Science.gov

Sample records for mountain pre-closure operations

  1. Simulation of ventilation efficiency, and pre-closure temperatures in emplacement drifts at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, using Monte Carlo and composite thermal-pulse methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Case, J.B.; Buesch, D.C.

    2004-01-01

    Predictions of waste canister and repository driftwall temperatures as functions of space and time are important to evaluate pre-closure performance of the proposed repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Variations in the lithostratigraphic features in densely welded and crystallized rocks of the 12.8-million-year-old Topopah Spring Tuff, especially the porosity resulting from lithophysal cavities, affect thermal properties. A simulated emplacement drift is based on projecting lithophysal cavity porosity values 50 to 800 m from the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block cross drift. Lithophysal cavity porosity varies from 0.00 to 0.05 cm3/cm3 in the middle nonlithophysal zone and from 0.03 to 0.28 cm3/cm3 in the lower lithophysal zone. A ventilation model and computer program titled "Monte Carlo Simulation of Ventilation" (MCSIMVENT), which is based on a composite thermal-pulse calculation, simulates statistical variability and uncertainty of rock-mass thermal properties and ventilation performance along a simulated emplacement drift for a pre-closure period of 50 years. Although ventilation efficiency is relatively insensitive to thermal properties, variations in lithophysal porosity along the drift can result in a range of peak driftwall temperatures can range from 40 to 85??C for the preclosure period. Copyright ?? 2004 by ASME.

  2. Infantry Small-Unit Mountain Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    ATTP 3-21.50 provides perspective on Infantry company missions in an operational environment characterized by high-altitudes, rapidly changing climatic...in critical areas, and rapidly changing weather increases the importance of reconnaissance and security in the mountains. Since the enemy can easily...radiation, deep snow, raging thunderstorms, blizzards, heavy fog, and rapidly changing weather. Weather conditions can change suddenly and unexpectedly

  3. USMC Capability: Mountain/Cold Weather Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    McGevern Jr., William A. The World Almanac and Book of facts 2001. Mahwah, NJ: World Almanac Books 2001, 760 45 Grau and Gress, 4 46 Grau and Gress, 3...Infantry Combat Equipment Combat Equipment and Support Systems (CESS). Certified Dec 2004 McGevern Jr., William A. The World Almanac and Book of...Facts 2001. Mahwah, NJ: World Almanac Books, 2001 38 Military Mountaineering, FM 3-97.61. Headquarters, Department of the Army. Washington, DC

  4. Raccoon Mountain pumped-storage plant: Ten years operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, F.E.

    1987-09-01

    Operational experience at the 1 530 MW Raccoon Mountain underground pumped-storage plant can be relevant to other large hydro facilities. A number of unusual features were incorporated and individual unit size was only recently overtaken elsewhere. Direct water cooling of rotor and stator winding has been successfully applied to salient pole machines. A number of problems, including difficulties with oil-filled 161 kV current transformers, and some mechanical aspects, are reported. Designed for remote supervisory control, the plant has required closer attention. Operating statistics are included.

  5. Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, M.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Above the forest: the alpine tundra; Solar energy, water, wind and soil in mountains; Mountain weather; Mountain building and plate tectonics; Mountain walls: forming, changing, and disappearing; Living high: mountain ecosystems; Distribution of mountain plants and animals; On foot in the mountains: how to hike and backpack; Ranges and peaks of the world. Map and guidebook sources, natural history and mountain adventure trips, mountain environmental education centers and programs, and sources of information on trails for the handicapped are included.

  6. Raccoon Mountain pumped-storage facility operational fish monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, J.P.; Pasch, R.W.; Smith, A.O.; Swor, C.T.; Tomljanovich, D.A.

    1983-09-01

    The impact of the Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Facility operations on fisheries resources in the Nickajack Reservoir was investigated. Analyses of data collected from 1979 through 1981 on population status and distribution of adults, larvae and eggs are presented with comparisons of preoperational fisheries monitoring data collected by the TVA from 1977 through 1978. Although minor differences in composition of dominant species, and slight declines in standing stock of some species were noted, no major impacts were identified. Appendix B contains a short report entitled Nickajack Reservoir Ictiobine Study 1979 by Edwin Scott Jr. 7 references, 46 figures, 31 tables.

  7. Whole body vibration in mountain-rescue operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberti, E.; Chiappa, D.; Moschioni, G.; Saggin, B.; Tarabini, M.

    2006-12-01

    In mountain-rescue operations injured people are generally exposed to vibrations and shocks that can be potential causes of physical conditions worsening. Such vibrations can derive both from patient's body manipulations (e.g. when it is being loaded and immobilized on a stretcher) and from forces coming from the transport devices and vehicles. Despite the general feeling that during this kind of operations the levels of transmitted vibrations to the injured can be quite large and potentially dangerous, there is practically no study in literature providing reliable parameters (i.e. measurements) to support or dismiss these beliefs. This paper reports the results of a measurement campaign carried-out in order to outline, identify and quantify the excitations a human body is exposed to, during typical transportation phases related to mountain-rescue operations. The work mainly presents and discusses the experimental setup with the aim of focusing on the problems related to this kind of measurements; the results of the experimental campaign carried-out for the measurement of the vibrations undergone by a human body during a simulated rescue operation are presented and discussed as well. Such simulation includes three phases of transportation: on a hand-held stretcher, on an ambulance and on a helicopter. The work is not intended to supply a complete characterization and analysis of vibrations transmission during any rescue operation but just to provide a preliminary overview and to define a measurement method that can be applied for a more comprehensive characterization. With such aims measurements were carried out in on-field situations stated as "typical" by rescue experts and data then analyzed both with standard procedures and algorithms (e.g. ISO 2631s weighting curves) and with the commonly used statistical indexes; in the analysis it is important to be aware that standardized measurement procedures and indexes, created to verify comfort or health-risks of

  8. 76 FR 21425 - Rocky Mountain Railcar and Repair, Inc.-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Line of Railroad in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Rocky Mountain Railcar and Repair, Inc.--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Line of Railroad in Tooele County, UT Rocky Mountain Railcar and Repair, Inc. (Rocky Mountain), a... line. \\1\\ Rocky Mountain states that it currently operates a railcar repair facility, but that it...

  9. Convective transport of pollutants from eastern Colorado concentrated animal feeding operations into the Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pina, A.; Denning, A.; Schumacher, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    As the population of the urban corridor along the eastern Front Range grows at an unprecedented rate, concern about pollutant transport into the Rocky Mountains is on the rise. The confluence of mountain meteorology and major pollution sources conspire to transport pollutants across the Front Range, especially nitrogen species (NH3, NH4+, orgN, and NO3-) from concentrated animal feeding operations and urban regions, into the Rocky Mountains. The Rocky Mountains have coarse-textured soils which disallow the uptake nitrogen-rich precipitation, allowing most ions in precipitation to reach, be stored in, and eutrophicate alpine terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The focus of this study was to examine the meteorological conditions in which atmospheric deposition of pollutants at two mountain sites was anomalously high due to convective transport. We looked at 19 years (1994-2013) of precipitation and wet deposition data from two National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NAPD) sites in the Rocky Mountains: Beaver Meadows (CO19) and Loch Vale (CO98). Loch Vale (3159 m) and Beaver Meadows (2477 m) are located approximately 11 km apart but differ in height by 682 m resulting in different seasonal precipitation composition and totals. The Advanced Research WRF model was used to simulate the meteorology at a high resolution for the progression of the upslope event that led to high nitrogen deposition in the Rocky Mountains. Data from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) was used to observe and verify synoptic conditions produced by the WRF model that influenced the high-deposition events. Dispersion plumes showed a mesoscale mountain circulation caused by differential heating between mountains-tops and the plains was the main driver of the westward convective transport towards the mountains. Additionally and unexpectedly, a lee trough and high precipitable water values associated with a cold front played significant roles in the nitrogen deposition into the Rocky

  10. Effects of operation of Raccoon Mountain pumped-storage project on Nickajack Reservoir flow conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, J.; Price, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    The results from a study to determine the effects of Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Plant operations on flow conditions within Nickajack Reservoir are presented. Computer simulations and field studies have shown that flow reversals occur in Nickajack Reservoir as a result of the power peaking operations of the Nickajack and Chickamauga hydroelectric plants, both situated on the Tennessee River. The primary cause of these reversals is attributable to shutdowns of the Chickamauga turbines. The focus of this study is on flow reversals near the Moccasin Bend sewage treatment plant and near the Tennessee American water treatment plant, both of which are located on the Tennessee River near Chattanooga. Results from the study show that, under normal and extreme operating conditions at Chickamauga and Nickajack Dams, operation of the Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Plant has no appreciable influence on flow reversals at the two plant sites.

  11. Multi-scale traffic safety and operational performance study of large trucks on mountainous interstate highway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Suren; Chen, Feng; Wu, Jun

    2011-01-01

    In addition to multi-vehicle accidents, large trucks are also prone to single-vehicle accidents on the mountainous interstate highways due to the complex terrain and fast-changing weather. By integrating both historical data analysis and simulations, a multi-scale approach is developed to evaluate the traffic safety and operational performance of large trucks on mountainous interstate highways in both scales of individual vehicle as well as traffic on the whole highway. A typical mountainous highway in Colorado is studied for demonstration purposes. Firstly, the ten-year historical accident records are analyzed to identify the accident-vulnerable-locations (AVLs) and site-specific critical adverse driving conditions. Secondly, simulation-based single-vehicle assessment is performed for different driving conditions at those AVLs along the whole corridor. Finally, the cellular-automaton (CA)-based simulation is carried out to evaluate the multi-vehicle traffic safety as well as the operational performance of the traffic by considering the actual speed limits, including the differential speed limits (DSL) at some locations. It is found that the multi-scale approach can provide insightful and comprehensive observations of the highway performance, which is especially important for mountainous highways.

  12. 14 CFR 136.35 - Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park. 136.35 Section 136.35 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS COMMERCIAL AIR TOURS AND NATIONAL PARKS AIR TOUR MANAGEMENT National Parks Air Tour Management § 136.35 Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the...

  13. 14 CFR 136.35 - Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park. 136.35 Section 136.35 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS COMMERCIAL AIR TOURS AND NATIONAL PARKS AIR TOUR MANAGEMENT National Parks Air Tour Management § 136.35 Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the...

  14. 14 CFR 136.35 - Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park. 136.35 Section 136.35 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS COMMERCIAL AIR TOURS AND NATIONAL PARKS AIR TOUR MANAGEMENT National Parks Air Tour Management § 136.35 Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the...

  15. 14 CFR 136.35 - Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park. 136.35 Section 136.35 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS COMMERCIAL AIR TOURS AND NATIONAL PARKS AIR TOUR MANAGEMENT National Parks Air Tour Management § 136.35 Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the...

  16. 14 CFR 136.35 - Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park. 136.35 Section 136.35 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS COMMERCIAL AIR TOURS AND NATIONAL PARKS AIR TOUR MANAGEMENT National Parks Air Tour Management § 136.35 Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the...

  17. Three years of column flotation operating experience at Powell Mountain Coal Company

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.; Peters, W.J.; Kennedy, D.L.

    1993-12-31

    A joint project was initiated in 1989 between the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) and the Powell Mountain Coal Company (PMCC) to evaluated the applicability of column flotation for recovery of fine coal from classifying cyclone refuse at PMCC`s Mayflower Preparation Plant. Laboratory and extensive pilot plant studies were conducted on each of the seams processed by the plant evaluating various column operating parameters. These results were used to design a larger 8-ft. diameter {times} 22-ft. tall column capable of recovering fine coal from the dilute classifying cyclone overflow with a feed capacity of 1,000 gpm. In order to effectively treat the entire plant classifying cyclone overflow stream, a total of four columns operating in parallel were installed in December 1989. This paper outlines three years of operating experience and results obtained with this fine coal recovery circuit.

  18. Mountain-Plains Handbook: The Design and Operation of a Residential Family Based Education Program. Appendix. Supplement I to Volume 5. Operational Support: Administrative Services Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Newell B.; And Others

    One of two supplements which accompany chapter 5 of "Mountain-Plains Handbook: The Design and Operation of a Residential, Family Oriented Career Education Model" (CE 014 630), this document contains specific information concerning the reprographic and personnel components of the administrative services division. Several job descriptions…

  19. EVALUATION OF THE CORROSIVITY OF DUST DEPOSITED ON WASTE PACKAGES AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    C. Bryan; R. Jack; T, Wolery; D. Shields; M. Sutton; E. Hardin; D. Barr

    2005-08-03

    Potentially corrosive brines can form during post-closure by deliquescence of salt minerals in dust deposited on the surface of waste packages at Yucca Mountain during operations and the pre-closure ventilation period. Although thermodynamic modeling and experimental studies of brine deliquescence indicates that brines are likely to form, they will be nitrate-rich and non-corrosive. Processes that modify the brines following deliquescence are beneficial with respect to inhibition of corrosion. For example, acid degassing (HCl, HNO{sub 3}) could dry out brines, but kinetic limitations are likely to limit the effect to increasing their passivity by raising the pH and increasing the NO{sub 3}/Cl ratio. Predicted dust quantities and maximum brine volumes on the waste package surface are small, and physical isolation of salt minerals in the dust may inhibit formation of eutectic brines and decrease brine volumes. If brines do contact the WP surface, small droplet volumes and layer thicknesses do not support development of diffusive gradients necessary for formation on separate anodic-cathodic zones required for localized corrosion. Finally, should localized corrosion initiate, corrosion product buildup will stifle corrosion, by limiting oxygen access to the metal surface, by capillary retention of brine in corrosion product porosity, or by consumption of brine components (Cl{sup -}).

  20. Mechanical chest compressions in an avalanche victim with cardiac arrest: an option for extreme mountain rescue operations.

    PubMed

    Pietsch, Urs; Lischke, Volker; Pietsch, Christine; Kopp, Karl-Heinz

    2014-06-01

    Mountain rescue operations often present helicopter emergency medical service crews with unique challenges. One of the most challenging problems is the prehospital care of cardiac arrest patients during evacuation and transport. In this paper we outline a case in which we successfully performed a cardiopulmonary resuscitation of an avalanche victim. A mechanical chest-compression device proved to be a good way of minimizing hands-off time and providing high-quality chest compressions while the patient was evacuated from the site of the accident.

  1. Medical standards for mountain rescue operations using helicopters: official consensus recommendations of the International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine (ICAR MEDCOM).

    PubMed

    Tomazin, Iztok; Ellerton, John; Reisten, Oliver; Soteras, Inigo; Avbelj, Miha

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to establish medical recommendations for safe and effective Helicopter Emergency Medical Systems (HEMS) in countries with a dedicated mountain rescue service. A nonsystematic search was undertaken and a consensus among members of International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine (ICAR Medcom) was reached. For the severely injured or ill patient, survival depends on approach time and quality of medical treatment by high-level providers. Helicopters can provide significant shortening of the times involved in mountain rescue. Safety is of utmost importance and everything possible should be done to minimize risk. Even in the mountainous environment, the patient should be reached as quickly as possible (optimally<20 min) and provided with on-site and en-route medical treatment according to international standards. The HEMS unit should be integrated into the Emergency Medical System of the region. All dispatchers should be aware of the specific problems encountered in mountainous areas. The nearest qualified HEMS team to the incident site, regardless of administrative boundaries, should be dispatched. The 'air rescue optimal crew' concept with its flexibility and adaptability of crewmembers ensures that all HEMS tasks can be performed. The helicopter and all equipment should be appropriate for the conditions and specific for mountain related emergencies. These recommendations, agreed by ICAR Medcom, establish recommendations for safe and effective HEMS in mountain rescue.

  2. Satellite-Based Technologies in Use for Extreme Nocturnal Mountain Rescue Operations: a Synergetic Approach Applying Geophysical Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchroithner, Manfred F.; Ehlert, Guido; Hetze, Bernd; Kohlschmidt, Horst; Prechtel, Nikolas

    2014-06-01

    Mountain-rescue operations require rapid response whilst also ensuring the security of the rescue teams. Rescuing people in a big rock-face is even more difficult if night or fog prevent sight. The paper presents a technical solution to optimally support, under these aggravated conditions, the location of the casualties and the navigation of the rescue team(s) in a rock-face from a coordination station. In doing so, standard components like a smartphones with GPS functionality, a data communication on a client-server basis and VR visualisation software have been adapted to the specific requirements. Remote support of the navigation in steep rocky terrain requires a highly accurate wall model which permits the local experts of the coordination station to dependably estimate geometry and structure of the rock along the rescue route and to convey necessary directives to the retrieval team. Based on terrestrial laser-scans from different locations, such a model has been generated for the mighty Dachstein South Face (Austria) and texturised with digital photographs. Over a twelve-month period, a transdisciplinary team of the Dresden University of Technology (Informatics, Electrical Engineering, Cartography) developed and integrated the various technical modules of the mountain-rescue support-system (digital rock-face model, optimised GPS data transmission between mobile device, server and client, data filtering, and dynamic visualisation component). In summer 2011 the proper functioning of the prototype was demonstrated in a rescue exercise under foggy dusk conditions.

  3. Robotics Scoping Study to Evaluate Advances in Robotics Technologies that Support Enhanced Efficiencies for Yucca Mountain Repository Operations

    SciTech Connect

    T. Burgess; M. Noakes; P. Spampinato

    2005-03-17

    This paper presents an evaluation of robotics and remote handling technologies that have the potential to increase the efficiency of handling waste packages at the proposed Yucca Mountain High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository. It is expected that increased efficiency will reduce the cost of operations. The goal of this work was to identify technologies for consideration as potential projects that the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, Office of Science and Technology International Programs, could support in the near future, and to assess their ''payback'' value. The evaluation took into account the robotics and remote handling capabilities planned for incorporation into the current baseline design for the repository, for both surface and subsurface operations. The evaluation, completed at the end of fiscal year 2004, identified where significant advantages in operating efficiencies could accrue by implementing any given robotics technology or approach, and included a road map for a multiyear R&D program for improvements to remote handling technology that support operating enhancements.

  4. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Appliance Repair. Course: Motor-Operated Appliances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziller, T.

    One of two individualized courses included in an appliance repair curriculum, this course is designed to prepare students to operate, diagnose malfunctions, repair, and service motor operated appliances. The course is comprised of seven units: (1) Mixers and Blenders, (2) Vacuum Cleaners and Floor Polishers, (3) Washing Machines, (4) Garbage…

  5. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 8): Rocky Mountain Arsenal (Operable Unit 26), CO. (Tenth remedial action), September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-05

    The Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) (Operable Unit 26) site comprises part of the 17,000-acre RMA site, which is a former U.S. Army chemical warfare and incendiary munitions manufacturing and assembly plant in Adams County, Colorado. Since 1970, U.S. Army facility operations primarily have involved the destruction of chemical warfare materials. Because final remediation of the RMA site will take many years to complete, 13 interim response actions (IRAs) were determined necessary prior to implementing the final On-Post Record of Decision (ROD). Operable Unit 26 (OU26), which is one of these 13 IRAs, is composed of the piping and equipment in the buildings in the North and South Plants at RMA. The ROD addresses contaminated piping and equipment in numerous buildings in the North and South Plants, and contaminated 1-ton containers. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the debris and air are the chemical agents GB (Agent GB, Sarin), HD (Agent Mustard), L (Agent Lewisite), and VX (Agent VX). The selected remedial action for the site is included.

  6. Sampling and monitoring operations for mustard (HD) and sarin (GB) at Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This report is a summarization of Phase II activities at RMA which Included: Sampling operations for the presence of HD and GB in the south plants and north plants areas; Protection of workers and the environment during the sample preparation and sampling periods. A total of 203 samples were analyzed (182 GB and 21 HD). 6 HD and 43 GB sample points were verified as 'X' or above the TWA. The report is divided into the following sections: Summary of sampling results; Building descriptions; Chemical agent information; Sampling plan; Summary of sampling operations; Monitoring plan. (Author).

  7. Installation Restoration of Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Pilot Containment Operations, Final Environmental Impact Statement, Part 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-02-01

    burial, controlled detonation and incineration . Additional requirements for disposal operations were established in 1970 (PL 91-441, 91-190 (NEPA)). Since...the following: (1) In September 1972, incineration of anti-crop agent TX stored in 12 gallon drums was completed. (2) During the period 1972-1974...the mustard agent in 3,407 ton containers was destroyed by incineration . (3) During the period 1973-1976, 21,114 GB agent-filled M34 cluster bombs were

  8. Viability Assessment of a Repository at Yucca Mountain. Volume 5: Costs to Construct and Operate the Repository

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    This volume presents a management summary of the cost estimate to complete the design, and to license, construct, operate, monitor, close, and decommission a Monitored Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain in Nevada. This volume summarizes the scope, estimating methodologies, and assumptions used in development of the Monitored Geologic Repository-VA cost estimate. It identifies the key features necessary to understand the summary costs presented herein. This cost summary derives from a larger body of documented cost analysis. Volume 5 is organized to reflect this structured approach to cost estimation and contains the following sections: Section 1, Cost Elements. This section briefly defines the components of each major repository cost element. Section 2, Project Phases. This section presents the definition, as used in the estimate, of five project phases (Licensing, Pre-emplacement Construction, Emplacement Operations, Monitoring, and Closure and Decommissioning) and the schedule dates for each phase. It also contains major milestone dates and a bar chart schedule. Section 3, Major Assumptions. This section identifies key high-level assumptions for the cost estimate basis. Additional detailed assumptions are included in the appendices. Section 4, Integrated Cost Summary. This section presents a high-level roll-up of the VA costs resulting from the estimating work. The tables and figures contained in this section were compiled from the more detailed cost estimates in the appendices. Section 5, References. This section identifies the references that support this cost volume. Appendices. For each major repository cost element, Appendices B-F [B, C, D, E, F] presents additional information on the scope of cost elements, identifies methodologies used to develop the cost estimates, lists underlying cost assumptions, and tabulates summary results. Appendix A contains a glossary to assist the reader in understanding the terminology in Volume 5. Appendix G presents costs

  9. Evaluation of the Corrosivity of Dust Deposited on Waste Packages at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    C. Bryan; R. Jarek; T. Wolery; D. Shields; M. Sutton; E. Hardin; D. Barr

    2005-03-01

    Potentially corrosive brines may form by deliquescence of salt minerals in dust deposited on the surface of waste packages at Yucca Mountain during operations and the pre-closure ventilation period. Evaluation of measured atmospheric and underground dust compositions by thermodynamic modeling and experimental studies of brine deliquescence indicates that brines are likely to form, but will be nitrate-rich and non-corrosive. Processes that modify the brines following deliquescence are beneficial with respect to corrosion. Acid degassing (HCI, HNO{sub 3}) will potentially dry out brines, but kinetic limitations will limit the effect to increasing the passivity of the brines by raising the pH and increasing the NO{sub 3}/CI ratio. Interactions with silicate minerals in the dust buffer brine pH to neutral values, and may also cause dryout. Predicted dust quantities and maximum deliquescent brine volumes on the waste package surface are small, and physical isolation of salt minerals in the dust may inhibit formation of eutectic brines, further decreasing deliquescence brine volumes. Should corrosive brines form, capillary forces will tend to retain brine in the dust. If brines do contact the WP surface, small droplet or film dimensions do not support development of diffusive gradients and separate anodic-cathodic regions necessary for initiation of localized corrosion. Finally, should localized corrosion initiate, corrosion product buildup will eventually stifle corrosion, by limiting oxygen access to the metal surface, by capillary retention of brine in corrosion product porosity, or by consumption of brine components, principally chloride. Thus, dust deliquescence is of low consequence with respect to repository performance.

  10. Regional operations research program for commercialization of geothermal energy in the Rocky Mountain basin and range. Final technical report, January 1980-March 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    This report describes the work accomplished from January 1980 to March 1981 in the Regional Operations Research efforts for the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range Geothermal Commercialization Program. The work included continued data acquisition and extension of the data base, enhancement and refinement of the economic models for electric and direct use applications, site-specific and aggregated analyses in support of the state teams, special analyses in support of several federal agencies, and marketing assistance to the state commercialization teams.

  11. Water quality in mountain ash forests — separating the impacts of roads from those of logging operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grayson, R. B.; Haydon, S. R.; Jayasuriya, M. D. A.; Finlayson, B. L.

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of the two catchment studies reported here was to allow the effects on water quality of road use and maintenance to be separated from the effects of a logging operation. In the first project, known as the Myrtle experiment, two small catchments in an old-growth mountain ash ( Eucalyptus regnans) forest were chosen for a paired catchment study of the effects on physical and chemical water quality (baseflow and stormflow) of logging under a strict code of practice and with no roads crossing runoff producing areas. In the second project, known as the Road 11 experiment, the effect on sediment production from unsealed forest roads of vehicle use and level of road maintenance was assessed. The Myrtle experiment showed that the harvesting and regeneration operation did not have a major impact on the stream physical or chemical water quality. Increases were detected in turbidity, iron and suspended solids at baseflows, but these were small in absolute terms and of similar magnitude to the measurement error. The stormflow data revealed no significant influence of the logging operation. The suspension of logging during wet weather, the protection of the runoff producing areas with buffer strips and the management of runoff from roads, snig tracks and log landing areas eliminated intrusion of contaminated runoff into the streams, thereby avoiding the adverse effects of logging. The Road 11 study determined that annual sediment production from forest roads was in the range of 50-90 t of sediment per hectare of road surface per year, with approximately two-thirds being suspended sediment and one-third coarse material. The use of gravel reduced sediment production, provided a sufficient depth of material was used. Increasing the level of road maintenance with increasing traffic load controlled sediment production rates, but when maintenance was not increased, sediment production increased by approximately 40%. The results indicate that by identifying the areas that

  12. Regional Operations Research Program for Commercialization of Geothermal Energy in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range. Final Technical Report, January 1980--March 1981

    SciTech Connect

    1981-07-01

    This report describes the work accomplished from January 1980 to March 1981 in the Regional Operations Research efforts for the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range Geothermal Commercialization Program. The scope of work is as described in New Mexico State University Proposal 80-20-207. The work included continued data acquisition and extension of the data base, enhancement and refinement of the economic models for electric and direct use applications, site-specific and aggregated analyses in support of the state teams, special analyses in support of several federal agencies, and marketing assistance to the state commercialization teams.

  13. Effects of a potential drop of a shipping cask, a waste container, and a bare fuel assembly during waste-handling operations; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.L.; Lee, J.; Lu, D.L.; Jardine, L.J.

    1991-12-01

    This study investigates the effects of potential drops of a typical shipping cask, waste container, and bare fuel assembly during waste-handling operations at the prospective Yucca Mountain Repository. The waste-handling process (one stage, no consolidation configuration) is examined to estimate the maximum loads imposed on typical casks and containers as they are handled by various pieces of equipment during waste-handling operations. Maximum potential drop heights for casks and containers are also evaluated for different operations. A nonlinear finite-element model is employed to represent a hybrid spent fuel container subject to drop heights of up to 30 ft onto a reinforced concrete floor. The impact stress, strain, and deformation are calculated, and compared to the failure criteria to estimate the limiting (maximum permissible) drop height for the waste container. A typical Westinghouse 17 {times} 17 PWR fuel assembly is analyzed by a simplified model to estimate the energy absorption by various parts of the fuel assembly during a 30 ft drop, and to determine the amount of kinetic energy in a fuel pin at impact. A nonlinear finite-element analysis of an individual fuel pin is also performed to estimate the amount of fuel pellet fracture due to impact. This work was completed on May 1990.

  14. Appalachian Mountains

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Appalachian Mountains     View Larger Image Multi-angle views of the Appalachian Mountains, March 6, 2000 . The true-color image at left is a ... location:  United States region:  Eastern United States Order:  3 ...

  15. Appalachian Mountains

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Aerosols over the Appalachian Mountains     View ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) acquired these views of the Appalachian Mountains on March 6, 2000. The image at left is a downward-looking ... location:  United States region:  Eastern United States Order:  2 ...

  16. If the Mountain Does Not Come to Mohammad: The Significance of Guest Operations for Early Stage Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    van Haaften, Carolien; Trimbos, J. Baptist

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: In women with early ovarian cancer (EOC), comprehensive surgical staging is known to enhance ovarian cancer outcomes and requires specific surgical competence. Given that centralization of care remains a topic of continuing debate, a system of “guest operations” was introduced in the midwestern part of The Netherlands. During a guest operation a gynecologic oncologist participates in oncology surgery performed in the community hospital. Objective: This study was conducted to examine the effects of the presence of a gynecologic oncologist on the quality of staging, treatment, and survival in patients with EOC. Materials and Methods: All patients with a pathologically confirmed diagnosis of EOC between January 2000 and December 2009 were selected from a regional cancer registry. Surgical accuracy was checked on the basis of each patient's file, operative notes, and pathology report. Results: A total of 130 patients were included, of whom 15 were treated in the Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC) and 115 in eight regional community hospitals. If a gynecologic oncologist attended the operation, surgical staging was more often adequately performed, 81.1% versus 32.1% when a gynecologic oncologist was not present (p<0.001). Adherence to protocol was observed in 76.9% of operations when a gynecologic oncologist had been present, compared to 49.5% of patients who were treated by a general gynecologist alone (p=0.004). The 5-year disease-free survival was borderline significantly in favor of optimally staged patients, 75.1% in those who were not staged optimally versus 90.9% who were staged optimally (p=0.058). Conclusions: Guest operations deserve a distinguished place among the treatment modalities available to patients with EOC, because surgery by the most specialized and experienced surgeons contributes to better care. (J GYNECOL SURG 30:265) PMID:25336857

  17. Rocky Mountain Arsenal, North Boundary Containment/Treatment System, Operational Assessment Report FY85/FY86. Volume 3. Data Listings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    PARAMETERS 3 . IDENTIFY AND DOCUMENT SYSTEM IMPROVEMENTS 4 . IDENTIFY AND DOCUMENT OPERATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS THAT WILL ENHANCE LONG-TERM EFFECTIVENESS...20.0 LT DL UGL DBCP 32 17 53% 0.2 * UGL DCPD 25 1 4 % 1.0 * UGL DIMP 32 3 9% 10.0 * UGL DITH 28 0 0% 20.0 * UGL DLDRN 24 2 8% 0.2 * UGL ENDRN 24 0 0...r - . - .b 0 .q o 4 . 3 -LA --a~ --- ------- --- - - - --- - - N, a M I -a c at -.j2c D; =C z DC aC D C - a - -~ - -D I Zi

  18. Stone Mountain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This color image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the part of the rock outcrop dubbed Stone Mountain at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Scientists are examining Stone Mountain with the instruments on the rover's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' in search of clues about the composition of the rock outcrop. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] A Patch of Stone (Figure credit: NASA/JPL/Cornell/USGS)

    The colorless square in this color image of the martian rock formation called Stone Mountain is one portion of the rock being analyzed with tools on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The square area is approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across. Stone Mountain is located within the rock outcrop on Meridiani Planum, Mars. The image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

  19. Transport of Radon Gas into a Tunnel at Yucca Mountain-Estimating Large-Scale Fractured Tuff Hydraulic Properties and Implications for the Operation of the Ventilation System

    SciTech Connect

    A. Unger; S. Finsterle; G. Bodvarsson

    2003-06-06

    Radon gas concentrations have been monitored as part of the operation of a tunnel (the Exploratory Studies Facility-ESF) at Yucca Mountain to ensure worker safety. The objective of this study was to examine the potential use of the radon data to estimate large-scale formation properties of fractured tuffs. This objective was examined by developing a numerical model, based upon the characteristics of the ESF and the Topopah Spring welded (TSw) tuff unit, capable of predicting radon concentrations for prescribed ventilation conditions. The model was used to address two specific issues. First, it was used to estimate the permeability and porosity of the fractures in the TSw at the length scale of the ESF and extending tens of meters into the TSw, which surrounds the ESF. Second, the model was used to understand the mechanism leading to radon concentrations exceeding a specified level within the ESF. The mechanism controlling radon concentrations in the ESF is a function of atmospheric barometric fluctuations being propagated down the ESF along with ventilated air flow and the slight suction induced by the ventilation exhaust fans at the South Portal of the ESF. These pressure fluctuations are dampened in the TSw fracture continuum according to its permeability and porosity. Consequently, as the barometric pressure in the ESF drops rapidly, formation gases from the TSw are pulled into the ESF, resulting in an increase in radon concentrations. Model calibration to both radon concentrations measured in the ESF and gas-phase pressure fluctuations in the TSw yielded concurrent estimates of TSw fracture permeability and porosity of l x 10{sup -11} m{sup 2} and 0.00034, respectively. The calibrated model was then used as a design tool to predict the effect of adjusting the current ventilation-system operation strategy for reducing the probability of radon gas concentrations exceeding a specified level.

  20. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 10): Mountain Home Air Force Base, Site 8, Fire Training Area 8, Operable Unit 4, Elmore County, Mountain Home, ID. (First remedial action), June 1992. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-16

    The 7-acre Mountain Home Air Force Base (AFB) site was a fire department training area located in Mountain Home, Elmore County, Idaho. From 1962 to 1975, the Mountain Home Air Force Base used the site for fire department training exercises. Each exercise began by saturating the bermed training area with water, followed directly by applying 250 to 500 gallons of fuel. The flames were extinguished with Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF), or prior to 1972, with a water-based protein foam. The training session was completed with a post-exercise ignition of the residual fuel in a bermed area. The USAF investigations identified solvents and petroleum, oil, lubricant (POL) wastes in the soil. Under the Installation Restoration Program (IRP), the USAF conducted a record search, drilling, and sampling of soil borings to bedrock, the installation of monitoring wells, and hand auger samples. The ROD provided a final remedy for onsite soil as OU4. Because contaminants were found at such low concentrations, the soil was covered by crushed asphalt and has little potential to impact ecological receptors. The soil posed low risks for humans at the site and no remediation was necessary.

