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Sample records for mountain fy98

  1. 2020 Vision Project Summary, FY98

    SciTech Connect

    A Munoz; J. C. Clausen; K. P. Scott; K. W. Gordon

    1998-11-01

    The 2020 Vision project began in 1996 with two participating teachers and four classes. It has since grown to comprise more than a dozen participating teachers and hundreds of students across the country. Much of this growth took place in FY98, thanks to the accomplishment of several major goals: implementation of a mentor program, enhanced teacher training, a mid-year conference for students, recruitment of distant schools, and the development of an interactive Web site. The first part of this report describes these accomplishments, as well as future directions for 2020 Vision. The second part summarized the scenarios students wrote during the 1997-98 school year. it identifies recurrent themes in the students' scenarios and compares/contrasts them with scenarios written in the first two years of the project.

  2. Materials research institute annual report FY98

    SciTech Connect

    Radousky, H

    1999-11-02

    The Materials Research Institute (MRI) is the newest of the University/LLNL Institutes and began operating in March 1997. The MRI is one of five Institutes reporting to the LLNL University Relations Program (URP), all of which have as their primary goal to facilitate university interactions at LLNL. This report covers the period from the opening of the MRI through the end of FY98 (September 30, 1998). The purpose of this report is to emphasize both the science that has been accomplished, as well as the LLNL and university people who were involved. The MRI is concentrating on projects, which highlight and utilize the Laboratory's unique facilities and expertise. Our goal is to enable the best university research to enhance Laboratory programs in the area of cutting-edge materials science. The MRI is focusing on three primary areas of materials research: Biomaterials (organic/inorganic interfaces, biomemetic processes, materials with improved biological response, DNA materials science); Electro/Optical Materials (laser materials and nonlinear optical materials, semiconductor devices, nanostructured materials); and Metals/Organics (equation of state of metals, synthesis of unique materials, high explosives/polymers). In particular we are supporting projects that will enable the MRI to begin to make a distinctive name for itself within the scientific community and will develop techniques applicable to LLNL's core mission. This report is organized along the lines of these three topic areas. A fundamental goal of the MRI is to nucleate discussion and interaction between Lab and university researchers, and among Lab researchers from different LLNL Directorates. This is accomplished through our weekly seminar series, special seminar series such as Biomaterials and Applications of High Pressure Science, conferences and workshops, our extensive visitors program and MRI lunches. We are especially pleased to have housed five graduate students who are performing their thesis

  3. Tanks focus area multiyear program plan - FY96-FY98

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The Tanks Focus Area (TFA) Multiyear Program Plan (MYPP) presents the recommended TFA technical program. The recommendation covers a 3-year funding outlook (FY96-FY98), with an emphasis on FY96 and FY97. In addition to defining the recommended program, this document also describes the processes used to develop the program, the implementation strategy for the program, the references used to write this report, data on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) tank site baselines, details on baseline assumptions and the technical elements, and a glossary.

  4. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading FY98 Year End Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    1998-11-25

    The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will immobilize plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report summarizes FY98 Can Loading work completed for the Plutonium Immobilization Project and it includes summaries of reports on Can Size, Equipment Review, Preliminary Concepts, Conceptual Design, and Preliminary Specification. Plant trip reports for the Greenville Automation and Manufacturing Exposition, Rocky Flats BNFL Pu repackaging glovebox line, and vendor trips are also included.

  5. Laboratory directed research and development FY98 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ayat, R; Holzrichter, J

    1999-05-01

    In 1984, Congress and the Department of Energy (DOE) established the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program to enable the director of a national laboratory to foster and expedite innovative research and development (R and D) in mission areas. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) continually examines these mission areas through strategic planning and shapes the LDRD Program to meet its long-term vision. The goal of the LDRD Program is to spur development of new scientific and technical capabilities that enable LLNL to respond to the challenges within its evolving mission areas. In addition, the LDRD Program provides LLNL with the flexibility to nurture and enrich essential scientific and technical competencies and enables the Laboratory to attract the most qualified scientists and engineers. The FY98 LDRD portfolio described in this annual report has been carefully structured to continue the tradition of vigorously supporting DOE and LLNL strategic vision and evolving mission areas. The projects selected for LDRD funding undergo stringent review and selection processes, which emphasize strategic relevance and require technical peer reviews of proposals by external and internal experts. These FY98 projects emphasize the Laboratory's national security needs: stewardship of the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile, responsibility for the counter- and nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction, development of high-performance computing, and support of DOE environmental research and waste management programs.

  6. NASA Occupational Health Program FY98 Self-Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brisbin, Steven G.

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Functional Management Review process requires that each NASA Center conduct self-assessments of each functional area. Self-Assessments were completed in June 1998 and results were presented during this conference session. During FY 97 NASA Occupational Health Assessment Team activities, a decision was made to refine the NASA Self-Assessment Process. NASA Centers were involved in the ISO registration process at that time and wanted to use the management systems approach to evaluate their occupational health programs. This approach appeared to be more consistent with NASA's management philosophy and would likely confer status needed by Senior Agency Management for the program. During FY 98 the Agency Occupational Health Program Office developed a revised self-assessment methodology based on the Occupational Health and Safety Management System developed by the American Industrial Hygiene Association. This process was distributed to NASA Centers in March 1998 and completed in June 1998. The Center Self Assessment data will provide an essential baseline on the status of OHP management processes at NASA Centers. That baseline will be presented to Enterprise Associate Administrators and DASHO on September 22, 1998 and used as a basis for discussion during FY 99 visits to NASA Centers. The process surfaced several key management system elements warranting further support from the Lead Center. Input and feedback from NASA Centers will be essential to defining and refining future self assessment efforts.

  7. NASA Occupational Health Program FY98 Self-Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brisbin, Steven G.

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Functional Management Review process requires that each NASA Center conduct self-assessments of each functional area. Self-Assessments were completed in June 1998 and results were presented during this conference session. During FY 97 NASA Occupational Health Assessment Team activities, a decision was made to refine the NASA Self-Assessment Process. NASA Centers were involved in the ISO registration process at that time and wanted to use the management systems approach to evaluate their occupational health programs. This approach appeared to be more consistent with NASA's management philosophy and would likely confer status needed by Senior Agency Management for the program. During FY 98 the Agency Occupational Health Program Office developed a revised self-assessment methodology based on the Occupational Health and Safety Management System developed by the American Industrial Hygiene Association. This process was distributed to NASA Centers in March 1998 and completed in June 1998. The Center Self Assessment data will provide an essential baseline on the status of OHP management processes at NASA Centers. That baseline will be presented to Enterprise Associate Administrators and DASHO on September 22, 1998 and used as a basis for discussion during FY 99 visits to NASA Centers. The process surfaced several key management system elements warranting further support from the Lead Center. Input and feedback from NASA Centers will be essential to defining and refining future self assessment efforts.

  8. Geochemical alteration of backfill FY98 status report

    SciTech Connect

    Buscheck, T; Knauss, K; Rosenberg, N; Viani, B

    1998-09-30

    The Yucca Mountain Project is considering some type of backfill, possibly emplaced as a capillary barrier, for inclusion in the Engineering Barrier System (EBS) at the potential Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository site. The performance of capillary barriers in isothermal, low- temperature, environments has been studied extensively (e.g., Ho and Webb, 1998; OZdenburg and Pruess, 1993; Ross, 1990). The performance of capillary barriers in an non-isothermal, high temperature environment, such as during the thermal pulse phase of a nuclear waste repository, has received much less attention. One concern is that the backfill materials may be altered from that of the as-placed material by the hydrothermal regime imposed by the emplacement of waste in the repository, changing hydrologic properties in a way that degrades the performance of the EBS system. This report is a status report on our efforts to address this concern. The work was initiated by SCR #98-76-041 and was authorized to begin at LLNL in summer 1998. This report is organized as follows. In the first part, we discuss our understanding of the relevant issues of backfill performance based on thermal hydrology. We focus here on changes to hydrologic properties, but we recognize that changes to thermal, mechanical and chemical (e.g., sorptive) properties are also important. Our primary interest is in addressing concerns over possible changes in the magnitude of key hydrologic properties (i.e., porosity, permeability, and moisture retention characteristics) that could significantly affect the design performance of backfill in the EBS. We report on what we know from previous work about geochemical alteration of backfill material, focusing primarily on crushed tuff. In the second part of this report, we present our progress on geochemical studies on backfill materials. These include sub-boiling, two-phase column experiments, batch experiments at above boiling temperatures and associated numerical modeling.

  9. Expedited technology demonstration project (Revised mixed waste management facility project) Project baseline revision 4.0 and FY98 plan

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, M. G.

    1997-10-01

    The re-baseline of the Expedited Technology Demonstration Project (Revised Mixed Waste Facility Project) is designated as Project Baseline Revision 4.0. The last approved baseline was identified as Project Baseline Revision 3.0 and was issued in October 1996. Project Baseline Revision 4.0 does not depart from the formal DOE guidance followed by, and contained in, Revision 3.0. This revised baseline document describes the MSO and Final Forms testing activities that will occur during FY98, the final year of the ETD Project. The cost estimate for work during FY98 continues to be $2.OM as published in Revision 3.0. However, the funds will be all CENRTC rather than the OPEX/CENTRC split previously anticipated. LLNL has waived overhead charges on ETD Project CENRTC funds since the beginning of project activities. By requesting the $2.OM as all CENTRC a more aggressive approach to staffing and testing can be taken. Due to a cost under- run condition during FY97 procurements were made and work was accomplished, with the knowledge of DOE, in the Feed Preparation and Final Forms areas that were not in the scope of Revision 3.0. Feed preparation activities for FY98 have been expanded to include the drum opening station/enclosure previously deleted.

  10. Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, M.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Above the forest: the alpine tundra; Solar energy, water, wind and soil in mountains; Mountain weather; Mountain building and plate tectonics; Mountain walls: forming, changing, and disappearing; Living high: mountain ecosystems; Distribution of mountain plants and animals; On foot in the mountains: how to hike and backpack; Ranges and peaks of the world. Map and guidebook sources, natural history and mountain adventure trips, mountain environmental education centers and programs, and sources of information on trails for the handicapped are included.

  11. Mountains

    Treesearch

    Regina M. Rochefort; Laurie L. Kurth; Tara W. Carolin; Robert R. Mierendorf; Kimberly Frappier; David L. Steenson

    2006-01-01

    This chapter concentrates on subalpine parklands and alpine meadows of southern British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and western Montana. These areas lie on the flanks of several mountain ranges including the Olympics, the Cascades of Oregon and Washington, and the Coast Mountains in British Columbia.

  12. Tanks Focus Area FY98 midyear technical review

    SciTech Connect

    Schlahta, S.N.; Brouns, T.M.

    1998-06-01

    The Tanks Focus Area (TFA) serves as the DOE`s Office of Environmental Management`s national technology and solution development program for radioactive waste tank remediation. Its technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: waste retrieval, waste pretreatment, waste immobilization, tank closure, and characterization of both the waste and tank with safety integrated into all the functions. In total, 17 technologies and technical solutions were selected for review. The purpose of each review was to understand the state of development of each technology selected for review and to identify issues to be resolved before the technology or technical solution progressed to the next level of maturity. The reviewers provided detailed technical and programmatic recommendations and comments. The disposition of these recommendations and comments and their impact on the program is documented in this report.

  13. Core Capabilities and Technical Enhancement -- FY-98 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David Lynn

    1999-04-01

    The Core Capability and Technical Enhancement (CC&TE) Program, a part of the Verification, Validation, and Engineering Assessment Program, was implemented to enhance and augment the technical capabilities of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The purpose for strengthening the technical capabilities of the INEEL is to provide the technical base to serve effectively as the Environmental Management Laboratory for the Office of Environmental Management (EM). An analysis of EM's science and technology needs as well as the technology investments currently being made by EM across the complex was used to formulate a portfolio of research activities designed to address EM's needs without overlapping work being done elsewhere. An additional purpose is to enhance and maintain the technical capabilities and research infrastructure at the INEEL. This is a progress report for fiscal year 1998 for the five CC&TE research investment areas: (a) transport aspects of selective mass transport agents, (b) chemistry of environmental surfaces, (c) materials dynamics, (d) characterization science, and (e) computational simulation of mechanical and chemical systems. In addition to the five purely technical research areas, this report deals with the science and technology foundations element of the CC&TE from the standpoint of program management and complex-wide issues. This report also provides details of ongoing and future work in all six areas.

  14. Core capabilities and technical enhancement, FY-98 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.L.

    1999-04-01

    The Core Capability and Technical Enhancement (CCTE) Program, a part of the Verification, Validation, and Engineering Assessment Program, was implemented to enhance and augment the technical capabilities of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The purpose for strengthening the technical capabilities of the INEEL is to provide the technical base to serve effectively as the Environmental Management Laboratory for the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM). An analysis of EM's science and technology needs as well as the technology investments currently being made by EM across the complex was used to formulate a portfolio of research activities designed to address EM's needs without overlapping work being done elsewhere. An additional purpose is to enhance and maintain the technical capabilities and research infrastructure at the INEEL. This is a progress report for fiscal year 1998 for the five CCTE research investment areas: (a) transport aspects of selective mass transport agents, (b) chemistry of environmental surfaces, (c) materials dynamics, (d) characterization science, and (e) computational simulation of mechanical and chemical systems. In addition to the five purely technical research areas, this report deals with the science and technology foundations element of the CCTE from the standpoint of program management and complex-wide issues. This report also provides details of ongoing and future work in all six areas.

  15. FY98 Funding & Language Track for Ballistic Missile Defense Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

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  16. Energy Storage Systems Program Report for FY98

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, P.C.

    1999-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Energy Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Power Technologies. The goal of this program is to collaborate with industry in developing cost-effective electric energy storage systems for many high-value stationary applications. Sandia National Laboratories is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development and testing of energy storage components and systems. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1998.

  17. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY98

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, T.; Chartock, M.

    1999-02-05

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL or Berkeley Lab) Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY 1998 report is compiled from annual reports submitted by principal investigators following the close of the fiscal year. This report describes the supported projects and summarizes their accomplishments. It constitutes a part of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program planning and documentation process that includes an annual planning cycle, projection selection, implementation, and review. The LBNL LDRD program is a critical tool for directing the Laboratory's forefront scientific research capabilities toward vital, excellent, and emerging scientific challenges. The program provides the resources for LBNL scientists to make rapid and significant contributions to critical national science and technology problems. The LDRD program also advances LBNL's core competencies, foundations, and scientific capability, and permits exploration of exciting new opportunities. All projects are work in forefront areas of science and technology. Areas eligible for support include the following: Advanced study of hypotheses, concepts, or innovative approaches to scientific or technical problems; Experiments and analyses directed toward ''proof of principle'' or early determination of the utility of new scientific ideas, technical concepts, or devices; and Conception and preliminary technical analyses of experimental facilities or devices.

  18. Christmas Mountains

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Christmas Mountains     View Larger ... of New Brunswick. Located above image center are the Christmas Mountains, a region of old-growth forest nestled in a remote ... date:  Mar 8, 2001 Images:  Christmas Mountains location:  Canada ...

  19. Appalachian Mountains

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Appalachian Mountains     View Larger Image Multi-angle views of the Appalachian Mountains, March 6, 2000 . The true-color image at left is a ... location:  United States region:  Eastern United States Order:  3 ...

  20. Appalachian Mountains

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Aerosols over the Appalachian Mountains     View ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) acquired these views of the Appalachian Mountains on March 6, 2000. The image at left is a downward-looking ... location:  United States region:  Eastern United States Order:  2 ...

  1. Stone Mountain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This color image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the part of the rock outcrop dubbed Stone Mountain at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Scientists are examining Stone Mountain with the instruments on the rover's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' in search of clues about the composition of the rock outcrop. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] A Patch of Stone (Figure credit: NASA/JPL/Cornell/USGS)

    The colorless square in this color image of the martian rock formation called Stone Mountain is one portion of the rock being analyzed with tools on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The square area is approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across. Stone Mountain is located within the rock outcrop on Meridiani Planum, Mars. The image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

  2. Stone Mountain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This color image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the part of the rock outcrop dubbed Stone Mountain at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Scientists are examining Stone Mountain with the instruments on the rover's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' in search of clues about the composition of the rock outcrop. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] A Patch of Stone (Figure credit: NASA/JPL/Cornell/USGS)

    The colorless square in this color image of the martian rock formation called Stone Mountain is one portion of the rock being analyzed with tools on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The square area is approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across. Stone Mountain is located within the rock outcrop on Meridiani Planum, Mars. The image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

  3. Caucasus Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Often regarded as the southeastern border of Europe, the Caucasus Mountains can be seen here stretching from the Black Sea (left) to the Caspian Sea (right). The mountain range spans 700 miles (1125 km), crossing the countries of Russian Federation, Georgia, and Azerbaijan from left to right respectively. With a snowline of approximately 11,000 feet and peaks such as Mt. Elbrus, that reach 15,000 feet, much of the snow visible in this image is present year round. Also visible in this image are apparent phytoplankton blooms in the Caspian Sea, marked by blue-green swirls.

  4. 2. EAGLE MOUNTAIN SWITCHYARD. EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP PLANT CAN BE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAGLE MOUNTAIN SWITCHYARD. EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP PLANT CAN BE SEEN THROUGH SWITCHYARD IN BACKGROUND. 165MM LENS. - Eagle Mountain Pump Plant, Ten miles north of Route 10, southeast of Eagle Mountain, Eagle Mountain, Riverside County, CA

  5. Mountains: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Alton; Gilligan, Nancy; Golston, Syd; Linville, Rex

    1999-01-01

    Introduces the lessons from "Mountain: A Global Resource" that were developed by the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) and The Mountain Institute for use by NCSS members and their students. Provides an overview that introduces the mountains, mountain cultures, historical perceptions, and the geographical importance of…

  6. TFA Tank Focus Area - multiyear program plan FY98-FY00

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major radioactive waste tank remediation problem with hundreds of waste tanks containing hundreds of thousands of cubic meters of high-level waste (HLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste across the DOE complex. Approximately 80 tanks are known or assumed to have leaked. Some of the tank contents have reacted to form flammable gases, introducing additional safety risks. These tanks must be maintained in a safe condition and eventually remediated to minimize the risk of waste migration and/or exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. However, programmatic drivers are more ambitious than baseline technologies and budgets will support. Science and technology development investments are required to reduce the technical and programmatic risks associated with the tank remediation baselines. The Tanks Focus Area (TFA) was initiated in 1994 to serve as the DOE`s Office of Environmental Management`s (EM`s) national technology development program for radioactive waste tank remediation. The national program was formed to increase integration and realize greater benefits from DOE`s technology development budget. The TFA is responsible for managing, coordinating, and leveraging technology development to support DOE`s four major tank sites: Hanford Site (Washington), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (Idaho), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (Tennessee), and Savannah River Site (SRS) (South Carolina). Its technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: waste retrieval, waste pretreatment, waste immobilization, tank closure, and characterization of both the waste and tank with safety integrated into all the functions. The TFA integrates program activities across organizations that fund tank technology development EM, including the Offices of Waste Management (EM-30), Environmental Restoration (EM-40), and Science and Technology (EM-50).

  7. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Plasma Fusion Center FY97--FY98 work proposal

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    Alcator C-Mod is the high-field, high-density divertor tokamak in the world fusion program. It is one of five divertor experiments capable of plasma currents exceeding one megamp. Because of its compact dimensions, Alcator C-Mod investigates an essential area in parameter space, which complements the world`s larger experiments, in establishing the tokamak physics database. Three key areas of investigation have been called out in which Alcator C-Mod has a vital role to play: (1) divertor research on C-Mod takes advantage of the advanced divertor shaping, the very high scrap-off-layer power density, unique abilities in impurity diagnosis, and the High-Z metal wall, to advance the physics understanding of this critical topic; (2) in transport studies, C-Mod is making critical tests of both empirical scalings and theoretically based interpretations of tokamak transport, at dimensional parameters that are unique but dimensionless parameters often comparable to those in much larger experiments; (3) in the area of Advanced Tokamak research, so important to concept optimization, the high-field design of the device also provides long pulse length, compared to resistive skin time, which provides an outstanding opportunity to investigate the extent to which enhanced confinement and stability can be sustained in steady-state, using active profile control. In addition to these main programmatic emphasis, important enabling research is being performed in MHD stability and control, which has great significance for the immediate design of ITER, and in the physics and engineering of ICRF, which is the main auxiliary heating method on C-Mod.

  8. FY98 Final Report Initial Interfacial Chemical Control for Enhancement of Composite Material Strength

    SciTech Connect

    GE Fryxell; KL Alford; KL Simmons; RD Voise; WD Samuels

    1999-10-14

    The U.S. Army Armament Research Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) sponsored this research project to support the development of new self-assembled monolayer fiber coatings. These coatings can greatly increase the bond strength between the fiber and the resin matrix of a composite material. Composite ammunition components molded from such materials will exhibit higher strength than current materials, and will provide a major improvement in the performance of composites in military applications. Use of composite materials in military applications is desirable because of the lighter weight of the materials and their high strengths. The FY97 project investigated initial interfacial chemical control for enhancement of composite material strength. The core of the project was to modify the covalent interface of glass fibers (or other reinforcing fibers) to induce strong, uniform, defect-free adhesion between the fibers' surfaces and the polymer matrix. Installing a self-assembled monolayer tailored to the specific matrix resin accomplished this. Simply, the self-assembled monolayer modifies the fiber to make it appear to have the same chemical composition as the resin matrix. The self-assembled monolayer creates a receptive, hydrophobic interface that the thermoset resin (or polymer precursors) would wet more effectively, leading to a higher contact surface area and more efficient adhesion. The FY97 work phase demonstrated that it is possible to increase the adhesive strength, as well as increase the heat deflection temperature through the use of self-assembled monolayer.

  9. SRTC Input to DOE-HQ R and D Database for FY98

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, L.R. Jr.

    1998-11-18

    IDWP is a software application that was developed to identify the groundwater monitoring wells at SRS that require containerization and treatment for purge water generated during sampling. Created by the Statistical Consulting Section of SRTC, IDWP is a SAS application that retrieves the necessary data for wells selected by the user from the Site's extensive groundwater database on a remote machine. The program then applies an algorithm, derived by the Environmental Protection Department from the SRS Investigation-Derived Waste (IDW) Management Plan, to the analytical results to determine whether containerization is required for the specified wells. IDWP produces output files that designate the containerization status of each of the selected wells, provide statistics to support the treatment facilities' permits, and assist with controlling and scheduling the handling of the managed purge water. The SRS Aqueous IDW Administrator in the Environmental Restoration Division (ERD) uses IDWP in conjunction with knowledge of new wells to produce quarterly reports that specify which groundwater monitoring wells require purge water containerization for each treatment facility. Special reports supply other groundwater information of interest to ERD, such as analytical concentration plots and groundwater data gathering. Benefits include the timely generation of containerization lists for each treatment facility; the automatic retrieval of, and complex calculations for, extremely large amounts of data, ensuring consistent, accurate, and current containerization lists; and features such as a user-friendly interface, availability through computer networks, access for simultaneous multiple users, and independence from any particular person. The scope of IDWP continually expands to accommodate changes to the IDW Management Plan and to satisfy additional needs as they are identified, including the development of an Intranet interface for FY99.

  10. Long-Range Information Resources Management (IRM) Plan FY 92-FY 98

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    organizing input to the formulation/evolution of standards and publicizing technical articles and bulletins. The DMF executive committee was established in FY...services, maintenance, related supplies, and systems. 0 0-1 Federal Telecomunications System (FTS) - The umbrella of local and long distance

  11. Experimental Results of NWCF Run H4 Calcine Dissolution Studies Performed in FY-98 and -99

    SciTech Connect

    Garn, Troy Gerry; Herbst, Ronald Scott; Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas; Sierra, Tracy Laureena

    2001-08-01

    Dissolution experiments were performed on actual samples of NWCF Run H-4 radioactive calcine in fiscal years 1998 and 1999. Run H-4 is an aluminum/sodium blend calcine. Typical dissolution data indicates that between 90-95 wt% of H-4 calcine can be dissolved using 1gram of calcine per 10 mLs of 5-8M nitric acid at boiling temperature. Two liquid raffinate solutions composed of a WM-188/aluminum nitrate blend and a WM-185/aluminum nitrate blend were converted into calcine at the NWCF. Calcine made from each blend was collected and transferred to RAL for dissolution studies. The WM-188/aluminum nitrate blend calcine was dissolved with resultant solutions used as feed material for separation treatment experimentation. The WM-185/aluminum nitrate blend calcine dissolution testing was performed to determine compositional analyses of the dissolved solution and generate UDS for solid/liquid separation experiments. Analytical fusion techniques were then used to determine compositions of the solid calcine and UDS from dissolution. The results from each of these analyses were used to calculate elemental material balances around the dissolution process, validating the experimental data. This report contains all experimental data from dissolution experiments performed using both calcine blends.

  12. Integrated computer control system CORBA-based simulator FY98 LDRD project final summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, R M; Holloway, F W; Van Arsdall, P J

    1999-01-15

    The CORBA-based Simulator was a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project that applied simulation techniques to explore critical questions about distributed control architecture. The simulator project used a three-prong approach comprised of a study of object-oriented distribution tools, computer network modeling, and simulation of key control system scenarios. This summary report highlights the findings of the team and provides the architectural context of the study. For the last several years LLNL has been developing the Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS), which is an abstract object-oriented software framework for constructing distributed systems. The framework is capable of implementing large event-driven control systems for mission-critical facilities such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Tools developed in this project were applied to the NIF example architecture in order to gain experience with a complex system and derive immediate benefits from this LDRD. The ICCS integrates data acquisition and control hardware with a supervisory system, and reduces the amount of new coding and testing necessary by providing prebuilt components that can be reused and extended to accommodate specific additional requirements. The framework integrates control point hardware with a supervisory system by providing the services needed for distributed control such as database persistence, system start-up and configuration, graphical user interface, status monitoring, event logging, scripting language, alert management, and access control. The design is interoperable among computers of different kinds and provides plug-in software connections by leveraging a common object request brokering architecture (CORBA) to transparently distribute software objects across the network of computers. Because object broker distribution applied to control systems is relatively new and its inherent performance is roughly threefold less than traditional point-to-point communications, CORBA presented a certain risk to designers. This LDRD thus evaluated CORBA to determine its performance and scaling properties and to optimize its use within the ICCS. Both UNIX (Sun Solaris) and real-time (Wind River VxWorks) operating systems were studied. Performance of ICCS deployment was estimated by measuring software prototypes on a distributed computer testbed and then scaled to the desired operating regime by discrete-event simulation techniques. A study of CORBA protocols continues to guide software optimization as NIF software is being implemented and tested. The message-driven nature of distributed control places heavy demands on computers and network switches, so a complementary simulation of network architectures for several protocols was undertaken using a network modeling tool (OPNET Modeler). Additional workflow simulations were developed in a general simulation tool (Simprocess) to assess system behavior of high-stress operational scenarios. Understanding the risks and decisions that trade-off in designing the framework and supporting hardware architecture was enhanced by a concurrent program of simulation and prototype validation of the ICCS applied to the NIF example.

  13. DISCOM2: Distance Computing the SP2 Pilot FY98 Report

    SciTech Connect

    Beiriger, Judy; Byers, Rupert K.; Ernest, Martha J.; Goudy, Sue P.; Noe, John P.; Pratt, Thomas J.; Shirley, David N.; Tarman, Thomas D.; VanDevender, Walter H.; Wiltzius, David P.

    1999-05-01

    As a way to bootstrap the DISCOM(2) Distance Computing Program the SP2 Pilot Project was launched in March 1998. The Pilot was directed towards creating an environment to allow Sandia users to run their applications on the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative's (ASCI) Blue Pacific computation platform, the unclassified IBM SP2 platform at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The DISCOM(2) Pilot leverages the ASCI PSE (Problem solving Environment) efforts in networking and services to baseline the performance of the current system. Efforts in the following areas of the pilot are documented: applications, services, networking, visualization, and the system model. It details not only the running of two Sandia codes CTH and COYOTE on the Blue Pacific platform, but also the buildong of the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) proxy environment of the RS6000 platforms to support the Sandia users.

  14. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000654.htm Rocky Mountain spotted fever To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a disease caused by a ...

  15. Lesson 2: Sacred Mountains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Alton; Gilligan, Nancy; Golston, Syd; Linville, Rex

    1999-01-01

    Presents a lesson in which the students are divided into four Mountain Study Teams in order to examine a sacred mountain. Explains that the students in each group assume a particular role, such as an historian or scientist. Provides a profile on the four mountains and a definition of the seven student roles. (CMK)

  16. Mountains of Titan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-14

    This map of Saturn moon Titan identifies the locations of mountains named by the International Astronomical Union. By convention, mountains on Titan are named for mountains from Middle-earth, the fictional setting in fantasy novels by J.R.R. Tolkien.

  17. Mountain chickadee (Poecile gambeli)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCallum, D. Archibald; Grundel, Ralph; Dahlsten, Donald L.; Poole, Alan; Gill, Frank

    1999-01-01

    The Mountain Chickadee (Poecile gambeli), a small, cavity-nesting songbird, is one of the most common birds of montane and coniferous forest from southern Arizona and Baja California north to British Columbia and the Yukon territory. This publication describes the life history of the Mountain Chickadee.

  18. Mountain Pine Beetle

    Treesearch

    Gene D. Amman; Mark D. McGregor; Robert E. Jr. Dolph

    1989-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a member of a group of beetles known as bark beetles: Except when adults emerge and attack new trees, the mountain pine beetle completes its life cycle under the bark. The beetle attacks and kills lodgepole, ponderosa, sugar, and western white pines. Outbreaks frequently develop in lodgepole pine stands that...

  19. Mountaineering fatalities on Denali.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Scott E; Campbell, Aaron D; Dow, Jennifer; Grissom, Colin K

    2008-01-01

    Mount McKinley, or Denali, is the tallest mountain in North America and attracts over 1,000 climbers annually from around the world. Since Denali is located within a national park, the National Park Service (NPS) manages mountaineering activities and attempts to maintain a balance of an adventurous experience while promoting safety. We retrospectively reviewed the fatalities on Denali from 1903 to 2006 to assist the NPS, medical personnel, and mountaineers improve safety and reduce fatalities on the mountain. Historical records and the NPS climber database were reviewed. Demographics, mechanisms, and circumstances surrounding each fatality were examined. Fatality rates and odds ratios for country of origin were calculated. From 1903 through the end of the 2006 climbing season, 96 individuals died on Denali. The fatality rate is declining and is 3.08/1,000 summit attempts. Of the 96 deaths, 92% were male, 51% occurred on the West Buttress route, and 45% were due to injuries sustained from falls. Sixty-one percent occurred on the descent and the largest number of deaths in 1 year occurred in 1992. Climbers from Asia had the highest odds of dying on the mountain. Fatalities were decreased by 53% after a NPS registration system was established in 1995. Although mountaineering remains a high-risk activity, safety on Denali is improving. Certain groups have a significantly higher chance of dying. Registration systems and screening methods provide ways to target at-risk groups and improve safety on high altitude mountains such as Denali.

  20. Acute mountain sickness

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur with more severe acute mountain sickness include: Blue color to the skin (cyanosis) Chest tightness or congestion Confusion Cough Coughing up blood Decreased consciousness or withdrawal from social interaction Gray ...

  1. Mountain regions in peril

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    The United Nations has declared 2002 the International Year of Mountains (IYM) to bring attention to a number of threats that affect ecosystems and human populations in mountainous and highland regions around the world.“More than half of humanity—3 billion people—relies on mountains for safe, fresh water, water to grow food, to produce electricity to sustain industries and, most important, water to drink,“ said Jacques Diouf, director-general of the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization, the primary IYM sponsor. “Yet, mountain glaciers, the source of water for many of the world's river systems and people, are melting at unprecedented rates.”

  2. Organic contaminants in mountains.

    PubMed

    Daly, Gillian L; Wania, Frank

    2005-01-15

    The study of organic contaminants at high altitudes is motivated by the potential risk that they pose to humans living in, or depending on resources derived from, mountains and to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in alpine areas. Mountains are also ideal settings to study contaminant transport and behavior along gradients of climate and surface cover. Information on organic contaminants in mountains is compiled from the literature and synthesized, with a focus on atmospheric transport and deposition, contaminant dynamics in alpine lakes and aquatic organisms, and concentration differences with altitude. Diurnal mountain winds, in connection with enhanced deposition at higher elevations caused by low temperatures and high precipitation rates, conspire to make mid-latitude mountains become convergence zones for selected persistent organic chemicals. In particular, the more volatile constituents of contaminant mixtures seem to become enriched, relative to the less volatile constituents at higher altitudes. For selected contaminants, concentration inversions (i.e., concentrations that increase with elevation) have been observed. A notable difference between cold trapping in high latitudes and high altitudes is the likely importance of precipitation. High rates of snow deposition in mid- and high-latitude mountains may lead to a large contaminant release during snowmelt. Regions above the tree line often have little capacity to retain the released contaminants, suggesting the potential for a highly dynamic contaminant fate situation during the snow-free season with significant revolatilization and runoff. The chemical and environmental factors that control the orographic cold trapping of organic contaminants should be examined further by measuring and comparatively interpreting concentration gradients along several mountain slopes with widely different characteristics. Future efforts should further focus on the bioaccumulation and potential effects of contaminants in

  3. Mountain Rivers Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-12-01

    Published in 2000, the original Mountain Rivers was written to provide a concise summary of the scientific understanding of the distinct subset of rivers that gave the book its name. Spurred by developments in the field in the past decade, the book's author, Ellen Wohl, produced Mountain Rivers Revisited, an updated edition aimed at graduate students and professional researchers. In this interview, Eos talks to Wohl about steep channels, climate change, and opportunities for future research.

  4. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    SciTech Connect

    A.M. Simmons

    2004-04-16

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

  5. Ural Mountains, Russia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-10-06

    This image from NASA Terra spacecraft shows the Ural Mountains, which run 2500 km north-south through western Russia, and form the boundary between Europe and Asia. Since the 17th century, the mountains were exploited for their deposits of iron, copper, gold, coal, oil, mica and gemstones. The Urals are among the world's oldest existing mountain ranges, having been formed about 275 million years ago due to the collision of the Laurussia supercontinent with the continent of Kazakhstania. The image was acquired July 13, 2011, covers an area of 39 by 62 km, and is located near 65.5 degrees north, 59.9 degrees east. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19795

  6. Mountain Home Well - Photos

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shervais, John

    2012-01-11

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  7. STRAWBERRY MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thayer, T.P.; Stotelmeyer, Ronald B.

    1984-01-01

    The Strawberry Mountain Wilderness extends 18 mi along the crest of the Strawberry Range and comprises about 53 sq mi in the Malheur National Forest, Grant County, Oregon. Systematic geologic mapping, geochemical sampling and detailed sampling of prospect workings was done. A demonstrated copper resource in small quartz veins averaging at most 0. 33 percent copper with traces of silver occurs in shear zones in gabbro. Two small areas with substantiated potential for chrome occur near the northern edge of the wilderness. There is little promise for the occurrence of additional mineral or energy resources in the Strawberry Mountain Wilderness.

  8. WILSON MOUNTAINS WILDERNESS, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bromfield, Calvin S.; Williams, Frank E.

    1984-01-01

    The Wilson Mountains Wilderness consists of about 68 sq mi in the San Miguel Mountains in southwestern Colorado. Based on a mineral survey two areas in the wilderness have a probable mineral-resource potential. One area is on the east margin of the area in the Trout Lake mining district, and the other is near the center of the area, the Mount Wilson mining district. Both areas have had a modest base and (or) precious metal production from narrow veins and have a probable potential for the occurrence of similar deposits. Of more significance is a probable mineral-resource potential for disseminated copper mineralization in the Mount Wilson mining district.

  9. Himalayan Mountain Range, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Snow is present the year round in most of the high Himalaya Mountain Range (33.0N, 76.5E). In this view taken at the onset of winter, the continuous snow line can be seen for hundreds of miles along the south face of the range in the Indian states of Punjab and Kashmir. The snow line is at about 12,000 ft. altitude but the deep Cenab River gorge is easily delineated as a break along the south edge of the snow covered mountains. '

  10. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jennan

    2017-01-01

    The tick-borne disease Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) can have deadly outcomes unless treated appropriately, yet nonspecific flu-like symptoms complicate diagnosis. Occupational health nurses must have a high index of suspicion with symptomatic workers and recognize that recent recreational or occupational activities with potential tick exposure may suggest RMSF.

  11. Mountain pine beetle

    Treesearch

    Ken Gibson; Sandy Kegley; Barbara Bentz

    2009-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) is a member of a group of insects known as bark beetles. Its entire life cycle is spent beneath the bark of host trees, except when adults emerge from brood trees and fly in search of new host trees.

  12. DOE's Yucca Mountain Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This booklet is about the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in the United States with a particular focus on Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a repository site. Intended for readers who do not have a technical background, the booklet discusses why scientists and engineers think high-level nuclear waste may be disposed of safely underground. An…

  13. The Strongest Mountain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monnes, Colleen

    2004-01-01

    The article describes an activity for the author's fifth-grade students called "build the strongest mountain." To them, it was not a lesson--it was a challenge. To the author, it was an activity that turned a run-of-the-mill Earth science unit into a terrific opportunity for students to demonstrate their knowledge of erosion and develop…

  14. DOE's Yucca Mountain Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This booklet is about the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in the United States with a particular focus on Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a repository site. Intended for readers who do not have a technical background, the booklet discusses why scientists and engineers think high-level nuclear waste may be disposed of safely underground. An…

  15. The Strongest Mountain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monnes, Colleen

    2004-01-01

    The article describes an activity for the author's fifth-grade students called "build the strongest mountain." To them, it was not a lesson--it was a challenge. To the author, it was an activity that turned a run-of-the-mill Earth science unit into a terrific opportunity for students to demonstrate their knowledge of erosion and develop…

  16. Rocky Mountain Riparian Digest

    Treesearch

    Deborah M. Finch

    2008-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Riparian Digest presents the many facets of riparian research at the station. Included are articles about protecting the riparian habitat, the social and economic values of riparian environments, watershed restoration, remote sensing tools, and getting kids interested in the science.

  17. Rocky Mountain High.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, David

    2001-01-01

    Describes Colorado's Eagle Rock School, which offers troubled teens a fresh start by transporting them to a tuition- free campus high in the mountains. The program encourages spiritual development as well as academic growth. The atmosphere is warm, loving, structured, and nonthreatening. The article profiles several students' experiences at the…

  18. The Mountaineer Minority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egerton, John; Gaillard, Frye

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the new Appalachian movement, based on the assumption that mountain people are a distinct and maligned cultural minority; the people of Appalachia, white, black and red, have begun to strike back against the dam-builders, strip-miners, and others they say are gouging out the region's mineral resources by the cheapest means possible no…

  19. Klamath Mountains bioregion

    Treesearch

    Carl N. Skinner; Alan H. Taylor; James K. Agee

    2006-01-01

    The Klamath Mountains bioregion makes up a major portion of northwestern California continuing into southwestern Oregon to near Roseburg. In California, the bioregion lies primarily between the Northern California Coast bioregion on the west and the southern Cascade Range to the east. The southern boundary is made up of the Northern California Coast Ranges and Northern...

  20. The Mountaineer Minority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egerton, John; Gaillard, Frye

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the new Appalachian movement, based on the assumption that mountain people are a distinct and maligned cultural minority; the people of Appalachia, white, black and red, have begun to strike back against the dam-builders, strip-miners, and others they say are gouging out the region's mineral resources by the cheapest means possible no…

  1. Mountain-Plains Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mountain-Plains Education and Economic Development Program, Inc., Glasgow AFB, MT.

    The document lists the Mountain-Plains curriculum by job title (where applicable), including support courses. The curriculum areas covered are mathematics skills, communication skills, office education, lodging services, food services, marketing and distribution, welding support, automotive, small engines, career guidance, World of Work, health…

  2. Mountain-Plains Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mountain-Plains Education and Economic Development Program, Inc., Glasgow AFB, MT.

