantially greater vibration reduction at its cancellation frequency than either a conventional or compound mount having the same low frequency stiffness, i.e., stiffness at the natural frequency of the machine mount system.

  14. Sample mounts for microcrystal crystallography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, Robert E. (Inventor); Stum, Zachary (Inventor); O'Neill, Kevin (Inventor); Kmetko, Jan (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Sample mounts (10) for mounting microcrystals of biological macromolecules for X-ray crystallography are prepared by using patterned thin polyimide films (12) that have curvature imparted thereto, for example, by being attached to a curved outer surface of a small metal rod (16). The patterned film (12) preferably includes a tip end (24) for holding a crystal. Preferably, a small sample aperture is disposed in the film for reception of the crystal. A second, larger aperture can also be provided that is connected to the sample aperture by a drainage channel, allowing removal of excess liquid and easier manipulation in viscous solutions. The curvature imparted to the film (12) increases the film's rigidity and allows a convenient scoop-like action for retrieving crystals. The polyimide contributes minimally to background and absorption, and can be treated to obtain desired hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity.

  15. Sample mounts for microcrystal crystallography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, Robert E. (Inventor); Stum, Zachary (Inventor); O'Neill, Kevin (Inventor); Kmetko, Jan (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Sample mounts (10) for mounting microcrystals of biological macromolecules for X-ray crystallography are prepared by using patterned thin polyimide films (12) that have curvature imparted thereto, for example, by being attached to a curved outer surface of a small metal rod (16). The patterned film (12) preferably includes a tapered tip end (24) for holding a crystal. Preferably, a small sample aperture is disposed in the film for reception of the crystal. A second, larger aperture can also be provided that is connected to the sample aperture by a drainage channel, allowing removal of excess liquid and easier manipulation in viscous solutions. The curvature imparted to the film (12) increases the film's rigidity and allows a convenient scoop-like action for retrieving crystals. The polyimide contributes minimally to background and absorption, and can be treated to obtain desired hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity.

  16. Mount St. Helens Long-Term Sediment Management Plan for Flood Risk Reduction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    includes three major lakes : Castle, Coldwater, and Spirit (see Figure 1). The area affected by potential flooding varies from bottomland along the...the Mount St. Helens project are described below. a. Spirit Lake Outlet Tunnel . Spirit Lake is located about 5 miles north of Mount St. Helens...see Figure 1). By 1982, water in Spirit Lake was rising dangerously high behind a debris dam left by the eruption. A sudden break in the debris

  17. NASA Participation in the ISAS MUSES C Asteroid Sample Return Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Ross

    2000-01-01

    NASA and Japan's Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) have agreed to cooperate on the first mission to collect samples from the surface of an asteroid and return them to Earth for in-depth study. The MUSES-C mission will be launched on a Japanese MV launch vehicle in January 2002 from Kagoshima Space Center, Japan, toward a touchdown on the asteroid Nereus in September 2003. A NASA-provided miniature rover will conduct in-situ measurements on the surface. The asteroid samples will be returned to Earth by MUSES-C via a parachute-borne recovery capsule in January 2006. NASA and ISAS will cooperate on several aspects of the mission, including mission support and scientific analysis. In addition to providing the rover, NASA will arrange for the testing of the MUSES-C re-entry heat shield at NASA/Ames Research Center, provide supplemental Deep Space Network tracking of the spacecraft, assist in navigating the spacecraft and provide arrangements for the recovery of the sample capsule at a landing site in the U. S. Scientific coinvestigators from the U.S. and Japan will share data from the instruments on the rover and the spacecraft. They will also collaborate on the investigations of the returned samples. With a mass of about I kg, the rover experiment will be a direct descendant of the technology used to build the Sojourner rover. The rover will carry three science instruments: a visible imaging camera, a near-infrared point spectrometer and an alpha X ray spectrometer. The solarpowered rover will move around the surface of Nereus collecting imagery data which are complimentary to the spacecraft investigation. The imaging system will be capable of making surface texture, composition, and morphology measurements at resolutions better than 1 cm. The rover will transmit this data to the spacecraft for relay back to Earth. Due to the microgravity environment on Nereus, the rover has been designed to right itself in case it flips over. Solar panels on all

  18. Genomic adaptation of the ISA virus to Salmo salar codon usage

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The ISA virus (ISAV) is an Orthomyxovirus whose genome encodes for at least 10 proteins. Low protein identity and lack of genetic tools have hampered the study of the molecular mechanism behind its virulence. It has been shown that viral codon usage controls several processes such as translational efficiency, folding, tuning of protein expression, antigenicity and virulence. Despite this, the possible role that adaptation to host codon usage plays in virulence and viral evolution has not been studied in ISAV. Methods Intergenomic adaptation between viral and host genomes was calculated using the codon adaptation index score with EMBOSS software and the Kazusa database. Classification of host genes according to GeneOnthology was performed using Blast2go. A non parametric test was applied to determine the presence of significant correlations among CAI, mortality and time. Results Using the codon adaptation index (CAI) score, we found that the encoding genes for nucleoprotein, matrix protein M1 and antagonist of Interferon I signaling (NS1) are the ISAV genes that are more adapted to host codon usage, in agreement with their requirement for production of viral particles and inactivation of antiviral responses. Comparison to host genes showed that ISAV shares CAI values with less than 0.45% of Salmo salar genes. GeneOntology classification of host genes showed that ISAV genes share CAI values with genes from less than 3% of the host biological process, far from the 14% shown by Influenza A viruses and closer to the 5% shown by Influenza B and C. As well, we identified a positive correlation (p<0.05) between CAI values of a virus and the duration of the outbreak disease in given salmon farms, as well as a weak relationship between codon adaptation values of PB1 and the mortality rates of a set of ISA viruses. Conclusions Our analysis shows that ISAV is the least adapted viral Salmo salar pathogen and Orthomyxovirus family member less adapted to host codon

  19. Mounting support for a photovoltaic module

    DOEpatents

    Brandt, Gregory Michael; Barsun, Stephan K.; Coleman, Nathaniel T.; Zhou, Yin

    2013-03-26

    A mounting support for a photovoltaic module is described. The mounting support includes a foundation having an integrated wire-way ledge portion. A photovoltaic module support mechanism is coupled with the foundation.

  20. Anaglyph with Landsat Overlay, Mount Meru, Tanzania

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-09-12

    This anaglyph, from NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, is of Mount Meru, an active volcano located just 70 kilometers 44 miles west of Mount Kilimanjaro. 3D glasses are necessary to view this image.

  1. Mount St. Helens and Kilauea volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrat, J.

    1989-01-01

    From the south, snow-covered Mount St. Helens looms proudly under a fleecy halo of clouds, rivaling the majestic beauty of neighboring Mount Rainer, Mount Hood, and Mount Adams. Salmon fishermen dot the shores of lakes and streams in the mountain's shadow, trucks loaded with fresh-cut timber barrel down backroads, and deer peer out from stands of tall fir trees. 

  2. Unusual pre-Mount Simon geology in Clark County, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, B.H.; Wolfe, P.J. )

    1994-04-01

    A well drilled by Pure Oil Company in 1926 in Clark County, Ohio and seismic sections gathered by Wright State University in 1992 and 1993 in the proximity of that well identify unusual geology below the Mount Simon Sandstone. The pair of perpendicular seismic lines cross about a mile from the well. The well encountered about 365 m of a black phosphatic limestone below the Mount Simon Formation. This is the only well that has encountered this unit in Ohio. On each seismic section the pre-Mount Simon surface is irregular with as much as 100 m of relief. Below this surface about 2,000 m of layered rocks, that include the limestone at the top, show onlap to the north suggesting the filling of a basin. The units beneath this sequence of rocks are reverse faulted and dip to the west. When the Clark County seismic sections are compared to recent seismic data to the south in Clinton and Greene Counties similar features are observed. The authors believe the following sequence of events occurred. There was substantial faulting in the late Proterozoic to produce the westward dips and the irregular surface on which the overlying sequence of layered rocks was deposited. Then prior to deposition of the Mount Simon Sandstone, subareal erosion occurred producing a karst surface with at least 100 m relief.

  3. Airborne Magnetic and Electromagnetic Data map Rock Alteration and Water Content at Mount Adams, Mount Baker and Mount Rainier, Washington: Implications for Lahar Hazards and Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, C. A.; Deszcz-Pan, M.; Horton, R.; Breit, G.; John, D.

    2007-12-01

    High resolution helicopter-borne magnetic and electromagnetic (EM) data flown over the rugged, ice-covered, highly magnetic and mostly resistive volcanoes of Mount Rainier, Mount Adams and Mount Baker, along with rock property measurements, reveal the distribution of alteration, water and hydrothermal fluids that are essential to evaluating volcanic landslide hazards and understanding hydrothermal systems. Hydrothermally altered rocks, particularly if water saturated, can weaken stratovolcanoes, thereby increasing the potential for catastrophic sector collapses that can lead to far-traveled, destructive debris flows. Intense hydrothermal alteration significantly reduces the magnetization and resistivity of volcanic rock resulting in clear recognition of altered rock by helicopter magnetic and EM measurements. Magnetic and EM data, combined with geological mapping and rock property measurements, indicate the presence of appreciable thicknesses of hydrothermally altered rock west of the modern summit of Mount Rainier in the Sunset Amphitheater region, in the central core of Mount Adams north of the summit, and in much of the central cone of Mount Baker. We identify the Sunset Amphitheater region and steep cliffs at the western edge of the central altered zone at Mount Adams as likely sources for future debris flows. In addition, the EM data identified water-saturated rocks in the upper 100-200 m of the three volcanoes. The water-saturated zone could extend deeper, but is beyond the detection limits of the EM data. Water in hydrothermal fluids reacts with the volcanic rock to produce clay minerals. The formation of clay minerals and presence of free water reduces the effective stress, thereby increasing the potential for slope failure, and acts, with entrained melting ice, as a lubricant to transform debris avalanches into lahars. Therefore, knowing the distribution of water is also important for hazard assessments. Finally, modeling requires extremely low

  4. Three types of IS-A statement in diagnostic classifications: three types of knowledge needed for development and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Flier, F J; de Vries Robbé, P F; Zanstra, P E

    1998-11-01

    Update mechanisms for diagnostic classifications should capture changes in medical knowledge but also allow for comparability across versions. This paper provides a basis for such a mechanism by describing types of IS-A statement and types of knowledge used in the construction of diagnostic classifications. Three types of IS-A statement are used: 'A is by definition a B', 'A is probably a B' and 'A is in theory necessarily a B'. Each relates to a different type of knowledge: knowledge of linguistic conventions, of probabilities, and of empirical theories and their status, respectively. Consequently, the development and maintenance of diagnostic classifications requires a collaboration of medical terminologists and medical scientists. The role of the latter is especially important during updating. Updating is necessitated by changing probabilities and by the introduction or changing status of empirical theories. The linguistic notion of hyponymy oversimplifies the issue.

  5. Holding fixture for metallographic mount polishing

    DOEpatents

    Barth, Clyde H.; Cramer, Charles E.

    1997-01-01

    A fixture for holding mounted specimens for polishing, having an arm; a body attached to one end of the arm, the body having at least one flange having an opening to accommodate a mounted specimen; and a means applying pressure against the outer surface of the mounted specimen to hold the specimen in contact with the polishing surface.

  6. Holding fixture for metallographic mount polishing

    DOEpatents

    Barth, C.H.; Cramer, C.E.

    1997-12-30

    A fixture is described for holding mounted specimens for polishing, having an arm; a body attached to one end of the arm, the body having at least one flange having an opening to accommodate a mounted specimen; and a means applying pressure against the outer surface of the mounted specimen to hold the specimen in contact with the polishing surface. 3 figs.

  7. The RISC-V Instruction Set Manual. Volume 1: User-Level ISA, Version 2.0

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-06

    documentation, compiler tool chains , operating system ports, reference ISA simulators, FPGA implementations, efficient ASIC implementations, architecture...domains and can add additional complexity or instruction formats to supply all needed operands. We anticipate the B extension will be a brownfield...funding by U.C. Discovery (Award #DIG07-10227). Additional support comes from Par Lab affiliates Nokia, NVIDIA, Oracle, and Samsung . • Project Isis: DoE

  8. Contributions of ISA accelerometer to BepiColombo exploration of planet Mercury: status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, Valerio; Fiorenza, Emiliano; Lefevre, Carlo; Massimo Lucchesi, David; Lucente, Marco; Magnafico, Carmelo; Nozzoli, Sergio; Peron, Roberto; Santoli, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    To be launched in 2016, ESA mission BepiColombo will perform a thorough study of the planet Mercury and its environment. Among the wide range of its scientific objectives, an important set is constituted by the so-called Radio Science Experiments (RSE), which will study the gravitational field and rotation of the planet, and will perform very precise tests of general relativity theory. In order to reach the required level of accuracy in recovering the relevant parameters, the data coming from the high-sensitivity ISA (Italian Spring Accelerometer) instrument onboard the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) will be used - the first time for a deep-space probe - in the orbit determination and parameter estimation procedure. Following a brief description of the RSE in the context of the mission, the instrument and its wide capabilities will be reviewed. In particular the overall measurement procedure will be discussed, along with recent and current work on instrument calibration (both on-ground and in-orbit), operations planning, data handling and processing and archiving.

  9. Contributions of ISA accelerometer to BepiColombo exploration of planet Mercury: current status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, V.; Fiorenza, E.; Lefevre, C.; Lucchesi, D. M.; Lucente, M.; Magnafico, C.; Nozzoli, S.; Peron, R.; Santoli, F.

    2013-09-01

    The BepiColombo ESA mission will perform a thorough study of the planet Mercury and its environment. Among the wide range of its scientific objectives, an important set is constituted by the so-called Radio Science Experiments (RSE), which will study the gravitational field and rotation of the planet, and will perform very precise tests of general relativity theory. In order to reach the required level of accuracy in recovering the relevant parameters, the data coming from the high-sensitivity ISA (Italian Spring Accelerometer) instrument onboard the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) will be used — the first time for a deep-space probe — in the orbit determination and parameter estimation procedure. Following a brief description of the RSE in the context of the mission, the instrument and its wide capabilities will be reviewed. In particular the overall measurement procedure will be discussed, along with recent and current work on instrument calibration —both on-groun d and in-orbit—operations planning, data handling and processing and archiving.

  10. Contributions of ISA accelerometer to BepiColombo exploration of planet Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, Valerio; Fiorenza, Emiliano; Lefevre, Carlo; Lucchesi, David; Magnafico, Carmelo; Nozzoli, Sergio; Peron, Roberto; Reale, Andrea; Ricotta, Angelo; Santoli, Francesco

    To be launched in 2014, ESA mission BepiColombo will perform a thorough study of the planet Mercury and its environment. Among the wide range of its scientific objectives, an important set is constituted by the so-called Radio Science Experiments (RSE), which will study the gravitational field and rotation of the planet, and will perform very precise tests of general relativity theory. In order to reach the required level of accuracy in recovering the relevant parameters, the data coming from the high-sensitivity ISA (Italian Spring Accelerometer) instrument onboard the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) will be used — the first time for a deep-space probe — in the orbit determination and parameter estimation procedure. Following a brief description of the mission and RSE, the instrument and its wide capabilities will be reviewed. In particular the updated error budget for the acceleration measurements will be shown, together with a discussion of the calibration procedures, both on-ground and in-orbit, which are currently under definition.

  11. Digital Workflow for the Conservation of Bahrain Built Heritage: the Sheik Isa Bin ALI House

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barazzetti, L.; Mezzino, D.; Santana Quintero, M.

    2017-08-01

    Currently, the commercial market offers several tools for digital documentation of historic sites and buildings. Photogrammetry and laser scanning play a fundamental role in the acquisition of metric information, which is then processed to generate reliable records particularly useful also in the built heritage conservation field. Although potentially very fast and accurate, such techniques require expert operators to produce reliable results, especially in the case of complex and large sites. The aim of this paper is to present the digital workflow developed for data acquisition and processing of the Shaikh Isa Bin Ali house in Muharraq, Bahrain. This historic structure is an outstanding example of Bahrain architecture as well as tangible memory of the country history, with strong connotations in the Bahrain cultural identity. The building has been documented employing several digital techniques, including: aerial (drone) and terrestrial photogrammetry, rectifying photography, total station and laser scanning. The documentation project has been developed for the Bahrain Authority for Culture and Antiquities (BACA) by a multidisciplinary team of experts from Carleton Immersive Media Studio (CIMS, Carleton University, Canada) and Gicarus Lab (Politecnico di Milano, Italy).

  12. Laboratory simulation of intact capture of cometary and asteroidal dust particles in ISAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujiwara, A.; Nakamura, A.; Kadono, T.

    1994-01-01

    In order to develop a collector for intact capturing of cometary dust particles in the SOCCER mission and regolith dust particles released from asteroid surfaces by the impact of projectiles launched from a flying-by spacecraft, various kinds of materials as the collector candidates have been exposed to hypervelocity projectiles in our laboratory. Data based on the penetration characteristics of various materials (penetration depth, hole profile, effectiveness for intact capturing) are greatly increased. The materials tested for these simulation experiments include various kinds of low-density media and multisheet stacks; these are foamed plastics (polystyrene 0.01 g/cc), silica aerogels (0.04 g/cc), air (0.001 g/cc), liquid, and multisheet stack consisting of thin Al sheets (thickness 0.002 to 0.1 mm) or polyethylene sheets. Projectiles used are spheres or cylinders of nylon, polycarbonate, basalt, copper, iron, and volatile organics (e.g.,paradichlorobenzene) of size ranging from 30 micrometers to 1 cm launched by a two-stage light gas gun and a rail gun in ISAS at velocity up to about 7 km/s. Some results obtained by using nylon projectiles of velocity less than about 5 km/s are presented; the penetration depth vs. bulk density of the collector material for several kinds of materials and the velocity at which the projectiles begin to fragment vs. material density for foamed polystyrene.

  13. Laboratory simulation of intact capture of cometary and asteroidal dust particles in ISAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, A.; Nakamura, A.; Kadono, T.

    In order to develop a collector for intact capturing of cometary dust particles in the SOCCER mission and regolith dust particles released from asteroid surfaces by the impact of projectiles launched from a flying-by spacecraft, various kinds of materials as the collector candidates have been exposed to hypervelocity projectiles in our laboratory. Data based on the penetration characteristics of various materials (penetration depth, hole profile, effectiveness for intact capturing) are greatly increased. The materials tested for these simulation experiments include various kinds of low-density media and multisheet stacks; these are foamed plastics (polystyrene 0.01 g/cc), silica aerogels (0.04 g/cc), air (0.001 g/cc), liquid, and multisheet stack consisting of thin Al sheets (thickness 0.002 to 0.1 mm) or polyethylene sheets. Projectiles used are spheres or cylinders of nylon, polycarbonate, basalt, copper, iron, and volatile organics (e.g.,paradichlorobenzene) of size ranging from 30 micrometers to 1 cm launched by a two-stage light gas gun and a rail gun in ISAS at velocity up to about 7 km/s. Some results obtained by using nylon projectiles of velocity less than about 5 km/s are presented; the penetration depth vs. bulk density of the collector material for several kinds of materials and the velocity at which the projectiles begin to fragment vs. material density for foamed polystyrene.

  14. Laboratory simulation of intact capture of cometary and asteroidal dust particles in ISAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujiwara, A.; Nakamura, A.; Kadono, T.