  1. 76 FR 13396 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Mountaineer Commercial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ... of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Mountaineer Commercial Scale... Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and Storage... of the project cost to support the construction and operation of AEP's Mountaineer Commercial...

  2. Oblique view to south OvertheHorizon Backscatter Radar Network, Mountain ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view to south - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Mountain Home Air Force Operations Building, On Desert Street at 9th Avenue Mountain Home Air Force Base, Mountain Home, Elmore County, ID

  3. 2. EAGLE MOUNTAIN SWITCHYARD. EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP PLANT CAN BE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAGLE MOUNTAIN SWITCHYARD. EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP PLANT CAN BE SEEN THROUGH SWITCHYARD IN BACKGROUND. 165MM LENS. - Eagle Mountain Pump Plant, Ten miles north of Route 10, southeast of Eagle Mountain, Eagle Mountain, Riverside County, CA

  4. 14 CFR 95.21 - Puerto Rico Mountainous Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Puerto Rico Mountainous Area. 95.21 Section...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES IFR ALTITUDES Designated Mountainous Areas § 95.21 Puerto Rico Mountainous Area. The area bounded by the following coordinates: Beginning at latitude 18°22′ N., longitude...

  5. 14 CFR 95.19 - Hawaii Mountainous Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hawaii Mountainous Area. 95.19 Section 95...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES IFR ALTITUDES Designated Mountainous Areas § 95.19 Hawaii Mountainous Area. The following islands of the State of Hawaii: Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Kehoolawe,...

  6. 14 CFR 95.19 - Hawaii Mountainous Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hawaii Mountainous Area. 95.19 Section 95...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES IFR ALTITUDES Designated Mountainous Areas § 95.19 Hawaii Mountainous Area. The following islands of the State of Hawaii: Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Kehoolawe,...

  7. 14 CFR 95.19 - Hawaii Mountainous Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hawaii Mountainous Area. 95.19 Section 95...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES IFR ALTITUDES Designated Mountainous Areas § 95.19 Hawaii Mountainous Area. The following islands of the State of Hawaii: Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Kehoolawe,...

  8. 14 CFR 95.19 - Hawaii Mountainous Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hawaii Mountainous Area. 95.19 Section 95...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES IFR ALTITUDES Designated Mountainous Areas § 95.19 Hawaii Mountainous Area. The following islands of the State of Hawaii: Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Kehoolawe,...

  9. 14 CFR 95.19 - Hawaii Mountainous Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hawaii Mountainous Area. 95.19 Section 95...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES IFR ALTITUDES Designated Mountainous Areas § 95.19 Hawaii Mountainous Area. The following islands of the State of Hawaii: Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Kehoolawe,...

  10. Mountaineer`s gas facilities decision support system

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    Mountaineer Gas Co. of Charleston, W.Va., is justifiably proud of its capacity to combine electronic maps with a full database of information about its facilities and customers, and use that mix to make the decisions required in operating a gas company with better information and more quickly. Determining when a pipeline needs replacement or repair used to take several days at Mountaineer. With the new system in place, the decision can be made in a matter of minutes. The paper describes the system and its development, then discusses adding customer information as the next step.

  11. Mountains: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Alton; Gilligan, Nancy; Golston, Syd; Linville, Rex

    1999-01-01

    Introduces the lessons from "Mountain: A Global Resource" that were developed by the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) and The Mountain Institute for use by NCSS members and their students. Provides an overview that introduces the mountains, mountain cultures, historical perceptions, and the geographical importance of…

  12. Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Norton, Anderson; Boyce, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has documented schemes and operations that undergird students' understanding of fractions. This prior research was based, in large part, on small-group teaching experiments. However, written assessments are needed in order for teachers and researchers to assess students' ways of operating on a whole-class scale. In this study,…

  13. Yearly report, Yucca Mountain project

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, J.N.

    1992-09-30

    We proposed to (1) Develop our data logging and analysis equipment and techniques for analyzing seismic data from the Southern Great Basin Seismic Network (SGBSN), (2) Investigate the SGBSN data for evidence of seismicity patterns, depth distribution patterns, and correlations with geologic features (3) Repair and maintain our three broad band downhole digital seismograph stations at Nelson, nevada, Troy Canyon, Nevada, and Deep Springs, California (4) Install, operate, and log data from a super sensitive microearthquake array at Yucca Mountain (5) Analyze data from micro-earthquakes relative to seismic hazard at Yucca Mountain.

  14. 77 FR 75598 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; White Mountain, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; White Mountain...). SUMMARY: This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at White Mountain Airport, White Mountain, AK... management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations at White Mountain Airport. DATES: Comments must...

  15. Helicopter emergency medical service in mountainous areas.

    PubMed

    Tomazin, Iztok

    2009-01-01

    The outcome of patient care can be dramatically improved by bringing rapid rescue-medical treatment to the scene and by rapid transport to a medical facility. In mountainous areas this is usually possible only with the use of helicopters. ICAR MEDCOM suggests international standards for competent and safe response to medical problems in mountainous and wilderness areas. Rescue helicopters should work within the existing emergency medical system with appropriate mountain rescue and medically-trained personnel and with medical and rescue equipment on board. Safety is most important issue in mountain rescue. Activation and approach time should be as short as possible. All persons responsible for activation and realization of a helicopter rescue operation should be aware of all specific problems in the mountains and wilderness.

  16. Yucca Mountain Task 4, Final report FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, J.N.

    1993-09-30

    Four major projects at UNRSL have been supported by NWPO-Neotectonics Yucca Mountain Task 4 funds during the last year: (1) Operation and analysis of data from the UNRSL microearthquake network at Yucca Mountain. (2) Continued operation, maintenance, and calibration of three broadband stations. Limited data analysis was also initiated. (3) Continued review by Dr. Brune of documents and literature related to seismic hazard and tectonics of the Yucca Mountain region. (4) Testing of noise levels in boreholes.

  17. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000654.htm Rocky Mountain spotted fever To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a disease caused by a type of ...

  18. Lesson 2: Sacred Mountains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Alton; Gilligan, Nancy; Golston, Syd; Linville, Rex

    1999-01-01

    Presents a lesson in which the students are divided into four Mountain Study Teams in order to examine a sacred mountain. Explains that the students in each group assume a particular role, such as an historian or scientist. Provides a profile on the four mountains and a definition of the seven student roles. (CMK)

  19. Petition to Object to the EVRAZ Rocky Mountain Steel Mill in Pueblo, Colorado, Combined Title V Operating Permit and PSD Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  20. Floods in mountain environments: A synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoffel, Markus; Wyżga, Bartłomiej; Marston, Richard A.

    2016-11-01

    Floods are a crucial agent of geomorphic change in the channels and valley floors of mountains watercourses. At the same time, they can be highly damaging to property, infrastructure, and life. Because of their high energy, mountain watercourses are highly vulnerable to environmental changes affecting their catchments and channels. Many factors have modified and frequently still tend to modify the environmental conditions in mountain areas, with impacts on geomorphic processes and the frequency, magnitude, and timing of floods in mountain watercourses. The ongoing climate changes vary between regions but may affect floods in mountain areas in many ways. In many mountain regions of Europe, widespread afforestation took place over the twentieth century, considerably increasing the amounts of large wood delivered to the channels and the likelihood of jamming bridges. At the same time, deforestation continues in other mountain areas, accelerating runoff and amplifying the magnitude and frequency of floods in foreland areas. In many countries, in-channel gravel mining has been a common practice during recent decades; the resultant deficit of bed material in the affected channels may suddenly manifest during flood events, resulting in the failure of scoured bridges or catastrophic channel widening. During the past century many rivers in mountain and foreland areas incised deeply; the resultant loss of floodplain water storage has decreased attenuation of flood waves, hence increasing flood hazard to downstream river reaches. On the other hand, a large amount of recent river restoration activities worldwide may provide examples of beneficial changes to flood risk, attained as a result of increased channel storage or reestablished floodplain water storage. Relations between geomorphic processes and floods operate in both directions, which means that changes in flood probability or the character of floods (e.g., increased wood load) may significantly modify the morphology

  1. White Mountain Apache Tribe assesses fuel potential of forestry waste

    SciTech Connect

    Whittier, J.

    1994-12-31

    This article describes a study of the potential of wood wastes for an energy supply for sawmill operations. The waste would provide fuel for a cogeneration plant at a lumber mill owned by the White Mountain Apache Tribe.

  2. Mountain Warfare and Cold Weather Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-29

    Figure 1-3. Extent of Boreal Forests (Taiga) TUNDRA 1-24. The tundra is an area where tree growth is hindered due to low temperatures and a short...forests, visibility is limited, especially in old growth spruce and fir forests. This condition is limited in the arctic region but extensive in the...of at least two routes; one for vehicle traffic and the other for troops on foot, animal transport, and dislocated civilians. If possible

  3. Mountain regions in peril

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    The United Nations has declared 2002 the International Year of Mountains (IYM) to bring attention to a number of threats that affect ecosystems and human populations in mountainous and highland regions around the world.“More than half of humanity—3 billion people—relies on mountains for safe, fresh water, water to grow food, to produce electricity to sustain industries and, most important, water to drink,“ said Jacques Diouf, director-general of the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization, the primary IYM sponsor. “Yet, mountain glaciers, the source of water for many of the world's river systems and people, are melting at unprecedented rates.”

  4. Acute mountain sickness

    MedlinePlus

    High altitude cerebral edema; Altitude anoxia; Altitude sickness; Mountain sickness; High altitude pulmonary edema ... If you have fluid in your lungs (pulmonary edema), treatment may include: Oxygen A high blood pressure ...

  5. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    SciTech Connect

    A.M. Simmons

    2004-04-16

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

  6. Mountain Rivers Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-12-01

    Published in 2000, the original Mountain Rivers was written to provide a concise summary of the scientific understanding of the distinct subset of rivers that gave the book its name. Spurred by developments in the field in the past decade, the book's author, Ellen Wohl, produced Mountain Rivers Revisited, an updated edition aimed at graduate students and professional researchers. In this interview, Eos talks to Wohl about steep channels, climate change, and opportunities for future research.

  7. Organic contaminants in mountains.

    PubMed

    Daly, Gillian L; Wania, Frank

    2005-01-15

    The study of organic contaminants at high altitudes is motivated by the potential risk that they pose to humans living in, or depending on resources derived from, mountains and to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in alpine areas. Mountains are also ideal settings to study contaminant transport and behavior along gradients of climate and surface cover. Information on organic contaminants in mountains is compiled from the literature and synthesized, with a focus on atmospheric transport and deposition, contaminant dynamics in alpine lakes and aquatic organisms, and concentration differences with altitude. Diurnal mountain winds, in connection with enhanced deposition at higher elevations caused by low temperatures and high precipitation rates, conspire to make mid-latitude mountains become convergence zones for selected persistent organic chemicals. In particular, the more volatile constituents of contaminant mixtures seem to become enriched, relative to the less volatile constituents at higher altitudes. For selected contaminants, concentration inversions (i.e., concentrations that increase with elevation) have been observed. A notable difference between cold trapping in high latitudes and high altitudes is the likely importance of precipitation. High rates of snow deposition in mid- and high-latitude mountains may lead to a large contaminant release during snowmelt. Regions above the tree line often have little capacity to retain the released contaminants, suggesting the potential for a highly dynamic contaminant fate situation during the snow-free season with significant revolatilization and runoff. The chemical and environmental factors that control the orographic cold trapping of organic contaminants should be examined further by measuring and comparatively interpreting concentration gradients along several mountain slopes with widely different characteristics. Future efforts should further focus on the bioaccumulation and potential effects of contaminants in

  8. A View from the Mountain Top: The Purple Mountain Observatory Library, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jian

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the author's experience directing the Purple Mountain Observatory Library, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) in Nanjing, China. Routine collection development, management and preservation issues are described, and the unique challenges and opportunities involved in operating a remote observatory library are highlighted.

  9. WILSON MOUNTAINS WILDERNESS, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bromfield, Calvin S.; Williams, Frank E.

    1984-01-01

    The Wilson Mountains Wilderness consists of about 68 sq mi in the San Miguel Mountains in southwestern Colorado. Based on a mineral survey two areas in the wilderness have a probable mineral-resource potential. One area is on the east margin of the area in the Trout Lake mining district, and the other is near the center of the area, the Mount Wilson mining district. Both areas have had a modest base and (or) precious metal production from narrow veins and have a probable potential for the occurrence of similar deposits. Of more significance is a probable mineral-resource potential for disseminated copper mineralization in the Mount Wilson mining district.

  10. Mountain Home Well - Photos

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shervais, John

    2012-01-11

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  11. STRAWBERRY MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thayer, T.P.; Stotelmeyer, Ronald B.

    1984-01-01

    The Strawberry Mountain Wilderness extends 18 mi along the crest of the Strawberry Range and comprises about 53 sq mi in the Malheur National Forest, Grant County, Oregon. Systematic geologic mapping, geochemical sampling and detailed sampling of prospect workings was done. A demonstrated copper resource in small quartz veins averaging at most 0. 33 percent copper with traces of silver occurs in shear zones in gabbro. Two small areas with substantiated potential for chrome occur near the northern edge of the wilderness. There is little promise for the occurrence of additional mineral or energy resources in the Strawberry Mountain Wilderness.

  12. The Strongest Mountain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monnes, Colleen

    2004-01-01

    The article describes an activity for the author's fifth-grade students called "build the strongest mountain." To them, it was not a lesson--it was a challenge. To the author, it was an activity that turned a run-of-the-mill Earth science unit into a terrific opportunity for students to demonstrate their knowledge of erosion and develop…

  13. The Mountaineer Minority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egerton, John; Gaillard, Frye

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the new Appalachian movement, based on the assumption that mountain people are a distinct and maligned cultural minority; the people of Appalachia, white, black and red, have begun to strike back against the dam-builders, strip-miners, and others they say are gouging out the region's mineral resources by the cheapest means possible no…

  14. Rocky Mountain High.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, David

    2001-01-01

    Describes Colorado's Eagle Rock School, which offers troubled teens a fresh start by transporting them to a tuition- free campus high in the mountains. The program encourages spiritual development as well as academic growth. The atmosphere is warm, loving, structured, and nonthreatening. The article profiles several students' experiences at the…

  15. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jennan

    2017-01-01

    The tick-borne disease Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) can have deadly outcomes unless treated appropriately, yet nonspecific flu-like symptoms complicate diagnosis. Occupational health nurses must have a high index of suspicion with symptomatic workers and recognize that recent recreational or occupational activities with potential tick exposure may suggest RMSF.

  16. DOE's Yucca Mountain Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This booklet is about the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in the United States with a particular focus on Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a repository site. Intended for readers who do not have a technical background, the booklet discusses why scientists and engineers think high-level nuclear waste may be disposed of safely underground. An…

  17. An introduction to mountain search and rescue.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Lanny

    2004-05-01

    Alpine search and rescue teams must perform each incident response safely. To do so requires experience, organizational skills, technical training, and ability. In addition, teams should interface with emergency medical control advisors who are familiar with local terrain, mountain rescue operations, and the evacuation techniques employed. To facilitate safety and organization, each mission can be divided into four linked stages: location, reach, stabilize, and evacuate.

  18. Medical considerations in the use of helicopters in mountain rescue.

    PubMed

    Tomazin, Iztok; Kovacs, Tim

    2003-01-01

    The outcome of patient care can be dramatically improved by bringing rapid rescue and medical care to the mountain rescue scene and by rapid transport to a medical facility. The use of a helicopter for these purposes is common. It is necessary when it has clear advantages for victims in comparison with ground rescue and transport. Helicopters should work within the existing emergency medical system and must be staffed by appropriate mountain rescue and medically trained personnel. Activation time should be as short as possible. Activation of a helicopter for a mountain rescue should primarily include indication and assessment of flight and safety conditions. No other mediators or delaying factors should be permitted. The main safety criteria are appropriate mountain rescue and flight training, competence of air and ground crews, radio communication between the air and ground crews, and mission briefing before the rescue. Criteria for a helicopter used for mountain rescue are proper medical and rescue equipment, load capacity, adequate space, and others. There are two main groups of indications for use of a helicopter for mountain rescue: the patient's condition and the circumstances at the site of the accident. All persons responsible for the activation of the helicopter rescue operation should be aware of specific problems in the mountains or wilderness.

  19. Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Lacz, N L; Schwartz, R A; Kapila, R

    2006-04-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is an unusual but important dermatological condition to identify without hesitation. The classic triad of headache, fever, and a rash that begins on the extremities and travels proximally to involve the trunk is found in a majority of patients. The cutaneous centripetal pattern is a result of cell to cell migration by the causative organism Rickettsia rickettsii. Such individuals should receive prompt antimicrobial therapy and supportive care to avoid serious and potentially fatal complications.

  20. Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Kamper, C A; Chessman, K H; Phelps, S J

    1988-02-01

    The epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, and treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever are reviewed. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a severe infection caused by Rickettsia rickettsii transmitted to man by various species of ticks. High-incidence areas exist in the southeast and south central United States. Only 60-70% of patients with the disease report a history of tick bite or exposure to tick-infested areas. The disease is initially characterized by fever, headache, gastrointestinal complaints, myalgia, and a generalized rash. In several days generalized vasculitis may lead to periorbital edema and nonpitting edema of the face and extremities. Central nervous system involvement is common. Because signs and symptoms associated with the disease are nonspecific, the diagnosis is often delayed or missed. Traditionally diagnostic confirmation relied on serologic testing, but an indirect fluorescent antibody assay will soon be commercially available. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is usually treated with the rickettsiostatic agents chloramphenicol or tetracycline, but few comparative data on these agents in patients with the disease are available. For patients who cannot tolerate oral medications, intravenous chloramphenicol sodium succinate is the preferred treatment; chloramphenicol is also the drug of choice for children less than eight years of age. Otherwise, oral tetracycline hydrochloride is the drug of choice. Antibiotic therapy should be continued for 7-10 days or until the patient is afebrile for two to five days. All cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever must be reported to the Centers for Disease Control. The best ways to decrease the morbidity and mortality of the disease are to increase awareness of its signs and symptoms and to prevent exposure to ticks.

  1. Rainfall characteristics along mountainous transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwiebel, Jimmy; Van Baelen, Joël; Anquetin, Sandrine; Pointin, Yves; Boudevillain, Brice

    2014-05-01

    The HYdrological cycle in Mediterranean EXperiment is an experiment framework that aims at improving our understanding and quantification of processes related to the hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean region at different scales (from the individual event scale to seasonal and inter-annual variability). During the Special Observation Period (SOP-1) conducted from September 5th to November 6th 2012, an important and complementary remote sensing network (operational radars, X band research radars, Micro Rain Radars, disdrometers, and a dense network of rain gauges) has been deployed in the Cévennes-Vivarais region (South of France). This network was specifically designed to investigate the structure and the heterogeneity of precipitations as well as, in particular, the impact of orography on this structure and it has provided us with high resolution data (time and space) along strong topographic gradients (small hills, foothills and mountain). Hence, these data will support our research to precisely describe the precipitation systems and their structures over a complex terrain. In this work, we will describe the characteristics of rainfall along two topographic gradients based on the major events observed during the fall 2012 campaign period. A classification according to the type of precipitation (convective, stratiform and orographic) which can affect the region has been made to investigate orographic impact under different rainfall regimes. We will also examine the influence of the relief on the vertical and horizontal structure of precipitation. In particular, we will illustrate the modification of the drop size distribution toward smaller droplets as we go from the small hills to the mountains.

  2. Mammoth Mountain, California broadband seismic experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, P. B.; Pitt, A. M.; Wilkinson, S. K.; Chouet, B. A.; Hill, D. P.; Mangan, M.; Prejean, S. G.; Read, C.; Shelly, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    Mammoth Mountain is a young cumulo-volcano located on the southwest rim of Long Valley caldera, California. Current volcanic processes beneath Mammoth Mountain are manifested in a wide range of seismic signals, including swarms of shallow volcano-tectonic earthquakes, upper and mid-crustal long-period earthquakes, swarms of brittle-failure earthquakes in the lower crust, and shallow (3-km depth) very-long-period earthquakes. Diffuse emissions of C02 began after a magmatic dike injection beneath the volcano in 1989, and continue to present time. These indications of volcanic unrest drive an extensive monitoring effort of the volcano by the USGS Volcano Hazards Program. As part of this effort, eleven broadband seismometers were deployed on Mammoth Mountain in November 2011. This temporary deployment is expected to run through the fall of 2013. These stations supplement the local short-period and broadband seismic stations of the Northern California Seismic Network (NCSN) and provide a combined network of eighteen broadband stations operating within 4 km of the summit of Mammoth Mountain. Data from the temporary stations are not available in real-time, requiring the merging of the data from the temporary and permanent networks, timing of phases, and relocation of seismic events to be accomplished outside of the standard NCSN processing scheme. The timing of phases is accomplished through an interactive Java-based phase-picking routine, and the relocation of seismicity is achieved using the probabilistic non-linear software package NonLinLoc, distributed under the GNU General Public License by Alomax Scientific. Several swarms of shallow volcano-tectonic earthquakes, spasmodic bursts of high-frequency earthquakes, a few long-period events located within or below the edifice of Mammoth Mountain and numerous mid-crustal long-period events have been recorded by the network. To date, about 900 of the ~2400 events occurring beneath Mammoth Mountain since November 2011 have

  3. Hydrologic data for Mountain Creek, Trinity River basin, Texas, 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckner, H.D.

    1978-01-01

    The total drainage area of Mountain Creek, Texas, is 304 sq mi. The stream-gaging stations on Mountain Creek near Cedar Hill and Walnut Creek near Mansfield provide hydrologic data to define runoff characteristics from small drainage basins. They also serve as index stations for inflow into the reservoir and provide operational data for the reservoir. In addition, the station Walnut Creek near Mansfield is equipped with a recording rain gage. The stage station near Duncanville provides data pertinent to operation of the gates in the Mountain Creek Lake Dam. The reservoir-content station at the dam provides records of reservoir state and contents. The stream-gaging station Mountain Creek at Grand Prairie provides records of outflow from Mountain Creek Lake and the basin. Basin outflow for the 1976 water year was 78,660 acre-feet which is only 1,140 acre-feet above the 16-year (1960-76) average of 77,520 acre-feet. Storage in Mountain Creek Lake showed a net gain of 760 acre-feet during the water year. Rainfall over the study area for the 1976 water year was about 32 inches, which is about 2 inches below the long-term mean rainfall (1960-75) for the area. (Woodard-USGS)

  4. Patient-centred mountain medicine.

    PubMed

    Szawarski, Piotr; Hillebrandt, David

    2016-08-01

    Venturing into the mountains, doctors have accompanied expeditions to provide routine care to the teams, undertake research and occasionally take on a rescue role. The role of doctors practicing mountain medicine is evolving. Public health issues involving concepts of health and safety have become necessary with the coming of commercial and youth expeditions. Increasingly individuals with a disability or a medical diagnosis choose to ascend to high altitudes. Doctors become involved in assessment of risk and providing advice for such individuals. The field of mountain medicine is perhaps unique in that acceptance of risk is part of the ethos of climbing and adventure. The pursuit of mountaineering goals may represent the ultimate conquest of a disability. Knowledge of mountain environment is essential in facilitating mountain ascents for those who choose to undertake them, in spite of a disability or medical condition.

  5. [Rocky Mountain spotted fever].

    PubMed

    Reinauer, K M; Jaschonek, K; Kusch, G; Heizmann, W R; Döller, P C; Jenss, H

    1990-01-12

    After returning from a holiday in the USA a 24-year-old man fell ill with diarrhoea, high fever and marked rash including the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. When a history of a tick bite in the USA was elicited, a rickettsial infection was suspected. Treatment with doxycycline, 100 mg twice daily, was instituted finally and the fever slowly resolved. The patient became completely well again within four weeks. Serological tests confirmed the diagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

  6. Human impacts to mountain streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2006-09-01

    Mountain streams are here defined as channel networks within mountainous regions of the world. This definition encompasses tremendous diversity of physical and biological conditions, as well as history of land use. Human effects on mountain streams may result from activities undertaken within the stream channel that directly alter channel geometry, the dynamics of water and sediment movement, contaminants in the stream, or aquatic and riparian communities. Examples include channelization, construction of grade-control structures or check dams, removal of beavers, and placer mining. Human effects can also result from activities within the watershed that indirectly affect streams by altering the movement of water, sediment, and contaminants into the channel. Deforestation, cropping, grazing, land drainage, and urbanization are among the land uses that indirectly alter stream processes. An overview of the relative intensity of human impacts to mountain streams is provided by a table summarizing human effects on each of the major mountainous regions with respect to five categories: flow regulation, biotic integrity, water pollution, channel alteration, and land use. This table indicates that very few mountains have streams not at least moderately affected by land use. The least affected mountainous regions are those at very high or very low latitudes, although our scientific ignorance of conditions in low-latitude mountains in particular means that streams in these mountains might be more altered than is widely recognized. Four case studies from northern Sweden (arctic region), Colorado Front Range (semiarid temperate region), Swiss Alps (humid temperate region), and Papua New Guinea (humid tropics) are also used to explore in detail the history and effects on rivers of human activities in mountainous regions. The overview and case studies indicate that mountain streams must be managed with particular attention to upstream/downstream connections, hillslope

  7. 76 FR 47577 - Rocky Mountain Natural Gas LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Rocky Mountain Natural Gas LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on July 28, 2011, Rocky Mountain Natural Gas LLC filed a revised Statement of Operating Conditions to comply...

  8. SP mountain data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawson, R. F.; Hamilton, R. E.; Liskow, C. L.; Dias, A. R.; Jackson, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of synthetic aperture radar data of SP Mountain was undertaken to demonstrate the use of digital image processing techniques to aid in geologic interpretation of SAR data. These data were collected with the ERIM X- and L-band airborne SAR using like- and cross-polarizations. The resulting signal films were used to produce computer compatible tapes, from which four-channel imagery was generated. Slant range-to-ground range and range-azimuth-scale corrections were made in order to facilitate image registration; intensity corrections were also made. Manual interpretation of the imagery showed that L-band represented the geology of the area better than X-band. Several differences between the various images were also noted. Further digital analysis of the corrected data was done for enhancement purposes. This analysis included application of an MSS differencing routine and development of a routine for removal of relief displacement. It was found that accurate registration of the SAR channels is critical to the effectiveness of the differencing routine. Use of the relief displacement algorithm on the SP Mountain data demonstrated the feasibility of the technique.

  9. YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT - A BRIEFING --

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2003-08-05

    This report has the following articles: Nuclear waste--a long-term national problem; Spent nuclear fuel; High-level radioactive waste; Radioactivity and the environment; Current storage methods; Disposal options; U.S. policy on nuclear waste; The focus on Yucca Mountain; The purpose and scope of the Yucca Mountain Project; The approach for permanently disposing of waste; The scientific studies at Yucca Mountain; The proposed design for a repository at Yucca Mountain; Natural and engineered barriers would work together to isolate waste; Meticulous science and technology to protect people and the environment; Licensing a repository; Transporting waste to a permanent repository; The Environmental Impact Statement for a repository; Current status of the Yucca Mountain Project; and Further information available on the Internet.

  10. Geology at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    1993-05-01

    Both advocates and critics disagree on the significance and interpretation of critical geological features which bear on the safety and suitability of Yucca Mountain as a site for the construction of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Critics believe that there is sufficient geological evidence to rule the site unsuitable for further investigation. Some advocates claim that there is insufficient data and that investigations are incomplete, while others claim that the site is free of major obstacles. We have expanded our efforts to include both the critical evaluations of existing geological and geochemical data and the collection of field data and samples for the purpose of preparing scientific papers for submittal to journals. Summaries of the critical reviews are presented in this paper.

  11. Iron Mountain Electromagnetic Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gail Heath

    2012-07-01

    Iron Mountain Mine is located seventeen miles northwest of Redding, CA. After the completion of mining in early 1960s, the mine workings have been exposed to environmental elements which have resulted in degradation in water quality in the surrounding water sheds. In 1985, the EPA plugged ore stoops in many of the accessible mine drifts in an attempt to restrict water flow through the mine workings. During this process little data was gathered on the orientation of the stoops and construction of the plugs. During the last 25 years, plugs have begun to deteriorate and allow acidic waters from the upper workings to flow out of the mine. A team from Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed geophysical surveys on a single mine drift and 3 concrete plugs. The project goal was to evaluate several geophysical methods to determine competence of the concrete plugs and orientation of the stopes.

  12. PINE MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Canney, Frank C.; Williams, Frank E.

    1984-01-01

    A geologic study and geochemical survey were made of the Pine Mountain Wilderness in Arizona. Only slight traces of mineralization of no apparent significance were found and the results of the geochemical survey were negative. The presence of important near-surface mineral deposits in the area is considered unlikely. No evidence of nonmetallic or energy resources was identified during the course of this study. Ore deposits, if present, are probably of the massive sulfide type, and buried deeply beneath the ground surface, beyond the range of the various geochemical and geophysical techniques used in routine exploration. Some of the newer geophysical methods might possibly be capable of detecting such hidden ore bodies if not buried too deeply.

  13. Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2007-11-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a life-threatening disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, an obligately intracellular bacterium that is spread to human beings by ticks. More than a century after its first clinical description, this disease is still among the most virulent human infections identified, being potentially fatal even in previously healthy young people. The diagnosis of RMSF is based on the patient's history and a physical examination, and often presents a dilemma for clinicians because of the non-specific presentation of the disease in its early course. Early empirical treatment is essential to prevent severe complications or a fatal outcome, and treatment should be initiated even in unconfirmed cases. Because there is no vaccine available against RMSF, avoidance of tick-infested areas is still the best way to prevent the infection.

  14. Domestic Support Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    slingload of construction materials from Mount Rushmore . The ma- terial had been on the mountain since 1941. The 113th removed the materials during...through establishing listening posts and observation posts, on foot or mounted patrols, operation of ground surveillance or air defense radars, and the

  15. Transportation cask decontamination and maintenance at the potential Yucca Mountain repository; Yucca Mountain Site characterization project

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, D.J.; Miller, D.D.; Hill, R.R.

    1992-04-01

    This study investigates spent fuel cask handling experience at existing nuclear facilities to determine appropriate cask decontamination and maintenance operations at the potential Yucca Mountain repository. These operations are categorized as either routine or nonroutine. Routine cask decontamination and maintenance tasks are performed in the cask preparation area at the repository. Casks are taken offline to a separate cask maintenance area for major nonroutine tasks. The study develops conceptual designs of the cask preparation area and cask maintenance area. The functions, layouts, and major features of these areas are also described.

  16. Mountain View College's Cognitive Style Program: A Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrhardt, Harryette B.

    Several issues are discussed related to the administration and operation of Mountain View College's (MVC) Cognitive Style Program, an assessment system based on the Modified Hill Model, which determines preferred learning styles for each student and thus aids the student in selecting appropriate classroom environments. After introductory material…

  17. 27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “York Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The approved map for the York Mountain viticultural area is the U.S.G.S. map entitled...

  18. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  19. 27 CFR 9.108 - Ozark Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ozark Mountain. 9.108... Ozark Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Ozark Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of Ozark Mountain...

  20. 27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “York Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The approved map for the York Mountain viticultural area is the U.S.G.S. map entitled...

  1. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  2. 27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “York Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The approved map for the York Mountain viticultural area is the U.S.G.S. map entitled...

  3. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  4. 27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “York Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The approved map for the York Mountain viticultural area is the U.S.G.S. map entitled...

  5. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  6. 27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “York Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The approved map for the York Mountain viticultural area is the U.S.G.S. map entitled...

  7. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  8. Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC) FTIR Intercomparison at Table Mountain Facility, November 1996

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, G.; Goldman, A.; Walsh, C.; Bell, W.; Blavier, J. -F.; Sen, B.; Coffey, M.; Hannigan, J.; Mankin, W.

    2000-01-01

    An intercomparison of four Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometers, operated side by side by JPL, NCAR, and NPL groups, using two different spectral fitting algorithms, was conducted at JPL's Table Mountain Facility (TMF) during November 1996.

  9. Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat

    PubMed Central

    Mead, Jim I.; Martin, Paul S.; Euler, Robert C.; Long, Austin; Jull, A. J. T.; Toolin, Laurence J.; Donahue, Douglas J.; Linick, T. W.