    The document lists the Mountain-Plains curriculum by job title (where applicable), including support courses. The curriculum areas covered are mathematics skills, communication skills, office education, lodging services, food services, marketing and distribution, welding support, automotive, small engines, career guidance, World of Work, health…

  3. Digital mountains: toward development and environment protection in mountain regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiaobo

    2007-06-01

    Former studies on mountain system are focused on the department or subject characters, i.e. different department and branches of learning carry out researches only for their individual purposes and with individual characters of the subject of interests. As a whole, their investigation is lacking of comprehensive study in combination with global environment. Ecological environment in mountain regions is vulnerable to the disturbance of human activities. Therefore, it is a key issue to coordinate economic development and environment protection in mountain regions. On the other hand, a lot of work is ongoing on mountain sciences, especially depending on the application of RS and GIS. Moreover, the development of the Digital Earth (DE) provides a clue to re-understand mountains. These are the background of the emergence of the Digital Mountains (DM). One of the purposes of the DM is integrating spatial related data and information about mountains. Moreover, the DM is a viewpoint and methodology of understanding and quantifying mountains holistically. The concept of the DM is that, the spatial and temporal data related to mountain regions are stored and managed in computers; moreover, manipulating, analyzing, modeling, simulating and sharing of the mountain information are implemented by utilizing technologies of RS, GIS, GPS, Geo-informatic Tupu, computer, virtual reality (VR), 3D simulation, massive storage, mutual operation and network communication. The DM aims at advancing mountain sciences and sustainable mountain development. The DM is used to providing information and method for coordinating the mountain regions development and environment protection. The fundamental work of the DM is the design of the scientific architecture. Furthermore, construct and develop massive databases of mountains are the important steps these days.

  4. Andes Mountains, Chile

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-09-30

    STS068-260-078 (30 September-11 October 1994) --- The ice visible along the bottom of this view is the north end of the larger (southern) of two great remaining ice field of the Andes Mountains in Chile. The longest glacier visible here flows down into the Calen Fjord (an arm of the Pacific Ocean known as Canal Baker) where numerous calved icebergs can be seen floating. The other three glaciers end in glacier-cut valleys with small lakes - the bigger lake has numerous icebergs as well. the river snaking through the mountains to the fjord drains water from the great Lake O'Higgins, which lies out of the picture to the right. Glacial mud can be seen emptying into the fjord and discoloring the water with its milky color.

  5. Purple Mountain Majesty

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-07-15

    NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbite observed this image of an isolated mountain in the Southern highlands reveals a large exposure of purplish bedrock. Since HiRISE color is shifted to longer wavelengths than visible color and given relative stretches, this really means that the bedrock is roughly dark in the broad red bandpass image compared to the blue-green and near-infrared bandpass images. In the RGB (red-green-blue) color image, which excludes the near-infrared bandpass image, the bedrock appears bluish in color. This small mountain is located near the northeastern rim of the giant Hellas impact basin, and could be impact ejecta. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19854

  6. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-98 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, A.K.; McCray, J.A.; Rogers, A.Z.; Simmons, R.F.; Palethrope, S.J.

    1999-03-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1998, three grout formulations were studied for low-activity wastes derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste. Compressive strength and leach results are presented for phosphate bonding cement, acidic grout, and alkaline grout formulations. In an additional study, grout formulations are recommended for stabilization of the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.

  7. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program, FY-98 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, A.K.; Rogers, A.Z.; McCray, J.A.; Simmons, R.F.; Palethorpe, S.J.

    1999-03-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1998, three grout formulations were studied for low-activity wastes derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste. Compressive strength and leach results are presented for phosphate bonding cement, acidic grout, and alkaline grout formulations. In an additional study, grout formulations are recommended for stabilization of the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.

  8. LDRD final report backside localization of open and shorted IC interconnections LDRD Project (FY98 and FY 99)

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, E.I. Jr.; Tangyunyong, P.; Benson, D.A.; Barton, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    Two new failure analysis techniques have been developed for backside and front side localization of open and shorted interconnections on ICs. These scanning optical microscopy techniques take advantage of the interactions between IC defects and localized heating using a focused infrared laser ({lambda} = 1,340 nm). Images are produced by monitoring the voltage changes across a constant current supply used to power the IC as the laser beam is scanned across the sample. The methods utilize the Seebeck Effect to localize open interconnections and Thermally-Induced Voltage Alteration (TIVA) to detect shorts. Initial investigations demonstrated the feasibility of TIVA and Seebeck Effect Imaging (SEI). Subsequent improvements have greatly increased the sensitivity of the TIVA/SEI system, reducing the acquisition times by more than 20X and localizing previously unobserved defects. The interaction physics describing the signal generation process and several examples demonstrating the localization of opens and shorts are described. Operational guidelines and limitations are also discussed. The system improvements, non-linear response of IC defects to heating, modeling of laser heating and examples using the improved system for failure analysis are presented.

  9. Title IX Program Evaluation: Corresponding with FY 98 Application for Grants. Albuquerque Public Schools, 1997-98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mearns, Curt

    Title IX and Johnson O'Malley services were provided to 1,495 Native American students at 10 Albuquerque (New Mexico) elementary, middle, and high schools and the Homework Center during the 1997-98 school year. The five goals of the Title IX program were to provide: (1) intervention assistance for students, in which students, parents, and staff…

  10. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-98 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, Alan Keith; Mc Cray, John Alan; Rogers, Adam Zachary; Simmons, R. F.; Palethorpe, S. J.

    1999-03-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1998, three grout formulations were studied for low-activity wastes derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste. Compressive strength and leach results are presented for phosphate bonding cement, acidic grout, and alkaline grout formulations. In an additional study, grout formulations are recommended for stabilization of the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.

  11. Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Lacz, N L; Schwartz, R A; Kapila, R

    2006-04-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is an unusual but important dermatological condition to identify without hesitation. The classic triad of headache, fever, and a rash that begins on the extremities and travels proximally to involve the trunk is found in a majority of patients. The cutaneous centripetal pattern is a result of cell to cell migration by the causative organism Rickettsia rickettsii. Such individuals should receive prompt antimicrobial therapy and supportive care to avoid serious and potentially fatal complications.

  12. Yucca Mountain repository approved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    At a quiet White House ceremony on 23 July, U.S. President George W. Bush signed into law House Joint Resolution 87, which approves the site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the development of a repository for disposing of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.White House spokesman Ari Fleischer called the signing “an important step forward on the way to a comprehensive policy for dealing with our nation's nuclear waste.”

  13. Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Kamper, C A; Chessman, K H; Phelps, S J

    1988-02-01

    The epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, and treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever are reviewed. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a severe infection caused by Rickettsia rickettsii transmitted to man by various species of ticks. High-incidence areas exist in the southeast and south central United States. Only 60-70% of patients with the disease report a history of tick bite or exposure to tick-infested areas. The disease is initially characterized by fever, headache, gastrointestinal complaints, myalgia, and a generalized rash. In several days generalized vasculitis may lead to periorbital edema and nonpitting edema of the face and extremities. Central nervous system involvement is common. Because signs and symptoms associated with the disease are nonspecific, the diagnosis is often delayed or missed. Traditionally diagnostic confirmation relied on serologic testing, but an indirect fluorescent antibody assay will soon be commercially available. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is usually treated with the rickettsiostatic agents chloramphenicol or tetracycline, but few comparative data on these agents in patients with the disease are available. For patients who cannot tolerate oral medications, intravenous chloramphenicol sodium succinate is the preferred treatment; chloramphenicol is also the drug of choice for children less than eight years of age. Otherwise, oral tetracycline hydrochloride is the drug of choice. Antibiotic therapy should be continued for 7-10 days or until the patient is afebrile for two to five days. All cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever must be reported to the Centers for Disease Control. The best ways to decrease the morbidity and mortality of the disease are to increase awareness of its signs and symptoms and to prevent exposure to ticks.

  14. Ice Mountains and Plains

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-24

    High-resolution images of Pluto taken by NASA's New Horizons spacecraft just before closest approach on July 14, 2015, are the sharpest images to date of Pluto's varied terrain-revealing details down to scales of 270 meters. In this 75-mile (120-kilometer) section taken from the larger, high-resolution mosaic, the textured surface of the plain surrounds two isolated ice mountains. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19954

  15. [Rocky Mountain spotted fever].

    PubMed

    Reinauer, K M; Jaschonek, K; Kusch, G; Heizmann, W R; Döller, P C; Jenss, H

    1990-01-12

    After returning from a holiday in the USA a 24-year-old man fell ill with diarrhoea, high fever and marked rash including the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. When a history of a tick bite in the USA was elicited, a rickettsial infection was suspected. Treatment with doxycycline, 100 mg twice daily, was instituted finally and the fever slowly resolved. The patient became completely well again within four weeks. Serological tests confirmed the diagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

  16. Tall Mountain: Enhanced View

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-08-06

    Among the highest features seen on Ceres so far is a mountain about 4 miles (6 kilometers) high, which is roughly the elevation of Mount McKinley in Alaska's Denali National Park. This image comes from an animation, shown in PIA19619, generated using data from NASA's Dawn spacecraft. Vertical relief has been exaggerated by a factor of five. Exaggerating the relief helps scientists understand and visualize the topography much more easily, and highlights features that are sometimes subtle. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19618

  17. Human impacts to mountain streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2006-09-01

    Mountain streams are here defined as channel networks within mountainous regions of the world. This definition encompasses tremendous diversity of physical and biological conditions, as well as history of land use. Human effects on mountain streams may result from activities undertaken within the stream channel that directly alter channel geometry, the dynamics of water and sediment movement, contaminants in the stream, or aquatic and riparian communities. Examples include channelization, construction of grade-control structures or check dams, removal of beavers, and placer mining. Human effects can also result from activities within the watershed that indirectly affect streams by altering the movement of water, sediment, and contaminants into the channel. Deforestation, cropping, grazing, land drainage, and urbanization are among the land uses that indirectly alter stream processes. An overview of the relative intensity of human impacts to mountain streams is provided by a table summarizing human effects on each of the major mountainous regions with respect to five categories: flow regulation, biotic integrity, water pollution, channel alteration, and land use. This table indicates that very few mountains have streams not at least moderately affected by land use. The least affected mountainous regions are those at very high or very low latitudes, although our scientific ignorance of conditions in low-latitude mountains in particular means that streams in these mountains might be more altered than is widely recognized. Four case studies from northern Sweden (arctic region), Colorado Front Range (semiarid temperate region), Swiss Alps (humid temperate region), and Papua New Guinea (humid tropics) are also used to explore in detail the history and effects on rivers of human activities in mountainous regions. The overview and case studies indicate that mountain streams must be managed with particular attention to upstream/downstream connections, hillslope

  18. Cercocarpus Kunth: mountain-mahogany

    Treesearch

    Stanley G. Kitchen

    2008-01-01

    The mountain mahoganies - genus Cercocarpus - are 8 to 10 species of moderately to intricately branched shrubs or small trees that are endemic to dry coastal and interior mountains of the western United States and Mexico (Stutz 1990). Leaves are generally persistent and stems are unarmed. Two of the most widely distributed and utilized species are described here.

  19. SP mountain data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawson, R. F.; Hamilton, R. E.; Liskow, C. L.; Dias, A. R.; Jackson, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of synthetic aperture radar data of SP Mountain was undertaken to demonstrate the use of digital image processing techniques to aid in geologic interpretation of SAR data. These data were collected with the ERIM X- and L-band airborne SAR using like- and cross-polarizations. The resulting signal films were used to produce computer compatible tapes, from which four-channel imagery was generated. Slant range-to-ground range and range-azimuth-scale corrections were made in order to facilitate image registration; intensity corrections were also made. Manual interpretation of the imagery showed that L-band represented the geology of the area better than X-band. Several differences between the various images were also noted. Further digital analysis of the corrected data was done for enhancement purposes. This analysis included application of an MSS differencing routine and development of a routine for removal of relief displacement. It was found that accurate registration of the SAR channels is critical to the effectiveness of the differencing routine. Use of the relief displacement algorithm on the SP Mountain data demonstrated the feasibility of the technique.

  20. YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT - A BRIEFING --

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2003-08-05

    This report has the following articles: Nuclear waste--a long-term national problem; Spent nuclear fuel; High-level radioactive waste; Radioactivity and the environment; Current storage methods; Disposal options; U.S. policy on nuclear waste; The focus on Yucca Mountain; The purpose and scope of the Yucca Mountain Project; The approach for permanently disposing of waste; The scientific studies at Yucca Mountain; The proposed design for a repository at Yucca Mountain; Natural and engineered barriers would work together to isolate waste; Meticulous science and technology to protect people and the environment; Licensing a repository; Transporting waste to a permanent repository; The Environmental Impact Statement for a repository; Current status of the Yucca Mountain Project; and Further information available on the Internet.

  1. ESTIMATES OF CLOUD WATER DEPOSITION AT MOUNTAIN DEPOSITION AT MOUNTAIN ACID DEPOSITION PROGRAM SITES IN THE APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cloud water deposition was estimated at three high elevation sites in the Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States (Whiteface Mountain, NY, Whitetop Mountain, VA, and Clingrnan's Dome, TN) from 1994 through 1999 as part of the Mountain Acid Deposition Program (MADPro). ...

  2. Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2007-11-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a life-threatening disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, an obligately intracellular bacterium that is spread to human beings by ticks. More than a century after its first clinical description, this disease is still among the most virulent human infections identified, being potentially fatal even in previously healthy young people. The diagnosis of RMSF is based on the patient's history and a physical examination, and often presents a dilemma for clinicians because of the non-specific presentation of the disease in its early course. Early empirical treatment is essential to prevent severe complications or a fatal outcome, and treatment should be initiated even in unconfirmed cases. Because there is no vaccine available against RMSF, avoidance of tick-infested areas is still the best way to prevent the infection.

  3. The Rocky Mountain Trench

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Acquisition Date: February 2004 The high reflectance of clouds compared to the surrounding land, coupled with the low sun elevation when this image was acquired, causes low clouds to appear red as they fill a portion of the Rocky Mountain Trench. Running parallel with the peaks of the Canadian Rockies and ranging from 2 to 10 miles (3 to 16 kilometers) wide and about 900 miles (1,448 kilometers) long, the Trench aligns with the Fraser River and makes its way past Mount Robson, the highest peak in the Canadian Rockies at 12,972 feet (3,954 meters). Mount Robson is near the center of this image. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Landsat/USGS To learn more about Landsat and to see the orginal high res file go to: landsat.usgs.gov/gallery_view.php?category=greenflag&...

  4. [Asthma and mountain air].

    PubMed

    Carlsen, K H; Oseid, S; Sandnes, T; Trondskog, B; Røksund, O

    1991-03-20

    Geilomo hospital for children with asthma and allergy is situated 800 m above sea level in a non-polluted area in the central part of Norway. 31 children who were admitted to this hospital from different parts of Norway (mostly from the main cities) were studied for six weeks. They underwent physical training and daily measurements were taken of lung function and the effect of bronchodilators. The bronchial responsiveness of the children improved significantly from week 1 to week 6, as measured by reduction in lung function after sub-maximal running on a treadmill. There was significant improvement in daily symptom score, and in degree of obstruction as shown by physical examination. The children's improvement was probably the result of a stay in a mountainous area with very little air pollution or allergens, combined with regular planned physical activity, and regular medication and surveillance.

  5. Geology at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    1993-05-01

    Both advocates and critics disagree on the significance and interpretation of critical geological features which bear on the safety and suitability of Yucca Mountain as a site for the construction of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Critics believe that there is sufficient geological evidence to rule the site unsuitable for further investigation. Some advocates claim that there is insufficient data and that investigations are incomplete, while others claim that the site is free of major obstacles. We have expanded our efforts to include both the critical evaluations of existing geological and geochemical data and the collection of field data and samples for the purpose of preparing scientific papers for submittal to journals. Summaries of the critical reviews are presented in this paper.

  6. PINE MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Canney, Frank C.; Williams, Frank E.

    1984-01-01

    A geologic study and geochemical survey were made of the Pine Mountain Wilderness in Arizona. Only slight traces of mineralization of no apparent significance were found and the results of the geochemical survey were negative. The presence of important near-surface mineral deposits in the area is considered unlikely. No evidence of nonmetallic or energy resources was identified during the course of this study. Ore deposits, if present, are probably of the massive sulfide type, and buried deeply beneath the ground surface, beyond the range of the various geochemical and geophysical techniques used in routine exploration. Some of the newer geophysical methods might possibly be capable of detecting such hidden ore bodies if not buried too deeply.

  7. Iron Mountain Electromagnetic Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gail Heath

    2012-07-01

    Iron Mountain Mine is located seventeen miles northwest of Redding, CA. After the completion of mining in early 1960s, the mine workings have been exposed to environmental elements which have resulted in degradation in water quality in the surrounding water sheds. In 1985, the EPA plugged ore stoops in many of the accessible mine drifts in an attempt to restrict water flow through the mine workings. During this process little data was gathered on the orientation of the stoops and construction of the plugs. During the last 25 years, plugs have begun to deteriorate and allow acidic waters from the upper workings to flow out of the mine. A team from Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed geophysical surveys on a single mine drift and 3 concrete plugs. The project goal was to evaluate several geophysical methods to determine competence of the concrete plugs and orientation of the stopes.

  8. Rocky Mountain Snow

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    NASA image acquired December 19, 2012 In time for the 2012 winter solstice, a storm dropped snow over most of the Rocky Mountains in the United States. On December 20, the National Weather Service reported snow depths exceeding 100 centimeters (39 inches) in some places—the result of the recent snowfall plus accumulation from earlier storms. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Aqua satellite captured this natural-color image on December 19, 2012. Clouds had mostly cleared from the region, though some cloud cover lingered over parts of the Pacific Northwest and Colorado. Showing more distinct contours than the clouds, the snow cover stretched across the Rocky Mountains and the surrounding region, from Idaho to Arizona and from California to Colorado. Snowfall did not stop in Colorado, as the storm continued moving eastward across the Midwest. By December 20, 2012, a combination of heavy snow and strong winds had closed schools, iced roads, and delayed flights, complicating plans for holiday travelers. Though troublesome for travel, the snow brought much-needed moisture; multiple cities had set new records for consecutive days without measurable snow, CBS news reported. As of December 18, the U.S. Drought Monitor stated that a substantial portion of the continental United States continued to suffer from drought, and “exceptional” drought conditions extended from South Dakota to southern Texas. NASA image courtesy Jeff Schmaltz, LANCE MODIS Rapid Response. Caption by Michon Scott. Instrument: Aqua - MODIS To read more go to: earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=80035 Credit: NASA Earth Observatory NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission

  9. [Mountain medicine - an introduction. I].

    PubMed

    Hjuler, Kasper Fjellhaugen; Bay, Bjørn

    2016-10-31

    Tourism to high-altitude areas is increasingly popular even from low-lying regions such as Denmark. Mountain sports include skiing, mountaineering, and ski touring. The young, elderly and at-risk individuals with pre-existing illnesses engage in recreational mountain activities. Thus, risk assessment and counselling regarding altitude exposure is increasingly relevant to all healthcare providers. In this first article of two in a review series, we summarize the state of the art of altitude physiology, alpine dangers and avalanches, and medical aspects of the increased UV-exposure at altitude.

  10. 27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102... Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma Mountain...

  11. 27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94... Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Howell Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Howell Mountain...

  12. 27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94... Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Howell Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Howell Mountain...

  13. 27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102... Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma Mountain...

  14. 27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Bell Mountain viticultural area is...

  15. 27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Bell Mountain viticultural area is...

  16. 27 CFR 9.108 - Ozark Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ozark Mountain. 9.108... Ozark Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Ozark Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of Ozark Mountain viticultural...

  17. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area is...

  18. 27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Bell Mountain viticultural area is...

  19. 27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Bell Mountain viticultural area is...

  20. 27 CFR 9.108 - Ozark Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ozark Mountain. 9.108... Ozark Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Ozark Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of Ozark Mountain viticultural...

  1. 27 CFR 9.108 - Ozark Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ozark Mountain. 9.108... Ozark Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Ozark Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of Ozark Mountain viticultural...

  2. 27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102... Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma Mountain...

  3. 27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94... Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Howell Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Howell Mountain...

  4. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area is...

  5. 27 CFR 9.108 - Ozark Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ozark Mountain. 9.108... Ozark Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Ozark Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of Ozark Mountain viticultural...

  6. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area is...

  7. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area is...

  8. 27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94... Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Howell Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Howell Mountain...

  9. 27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Bell Mountain viticultural area is...

  10. 27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94... Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Howell Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Howell Mountain...

  11. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area is...

  12. 27 CFR 9.108 - Ozark Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ozark Mountain. 9.108... Ozark Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Ozark Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of Ozark Mountain viticultural...

  13. 27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102... Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma Mountain...

  14. 27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102... Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma Mountain...

  15. Baektu Mountain, China & North Korea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-14

    This image from NASA Terra spacecraft shows Baektu Mountain, an active volcano on the border between North Korea and China. Rising to 2744 m, its summit caldera is filled with a crater lake, Heaven Lake.

  16. Extinction of Harrington's Mountain Goat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, Jim I.; Martin, Paul S.; Euler, Robert C.; Long, Austin; Jull, A. J. T.; Toolin, Laurence J.; Donahue, Douglas J.; Linick, T. W.

    1986-02-01

    Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 ± 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters.

  17. Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat

    SciTech Connect

    Mead, J.I.; Martin, P.S.; Euler, R.C.; Long, A.; Jull, A.J.T.; Toolin, L.J.; Donahue, D.J.; Linick, T.W.

    1986-02-01

    Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 +/- 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters.

  18. Rocky Mountain Arsenal NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit CO-0035009, the U.S. Department of Interior's Fish and Wildlife Service is authorized to discharge from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal recycled water pipeline to Lower Derby Lake in Adams County, Colo.

  19. Pathology of chronic mountain sickness

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Stella, Javier; Krüger, Hever; Recavarren, Sixto

    1973-01-01

    Arias-Stella, J., Krüger, H., and Recavarren, S. (1973).Thorax, 28, 701-708. Pathology of chronic mountain sickness. Pathological data on chronic mountain sickness are scarce due to the fact that the disease is ameliorated or cured by descent to a low altitude. In this report we describe a case of chronic mountain sickness occurring in a woman of 48 years at Cerro de Pasco (4,300 m above sea level). The necropsy findings are compared with the limited pathological observations reported by others. It is apparent from our findings that in fatal cases the main changes are located within the pulmonary circulation. So far histological studies have been reported only in cases of the secondary form of chronic mountain sickness. The basic pathology of the primary form (Monge's disease) remains to be defined. Images PMID:4787982

  20. Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat

    PubMed Central

    Mead, Jim I.; Martin, Paul S.; Euler, Robert C.; Long, Austin; Jull, A. J. T.; Toolin, Laurence J.; Donahue, Douglas J.; Linick, T. W.

    1986-01-01

    Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 ± 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters. Images PMID:16593655

  1. Mountains on Io at Sunset

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-12-06

    NASA Galileo spacecraft captured this dramatic image of mountains on Io. The Sun was low in the sky. A low scarp runs from the upper left toward the center of the image. The jagged ridge is Mongibello Mons.

  2. The Dilemma of Mountain Roads

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountain roads and trails are proliferating throughout developing Southeast Asia with severe but largely unrecognized long-term consequences related to effects of landslides and surface erosion on communities and downstream resources.

  3. Geography and Weather: Mountain Meterology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogil, H. Michael; Collins, H. Thomas

    1990-01-01

    Provided are 26 ideas to help children explore the effects of mountains on the weather. Weather conditions in Nepal and Colorado are considered separately. Nine additional sources of information are listed. (CW)

  4. The Dilemma of Mountain Roads

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountain roads and trails are proliferating throughout developing Southeast Asia with severe but largely unrecognized long-term consequences related to effects of landslides and surface erosion on communities and downstream resources.

  5. Mid-pacific mountains revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroenke, Loren W.; Kellogg, James N.; Nemoto, Kenji

    1985-06-01

    The Mid-Pacific Mountains are guyots whose volcanic pedestals have been constructed on a broad basement plateau, the flanks of which are downfaulted. Edifice construction may have been controlled by an orthogonal system of intersecting faults trending roughly ENE and NNW. Low amplitude gravity anomalies observed over the Mid-Pacific Mountains indicate complete Airy-Heiskanen isostatic compensation, crustal thickening, and eruption on thin elastic lithosphere. Tholeiites of the Mid-Pacific Mountains resemble lavas of Iceland and the Galapagos Islands. The orthogonal fault system, low gravity anomalies, and lava chemistry of the Mid-Pacific Mountains can be explained by eruption on or near a great ENE-trending rift system.

  6. Io: Mountains and crustal extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    It is argued that there is good reason to conclude that mountains on Io, like those on Earth, are subject to growth and decay. The decay of mountains will be assisted by the ability of SO sub 2 to rot silicate rock and by explosive escape of sub-surface SO sub 2 from aquifers (Haemus Mons is seen to be covered by bright material, presumably fallout from a SO sub 2 rich plume which had been active on the mountain flanks). On the west side of the massif at 10 degrees S, 270 degrees W a rugged surface consists of long ridges running perpendicular to the downslope direction, suggesting tectonic denudation with crustal blocks sliding down the mountain flank. Tectonic denudation may be assisted, as in the case of the Bearpaw Mountains, Montana by overloading mountain flanks with volcanic products. The surfaces of some massifs exhibit a well developed, enigmatic corrugated terrain, consisting of complex ridge systems. Ridges may bifurcate, anastomose to form closed depressions and form concentric loops. Taken together, observations of morphology, heat flux, surface deposits and styles of volcanism may point to the existence of lithosphere domains with distinct compositions and tectonic regimes.

  7. Uplift of the Transantarctic Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Stump, E.

    1987-09-01

    The Transantarctic Mountains, a major continental range, extend approximately 3,000 kilometers, vary from less than 50 to more than 400 kilometers wide, and have elevations of up to 4,500 meters. Earth scientists have generally defined the stratigraphy of the range and recognize that uplift of the region occurred after the Jurassic period but still know very little about the processes that effected uplift. Unlike other major mountain chains, the Transantarctic Mountains show no evidence of thrusting, folding, regional metamorphism, and andesitic volcanism associated with their uplift. The objectives during austral summer 1987-1988 are to map the uplift geometry of the Transantarctic Mountains using erosion surfaces (pre-Devonian Kukir peneplain) and widespread terrace levels as datum planes and to determine the uplift rates for the mountain range using fission-track dating of apatites. Presently, fission-track dating provides only quantitative data on the initiation time, amount, and rate of uplift. Through research, the authors hopes to extend data from Victoria Land through 1,600 kilometers of the Transantarctic Mountains. This study also has implications for the glacial history of Antarctica, because the uplift occurred during the inception, growth, and subsequent fluctuations of the east and west antarctic ice sheets. It will also add to our understanding of the nature of the East-West Antarctic boundary and to the knowledge of the sedimentation history in the Ross embayment and the basins beneath polar plateau.

  8. Patient-centred mountain medicine.

    PubMed

    Szawarski, Piotr; Hillebrandt, David

    2016-08-01

    Venturing into the mountains, doctors have accompanied expeditions to provide routine care to the teams, undertake research and occasionally take on a rescue role. The role of doctors practicing mountain medicine is evolving. Public health issues involving concepts of health and safety have become necessary with the coming of commercial and youth expeditions. Increasingly individuals with a disability or a medical diagnosis choose to ascend to high altitudes. Doctors become involved in assessment of risk and providing advice for such individuals. The field of mountain medicine is perhaps unique in that acceptance of risk is part of the ethos of climbing and adventure. The pursuit of mountaineering goals may represent the ultimate conquest of a disability. Knowledge of mountain environment is essential in facilitating mountain ascents for those who choose to undertake them, in spite of a disability or medical condition. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Mountain Child: Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Audsley, Annie; Wallace, Rebecca M M; Price, Martin F

    2016-12-01

    Objectives This systematic review identifies and reviews both peer-reviewed and 'grey' literature, across a range of disciplines and from diverse sources, relating to the condition of children living in mountain communities in low- and middle-income countries. Findings The literature on poverty in these communities does not generally focus on the particular vulnerabilities of children or the impact of intersecting vulnerabilities on the most marginalised members of communities. However, this literature does contribute analyses of the broader context and variety of factors impacting on human development in mountainous areas. The literature on other areas of children's lives-health, nutrition, child mortality, education, and child labour-focuses more specifically on children's particular vulnerabilities or experiences. However, it sometimes lacks the broader analysis of the many interrelated characteristics of a mountainous environment which impact on children's situations. Themes Nevertheless, certain themes recur across many disciplines and types of literature, and point to some general conclusions: mountain poverty is influenced by the very local specificities of the physical environment; mountain communities are often politically and economically marginalised, particularly for the most vulnerable within these communities, including children; and mountain communities themselves are an important locus for challenging and interrupting cycles of increasing inequality and disadvantage. While this broad-scale review represents a modest first step, its findings provide the basis for further investigation.

  10. Climb every mountain.

    PubMed

    Awad, L; Traboulsi, O; Abu-habib, L

    1998-03-01

    In Egypt, the Association of Garbage Collectors for Community Development (AGCCD), created and administered with government support by Zabballeen (low-income people who have collected, sorted, and recycled Cairo's mountains of garbage since 1970), serves an urban settlement of 16,000 where entire households supplement their living from scavenging by raising pigs, chickens, and rabbits. The AGCCD employs 44 women in a primary health care and credit program for women that involves home visits, provision of primary health care, disease prevention, immunization, and reproductive health care (RHC). The low status of the women has meant that the birth of a girl is rarely registered, so that Zabballeen girls can not enjoy the benefits of citizenship. The main goal of the AGCCD has been to increase the role of women in RHC decision-making in their families. Many women have been successful in convincing their husbands of the need for permanent contraception and have resisted efforts to have daughters married at an early age. Recently, RHC discussions have been conducted with men. Women have also begun to actively oppose female genital mutilation. Future challenges for AGCCD include gender training, increasing the birth registration of girls, forming new groups of girls and women to promote women's health by improving gender relations, and providing legal advice and assistance to women, especially those whose births were not registered.

  11. Mountains, Craters and Plains

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-17

    New Horizons views of the informally named Sputnik Planum on Pluto (top) and the informally named Vulcan Planum on Charon (bottom). Both scale bars measure 20 miles (32 kilometers) long; illumination is from the left in both instances. The Sputnik Planum view is centered at 11°N, 180°E, and covers the bright, icy, geologically cellular plains. Here, the cells are defined by a network of interconnected troughs that crisscross these nitrogen-ice plains. At right, in the upper image, the cellular plains yield to pitted plains of southern Sputnik Planum. This observation was obtained by the Ralph/Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC) at a resolution of 1,050 feet (320 meters) per pixel. The Vulcan Planum view in the bottom panel is centered at 4°S, 4°E, and includes the "moated mountain" Clarke Mons just above the center of the image. As well as featuring impact craters and sinuous troughs, the water ice-rich plains display a range of surface textures, from smooth and grooved at left, to pitted and hummocky at right. This observation was obtained by the Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) at a resolution of 525 feet (160 meters) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20535

  12. Mountaineer`s gas facilities decision support system

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    Mountaineer Gas Co. of Charleston, W.Va., is justifiably proud of its capacity to combine electronic maps with a full database of information about its facilities and customers, and use that mix to make the decisions required in operating a gas company with better information and more quickly. Determining when a pipeline needs replacement or repair used to take several days at Mountaineer. With the new system in place, the decision can be made in a matter of minutes. The paper describes the system and its development, then discusses adding customer information as the next step.

  13. 10. SLIGHTLY OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP COMPLEX. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. SLIGHTLY OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP COMPLEX. NOTE AUXILIARY STRUCTURES. - Eagle Mountain Pump Plant, Ten miles north of Route 10, southeast of Eagle Mountain, Eagle Mountain, Riverside County, CA

  14. Timber Mountain Precipitation Monitoring Station

    SciTech Connect

    Lyles, Brad; McCurdy, Greg; Chapman, Jenny; Miller, Julianne

    2012-01-01

    A precipitation monitoring station was placed on the west flank of Timber Mountain during the year 2010. It is located in an isolated highland area near the western border of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), south of Pahute Mesa. The cost of the equipment, permitting, and installation was provided by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI) project. Data collection, analysis, and maintenance of the station during fiscal year 2011 was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office Environmental Restoration, Soils Activity. The station is located near the western headwaters of Forty Mile Wash on the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Overland flows from precipitation events that occur in the Timber Mountain high elevation area cross several of the contaminated Soils project CAU (Corrective Action Unit) sites located in the Forty Mile Wash watershed. Rain-on-snow events in the early winter and spring around Timber Mountain have contributed to several significant flow events in Forty Mile Wash. The data from the new precipitation gauge at Timber Mountain will provide important information for determining runoff response to precipitation events in this area of the NNSS. Timber Mountain is also a groundwater recharge area, and estimation of recharge from precipitation was important for the EMSI project in determining groundwater flowpaths and designing effective groundwater monitoring for Yucca Mountain. Recharge estimation additionally provides benefit to the Underground Test Area Sub-project analysis of groundwater flow direction and velocity from nuclear test areas on Pahute Mesa. Additionally, this site provides data that has been used during wild fire events and provided a singular monitoring location of the extreme precipitation events during December 2010 (see data section for more details). This letter report provides a summary of the site location, equipment, and data collected in

  15. Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit CO-0034762, the Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station is authorized to discharge from the interior storm drainage system and air exhaust stacks at the Cheyenne Mountain Complex, in El Paso County, Colorado, to tributaries Fountain Creek.

  16. [Vertical zonation of mountain landscape: a review].

    PubMed

    Sun, Ran-Hao; Chen, Li-Ding; Zhang, Bai-Ping; Fu, Bo-Jie

    2009-07-01

    Vertical gradient of mountain landscape is about 1000 times of its horizontal gradient, and hence, only using landscape pattern index is quite difficult to reflect the landscape regularity along vertical gradient. Mountain altitudinal belt is a kind of classic geographic models representing the vertical differentiation of landscape, being of significance in geographic and ecological researches. However, the discrete expression pattern and the inaccuracy of the borderlines of mountain vertical belts limit the roles of mountain vertical belt in accurately describing landscape pattern in regional scale and in explaining ecological processes. This paper reviewed the research progress and existing problems on mountain altitudinal belt, put forward a suggestion of using modern information technology to establish a comprehensive and continuous mountain landscape information chart, and discussed the framework and prospect of the establishment of the chart, which would have reference value for accurately describing mountain landscape pattern and explaining specific ecological processes, and promote the further improvement of the methodology for mountain ecological research.

  17. BLOOD MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA, GEORGIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koeppen, Robert P.; Armstrong, Michelle K.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey of the Blood Mountain Roadless Area, Georgia, indicates that there is little promise for the occurrence of mineral and energy resources. Natural gas may be present at great depth, perhaps 5 mi down and below the overthrust sheets of the Blue Ridge Mountains, but presently available information is not adequate to evaluate the resource potential of this commodity. Further seismic studies and exploratory drilling are needed to evaluate the gas potential of this part of the Eastern Overthrust Belt.

  18. WHITE MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, NEW MEXICO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Segerstrom, Kenneth; Stotelmeyer, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey the White Mountain Wilderness, which constitutes much of the western and northern White Mountains, New Mexico, is appraised to have six areas of probable mineral potential for base and precious metals. If mineral deposits exist in the wilderness, the potential is for small deposits of base and precious metals in veins and breccia pipes or, more significanlty, the possibility for large low-grade disseminated porphyry-type molybdenum deposits. There is little promise for the occurrence of geothermal energy resources in the area.

  19. Yearly report, Yucca Mountain project

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, J.N.

    1992-09-30

    We proposed to (1) Develop our data logging and analysis equipment and techniques for analyzing seismic data from the Southern Great Basin Seismic Network (SGBSN), (2) Investigate the SGBSN data for evidence of seismicity patterns, depth distribution patterns, and correlations with geologic features (3) Repair and maintain our three broad band downhole digital seismograph stations at Nelson, nevada, Troy Canyon, Nevada, and Deep Springs, California (4) Install, operate, and log data from a super sensitive microearthquake array at Yucca Mountain (5) Analyze data from micro-earthquakes relative to seismic hazard at Yucca Mountain.

  20. Rocky Mountain futures: An ecological perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baron, Jill S.

    2002-01-01

    The United Nations has proclaimed 2002 as the International Year of Mountains to increase international awareness of the global importance of mountain ecosystems. The case-based multidisciplinary approach of this book constitutes an important new model for understanding the implications of land-use practices and economic activity on mountains, and will serve a vital role in improving decisionmaking both in the Rocky Mountains and in other parts of the world that face similar challenges.

  1. 27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “York Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The approved map for the York Mountain viticultural area is the U.S.G.S. map entitled “York...

  2. 27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “York Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The approved map for the York Mountain viticultural area is the U.S.G.S. map entitled “York...

  3. 27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “York Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The approved map for the York Mountain viticultural area is the U.S.G.S. map entitled “York...

  4. 27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “York Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The approved map for the York Mountain viticultural area is the U.S.G.S. map entitled “York...

  5. 27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “York Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The approved map for the York Mountain viticultural area is the U.S.G.S. map entitled “York...

  6. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of the...

  7. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of the...

  8. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of the...

  9. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of the...

  10. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of the...

  11. Storymakers: Hopa Mountain's Early Literacy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templin, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Hopa Mountain's StoryMakers program is an innovative, research-based program for donating high quality young children's books to parents. Hopa Mountain is a nonprofit organization based in Bozeman, Montana. Hopa Mountain works with groups of rural and tribal citizen leaders who form StoryMakers Community Teams to talk one-on-one with local parents…

  12. Anatomy of a Mountain Range.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chew, Berkeley

    1993-01-01

    Provides written tour of Colorado Rockies along San Juan Skyway in which the geological features and formation of the mountain range is explored. Discusses evidence of geologic forces and products such as plate tectonic movement and the Ancestral Rockies; subduction and the Laramide Orogeny; volcanism and calderas; erosion, faulting, land…

  13. WONDER MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA, WASHINGTON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, S.E.; Iverson, S.R.

    1984-01-01

    The results of geologic, geochemical, and mineral surveys in the Wonder Mountain Roadless Area, Washington indicate a probable resource potential for manganese. Deposits are small (less than 12,000 tons of demonstrated resources) and are primarily manganese silicate (bementite) which is difficult to refine. There is no indication of any resource potential for other metallic, nonmetallic or energy resources in the area.

  14. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Marylin; Orejuela, Leonora; Fuya, Patricia; Carrillo, Pilar; Hernandez, Jorge; Parra, Edgar; Keng, Colette; Small, Melissa; Olano, Juan P; Bouyer, Donald; Castaneda, Elizabeth; Walker, David; Valbuena, Gustavo

    2007-07-01

    We investigated 2 fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that occurred in 2003 and 2004 near the same locality in Colombia where the disease was first reported in the 1930s. A retrospective serosurvey of febrile patients showed that > 21% of the serum samples had antibodies aaainst spotted fever group rickettsiae.

  15. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Panama.

    PubMed

    Estripeaut, Dora; Aramburú, María Gabriela; Sáez-Llorens, Xavier; Thompson, Herbert A; Dasch, Gregory A; Paddock, Christopher D; Zaki, Sherif; Eremeeva, Marina E

    2007-11-01

    We describe a fatal pediatric case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Panama, the first, to our knowledge, since the 1950s. Diagnosis was established by immunohistochemistry, PCR, and isolation of Rickettsia rickettsii from postmortem tissues. Molecular typing demonstrated strong relatedness of the isolate to strains of R. rickettsii from Central and South America.