    1994-01-01

    In order to develop a collector for intact capturing of cometary dust particles in the SOCCER mission and regolith dust particles released from asteroid surfaces by the impact of projectiles launched from a flying-by spacecraft, various kinds of materials as the collector candidates have been exposed to hypervelocity projectiles in our laboratory. Data based on the penetration characteristics of various materials (penetration depth, hole profile, effectiveness for intact capturing) are greatly increased. The materials tested for these simulation experiments include various kinds of low-density media and multisheet stacks; these are foamed plastics (polystyrene 0.01 g/cc), silica aerogels (0.04 g/cc), air (0.001 g/cc), liquid, and multisheet stack consisting of thin Al sheets (thickness 0.002 to 0.1 mm) or polyethylene sheets. Projectiles used are spheres or cylinders of nylon, polycarbonate, basalt, copper, iron, and volatile organics (e.g.,paradichlorobenzene) of size ranging from 30 micrometers to 1 cm launched by a two-stage light gas gun and a rail gun in ISAS at velocity up to about 7 km/s. Some results obtained by using nylon projectiles of velocity less than about 5 km/s are presented; the penetration depth vs. bulk density of the collector material for several kinds of materials and the velocity at which the projectiles begin to fragment vs. material density for foamed polystyrene.

  15. Evaluation of Salmonella Gallinarum ghost formulated with Montanide™ ISA 70 VG adjuvant as a vaccine against fowl typhoid.

    PubMed

    Jawale, Chetan; Somsanith, Nithiphonh; Eo, Seong; Park, Sang-Youel; Lee, John

    2015-12-01

    Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB) protein is a potent adjuvant. Salmonella Gallinarum ghosts carrying LTB (S. Gallinarum-LTB ghosts) were genetically constructed using a plasmid, pJHL187-LTB, designed for the co-expression of the LTB and E lysis proteins. This study evaluates the immunopotentiating effects of Montanide™ ISA 70 VG on S. Gallinarum-LTB ghost vaccination against fowl typhoid. Five-week-old layer chickens were injected intramuscularly with sterile PBS (non-immunised control, Group A), S. Gallinarum-LTB ghost (Group B) or S. Gallinarum-LTB ghost emulsified with Montanide™ ISA 70 VG adjuvant (Group C). Chickens from both Groups B and C showed significant induction of antigen-specific systemic IgG response compared to controls; in addition, Group C showed enhanced induction of systemic IgG response compared to Group B. We observed significant induction of antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferative response and increased mRNA levels of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL2) in both Groups B and C. Furthermore, in the challenge experiment with a virulent strain of S. Gallinarum, Group C showed higher survival rates compared with other groups. These results indicate that vaccination with the S. Gallinarum-LTB ghost in combination with Montanide™ ISA 70 VG may enhance the protective immunity against fowl typhoid.

  16. Geology of the Ugashik-Mount Peulik Volcanic Center, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Thomas P.

    2004-01-01

    The Ugashik-Mount Peulik volcanic center, 550 km southwest of Anchorage on the Alaska Peninsula, consists of the late Quaternary 5-km-wide Ugashik caldera and the stratovolcano Mount Peulik built on the north flank of Ugashik. The center has been the site of explosive volcanism including a caldera-forming eruption and post-caldera dome-destructive activity. Mount Peulik has been formed entirely in Holocene time and erupted in 1814 and 1845. A large lava dome occupies the summit crater, which is breached to the west. A smaller dome is perched high on the southeast flank of the cone. Pyroclastic-flow deposits form aprons below both domes. One or more sector-collapse events occurred early in the formation of Mount Peulik volcano resulting in a large area of debris-avalanche deposits on the volcano's northwest flank. The Ugashik-Mount Peulik center is a calcalkaline suite of basalt, andesite, dacite, and rhyolite, ranging in SiO2 content from 51 to 72 percent. The Ugashik-Mount Peulik magmas appear to be co-genetic in a broad sense and their compositional variation has probably resulted from a combination of fractional crystallization and magma-mixing. The most likely scenario for a future eruption is that one or more of the summit domes on Mount Peulik are destroyed as new magma rises to the surface. Debris avalanches and pyroclastic flows may then move down the west and, less likely, east flanks of the volcano for distances of 10 km or more. A new lava dome or series of domes would be expected to form either during or within some few years after the explosive disruption of the previous dome. This cycle of dome disruption, pyroclastic flow generation, and new dome formation could be repeated several times in a single eruption. The volcano poses little direct threat to human population as the area is sparsely populated. The most serious hazard is the effect of airborne volcanic ash on aircraft since Mount Peulik sits astride heavily traveled air routes connecting the U

  17. Lahars of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newhall, Christopher G.; Stauffer, Peter H.; Hendley, James W.

    1997-01-01

    On June 15, 1991, Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines exploded in the second largest volcanic eruption on Earth this century. This eruption deposited more than 1 cubic mile (5 cubic kilometers) of volcanic ash and rock fragments on the volcano's slopes. Within hours, heavy rains began to wash this material down into the surrounding lowlands in giant, fast-moving mudflows called lahars. In the next four rainy seasons, lahars carried about half of the deposits off the volcano, causing even more destruction in the lowlands than the eruption itself.

  18. Bulb mounting of solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, M.E.

    1983-04-05

    An energy converting assembly is provided for parasiting of light from a fluorescent light bulb utilizing a solar cell. The solar cell is mounted on a base member elongated in the dimension of elongation of the fluorescent bulb, and electrical interconnections to the cell are provided. A flexible sheet of opaque material having a flat white interior reflective surface surrounds the fluorescent bulb and reflects light emitted from the bulb back toward the bulb and the solar cell. The reflective sheet is tightly held in contact with the bottom of the bulb by adhesive, a tie strap, an external clip, or the like.

  19. MOUNT MORIAH ROADLESS AREA, NEVADA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, Robert R.; Wood, Robert H.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey identified the northeastern part of the Mount Moriah Roadless Area in extreme east-central Nevada as an area of probable potential for the occurrence of small, isolated deposits containing lead and zinc. Many active quarries in a unique high-quality decorative building stone occur in the area and have substantiated mineral-resource potential. Further studies in the roadless area might include detailed mapping of exposed Prospect Mountain Quartzite building stone units and notation of their suitability for quarrying. More detailed geochemical studies in the area of probable base-metal resource potential might include additional stream-sediment sampling and sampling along fault zones.

  20. Nozzle and shroud assembly mounting structure

    DOEpatents

    Faulder, Leslie J.; Frey, deceased, Gary A.; Nielsen, Engward W.; Ridler, Kenneth J.

    1997-01-01

    The present nozzle and shroud assembly mounting structure configuration increases component life and reduces maintenance by reducing internal stress between the mounting structure having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion and the nozzle and shroud assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being less than that of the mounting structure. The mounting structure includes an outer sealing portion forming a cradling member in which an annular ring member is slidably positioned. The mounting structure further includes an inner mounting portion to which a hooked end of the nozzle and shroud assembly is attached. As the inner mounting portion expands and contracts, the nozzle and shroud assembly slidably moves within the outer sealing portion.

  1. Nozzle and shroud assembly mounting structure

    DOEpatents

    Faulder, L.J.; Frey, G.A.; Nielsen, E.W.; Ridler, K.J.

    1997-08-05

    The present nozzle and shroud assembly mounting structure configuration increases component life and reduces maintenance by reducing internal stress between the mounting structure having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion and the nozzle and shroud assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being less than that of the mounting structure. The mounting structure includes an outer sealing portion forming a cradling member in which an annular ring member is slidably positioned. The mounting structure further includes an inner mounting portion to which a hooked end of the nozzle and shroud assembly is attached. As the inner mounting portion expands and contracts, the nozzle and shroud assembly slidably moves within the outer sealing portion. 3 figs.

  2. Dual resolution, vacuum compatible optical mount

    SciTech Connect

    Halpin, John Michael

    2011-10-04

    An optical mount for an optical element includes a mounting plate, a lever arm pivot coupled to mounting plate, and an adjustment plate. The optical mount also includes a flexure pivot mechanically coupling the adjustment plate to the mounting plate and a lever arm. The optical mount further includes a first adjustment device extending from the adjustment plate to make contact with the lever arm at a first contact point. A projection of a line from the first contact point to a pivot point, measured along the lever arm, is a first predetermined distance. The optical mount additionally includes a second adjustment device extending from the adjustment plate to make contact with the lever arm at a second contact point. A projection of a line from the second contact point to the pivot point, measured along the lever arm, is a second predetermined distance greater than the first predetermined distance.

  3. Mount Rainier, a decade volcano

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehn, S.C.; Hooper, P.R. . Dept. of Geology); Eggers, A.E. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Mount Rainier, recently designated as a decade volcano, is a 14,410 foot landmark which towers over the heavily populated southern Puget Sound Lowland of Washington State. It last erupted in the mid-1800's and is an obvious threat to this area, yet Rainier has received little detailed study. Previous work has divided Rainier into two distinct pre-glacial eruptive episodes and one post-glacial eruptive episode. In a pilot project, the authors analyzed 253 well-located samples from the volcano for 27 major and trace elements. Their objective is to test the value of chemical compositions as a tool in mapping the stratigraphy and understanding the eruptive history of the volcano which they regard as prerequisite to determining the petrogenesis and potential hazard of the volcano. The preliminary data demonstrates that variation between flows is significantly greater than intra-flow variation -- a necessary condition for stratigraphic use. Numerous flows or groups of flows can be distinguished chemically. It is also apparent from the small variation in Zr abundances and considerable variation in such ratios as Ba/Nb that fractional crystallization plays a subordinate role to some form of mixing process in the origin of the Mount Rainier lavas.

  4. Recent eruptions of Mount Adams, Washington Cascades, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judy

    1997-01-01

    The postglacial eruption rate for the Mount Adams volcanic field is ∼0.1 km3/k.y., four to seven times smaller than the average rate for the past 520 k.y. Ten vents have been active since the last main deglaciation ∼15 ka. Seven high flank vents (at 2100-2600 m) and the central summit vent of the 3742-m stratocone produced varied andesites, and two peripheral vents (at 2100 and 1200 m) produced mildly alkalic basalt. Eruptive ages of most of these units are bracketed with respect to regional tephra layers from Mount Mazama and Mount St. Helens. The basaltic lavas and scoria cones north and south of Mount Adams and a 13-km-long andesitic lava flow on its east flank are of early postglacial age. The three most extensive andesitic lava-flow complexes were emplaced in the mid-Holocene (7-4 ka). Ages of three smaller Holocene andesite units are less well constrained. A phreatomagmatic ejecta cone and associated andesite lavas that together cap the summit may be of latest Pleistocene age. but a thin layer of mid-Holocene tephra appears to have erupted there as well. An alpine-meadow section on the southeast flank contains 24 locally derived Holocene andesitic ash layers intercalated with several silicic tephras from Mazama and St. Helens. Microprobe analyses of phenocrysts from the ash layers and postglacial lavas suggest a few correlations and refine some age constraints. Approximately 6 ka, a 0.07-km3 debris avalanche from the southwest face of Mount Adams gen-erated a clay-rich debris flow that devastated >30 km2 south of the volcano. A gravitationally metastable 2-to 3-km3 reservoir of hydrothermally altered fragmental andesite remains on the ice-capped summit and, towering 3 km above the surrounding lowlands, represents a greater hazard than an eruptive recurrence in the style of the last 15 k.y.

  5. Exploring Virtual Worlds With Head-Mounted Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, James C.; Harris, Mark R.; Brooks, Frederick P.; Fuchs, Henry; Kelley, Michael T.; Hughes, John W.; Ouh-Young, Ming; Cheung, Clement; Holloway, Richard L.; Pique, Michael

    1989-09-01

    For nearly a decade the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill has been conducting research in the use of simple head-mounted displays in "real-world" applications. Such units provide the user with non-holographic true three-dimensional information, since the kinetic depth effect, stereoscopy, and other visual cues combine to immerse the user in a "virtual world" which behaves like the real world in some respects. UNC's head-mounted display was built inexpensively from commercially available off-the-shelf components. Tracking of the the user's head position and orientation is performed by a Polhemus Navigation Sciences' 3SPACE* tracker. The host computer uses the tracking information to generate updated images corresponding to the user's new left eye and right eye views. The images are broadcast to two liquid crystal television screens (220x320 pixels) mounted on a horizontal shelf at the user's forehead. The user views these color screens through half-silvered mirrors, enabling the computer-generated image to be superimposed upon the user's real physical environment. The head-mounted display has been incorporated into existing molecular modeling and architectural applications being developed at UNC. In molecular structure studies, chemists are presented with a room-sized molecule with which they can interact in a manner more intuitive than that provided by conventional two-dimensional displays and dial boxes. Walking around and through the large molecule may provide quicker understanding of its structure, and such problems as drug-enzyme docking may be approached with greater insight. In architecture, the head-mounted display enables clients to better appreciate three-dimensional designs, which may be misinterpreted in their conventional two-dimensional form by untrained eyes. The addition of a treadmill to the system provides additional kinesthetic input into the understanding of building size and scale.

  6. Effects of adjuvant Montanide™ ISA 763 A VG in rainbow trout injection vaccinated against Yersinia ruckeri.

    PubMed

    Jaafar, Rzgar M; Chettri, Jiwan K; Dalsgaard, Inger; Al-Jubury, Azmi; Kania, Per W; Skov, Jakob; Buchmann, Kurt

    2015-12-01

    Enteric redmouth disease (ERM) caused by the fish pathogen Yersinia ruckeri is a major threat to freshwater production of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) throughout all life stages. Injection vaccination of rainbow trout against Y. ruckeri infection has been shown to confer better protection compared to the traditionally applied immersion vaccination. It may be hypothesized, based on experience from other vaccines, that adjuvants may increase the protective level of ERM injection vaccines even more. Controlled comparative vaccination studies have been performed to investigate effects of the oil adjuvant Montanide™ ISA 763 A VG (Seppic) when added to an experimental Y. ruckeri bacterin (containing both biotype 1 and 2 of serotype O1). A total of 1000 fish with mean weight 19 g was divided into five different groups (in duplicated tanks 2 × 100 fish per group) 1) non-vaccinated control fish (NonVac), 2) fish injected with a commercial vaccine (AquaVac(®) Relera™) (ComVac), 3) fish injected with an experimental vaccine (ExpVac), 4) fish injected with an experimental vaccine + adjuvant (ExpVacAdj) and 5) fish injected with adjuvant alone (Adj). Injection of the experimental vaccine (both adjuvanted and non-adjuvanted) induced a significantly higher antibody (IgM) level, increased occurrence of IgM(+) cells in spleen tissue and significant up-regulation of several immune genes. Additional experiments using a higher challenge dosage suggested an immune enhancing effect of the adjuvant as the challenge produced 100% mortality in the NonVac group, 60% mortality in both of ComVac and Adj groups and only 13 and 2.5% mortalities in the ExpVac and the ExpVacAdj groups, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Alpine Forest. Mount Mitchell State Park: An Environmental Education Learning Experience Designed for Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Jack L., Jr.

    This curriculum guide was developed to provide environmental education through a series of hands-on activities for the classroom and the outdoor setting of Mount Mitchell State Park, North Carolina. This activity packet, designed for grades 4 through 6, meets established curriculum objectives of the North Carolina Department of Public…

  8. Alpine Forest. Mount Mitchell State Park: An Environmental Education Learning Experience Designed for Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Jack L., Jr.; Beazley, Lea J.; Cook, Carrie

    This curriculum packet was developed to provide environmental education through a series of hands-on activities for the classroom and the outdoor setting of Mount Mitchell State Park, North Carolina. Designed for grades 3 through 6, the packet meets established curriculum objectives of the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction's Standard…

  9. COUGAR LAKES-MOUNT AIX WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, WASHINGTON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simmons, George C.; Van Noy, Ronald M.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Cougar Lakes-Mount Aix Wilderness study area in Washington was carried out to assess its mineral-resource potential. The study included reconnaissance geologic mapping and geochemical sampling, statistical analyses of samples, interpretation of an aeromagnetic survey, and an investigation of mining properties. These studies indicate that the area has a probable mineral-resource potential for silver, copper, manganese, mercury, tungsten, and zinc. This resource potential occurs in four small isolated areas in the southern half of the study area, and in a larger area which has a potential for porphyry copper, near the north boundary of the study area.

  10. In Brief: Mount Wilson centennial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-11-01

    The 60-inch reflecting telescope at Mount Wilson Observatory, in southern California, which helped scientists measure the Milky Way and determine our solar system's position within it, celebrates its 100th anniversary in December. ``The 60-inch continued the Copernican Revolution by dethroning the Sun from the center of our galaxy,'' noted observatory director Harold McAlister. The telescope, with its silver-on-glass reflectors, also established the basic design for observatory telescopes on Earth. Capable of operating in several different optical configurations, the telescope was the first one built primarily for photographic and spectrographic use. With its 5-foot-diameter mirror, the telescope was the largest in the world until 1917. The telescope is retired from active science but is made available to groups for viewing astronomical objects. The observatory was founded by astronomer George Ellery Hale under the auspices of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. For more information, visit http://www.mtwilson.edu.

  11. Mount St. Helens: the aftermath

    SciTech Connect

    Flaherty, D.C.

    1983-01-01

    During the May 18, 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, ash fell over a 100,000 sq mile area to the east. The Idaho studies showed that, although the ashfall altered the food chains of some forest streams, within a year they fully recovered. The effects of ashfall on lake benthic organisms are still being assessed by sediment sampling. The Montana studies reported on snow avalanche models adapted to mudflows, trophic impact of ash deposits on Montana lakes, and the volcanic ash as nutrient subsidy to sub-alpine lakes. The Oregon studies reported herring and smelt egg and larvae damage due to suspended ash. The drainage patterns in eruption debris were studied along with the filling of Columbia River berths with ash.

  12. Ocean floor mounting of wave energy converters

    DOEpatents

    Siegel, Stefan G

    2015-01-20

    A system for mounting a set of wave energy converters in the ocean includes a pole attached to a floor of an ocean and a slider mounted on the pole in a manner that permits the slider to move vertically along the pole and rotate about the pole. The wave energy converters can then be mounted on the slider to allow adjustment of the depth and orientation of the wave energy converters.

  13. Optical Mounts for Cryogenic Beam Splitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudman, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Spring-loaded optical mounts maintain flatness and alinement of rigid, framed, or pellicle beam splitters over wide temperature range, despite differences in thermal expansion amoung materials. Mounts permit optical adjustments at ambient temperature even though optical system operated subsequently within few degrees of absolute zero. Mounts useful as holders for integrated-circuit master patterns, survey targets, vibrating membranes, noise- or pressure-sensing membranes, osmosis filters, and fuel-cell elements.

  14. Optical Mounts for Cryogenic Beam Splitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudman, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Spring-loaded optical mounts maintain flatness and alinement of rigid, framed, or pellicle beam splitters over wide temperature range, despite differences in thermal expansion amoung materials. Mounts permit optical adjustments at ambient temperature even though optical system operated subsequently within few degrees of absolute zero. Mounts useful as holders for integrated-circuit master patterns, survey targets, vibrating membranes, noise- or pressure-sensing membranes, osmosis filters, and fuel-cell elements.

  15. Helmet-Mounted Display For Infantry Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Andrew J.

    1987-04-01

    A generic sensor/display/soldier interface concept is described for potential application as a helmet or headdress mounted infantry display system. A compact, lightweight infrared camera mounted on a rifle is expected to provide the video image. The objective for the head-mounted display is to increase the soldier's personal safety and functional performance by remotely displaying an image that is generated by a boresighted camera and to reduce eye fatigue.