    1986-01-01

    Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 ± 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters. Images PMID:16593655

  10. Geography and Weather: Mountain Meterology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogil, H. Michael; Collins, H. Thomas

    1990-01-01

    Provided are 26 ideas to help children explore the effects of mountains on the weather. Weather conditions in Nepal and Colorado are considered separately. Nine additional sources of information are listed. (CW)

  11. Pathology of chronic mountain sickness

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Stella, Javier; Krüger, Hever; Recavarren, Sixto

    1973-01-01

    Arias-Stella, J., Krüger, H., and Recavarren, S. (1973).Thorax, 28, 701-708. Pathology of chronic mountain sickness. Pathological data on chronic mountain sickness are scarce due to the fact that the disease is ameliorated or cured by descent to a low altitude. In this report we describe a case of chronic mountain sickness occurring in a woman of 48 years at Cerro de Pasco (4,300 m above sea level). The necropsy findings are compared with the limited pathological observations reported by others. It is apparent from our findings that in fatal cases the main changes are located within the pulmonary circulation. So far histological studies have been reported only in cases of the secondary form of chronic mountain sickness. The basic pathology of the primary form (Monge's disease) remains to be defined. Images PMID:4787982

  12. Extinction of Harrington's Mountain Goat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, Jim I.; Martin, Paul S.; Euler, Robert C.; Long, Austin; Jull, A. J. T.; Toolin, Laurence J.; Donahue, Douglas J.; Linick, T. W.

    1986-02-01

    Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 ± 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters.

  13. Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat

    SciTech Connect

    Mead, J.I.; Martin, P.S.; Euler, R.C.; Long, A.; Jull, A.J.T.; Toolin, L.J.; Donahue, D.J.; Linick, T.W.

    1986-02-01

    Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 +/- 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters.

  14. Rocky Mountain Arsenal NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit CO-0035009, the U.S. Department of Interior's Fish and Wildlife Service is authorized to discharge from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal recycled water pipeline to Lower Derby Lake in Adams County, Colo.

  15. The Dilemma of Mountain Roads

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountain roads and trails are proliferating throughout developing Southeast Asia with severe but largely unrecognized long-term consequences related to effects of landslides and surface erosion on communities and downstream resources.

  16. Mid-pacific mountains revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroenke, Loren W.; Kellogg, James N.; Nemoto, Kenji

    1985-06-01

    The Mid-Pacific Mountains are guyots whose volcanic pedestals have been constructed on a broad basement plateau, the flanks of which are downfaulted. Edifice construction may have been controlled by an orthogonal system of intersecting faults trending roughly ENE and NNW. Low amplitude gravity anomalies observed over the Mid-Pacific Mountains indicate complete Airy-Heiskanen isostatic compensation, crustal thickening, and eruption on thin elastic lithosphere. Tholeiites of the Mid-Pacific Mountains resemble lavas of Iceland and the Galapagos Islands. The orthogonal fault system, low gravity anomalies, and lava chemistry of the Mid-Pacific Mountains can be explained by eruption on or near a great ENE-trending rift system.

  17. Mountain Child: Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Audsley, Annie; Wallace, Rebecca M M; Price, Martin F

    2016-12-01

    Objectives This systematic review identifies and reviews both peer-reviewed and 'grey' literature, across a range of disciplines and from diverse sources, relating to the condition of children living in mountain communities in low- and middle-income countries. Findings The literature on poverty in these communities does not generally focus on the particular vulnerabilities of children or the impact of intersecting vulnerabilities on the most marginalised members of communities. However, this literature does contribute analyses of the broader context and variety of factors impacting on human development in mountainous areas. The literature on other areas of children's lives-health, nutrition, child mortality, education, and child labour-focuses more specifically on children's particular vulnerabilities or experiences. However, it sometimes lacks the broader analysis of the many interrelated characteristics of a mountainous environment which impact on children's situations. Themes Nevertheless, certain themes recur across many disciplines and types of literature, and point to some general conclusions: mountain poverty is influenced by the very local specificities of the physical environment; mountain communities are often politically and economically marginalised, particularly for the most vulnerable within these communities, including children; and mountain communities themselves are an important locus for challenging and interrupting cycles of increasing inequality and disadvantage. While this broad-scale review represents a modest first step, its findings provide the basis for further investigation.

  18. Uplift of the Transantarctic Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Stump, E.

    1987-09-01

    The Transantarctic Mountains, a major continental range, extend approximately 3,000 kilometers, vary from less than 50 to more than 400 kilometers wide, and have elevations of up to 4,500 meters. Earth scientists have generally defined the stratigraphy of the range and recognize that uplift of the region occurred after the Jurassic period but still know very little about the processes that effected uplift. Unlike other major mountain chains, the Transantarctic Mountains show no evidence of thrusting, folding, regional metamorphism, and andesitic volcanism associated with their uplift. The objectives during austral summer 1987-1988 are to map the uplift geometry of the Transantarctic Mountains using erosion surfaces (pre-Devonian Kukir peneplain) and widespread terrace levels as datum planes and to determine the uplift rates for the mountain range using fission-track dating of apatites. Presently, fission-track dating provides only quantitative data on the initiation time, amount, and rate of uplift. Through research, the authors hopes to extend data from Victoria Land through 1,600 kilometers of the Transantarctic Mountains. This study also has implications for the glacial history of Antarctica, because the uplift occurred during the inception, growth, and subsequent fluctuations of the east and west antarctic ice sheets. It will also add to our understanding of the nature of the East-West Antarctic boundary and to the knowledge of the sedimentation history in the Ross embayment and the basins beneath polar plateau.

  19. Io: Mountains and crustal extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    It is argued that there is good reason to conclude that mountains on Io, like those on Earth, are subject to growth and decay. The decay of mountains will be assisted by the ability of SO sub 2 to rot silicate rock and by explosive escape of sub-surface SO sub 2 from aquifers (Haemus Mons is seen to be covered by bright material, presumably fallout from a SO sub 2 rich plume which had been active on the mountain flanks). On the west side of the massif at 10 degrees S, 270 degrees W a rugged surface consists of long ridges running perpendicular to the downslope direction, suggesting tectonic denudation with crustal blocks sliding down the mountain flank. Tectonic denudation may be assisted, as in the case of the Bearpaw Mountains, Montana by overloading mountain flanks with volcanic products. The surfaces of some massifs exhibit a well developed, enigmatic corrugated terrain, consisting of complex ridge systems. Ridges may bifurcate, anastomose to form closed depressions and form concentric loops. Taken together, observations of morphology, heat flux, surface deposits and styles of volcanism may point to the existence of lithosphere domains with distinct compositions and tectonic regimes.

  20. Precipitation interpolation in mountainous areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolberg, Sjur

    2015-04-01

    Different precipitation interpolation techniques as well as external drift covariates are tested and compared in a 26000 km2 mountainous area in Norway, using daily data from 60 stations. The main method of assessment is cross-validation. Annual precipitation in the area varies from below 500 mm to more than 2000 mm. The data were corrected for wind-driven undercatch according to operational standards. While temporal evaluation produce seemingly acceptable at-station correlation values (on average around 0.6), the average daily spatial correlation is less than 0.1. Penalising also bias, Nash-Sutcliffe R2 values are negative for spatial correspondence, and around 0.15 for temporal. Despite largely violated assumptions, plain Kriging produces better results than simple inverse distance weighting. More surprisingly, the presumably 'worst-case' benchmark of no interpolation at all, simply averaging all 60 stations for each day, actually outperformed the standard interpolation techniques. For logistic reasons, high altitudes are under-represented in the gauge network. The possible effect of this was investigated by a) fitting a precipitation lapse rate as an external drift, and b) applying a linear model of orographic enhancement (Smith and Barstad, 2004). These techniques improved the results only marginally. The gauge density in the region is one for each 433 km2; higher than the overall density of the Norwegian national network. Admittedly the cross-validation technique reduces the gauge density, still the results suggest that we are far from able to provide hydrological models with adequate data for the main driving force.

  1. Mountain building on Io driven by deep faulting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bland, Michael; McKinnon, William B

    2016-01-01

    Jupiter’s volcanic moon Io possesses some of the highest relief in the Solar System: massive, isolated mountain blocks that tower up to 17 km above the surrounding plains. These mountains are likely to result from pervasive compressive stresses induced by subsidence of the surface beneath the near-continual emplacement of volcanic material. The stress state that results from subsidence and warming of Io’s lithosphere has been investigated in detail1, 2, 3, 4; however, the mechanism of orogenesis itself and its effect on regional tectonism and volcanism has not been firmly established. Here we present viscoelastic–plastic finite element simulations demonstrating that Io’s mountains form along deep-seated thrust faults that initiate at the base of the lithosphere and propagate upward. We show that faulting fundamentally alters the stress state of Io’s lithosphere by relieving the large volcanism-induced subsidence stresses. Notably, in the upper portion of the lithosphere, stresses become tensile (near-zero differential stress). A number of processes are therefore altered post-faulting, including magma transport through the lithosphere, interactions with tidal stresses and potentially the localization of mountain formation by thermoelastic stresses. We conclude that Io’s mountains form by a unique orogenic mechanism, compared with tectonic processes operating elsewhere in the Solar System.

  2. Mountain building on Io driven by deep faulting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bland, Michael T.; McKinnon, William B.

    2016-06-01

    Jupiter's volcanic moon Io possesses some of the highest relief in the Solar System: massive, isolated mountain blocks that tower up to 17 km above the surrounding plains. These mountains are likely to result from pervasive compressive stresses induced by subsidence of the surface beneath the near-continual emplacement of volcanic material. The stress state that results from subsidence and warming of Io's lithosphere has been investigated in detail; however, the mechanism of orogenesis itself and its effect on regional tectonism and volcanism has not been firmly established. Here we present viscoelastic-plastic finite element simulations demonstrating that Io's mountains form along deep-seated thrust faults that initiate at the base of the lithosphere and propagate upward. We show that faulting fundamentally alters the stress state of Io's lithosphere by relieving the large volcanism-induced subsidence stresses. Notably, in the upper portion of the lithosphere, stresses become tensile (near-zero differential stress). A number of processes are therefore altered post-faulting, including magma transport through the lithosphere, interactions with tidal stresses and potentially the localization of mountain formation by thermoelastic stresses. We conclude that Io's mountains form by a unique orogenic mechanism, compared with tectonic processes operating elsewhere in the Solar System.

  3. Review of Yucca Mountain Disposal Criticality Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Scaglione, John M; Wagner, John C

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, submitted a license application for construction authorization of a deep geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in June of 2008. The license application is currently under review by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. However,on March 3, 2010 the DOE filed a motion requesting withdrawal of the license application. With the withdrawal request and the development of the Blue Ribbon Commission to seek alternative strategies for disposing of spent fuel, the status of the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain is uncertain. What is certain is that spent nuclear fuel (SNF) will continue to be generated and some long-lived components of the SNF will eventually need a disposition path(s). Strategies for the back end of the fuel cycle will continue to be developed and need to include the insights from the experience gained during the development of the Yucca Mountain license application. Detailed studies were performed and considerable progress was made in many key areas in terms of increased understanding of relevant phenomena and issues regarding geologic disposal of SNF. This paper reviews selected technical studies performed in support of the disposal criticality analysis licensing basis and the use of burnup credit. Topics include assembly misload analysis, isotopic and criticality validation, commercial reactor critical analyses, loading curves, alternative waste package and criticality control studies, radial burnup data and effects, and implementation of a conservative application model in the criticality probabilistic evaluation as well as other information that is applicable to operations regarding spent fuel outside the reactor. This paper summarizes the work and significant accomplishments in these areas and provides a resource for future, related activities.

  4. Mountaineer Commerical Scale Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Deanna Gilliland; Matthew Usher

    2011-12-31

    The Final Technical documents all work performed during the award period on the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture & Storage project. This report presents the findings and conclusions produced as a consequence of this work. As identified in the Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0002673, AEP's objective of the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and Storage (MT CCS II) project is to design, build and operate a commercial scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) system capable of treating a nominal 235 MWe slip stream of flue gas from the outlet duct of the Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system at AEP's Mountaineer Power Plant (Mountaineer Plant), a 1300 MWe coal-fired generating station in New Haven, WV. The CCS system is designed to capture 90% of the CO{sub 2} from the incoming flue gas using the Alstom Chilled Ammonia Process (CAP) and compress, transport, inject and store 1.5 million tonnes per year of the captured CO{sub 2} in deep saline reservoirs. Specific Project Objectives include: (1) Achieve a minimum of 90% carbon capture efficiency during steady-state operations; (2) Demonstrate progress toward capture and storage at less than a 35% increase in cost of electricity (COE); (3) Store CO{sub 2} at a rate of 1.5 million tonnes per year in deep saline reservoirs; and (4) Demonstrate commercial technology readiness of the integrated CO{sub 2} capture and storage system.

  5. 10. SLIGHTLY OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP COMPLEX. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. SLIGHTLY OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP COMPLEX. NOTE AUXILIARY STRUCTURES. - Eagle Mountain Pump Plant, Ten miles north of Route 10, southeast of Eagle Mountain, Eagle Mountain, Riverside County, CA

  6. 76 FR 77224 - Rocky Mountain Natural Gas LLC; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval and Revised Statement of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Rocky Mountain Natural Gas LLC; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval and Revised Statement of Operating Conditions Take notice that on November 30, 2011, Rocky Mountain...

  7. Timber Mountain Precipitation Monitoring Station

    SciTech Connect

    Lyles, Brad; McCurdy, Greg; Chapman, Jenny; Miller, Julianne

    2012-01-01

    A precipitation monitoring station was placed on the west flank of Timber Mountain during the year 2010. It is located in an isolated highland area near the western border of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), south of Pahute Mesa. The cost of the equipment, permitting, and installation was provided by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI) project. Data collection, analysis, and maintenance of the station during fiscal year 2011 was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office Environmental Restoration, Soils Activity. The station is located near the western headwaters of Forty Mile Wash on the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Overland flows from precipitation events that occur in the Timber Mountain high elevation area cross several of the contaminated Soils project CAU (Corrective Action Unit) sites located in the Forty Mile Wash watershed. Rain-on-snow events in the early winter and spring around Timber Mountain have contributed to several significant flow events in Forty Mile Wash. The data from the new precipitation gauge at Timber Mountain will provide important information for determining runoff response to precipitation events in this area of the NNSS. Timber Mountain is also a groundwater recharge area, and estimation of recharge from precipitation was important for the EMSI project in determining groundwater flowpaths and designing effective groundwater monitoring for Yucca Mountain. Recharge estimation additionally provides benefit to the Underground Test Area Sub-project analysis of groundwater flow direction and velocity from nuclear test areas on Pahute Mesa. Additionally, this site provides data that has been used during wild fire events and provided a singular monitoring location of the extreme precipitation events during December 2010 (see data section for more details). This letter report provides a summary of the site location, equipment, and data collected in

  8. Monitoring the Snowpack in Remote, Ungauged Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dozier, J.; Davis, R. E.; Bair, N.; Rittger, K. E.

    2013-12-01

    Our objective is to estimate seasonal snow volumes, relative to historical trends and extremes, in snow-dominated mountains that have austere infrastructure, sparse gauging, challenges of accessibility, and emerging or enduring insecurity related to water resources. The world's mountains accumulate substantial snow and, in some areas, produce the bulk of the runoff. In ranges like Afghanistan's Hindu Kush, availability of water resources affects US policy, military and humanitarian operations, and national security. The rugged terrain makes surface measurements difficult and also affects the analysis of remotely sensed data. To judge feasibility, we consider two regions, a validation case and a case representing inaccessible mountains. For the validation case, we use the Sierra Nevada of California, a mountain range of extensive historical study, emerging scientific innovation, and conflicting priorities in managing water for agriculture, urban areas, hydropower, recreation, habitat, and flood control. For the austere regional focus, we use the Hindu Kush, where some of the most persistent drought in the world causes food insecurity and combines with political instability, and occasional flooding. Our approach uses a mix of satellite data and spare modeling to present information essential for planning and decision making, ranging from optimization of proposed infrastructure projects to assessment of water resources stored as snow for seasonal forecasts. We combine optical imagery (MODIS on Terra/Aqua), passive microwave data (SSM/I and AMSR-E), retrospective reconstruction with energy balance calculations, and a snowmelt model to establish the retrospective context. With the passive microwave data we bracket the historical range in snow cover volume. The rank orders of total retrieved volume correlates with reconstructions. From a library of historical reconstruction, we find similar cases that provide insights about snow cover distribution at a finer scale than

  9. BLOOD MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA, GEORGIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koeppen, Robert P.; Armstrong, Michelle K.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey of the Blood Mountain Roadless Area, Georgia, indicates that there is little promise for the occurrence of mineral and energy resources. Natural gas may be present at great depth, perhaps 5 mi down and below the overthrust sheets of the Blue Ridge Mountains, but presently available information is not adequate to evaluate the resource potential of this commodity. Further seismic studies and exploratory drilling are needed to evaluate the gas potential of this part of the Eastern Overthrust Belt.

  10. Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit CO-0034762, the Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station is authorized to discharge from the interior storm drainage system and air exhaust stacks at the Cheyenne Mountain Complex, in El Paso County, Colorado, to tributaries Fountain Creek.

  11. [Vertical zonation of mountain landscape: a review].

    PubMed

    Sun, Ran-Hao; Chen, Li-Ding; Zhang, Bai-Ping; Fu, Bo-Jie

    2009-07-01

    Vertical gradient of mountain landscape is about 1000 times of its horizontal gradient, and hence, only using landscape pattern index is quite difficult to reflect the landscape regularity along vertical gradient. Mountain altitudinal belt is a kind of classic geographic models representing the vertical differentiation of landscape, being of significance in geographic and ecological researches. However, the discrete expression pattern and the inaccuracy of the borderlines of mountain vertical belts limit the roles of mountain vertical belt in accurately describing landscape pattern in regional scale and in explaining ecological processes. This paper reviewed the research progress and existing problems on mountain altitudinal belt, put forward a suggestion of using modern information technology to establish a comprehensive and continuous mountain landscape information chart, and discussed the framework and prospect of the establishment of the chart, which would have reference value for accurately describing mountain landscape pattern and explaining specific ecological processes, and promote the further improvement of the methodology for mountain ecological research.

  12. Rocky Mountain futures: An ecological perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baron, Jill S.

    2002-01-01

    The United Nations has proclaimed 2002 as the International Year of Mountains to increase international awareness of the global importance of mountain ecosystems. The case-based multidisciplinary approach of this book constitutes an important new model for understanding the implications of land-use practices and economic activity on mountains, and will serve a vital role in improving decisionmaking both in the Rocky Mountains and in other parts of the world that face similar challenges.

  13. 27 CFR 9.112 - Arkansas Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arkansas Mountain. 9.112... Arkansas Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Arkansas Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Arkansas...

  14. Storymakers: Hopa Mountain's Early Literacy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templin, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Hopa Mountain's StoryMakers program is an innovative, research-based program for donating high quality young children's books to parents. Hopa Mountain is a nonprofit organization based in Bozeman, Montana. Hopa Mountain works with groups of rural and tribal citizen leaders who form StoryMakers Community Teams to talk one-on-one with local parents…

  15. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  16. 27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94... Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Howell Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Howell...

  17. 27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102... Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma...

  18. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  19. 27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102... Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma...

  20. 27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94... Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Howell Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Howell...

  1. 27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102... Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma...

  2. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  3. 27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94... Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Howell Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Howell...

  4. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  5. 27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102... Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma...

  6. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  7. 27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94... Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Howell Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Howell...

  8. 27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94... Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Howell Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Howell...

  9. 27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102... Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma...

  10. Trail Mountain brings people together for better on-the-job performance

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, G.

    1983-08-01

    About 40 miles outside of Price, UT, is Natomas Trail Mountain Coal Co. Owned and operated by Natomas Coal, Englewood, CO, Trail Mountain Coal is a two section mine using continuous miners, shuttle cars and belt haulage. Seam height averages about seven feet. Until about a year and a half ago, Trail Mountain Coal Co. was not much different from most mines. With about 120 employees, they were faced with the same problems seen throughout the industry such as high absenteeism, inexperience, poor communication and cooperation, and a host of other problems.

  11. The Mountaineer-Malaysia Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeff

    1997-01-01

    A 26-day summer field course of West Virginia University's (WVU) Recreation and Parks Department took students to Malaysia's mountains and rainforests to observe how Malaysians are managing national parks, problem elephants, and population pressures on parks. The adventure provided powerful learning experiences. Further exchanges between WVU and…

  12. Lone Mountain processing boosts recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgarth, T.; Bethell, P.; Gupta, B.K.

    2005-08-01

    A new deslime column flotation circuit installed at Arch Coal's Lone Mountain preparation plant in St. Charles, Va., USA recovers an additional 20 tph. The article describes how this column technology was selected. It explains the circuit design, start-up and post upgrade distant testing. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Anatomy of a Mountain Range.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chew, Berkeley

    1993-01-01

    Provides written tour of Colorado Rockies along San Juan Skyway in which the geological features and formation of the mountain range is explored. Discusses evidence of geologic forces and products such as plate tectonic movement and the Ancestral Rockies; subduction and the Laramide Orogeny; volcanism and calderas; erosion, faulting, land…

  14. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Marylin; Orejuela, Leonora; Fuya, Patricia; Carrillo, Pilar; Hernandez, Jorge; Parra, Edgar; Keng, Colette; Small, Melissa; Olano, Juan P; Bouyer, Donald; Castaneda, Elizabeth; Walker, David; Valbuena, Gustavo

    2007-07-01

    We investigated 2 fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that occurred in 2003 and 2004 near the same locality in Colombia where the disease was first reported in the 1930s. A retrospective serosurvey of febrile patients showed that > 21% of the serum samples had antibodies aaainst spotted fever group rickettsiae.

  15. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Panama.

    PubMed

    Estripeaut, Dora; Aramburú, María Gabriela; Sáez-Llorens, Xavier; Thompson, Herbert A; Dasch, Gregory A; Paddock, Christopher D; Zaki, Sherif; Eremeeva, Marina E

    2007-11-01

    We describe a fatal pediatric case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Panama, the first, to our knowledge, since the 1950s. Diagnosis was established by immunohistochemistry, PCR, and isolation of Rickettsia rickettsii from postmortem tissues. Molecular typing demonstrated strong relatedness of the isolate to strains of R. rickettsii from Central and South America.

  16. Rocky Mountain Basins Produced Water Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Historical records for produced water data were collected from multiple sources, including Amoco, British Petroleum, Anadarko Petroleum Corporation, United States Geological Survey (USGS), Wyoming Oil and Gas Commission (WOGC), Denver Earth Resources Library (DERL), Bill Barrett Corporation, Stone Energy, and other operators. In addition, 86 new samples were collected during the summers of 2003 and 2004 from the following areas: Waltman-Cave Gulch, Pinedale, Tablerock and Wild Rose. Samples were tested for standard seven component "Stiff analyses", and strontium and oxygen isotopes. 16,035 analyses were winnowed to 8028 unique records for 3276 wells after a data screening process was completed. [Copied from the Readme document in the zipped file available at http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/Software/database.html] Save the Zipped file to your PC. When opened, it will contain four versions of the database: ACCESS, EXCEL, DBF, and CSV formats. The information consists of detailed water analyses from basins in the Rocky Mountain region.

  17. The Table Mountain 8-mm wavelength interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janssen, M. A.; Gary, B. L.; Gulkis, S.; Olsen, E. T.; Soltis, F. S.; Yamane, N. I.

    1979-01-01

    A two-element radio interferometer operating at 8.33-mm wavelength has been developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Table Mountain Observatory near Wrightwood, CA. The interferometer employs a 5.5-m and a 3-m diameter antenna on an east-west baseline of 60 or 120 m, yielding fringe spacings at transit of 28 or 14 arcsec, respectively. The broad intermediate-frequency bandpass of 100-350 MHz and the system noise temperature of 500 K provide high sensitivity for the measurement of continuum sources. The interferometer has been used for high-resolution studies of the planets and the sun, and it is currently being adapted to study solar flare emissions at high spatial and time resolution.

  18. Geology of the Henry Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilbert, G.K.

    1877-01-01

    If these pages fail to give a correct account of the structure of the Henry Mountains the fault is mine and I have no excuse. In all the earlier exploration of the Rocky Mountain Region, as well as in much of the more recent survey, the geologist has merely accompanied the geographer and has had no voice in the determination of either the route or the rate of travel. When the structure of a mountain was in doubt he was rarely able to visit the points which should resolve the doubt, but was compelled to turn regretfully away. Not so in the survey of the Henry Mountains. Geological exploration had shown that they were well disposed for examination, and that they promised to give the key to a type of structure which was at best obscurely known; and I was sent by Professor Powell to make a study of them, without restriction as to my order or method. I was limited only in time, the snow stopping my work two months after it was begun. Two months would be far too short a period in which to survey a thousand square miles in Pennsylvania or Illinois, but among the Colorado Plateaus it proved sufficient. A few comprehensive views from mountain tops gave the general distribution of the formations, and the remainder of the time was spent in the examination of the localities which best displayed the peculiar features of the structure. So thorough was the display and so satisfactory the examination, that in preparing my report I have felt less than ever before the desire to revisit the field and prove my conclusions by more extended observation.

  19. Preparing to Submit a License Application for Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    W.J. Arthur; M.D. Voegele

    2005-03-14

    In 1982, the U.S. Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, a Federal law that established U.S. policy for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Congress amended the Act in 1987, directing the Department of Energy to study only Yucca Mountain, Nevada as the site for a permanent geologic repository. As the law mandated, the Department evaluated Yucca Mountain to determine its suitability as the site for a permanent geologic repository. Decades of scientific studies demonstrated that Yucca Mountain would protect workers, the public, and the environment during the time that a repository would be operating and for tens of thousands of years after closure of the repository. A repository at this remote site would also: preserve the quality of the environment; allow the environmental cleanup of Cold War weapons facilities; provide the nation with additional protection from acts of terrorism; and support a sound energy policy. Throughout the scientific evaluation of Yucca Mountain, there has been no evidence to disqualify Yucca Mountain as a suitable site for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Upon completion of site characterization, the Secretary of Energy considered the results and concluded that a repository at Yucca Mountain would perform in a manner that protects public health and safety. The Secretary recommended the site to the President in February 2002; the President agreed and recommended to Congress that the site be approved. The Governor of Nevada submitted a notice of disapproval, and both houses of Congress acted to override the disapproval. In July 2002, the President's approval allowed the Department to begin the process of submittal of a license application for Yucca Mountain as the site for the nation's first repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Yucca Mountain is located on federal land in Nye County in southern Nevada, an arid region

  20. Deciphering the Tectonic History of the Northern Transantarctic Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Samantha; Graw, Jordan; Brenn, Gregory; Kenyon, Lindsey; Park, Yongcheol; DuBay, Brian

    2016-04-01

    The Transantarctic Mountains (TAMs) are the largest non-compressional mountain range in the world, and their structure plays a key role in the climatic and tectonic development of Antarctica. While numerous uplift mechanisms for the TAMs have been proposed, there is little consensus on their origin. Over the past three years, we have operated a network of 15 broadband seismic stations within a previously unexplored portion of the northern TAMs. Using data collected by this array, we have undertaken numerous studies to further assess the crustal and lithospheric structure beneath the mountain range and to differentiate between competing origin models. Receiver functions indicate crustal thickening inland from the Ross Sea coast but comparable crustal thickness beneath the TAMs and the East Antarctic plateau, indicating little evidence for a substantial crustal root beneath the mountain range. Body and surface wave analyses show a pronounced low-velocity anomaly beneath Terror Rift, adjacent to the TAMs, and extending beneath Victoria Land in the upper mantle. Together, these findings support a thermally-buoyant source of uplift for the northern TAMs and broad flexure of the East Antarctic lithosphere.

  1. Waste management in mountain refuges - an integrated evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lebersorger, Sandra; Weissenbacher, Norbert; Mayr, Ernest; Aschauer, Christian

    2011-05-01

    Mountain refuges are an excellent example of public stand-alone infrastructures equipped with energy and water supply, and wastewater and waste disposal systems suited to operating under unfavourable conditions, often comprising lengthy distances for transportation or scarce resources. An international project was undertaken to evaluate the existing supply and disposal schemes at 100 mountain refuges both individually and in an integrated manner. On the basis of the results obtained guidelines to be applied in the sustainable planning, construction and operation of supply and disposal systems will be published in the near future. The present article focuses on solid waste management with an aim to the identification, quantification and critical discussion of operational issues and problems relating to waste management in mountain refuges. Transportation represents a crucial factor in terms of costs and climate relevance. The results obtained reveal how waste prevention and composting are capable of reducing waste quantities requiring transportation. However, it was also demonstrated that composting is frequently not performed in an appropriate manner and, although prohibited by law paper and cardboard are frequently burned.

  2. POND MOUNTAIN AND POND MOUNTAIN ADDITION ROADLESS AREAS, TENNESSEE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffitts, W.R.; Bitar, Richard

    1984-01-01

    As a result of a mineral study of the Pond Mountain Roadless Areas, Tennessee, a probable potential for the occurrence of tin, niobium, and tungsten resource with associated beryllium, molybdenum, zinc, and fluorite was identified in rocks of Precambrian age particularly in the southeastern part of the area. Detailed geologic mapping and geochemical sampling of the soils and rocks in the area of Precambrian rocks is recommended to identify and delimit the areas of potential resources of tin, niobium, and tungsten.

  3. Best Practices Case Study: Pine Mountain Builders - Pine Mountain, GA

    SciTech Connect

    2011-09-01

    Case study of Pine Mountain Builders who worked with DOE’s IBACOS team to achieve HERS scores of 59 on 140 homes built around a wetlands in Georgia. The team used taped rigid foam exterior sheathing and spray foam insulation in the walls and on the underside of the attic for a very tight 1.0 to 1.8 ACH 50 building shell.

  4. TRAY MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA, GEORGIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Arthur E.; Chatman, Mark L.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey indicates that the Tray Mountain Roadless Area, Georgia has little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. Rocks underlying the Tray Mountain Roadless Area are suitable for crushed rock or aggregate; however, other sources for these materials are available closer to present markets. There is a possibility for the occurrence of hydrocarbon resources underlying the area at great depth, but no hydrocarbon potential was identified. Detailed studies are needed to establish the presence or absence and mineral-resource potential of olivine, nickel, cobalt, and chrome in the two mafic-ultramafic bodies in the Hayesville thrust sheet. The cause of the lead anomaly in pan concentrate samples taken from the southwest part of the roadless area has not been established; the mineral residence and source of the anomaly remain to be determined.

  5. Microbial activity at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, J.M.; Meike, A.

    1995-09-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy is engaged in a suitability study for a potential geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the containment and storage of commercially generated spent fuel and defense high-level nuclear waste. There is growing recognition of the role that biotic factors could play in this repository, either directly through microbially induced corrosion (MIC), or indirectly by altering the chemical environment or contributing to the transport of radionuclides. As a first step toward describing and predicting these processes, a workshop was held on April 10-12, 1995, in Lafayette, California. The immediate aims of the workshop were: (1) To identify microbially related processes relevant to the design of a radioactive waste repository under conditions similar to those at Yucca Mountain. (2) To determine parameters that are critical to the evaluation of a disturbed subterranean environment. (3) To define the most effective means of investigating the factors thus identified.

  6. Managing Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Minniear, Timothy D; Buckingham, Steven C

    2009-11-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by the tick-borne bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. Symptoms range from moderate illness to severe illness, including cardiovascular compromise, coma and death. The disease is prevalent in most of the USA, especially during warmer months. The trademark presentation is fever and rash with a history of tick bite, although tick exposure is unappreciated in over a third of cases. Other signature symptoms include headache and abdominal pain. The antibiotic therapy of choice for R. rickettsii infection is doxycycline. Preventive measures for Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other tick-borne diseases include: wearing long-sleeved, light colored clothing; checking for tick attachment and removing attached ticks promptly; applying topical insect repellent; and treating clothing with permethrin.

  7. Mountain rescue stretchers: usability trial.

    PubMed

    Hignett, Sue; Willmott, Joseph Wayne; Clemes, Stacy

    2009-01-01

    In the UK mountain rescues are carried out by highly trained volunteers in all weather conditions and at any time of the day/night. They interface with other services when they hand over the casualty to either land or air ambulances. The design of the stretcher is important to the safety of both the volunteers and casualties. This paper reports a usability trial to evaluate the features of mountain rescue stretchers and identify characteristics for future design. Two mountain rescue teams in the English Lake District participated in a five week field experiment. Data were collected using postural analysis with Rapid Entire Body Analysis, Body Part Discomfort Surveys, Rated Perceived Exertion and focus groups to compare the performance of four stretchers: Split Thomas, Ferno Titan, MacInnes mark 6 and MacInnes mark 7. None of the stretchers had an overall advantage, with benefits for some features counterbalanced by disadvantages resulting from others. All the stretchers produced shoulder discomfort with the Split Thomas and MacInnes 6 lowering the postural risks through the use of skids/wheel in the carrying phase. The key design features for future MR stretchers include: reduced unloaded weight (e.g. light weight materials and mesh platforms); undercarriage system to reduce the carrying load; adjustable handles at the front and back positions; flexible carrying system with an optional harness attachment; ease of assembly in adverse environmental conditions; large carrying capacity. It is suggested that military emergency evacuation should be considered in addition to mountain rescue tasks to identify a larger commercial market for development.