  16. The Mountaineer-Malaysia Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeff

    1997-01-01

    A 26-day summer field course of West Virginia University's (WVU) Recreation and Parks Department took students to Malaysia's mountains and rainforests to observe how Malaysians are managing national parks, problem elephants, and population pressures on parks. The adventure provided powerful learning experiences. Further exchanges between WVU and…

  17. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, Marylin; Orejuela, Leonora; Fuya, Patricia; Carrillo, Pilar; Hernandez, Jorge; Parra, Edgar; Keng, Colette; Small, Melissa; Olano, Juan P.; Bouyer, Donald; Castaneda, Elizabeth; Walker, David

    2007-01-01

    We investigated 2 fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that occurred in 2003 and 2004 near the same locality in Colombia where the disease was first reported in the 1930s. A retrospective serosurvey of febrile patients showed that >21% of the serum samples had antibodies against spotted fever group rickettsiae. PMID:18214179

  18. Mountain Heritage, Revised Edition (1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurer, B. B., Ed.

    Written by West Virginia scholars, this resource book consists of 12 chapters and is designed to: (1) produce understanding and appreciation of West Virginians' cultural heritage, and (2) aid in developing cultural educational programs. Beginning with man's entry into the mountain wilderness, the contents progressively move through his cultural…

  19. The Mountaineer-Malaysia Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeff

    1997-01-01

    A 26-day summer field course of West Virginia University's (WVU) Recreation and Parks Department took students to Malaysia's mountains and rainforests to observe how Malaysians are managing national parks, problem elephants, and population pressures on parks. The adventure provided powerful learning experiences. Further exchanges between WVU and…

  20. Gearing Up for Mountain Biking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahnke, Thomas; Hamson, Mike

    1999-01-01

    Examines the gear system of a mountain bike to discover any redundancy in the many gear settings available to the cyclist. Suggests a best strategy for changing up through the gears on a typical 21-gear system and an adjustment to the available gears that would result in a smoother change. (Author/ASK)

  1. Anatomy of a Mountain Range.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chew, Berkeley

    1993-01-01

    Provides written tour of Colorado Rockies along San Juan Skyway in which the geological features and formation of the mountain range is explored. Discusses evidence of geologic forces and products such as plate tectonic movement and the Ancestral Rockies; subduction and the Laramide Orogeny; volcanism and calderas; erosion, faulting, land…

  2. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Panama

    PubMed Central

    Estripeaut, Dora; Aramburú, María Gabriela; Sáez-Llorens, Xavier; Thompson, Herbert A.; Dasch, Gregory A.; Paddock, Christopher D.; Zaki, Sherif

    2007-01-01

    We describe a fatal pediatric case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Panama, the first, to our knowledge, since the 1950s. Diagnosis was established by immunohistochemistry, PCR, and isolation of Rickettsia rickettsii from postmortem tissues. Molecular typing demonstrated strong relatedness of the isolate to strains of R. rickettsii from Central and South America. PMID:18217566

  3. The Icy Mountains of Pluto

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-07-15

    New close-up images of a region near Pluto's equator reveal a giant surprise: a range of youthful mountains rising as high as 11,000 feet (3,500 meters) above the surface of the icy body. The mountains likely formed no more than 100 million years ago -- mere youngsters relative to the 4.56-billion-year age of the solar system -- and may still be in the process of building. That suggests the close-up region, which covers less than one percent of Pluto's surface, may still be geologically active today. The youthful age estimate is based on the lack of craters in this scene. Like the rest of Pluto, this region would presumably have been pummeled by space debris for billions of years and would have once been heavily cratered -- unless recent activity had given the region a facelift, erasing those pockmarks. Unlike the icy moons of giant planets, Pluto cannot be heated by gravitational interactions with a much larger planetary body. Some other process must be generating the mountainous landscape. The mountains are probably composed of Pluto's water-ice "bedrock." Although methane and nitrogen ice covers much of the surface of Pluto, these materials are not strong enough to build the mountains. Instead, a stiffer material, most likely water-ice, created the peaks. The close-up image was taken about 1.5 hours before New Horizons closest approach to Pluto, when the craft was 47,800 miles (770,000 kilometers) from the surface of the planet. The image easily resolves structures smaller than a mile across. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19710

  4. Geology of the Henry Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilbert, G.K.

    1877-01-01

    If these pages fail to give a correct account of the structure of the Henry Mountains the fault is mine and I have no excuse. In all the earlier exploration of the Rocky Mountain Region, as well as in much of the more recent survey, the geologist has merely accompanied the geographer and has had no voice in the determination of either the route or the rate of travel. When the structure of a mountain was in doubt he was rarely able to visit the points which should resolve the doubt, but was compelled to turn regretfully away. Not so in the survey of the Henry Mountains. Geological exploration had shown that they were well disposed for examination, and that they promised to give the key to a type of structure which was at best obscurely known; and I was sent by Professor Powell to make a study of them, without restriction as to my order or method. I was limited only in time, the snow stopping my work two months after it was begun. Two months would be far too short a period in which to survey a thousand square miles in Pennsylvania or Illinois, but among the Colorado Plateaus it proved sufficient. A few comprehensive views from mountain tops gave the general distribution of the formations, and the remainder of the time was spent in the examination of the localities which best displayed the peculiar features of the structure. So thorough was the display and so satisfactory the examination, that in preparing my report I have felt less than ever before the desire to revisit the field and prove my conclusions by more extended observation.

  5. Best Practices Case Study: Pine Mountain Builders - Pine Mountain, GA

    SciTech Connect

    2011-09-01

    Case study of Pine Mountain Builders who worked with DOE’s IBACOS team to achieve HERS scores of 59 on 140 homes built around a wetlands in Georgia. The team used taped rigid foam exterior sheathing and spray foam insulation in the walls and on the underside of the attic for a very tight 1.0 to 1.8 ACH 50 building shell.

  6. POND MOUNTAIN AND POND MOUNTAIN ADDITION ROADLESS AREAS, TENNESSEE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffitts, W.R.; Bitar, Richard

    1984-01-01

    As a result of a mineral study of the Pond Mountain Roadless Areas, Tennessee, a probable potential for the occurrence of tin, niobium, and tungsten resource with associated beryllium, molybdenum, zinc, and fluorite was identified in rocks of Precambrian age particularly in the southeastern part of the area. Detailed geologic mapping and geochemical sampling of the soils and rocks in the area of Precambrian rocks is recommended to identify and delimit the areas of potential resources of tin, niobium, and tungsten.

  7. Managing Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Minniear, Timothy D; Buckingham, Steven C

    2009-11-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by the tick-borne bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. Symptoms range from moderate illness to severe illness, including cardiovascular compromise, coma and death. The disease is prevalent in most of the USA, especially during warmer months. The trademark presentation is fever and rash with a history of tick bite, although tick exposure is unappreciated in over a third of cases. Other signature symptoms include headache and abdominal pain. The antibiotic therapy of choice for R. rickettsii infection is doxycycline. Preventive measures for Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other tick-borne diseases include: wearing long-sleeved, light colored clothing; checking for tick attachment and removing attached ticks promptly; applying topical insect repellent; and treating clothing with permethrin.

  8. TRAY MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA, GEORGIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Arthur E.; Chatman, Mark L.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey indicates that the Tray Mountain Roadless Area, Georgia has little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. Rocks underlying the Tray Mountain Roadless Area are suitable for crushed rock or aggregate; however, other sources for these materials are available closer to present markets. There is a possibility for the occurrence of hydrocarbon resources underlying the area at great depth, but no hydrocarbon potential was identified. Detailed studies are needed to establish the presence or absence and mineral-resource potential of olivine, nickel, cobalt, and chrome in the two mafic-ultramafic bodies in the Hayesville thrust sheet. The cause of the lead anomaly in pan concentrate samples taken from the southwest part of the roadless area has not been established; the mineral residence and source of the anomaly remain to be determined.

  9. Microbial activity at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, J.M.; Meike, A.

    1995-09-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy is engaged in a suitability study for a potential geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the containment and storage of commercially generated spent fuel and defense high-level nuclear waste. There is growing recognition of the role that biotic factors could play in this repository, either directly through microbially induced corrosion (MIC), or indirectly by altering the chemical environment or contributing to the transport of radionuclides. As a first step toward describing and predicting these processes, a workshop was held on April 10-12, 1995, in Lafayette, California. The immediate aims of the workshop were: (1) To identify microbially related processes relevant to the design of a radioactive waste repository under conditions similar to those at Yucca Mountain. (2) To determine parameters that are critical to the evaluation of a disturbed subterranean environment. (3) To define the most effective means of investigating the factors thus identified.

  10. Topographic View of Ceres Mountain

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-30

    This view, made using images taken by NASA's Dawn spacecraft, features a tall conical mountain on Ceres. Elevations span a range of about 5 miles (8 kilometers) from the lowest places in this region to the highest terrains. Blue represents the lowest elevation, and brown is the highest. The white streaks seen running down the side of the mountain are especially bright parts of the surface. The image was generated using two components: images of the surface taken during Dawn's High Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) phase, where it viewed the surface at a resolution of about 450 feet (140 meters) per pixel, and a shape model generated using images taken at varying sun and viewing angles during Dawn's lower-resolution Survey phase. The image of the region is color-coded according to elevation, and then draped over the shape model to give this view. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19976

  11. Thunderstorms, Andean Mountains Ridgeline, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    In this scenic view of thunderstorms skirting the eastern ridgeline of the Andeas Mountains in northern Argentina (approximate coordinates 28.0S, 57.0W), the confluence of the Rio Salado and Rio Saladillo where they merge with the Rio Parana can be seen in sunglint. Thunderstorms along the eastern Andes are typical at this time of year (Southern Hemisphere summer) with anvils moving to the east from the core of the storm.

  12. Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Anti-Atlas Mountains of northern Africa and the nearby Atlas mountains were created by the prolonged collision of the African and Eurasian tectonic plates, beginning about 80 million years ago. Massive sandstone and limestone layers have been crumpled and uplifted more than 4,000 meters in the High Atlas and to lower elevations in the Anti-Atlas. Between more continuous major fold structures, such as the Jbel Ouarkziz in the southwestern Anti-Atlas, tighter secondary folds (arrow) have developed. Earlier, the supercontinent of Pangea rifted apart to form precursors to the Mediterranean and the Atlantic Ocean (Beauchamp and others, 1996). In those seas sands, clays, limey sediments, and evaporite layers (gypsum, rock salt) were deposited. Later, during the mountain-building plate collision, the gypsum layers flowed under the pressure and provided a slippery surface on which overlying rigid rocks could glide (Burkhard, 2001). The broad, open style of folds seen in this view is common where evaporites are involved in the deformation. Other examples can be found in the Southern Zagros of Iran and the Sierra Madre Oriental of Mexico. Information Sources: Beauchamp, W., Barazangi, M., Demnati, A., and El Alji, M., 1996, Intracontinental rifting and inversion: Missour Basin and Atlas Mountains, Morocco: Tulsa, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 80, No. 9, p. 1459-1482. Burkhard, Martin, 2001, Tectonics of the Anti-Atlas of Morocco -- Thin-skin/thick-skin relationships in an atypical foreland fold belt. University of Neuchatel, Switzerland: http://www-geol.unine.ch/Structural/Antiatlas.html (accessed 1/29/02). STS108-711-25 was taken in December, 2001 by the crew of Space Shuttle mission 108 using a Hasselblad camera with 250-mm lens. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography

  13. Mountain Braking Test Venue Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-12

    absorbed by tire rolling resistance is shown in Figure 2 for an 80,000 lb four axle tractor -trailer. Fitting this data and recognizing that rolling...aerodynamic drag is shown in Figure 2 for an 80,000 lb four axle tractor -trailer. Fitting this data and recognizing that aerodynamic drag is...the optimum mountain braking strategy to reduce the range of brake temperatures among the brakes of a tractor - semitrailer combination weighing nearly

  14. Mountain rescue stretchers: usability trial.

    PubMed

    Hignett, Sue; Willmott, Joseph Wayne; Clemes, Stacy

    2009-01-01

    In the UK mountain rescues are carried out by highly trained volunteers in all weather conditions and at any time of the day/night. They interface with other services when they hand over the casualty to either land or air ambulances. The design of the stretcher is important to the safety of both the volunteers and casualties. This paper reports a usability trial to evaluate the features of mountain rescue stretchers and identify characteristics for future design. Two mountain rescue teams in the English Lake District participated in a five week field experiment. Data were collected using postural analysis with Rapid Entire Body Analysis, Body Part Discomfort Surveys, Rated Perceived Exertion and focus groups to compare the performance of four stretchers: Split Thomas, Ferno Titan, MacInnes mark 6 and MacInnes mark 7. None of the stretchers had an overall advantage, with benefits for some features counterbalanced by disadvantages resulting from others. All the stretchers produced shoulder discomfort with the Split Thomas and MacInnes 6 lowering the postural risks through the use of skids/wheel in the carrying phase. The key design features for future MR stretchers include: reduced unloaded weight (e.g. light weight materials and mesh platforms); undercarriage system to reduce the carrying load; adjustable handles at the front and back positions; flexible carrying system with an optional harness attachment; ease of assembly in adverse environmental conditions; large carrying capacity. It is suggested that military emergency evacuation should be considered in addition to mountain rescue tasks to identify a larger commercial market for development.

  15. Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Anti-Atlas Mountains of northern Africa and the nearby Atlas mountains were created by the prolonged collision of the African and Eurasian tectonic plates, beginning about 80 million years ago. Massive sandstone and limestone layers have been crumpled and uplifted more than 4,000 meters in the High Atlas and to lower elevations in the Anti-Atlas. Between more continuous major fold structures, such as the Jbel Ouarkziz in the southwestern Anti-Atlas, tighter secondary folds (arrow) have developed. Earlier, the supercontinent of Pangea rifted apart to form precursors to the Mediterranean and the Atlantic Ocean (Beauchamp and others, 1996). In those seas sands, clays, limey sediments, and evaporite layers (gypsum, rock salt) were deposited. Later, during the mountain-building plate collision, the gypsum layers flowed under the pressure and provided a slippery surface on which overlying rigid rocks could glide (Burkhard, 2001). The broad, open style of folds seen in this view is common where evaporites are involved in the deformation. Other examples can be found in the Southern Zagros of Iran and the Sierra Madre Oriental of Mexico. Information Sources: Beauchamp, W., Barazangi, M., Demnati, A., and El Alji, M., 1996, Intracontinental rifting and inversion: Missour Basin and Atlas Mountains, Morocco: Tulsa, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 80, No. 9, p. 1459-1482. Burkhard, Martin, 2001, Tectonics of the Anti-Atlas of Morocco -- Thin-skin/thick-skin relationships in an atypical foreland fold belt. University of Neuchatel, Switzerland: http://www-geol.unine.ch/Structural/Antiatlas.html (accessed 1/29/02). STS108-711-25 was taken in December, 2001 by the crew of Space Shuttle mission 108 using a Hasselblad camera with 250-mm lens. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography

  16. Thunderstorms, Andean Mountains Ridgeline, Argentina

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-01-19

    STS054-151-150 (13-19 Jan 1993) --- View west into sun glint off the Rio Salado, Saladillo, and Parana Rivers in Argentina. The Space Shuttle nadir is about 28 degrees north latitude and 57 degrees west longitude. The Andes Mountains are barely visible on Earth's limb. Thunderstorms along the eastern edge of the Andes are typical of this time of year (Southern Hemisphere summer), with anvils moving to the east from the core of the storm.

  17. Hydrology of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, A.L.; Flint, L.E.; Kwicklis, E.M.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Fabryka-Martin, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, located in southern Nevada in the Mojave Desert, is being considered as a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. Although the site is arid, previous studies indicate net infiltration rates of 5-10 mm yr-1 under current climate conditions. Unsaturated flow of water through the mountain generally is vertical and rapid through the fractures of the welded tuffs and slow through the matrix of the nonwelded tuffs. The vitric-zeolitic boundary of the nonwelded tuffs below the potential repository, where it exists, causes perching and substantial lateral flow that eventually flows through faults near the eastern edge of the potential repository and recharges the underlying groundwater system. Fast pathways are located where water flows relatively quickly through the unsaturated zone to the water table. For the bulk of the water a large part of the travel time from land surface to the potential repository horizon (~300 m below land surface) is through the interlayered, low fracture density, nonwelded tuff where flow is predominately through the matrix. The unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is being modeled using a three-dimensional, dual-continuum numerical model to predict the results of measurements and observations in new boreholes and excavations. The interaction between experimentalists and modelers is providing confidence in the conceptual model and the numerical model and is providing researchers with the ability to plan further testing and to evaluate the usefulness or necessity of further data collection.

  18. Micrometeorites from the Transantarctic Mountains

    PubMed Central

    Rochette, P.; Folco, L.; Suavet, C.; van Ginneken, M.; Gattacceca, J.; Perchiazzi, N.; Braucher, R.; Harvey, R. P.

    2008-01-01

    We report the discovery of large accumulations of micrometeorites on the Myr-old, glacially eroded granitic summits of several isolated nunataks in the Victoria Land Transantarctic Mountains. The number (>3,500) of large (>400 μm and up to 2 mm in size) melted and unmelted particles is orders of magnitudes greater than other Antarctic collections. Flux estimates, bedrock exposure ages and the presence of ≈0.8-Myr-old microtektites suggest that extraterrestrial dust collection occurred over the last 1 Myr, taking up to 500 kyr to accumulate based on 2 investigated find sites. The size distribution and frequency by type of cosmic spherules in the >200-μm size fraction collected at Frontier Mountain (investigated in detail in this report) are similar to those of the most representative known micrometeorite populations (e.g., South Pole Water Well). This and the identification of unusual types in terms of composition (i.e., chondritic micrometeorites and spherulitic aggregates similar to the ≈480-kyr-old ones recently found in Antarctic ice cores) and size suggest that the Transantarctic Mountain micrometeorites constitute a unique and essentially unbiased collection that greatly extends the micrometeorite inventory and provides material for studies on micrometeorite fluxes over the recent (≈1 Myr) geological past. PMID:19011091

  19. The hydrology of Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Flint, A.L.; Flint, L.E.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Kwicklis, E.M.; Fabryka-Martin, J.M.

    2000-12-04

    Yucca Mountain, located in southern Nevada in the Mojave Desert, is being considered as a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. Although the site is arid, previous studies indicate net infiltration rates of 5-10 mm yr(-1) under current climate conditions. Unsaturated flow of water through the mountain generally is vertical and rapid through the fractures of the welded tuffs and slow through the matrix of the nonwelded tuffs. The vitric-zeolitic boundary of the nonwelded tuffs below the potential repository, where it exists, causes perching and substantial lateral flow that eventually flows through faults near the eastern edge of the potential repository and recharges the underlying groundwater system. Fast pathways are located where water flows relatively quickly through the unsaturated zone to the water table. For the bulk of the water a large part of the travel time from land surface to the potential repository horizon (similar to 300 m below land surface) is through the interlayered, low fracture density, nonwelded tuff where flow is predominantly through the matrix. The unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is being modeled using a three-dimensional, dual-continuum numerical model to predict the results of measurements and observations in new boreholes and excavations. The interaction between experimentalists and modelers is providing confidence in the conceptual model and the numerical model and is providing researchers with the ability to plan further testing and to evaluate the usefulness or necessity of further data collection.

  20. Massanutten Mountain, Virginia, USA (Anaglyph)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Massanutten Mountain lies in the Shenandoah Valley of northern Virginia. Rock layers in the mountain are folded downward in an overall 'U' shape (called a syncline) which accounts for its peculiar double ridge shape with a highly elongated valley between. The ridges have formed because they are capped with a sandstone layer which is resistant to weathering and erosion. Limestones and shales are less resistant and form the lowlands and valleys. The north and south forks of the Shenandoah River flank Massanutten Mountain and display unusually pronounced meander patterns. Other layered sedimentary rocks form other ridgeline patterns in the Allegheny Mountains, to the upper left. But the igneous and metamorphic (crystalline) rocks of the Blue Ridge Mountains erode into a very different topographic pattern to the southeast. This small area provides an excellent example rock type, geologic structure, and fluvial (stream) processes all influencing landform development.

    This anaglyph was produced by first shading a preliminary elevation model from data acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The stereoscopic effect was then created by generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C

  1. Massanutten Mountain, Virginia, USA (Anaglyph)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Massanutten Mountain lies in the Shenandoah Valley of northern Virginia. Rock layers in the mountain are folded downward in an overall 'U' shape (called a syncline) which accounts for its peculiar double ridge shape with a highly elongated valley between. The ridges have formed because they are capped with a sandstone layer which is resistant to weathering and erosion. Limestones and shales are less resistant and form the lowlands and valleys. The north and south forks of the Shenandoah River flank Massanutten Mountain and display unusually pronounced meander patterns. Other layered sedimentary rocks form other ridgeline patterns in the Allegheny Mountains, to the upper left. But the igneous and metamorphic (crystalline) rocks of the Blue Ridge Mountains erode into a very different topographic pattern to the southeast. This small area provides an excellent example rock type, geologic structure, and fluvial (stream) processes all influencing landform development.

    This anaglyph was produced by first shading a preliminary elevation model from data acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The stereoscopic effect was then created by generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C

  2. Traveling the road to Rocky Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    In July 1995, the Rocky Mountain Project began providing 848 MW of generating capacity and power system services for two Georgia utilities and their customers. To develop the giant pumped-storage project, Rocky Mountain`s developers overcame numerous technical, economic, and management challenges. Now they celebrate the creation of a valuable tool for meeting the demands of today`s changing electricity market.

  3. Geographic Information Science and Mountain Geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scuderi, Louis A.

    Mountain areas are among the most threatened environments worldwide.These sensitive systems suffer from human encroachment, resource extraction, and subsequent environmental degradation. Mountain ecosystems are also extremely sensitive to climate variability with impacts on snow and ice cover, hydrologic response, and sediment yield. From this perspective, mountain environments can be viewed as one of the “canaries in the coal mine” for the entire global environmental system.

  4. Landscape, Mountain Worship and Astronomy in Socaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyano, Ricardo

    The spatiotemporal analysis of mountain worship in the indigenous community of Socaire, Atacama, northern Chile, relates to cultural, geographical, climatic, psychological, and astronomical information gathered from ethno archaeological studies. We identify a system of offerings to the mountains that incorporates concepts such as ceque (straight line), mayllku (mountain lord or ancestor), and pacha (space and time). Here, the mountains on the visible horizon (Tumisa, Lausa, Chiliques, Ipira, and Miñiques) feature as the fingers on the left hand (PAH Triad). This structure regulates annual activities and rituals and sets the basis for the Socaireños' worldview raised on a humanized landscape.

  5. Precipitation Across India's Ghats Mountains (IMERG)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Animation of precipitation rates across India and surrounding countries. Notice the heavy rains throughout the Ghats Mountain range which resulted in devastating landslides along India's west coast...

  6. Folding above faults, Rocky Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, D.A. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Asymmetric folds formed above basement faults can be observed throughout the Rocky Mountains. Several previous interpretations of the folding process made the implicit assumption that one or both fold hinges migrated or rolled'' through the steep forelimb of the fold as the structure evolved (rolling hinge model). Results of mapping in the Bighorn and Seminoe Mountains, WY, and Sangre de Cristo Range, CO, do not support this hypothesis. An alternative interpretation is presented in which fold hinges remained fixed in position during folding (fixed hinge model). Mapped folds share common characteristics: (1) axial traces of the folds intersect faults at or near the basement/cover interface, and diverge from faults upsection; (2) fold hinges are narrow and interlimb angles cluster around 80--100[degree] regardless of fold location; (3) fold shape is typically angular, despite published cross sections that show concentric folds; and, (4) beds within the folds show thickening and/or thinning, most commonly adjacent to fold hinges. The rolling hinge model requires that rocks in the fold forelimbs bend through narrow fold hinges as deformation progressed. Examination of massive, competent rock units such as the Ord. Bighorn Dolomite, Miss. Madison Limestone, and, Penn. Tensleep Sandstone reveals no evidence of the extensive internal deformation that would be expected if hinges rolled through rocks of the forelimb. The hinges of some folds (e.g. Golf Creek anticline, Bighorn Mountains) are offset by secondary faults, effectively preventing the passage of rocks from backlimb to forelimb. The fixed hinge model proposes that the fold hinges were defined early in fold evolution, and beds were progressively rotated and steepened as the structure grew.

  7. Mountain building and mantle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faccenna, Claudio; Becker, Thorsten W.; Conrad, Clinton P.; Husson, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Mountain building at convergent margins requires tectonic forces that can overcome frictional resistance along large-scale thrust faults and support the gravitational potential energy stored within the thickened crust of the orogen. A general, dynamic model for this process is still lacking. Here we propose that mountain belts can be classified between two end-members. First, those of "slab pull" type, where subduction is mainly confined to the upper mantle, and rollback trench motion lead to moderately thick crustal stacks, such as in the Mediterranean. Second, those of "slab suction" type, where whole-mantle convection cells ("conveyor belts") lead to the more extreme expressions of orogeny, such as the largely thickened crust and high plateaus of present-day Tibet and the Altiplano. For the slab suction type, deep mantle convection produces the unique conditions to drag plates toward each other, irrespective of their nature and other boundary conditions. We support this hypothesis by analyzing the orogenic, volcanic, and convective history associated with the Tertiary formation of the Andes after ~40 Ma and Himalayas after collision at ~55 Ma. Based on mantle circulation modeling and tectonic reconstructions, we surmise that the forces necessary to sustain slab-suction mountain building in those orogens derive, after transient slab ponding, from the mantle drag induced upon slab penetration into the lower mantle, and from an associated surge of mantle upwelling beneath Africa. This process started at ~65-55 Ma for Tibet-Himalaya, when the Tethyan slab penetrated into the lower mantle, and ~10 Myr later in the Andes, when the Nazca slab did. This surge of mantle convection drags plates against each other, generating the necessary compressional forces to create and sustain these two orogenic belts. If our model is correct, the available geological records of orogeny can be used to decipher time-dependent mantle convection, with implications for the

  8. Doctor on a mountaineering expedition.

    PubMed Central

    A'Court, C. H.; Stables, R. H.; Travis, S.

    1995-01-01

    Doctors are welcome members on mountaineering expeditions to remote areas, but practical advice on how to prepare and what kit to take can be difficult to find. This article is a ragbag of useful advice on diverse topics. It explains the necessary preparation, provides tips for a healthy expedition, and summarises the common disorders encountered at high altitude. The comprehensive drug and equipment lists and first aid kit for climbers were used for the 1992 Everest in winter expedition. They are there to be sacrificed to personal preference and the experience and size of individual expeditions. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 PMID:7767198

  9. DRAGOON MOUNTAINS ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drewes, Harald; Kreidler, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    The mineral and hydrocarbon resource potential of the Dragoon Mountains Roadless Area was assessed and six areas of probable mineral-resource potential were identified. The area may contain metamorphic skarn-type mineralization of copper, lead, molybdenum, and zinc, and some of these may contain silver and gold. More remotely, the area could also contain stockwork molybdenum mineralization and replacement or vein-type mineralization of beryllium, fluorite, thorium, tin, and tungsten. Rock products exist within the area and are discussed due to the proximity of a railroad, but similar materials occur outside the area. There is little promise for the occurrence of energy resources.

  10. SANDIA MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, NEW MEXICO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedlund, D.C.; Kness, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic and mineral-resource investigations in the Sandia Mountains in New Mexico indicate that a small part of the area has a probable mineral-resource potential. Most of the mineral occurrences are small barite-fluorite veins that occur along faults on the eastern slope of the range. The barite veins in the Landsend area and in the Tunnel Spring area are classed as having a probable mineral-resource potential. Fluorite veins which occur at the La Luz mine contain silver-bearing galeana and the area near this mine is regarded as having a probable resource potential for silver. No energy resources were identified in this study.

  11. Yucca Mountain and The Environment

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2005-04-12

    The Yucca Mountain Project places a high priority on protecting the environment. To ensure compliance with all state and federal environmental laws and regulations, the Project established an Environmental Management System. Important elements of the Environmental Management System include the following: (1) monitoring air, water, and other natural resources; (2) protecting plant and animal species by minimizing land disturbance; (3) restoring vegetation and wildlife habitat in disturbed areas; (4) protecting cultural resources; (5) minimizing waste, preventing pollution, and promoting environmental awareness; and (6) managing of hazardous and non-hazardous waste. Reducing the impacts of Project activities on the environment will continue for the duration of the Project.

  12. Getting Beyond Yucca Mountain - 12305

    SciTech Connect

    Halstead, Robert J.; Williams, James M.

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has terminated the Yucca Mountain repository project. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has indefinitely suspended the Yucca Mountain licensing proceeding. The presidentially-appointed Blue Ribbon Commission (BRC) on America's Nuclear Future is preparing a report, due in January 2012, to the Secretary of Energy on recommendations for a new national nuclear waste management and disposal program. The BRC Draft Report published in July 2011 provides a compelling critique of the past three decades failed efforts in the United States to site storage and disposal facilities for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). However, the BRC Draft Report fails to provide detailed guidance on how to implement an alternative, successful approach to facility site selection. The comments submitted to the BRC by the State of Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects provide useful details on how the US national nuclear waste program can get beyond the failed Yucca Mountain repository project. A detailed siting process, consisting of legislative elements, procedural elements, and 'rules' for volunteer sites, could meet the objectives of the BRC and the Western Governors Association (WGA), while promoting and protecting the interests of potential host states. The recent termination of the proposed Yucca Mountain repository provides both an opportunity and a need to re-examine the United States' nuclear waste management program. The BRC Draft Report published in July 2011 provides a compelling critique of the past three decades failed efforts in the United States to site storage and disposal facilities for SNF and HLW. It is anticipated that the BRC Final report in January 2012 will recommend a new general course of action, but there will likely continue to be a need for detailed guidance on how to implement an alternative, successful approach to facility site selection. Getting the nation's nuclear waste program back on track

  13. WNDCOM: estimating surface winds in mountainous terrain

    Treesearch

    Bill C. Ryan

    1983-01-01

    WNDCOM is a mathematical model for estimating surface winds in mountainous terrain. By following the procedures described, the sheltering and diverting effect of terrain, the individual components of the windflow, and the surface wind in remote mountainous areas can be estimated. Components include the contribution from the synoptic scale pressure gradient, the sea...

  14. Mountain-Plains Curriculum Package. Teacher Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    England, Robert G.

    Designed to give the teacher a capsule explanation of how the system works, this guide introduces the Mountain-Plains instructor to specific curriculum materials and provides examples of the basic instruments used in the Mountain-Plains program, a residential, family-based education program developed to improve the economic potential and lifestyle…

  15. The Bauhaus and Black Mountain College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellert, JoAnn C.

    1972-01-01

    In view of the sixteen-year tenure (1933-1949) at Black Mountain College of Josef Albers, a former Bauhaus Master, and his wife, Anni, a Bauhaus graduate and teacher, exploration of the influence of the Bauhaus on this small, progressive, art-centered college in the mountains of North Carolina is warrented. (Author)

  16. Can wolves help save Japan's mountain forests?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber-meyer, Shannon

    2017-01-01

    Japan’s wolves were extinct by 1905. Today Japan's mountain forests are being killed by overabundant sika deer and wild boars. Since the early 1990s, the Japan Wolf Association has proposed wolf reintroduction to Japan to restore rural ecology and to return a culturally important animal. In this article I discuss whether the return of wolves could help save Japan's mountain forests.

  17. Arkansas' Ozark Mountain Blacks: An Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Gordon D.; Kunkel, Peter

    1973-01-01

    Introduces research which attempted to determine if black Arkansas hill people could reasonably be referred to as hillbillies in the sense that isolated rural white mountain dwellers are so referred, finding that the few black mountaineers left are not hillbillies in the sense indicated of whites. (Author/JM)

  18. Mud Mountain Wildlife Inventory and Habitat Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    SsCUNlY CLANSIVCATION OF T൚ PAWS (MM 5a burned) MUD MOUNTAIN WILDLIFE. INVENTORY AND HABITAT ANALYSIS by Chris Boyd Brewer DANIEL A. FRYBERGER DOUGLAS...this study a rewarding learning experience. Special thanks go to Dan Fryberger , Jack Evans, Deborah Duke-Shook, the rest of the Mud Mountain Dam

  19. Determining Learning Styles of the Professional Mountaineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bektas, Fatih

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explore learning styles of the professional mountaineers. The research was carried out according to the survey model. The research group composed of 61 professional mountaineers (n[subscript (men)] = 45, n[subscript (women)] = 16) who attended Advanced Snow Ice Education Camp in Rize on September 1-7, 2012, the last camp of…

  20. Recreational mountain biking: a management perspective

    Treesearch

    D.J. Chavez; P.L. Winter; J.M. Baas

    1993-01-01

    Mountain biking activity presents a new set of management challenges related to multiple use in recreation areas. To determine the potential issues associated with mountain bike management, a telephone survey of 40 recreation managers from two federal agencies (USDA Forest Service and USDI Bureau of Land Management) was conducted. Exploratory in nature, the study sets...

  1. Determining Learning Styles of the Professional Mountaineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bektas, Fatih

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explore learning styles of the professional mountaineers. The research was carried out according to the survey model. The research group composed of 61 professional mountaineers (n[subscript (men)] = 45, n[subscript (women)] = 16) who attended Advanced Snow Ice Education Camp in Rize on September 1-7, 2012, the last camp of…

  2. 36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mountain climbing. 13.910 Section 13.910 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Provisions § 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley or Mount Foraker without a permit is...

  3. 36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mountain climbing. 13.910 Section 13.910 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Provisions § 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley or Mount Foraker without a permit is...

  4. 36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mountain climbing. 13.910 Section 13.910 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Provisions § 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley or Mount Foraker without a permit is...

  5. 36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mountain climbing. 13.910 Section 13.910 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Provisions § 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley or Mount Foraker without a permit is...

  6. 27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213... Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snipes Mountain”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snipes Mountain” is a term of viticultural significance...

  7. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in children.

    PubMed

    Woods, Charles R

    2013-04-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is typically undifferentiated from many other infections in the first few days of illness. Treatment should not be delayed pending confirmation of infection when Rocky Mountain spotted fever is suspected. Doxycycline is the drug of choice even for infants and children less than 8 years old. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213... Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snipes Mountain”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snipes Mountain” is a term of viticultural significance...

  9. 36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mountain climbing. 13.910 Section 13.910 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Provisions § 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley or Mount Foraker without a permit is...

  10. 27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213... Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snipes Mountain”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snipes Mountain” is a term of viticultural significance...

  11. 27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213... Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snipes Mountain”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snipes Mountain” is a term of viticultural significance...

  12. 27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213... Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snipes Mountain”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snipes Mountain” is a term of viticultural significance...

  13. Summiteers--Moving Mountains with Bereaved Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, Hans-Georg

    2011-01-01

    Summiteers are people who rush to the top. There is a mountain summit and a metaphorical summit inside us which we can climb. In the area of mountain summits, Reinhold Messner is surely the best known and most successful summiteer. He climbed, among other things, the highest peak on earth without supplemental oxygen. In the language of the country…

  14. 78 FR 29366 - Green Mountain Power Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Green Mountain Power Corporation Notice of Filing Take notice that on May 2, 2013, Green Mountain Power Corporation filed additional information in support of its request for...

  15. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2004 Research Accomplishments

    Treesearch

    Rick Fletcher

    2005-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station is one of six regional units that make up the USDA Forest Service Research and Development organization - the most extensive natural resources research organization in the world. We maintain 12 field laboratories throughout a 14-state territory encompassing the Great Basin, Southwest, Rocky Mountains, and parts of the Great...

  16. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2003 Research Accomplishments

    Treesearch

    Rick Fletcher

    2004-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station is one of six regional units that make up the USDA Forest Service Research and Development organization - the most extensive natural resources research organization in the world. We maintain 12 field laboratories throughout a 14-state territory encompassing the Great Basin, Southwest, Rocky Mountains and parts of the Great...

  17. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2010 Research Accomplishments

    Treesearch

    Rick Fletcher

    2010-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station is one of seven regional units that make up the USDA Forest Service Research and Development organization ­ the most extensive natural resources research organization in the world. We maintain 12 field laboratories throughout a 12-state territory encompassing the Great Basin, Southwest, Rocky Mountains, and parts of the Great Plains...

  18. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2011 Annual Accomplishments

    Treesearch

    Rick Fletcher

    2011-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station is one of seven regional units that make up the USDA Forest Service Research and Development organization ­ the most extensive natural resources research organization in the world. We maintain 12 field laboratories throughout a 12-state territory encompassing the Great Basin, Southwest, Rocky Mountains, and parts of the Great Plains...

  19. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2002 Research Accomplishments

    Treesearch

    Rick Fletcher

    2003-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station is one of six regional units that make up the USDA Forest Service Research and Development organization - the most extensive natural resources research organization in the world. We maintain 12 field laboratories throughout a 14-state territory encompassing the Great Basin, Southwest, Rocky Mountains and parts of the Great...

  20. Cheyenne Mountain System Acquisitions: Problems and Principles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    Marty Gowins MAXWELL AIR FORCE BASE, ALABAMA May 1990 DISCLAIMER This study reflects the views of the author and does not necessarily reflect the...iv PREFACE .......... .................. v DEDICATION ....... .................. vii Chapter I, Introduction ......... ................. 1 II...The Original Systems ....... ............. 7 III. The Cheyenne Mountain Improvement Program. . . 12 IV. The Cheyenne Mountain Upgrades ........ 20 V

  1. Mountain Glaciers and Ice Caps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ananichheva, Maria; Arendt, Anthony; Hagen, Jon-Ove; Hock, Regine; Josberger, Edward G.; Moore, R. Dan; Pfeffer, William Tad; Wolken, Gabriel J.

    2011-01-01

    Projections of future rates of mass loss from mountain glaciers and ice caps in the Arctic focus primarily on projections of changes in the surface mass balance. Current models are not yet capable of making realistic forecasts of changes in losses by calving. Surface mass balance models are forced with downscaled output from climate models driven by forcing scenarios that make assumptions about the future rate of growth of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Thus, mass loss projections vary considerably, depending on the forcing scenario used and the climate model from which climate projections are derived. A new study in which a surface mass balance model is driven by output from ten general circulation models (GCMs) forced by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) A1B emissions scenario yields estimates of total mass loss of between 51 and 136 mm sea-level equivalent (SLE) (or 13% to 36% of current glacier volume) by 2100. This implies that there will still be substantial glacier mass in the Arctic in 2100 and that Arctic mountain glaciers and ice caps will continue to influence global sea-level change well into the 22nd century.

  2. Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-01-08

    The Anti-Atlas Mountains of Morocco formed as a result of the collision of the African and Eurasian tectonic plates about 80 million years ago. This collision destroyed the Tethys Ocean; the limestone, sandstone, claystone, and gypsum layers that formed the ocean bed were folded and crumpled to create the Atlas and Anti-Atlas Mountains. In this ASTER image, short wavelength infrared bands are combined to dramatically highlight the different rock types, and illustrate the complex folding. The yellowish, orange and green areas are limestones, sandstones and gypsum; the dark blue and green areas are underlying granitic rocks. The ability to map geology using ASTER data is enhanced by the multiple short wavelength infrared bands, that are sensitive to differences in rock mineralogy. This image was acquired on June 13, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA03893

  3. Mountaineering and Climbing on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowing, K. L.

    Initial human missions to Mars will be a precious commodity wherein a maximum amount of information is gathered by each crew. As was the case during innumerable terrestrial missions of exploration, the Martian terrain that visiting crews must traverse in order to gain an understanding will often be difficult. This is accentuated by the fact that Mars is a world of geology - one whose surface area is equal to dry surface on Earth. Human crews will be called upon to use a variety of skills and tools to traverse the Martian surface - including those often associated with hiking, mountaineering and technical climbing. While rovers and other mechanical devices will be employed, it should be assumed that skills commonly associated with rock climbing, caving, and mountaineering on Earth will also be required. This paper looks at the human factors associated with such activity on Mars: space suit design requirements, life support, tools and procedures, traverse planning, logistics issues and navigation. Implications for adaptation of terrestrial gear will be examined as will implications raised by planetary protection. Lessons learned during sorties conducted on the lunar surface during the Apollo program are discussed.

  4. Pillar Mountain Landslide, Kodiak, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kachadoorian, Reuben; Slater, Willard H.

    1978-01-01

    Pillar Mountain landslide on the southeast face of Pillar Mountain is about 915 m (3,000 ft) southwest of the city of Kodiak, Alaska. The landslide is about 520 m (1,700 ft) wide at its base and extends approximately from sea level to an altitude of about 343 m (1,125 ft). The slide developed on an ancient and apparently inactive landslide. Renewed movement was first detected on December 5, 1971, following removal of about 230,000 m3 (300,000 yd3) of material from the base of the slope. Although movement of the landslide has decreased since December, 1971, movement continues and the possibility exists that it could increase as a result of an earthquake, water saturation of the landslide mass, or other causes. In the most extreme case, as much as 3.8 to 7.6 million m (5-10 million ) of debris could fall into the sea at Inner Anchorage. If this took place suddenly, it could generate a wave comparable in height to the tsunami that damaged Kodiak during the Alaskan Earthquake of 1964. Therefore, we believe that the Pillar landslide is a potential hazard to the city of Kodiak and its environs that merits a thorough investigation and evaluation.