  16. Mounting and Alignment of IXO Mirror Segments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Kai-Wing; Zhang, William; Evans, Tyler; McClelland, Ryan; Hong, Melinda; Mazzarella, James; Saha, Timo; Jalota, Lalit; Olsen, Lawrence; Byron, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    A suspension-mounting scheme is developed for the IXO (International X-ray Observatory) mirror segments in which the figure of the mirror segment is preserved in each stage of mounting. The mirror, first fixed on a thermally compatible strongback, is subsequently transported, aligned and transferred onto its mirror housing. In this paper, we shall outline the requirement, approaches, and recent progress of the suspension mount processes.

  17. Geology and geochemistry of the Mount Riley-Mount Cox pluton, Dona Ana County, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Zimbelman, D.R.; Siems, D.F.; Kilburn, J.E.; Hubert, A.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Mount Riley-Mount Cox area is comprised of a relatively homogeneous pluton of rhyodacite rising some 1600 feet above the La Mesa surface. The pluton, of apparent Tertiary age, intrudes Cretaceous sedimentary rocks and Tertiary ( ) latite and tuff. The rhyodacite is holocrystalline, light gray to pinkish gray, porphyritic to microporphyritic, and locally banded. Phenocrysts include hornblende, quartz, biotite, and calcite. The phenocrysts range in size from 0.2 to 2 mm and make up one to fifteen percent of the rock. The phenocrysts often display a glomerophyric texture within a trachytic groundmass. The groundmass ranges from cryptocrystalline to very fine grained and is composed of plagioclase, quartz, potassium feldspar, hornblende/biotite, and iron-oxide material. Locally, the rhyodacite displays millimeter-scale banding and a poikilitic texture consisting of quartz oikiocrysts and plagioclase chadocrysts. The rhyodacite averages 68.74%, SiO/sub 2/, 0.39% TiO/sub 2/, 16.40% Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 2.87% Fe/sub t/, 0.10% MnO, 1.21% MgO, 2.56% CaO, 3.79% Na/sub 2/O, and 3.96% K/sub 2/O. The rhyodacite is cut by veins and veinlets of brown to white calcite. The veins attain a maximum thickness of one meter, are locally bordered by calcite-cemented breccia zones, and locally include pyrite. The veins trend north or northwest, consistent with regional trends for the Rio Grande rift and the Texas Lineament, respectively. Sixty-five samples of rhyodacite, breccia, and vein were analyzed for 31 elements by emission-spectrographic methods. Trace-element data suggestive of hydrothermal mineralization was not recognized.

  18. Geology of Mount Rainier National Park, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fiske, Richard S.; Hopson, Clifford Andrae; Waters, Aaron Clement

    1963-01-01

    shards, which compacted and welded into thick massive units during emplacement and cooling. Subordinate water-laid clastic rocks occur t(ward the top of the formation, and thin-bedded pyroclastic layers occur between some of the ash flows. Exposures on Backbone Ridge and on Carbon River below the mouth of Cataract Creek show that in places the thick basal Stevens Ridge ash flows swept with great violence over an old erosion surface developed on rocks of the Ohanapecosh Formation. Masses of mud, tree trunks, and other surface debris were swirled upward into the base of the lowermost ash fiery, and lobes and tongues of hot ash were forced downward into. the saprolitic mud. The Stevens Ridge Formation is concordantly overlain by the Fifes Peak Formation of probable early Miocene age, which consists of lava flows, subordinate mudflows, and minor quantities of tuffaceous clastic rocks. The lavas are predominantly olivine basalt and basaltic andesite, but they include a little rhyolite. They are slightly to moderately altered: the ferromagnesian phenocrysts are generally replaced by saponite, chiprite, or carbonate ; the glass is devitrified ; and the rocks are locally permeated by veinlets of zeolite. Swarms of diabase sills and dikes are probably intrusive equivalents of the Fifes Peak lavas. The upper part of the Fifes Peak Formation has been mostly eroded from Mount Rainier National Park, but farther north, in the Cedar Lake quadrangle, it attains a thickness of more than 5,000 feet. The Fifes Peak and earlier formations were gently folded, faulted, uplifted, and eroded before the. late Miocene Tatoosh pluton worked its way upward to shallow depths and eventually broke through to the surface. The rise of the pluton was accompanied by .the injection of a complicated melange of satellitic stocks, sills, and dikes. A favored horizon for intrusion of sills was along or near the unconfo

  19. 4. COMPLETE X15 VEHICLE TEST STAND, DETAIL OF THRUST MOUNTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. COMPLETE X-15 VEHICLE TEST STAND, DETAIL OF THRUST MOUNTING STRUCTURE AT ENGINE END OF PLANE. - Edwards Air Force Base, X-15 Engine Test Complex, Rocket Engine & Complete X-15 Vehicle Test Stands, Rogers Dry Lake, east of runway between North Base & South Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  20. Snaptran2 experiment mounted on dolly being hauled by shielded locomotive ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Snaptran-2 experiment mounted on dolly being hauled by shielded locomotive from IET towards A&M turntable. Note leads from experiment gathered at coupling bar in lower right of view. Another dolly in view at left. Camera facing southeast. Photographer: Page Comiskey. Date: August 25, 1965. INEEL negative no. 65-4503 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. A human monoclonal antibody targeting the conserved staphylococcal antigen IsaA protects mice against Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Sanne; Bonarius, Hendrik P J; van Kessel, Kok P M; Elsinga, Goffe S; Kooi, Neeltje; Westra, Hans; Bosma, Tjibbe; van der Kooi-Pol, Magdalena M; Koedijk, Danny G A M; Groen, Herman; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Buist, Girbe; Bakker-Woudenberg, Irma A J M

    2015-01-01

    Due to substantial therapy failure and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains, alternatives for antibiotic treatment of S. aureus infections are urgently needed. Passive immunization using S. aureus-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb) could be such an alternative to prevent and treat severe S. aureus infections. The invariantly expressed immunodominant staphylococcal antigen A (IsaA) is a promising target for passive immunization. Here we report the development of the human anti-IsaA IgG1 mAb 1D9, which was shown to bind to all 26 S. aureus isolates tested. These included both methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MSSA and MRSA, respectively). Immune complexes consisting of IsaA and 1D9 stimulated human as well as murine neutrophils to generate an oxidative burst. In a murine bacteremia model, the prophylactic treatment with a single dose of 5 mg/kg 1D9 improved the survival of mice challenged with S. aureus isolate P (MSSA) significantly, while therapeutic treatment with the same dose did not influence animal survival. Neither prophylactic nor therapeutic treatment with 5 mg/kg 1D9 resulted in improved survival of mice with S. aureus USA300 (MRSA) bacteremia. Importantly, our studies show that healthy S. aureus carriers elicit an immune response which is sufficient to generate protective mAbs against invariant staphylococcal surface antigens. Human mAb 1D9, possibly conjugated to for example another antibody, antibiotics, cytokines or chemokines, may be valuable to fight S. aureus infections in patients.

  2. The BepiColombo mission to Mercury: ISA accelerometer on-ground and in-flight calibration procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, V.; Lucchesi, D.; Fiorenza, E.; Lucente, M.; Lefevre, C.; Magnafico, C.; Peron, R.; Santoli, F.; Nozzoli, S.; Argada, A.

    2012-04-01

    The key role of the Italian Spring Accelerometer (ISA) in the radio science measurements of the ESA BepiColombo mission to Mercury is to remove, aposteriori, the non-gravitational accelerations acting on the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) due to the very strong radiation environment around Mercury. This presentation is devoted to describe the main on-ground and in-flight calibration procedures that are necessary to guarantee the accelerometer performance in order to reach the very ambitious objectives of the Radio Science Experiments (RSE) of the ESA mission: the accelerometer sensitivity has to be 10-8 m/s2/√Hz in the frequency band 3·10-5 -10-1 Hz. ISA is a three axes torsional accelerometer and the calibration procedures are necessary in order to estimate scale factors and axes misalignments and couplings. The on-ground calibration procedures are primarily finalized to the determination of the actuator transducer factor of the proof-masses capacitor plates and to the determination of the proof-masses axes orthogonality and orientation with respect to a reference optical cube. The in-flight calibration procedures are devoted to the determination of the accelerometer pick-up transducer factors, which are different from those determined on-ground during the calibration of ISA's actuators, and to the determination of the axes alignment in order to check if launch shocks have produced possible variations with respect to their nominal orientation in the MPO body-fixed frame as determined during the pre-launch characterization and calibration. A by-product of the in-flight calibration procedures is the determination of ISA proof-masses position with respect to spacecraft effective center-of-mass. This allows to check if the MPO center-of-mass variations are in line with on-ground estimates based on fuel consumption computations and the mass distribution of the spacecraft appendices and movable parts, as in the case of the orientation of the solar array panels and

  3. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, Mount Meru, Tanzania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Mount Meru is an active volcano located just 70 kilometers (44 miles) west of Mount Kilimanjaro. It reaches 4,566 meters (14,978 feet) in height but has lost much of its bulk due to an eastward volcanic blast sometime in its distant past, perhaps similar to the eruption of Mount Saint Helens in Washington State in 1980. Mount Meru most recently had a minor eruption about a century ago. The several small cones and craters seen in the vicinity probably reflect numerous episodes of volcanic activity. Mount Meru is the topographic centerpiece of Arusha National Park. Its fertile slopes rise above the surrounding savanna and support a forest that hosts diverse wildlife, including nearly 400 species of birds, and also monkeys and leopards.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark, as would be the case at noon at this latitude in June. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to blue and white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space

  4. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, Mount Meru, Tanzania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Mount Meru is an active volcano located just 70 kilometers (44 miles) west of Mount Kilimanjaro. It reaches 4,566 meters (14,978 feet) in height but has lost much of its bulk due to an eastward volcanic blast sometime in its distant past, perhaps similar to the eruption of Mount Saint Helens in Washington State in 1980. Mount Meru most recently had a minor eruption about a century ago. The several small cones and craters seen in the vicinity probably reflect numerous episodes of volcanic activity. Mount Meru is the topographic centerpiece of Arusha National Park. Its fertile slopes rise above the surrounding savanna and support a forest that hosts diverse wildlife, including nearly 400 species of birds, and also monkeys and leopards.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark, as would be the case at noon at this latitude in June. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to blue and white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space

  5. Probing gravity in interplanetary space: combined use of ISA accelerometer and next-generation tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peron, Roberto; Peron, R.; Bellettini, G.; Berardi, S.; Boni, A.; Cantone, C.; Coradini, A.; Currie, D. G.; Dell'Agnello, S.; Delle Monache, G. O.; Fiorenza, E.; Garattini, M.; Iafolla, V.; Intaglietta, N.; Lefevre, C.; Lops, C.; March, R.; Martini, M.; Nozzoli, S.; Patrizi, G.; Porcelli, L.; Reale, A.; Santoli, F.; Tauraso, R.; Vittori, R.

    The Solar System is a complex laboratory for testing gravitational physics. Indeed, its scale and hierarchical structure make possible a wide range of tests for gravitational theories, studying the motion of both natural and artificial objects and comparing the predictions of different theories with experimental data. Future exploration scenarios show the possibility of placing deep-space probes near the Sun or in outer Solar System, thereby extending the range of conditions in which to test directly the theories. In particular, the Sun-Earth-Moon is the most accurately known gravitational three-body laboratory, which is undergoing a new, strong wave of research and robotic exploration. In addition, the benefits of a synergetic study of planetary science and gravitational physics are of the greatest importance (as shown by the success of the Apollo program), especially in the Earth-Moon (for example with the proposed International Lunar Network, ILN), Mars-Phobos, Jovian and Saturnian sub-systems. The availability of high-quality tracking data, to be fitted by suitable dynamic models for the spacecraft dynamics, opens critical issues regarding the quality of these models, i.e. their capability of fitting data without an excessive number of empirical hypotheses. A typical case is represented by the non-gravitational phenomena, often relevant, which in general are difficult to model. More generally, gravitation tests with Lunar Laser Ranging, inner or outer Solar System probes and the appearance of the so-called "anomalies"(like the one indicated by the Pioneers), whatever their real origin (either instrumental effects or due to new physics), show the necessity of a coordinated improvement of tracking and modelization techniques. A number of steps in this directions will be discussed, employing the use of high-sensitivity accelerometers like ISA (Italian Spring Accelerometer) — in order to measure directly non-gravitational effects — and combined microwave and

  6. Mount Meager landslide flow history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretti, L.; Allstadt, K.; Mangeney, A.; Capdeville, Y.; Stutzmann, E.; Bouchut, F.

    2013-12-01

    Gravitational instabilities, such as landslides, avalanches, or debris flows, play a key role in erosional processes and represent one of the major natural hazards in mountainous, coastal, and volcanic regions. Despite the great amount of field, experimental and numerical work devoted to this problem, the understanding of the physical processes at work in gravitational flows is still an open issue, in particular due to the lack of observations relevant to their dynamics. In this context, the seismic signal generated by gravitational flows is a unique opportunity to obtain information on their dynamics. Indeed, as shown recently by Favreau et al., (2010), simulation of the seismic signal generated by landslides makes it possible to discriminate different flow scenarios and estimate rheological parameters. Global and regional seismic networks continuously record gravitational instabilities, so this new method will help gather new data on landslide behavior, particularly when combined with a landslide numerical modeling. Using this approach, we focus on the 6 August 2010 Mount Meager landslide: a 48.5 Mm3 rockslide-debris flow occurring in the Mount Meager Volcanic complex in the Southwest British Columbia. This landslide traveled over 12.7 km in just a few minutes time and was recorded by 25 broadband seismic stations. The time history of the forces exerted by the landslide on the ground surface was inverted from the seismic waveforms. The forcing history revealed the occurrence of a complicated initiation and showed features attributable to flow over a complicated path that included two sharp turns and runup at a valley wall barrier. To reliably interpret this signal and thus obtain detailed information about the dynamics of the landslide, we ran simulations for a range of scenarios by varying the coefficient of friction and the number, mass, and timings of subevents and compute the forces generated in each case. By comparing the results of these simulations to the

  7. Mount Meager landslide flow history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretti, Laurent; Allstadt, Kate; Mangeney, Anne; Yann, capdeville; Eleonore, Stutzmann; François, Bouchut

    2014-05-01

    Gravitational instabilities, such as landslides, avalanches, or debris flows, play a key role in erosional processes and represent one of the major natural hazards in mountainous, coastal, and volcanic regions. Despite the great amount of field, experimental and numerical work devoted to this problem, the understanding of the physical processes at work in gravitational flows is still an open issue, in particular due to the lack of observations relevant to their dynamics. In this context, the seismic signal generated by gravitational flows is a unique opportunity to obtain information on their dynamics. Indeed, as shown recently by Favreau et al., (2010), simulation of the seismic signal generated by landslides makes it possible to discriminate different flow scenarios and estimate rheological parameters. Global and regional seismic networks continuously record gravitational instabilities, so this new method will help gather new data on landslide behavior, particularly when combined with a landslide numerical modeling. Using this approach, we focus on the 6 August 2010 Mount Meager landslide: a 48.5 Mm3 rockslide-debris flow occurring in the Mount Meager Volcanic complex in the Southwest British Columbia. This landslide traveled over 12.7 km in just a few minutes time and was recorded by 25 broadband seismic stations. The time history of the forces exerted by the landslide on the ground surface was inverted from the seismic waveforms. The forcing history revealed the occurrence of a complicated initiation and showed features attributable to flow over a complicated path that included two sharp turns and runup at a valley wall barrier. To reliably interpret this signal and thus obtain detailed information about the dynamics of the landslide, we ran simulations for a range of scenarios by varying the coefficient of friction and the number, mass, and timings of subevents and compute the forces generated in each case. By comparing the results of these simulations to the

  8. Resilient shaft mounting for pump

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, W.

    1990-06-12

    This patent describes a pump. It comprises: a tube having a centrifugal pump mounted on an upper end thereof, the centrifugal pump having an inlet coaxial with the tube, an outlet disposed radially and an impeller rotatable in a housing to pump a liquid; at least one propeller disposed in the tube below the centrifugal pump, the propeller being rotatable to draw fluid upwardly in the tube; a shaft connecting the impeller of the centrifugal with the propeller in the tube; at least one triangular support for the shaft, having three resilient planar plates dimensioned to be bowed inwardly in the tube and enclosing the shaft. The plates are discrete sections, each having ends disposed against an inner surface of the tube and against an adjoining one of the plates, an intermediate portion of each of the plates resiliently bearing inwardly toward the shaft; and, a resilient bushing disposed between the plates and the shaft, the resilient bushing being a round tube deformed into a triangular shape by pressure of the plates; whereby the shaft is supported coaxially in the tube.

  9. Mount Fuji [CI] Line Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2005-06-01

    We have constructed the Mount Fuji submillimeter-wave telescope at Nishiyasugawara (alt. 3725 m) near the summit of Mt. Fuji (alt. 3774 m). Thanks to the excellent condition of Mt. Fuji, we have successfully carried out the [CI] survey toward more than 40 square degrees of sky, including Orion MC, Taurus MC, Rosetta MC, DR 15, DR 21, NGC 1333, NGC 2264, W 3, W 44, W 51, L 134, ρ-Oph. Our [CI] survey have revealed that the [CI] 492 GHz emission widely extends to the molecular clouds. The spatial and velocity structures of the [CI] 492 GHz emission resemble those of 13CO J=1--0 in many molecular clouds, implying that [CI] 492 GHz and 13CO J=1--0 are emitted from the same gas. The column density of C^0 linearly correlates with that of CO up to high A_V, suggesting that C^0 exist in the deep interior of molecular clouds. In several regions, we have found that the distributions of C^0 and CO are different from each other. The C^0-rich area is found in the Hieles' cloud 2. The C^+/CO/C^0 configuration is found in DR 15, ρ-Oph, M 17, Orion KL, and NGC 1333. These results indicate that an origin of C^0 is unrelated with the photodissociation process. We discuss the observed C^0 distributions in relation to the non-equilibrium chemistry.

  10. Three-point spherical mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, R.W.

    1984-01-23

    A three-point spherical mirror mount for use with lasers is disclosed. The improved mirror mount is adapted to provide a pivot ring having an outer surface with at least three spaced apart mating points to engage an inner spherical surface of a support housing.

  11. Helmet-Mounted Liquid-Crystal Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Steve; Plough, Alan; Clarke, Robert; Mclean, William; Fournier, Joseph; Marmolejo, Jose A.

    1991-01-01

    Helmet-mounted binocular display provides text and images for almost any wearer; does not require fitting for most users. Accommodates users from smallest interpupillary distance to largest. Two liquid-crystal display units mounted in helmet. Images generated seen from any position head can assume inside helmet. Eyes directed to position for best viewing.

  12. Mm-wave power meter mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullen, D. L.; Oltmans, D. A.; Stelzried, C. T.

    1968-01-01

    E-band thermistor mount and a technique for adjusting a temperature compensating thermistor to provide an electrically balanced bridge are used for measuring RF power in the mm-wavelength. The mount is relatively insensitive to temperature effects that cause measurement errors in single ended circuits.

  13. Helmet-Mounted Liquid-Crystal Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Steve; Plough, Alan; Clarke, Robert; Mclean, William; Fournier, Joseph; Marmolejo, Jose A.

    1991-01-01

    Helmet-mounted binocular display provides text and images for almost any wearer; does not require fitting for most users. Accommodates users from smallest interpupillary distance to largest. Two liquid-crystal display units mounted in helmet. Images generated seen from any position head can assume inside helmet. Eyes directed to position for best viewing.

  14. Sting-Mounted Flow Survey Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, G. C., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Flow survey instrumentation integral part of model support system. Drive motor, limit switches, and position transducer contained within streamlined housing and operable in near vacuum wing-tunnel environment. Sting-mounted system has advantages over conventional wall-mounted flow-field survey equipment, include more efficiently utilized run time, higher position accuracy, and fewer runs to map flow field.