  8. Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Anti-Atlas Mountains of northern Africa and the nearby Atlas mountains were created by the prolonged collision of the African and Eurasian tectonic plates, beginning about 80 million years ago. Massive sandstone and limestone layers have been crumpled and uplifted more than 4,000 meters in the High Atlas and to lower elevations in the Anti-Atlas. Between more continuous major fold structures, such as the Jbel Ouarkziz in the southwestern Anti-Atlas, tighter secondary folds (arrow) have developed. Earlier, the supercontinent of Pangea rifted apart to form precursors to the Mediterranean and the Atlantic Ocean (Beauchamp and others, 1996). In those seas sands, clays, limey sediments, and evaporite layers (gypsum, rock salt) were deposited. Later, during the mountain-building plate collision, the gypsum layers flowed under the pressure and provided a slippery surface on which overlying rigid rocks could glide (Burkhard, 2001). The broad, open style of folds seen in this view is common where evaporites are involved in the deformation. Other examples can be found in the Southern Zagros of Iran and the Sierra Madre Oriental of Mexico. Information Sources: Beauchamp, W., Barazangi, M., Demnati, A., and El Alji, M., 1996, Intracontinental rifting and inversion: Missour Basin and Atlas Mountains, Morocco: Tulsa, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 80, No. 9, p. 1459-1482. Burkhard, Martin, 2001, Tectonics of the Anti-Atlas of Morocco -- Thin-skin/thick-skin relationships in an atypical foreland fold belt. University of Neuchatel, Switzerland: http://www-geol.unine.ch/Structural/Antiatlas.html (accessed 1/29/02). STS108-711-25 was taken in December, 2001 by the crew of Space Shuttle mission 108 using a Hasselblad camera with 250-mm lens. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography

  9. Hydrology of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, A.L.; Flint, L.E.; Kwicklis, E.M.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Fabryka-Martin, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, located in southern Nevada in the Mojave Desert, is being considered as a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. Although the site is arid, previous studies indicate net infiltration rates of 5-10 mm yr-1 under current climate conditions. Unsaturated flow of water through the mountain generally is vertical and rapid through the fractures of the welded tuffs and slow through the matrix of the nonwelded tuffs. The vitric-zeolitic boundary of the nonwelded tuffs below the potential repository, where it exists, causes perching and substantial lateral flow that eventually flows through faults near the eastern edge of the potential repository and recharges the underlying groundwater system. Fast pathways are located where water flows relatively quickly through the unsaturated zone to the water table. For the bulk of the water a large part of the travel time from land surface to the potential repository horizon (~300 m below land surface) is through the interlayered, low fracture density, nonwelded tuff where flow is predominately through the matrix. The unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is being modeled using a three-dimensional, dual-continuum numerical model to predict the results of measurements and observations in new boreholes and excavations. The interaction between experimentalists and modelers is providing confidence in the conceptual model and the numerical model and is providing researchers with the ability to plan further testing and to evaluate the usefulness or necessity of further data collection.

  10. The hydrology of Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Flint, A.L.; Flint, L.E.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Kwicklis, E.M.; Fabryka-Martin, J.M.

    2000-12-04

    Yucca Mountain, located in southern Nevada in the Mojave Desert, is being considered as a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. Although the site is arid, previous studies indicate net infiltration rates of 5-10 mm yr(-1) under current climate conditions. Unsaturated flow of water through the mountain generally is vertical and rapid through the fractures of the welded tuffs and slow through the matrix of the nonwelded tuffs. The vitric-zeolitic boundary of the nonwelded tuffs below the potential repository, where it exists, causes perching and substantial lateral flow that eventually flows through faults near the eastern edge of the potential repository and recharges the underlying groundwater system. Fast pathways are located where water flows relatively quickly through the unsaturated zone to the water table. For the bulk of the water a large part of the travel time from land surface to the potential repository horizon (similar to 300 m below land surface) is through the interlayered, low fracture density, nonwelded tuff where flow is predominantly through the matrix. The unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is being modeled using a three-dimensional, dual-continuum numerical model to predict the results of measurements and observations in new boreholes and excavations. The interaction between experimentalists and modelers is providing confidence in the conceptual model and the numerical model and is providing researchers with the ability to plan further testing and to evaluate the usefulness or necessity of further data collection.

  11. Micrometeorites from the Transantarctic Mountains

    PubMed Central

    Rochette, P.; Folco, L.; Suavet, C.; van Ginneken, M.; Gattacceca, J.; Perchiazzi, N.; Braucher, R.; Harvey, R. P.

    2008-01-01

    We report the discovery of large accumulations of micrometeorites on the Myr-old, glacially eroded granitic summits of several isolated nunataks in the Victoria Land Transantarctic Mountains. The number (>3,500) of large (>400 μm and up to 2 mm in size) melted and unmelted particles is orders of magnitudes greater than other Antarctic collections. Flux estimates, bedrock exposure ages and the presence of ≈0.8-Myr-old microtektites suggest that extraterrestrial dust collection occurred over the last 1 Myr, taking up to 500 kyr to accumulate based on 2 investigated find sites. The size distribution and frequency by type of cosmic spherules in the >200-μm size fraction collected at Frontier Mountain (investigated in detail in this report) are similar to those of the most representative known micrometeorite populations (e.g., South Pole Water Well). This and the identification of unusual types in terms of composition (i.e., chondritic micrometeorites and spherulitic aggregates similar to the ≈480-kyr-old ones recently found in Antarctic ice cores) and size suggest that the Transantarctic Mountain micrometeorites constitute a unique and essentially unbiased collection that greatly extends the micrometeorite inventory and provides material for studies on micrometeorite fluxes over the recent (≈1 Myr) geological past. PMID:19011091

  12. Selection of Batteries and Fuel Cells for Yucca Mountain Robots

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhye, R S

    2003-12-08

    The Performance Confirmation program of the Yucca Mountain Repository Development Project needs to employ remotely operated robots to work inside the emplacement drifts which will have an environment unsuitable for humans (radiation environment of up to 200 rad/hour (mostly gamma rays, some neutrons)) and maximum temperatures of 180 C. The robots will be required to operate inside the drifts for up to 8 hours per mission. Based on available functional requirements, we have developed the following specifications for the power needed by the robots:

  13. Massanutten Mountain, Virginia, USA (Anaglyph)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Massanutten Mountain lies in the Shenandoah Valley of northern Virginia. Rock layers in the mountain are folded downward in an overall 'U' shape (called a syncline) which accounts for its peculiar double ridge shape with a highly elongated valley between. The ridges have formed because they are capped with a sandstone layer which is resistant to weathering and erosion. Limestones and shales are less resistant and form the lowlands and valleys. The north and south forks of the Shenandoah River flank Massanutten Mountain and display unusually pronounced meander patterns. Other layered sedimentary rocks form other ridgeline patterns in the Allegheny Mountains, to the upper left. But the igneous and metamorphic (crystalline) rocks of the Blue Ridge Mountains erode into a very different topographic pattern to the southeast. This small area provides an excellent example rock type, geologic structure, and fluvial (stream) processes all influencing landform development.

    This anaglyph was produced by first shading a preliminary elevation model from data acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The stereoscopic effect was then created by generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C

  14. Evaluation of ATV Track Systems for Winter Mountain Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    vitesse, la maniabilité, la capacité de traction, la mobilité et le fonctionnement général. Compte tenu de l’ensemble de données limité, il est prévu que...les petits VTT à chenilles seront utiles dans les situations nécessitant une bonne maniabilité et une grande mobilité sur des pentes abruptes et...canadiennes (FC) relativement à la possibilité d’utiliser ces systèmes en montagne en hiver. La vitesse, la capacité de traction, la mobilité , la maniabilité

  15. Geographic Information Science and Mountain Geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scuderi, Louis A.

    Mountain areas are among the most threatened environments worldwide.These sensitive systems suffer from human encroachment, resource extraction, and subsequent environmental degradation. Mountain ecosystems are also extremely sensitive to climate variability with impacts on snow and ice cover, hydrologic response, and sediment yield. From this perspective, mountain environments can be viewed as one of the “canaries in the coal mine” for the entire global environmental system.

  16. 77 FR 37038 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for CF&I...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for CF&I Steel, L.P. dba EVRAZ Rocky Mountain Steel AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of final action. SUMMARY: This... December 28, 2010 Permit (Permit) issued to CF&I Steel, L.P. dba EVRAZ Rocky Mountain Steel (ERMS or...

  17. Precipitation Across India's Ghats Mountains (IMERG)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animation of precipitation rates across India and surrounding countries. Notice the heavy rains throughout the Ghats Mountain range which resulted in devastating landslides along India's west coast...

  18. Landscape, Mountain Worship and Astronomy in Socaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyano, Ricardo

    The spatiotemporal analysis of mountain worship in the indigenous community of Socaire, Atacama, northern Chile, relates to cultural, geographical, climatic, psychological, and astronomical information gathered from ethno archaeological studies. We identify a system of offerings to the mountains that incorporates concepts such as ceque (straight line), mayllku (mountain lord or ancestor), and pacha (space and time). Here, the mountains on the visible horizon (Tumisa, Lausa, Chiliques, Ipira, and Miñiques) feature as the fingers on the left hand (PAH Triad). This structure regulates annual activities and rituals and sets the basis for the Socaireños' worldview raised on a humanized landscape.

  19. 27 CFR 9.112 - Arkansas Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Mountain viticultural area is located in northwestern Arkansas. Starting at the point where Frog Bayou... Frog Bayou near Winfrey, Arkansas. (xvii) Then generally southward along Frog Bayou, flowing...

  20. 27 CFR 9.112 - Arkansas Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Mountain viticultural area is located in northwestern Arkansas. Starting at the point where Frog Bayou... Frog Bayou near Winfrey, Arkansas. (xvii) Then generally southward along Frog Bayou, flowing...

  1. 27 CFR 9.112 - Arkansas Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Mountain viticultural area is located in northwestern Arkansas. Starting at the point where Frog Bayou... Frog Bayou near Winfrey, Arkansas. (xvii) Then generally southward along Frog Bayou, flowing...

  2. 27 CFR 9.112 - Arkansas Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Mountain viticultural area is located in northwestern Arkansas. Starting at the point where Frog Bayou... Frog Bayou near Winfrey, Arkansas. (xvii) Then generally southward along Frog Bayou, flowing...

  3. Folding above faults, Rocky Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, D.A. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Asymmetric folds formed above basement faults can be observed throughout the Rocky Mountains. Several previous interpretations of the folding process made the implicit assumption that one or both fold hinges migrated or rolled'' through the steep forelimb of the fold as the structure evolved (rolling hinge model). Results of mapping in the Bighorn and Seminoe Mountains, WY, and Sangre de Cristo Range, CO, do not support this hypothesis. An alternative interpretation is presented in which fold hinges remained fixed in position during folding (fixed hinge model). Mapped folds share common characteristics: (1) axial traces of the folds intersect faults at or near the basement/cover interface, and diverge from faults upsection; (2) fold hinges are narrow and interlimb angles cluster around 80--100[degree] regardless of fold location; (3) fold shape is typically angular, despite published cross sections that show concentric folds; and, (4) beds within the folds show thickening and/or thinning, most commonly adjacent to fold hinges. The rolling hinge model requires that rocks in the fold forelimbs bend through narrow fold hinges as deformation progressed. Examination of massive, competent rock units such as the Ord. Bighorn Dolomite, Miss. Madison Limestone, and, Penn. Tensleep Sandstone reveals no evidence of the extensive internal deformation that would be expected if hinges rolled through rocks of the forelimb. The hinges of some folds (e.g. Golf Creek anticline, Bighorn Mountains) are offset by secondary faults, effectively preventing the passage of rocks from backlimb to forelimb. The fixed hinge model proposes that the fold hinges were defined early in fold evolution, and beds were progressively rotated and steepened as the structure grew.

  4. Mountain building and mantle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faccenna, Claudio; Becker, Thorsten W.; Conrad, Clinton P.; Husson, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Mountain building at convergent margins requires tectonic forces that can overcome frictional resistance along large-scale thrust faults and support the gravitational potential energy stored within the thickened crust of the orogen. A general, dynamic model for this process is still lacking. Here we propose that mountain belts can be classified between two end-members. First, those of "slab pull" type, where subduction is mainly confined to the upper mantle, and rollback trench motion lead to moderately thick crustal stacks, such as in the Mediterranean. Second, those of "slab suction" type, where whole-mantle convection cells ("conveyor belts") lead to the more extreme expressions of orogeny, such as the largely thickened crust and high plateaus of present-day Tibet and the Altiplano. For the slab suction type, deep mantle convection produces the unique conditions to drag plates toward each other, irrespective of their nature and other boundary conditions. We support this hypothesis by analyzing the orogenic, volcanic, and convective history associated with the Tertiary formation of the Andes after ~40 Ma and Himalayas after collision at ~55 Ma. Based on mantle circulation modeling and tectonic reconstructions, we surmise that the forces necessary to sustain slab-suction mountain building in those orogens derive, after transient slab ponding, from the mantle drag induced upon slab penetration into the lower mantle, and from an associated surge of mantle upwelling beneath Africa. This process started at ~65-55 Ma for Tibet-Himalaya, when the Tethyan slab penetrated into the lower mantle, and ~10 Myr later in the Andes, when the Nazca slab did. This surge of mantle convection drags plates against each other, generating the necessary compressional forces to create and sustain these two orogenic belts. If our model is correct, the available geological records of orogeny can be used to decipher time-dependent mantle convection, with implications for the

  5. Getting Beyond Yucca Mountain - 12305

    SciTech Connect

    Halstead, Robert J.; Williams, James M.

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has terminated the Yucca Mountain repository project. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has indefinitely suspended the Yucca Mountain licensing proceeding. The presidentially-appointed Blue Ribbon Commission (BRC) on America's Nuclear Future is preparing a report, due in January 2012, to the Secretary of Energy on recommendations for a new national nuclear waste management and disposal program. The BRC Draft Report published in July 2011 provides a compelling critique of the past three decades failed efforts in the United States to site storage and disposal facilities for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). However, the BRC Draft Report fails to provide detailed guidance on how to implement an alternative, successful approach to facility site selection. The comments submitted to the BRC by the State of Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects provide useful details on how the US national nuclear waste program can get beyond the failed Yucca Mountain repository project. A detailed siting process, consisting of legislative elements, procedural elements, and 'rules' for volunteer sites, could meet the objectives of the BRC and the Western Governors Association (WGA), while promoting and protecting the interests of potential host states. The recent termination of the proposed Yucca Mountain repository provides both an opportunity and a need to re-examine the United States' nuclear waste management program. The BRC Draft Report published in July 2011 provides a compelling critique of the past three decades failed efforts in the United States to site storage and disposal facilities for SNF and HLW. It is anticipated that the BRC Final report in January 2012 will recommend a new general course of action, but there will likely continue to be a need for detailed guidance on how to implement an alternative, successful approach to facility site selection. Getting the nation's nuclear waste program back on track

  6. Yucca Mountain and The Environment

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2005-04-12

    The Yucca Mountain Project places a high priority on protecting the environment. To ensure compliance with all state and federal environmental laws and regulations, the Project established an Environmental Management System. Important elements of the Environmental Management System include the following: (1) monitoring air, water, and other natural resources; (2) protecting plant and animal species by minimizing land disturbance; (3) restoring vegetation and wildlife habitat in disturbed areas; (4) protecting cultural resources; (5) minimizing waste, preventing pollution, and promoting environmental awareness; and (6) managing of hazardous and non-hazardous waste. Reducing the impacts of Project activities on the environment will continue for the duration of the Project.

  7. Doctor on a mountaineering expedition.

    PubMed Central

    A'Court, C. H.; Stables, R. H.; Travis, S.

    1995-01-01

    Doctors are welcome members on mountaineering expeditions to remote areas, but practical advice on how to prepare and what kit to take can be difficult to find. This article is a ragbag of useful advice on diverse topics. It explains the necessary preparation, provides tips for a healthy expedition, and summarises the common disorders encountered at high altitude. The comprehensive drug and equipment lists and first aid kit for climbers were used for the 1992 Everest in winter expedition. They are there to be sacrificed to personal preference and the experience and size of individual expeditions. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 PMID:7767198

  8. DRAGOON MOUNTAINS ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drewes, Harald; Kreidler, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    The mineral and hydrocarbon resource potential of the Dragoon Mountains Roadless Area was assessed and six areas of probable mineral-resource potential were identified. The area may contain metamorphic skarn-type mineralization of copper, lead, molybdenum, and zinc, and some of these may contain silver and gold. More remotely, the area could also contain stockwork molybdenum mineralization and replacement or vein-type mineralization of beryllium, fluorite, thorium, tin, and tungsten. Rock products exist within the area and are discussed due to the proximity of a railroad, but similar materials occur outside the area. There is little promise for the occurrence of energy resources.

  9. SANDIA MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, NEW MEXICO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedlund, D.C.; Kness, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic and mineral-resource investigations in the Sandia Mountains in New Mexico indicate that a small part of the area has a probable mineral-resource potential. Most of the mineral occurrences are small barite-fluorite veins that occur along faults on the eastern slope of the range. The barite veins in the Landsend area and in the Tunnel Spring area are classed as having a probable mineral-resource potential. Fluorite veins which occur at the La Luz mine contain silver-bearing galeana and the area near this mine is regarded as having a probable resource potential for silver. No energy resources were identified in this study.

  10. The chemical agent experience at Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    SciTech Connect

    Mohrman, G.

    1995-06-01

    Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) was constructed and commissioned in 1942 for the production of sulfur mustard and other chemical munitions for possible use in World War II. RMA also became a production site for Lewisite and Sarin, including synthesis and munition filling. Other chemical agents such as Phosgene were routinely handled, filled into munitions and demilitarized. During the 1970`s and the early 1980`s, RMA served as a primary demilitarization facility for the destruction of chemical agents. Throughout its chemical weapons history, RMA generated waste materials from production, neutralization, decontamination and testing. These operations led to the possibility of chemical agent contamination in soils, process equipment and structures that have required special attention as part of the overall Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) environmental cleanup operations being conducted by the Program Manager Rocky Mountain Arsenal (PMRMA). Adjusting normal sampling operations associated with CERCLA-type activities for the special Army regulations covering chemical agents has been a difficult task. This presentation will describe the evolution of chemical agent related efforts and operations as they pertain to RMA environmental cleanup activities, to include field sampling requirements, analytical methods, commercial laboratory use and the role of the on-site PMRMA laboratory.

  11. Mountain Glaciers and Ice Caps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ananichheva, Maria; Arendt, Anthony; Hagen, Jon-Ove; Hock, Regine; Josberger, Edward G.; Moore, R. Dan; Pfeffer, William Tad; Wolken, Gabriel J.

    2011-01-01

    Projections of future rates of mass loss from mountain glaciers and ice caps in the Arctic focus primarily on projections of changes in the surface mass balance. Current models are not yet capable of making realistic forecasts of changes in losses by calving. Surface mass balance models are forced with downscaled output from climate models driven by forcing scenarios that make assumptions about the future rate of growth of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Thus, mass loss projections vary considerably, depending on the forcing scenario used and the climate model from which climate projections are derived. A new study in which a surface mass balance model is driven by output from ten general circulation models (GCMs) forced by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) A1B emissions scenario yields estimates of total mass loss of between 51 and 136 mm sea-level equivalent (SLE) (or 13% to 36% of current glacier volume) by 2100. This implies that there will still be substantial glacier mass in the Arctic in 2100 and that Arctic mountain glaciers and ice caps will continue to influence global sea-level change well into the 22nd century.

  12. Mountaineering and Climbing on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowing, K. L.

    Initial human missions to Mars will be a precious commodity wherein a maximum amount of information is gathered by each crew. As was the case during innumerable terrestrial missions of exploration, the Martian terrain that visiting crews must traverse in order to gain an understanding will often be difficult. This is accentuated by the fact that Mars is a world of geology - one whose surface area is equal to dry surface on Earth. Human crews will be called upon to use a variety of skills and tools to traverse the Martian surface - including those often associated with hiking, mountaineering and technical climbing. While rovers and other mechanical devices will be employed, it should be assumed that skills commonly associated with rock climbing, caving, and mountaineering on Earth will also be required. This paper looks at the human factors associated with such activity on Mars: space suit design requirements, life support, tools and procedures, traverse planning, logistics issues and navigation. Implications for adaptation of terrestrial gear will be examined as will implications raised by planetary protection. Lessons learned during sorties conducted on the lunar surface during the Apollo program are discussed.

  13. 27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213... Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snipes Mountain”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snipes Mountain” is a term of viticultural...

  14. 27 CFR 9.205 - Chehalem Mountains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chehalem Mountains. 9.205... Chehalem Mountains. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chehalem Mountains”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Chehalem Mountains” is a term of...

  15. Cultural Ecology: Arts of the Mountain Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Christine Ballengee

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes a schoolwide unit, organized around the ballad of John Henry, that integrated visual art, music, dance, and drama with ecological issues, Mountain Cultural heritage, and labor history. Gives background information on the Mountain Culture and the story of John Henry, while also discussing the students' reactions and interpretations…

  16. Determining Learning Styles of the Professional Mountaineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bektas, Fatih

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explore learning styles of the professional mountaineers. The research was carried out according to the survey model. The research group composed of 61 professional mountaineers (n[subscript (men)] = 45, n[subscript (women)] = 16) who attended Advanced Snow Ice Education Camp in Rize on September 1-7, 2012, the last camp of…

  17. The Bauhaus and Black Mountain College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellert, JoAnn C.

    1972-01-01

    In view of the sixteen-year tenure (1933-1949) at Black Mountain College of Josef Albers, a former Bauhaus Master, and his wife, Anni, a Bauhaus graduate and teacher, exploration of the influence of the Bauhaus on this small, progressive, art-centered college in the mountains of North Carolina is warrented. (Author)

  18. 27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213... Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snipes Mountain”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snipes Mountain” is a term of viticultural...

  19. 27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213... Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snipes Mountain”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snipes Mountain” is a term of viticultural...

  20. 27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213... Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snipes Mountain”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snipes Mountain” is a term of viticultural...

  1. 27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213... Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snipes Mountain”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snipes Mountain” is a term of viticultural...

  2. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in children.

    PubMed

    Woods, Charles R

    2013-04-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is typically undifferentiated from many other infections in the first few days of illness. Treatment should not be delayed pending confirmation of infection when Rocky Mountain spotted fever is suspected. Doxycycline is the drug of choice even for infants and children less than 8 years old.

  3. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: Statistics and Epidemiology

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment Statistics and Epidemiology ...

  4. Summiteers--Moving Mountains with Bereaved Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, Hans-Georg

    2011-01-01

    Summiteers are people who rush to the top. There is a mountain summit and a metaphorical summit inside us which we can climb. In the area of mountain summits, Reinhold Messner is surely the best known and most successful summiteer. He climbed, among other things, the highest peak on earth without supplemental oxygen. In the language of the country…

  5. 78 FR 29366 - Green Mountain Power Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Green Mountain Power Corporation Notice of Filing Take notice that on May 2, 2013, Green Mountain Power Corporation filed additional information in support of its request...

  6. Space Radar Image of Mammoth Mountain, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This false-color composite radar image of the Mammoth Mountain area in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 67th orbit on October 3, 1994. The image is centered at 37.6 degrees north latitude and 119.0 degrees west longitude. The area is about 39 kilometers by 51 kilometers (24 miles by 31 miles). North is toward the bottom, about 45 degrees to the right. In this image, red was created using L-band (horizontally transmitted/vertically received) polarization data; green was created using C-band (horizontally transmitted/vertically received) polarization data; and blue was created using C-band (horizontally transmitted and received) polarization data. Crawley Lake appears dark at the center left of the image, just above or south of Long Valley. The Mammoth Mountain ski area is visible at the top right of the scene. The red areas correspond to forests, the dark blue areas are bare surfaces and the green areas are short vegetation, mainly brush. The purple areas at the higher elevations in the upper part of the scene are discontinuous patches of snow cover from a September 28 storm. New, very thin snow was falling before and during the second space shuttle pass. In parallel with the operational SIR-C data processing, an experimental effort is being conducted to test SAR data processing using the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's massively parallel supercomputing facility, centered around the Cray Research T3D. These experiments will assess the abilities of large supercomputers to produce high throughput Synthetic Aperture Radar processing in preparation for upcoming data-intensive SAR missions. The image released here was produced as part of this experimental effort. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR)are part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed

  7. Influence of mountains on Arctic tropospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seabrook, Jeffrey; Whiteway, James

    2016-02-01

    Tropospheric ozone was measured above Ellesmere Island in the Canadian Arctic during spring of 2008 using a differential absorption lidar. The observations were carried out at Eureka Weather Station, which is located between various mountain ranges. Analysis of the observations revealed that mountains had a significant effect on the vertical distribution of ozone. Ozone depletion events were observed when air that had spent significant time near to the frozen surface of the Arctic Ocean reached Eureka. This air arrived at Eureka by flowing over the surrounding mountains. Surface level ozone depletions were not observed during periods when mountains blocked the flow of air from over the sea ice. In the case of blocking there was an enhancement in the amount of ozone near the surface as air from the midtroposphere descended in the lee of the mountains. Three case studies from spring of 2008 are described.

  8. Humps and hollows: basalt weathering in low-latitude mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Jasper; Grab, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    Physical, chemical and biological weathering processes are significant contributors to landscape development in mountain blocks worldwide, and over long time scales, but the interplay between different weathering processes is uncertain. Jurassic-age basalt lava flows underlie the Drakensberg mountain range of eastern Lesotho, southern Africa (summits 3200-3400 m asl), and weathered bedrock is commonly exposed on flat plateau surfaces. Subaerial weathering throughout the Quaternary and Holocene has resulted in a range of weathering forms, some of which exploit pre-existing cooling fractures within the basalts, and some of which are independent of geological control. These forms include pseudokarst-style potholes, karren and other microforms. The geometry, chemistry of water contained within the potholes, seasonal presence of ice, sediment and organic residues all suggest that physical, chemical and biological weathering processes are significant at different times and in different ways in subaerial weathering. Moreover, it is also likely that these process-types show pronounced seasonal variability that means that the interplay between different processes is subtle. Aggregated rates of land surface denudation or geomorphic development of single landforms therefore hide this subtle interplay between different processes. Changes in mountain summit soil depth (through soil erosion), ecosystems and climate will change this balance between different processes, and will operate over different spatial and temporal scales.

  9. A sightability model for mountain goats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, C.G.; Jenkins, K.J.; Chang, W.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    Unbiased estimates of mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) populations are key to meeting diverse harvest management and conservation objectives. We developed logistic regression models of factors influencing sightability of mountain goat groups during helicopter surveys throughout the Cascades and Olympic Ranges in western Washington during summers, 20042007. We conducted 205 trials of the ability of aerial survey crews to detect groups of mountain goats whose presence was known based on simultaneous direct observation from the ground (n 84), Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry (n 115), or both (n 6). Aerial survey crews detected 77 and 79 of all groups known to be present based on ground observers and GPS collars, respectively. The best models indicated that sightability of mountain goat groups was a function of the number of mountain goats in a group, presence of terrain obstruction, and extent of overstory vegetation. Aerial counts of mountain goats within groups did not differ greatly from known group sizes, indicating that under-counting bias within detected groups of mountain goats was small. We applied HorvitzThompson-like sightability adjustments to 1,139 groups of mountain goats observed in the Cascade and Olympic ranges, Washington, USA, from 2004 to 2007. Estimated mean sightability of individual animals was 85 but ranged 0.750.91 in areas with low and high sightability, respectively. Simulations of mountain goat surveys indicated that precision of population estimates adjusted for sightability biases increased with population size and number of replicate surveys, providing general guidance for the design of future surveys. Because survey conditions, group sizes, and habitat occupied by goats vary among surveys, we recommend using sightability correction methods to decrease bias in population estimates from aerial surveys of mountain goats.

  10. High diversity of protistan plankton communities in remote high mountain lakes in the European Alps and the Himalayan mountains

    PubMed Central

    Kammerlander, Barbara; Breiner, Hans-Werner; Filker, Sabine; Sommaruga, Ruben; Sonntag, Bettina; Stoeck, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the genetic diversity (V4 region of the 18S rRNA) of planktonic microbial eukaryotes in four high mountain lakes including two remote biogeographic regions (the Himalayan mountains and the European Alps) and distinct habitat types (clear and glacier-fed turbid lakes). The recorded high genetic diversity in these lakes was far beyond of what is described from high mountain lake plankton. In total, we detected representatives from 66 families with the main taxon groups being Alveolata (55.0% OTUs97%, operational taxonomic units), Stramenopiles (34.0% OTUs97%), Cryptophyta (4.0% OTUs97%), Chloroplastida (3.6% OTUs97%) and Fungi (1.7% OTUs97%). Centrohelida, Choanomonada, Rhizaria, Katablepharidae and Telonema were represented by <1% OTUs97%. Himalayan lakes harbored a higher plankton diversity compared to the Alpine lakes (Shannon index). Community structures were significantly different between lake types and biogeographic regions (Fisher exact test, P < 0.01). Network analysis revealed that more families of the Chloroplastida (10 vs 5) and the Stramenopiles (14 vs 8) were found in the Himalayan lakes than in the Alpine lakes and none of the fungal families was shared between them. Biogeographic aspects as well as ecological factors such as water turbidity may structure the microbial eukaryote plankton communities in such remote lakes. PMID:25764458

  11. High diversity of protistan plankton communities in remote high mountain lakes in the European Alps and the Himalayan mountains.

    PubMed

    Kammerlander, Barbara; Breiner, Hans-Werner; Filker, Sabine; Sommaruga, Ruben; Sonntag, Bettina; Stoeck, Thorsten

    2015-04-01

    We analyzed the genetic diversity (V4 region of the 18S rRNA) of planktonic microbial eukaryotes in four high mountain lakes including two remote biogeographic regions (the Himalayan mountains and the European Alps) and distinct habitat types (clear and glacier-fed turbid lakes). The recorded high genetic diversity in these lakes was far beyond of what is described from high mountain lake plankton. In total, we detected representatives from 66 families with the main taxon groups being Alveolata (55.0% OTUs 97%, operational taxonomic units), Stramenopiles (34.0% OTUs 97%), Cryptophyta (4.0% OTUs 97%), Chloroplastida (3.6% OTUs 97%) and Fungi (1.7% OTUs 97%). Centrohelida, Choanomonada, Rhizaria, Katablepharidae and Telonema were represented by <1% OTUs 97%. Himalayan lakes harbored a higher plankton diversity compared to the Alpine lakes (Shannon index). Community structures were significantly different between lake types and biogeographic regions (Fisher exact test, P < 0.01). Network analysis revealed that more families of the Chloroplastida (10 vs 5) and the Stramenopiles (14 vs 8) were found in the Himalayan lakes than in the Alpine lakes and none of the fungal families was shared between them. Biogeographic aspects as well as ecological factors such as water turbidity may structure the microbial eukaryote plankton communities in such remote lakes.

  12. Column flotation results at Powell Mountain Coal Company

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, W.J. Parekh, B.K. )

    1992-01-01

    In 1989 a column flotation process was developed at the CAER, which enabled the economical recovery of coal fines from high-ash fine refuse. The laboratory design was expanded to commercial scale and installed at the Mayflower Coal Preparation Plant of Powell Mountain Coal Company in December, 1989. It has been in continuous operation there since that time. This article is a summary of the past two years' experiences with this applied technology, applicable dewatering tests and flotation tests results from the plant.

  13. Natural analogs for Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, W.M.

    1995-11-01

    High-level radioactive waste in the US, spent fuels from commercial reactors and nuclear materials generated by defense activities, will remain potentially hazardous for thousands of years. Demonstrable long-term stability of certain geologic and geochemical systems motivates and sustains the concept that high-level waste can be safely isolated in geologic repositories for requisite periods of time. Each geologic repository is unique in its properties and performance with reguard to isolation of nuclear wastes. Studies of processes analogous to waste-form alteration and radioelement transport in environments analogous to Yucca Mountain are being conducted at two sites, described in this article to illustrate uses of natural analog data: the Nopal I uranium deposit in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Mexico, and the Akrotiri archaeological site on the island of Santorini, Greece.

  14. Geology of the Bighorn Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darton, N.H.

    1906-01-01

    There are extensive, forests in the mountains, which are now included in a Government forest reserve, but their timber is not of great value. Much of the area below timber line contains an abundance of luxuriant grasses and other plants, which afford excellent pasturage for stock, and large herds of sheep and cattle are ranged in the region during the short summer season. Game is moderately abundant, and most of the streams contain large numbers of trout. The region is one of great interest geologically on account of its variety of sedimentary rocks, interesting structure, and remarkably instructive glacial features. The central area, with its high peaks, presents alpine scenery of notable character. Doubtless in the future the region will be extensively visited by tourists, hunters, and geologists.

  15. Fatal Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Hattwick, M A; Retailliau, H; O'Brien, R J; Slutzker, M; Fontaine, R E; Hanson, B

    1978-09-29

    Forty-four fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) occurring in 1974 were compared with 50 nonfatal cases of similar age, sex, date of onset, and place of occurrence. Diagnosis and initiation of treatment in fatal cases were substantially delayed compared with nonfatal cases. Several reasons for this delay were identified: (1) the rash appeared later in the course of illness in the fatal cases, often not until the patient was terminal, (2) a history of tick bite was less often obtained during life or obtained late in the clinical course in fatal cases, and (3) initial nonspecific symptoms or unexpected symptoms led to an initial diagnosis of more common diseases. Only two fatal cases were treated with either tetracycline or chloramphenicol before the sixth day of illness. Presumptive diagnosis of RMSF and initiation of tetracycline therapy before onset of rash may be necessary to reduce mortality.