  5. Helicopter emergency medical service in mountainous areas.

    PubMed

    Tomazin, Iztok

    2009-01-01

    The outcome of patient care can be dramatically improved by bringing rapid rescue-medical treatment to the scene and by rapid transport to a medical facility. In mountainous areas this is usually possible only with the use of helicopters. ICAR MEDCOM suggests international standards for competent and safe response to medical problems in mountainous and wilderness areas. Rescue helicopters should work within the existing emergency medical system with appropriate mountain rescue and medically-trained personnel and with medical and rescue equipment on board. Safety is most important issue in mountain rescue. Activation and approach time should be as short as possible. All persons responsible for activation and realization of a helicopter rescue operation should be aware of all specific problems in the mountains and wilderness.

  6. Mountain coniferous forests, refugia and butterflies.

    PubMed

    Varga, Zoltán

    2008-05-01

    The boreal coniferous forests form the most extended vegetation zone of the Northern Hemisphere. As opposed to North America, they are disconnected from the mountain coniferous forests in Europe, because of the dominant east-west direction of the mountain chains. Consequently, the mountain forests show some unique characteristic features of glacial survival and postglacial history, as well. The mountain coniferous forests have numerous common floral and faunal elements with the boreal zone. However, the few unique faunal elements of the European mountain coniferous forests can be used to unravel the peculiar patterns and processes of this biome. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Thomas Schmitt and Karola Haubrich (2008) use the relatively common and taxonomically well-studied butterfly, the large ringlet (Erebia euryale) to identify the last glacial refugia and postglacial expansion routes.

  7. Mountaineering fatalities on Aconcagua: 2001-2012.

    PubMed

    Westensee, Jeffrey; Rogé, Ignacio; Van Roo, Jon D; Pesce, Carlos; Batzli, Sam; Courtney, D Mark; Lazio, Matthew P

    2013-09-01

    High altitude mountaineering is a dangerous endeavor due to the hypoxic hypobaric environment, extreme weather, and technical skills required. One of the seven summits, Aconcagua (6962 m) is the highest mountain outside of Asia. Its most popular route is nontechnical, attracting >3000 mountaineers annually. Utilizing data from the Servicio Médico Aconcagua (park medical service), we performed a retrospective descriptive analysis with the primary objective of deriving a fatality rate on Aconcagua from 2001 to 2012. The fatality rate on Aconcagua was then compared to other popular mountains. For climbers who died, we report all available demographic data, mechanisms of death, and circumstances surrounding the death. Between 2001 and 2012, 42,731 mountaineers attempted to summit Aconcagua. There were 33 fatalities. The fatality rate was 0.77 per 1000, or 0.077%. The fatality rate on Aconcagua is lower than that on Everest or Denali but higher than that on Rainier.

  8. Influence of mountains on Arctic tropospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seabrook, Jeffrey; Whiteway, James

    2016-02-01

    Tropospheric ozone was measured above Ellesmere Island in the Canadian Arctic during spring of 2008 using a differential absorption lidar. The observations were carried out at Eureka Weather Station, which is located between various mountain ranges. Analysis of the observations revealed that mountains had a significant effect on the vertical distribution of ozone. Ozone depletion events were observed when air that had spent significant time near to the frozen surface of the Arctic Ocean reached Eureka. This air arrived at Eureka by flowing over the surrounding mountains. Surface level ozone depletions were not observed during periods when mountains blocked the flow of air from over the sea ice. In the case of blocking there was an enhancement in the amount of ozone near the surface as air from the midtroposphere descended in the lee of the mountains. Three case studies from spring of 2008 are described.

  9. A sightability model for mountain goats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, C.G.; Jenkins, K.J.; Chang, W.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    Unbiased estimates of mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) populations are key to meeting diverse harvest management and conservation objectives. We developed logistic regression models of factors influencing sightability of mountain goat groups during helicopter surveys throughout the Cascades and Olympic Ranges in western Washington during summers, 20042007. We conducted 205 trials of the ability of aerial survey crews to detect groups of mountain goats whose presence was known based on simultaneous direct observation from the ground (n 84), Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry (n 115), or both (n 6). Aerial survey crews detected 77 and 79 of all groups known to be present based on ground observers and GPS collars, respectively. The best models indicated that sightability of mountain goat groups was a function of the number of mountain goats in a group, presence of terrain obstruction, and extent of overstory vegetation. Aerial counts of mountain goats within groups did not differ greatly from known group sizes, indicating that under-counting bias within detected groups of mountain goats was small. We applied HorvitzThompson-like sightability adjustments to 1,139 groups of mountain goats observed in the Cascade and Olympic ranges, Washington, USA, from 2004 to 2007. Estimated mean sightability of individual animals was 85 but ranged 0.750.91 in areas with low and high sightability, respectively. Simulations of mountain goat surveys indicated that precision of population estimates adjusted for sightability biases increased with population size and number of replicate surveys, providing general guidance for the design of future surveys. Because survey conditions, group sizes, and habitat occupied by goats vary among surveys, we recommend using sightability correction methods to decrease bias in population estimates from aerial surveys of mountain goats.

  10. State Library of Iowa Five-Year Plan for the Use of Library Services and Technology Act (LSTA) Funds FY98-FY02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Library, Des Moines.

    This document outlines the five-year Library Services and Technology Act (LSTA) plan for the state of Iowa. The background of library services in Iowa is outlined, followed by the development of the Five-Year Plan. The new federal legislation authorizing LSTA offered Iowa an opportunity to (1) re-examine the strengths of Iowa libraries and what is…

  11. High performance zero-bleed CLSM/grout mixes for high-level waste tank closures strategic research and development - FY98

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.A.

    2000-02-17

    The overall objective of this program, SRD-98-08, is to design and test suitable materials, which can be used to close high-level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site. Fill materials can be designed to perform several functions. They can be designed to chemically stabilize and/or physically encapsulate incidental waste so that the potential for transport of contaminants into the environment is reduced. Also they are needed to physically stabilize the void volume in the tanks to prevent/minimize future subsidence and inadvertent intrusion.

  12. Geology of the Bighorn Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darton, N.H.

    1906-01-01

    There are extensive, forests in the mountains, which are now included in a Government forest reserve, but their timber is not of great value. Much of the area below timber line contains an abundance of luxuriant grasses and other plants, which afford excellent pasturage for stock, and large herds of sheep and cattle are ranged in the region during the short summer season. Game is moderately abundant, and most of the streams contain large numbers of trout. The region is one of great interest geologically on account of its variety of sedimentary rocks, interesting structure, and remarkably instructive glacial features. The central area, with its high peaks, presents alpine scenery of notable character. Doubtless in the future the region will be extensively visited by tourists, hunters, and geologists.

  13. Fatal Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Hattwick, M A; Retailliau, H; O'Brien, R J; Slutzker, M; Fontaine, R E; Hanson, B

    1978-09-29

    Forty-four fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) occurring in 1974 were compared with 50 nonfatal cases of similar age, sex, date of onset, and place of occurrence. Diagnosis and initiation of treatment in fatal cases were substantially delayed compared with nonfatal cases. Several reasons for this delay were identified: (1) the rash appeared later in the course of illness in the fatal cases, often not until the patient was terminal, (2) a history of tick bite was less often obtained during life or obtained late in the clinical course in fatal cases, and (3) initial nonspecific symptoms or unexpected symptoms led to an initial diagnosis of more common diseases. Only two fatal cases were treated with either tetracycline or chloramphenicol before the sixth day of illness. Presumptive diagnosis of RMSF and initiation of tetracycline therapy before onset of rash may be necessary to reduce mortality.

  14. Natural analogs for Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, W.M.

    1995-11-01

    High-level radioactive waste in the US, spent fuels from commercial reactors and nuclear materials generated by defense activities, will remain potentially hazardous for thousands of years. Demonstrable long-term stability of certain geologic and geochemical systems motivates and sustains the concept that high-level waste can be safely isolated in geologic repositories for requisite periods of time. Each geologic repository is unique in its properties and performance with reguard to isolation of nuclear wastes. Studies of processes analogous to waste-form alteration and radioelement transport in environments analogous to Yucca Mountain are being conducted at two sites, described in this article to illustrate uses of natural analog data: the Nopal I uranium deposit in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Mexico, and the Akrotiri archaeological site on the island of Santorini, Greece.

  15. Rainfall characteristics along mountainous transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwiebel, Jimmy; Van Baelen, Joël; Anquetin, Sandrine; Pointin, Yves; Boudevillain, Brice

    2014-05-01

    The HYdrological cycle in Mediterranean EXperiment is an experiment framework that aims at improving our understanding and quantification of processes related to the hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean region at different scales (from the individual event scale to seasonal and inter-annual variability). During the Special Observation Period (SOP-1) conducted from September 5th to November 6th 2012, an important and complementary remote sensing network (operational radars, X band research radars, Micro Rain Radars, disdrometers, and a dense network of rain gauges) has been deployed in the Cévennes-Vivarais region (South of France). This network was specifically designed to investigate the structure and the heterogeneity of precipitations as well as, in particular, the impact of orography on this structure and it has provided us with high resolution data (time and space) along strong topographic gradients (small hills, foothills and mountain). Hence, these data will support our research to precisely describe the precipitation systems and their structures over a complex terrain. In this work, we will describe the characteristics of rainfall along two topographic gradients based on the major events observed during the fall 2012 campaign period. A classification according to the type of precipitation (convective, stratiform and orographic) which can affect the region has been made to investigate orographic impact under different rainfall regimes. We will also examine the influence of the relief on the vertical and horizontal structure of precipitation. In particular, we will illustrate the modification of the drop size distribution toward smaller droplets as we go from the small hills to the mountains.

  16. Occupational Health in Mountainous Kyrgyzstan.

    PubMed

    Dzhusupov, Kenesh O; Colosio, Claudio; Tabibi, Ramin; Sulaimanova, Cholpon T

    2015-01-01

    In the period of transition from a centralized economy to the market economy, occupational health services in Kyrgyzstan have survived through dramatic, detrimental changes. It is common for occupational health regulations to be ignored and for basic occupational health services across many industrial enterprises and farms to be neglected. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the present situation and challenges facing occupational health services in Kyrgyzstan. The transition from centralized to the market economy in Kyrgyzstan has led to increased layoffs of workers and unemployment. These threats are followed by increased workload, and the health and safety of workers becomes of little concern. Private employers ignore occupational health and safety; consequently, there is under-reporting of occupational diseases and accidents. The majority of enterprises, especially those of small or medium size, are unsanitary, and the health status of workers remains largely unknown. The low official rates of occupational diseases are the result of data being deliberately hidden; lack of coverage of working personnel by medical checkups; incompetent management; and the poor quality of staff, facilities, and equipment. Because Kyrgyzstan is a mountainous country, the main environmental and occupational factor of enterprises is hypoxia. Occupational health specialists have greatly contributed to the development of occupational medicine in the mountains through science and practice. The enforcement of existing strong occupational health legislation and increased financing of occupational health services are needed. The maintenance of credible health monitoring and effective health services for workers, re-establishment of medical services and sanitary-hygienic laboratories in industrial enterprises, and support for scientific investigations on occupational risk assessment will increase the role of occupational health services in improving the health of the working population

  17. Late glacial aridity in southern Rocky Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, O.K.; Pitblado, B.L.

    1995-09-01

    While the slopes of the present-day Colorado Rocky Mountains are characterized by large stands of subalpine and montane conifers, the Rockies of the late glacial looked dramatically different. Specifically, pollen records suggest that during the late glacial, Artemisia and Gramineae predominated throughout the mountains of Colorado. At some point between 11,000 and 10,000 B.P., however, both Artemisia and grasses underwent a dramatic decline, which can be identified in virtually every pollen diagram produced for Colorado mountain sites, including Como Lake (Sangre de Cristo Mountains), Copley Lake and Splains; Gulch (near Crested Butte), Molas Lake (San Juan Mountains), and Redrock Lake (Boulder County). Moreover, the same pattern seems to hold for pollen spectra derived for areas adjacent to Colorado, including at sites in the Chuska Mountains of New Mexico and in eastern Wyoming. The implications of this consistent finding are compelling. The closest modem analogues to the Artemisia- and Gramineae-dominated late-glacial Colorado Rockies are found in the relatively arid northern Great Basin, which suggests that annual precipitation was much lower in the late-glacial southern Rocky Mountains than it was throughout the Holocene.

  18. Tectonic models for Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Leary, D. W.

    2006-01-01

    Performance of a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain hinges partly on long-term structural stability of the mountain, its susceptibility to tectonic disruption that includes fault displacement, seismic ground motion, and igneous intrusion. Because of the uncertainty involved with long-term (10,000 yr minimum) prediction of tectonic events (e.g., earthquakes) and the incomplete understanding of the history of strain and its mechanisms in the Yucca Mountain region, a tectonic model is needed. A tectonic model should represent the structural assemblage of the mountain in its tectonic setting and account for that assemblage through a history of deformation in which all of the observed deformation features are linked in time and space. Four major types of tectonic models have been proposed for Yucca Mountain: a caldera model; simple shear (detachment fault) models; pure shear (planar fault) models; and lateral shear models. Most of the models seek to explain local features in the context of well-accepted regional deformation mechanisms. Evaluation of the models in light of site characterization shows that none of them completely accounts for all the known tectonic features of Yucca Mountain or is fully compatible with the deformation history. The Yucca Mountain project does not endorse a preferred tectonic model. However, most experts involved in the probabilistic volcanic hazards analysis and the probabilistic seismic hazards analysis preferred a planar fault type model. ?? 2007 Geological Society of America. All rights reserved.

  19. Himalayan Mountain Range, India/Tibet

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-06-22

    SL2-102-900 (22 June 1973) --- The Great Himalayan Mountain Range, India/Tibet (30.5N, 81.5E) is literally the top of the world where mountains soar to over 20,000 ft. effectively isolating Tibet from the rest of the world. The two lakes seen in the center of the image are the Laga Co and the Kunggyu Co located just inside the Tibet border. Although clouds and rainfall are rare in this region, snow is always present on the mountain peaks. Photo credit: NASA

  20. Transport of neptunium through Yucca Mountain tuffs

    SciTech Connect

    Triay, I.R.; Robinson, B.A.; Mitchell, A.J.; Overly, C.M.; Lopez, R.M.

    1993-02-01

    Neptunium has a high solubility in groundwaters from Yucca Mountain [1]. Uranium in nuclear reactors produces {sup 237}Np which has a half-life of 2.1 4 {times} 10{sup 6} years. Consequently, the transport of {sup 237}Np through tuffs is of major importance in assessing the performance of a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The objective of this work is to determine the amount of Np retardation that is provided by the minerals in Yucca Mountain tuffs as a function of groundwater chemistry.

  1. Forest ecology and biogeography of the Uinta Mountains, USA

    Treesearch

    John D. Shaw; James N. Long

    2007-01-01

    The Uinta Mountains form a crossroads of forests and woodlands in the central Rocky Mountains. Although no tree species is endemic to the area, all species characteristic of the central Rocky Mountains are found there, and the ranges of several other species terminate in the Uinta Mountains and the surrounding area. The peninsula-like shape, east-west orientation, and...

  2. 27 CFR 9.220 - Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pine Mountain-Cloverdale... Areas § 9.220 Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Pine Mountain...

  3. 27 CFR 9.220 - Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pine Mountain-Cloverdale... Areas § 9.220 Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Pine Mountain...

  4. 27 CFR 9.220 - Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pine Mountain-Cloverdale... Areas § 9.220 Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Pine Mountain...

  5. Managing a Scarce Natural Resource: The High Altitude Mountaineering Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert, Alan

    This study identifies some characteristics of mountaineering visitors, climbers' perceptions of the mountain environment, and certain preferred management options affecting both the mountain environment and the mountaineer on Mt. McKinley and adjacent Alaska Range peaks. Approximately 360 registered climbers were asked to complete a 26-item…

  6. Annual Copper Mountain Conferences on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, Copper Mountain, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, Stephen F.

    2016-03-25

    This project supported the Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, held from 2007 to 2015, at Copper Mountain, Colorado. The subject of the Copper Mountain Conference Series alternated between Multigrid Methods in odd-numbered years and Iterative Methods in even-numbered years. Begun in 1983, the Series represents an important forum for the exchange of ideas in these two closely related fields. This report describes the Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, 2007-2015. Information on the conference series is available at http://grandmaster.colorado.edu/~copper/.

  7. Recent population trends of mountain goats in the Olympic Mountains, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Kurt J.; Happe, Patricia J.; Beirne, Katherine F.; Hoffman, Roger A.; Griffin, Paul C.; Baccus, William T.; Fieberg, John

    2012-01-01

    Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) were introduced in Washington's Olympic Mountains during the 1920s. The population subsequently increased in numbers and expanded in range, leading to concerns by the 1970s over the potential effects of non-native mountain goats on high-elevation plant communities in Olympic National Park. The National Park Service (NPS) transplanted mountain goats from the Olympic Mountains to other ranges between 1981 and 1989 as a means to manage overabundant populations, and began monitoring population trends of mountain goats in 1983. We estimated population abundance of mountain goats during 18–25 July 2011, the sixth survey of the time series, to assess current population status and responses of the population to past management. We surveyed 39 sample units, comprising 39% of the 59,615-ha survey area. We estimated a population of 344 ± 72 (90% confidence interval [CI]) mountain goats in the survey area. Retrospective analysis of the 2004 survey, accounting for differences in survey area boundaries and methods of estimating aerial detection biases, indicated that the population increased at an average annual rate of 4.9% since the last survey. That is the first population growth observed since the cessation of population control measures in 1990. We postulate that differences in population trends observed in western, eastern, and southern sections of the survey zone reflected, in part, a variable influence of climate change across the precipitation gradient in the Olympic Mountains.

  8. Influence of Mountains on Arctic Tropospheric Ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteway, J. A.; Seabrook, J.

    2015-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone was measured above Ellesmere Island in the Canadian Arctic during spring using a differential absorption lidar (DIAL). Analysis of the observations revealed that mountains had a significant effect on the vertical distribution of ozone. Ozone depletion events were observed when air that had spent significant time near to the frozen surface of the Arctic Ocean reached Eureka. This air arrived at Eureka by flowing over the surrounding mountains. Surface level ozone depletion events were not observed during periods when mountains blocked the flow of air from over the sea ice. In the case of blocking there was an enhancement in the amount of ozone near the surface as air from the mid troposphere descended in the lee of the mountains. Three case studies will be presented.

  9. A Mountain Range within Pluto Heart

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-07-21

    A newly discovered mountain range lies near the southwestern margin of Pluto heart-shaped Tombaugh Regio Tombaugh Region, situated between bright, icy plains and dark, heavily-cratered terrain. This image was acquired by NASA's New Horizons' Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) on July 14, 2015, from a distance of 48,000 miles (77,000 kilometers) and sent back to Earth on July 20. Features as small as a half-mile (1 kilometer) across are visible. These frozen peaks are estimated to be one-half mile to one mile (1-1.5 kilometers) high, about the same height as the United States' Appalachian Mountains. The Norgay Montes (Norgay Mountains) discovered by New Horizons on July 15 more closely approximate the height of the taller Rocky Mountains The names of features on Pluto have all been given on an informal basis by the New Horizons team. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19842

  10. 27 CFR 9.112 - Arkansas Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Mountain viticultural area is located in northwestern Arkansas. Starting at the point where Frog Bayou... Frog Bayou near Winfrey, Arkansas. (xvii) Then generally southward along Frog Bayou, flowing through...

  11. 27 CFR 9.112 - Arkansas Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Mountain viticultural area is located in northwestern Arkansas. Starting at the point where Frog Bayou... Frog Bayou near Winfrey, Arkansas. (xvii) Then generally southward along Frog Bayou, flowing through...

  12. 27 CFR 9.112 - Arkansas Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Mountain viticultural area is located in northwestern Arkansas. Starting at the point where Frog Bayou... Frog Bayou near Winfrey, Arkansas. (xvii) Then generally southward along Frog Bayou, flowing through...

  13. 27 CFR 9.112 - Arkansas Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Mountain viticultural area is located in northwestern Arkansas. Starting at the point where Frog Bayou... Frog Bayou near Winfrey, Arkansas. (xvii) Then generally southward along Frog Bayou, flowing through...

  14. 27 CFR 9.112 - Arkansas Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Mountain viticultural area is located in northwestern Arkansas. Starting at the point where Frog Bayou... Frog Bayou near Winfrey, Arkansas. (xvii) Then generally southward along Frog Bayou, flowing through...

  15. Microtektites from the Larkman Nunatak, Transantarctic Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Ginneken, M.; Genge, M. J.

    2015-07-01

    We report the discovery of microtektites in glacial moraine from the Larkman Nunatak, Transantarctic Mountains. Major and trace element compositions match those of Australasian microtektites. This discovery could extend the Australian strewnfield.

  16. Quartz Mountain/Oklahoma Summer Arts Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frates, Mary Y.; Madeja, Stanley S.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the Quartz Mountain Oklahoma Summer Arts Institute program. It is designed to nurture artistic talent and to provide intensive arts experiences in music, dance, theater, and the visual arts for talented students aged 14-18. (AM)

  17. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: Statistics and Epidemiology

    MedlinePlus

    ... tick Diseases transmitted by ticks More Statistics and Epidemiology Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Rocky Mountain ... lower case fatality rate observed in recent decades. Epidemiology Figure 1 – Reported incidence and case fatality of ...

  18. Zagros Mountains, Iran, SRTM Shaded Relief Anaglyph

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-06-17

    The Zagros Mountains in Iran offer a visually stunning topographic display of geologic structure in layered sedimentary rocks in this anaglyph from NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. 3D glasses are necessary to view this image.

  19. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety for the Whole Family Evaluate Your Child's Lyme Disease Risk Lyme Disease Lyme Disease Hey! A Tick Bit Me! Bug Bites and Stings Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Lyme Disease Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...

  20. Quartz Mountain/Oklahoma Summer Arts Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frates, Mary Y.; Madeja, Stanley S.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the Quartz Mountain Oklahoma Summer Arts Institute program. It is designed to nurture artistic talent and to provide intensive arts experiences in music, dance, theater, and the visual arts for talented students aged 14-18. (AM)

  1. Black Box Theatres: Cheyenne Mountain High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the design of the academic arts building at Cheyenne Mountain High School in Colorado Springs, Colorado, including its black box theater, art classroom, computer graphics lab, gallery, video production area, and chorus classroom. (EV)

  2. Radar View of Titan Tallest Mountains

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-24

    The trio of ridges on Titan known as Mithrim Montes is home to the hazy Saturnian moon tallest peak. The mountain is located midway along the lower of the three ridges shown in this radar image from NASA Cassini spacecraft.

  3. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ticks? First Aid: Tick Bites Bug Bites and Stings Woods and Camping Safety for the Whole Family ... Hey! A Tick Bit Me! Bug Bites and Stings Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Lyme Disease Contact Us ...

  4. Lightning fire research in the Rocky Mountains

    Treesearch

    J. S. Barrows

    1954-01-01

    Lightning is the major cause of fires in Rocky Mountain forests. The lightning fire problem is the prime target of a broad research program now known as Project Skyfire. KEYWORDS: lightning, fire research

  5. Tectonic and neotectonic framework of the Yucca Mountain Region

    SciTech Connect

    Schweickert, R.A.

    1992-09-30

    Highlights of major research accomplishments concerned with the tectonics and neotectonics of the Yucca Mountain Region include: structural studies in Grapevine Mountains, Bullfrog Hills, and Bare Mountain; recognition of significance of pre-Middle Miocene normal and strike-slip faulting at Bare Mountain; compilation of map of quaternary faulting in Southern Amargosa Valley; and preliminary paleomagnetic analysis of Paleozoic and Cenozoic units at Bare Mountain.

  6. Floods in mountain environments: A synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoffel, Markus; Wyżga, Bartłomiej; Marston, Richard A.

    2016-11-01

    Floods are a crucial agent of geomorphic change in the channels and valley floors of mountains watercourses. At the same time, they can be highly damaging to property, infrastructure, and life. Because of their high energy, mountain watercourses are highly vulnerable to environmental changes affecting their catchments and channels. Many factors have modified and frequently still tend to modify the environmental conditions in mountain areas, with impacts on geomorphic processes and the frequency, magnitude, and timing of floods in mountain watercourses. The ongoing climate changes vary between regions but may affect floods in mountain areas in many ways. In many mountain regions of Europe, widespread afforestation took place over the twentieth century, considerably increasing the amounts of large wood delivered to the channels and the likelihood of jamming bridges. At the same time, deforestation continues in other mountain areas, accelerating runoff and amplifying the magnitude and frequency of floods in foreland areas. In many countries, in-channel gravel mining has been a common practice during recent decades; the resultant deficit of bed material in the affected channels may suddenly manifest during flood events, resulting in the failure of scoured bridges or catastrophic channel widening. During the past century many rivers in mountain and foreland areas incised deeply; the resultant loss of floodplain water storage has decreased attenuation of flood waves, hence increasing flood hazard to downstream river reaches. On the other hand, a large amount of recent river restoration activities worldwide may provide examples of beneficial changes to flood risk, attained as a result of increased channel storage or reestablished floodplain water storage. Relations between geomorphic processes and floods operate in both directions, which means that changes in flood probability or the character of floods (e.g., increased wood load) may significantly modify the morphology

  7. Plight of the Cabinet Mountains grizzlies

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, H.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of mineral and petroleum exploration and development and logging on grizzly bears in the Cabinet Mountains region of Montana is discussed. The author points out that such activities might cut the bears off from other bear populations in the Glacier National park and the Bob Marshall Wilderness. It is maintained, that in order for the bears to survive, they must range beyond the Cabinet Mountains and that extensive human activities in the area would damage their range. (JMT)

  8. Nuclear Waste Disposal: Alternatives to Yucca Mountain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-06

    permanent high-level nuclear waste repository in 1987, following years of controversy over the site -selection process. Over the strenuous objections of...contending in an issue statement that he and now-Vice President Biden “do not believe that Yucca Mountain is a suitable site .” Under the current nuclear ...to Yucca Mountain would be indefinite on- site storage of nuclear waste at reactor sites and other nuclear facilities. Private central storage

  9. Mountain Infantry - Is There a Need?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-03

    divisions, their organization, level of training , the results of their combat operations, and lessons learned is made in order to determine if the training ... training in mountain operations, the results of specific battles, and lessons learned from each engagement. A comparison of the two units will determine if...the units, both are glorious and highlight success. How can one make a determination if a mountain trained unit made a difference? First, there are a

  10. Mountain Warfare: The Need for Specialist Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    frostbite , snow blindness, and sunburn, are also common at high altitudes. Soldiers need to be taught precautionary measures to prevent unnecessary exposure...Various problems associated with mountain terrain, such as frostbite , snow blindness, mountain sickness, and edema, occur more easily and frequently. In...builds perspiration inside the clothing, which can freeze and cause frostbite . Sunny weather does not always spell good news, as it may lead to snow

  11. Complement C3 in Bernese Mountain dogs.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Bernhard; Eichenberger, Simone; Joller-Jemelka, Helen I; Wittenbrink, Max M; Reusch, Claudia E

    2010-06-01

    Previous research suggests that low serum concentrations of the third component of complement (C3) are associated with both the susceptibility to infectious agents such as Borrelia burgdorferi and the development of glomerular disease. We hypothesized that low levels of C3 are associated with the coincident occurrence of B. burgdorferi infection and glomerulonephritis in Bernese Mountain dogs. The aims of this study were to evaluate the serum concentration of C3 in Bernese Mountain dogs with and without antibodies against B. burgdorferi and to compare this concentration with that of healthy control dogs. Eighty-three clinically healthy Bernese Mountain dogs and 46 control dogs were included. Antibodies against B. burgdorferi were determined using an ELISA with a whole cell sonicate as antigen. Results were confirmed using Western blot. C3 was measured using a single radial immunodiffusion test. Results were reported as the percentage concentration of C3 compared with that in pooled preserved canine serum (100% C3 concentration). Median C3 concentration was 128.5% in Bernese Mountain dogs with antibodies against B. burgdorferi, 133.5% in B. burgdorferi-negative Bernese Mountain dogs, 87.8% in positive control dogs, and 102.2% in negative control dogs. Within Bernese Mountain and control groups, C3 was lower in dogs with antibodies against B. burgdorferi compared with those without. Percentage concentration of C3 was higher in healthy Bernese Mountain dogs compared with control dogs. Low C3 concentration is not an explanation for the high prevalence of B. burgdorferi infections and glomerular disease in Bernese Mountain dogs.

  12. Rockfall exposures in Montserrat mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontquerni Gorchs, Sara; Vilaplana Fernández, Joan Manuel; Guinau Sellés, Marta; Jesús Royán Cordero, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Mountain. It is important to mention that the exposure level calculation has been obtained from natural hazard data do not protected by defense works. Results of this work enable us to consider best strategies to reduce rockfalls risk in the PNMM. It is clear that, apart from the required structural defense works, some of them already made, implementation of strategies not involving structural defense is, in the medium and long term, the best policy to mitigate the risk. In the PNMM case, rethinking of mobility and traffic management on the mountain access would be definitely helpful to achieve a minimized geological risk.

  13. Semidiurnal solar tides in the mountain atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, C.D.; Bian, X.

    1994-09-01

    Harmonic analysis of Doppler radar wind profiler data west of the Rocky Mountains has identified a coherent semidiurnal wind system above the wintertime boundary layer at multiple sites in the region. The unusual characteristics of this mountain wind system (its semidiurnal frequency, amplitude, phase, and direction of rotation) suggest that is is a semidiurnal solar tide. Such tides have not been previously documented in the mountain atmosphere or in the troposphere generally but, because semidiurnal signatures are well known in surface barometric traces, and large amplitude semidiurnal tides are known in the upper atmosphere, they are not unexpected. Our future research on this semidiurnal cordilleran wind system will focus on obtaining sufficient data to resolve further the vertical structure, seasonal variation, and spatial variations of the wind system. Of particular interest is the role of the Rocky Mountains and other cordilleras in modifying the global tides. It remains to be seen whether semidiurnal cordilleran circulations will be of sufficient magnitude to be observed across major arcuate-shaped east-west-oriented mountain massifs such as the Alps. There, wind systems may develop in response to pressure gradients (Frei and Davies, 1993) that form across the Alps due to differences in the amplitudes and phases of semidiurnal and diurnal pressure oscillations on the north and south sides of the mountain barrier.

  14. CASTNet mountain acid deposition monitoring program

    SciTech Connect

    Bowser, J.J.; Anderson, J.B.; Edgerton, E.S.; Mohnen, V.; Baumgardener, R.

    1994-12-31

    Concern over the influence of air pollution on forest decline has led the USEPA to establish the Mountain Acid Deposition Monitoring Program (MADMP) to quantify total deposition at high altitudes, i.e., above cloud base. Clouds can be a major source of atmospheric deposition to sensitive, mountain ecosystems. This program is a part of the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet), a national assessment of the effects of the 1990 Clean Air Act. The objectives of MADMP are to estimate total deposition, measure cloud chemistry, and characterize spacial and temporal trends at four selected high altitude sites in the Eastern US. Four MADMP sites have been established for the 1994 field season: Clingman`s Dome, Great Smoky Mountain Nat. Park, TN; Slide Mountain, Catskill State Park, NY; Whiteface Mountain, Adirondack State Park, NY; and Whitetop Mountain, Mt. Rogers Nat`l Recreational Area, VA. An automated cloud collection system will be utilized in combination with continuous measurements of cloud liquid water content in order to estimate cloudwater deposition. Other relevant data will include continuous meteorological measurements, ozone and sulfur dioxide concentrations, wet deposition from rainfall analysis, and dry deposition from filter pack analysis. Quality assurance and quality control measures will be employed to maximize accuracy and precision.

  15. Mountains and Plateaus on Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    These two views of Io were acquired by NASA's Galileo spacecraft during its seventh orbit (G7) of Jupiter. The images were designed to view large features on Io at low sun angles when the lighting conditions emphasize the topography or relief of the volcanic satellite. Sun angles are low near the terminator which is the day-night boundary near the left side of the images. These images reveal that the topography is very flat near the active volcanic centers such as Loki Patera (the large dark horseshoe-shaped feature near the terminator in the left-hand image) and that a variety of mountains and plateaus exist elsewhere.

    North is to the top of the picture. The resolution is about 6 kilometers per picture element (6.1 for the left hand image and 5.7 for the right). The images were taken on April 4th, 1997 at a ranges of 600,000 kilometers (left image) and 563,000 kilometers (right image) by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  16. Mountains and Plateaus on Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    These two views of Io were acquired by NASA's Galileo spacecraft during its seventh orbit (G7) of Jupiter. The images were designed to view large features on Io at low sun angles when the lighting conditions emphasize the topography or relief of the volcanic satellite. Sun angles are low near the terminator which is the day-night boundary near the left side of the images. These images reveal that the topography is very flat near the active volcanic centers such as Loki Patera (the large dark horseshoe-shaped feature near the terminator in the left-hand image) and that a variety of mountains and plateaus exist elsewhere.

    North is to the top of the picture. The resolution is about 6 kilometers per picture element (6.1 for the left hand image and 5.7 for the right). The images were taken on April 4th, 1997 at a ranges of 600,000 kilometers (left image) and 563,000 kilometers (right image) by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  17. Reconnaissance and economic geology of Copper Mountain metamorphic complex, Owl Creek Mountains, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Hausel, W.D.

    1983-08-01

    The Copper Mountain metamorphic complex lies within a westerly trending belt of Precambrian exposures known as the Owl Creek Mountains uplift. The metamorphic complex at Copper Mountain is part of a larger complex known as the Owl Creek Mountains greenstone belt. Until more detailed mapping and petrographic studies can be completed, the Copper Mountain area is best referred to as a complex, even though it has some characteristics of a greestone belt. At least three episodes of Precambrian deformation have affected the supracrustals, and two have disturbed the granites. The final Precambrian deformation event was preceded by a weak thermal event expressed by retrogressive metamorphism and restricted metasomatic alteration. During this event, a second phase of pegmatization was accompanied by hydrothermal solutions. During the Laramide orogeny, Copper Mountain was again modified by deformation. Laramide deformation produced complex gravity faults and keystone grabens. Uranium deposits were formed following major Laramide deformation. The genesis of these deposits is attributable to either the leaching of granites or the leaching of overlying tuffaceous sediments during the Tertiary. Production of metals and industrial minerals has been limited, although some gold, copper, silver, tungsten, beryl, feldspar, and lithium ore have been shipped from Copper Mountain. A large amount of uranium was produced from the Copper Mountain district in the 1950s.

  18. Mountain pine beetle host selection between lodgepole and ponderosa pines in the southern Rocky Mountains

    Treesearch

    Daniel R. West; Jennifer S. Briggs; William R. Jacobi; Jose F. Negron

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence of range expansion and host transition by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins; MPB) has suggested that MPB may not primarily breed in their natal host, but will switch hosts to an alternate tree species. As MPB populations expanded in lodgepole pine forests in the southern Rocky Mountains, we investigated the potential for...

  19. Mountain big sagebrush communities on the Bishop Conglomerate in the eastern Uinta Mountains

    Treesearch

    Sherel Goodrich; Allen Huber

    2001-01-01

    The Bishop Conglomerate forms broad, gently sloping pediments that include a mantle or veneer of coarse gravel and some cobble over underlying formations. These pediments cover large areas at the margins of the Uinta Mountains. Mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata var. pauciflora) communities cover rather large areas at the outer edge or lower end of these...

  20. Using prescribed fire to regenerate Table Mountain pine in the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    Treesearch

    Patrick H. Brose; Thomas A. Waldrop

    2000-01-01

    Stand-replacing prescribed fires are recommended to regenerate stands of Table Mountain pine (Pinus pungens) in the southern Appalachian Mountains because the species has serotinous cones and its seedlings require abundant sunlight and a thin forest floor. A 350-hectare prescribed fire in northeastern Georgia provided an opportunity to observe...

  1. [Species diversity of floor bryophyte communities in Bogda Mountains, Xinjiang].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanming; Cao, Tong; Pan, Borong

    2003-06-01

    By means of species similarity coefficient and species diversity index, the characteristics of species diversity of floor bryophyte communities in Bogda Mountain, Xinjiang were studied. The results showed that the bryoflora of Bogda Mountain had the characteristics of richness and complexion. There were 186 floor species (including infraspecies taxa) belonging to 73 genera of 32 families. The species similarity between mountain desert and mountain grassland belt was the highest (0.6809), while that between mountain forest and alpine cushion belt was the lowest (0.1342). The bryophyte community in mountain forest was the ominant one among the floor bryophyte communities. The bryophyte community in mountain forest had the richest species diversity, and the mountain forest was the distribution center of bryophyte diversity and the key area for bryophyte diversity conservation in Bogda Mountain area.

  2. Geology of the Yucca Mountain region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuckless, J.S.; O'Leary, D. W.

    2006-01-01

    Yucca Mountain has been proposed as the site for the nation's first geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. This chapter provides the geologic framework for the Yucca Mountain region. The regional geologic units range in age from late Precambrian through Holocene, and these are described briefly. Yucca Mountain is composed dominantly of pyroclastic units that range in age from 11.4 to 15.2 Ma. The proposed repository would be constructed within the Topopah Spring Tuff, which is the lower of two major zoned and welded ash-flow tuffs within the Paintbrush Group. The two welded tuffs are separated by the partly to nonwelded Pah Canyon Tuff and Yucca Mountain Tuff, which together figure prominently in the hydrology of the unsaturated zone. The Quaternary deposits are primarily alluvial sediments with minor basaltic cinder cones and flows. Both have been studied extensively because of their importance in predicting the long-term performance of the proposed repository. Basaltic volcanism began ca. 10 Ma and continued as recently as ca. 80 ka with the eruption of cones and flows at Lathrop Wells, ???10 km south-southwest of Yucca Mountain. Geologic structure in the Yucca Mountain region is complex. During the latest Paleozoic and Mesozoic, strong compressional forces caused tight folding and thrust faulting. The present regional setting is one of extension, and normal faulting has been active from the Miocene through to the present. There are three major local tectonic domains: (1) Basin and Range, (2) Walker Lane, and (3) Inyo-Mono. Each domain has an effect on the stability of Yucca Mountain. ?? 2007 Geological Society of America. All rights reserved.

  3. Model for predicting mountain wave field uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiens, Florentin; Lott, François; Millet, Christophe; Plougonven, Riwal

    2017-04-01

    Studying the propagation of acoustic waves throughout troposphere requires knowledge of wind speed and temperature gradients from the ground up to about 10-20 km. Typical planetary boundary layers flows are known to present vertical low level shears that can interact with mountain waves, thereby triggering small-scale disturbances. Resolving these fluctuations for long-range propagation problems is, however, not feasible because of computer memory/time restrictions and thus, they need to be parameterized. When the disturbances are small enough, these fluctuations can be described by linear equations. Previous works by co-authors have shown that the critical layer dynamics that occur near the ground produces large horizontal flows and buoyancy disturbances that result in intense downslope winds and gravity wave breaking. While these phenomena manifest almost systematically for high Richardson numbers and when the boundary layer depth is relatively small compare to the mountain height, the process by which static stability affects downslope winds remains unclear. In the present work, new linear mountain gravity wave solutions are tested against numerical predictions obtained with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. For Richardson numbers typically larger than unity, the mesoscale model is used to quantify the effect of neglected nonlinear terms on downslope winds and mountain wave patterns. At these regimes, the large downslope winds transport warm air, a so called "Foehn" effect than can impact sound propagation properties. The sensitivity of small-scale disturbances to Richardson number is quantified using two-dimensional spectral analysis. It is shown through a pilot study of subgrid scale fluctuations of boundary layer flows over realistic mountains that the cross-spectrum of mountain wave field is made up of the same components found in WRF simulations. The impact of each individual component on acoustic wave propagation is discussed in terms of

  4. Bryozoa of the Murdock Mountain formation (Wordian, Permian), Leach Mountains, northeastern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilmour, E.H.; McColloch, M.E.; Wardlaw, B.R.

    1997-01-01

    A thin limestone tongue in the upper part of the Murdock Mountain Formation of northeastern Nevada contains abundant bryozoans of earliest Wordian age. This bryozoan fauna is close to the Kungurian-Kazanian boundary in Russia. These bryozoans are younger than those found in the Kaibab Formation of southern Nevada and slightly older than those in the Gerster Limestone of northern Nevada. This limestone tongue, herein referred to as the Stenodiscus beds, lies below the Thamnosia beds described by Wardlaw in the Murdock Mountain section of the Leach Mountains. This bryozoan-rich limestone tongue serves as a marker unit for mapping the Murdock Formation in the Leach Mountains. Nine new species of bryozoans occur in the Stenodiscus beds of the Murdock Mountain Formation: Hinganella felderi, Neoeridotrypella schilti, Stenopora parvaexozona, Stenodiscus murdockensis, Dyscritella acanthostylia, Pseudobatostomella irregularis. Streblotrypa (Streblotrypa) elongata, Morozoviella praecurriensis, and Thamniscus erraticus, Hinganella felderi, Neoeridotrypella schilti, Dyscritella acanthostylia, and Streblotrypa (Streblotrypa) elongata are very similar to species described from Russia.