  15. Alaska research natural areas: 1. Mount Prindle.

    Treesearch

    G.P. Juday

    1988-01-01

    The 2412-hectare Mount Prindle Research Natural Area is located in central Alaska on the border of the Steese National Conservation Area and White Mountains National Recreation Area. It is managed by the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Steese-White Mountains District. Mount Prindle was selected as a Research Natural Area (RNA) because it...

  16. A flexible cruciform journal bearing mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, A. E.; Geiger, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    Flexible mount achieves low roll, pitch and yaw stiffnesses while maintaining high radial stiffness by holding bearing pad in fixed relationship to deep web cruciform member and holding this member in fixed relationship to bearing support. This mount has particular application in small, high performance gas turbines.

  17. 49 CFR 179.10 - Tank mounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank mounting. 179.10 Section 179.10... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS General Design Requirements § 179.10 Tank mounting. (a) The manner in which tanks are attached to the...

  18. Three-point spherical mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.

    1990-01-01

    A three-point spherical mirror mount for use with lasers is disclosed. The improved mirror mount is adapted to provide a pivot ring having an outer surface with at least three spaced apart mating points to engage an inner spherical surface of a support housing.

  19. H2O diffusion in Mount Changbai peralkaline rhyolitic melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Xu, Z.; Wang, H.; Behrens, H.

    2008-05-01

    For quantitative modeling of bubble growth and volcanic eruption dynamics, it is necessary to know H2O diffusivity in the melt. Mount Changbai Volcano at the border of China and North Korea has produced explosive peralkaline rhyolitic eruptions, including a 30-km3 eruption with an age of 1 ky (Horn and Schmincke, 2000). H2O diffusivity is expected to be greater in a peralkaline rhyolitic melt than a calc-alkaline rhyolitic melt. We have experimentally investigated H2O diffusion in Mount Changbai peralkaline rhyolite. Because phenocryst-free glass is not available from Mount Changbai eruption products, the starting materials (nominally dry and hydrous) are synthesized. The diffusion couple technique, with one half dry and the other half wet, is adopted. Three high- temperature experiments have been carried out at 500 MPa and one at 1500 MPa in a piston-cylinder apparatus. After the experiment, the sample is prepared into a doubly-polished section of about 0.2 mm thickness, which is analyzed by a Perkin-Elmer FTIR microscope. The data are fit following the procedures of Zhang and Behrens (2000) and Ni and Zhang (2008). Preliminary data show that H2O diffusivity in peralkaline rhyolitic melt is greater than that in calc-alkaline rhyolitic melt (Zhang and Behrens, 2000), as expected. The exact difference depends on temperature and pressure, and the ratio of diffusivity in the peralkaline rhyolitic melt to that in the calc-alkaline rhyolitic melt ranges from 1 to 3. More experiments will be conducted on this melt to provide the basic data for specific modeling of bubble growth and volcanic eruption dynamics in past and future Mount Changbai eruptions and other peralkaline rhyolitic eruptions. References: Horn S and Schmincke H U (2000) Bull. Volcanol., 61, 537. Ni H and Zhang Y (2008) Chem. Geol., doi: 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2008.01.011. Zhang Y and Behrens H (2000) Chem. Geol., 169, 243.

  20. A miniaturized pointing mount for Spacelab missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritz, C. G.; Howell, T., Jr.; Nicaise, P. D.; Parker, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    A Miniaturized Pointing Mount (MPM) for Spacelab missions is defined and simulation results are described. This mount is proposed to complement the Spacelab Instrument Pointing System (IPS). It uses the same mount isolator concept as the Spacelab IPS but is much more efficient and economical for the accommodation of small shuttle payloads. The MPM is built from star tracker assemblies left over from the Apollo Telescope Mount program thereby assuring low cost and development risk. Simulation results indicate a high level of instrument stability can be expected. The short development time of the MPM would permit it to serve as a precursor to the Spacelab IPS for verifying critical new concepts such as the mount isolation and hold down mechanisms.

  1. Mitigating the hazards of Mount Rainier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, Don; Malone, Steve; Casadevall, Tom

    Mount Rainier volcano is an ever-present reminder to the more than three million inhabitants of the Puget Sound Lowland of the potentially hazardous geologic setting of the Pacific Northwest. Increased public awareness resulting from the recent eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Nevado del Ruiz, and Mount Pinatubo, among others, and the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior (IAVCEI)'s designation of Mount Rainier as a Decade Volcano [Swanson et al., 1992] afford an opportunity to improve our knowledge about Mount Rainier with the goal of reducing these hazards. A workshop to discuss research needs and strategies, cosponsored by the National Academy of Sciences, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the University of Washington, was held at the University of Washington in Seattle from September 18 to 20, 1992. About seventy-five Earth scientists, social scientists, and representatives of several companies and government agencies attended.

  2. The BepiColombo mission to Mercury: Reaction wheels desaturation manoeuvres and the ISA accelerometer Δ V⇒ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, V.; Lucchesi, D.-M.; Nozzoli, S.; Santoli, F.

    2011-01-01

    The Mercury Planetary Orbiter will be a three-axis stabilized spacecraft and nadir pointing to Mercury center-of-mass. The pointing accuracy, needed for the very ambitious goals of the ESA space mission to Mercury denominated BepiColombo, is reached thanks to the onboard reaction wheels, and it is also required during the unobserved arcs. The unavoidable manoeuvres of desaturation of the reaction wheels, which are necessary to remove the accumulated angular momentum, represent a clear reduction of the accuracy of the objectives of the ESA space mission. Indeed, these manoeuvres are performed through the spacecraft thrusters and directly impact the accuracy of the propagated state-vector of the satellite at the beginning of the subsequent observed arc. Their impact is quantified by their number, position along the orbit and, especially, in the uncertainty in the linear momentum transferred to the spacecraft. The present paper is devoted to prove the feasibility of the speed variation measurements produced by the thruster thanks to the onboard accelerometer, ISA. Therefore, such measurements may be an essential ingredient in order to preserve the accuracy of the BepiColombo Radio Science Experiments and of other onboard instruments pointing accuracy, as is the case of BELA. This additional capability of ISA strengthens once more the key role of the accelerometer in the BepiColombo mission to Mercury.

  3. The BepiColombo Mission to Mercury: reaction wheels desaturation manoeuvres and the ISA accelerometer Δ →V measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, Valerio; Nozzoli, Sergio; Lucchesi, David; Santoli, Francesco; Peron, Roberto; Fiorenza, Emiliano; Lefevre, Carlo; Reale, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    The MPO will be a three-axis stabilized spacecraft and nadir pointing to Mercury center-of-mass. Such a pointing, needed for the very ambitious goals of the ESA space mission to Mercury denominated BepiColombo, is reached thanks to the onboard reaction wheels, and it is also required during the unobserved (from Earth) arcs. The unavoidable manoeuvres of desaturation of the reaction wheels, which are necessary to remove the accumulated angular momentum, represent a clear reduction of the accuracy of the objectives of the ESA space mission. Indeed, during these manoeuvres the spacecraft thrusters are fired -- to guarantee the planet center-of-mass pointing -- and directly impact the accuracy of the propagated state-vector of the satellite at the beginning of the subsequent observed arc. Their impact is quantified by their number, position along the orbit and, especially, in the uncertainty in the linear momentum transferred to the spacecraft. This presentation is devoted to prove the feasibility of the measurements of the transferred momentum by the thruster thanks to the onboard accelerometer ISA. Therefore, such measurements will be an essential ingredient in order to preserve the accuracy of the BepiColombo Radio Science Experiments and of the pointing accuracy of other onboard instruments, as is the case of BELA. This additional capability of ISA strengthen once more the key rôle of the accelerometer in the BepiColombo mission to Mercury.

  4. Digital Data for Volcano Hazards in the Mount Jefferson Region, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, S.P.; Doelger, S.; Walder, J.S.; Gardner, C.A.; Conrey, R.M.; Fisher, B.J.

    2008-01-01

    Mount Jefferson has erupted repeatedly for hundreds of thousands of years, with its last eruptive episode during the last major glaciation which culminated about 15,000 years ago. Geologic evidence shows that Mount Jefferson is capable of large explosive eruptions. The largest such eruption occurred between 35,000 and 100,000 years ago. If Mount Jefferson erupts again, areas close to the eruptive vent will be severely affected, and even areas tens of kilometers (tens of miles) downstream along river valleys or hundreds of kilometers (hundreds of miles) downwind may be at risk. Numerous small volcanoes occupy the area between Mount Jefferson and Mount Hood to the north, and between Mount Jefferson and the Three Sisters region to the south. These small volcanoes tend not to pose the far-reaching hazards associated with Mount Jefferson, but are nonetheless locally important. A concern at Mount Jefferson, but not at the smaller volcanoes, is the possibility that small-to-moderate sized landslides could occur even during periods of no volcanic activity. Such landslides may transform as they move into lahars (watery flows of rock, mud, and debris) that can inundate areas far downstream. The geographic information system (GIS) volcano hazard data layer used to produce the Mount Jefferson volcano hazard map in USGS Open-File Report 99-24 (Walder and others, 1999) is included in this data set. Both proximal and distal hazard zones were delineated by scientists at the Cascades Volcano Observatory and depict various volcano hazard areas around the mountain.

  5. The genome sequence of the highly acetic acid-tolerant Zygosaccharomyces bailii-derived interspecies hybrid strain ISA1307, isolated from a sparkling wine plant.

    PubMed

    Mira, Nuno P; Münsterkötter, Martin; Dias-Valada, Filipa; Santos, Júlia; Palma, Margarida; Roque, Filipa C; Guerreiro, Joana F; Rodrigues, Fernando; Sousa, Maria João; Leão, Cecília; Güldener, Ulrich; Sá-Correia, Isabel

    2014-06-01

    In this work, it is described the sequencing and annotation of the genome of the yeast strain ISA1307, isolated from a sparkling wine continuous production plant. This strain, formerly considered of the Zygosaccharomyces bailii species, has been used to study Z. bailii physiology, in particular, its extreme tolerance to acetic acid stress at low pH. The analysis of the genome sequence described in this work indicates that strain ISA1307 is an interspecies hybrid between Z. bailii and a closely related species. The genome sequence of ISA1307 is distributed through 154 scaffolds and has a size of around 21.2 Mb, corresponding to 96% of the genome size estimated by flow cytometry. Annotation of ISA1307 genome includes 4385 duplicated genes (∼ 90% of the total number of predicted genes) and 1155 predicted single-copy genes. The functional categories including a higher number of genes are 'Metabolism and generation of energy', 'Protein folding, modification and targeting' and 'Biogenesis of cellular components'. The knowledge of the genome sequence of the ISA1307 strain is expected to contribute to accelerate systems-level understanding of stress resistance mechanisms in Z. bailii and to inspire and guide novel biotechnological applications of this yeast species/strain in fermentation processes, given its high resilience to acidic stress. The availability of the ISA1307 genome sequence also paves the way to a better understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying the generation and selection of more robust hybrid yeast strains in the stressful environment of wine fermentations.

  6. The Genome Sequence of the Highly Acetic Acid-Tolerant Zygosaccharomyces bailii-Derived Interspecies Hybrid Strain ISA1307, Isolated From a Sparkling Wine Plant

    PubMed Central

    Mira, Nuno P.; Münsterkötter, Martin; Dias-Valada, Filipa; Santos, Júlia; Palma, Margarida; Roque, Filipa C.; Guerreiro, Joana F.; Rodrigues, Fernando; Sousa, Maria João; Leão, Cecília; Güldener, Ulrich; Sá-Correia, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    In this work, it is described the sequencing and annotation of the genome of the yeast strain ISA1307, isolated from a sparkling wine continuous production plant. This strain, formerly considered of the Zygosaccharomyces bailii species, has been used to study Z. bailii physiology, in particular, its extreme tolerance to acetic acid stress at low pH. The analysis of the genome sequence described in this work indicates that strain ISA1307 is an interspecies hybrid between Z. bailii and a closely related species. The genome sequence of ISA1307 is distributed through 154 scaffolds and has a size of around 21.2 Mb, corresponding to 96% of the genome size estimated by flow cytometry. Annotation of ISA1307 genome includes 4385 duplicated genes (∼90% of the total number of predicted genes) and 1155 predicted single-copy genes. The functional categories including a higher number of genes are ‘Metabolism and generation of energy’, ‘Protein folding, modification and targeting’ and ‘Biogenesis of cellular components’. The knowledge of the genome sequence of the ISA1307 strain is expected to contribute to accelerate systems-level understanding of stress resistance mechanisms in Z. bailii and to inspire and guide novel biotechnological applications of this yeast species/strain in fermentation processes, given its high resilience to acidic stress. The availability of the ISA1307 genome sequence also paves the way to a better understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying the generation and selection of more robust hybrid yeast strains in the stressful environment of wine fermentations. PMID:24453040

  7. Drill cuttings mount formation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teh, Su Yean; Koh, Hock Lye

    2014-07-01

    Oil, Gas and Energy sector has been identified as an essential driving force in the Malaysian Economic Transformation Programs (ETP). Recently confirmed discovery of many offshore oil and gas deposits in Malaysian waters has ignited new confidence in this sector. However, this has also spurred intense interest on safeguarding the health and environment of coastal waters in Malaysia from adverse impact resulting from offshore oil and gas production operation. Offshore discharge of spent drilling mud and rock cuttings is the least expensive and simplest option to dispose of large volumes of drilling wastes. But this onsite offshore disposal may have adverse environmental impacts on the water column and the seabed. It may also pose occupational health hazards to the workers living in the offshore platforms. It is therefore important to model the transport and deposition of drilling mud and rock cuttings in the sea to enable proper assessment of their adverse impacts on the environment and the workers. Further, accumulation of drill particles on the seabed may impede proper operation of pipelines on the seabed. In this paper, we present an in-house application model TUNA-PT developed to cater to local oil and gas industry needs to simulate the dispersion and mount formation of drill cuttings by offshore oil and gas exploration and production platforms. Using available data on Malaysian coastal waters, simulation analyses project a pile formation on the seabed with a maximum height of about 1 m and pile radius of around 30 to 50 m. Simulated pile heights are not sensitive to the heights of release of the cuttings as the sensitivity has been mitigated by the depth of water.

  8. Primary succession in Mount Pinatubo

    PubMed Central

    Marler, Thomas E; del Moral, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Vegetation structure on the east flank of Mount Pinatubo was investigated to determine the inventory of species at 15 y post-eruption, then to ascertain environmental variables that have influenced the early patterns of primary succession. Unconstrained and constrained ordination methods were used to determine the influence of spatial, elevation, and substrate patterns on vegetation. Vegetation was assigned to one of 3 habitat types. Scours were eroded flat surfaces, terraces were perched flat surfaces, and talus piles were created along the canyon edges as mass waste events. The influence of habitat type on vegetation was multifaceted because they represent different conditions and different histories. The talus piles have preferential access to colonists from the vegetation on the canyon walls above and a more benign microclimate than the exposed terrace and scour sites. Scoured sites on the valley floor exhibited the least vegetation cover, as these substrates had the least mature surfaces and the most restricted capacity for root exploration. Perched terraces exhibited greater plant dominance than did the other habitats in the early stages of succession because of the ubiquitous appearance of Parasponia rugosa as initial colonists on these relatively flat surfaces. Polynomial canonical correspondence analysis was more closely aligned with the pattern of vegetation than linear canonical correspondence analysis, and therefore more closely approximated accurate descriptions of correlations among site ordination positions and measured variables. These results confirm that a variety of statistical approaches can clarify applications for restoration ecology following landslide and volcanic disturbances or agriculture and forestry anthropogenic disturbances in the lowland tropics. PMID:24505499

  9. Climate change vulnerability and adaptation in the North Cascades region, Washington

    Treesearch

    Crystal L. Raymond; David L. Peterson; Regina M. Rochefort

    2014-01-01

    The North Cascadia Adaptation Partnership (NCAP) is a science-management partnership consisting of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Mount Baker-Snoqualmie and Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forests and Pacific Northwest Research Station; North Cascades National Park Complex; Mount Rainier National Park; and University of Washington Climate Impacts Group....

  10. 61. VIEW SHOWING NORTH SIDE OF RADAR ROAD AND STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. VIEW SHOWING NORTH SIDE OF RADAR ROAD AND STORAGE BUILDINGS Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 65. VIEW OF RADAR TRANSMITTER AREA, LOOKING NORTH Everett Weinreb, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. VIEW OF RADAR TRANSMITTER AREA, LOOKING NORTH Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. Looking southwest through the specimen preparation rooms to the north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking southwest through the specimen preparation rooms to the north of the basement hall. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  13. North rear, east part. Ramp leads to basement utility rooms ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North rear, east part. Ramp leads to basement utility rooms and specimen preparation rooms. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  14. North rear, west part. Administration building is visible at far ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North rear, west part. Administration building is visible at far right. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  15. Room 103, small classroom, view to north. The auditorium is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Room 103, small classroom, view to north. The auditorium is visible through the window. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  16. South side, entire, looking north across the quadrangle from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South side, entire, looking north across the quadrangle from the courtyard between the library and the life sciences building. - San Bernardino Valley College, Auditorium, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  17. 7. PERSPECTIVE VIEW (EAST) OF NORTH TERREPLEIN OF NORTHWEST DEMIBASTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. PERSPECTIVE VIEW (EAST) OF NORTH TERREPLEIN OF NORTHWEST DEMI-BASTION SHOWING GUN MOUNTS AND RELATIONSHIP TO MAIN GATE - Fort Washington, Fort, 13551 Fort Washington Road, Fort Washington Forest, Prince George's County, MD

  18. 36. CLOSEUP OF ELEVATOR DOOR AT 'CATFISH' SILO, LOOKING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. CLOSE-UP OF ELEVATOR DOOR AT 'CATFISH' SILO, LOOKING NORTH Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. 39. VIEW OF CONTROL BOX AT 'CATFISH' SILO, LOOKING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. VIEW OF CONTROL BOX AT 'CATFISH' SILO, LOOKING NORTH Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. 12. BUILDINGS G, H AND I, VIEW NORTH, SOUTHEAST ELEVATIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. BUILDINGS G, H AND I, VIEW NORTH, SOUTHEAST ELEVATIONS - Public Service Railway Company, Newton Avenue Car Shops, Bounded by Tenth, Mount Ephraim, Border & Newton Avenue, Camden, Camden County, NJ

  1. 7. BUILDING E, VIEW NORTH, SOUTHWEST AND SOUTHEAST ELEVATIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. BUILDING E, VIEW NORTH, SOUTHWEST AND SOUTHEAST ELEVATIONS - Public Service Railway Company, Newton Avenue Car Shops, Bounded by Tenth, Mount Ephraim, Border & Newton Avenue, Camden, Camden County, NJ

  2. 21. BUILDINGS I, J AND K, VIEW NORTH, SOUTHWEST ELEVATIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. BUILDINGS I, J AND K, VIEW NORTH, SOUTHWEST ELEVATIONS - Public Service Railway Company, Newton Avenue Car Shops, Bounded by Tenth, Mount Ephraim, Border & Newton Avenue, Camden, Camden County, NJ

  3. 5. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE NORTH REPAIR BAY OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE NORTH REPAIR BAY OF THE MOTOR REPAIR SHOP, BUILDING 104, LOOKING WEST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Motor Repair & Auto Hobby Shop, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  4. View north of the brick vault built into the northern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north of the brick vault built into the northern slope of Mount Zion Cemetery with Rock Creek and Rock Creek Park beyond the trees. - Mount Zion Cemetery/ Female Union Band Cemetery, Bounded by 27th Street right-of-way N.W. (formerly Lyons Mill Road), Q Street N.W., & Mill Road N.W., Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. Internal Structure of a Strike-Slip Dilational Fault Jog: Overlander Fault, Mt Isa Inlier, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibson, R. H.; Ghisetti, F.; Begbie, M. J.