  16. Tectonic models for Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Leary, D. W.

    2006-01-01

    Performance of a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain hinges partly on long-term structural stability of the mountain, its susceptibility to tectonic disruption that includes fault displacement, seismic ground motion, and igneous intrusion. Because of the uncertainty involved with long-term (10,000 yr minimum) prediction of tectonic events (e.g., earthquakes) and the incomplete understanding of the history of strain and its mechanisms in the Yucca Mountain region, a tectonic model is needed. A tectonic model should represent the structural assemblage of the mountain in its tectonic setting and account for that assemblage through a history of deformation in which all of the observed deformation features are linked in time and space. Four major types of tectonic models have been proposed for Yucca Mountain: a caldera model; simple shear (detachment fault) models; pure shear (planar fault) models; and lateral shear models. Most of the models seek to explain local features in the context of well-accepted regional deformation mechanisms. Evaluation of the models in light of site characterization shows that none of them completely accounts for all the known tectonic features of Yucca Mountain or is fully compatible with the deformation history. The Yucca Mountain project does not endorse a preferred tectonic model. However, most experts involved in the probabilistic volcanic hazards analysis and the probabilistic seismic hazards analysis preferred a planar fault type model. ?? 2007 Geological Society of America. All rights reserved.

  17. Late glacial aridity in southern Rocky Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, O.K.; Pitblado, B.L.

    1995-09-01

    While the slopes of the present-day Colorado Rocky Mountains are characterized by large stands of subalpine and montane conifers, the Rockies of the late glacial looked dramatically different. Specifically, pollen records suggest that during the late glacial, Artemisia and Gramineae predominated throughout the mountains of Colorado. At some point between 11,000 and 10,000 B.P., however, both Artemisia and grasses underwent a dramatic decline, which can be identified in virtually every pollen diagram produced for Colorado mountain sites, including Como Lake (Sangre de Cristo Mountains), Copley Lake and Splains; Gulch (near Crested Butte), Molas Lake (San Juan Mountains), and Redrock Lake (Boulder County). Moreover, the same pattern seems to hold for pollen spectra derived for areas adjacent to Colorado, including at sites in the Chuska Mountains of New Mexico and in eastern Wyoming. The implications of this consistent finding are compelling. The closest modem analogues to the Artemisia- and Gramineae-dominated late-glacial Colorado Rockies are found in the relatively arid northern Great Basin, which suggests that annual precipitation was much lower in the late-glacial southern Rocky Mountains than it was throughout the Holocene.

  18. REMOTE MATERIAL HANDLING IN THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN WASTE PACKAGE CLOSURE CELL AND SUPPORT AREA GLOVEBOX

    SciTech Connect

    K.M. Croft; S.M. Allen; M.W. Borland

    2005-08-02

    The Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System (WPCS) cells provide for shielding of highly radioactive materials contained in unsealed waste packages. The purpose of the cells is to provide safe environments for package handling and sealing operations. Once sealed, the packages are placed in the Yucca Mountain Repository. Closure of a typical waste package involves a number of remote operations. Those involved typically include the placement of matched lids onto the waste package. The lids are then individually sealed to the waste package by welding. Currently, the waste package includes three lids. One lid is placed before movement of the waste package to the closure cell; the final two are placed inside the closure cell, where they are welded to the waste package. These and other important operations require considerable remote material handling within the cell environment. This paper discusses the remote material handling equipment, designs, functions, operations, and maintenance, relative to waste package closure.

  19. Space Radar Image of Mammoth Mountain, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    These two false-color composite images of the Mammoth Mountain area in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, Calif., show significant seasonal changes in snow cover. The image at left was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 67th orbit on April 13, 1994. The image is centered at 37.6 degrees north latitude and 119 degrees west longitude. The area is about 36 kilometers by 48 kilometers (22 miles by 29 miles). In this image, red is L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) polarization data; green is C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) polarization data; and blue is C-band (horizontally transmitted and received) polarization data. The image at right was acquired on October 3, 1994, on the space shuttle Endeavour's 67th orbit of the second radar mission. Crowley Lake appears dark at the center left of the image, just above or south of Long Valley. The Mammoth Mountain ski area is visible at the top right of the scene. The red areas correspond to forests, the dark blue areas are bare surfaces and the green areas are short vegetation, mainly brush. The changes in color tone at the higher elevations (e.g. the Mammoth Mountain ski area) from green-blue in April to purple in September reflect changes in snow cover between the two missions. The April mission occurred immediately following a moderate snow storm. During the mission the snow evolved from a dry, fine-grained snowpack with few distinct layers to a wet, coarse-grained pack with multiple ice inclusions. Since that mission, all snow in the area has melted except for small glaciers and permanent snowfields on the Silver Divide and near the headwaters of Rock Creek. On October 3, 1994, only discontinuous patches of snow cover were present at very high elevations following the first snow storm of the season on September 28, 1994. For investigations in hydrology and land-surface climatology, seasonal snow

  20. Recent population trends of mountain goats in the Olympic Mountains, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Kurt J.; Happe, Patricia J.; Beirne, Katherine F.; Hoffman, Roger A.; Griffin, Paul C.; Baccus, William T.; Fieberg, John

    2012-01-01

    Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) were introduced in Washington's Olympic Mountains during the 1920s. The population subsequently increased in numbers and expanded in range, leading to concerns by the 1970s over the potential effects of non-native mountain goats on high-elevation plant communities in Olympic National Park. The National Park Service (NPS) transplanted mountain goats from the Olympic Mountains to other ranges between 1981 and 1989 as a means to manage overabundant populations, and began monitoring population trends of mountain goats in 1983. We estimated population abundance of mountain goats during 18–25 July 2011, the sixth survey of the time series, to assess current population status and responses of the population to past management. We surveyed 39 sample units, comprising 39% of the 59,615-ha survey area. We estimated a population of 344 ± 72 (90% confidence interval [CI]) mountain goats in the survey area. Retrospective analysis of the 2004 survey, accounting for differences in survey area boundaries and methods of estimating aerial detection biases, indicated that the population increased at an average annual rate of 4.9% since the last survey. That is the first population growth observed since the cessation of population control measures in 1990. We postulate that differences in population trends observed in western, eastern, and southern sections of the survey zone reflected, in part, a variable influence of climate change across the precipitation gradient in the Olympic Mountains.

  1. Annual Copper Mountain Conferences on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, Copper Mountain, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, Stephen F.

    2016-03-25

    This project supported the Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, held from 2007 to 2015, at Copper Mountain, Colorado. The subject of the Copper Mountain Conference Series alternated between Multigrid Methods in odd-numbered years and Iterative Methods in even-numbered years. Begun in 1983, the Series represents an important forum for the exchange of ideas in these two closely related fields. This report describes the Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, 2007-2015. Information on the conference series is available at http://grandmaster.colorado.edu/~copper/.

  2. Black Box Theatres: Cheyenne Mountain High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the design of the academic arts building at Cheyenne Mountain High School in Colorado Springs, Colorado, including its black box theater, art classroom, computer graphics lab, gallery, video production area, and chorus classroom. (EV)

  3. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety for the Whole Family Evaluate Your Child's Lyme Disease Risk Lyme Disease Lyme Disease Hey! A Tick Bit Me! Bug Bites and Stings Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Lyme Disease Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...

  4. Microtektites from the Larkman Nunatak, Transantarctic Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Ginneken, M.; Genge, M. J.

    2015-07-01

    We report the discovery of microtektites in glacial moraine from the Larkman Nunatak, Transantarctic Mountains. Major and trace element compositions match those of Australasian microtektites. This discovery could extend the Australian strewnfield.

  5. Quartz Mountain/Oklahoma Summer Arts Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frates, Mary Y.; Madeja, Stanley S.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the Quartz Mountain Oklahoma Summer Arts Institute program. It is designed to nurture artistic talent and to provide intensive arts experiences in music, dance, theater, and the visual arts for talented students aged 14-18. (AM)

  6. Influence of Mountains on Arctic Tropospheric Ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteway, J. A.; Seabrook, J.

    2015-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone was measured above Ellesmere Island in the Canadian Arctic during spring using a differential absorption lidar (DIAL). Analysis of the observations revealed that mountains had a significant effect on the vertical distribution of ozone. Ozone depletion events were observed when air that had spent significant time near to the frozen surface of the Arctic Ocean reached Eureka. This air arrived at Eureka by flowing over the surrounding mountains. Surface level ozone depletion events were not observed during periods when mountains blocked the flow of air from over the sea ice. In the case of blocking there was an enhancement in the amount of ozone near the surface as air from the mid troposphere descended in the lee of the mountains. Three case studies will be presented.

  7. Observing Globular Cluster RR Lyraes with the BYU West Mountain Observator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffery, Elizabeth; Joner, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    We have utilized the 0.9-meter telescope of the Brigham Young University West Mountain Observatory to secure data on six northern hemisphere globular clusters. Here we present observations of RR Lyrae stars located in these clusters, including light curves. We compare light curves produced using both DAOPHOT and ISIS software packages. Light curve fitting is done with FITLC. We acknowledge continued support from the Brigham Young University College of Physical and Mathematical sciences for operation of the West Mountain Observatory. Some of the observations included in this presentation were secured within the term of NSF grant AST-0618209.

  8. Tectonic and neotectonic framework of the Yucca Mountain Region

    SciTech Connect

    Schweickert, R.A.

    1992-09-30

    Highlights of major research accomplishments concerned with the tectonics and neotectonics of the Yucca Mountain Region include: structural studies in Grapevine Mountains, Bullfrog Hills, and Bare Mountain; recognition of significance of pre-Middle Miocene normal and strike-slip faulting at Bare Mountain; compilation of map of quaternary faulting in Southern Amargosa Valley; and preliminary paleomagnetic analysis of Paleozoic and Cenozoic units at Bare Mountain.

  9. Monitoring Developments for Safe Repository Operation and staged Closure - The International MoDeRn Project - 12040

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, S.; Bergmans, A.; Garcia-Sineriz, J.L.; Breen, B.J.; Jobmann, M.

    2012-07-01

    The main goal of the collaborative, European Commission 7. Framework MoDeRn project is to take the state-of-the-art of broadly accepted, main monitoring objectives and to develop these to a level of description that is closer to the actual implementation of monitoring during the staged approach of the disposal process. To achieve this goal, 18 partners representing 12 countries and including 8 Waste Management Organizations joined their efforts since 2009, and aim at developing a reference framework for repository monitoring by 2013. Achieving this goal includes analysis of whether the implementation of a realistic monitoring programme is likely to address expert and lay stakeholder expectations (objectives), to provide an understanding of monitoring activities and available technologies that can be implemented in a repository context (feasibility), and to provide recommendations for related, future stakeholder engagement activities (social acceptance). Monitoring programs should describe activities likely to verify - with the aim of confirming and possibly enhancing the prior license basis for safety and pre-closure management options - expected repository system evolutions (i.e. natural environment and engineered system evolutions) during a progressive construction, operation and closure phase that may last on the order of a century. (authors)

  10. Rockfall exposures in Montserrat mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontquerni Gorchs, Sara; Vilaplana Fernández, Joan Manuel; Guinau Sellés, Marta; Jesús Royán Cordero, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Mountain. It is important to mention that the exposure level calculation has been obtained from natural hazard data do not protected by defense works. Results of this work enable us to consider best strategies to reduce rockfalls risk in the PNMM. It is clear that, apart from the required structural defense works, some of them already made, implementation of strategies not involving structural defense is, in the medium and long term, the best policy to mitigate the risk. In the PNMM case, rethinking of mobility and traffic management on the mountain access would be definitely helpful to achieve a minimized geological risk.

  11. Mountain Warfare: The Need for Specialist Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    frostbite , snow blindness, and sunburn, are also common at high altitudes. Soldiers need to be taught precautionary measures to prevent unnecessary exposure...Various problems associated with mountain terrain, such as frostbite , snow blindness, mountain sickness, and edema, occur more easily and frequently. In...builds perspiration inside the clothing, which can freeze and cause frostbite . Sunny weather does not always spell good news, as it may lead to snow

  12. Plight of the Cabinet Mountains grizzlies

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, H.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of mineral and petroleum exploration and development and logging on grizzly bears in the Cabinet Mountains region of Montana is discussed. The author points out that such activities might cut the bears off from other bear populations in the Glacier National park and the Bob Marshall Wilderness. It is maintained, that in order for the bears to survive, they must range beyond the Cabinet Mountains and that extensive human activities in the area would damage their range. (JMT)

  13. Mountains and Plateaus on Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    These two views of Io were acquired by NASA's Galileo spacecraft during its seventh orbit (G7) of Jupiter. The images were designed to view large features on Io at low sun angles when the lighting conditions emphasize the topography or relief of the volcanic satellite. Sun angles are low near the terminator which is the day-night boundary near the left side of the images. These images reveal that the topography is very flat near the active volcanic centers such as Loki Patera (the large dark horseshoe-shaped feature near the terminator in the left-hand image) and that a variety of mountains and plateaus exist elsewhere.

    North is to the top of the picture. The resolution is about 6 kilometers per picture element (6.1 for the left hand image and 5.7 for the right). The images were taken on April 4th, 1997 at a ranges of 600,000 kilometers (left image) and 563,000 kilometers (right image) by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  14. Geophysical borehole logging in the unsaturated zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schimschal, Ulrich; Nelson, Philip H.; ,

    1991-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logging for site characterization in the volcanic rocks at the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, requires data collection under rather unusual conditions. Logging tools must operate in rugose, dry holes above the water table in the unsaturated zone. Not all logging tools will operate in this environment, therefore; careful consideration must be given to selection and calibration. A sample suite of logs is presented that demonstrates correlation of geological formations from borehole to borehole, the definition of zones of altered mineralogy, and the quantitative estimates of rock properties. We show the results of an exploratory calculation of porosity and water saturation based upon density and epithermal neutron logs. Comparison of the results with a few core samples is encouraging, particularly because the logs can provide continuous data in boreholes where core samples are not available.

  15. Geologic and geophysical characterization studies of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a potential high-level radioactive-waste repository

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitney, J.W.; Keefer, W.R.

    2000-01-01

    In recognition of a critical national need for permanent radioactive-waste storage, Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada has been investigated by Federal agencies since the 1970's, as a potential geologic disposal site. In 1987, Congress selected Yucca Mountain for an expanded and more detailed site characterization effort. As an integral part of this program, the U.S. Geological Survey began a series of detailed geologic, geophysical, and related investigations designed to characterize the tectonic setting, fault behavior, and seismicity of the Yucca Mountain area. This document presents the results of 13 studies of the tectonic environment of Yucca Mountain, in support of a broad goal to assess the effects of future seismic and fault activity in the area on design, long-term performance, and safe operation of the potential surface and subsurface repository facilities.

  16. Comparisons of Rain Estimates from Ground Radar and Satellite Over Mountainous Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Xin; Kidd, Chris; Tao, Jing; Barros, Ana

    2016-01-01

    A high-resolution rainfall product merging surface radar and an enhanced gauge network is used as a reference to examine two operational surface radar rainfall products over mountain areas. The two operational rainfall products include radar-only and conventional-gauge-corrected radar rainfall products. Statistics of rain occurrence and rain amount including their geographical, seasonal, and diurnal variations are examined using 3-year data. It is found that the three surface radar rainfall products in general agree well with one another over mountainous regions in terms of horizontal mean distributions of rain occurrence and rain amount. Frequency of rain occurrence and fraction of rain amount also indicate similar distribution patterns as a function of rain intensity. The diurnal signals of precipitation over mountain ridges are well captured and joint distributions of coincident raining samples indicate reasonable correlations during both summer and winter. Factors including undetected low-level precipitation, limited availability of gauges for correcting the Z-R relationship over the mountains, and radar beam blocking by mountains are clearly noticed in the two conventional radar rainfall products. Both radar-only and conventional-gauge-corrected radar rainfall products underestimate the rain occurrence and fraction of rain amount at intermediate and heavy rain intensities. Comparison of PR and TMI against a surface radar-only rainfall product indicates that the PR performs equally well with the high-resolution radar-only rainfall product over complex terrains at intermediate and heavy rain intensities during the summer and winter. TMI, on the other hand, requires improvement to retrieve wintertime precipitation over mountain areas.

  17. Reconnaissance and economic geology of Copper Mountain metamorphic complex, Owl Creek Mountains, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Hausel, W.D.

    1983-08-01

    The Copper Mountain metamorphic complex lies within a westerly trending belt of Precambrian exposures known as the Owl Creek Mountains uplift. The metamorphic complex at Copper Mountain is part of a larger complex known as the Owl Creek Mountains greenstone belt. Until more detailed mapping and petrographic studies can be completed, the Copper Mountain area is best referred to as a complex, even though it has some characteristics of a greestone belt. At least three episodes of Precambrian deformation have affected the supracrustals, and two have disturbed the granites. The final Precambrian deformation event was preceded by a weak thermal event expressed by retrogressive metamorphism and restricted metasomatic alteration. During this event, a second phase of pegmatization was accompanied by hydrothermal solutions. During the Laramide orogeny, Copper Mountain was again modified by deformation. Laramide deformation produced complex gravity faults and keystone grabens. Uranium deposits were formed following major Laramide deformation. The genesis of these deposits is attributable to either the leaching of granites or the leaching of overlying tuffaceous sediments during the Tertiary. Production of metals and industrial minerals has been limited, although some gold, copper, silver, tungsten, beryl, feldspar, and lithium ore have been shipped from Copper Mountain. A large amount of uranium was produced from the Copper Mountain district in the 1950s.

  18. [Species diversity of floor bryophyte communities in Bogda Mountains, Xinjiang].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanming; Cao, Tong; Pan, Borong

    2003-06-01

    By means of species similarity coefficient and species diversity index, the characteristics of species diversity of floor bryophyte communities in Bogda Mountain, Xinjiang were studied. The results showed that the bryoflora of Bogda Mountain had the characteristics of richness and complexion. There were 186 floor species (including infraspecies taxa) belonging to 73 genera of 32 families. The species similarity between mountain desert and mountain grassland belt was the highest (0.6809), while that between mountain forest and alpine cushion belt was the lowest (0.1342). The bryophyte community in mountain forest was the ominant one among the floor bryophyte communities. The bryophyte community in mountain forest had the richest species diversity, and the mountain forest was the distribution center of bryophyte diversity and the key area for bryophyte diversity conservation in Bogda Mountain area.

  19. A survey of emergency medical services in mountain areas of Europe and North America: official recommendations of the International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine (ICAR Medcom).

    PubMed

    Brugger, Hermann; Elsensohn, Fidel; Syme, Dave; Sumann, Günther; Falk, Markus

    2005-01-01

    Survey of on-site treatment of patients in mountain areas of 14 countries in Europe and North America (nonresponder rate 33%) to compare emergency medical services. Around 37,535 ground rescuers and 747 helicopters are ready for evacuation of casualties and patients in mountain areas. And 1316 physicians and 50,967 paramedics take part in ground and air mountain rescue operations. In Europe, 63.2% of helicopters have a physician on board, 17.8% are staffed with a paramedic, and 19% have no medically trained personnel on board. In North America, 31.6% (p < 0.001) of helicopters are staffed with a doctor, 59.3% (p < 0.001) with a paramedic, and 9.1% (p < 0.001) have no medical personnel. The percentage of on-site treatment according to the recommendations of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) or International Commission for Alpine Rescue (ICAR) varies among all countries (p < 0.001) and is positively related to the percentage of physician-staffed helicopters (r = 0.76, p < 0.001). Paramedics in 90.9% countries are obliged to be medically trained, but physicians only need to have a standardized training in emergency medicine in 50% (p < 0.042). On-site treatment according to ILCOR or ICAR recommendations is performed more often in countries where physicians are regularly involved in mountain rescue operations. However, no conclusions can be drawn from the data as to the efficiency of treatment. The data show a lack of medical education in specific, mountain rescue-related problems. Physicians involved should undergo suitable training.

  20. Geology of the Yucca Mountain region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuckless, J.S.; O'Leary, D. W.

    2006-01-01

    Yucca Mountain has been proposed as the site for the nation's first geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. This chapter provides the geologic framework for the Yucca Mountain region. The regional geologic units range in age from late Precambrian through Holocene, and these are described briefly. Yucca Mountain is composed dominantly of pyroclastic units that range in age from 11.4 to 15.2 Ma. The proposed repository would be constructed within the Topopah Spring Tuff, which is the lower of two major zoned and welded ash-flow tuffs within the Paintbrush Group. The two welded tuffs are separated by the partly to nonwelded Pah Canyon Tuff and Yucca Mountain Tuff, which together figure prominently in the hydrology of the unsaturated zone. The Quaternary deposits are primarily alluvial sediments with minor basaltic cinder cones and flows. Both have been studied extensively because of their importance in predicting the long-term performance of the proposed repository. Basaltic volcanism began ca. 10 Ma and continued as recently as ca. 80 ka with the eruption of cones and flows at Lathrop Wells, ???10 km south-southwest of Yucca Mountain. Geologic structure in the Yucca Mountain region is complex. During the latest Paleozoic and Mesozoic, strong compressional forces caused tight folding and thrust faulting. The present regional setting is one of extension, and normal faulting has been active from the Miocene through to the present. There are three major local tectonic domains: (1) Basin and Range, (2) Walker Lane, and (3) Inyo-Mono. Each domain has an effect on the stability of Yucca Mountain. ?? 2007 Geological Society of America. All rights reserved.

  1. Bryozoa of the Murdock Mountain formation (Wordian, Permian), Leach Mountains, northeastern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilmour, E.H.; McColloch, M.E.; Wardlaw, B.R.

    1997-01-01

    A thin limestone tongue in the upper part of the Murdock Mountain Formation of northeastern Nevada contains abundant bryozoans of earliest Wordian age. This bryozoan fauna is close to the Kungurian-Kazanian boundary in Russia. These bryozoans are younger than those found in the Kaibab Formation of southern Nevada and slightly older than those in the Gerster Limestone of northern Nevada. This limestone tongue, herein referred to as the Stenodiscus beds, lies below the Thamnosia beds described by Wardlaw in the Murdock Mountain section of the Leach Mountains. This bryozoan-rich limestone tongue serves as a marker unit for mapping the Murdock Formation in the Leach Mountains. Nine new species of bryozoans occur in the Stenodiscus beds of the Murdock Mountain Formation: Hinganella felderi, Neoeridotrypella schilti, Stenopora parvaexozona, Stenodiscus murdockensis, Dyscritella acanthostylia, Pseudobatostomella irregularis. Streblotrypa (Streblotrypa) elongata, Morozoviella praecurriensis, and Thamniscus erraticus, Hinganella felderi, Neoeridotrypella schilti, Dyscritella acanthostylia, and Streblotrypa (Streblotrypa) elongata are very similar to species described from Russia.

  2. Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Anti-Atlas Mountains of Morocco formed as a result of the collision of the African and Eurasian tectonic plates about 80 million years ago. This collision destroyed the Tethys Ocean; the limestone, sandstone, claystone, and gypsum layers that formed the ocean bed were folded and crumpled to create the Atlas and Anti-Atlas Mountains. In this ASTER image, short wavelength infrared bands are combined to dramatically highlight the different rock types, and illustrate the complex folding. The yellowish, orange and green areas are limestones, sandstones and gypsum; the dark blue and green areas are underlying granitic rocks. The ability to map geology using ASTER data is enhanced by the multiple short wavelength infrared bands, that are sensitive to differences in rock mineralogy. This image was acquired on June 13, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils

  3. Fault terminations, Seminoe Mountains, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Dominic, J.B.; McConnell, D.A. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Two basement-involved faults terminate in folds in the Seminoe Mountains. Mesoscopic and macroscopic structures in sedimentary rocks provide clues to the interrelationship of faults and folds in this region, and on the linkage between faulting and folding in general. The Hurt Creek fault trends 320[degree] and has maximum separation of 1.5 km measured at the basement/cover contact. Separation on the fault decreases upsection to zero within the Jurassic Sundance Formation. Unfaulted rock units form an anticline around the fault tip. The complementary syncline is angular with planar limbs and a narrow hinge zone. The syncline axial trace intersects the fault in the footwall at the basement/cover cut-off. Map patterns are interpreted to show thickening of Mesozoic units adjacent to the syncline hinge. In contrast, extensional structures are common in the faulted anticline within the Permian Goose Egg and Triassic Chugwater Formations. A hanging wall splay fault loses separation into the Goose Egg formation which is thinned by 50% at the fault tip. Mesoscopic normal faults are oriented 320--340[degree] and have an average inclination of 75[degree] SW. Megaboudins of Chugwater are present in the footwall of the Hurt Creek fault, immediately adjacent to the fault trace. The Black Canyon fault transported Precambrian-Pennsylvanian rocks over Pennsylvanian Tensleep sandstone. This fault is layer-parallel at the top of the Tensleep and loses separation along strike into an unfaulted syncline in the Goose Egg Formation. Shortening in the pre-Permian units is accommodated by slip on the basement-involved Black Canyon fault. Equivalent shortening in Permian-Cretaceous units occurs on a system of thin-skinned'' thrust faults.

  4. Relevance of Armor in Counterinsurgency Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-08

    Operation Mountain Thrust in the Arghandab river basin . Coyotes maneuvered under intense Taliban fire to relieve pinned down dismounted infantry.7 The...Serb Krajina, Zgon), Bosnia-Herzegovina (Liaison Officer, Armoured Car Squadron); January–August 2005 – Kabul Province, Afghanistan (2IC/XO

  5. A new network on mountain geomorphosites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusti, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Since about two decades, the value of geoheritage in mountain areas has been re-discovered in various parts of the Alps (Reynard et al., 2010) and other mountain ranges, and various initiatives (protection of sites worthy of protection, inventories of geomorphosites, geotourist promotion, creation of geoparks, etc.) to conserve or promote mountain geoheritage have been developed. As mountains are recognized as natural areas with a very high geodiversity, and at the same time as areas with a great potential for the development of soft tourism, a new Network on Mountain Geomorphosites was created in October 2012 in conclusion to a workshop organized by the University of Lausanne (Switzerland). The Network is open to all researchers active in geoheritage, geoconservation and geotourism studies in mountain areas. For the first years research will focus on three main issues: - Geoheritage and natural processes: Mountains are very sensitive areas where climate change impacts are very acute and where active geomorphological processes rapidly modify landscapes. It is hypothesized that geoheritage will be highly impacted by global change in the future. Nevertheless, at the moment, very little research is carried out on the evolution of landforms recognized as geoheritage and no specific management measures have been developed. Also, the tourist activities related to geoheritage, especially the trails developed to visit geomorphosites, are sensitive to geomorphological processes in mountain areas in a context of global change, and need, therefore, to be better addressed by geomorphologists. - Geotourism: During the last two decades numerous initiatives have developed geotourism in mountain areas. Nevertheless, studies addressing issues such as the needs of the potential public(s) of geotourism, the evaluation of the quality of the geotourist products developed by scientists and/or local authorities, and the assessment of the economic benefits of geotourism for the regional

  6. Geology of the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Sandra H.B.

    2008-01-01

    The Southern Appalachian Mountains includes the Blue Ridge province and parts of four other physiographic provinces. The Blue Ridge physiographic province is a high, mountainous area bounded by several named mountain ranges (including the Unaka Mountains and the Great Smoky Mountains) to the northwest, and the Blue Ridge Mountains to the southeast. Metamorphic rocks of the mountains include (1) fragments of a billion-year-old supercontinent, (2) thick sequences of sedimentary rock that were deposited in subsiding (sinking) basins on the continent, (3) sedimentary and volcanic rocks that were deposited on the sea floor, and (4) fragments of oceanic crust. Most of the rocks formed as sediments or volcanic rocks on ocean floors, islands, and continental plates; igneous rocks formed when crustal plates collided, beginning about 450 million years ago. The collision between the ancestral North American and African continental plates ended about 270 million years ago. Then, the continents began to be stretched, which caused fractures to open in places throughout the crust; these fractures were later filled with sediment. This product (U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 2830) consists of a geologic map of the Southern Appalachian Mountains overlain on a shaded-relief background. The map area includes parts of southern Virginia, eastern West Virginia and Tennessee, western North and South Carolina, northern Georgia and northeastern Alabama. Photographs of localities where geologic features of interest can be seen accompany the map. Diagrams show how the movement of continental plates over many millions of years affected the landscapes seen today, show how folds and faults form, describe important mineral resources of the region, and illustrate geologic time. This two-sided map is folded into a convenient size (5x9.4 inches) for use in the field. The target audience is high school to college earth science and geology teachers and students; staffs of

  7. Uplift of Zagros Mountains slows plate convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-05-01

    Research has indicated that mountain ranges can slow down the convergence between two tectonic plates on timescales as short as a few million years, as the growing mountains provide enough tectonic force to impact plate motions. Focusing on the convergence of the Arabian and Eurasian plates at the Zagros mountain range, which runs across Iran and Iraq, Austermann and Iaffaldano reconstructed the relative motion of the plates using published paleomagnetic data covering the past 13 million years, as well as current geodetic measurements. They show that the convergence of the two plates has decreased by about 30% over the past 5 million years. Looking at the geological record to infer past topography and using a computer model of the mantle-lithosphere system, the authors examined whether the recent uplift across the Zagros Mountains could have caused the observed slowdown. They also considered several other geological events that might have influenced the convergence rate, but the authors were able to rule those out as dominant controls. The authors conclude that the uplift across the Zagros Mountains in the past 5 million years did indeed play a key role in slowing down the convergence between the Eurasian and Arabian plates. (Tectonics, doi:10.1002/tect.20027, 2013)

  8. High altitude pulmonary edema in mountain climbers.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Nitsch-Osuch, Aneta; Guzek, Aneta; Juszczak, Dariusz

    2015-04-01

    Every year thousands of ski, trekking or climbing fans travel to the mountains where they stay at the altitude of more than 2500-3000m above sea level or climb mountain peaks, often exceeding 7000-8000m. High mountain climbers are at a serious risk from the effects of adverse environmental conditions prevailing at higher elevations. They may experience health problems resulting from hypotension, hypoxia or exposure to low temperatures; the severity of those conditions is largely dependent on elevation, time of exposure as well as the rate of ascent and descent. A disease which poses a direct threat to the lives of mountain climbers is high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). It is a non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema which typically occurs in rapidly climbing unacclimatized lowlanders usually within 2-4 days of ascent above 2500-3000m. It is the most common cause of death resulting from the exposure to high altitude. The risk of HAPE rises with increased altitude and faster ascent. HAPE incidence ranges from an estimated 0.01% to 15.5%. Climbers with a previous history of HAPE, who ascent rapidly above 4500m have a 60% chance of illness recurrence. The aim of this article was to present the relevant details concerning epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical symptoms, prevention, and treatment of high altitude pulmonary edema among climbers in the mountain environment.

  9. Atmospheric deposition maps for the Rocky Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nanus, L.; Campbell, D.H.; Ingersoll, G.P.; Clow, D.W.; Mast, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Variability in atmospheric deposition across the Rocky Mountains is influenced by elevation, slope, aspect, and precipitation amount and by regional and local sources of air pollution. To improve estimates of deposition in mountainous regions, maps of average annual atmospheric deposition loadings of nitrate, sulfate, and acidity were developed for the Rocky Mountains by using spatial statistics. A parameter-elevation regressions on independent slopes model (PRISM) was incorporated to account for variations in precipitation amount over mountainous regions. Chemical data were obtained from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network and from annual snowpack surveys conducted by the US Geological Survey and National Park Service, in cooperation with other Federal, State and local agencies. Surface concentration maps were created by ordinary kriging in a geographic information system, using a local trend and mathematical model to estimate the spatial variance. Atmospheric-deposition maps were constructed at 1-km resolution by multiplying surface concentrations from the kriged grid and estimates of precipitation amount from the PRISM model. Maps indicate an increasing spatial trend in concentration and deposition of the modeled constituents, particularly nitrate and sulfate, from north to south throughout the Rocky Mountains and identify hot-spots of atmospheric deposition that result from combined local and regional sources of air pollution. Highest nitrate (2.5-3.0kg/ha N) and sulfate (10.0-12.0kg/ha SO4) deposition is found in northern Colorado.

  10. The Altai Mountains environmental disaster (Eastern Kazakhstan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmadiyeva, Z. K.

    2009-12-01

    The space centre "Baikoniyr" (Kazakhstan) has had substantial affects on the environment. During the past several decades as a result of the launching of carrier rockets, such as "Proton" that use as fuel the asymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (ASDH), more well-known as "heptyl", the unique mountain landscapes in Eastern Kazakhstan have been subjected to pollution. In 2004, RSE "Kazakh research Institute of Ecology and Climate" carried out the complex geochemical and radiation researches in East Kazakhstan that is an impact area of second stages of carrier rockets. Such detailed examinations of this area were conducted for the first time because the Eastern Kazakhstan Mountains are difficult for human access. The landscape-geochemical research over the natural landscapes covered the ridge, low, and middle mountains with fir forests. The research results have shown the presence of heptyl in the samples of the soil, plants, and rivers’ bottom sediments. The findings of the influence of space activity on environment of the Kazakhstan part of the Altai Mountains confirm and complement the Russian scientific research results over the territory of the neighbouring Altai Krai. Though the heptyl pollution in the investigated region is of a local nature and highly spatially inhomogeneous, nevertheless, this anthropogenic effect intensifying from year to year increases the load on the natural ecosystems. In particular, it strengthens the desertification process of mountain regions of East Kazakhstan.