  5. Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Anti-Atlas Mountains of Morocco formed as a result of the collision of the African and Eurasian tectonic plates about 80 million years ago. This collision destroyed the Tethys Ocean; the limestone, sandstone, claystone, and gypsum layers that formed the ocean bed were folded and crumpled to create the Atlas and Anti-Atlas Mountains. In this ASTER image, short wavelength infrared bands are combined to dramatically highlight the different rock types, and illustrate the complex folding. The yellowish, orange and green areas are limestones, sandstones and gypsum; the dark blue and green areas are underlying granitic rocks. The ability to map geology using ASTER data is enhanced by the multiple short wavelength infrared bands, that are sensitive to differences in rock mineralogy. This image was acquired on June 13, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils

  6. Precipitation interpolation in mountainous areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolberg, Sjur

    2015-04-01

    Different precipitation interpolation techniques as well as external drift covariates are tested and compared in a 26000 km2 mountainous area in Norway, using daily data from 60 stations. The main method of assessment is cross-validation. Annual precipitation in the area varies from below 500 mm to more than 2000 mm. The data were corrected for wind-driven undercatch according to operational standards. While temporal evaluation produce seemingly acceptable at-station correlation values (on average around 0.6), the average daily spatial correlation is less than 0.1. Penalising also bias, Nash-Sutcliffe R2 values are negative for spatial correspondence, and around 0.15 for temporal. Despite largely violated assumptions, plain Kriging produces better results than simple inverse distance weighting. More surprisingly, the presumably 'worst-case' benchmark of no interpolation at all, simply averaging all 60 stations for each day, actually outperformed the standard interpolation techniques. For logistic reasons, high altitudes are under-represented in the gauge network. The possible effect of this was investigated by a) fitting a precipitation lapse rate as an external drift, and b) applying a linear model of orographic enhancement (Smith and Barstad, 2004). These techniques improved the results only marginally. The gauge density in the region is one for each 433 km2; higher than the overall density of the Norwegian national network. Admittedly the cross-validation technique reduces the gauge density, still the results suggest that we are far from able to provide hydrological models with adequate data for the main driving force.

  7. Fault terminations, Seminoe Mountains, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Dominic, J.B.; McConnell, D.A. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Two basement-involved faults terminate in folds in the Seminoe Mountains. Mesoscopic and macroscopic structures in sedimentary rocks provide clues to the interrelationship of faults and folds in this region, and on the linkage between faulting and folding in general. The Hurt Creek fault trends 320[degree] and has maximum separation of 1.5 km measured at the basement/cover contact. Separation on the fault decreases upsection to zero within the Jurassic Sundance Formation. Unfaulted rock units form an anticline around the fault tip. The complementary syncline is angular with planar limbs and a narrow hinge zone. The syncline axial trace intersects the fault in the footwall at the basement/cover cut-off. Map patterns are interpreted to show thickening of Mesozoic units adjacent to the syncline hinge. In contrast, extensional structures are common in the faulted anticline within the Permian Goose Egg and Triassic Chugwater Formations. A hanging wall splay fault loses separation into the Goose Egg formation which is thinned by 50% at the fault tip. Mesoscopic normal faults are oriented 320--340[degree] and have an average inclination of 75[degree] SW. Megaboudins of Chugwater are present in the footwall of the Hurt Creek fault, immediately adjacent to the fault trace. The Black Canyon fault transported Precambrian-Pennsylvanian rocks over Pennsylvanian Tensleep sandstone. This fault is layer-parallel at the top of the Tensleep and loses separation along strike into an unfaulted syncline in the Goose Egg Formation. Shortening in the pre-Permian units is accommodated by slip on the basement-involved Black Canyon fault. Equivalent shortening in Permian-Cretaceous units occurs on a system of thin-skinned'' thrust faults.

  8. A new network on mountain geomorphosites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusti, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Since about two decades, the value of geoheritage in mountain areas has been re-discovered in various parts of the Alps (Reynard et al., 2010) and other mountain ranges, and various initiatives (protection of sites worthy of protection, inventories of geomorphosites, geotourist promotion, creation of geoparks, etc.) to conserve or promote mountain geoheritage have been developed. As mountains are recognized as natural areas with a very high geodiversity, and at the same time as areas with a great potential for the development of soft tourism, a new Network on Mountain Geomorphosites was created in October 2012 in conclusion to a workshop organized by the University of Lausanne (Switzerland). The Network is open to all researchers active in geoheritage, geoconservation and geotourism studies in mountain areas. For the first years research will focus on three main issues: - Geoheritage and natural processes: Mountains are very sensitive areas where climate change impacts are very acute and where active geomorphological processes rapidly modify landscapes. It is hypothesized that geoheritage will be highly impacted by global change in the future. Nevertheless, at the moment, very little research is carried out on the evolution of landforms recognized as geoheritage and no specific management measures have been developed. Also, the tourist activities related to geoheritage, especially the trails developed to visit geomorphosites, are sensitive to geomorphological processes in mountain areas in a context of global change, and need, therefore, to be better addressed by geomorphologists. - Geotourism: During the last two decades numerous initiatives have developed geotourism in mountain areas. Nevertheless, studies addressing issues such as the needs of the potential public(s) of geotourism, the evaluation of the quality of the geotourist products developed by scientists and/or local authorities, and the assessment of the economic benefits of geotourism for the regional

  9. Geology of the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Sandra H.B.

    2008-01-01

    The Southern Appalachian Mountains includes the Blue Ridge province and parts of four other physiographic provinces. The Blue Ridge physiographic province is a high, mountainous area bounded by several named mountain ranges (including the Unaka Mountains and the Great Smoky Mountains) to the northwest, and the Blue Ridge Mountains to the southeast. Metamorphic rocks of the mountains include (1) fragments of a billion-year-old supercontinent, (2) thick sequences of sedimentary rock that were deposited in subsiding (sinking) basins on the continent, (3) sedimentary and volcanic rocks that were deposited on the sea floor, and (4) fragments of oceanic crust. Most of the rocks formed as sediments or volcanic rocks on ocean floors, islands, and continental plates; igneous rocks formed when crustal plates collided, beginning about 450 million years ago. The collision between the ancestral North American and African continental plates ended about 270 million years ago. Then, the continents began to be stretched, which caused fractures to open in places throughout the crust; these fractures were later filled with sediment. This product (U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 2830) consists of a geologic map of the Southern Appalachian Mountains overlain on a shaded-relief background. The map area includes parts of southern Virginia, eastern West Virginia and Tennessee, western North and South Carolina, northern Georgia and northeastern Alabama. Photographs of localities where geologic features of interest can be seen accompany the map. Diagrams show how the movement of continental plates over many millions of years affected the landscapes seen today, show how folds and faults form, describe important mineral resources of the region, and illustrate geologic time. This two-sided map is folded into a convenient size (5x9.4 inches) for use in the field. The target audience is high school to college earth science and geology teachers and students; staffs of

  10. The Altai Mountains environmental disaster (Eastern Kazakhstan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmadiyeva, Z. K.

    2009-12-01

    The space centre "Baikoniyr" (Kazakhstan) has had substantial affects on the environment. During the past several decades as a result of the launching of carrier rockets, such as "Proton" that use as fuel the asymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (ASDH), more well-known as "heptyl", the unique mountain landscapes in Eastern Kazakhstan have been subjected to pollution. In 2004, RSE "Kazakh research Institute of Ecology and Climate" carried out the complex geochemical and radiation researches in East Kazakhstan that is an impact area of second stages of carrier rockets. Such detailed examinations of this area were conducted for the first time because the Eastern Kazakhstan Mountains are difficult for human access. The landscape-geochemical research over the natural landscapes covered the ridge, low, and middle mountains with fir forests. The research results have shown the presence of heptyl in the samples of the soil, plants, and rivers’ bottom sediments. The findings of the influence of space activity on environment of the Kazakhstan part of the Altai Mountains confirm and complement the Russian scientific research results over the territory of the neighbouring Altai Krai. Though the heptyl pollution in the investigated region is of a local nature and highly spatially inhomogeneous, nevertheless, this anthropogenic effect intensifying from year to year increases the load on the natural ecosystems. In particular, it strengthens the desertification process of mountain regions of East Kazakhstan.

  11. Mountains and arid climates of middle latitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Manabe, S.; Broccoli, A.J. )

    1990-01-12

    Simulations from a global climate model with and without orography have been used to investigate the role of mountains in maintaining extensive arid climates in middle latitudes of the Northern hemisphere. Dry climates similar to those observed were simulated over central Asia and western interior North America in the experiment with mountains, whereas relatively moist climates were simulated in these areas in the absence of orography. The experiments suggest that these interior regions are dry because general subsidence and relatively infrequent storm development occur upstream of orographically induced stationary wave troughs. Downstream of these troughs, precipitation-bearing storms develop frequently in association with strong jet streams. In contrast, both atmospheric circulation and precipitation were more zonally symmetric in the experiment without mountains. In addition, orography reduces the moisture transport into the continental interiors from nearby oceanic sources. The relative soil wetness of these regions in the experiment without mountains is consistent with paleoclimatic evidence of less aridity during the late Tertiary, before substantial uplift of the Rocky Mountains and Tibetan Plateau is believed to have occurred.

  12. Atmospheric deposition maps for the Rocky Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nanus, L.; Campbell, D.H.; Ingersoll, G.P.; Clow, D.W.; Mast, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Variability in atmospheric deposition across the Rocky Mountains is influenced by elevation, slope, aspect, and precipitation amount and by regional and local sources of air pollution. To improve estimates of deposition in mountainous regions, maps of average annual atmospheric deposition loadings of nitrate, sulfate, and acidity were developed for the Rocky Mountains by using spatial statistics. A parameter-elevation regressions on independent slopes model (PRISM) was incorporated to account for variations in precipitation amount over mountainous regions. Chemical data were obtained from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network and from annual snowpack surveys conducted by the US Geological Survey and National Park Service, in cooperation with other Federal, State and local agencies. Surface concentration maps were created by ordinary kriging in a geographic information system, using a local trend and mathematical model to estimate the spatial variance. Atmospheric-deposition maps were constructed at 1-km resolution by multiplying surface concentrations from the kriged grid and estimates of precipitation amount from the PRISM model. Maps indicate an increasing spatial trend in concentration and deposition of the modeled constituents, particularly nitrate and sulfate, from north to south throughout the Rocky Mountains and identify hot-spots of atmospheric deposition that result from combined local and regional sources of air pollution. Highest nitrate (2.5-3.0kg/ha N) and sulfate (10.0-12.0kg/ha SO4) deposition is found in northern Colorado.

  13. Uplift of Zagros Mountains slows plate convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-05-01

    Research has indicated that mountain ranges can slow down the convergence between two tectonic plates on timescales as short as a few million years, as the growing mountains provide enough tectonic force to impact plate motions. Focusing on the convergence of the Arabian and Eurasian plates at the Zagros mountain range, which runs across Iran and Iraq, Austermann and Iaffaldano reconstructed the relative motion of the plates using published paleomagnetic data covering the past 13 million years, as well as current geodetic measurements. They show that the convergence of the two plates has decreased by about 30% over the past 5 million years. Looking at the geological record to infer past topography and using a computer model of the mantle-lithosphere system, the authors examined whether the recent uplift across the Zagros Mountains could have caused the observed slowdown. They also considered several other geological events that might have influenced the convergence rate, but the authors were able to rule those out as dominant controls. The authors conclude that the uplift across the Zagros Mountains in the past 5 million years did indeed play a key role in slowing down the convergence between the Eurasian and Arabian plates. (Tectonics, doi:10.1002/tect.20027, 2013)

  14. High altitude pulmonary edema in mountain climbers.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Nitsch-Osuch, Aneta; Guzek, Aneta; Juszczak, Dariusz

    2015-04-01

    Every year thousands of ski, trekking or climbing fans travel to the mountains where they stay at the altitude of more than 2500-3000m above sea level or climb mountain peaks, often exceeding 7000-8000m. High mountain climbers are at a serious risk from the effects of adverse environmental conditions prevailing at higher elevations. They may experience health problems resulting from hypotension, hypoxia or exposure to low temperatures; the severity of those conditions is largely dependent on elevation, time of exposure as well as the rate of ascent and descent. A disease which poses a direct threat to the lives of mountain climbers is high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). It is a non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema which typically occurs in rapidly climbing unacclimatized lowlanders usually within 2-4 days of ascent above 2500-3000m. It is the most common cause of death resulting from the exposure to high altitude. The risk of HAPE rises with increased altitude and faster ascent. HAPE incidence ranges from an estimated 0.01% to 15.5%. Climbers with a previous history of HAPE, who ascent rapidly above 4500m have a 60% chance of illness recurrence. The aim of this article was to present the relevant details concerning epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical symptoms, prevention, and treatment of high altitude pulmonary edema among climbers in the mountain environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mountains on Titan observed by Cassini Radar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Radebaugh, J.; Lorenz, R.D.; Kirk, R.L.; Lunine, J.I.; Stofan, E.R.; Lopes, R.M.C.; Wall, S.D.

    2007-01-01

    The Cassini Titan Radar mapper has observed elevated blocks and ridge-forming block chains on Saturn's moon Titan demonstrating high topography we term "mountains." Summit flanks measured from the T3 (February 2005) and T8 (October 2005) flybys have a mean maximum slope of 37?? and total elevations up to 1930 m as derived from a shape-from-shading model corrected for the probable effects of image resolution. Mountain peak morphologies and surrounding, diffuse blankets give evidence that erosion has acted upon these features, perhaps in the form of fluvial runoff. Possible formation mechanisms for these mountains include crustal compressional tectonism and upthrusting of blocks, extensional tectonism and formation of horst-and-graben, deposition as blocks of impact ejecta, or dissection and erosion of a preexisting layer of material. All above processes may be at work, given the diversity of geology evident across Titan's surface. Comparisons of mountain and blanket volumes and erosion rate estimates for Titan provide a typical mountain age as young as 20-100 million years. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mountain goat abundance and population trends in the Olympic Mountains, Washington, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Kurt; Happe, Patricia; Griffin, Paul C.; Beirne, Katherine; Hoffman, Roger; Baccus, William

    2011-01-01

    We conducted an aerial helicopter survey between July 18 and July 25, 2011, to estimate abundance and trends of introduced mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in the Olympic Mountains. The survey was the first since we developed a sightability correction model in 2008, which provided the means to estimate the number of mountain goats present in the surveyed areas and not seen during the aerial surveys, and to adjust for undercounting biases. Additionally, the count was the first since recent telemetry studies revealed that the previously defined survey zone, which was delineated at lower elevations by the 1,520-meter elevation contour, did not encompass all lands used by mountain goats during summer. We redefined the lower elevation boundary of survey units before conducting the 2011 surveys in an effort to more accurately estimate the entire mountain goat population. We surveyed 39 survey units, comprising 39 percent of the 59,615-hectare survey area. We estimated a mountain goat population of 344±44 (standard error, SE) in the expanded survey area. Based on this level of estimation uncertainty, the 95-percent confidence interval ranged from 258 to 430 mountain goats at the time of the survey. To permit comparisons of mountain goat populations between the 2004 and 2011 surveys, we recomputed population estimates derived from the 2004 survey using the newly developed bias correction methods, and we computed the 2004 and 2011 surveys based on comparable survey zone definitions (for example, using the boundaries of the 2004 survey). The recomputed estimates of mountain goat populations were 217±19 (SE) in 2004 and 303±41(SE) in 2011. The difference between the current 2011 population estimate (344±44[SE]) and the recomputed 2011 estimate (303±41[SE]) reflects the number of mountain goats counted in the expanded lower elevation portions of the survey zone added in 2011. We conclude that the population of mountain goats has increased in the Olympic Mountains at

  17. A case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Rubel, Barry S

    2007-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a serious, generalized infection that is spread to humans through the bite of infected ticks. It can be lethal but it is curable. The disease gets its name from the Rocky Mountain region where it was first identified in 1896. The fever is caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii and is maintained in nature in a complex life cycle involving ticks and mammals. Humans are considered to be accidental hosts and are not involved in the natural transmission cycle of this pathogen. The author examined a 47-year-old woman during a periodic recall appointment. The patient had no dental problems other than the need for routine prophylaxis but mentioned a recent problem with swelling of her extremities with an accompanying rash and general malaise and soreness in her neck region. Tests were conducted and a diagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever was made.

  18. Dynamic processes in the mountain catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonova, Tatiana; Arakelian, Sergei

    2015-04-01

    The process of the river cftchment foundation and the mechanisms being in the basis of its development are not clear at present. Principal phenomena determining the dynamics of formation of the river catchment are under our study in this paper for the case of the mountain basin as an example. The methodology of this monitoring includes the space image recognition and computer data processing of the images for the Maliy Caucasus Mountains. Mountain river catchment formation on the slope of the ridge can be considered as a self-organizing staged process of its evolution passing through several non-equilibrium but steady-state conditions. We consider a system of tributaries in the mountain river catchment as a system of cracks, which are formed on the slope of the mountain massif. In other words, the formation of river networks should be the result of development of several processes, among of which the mechanisms of crack development should play a dominant role. The principal results, discussed in the present report, can be formulated as follow. (1) The mountain catchment (litho-watershed) formation takes place under conditions of the confined states of a mountain massif: on the one hand it is bounded by the surface of the slope; but on the other hand, - by a primary cracks density occurrence (as a spatial distribution 3D-crack net). (2) The development in time of the river catchment takes place by several stages. Each stage specifies a definite energetic state of the system in the mountain massif. (3) The overhead river streams arise not only due to surface water, but and namely due to rising of water from underground water horizons over the watercourse cracks penetrating deeply into the underground. (4) The 3D-river catchment structure results in concept in behavior of the unit as an open nonlinear dynamic system with a spatially distributed feedback. The energetic (endogen) processes of formation, rising and bifurcation for cracks are the consequence of relaxation

  19. Mechanical excavator performance in Yucca Mountain tuffs

    SciTech Connect

    Ozdemir, L.; Hansen, F.D.

    1991-12-31

    A research effort of four phases is in progress at the Colorado School of Mines. The overall program will evaluate the cutability of welded tuff and other lithologies likely to be excavated at Yucca Mountain in the site characterization process. Several mechanical systems are considered with emphasis given to the tunnel boring machine. The research comprises laboratory testing, linear drag bit and disc cutter tests, and potentially large-scale lab. demonstrations to support potential use of a tunnel boring machine in welded tuff. Preliminary estimates of mechanical excavator performance in Yucca Mountain tuff are presented here. As phases of the research project are completed, well-quantified estimates will be made of performance of mechanical excavators in the Yucca Mountain tuffs.

  20. Mechanical excavator performance in Yucca Mountain tuffs

    SciTech Connect

    Ozdemir, L.; Hansen, F.D.

    1991-01-01

    A research effort of four phases is in progress at the Colorado School of Mines. The overall program will evaluate the cutability of welded tuff and other lithologies likely to be excavated at Yucca Mountain in the site characterization process. Several mechanical systems are considered with emphasis given to the tunnel boring machine. The research comprises laboratory testing, linear drag bit and disc cutter tests and potentially large-scale laboratory demonstrations to support potential use of a tunnel boring machine in welded tuff. Preliminary estimates of mechanical excavator performance in Yucca Mountain tuff are presented here. As phases of the research project are completed, well quantified estimates will be made of performance of mechanical excavators in the Yucca Mountain tuffs. 3 refs., 2 tabs.

  1. Weapons test seismic investigations at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.S.; Shephard, L.E.; Walck, M.C.

    1991-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, located on and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site, is being characterized as part of an ongoing effort to identify a potential high-level nuclear waste repository. This site will be subjected to seismic ground motions induced by underground nuclear explosions. A knowledge of expected ground motion levels from these tests will enable the designers to provide for the necessary structural support in the designs of the various components of the repository. The primary objective of the Weapons Test Seismic Investigation project is to develop a method to predict the ground motions expected at the repository site as a result of future weapons tests. This paper summarizes the data base presently assembled for the Yucca Mountain Project, characteristics of expected ground motions, and characterization of the two-dimensional seismic properties along paths between Yucca Mountain and the testing areas of the Nevada Test Site.

  2. Mountain-Front or Mountain-Block Recharge? Unravelling the Origin of Water in Basin Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bresciani, E.; Cranswick, R. H.; Batlle-Aguilar, J.; Cook, P. G.; Batelaan, O.; Banks, E.

    2016-12-01

    Basin aquifers in arid and semi-arid areas often receive most of their water from an adjacent mountain system. Two recharge mechanisms are typically recognized: mountain-front recharge (MFR), which consists of mountain overland flow (generally streamflow) that infiltrates at the mountain front; and mountain-block recharge (MBR), which consists of diffuse recharge over the mountain block that percolates through the rock and flows laterally as groundwater into the basin. Although conceptually recognized, these two recharge mechanisms remain difficult to distinguish. In this study, the results from generic numerical simulations of hydraulic head, chloride and carbon-14 distributions in a cross-section are used to develop an effective data analysis strategy to evaluate if a basin aquifer is either dominated by MFR or MBR. The simulations target a wide range of possible hydrogeological configurations, including the presence of a fault zone between the mountain block and the basin, a common feature in these types of systems. The modelling results highlight the typical characteristics (e.g. gradient direction) that need to be identified in the data to discern between MFR and MBR mechanisms. This strategy is applied to the Adelaide Plains aquifers, South Australia, where the origin of the freshwater resources is currently debated in relation to management questions.

  3. Flow directionality, mountain barriers and functional traits determine diatom metacommunity structuring of high mountain streams.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiaoyu; Li, Bin; He, Fengzhi; Gu, Yuan; Sun, Meiqin; Zhang, Haomiao; Tan, Lu; Xiao, Wen; Liu, Shuoran; Cai, Qinghua

    2016-04-19

    Stream metacommunities are structured by a combination of local (environmental filtering) and regional (dispersal) processes. The unique characters of high mountain streams could potentially determine metacommunity structuring, which is currently poorly understood. Aiming at understanding how these characters influenced metacommunity structuring, we explored the relative importance of local environmental conditions and various dispersal processes, including through geographical (overland), topographical (across mountain barriers) and network (along flow direction) pathways in shaping benthic diatom communities. From a trait perspective, diatoms were categorized into high-profile, low-profile and motile guild to examine the roles of functional traits. Our results indicated that both environmental filtering and dispersal processes influenced metacommunity structuring, with dispersal contributing more than environmental processes. Among the three pathways, stream corridors were primary pathway. Deconstructive analysis suggested different responses to environmental and spatial factors for each of three ecological guilds. However, regardless of traits, dispersal among streams was limited by mountain barriers, while dispersal along stream was promoted by rushing flow in high mountain stream. Our results highlighted that directional processes had prevailing effects on metacommunity structuring in high mountain streams. Flow directionality, mountain barriers and ecological guilds contributed to a better understanding of the roles that mountains played in structuring metacommunity.

  4. Flow directionality, mountain barriers and functional traits determine diatom metacommunity structuring of high mountain streams

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiaoyu; Li, Bin; He, Fengzhi; Gu, Yuan; Sun, Meiqin; Zhang, Haomiao; Tan, Lu; Xiao, Wen; Liu, Shuoran; Cai, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Stream metacommunities are structured by a combination of local (environmental filtering) and regional (dispersal) processes. The unique characters of high mountain streams could potentially determine metacommunity structuring, which is currently poorly understood. Aiming at understanding how these characters influenced metacommunity structuring, we explored the relative importance of local environmental conditions and various dispersal processes, including through geographical (overland), topographical (across mountain barriers) and network (along flow direction) pathways in shaping benthic diatom communities. From a trait perspective, diatoms were categorized into high-profile, low-profile and motile guild to examine the roles of functional traits. Our results indicated that both environmental filtering and dispersal processes influenced metacommunity structuring, with dispersal contributing more than environmental processes. Among the three pathways, stream corridors were primary pathway. Deconstructive analysis suggested different responses to environmental and spatial factors for each of three ecological guilds. However, regardless of traits, dispersal among streams was limited by mountain barriers, while dispersal along stream was promoted by rushing flow in high mountain stream. Our results highlighted that directional processes had prevailing effects on metacommunity structuring in high mountain streams. Flow directionality, mountain barriers and ecological guilds contributed to a better understanding of the roles that mountains played in structuring metacommunity. PMID:27090223

  5. 141. View of Grandfather Mountain in the distance with cows ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    141. View of Grandfather Mountain in the distance with cows on an agricultural lease in the foreground. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  6. 27 CFR 9.155 - Texas Davis Mountains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... straight line from the intersection of Cherry and Grapevine Canyons to the peak of Bear Cave Mountain, on... of Bear Cave Mountain to the point where Farm Road 1832 begins; (16) The boundary then follows Farm...

  7. 27 CFR 9.155 - Texas Davis Mountains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... straight line from the intersection of Cherry and Grapevine Canyons to the peak of Bear Cave Mountain, on... of Bear Cave Mountain to the point where Farm Road 1832 begins; (16) The boundary then follows Farm...

  8. 27 CFR 9.155 - Texas Davis Mountains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... straight line from the intersection of Cherry and Grapevine Canyons to the peak of Bear Cave Mountain, on... of Bear Cave Mountain to the point where Farm Road 1832 begins; (16) The boundary then follows Farm...

  9. 27 CFR 9.155 - Texas Davis Mountains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... straight line from the intersection of Cherry and Grapevine Canyons to the peak of Bear Cave Mountain, on... of Bear Cave Mountain to the point where Farm Road 1832 begins; (16) The boundary then follows Farm...

  10. 8. IRON MOUNTAIN SHAFT ROOM TO UNIT #5 SHOWING TYPICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. IRON MOUNTAIN SHAFT ROOM TO UNIT #5 SHOWING TYPICAL ARRANGEMENT OF SHAFT AND PUMP IN COLORADO RIVER AQUEDUCT PUMPHOUSES. - Iron Mountain Pump Plant, South of Danby Lake, north of Routes 62 & 177 junction, Rice, San Bernardino County, CA

  11. 10. ELECTRICAL SWITCHING STATION FOR IRON MOUNTAIN BRINGS ELECTRICITY FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. ELECTRICAL SWITCHING STATION FOR IRON MOUNTAIN BRINGS ELECTRICITY FROM HOOVER DAM COMPLEX. - Iron Mountain Pump Plant, South of Danby Lake, north of Routes 62 & 177 junction, Rice, San Bernardino County, CA

  12. 53. Roanoke Mountain scenic loop road. View of a crescent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Roanoke Mountain scenic loop road. View of a crescent overlook looking south-southwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  13. Cemented Fractures in Mountain Inside Gale Crater on Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-22

    One type of feature of scientific interest on the mountain inside Gale crater is exposure of cemented fractures, evidence that groundwater once reached to at least that height of the mountain. This image is from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  14. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, FROM RED MOUNTAIN TO USX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, FROM RED MOUNTAIN TO USX FAIRFIELD WORKS (TOP LEFT) WITH WENONAH SINTERING PLANT (BOTTOM CENTER) AND WENONAH COMMUNITY (CENTER RIGHT). - High Line Railroad, From Red Mountain to Fairfield Works, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  15. Mountains on the Northwest Border of Xanadu, Titan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-08-12

    This mosaic, made from radar images obtained by NASA Cassini spacecraft, shows parallel mountain chains on Saturn moon Titan. The mountains appear along the northwest border of a region known as Xanadu.

  16. Attractions in Layers of Mountain Inside Gale Crater

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-22

    The lower portion of a mountain inside Gale crater on Mars contains layers that may be examined by NASA Mars Science Laboratory. A landing site in Gale, close to the foot of the mountain, has been selected for the mission.

  17. 14. BALD MOUNTAIN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING GOLD TANKS FROM WEST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. BALD MOUNTAIN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING GOLD TANKS FROM WEST, c. 1937. DATE BASED ON USE IN PUBLICATION. CREDIT WR. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  18. SHEEP MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houston, Robert S.; Patten, Lowell L.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey the Sheep Mountain Wilderness study area in Wyoming was determined to offer little promise for metallic mineral resources. There is a probable potential for oil and gas resources in a small part of the study area along its northeast margin. Geophysical studies, such as reflection seismic profiling would help define the oil and gas potential in fault-controlled structures, such as those beneath the thrust fault that crops out along the east flank of Sheep Mountain.

  19. Consequences of early snowmelt in Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-01-01

    Snow melted significantly earlier in the Rocky Mountains in 2012 than in previous years, with serious consequences for plants and animals, scientists reported at the AGU Fall Meeting. David Inouye of the University of Maryland, College Park, and the Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory said that "the timing of winter's end is changing." He has been observing snowmelt dates and flowering of plants at a site at 2900 meters altitude. This year's snowmelt occurred 23 April, whereas the previous year, snow melted 19 June, he reported.

  20. Mechanical anisotropy of the Yucca Mountain tuffs

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.H.; Boyd, P.J.; Martin, R.J.; Haupt, R.W.; Noel, J.S.

    1991-12-31

    Three series of measurements were performed on oriented cores of several Yucca Mountain tuffs to determine the importance of mechanical anisotropy in the intact rock. Outcrop and drillhole samples were tested for acoustic velocities, linear compressibilities, and strengths in different orientations. The present data sets are preliminary, but suggest the tuffs are transversely anisotropic for these mechanical properties. The planar fabric that produces the anisotropy is believed to be predominantly the result of the preferred orientation of shards and pumice fragments. The potential of significant anisotropy has direct relevance to the formulation of constitutive formulation and the analyses of an underground opening within the Yucca Mountain.

  1. Nuclear waste disposal: Gambling on Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsburg, S.

    1995-05-01

    This document describes the historical aspects of nuclear energy ,nuclear weapons usage, and development of the nuclear bureaucracy in the United States, and discusses the selection and siting of Yucca Mountain, Nevada for a federal nuclear waste repository. Litigation regarding the site selection and resulting battles in the political arena and in the Nevada State Legislature are also presented. Alternative radioactive waste disposal options, risk assessments of the Yucca Mountain site, and logistics regarding the transportation and storage of nuclear waste are also presented. This document also contains an extensive bibliography.

  2. Mountain Home Well - Borehole Geophysics Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shervais, John

    2012-11-11

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  3. Prototype testing for the Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kalia, H.N.; Oliver, R.D.; Girdley, W.A.

    1990-02-01

    The US Department of Energy, through its Yucca Mountain Project Office, has been conducting prototype activities in welded and non-welded tuff. These activities are in preparation for characterization of the Yucca Mountain area, which is under consideration as a site for a geologic repository in which high-level nuclear waste could be safely stored. Investigators from organizations that will conduct the site investigation have been afforded opportunity, through the prototype program, to test, evaluate, and develop instruments, equipment, and methods. The Exploratory Shaft Facility will be used to collect significant amounts of underground site characterization data. The prototype tests are conducted under similar conditions. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  4. [Hazards of mountain climbing and hiking].

    PubMed

    Fischer, Rainald

    2005-09-22

    At elevations above 1500 m, even a healthy person undergoes acclimatization. To avoid problems such as acute mountain sickness (AMS), high altitude cerebral edema (HACE) or high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), the speed of ascent and the daily sleeping elevation are of primary importance. Mild symptoms and peripheral swelling are usually harmless. However, when the severity of altitude sickness progresses, rapid therapy and immediate transport to lower elevations can be life-saving under certain conditions. A sojourn in the mountains requires effective preparation and prophylaxis against oxygen deficiency, increased UV radiation, as well as against the possibility of hypothermia and frostbite.

  5. Tall tower or mountain top measurements?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamberger, Ines; Eugster, Werner; Oney, Brian; Brunner, Dominik; Leuenberger, Markus; Schanda, Rüdiger; Henne, Stephan; Buchmann, Nina

    2014-05-01

    Resolving the regional transport and distribution of greenhouse gases in the troposphere is a key topic that challenges both modelers and experimentalists. A dense network of measurement stations would be required, in particular including measurements at high elevation to better represent the entire lower troposphere, and not only small-scale local conditions in the near-surface atmosphere. While this can be achieved by tall towers, also mountain top stations (e.g. Schauinsland, Brocken) and other stations at high elevation (e.g., Mouna Loa, Jungfraujoch) are often appropriate, due to their extended concentration footprint. However, especially over complex, mountainous terrain, the transport of atmospheric gases and their spatio-temporal distribution is difficult to predict due to the development of thermally induced local wind patterns and boundary layer processes. Therefore, the main goal of our study is to test to what extend boundary layer processes at the surface and local wind patterns close to the ground at a mountain top site influence the ambient greenhouse gas patterns compared to measurements taken at a similar altitude but at a tall tower site. To this end we use measurements from the Zugerberg mountain top station, located at a pre-Alpine mountain ridge (987 m a.s.l., 4 m above ground) exposed to the prevailing synoptic winds in Switzerland, and compare these measurements with a neighboring tall tower site (Beromünster radio broadcast tower with its top at 1014 m a.s.l., 217 m above local ground level, and ≡500 m above the Swiss Plateau). The Beromünster tall tower is located at a distance of only 30 km from the mountain top station as the bird flies, and hence a direct comparison minimizes confounding factors that are not related to the tall tower vs. mountain top position of the measurements. Both stations are part of the CarboCount CH greenhouse gas observation network (http://www.carbocount.ch) initiated for long-term monitoring and modeling of

  6. Global Measurements of Stratospheric Mountain Waves from Space

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-11-19

    distributions. Most notable is a broad region of enhanced amplitudes over central Eurasia. The activity is produced by mountain waves from the Altai Mountains ... Mongolia , China, and Kazakhstan (Fig. 4E). These mountain waves are present at all heights, reaching the upper- most levels of the stratosphere (Fig...Global Measurements of Stratospheric Mountain Waves from Space Stephen D. Eckermann1 and Peter Preusse2 Temperatures acquired by the Cryogenic

  7. Periglacial Landforms and Processes in the Southern Kenai Mountains, Alaska.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    were investigated during the sumr of 1979. The principal area of study was a 1300-metre high mountain mass which stood as a nunatak during the last...Mountains, Alaska, were investigated during the summer of 1979. The principal area of study was a 1300-metre high mountain mass which stood as a nunatak ...Kenai Mountains as not having been covered by ice since the Eklutna glaciation. These areas would have thus stood as nunataks during subsequent

  8. The oldest known Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines (Pinus aristata Engelm.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brunstein, F.C.; Yamaguchi, D.K.

    1992-01-01

    The authors have found 12 living Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines >1600 yr old, including four that are >2100 yr old, on Black Mountain, near South Park, and on Almagre Mountain, in the S Front Range, Colorado. A core from the oldest of these trees has an inner-ring date of 442 BC. This tree is therefore at least 2435 yr old and exceeds the age of the oldest previously reported Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine by 846 yr. -from Authors

  9. Earthshots: Satellite images of environmental change – Elburz Mountains, Iran

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The Elburz Mountains run parallel to the southern coast of the Caspian Sea, and these mountains act as a barrier to rain clouds moving southward; as the clouds rise in altitude to cross the mountains they drop their moisture. This abundant rainfall supports a heavy rainforest (the bright red area) on the northern slopes. The valley to the south receives little precipitation because of this rain-shadow effect of the mountains.

  10. The Geologic Story of the Uinta Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Wallace R.

    1969-01-01

    The opening of the West after the Civil War greatly stimulated early geologic exploration west of the 100th Meridian. One of the areas first studied, the Uinta Mountains region, gained wide attention as a result of the explorations of three Territorial Surveys, one headed by John Wesley Powell, one by Clarence King, and one by Ferdinand V. Hayden. Completion of the Union Pacific Railroad across southern Wyoming 100 years ago, in 1869, materially assisted geologic exploration, and the railheads at Green River and Rock Springs greatly simplified the outfitting of expeditions into the mountains. The overlap of the Powell, King, and Hayden surveys in the Uinta Mountains led to efforts that were less concerted than competitive and not without acrimony. Many parts of the area were seen by all three parties at almost the same time. Duplication was inevitable, of course, but all three surveys contributed vast quantities of new knowledge to the storehouse of geology, and many now-basic concepts arose from their observations. Powell's area of interest extended mainly southward from the Uinta Mountains to the Grand Canyon, including the boundless plateaus and canyons of southern Utah and northern Arizona. King's survey extended eastward from the High Sierra in California to Cheyenne, Wyoming, and encompassed a swath of country more than 100 miles wide. Hayden's explorations covered an immense region of mountains and basins from Yellowstone Park in Wyoming southeast throughout most of Colorado. Powell first entered the Uinta Mountains in the fall of 1868, having traveled north around the east end of the range from the White River country to Green River, Wyoming, then south over a circuitous route to Flaming Gorge and Browns Park, and finally back to the White River, where he spent the winter. In 1869, after reexamining much of the area visited the previous season, Powell embarked on his famous 'first boat trip' down the Green and Colorado Rivers. This trip was more exploratory

  11. 27 CFR 9.231 - Moon Mountain District Sonoma County.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Moon Mountain District... Viticultural Areas § 9.231 Moon Mountain District Sonoma County. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Moon Mountain District Sonoma County”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter...

  12. 27 CFR 9.155 - Texas Davis Mountains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Texas Davis Mountains. 9... Texas Davis Mountains. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Texas Davis Mountains.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Texas Davis...

  13. Contagious ecthyma in mountain goat of coastal British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Hebert, D M; Samuel, W M; Smith, G W

    1977-04-01

    Contagious ecthyma has been reported previously from mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) in one restricted area of eastern British Columbia. A second focus of infection is reported for mountain goat from western British Columbia. Diagnosis was based on appearance of lesions at necropsy, histopathology and demonstration of poxvirus with the electron microscope. The epizootiology of this infection in mountain goat is discussed briefly.

  14. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST ALONG RED MOUNTAIN TOWARD THE BIRMINGHAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST ALONG RED MOUNTAIN TOWARD THE BIRMINGHAM CITY CENTER WITH U.S. HIGHWAY 280 (BOTTOM LEFT TO CENTER) AND THE HIGHWAY CUT (CENTER RIGHT). - Red Mountain Cut National Natural Landmark, U.S. 280 at Red Mountain, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  15. 14 CFR 95.19 - Hawaii Mountainous Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hawaii Mountainous Area. 95.19 Section 95...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES IFR ALTITUDES Designated Mountainous Areas § 95.19 Hawaii Mountainous Area. The following islands of the State of Hawaii: Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Kehoolawe, Maui...

  16. 14 CFR 95.19 - Hawaii Mountainous Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hawaii Mountainous Area. 95.19 Section 95...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES IFR ALTITUDES Designated Mountainous Areas § 95.19 Hawaii Mountainous Area. The following islands of the State of Hawaii: Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Kehoolawe, Maui...

  17. 14 CFR 95.19 - Hawaii Mountainous Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hawaii Mountainous Area. 95.19 Section 95...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES IFR ALTITUDES Designated Mountainous Areas § 95.19 Hawaii Mountainous Area. The following islands of the State of Hawaii: Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Kehoolawe, Maui...

  18. 14 CFR 95.19 - Hawaii Mountainous Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hawaii Mountainous Area. 95.19 Section 95...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES IFR ALTITUDES Designated Mountainous Areas § 95.19 Hawaii Mountainous Area. The following islands of the State of Hawaii: Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Kehoolawe, Maui...

  19. 14 CFR 95.19 - Hawaii Mountainous Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hawaii Mountainous Area. 95.19 Section 95...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES IFR ALTITUDES Designated Mountainous Areas § 95.19 Hawaii Mountainous Area. The following islands of the State of Hawaii: Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Kehoolawe, Maui...

  20. Mountain scorpions: a new genus and species from Tibet (China).

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Wilson R; Qi, Jian-xin

    2006-04-01

    A new genus and species of mountain liochelid scorpion are described on the basis of a single specimen collected in Tibet (China). This is the first liochelid scorpion found in the high Himalayan Mountains of Tibet, and the first example of the family to be collected out of its typical tropical and subtropical areas of distribution. Some considerations on mountain scorpions are proposed.