    2004-12-01

    The Overlander Fault is one of a set of NE-SW subvertical dextral strike-slip faults which, together with a NW-SE conjugate sinistral set, disrupt the Mt Isa Proterozoic orogen (1590-1500 Ma) in NW Queensland, Australia. These late- to post-orogenic faults thus define a regional stress field with σ 1 oriented approximately E-W and σ 3 oriented approximately N-S. The Overlander Fault trends ˜060° across the metamorphic assemblage except where it refracts to 070-074° across an outcropping granitic pluton, the margins of which it offsets dextrally by ˜1.5 km. The stepover width of this dilational fault jog approaches 1 km, comparable to dilational stepovers within active strike-slip faults (e.g. the San Andreas fault at Parkfield). In the surrounding amphibolite facies metamorphic assemblage the fault trace is comparatively inconspicuous and unmineralized but where it crosses the granite it is defined by upstanding ridges of silicified microbreccia and associated quartz veining. The stepover region provides opportunities for studying incremental and finite dilatation associated with slip transfer across the jog, and associated influx of hydrothermal fluids. Shearing across the stepover region is accommodated by a mesh structure with principal components that include: (1) a series of silicified microbreccia-cataclasite `walls' <10 m or so thick with associated quartz veins <1 m or so thick trending 070° and defining a `main zone' about 100±20 m wide; (2) parallel subsidiary strike-slip cataclastic shear zones occurring <200 m laterally from the main zone; (3) a set of subvertical <1-2 m thick extension veins oriented 090-100° , some with evidence of marginal shearing (both sinistral and dextral); (4) a conspicuous sinistral extensional-shear curving eastwards for ˜250 m from the main fault core on a trend of 100-115° ; and (5) a set of unmineralized faults with sinistral separations trending 120-130° . Slickenfibers and striations along the main fault

  6. An improved loopless mounting method for cryocrystallography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Jian-Xun; Jiang, Fan

    2010-01-01

    Based on a recent loopless mounting method, a simplified loopless and bufferless crystal mounting method is developed for macromolecular crystallography. This simplified crystal mounting system is composed of the following components: a home-made glass capillary, a brass seat for holding the glass capillary, a flow regulator, and a vacuum pump for evacuation. Compared with the currently prevalent loop mounting method, this simplified method has almost the same mounting procedure and thus is compatible with the current automated crystal mounting system. The advantages of this method include higher signal-to-noise ratio, more accurate measurement, more rapid flash cooling, less x-ray absorption and thus less radiation damage to the crystal. This method can be extended to the flash-freeing of a crystal without or with soaking it in a lower concentration of cryoprotectant, thus it may be the best option for data collection in the absence of suitable cryoprotectant. Therefore, it is suggested that this mounting method should be further improved and extensively applied to cryocrystallographic experiments.

  7. Decoupling analysis for a powertrain mounting system with a combination of hydraulic mounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jinfang; Chen, Wuwei; Huang, He

    2013-07-01

    The existing torque roll axis(TRA) decoupling theories for a powertrain mounting system assume that the stiffness and viscous damping properties are constant. However, real-life mounts exhibit considerable spectrally varying stiffness and damping characteristics, and the influence of the spectrally-varying properties of the hydraulic mounts on the powertrain system cannot be ignored. To overcome the deficiency, an analytical quasi-linear model of the hydraulic mount and the coupled properties of the powertrain and hydraulic mounts system are formulated. The influence of the hydraulic mounts on the TRA decoupling of a powertrain system is analytically examined in terms of eigensolutions, frequency, and impulse responses, and then a new analytical axiom is proposed based on the TRA decoupling indices. With the experimental setup of a fixed decoupler hydraulic mount in the context of non-resonant dynamic stiffness testing procedure, the quasi-linear model of the hydraulic mount is verified by comparing the predictions with the measurement. And the quasi-linear formulation of the coupled system is also verified by comparing the frequency responses with the numerical results obtained by the direct inversion method. Finally, the mounting system with a combination of hydraulic mounts is redesigned in terms of the stiffness, damping and mount locations by satisfying the new axiom. The frequency and time domain results of the redesigned system demonstrate that the torque roll axis of the redesigned powertrain mounting system is indeed decoupled in the presence of hydraulic mounts (given oscillating torque or impulsive torque excitation). The proposed research provides an important basis and method for the research on a powertrain system with spectrally-varying mount properties, especially for the TRA decoupling.

  8. Vibration dissipation mount for motors or the like

    DOEpatents

    Small, Thomas R.

    1987-01-01

    A vibration dissipation mount which permits the mounting of a motor, generator, or the like such that the rotatable shaft thereof passes through the mount and the mount permits the dissipation of self-induced and otherwise induced vibrations wherein the mount comprises a pair of plates having complementary concave and convex surfaces, a semi-resilient material being disposed therebetween.

  9. A filter mount for the Euclid mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Rory; Grözinger, Ulrich; Bizenberger, Peter; Krause, Oliver

    2011-09-01

    We present two designs of a filter mounting structure for the Near-Infrared Imaging Photometer (NIP) planned for the Euclid dark energy space mission. The three large near-infrared filters - with a 127 mm diameter, 12 mm thickness and a 330 g mass per element - are challenging to mount. We present the design considerations, finite element analysis and results from the first prototyping campaign of these structures. The rationale behind the down-selection between the two designs is detailed and we conclude with recommendations on future developments of mounts of this type. The results presented here are based on work performed during the Euclid Assessment Study.

  10. Mount Shasta Wilderness study area, California

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, R.L.; Tuchek, E.T.

    1984-01-01

    The Mount Shasta Wilderness study area was surveyed in 1975. It lies wholly on the slopes and summit area of Mount Shasta and consists almost entirely of the products of geologically young volcanism. Small deposits of volcanic cinders and pumice are present. The volcanic system of Mount Shasta is judged to have probable resource potential for geothermal energy but that potential is least within the wilderness study area boundaries. Because any geothermal energy resource beneath the volcano would lie at considerable depths, exploration or development would be most likely at lower altitudes on the gentler slopes outside the study area.

  11. MOUNT SHASTA WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christiansen, Robert L.; Tuchek, Ernest T.

    1984-01-01

    The Mount Shasta Wilderness lies wholly on the slopes and summit area of Mount Shasta and consists almost entirely of the products of geologically young volcanism. Small deposits of volcanic cinders and pumice are present. The volcanic system of Mount Shasta is judged to have probable resource potential for geothermal energy but that potential is least within the wilderness study area boundaries. Because any geothermal energy resource beneath the volcano would lie at considerable depths, exploration or development would be most likely at lower altitudes on the gentler slopes outside the study area.

  12. Mounting with compliant cylinders for deformable mirrors.

    PubMed

    Reinlein, Claudia; Goy, Matthias; Lange, Nicolas; Appelfelder, Michael

    2015-04-01

    A method is presented to mount large aperture unimorph deformable mirrors by compliant cylinders (CC). The CCs are manufactured from a soft silicone, and shear testing is performed in order to evaluate the Young's modulus. A scale mirror model is assembled to evaluate mount-induced change of piezoelectric deformation, and its applicability for tightly focusing mirrors. Experiments do not show any decrease of piezoelectric stroke. Further it is shown that the changes of surface fidelity by the attachment of the deformable mirror to its mount are neglectable.

  13. Two degree of freedom camera mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A two degree of freedom camera mount. The camera mount includes a socket, a ball, a first linkage and a second linkage. The socket includes an interior surface and an opening. The ball is positioned within an interior of the socket. The ball includes a coupling point for rotating the ball relative to the socket and an aperture for mounting a camera. The first and second linkages are rotatably connected to the socket and slidably connected to the coupling point of the ball. Rotation of the linkages with respect to the socket causes the ball to rotate with respect to the socket.

  14. Perspective with Landsat Overlay, Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Mount Kilimanjaro (Kilima Njaro or 'shining mountain' in Swahili), the highest point in Africa, reaches 5,895 meters (19,340 feet) above sea level, tall enough to maintain a permanent snow cap despite being just 330 kilometers (210 miles) south of the equator. It is the tallest free-standing mountain on the Earth's land surface world, rising about 4,600 meters (15,000 feet) above the surrounding plain. Kilimanjaro is a triple volcano (has three peaks) that last erupted perhaps more than 100,000 years ago but still exudes volcanic gases. It is accompanied by about 20 other nearby volcanoes, some of which are seen to the west (left) in this view, prominently including Mount Meru, which last erupted only about a century ago. The volcanic mountain slopes are commonly fertile and support thick forests, while the much drier grasslands of the plains are home to elephants, lions, and other savanna wildlife.

    This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), a Landsat 7 satellite image, and a false sky. Topographic expression is vertically exaggerated two times.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved

  15. Perspective with Landsat Overlay, Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Mount Kilimanjaro (Kilima Njaro or 'shining mountain' in Swahili), the highest point in Africa, reaches 5,895 meters (19,340 feet) above sea level, tall enough to maintain a permanent snow cap despite being just 330 kilometers (210 miles) south of the equator. It is the tallest free-standing mountain on the Earth's land surface world, rising about 4,600 meters (15,000 feet) above the surrounding plain. Kilimanjaro is a triple volcano (has three peaks) that last erupted perhaps more than 100,000 years ago but still exudes volcanic gases. It is accompanied by about 20 other nearby volcanoes, some of which are seen to the west (left) in this view, prominently including Mount Meru, which last erupted only about a century ago. The volcanic mountain slopes are commonly fertile and support thick forests, while the much drier grasslands of the plains are home to elephants, lions, and other savanna wildlife.

    This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), a Landsat 7 satellite image, and a false sky. Topographic expression is vertically exaggerated two times.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved

  16. Montanide™ ISA 71 VG adjuvant enhances antibody and cell-mediated immune responses to profilin subunit antigen vaccination and promotes protection against Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria tenella. Experimental Parasitology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The present study was conducted to investigate the immunoenhancing effects of MontanideTM ISA 71 VG adjuvant on profilin subunit antigen vaccination. Broiler chickens were immunized subcutaneously with a purified Eimeria acervulina recombinant profilin protein, either alone or mixed with ISA 71 VG, ...

  17. Surficial geology of the Mount Tom quadrangle, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, Fredrick D.

    1972-01-01

    Movement of the last ice sheet in the Mount Tom quadrangle was due south during time of major advance as indicated by striations, drumlins, and indicator stones. Erratics of the Belchertown Tonalite, derived from the northeast portion of the Easthampton quadrangle, have been carried southward a distance of at least 16 miles. The presence of tonalite boulders on the summit of Mount Tom, elevation 1,205 feet, testifies to uplift of erratics through a vertical distance of 1,000 feet. Three tills are recognized on the basis of color, grainsize parameters, and location: (1) a reddish-brown sandy till occurs west of the Holyoke Basalt ridge, (2) a brown silty till lies east of the basalt ridge, and (3) a grayish-brown till-with intermediate grain size occurs in the Easthampton quadrangle and the north-central portion of the Mount Tom quadrangle. The three tills are the same age and are equivalent to the upper till of southern New England. During deglaciation, readvance occurred from the northeast over a minimum distance of 3.5 miles in the southeast portion of the quadrangle. Evidence for readvance consists of (1) till over stratified drift, (2) southwest-oriented till fabrics on south-trending drumlins, (3) west-southwest-trending striations cutting south-trending striations, (4) southwest-oriented glaciotectonic structures, and (5) data from borings. West of the basalt ridge, northward retreat of an active ice margin was punctuated by four stillstands, during which outwash deltas were deposited in proglacial lakes. From oldest to youngest the deposits associated with the four stillstands are named: (1) Paper Mills delta, (2) Barnes delta, (3) Pomeroy Street delta, and (4) White Brook delta. East of the basalt ridge a series of small ice-contact deltas were deposited in high proglacial Lake Hitchcock, which expanded northward with the retreating ice margin. Deposition culminated along the upper east margin of the quadrangle with the formation of a large ice

  18. Latest Pleistocene and Holocene glacier fluctuations on Mount Baker, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborn, Gerald; Menounos, Brian; Ryane, Chanone; Riedel, Jon; Clague, John J.; Koch, Johannes; Clark, Douglas; Scott, Kevin; Davis, P. Thompson

    2012-08-01

    Glaciers on stratovolcanoes of the Pacific Northwest of North America offer opportunities for dating late Pleistocene and Holocene glacier advances because tephra and fossil wood are common in lateral moraines and in glacier forefields. We capitalize on this opportunity by examining the Holocene glacial record at Mount Baker, an active stratovolcano in northwest Washington. Earlier workers concluded that glaciers on Mount Baker during the early Holocene were more extensive than during the Little Ice Age and hypothesized that the explanation lay in unusual climatic or hypsometric effects peculiar to large volcanoes. We show that the main argument for an early Holocene glacier advance on Mount Baker, namely the absence of ca 10,000-year-old tephra on part of the south flank of the mountain, is incorrect. Moreover, a lake-sediment core indicates that a small cirque moraine previously thought be of early Holocene age is also likely older than the tephra and consequently of late Pleistocene age. Lateral and end moraines and wood mats ca 2 km downvalley of the present snout of Deming Glacier indicate that an advance during the Younger Dryas interval was little more extensive than the climactic Little Ice Age advance. Tephra and wood between tills in the left lateral moraine of Easton Glacier suggest that ice on Mount Baker was restricted in the early Holocene and that Neoglaciation began ca 6 ka. A series of progressively more extensive Neoglacial advances, dated to about 2.2, 1.6, 0.9, and 0.4 ka, are recorded by stacked tills in the right lateral moraine of Deming Glacier. Intervening retreats were long enough to allow establishment of forests on the moraine. Wood mats in moraines of Coleman and Easton glaciers indicate that Little Ice Age expansion began before 0.7 ka and was followed by retreat and a readvance ca 0.5 ka. Tree-ring and lichen data indicate glaciers on the south side of the mountain reached their maximum extents in the mid-1800s. The similarity between

  19. BepiColombo mission to Mercury: ISA accelerometer DeltaV measurements and the reaction wheels desaturation manoeuvres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, Valerio; Lucchesi, David; Nozzoli, Sergio; Santoli, Francesco; Fiorenza, Emiliano; Peron, Roberto; Lefevre, Carlo; Reale, Andrea

    Mercury exploration is one of the most important challenges of modern planetary sciences. The results are a way to constrain the physics of the terrestrial planet formation and, at the end, of the whole solar system. The level of knowledge we can reach is strongly conditioned by the accuracy of the Radio Science Experiments (RSE) that will be performed using Earth—bound radar tracking stations. Such very ambitious objectives need an onboard accelerometer in or-der to measure and remove the strong, and subtle, nongravitational accelerations of the very severe radiation environment of the innermost planet of our solar system. The Italian Spring Accelerometer (ISA) has been selected to fly onboard the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) of the ESA space mission to Mercury denominated BepiColombo. The MPO will be a three-axis stabilized spacecraft and nadir pointing to Mercury center-of-mass. Such a pointing, needed for the very ambitious goals the mission, is reached thanks to the onboard reaction wheels, and it is also required during the unobserved (from Earth) arcs. The unavoidable manoeuvres of desaturation of the reaction wheels, which are necessary to remove the accumulated angular momentum, represent a clear reduction of the accuracy of the objectives of the ESA space mission. Indeed, during these manoeuvres the spacecraft thrusters are fired — to still guar-antee the pointing to the planet center-of-mass — and directly impact on the accuracy of the propagated state-vector of the satellite at the beginning of the subsequent observed arc. Their impact is quantified by their number, position along the orbit and, especially, in the uncertainty in the linear momentum transferred to the spacecraft. This presentation is devoted to prove the feasibility of the measurements and knowledge of the transferred momentum by the thruster thanks to the onboard ISA accelerometer. Such measurements will be an essential ingredient in order to preserve the accuracy of the Bepi

  20. Apollo Telescope Mount of Skylab: an overview.

    PubMed

    Tousey, R

    1977-04-01

    This introductory paper describes Skylab and the course of events that led to this complex space project. In particular it covers the Apollo Telescope Mount and its instruments and the method of operation of the ATM mission.

  1. High frequency testing of rubber mounts.

    PubMed

    Vahdati, Nader; Saunders, L Ken Lauderbaugh

    2002-04-01

    Rubber and fluid-filled rubber engine mounts are commonly used in automotive and aerospace applications to provide reduced cabin noise and vibration, and/or motion accommodations. In certain applications, the rubber mount may operate at frequencies as high as 5000 Hz. Therefore, dynamic stiffness of the mount needs to be known in this frequency range. Commercial high frequency test machines are practically nonexistent, and the best high frequency test machine on the market is only capable of frequencies as high as 1000 Hz. In this paper, a high frequency test machine is described that allows test engineers to study the high frequency performance of rubber mounts at frequencies up to 5000 Hz.

  2. Progress made in understanding Mount Rainier's hazards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sisson, T.W.; Vallance, J.W.; Pringle, P.T.

    2001-01-01

    At 4392 m high, glacier-clad Mount Rainier dominates the skyline of the southern Puget Sound region and is the centerpiece of Mount Rainier National Park. About 2.5 million people of the greater Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area can see Mount Rainier on clear days, and 150,000 live in areas swept by lahars and floods that emanated from the volcano during the last 6,000 years (Figure 1). These lahars include the voluminous Osceola Mudflow that floors the lowlands south of Seattle and east of Tacoma, and which was generated by massive volcano flank-collapse. Mount Rainier's last eruption was a light dusting of ash in 1894; minor pumice last erupted between 1820 and 1854; and the most recent large eruptions we know of were about 1100 and 2300 years ago, according to reports from the U.S. Geological Survey.

  3. The 1991 eruptions of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfe, Edward W.

    1992-01-01

    Recognition of the volcanic unrest at Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines began when steam explosions occurred on April 2, 1991. The unrest culminated ten weeks later in the world's largest eruption in more than half a century. 

  4. Grand Canyon Similar to Mount Sharp

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-27

    Before NASA Curiosity rover landed on Mars, the strata exposed in Mount Sharp were compared to those in the Grand Canyon of the western United States, shown here. Scientists are surprised by just how close the similarities are.

  5. First Sampling Hole in Mount Sharp

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-25

    This image from the Mars Hand Lens Imager MAHLI camera on NASA Curiosity Mars rover shows the first sample-collection hole drilled in Mount Sharp, the layered mountain that is the science destination of the rover extended mission.

  6. Mount Sharp Panorama in Raw Colors

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-15

    This mosaic of images from the Mastcam onboard NASA Mars rover Curiosity shows Mount Sharp in raw color. Raw color shows the scene colors as they would look in a typical smart-phone camera photo, before any adjustment.

  7. Perspective with Landsat Overlay, Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-08-22

    Mount Kilimanjaro, the highest point in Africa, reaches 5,895 meters 19,340 feet above sea level, tall enough to maintain a permanent snow cap despite being just 330 kilometers 210 miles south of the equator.

  8. Side mounted EMS for aluminium scrap melters

    SciTech Connect

    Eidem, M.; Tallbaeck, G.; Hanley, P.J.