  11. Mountains and arid climates of middle latitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Manabe, S.; Broccoli, A.J. )

    1990-01-12

    Simulations from a global climate model with and without orography have been used to investigate the role of mountains in maintaining extensive arid climates in middle latitudes of the Northern hemisphere. Dry climates similar to those observed were simulated over central Asia and western interior North America in the experiment with mountains, whereas relatively moist climates were simulated in these areas in the absence of orography. The experiments suggest that these interior regions are dry because general subsidence and relatively infrequent storm development occur upstream of orographically induced stationary wave troughs. Downstream of these troughs, precipitation-bearing storms develop frequently in association with strong jet streams. In contrast, both atmospheric circulation and precipitation were more zonally symmetric in the experiment without mountains. In addition, orography reduces the moisture transport into the continental interiors from nearby oceanic sources. The relative soil wetness of these regions in the experiment without mountains is consistent with paleoclimatic evidence of less aridity during the late Tertiary, before substantial uplift of the Rocky Mountains and Tibetan Plateau is believed to have occurred.

  12. Mountains on Titan observed by Cassini Radar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Radebaugh, J.; Lorenz, R.D.; Kirk, R.L.; Lunine, J.I.; Stofan, E.R.; Lopes, R.M.C.; Wall, S.D.

    2007-01-01

    The Cassini Titan Radar mapper has observed elevated blocks and ridge-forming block chains on Saturn's moon Titan demonstrating high topography we term "mountains." Summit flanks measured from the T3 (February 2005) and T8 (October 2005) flybys have a mean maximum slope of 37?? and total elevations up to 1930 m as derived from a shape-from-shading model corrected for the probable effects of image resolution. Mountain peak morphologies and surrounding, diffuse blankets give evidence that erosion has acted upon these features, perhaps in the form of fluvial runoff. Possible formation mechanisms for these mountains include crustal compressional tectonism and upthrusting of blocks, extensional tectonism and formation of horst-and-graben, deposition as blocks of impact ejecta, or dissection and erosion of a preexisting layer of material. All above processes may be at work, given the diversity of geology evident across Titan's surface. Comparisons of mountain and blanket volumes and erosion rate estimates for Titan provide a typical mountain age as young as 20-100 million years. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mountain goat abundance and population trends in the Olympic Mountains, Washington, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Kurt; Happe, Patricia; Griffin, Paul C.; Beirne, Katherine; Hoffman, Roger; Baccus, William

    2011-01-01

    We conducted an aerial helicopter survey between July 18 and July 25, 2011, to estimate abundance and trends of introduced mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in the Olympic Mountains. The survey was the first since we developed a sightability correction model in 2008, which provided the means to estimate the number of mountain goats present in the surveyed areas and not seen during the aerial surveys, and to adjust for undercounting biases. Additionally, the count was the first since recent telemetry studies revealed that the previously defined survey zone, which was delineated at lower elevations by the 1,520-meter elevation contour, did not encompass all lands used by mountain goats during summer. We redefined the lower elevation boundary of survey units before conducting the 2011 surveys in an effort to more accurately estimate the entire mountain goat population. We surveyed 39 survey units, comprising 39 percent of the 59,615-hectare survey area. We estimated a mountain goat population of 344±44 (standard error, SE) in the expanded survey area. Based on this level of estimation uncertainty, the 95-percent confidence interval ranged from 258 to 430 mountain goats at the time of the survey. To permit comparisons of mountain goat populations between the 2004 and 2011 surveys, we recomputed population estimates derived from the 2004 survey using the newly developed bias correction methods, and we computed the 2004 and 2011 surveys based on comparable survey zone definitions (for example, using the boundaries of the 2004 survey). The recomputed estimates of mountain goat populations were 217±19 (SE) in 2004 and 303±41(SE) in 2011. The difference between the current 2011 population estimate (344±44[SE]) and the recomputed 2011 estimate (303±41[SE]) reflects the number of mountain goats counted in the expanded lower elevation portions of the survey zone added in 2011. We conclude that the population of mountain goats has increased in the Olympic Mountains at

  14. Atmospheric Research and Public Outreach Activities at Grandfather Mountain, North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, B.; Pope, J.; Kelly, G.; Sherman, J. P.; Taubman, B.

    2012-12-01

    Promoting scientific and public understanding of mountain meteorological processes, particularly in the context of climate variability and change, remains a formidable challenge. Mountain environments present considerable difficulties in the collection of surface and atmospheric observations due to complex topography and resulting high spatial and temporal variability of the atmospheric processes. A collaborative partnership between Appalachian State University (ASU) and the Grandfather Mountain Stewardship Foundation (GMSF) in the southern Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina has provided an outstanding opportunity to integrate atmospheric research and outreach activities. The NASA-funded Climate Action Network through Direct Observations and Outreach (CAN-DOO) project directly supports the research and education activities and places them in the context of climate variability and change. This paper introduces the manual observations and citizen science activities, automated meteorological measurements, and public outreach initiatives on Grandfather Mountain and presents preliminary findings. In support of project objectives, GMSF staff makes daily measurements of precipitation, snow water equivalent, snow depth, and aerosol optical depth, while also encouraging citizen scientists to participate in the daily meteorological measurements. Team members have developed real-time displays of meteorological conditions for the two main visitor's centers and website, and have also created interactive climate science public displays. ASU scientists and GMSF staff have worked together to install and operate two research-quality meteorological stations at 1609 m asl that measure temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, pressure, precipitation, and present weather. Preliminary results of research activities suggest that extreme wind gusts >50 m s -1 and severe icing due to riming and freezing rain are a frequent occurrence on Grandfather Mountain

  15. New Approach for forest inventory estimation and timber harvesting planning in mountain areas: the SLOPE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prandi, F.; Magliocchetti, D.; Poveda, A.; De Amicis, R.; Andreolli, M.; Devigili, F.

    2016-06-01

    Forests represent an important economic resource for mountainous areas being for a few region and mountain communities the main form of income. However, wood chain management in these contexts differs from the traditional schemes due to the limits imposed by terrain morphology, both for the operation planning aspects and the hardware requirements. In fact, forest organizational and technical problems require a wider strategic and detailed level of planning to reach the level of productivity of forest operation techniques applied on flatlands. In particular, a perfect knowledge of forest inventories improves long-term management sustainability and efficiency allowing a better understanding of forest ecosystems. However, this knowledge is usually based on historical parcel information with only few cases of remote sensing information from satellite imageries. This is not enough to fully exploit the benefit of the mountain areas forest stocks where the economic and ecological value of each single parcel depends on singletree characteristics. The work presented in this paper, based on the results of the SLOPE (Integrated proceSsing and controL systems fOr sustainable forest Production in mountain arEas) project, investigates the capability to generate, manage and visualize detailed virtual forest models using geospatial information, combining data acquired from traditional on-the-field laser scanning surveys technologies with new aerial survey through UAV systems. These models are then combined with interactive 3D virtual globes for continuous assessment of resource characteristics, harvesting planning and real-time monitoring of the whole production.

  16. Inexpensive cross-flow hydropower turbine at Arbuckle Mountain Hydroelectric Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    This report documents the first three and half years of operation and maintenance on the Arbuckle Mountain Hydroelectric Project. Located on a flashy mountain stream in northern California, the project was designed, built and tested through a Cooperative Agreement between the US DOE and OTT Engineering, Inc. (OTT). The purpose of the Agreement is to build and intensively test an inexpensive American-made cross-flow turbine and to provide information to the DOE on the cost, efficiency, operation, and maintenance of the unit. It requires that OTT document for DOE a summary of the complete operating statistics, operation and maintenance cost, and revenues from power sales for a two-year operating period. Several unique events occurred between the initial start-up (December 1986) and the beginning of the 1989 generation season (October 1988) that delayed the first year's full operation and provided unique information for a demonstration project of this type. Accordingly, this report will discuss certain major problems experienced with the design, operation and maintenance, and energy production, as well as the operation and maintenance costs and value of the power produced for the first three and half years of operation. 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Mechanical excavator performance in Yucca Mountain tuffs

    SciTech Connect

    Ozdemir, L.; Hansen, F.D.

    1991-12-31

    A research effort of four phases is in progress at the Colorado School of Mines. The overall program will evaluate the cutability of welded tuff and other lithologies likely to be excavated at Yucca Mountain in the site characterization process. Several mechanical systems are considered with emphasis given to the tunnel boring machine. The research comprises laboratory testing, linear drag bit and disc cutter tests, and potentially large-scale lab. demonstrations to support potential use of a tunnel boring machine in welded tuff. Preliminary estimates of mechanical excavator performance in Yucca Mountain tuff are presented here. As phases of the research project are completed, well-quantified estimates will be made of performance of mechanical excavators in the Yucca Mountain tuffs.

  18. Mechanical excavator performance in Yucca Mountain tuffs

    SciTech Connect

    Ozdemir, L.; Hansen, F.D.

    1991-01-01

    A research effort of four phases is in progress at the Colorado School of Mines. The overall program will evaluate the cutability of welded tuff and other lithologies likely to be excavated at Yucca Mountain in the site characterization process. Several mechanical systems are considered with emphasis given to the tunnel boring machine. The research comprises laboratory testing, linear drag bit and disc cutter tests and potentially large-scale laboratory demonstrations to support potential use of a tunnel boring machine in welded tuff. Preliminary estimates of mechanical excavator performance in Yucca Mountain tuff are presented here. As phases of the research project are completed, well quantified estimates will be made of performance of mechanical excavators in the Yucca Mountain tuffs. 3 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. Dynamic processes in the mountain catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonova, Tatiana; Arakelian, Sergei

    2015-04-01

    The process of the river cftchment foundation and the mechanisms being in the basis of its development are not clear at present. Principal phenomena determining the dynamics of formation of the river catchment are under our study in this paper for the case of the mountain basin as an example. The methodology of this monitoring includes the space image recognition and computer data processing of the images for the Maliy Caucasus Mountains. Mountain river catchment formation on the slope of the ridge can be considered as a self-organizing staged process of its evolution passing through several non-equilibrium but steady-state conditions. We consider a system of tributaries in the mountain river catchment as a system of cracks, which are formed on the slope of the mountain massif. In other words, the formation of river networks should be the result of development of several processes, among of which the mechanisms of crack development should play a dominant role. The principal results, discussed in the present report, can be formulated as follow. (1) The mountain catchment (litho-watershed) formation takes place under conditions of the confined states of a mountain massif: on the one hand it is bounded by the surface of the slope; but on the other hand, - by a primary cracks density occurrence (as a spatial distribution 3D-crack net). (2) The development in time of the river catchment takes place by several stages. Each stage specifies a definite energetic state of the system in the mountain massif. (3) The overhead river streams arise not only due to surface water, but and namely due to rising of water from underground water horizons over the watercourse cracks penetrating deeply into the underground. (4) The 3D-river catchment structure results in concept in behavior of the unit as an open nonlinear dynamic system with a spatially distributed feedback. The energetic (endogen) processes of formation, rising and bifurcation for cracks are the consequence of relaxation

  20. A case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Rubel, Barry S

    2007-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a serious, generalized infection that is spread to humans through the bite of infected ticks. It can be lethal but it is curable. The disease gets its name from the Rocky Mountain region where it was first identified in 1896. The fever is caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii and is maintained in nature in a complex life cycle involving ticks and mammals. Humans are considered to be accidental hosts and are not involved in the natural transmission cycle of this pathogen. The author examined a 47-year-old woman during a periodic recall appointment. The patient had no dental problems other than the need for routine prophylaxis but mentioned a recent problem with swelling of her extremities with an accompanying rash and general malaise and soreness in her neck region. Tests were conducted and a diagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever was made.

  1. Flow directionality, mountain barriers and functional traits determine diatom metacommunity structuring of high mountain streams

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiaoyu; Li, Bin; He, Fengzhi; Gu, Yuan; Sun, Meiqin; Zhang, Haomiao; Tan, Lu; Xiao, Wen; Liu, Shuoran; Cai, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Stream metacommunities are structured by a combination of local (environmental filtering) and regional (dispersal) processes. The unique characters of high mountain streams could potentially determine metacommunity structuring, which is currently poorly understood. Aiming at understanding how these characters influenced metacommunity structuring, we explored the relative importance of local environmental conditions and various dispersal processes, including through geographical (overland), topographical (across mountain barriers) and network (along flow direction) pathways in shaping benthic diatom communities. From a trait perspective, diatoms were categorized into high-profile, low-profile and motile guild to examine the roles of functional traits. Our results indicated that both environmental filtering and dispersal processes influenced metacommunity structuring, with dispersal contributing more than environmental processes. Among the three pathways, stream corridors were primary pathway. Deconstructive analysis suggested different responses to environmental and spatial factors for each of three ecological guilds. However, regardless of traits, dispersal among streams was limited by mountain barriers, while dispersal along stream was promoted by rushing flow in high mountain stream. Our results highlighted that directional processes had prevailing effects on metacommunity structuring in high mountain streams. Flow directionality, mountain barriers and ecological guilds contributed to a better understanding of the roles that mountains played in structuring metacommunity. PMID:27090223

  2. Flow directionality, mountain barriers and functional traits determine diatom metacommunity structuring of high mountain streams.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiaoyu; Li, Bin; He, Fengzhi; Gu, Yuan; Sun, Meiqin; Zhang, Haomiao; Tan, Lu; Xiao, Wen; Liu, Shuoran; Cai, Qinghua

    2016-04-19

    Stream metacommunities are structured by a combination of local (environmental filtering) and regional (dispersal) processes. The unique characters of high mountain streams could potentially determine metacommunity structuring, which is currently poorly understood. Aiming at understanding how these characters influenced metacommunity structuring, we explored the relative importance of local environmental conditions and various dispersal processes, including through geographical (overland), topographical (across mountain barriers) and network (along flow direction) pathways in shaping benthic diatom communities. From a trait perspective, diatoms were categorized into high-profile, low-profile and motile guild to examine the roles of functional traits. Our results indicated that both environmental filtering and dispersal processes influenced metacommunity structuring, with dispersal contributing more than environmental processes. Among the three pathways, stream corridors were primary pathway. Deconstructive analysis suggested different responses to environmental and spatial factors for each of three ecological guilds. However, regardless of traits, dispersal among streams was limited by mountain barriers, while dispersal along stream was promoted by rushing flow in high mountain stream. Our results highlighted that directional processes had prevailing effects on metacommunity structuring in high mountain streams. Flow directionality, mountain barriers and ecological guilds contributed to a better understanding of the roles that mountains played in structuring metacommunity.

  3. Evaluation of the table Mountain Ronchi telescope for angular tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanyi, G.; Purcell, G.; Treuhaft, R.; Buffington, A.

    1992-01-01

    The performance of the University of California at San Diego (UCSD) Table Mountain telescope was evaluated to determine the potential of such an instrument for optical angular tracking. This telescope uses a Ronchi ruling to measure differential positions of stars at the meridian. The Ronchi technique is summarized and the operational features of the Table Mountain instrument are described. Results from an analytic model, simulations, and actual data are presented that characterize the telescope's current performance. For a star pair of visual magnitude 7, the differential uncertainty of a 5-min observation is about 50 nrad (10 marcsec), and tropospheric fluctuations are the dominant error source. At magnitude 11, the current differential uncertainty is approximately 800 nrad (approximately 170 marcsec). This magnitude is equivalent to that of a 2-W laser with a 0.4-m aperture transmitting to Earth from a spacecraft at Saturn. Photoelectron noise is the dominant error source for stars of visual magnitude 8.5 and fainter. If the photoelectron noise is reduced, ultimately tropospheric fluctuations will be the limiting source of error at an average level of 35 nrad (7 marcsec) for stars approximately 0.25 deg apart. Three near-term strategies are proposed for improving the performance of the telescope to the 10-nrad level: improving the efficiency of the optics, masking background starlight, and averaging tropospheric fluctuations over multiple observations.

  4. Mountain Heavy Rainfall Measurement Experiments in a Subtropical Monsoon Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jong-Dao Jou, Ben; Chi-June Jung, Ultimate; Lai, Hsiao-Wei; Feng, Lei

    2014-05-01

    Quantitative rainfall measurement experiments have been conducted in Taiwan area for the past 5 years (since 2008), especially over the complex terrain region. In this paper, results from these experiments will be analyzed and discussed, especially those associated with heavy rain events in the summer monsoon season. Observations from s-band polarimetric radar (SPOL of NCAR) and also x-band vertically-pointing radar are analyzed to reveal the high resolution temporal and spatial variation of precipitation structure. May and June, the Meiyu season in the area, are months with subtropical frontal rainfall events. Mesoscale convective systems, i.e., pre-frontal squall lines and frontal convective rainbands, are very active and frequently produce heavy rain events over mountain areas. Accurate quantitative precipitation measurements are needed in order to meet the requirement for landslide and flood early warning purpose. Using ground-based disdrometers and vertically-pointing radar, we have been trying to modify the quantitative precipitation estimation in the mountain region by using coastal operational radar. In this paper, the methodology applied will be presented and the potential of its application will be discussed. *corresponding author: Ben Jong-Dao Jou, jouben43@gmail.com

  5. Defining the potential repository siting block Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Elayer, R.W.; Nolting, R.M. III

    1996-12-01

    Siting activities for the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain focused on locating a suitable host geologic horizon above the water table. The Topopah Spring Tuff of the Paintbrush Group was identified as the most suitable geologic unit. Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) identified six areas as potential repository sites. Area known as the Primary Area, is the site of the present characterization and design activities. To support current repository Advanced Conceptual Design, a reevaluation of the Primary Area was conducted by the Yucca Mountain Project`s Management and Operating Contractor (M&O). The purpose of the study was to more precisely define the block volume that would be suitable for siting the repository. The Lynx Geoscience Modeling software (Lynx) was selected to be used in this work because of its three-dimensional modeling and visualization capability for geology and underground excavation design. The Lynx model YMP.MO2 was developed in the study. The model includes surfaces that were constructed to represent each of the following limiting criteria: faults, overburden, repository host horizon, and groundwater. The resulting potential repository siting block is the useable volume within these limiting criteria.

  6. SHEEP MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houston, Robert S.; Patten, Lowell L.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey the Sheep Mountain Wilderness study area in Wyoming was determined to offer little promise for metallic mineral resources. There is a probable potential for oil and gas resources in a small part of the study area along its northeast margin. Geophysical studies, such as reflection seismic profiling would help define the oil and gas potential in fault-controlled structures, such as those beneath the thrust fault that crops out along the east flank of Sheep Mountain.

  7. Nuclear waste disposal: Gambling on Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsburg, S.

    1995-05-01

    This document describes the historical aspects of nuclear energy ,nuclear weapons usage, and development of the nuclear bureaucracy in the United States, and discusses the selection and siting of Yucca Mountain, Nevada for a federal nuclear waste repository. Litigation regarding the site selection and resulting battles in the political arena and in the Nevada State Legislature are also presented. Alternative radioactive waste disposal options, risk assessments of the Yucca Mountain site, and logistics regarding the transportation and storage of nuclear waste are also presented. This document also contains an extensive bibliography.

  8. Mechanical anisotropy of the Yucca Mountain tuffs

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.H.; Boyd, P.J.; Martin, R.J.; Haupt, R.W.; Noel, J.S.

    1991-12-31

    Three series of measurements were performed on oriented cores of several Yucca Mountain tuffs to determine the importance of mechanical anisotropy in the intact rock. Outcrop and drillhole samples were tested for acoustic velocities, linear compressibilities, and strengths in different orientations. The present data sets are preliminary, but suggest the tuffs are transversely anisotropic for these mechanical properties. The planar fabric that produces the anisotropy is believed to be predominantly the result of the preferred orientation of shards and pumice fragments. The potential of significant anisotropy has direct relevance to the formulation of constitutive formulation and the analyses of an underground opening within the Yucca Mountain.

  9. Mountain Home Well - Borehole Geophysics Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shervais, John

    2012-11-11

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  10. Consequences of early snowmelt in Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-01-01

    Snow melted significantly earlier in the Rocky Mountains in 2012 than in previous years, with serious consequences for plants and animals, scientists reported at the AGU Fall Meeting. David Inouye of the University of Maryland, College Park, and the Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory said that "the timing of winter's end is changing." He has been observing snowmelt dates and flowering of plants at a site at 2900 meters altitude. This year's snowmelt occurred 23 April, whereas the previous year, snow melted 19 June, he reported.

  11. [Hazards of mountain climbing and hiking].

    PubMed

    Fischer, Rainald

    2005-09-22

    At elevations above 1500 m, even a healthy person undergoes acclimatization. To avoid problems such as acute mountain sickness (AMS), high altitude cerebral edema (HACE) or high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), the speed of ascent and the daily sleeping elevation are of primary importance. Mild symptoms and peripheral swelling are usually harmless. However, when the severity of altitude sickness progresses, rapid therapy and immediate transport to lower elevations can be life-saving under certain conditions. A sojourn in the mountains requires effective preparation and prophylaxis against oxygen deficiency, increased UV radiation, as well as against the possibility of hypothermia and frostbite.

  12. Tall tower or mountain top measurements?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamberger, Ines; Eugster, Werner; Oney, Brian; Brunner, Dominik; Leuenberger, Markus; Schanda, Rüdiger; Henne, Stephan; Buchmann, Nina

    2014-05-01

    Resolving the regional transport and distribution of greenhouse gases in the troposphere is a key topic that challenges both modelers and experimentalists. A dense network of measurement stations would be required, in particular including measurements at high elevation to better represent the entire lower troposphere, and not only small-scale local conditions in the near-surface atmosphere. While this can be achieved by tall towers, also mountain top stations (e.g. Schauinsland, Brocken) and other stations at high elevation (e.g., Mouna Loa, Jungfraujoch) are often appropriate, due to their extended concentration footprint. However, especially over complex, mountainous terrain, the transport of atmospheric gases and their spatio-temporal distribution is difficult to predict due to the development of thermally induced local wind patterns and boundary layer processes. Therefore, the main goal of our study is to test to what extend boundary layer processes at the surface and local wind patterns close to the ground at a mountain top site influence the ambient greenhouse gas patterns compared to measurements taken at a similar altitude but at a tall tower site. To this end we use measurements from the Zugerberg mountain top station, located at a pre-Alpine mountain ridge (987 m a.s.l., 4 m above ground) exposed to the prevailing synoptic winds in Switzerland, and compare these measurements with a neighboring tall tower site (Beromünster radio broadcast tower with its top at 1014 m a.s.l., 217 m above local ground level, and ≡500 m above the Swiss Plateau). The Beromünster tall tower is located at a distance of only 30 km from the mountain top station as the bird flies, and hence a direct comparison minimizes confounding factors that are not related to the tall tower vs. mountain top position of the measurements. Both stations are part of the CarboCount CH greenhouse gas observation network (http://www.carbocount.ch) initiated for long-term monitoring and modeling of

  13. 141. View of Grandfather Mountain in the distance with cows ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    141. View of Grandfather Mountain in the distance with cows on an agricultural lease in the foreground. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  14. 10. ELECTRICAL SWITCHING STATION FOR IRON MOUNTAIN BRINGS ELECTRICITY FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. ELECTRICAL SWITCHING STATION FOR IRON MOUNTAIN BRINGS ELECTRICITY FROM HOOVER DAM COMPLEX. - Iron Mountain Pump Plant, South of Danby Lake, north of Routes 62 & 177 junction, Rice, San Bernardino County, CA

  15. 8. IRON MOUNTAIN SHAFT ROOM TO UNIT #5 SHOWING TYPICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. IRON MOUNTAIN SHAFT ROOM TO UNIT #5 SHOWING TYPICAL ARRANGEMENT OF SHAFT AND PUMP IN COLORADO RIVER AQUEDUCT PUMPHOUSES. - Iron Mountain Pump Plant, South of Danby Lake, north of Routes 62 & 177 junction, Rice, San Bernardino County, CA

  16. 14. BALD MOUNTAIN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING GOLD TANKS FROM WEST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. BALD MOUNTAIN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING GOLD TANKS FROM WEST, c. 1937. DATE BASED ON USE IN PUBLICATION. CREDIT WR. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  17. The oldest known Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines (Pinus aristata Engelm.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brunstein, F.C.; Yamaguchi, D.K.

    1992-01-01

    The authors have found 12 living Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines >1600 yr old, including four that are >2100 yr old, on Black Mountain, near South Park, and on Almagre Mountain, in the S Front Range, Colorado. A core from the oldest of these trees has an inner-ring date of 442 BC. This tree is therefore at least 2435 yr old and exceeds the age of the oldest previously reported Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine by 846 yr. -from Authors

  18. Periglacial Landforms and Processes in the Southern Kenai Mountains, Alaska.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    were investigated during the sumr of 1979. The principal area of study was a 1300-metre high mountain mass which stood as a nunatak during the last...Mountains, Alaska, were investigated during the summer of 1979. The principal area of study was a 1300-metre high mountain mass which stood as a nunatak ...Kenai Mountains as not having been covered by ice since the Eklutna glaciation. These areas would have thus stood as nunataks during subsequent

  19. Earthshots: Satellite images of environmental change – Elburz Mountains, Iran

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The Elburz Mountains run parallel to the southern coast of the Caspian Sea, and these mountains act as a barrier to rain clouds moving southward; as the clouds rise in altitude to cross the mountains they drop their moisture. This abundant rainfall supports a heavy rainforest (the bright red area) on the northern slopes. The valley to the south receives little precipitation because of this rain-shadow effect of the mountains.

  20. Rickenbacker Air National Guard Base, Columbus, Ohio. Pre-Closure Sampling Report. Hazardous Waste Storage Area. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    Prepared br IU UUUI ENGINEERING-SCIENCE 19101 Viliaview Road - Suite 301 Cleveland, Ohio 44119 For the: U.S. Department of Enery Under Contract No. DE...Ohio 6-10 6.3 Standards for Metal Concentrations in Soil and Drinking Water - RANGB, OH 6-12 6.4 Detected Compounds in Soils (0-2’) at HWSA - RANGB...F degrees Fahrenheit FS Feasibility Study FFS Focused Feasibility Study GC Gas Chromatograph GC/MS Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry HAL Health

  1. Rickenbacker Air National Guard Base, Columbus, Ohio Addendum to the Pre-Closure Sampling Report Hazardous Waste Storage Area

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    liquid wastes such as spent solvents, cleaning fluids, acids and paint strippers. There are four 25,000-gallon steel underground storage tanks (USTs...that were stored here were spent solvents, cleaning fluids, acids, paint strippers, and spent desicc-" its. Four 25,000-gallon underground storage tanks (USTs...the site (see Figure 3). The data indicate that VOC contamination is restricted to a relatively small area surrounding the four underground storage tanks (USTs

  2. The Geologic Story of the Uinta Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Wallace R.

    1969-01-01

    The opening of the West after the Civil War greatly stimulated early geologic exploration west of the 100th Meridian. One of the areas first studied, the Uinta Mountains region, gained wide attention as a result of the explorations of three Territorial Surveys, one headed by John Wesley Powell, one by Clarence King, and one by Ferdinand V. Hayden. Completion of the Union Pacific Railroad across southern Wyoming 100 years ago, in 1869, materially assisted geologic exploration, and the railheads at Green River and Rock Springs greatly simplified the outfitting of expeditions into the mountains. The overlap of the Powell, King, and Hayden surveys in the Uinta Mountains led to efforts that were less concerted than competitive and not without acrimony. Many parts of the area were seen by all three parties at almost the same time. Duplication was inevitable, of course, but all three surveys contributed vast quantities of new knowledge to the storehouse of geology, and many now-basic concepts arose from their observations. Powell's area of interest extended mainly southward from the Uinta Mountains to the Grand Canyon, including the boundless plateaus and canyons of southern Utah and northern Arizona. King's survey extended eastward from the High Sierra in California to Cheyenne, Wyoming, and encompassed a swath of country more than 100 miles wide. Hayden's explorations covered an immense region of mountains and basins from Yellowstone Park in Wyoming southeast throughout most of Colorado. Powell first entered the Uinta Mountains in the fall of 1868, having traveled north around the east end of the range from the White River country to Green River, Wyoming, then south over a circuitous route to Flaming Gorge and Browns Park, and finally back to the White River, where he spent the winter. In 1869, after reexamining much of the area visited the previous season, Powell embarked on his famous 'first boat trip' down the Green and Colorado Rivers. This trip was more exploratory

  3. The Yucca Mountain Project drift scale test

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, R.E.; Blair, S.C.; Boyle, W.J.

    1998-06-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project is currently evaluating the coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological-chemical (TMHC) response of the potential repository host rock through an in situ thermal testing program. A drift scale test (DST) was constructed during 1997 and heaters were turned on in December 1997. The DST includes nine canister-sized containers with thirty operating heaters each located within the heated drift (HD) and fifty wing heaters located in boreholes in both ribs with a total power output of nominally 210kW. A total of 147 boreholes (combined length of 3.3 km) houses most of the over 3700 TMHC sensors connected with 201 km of cabling to a central data acquisition system. The DST is located in the Exploratory Studies Facility in a 5-m diameter drift approximately 50 m in length. Heating will last up to four years and cooling will last another four years. The rock mass surrounding the DST will experience a harsh thermal environment with rock surface temperatures expected to reach a maximum of about 200 C. This paper describes the process of designing the DST. The first 38 m of the 50-m long Heated Drift (HD) is dedicated to collection of data that will lead to a better understanding of the complex coupled TMHC processes in the host rock of the proposed repository. The final 12 m is dedicated to evaluating the interactions between the heated rock mass and cast-in-place (CIP) concrete ground support systems at elevated temperatures. In addition to a description of the DST design, data from site characterization, and a general description of the analyses and analysis approach used to design the test and make pretest predictions are presented. Test-scoping and pretest numerical predictions of one way thermal-hydrologic, thermal-mechanical, and thermal-chemical behaviors have been completed (TRW, 1997a). These analyses suggest that a dry-out zone will be created around the DST and a 10,000 m{sup 3} volume of rock will experience temperatures above 100 C. The HD

  4. 27 CFR 9.155 - Texas Davis Mountains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Texas Davis Mountains. 9... Texas Davis Mountains. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Texas Davis Mountains.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Texas...

  5. 75 FR 12163 - Class E Airspace; Mountain View, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Class E Airspace; Mountain View, AR AGENCY: Federal... proposes to amend Class E airspace at Mountain View, AR. Decommissioning of the Wilcox non-directional beacon (NDB) at Mountain View Wilcox Memorial Field Airport has made this action necessary for the...

  6. 77 FR 66478 - Steens Mountain Advisory Council; Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ... Bureau of Land Management Steens Mountain Advisory Council; Meetings AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management..., Bureau of Land Management (BLM), the Steens Mountain Advisory Council (SMAC) will meet as indicated below... Steens Mountain Cooperative Management and Protection Act (CMPA) of 2000 (Pub. L. 106-399). ] The...

  7. 27 CFR 9.118 - Ben Lomond Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ben Lomond Mountain. 9.118... Lomond Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Ben Lomond Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Ben...

  8. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST ALONG RED MOUNTAIN TOWARD THE BIRMINGHAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST ALONG RED MOUNTAIN TOWARD THE BIRMINGHAM CITY CENTER WITH U.S. HIGHWAY 280 (BOTTOM LEFT TO CENTER) AND THE HIGHWAY CUT (CENTER RIGHT). - Red Mountain Cut National Natural Landmark, U.S. 280 at Red Mountain, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  9. 27 CFR 9.143 - Spring Mountain District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Spring Mountain District... Spring Mountain District. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Spring Mountain District.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of...

  10. 27 CFR 9.155 - Texas Davis Mountains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Texas Davis Mountains. 9... Texas Davis Mountains. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Texas Davis Mountains.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Texas...

  11. 27 CFR 9.118 - Ben Lomond Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ben Lomond Mountain. 9.118... Lomond Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Ben Lomond Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Ben...

  12. 27 CFR 9.143 - Spring Mountain District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Spring Mountain District... Spring Mountain District. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Spring Mountain District.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of...

  13. 27 CFR 9.155 - Texas Davis Mountains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Texas Davis Mountains. 9... Texas Davis Mountains. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Texas Davis Mountains.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Texas...

  14. 27 CFR 9.220 - Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pine Mountain-Cloverdale... Areas § 9.220 Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Pine...

  15. 27 CFR 9.118 - Ben Lomond Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ben Lomond Mountain. 9.118... Lomond Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Ben Lomond Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Ben...

  16. 27 CFR 9.220 - Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pine Mountain-Cloverdale... Areas § 9.220 Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Pine...

  17. 27 CFR 9.155 - Texas Davis Mountains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Texas Davis Mountains. 9... Texas Davis Mountains. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Texas Davis Mountains.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Texas...

  18. 27 CFR 9.118 - Ben Lomond Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ben Lomond Mountain. 9.118... Lomond Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Ben Lomond Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Ben...

  19. 27 CFR 9.155 - Texas Davis Mountains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Texas Davis Mountains. 9... Texas Davis Mountains. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Texas Davis Mountains.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Texas...