  1. Hydrologic characteristics of faults at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, Robert P.

    2001-04-29

    Yucca Mountain is under study as a potential site for underground storage of high-level radioactive waste, with the principle goal being the safe isolation of the waste from the accessible environment. This paper addresses the hydrogeologic characteristics of the fault zones at Yucca Mountain, focusing primarily on the central part of the mountain where the potential repository block is located.

  2. 14 CFR 95.21 - Puerto Rico Mountainous Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Puerto Rico Mountainous Area. 95.21 Section...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES IFR ALTITUDES Designated Mountainous Areas § 95.21 Puerto Rico Mountainous Area. The area bounded by the following coordinates: Beginning at latitude 18°22′ N., longitude 66...

  3. Aspen biology, community classification, and management in the Blue Mountains

    Treesearch

    David K. Swanson; Craig L. Schmitt; Diane M. Shirley; Vicky Erickson; Kenneth J. Schuetz; Michael L. Tatum; David C. Powell

    2010-01-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) is a valuable species that is declining in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon. This publication is a compilation of over 20 years of aspen management experience by USDA Forest Service workers in the Blue Mountains. It includes a summary of aspen biology and occurrence in the Blue Mountains, and a...

  4. 75 FR 12163 - Class E Airspace; Mountain View, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Class E Airspace; Mountain View, AR AGENCY: Federal... proposes to amend Class E airspace at Mountain View, AR. Decommissioning of the Wilcox non-directional beacon (NDB) at Mountain View Wilcox Memorial Field Airport has made this action necessary for the safety...

  5. 27 CFR 9.118 - Ben Lomond Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ben Lomond Mountain. 9.118... Lomond Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Ben Lomond Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Ben Lomond...

  6. 27 CFR 9.143 - Spring Mountain District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Spring Mountain District... Spring Mountain District. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Spring Mountain District.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the...

  7. 27 CFR 9.143 - Spring Mountain District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Spring Mountain District... Spring Mountain District. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Spring Mountain District.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the...

  8. 27 CFR 9.118 - Ben Lomond Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ben Lomond Mountain. 9.118... Lomond Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Ben Lomond Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Ben Lomond...

  9. 77 FR 66478 - Steens Mountain Advisory Council; Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ... Bureau of Land Management Steens Mountain Advisory Council; Meetings AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management..., Bureau of Land Management (BLM), the Steens Mountain Advisory Council (SMAC) will meet as indicated below... Steens Mountain Cooperative Management and Protection Act (CMPA) of 2000 (Pub. L. 106-399). ] The SMAC...

  10. 27 CFR 9.143 - Spring Mountain District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spring Mountain District... Spring Mountain District. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Spring Mountain District.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the...

  11. 27 CFR 9.118 - Ben Lomond Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ben Lomond Mountain. 9.118... Lomond Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Ben Lomond Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Ben Lomond...

  12. 27 CFR 9.143 - Spring Mountain District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Spring Mountain District... Spring Mountain District. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Spring Mountain District.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the...

  13. 27 CFR 9.118 - Ben Lomond Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ben Lomond Mountain. 9.118... Lomond Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Ben Lomond Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Ben Lomond...

  14. 27 CFR 9.118 - Ben Lomond Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ben Lomond Mountain. 9.118... Lomond Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Ben Lomond Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Ben Lomond...

  15. 27 CFR 9.143 - Spring Mountain District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Spring Mountain District... Spring Mountain District. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Spring Mountain District.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the...

  16. 27 CFR 9.166 - Diamond Mountain District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diamond Mountain District... Diamond Mountain District. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Diamond Mountain District.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the...

  17. 27 CFR 9.166 - Diamond Mountain District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Diamond Mountain District... Diamond Mountain District. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Diamond Mountain District.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the...

  18. 27 CFR 9.166 - Diamond Mountain District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diamond Mountain District... Diamond Mountain District. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Diamond Mountain District.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the...

  19. 27 CFR 9.166 - Diamond Mountain District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diamond Mountain District... Diamond Mountain District. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Diamond Mountain District.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the...

  20. 27 CFR 9.166 - Diamond Mountain District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Diamond Mountain District... Diamond Mountain District. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Diamond Mountain District.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the...

  1. A comparison of northern and southern table mountain pine stands

    Treesearch

    Patrick H. Brose; Thomas A. Waldrop; Helen H. Mohr

    2010-01-01

    Table Mountain pine (Pinus pungens) stands occur throughout the Appalachian Mountains, but ecological research has concentrated on the southern part of this region. In 2006, research was initiated in northern Table Mountain pine stands growing in PA to compare some basic attributes of those stands with previously described ones in TN. Overall, the...

  2. Geology of North Mountain in eastern West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, S.L. . Dept. of Geology); Lessing, P. ); Kulander, B.R. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1994-03-01

    The North Mountain fault is one of the largest overthrusts in the folded Appalachian mountain belt and serves as the boundary between the detached Massanutten-Blue Ridge overthrust sheet (i.e. Great Valley and Blue Ridge) and Valley and Ridge fold structures in eastern West Virginia, northwestern Virginia, west-central maryland and south-central Pennsylvania. Past work has shown the sedimentary rock section on North Mountain and immediately west of the North Mountain fault to consist of an overturned sequence of Upper Ordovician to Middle Devonian strata, with a break thrust on the west side of North Mountain, placing Silurian formations against Devonian strata. Recent 1:24,000 scale mapping by the West Virginia Geological Survey has delineated this break thrust and its continuity from Maryland, through West Virginia and into Frederick County, Virginia. This previously unnamed structure, designated Back Creek fault, formed as a footwall splay from the North Mountain fault complex. The structure of North Mountain is a horse, bounded by the North Mountain fault complex in the Great Valley to the east and Back Creek fault on the west side of North Mountain. The overturned stratigraphic sequence on North Mountain reverses dip on the western flank of the mountain just east of Back Creek in Berkeley County, West Virginia, creating Back Creek syncline. This structure is a classic fault propagation fold, formed by the emplacement of North Mountain fault and extending from Maryland into Frederick County, Virginia.

  3. U.S. Mountaineering Libraries: A Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiser, Virginia; Lockerby, Robert

    Over a 3-year period (1985-1987) site visits were made to selected U.S. libraries that focus on climbing or mountaineering as a specific area for comprehensive collection building to survey their monographic holdings, serial holdings, and special collections. The monographic collections were compared to two lists of outstanding mountaineering…

  4. Sheep Mountain Wilderness study area, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, R.S.; Patten, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey completed in 1975 and 1976, the Sheep Mountain Wilderness study area, was determined to offer little promise for metallic mineral resources. There is a probable potential for oil and gas resources in a small part of the study area along its northeast margin.

  5. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in dogs, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Kamakura, Orson; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Horta, Mauricio C; Pacheco, Richard C

    2009-03-01

    Clinical illness caused by Rickettsia rickettsii in dogs has been reported solely in the United States. We report 2 natural clinical cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in dogs in Brazil. Each case was confirmed by seroconversion and molecular analysis and resolved after doxycycline therapy.

  6. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Argentina

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cases of epidemic typhus have been documented in Argentina since 1919; however, no confirmed reports of spotted fever rickettsiosis were described in this country until 1999. We describe the first molecular confirmation of Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiologic agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (R...

  7. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in Argentina

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We describe the first molecular confirmation of Rickettsia rickettsii, the cause of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), from a tick vector, Amblyomma cajennense, and from a cluster of fatal spotted fever cases in Argentina. Questing A. cajennense ticks were collected at or near sites of presumed or...

  8. Mountain Guides: Between Ethics and Socioeconomic Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Thierry; Bazin, Damien; Massiera, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    This study analysed mountain guides' representations of environmental responsibility and explored the paradox that these professionals face: using nature as a source of income while trying to preserve it. The study was mainly guided by the philosophical literature on this topic and made use of the concepts of sustainable development and nature.…

  9. Permian insect wing from antarctic sentinel mountains.

    PubMed

    Tasch, P; Riek, E F

    1969-06-27

    A homopterous insect wing was found in micaceous graywacke from the Polarstar Formation, Sentinel Mountains. The unusual venation is reminiscent of family Stenoviciidae known from the Permian and Triassic of Eastern Australia and elsewhere. This first documented account of Paleozoic insects in Antarctica bears on drift questions.

  10. Transportation Fuels Markets, Midwest and Rocky Mountain

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    A new study commissioned by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), finds that changes in North American energy markets over the past decade have strengthened the supply of transportation fuels including motor gasoline, distillates, and jet fuel in the Midwest and Rocky Mountain regions.

  11. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2005 Research Accomplishments

    Treesearch

    Rick Fletcher

    2006-01-01

    During 2005, the USDA Forest Service celebrated its Centennial, recognizing 100 years of successfully caring for the land and serving people. The Rocky Mountain Research Station has been, and continues to be, an integral part of the Forest Service mission, dating back to the Agency's beginning, with the establishment of the Santa Rita Experimental Range near...

  12. Toward mountains without permanent snow and ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huss, M.; Bookhagen, B.; Huggel, C.; Jacobsen, D.; Bradley, R. S.; Clague, J. J.; Vuille, M.; Buytaert, W.; Cayan, D. R.; Greenwood, G.; Mark, B. G.; Milner, A. M.; Weingartner, R.; Winder, M.

    2017-05-01

    The cryosphere in mountain regions is rapidly declining, a trend that is expected to accelerate over the next several decades due to anthropogenic climate change. A cascade of effects will result, extending from mountains to lowlands with associated impacts on human livelihood, economy, and ecosystems. With rising air temperatures and increased radiative forcing, glaciers will become smaller and, in some cases, disappear, the area of frozen ground will diminish, the ratio of snow to rainfall will decrease, and the timing and magnitude of both maximum and minimum streamflow will change. These changes will affect erosion rates, sediment, and nutrient flux, and the biogeochemistry of rivers and proglacial lakes, all of which influence water quality, aquatic habitat, and biotic communities. Changes in the length of the growing season will allow low-elevation plants and animals to expand their ranges upward. Slope failures due to thawing alpine permafrost, and outburst floods from glacier- and moraine-dammed lakes will threaten downstream populations. Societies even well beyond the mountains depend on meltwater from glaciers and snow for drinking water supplies, irrigation, mining, hydropower, agriculture, and recreation. Here, we review and, where possible, quantify the impacts of anticipated climate change on the alpine cryosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere, and consider the implications for adaptation to a future of mountains without permanent snow and ice.

  13. Nonequilibrium regolith thickness in the Ouachita Mountains

    Treesearch

    Jonathan D. Phillips; Daniel A. Marion; Kenneth Luckow; Kristin R. Adams

    2005-01-01

    Interpretations of regolith and soil thickness in the context of landscape evolution are typically based on the notion that thickness is controlled by the interaction of weathering rates and erosion and tuned to topography. On slideslopes of the Quachita Mountains, Arkansas, however, there is a high degree of local spatial varibilty that is largely unrelated to...

  14. Possible uranium mineralization, Mineral Mountains, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, W. Roger; McHugh, John B.; Ficklin, Walter H.

    1979-01-01

    The Mineral Mountains block in west-central Utah is a horst whose core stands structurally high relative to all nearby basin-and-range fault blocks. Rocks of the Mineral Mountains range from Precambrian to Quaternary in age, but mostly consist of Tertiary granitic rocks. The range lies with the Wah Wah-Tusher mineral belt. Lead, silver, gold, and tungsten have been mined commercially. During a geochemical survey conducted in the summer of 1978, 30 water samples and 29 stream-sediment samples were collected from the Mineral Mountains area. The interpretation of simple plots of uranium concentrations and the results of a Q-mode factor analysis indicate that potential exists for uranium mineral deposits within the Mineral Mountains. The most favorable areas are in the granitic pluton near its contacts with sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. The most likely source of the uranium anomalies is uraninite-bearing epigenic veins along faults and fractures within the pluton. Three hypothetical models are proposed to account for the uranium mineralization.

  15. Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D. Krier

    2004-10-04

    The purpose of this scientific analysis report, ''Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'', is to present information about natural volcanic systems and the parameters that can be used to model their behavior. This information is used to develop parameter-value distributions appropriate for analysis of the consequences of volcanic eruptions through a repository at Yucca Mountain. This scientific analysis report provides information to four other reports: ''Number of Waste Packages Hit by Igneous Intrusion'', (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170001]); ''Atmospheric Dispersal and Deposition of Tephra from Potential Volcanic Eruption at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170026]); ''Dike/Drift Interactions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170028]); ''Development of Earthquake Ground Motion Input for Preclosure Seismic Design and Postclosure Performance Assessment of a Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, NV'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170027], Section 6.5). This report is organized into seven major sections. This section addresses the purpose of this document. Section 2 addresses quality assurance, Section 3 the use of software, Section 4 identifies the requirements that constrain this work, and Section 5 lists assumptions and their rationale. Section 6 presents the details of the scientific analysis and Section 7 summarizes the conclusions reached.

  16. Fluid geochemistry of Yucca Mountain and vicinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marshall, Brian D.; Moscati, Richard J.; Patterson, Gary L.; Stuckless, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, a site in southwest Nevada, has been proposed for a deep underground radioactive waste repository. An extensive database of geochemical and isotopic characteristics has been established for pore waters and gases from the unsaturated zone, perched water, and saturated zone waters in the Yucca Mountain area. The development of this database has been driven by diverse needs of the Yucca Mountain Project, especially those aspects of the project involving process modeling and performance assessment. Water and gas chemistries influence the sorption behavior of radionuclides and the solubility of the radionuclide compounds that form. The chemistry of waters that may infiltrate the proposed repository will be determined in part by that of water present in the unsaturated zone above the proposed repository horizon, whereas pore-water compositions beneath the repository horizon will influence the sorption behavior of the radionuclides transported toward the water table. However, more relevant to the discussion in this chapter, development and testing of conceptual flow and transport models for the Yucca Mountain hydrologic system are strengthened through the incorporation of natural environmental tracer data into the process. Chemical and isotopic data are used to establish bounds on key hydrologic parameters and to provide corroborative evidence for model assumptions and predictions. Examples of specific issues addressed by these data include spatial and temporal variability in net fluxes, the role of faults in controlling flow paths, fracture-matrix interactions, the age and origin of perched water, and the distribution of water traveltimes.

  17. Education and the Mountain Centres. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drasdo, Harold

    The outdoor education literature reveals little on the values of outdoor education activities. The values of aesthetic education can readily be ascribed to values of an outdoor mountain experience--visual, plastic, musical, kinetic, verbal, and constructive. These values are related through senses, muscles, speech, and thought to form expression.…

  18. Rocky Mountain juniper study: Preliminary results

    Treesearch

    Jill Barbour

    2002-01-01

    Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum Sarg.) seed are hard to germinate in the nursery, containers, or laboratory because they have multiple dormancies. The seedcoat and prophylactic sheath surrounding the embryo impede water absorption. The embryo's epicotyl is not dormant; only the hypocotyl displays dormancy and requires cold...

  19. RESULTS FROM THE MOUNTAIN ACID DEPOSITION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mountain Acid Deposition Program (MADPro) was initiated in 1993 as part of the research necessary to support the objectives of the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet), which was created to address the. requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). The main ob...

  20. [Mountain biking : Breezy ups and traumatic downs].

    PubMed

    Schueller, G

    2010-05-01

    For more than two decades the popularity of mountain biking as a national pastime as well as a competitive sport has been undiminished. However, its related risks are not monitored as closely as those, for example, of skiing. The injuries caused by mountain biking are specific and cannot be compared with those caused by other cycling sports. This is due not only to the characteristics of the terrain but also to the readiness to assume a higher risk compared to cycle racing.The particular value of radiology is in the acute trauma setting. Most often musculoskeletal lesions must be examined and digital radiography and MRI are the most useful techniques. Severe trauma of the cranium, face, spine, thorax and abdomen are primarily evaluated with CT, particularly in dedicated trauma centers. Therefore, radiology can play a role in the rapid diagnosis and optimal treatment of the trauma-related injuries of mountain biking. Thus, the unnecessarily high economical damage associated with mountain biking can be avoided.

  1. Landscape dynamics of mountain pine beetles

    Treesearch

    John E. Lundquist; Robin M. Reich

    2014-01-01

    The magnitude and urgency of current mountain pine beetle outbreaks in the western United States and Canada have resulted in numerous studies of the dynamics and impacts of these insects in forested ecosystems. This paper reviews some of the aspects of the spatial dynamics and landscape ecology of this bark beetle. Landscape heterogeneity influences dispersal patterns...

  2. Black Populations of the Southern Appalachian Mountains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuckert, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    Few books have been written and little information is known about Black populations of the southern Appalachian mountains. This article describes the cultural and settlement patterns of these people and traces their historical development. Occupational changes and the effects of urbanization are presented. (VM)

  3. Mountain hemlock: a bibliography with abstracts.

    Treesearch

    Jerry F. Franklin

    1962-01-01

    This bibliography lists references pertaining to mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.) Carr.) found in North American and European literature for individuals interested in this species. The author has attempted to include all references which might conceivably provide useful information on this species; abstracts are provided for those...

  4. Prophylactic treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, R H; Williams, R G; Oster, C N; Pedersen, C E

    1978-01-01

    Prophylactic treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever with a single dose of oxytetracycline was investigated in guinea pigs. Disease was prevented when treatment was administered shortly before expected onset. Relapses occurred when treatment preceded expected onset by 48 h or more. PMID:97307

  5. YUCCA MOUNTAIN WASTE PACKAGE CLOSURE SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    G. Housley; C. Shelton-davis; K. Skinner

    2005-08-26

    The method selected for dealing with spent nuclear fuel in the US is to seal the fuel in waste packages and then to place them in an underground repository at the Yucca Mountain Site in Nevada. This article describes the Waste Package Closure System (WPCS) currently being designed for sealing the waste packages.

  6. Oak Mountain High School, Shelby County, Alabama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Design Cost Data, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents design features of the Oak Mountain High School (Alabama) consisting of an academic side of classrooms, administration, and media center; and an activity side consisting of cafeteria, gymnasium, practice gym, and a theater. The school's floor plan and photos are included. (GR)

  7. Deformational stress fields of Casper Mountain, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Burfod, A.E.; Gable, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    Casper Mountain is an east-west-trending Laramide feature located immediately west of the north termination of the Laramie Mountains in central Wyoming. Precambrian rocks are exposed as its core; off-dipping Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata characterize the flanks and ends. The north side is abruptly downthrown along a major east-west fault or faults. A complex of stress fields of Precambrian and younger ages is indicated by high-angle shears and shear zones, steep-dip foliations, and multiple joint systems. One or more of the indicated Precambrian stress fields may be equivalent to that of the Cheyenne belt of the southern Laramie Mountains. In addition, at least two well-developed Laramide stress fields were active during the formation of the mountain structure. The principal maximum compressive stress of each was oriented north-south; the mean compressive axis of one was vertical whereas in the other the minimum compressive axis was vertical. Some structural features of Precambrian age, faulting in particular, appear to have influenced structures of younger ages. Prominent east-northeast-trending, high-angle faults lie approximately parallel to the Precambrian structural grain; they offset structural features of Laramide age and may be of late Laramide and/or post-Laramide age.

  8. Thermal maturity of carboniferous strata, Ouachita Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Houseknecht, D.W.; Matthews, S.M.

    1985-03-01

    The Ouachita Mountains, a relatively untested, potential hydrocarbon province, contain a thick Paleozoic section of apparently favorable source beds, reservoir beds, and trap configurations. To estimate the thermal maturity of these strata, vitrinite reflectance was measured on 89 samples collected mostly from Carboniferous rocks from throughout the Ouachita outcrop area.

  9. Experiments on sediment pulses in mountain rivers

    Treesearch

    Y. Cui; T. E. Lisle; J. E. Pizzuto; G. Parker

    1998-01-01

    Pulses of sediment can be introduced into mountain rivers from such mechanisms as debris flows, landslides and fans at tributary confluences. These processes can be natural or associated with the activities of humans, as in the case of a pulse created by sediment derived from timber harvest or the removal of a dam. How does the river digest these pulses?

  10. Climbing the e-waste mountain.

    PubMed

    2005-10-01

    The benefits of the information revolution are clear for all to see. Devices such as PCs, faxes, mobile phones, music players and a host of others open up exciting possibilities for individuals and businesses alike. Yet there is a downside to this digital era: the growing mountain of electronic waste. How we tackle this dilemma will have major implications for sustainability.

  11. Air pollution: worldwide effects on mountain forests

    Treesearch

    Anne M. Rosenthal; Andrzej Featured: Bytnerowicz

    2004-01-01

    Widespread forest decline in remote areas of the Carpathian Mountains has been linked to air pollution from urban and industrial regions. Besides injuring plant tissues directly, pollutants may deposit to soils and water, drastically changing susceptible ecosystems. Researcher Andrzej Bytnerowicz has developed effective methods for assessing air quality over wildlands...

  12. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2008 Research Accomplishments

    Treesearch

    Rick Fletcher

    2009-01-01

    Another year has come and gone and was marked by several milestones for the Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS). It was a year of many exciting breakthroughs in our science, effective applications of science tools, starts for new employees, the move of our Station headquarters, reinvigorating existing partnerships, and co-hosting the celebration of the Nation's...

  13. Permian depositional history, Leach Mountains, northeastern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Martindale, S.G. . EMA/Construction Div.)

    1993-04-01

    The 4,000 m thick Permian sequence in the Leach Mountains consists of carbonate rock, chert, terrigenous clastic rock and phosphatic rock. These rocks, in ascending order, comprise the Third Fork Fm., Badger Gulch Fm., Trapper Creek Fm., Grandeur Fm., Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale Tongue of the Phosphoria Fm., Murdock Mountain Fm. and Gerster Limestone. This sequence disconformably overlain by Triassic strata. Initial Permian deposition, represented by the late Wolfcampian to early Leonardian Third Fork Fm., was on a slope, at a water depth of about 50 m. Subsequently, a shallowing trend occurred during the early Leonardian to late Leonardian with deposition of the Badger Gulch, Trapper Creek and Grandeur Fms. The Trapper Creek and Grandeur Fms. were deposited on the shelf, in very shallow subtidal to supratidal environments. The shelf persisted through the remainder of the Permian. In the late leonardian, the Meade Peak Tongue was deposited in very shallow subtidal and intertidal environments. A supratidal environment was re-established in latest Leonardian( ) to early Guadalupian with deposition of the lower Murdock Mountain Fm. The upper Murdock Mountain Fm. was deposited in very shallow subtidal to supratidal environments. Later during the early Guadalupian, intertidal to shallow subtidal deposition of the Gerster Limestone occurred. Angular phosphatic pebbles that were derived from phosphatic strata at the top of the Gerster Limestone are contained in the Triassic basal conglomerate. These pebbles indicate that the last Permian event was probably emergence and erosion of the top of the Gerster Limestone.

  14. MTCLIM: a mountain microclimate simulation model

    Treesearch

    Roger D. Hungerford; Ramakrishna R. Nemani; Steven W. Running; Joseph C. Coughlan

    1989-01-01

    A model for calculating daily microclimate conditions in mountainous terrain is presented. Daily air temperature, shortwave radiation, relative humidity, and precipitation are extrapolated form data measured at National Weather Service stations. The model equations are given and the paper describes how to execute the model. Model outputs are compared with observed data...

  15. Equipment of medical backpacks in mountain rescue.

    PubMed

    Elsensohn, Fidel; Soteras, Inigo; Resiten, Oliver; Ellerton, John; Brugger, Hermann; Paal, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a survey of equipment in medical backpacks for mountain rescuers and mountain emergency physicians. The aim was to investigate whether there are standards for medical equipment in mountain rescue organizations associated with the International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine (ICAR MEDCOM). A questionnaire was completed by 18 member organizations from 14 countries. Backpacks for first responders are well equipped to manage trauma, but deficiencies in equipment to treat medical emergencies were found. Paramedic and physicians' backpacks were well equipped to provide advanced life support and contained suitable drugs. We recommend that medical backpacks should be equipped in accordance with national laws, the medical emergencies in a given region, and take into account the climate, geography, medical training of rescuers, and funding of the organization. Automated external defibrillator provision should be improved. The effects of temperature on the drugs and equipment should be considered. Standards for training in the use and maintenance of medical tools should be enforced. First responders and physicians should only use familiar tools and drugs.

  16. RESULTS FROM THE MOUNTAIN ACID DEPOSITION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mountain Acid Deposition Program (MADPro) was initiated in 1993 as part of the research necessary to support the objectives of the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet), which was created to address the. requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). The main ob...

  17. Rocky Mountain Research Station: Strategic Framework

    Treesearch

    Lane Eskew

    2003-01-01

    A strategic plan is a tool for charting a path into the future. This Strategic Framework will help guide the USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station over the next decade during inevitable socioeconomic and environmental change. It is the product of a dialog with our stakeholders and employees to examine the Station's capabilities, anticipate research...

  18. Mountain Biking with Groups: A "Safe" Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Terry

    2001-01-01

    A survey mailed to 200 British mountain bike leaders found that rates of cycling accidents and injuries were greater in forests and woodlands than on terrain where a license is required to lead groups of young cyclists. Excessive speed was mentioned in most accidents, coupled with poor use of breaks in many cases. (SV)

  19. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2007 Research Accomplishments

    Treesearch

    Rick Fletcher

    2008-01-01

    This past year has been a period of transition for the Rocky Mountain Research Station. In 2006, we identified the need to move from an organization of approximately 30 research work units whose work was formed around national Strategic Program Areas, to a more streamlined team-oriented organization composed of Science Programs and Research, Development, and...

  20. Mountain Guides: Between Ethics and Socioeconomic Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Thierry; Bazin, Damien; Massiera, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    This study analysed mountain guides' representations of environmental responsibility and explored the paradox that these professionals face: using nature as a source of income while trying to preserve it. The study was mainly guided by the philosophical literature on this topic and made use of the concepts of sustainable development and nature.…

  1. Greater Huachuca Mountains Fire Management Group

    Treesearch

    Brooke S. Gebow; Carol Lambert

    2005-01-01

    The Greater Huachuca Mountains Fire Management Group is developing a fire management plan for 500,000 acres in southeast Arizona. Partner land managers include Arizona State Parks, Arizona State Lands, Audubon Research Ranch, Coronado National Forest, Coronado National Memorial, Fort Huachuca, The Nature Conservancy, San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area, and...

  2. Education and the Mountain Centres. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drasdo, Harold

    The outdoor education literature reveals little on the values of outdoor education activities. The values of aesthetic education can readily be ascribed to values of an outdoor mountain experience--visual, plastic, musical, kinetic, verbal, and constructive. These values are related through senses, muscles, speech, and thought to form expression.…

  3. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2006 Research Accomplishments

    Treesearch

    Rick Fletcher

    2007-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station has a long and celebrated legacy of conducting relevant natural resources research throughout the Interior West and beyond. Land managers and planners regularly rely upon our science to help make wise resource decisions. Our niche among research organizations is distinct: mission-oriented, close to the customers, a reputation for...

  4. Epidemiology of acute mountain sickness on Jade Mountain, Taiwan: an annual prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shih-Hao; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Kao, Wei-Fong; Lin, Yu-Jr; Chen, Jih-Chang; Chiu, Te-Fa; Hsu, Tai-Yi; Chen, Hang-Cheng; Liu, Shih-Wei

    2010-01-01

    Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is a pathophysiological symptom complex that occurs in high altitude areas. The AMS prevalence is reportedly 28% on Jade Mountain, the highest mountain (3952 m) in Taiwan. We conducted this study owing to the lack of annual epidemiological data on AMS in Taiwan. Between April 2007 and March 2008, 1066 questionnaires were completed by trekkers visiting Paiyun Lodge on Jade Mountain. Information in the questionnaire included demographic data, mountaineering experience, AMS history, and trekking schedule. Weather data were obtained from the Central Weather Bureau of Taiwan. The Lake Louise AMS score was used to record symptoms and diagnose AMS. The chi-square test or the Student t test was used to evaluate associations between variables and AMS. In our study, the AMS prevalence was 36%. It increased significantly at different rates at different locations on the Jade Mountain trail and varied significantly in different months. Rainy weather tended to slightly increase the incidence of AMS. A lower incidence of AMS was correlated with hig-altitude trekking experience or preexposure (p < 0.05), whereas a higher incidence of AMS was correlated with a prior history of AMS (p < 0.05). The trekkers with AMS were significantly younger, ascended faster from their residence to the entrance or to Paiyun Lodge, and ascended slower from the entrance to the Paiyun Lodge (p < 0.05), but the differences lacked clinical significance. No differences in the incidence of AMS based on blood type, gender, or obesity were observed. The most common symptom among all trekkers was headache, followed by difficulty sleeping, fatigue or weakness, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, and dizziness or lightheadedness. In conclusion, the AMS prevalence on Jade Mountain was 36%, varied by month, and correlated with trekking experience, preexposure, and a prior history of AMS. The overall presentation of AMS was similar to that on other major world mountains.

  5. Mountain pine beetle in southwestern white pine in the Pinaleno Mountains

    Treesearch

    Ann M. Lynch; Christopher D. O' Connor

    2013-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle has rarely been found in the Madrean Sky Island Archipelago and has not been reported from the Pinaleño Mountains until recently. This insect began killing southwestern white pine in 1996 or earlier, with additional mortality each year since. Activity has increased in the last 2 years. The life cycle in the Pinaleños during this time has been...

  6. Analysis of mountain hazards in the Qilian Mountain based on tree rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Shao, Xuemei; Stoffel, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Mountain hazards, including landslides, rockfall and debris flows, are the most serious natural hazards in China, and affect almost 70% of all mountainous areas of China. An improved understanding of geomorphic processes and knowledge on past events are important tasks for the assessment of mountain hazards. Tree rings have on varied occasions proved to be a reliable tool for the acquisition of data on past events. Here we present a preliminary reconstruction of past mountain hazards in the Qilian Mountains, northeast Tibet Plateau, China. A total of 658 Qilian juniper (Sabina przewalskii Kom.) samples (selected from 327 trees) standing on or adjacent to a landslide body in the Qilian Mountains, as well as 672 Qinghai spruce (Picea crassifolia Kom.) samples (from 175 trees) growing on three adjacent debris-flow sites were collected to reconstruct past landslide and debris-flow histories. Based on the dating and interpretation of growth disturbances (GD) in the tree-ring series of sampled trees, we reconstruct past mountain hazards at the four sites. Results show that the first detectable landslide occurred as early as AD 1261, and then seven major reoccurrence years can be found in AD 1703, AD 1816, AD 1848, AD 1863, AD 1913, AD 1970, and AD 1982. At the three debris-flow sites, different events were identified at each of the sites, i.e. four events (AD 1872, AD 1878, AD 1880, AD 1884) at site 1, two events (AD 1811 and AD 1953) at site 2, and three events (AD 1866, AD 1885 and AD 1961) at site 3. Our research indicates that Chinese conifers indeed have a large potential to yield dates of past mountain hazard events with tree rings, and dendrogeomorhology should therefore be used in similar environments for a better understanding of past and potential future fluvial and mass-movements processes.

  7. Mammoth Mountain, California broadband seismic experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, P. B.; Pitt, A. M.; Wilkinson, S. K.; Chouet, B. A.; Hill, D. P.; Mangan, M.; Prejean, S. G.; Read, C.; Shelly, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    Mammoth Mountain is a young cumulo-volcano located on the southwest rim of Long Valley caldera, California. Current volcanic processes beneath Mammoth Mountain are manifested in a wide range of seismic signals, including swarms of shallow volcano-tectonic earthquakes, upper and mid-crustal long-period earthquakes, swarms of brittle-failure earthquakes in the lower crust, and shallow (3-km depth) very-long-period earthquakes. Diffuse emissions of C02 began after a magmatic dike injection beneath the volcano in 1989, and continue to present time. These indications of volcanic unrest drive an extensive monitoring effort of the volcano by the USGS Volcano Hazards Program. As part of this effort, eleven broadband seismometers were deployed on Mammoth Mountain in November 2011. This temporary deployment is expected to run through the fall of 2013. These stations supplement the local short-period and broadband seismic stations of the Northern California Seismic Network (NCSN) and provide a combined network of eighteen broadband stations operating within 4 km of the summit of Mammoth Mountain. Data from the temporary stations are not available in real-time, requiring the merging of the data from the temporary and permanent networks, timing of phases, and relocation of seismic events to be accomplished outside of the standard NCSN processing scheme. The timing of phases is accomplished through an interactive Java-based phase-picking routine, and the relocation of seismicity is achieved using the probabilistic non-linear software package NonLinLoc, distributed under the GNU General Public License by Alomax Scientific. Several swarms of shallow volcano-tectonic earthquakes, spasmodic bursts of high-frequency earthquakes, a few long-period events located within or below the edifice of Mammoth Mountain and numerous mid-crustal long-period events have been recorded by the network. To date, about 900 of the ~2400 events occurring beneath Mammoth Mountain since November 2011 have

  8. Isostatic compensation of the Scandinavian mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olesen, O.; Skilbrei, J. R.

    2003-04-01

    As yet, there is no generally accepted hypothesis that explains the Neogene uplift phase of the Scandinavian mountains. Gravity data provide means to study the mechanism of exhumation of these mountainous areas. Assuming that the region is close to isostatic equilibrium, these uplifted mountainous areas must be supported at depth by substantial volumes of low-density material within the crust or the mantle, or at the crust/mantle or lithosphere/asthenosphere interfaces. The former models represent a Pratt type isostacy model, while the two latter are consistent with an Airy-Heiskanen type model. The observed Bouguer gravity field has been compared with gravity responses from Airy roots at various depths below the Scandinavia mountains. The calculated gravity is most similar to the observed gravity field for low-density rocks at a shallow depth in northern Norway. The calculated RMS (root mean square) is lowest (25.0 mGal) for the 10 km Airy root model. This differs significantly from the southern mountains where the RMS is lowest (17.6 mGal) for the 45 km Airy root model. The latter must be partly supported by low-density rocks below the Moho. The Neogene uplift of southern Norway may therefore originate from low-density mantle rocks possibly linked to the Iceland hotspot. The Pratt type of isostasy is consequently deduced to be important for the isostatic compensation of the Scandinavian mountains. The results are in agreement with the conclusions of Riis (1996) and Lidmar-Bergström (1999) that the southern Norwegian plateau was partly uplifted in the Neogene, while the northern Scandinavian mountains originated mainly as a rift-shoulder in late Cretaceous to early Tertiary times. Hendriks &Andriessen (2002) reported that analyses of observed apatite fission track data along a profile from Lofoten into Sweden fits best with those expected from a retreating scarp model. References Hendriks, B.W.H. &Andriessen, P.A.M. 2002: Vertical movements on the Norwegian

  9. Extreme ground motions and Yucca Mountain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanks, Thomas C.; Abrahamson, Norman A.; Baker, Jack W.; Boore, David M.; Board, Mark; Brune, James N.; Cornell, C. Allin; Whitney, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Yucca Mountain is the designated site of the underground repository for the United States' high-level radioactive waste (HLW), consisting of commercial and military spent nuclear fuel, HLW derived from reprocessing of uranium and plutonium, surplus plutonium, and other nuclear-weapons materials. Yucca Mountain straddles the western boundary of the Nevada Test Site, where the United States has tested nuclear devices since the 1950s, and is situated in an arid, remote, and thinly populated region of Nevada, ~100 miles northwest of Las Vegas. Yucca Mountain was originally considered as a potential underground repository of HLW because of its thick units of unsaturated rocks, with the repository horizon being not only ~300 m above the water table but also ~300 m below the Yucca Mountain crest. The fundamental rationale for a geologic (underground) repository for HLW is to securely isolate these materials from the environment and its inhabitants to the greatest extent possible and for very long periods of time. Given the present climate conditions and what is known about the current hydrologic system and conditions around and in the mountain itself, one would anticipate that the rates of infiltration, corrosion, and transport would be very low—except for the possibility that repository integrity might be compromised by low-probability disruptive events, which include earthquakes, strong ground motion, and (or) a repository-piercing volcanic intrusion/eruption. Extreme ground motions (ExGM), as we use the phrase in this report, refer to the extremely large amplitudes of earthquake ground motion that arise at extremely low probabilities of exceedance (hazard). They first came to our attention when the 1998 probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for Yucca Mountain was extended to a hazard level of 10-8/yr (a 10-4/yr probability for a 104-year repository “lifetime”). The primary purpose of this report is to summarize the principal results of the ExGM research program

  10. Generalized stationary phase approximations for mountain waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, H.; Broutman, D.; Eckermann, S. D.

    2016-04-01

    Large altitude asymptotic approximations are derived for vertical displacements due to mountain waves generated by hydrostatic wind flow over arbitrary topography. This leads to new asymptotic analytic expressions for wave-induced vertical displacement for mountains with an elliptical Gaussian shape and with the major axis oriented at any angle relative to the background wind. The motivation is to understand local maxima in vertical displacement amplitude at a given height for elliptical mountains aligned at oblique angles to the wind direction, as identified in Eckermann et al. ["Effects of horizontal geometrical spreading on the parameterization of orographic gravity-wave drag. Part 1: Numerical transform solutions," J. Atmos. Sci. 72, 2330-2347 (2015)]. The standard stationary phase method reproduces one type of local amplitude maximum that migrates downwind with increasing altitude. Another type of local amplitude maximum stays close to the vertical axis over the center of the mountain, and a new generalized stationary phase method is developed to describe this other type of local amplitude maximum and the horizontal variation of wave-induced vertical displacement near the vertical axis of the mountain in the large altitude limit. The new generalized stationary phase method describes the asymptotic behavior of integrals where the asymptotic parameter is raised to two different powers (1/2 and 1) rather than just one power as in the standard stationary phase method. The vertical displacement formulas are initially derived assuming a uniform background wind but are extended to accommodate both vertical shear with a fixed wind direction and vertical variations in the buoyancy frequency.

  11. Electrical resistivity monitoring of the drift scale test in Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, A.

    1997-01-13

    Of the several thermal, mechanical and hydrological measurements being used to monitor the rockmass response, electrical resistance tomography (ERT) is being used to monitor the movement of liquid water with a special interest in the movement of condensate out of the system. Eight boreholes, containing a total of 140 ERT electrodes, were drilled above and below the Heated Drift (HD) to form vertical planes parallel to the drift. In addition, 4 boreholes, containing 60 electrodes, drilled from the Access Observation Drift (AOD) form vertical planes at right angles to the HD. Four ERT surveys, three before and one after heating began, were conducted during the first quarter of FY 98. Tomographic images of absolute electrical resistivity have been calculated using these data and are presented in this report. The report also presents the coordinates of the electrodes used for the ERT surveys. Future reports will include images of electrical resistivity change calculated using data collected before and during the heating episode. The changes to be recovered will then be used in combination with temperature maps of the region to calculate maps of saturation change around the HD.

  12. The geohydrologic setting of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuckless, J.S.; Dudley, W.W.

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides a geologic and hydrologic framework of the Yucca Mountain region for the geochemical papers in this volume. The regional geologic units, which range in age from late Precambrian through Holocene, are briefly described. Yucca Mountain is composed of dominantly pyroclastic units that range in age from 11.4 to 15.2 Ma. The principal focus of study has been on the Paintbrush Group, which includes two major zoned and welded ash-flow tuffs separated by an important hydrogeologic unit referred to as the Paintbrush non-welded (PTn). The regional structural setting is currently one of extension, and the major local tectonic domains are presented together with a tectonic model that is consistent with the known structures at Yucca Mountain. Streamflow in this arid to semi-arid region occurs principally in intermittent or ephemeral channels. Near Yucca Mountain, the channels of Fortymile Wash and Amargosa River collect infrequent runoff from tributary basins, ultimately draining to Death Valley. Beneath the surface, large-scale interbasin flow of groundwater from one valley to another occurs commonly in the region. Regional groundwater flow beneath Yucca Mountain originates in the high mesas to the north and returns to the surface either in southern Amargosa Desert or in Death Valley, where it is consumed by evapotranspiration. The water table is very deep beneath the upland areas such as Yucca Mountain, where it is 500-750 m below the land surface, providing a large thickness of unsaturated rocks that are potentially suitable to host a nuclear-waste repository. The nature of unsaturated flow processes, which are important for assessing radionuclide migration, are inferred mainly from hydrochemical or isotopic evidence, from pneumatic tests of the fracture systems, and from the results of in situ experiments. Water seeping down through the unsaturated zone flows rapidly through fractures and more slowly through the pores of the rock matrix. Although

  13. Chemical weathering within high mountain depositional structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emberson, R.; Hovius, N.; Hsieh, M.; Galy, A.