    1996-10-01

    Normally the electromagnetic stirrer (EMS) is placed below the furnace. However it has recently been found that the EMS can also be placed at the side of the furnace, still giving good stirring. This makes it possible to install EMS on most existing furnaces. The side-mounted EMS is compared with the standard bottom-mounted stirrer with respect to installation, melting time and flow pattern in the melt. The major conclusion is that a side-mounted EMS is practical and will give about as good a performance as the bottom-mounted. Melting time estimates are based upon 3-D fluid flow and heat transfer predictions in combination with a simplified scrap melting theory. Predicted melting times are in fair agreement with operational data for mechanically stirred and electromagnetically bottom stirred furnaces.

  9. Mount Sharp Inside Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-28

    Curiosity, the big rover of NASA Mars Science Laboratory mission, will land in August 2012 near the foot of a mountain inside Gale Crater. The mission project science group is calling the mountain Mount Sharp.

  10. Signals and Noises Acting On The Accelerometer Mounted In The Mpo (mercury Planetary Orbiter).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, V.; Fiorenza, E.; Lucchesi, D.; Milyukov, V.; Nozzoli, S.

    The RadioScience experiments proposed for the BepiClombo ESA CORNERSTONE are aiming at performing planetary measurements such as: the rotation state of Mer- cury, the global structure of its gravity field and the local gravitational anomalies, but also to test some aspects of the General Relativity, to an unprecedented level of accu- racy. A high sensitivity accelerometer will measure the inertial acceleration acting on the MPO; these data, together with tracking data are used to evaluate the purely gravi- tational trajectory of the MPO, by transforming it to a virtual drag-free satellite system. At the Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario (IFSI) a high sensitive accelerom- eter named ISA (Italian Spring Accelerometer)* and considered for this mission has been studied. The main problems concerning the use of the accelerometer are related to the high dynamics necessary to follow the variation of the acceleration signals, with accuracy equal to 10^-9 g/sqr(Hz), and very high at the MPO orbital period and due to thermal noise introduced at the sidereal period of Mercury. The description of the accelerometer will be presented, with particular attention to the thermal problems and to the analysis regarding the choice of the mounting position on the MPO. *Project funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI).

  11. Mount Rainier: living with perilous beauty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Kevin M.; Wolfe, Edward W.; Driedger, Carolyn L.

    1998-01-01

    Mount Rainier is an active volcano reaching more than 2.7 miles (14,410 feet) above sea level. Its majestic edifice looms over expanding suburbs in the valleys that lead to nearby Puget Sound. USGS research over the last several decades indicates that Mount Rainier has been the source of many volcanic mudflows (lahars) that buried areas now densely populated. Now the USGS is working cooperatively with local communities to help people live more safely with the volcano.

  12. Isolation Mounting for Charge-Coupled Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goss, W. C.; Salomon, P. M.

    1985-01-01

    CCD's suspended by wires under tension. Remote thermoelectric cooling of charge coupled device allows vibration isolating mounting of CCD assembly alone, without having to suspend entire mass and bulk of thermoelectric module. Mounting hardware simple and light. Developed for charge-coupled devices (CCD's) in infrared telescope support adaptable to sensors in variety of environments, e.g., sensors in nuclear reactors, engine exhausts and plasma chambers.

  13. Raster graphic helmet-mounted display study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beamon, William S.; Moran, Susanna I.

    1990-01-01

    A design of a helmet mounted display system is presented, including a design specification and development plan for the selected design approach. The requirements for the helmet mounted display system and a survey of applicable technologies are presented. Three helmet display concepts are then described which utilize lasers, liquid crystal display's (LCD's), and subminiature cathode ray tubes (CRT's), respectively. The laser approach is further developed in a design specification and a development plan.

  14. Volcanic hazards at Mount Shasta, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crandell, Dwight R.; Nichols, Donald R.

    1989-01-01

    The eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Washington, in 1980 served as a reminder that long-dormant volcanoes can come to life again. Those eruptions, and their effects on people and property, also showed the value of having information about volcanic hazards well in advance of possible volcanic activity. This pamphlet about Mount Shasta provides such information for the public, even though the next eruption may still be far in the future.

  15. History and hazards of Mount Rainier, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sisson, Thomas W.

    1995-01-01

    Mount Rainier is an active volcano that first erupted about half a million years ago. Because of Rainier's great height (14,410 feet above sea level) and northerly location, glaciers have cut deeply into its lavas, making it appear deceptively older than it actually is. Mount Rainier is known to have erupted as recently as in the 1840s, and large eruptions took place as recently as about 1,000 and 2,300 years ago.

  16. Motorized control for mirror mount apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Cutburth, Ronald W.

    1989-01-01

    A motorized control and automatic braking system for adjusting mirror mount apparatus is disclosed. The motor control includes a planetary gear arrangement to provide improved pitch adjustment capability while permitting a small packaged design. The motor control for mirror mount adjustment is suitable for laser beam propagation applications. The brake is a system of constant contact, floating detents which engage the planetary gear at selected between-teeth increments to stop rotation instantaneously when the drive motor stops.

  17. Motorized control for mirror mount apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Cutburth, R.W.

    1989-03-14

    This patent describes a motorized control and automatic braking system for adjusting mirror mount apparatus. The motor control includes a planetary gear arrangement to provide improved pitch adjustment capability while permitting a small packaged design. The motor control for mirror mount adjustment is suitable for laser beam propagation applications. The brake is a system of constant contact, floating detents which engage the planetary gear at selected between-teeth increments to stop rotation instantaneously when the drive motor stops.

  18. Model mount system for testing flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, M. G. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A wind tunnel model mount system is disclosed for effectively and accurately determining the effects of attack and airstream velocity on a model airfoil or aircraft. The model mount system includes a rigid model attached to a splitter plate which is supported away from the wind tunnel wall several of flexible rods. Conventional instrumentation is employed to effect model rotation through a turntable and to record model flutter data as a function of the angle of attack versus dynamic pressure.

  19. "Split Cast Mounting: Review and New Technique".

    PubMed

    Gundawar, S M; Pande, Neelam A; Jaiswal, Priti; Radke, U M

    2014-12-01

    For the fabrication of a prosthesis, the Prosthodontist meticulously performs all the steps. The laboratory technician then make every effort/strives to perform the remaining lab procedures. However when the processed dentures are remounted on the articulator, some changes are seen. These changes may be divided into two categories: Pre-insertion and post-insertion changes, which deal with the physical properties of the materials involved (Parker, J Prosthet Dent 31:335-342, 1974). Split cast mounting is the method of mounting casts on the articulator. It is essentially a maxillary cast constructed in two parts with a horizontal division. The procedure allows for the verification of the accuracy of the initial mounting and the ease of removal and replacement of the cast. This provides a precise means of correcting the changes in occlusion occurring as a result of the processing technique (Nogueira et al., J Prosthet Dent 91:386-388, 2004). Instability of the split mounting has always been a problem to the Prosthodontist thereby limiting its use. There are various materials mentioned in the literature. The new technique by using Dowel pins and twill thread is very easy, cheaper and simple way to stabilize the split mounting. It is useful and easy in day to day laboratory procedures. The article presents different methods of split cast mounting and the new procedure using easily available materials in prosthetic laboratory.

  20. Stereo Pair, Mount St Helens, Washington State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On May 18, 1980, Mount St. Helens catastrophically erupted, causing the worst volcanic disaster in the recorded history of the United States. An earthquake shook loose the northern flank of the volcano, and about 2.8 cubic kilometers (0.67 cubic miles) of rock slid downslope in the world's largest recorded landslide. The avalanche released pressure on the volcano and unleashed a huge explosion, which was directed generally northward. The mountain ultimately lost 227 meters (1314 feet) of its height and devastated about 600 square kilometers (230 square miles) of forest.

    This stereoscopic view combines a Landsat satellite image with a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission elevation model to show the volcanic crater and most of the zone of devastation. Areas now relatively devoid of vegetation appear bright. Note the landslide debris clogging the northern drainages and forming natural dams (or enlarging previously existing ones). Also note the volcanic dome built up within the crater, and the extensive floating debris still present on Spirit Lake (northeast of the crater) 12 years after the eruption.

    This stereoscopic image was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model. Two differing perspectives were then calculated, one for each eye. They can be seen in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing or by downloading and printing the image pair and viewing them with a stereoscope. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was

  1. Stereo Pair, Mount St Helens, Washington State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On May 18, 1980, Mount St. Helens catastrophically erupted, causing the worst volcanic disaster in the recorded history of the United States. An earthquake shook loose the northern flank of the volcano, and about 2.8 cubic kilometers (0.67 cubic miles) of rock slid downslope in the world's largest recorded landslide. The avalanche released pressure on the volcano and unleashed a huge explosion, which was directed generally northward. The mountain ultimately lost 227 meters (1314 feet) of its height and devastated about 600 square kilometers (230 square miles) of forest.

    This stereoscopic view combines a Landsat satellite image with a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission elevation model to show the volcanic crater and most of the zone of devastation. Areas now relatively devoid of vegetation appear bright. Note the landslide debris clogging the northern drainages and forming natural dams (or enlarging previously existing ones). Also note the volcanic dome built up within the crater, and the extensive floating debris still present on Spirit Lake (northeast of the crater) 12 years after the eruption.

    This stereoscopic image was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model. Two differing perspectives were then calculated, one for each eye. They can be seen in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing or by downloading and printing the image pair and viewing them with a stereoscope. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was

  2. Anaglyph, Mount St Helens, Washington State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On May 18, 1980, Mount St. Helens catastrophically erupted, causing the worst volcanic disaster in the recorded history of the United States. An earthquake shook loose the northern flank of the volcano, and about 2.8 cubic kilometers (0.67 cubic miles) of rock slid downslope in the world's largest recorded landslide. The avalanche released pressure on the volcano and unleashed a huge explosion, which was directed generally northward. The mountain ultimately lost 227 meters (1314 feet) of its height and devastated about 600 square kilometers (230 square miles) of forest.

    This anaglyph combines a Landsat satellite image with a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission elevation model to show the volcanic crater and most of the zone of devastation. Areas now relatively devoid of vegetation appear bright. Note the landslide debris clogging the northern drainages and forming natural dams (or enlarging previously existing ones). Also note the volcanic dome built up within the crater, and the extensive floating debris still present on Spirit Lake (northeast of the crater) 12 years after the eruption.

    The stereoscopic effect of this anaglyph was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image over a digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot)resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space

  3. The role of the International Society for Applied Ethology (ISAE) in the global development of animal welfare science and its relationship with the OIE; strength through partnership

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this presentation is to introduce the ISAE and to highlight members’ roles in the development and implementation of OIE’s animal welfare standards. Animal welfare science is a young discipline. Originally, welfare science was heavily focused on animal behavior (ethology), but it is ...

  4. A prime-boost regime that combines Montanide ISA720 and Alhydrogel to induce antibodies against the HIV-1 derived multiepitope polypeptide TAB9.

    PubMed

    Raya, N E; Quintana, D; Carrazana, Y; Gómez, C E; Duarte, C A

    1999-06-04

    A phase I clinical trial with the HIV-1-derived multi-epitope polypeptide (MEP) TAB9 in the oil adjuvant Montanide ISA720 (M-ISA720) was recently performed. Although severe local reactions were reported after the second and third injections of this vaccine candidate, the first inoculation was well tolerated. In this article we evaluated a prime-boost regime consisting of one inoculation of TAB9 in M-ISA720 followed by a booster with the same antigen in aluminum hydroxide. This combination of adjuvants elicited similar antibody levels in rabbits than the traditional two-dose schedule with M-ISA720. A control group injected three times with TAB9 in aluminum hydroxide developed markedly lower antibody titers. These results showed that although oil adjuvants are better than alum for priming the immune system for antibody production against TAB9, both kinds of adjuvants can be equally effective in booster immunizations. Therefore, by using the more reactogenic oil adjuvant only for priming, we should be able to eliminate the undesirable reactions characteristic of these compounds while achieving equivalent levels of specific antibodies.

  5. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen, Oxides of Sulfur and Particulate Matter - Ecological Criteria (First External Review Draft, Mar 2017)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA’s decision on retaining or revising the current secondary standards for NO2, SO2, PM 2.5 and PM 10 since the prior re...

  6. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen, Oxides of Sulfur and Particulate Matter - Ecological Criteria (First External Review Draft, Mar 2017)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA’s decision on retaining or revising the current secondary standards for NO2, SO2, PM 2.5 and PM 10 since the prior re...

  7. The Genomes and Metagenomes (GEM) Catalogue (first presentation) and The ISA-GCDML Workshop (second presentation) (GSC8 Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Field, Dawn [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology; Sansone, Susanna [EBI

    2016-07-12

    The Genomic Standards Consortium was formed in September 2005. It is an international, open-membership working body which promotes standardization in the description of genomes and the exchange and integration of genomic data. The 2009 meeting was an activity of a five-year funding ''Research Coordination Network'' from the National Science Foundation and was organized held at the DOE Joint Genome Institute with organizational support provided by the JGI and by the University of California - San Diego. Dawn Field of the NERC Centre for Ecology & Hydrology briefly introduces the GEM Catalogue, followed by Susanna Sansone of the European Bioinformatics Institute who talks about the ISA-GCDML workshop at the Genomic Standards Consortium's 8th meeting at the DOE JGI in Walnut Creek, Calif. on Sept. 9, 2009.

  8. The BepiColombo mission to Mercury and the Italian Spring Accelerometer (ISA) role in the Radio Science Experiments measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, V.; Lucchesi, D. M.; Lucente, M.; Nozzoli, S.; Peron, R.; Santoli, F.; Argada, A.; Fiorenza, E.; Lefevre, C.; Magnafico, C.

    2011-10-01

    The BepiColombo mission to Mercury [1, 10] of the European Space Agency (ESA) aims to perform a set of experiments, the so called Radio Science Experiments (RSE), that will be devoted to the study of the gravity field and rotational state of Mercury [8] as well as to verify the theory of general relativity to an unprecedented level of accuracy [9]. One of the key ingredients in order to reach the very ambitious objectives of this mission, in the context of the RSE, is represented by the measurements of the onboard accelerometer [5, 2]. The Italian Spring Accelerometer (ISA) has been selected by ESA to measure and then allow to remove, a posteriori, the disturbing nongravitational accelerations acting on the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) surface. This paper is devoted to describe the accelerometer characteristics and performance and to introduce some of the experimental procedures in order to calibrate its measurements on ground and during the nominal phase of the mission.

  9. [The role of science in policy making--EuSANH-ISA project, framework for science advice for health].

    PubMed

    Cianciara, Dorota; Piotrowicz, Maria; Bielska-Lasota, Magdalena; Wysocki, Mirosław J

    2012-01-01

    Governments and other authorities (including MPs) should be well informed on issues of science and technology. This is particularly important in the era of evidence-based practice. This implies the need to get expert advice. The process by which scientific knowledge is transmitted, along with proposals how to solve the problem, is called science advice. The main aim of the article is to discuss the issue of science advice--definitions, interaction between science and policymaking, and its position in contemporary policies. The second aim is to present European Science Advisory Network for Health (EuSANH), EuSANH-ISA project, and framework for science advice for health which was developed by participants. Furthermore, the role of civil society in decision-making process and science advice is also discussed. Interaction between scientists and policy-makers are described in terms of science-push approach (technocratic model), policy-pull (decisionistic) and simultaneous push-pull approach (pragmatic). The position of science advice is described in historical perspective from the 50s, especially in the last two decades. Description relies to USA, Canada and UK. Principles of scientific advice to government (Government Office for Science, UK) are quoted. Some important documents related to science advice in EU and UN are mentioned. EuSANH network is described as well as EuSANH-ISA project, with its objectives and outcomes. According to findings of this project, the process of science advice for health should follow some steps: framing the issue to be covered; planning entire process leading to the conclusion; drafting the report; reviewing the report and revision; publishing report and assessing the impact on policy.

  10. Immunization with antigenic extracts of Leishmania associated with Montanide ISA 763 adjuvant induces partial protection in BALB/c mice against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis infection.

    PubMed

    Cargnelutti, Diego Esteban; Salomón, María Cristina; Celedon, Verónica; García Bustos, María Fernanda; Morea, Gastón; Cuello-Carrión, Fernando Darío; Scodeller, Eduardo Alberto

    2016-02-01

    A proper adjuvant has a relevant role in vaccine formulations to generate an effective immune response. In this study, total Leishmania antigen (TLA) formulated with Montanide ISA 763 or R848 as adjuvants were evaluated as a first generation Leishmania vaccine in a murine model. Immunization protocols were tested in BALB/c mice with a subcutaneous prime/boost regimen with an interval of 3 weeks. Mice immunized with unadjuvanted TLA and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) served as control groups. On Day 21 and Day 36 of the protocol, we evaluated the humoral immune response induced by each formulation. Fifteen days after the boost, the immunized mice were challenged with 1 × 10(5) promastigotes of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis in the right footpad (RFP). The progress of the infection was followed for 10 weeks; at the end of this period, histopathological studies were performed in the RFP. Vaccines formulated with Montanide ISA 763 generated an increase in the production of immunoglobulin G (IgG; p < 0.05) compared with the control group. There were no statistically significant differences in IgG1 production between the study groups. However, immunization with TLA-Montanide ISA 763 resulted in an increase in IgG2a compared to the unadjuvanted control (p < 0.001). Also noteworthy was the fact that a significant reduction in swelling and histopathological damage of the RFP was recorded with the Montanide ISA 763 formulation. We conclude that the immunization of BALB/c mice with a vaccine formulated with TLA and Montanide ISA 763 generated a protective immune response against L. (L.) amazonensis, characterized by an intense production of IgG2a. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Functional Antibodies Targeting IsaA of Staphylococcus aureus Augment Host Immune Response and Open New Perspectives for Antibacterial Therapy ▿

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Udo; Lorenz, Birgit; Schmitter, Tim; Streker, Karin; Erck, Christian; Wehland, Jürgen; Nickel, Joachim; Zimmermann, Bastian; Ohlsen, Knut

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of nosocomial infections. Multiple antibiotic resistance and severe clinical outcomes provide a strong rationale for development of immunoglobulin-based strategies. Traditionally, novel immunological approaches against bacterial pathogens involve antibodies directed against cell surface-exposed virulence-associated epitopes or toxins. In this study, we generated a monoclonal antibody targeting the housekeeping protein IsaA, a suggested soluble lytic transglycosylase of S. aureus, and tested its therapeutic efficacy in two experimental mouse infection models. A murine anti-IsaA antibody of the IgG1 subclass (UK-66P) showed the highest binding affinity in Biacore analysis. This antibody recognized all S. aureus strains tested, including hospital-acquired and community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains. Therapeutic efficacy in vivo in mice was analyzed using a central venous catheter-related infection model and a sepsis survival model. In both models, anti-IsaA IgG1 conferred protection against staphylococcal infection. Ex vivo, UK-66P activates professional phagocytes and induces highly microbicidal reactive oxygen metabolites in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in bacterial killing. The study provides proof of concept that monoclonal IgG1 antibodies with high affinity to the ubiquitously expressed, single-epitope-targeting IsaA are effective in the treatment of staphylococcal infection in different mouse models. Anti-IsaA antibodies might be a useful component in an antibody-based therapeutic for prophylaxis or adjunctive treatment of human cases of S. aureus infections. PMID:20956605

  12. LANDSLIDE DAMMED LAKES AT MOUNT ST. HELENS, WASHINGTON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, William; Sabol, Martha A.; Schuster, Robert; ,

    1986-01-01

    The collapse of the north face of Mount St. Helens on May 18, 1980, and the debris avalanche that resulted blocked outflow from Spirit Lake and Coldwater and South Fork Castle Creeks. Spirit Lake began to increase in size and lakes began to form in the canyons of Coldwater and South Fork Castle Creeks. Coldwater and Castle Lakes would have overtopped their respective blockages in late 1981 or early 1982. Catastrophic flooding would have occurred from the breakout of Coldwater Lake while serious flooding probably would have resulted from the breakout of Castle Lake. As a result, the level of both lakes was stabilized with spillways in 1981. The three blockages are stable against liquefaction and gravitationally induced slope failure. The existence of groundwater in the blockages was observed in piezometers installed between 1981 and 1983. Groundwater mounds with water levels above lake level exist under the crest of all of the blockages.