  20. 27 CFR 9.143 - Spring Mountain District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Spring Mountain District... Spring Mountain District. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Spring Mountain District.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of...

  1. 27 CFR 9.220 - Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pine Mountain-Cloverdale... Areas § 9.220 Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Pine...

  2. 27 CFR 9.118 - Ben Lomond Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ben Lomond Mountain. 9.118... Lomond Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Ben Lomond Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Ben...

  3. 27 CFR 9.231 - Moon Mountain District Sonoma County.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Moon Mountain District... Viticultural Areas § 9.231 Moon Mountain District Sonoma County. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Moon Mountain District Sonoma County”. For purposes of part 4 of this...

  4. 27 CFR 9.166 - Diamond Mountain District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Diamond Mountain District... Diamond Mountain District. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Diamond Mountain District.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of...

  5. 27 CFR 9.166 - Diamond Mountain District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diamond Mountain District... Diamond Mountain District. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Diamond Mountain District.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of...

  6. 27 CFR 9.166 - Diamond Mountain District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diamond Mountain District... Diamond Mountain District. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Diamond Mountain District.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of...

  7. 27 CFR 9.166 - Diamond Mountain District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diamond Mountain District... Diamond Mountain District. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Diamond Mountain District.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of...

  8. 27 CFR 9.166 - Diamond Mountain District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Diamond Mountain District... Diamond Mountain District. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Diamond Mountain District.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of...

  9. Contagious ecthyma in mountain goat of coastal British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Hebert, D M; Samuel, W M; Smith, G W

    1977-04-01

    Contagious ecthyma has been reported previously from mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) in one restricted area of eastern British Columbia. A second focus of infection is reported for mountain goat from western British Columbia. Diagnosis was based on appearance of lesions at necropsy, histopathology and demonstration of poxvirus with the electron microscope. The epizootiology of this infection in mountain goat is discussed briefly.

  10. Hydrologic characteristics of faults at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, Robert P.

    2001-04-29

    Yucca Mountain is under study as a potential site for underground storage of high-level radioactive waste, with the principle goal being the safe isolation of the waste from the accessible environment. This paper addresses the hydrogeologic characteristics of the fault zones at Yucca Mountain, focusing primarily on the central part of the mountain where the potential repository block is located.

  11. Mountain scorpions: a new genus and species from Tibet (China).

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Wilson R; Qi, Jian-xin

    2006-04-01

    A new genus and species of mountain liochelid scorpion are described on the basis of a single specimen collected in Tibet (China). This is the first liochelid scorpion found in the high Himalayan Mountains of Tibet, and the first example of the family to be collected out of its typical tropical and subtropical areas of distribution. Some considerations on mountain scorpions are proposed.

  12. Geology of North Mountain in eastern West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, S.L. . Dept. of Geology); Lessing, P. ); Kulander, B.R. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1994-03-01

    The North Mountain fault is one of the largest overthrusts in the folded Appalachian mountain belt and serves as the boundary between the detached Massanutten-Blue Ridge overthrust sheet (i.e. Great Valley and Blue Ridge) and Valley and Ridge fold structures in eastern West Virginia, northwestern Virginia, west-central maryland and south-central Pennsylvania. Past work has shown the sedimentary rock section on North Mountain and immediately west of the North Mountain fault to consist of an overturned sequence of Upper Ordovician to Middle Devonian strata, with a break thrust on the west side of North Mountain, placing Silurian formations against Devonian strata. Recent 1:24,000 scale mapping by the West Virginia Geological Survey has delineated this break thrust and its continuity from Maryland, through West Virginia and into Frederick County, Virginia. This previously unnamed structure, designated Back Creek fault, formed as a footwall splay from the North Mountain fault complex. The structure of North Mountain is a horse, bounded by the North Mountain fault complex in the Great Valley to the east and Back Creek fault on the west side of North Mountain. The overturned stratigraphic sequence on North Mountain reverses dip on the western flank of the mountain just east of Back Creek in Berkeley County, West Virginia, creating Back Creek syncline. This structure is a classic fault propagation fold, formed by the emplacement of North Mountain fault and extending from Maryland into Frederick County, Virginia.

  13. Evaluating some indicators for identifying mountain waves situations in snow days by means of numerical modeling and continuous data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Jose Luis; Posada, Rafael; Hierro, Rodrigo; García-Ortega, Eduardo; Lopez, Laura; Gascón, Estibaliz

    2013-04-01

    Madrid - Barajas airport is placed at 70 km away from the Central System and snow days and mountains waves are considered as risks days for landing operations. This motivated the study of mesoscale factors affecting this type of situations. The availability of observational data gathered during three consecutives winter campaigns in the Central System along with data from high-resolution numerical models, have allowed the evaluation of the environmental conditions necessary for mountain waves formations in snow days and were characterized from observational data and numerical simulations. By means of Meteosat Second Generation satellite images, lee clouds were observed in 25 days corresponding to the 2008-2011 winter seasons. Six of them, which also presented NW low level flow over the mountain range, were analyzed. Necessary conditions for oscillations as well as vertical wave propagation were studied from radiometer data and MM5 model simulations. From radiometer data the presence of stable environment in the six selected events is confirmed. From MM5 model, dynamic conditions allowing the flow to cross the mountain range were evaluated in three different locations around the mountain range. Simulations of vertical velocity show that MM5 model is able to detect mountain waves. The waves present in the six selected events are examined. Tropospheric were able to forecast energy release associated with the mountain waves. The vertical wavelength presented a high variability due to intense background winds at high tropospheric levels. The average values estimated for λz were between 3 and 12 km. The intrinsic period estimated was around 30 and 12 km. The simulations were able to forecast energy release associated with mountain waves. Acknowledgments: This study was supported by the Plan Nacional de I+D of Spain, through the grants CGL2010-15930, Micrometeo IPT-310000-2010-022 and the Junta de Castilla y León through the grant LE220A11-2.

  14. Sheep Mountain Wilderness study area, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, R.S.; Patten, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey completed in 1975 and 1976, the Sheep Mountain Wilderness study area, was determined to offer little promise for metallic mineral resources. There is a probable potential for oil and gas resources in a small part of the study area along its northeast margin.

  15. Fluid geochemistry of Yucca Mountain and vicinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marshall, Brian D.; Moscati, Richard J.; Patterson, Gary L.; Stuckless, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, a site in southwest Nevada, has been proposed for a deep underground radioactive waste repository. An extensive database of geochemical and isotopic characteristics has been established for pore waters and gases from the unsaturated zone, perched water, and saturated zone waters in the Yucca Mountain area. The development of this database has been driven by diverse needs of the Yucca Mountain Project, especially those aspects of the project involving process modeling and performance assessment. Water and gas chemistries influence the sorption behavior of radionuclides and the solubility of the radionuclide compounds that form. The chemistry of waters that may infiltrate the proposed repository will be determined in part by that of water present in the unsaturated zone above the proposed repository horizon, whereas pore-water compositions beneath the repository horizon will influence the sorption behavior of the radionuclides transported toward the water table. However, more relevant to the discussion in this chapter, development and testing of conceptual flow and transport models for the Yucca Mountain hydrologic system are strengthened through the incorporation of natural environmental tracer data into the process. Chemical and isotopic data are used to establish bounds on key hydrologic parameters and to provide corroborative evidence for model assumptions and predictions. Examples of specific issues addressed by these data include spatial and temporal variability in net fluxes, the role of faults in controlling flow paths, fracture-matrix interactions, the age and origin of perched water, and the distribution of water traveltimes.

  16. Thermal maturity of carboniferous strata, Ouachita Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Houseknecht, D.W.; Matthews, S.M.

    1985-03-01

    The Ouachita Mountains, a relatively untested, potential hydrocarbon province, contain a thick Paleozoic section of apparently favorable source beds, reservoir beds, and trap configurations. To estimate the thermal maturity of these strata, vitrinite reflectance was measured on 89 samples collected mostly from Carboniferous rocks from throughout the Ouachita outcrop area.

  17. Climbing the e-waste mountain.

    PubMed

    2005-10-01

    The benefits of the information revolution are clear for all to see. Devices such as PCs, faxes, mobile phones, music players and a host of others open up exciting possibilities for individuals and businesses alike. Yet there is a downside to this digital era: the growing mountain of electronic waste. How we tackle this dilemma will have major implications for sustainability.

  18. Mountain Guides: Between Ethics and Socioeconomic Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Thierry; Bazin, Damien; Massiera, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    This study analysed mountain guides' representations of environmental responsibility and explored the paradox that these professionals face: using nature as a source of income while trying to preserve it. The study was mainly guided by the philosophical literature on this topic and made use of the concepts of sustainable development and nature.…

  19. YUCCA MOUNTAIN WASTE PACKAGE CLOSURE SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    G. Housley; C. Shelton-davis; K. Skinner

    2005-08-26

    The method selected for dealing with spent nuclear fuel in the US is to seal the fuel in waste packages and then to place them in an underground repository at the Yucca Mountain Site in Nevada. This article describes the Waste Package Closure System (WPCS) currently being designed for sealing the waste packages.

  20. Black Populations of the Southern Appalachian Mountains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuckert, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    Few books have been written and little information is known about Black populations of the southern Appalachian mountains. This article describes the cultural and settlement patterns of these people and traces their historical development. Occupational changes and the effects of urbanization are presented. (VM)

  1. Permian insect wing from antarctic sentinel mountains.

    PubMed

    Tasch, P; Riek, E F

    1969-06-27

    A homopterous insect wing was found in micaceous graywacke from the Polarstar Formation, Sentinel Mountains. The unusual venation is reminiscent of family Stenoviciidae known from the Permian and Triassic of Eastern Australia and elsewhere. This first documented account of Paleozoic insects in Antarctica bears on drift questions.

  2. Permian depositional history, Leach Mountains, northeastern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Martindale, S.G. . EMA/Construction Div.)

    1993-04-01

    The 4,000 m thick Permian sequence in the Leach Mountains consists of carbonate rock, chert, terrigenous clastic rock and phosphatic rock. These rocks, in ascending order, comprise the Third Fork Fm., Badger Gulch Fm., Trapper Creek Fm., Grandeur Fm., Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale Tongue of the Phosphoria Fm., Murdock Mountain Fm. and Gerster Limestone. This sequence disconformably overlain by Triassic strata. Initial Permian deposition, represented by the late Wolfcampian to early Leonardian Third Fork Fm., was on a slope, at a water depth of about 50 m. Subsequently, a shallowing trend occurred during the early Leonardian to late Leonardian with deposition of the Badger Gulch, Trapper Creek and Grandeur Fms. The Trapper Creek and Grandeur Fms. were deposited on the shelf, in very shallow subtidal to supratidal environments. The shelf persisted through the remainder of the Permian. In the late leonardian, the Meade Peak Tongue was deposited in very shallow subtidal and intertidal environments. A supratidal environment was re-established in latest Leonardian( ) to early Guadalupian with deposition of the lower Murdock Mountain Fm. The upper Murdock Mountain Fm. was deposited in very shallow subtidal to supratidal environments. Later during the early Guadalupian, intertidal to shallow subtidal deposition of the Gerster Limestone occurred. Angular phosphatic pebbles that were derived from phosphatic strata at the top of the Gerster Limestone are contained in the Triassic basal conglomerate. These pebbles indicate that the last Permian event was probably emergence and erosion of the top of the Gerster Limestone.

  3. RESULTS FROM THE MOUNTAIN ACID DEPOSITION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mountain Acid Deposition Program (MADPro) was initiated in 1993 as part of the research necessary to support the objectives of the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet), which was created to address the. requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). The main ob...

  4. Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D. Krier

    2004-10-04

    The purpose of this scientific analysis report, ''Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'', is to present information about natural volcanic systems and the parameters that can be used to model their behavior. This information is used to develop parameter-value distributions appropriate for analysis of the consequences of volcanic eruptions through a repository at Yucca Mountain. This scientific analysis report provides information to four other reports: ''Number of Waste Packages Hit by Igneous Intrusion'', (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170001]); ''Atmospheric Dispersal and Deposition of Tephra from Potential Volcanic Eruption at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170026]); ''Dike/Drift Interactions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170028]); ''Development of Earthquake Ground Motion Input for Preclosure Seismic Design and Postclosure Performance Assessment of a Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, NV'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170027], Section 6.5). This report is organized into seven major sections. This section addresses the purpose of this document. Section 2 addresses quality assurance, Section 3 the use of software, Section 4 identifies the requirements that constrain this work, and Section 5 lists assumptions and their rationale. Section 6 presents the details of the scientific analysis and Section 7 summarizes the conclusions reached.

  5. Equipment of medical backpacks in mountain rescue.

    PubMed

    Elsensohn, Fidel; Soteras, Inigo; Resiten, Oliver; Ellerton, John; Brugger, Hermann; Paal, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a survey of equipment in medical backpacks for mountain rescuers and mountain emergency physicians. The aim was to investigate whether there are standards for medical equipment in mountain rescue organizations associated with the International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine (ICAR MEDCOM). A questionnaire was completed by 18 member organizations from 14 countries. Backpacks for first responders are well equipped to manage trauma, but deficiencies in equipment to treat medical emergencies were found. Paramedic and physicians' backpacks were well equipped to provide advanced life support and contained suitable drugs. We recommend that medical backpacks should be equipped in accordance with national laws, the medical emergencies in a given region, and take into account the climate, geography, medical training of rescuers, and funding of the organization. Automated external defibrillator provision should be improved. The effects of temperature on the drugs and equipment should be considered. Standards for training in the use and maintenance of medical tools should be enforced. First responders and physicians should only use familiar tools and drugs.

  6. Possible uranium mineralization, Mineral Mountains, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, W. Roger; McHugh, John B.; Ficklin, Walter H.

    1979-01-01

    The Mineral Mountains block in west-central Utah is a horst whose core stands structurally high relative to all nearby basin-and-range fault blocks. Rocks of the Mineral Mountains range from Precambrian to Quaternary in age, but mostly consist of Tertiary granitic rocks. The range lies with the Wah Wah-Tusher mineral belt. Lead, silver, gold, and tungsten have been mined commercially. During a geochemical survey conducted in the summer of 1978, 30 water samples and 29 stream-sediment samples were collected from the Mineral Mountains area. The interpretation of simple plots of uranium concentrations and the results of a Q-mode factor analysis indicate that potential exists for uranium mineral deposits within the Mineral Mountains. The most favorable areas are in the granitic pluton near its contacts with sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. The most likely source of the uranium anomalies is uraninite-bearing epigenic veins along faults and fractures within the pluton. Three hypothetical models are proposed to account for the uranium mineralization.

  7. 36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mountain climbing. 13.910 Section 13.910 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park and Preserve...

  8. 36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mountain climbing. 13.910 Section 13.910 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park and Preserve...

  9. Deformational stress fields of Casper Mountain, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Burfod, A.E.; Gable, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    Casper Mountain is an east-west-trending Laramide feature located immediately west of the north termination of the Laramie Mountains in central Wyoming. Precambrian rocks are exposed as its core; off-dipping Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata characterize the flanks and ends. The north side is abruptly downthrown along a major east-west fault or faults. A complex of stress fields of Precambrian and younger ages is indicated by high-angle shears and shear zones, steep-dip foliations, and multiple joint systems. One or more of the indicated Precambrian stress fields may be equivalent to that of the Cheyenne belt of the southern Laramie Mountains. In addition, at least two well-developed Laramide stress fields were active during the formation of the mountain structure. The principal maximum compressive stress of each was oriented north-south; the mean compressive axis of one was vertical whereas in the other the minimum compressive axis was vertical. Some structural features of Precambrian age, faulting in particular, appear to have influenced structures of younger ages. Prominent east-northeast-trending, high-angle faults lie approximately parallel to the Precambrian structural grain; they offset structural features of Laramide age and may be of late Laramide and/or post-Laramide age.

  10. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe the first molecular confirmation of Rickettsia rickettsii, the cause of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), from a tick vector, Amblyomma cajennense, and from a cluster of fatal spotted fever cases in Argentina. Questing A. cajennense ticks were collected at or near sites of presumed or...

  11. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cases of epidemic typhus have been documented in Argentina since 1919; however, no confirmed reports of spotted fever rickettsiosis were described in this country until 1999. We describe the first molecular confirmation of Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiologic agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (R...

  12. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in dogs, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Kamakura, Orson; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Horta, Mauricio C; Pacheco, Richard C

    2009-03-01

    Clinical illness caused by Rickettsia rickettsii in dogs has been reported solely in the United States. We report 2 natural clinical cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in dogs in Brazil. Each case was confirmed by seroconversion and molecular analysis and resolved after doxycycline therapy.

  13. Oak Mountain High School, Shelby County, Alabama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Design Cost Data, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents design features of the Oak Mountain High School (Alabama) consisting of an academic side of classrooms, administration, and media center; and an activity side consisting of cafeteria, gymnasium, practice gym, and a theater. The school's floor plan and photos are included. (GR)

  14. 36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mountain climbing. 13.910 Section 13.910 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park and Preserve...

  15. 36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mountain climbing. 13.910 Section 13.910 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park and Preserve...

  16. 36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mountain climbing. 13.910 Section 13.910 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park and Preserve...

  17. Transportation Fuels Markets, Midwest and Rocky Mountain

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    A new study commissioned by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), finds that changes in North American energy markets over the past decade have strengthened the supply of transportation fuels including motor gasoline, distillates, and jet fuel in the Midwest and Rocky Mountain regions.

  18. Education and the Mountain Centres. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drasdo, Harold

    The outdoor education literature reveals little on the values of outdoor education activities. The values of aesthetic education can readily be ascribed to values of an outdoor mountain experience--visual, plastic, musical, kinetic, verbal, and constructive. These values are related through senses, muscles, speech, and thought to form expression.…

  19. Epidemiology of acute mountain sickness on Jade Mountain, Taiwan: an annual prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shih-Hao; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Kao, Wei-Fong; Lin, Yu-Jr; Chen, Jih-Chang; Chiu, Te-Fa; Hsu, Tai-Yi; Chen, Hang-Cheng; Liu, Shih-Wei

    2010-01-01

    Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is a pathophysiological symptom complex that occurs in high altitude areas. The AMS prevalence is reportedly 28% on Jade Mountain, the highest mountain (3952 m) in Taiwan. We conducted this study owing to the lack of annual epidemiological data on AMS in Taiwan. Between April 2007 and March 2008, 1066 questionnaires were completed by trekkers visiting Paiyun Lodge on Jade Mountain. Information in the questionnaire included demographic data, mountaineering experience, AMS history, and trekking schedule. Weather data were obtained from the Central Weather Bureau of Taiwan. The Lake Louise AMS score was used to record symptoms and diagnose AMS. The chi-square test or the Student t test was used to evaluate associations between variables and AMS. In our study, the AMS prevalence was 36%. It increased significantly at different rates at different locations on the Jade Mountain trail and varied significantly in different months. Rainy weather tended to slightly increase the incidence of AMS. A lower incidence of AMS was correlated with hig-altitude trekking experience or preexposure (p < 0.05), whereas a higher incidence of AMS was correlated with a prior history of AMS (p < 0.05). The trekkers with AMS were significantly younger, ascended faster from their residence to the entrance or to Paiyun Lodge, and ascended slower from the entrance to the Paiyun Lodge (p < 0.05), but the differences lacked clinical significance. No differences in the incidence of AMS based on blood type, gender, or obesity were observed. The most common symptom among all trekkers was headache, followed by difficulty sleeping, fatigue or weakness, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, and dizziness or lightheadedness. In conclusion, the AMS prevalence on Jade Mountain was 36%, varied by month, and correlated with trekking experience, preexposure, and a prior history of AMS. The overall presentation of AMS was similar to that on other major world mountains.

  20. Extreme ground motions and Yucca Mountain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanks, Thomas C.; Abrahamson, Norman A.; Baker, Jack W.; Boore, David M.; Board, Mark; Brune, James N.; Cornell, C. Allin; Whitney, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Yucca Mountain is the designated site of the underground repository for the United States' high-level radioactive waste (HLW), consisting of commercial and military spent nuclear fuel, HLW derived from reprocessing of uranium and plutonium, surplus plutonium, and other nuclear-weapons materials. Yucca Mountain straddles the western boundary of the Nevada Test Site, where the United States has tested nuclear devices since the 1950s, and is situated in an arid, remote, and thinly populated region of Nevada, ~100 miles northwest of Las Vegas. Yucca Mountain was originally considered as a potential underground repository of HLW because of its thick units of unsaturated rocks, with the repository horizon being not only ~300 m above the water table but also ~300 m below the Yucca Mountain crest. The fundamental rationale for a geologic (underground) repository for HLW is to securely isolate these materials from the environment and its inhabitants to the greatest extent possible and for very long periods of time. Given the present climate conditions and what is known about the current hydrologic system and conditions around and in the mountain itself, one would anticipate that the rates of infiltration, corrosion, and transport would be very low—except for the possibility that repository integrity might be compromised by low-probability disruptive events, which include earthquakes, strong ground motion, and (or) a repository-piercing volcanic intrusion/eruption. Extreme ground motions (ExGM), as we use the phrase in this report, refer to the extremely large amplitudes of earthquake ground motion that arise at extremely low probabilities of exceedance (hazard). They first came to our attention when the 1998 probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for Yucca Mountain was extended to a hazard level of 10-8/yr (a 10-4/yr probability for a 104-year repository “lifetime”). The primary purpose of this report is to summarize the principal results of the ExGM research program

  1. Constructing the Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Kalia, H.N.; Replogle, J.M.

    1996-05-01

    Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Office of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is constructing an underground Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), approximately 160 km (100 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This facility is being used to obtain geological, hydrological, geomechanical, thermomechanical and geochemical information to characterize, Yucca Mountain as a potential site to isolate High-Level Radioactive Waste from the accessible environment. The ESF, when completed, will consist of two ramps from surface (North and South ramp) to the potential repository horizon formations, a drift connecting the two ramps, test alcoves, and above and below ground operational support facilities. The ramps and connecting drift are being mined by a 7.62 m (25 ft) diameter, fully shielded, Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM). This paper describes the current status of the construction of the ESF and test alcoves. At the time of this writing, the following has been accomplished: North Ramp excavation is complete; four test alcoves have been excavated and are in use for scientific experiments; the excavation has reached the potential repository horizon; the drift connecting the two ramps is being excavated, and the excavation of a test alcove for thermal testing is in progress. The mining operations are ahead of schedule, and to date March 26, 1996, the TBM has excavated over 4623 m(15,160 ft.) without any major breakdowns or accidents. The average advance for a three shift (two mining shifts) production day has been 33.46 m (110 ft.). Maximum advance for a week was 218.3 m (716 ft.). An Alpine Miner (AM 75) roadheader is being used to excavate test alcoves. The major ground support system consists of Supper Swellex rock bolts, steel sets as required, Williams rock bolts and channels, and welded wire fabric. Various sections of the tunnel have been instrumented, and the entire excavation has been geologically mapped. To date, the site conditions have been those predicted.

  2. Generalized stationary phase approximations for mountain waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, H.; Broutman, D.; Eckermann, S. D.

    2016-04-01

    Large altitude asymptotic approximations are derived for vertical displacements due to mountain waves generated by hydrostatic wind flow over arbitrary topography. This leads to new asymptotic analytic expressions for wave-induced vertical displacement for mountains with an elliptical Gaussian shape and with the major axis oriented at any angle relative to the background wind. The motivation is to understand local maxima in vertical displacement amplitude at a given height for elliptical mountains aligned at oblique angles to the wind direction, as identified in Eckermann et al. ["Effects of horizontal geometrical spreading on the parameterization of orographic gravity-wave drag. Part 1: Numerical transform solutions," J. Atmos. Sci. 72, 2330-2347 (2015)]. The standard stationary phase method reproduces one type of local amplitude maximum that migrates downwind with increasing altitude. Another type of local amplitude maximum stays close to the vertical axis over the center of the mountain, and a new generalized stationary phase method is developed to describe this other type of local amplitude maximum and the horizontal variation of wave-induced vertical displacement near the vertical axis of the mountain in the large altitude limit. The new generalized stationary phase method describes the asymptotic behavior of integrals where the asymptotic parameter is raised to two different powers (1/2 and 1) rather than just one power as in the standard stationary phase method. The vertical displacement formulas are initially derived assuming a uniform background wind but are extended to accommodate both vertical shear with a fixed wind direction and vertical variations in the buoyancy frequency.

  3. 77 FR 26733 - Uinta-Wasatch-Cache National Forest; Evanston-Mountain View Ranger District; Utah; Smiths Fork...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... wildfire and further mountain pine beetle attacks. The project is needed to: (1) Salvage forest products... salvage operations to minimize the potential for large, high intensity/high severity wildfires. This... vicinity of private land would be intended to reduce the threat of wildfire to human life and...

  4. SAMCO: Society Adaptation for coping with Mountain risks in a global change COntext

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandjean, Gilles; Bernardie, Severine; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Puissant, Anne; Houet, Thomas; Berger, Frederic; Fort, Monique; Pierre, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    The SAMCO project aims to develop a proactive resilience framework enhancing the overall resilience of societies on the impacts of mountain risks. The project aims to elaborate methodological tools to characterize and measure ecosystem and societal resilience from an operative perspective on three mountain representative case studies. To achieve this objective, the methodology is split in several points with (1) the definition of the potential impacts of global environmental changes (climate system, ecosystem e.g. land use, socio-economic system) on landslide hazards, (2) the analysis of these consequences in terms of vulnerability (e.g. changes in the location and characteristics of the impacted areas and level of their perturbation) and (3) the implementation of a methodology for quantitatively investigating and mapping indicators of mountain slope vulnerability exposed to several hazard types, and the development of a GIS-based demonstration platform. The strength and originality of the SAMCO project will be to combine different techniques, methodologies and models (multi-hazard assessment, risk evolution in time, vulnerability functional analysis, and governance strategies) and to gather various interdisciplinary expertises in earth sciences, environmental sciences, and social sciences. The multidisciplinary background of the members could potentially lead to the development of new concepts and emerging strategies for mountain hazard/risk adaptation. Research areas, characterized by a variety of environmental, economical and social settings, are severely affected by landslides, and have experienced significant land use modifications (reforestation, abandonment of traditional agricultural practices) and human interferences (urban expansion, ski resorts construction) over the last century.

  5. Environmental Considerations for a Geothermal Development in the Jemez Mountains of Central New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Sabo, David G.

    1980-12-01

    The demonstration nature of the Baca Geothermal Project and the contractual arrangements between Public Service Company of New Me (PNM) and Union Geothermal Company of New Mexico (Union) with the Department of Energy mandate on environmental monitoring effort previously not seen for an energy development of this size. One of the most often stated goals of the Baca Project is to demonstrate the acceptability and viability of geothermal energy in an environmentally responsible manner. If this statement is to be followed, then a program would have to be developed which would (1) identify all the environmental baseline parameters, (2) monitor them during construction and operation, and (3) alleviate any possible negative impacts. The situation of the Baca project in the Jemez Mountains of north-central New Mexico offers a challenging vehicle with which to demonstrate the acceptability of geothermal energy. A few of the reasons for this are: these mountains are one of the most heavily used recreational resource areas in the state, numerous prehistoric people utilized the canyons and have left considerable archeological resources, the mountains are home for a number of individuals who prefer their serenity to the hustle and bustle of urban dwelling, and finally, the mountains are considered sacred by a number of local Indian tribes, a few of which use the mountaintop as religious sites.

  6. Morphological variation and zoogeography of racers (Coluber constrictor) in the central Rocky Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corn, Paul Stephen; Bury, R. Bruce

    1986-01-01

    We examined 63 specimens of Coluber constrictor from Colorado and Utah using eight external morphological characters that have been used to distinguish C. c. mormon from C. c. flaviventris. We grouped the snakes into three Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU's) in a transect across the Rocky Mountains: the eastern Front Range foothills in Colorado; the inter-mountain region (western slope of Colorado and northeastern Utah); and the western foothills of the Wasatch Mountains in Utah. Statistically significant variation among the OTU's was discovered for ration of tail length to total length, number of central and subcaudal scales, and number of dentary teeth. However, variation is clinal with nearly complete overlap from one end f the transect to the other for each character, suggesting a wide zone of intergradiation in the inter-mountain region. We do not believe reported differences in reproductive parameters between Great Plains and Great Basin racers are sufficient grounds for recognition of species, because clutch size is both geographically variable and dependent on the environment. The distribution of C. constrictor is similar to that of other reptiles with transmontane distributions in the western United States, and we suggest two possible routes of dispersal across the Continental Divide in southwestern Wyoming. Thus, elevation of C. c. mormon to species status is not supported by morphological, reproductive, or zoogeographic evidence.

  7. The geohydrologic setting of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuckless, J.S.; Dudley, W.W.

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides a geologic and hydrologic framework of the Yucca Mountain region for the geochemical papers in this volume. The regional geologic units, which range in age from late Precambrian through Holocene, are briefly described. Yucca Mountain is composed of dominantly pyroclastic units that range in age from 11.4 to 15.2 Ma. The principal focus of study has been on the Paintbrush Group, which includes two major zoned and welded ash-flow tuffs separated by an important hydrogeologic unit referred to as the Paintbrush non-welded (PTn). The regional structural setting is currently one of extension, and the major local tectonic domains are presented together with a tectonic model that is consistent with the known structures at Yucca Mountain. Streamflow in this arid to semi-arid region occurs principally in intermittent or ephemeral channels. Near Yucca Mountain, the channels of Fortymile Wash and Amargosa River collect infrequent runoff from tributary basins, ultimately draining to Death Valley. Beneath the surface, large-scale interbasin flow of groundwater from one valley to another occurs commonly in the region. Regional groundwater flow beneath Yucca Mountain originates in the high mesas to the north and returns to the surface either in southern Amargosa Desert or in Death Valley, where it is consumed by evapotranspiration. The water table is very deep beneath the upland areas such as Yucca Mountain, where it is 500-750 m below the land surface, providing a large thickness of unsaturated rocks that are potentially suitable to host a nuclear-waste repository. The nature of unsaturated flow processes, which are important for assessing radionuclide migration, are inferred mainly from hydrochemical or isotopic evidence, from pneumatic tests of the fracture systems, and from the results of in situ experiments. Water seeping down through the unsaturated zone flows rapidly through fractures and more slowly through the pores of the rock matrix. Although

  8. YUMMY: The Yucca Mountain MCNP-Library

    SciTech Connect

    Alpan, FA

    2004-12-10

    Point-wise libraries provided with the MCNP code contain neutron data for a limited number of temperatures. However, it is important to have the option of using data from a wide range of temperatures for transport calculations. For this purpose, a multi-temperature, ACE-format neutron library was generated for 134 nuclides, as requested by Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) staff. The library is referred to as YUMMY (YUcca Mountain MCNP-librarY). The neutron cross section data are based on ENDF/B-V or ENDF/B-VI evaluations that were requested by YMP staff. This document provides the details of the new library and its use in criticality safety benchmark problems, a Pressurized Water Reactor design and waste package models in MCNP4C.

  9. Least-cost paths in mountainous terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rees, W. G.

    2004-04-01

    Footpaths in a mountainous area of Wales are modelled as least-cost paths between the start and end points. The cost function is defined on the basis of topography alone, and is defined in such a way that the cost penalty for excessively steep slopes is an adjustable parameter of the model. Least-cost paths are calculated by applying Dijkstra's algorithm to a Digital Elevation Model. Comparison of these calculated least-cost paths with existing footpaths suggests that the latter do not usually follow the least-time route, but instead optimise the metabolic cost for human locomotion. The method developed here is proposed as a means of exploring possible routes for new footpaths in mountainous areas.

  10. East Mountain Area 1995 air sampling results

    SciTech Connect

    Deola, R.A.

    1996-09-01

    Ambient air samples were taken at two locations in the East Mountain Area in conjunction with thermal testing at the Lurance Canyon Burn Site (LCBS). The samples were taken to provide measurements of particulate matter with a diameter less than or equal to 10 micrometers (PM{sub 10}) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This report summarizes the results of the sampling performed in 1995. The results from small-scale testing performed to determine the potentially produced air pollutants in the thermal tests are included in this report. Analytical results indicate few samples produced measurable concentrations of pollutants believed to be produced by thermal testing. Recommendations for future air sampling in the East Mountain Area are also noted.

  11. Rail Access to Yucca Mountain: Critical Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Halstead, R. J.; Dilger, F.; Moore, R. C.

    2003-02-25

    The proposed Yucca Mountain repository site currently lacks rail access. The nearest mainline railroad is almost 100 miles away. Absence of rail access could result in many thousands of truck shipments of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Direct rail access to the repository could significantly reduce the number of truck shipments and total shipments. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) identified five potential rail access corridors, ranging in length from 98 miles to 323 miles, in the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for Yucca Mountain. The FEIS also considers an alternative to rail spur construction, heavy-haul truck (HHT) delivery of rail casks from one of three potential intermodal transfer stations. The authors examine the feasibility and cost of the five rail corridors, and DOE's alternative proposal for HHT transport. The authors also address the potential for rail shipments through the Las Vegas metropolitan area.

  12. Yucca Mountain could face greater volcanic threat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Eugene I.; Keenan, Deborah L.