    2013-12-01

    Material eroded from active mountain belts can spend extended periods in depositional structures within the mountain catchments before reaching its final destination. This can be in the form of colluvial fills, debris fans, or alluvial valley fills and terraces. The existence of these landforms is testament to the catastrophic nature of the events that lead to their formation. Sourced by landslides or debris flows, the material that forms them is in many cases either unweathered or incompletely weathered (e.g. Hsieh and Chyi 2010). Due to their porosity and permeability, these deposits likely serve as locations for extensive chemical weathering within bedrock landscapes. Recent studies considering the weathering flux from active mountain belts (e.g. Calmels et al. 2011) have distinguished between shallow and deep groundwater in terms of the contribution to the solute budget from a catchment; in this study we have attempted to more tightly constrain the sources of these groundwater components in the context of the previously mentioned depositional structures. We have collected water samples from a large number of sites within the Chen-you-lan catchment (370 km2) in central west Taiwan to elucidate the location of chemical weathering as well as how the sourcing of weathering products varies depending on the meteorological conditions. Central Taiwan has good attributes for this work considering both the extremely active tectonics and tropical climate, (including extensive cyclonic activity) which stimulate both extensive physical erosion (Dadson et al. 2003) and chemical weathering (Calmels et al. 2011). The Chen-you-lan catchment in particular contains some of the largest alluvial deposits inside the Taiwan mountain belt (Hsieh and Chyi 2010). Our preliminary results suggest that weathering within intramontane deposits may be a significant source of solutes, with the hyporheic systems within mountain rivers of particular import. This input of solutes occurs over

  14. Rail Access to Yucca Mountain: Critical Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Halstead, R. J.; Dilger, F.; Moore, R. C.

    2003-02-25

    The proposed Yucca Mountain repository site currently lacks rail access. The nearest mainline railroad is almost 100 miles away. Absence of rail access could result in many thousands of truck shipments of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Direct rail access to the repository could significantly reduce the number of truck shipments and total shipments. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) identified five potential rail access corridors, ranging in length from 98 miles to 323 miles, in the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for Yucca Mountain. The FEIS also considers an alternative to rail spur construction, heavy-haul truck (HHT) delivery of rail casks from one of three potential intermodal transfer stations. The authors examine the feasibility and cost of the five rail corridors, and DOE's alternative proposal for HHT transport. The authors also address the potential for rail shipments through the Las Vegas metropolitan area.

  15. Rocky Mountain spotted fever: a clinician's dilemma.

    PubMed

    Masters, Edwin J; Olson, Gary S; Weiner, Scott J; Paddock, Christopher D

    2003-04-14

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is still the most lethal tick-vectored illness in the United States. We examine the dilemmas facing the clinician who is evaluating the patient with possible Rocky Mountain spotted fever, with particular attention to the following 8 pitfalls in diagnosis and treatment: (1) waiting for a petechial rash to develop before diagnosis; (2) misdiagnosing as gastroenteritis; (3) discounting a diagnosis when there is no history of a tick bite; (4) using an inappropriate geographic exclusion; (5) using an inappropriate seasonal exclusion; (6) failing to treat on clinical suspicion; (7) failing to elicit an appropriate history; and (8) failing to treat with doxycycline. Early diagnosis and proper treatment save lives.

  16. Multidisciplinary hydrologic investigations at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dudley, William W.

    1990-01-01

    Future climatic conditions and tectonic processes have the potential to cause significant changes of the hydrologic system in the southern Great Basin, where a nuclear-waste repository is proposed for construction above the water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Geothermal anomalies in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain probably result from the local and regional transport of heat by ground-water flow. Regionally and locally irregular patterns of hydraulic potential, local marsh and pond deposits, and calcite veins in faults and fractures probably are related principally to climatically imposed hydrologic conditions within the geologic and topographic framework. However, tectonic effects on the hydrologic system have also been proposed as the causes of these features, and existing data limitations preclude a full evaluation of these competing hypotheses. A broad program that integrates many disciplines of earth science is required in order to understand the relation of hydrology to past, present and future climates and tectonism.

  17. Carbon and snow in the mountains (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painter, T. H.; Schimel, D.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon, climate and hydrology are coupled in complex ways in montane ecosystems. In arid regions, total carbon uptake depends on the montane snowpack, and the length of the growing season. Both the amount of snow and the timing of melt are crucial, and together determine water availability and soil microcimate. Timing of snowmelt depends sensitively on the surface energy balance, which in the mountains is determined by a number of topographic, atmospheric and biotic controls. We use new satellite records of fractional snowcover in areas affected by mountain pine beetle outbreaks to quantify the effect of canopy loss (the reciprocal of fractional snow covered area) on surface energy balance, snowmelt and carbon dynamics. Results indicate the interactive roles of multiple environmental disturbances on carbon uptake in Western US forests.

  18. On the dynamic smoothing of mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonetti, S.; Porporato, A.

    2017-06-01

    After their formation, mountainous landscapes gradually evolve toward smoother geometries controlled by the interplay of erosion and sedimentation. The statistical mechanical properties of this process and the link between topography and geology have remained largely unexplored. We analyze the slope statistics of different mountains worldwide, showing that landscape age is fingerprinted in their distribution tails. Data reveal a universal relaxation process, through an algebraic decay progressively replaced by an exponential one, with exponents described by a global monotonic function. We then investigate the dominant components of this dynamic smoothing using a landscape evolution model, showing that the time evolution of slope statistics results from a delicate balance between diffusive soil creep, noise, and advective river incision, with the relaxation phase mainly dominated by diffusion. Results may suggest ways to formulate reduced order topographic evolution models for geomorphological and climatological applications, and to explore similarities in surface evolution in different contexts.

  19. Least-cost paths in mountainous terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rees, W. G.

    2004-04-01

    Footpaths in a mountainous area of Wales are modelled as least-cost paths between the start and end points. The cost function is defined on the basis of topography alone, and is defined in such a way that the cost penalty for excessively steep slopes is an adjustable parameter of the model. Least-cost paths are calculated by applying Dijkstra's algorithm to a Digital Elevation Model. Comparison of these calculated least-cost paths with existing footpaths suggests that the latter do not usually follow the least-time route, but instead optimise the metabolic cost for human locomotion. The method developed here is proposed as a means of exploring possible routes for new footpaths in mountainous areas.

  20. Foods of Mountain Plovers wintering in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knopf, F.L.

    1998-01-01

    Prey items were identified from the stomachs of wintering Mountain Plovers (Charadrius montanus) collected in California at the Pixley National Wildlife Refuge and Carrizo Plain Natural Area in 1991, and south of the Salton Sea in 1992. Stomach contents of the 39 birds included 2,092 different food items representing 13 orders and at least 16 families of invertebrates. Diets at each of the three locales differed greatly, with coleopterans and hymenopterans dominating the Carrizo samples, lepidopterans the Pixley samples, and coleopterans and orthopterans the Salton Sea samples. Diets of males and females were similar. These findings counter the current perception that Mountain Plover diets are specialized on coleopterans and orthopterans, and bring the species more in line as a dietary generalist/opportunist as reported for most shorebirds.

  1. Yucca Mountain could face greater volcanic threat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Eugene I.; Keenan, Deborah L.

    Locating a radioactive waste repository in the United States has been the subject of over 20 years of scientific research, political wrangling, and court decisions. If a nuclear waste repository is constructed at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, 70,000 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel will be buried 300 m below the surface.Because eight Quaternary basalt volcanoes erupted within 50 km of the proposed repository in the past million years, future volcanism is an important issue. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently using an expert panel to evaluate current models [Perry et al., 1998] and consider alternative models. This article presents an alternative model, developed independently of DOE and the expert panel, and reviews new information pertinent to volcanic hazard studies. Additionally, this article suggests that the size of the Yucca Mountain volcanic field is not presently well known.

  2. East Mountain Area 1995 air sampling results

    SciTech Connect

    Deola, R.A.

    1996-09-01

    Ambient air samples were taken at two locations in the East Mountain Area in conjunction with thermal testing at the Lurance Canyon Burn Site (LCBS). The samples were taken to provide measurements of particulate matter with a diameter less than or equal to 10 micrometers (PM{sub 10}) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This report summarizes the results of the sampling performed in 1995. The results from small-scale testing performed to determine the potentially produced air pollutants in the thermal tests are included in this report. Analytical results indicate few samples produced measurable concentrations of pollutants believed to be produced by thermal testing. Recommendations for future air sampling in the East Mountain Area are also noted.

  3. Closer Look: Majestic Mountains and Frozen Plains

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-17

    Just 15 minutes after its closest approach to Pluto on July 14, 2015, NASA's New Horizons spacecraft looked back toward the sun and captured a near-sunset view of the rugged, icy mountains and flat ice plains extending to Pluto's horizon. The smooth expanse of the informally named Sputnik Planum (right) is flanked to the west (left) by rugged mountains up to 11,000 feet (3,500 meters) high, including the informally named Norgay Montes in the foreground and Hillary Montes on the skyline. The backlighting highlights more than a dozen layers of haze in Pluto's tenuous but distended atmosphere. The image was taken from a distance of 11,000 miles (18,000 kilometers) to Pluto; the scene is 230 miles (380 kilometers) across. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19947

  4. Academy issues report on Yucca Mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    The National Academy of Sciences released a report on April 13 concluding that Yucca Mountain, the proposed nuclear waste repository site located about 100 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nev., is not at risk from groundwater infiltration. “There is no evidence to support the assertion that the water table has risen periodically hundreds of meters from deep within the crust,” the report states.According to vice chairman of the NAS panel George A. Thompson of Stanford University, the panel was charged with evaluating whether the water table has risen in the past to the level of the proposed repository or if this might happen in the future. The panel was not responsible for determining whether Yucca Mountain is suitable as a repository site.

  5. YUMMY: The Yucca Mountain MCNP-Library

    SciTech Connect

    Alpan, FA

    2004-12-10

    Point-wise libraries provided with the MCNP code contain neutron data for a limited number of temperatures. However, it is important to have the option of using data from a wide range of temperatures for transport calculations. For this purpose, a multi-temperature, ACE-format neutron library was generated for 134 nuclides, as requested by Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) staff. The library is referred to as YUMMY (YUcca Mountain MCNP-librarY). The neutron cross section data are based on ENDF/B-V or ENDF/B-VI evaluations that were requested by YMP staff. This document provides the details of the new library and its use in criticality safety benchmark problems, a Pressurized Water Reactor design and waste package models in MCNP4C.

  6. Zen Mountains: An Illusion of Perceptual Transparency

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The human visual system is usually very successful in segmenting complex natural scenes. During a trip to the Nepalese Himalayas, we observed an impossible example of Nature's beauty: “transparent” mountains. The scene is captured in a photograph in which a pair of mountain peaks viewed in the far distance appear to be transparent. This illusion results from a fortuitous combination of lighting and scene conditions, which induce an erroneous integration of multiple segmentation cues. The illusion unites three classic principles of visual perception: Metelli's constraints for perceptual transparency, the Gestalt principle of good continuation, and depth from contrast and atmospheric scattering. This real-world “failure” of scene segmentation reinforces how ingeniously the human visual system typically integrates complex sources of perceptual information using heuristics based on likelihood as shortcuts to veridical perception. PMID:28299170

  7. Interpreting Primary Children's Representations of Mountains and Mountainous Landscapes and Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trend, Roger; Everett, Lynn; Dove, Jane

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports research into children's understanding of mountainous landscapes and mountain genesis as revealed in their drawing and modelling representations and in subsequent interviews. A sample of 444 children aged 7-11 years was drawn from five UK inner-city schools. Comparisons between the younger (7-9 years) and older (9-11 years) children showed significant differences in perception, conception and priorities. The naive interpretation of children's drawings and models is questioned: interview data indicated that children use sophisticated techniques to represent mountains and mountain environments. Children are able to interpret stereotypical representations of mountain landscape features they encounter in books and elsewhere. They make use of a range of conventions in their own drawings that are revealed only in subsequent interviews. Research based solely on the interpretation of children's pictures is shown to be problematic and somewhat unreliable. Children perceive the differences between reality and pictorial representation and make full and conscious use of the range of conventions, including stereotypical forms.

  8. Chronology of latest Pleistocene mountain glaciation in the western Wasatch Mountains, Utah, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laabs, Benjamin J. C.; Marchetti, David W.; Munroe, Jeffrey S.; Refsnider, Kurt A.; Gosse, John C.; Lips, Elliott W.; Becker, Richard A.; Mickelson, David M.; Singer, Brad S.

    2011-09-01

    Understanding the timing of mountain glacier and paleolake expansion and retraction in the Great Basin region of the western United States has important implications for regional-scale climate change during the last Pleistocene glaciation. The relative timing of mountain glacier maxima and the well-studied Lake Bonneville highstand has been unclear, however, owing to poor chronological limits on glacial deposits. Here, this problem is addressed by applying terrestrial cosmogenic 10Be exposure dating to a classic set of terminal moraines in Little Cottonwood and American Fork Canyons in the western Wasatch Mountains. The exposure ages indicate that the main phase of deglaciation began at 15.7 ± 1.3 ka in both canyons. This update to the glacial chronology of the western Wasatch Mountains can be reconciled with previous stratigraphic observations of glacial and paleolake deposits in this area, and indicates that the start of deglaciation occurred during or at the end of the Lake Bonneville hydrologic maximum. The glacial chronology reported here is consistent with the growing body of data suggesting that mountain glaciers in the western U.S. began retreating as many as 4 ka after the start of northern hemisphere deglaciation (at ca. 19 ka).

  9. Mountain biking injuries in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Aleman, Kylee B; Meyers, Michael C

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade, the sport of mountain biking has experienced extensive growth in youth participation. Due to the unpredictable nature of outdoor sport, a lack of rider awareness and increased participation, the number of injuries has unnecessarily increased. Many believe that the actual incidence of trauma in this sport is underestimated and is just the 'tip of the iceberg'. The most common mechanism of injury is usually attributed to downhill riding and forward falling. Although rare, this type of fall can result in serious cranial and thoraco-abdominal trauma. Head and neck trauma continue to be documented, often resulting in concussions and the possibility of permanent neurological sequelae. Upper limb injuries range from minor dermal abrasions, contusions and muscular strains to complex particular fracture dislocations. These are caused by attempting to arrest the face with an outstretched hand, leading to additional direct injury. Common overuse injuries include repeated compression from the handlebars and vibration leading to neurovascular complications in the hands. Along with reports of blunt abdominal trauma and lumbar muscle strains, lower extremity injuries may include various hip/pelvic/groin contusions, patellofemoral inflammation, and various muscle strains. The primary causes of mountain biking injuries in children and adolescents include overuse, excessive fatigue, age, level of experience, and inappropriate or improperly adjusted equipment. Additional factors contributing to trauma among this age group involve musculoskeletal immaturity, collisions and falls, excessive speed, environmental conditions, conditioning and fitness status of the rider, nonconservative behavioural patterns, and inadequate medical care. The limited available data restrict the identification and understanding of specific paediatric mountain biking injuries and injury mechanisms. Education about unnecessary risk of injury, use of protective equipment, suitable bikes

  10. From Pluto Mountains to Its Plains

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-24

    Images of Pluto taken by NASA New Horizons spacecraft before closest approach on July 14, 2015, reveal features as small as 270 yards (250 meters) across, from craters to faulted mountain blocks, to the textured surface of the vast basin informally called Sputnik Planum. Enhanced color has been added from the global color image. This image is about 330 miles (530 kilometers) across. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19955

  11. Revised mineralogic summary of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Bish, D.L.; Chipera, S.J.

    1989-03-01

    We have evaluated three-dimensional mineral distribution at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, using quantitative x-ray powder diffraction analysis. All data were obtained on core cuttings, or sidewall samples obtained from drill holes at and around Yucca Mountain. Previously published data are included with corrections, together with new data for several drill holes. The new data presented in this report used the internal standard method of quantitative analysis, which yields results of high precision for the phases commonly found in Yucca Mountain tuffs including opal-CT and glass. Mineralogical trends with depth previously noted are clearly shown by these new data. Glass occurrence is restricted almost without exception to above the present-day static water level (SWL), although glass has been identified below the SWL in partially zeolitized tuffs. Silica phases undergo well-defined transitions with depth, with tridymite and cristobalite occurring only above the SWL, opal-CT occurring with clinoptilolite-mordenite tuffs, and quartz most abundant below the SWL. Smectite occurs in small amounts in most samples but is enriched in two distinct zones. These zones are at the top of the vitric nonwelded base of the Tiva Canyon Member and at the top of the basal vitrophyre of the Topopah Spring Member. Our data support the presence of several zones of mordenite and clinoptilolite-heulandite as shown previously. New data on several deep clinoptililite-heulandite samples coexisting with analcime show that they are heulandite. Phillipsite has not been found in any Yucca Mountain samples, but erionite and chabazite have been found once in fractures. 21 refs., 17 figs.

  12. Predicting the Future at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    J. R. Wilson

    1999-07-01

    This paper summarizes a climate-prediction model funded by the DOE for the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository. Several articles in the open literature attest to the effects of the Global Ocean Conveyor upon paleoclimate, specifically entrance and exit from the ice age. The data shows that these millennial-scale effects are duplicated on the microscale of years to decades. This work also identifies how man may have influenced the Conveyor, affecting global cooling and warming for 2,000 years.

  13. Growth and survival of Mountain Plovers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Brian J.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1993-01-01

    Growth and survival rates of Mountain Plovers (Charadrius montanus) were monitored using radiotelemetry from hatching until birds left the breeding grounds on the Pawnee National Grassland, Weld County, Colorado. Chick weights increased logarithmically (r) = 0.961) and tarsus length linearly (r = 0.948) with age. Using the average fledgling weight of 69.8 g and an age/weight regression we predicted that the average age at fledging was 36 d. Fourteen Mountain Plover nests each had three effs; an average of 2.6 eggs hatched in seven nests, whereas remaining nests were lost to predation, storms, or trampling by a cow. Twenty-four adult Mountain Plovers were monitored for 275 telemetry days with no mortalities. Twenty flightless chicks had a calculated daily survival rate of 0.979 for 233 telemetry-days. Mortalities of flightless chicks were due to predation or unknown causes. The daily survival rate predicted that 1.2 of the 2.6 chicks hatched per nest lived to fly. Eight fledged chicks were monitored for 74 telemetry-days, with a daily survival rate of 0.974. Mortalities of fledglings were all attributed to predation. The combined survival rates predicted that 0.7 or the 2.6 hatched chicks lived to leave the nesting area. Survival rates of flightless chicks were similar to those reported 20 yr ago, implying that recent declines in Mountain Plover numbers on the continent are not attributable to either longer-term declines in nesting productivity or phenomena occurring at non-breeding locales.

  14. Local Geoid Determination in Mountain Regions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    astronomical observations have again proved very feasible in mountains; see the articles by Erker, Bretterbauer, Lichtenegger and Chesi in Chapter 2...linear combination f of suitable base functions I1 *2 , . . . , q with appropriate coefficients bk . All these are functions of the space point P under...depending on whether we emphasize global or local applications. 33 The coefficients bk may be chosen such that the given ohser- 0 vational values are

  15. Makran Mountain Range, Iran and Pakistan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The long folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Ranges of Iran and Pakistan (26.0N, 63.0E) illustrate the classical Trellis type of drainage pattern, common in this region. The Dasht River and its tributaries is the principal drainage network for this area. To the left, the continental drift of the northward bound Indian sub-continent has caused the east/west parallel ranges to bend in a great northward arc.

  16. The Mountainous Shoreline of Sputnik Planum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-05

    In this highest-resolution image from NASA's New Horizons spacecraft, great blocks of Pluto's water-ice crust appear jammed together in the informally named al-Idrisi mountains. Some mountain sides appear coated in dark material, while other sides are bright. Several sheer faces appear to show crustal layering, perhaps related to the layers seen in some of Pluto's crater walls. Other materials appear crushed between the mountains, as if these great blocks of water ice, some standing as much as 1.5 miles high, were jostled back and forth. The mountains end abruptly at the shoreline of the informally named Sputnik Planum, where the soft, nitrogen-rich ices of the plain form a nearly level surface, broken only by the fine trace work of striking, cellular boundaries and the textured surface of the plain's ices (which is possibly related to sunlight-driven ice sublimation). This view is about 50 miles wide. The top of the image is to Pluto's northwest. These images were made with the telescopic Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) aboard New Horizons, in a timespan of about a minute centered on 11:36 UT on July 14 -- just about 15 minutes before New Horizons' closest approach to Pluto -- from a range of just 10,000 miles (17,000 kilometers). They were obtained with an unusual observing mode; instead of working in the usual "point and shoot," LORRI snapped pictures every three seconds while the Ralph/Multispectral Visual Imaging Camera (MVIC) aboard New Horizons was scanning the surface. This mode requires unusually short exposures to avoid blurring the images. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20198

  17. USMC Capability: Mountain/Cold Weather Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    McGevern Jr., William A. The World Almanac and Book of facts 2001. Mahwah, NJ: World Almanac Books 2001, 760 45 Grau and Gress, 4 46 Grau and Gress, 3...Infantry Combat Equipment Combat Equipment and Support Systems (CESS). Certified Dec 2004 McGevern Jr., William A. The World Almanac and Book of...Facts 2001. Mahwah, NJ: World Almanac Books, 2001 38 Military Mountaineering, FM 3-97.61. Headquarters, Department of the Army. Washington, DC

  18. An introduction to mountain search and rescue.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Lanny

    2004-05-01

    Alpine search and rescue teams must perform each incident response safely. To do so requires experience, organizational skills, technical training, and ability. In addition, teams should interface with emergency medical control advisors who are familiar with local terrain, mountain rescue operations, and the evacuation techniques employed. To facilitate safety and organization, each mission can be divided into four linked stages: location, reach, stabilize, and evacuate.

  19. The Olympic Mountains Experiment for GPM (OLYMPEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houze, R.; McMurdie, L. A.; Petersen, W. A.; Schwaller, M.

    2016-12-01

    The GPM satellite has made it possible to observe the amount and nature of precipitation in remote areas of midlatitudes, including oceans and mountain ranges. OLYMPEX conducted over the Olympic Mountains on the northwest coast of Washington State was designed to provide the means for evaluating the physical basis of the algorithms used to convert GPM satellite measurements to determine the amount and nature of precipitation in midlatitude extratropical cyclones. Microphysical processes producing precipitation are highly sensitive to the vertical profile of temperature. In the tropics, the domain of the TRMM satellite, the temperature profile varies only slightly. GPM algorithms, however, must account for the strong horizontal variation of temperature profiles in baroclinic storms systems of midlatitudes and for the variations of precipitation mechanisms caused by passage of these storms over mountains. The OLYMPEX scientific strategy was: 1) collect a statistically robust set of measurements in midlatitude cyclones upstream of, over, and downstream of a midlatitude mountain range that can be used to improve GPM satellite algorithms; 2) determine how the physics and dynamics of the mechanisms affecting precipitation formation in relation to storm structure and terrain. To accomplish these goals 3 aircraft, 4 scanning dual polarization Doppler radars, supplemental soundings, and sophisticated surface instruments were deployed on the Olympic Peninsula of Washington, where Pacific frontal systems produce seasonal precipitation of 2000-4000 mm. 13 storms were observed. 3 of these were atmospheric rivers. The NASA DC-8 and ER-2 aircraft overflew the storms with instruments similar to those on GPM. The U. North Dakota Citation sampled hydrometeors in situ. Preliminary analysis indicates that one of the primary modes of orographic enhancement is low-level moist flow rising over the lower windward slopes and producing many very small drops. Ice-phase processes producing

  20. Groundwater quality in the Klamath Mountains, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Klamath Mountains constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  1. Infantry Small-Unit Mountain Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    winds often result in blowing snow, sand , or debris that further impairs visibility. On clear days, high elevations provide opportunities to see for...winches, sand bags, spill kits, shovels, and recovery capabilities for damaged vehicles should accompany all moving units if possible. 2-34. Dismounted...protections against erosion can become badly damaged with ruts becoming permanent fixtures as they dry. Mountain water runoff can wash away portions roads and

  2. DOE`s Yucca Mountain studies

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-01

    This booklet is about the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in the United States. It is for readers who have a general rather than a technical background. It discusses why scientists and engineers think high-level nuclear waste may be disposed of safely underground. It also describes why Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is being studied as a potential repository site and provides basic information about those studies.

  3. Thunderstorm analysis in the northern Rocky Mountains

    Treesearch

    DeVer. Colson

    1957-01-01

    Lightning-caused fires are a continuing serious threat to forests in the northern Rocky Mountain area. More than 70 percent of all forest fires in this area are caused by lightning. In one 10-day period in July 1940 the all-time record of 1,488 lightning fires started on the national forests in Region l of the U.S. Forest Service.

  4. Mountains as early warning indicators of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    The panoramic splendor and complexity of mountain environments have inspired and challenged humans for centuries. These areas have been variously perceived as physical structures to be conquered, as sites of spiritual inspiration, and as some of the last untamed natural places on Earth. In our time, the perception that "mountains are forever" may provide solace to those seeking stability in a rapidly changing world. However, changes in the hydrology and in the abundance and species composition of the native flora and fauna of mountain ecosystems are potential bellwethers of global change, because these systems have a propensity to amplify environmental changes within specific portions of this landscape. Mountain areas are thus sentinels of climate change. We are seeing effects today in case histories I present from the Himalaya's, Andes, Alps, and Rocky Mountains. Furthermore, these ecosystem changes are occurring in mountain areas before they occur in downstream ecosystems. Thus, mountains are early warning indicators of perturbations such as climate change. The sensitivity of mountain ecosystems begs for enhanced protection and worldwide protection. Our understanding of the processes that control mountain ecosystems—climate interactions, snowmelt runoff, biotic diversity, nutrient cycling—is much less developed compared to downstream ecosystems where human habitation and development has resulted in large investments in scientific knowledge to sustain health and agriculture. To address these deficiencies, I propose the formation of an international mountain research consortium.

  5. A theoretical study of urban breeze-mountain wind interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mango Seo, Jaemyeong; Ganbat, Gantuya; Han, Ji-Young; Baik, Jong-Jin

    2015-04-01

    The interactions of urban breeze circulation with mountain slope winds are theoretically examined in a linear system that includes mountain mechanical forcing and non-zero basic-state wind. Flows induced by urban thermal forcing, mountain thermal forcing, and mountain mechanical forcing are linearly superposed. Thermally induced asymmetric circulations in the presence of non-zero basic-state wind result in distinct flow patterns depending on the location of the urban area relative to the mountain area. In the cases of the urban area being located on the downstream of the mountain area, strong positive near-surface horizontal wind induced by urban heating interacts with diverging (converging) flow from the mountain area in the nighttime (daytime). In the cases with the urban area being located on the upstream of the mountain area, strong positive near-surface horizontal wind is restricted in the urban area. Mountain mechanical forcing enhances downslope winds on the both sides of the mountain and updraft (downdraft) upstream (downstream) of the mountain. Sensitivities of the interactions to mountain height and basic-state wind speed are also examined. The vertical flux of horizontal momentum is analyzed by dividing the total momentum flux into five components. While terms that are related to flow induced by urban heating are dominant in the daytime, interaction terms that are related to flows induced by two thermal sources and by thermal and mechanical sources play important roles over the rest of times. Moreover, the total momentum flux is dependent on the location of the urban area relative to the mountain area and basic-state wind speed.

  6. Magmatic unrest beneath Mammoth Mountain, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, David P.; Prejean, Stephanie

    2005-09-01

    Mammoth Mountain, which stands on the southwest rim of Long Valley caldera in eastern California, last erupted ˜57,000 years BP. Episodic volcanic unrest detected beneath the mountain since late 1979, however, emphasizes that the underlying volcanic system is still active and capable of producing future volcanic eruptions. The unrest symptoms include swarms of small ( M ≤ 3) earthquakes, spasmodic bursts (rapid-fire sequences of brittle-failure earthquakes with overlapping coda), long-period (LP) and very-long-period (VLP) volcanic earthquakes, ground deformation, diffuse emission of magmatic CO 2, and fumarole gases with elevated 3He/ 4He ratios. Spatial-temporal relations defined by the multi-parameter monitoring data together with earthquake source mechanisms suggest that this Mammoth Mountain unrest is driven by the episodic release of a volume of CO 2-rich hydrous magmatic fluid derived from the upper reaches of a plexus of basaltic dikes and sills at mid-crustal depths (10-20 km). As the mobilized fluid ascends through the brittle-plastic transition zone and into overlying brittle crust, it triggers earthquake swarm activity and, in the case of the prolonged, 11-month-long earthquake swarm of 1989, crustal deformation and the onset of diffuse CO 2 emissions. Future volcanic activity from this system would most likely involve steam explosions or small-volume, basaltic, strombolian or Hawaiaan style eruptions. The impact of such an event would depend critically on vent location and season.

  7. A geodynamic model of Andean mountain building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schellart, Wouter P.

    2017-04-01

    The Andes mountain range in South America is the longest in the world and is unique in that it has formed at a subduction zone and not at a continent-continent collision zone. The mountain range has formed due to overriding plate shortening since the Late Cretaceous, and its origin and the driving mechanism(s) responsible for its formation remain a topic of intense debate. Here I present a buoyancy-driven geodynamic model of South American-style subduction, mantle flow and overriding plate deformation, illustrating how subduction-induced mantle flow drives overriding plate deformation. The model reproduces several first-order characteristics of the Andes, including major crustal thickening (up to double the initial crustal thickness) and hundreds of km of east-west shortening in the Central Andes, as well as a slab geometry that is comparable to that of the Nazca slab below the Central Andes. Ultimately, the geodynamic model shows that subduction-induced mantle flow is responsible for Andean-style mountain building.

  8. Food Web Topology in High Mountain Lakes.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Hernández, Javier; Cobo, Fernando; Amundsen, Per-Arne

    2015-01-01

    Although diversity and limnology of alpine lake systems are well studied, their food web structure and properties have rarely been addressed. Here, the topological food webs of three high mountain lakes in Central Spain were examined. We first addressed the pelagic networks of the lakes, and then we explored how food web topology changed when benthic biota was included to establish complete trophic networks. We conducted a literature search to compare our alpine lacustrine food webs and their structural metrics with those of 18 published lentic webs using a meta-analytic approach. The comparison revealed that the food webs in alpine lakes are relatively simple, in terms of structural network properties (linkage density and connectance), in comparison with lowland lakes, but no great differences were found among pelagic networks. The studied high mountain food webs were dominated by a high proportion of omnivores and species at intermediate trophic levels. Omnivores can exploit resources at multiple trophic levels, and this characteristic might reduce competition among interacting species. Accordingly, the trophic overlap, measured as trophic similarity, was very low in all three systems. Thus, these alpine networks are characterized by many omnivorous consumers with numerous prey species and few consumers with a single or few prey and with low competitive interactions among species. The present study emphasizes the ecological significance of omnivores in high mountain lakes as promoters of network stability and as central players in energy flow pathways via food partitioning and enabling energy mobility among trophic levels.

  9. Mountain treelines: A roadmap for research orientation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malanson, George P.; Resler, Lynn M.; Bader, Maaike Y.; Holtmeier, Fredrich-Karl; Butler, David R.; Weiss, Daniel J.; Daniels, Lori D.; Fagre, Daniel B.

    2011-01-01

    For over 100 years, mountain treelines have been the subject of varied research endeavors and remain a strong area of investigation. The purpose of this paper is to examine aspects of the epistemology of mountain treeline research-that is, to investigate how knowledge on treelines has been acquired and the changes in knowledge acquisition over time, through a review of fundamental questions and approaches. The questions treeline researchers have raised and continue to raise have undoubtedly directed the current state of knowledge. A continuing, fundamental emphasis has centered on seeking the general cause of mountain treelines, thus seeking an answer to the question, "What causes treeline?" with a primary emphasis on searching for ecophysiological mechanisms of low-temperature limitation for tree growth and regeneration. However, treeline research today also includes a rich literature that seeks local, landscape-scale causes of treelines and reasons why treelines vary so widely in three-dimensional patterns from one location to the next, and this approach and some of its consequences are elaborated here. In recent years, both lines of research have been motivated greatly by global climate change. Given the current state of knowledge, we propose that future research directions focused on a spatial approach should specifically address cross-scale hypotheses using statistics and simulations designed for nested hierarchies; these analyses will benefit from geographic extension of treeline research.

  10. Coronas and iridescence in mountain wave clouds.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Joseph A; Neiman, Paul J

    2003-01-20

    We use Fraunhofer diffraction theory and meterological data to determine the nature of cloud-particle distributions and the mean particle sizes required for interpreting photographs of coronas and iridescence in mountain wave clouds. Traditional descriptions of coronas and iridescence usually explain these optical phenomena as diffraction by droplets of liquid water. Our analysis shows that the photographed displays have mean particle sizes from 7.6 to 24.3 microm, with over half the cases requiring diffraction by small (approximatley 20 microm) quasispherical ice particles rather than liquid water droplets. Previous documentation of coronas produced by ice particles are limited to observations in cirrus clouds that appear to be composed of small ice crystals, whereas our observations suggest that coronas and iridescence quite often can be created by tiny quasispherical ice particles that might be unique to mountain wave clouds. Furthermore, we see that the dominant colors in mountain wave-cloud coronas are red and blue, rather than the traditionally described red and green.

  11. Food Web Topology in High Mountain Lakes

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Hernández, Javier; Cobo, Fernando; Amundsen, Per-Arne

    2015-01-01

    Although diversity and limnology of alpine lake systems are well studied, their food web structure and properties have rarely been addressed. Here, the topological food webs of three high mountain lakes in Central Spain were examined. We first addressed the pelagic networks of the lakes, and then we explored how food web topology changed when benthic biota was included to establish complete trophic networks. We conducted a literature search to compare our alpine lacustrine food webs and their structural metrics with those of 18 published lentic webs using a meta-analytic approach. The comparison revealed that the food webs in alpine lakes are relatively simple, in terms of structural network properties (linkage density and connectance), in comparison with lowland lakes, but no great differences were found among pelagic networks. The studied high mountain food webs were dominated by a high proportion of omnivores and species at intermediate trophic levels. Omnivores can exploit resources at multiple trophic levels, and this characteristic might reduce competition among interacting species. Accordingly, the trophic overlap, measured as trophic similarity, was very low in all three systems. Thus, these alpine networks are characterized by many omnivorous consumers with numerous prey species and few consumers with a single or few prey and with low competitive interactions among species. The present study emphasizes the ecological significance of omnivores in high mountain lakes as promoters of network stability and as central players in energy flow pathways via food partitioning and enabling energy mobility among trophic levels. PMID:26571235

  12. Exploring groundwater processes in Rocky Mountain headwaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janzen, D.; Ireson, A. M.; Yassin, F. A.

    2014-12-01

    More than one-sixth of the Earth's human population relies on freshwater originating in mountain headwaters, which is understood to be generated largely from snowpacks that melt throughout the spring and summer. Annual hydrographs in these regions are characterized by large peaks occurring in the spring, followed by slow recession towards winter baseflow conditions. However, atmospheric warming trends are found to coincide with earlier periods of snowmelt, leading to increased flows in spring and decreased flows in summer. This decreased ability of our 'water towers' to store snow late into the summer suggests that other mechanisms of storage and release may become more important in sustaining baseflows. In particular, subsurface processes leading to late summer and winter flow will become increasingly important earlier on, but are as yet poorly understood. By utilising historical data to inform a better understanding of late-season subsurface processes, we will be better prepared to predict how these mountains will temporarily store and release groundwater in a warmer climate. Here, we analyse long-term data sets from a small (Marmot Creek, Alberta ~10 km2) and a large (Bow River at Banff, Alberta ~1000 km2) basinwithin the Canadian Rocky Mountains, comparing observations with model outputs, to investigate late-season hydrological responses, and particularly the role of groundwater as a temporary storage mechanism.

  13. Raymond Greene: physician, mountaineer, and raconteur.

    PubMed

    Rodway, George W; Gibbs, Victoria; Windsor, Jeremy S

    2011-09-01

    C. Raymond Greene (1901-1982) was a man of many talents. After graduating from medical school in 1927, he spent a decade in general practice. He subsequently became heavily involved in the emerging specialty of endocrinology and went on to gain considerable recognition in the treatment of thyroid disorders before eventually becoming involved in the world of medical publishing. Aside from Greene's mainstream vocational and intellectual pursuits, from boyhood he nurtured a passionate interest in mountaineering--first in his native Great Britain, and then the European Alps, and ultimately in the high Himalayas. His involvement in landmark climbs, such as the successful Kamet venture in 1931 and Everest attempt in 1933, earned him a place in the pantheon of Himalayan explorers and mountaineers and stimulated Green's interest in high altitude physiology and medicine. He made notable additions to the literature on this subject in publications such as Nature and Journal of Physiology. Apart from his remarkable life achievements in the areas of medicine, mountaineering, and publishing, Greene was perhaps best remembered by those close to him (and by contemporary readers who are devotees of his writing) as a peerless storyteller with a sardonic sense of irony. Copyright © 2011 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Morphostructure of the Sakar and Strandzha Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzankov, Tzanko; Stankova, Svetla; Iliev, Rosen

    2017-03-01

    The Sakar and Strandzha Mountains are disposed in the South-East end of the Balkan Peninsula (on the both sides of the Bulgarian-Turkish boundary). They belong to the southeastern margin of the Bulgarian continental microplate. They are limit from North Thracian morphostructural zone to the North, the East Thracian morphostructural zone to the South and the Rhodopean morphostructural zone to the West. The observed mountain territory builds the Sakar-Strandzha morphostructural zone. It is divided by Sakar Dervent and Strandzha morphostructural areas. Every of them include morphostructural regions. They are composed by numerous Late Pleistocene-Holocene dome-like morphostructures. The relics from the Post Early Pleistocene concentric morphostructures are distributed in the entire zone. They were determined some archer and concentric Holocene mountain morphostructures. The regional seismic activity (during the last 50 years) outlines three parts of the Sakar-Strandzha morphostructural zone. The western one - the Sakar part is moderate seismic active. The centred - Dervent part is practically seismic „calm". The eastern one- Strandzha part show a very intensive seismicity. It can by given right in a future (after the necessary investigations) to divide the zone in three areas.

  15. Magmatic unrest beneath Mammoth Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, D.P.; Prejean, S.

    2005-01-01

    Mammoth Mountain, which stands on the southwest rim of Long Valley caldera in eastern California, last erupted ???57,000 years BP. Episodic volcanic unrest detected beneath the mountain since late 1979, however, emphasizes that the underlying volcanic system is still active and capable of producing future volcanic eruptions. The unrest symptoms include swarms of small (M ??? 3) earthquakes, spasmodic bursts (rapid-fire sequences of brittle-failure earthquakes with overlapping coda), long-period (LP) and very-long-period (VLP) volcanic earthquakes, ground deformation, diffuse emission of magmatic CO2, and fumarole gases with elevated 3He/4He ratios. Spatial-temporal relations defined by the multi-parameter monitoring data together with earthquake source mechanisms suggest that this Mammoth Mountain unrest is driven by the episodic release of a volume of CO2-rich hydrous magmatic fluid derived from the upper reaches of a plexus of basaltic dikes and sills at mid-crustal depths (10-20 km). As the mobilized fluid ascends through the brittle-plastic transition zone and into overlying brittle crust, it triggers earthquake swarm activity and, in the case of the prolonged, 11-month-long earthquake swarm of 1989, crustal deformation and the onset of diffuse CO2 emissions. Future volcanic activity from this system would most likely involve steam explosions or small-volume, basaltic, strombolian or Hawaiaan style eruptions. The impact of such an event would depend critically on vent location and season.

  16. Response of western mountain ecosystems to climatic variability and change: The Western Mountain Initiative

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephenson, Nathan L.; Peterson, David A.; Fagre, Daniel B.; Allen, Craig; McKenzie, Donald; Baron, Jill; O'Brien, K.

    2006-01-01

    Mountain ecosystems within our national parks and other protected areas provide valuable goods and services such as clean water, biodiversity conservation, and recreational opportunities, but their potential responses to expected climatic changes are inadequately understood. The Western Mountain Initiative (WMI) is a collaboration of scientists whose research focuses on understanding and predicting responses of western mountain ecosystems to climatic variability and change. It is a legacy of the Global Change Research Program initiated by the National Park Service (NPS) in 1991 and continued by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to this day as part of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (http://www.climatescience.gov/). All WMI scientists are active participants in CIRMOUNT, and seek to further its goals.