  13. Morphologic Evolution of the Mount St. Helens Crater Area, Washington

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    The large rockslide-avalanche that preceded the eruption of Mount St. Helens on 18 May 1980 removed approximately 2.8 cubic km of material from the summit and north flank of the volcano, forming a horseshoe-shaped crater 2.0 km wide and 3.9 km long. A variety of erosional and depositional processes, notably mass wasting and gully development, acted to modify the topographic configuration of the crater area. To document this morphologic evolution, a series of annual large-scale topographic maps is being produced as a base for comparitive geomorphic analysis. Four topographic maps of the Mount St. Helens crater area at a scale of 1:4000 were produced by the National Mapping Division of the U. S. Geological Survey. Stereo aerial photography for the maps was obtained on 23 October 1980, 10 September 1981, 1 September 1982, and 17 August 1983. To quantify topographic changes in the study area, each topographic map is being digitized and corresponding X, Y, and Z values from successive maps are being computer-compared.

  14. Fluvial sedimentation following Quaternary eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Janda, R.J.; Meyer, D.F

    1985-01-01

    Depositional records of convulsive volcanic events at Mount St. Helens are in many places obscured by rapid fluvial erosion and deposition close to the volcano. Some major eruptions are recorded primarily by lahars and alluvium deposited tens of kilometers away. About 35 percent of the distinctive hummocky topography of the 1980 North Fork Toutle debris avalanche deposit now resembles an alluvial fan or a braided glacial outwash plain covered with 10 m or more of alluvium. Deposits of small (20 x 10/sup 6/m/sup 3/) but damaging lahars, such as those generated in the afternoon of 18 May 1980 and on 19 March 1982, have been largely eroded away. Rivers draining rapidly eroding areas surrounding Mount St. Helens presently have sediment yields that are among the highest in the world for nonglaciated streams of comparable size. These sediment loads are capable of causing aggradation-induced flooding in populated areas along the lower Toutle and Cowlitz Rivers. Sediment retention structures and dredging have prevented such flooding. Immediately following prehistoric eruptions, however, coarse-grained volcanic alluvium was deposited in the Cowlitz River to levels more than 1 m above the 1980 mud flow inundation level. Post-1980 rapid landscape modifications and high sediment yields are noteworthy because the eruption-impact area has not yet had a major regional storm and potentially catastrophic breachings of avalanche-impounded lakes have been prevented through engineering measures.

  15. Modal analysis of gear housing and mounts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Teik C.; Singh, Rajendra; Zakrajsek, James J.

    1989-01-01

    Dynamic finite element analysis of a real gear housing is presented. The analysis was conducted for the housing without the rotating components (gears, shafts, and bearings). Both rigid and flexible mounting conditions for the gear housing are considered in this analysis. The flexible support simulates the realistic mounting condition on a rotorcraft, and the rigid one is analyzed for comparison purposes. The effect of gear housing stiffeners is also evaluated. The results indicate that the first six natural modes of the flexibly mounted gear housing in the 0 to 200 Hz range correspond to the translational and rotational rigid body vibration modes of the housing. Above this range, the housing plate elastic modes begin to occur. In the case of the rigid mount, only the housing plate elastic modes are observed which are verified by modal analysis experiments. Parametric studies show that the housing plate stiffeners and rigid mounts tend to increase most of the natural frequencies, the lower ones being affected the most.

  16. North Korea: War drums or peace pipes?

    SciTech Connect

    Keeny, S.M. Jr.

    1994-07-01

    President Clinton has wisely seized the opportunity, presented by former President Jimmy Carter`s meeting with North Korea leader Kim Il Sung, for renewed negotiations with Pyongyang on its nuclear program. While a successful outcome cannot be guaranteed, both sides have backed off the mounting confrontation that threatened to lead to either the emergence of a nuclear North Korea or a second Korean war.

  17. 14 CFR 33.23 - Engine mounting attachments and structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine mounting attachments and structure... mounting attachments and structure. (a) The maximum allowable limit and ultimate loads for engine mounting attachments and related engine structure must be specified. (b) The engine mounting attachments and...

  18. Large Synoptic Survey Telescope mount final design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan, Shawn; Gressler, William; Thomas, Sandrine J.; Gessner, Chuck; Warner, Mike; Barr, Jeff; Lotz, Paul J.; Schumacher, German; Wiecha, Oliver; Angeli, George; Andrew, John; Claver, Chuck; Schoening, Bill; Sebag, Jacques; Krabbendam, Victor; Neill, Doug; Hileman, Ed; Muller, Gary; Araujo, Constanza; Orden Martinez, Alfredo; Perezagua Aguado, Manuel; García-Marchena, Luis; Ruiz de Argandoña, Ismael; Romero, Francisco M.; Rodríguez, Ricardo; Carlos González, José; Venturini, Marco

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes the status and details of the large synoptic survey telescope1,2,3 mount assembly (TMA). On June 9th, 2014 the contract for the design and build of the large synoptic survey telescope mount assembly (TMA) was awarded to GHESA Ingeniería y Tecnología, S.A. and Asturfeito, S.A. The design successfully passed the preliminary design review on October 2, 2015 and the final design review January 29, 2016. This paper describes the detailed design by subsystem, analytical model results, preparations being taken to complete the fabrication, and the transportation and installation plans to install the mount on Cerro Pachón in Chile. This large project is the culmination of work by many people and the authors would like to thank everyone that has contributed to the success of this project.

  19. Mounting system for optical frequency reference cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Notcutt, Mark (Inventor); Hall, John L. (Inventor); Ma, Long-Sheng (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A technique for reducing the vibration sensitivity of laser-stabilizing optical reference cavities is based upon an improved design and mounting method for the cavity, wherein the cavity is mounted vertically. It is suspended at one plane, around the spacer cylinder, equidistant from the mirror ends of the cavity. The suspension element is a collar of an extremely low thermal expansion coefficient material, which surrounds the spacer cylinder and contacts it uniformly. Once the collar has been properly located, it is cemented in place so that the spacer cylinder is uniformly supported and does not have to be squeezed at all. The collar also includes a number of cavities partially bored into its lower flat surface, around the axial bore. These cavities are support points, into which mounting base pins will be inserted. Hence the collar is supported at a minimum of three points.

  20. Costs and environmental impacts of harvesting timber in Appalachia with a truck-mounted crane

    Treesearch

    J. N. Kochenderfer; G. W. Wendel

    1980-01-01

    A truck-mounted crane was used to yard and load timber from a 30-acre sale in a 140-acre watershed in the mountains of north-central West Virginia. A total logging cost, excluding road costs, of $44.35/M bm for logs delivered to a mill 20 miles away was comparable to that reported for wheeled skidders. Road costs with gravel would add $55/M bm, without gravel $26/M bm...

  1. MOUNT NAOMI ROADLESS AREA, UTAH AND IDAHO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dover, James H.; Bigsby, Philip R.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, geophysical, and geochemical surveys, and an examination of mines and prospects were made in the Mount Naomi Roadless Area, Utah and Idaho. No significant precious-metal, base-metal, other trace-metal, or uranium anomalies are apparent in the geochemical data from the Mount Naomi Roadless Area, and no exploration targets were detected. However, a belt of probable resource potential for stratabound copper, lead, and zinc occurrences exists on the west side of the area in limestone and shale. The possibility that oil and gas concentration lie deeply buried beneath the roadless area cannot be evaluated from available data.

  2. High density interconnection technology - Surface mount technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menozzi, G.

    The design features of surface mount technology (SMT) circuits for data transmission, engineering and aerospace applications are examined. Details of pin out, dual face, and interconnection techniques employed for SMT circuits mounted on plastic or ceramic leadless chip carriers are explored. The industrial processes applied to obtain the SMT boards are discussed, along with methods for quality assurance, especially for the soldered connections. SMT installations in the form of 4 Mbit multilayer circuits for an ESA project and a 32-bit mainframe computer are described.

  3. 3D-additive manufactured optical mount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammini, Paul V.; Ciscel, David; Wooten, John

    2015-09-01

    The Area Defense Anti-Munitions (ADAM) is a low cost and effective high power laser weapon system. It's designed to address and negate important threats such as short-range rockets, UAVs, and small boats. Many critical optical components operate in the system. The optics and mounts must accommodate thermal and mechanical stresses, plus maintain an exceptional wave front during operation. Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) developed, designed, and currently operates ADAM. This paper covers the design and development of a key monolithic, flexured, titanium mirror mount that was manufactured by CalRAM using additive processes.

  4. Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David H

    2012-04-10

    Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies are provided. In an embodiment, by way of example only, a sensor mount assembly includes a busbar, a main body, a backing surface, and a first finger. The busbar has a first end and a second end. The main body is overmolded onto the busbar. The backing surface extends radially outwardly relative to the main body. The first finger extends axially from the backing surface, and the first finger has a first end, a second end, and a tooth. The first end of the first finger is disposed on the backing surface, and the tooth is formed on the second end of the first finger.

  5. The Seed Plant Flora of the Mount Jinggangshan Region, Southeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Liao, Wenbo; Chen, Chunquan; Fan, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    China. Mount Jinggangshan region is an important north-south floristic passageway and is also a boundary between the floras of eastern, central and south China. PMID:24098732

  6. The seed plant flora of the Mount Jinggangshan region, southeastern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Liao, Wenbo; Chen, Chunquan; Fan, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    . Mount Jinggangshan region is an important north-south floristic passageway and is also a boundary between the floras of eastern, central and south China.

  7. 15. Interior firstlevel view looking north within rear section of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Interior first-level view looking north within rear section of firing pier. Debris includes a junked torpedo firing tube mounted on a dolly. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  8. Stormy North

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-05

    The area within Saturn north polar hexagon is shown by NASA Cassini spacecraft to contain myriad storms of various sizes, not the least of which is the remarkable and imposing vortex situated over the planet north pole.

  9. Metamorphic Mountain: Mount Jefferson State Park. An Environmental Education Learning Experience Designed for Grades 5-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, George K., II

    This activity packet was designed to introduce students in grades 5-7 to the geology of the Blue Ridge Mountains through hands-on activities for the classroom and the outdoor setting of Mount Jefferson State Park (Jefferson, North Carolina). Previsit activities introduce students to the different rock types: sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic.…

  10. A new specimen of the Mount Dooling iron meteorite from Mount Manning, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Laeter, J. R.

    1980-06-01

    The discovery of an iron meteorite near the Mount Manning Range in Western Australia which has been identified with the Mount Dooling meteorite is reported. The 701-kg iron meteorite was found embedded in the ground at a site 3 km east of the Mount Manning Range and approximately 6 km from the probable discovery site of Mount Dooling. The meteorite has a fan-shaped or delta wing configuration, with one side smooth and slightly concave with a well defined fusion crust and the other side rough, convex and possessing numerous regmaglypts; it is suggested that the meteorite performed a delta-wing-like flight at high angle of attack through much of the atmosphere. A comparison of the chemical composition, surface features, microstructure and location of the present meteorite with those of the Mount Dooling siderite confirms that the find represents a larger specimen of Mount Dooling. In light of the present discovery and that of another Mount Dooling fragment, Gosnells, it is predicted that other specimens may be discovered in the future.

  11. Photovoltaic module mounting clip with integral grounding

    DOEpatents

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2010-08-24

    An electrically conductive mounting/grounding clip, usable with a photovoltaic (PV) assembly of the type having an electrically conductive frame, comprises an electrically conductive body. The body has a central portion and first and second spaced-apart arms extending from the central portion. Each arm has first and second outer portions with frame surface-disrupting element at the outer portions.

  12. Shock absorbing mount for electrical components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillon, R. F., Jr.; Mayne, R. C. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A shock mount for installing electrical components on circuit boards is described. The shock absorber is made of viscoelastic material which interconnects the electrical components. With this system, shocks imposed on one component of the circuit are not transmitted to other components. A diagram of a typical circuit is provided.

  13. Bearing-Mounting Concept Accommodates Thermal Expansion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nespodzany, Robert; Davis, Toren S.

    1995-01-01

    Pins or splines allow radial expansion without slippage. Design concept for mounting rotary bearing accommodates differential thermal expansion between bearing and any structure(s) to which bearing connected. Prevents buildup of thermal stresses by allowing thermal expansion to occur freely but accommodating expansion in such way not to introduce looseness. Pin-in-slot configuration also maintains concentricity.

  14. Dish-mounted latent heat buffer storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manvi, R.

    1981-01-01

    Dish-mounted latent heat storage subsystems for Rankine, Brayton, and Stirling engines operating at 427 C, 816 C, and 816 C respectively are discussed. Storage requirements definition, conceptual design, media stability and compatibility tests, and thermal performance analyses are considered.

  15. Eurofighter helmet-mounted display: status update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Stephen J.; Cameron, Alexander A.

    2000-06-01

    BAE SYSTEMS are developing a high performance Helmet Mounted Display system for the Eurofighter/Typhoon combat aircraft. This paper presents an overview of the design solutions, as well as details of the development program status. Finally, it gives some indicators as to future growth applications.

  16. Fixture for mounting small parts for processing

    DOEpatents

    Foreman, Larry R.; Gomez, Veronica M.; Thomas, Michael H.

    1990-01-01

    A fixture for mounting small parts, such as fusion target spheres or microelectronic components. A glass stalk is drawn and truncated near its tip. The truncated end of the glass stalk is dipped into silicone rubber forming an extending streamer. After the rubber cures for approximately 24 hours, a small part is touched to the streamer, and will be held securely throughout processing.

  17. Earthquake swarms on Mount Erebus, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminuma, Katsutada; Baba, Megumi; Ueki, Sadato

    1986-12-01

    Mount Erebus (3794 m), located on Ross Island in McMurdo Sound, is one of the few active volcanoes in Antartica. A high-sensitivity seismic network has been operated by Japanese and US parties on and around the Volcano since December, 1980. The results of these observations show two kinds of seismic activity on Ross Island: activity concentrated near the summit of Mount Erebus associated with Strombolian eruptions, and micro-earthquake activity spread through Mount Erebus and the surrounding area. Seismicity on Mount Erebus has been quite high, usually exceeding 20 volcanic earthquakes per day. They frequently occur in swarms with daily counts exceeding 100 events. Sixteen earthquake swarms with more than 250 events per day were recorded by the seismic network during the three year period 1982-1984, and three notable earthquake swarms out of the sixteen were recognized, in October, 1982 (named 82-C), March-April, 1984 (84-B) and July, 1984 (84-F). Swarms 84-B and 84-F have a large total number of earthquakes and large Ishimoto-Iida's "m"; hence these two swarms are presumed to constitute on one of the precursor phenomena to the new eruption, which took place on 13 September, 1984, and lasted a few months.

  18. Summit firn caves, mount rainier, washington.

    PubMed

    Kiver, E P; Mumma, M D

    1971-07-23

    Heat and steam from the crater fumaroles have melted over 5700 feet (1737 meters) of cave passage in the ice-filled east crater of Mount Rainier. The caves are in approximate balance with the present geothermal heat release. Future changes in the thermal activity of the summit cone will cause corresponding changes in cave passage dimensions, location, and ceiling and wall ablation features.

  19. Mounting of molded AFM probes by soldering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hantschel, Thomas; Pape, Uwe; Slesazeck, Stefan; Niedermann, Philippe; Vandervorst, Wilfried

    2000-08-01

    Electrical probes consisting of cantilever beams with integrated pyramidal metal or diamond tips have to be mounted to small holder chips before they can be used in electrical atomic force microscopy (AFM). Gluing procedures have been developed for this step but such a connection suffers mainly from low electrical conductivity and often also from low mechanical stability. Furthermore, it is not very suitable for massfabrication. Soldering is a well-established mounting method in microelectronics (e.g. surface mounted devices (SMD)) and could overcome these problems. Therefore, we have developed a soldering procedure for moulded AFM probes. This paper presents the optimized soldering procedure and demonstartes its use for probe mounting. Excellent results were obtained using a metallization system of Ti:W+Ni+Au and a SnBi58 solder paste in combination with a hotplate for the soldering step. The soldered probes are highly conductive and the mechanical connection between probe and holder chip is very rigid. They show clear resonance peaks in tapping mode AFM which we could not obtain with our glued probes before.

  20. Making sense of Mount St. Helens

    Treesearch

    Steve. Nash

    2010-01-01

    The eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980 resulted in "a grand experiment that you could never have gotten anybody to fund," says Forest Service ecologist Charles Crisafulli. "Everything's new. It's a new landform." Unlike most misbehaving volcanoes, this one provided an accessible laboratory right along the Interstate-5 corridor, with the...

  1. Dish-mounted latent heat buffer storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manvi, R.

    1981-01-01

    Dish-mounted latent heat storage subsystems for Rankine, Brayton, and Stirling engines operating at 427 C, 816 C, and 816 C respectively are discussed. Storage requirements definition, conceptual design, media stability and compatibility tests, and thermal performance analyses are considered.

  2. 49 CFR 179.10 - Tank mounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tank mounting. 179.10 Section 179.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS General Design...

  3. Heading for Mount Sharp, Sol 329

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-11

    Lower slopes of Mount Sharp appear at the top of this image taken by the right Navigation Camera Navcam of NASA Mars rover Curiosity at the end of a drive of about 135 feet during the 329th Martian day, or sol, of the rover work on Mars.

  4. Cooling/grounding mount for hybrid circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagstad, B.; Estrada, R.; Mandel, H.

    1981-01-01

    Extremely short input and output connections, adequate grounding, and efficient heat removal for hybrid integrated circuits are possible with mounting. Rectangular clamp holds hybrid on printed-circuit board, in contact with heat-conductive ground plate. Clamp is attached to ground plane by bolts.