  17. Cambrian-Ordovician magmatism in the Thiel Mountains, Transantarctic Mountains, and implications for the Beardmore orogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankhurst, R. J.; Storey, B. C.; Millar, I. L.; MacDonald, D. I. M.; Vennum, W. R.

    1988-03-01

    New field and laboratory studies result in a redefinition of the three main lithostratigraphic units of the Thiel Mountains. These are (1) the Thiel Mountains porphyry, a massive hypersthene-bearing monzonite, faulted against (2) the Mount Walcott Formation, a sequence of shallow-water volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks and dacitic tuffs or flows, and (3) the Reed Ridge granites, coarse-grained biotite granite/granodiorite stocks that cut the porphyry. Genetic relations between the porphyry and both the sedimentary rocks and the granite are proposed. Evidence for a Phanerozoic age indicated by the presence of fossils in the sediments is reinforced by Rb-Sr whole-rock dating that has conclusively established a Late Cambrian or Early Ordovician age (502 ±5 Ma) for the entire sequence. The stratigraphic and tectonic consequences refute all evidence for magmatism in the Transantarctic Mountains associated with the Precambrian "Beardmore orogeny," the age and status of which are now in doubt.

  18. New Galileo Observations of Ionian Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turtle, E. P.; Jaeger, W. L.; McEwen, A. S.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Milazzo, M. P.; Simonelli, D.

    2002-05-01

    In order to address the questions of how ionian mountains form and what their relationship to volcanism is, Galileo made several observations of Io's high mountains and plateaus during three flybys (I24, I25, and I27) of the Galileo Europa Mission [1-3]. These images, which ranged from 260 m/pixel to 1.5 km/pixel, showed significant variation in mountain morphologies and revealed the substantial role played by mass wasting upon Io [1,4] as well as a possible association with ionian paterae [1,5]. To build upon these observations several more, even higher resolution, observations were planned during the I31, I32, and I33 orbits of the Galileo Millennium Mission. Sadly, the I31 and I33 images were lost due to problems onboard the spacecraft caused by the high-radiation environment near Jupiter [6]. However, I32 has provided the best mountain images to date. These include: Telegonus Mensa at ~10 and ~40 m/pixel. In an I27 observation the arcuate nature of the southeastern margin of Telegonus Mensa had been noted as possible evidence that sapping by SO2 might be occurring [1,4]. The I32 observations indicate that the dominant erosion process at Telegonus' is mass wasting; the observations reveal large slump blocks on the scarps. Tohil Mons and Patera near the terminator at ~50 and ~325 m/pixel. Tohil was observed during both I24 and I27 to provide stereo data but limited vertical resolution and the high sun angles obscured topographic details. The I32 images reveal significant topographic information. For example, a lack of relief in Tohil Patera and a series of NW-SE trending scarps along the northeastern margin of the mountain which resemble an imbricate thrust belt [7] and which appear to have been interrupted by the formation of a small, dark patera. [1] Turtle E.P. et al. (2001) JGR, 106. [2] McEwen A.S. et al. (2000) Science, 288. [3] Schenk P.M. et al. (2001) J GR, 106. [4] Moore et al. (2001) JGR, 106. [5] Masursky H. et al. (1979) Nature, 280. [6] Keszthelyi L

  19. Seismic Investigations of the Northern Transantarctic Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graw, Jordan H.

    Stretching 3500 km across Antarctica and reaching elevations of 4500 m, the Transantarctic Mountains (TAMs) are the largest non-compressional mountain chain on Earth. The TAMs show no evidence of folding or reverse faulting as is typically seen in contractional mountain building, calling the origin of the mountain range into question. Using data from the recent Transantarctic Mountains Northern Network seismic deployment, this dissertation integrates Rayleigh wave surface wave tomography, downward continuation and wavefield decomposition, and seismic anisotropy studies to better characterize the structure beneath the northern TAMs and to assess uplift. Surface wave tomographic images indicate a previously unidentified low shear wave velocity anomaly beneath the northern TAMs, with faster seismic velocities behind the TAMs front. The low shear wave velocity anomaly is interpreted as reflect rift-related decompression melting associated with Cenozoic extension. Uplift for the TAMs is attributed to a thermal buoyancy force associated with this anomaly. When trying to assess crustal structure, ice coverage is typically troublesome as reverberations in the ice layer can complicate the P-wave response. Downward continuation and wavefield decomposition removes the effect of ice layers on the P-wave response, resulting in signal that can be directly modeled for Earth structure. Inversion solution models agree well with results from previous studies based on S-wave receiver functions and tomography, confirming relatively thin crust beneath the northern TAMs. Upper mantle structure can also be assessed with seismic anisotropy. I performed shear wave splitting analyses on PKS, SKS, and SKKS phases to obtain the splitting parameters (fast axis directions φ and delay times deltat). Behind the TAMs front, the anisotropic signature is interpreted as relict fabric "frozen" into the lithosphere from tectonic processes in the geologic past. Near the Ross Sea coastline, the

  20. Economic geology of the Copper Mountain Supracrustal Belt, Owl Creek Mountains, Fremont County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Hausel, W.D.; Graff, P.J.; Albert, K.G.

    1985-01-01

    The Archean stratigraphy and associated mineral deposits at Copper Mountain were investigated to determine if this supracrustal belt has potential commercial mineral deposits. It was concluded Copper Mountain lacks the stratigraphic and structural character of a classical greenstone belt, exhibits higher metamorphic grade, and may be better classified as a high-grade terrain. However, potential is noted for stratiform Au associated with iron formation, stratiform W associated with gneiss, and Cu-Au mineralization in strike veins. 63 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs. (ACR)

  1. Symposium 9: Rocky Mountain futures: preserving, utilizing, and sustaining Rocky Mountain ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baron, Jill S.; Seastedt, Timothy; Fagre, Daniel B.; Hicke, Jeffrey A.; Tomback, Diana; Garcia, Elizabeth; Bowen, Zachary H.; Logan, Jesse A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2002 we published Rocky Mountain Futures, an Ecological Perspective (Island Press) to examine the cumulative ecological effects of human activity in the Rocky Mountains. We concluded that multiple local activities concerning land use, hydrologic manipulation, and resource extraction have altered ecosystems, although there were examples where the “tyranny of small decisions” worked in a positive way toward more sustainable coupled human/environment interactions. Superimposed on local change was climate change, atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and other pollutants, regional population growth, and some national management policies such as fire suppression.

  2. Yucca Mountain Task 4, Final report FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, J.N.

    1993-09-30

    Four major projects at UNRSL have been supported by NWPO-Neotectonics Yucca Mountain Task 4 funds during the last year: (1) Operation and analysis of data from the UNRSL microearthquake network at Yucca Mountain. (2) Continued operation, maintenance, and calibration of three broadband stations. Limited data analysis was also initiated. (3) Continued review by Dr. Brune of documents and literature related to seismic hazard and tectonics of the Yucca Mountain region. (4) Testing of noise levels in boreholes.

  3. Summary of geotechnical information in the Rattlesnake Mountain area

    SciTech Connect

    Fecht, K.R.; Gephart, R.E.; Graham, D.L.; Reidel, S.P.; Rohay, A.C.

    1984-08-01

    This document summarizes the available geotechnical information from the Rattlesnake Mountain area, located along the southwestern boundary of the Hanford Site. The discussion emphasizes the geohydrologic environment of the anticlinal ridges in the vicinity of Rattlesnake Mountain. Included in the document is information concerning the stratigraphy, structure, geomorphology, seismology, climatology, and hydrology, as well as the resource potential of the Rattlesnake Mountain area. 77 refs., 23 figs., 11 tabs.

  4. Invisible CO2 gas killing trees at Mammoth Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorey, Michael L.; Farrar, Christopher D.; Evans, William C.; Hill, David P.; Bailey, Roy A.; Hendley, James W.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1980, scientists have monitored geologic unrest in Long Valley Caldera and at adjacent Mammoth Mountain, California. After a persistent swarm of earthquakes beneath Mammoth Mountain in 1989, earth scientists discovered that large volumes of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas were seeping from beneath this volcano. This gas is killing trees on the mountain and also can be a danger to people. The USGS continues to study the CO2 emissions to help protect the public from this invisible potential hazard.

  5. Mountain goat abundance and population trends in the Olympic Mountains, northwestern Washington, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Kurt J.; Happe, Patricia J.; Beirne, Katherine F.; Baccus, William T.

    2016-11-30

    Executive SummaryWe estimated abundance and trends of non-native mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in the Olympic Mountains of northwestern Washington, based on aerial surveys conducted during July 13–24, 2016. The surveys produced the seventh population estimate since the first formal aerial surveys were conducted in 1983. This was the second population estimate since we adjusted survey area boundaries and adopted new estimation procedures in 2011. Before 2011, surveys encompassed all areas free of glacial ice at elevations above 1,520 meters (m), but in 2011 we expanded survey unit boundaries to include suitable mountain goat habitats at elevations between 1,425 and 1,520 m. In 2011, we also began applying a sightability correction model allowing us to estimate undercounting bias associated with aerial surveys and to adjust survey results accordingly. The 2016 surveys were carried out by National Park Service (NPS) personnel in Olympic National Park and by Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) biologists in Olympic National Forest and in the southeastern part of Olympic National Park. We surveyed a total of 59 survey units, comprising 55 percent of the 60,218-hectare survey area. We estimated a mountain goat population of 623 ±43 (standard error, SE). Based on this level of estimation uncertainty, the 95-percent confidence interval ranged from 561 to 741 mountain goats at the time of the survey.We examined the rate of increase of the mountain goat population by comparing the current population estimate to previous estimates from 2004 and 2011. Because aerial survey boundaries changed between 2004 and 2016, we recomputed population estimates for 2011 and 2016 surveys based on the revised survey boundaries as well as the previously defined boundaries so that estimates were directly comparable across years. Additionally, because the Mount Washington survey unit was not surveyed in 2011, we used results from an independent survey of the Mount

  6. Estimating mountain wave windspeeds from sailplane flight data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millane, Rick P.; Brown, Richard G.; Enevoldson, Einar; Murray, James E.

    2004-10-01

    Airflow over mountainous terrain can produce atmospheric waves in the lee of the mountains that have large vertical air velocities. These waves are used as sources of lift by sailplane pilots. Methods are developed for inverting flight data of airspeed and GPS-derived position to obtain estimates of the vector windspeed in mountain waves. Data from flight path segments with significantly different ground velocities within a region of constant windspeed give a well-determined solution for the windspeed. The methods are applied to flight data from a Perlan Project flight in lee waves of the Sierra Nevada Mountains in California.

  7. Impact of mountain gravity waves on infrasound propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiens, Florentin; Lott, François; Millet, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Linear theory of acoustic propagation is used to analyze how mountain waves can change the characteristics of infrasound signals. The mountain wave model is based on the integration of the linear inviscid Taylor-Goldstein equation forced by a nonlinear surface boundary condition. For the acoustic propagation we solve the wave equation using the normal mode method together with the effective sound speed approximation. For large-amplitude mountain waves we use direct numerical simulations to compute the interactions between the mountain waves and the infrasound component. It is shown that the mountain waves perturb the low level waveguide, which leads to significant acoustic dispersion. The mountain waves also impact the arrival time and spread of the signals substantially and can produce a strong absorption of the wave signal. To interpret our results we follow each acoustic mode separately and show which mode is impacted and how. We also show that the phase shift between the acoustic modes over the horizontal length of the mountain wave field may yield to destructive interferences in the lee side of the mountain, resulting in a new form of infrasound absorption. The statistical relevance of those results is tested using a stochastic version of the mountain wave model and large enough sample sizes.

  8. Climate and Geomorphic Risks in High-Mountain Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huggel, Christian; Kääb, Andreas; Schneider, Jean

    2010-03-01

    Glacier Hazards, Permafrost Hazards, and Glacier Lake Outburst Floods in Mountain Areas: Processes, Assessment, Prevention, Mitigation; Vienna, Austria, 10-13 November 2009; Recent atmospheric warming is profoundly affecting high-mountain environments around the world. Glaciers are thinning and retreating, new and often unstable lakes are forming at glacier margins, other lakes are suddenly draining, and permafrost is degrading. These changes pose serious hazards to people and property in mountain valleys. Several tens of thousands of people were killed by landslides, floods, and debris flows from high-mountain regions during the twentieth century, and there is concern that such events will increase as temperatures warm through the 21st century.

  9. [Life cycles of ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) from the mountain taiga and mountain forest-steppe in the Eastern Sayan].

    PubMed

    Khobrakova, L Ts; Sharova, I Kh

    2005-01-01

    Seasonal dynamics and demographic structure was studied in 15 dominant ground beetle species in the mountain taiga and mountain forest-steppe belts of the Eastern Sayan (Okinskoe Plateau). Life cycles of the dominant ground beetle species were classified by developmental time, seasonal dynamics, and intrapopulation groups with different reproduction timing. The strategies of carabid life cycles adapted to severe mountain conditions of the Eastern Sayan were revealed.

  10. The Evolution of Mountain Permafrost in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauck, C.; Delaloye, R.; Roer, I. H.; Hilbich, C.; Hoelzle, M.; Kenner, R.; Kotlarski, S.; Lambiel, C.; Marmy, A.; Müller, J.; Noetzli, J.; Phillips, M.; Rajczak, J.; Salzmann, N.; Schaepman, M. E.; Schar, C.; Staub, B.; Völksch, I.

    2013-12-01

    Permafrost, defined as lithospheric material whose temperature remains below 0 °C for two or more consecutive years, occurs in many high-mountain regions of the European Alps. Mountain permafrost in the European Alps is characterised by temperatures only a few degrees below zero and is therefore particularly sensitive to projected climate changes in the 21st century. To evaluate the sensitivity of mountain permafrost to climatic changes and to assess its future evolution, not only climatic variables such as air temperature, radiation and timing and duration of snow cover have to be considered, but also subsurface characteristics such as ground temperature, ice content, porosity or hydraulic properties. In Switzerland, permafrost monitoring started only 1-2 decades ago but currently comprises a large set of meteorological, geophysical, kinematic and ground thermal parameters at a large variety of field sites. Within a large integrating national project (The evolution of mountain permafrost in Switzerland: TEMPS) these data sets are jointly analysed for the first time by combining observations with model simulations using a dynamic process-oriented soil model capable of addressing frozen terrain. In combination with results from Regional Climate Model ensembles, the project TEMPS aims to create plausible evolution scenarios of mountain permafrost at specific sites and will investigate the interactions between atmosphere and permafrost focusing on the evolution of ground temperature, ice content and related degradation and creep processes. This contribution will show first results concerning (a) new observation techniques in high-mountain permafrost, including thermal, geophysical and kinematic methods, (b) sensitivity studies with the soil model COUP regarding the impact of temperature and precipitation anomalies on different permafrost landforms and (c) strategies for downscaling and debiasing RCM output data for permafrost analysis on the station scale at high

  11. Landscape Morphology of the Canadian Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinlan, K. T.; Barnes, J. B.; Pavelsky, T.

    2013-12-01

    Glaciers and rivers can significantly modify the shape of mountain landscapes. Following deformation and glaciation, bedrock river form and incision patterns are primarily controlled by variations in geologic structure, the glacial preconditioning of the landscape, and climate. However, the extent to which these factors integrate to affect Holocene patterns and rates of fluvial processes is poorly understood. Fluvial processes dominate the morphology of the Canadian Rocky Mountains today, though the inherited imprint of glaciers remains substantial. This study of fluvial geomorphology in the Athabasca River watershed in Jasper National Park, Alberta, addresses two primary ideas: (1) the fluvial response to deglaciation in alpine environments, and (2) the role of thrust belt geology affecting differential erosion in shaping post-orogenic topography. We use the 0.75 arc-second GeoBase Digital Elevation Model (~18m resolution) to analyze patterns of river concavity (θ) and normalized steepness index (ksn), estimate rock erodibility with field-based proxy measurements, and determine basin-averaged erosion rates using existing river gauge data. We find that bedrock geology and glacial preconditioning exhibit different yet recognizable morphological signatures and that they appear to be related to basin erosion rate. The principal differences we observe include the shape and scale of knickzones, magnitude of channel steepness values, channel concavity patterns, and relationship to bedrock geology. We find that lithologically controlled channel steepness patterns are contained to local spatial scales (<500m) and feature sharp increases in channel steepness at or near contacts between lithologies with differences in measured erodibility. By contrast, glacially controlled steepness patterns are expansive in spatial extent (1-10km), are insensitive to bedrock geology, and have higher overall channel steepness values than areas of lithologically controlled channel steepness

  12. Relief Evolution in Tectonically Active Mountain Ranges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, Kelin X.

    2004-01-01

    The overall aims of this 3-yr project, as originally proposed were to: (1) investigate quantitatively the roles of fluvial and glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions, and (2) test rigorously the quality and accuracy of SRTM topographic data in areas of rugged relief - both the most challenging and of greatest interest to geomorphic, neotectonic, and hazards applications. Natural laboratories in both the western US and the Southern Alps of New Zealand were identified as most promising. The project has been both successful and productive, despite the fact that no SRTM data for our primary field sites in New Zealand were released on the time frame of the work effort. Given the delayed release of SRTM data, we pursued the scientific questions of the roles of fluvial and, especially, glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions using available digital elevation models (DEMs) for the Southern Alps of New Zealand (available at both 25m and 50m pixel sizes), and USGS 10m and 30m DEMs within the Western US. As emphasized in the original proposal, we chose the emphasis on the role of glacial modification of topographic relief because there has been little quantitative investigation of glacial erosion processes at landscape scale. This is particularly surprising considering the dramatic sculpting of most mid- and high-latitude mountain ranges, the prodigious quantities of glacially-derived sediment in terrestrial and marine basins, and the current cross-disciplinary interest in the role of denudational processes in orogenesis and the evolution of topography in general. Moreover, the evolution of glaciated landscapes is not only a fundamental problem in geomorphology in its own right, but also is at the heart of the debate over Late Cenozoic linkages between climate and tectonics.

  13. Mineralogic summary of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Bish, D.L.; Vaniman, D.T.

    1985-10-01

    Quantitative x-ray powder diffraction analysis of tuffs and silicic lavas, using matrix-flushing techniques, has been used to obtain a model of three-dimensional mineral distributions at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This method of analysis is especially useful in tuff, where the most abundant phases are commonly too fine grained for optical determination. The three-dimensional distributions of primary glass and of tridymite are particularly well constrained. Vitric nonwelded glasses occur above and below the welded devitrified Topopah Spring Member, but the glass in the lower nonwelded vitric zone is progressively altered to zeolites to the east where the zone is closer to the static water level. The zeolites clinoptilolite, mordenite, heulandite, and erionite have all been found at Yucca Mountain, but only mordenite and clinoptilolite are abundant and can be mapped between many drill holes and at many depths. Heulandite distribution is also mappable, but only below the densely welded devitrified part of the Topopah Storing Member. Erionite has been confirmed only once, as a fracture coating. There is a fairly continuous smectite-rich interval immediately above the basal vitrophyre of the Topopah Spring Member, but no evidence suggests that the smectites can provide information on the paleogroundwater table. There are at least four mappable zeolitized zones in Yucca Mountain, and the thicker zones tend to coincide with intervals that retained glass following early tuff devitrification. Problems in extrapolation occur where zones of welding pinch out. No phillipsite has been found, and some samples previously reported to contain phillipsite or erionite were reexamined with negative results. The deeper alteration to albite and analcime was not sampled in every drill hole, and the distribution of these phases is difficult to map.

  14. Review of Yucca Mountain Disposal Criticality Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Scaglione, John M; Wagner, John C

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, submitted a license application for construction authorization of a deep geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in June of 2008. The license application is currently under review by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. However,on March 3, 2010 the DOE filed a motion requesting withdrawal of the license application. With the withdrawal request and the development of the Blue Ribbon Commission to seek alternative strategies for disposing of spent fuel, the status of the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain is uncertain. What is certain is that spent nuclear fuel (SNF) will continue to be generated and some long-lived components of the SNF will eventually need a disposition path(s). Strategies for the back end of the fuel cycle will continue to be developed and need to include the insights from the experience gained during the development of the Yucca Mountain license application. Detailed studies were performed and considerable progress was made in many key areas in terms of increased understanding of relevant phenomena and issues regarding geologic disposal of SNF. This paper reviews selected technical studies performed in support of the disposal criticality analysis licensing basis and the use of burnup credit. Topics include assembly misload analysis, isotopic and criticality validation, commercial reactor critical analyses, loading curves, alternative waste package and criticality control studies, radial burnup data and effects, and implementation of a conservative application model in the criticality probabilistic evaluation as well as other information that is applicable to operations regarding spent fuel outside the reactor. This paper summarizes the work and significant accomplishments in these areas and provides a resource for future, related activities.

  15. Mountain ranges and the deformation of continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avouac, J.

    2007-12-01

    Mountain ranges are the most spectacular manifestation of continental dynamics and a primary locus of geo- hazards. Their geological imprint is ubiquitous since all continents consist of cratonic cores that grew with time through collisions with accreting terrains. Understanding how mountain range form and evolve as a result of the interaction between deep seated tectonic processes, and climate driven surface processes is thus a major issue in earth science. The Himalaya is probably the best place on earth where orogenic processes can be observed at work today and where the geological history of a mountain belt can be compared with its current tectonic processes. We now have a reasonably solid understanding of the structure of the range, of its petro-metamorphic history, and of the kinematics of its active deformation and seismicity. The long-term geological history of the range - from several millions to a few tens of millions of years - has been documented by structural, thermobarometric and thermochronological studies. Morphotectonic investigations have revealed its evolution over the past several thousands or tens of thousands of years. And, finally, geodetic measurements and seismological monitoring have revealed the pattern of strain and stress build-up over several years, or due to single large earthquakes. The presentation will show how the results of these investigations can be assembled into a simple, coherent picture of the structure and evolution of the range. The Himalayan model will be compared to other case examples of active orogeny and some implications regarding continental deformation and the influence of surface processes will be drawn.

  16. Space Radar Image of Mammoth Mountain, California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    This false-color composite radar image of the Mammoth Mountain area in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 67th orbit on October 3, 1994. The image is centered at 37.6 degrees north latitude and 119.0 degrees west longitude. The area is about 39 kilometers by 51 kilometers (24 miles by 31 miles). North is toward the bottom, about 45 degrees to the right. In this image, red was created using L-band (horizontally transmitted/vertically received) polarization data; green was created using C-band (horizontally transmitted/vertically received) polarization data; and blue was created using C-band (horizontally transmitted and received) polarization data. Crawley Lake appears dark at the center left of the image, just above or south of Long Valley. The Mammoth Mountain ski area is visible at the top right of the scene. The red areas correspond to forests, the dark blue areas are bare surfaces and the green areas are short vegetation, mainly brush. The purple areas at the higher elevations in the upper part of the scene are discontinuous patches of snow cover from a September 28 storm. New, very thin snow was falling before and during the second space shuttle pass. In parallel with the operational SIR-C data processing, an experimental effort is being conducted to test SAR data processing using the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's massively parallel supercomputing facility, centered around the Cray Research T3D. These experiments will assess the abilities of large supercomputers to produce high throughput Synthetic Aperture Radar processing in preparation for upcoming data-intensive SAR missions. The image released here was produced as part of this experimental effort. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01746

  17. Tall Mountain, Tohil Mons, on Io

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-12-10

    Dramatic shadows across a mountainous landscape on Jupiter's moon Io reveal details of the topography around a peak named Tohil Mons in this mosaic created from images taken by NASA's Galileo spacecraft in October 2001. Tohil Mons rises 5.4 kilometers (18,000 feet) above Io's surface, according to analysis of stereo imaging from earlier Galileo flybys of Io. The new images, with a resolution of 327 meters (1,070 feet) per picture element, were taken when the Sun was low in the sky, producing informative shadows. North is to the top and the Sun illuminates the surface from the upper right. The topographic features revealed include a very straight ridge extending southwest from the peak, 500- to 850-meter-high (1,640- to 2,790-foot-high) cliffs to the northwest and a curious pit immediately east of the peak. Major questions remain about how Io's mountains form and how they are related to Io's ubiquitous volcanoes. Although Io is extremely active volcanically, few of its mountains appear to be volcanoes. However, two volcanic craters do lie directly to the northeast of Tohil's peak, a smaller dark-floored one and a larger one at the very edge of the mosaic. Furthermore, the shape of the pit directly east of the peak suggests a volcanic origin. Galileo scientists will use these images to investigate the geologic history of Tohil Mons and its relationship to the neighboring volcanic features. The image is centered at 28 degrees south latitude and 161 degrees west longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA03600

  18. The Occurrence of Erionite at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2004-07-01

    The naturally-occurring zeolite mineral erionite has a fibrous morphology and is a known human carcinogen (inhalation hazard). Erionite has been found typically in very small quantities and restricted occurrences in the course of mineralogic characterization of Yucca Mountain as a host for a high-level nuclear waste repository. The first identification of erionite was made in 1984 on the basis of morphology and chemical composition and later confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. It was found in the lower vitrophyre (Tptpv3) of the Topopah Spring Tuff in a borehole sidewall sample. Most erionite occurrences identified at Yucca Mountain are in the Topopah Spring Tuff, within an irregular zone of transition between the lower boundary of devitrified tuff and underlying glassy tuff. This zone is fractured and contains intermingled devitrified and vitric tuff. In 1997, a second host of erionite mineralization was identified in the Exploratory Studies Facility within and adjacent to a high-angle fracture/breccia zone transgressing the boundary between the lowermost devitrified tuff (Tpcplnc) and underlying moderately welded vitric tuff (Tpcpv2) of the Tiva Canyon Tuff. The devitrified-vitric transition zones where erionite is found tend to have complex secondary-mineral assemblages, some of very localized occurrence. Secondary minerals in addition to erionite may include smectite, heulandite-clinoptilolite, chabazite, opal-A, opal-CT, cristobalite, quartz, kenyaite, and moganite. Incipient devitrification within the Topopah Spring Tuff transition zone includes patches that are highly enriched in potassium feldspar relative to the precursor volcanic glass. Geochemical conditions during glass alteration may have led to local evolution of potassium-rich fluids. Thermodynamic modeling of zeolite stability shows that erionite and chabazite stability fields occur only at aqueous K concentrations much higher than in present Yucca Mountain waters. The association of erionite

  19. Mineral resources of the Sheepshead Mountains, Wildcat Canyon, and Table Mountain Wilderness Study Areas, Malheur and Harney counties, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Sherrod, D.R.; Griscom, A.; Turner, R.L.; Minor, S.A.; Graham, D.E.; Buehler, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    The Sheepshead Mountains, Wildcat Canyon, and Table Mountain Wilderness Study Areas encompass most of the Sheepshead Mountains in southeast Oregon. The mountains comprise several fault blocks of middle and late Miocene basalt, basaltic andesite, andesite, and dacite lava; pyroclastic and sedimentary rocks are minor. The three wilderness study areas have low resource potential for gold, silver, and oil and gas. A few small areas have low-to-high resource potential for diatomite, as indicated by the occurrence of low-grade diatomite. Some fault zones have a moderate potential for geothermal energy.

  20. Fire on the mountain: birds and burns in the Rocky Mountains

    Treesearch

    Natasha B. Kotliar; Victoria A. Saab; Richard L. Hutto

    2005-01-01

    The diversity of climate and topography across the Rocky Mountains has resulted in a broad spectrum of fire regimes ranging from frequent, low-severity fires to infrequent stand-replacement events. Such variation in fire history contributes to landscape structure and dynamics, and in turn can influence subsequent fire behavior (Allen et al. 2002). In essence,...

  1. Comparison of extreme precipitation characteristics between the Ore Mountains and the Vosges Mountains (Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minářová, Jana; Müller, Miloslav; Clappier, Alain; Kašpar, Marek

    2017-08-01

    Understanding the characteristics of extreme precipitation events (EPEs) not only helps in mitigating the hazards associated with it but will also reduce the risks by improved planning based on the detailed information, and provide basis for better engineering decisions which can withstand the recurring and likely more frequent events predicted in future in the context of global climate change. In this study, extremity, temporal and spatial characteristics, and synoptic situation of the 54 EPEs that occurred during 1960-2013 were compared between two low mountain ranges situated in Central Europe: the Ore Mountains (OM) and Vosges Mountains (VG). The EPEs were defined using the Weather Extremity Index, which quantifies the extremity, duration, and spatial extent of events. Comparative analysis of EPE characteristics showed that in both regions the EPEs were mostly short (lasted 1-2 days) and their seasonal occurrence significantly depended on the synoptic situation and duration of EPEs; the low was related to summer short EPEs, while zonal circulation to winter long EPEs. The EPEs were generally related to lows in OM and to troughs in VG. The lows often moved to OM from the Mediterranean area, i.e. along the Vb track. However, five EPEs in VG occurred during a low with Vb track significantly deflected westwards. The EPEs in VG affected smaller area as compared to that in OM. The comparison of EPEs between the two low mountain ranges is first of its kind and contributes to the understanding of EPE characteristics in the regions.

  2. Mountain Medicine Papers. Proceedings of the Mountain Medicine Symposium (5th, Issaquah, Washington, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Dick; And Others

    The proceedings of the fifth symposium on mountain and survival medicine include the program for the 4-day conference which was addressed by 21 guest lecturers from Canada, Nepal, and the United States. The proceedings include abstracts for and background information on the authors of 17 papers. It also includes the texts of 13 symposium papers:…

  3. MOUNTAIN ACID DEPOSITION PROGRAM (MADPRO): CLOUD DEPOSITION TO THE APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS, 1994 THROUGH 1999

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mountain Acid Deposition Program (MADPro) was initiated in 1993 as part of the research necessary to support the objectives of the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet), which was created to address the requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). The two ma...

  4. Mountain Medicine Papers. Proceedings of the Mountain Medicine Symposium (5th, Issaquah, Washington, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Dick; And Others

    The proceedings of the fifth symposium on mountain and survival medicine include the program for the 4-day conference which was addressed by 21 guest lecturers from Canada, Nepal, and the United States. The proceedings include abstracts for and background information on the authors of 17 papers. It also includes the texts of 13 symposium papers:…

  5. Sustaining the land, people, and economy of the Blue Mountains: The Blue Mountains Natural Resources Institute

    Treesearch

    Lynn Starr; James McIver; Thomas M. Quigley

    2000-01-01

    The Blue Mountains Natural Resources Institute approaches issues by deciding if a critical issue is one of information needs or of differing values. If a values issue, we arrange local forums for discussion; if an information issue, we disseminate available information, or undertake research projects as appropriate. One issue we have researched involving both values...

  6. MOUNTAIN ACID DEPOSITION PROGRAM (MADPRO): CLOUD DEPOSITION TO THE APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS, 1994 THROUGH 1999

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mountain Acid Deposition Program (MADPro) was initiated in 1993 as part of the research necessary to support the objectives of the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet), which was created to address the requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). The two ma...

  7. Structural analysis of Boat Mountain area in Rocky Mountain foreland, Madison Range, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Sablock, J.M.

    1987-08-01

    Detailed mapping, together with stereographic analysis of over 400 field measurements, has been used to determine the geological structure of the Boat Mountain area in southern Madison Range, Gallatin County, Montana. The principal structure is a north-plunging, north-northwest-trending, overturned and thrusted synform, termed the Bear Creek syncline. Thrusting consists of a duplex of roof and sole thrusts enclosing an imbricate stack of horses in the southwest part of Boat Mountain. Precambrian to Cretaceous (Kootenai Formation) strata are involved in the deformation, which is interpreted as Laramide and of a Foothills Family type, involving several separate pulses of deformation. Stereographic determinations of maximum principal stress directions have shown that an initial northeast-directed stress formed and overturned the synform, caused movement on the out-of-syncline sole thrust, and imbricated the overturned limb. A later, easterly directed stress moved the back-limb roof thrust over the already folded and thrust-faulted rocks of Boat Mountain. Thrusting was succeeded by sinistrally directed tear (or strike-slip) faulting along a northeast-striking fault at the southern end of Boat Mountain. Listric normal faulting on Laramide thrust-fault planes is interpreted as a response to Tertiary extension. Recent normal faulting, on steep-dipping, east-west-striking fault planes and continuing to the present, is interpreted as a response to Yellowstone doming.

  8. The appropriateness of one-dimensional Yucca Mountain hydrologic calculations; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, R.R.

    1993-07-01

    This report brings into focus the results of numerous studies that have addressed issues associated with the validity of assumptions which are used to justify reducing the dimensionality of numerical calculations of water flow through Yucca Mountain, NV. it is shown that, in many cases, one-dimensional modeling is more rigorous than previously assumed.

  9. A View from the Mountain Top: The Purple Mountain Observatory Library, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jian

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the author's experience directing the Purple Mountain Observatory Library, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) in Nanjing, China. Routine collection development, management and preservation issues are described, and the unique challenges and opportunities involved in operating a remote observatory library are highlighted.

  10. A View from the Mountain Top: The Purple Mountain Observatory Library, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jian

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the author's experience directing the Purple Mountain Observatory Library, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) in Nanjing, China. Routine collection development, management and preservation issues are described, and the unique challenges and opportunities involved in operating a remote observatory library are highlighted.

  11. Oblique view to south OvertheHorizon Backscatter Radar Network, Mountain ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view to south - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Mountain Home Air Force Operations Building, On Desert Street at 9th Avenue Mountain Home Air Force Base, Mountain Home, Elmore County, ID

  12. 77 FR 281 - Green Mountain Power Corporation; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Green Mountain Power Corporation; Notice of Application Accepted for...: Green Mountain Power Corporation. e. Name of Projects: Waterbury Hydroelectric Project. f. Location.... h. Applicant Contact: Mr. Jason Lisai, Green Mountain Power Corporation, 163 Acorn Lane, Colchester...

  13. What's new in Rocky Mountain spotted fever?

    PubMed

    Chen, Luke F; Sexton, Daniel J

    2008-09-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) remains an important illness despite an effective therapy because it is difficult to diagnose and is capable of producing a fatal outcome. The pathogenesis of RMSF remains, in large part, an enigma. However, recent research has helped shed light on this mystery. Importantly, the diagnosis of RMSF must be considered in all febrile patients who have known or possible exposure to ticks, especially if they live in or have traveled to endemic regions during warmer months. Decisions about giving empiric therapy to such patients are difficult and require skill and careful judgement.

  14. [Pothole ecosystem in mountain river: A review].

    PubMed

    Ren, Hai-qing; Yuan, Xing-zhong; Liu, Hong; Zhang, Yue-wei; Deng, Wei; Yue, Jun-sheng; Wang, Xiao-feng

    2015-05-01

    The pothole is one of the special habitats in river ecosystems, which is simply structured, well-defined, food chain-short, and easily controlled, thus making it a model system in ecological, evolutionary and phenological studies. Here we first reviewed hydrological, chemical and physical characteristics of potholes, their biological community (biodiversity, environmental factors) as well as food chain (competition, predation and parasitism) in mountain rivers. The differences between pothole ecosystems and river ecosystems in hydrological characteristics, biological community and food-chain were analyzed. Hydrological, physical chemical, and ecological characteristics of potholes were largely unexplored in China. Finally, we suggested future directions and recommendations in pothole ecosystems.

  15. Overview of the Yucca Mountain Licensing Process

    SciTech Connect

    M. Wisenburg

    2004-05-03

    This paper presents an overview of the licensing process for a Yucca Mountain repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. The paper discusses the steps in the licensing proceeding, the roles of the participants, the licensing and hearing requirements contained in the Code of Federal Regulations. A description of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff acceptance and compliance reviews of the Department of Energy (DOE) application for a construction authorization and a license to receive and possess high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel is provided. The paper also includes a detailed description of the hearing process.

  16. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Gertz, C.P.; Bartlett, J.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) and establish an approved YMP baseline against which overall YMP progress and management effectiveness shall be measured. For the sake of brevity, this document will be referred to as the Project Plan throughout this document. This Project Plan only addresses activities up to the submittal of the repository license application (LA) to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). A new Project Plan will be submitted to establish the technical, cost, and schedule baselines for the final design and construction phase of development extending through the start of repository operations, assuming that the site is determined to be suitable.

  17. ROCK PILE MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MISSOURI.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, Walden P.; Ellis, Clarence

    1984-01-01

    A geologic and mineral-occurrence survey of the Rock Pile Mountain Wilderness study area in southeastern Missouri indicates the area has little promise for the occurrence of energy and mineral resources. Exploratory drill holes on private land along the west side of the area encountered no mineralization, and none of the rocks or sediments exposed in the area contain any detectable evidence of significant mineralization. Drilling through the Bonneterre Formation, supplemented by geochemical studies of the drill-hole samples, would test the remote possibility of lead mineralization close to the contact with Precambrian rocks.

  18. Lead Speciation in remote Mountain Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plöger, A.; van den Berg, C. M. G.

    2003-04-01

    In natural waters trace metals can become complexed by organic matter. This complexation can change the geochemistry of the metals by preventing them being scavenged, thereby increasing their residence time in the water column. The chemical speciation of trace metals also affects the bioavalability and their toxicological impact on organisms. It is therefore important to determine the chemical speciation of trace metals as well as their concentrations. Mountain lakes have been less studied in the past than other lakes- partly because of their remoteness and partly because they were perceived to be unpolluted and undisturbed. But work so far on mountain lakes has shown that most sites are affected and threatened, for example by transboundary air pollutants like trace metals. One of the important features that distinguishes these lakes from lowland lakes at similar latitudes is the fact that they may be isolated from the atmosphere for six months or more during the winter by a thick ice cover. Also, as these lakes are remote from direct anthropogenic influences, they reflect the regional distribution of pollutants transferred via the atmosphere. For this work, under the framework of the EMERGE (European Mountain lake Ecosystems: Regionalisation, diaGnostic and socio-economic Evaluation) programme, two remote mountain lakes have been studied in detail, with water sampling taking place at different times of the year to investigate possible seasonal differences in lead concentrations and speciation. Results so far have shown that lead-complexing ligand concentrations are in excess to dissolved lead concentrations, indicating that dissolved lead probably occurs fully complexed in these lakes. Therefore the toxic fraction is likely to be less than the dissolved lead concentration. Also, lead concentrations at the time of the spring thaw are higher than autumn concentrations just before ice cover, indicating that a significant proportion of fallout onto the lake catchment

  19. Plant biodiversity patterns on Helan Mountain, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yuan; Kang, Muyi; Zhu, Yuan; Xu, Guangcai

    2007-09-01

    A case study was conducted to mountainous ecosystems in the east side of Helan Mountain, located in the transitional zone between steppe and desert regions of China, aiming to reveal the influences of four environmental factors on features of plant biodiversity—the spatial pattern of vegetation types, and the variation of α- and β-diversities in vegetation and flora. Field surveys on vegetation and flora and on environmental factors were conducted, and those field data were analyzed through CCA (Canonical Correspondence Analysis), and through Shannon-Weiner index for α-diversity and Sørensen index for β-diversity. The preliminary results are: (1) Ranked in terms of their impacts on spatial patterns of plant biodiversity, the four selected environmental factors would be: elevation > location > slope > exposure. (2) The variation of Shannon-Weiner index along the altitudinal gradient is similar to that of species amount within altitudinal belts spanning 200 m each, which suggests a unimodal relationship between the species richness and the environmental condition with regards to altitudinal factors. Both the Shannon-Weiner index and the species richness within each altitudinal belt reach their maximum at elevation range from about 1700 to 2000 m a.s.l. (3) The altitudinal extent with the highest Shannon-Weiner index is identical to the range, where both the deciduous broad-leaved forest, and the temperate evergreen coniferous and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest distribute. The altitudinal range from 1700 to 2200 m a.s.l. is the sector with both high level of species richness and diversified vegetation types. (4) The variation of β-diversity along the altitude is consistent with the vegetation vertical zones. According to the Sørensen index between each pair of altitudinal belts, the transition of vegetation spectrum from one zone to another, as from the base horizontal zone, the desert steppe, to the first vertical zone, the mountain open forest and

  20. PETERS MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, VIRGINIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lesure, Frank G.; Williams, Bradford B.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey of the Peters Mountain Wilderness Study Area, Virginia concluded that the area contains steeply dipping and faulted clastic sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic age that have a substantiated iron resource potential and abundant rock suitable for construction materials. The area has an estimated 340 million long tons of inferred low-grade iron resources in hematitic sandstone that may average as much as 20 percent iron, or 68 million long tons of contained iron. Structural conditions favorable for hydrocarbon accumulation appear to be absent beneath the area.