  5. Mount Wilson Staff Reaction to Light Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, G. W.

    2004-12-01

    By 1950 Mount Wilson astronomers had come to accept light pollution by Los Angeles and its environs as inevitable. Those concerned with measurements of faint objects transferred their research to Caltech's Palomar Observatory (see, for example, Baade 1948) under the terms of an agreement between Carnegie and Caltech. Others took advantage of reduced pressure on the Mount Wilson telescopes to undertake major scientific programs that could tolerate the Los Angeles sky (Arp 1956, Sandage & Kowal 1986, Sandage & Fouts 1987, Vaughan & Preston 1980, Wilson 1974). However, these adjustments in style produced no remedy for the progressive deterioration that accompanied advancing age of the Mount Wilson facilities and lack of investment at a polluted site. The accelerating imbalance in demand for the Mount Wilson and Palomar facilities began to weigh on the Carnegie-Caltech joint operation. In the 1960's Carnegie attempted to redress the imbalance by developing a dark-sky site at Las Campanas, Chile, but the telescopes (1.0-m, 2.5-m) it could provide in the 1970's failed to arouse sufficient interest among Caltech astronomers, who opted to discontinue joint operation of the Carnegie and Caltech observatories in 1980. To fulfill its own need for a large telescope at a dark site Carnegie withdrew from the Mount Wilson operation in 1985, redirecting all of its resources to Las Campanas, and soon thereafter organized the Magellan Consortium that built and now operate two superb 6.5-m telescopes at the Las Campanas Observatory. This outcome is the legacy of Los Angeles lights. Arp, H. C. 1956, AJ, 61, 15 Baade, W. 1948, PASP, 60, 230 Sandage, A. R., & Kowal, C. 1986, AJ, 91, 1140 Sandage, A. R., & Fouts, G. 1987, AJ, 93, 74 Vaughan, A. H., & Preston, G. W. 1980, PASP, 92, 385 Wilson, O. C. 1978, ApJ, 226, 379

  6. Increases and fluctuations in thermal activity at Mount Wrangell, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Motyka, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to document and interpret changes in thermal activity at two of three craters located on the rim of the ice-filled summit caldera of Mount Wrangell, an active glacier-clad shield volcano in south-central Alaska. The technique of glacier calorimetry was developed, through which changes in the volume of glacier ice in the craters and caldera were measured and related to changes in heat flow. Chemical analysis of gases and acid-thermal waters provided information on the underlying heat source. In 1965, thermal activity began increasing at both the North and West Craters. During the ensuing years, heat flow increased significantly at the North Crater, although in a highly fluctuating manner, while gradually declining at the West Crater. Pulses in heat flow at the North Crater occurred in 1966-68 and 1972-74, with both pulses followed by a four year decline in activity. Increases in heat flow began again in 1978-79 and have continued unabated through the summer of 1983. Over 80% of the 4.4 x 10/sup 7/m/sup 3/ ice volume within the crater in 1966 was melted by 1982, and the meltwaters have drained or evaporated from the crater. The subsequent rapid development of numerous fumaroles, the large dry-gas proportion of SO/sub 2/ (27%), and the inferred presence of gaseous HCl indicate that a shallow degassing magma body is the source of heat driving the thermal system. Seismically induced fracturing above the magma body is hypothesized to explain the initial increases in thermal activity.

  7. ISA-2011B, a Phosphatidylinositol 4-Phosphate 5-Kinase α Inhibitor, Impairs CD28-Dependent Costimulatory and Pro-inflammatory Signals in Human T Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kunkl, Martina; Porciello, Nicla; Mastrogiovanni, Marta; Capuano, Cristina; Lucantoni, Federica; Moretti, Chiara; Persson, Jenny L.; Galandrini, Ricciarda; Buzzetti, Raffaella; Tuosto, Loretta

    2017-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (PIP2) is a membrane phospholipid that controls the activity of several proteins regulating cytoskeleton reorganization, cytokine gene expression, T cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation. Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinases (PIP5Ks) are the main enzymes involved in PIP2 biosynthesis by phosphorylating phosphatidylinositol 4-monophosphate (PI4P) at the D5 position of the inositol ring. In human T lymphocytes, we recently found that CD28 costimulatory molecule is pivotal for PIP2 turnover by recruiting and activating PIP5Kα. We also found that PIP5Kα is the main regulator of both CD28 costimulatory signals integrating those delivered by TCR as well as CD28 autonomous signals regulating the expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Given emerging studies linking alterations of PIP2 metabolism to immune-based diseases, PIP5Kα may represent a promising target to modulate immunity and inflammation. Herewith, we characterized a recently discovered inhibitor of PIP5Kα, ISA-2011B, for its inhibitory effects on T lymphocyte functions. We found that the inhibition of PIP5Kα lipid-kinase activity by ISA-2011B significantly impaired CD28 costimulatory signals necessary for TCR-mediated Ca2+ influx, NF-AT transcriptional activity, and IL-2 gene expression as well as CD28 autonomous signals regulating the activation of NF-κB and the transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine genes. Moreover, our data on the inhibitory effects of ISA-2011B on CD28-mediated upregulation of inflammatory cytokines related to Th17 cell phenotype in type 1 diabetes patients suggest ISA-2011B as a promising anti-inflammatory drug. PMID:28491063

  8. ISA - An Accelerometer to Detect the Disturbing Accelerations Acting on the Mercury Planetary Orbiter of the BepiColombo ESA Cornerstone Mission to Mercury: on Ground Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, V.; Lucchesi, D. M.; Nozzoli, S.; Santoli, F.; Fois, M.; Persichini, M.

    2006-06-01

    To reach the ambitious goals of the Radio Science Experiment of the BepiColombo space mission to Mercury, among which the planet structure and rotation and test Einstein's theory of General Relativity (GR) to an unprecedented accuracy, an accelerometer has been selected to fly on-board the MPO (Mercury Planetary Orbiter), the main spacecraft of the two to be placed around the innermost planet of our solar system around 2017. The key role of the on-board accelerometer is to remove from the list of unknowns the non-gravitational accelerations that disturbs the pure gravitational orbit of the MPO spacecraft in the strong radiation environment of Mercury. In this way the ``corrected'' orbit of the MPO may be regarded as a geodesic in the field of Mercury. Then, thanks to the very precise tracking from Earth, the possibility to study Mercury's center-of-mass around the Sun and estimate several parameters related to the planet structure and verify the theory of GR. The selected accelerometer named ISA (Italian Spring Accelerometer) is an high sensitive instrument with an intrinsic noise of 10-10 g⊕ / Hz (with g⊕ ≅ 9.8 m / s2) in the frequency band 3 . 10-5 -10-1 Hz. ISA is a three axis accelerometer with a characteristic configuration, in order to minimize the disturbing accelerations due to the gravity-gradients and the apparent forces on the Nadir pointing MPO spacecraft. Because of the complex and strong radiation environment of Mercury, the modelling of the non-gravitational acceleration is quite difficult, while, with the use of ISA accelerometer we are able to gain a factor 100 in accuracy. In this brief paper we will focus on the characteristics of the ISA accelerometer, on its positioning on-board the MPO and in particularly to the techniques for on ground calibration, avoiding the effects of the Earth gravity.

  9. Data acquisition and pulse generation system for nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometers on a single PC-ISA compatible board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosetti, R.; Ranieri, G. A.; Ricci, D.

    1998-08-01

    A data acquisition and pulse generation system for NMR spectrometers is described. It has been implemented on a single board for MS-DOS personal computers with an ISA standard bus interface and uses a simple architecture optimizing the integration of the hardware and software resources. The system, owing to its versatility and low cost, is particularly suitable to upgrade old pulsed NMR instruments with outdated data and control systems, for applications where expensive new cryomagnetic instruments would be inappropriate, such as in industrial control or as educational tools. The board provides two simultaneous data acquisition channels allowing 250 000 12-bit conversions per second per channel, including real-time signal averaging, and is able to produce essentially any pulse sequence on several output lines. The duration of each pulse can range from 0957-0233/9/8/024/img6s to 180 s with a minimum pulse separation of 0957-0233/9/8/024/img7s and with a resolution of 0957-0233/9/8/024/img6s. All classic NMR pulse sequences are allowed in addition to those required for self-diffusion coefficient measurements using pulsed magnetic field gradients. All functions of the system are managed by machine-language routines callable from within a VisualBASIC program. The cost of the hardware of this device is under US500.

  10. North Korea’s Nuclear Weapons Development and Diplomacy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-02

    and security mechanism. The Six Party Agreement was negotiated following a North Korean nuclear test in October 2006, the imposition of sanctions...against North Korea by the United Nations Security Council, and mounting congressional criticism of Administration policy. The nuclear test signaled...in Macau — the object of U.S. financial sanctions since September 2005 because of Banco Delta’s involvement in North Korean criminal counterfeiting

  11. Performance Comparison of Wireless Sensor Network Standard Protocols in an Aerospace Environment: ISA100.11a and ZigBee Pro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Raymond S.; Barton, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Standards-based wireless sensor network (WSN) protocols are promising candidates for spacecraft avionics systems, offering unprecedented instrumentation flexibility and expandability. Ensuring reliable data transport is key, however, when migrating from wired to wireless data gathering systems. In this paper, we conduct a rigorous laboratory analysis of the relative performances of the ZigBee Pro and ISA100.11a protocols in a representative crewed aerospace environment. Since both operate in the 2.4 GHz radio frequency (RF) band shared by systems such as Wi-Fi, they are subject at times to potentially debilitating RF interference. We compare goodput (application-level throughput) achievable by both under varying levels of 802.11g Wi-Fi traffic. We conclude that while the simpler, more inexpensive ZigBee Pro protocol performs well under moderate levels of interference, the more complex and costly ISA100.11a protocol is needed to ensure reliable data delivery under heavier interference. This paper represents the first published, rigorous analysis of WSN protocols in an aerospace environment that we are aware of and the first published head-to-head comparison of ZigBee Pro and ISA100.11a.

  12. Performance Comparison of Wireless Sensor Network Standard Protocols in an Aerospace Environment: ISA100.11a and ZigBee Pro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Raymond S.; Barton, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Standards-based wireless sensor network (WSN) protocols are promising candidates for spacecraft avionics systems, offering unprecedented instrumentation flexibility and expandability. Ensuring reliable data transport is key, however, when migrating from wired to wireless data gathering systems. In this paper, we conduct a rigorous laboratory analysis of the relative performances of the ZigBee Pro and ISA100.11a protocols in a representative crewed aerospace environment. Since both operate in the 2.4 GHz radio frequency (RF) band shared by systems such as Wi-Fi, they are subject at times to potentially debilitating RF interference. We compare goodput (application-level throughput) achievable by both under varying levels of 802.11g Wi-Fi traffic. We conclude that while the simpler, more inexpensive ZigBee Pro protocol performs well under moderate levels of interference, the more complex and costly ISA100.11a protocol is needed to ensure reliable data delivery under heavier interference. This paper represents the first published, rigorous analysis of WSN protocols in an aerospace environment that we are aware of and the first published head-to-head comparison of ZigBee Pro and ISA100.11a.

  13. Nordic Walking and the Isa Method for Breast Cancer Survivors: Effects on Upper Limb Circumferences and Total Body Extracellular Water - a Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Di Blasio, Andrea; Morano, Teresa; Napolitano, Giorgio; Bucci, Ines; Di Santo, Serena; Gallina, Sabina; Cugusi, Lucia; Di Donato, Francesco; D'Arielli, Alberto; Cianchetti, Ettore

    2016-12-01

    The negative side effects of breast cancer treatments can include upper limb lymphoedema. The growing literature indicates that Nordic walking is an effective discipline against several disease symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine whether introduction to Nordic walking alone is effective against total body extracellular water and upper limb circumferences in breast cancer survivors compared to its combination with a series of specifically created exercises (i.e. the Isa method). 16 breast cancer survivors (49.09 ± 2.24 years) were recruited and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 different training groups. 10 lessons on Nordic walking technique plus the Isa method significantly reduced both extracellular body water and the extracellular-to-total body water ratio (p = 0.01 for both), and also the circumference of the upper limb, (both relaxed arm and forearm circumferences) (p = 0.01 for all), whereas Nordic walking alone did not. Introduction to Nordic walking does not seem to affect lymphoedema in breast cancer survivors. This might be because novice Nordic Walkers do not adequately generate an effective muscular pump through coordination of the alternated bimanual open-close cycle. The Isa method appears to close this gap.

  14. Systems and methods for mirror mounting with minimized distortion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antonille, Scott R. (Inventor); Wallace, Thomas E. (Inventor); Content, David A. (Inventor); Wake, Shane W. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method for mounting a mirror for use in a telescope includes attaching the mirror to a plurality of adjustable mounts; determining a distortion in the mirror caused by the plurality adjustable mounts, and, if the distortion is determined to be above a predetermined level: adjusting one or more of the adjustable mounts; and determining the distortion in the mirror caused by the adjustable mounts; and in the event the determined distortion is determined to be at or below the predetermined level, rigidizing the adjustable mounts.

  15. Mount Ararat, Turkey, Perspective with Landsat Image Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This perspective view shows Mount Ararat in easternmost Turkey, which has been the site of several searches for the remains of Noah's Ark. The main peak, known as Great Ararat, is the tallest peak in Turkey, rising to 5165 meters (16,945 feet). This southerly, near horizontal view additionally shows the distinctly conically shaped peak known as 'Little Ararat' on the left. Both peaks are volcanoes that are geologically young, but activity during historic times is uncertain.

    This image was generated from a Landsat satellite image draped over an elevation model produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The view uses a 1.25-times vertical exaggeration to enhance topographic expression. Natural colors of the scene are enhanced by image processing, inclusion of some infrared reflectance (as green) to highlight the vegetation pattern, and inclusion of shading of the elevation model to further highlight the topographic features.

    Volcanoes pose hazards for people, the most obvious being the threat of eruption. But other hazards are associated with volcanoes too. In 1840 an earthquake shook the Mount Ararat region, causing an unstable part of mountain's north slope to tumble into and destroy a village. Visualizations of satellite imagery when combined with elevation models can be used to reveal such hazards leading to disaster prevention through improved land use planning.

    But the hazards of volcanoes are balanced in part by the benefits they provide. Over geologic time volcanic materials break down to form fertile soils. Cultivation of these soils has fostered and sustained civilizations, as has occurred in the Mount Ararat region. Likewise, tall volcanic peaks often catch precipitation, providing a water supply to those civilizations. Mount Ararat hosts an icefield and set of glaciers, as seen here in this late summer scene, that are part of this beneficial natural process

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar

  16. Mount Ararat, Turkey, Perspective with Landsat Image Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This perspective view shows Mount Ararat in easternmost Turkey, which has been the site of several searches for the remains of Noah's Ark. The main peak, known as Great Ararat, is the tallest peak in Turkey, rising to 5165 meters (16,945 feet). This southerly, near horizontal view additionally shows the distinctly conically shaped peak known as 'Little Ararat' on the left. Both peaks are volcanoes that are geologically young, but activity during historic times is uncertain.

    This image was generated from a Landsat satellite image draped over an elevation model produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The view uses a 1.25-times vertical exaggeration to enhance topographic expression. Natural colors of the scene are enhanced by image processing, inclusion of some infrared reflectance (as green) to highlight the vegetation pattern, and inclusion of shading of the elevation model to further highlight the topographic features.

    Volcanoes pose hazards for people, the most obvious being the threat of eruption. But other hazards are associated with volcanoes too. In 1840 an earthquake shook the Mount Ararat region, causing an unstable part of mountain's north slope to tumble into and destroy a village. Visualizations of satellite imagery when combined with elevation models can be used to reveal such hazards leading to disaster prevention through improved land use planning.

    But the hazards of volcanoes are balanced in part by the benefits they provide. Over geologic time volcanic materials break down to form fertile soils. Cultivation of these soils has fostered and sustained civilizations, as has occurred in the Mount Ararat region. Likewise, tall volcanic peaks often catch precipitation, providing a water supply to those civilizations. Mount Ararat hosts an icefield and set of glaciers, as seen here in this late summer scene, that are part of this beneficial natural process

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar

  17. New Academic Partnerships in Global Health: Innovations at Mount Sinai School of Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Landrigan, Philip J.; Ripp, Jonathan; Murphy, Ramon J. C.; Claudio, Luz; Jao, Jennifer; Hexom, Braden; Bloom, Harrison G.; Shirazian, Taraneh; Elahi, Ebby; Koplan, Jeffrey P.

    2011-01-01

    Global health has become an increasingly important focus of education, research, and clinical service in North American universities and academic health centers. Today there are at least 49 academically based global health programs in the United States and Canada, as compared with only one in 1999. A new academic society, the Consortium of Universities for Global Health, was established in 2008 and has grown significantly. This sharp expansion reflects convergence of 3 factors: (1) rapidly growing student and faculty interest in global health; (2) growing realization–powerfully catalyzed by the acquired immune deficiency syndrome epidemic, the emergence of other new infections, climate change, and globalization–that health problems are interconnected, cross national borders, and are global in nature; and (3) rapid expansion in resources for global health. This article examines the evolution of the concept of global health and describes the driving forces that have accelerated interest in the field. It traces the development of global health programs in academic health centers in the United States. It presents a blueprint for a new school-wide global health program at Mount Sinai School of Medicine. The mission of that program, Mount Sinai Global Health, is to enhance global health as an academic field of study within the Mount Sinai community and to improve the health of people around the world. Mount Sinai Global Health is uniting and building synergies among strong, existing global health programs within Mount Sinai; it is training the next generation of physicians and health scientists to be leaders in global health; it is making novel discoveries that translate into blueprints for improving health worldwide; and it builds on Mount Sinai’s long and proud tradition of providing medical and surgical care in places where need is great and resources few. PMID:21598272

  18. The Geologic Story of Mount Rainier

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crandell, Dwight Raymond

    1969-01-01

    Ice-clad Mount Rainier, towering over the landscape of western Washington, ranks with Fuji-yama in Japan, Popocatepeti in Mexico, and Vesuvius in Italy among the great volcanoes of the world. At Mount Rainier, as at other inactive volcanoes, the ever-present possibility of renewed eruptions gives viewers a sense of anticipation, excitement, and apprehension not equaled by most other mountains. Even so, many of us cannot imagine the cataclysmic scale of the eruptions that were responsible for building the giant cone which now stands in silence. We accept the volcano as if it had always been there, and we appreciate only the beauty of its stark expanses of rock and ice, its flower-strewn alpine meadows, and its bordering evergreen forests. Mount Rainier owes its scenic beauty to many features. The broad cone spreads out on top of a major mountain range - the Cascades. The volcano rises about 7,000 feet above its 7,000-foot foundation, and stands in solitary splendor - the highest peak in the entire Cascade Range. Its rocky ice-mantled slopes above timberline contrast with the dense green forests and give Mount Rainier the appearance of an arctic island in a temperate sea, an island so large that you can see its full size and shape only from the air. The mountain is highly photogenic because of the contrasts it offers among bare rock, snowfields, blue sky, and the incomparable flower fields that color its lower slopes, shadows cast by the multitude of cliffs, ridges, canyons, and pinnacles change constantly from sunrise to sunset, endlessly varying the texture and mood of the mountain. The face of the mountain also varies from day to day as its broad snowfields melt during the summer. The melting of these frozen reservoirs makes Mount Rainier a natural resource in a practical as well as in an esthetic sense, for it ensures steady flows of water for hydroelectric power in the region, regardless of season. Seen from the Puget Sound country to the west, Mount Rainier has

  19. Shaft mount for data coupler system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, James R., Jr. (Inventor); Lord, Mark T. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A device for mounting a data transmission apparatus to a rotating, tapered, and instrumented shaft is provided. This device permits attachment without interfering with shaft rotation or the accuracy of data output, and prevents both radial and axial slippage of the data transmission apparatus. The mounting device consists of a sleeve assembly which is attached to the shaft by means of clamps that are situated at some distance removed from the instrumented area of the shaft. The data transmission device is secured to the sleeve such that the entire assembly rotates with the shaft. Shim adjustments between sleeve sections assure that a minimum compressive load is transferred to the instrumented area of the shaft and a rubber lining is affixed to a large portion of the interior surface of the sleeve to absorb vibration.

  20. Helmet mounted display systems for helicopter simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haworth, Loran A.; Bucher, Nancy; Runnings, David

    1989-01-01

    Simulation scientists continually pursue improved flight simulation technology with the goal of closely replicating the 'real world' physical environment. The presentation/display of visual information for flight simulation is one such area enjoying recent technical improvements that are fundamental for conducting simulated operations close to the terrain. Detailed and appropriate visual information is especially critical for Nap-Of-the-Earth (NOE) helicopter flight simulation where the pilot maintains an 'eyes-out' orientation to avoid obstructions and terrain. This paper elaborates on the visually coupled Wide Field Of View Helmet Mounted Display (WFOVHMD) system technology as a viable visual display system for helicopter simulation. In addition the paper discusses research conducted on the NASA-Ames Vertical Motion Simulator that examined one critical research issue for helmet mounted displays.