    Locating a radioactive waste repository in the United States has been the subject of over 20 years of scientific research, political wrangling, and court decisions. If a nuclear waste repository is constructed at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, 70,000 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel will be buried 300 m below the surface.Because eight Quaternary basalt volcanoes erupted within 50 km of the proposed repository in the past million years, future volcanism is an important issue. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently using an expert panel to evaluate current models [Perry et al., 1998] and consider alternative models. This article presents an alternative model, developed independently of DOE and the expert panel, and reviews new information pertinent to volcanic hazard studies. Additionally, this article suggests that the size of the Yucca Mountain volcanic field is not presently well known.

  13. Rocky Mountain spotted fever: a clinician's dilemma.

    PubMed

    Masters, Edwin J; Olson, Gary S; Weiner, Scott J; Paddock, Christopher D

    2003-04-14

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is still the most lethal tick-vectored illness in the United States. We examine the dilemmas facing the clinician who is evaluating the patient with possible Rocky Mountain spotted fever, with particular attention to the following 8 pitfalls in diagnosis and treatment: (1) waiting for a petechial rash to develop before diagnosis; (2) misdiagnosing as gastroenteritis; (3) discounting a diagnosis when there is no history of a tick bite; (4) using an inappropriate geographic exclusion; (5) using an inappropriate seasonal exclusion; (6) failing to treat on clinical suspicion; (7) failing to elicit an appropriate history; and (8) failing to treat with doxycycline. Early diagnosis and proper treatment save lives.

  14. Zen Mountains: An Illusion of Perceptual Transparency

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The human visual system is usually very successful in segmenting complex natural scenes. During a trip to the Nepalese Himalayas, we observed an impossible example of Nature's beauty: “transparent” mountains. The scene is captured in a photograph in which a pair of mountain peaks viewed in the far distance appear to be transparent. This illusion results from a fortuitous combination of lighting and scene conditions, which induce an erroneous integration of multiple segmentation cues. The illusion unites three classic principles of visual perception: Metelli's constraints for perceptual transparency, the Gestalt principle of good continuation, and depth from contrast and atmospheric scattering. This real-world “failure” of scene segmentation reinforces how ingeniously the human visual system typically integrates complex sources of perceptual information using heuristics based on likelihood as shortcuts to veridical perception. PMID:28299170

  15. Multidisciplinary hydrologic investigations at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dudley, William W.

    1990-01-01

    Future climatic conditions and tectonic processes have the potential to cause significant changes of the hydrologic system in the southern Great Basin, where a nuclear-waste repository is proposed for construction above the water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Geothermal anomalies in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain probably result from the local and regional transport of heat by ground-water flow. Regionally and locally irregular patterns of hydraulic potential, local marsh and pond deposits, and calcite veins in faults and fractures probably are related principally to climatically imposed hydrologic conditions within the geologic and topographic framework. However, tectonic effects on the hydrologic system have also been proposed as the causes of these features, and existing data limitations preclude a full evaluation of these competing hypotheses. A broad program that integrates many disciplines of earth science is required in order to understand the relation of hydrology to past, present and future climates and tectonism.

  16. Mountain biking injuries in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Aleman, Kylee B; Meyers, Michael C

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade, the sport of mountain biking has experienced extensive growth in youth participation. Due to the unpredictable nature of outdoor sport, a lack of rider awareness and increased participation, the number of injuries has unnecessarily increased. Many believe that the actual incidence of trauma in this sport is underestimated and is just the 'tip of the iceberg'. The most common mechanism of injury is usually attributed to downhill riding and forward falling. Although rare, this type of fall can result in serious cranial and thoraco-abdominal trauma. Head and neck trauma continue to be documented, often resulting in concussions and the possibility of permanent neurological sequelae. Upper limb injuries range from minor dermal abrasions, contusions and muscular strains to complex particular fracture dislocations. These are caused by attempting to arrest the face with an outstretched hand, leading to additional direct injury. Common overuse injuries include repeated compression from the handlebars and vibration leading to neurovascular complications in the hands. Along with reports of blunt abdominal trauma and lumbar muscle strains, lower extremity injuries may include various hip/pelvic/groin contusions, patellofemoral inflammation, and various muscle strains. The primary causes of mountain biking injuries in children and adolescents include overuse, excessive fatigue, age, level of experience, and inappropriate or improperly adjusted equipment. Additional factors contributing to trauma among this age group involve musculoskeletal immaturity, collisions and falls, excessive speed, environmental conditions, conditioning and fitness status of the rider, nonconservative behavioural patterns, and inadequate medical care. The limited available data restrict the identification and understanding of specific paediatric mountain biking injuries and injury mechanisms. Education about unnecessary risk of injury, use of protective equipment, suitable bikes

  17. Groundwater quality in the Klamath Mountains, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Klamath Mountains constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  18. Revised mineralogic summary of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Bish, D.L.; Chipera, S.J.

    1989-03-01

    We have evaluated three-dimensional mineral distribution at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, using quantitative x-ray powder diffraction analysis. All data were obtained on core cuttings, or sidewall samples obtained from drill holes at and around Yucca Mountain. Previously published data are included with corrections, together with new data for several drill holes. The new data presented in this report used the internal standard method of quantitative analysis, which yields results of high precision for the phases commonly found in Yucca Mountain tuffs including opal-CT and glass. Mineralogical trends with depth previously noted are clearly shown by these new data. Glass occurrence is restricted almost without exception to above the present-day static water level (SWL), although glass has been identified below the SWL in partially zeolitized tuffs. Silica phases undergo well-defined transitions with depth, with tridymite and cristobalite occurring only above the SWL, opal-CT occurring with clinoptilolite-mordenite tuffs, and quartz most abundant below the SWL. Smectite occurs in small amounts in most samples but is enriched in two distinct zones. These zones are at the top of the vitric nonwelded base of the Tiva Canyon Member and at the top of the basal vitrophyre of the Topopah Spring Member. Our data support the presence of several zones of mordenite and clinoptilolite-heulandite as shown previously. New data on several deep clinoptililite-heulandite samples coexisting with analcime show that they are heulandite. Phillipsite has not been found in any Yucca Mountain samples, but erionite and chabazite have been found once in fractures. 21 refs., 17 figs.

  19. Makran Mountain Range, Iran and Pakistan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The long folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Ranges of Iran and Pakistan (26.0N, 63.0E) illustrate the classical Trellis type of drainage pattern, common in this region. The Dasht River and its tributaries is the principal drainage network for this area. To the left, the continental drift of the northward bound Indian sub-continent has caused the east/west parallel ranges to bend in a great northward arc.

  20. Predicting the Future at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    J. R. Wilson

    1999-07-01

    This paper summarizes a climate-prediction model funded by the DOE for the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository. Several articles in the open literature attest to the effects of the Global Ocean Conveyor upon paleoclimate, specifically entrance and exit from the ice age. The data shows that these millennial-scale effects are duplicated on the microscale of years to decades. This work also identifies how man may have influenced the Conveyor, affecting global cooling and warming for 2,000 years.

  1. Growth and survival of Mountain Plovers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Brian J.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1993-01-01

    Growth and survival rates of Mountain Plovers (Charadrius montanus) were monitored using radiotelemetry from hatching until birds left the breeding grounds on the Pawnee National Grassland, Weld County, Colorado. Chick weights increased logarithmically (r) = 0.961) and tarsus length linearly (r = 0.948) with age. Using the average fledgling weight of 69.8 g and an age/weight regression we predicted that the average age at fledging was 36 d. Fourteen Mountain Plover nests each had three effs; an average of 2.6 eggs hatched in seven nests, whereas remaining nests were lost to predation, storms, or trampling by a cow. Twenty-four adult Mountain Plovers were monitored for 275 telemetry days with no mortalities. Twenty flightless chicks had a calculated daily survival rate of 0.979 for 233 telemetry-days. Mortalities of flightless chicks were due to predation or unknown causes. The daily survival rate predicted that 1.2 of the 2.6 chicks hatched per nest lived to fly. Eight fledged chicks were monitored for 74 telemetry-days, with a daily survival rate of 0.974. Mortalities of fledglings were all attributed to predation. The combined survival rates predicted that 0.7 or the 2.6 hatched chicks lived to leave the nesting area. Survival rates of flightless chicks were similar to those reported 20 yr ago, implying that recent declines in Mountain Plover numbers on the continent are not attributable to either longer-term declines in nesting productivity or phenomena occurring at non-breeding locales.

  2. Nuclear Waste Disposal: Alternatives to Yucca Mountain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-06

    pr_121508_energysecnom.cfm. 13 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, “Growing energy: Berkeley Lab’s Steve Chu on what termite guts have to do with global warming...does not seem an attractive alternative to the geological 60 Steven Nadis, “The Sub-Seabed Solution...could be done at Yucca Mountain.82 Such “salt creep” occurs more quickly at higher temperatures , which could result from the disposal of high-level waste

  3. DOE`s Yucca Mountain studies

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-01

    This booklet is about the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in the United States. It is for readers who have a general rather than a technical background. It discusses why scientists and engineers think high-level nuclear waste may be disposed of safely underground. It also describes why Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is being studied as a potential repository site and provides basic information about those studies.

  4. Interpreting Primary Children's Representations of Mountains and Mountainous Landscapes and Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trend, Roger; Everett, Lynn; Dove, Jane

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports research into children's understanding of mountainous landscapes and mountain genesis as revealed in their drawing and modelling representations and in subsequent interviews. A sample of 444 children aged 7-11 years was drawn from five UK inner-city schools. Comparisons between the younger (7-9 years) and older (9-11 years) children showed significant differences in perception, conception and priorities. The naive interpretation of children's drawings and models is questioned: interview data indicated that children use sophisticated techniques to represent mountains and mountain environments. Children are able to interpret stereotypical representations of mountain landscape features they encounter in books and elsewhere. They make use of a range of conventions in their own drawings that are revealed only in subsequent interviews. Research based solely on the interpretation of children's pictures is shown to be problematic and somewhat unreliable. Children perceive the differences between reality and pictorial representation and make full and conscious use of the range of conventions, including stereotypical forms.

  5. Mountains as early warning indicators of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    The panoramic splendor and complexity of mountain environments have inspired and challenged humans for centuries. These areas have been variously perceived as physical structures to be conquered, as sites of spiritual inspiration, and as some of the last untamed natural places on Earth. In our time, the perception that "mountains are forever" may provide solace to those seeking stability in a rapidly changing world. However, changes in the hydrology and in the abundance and species composition of the native flora and fauna of mountain ecosystems are potential bellwethers of global change, because these systems have a propensity to amplify environmental changes within specific portions of this landscape. Mountain areas are thus sentinels of climate change. We are seeing effects today in case histories I present from the Himalaya's, Andes, Alps, and Rocky Mountains. Furthermore, these ecosystem changes are occurring in mountain areas before they occur in downstream ecosystems. Thus, mountains are early warning indicators of perturbations such as climate change. The sensitivity of mountain ecosystems begs for enhanced protection and worldwide protection. Our understanding of the processes that control mountain ecosystems—climate interactions, snowmelt runoff, biotic diversity, nutrient cycling—is much less developed compared to downstream ecosystems where human habitation and development has resulted in large investments in scientific knowledge to sustain health and agriculture. To address these deficiencies, I propose the formation of an international mountain research consortium.

  6. A theoretical study of urban breeze-mountain wind interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mango Seo, Jaemyeong; Ganbat, Gantuya; Han, Ji-Young; Baik, Jong-Jin

    2015-04-01

    The interactions of urban breeze circulation with mountain slope winds are theoretically examined in a linear system that includes mountain mechanical forcing and non-zero basic-state wind. Flows induced by urban thermal forcing, mountain thermal forcing, and mountain mechanical forcing are linearly superposed. Thermally induced asymmetric circulations in the presence of non-zero basic-state wind result in distinct flow patterns depending on the location of the urban area relative to the mountain area. In the cases of the urban area being located on the downstream of the mountain area, strong positive near-surface horizontal wind induced by urban heating interacts with diverging (converging) flow from the mountain area in the nighttime (daytime). In the cases with the urban area being located on the upstream of the mountain area, strong positive near-surface horizontal wind is restricted in the urban area. Mountain mechanical forcing enhances downslope winds on the both sides of the mountain and updraft (downdraft) upstream (downstream) of the mountain. Sensitivities of the interactions to mountain height and basic-state wind speed are also examined. The vertical flux of horizontal momentum is analyzed by dividing the total momentum flux into five components. While terms that are related to flow induced by urban heating are dominant in the daytime, interaction terms that are related to flows induced by two thermal sources and by thermal and mechanical sources play important roles over the rest of times. Moreover, the total momentum flux is dependent on the location of the urban area relative to the mountain area and basic-state wind speed.

  7. Morphostructure of the Sakar and Strandzha Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzankov, Tzanko; Stankova, Svetla; Iliev, Rosen

    2017-03-01

    The Sakar and Strandzha Mountains are disposed in the South-East end of the Balkan Peninsula (on the both sides of the Bulgarian-Turkish boundary). They belong to the southeastern margin of the Bulgarian continental microplate. They are limit from North Thracian morphostructural zone to the North, the East Thracian morphostructural zone to the South and the Rhodopean morphostructural zone to the West. The observed mountain territory builds the Sakar-Strandzha morphostructural zone. It is divided by Sakar Dervent and Strandzha morphostructural areas. Every of them include morphostructural regions. They are composed by numerous Late Pleistocene-Holocene dome-like morphostructures. The relics from the Post Early Pleistocene concentric morphostructures are distributed in the entire zone. They were determined some archer and concentric Holocene mountain morphostructures. The regional seismic activity (during the last 50 years) outlines three parts of the Sakar-Strandzha morphostructural zone. The western one - the Sakar part is moderate seismic active. The centred - Dervent part is practically seismic „calm". The eastern one- Strandzha part show a very intensive seismicity. It can by given right in a future (after the necessary investigations) to divide the zone in three areas.

  8. Food Web Topology in High Mountain Lakes

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Hernández, Javier; Cobo, Fernando; Amundsen, Per-Arne

    2015-01-01

    Although diversity and limnology of alpine lake systems are well studied, their food web structure and properties have rarely been addressed. Here, the topological food webs of three high mountain lakes in Central Spain were examined. We first addressed the pelagic networks of the lakes, and then we explored how food web topology changed when benthic biota was included to establish complete trophic networks. We conducted a literature search to compare our alpine lacustrine food webs and their structural metrics with those of 18 published lentic webs using a meta-analytic approach. The comparison revealed that the food webs in alpine lakes are relatively simple, in terms of structural network properties (linkage density and connectance), in comparison with lowland lakes, but no great differences were found among pelagic networks. The studied high mountain food webs were dominated by a high proportion of omnivores and species at intermediate trophic levels. Omnivores can exploit resources at multiple trophic levels, and this characteristic might reduce competition among interacting species. Accordingly, the trophic overlap, measured as trophic similarity, was very low in all three systems. Thus, these alpine networks are characterized by many omnivorous consumers with numerous prey species and few consumers with a single or few prey and with low competitive interactions among species. The present study emphasizes the ecological significance of omnivores in high mountain lakes as promoters of network stability and as central players in energy flow pathways via food partitioning and enabling energy mobility among trophic levels. PMID:26571235

  9. Food Web Topology in High Mountain Lakes.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Hernández, Javier; Cobo, Fernando; Amundsen, Per-Arne

    2015-01-01

    Although diversity and limnology of alpine lake systems are well studied, their food web structure and properties have rarely been addressed. Here, the topological food webs of three high mountain lakes in Central Spain were examined. We first addressed the pelagic networks of the lakes, and then we explored how food web topology changed when benthic biota was included to establish complete trophic networks. We conducted a literature search to compare our alpine lacustrine food webs and their structural metrics with those of 18 published lentic webs using a meta-analytic approach. The comparison revealed that the food webs in alpine lakes are relatively simple, in terms of structural network properties (linkage density and connectance), in comparison with lowland lakes, but no great differences were found among pelagic networks. The studied high mountain food webs were dominated by a high proportion of omnivores and species at intermediate trophic levels. Omnivores can exploit resources at multiple trophic levels, and this characteristic might reduce competition among interacting species. Accordingly, the trophic overlap, measured as trophic similarity, was very low in all three systems. Thus, these alpine networks are characterized by many omnivorous consumers with numerous prey species and few consumers with a single or few prey and with low competitive interactions among species. The present study emphasizes the ecological significance of omnivores in high mountain lakes as promoters of network stability and as central players in energy flow pathways via food partitioning and enabling energy mobility among trophic levels.

  10. Coronas and iridescence in mountain wave clouds.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Joseph A; Neiman, Paul J

    2003-01-20

    We use Fraunhofer diffraction theory and meterological data to determine the nature of cloud-particle distributions and the mean particle sizes required for interpreting photographs of coronas and iridescence in mountain wave clouds. Traditional descriptions of coronas and iridescence usually explain these optical phenomena as diffraction by droplets of liquid water. Our analysis shows that the photographed displays have mean particle sizes from 7.6 to 24.3 microm, with over half the cases requiring diffraction by small (approximatley 20 microm) quasispherical ice particles rather than liquid water droplets. Previous documentation of coronas produced by ice particles are limited to observations in cirrus clouds that appear to be composed of small ice crystals, whereas our observations suggest that coronas and iridescence quite often can be created by tiny quasispherical ice particles that might be unique to mountain wave clouds. Furthermore, we see that the dominant colors in mountain wave-cloud coronas are red and blue, rather than the traditionally described red and green.

  11. Exploring groundwater processes in Rocky Mountain headwaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janzen, D.; Ireson, A. M.; Yassin, F. A.

    2014-12-01

    More than one-sixth of the Earth's human population relies on freshwater originating in mountain headwaters, which is understood to be generated largely from snowpacks that melt throughout the spring and summer. Annual hydrographs in these regions are characterized by large peaks occurring in the spring, followed by slow recession towards winter baseflow conditions. However, atmospheric warming trends are found to coincide with earlier periods of snowmelt, leading to increased flows in spring and decreased flows in summer. This decreased ability of our 'water towers' to store snow late into the summer suggests that other mechanisms of storage and release may become more important in sustaining baseflows. In particular, subsurface processes leading to late summer and winter flow will become increasingly important earlier on, but are as yet poorly understood. By utilising historical data to inform a better understanding of late-season subsurface processes, we will be better prepared to predict how these mountains will temporarily store and release groundwater in a warmer climate. Here, we analyse long-term data sets from a small (Marmot Creek, Alberta ~10 km2) and a large (Bow River at Banff, Alberta ~1000 km2) basinwithin the Canadian Rocky Mountains, comparing observations with model outputs, to investigate late-season hydrological responses, and particularly the role of groundwater as a temporary storage mechanism.

  12. Magmatic unrest beneath Mammoth Mountain, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, David P.; Prejean, Stephanie

    2005-09-01

    Mammoth Mountain, which stands on the southwest rim of Long Valley caldera in eastern California, last erupted ˜57,000 years BP. Episodic volcanic unrest detected beneath the mountain since late 1979, however, emphasizes that the underlying volcanic system is still active and capable of producing future volcanic eruptions. The unrest symptoms include swarms of small ( M ≤ 3) earthquakes, spasmodic bursts (rapid-fire sequences of brittle-failure earthquakes with overlapping coda), long-period (LP) and very-long-period (VLP) volcanic earthquakes, ground deformation, diffuse emission of magmatic CO 2, and fumarole gases with elevated 3He/ 4He ratios. Spatial-temporal relations defined by the multi-parameter monitoring data together with earthquake source mechanisms suggest that this Mammoth Mountain unrest is driven by the episodic release of a volume of CO 2-rich hydrous magmatic fluid derived from the upper reaches of a plexus of basaltic dikes and sills at mid-crustal depths (10-20 km). As the mobilized fluid ascends through the brittle-plastic transition zone and into overlying brittle crust, it triggers earthquake swarm activity and, in the case of the prolonged, 11-month-long earthquake swarm of 1989, crustal deformation and the onset of diffuse CO 2 emissions. Future volcanic activity from this system would most likely involve steam explosions or small-volume, basaltic, strombolian or Hawaiaan style eruptions. The impact of such an event would depend critically on vent location and season.

  13. Magmatic unrest beneath Mammoth Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, D.P.; Prejean, S.

    2005-01-01

    Mammoth Mountain, which stands on the southwest rim of Long Valley caldera in eastern California, last erupted ???57,000 years BP. Episodic volcanic unrest detected beneath the mountain since late 1979, however, emphasizes that the underlying volcanic system is still active and capable of producing future volcanic eruptions. The unrest symptoms include swarms of small (M ??? 3) earthquakes, spasmodic bursts (rapid-fire sequences of brittle-failure earthquakes with overlapping coda), long-period (LP) and very-long-period (VLP) volcanic earthquakes, ground deformation, diffuse emission of magmatic CO2, and fumarole gases with elevated 3He/4He ratios. Spatial-temporal relations defined by the multi-parameter monitoring data together with earthquake source mechanisms suggest that this Mammoth Mountain unrest is driven by the episodic release of a volume of CO2-rich hydrous magmatic fluid derived from the upper reaches of a plexus of basaltic dikes and sills at mid-crustal depths (10-20 km). As the mobilized fluid ascends through the brittle-plastic transition zone and into overlying brittle crust, it triggers earthquake swarm activity and, in the case of the prolonged, 11-month-long earthquake swarm of 1989, crustal deformation and the onset of diffuse CO2 emissions. Future volcanic activity from this system would most likely involve steam explosions or small-volume, basaltic, strombolian or Hawaiaan style eruptions. The impact of such an event would depend critically on vent location and season.

  14. Mountain treelines: A roadmap for research orientation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malanson, George P.; Resler, Lynn M.; Bader, Maaike Y.; Holtmeier, Fredrich-Karl; Butler, David R.; Weiss, Daniel J.; Daniels, Lori D.; Fagre, Daniel B.

    2011-01-01

    For over 100 years, mountain treelines have been the subject of varied research endeavors and remain a strong area of investigation. The purpose of this paper is to examine aspects of the epistemology of mountain treeline research-that is, to investigate how knowledge on treelines has been acquired and the changes in knowledge acquisition over time, through a review of fundamental questions and approaches. The questions treeline researchers have raised and continue to raise have undoubtedly directed the current state of knowledge. A continuing, fundamental emphasis has centered on seeking the general cause of mountain treelines, thus seeking an answer to the question, "What causes treeline?" with a primary emphasis on searching for ecophysiological mechanisms of low-temperature limitation for tree growth and regeneration. However, treeline research today also includes a rich literature that seeks local, landscape-scale causes of treelines and reasons why treelines vary so widely in three-dimensional patterns from one location to the next, and this approach and some of its consequences are elaborated here. In recent years, both lines of research have been motivated greatly by global climate change. Given the current state of knowledge, we propose that future research directions focused on a spatial approach should specifically address cross-scale hypotheses using statistics and simulations designed for nested hierarchies; these analyses will benefit from geographic extension of treeline research.

  15. Flight Period of Mountain Pine Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in its Recently Expanded Range.

    PubMed

    Bleiker, K P; Van Hezewijk, B H

    2016-12-01

    The ability to predict key phenological events, such as the timing of flight periods, is useful for the monitoring and management of insect pests. We used empirical data to describe the flight period of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, in its recently expanded range east of the Rocky Mountains in Canada and developed a degree-day model based on the number of trapped beetles. Data were collected over four degrees of latitude and six years. The main flight period, when the middle 70% of the total number of beetles were caught, started during the second or third week of July, lasted 26 d, and peaked within 2 wk of starting. The best model accounted for 89% of the variation in the data. Mountain pine beetle's flight tended to start later and be more contracted at higher latitudes. The synchrony of mountain pine beetle's flight period in the expanded range appears to be comparable to the limited reports from the historic range, although it may start earlier. This suggests that conditions in the new range are suitable for a coordinated dispersal flight, which is critical for the beetle's strategy of overwhelming tree defenses by attacking en masse. Forest managers can use the model to support operational decisions, e.g., when to impose hauling restrictions to reduce the risk of spread through the transport of infested material, or the time frame for control programs. Understanding the flight period may also improve our ability to assess the response of mountain pine beetle to novel and changing climates in the future.

  16. Flight Period of Mountain Pine Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in its Recently Expanded Range.

    PubMed

    Bleiker, K P; Van Hezewijk, B H

    2016-09-20

    The ability to predict key phenological events, such as the timing of flight periods, is useful for the monitoring and management of insect pests. We used empirical data to describe the flight period of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, in its recently expanded range east of the Rocky Mountains in Canada and developed a degree-day model based on the number of trapped beetles. Data were collected over four degrees of latitude and six years. The main flight period, when the middle 70% of the total number of beetles were caught, started during the second or third week of July, lasted 26 d, and peaked within 2 wk of starting. The best model accounted for 89% of the variation in the data. Mountain pine beetle's flight tended to start later and be more contracted at higher latitudes. The synchrony of mountain pine beetle's flight period in the expanded range appears to be comparable to the limited reports from the historic range, although it may start earlier. This suggests that conditions in the new range are suitable for a coordinated dispersal flight, which is critical for the beetle's strategy of overwhelming tree defenses by attacking en masse. Forest managers can use the model to support operational decisions, e.g., when to impose hauling restrictions to reduce the risk of spread through the transport of infested material, or the time frame for control programs. Understanding the flight period may also improve our ability to assess the response of mountain pine beetle to novel and changing climates in the future.

  17. Seismicity in the Vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the Period October 1, 2002, to September 30, 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Ken; von Seggern, David

    2007-12-04

    Earthquake activity in the Yucca Mountain from October 1, 2002 through September 30, 2003 (FY03) is assessed and compared with previous activity in the region. FY03 is the first reporting year since the 1992 M 5.6 Little Skull Mountain earthquake with no earthquakes greater than M 3.0 within 65 km of Yucca Mountain. In addition, FY03 includes the fewest number of earthquakes greater than M 2.0 in any reporting year since the LSM event. With 3075 earthquakes in the catalog, FY03 represents the second largest number of earthquakes (second to FY02) since FY96 when digital seismic network operations began. The largest event during FY03 was M 2.78 in eastern NTS and there were only 8 earthquakes greater than M 2.0.

  18. Estimating recharge at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA: Comparison of methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, A.L.; Flint, L.E.; Kwicklis, E.M.; Fabryka-Martin, J. T.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    2002-01-01

    Obtaining values of net infiltration, groundwater travel time, and recharge is necessary at the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada, USA, in order to evaluate the expected performance of a potential repository as a containment system for high-level radioactive waste. However, the geologic complexities of this site, its low precipitation and net infiltration, with numerous mechanisms operating simultaneously to move water through the system, provide many challenges for the estimation of the spatial distribution of recharge. A variety of methods appropriate for arid environments has been applied, including water-balance techniques, calculations using Darcy's law in the unsaturated zone, a soil-physics method applied to neutron-hole water-content data, inverse modeling of thermal profiles in boreholes extending through the thick unsaturated zone, chloride mass balance, atmospheric radionuclides, and empirical approaches. These methods indicate that near-surface infiltration rates at Yucca Mountain are highly variable in time and space, with local (point) values ranging from zero to several hundred millimeters per year. Spatially distributed net-infiltration values average 5 mm/year, with the highest values approaching 20 mm/year near Yucca Crest. Site-scale recharge estimates range from less than 1 to about 12 mm/year. These results have been incorporated into a site-scale model that has been calibrated using these data sets that reflect infiltration processes acting on highly variable temporal and spatial scales. The modeling study predicts highly non-uniform recharge at the water table, distributed significantly differently from the non-uniform infiltration pattern at the surface.

  19. Estimating recharge at Yucca Mountain, Nevada: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Flint, A.; Flint, L.; Kwicklis, E.; Fabryka-Martin, J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    2001-05-13

    Obtaining values of net infiltration, groundwater travel time, and recharge is necessary at the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada, USA, in order to evaluate the expected performance of a potential repository as a containment system for high-level radioactive waste. However, the geologic complexities of this site, its low precipitation and net infiltration, with numerous mechanisms operating simultaneously to move water through the system, provide many challenges for the estimation of the spatial distribution of recharge. A variety of methods appropriate for arid environments has been applied, including water-balance techniques, calculations using Darcy's law in the unsaturated zone, a soil-physics method applied to neutron-hole water-content data, inverse modeling of thermal profiles in boreholes extending through the thick unsaturated zone, chloride mass balance, atmospheric radionuclides, and empirical approaches. These methods indicate that near-surface infiltration rates at Yucca Mountain are highly variable in time and space, with local (point) values ranging from zero to several hundred millimeters per year. Spatially distributed net-infiltration values average 5 mm/year, with the highest values approaching 20 mm/year near Yucca Crest. Site-scale recharge estimates range from less than 1 to about 12 mm/year. These results have been incorporated into a site-scale model that has been calibrated using these data sets that reflect infiltration processes acting on highly variable temporal and spatial scales. The modeling study predicts highly non-uniform recharge at the water table, distributed significantly differently from the non-uniform infiltration pattern at the surface.

  20. Estimating recharge at yucca mountain, nevada, usa: comparison of methods

    SciTech Connect

    Flint, A. L.; Flint, L. E.; Kwicklis, E. M.; Fabryka-Martin, J. T.; Bodvarsson, G. S.

    2001-11-01

    Obtaining values of net infiltration, groundwater travel time, and recharge is necessary at the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada, USA, in order to evaluate the expected performance of a potential repository as a containment system for high-level radioactive waste. However, the geologic complexities of this site, its low precipitation and net infiltration, with numerous mechanisms operating simultaneously to move water through the system, provide many challenges for the estimation of the spatial distribution of recharge. A variety of methods appropriate for and environments has been applied, including water-balance techniques, calculations using Darcy's law in the unsaturated zone, a soil-physics method applied to neutron-hole water-content data, inverse modeling of thermal profiles in boreholes extending through the thick unsaturated zone, chloride mass balance, atmospheric radionuclides, and empirical approaches. These methods indicate that near-surface infiltration rates at Yucca Mountain are highly variable in time and space, with local (point) values ranging from zero to several hundred millimeters per year. Spatially distributed net-infiltration values average 5 mm/year, with the highest values approaching 20 nun/year near Yucca Crest. Site-scale recharge estimates range from less than I to about 12 mm/year. These results have been incorporated into a site-scale model that has been calibrated using these data sets that reflect infiltration processes acting on highly variable temporal and spatial scales. The modeling study predicts highly non-uniform recharge at the water table, distributed significantly differently from the non-uniform infiltration pattern at the surface. [References: 57

  1. Nepal moves mountains with literacy.

    PubMed

    Hanford, H

    1992-01-01

    Women's literacy in Nepal is 13% compared with 38% for men. 70% of children, primarily girls, enrolled in school drop out. Many girls are never enrolled. Nepal is a country with rapid population growth, poverty, and an eroding resource base. A description is given of the effective Chili Beti, a women's literacy program operated by the Nepalese government and UNICEF. The target is girl's not enrolled in the formal school system. Classes are conveniently arranged so as not to interfere with household life in a traditional, rural society. Classes begin in November and last for 6 months at a time of day agreeable to students and parents; this avoids a conflict with field work and household chores. The program began in 1983 in a few remote areas and has expanded to include 75 districts. 5000 girls have completed the course. Attendance rates are 86%, and 25% graduate into the primary school system. The goal is to reach 1.7 million out-of-school children by the year 2000, and to expand the program to include boys as well. Success is attributed to course material which is made relevant to girls' daily lives and builds simultaneously practical knowledge and self-confidence, i.e., building latrines or halting rat infestation. Songs and group activities (planting gardens) are used to reinforce classroom presentations. A unique feature of the program is the use of the cartoon character, Kamali, who is a young village girl engaging students while gradually acquiring skills and becoming a Chili Beti teacher herself. Kamali also mobilizes her community to fight soil erosion. After a year of lessons, a secret is revealed: that Kamali is a member of the lower caste; this instills hope that changes is possible. Teachers are also role models and are selected from the local area. There is a month long teacher training program involving recruitment of girls for the program and teaching in and out of a classroom setting. The program challenges attitudes about the appropriateness of

  2. Cambrian-Ordovician magmatism in the Thiel Mountains, Transantarctic Mountains, and implications for the Beardmore orogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankhurst, R. J.; Storey, B. C.; Millar, I. L.; MacDonald, D. I. M.; Vennum, W. R.

    1988-03-01

    New field and laboratory studies result in a redefinition of the three main lithostratigraphic units of the Thiel Mountains. These are (1) the Thiel Mountains porphyry, a massive hypersthene-bearing monzonite, faulted against (2) the Mount Walcott Formation, a sequence of shallow-water volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks and dacitic tuffs or flows, and (3) the Reed Ridge granites, coarse-grained biotite granite/granodiorite stocks that cut the porphyry. Genetic relations between the porphyry and both the sedimentary rocks and the granite are proposed. Evidence for a Phanerozoic age indicated by the presence of fossils in the sediments is reinforced by Rb-Sr whole-rock dating that has conclusively established a Late Cambrian or Early Ordovician age (502 ±5 Ma) for the entire sequence. The stratigraphic and tectonic consequences refute all evidence for magmatism in the Transantarctic Mountains associated with the Precambrian "Beardmore orogeny," the age and status of which are now in doubt.

  3. New Galileo Observations of Ionian Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turtle, E. P.; Jaeger, W. L.; McEwen, A. S.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Milazzo, M. P.; Simonelli, D.

    2002-05-01

    In order to address the questions of how ionian mountains form and what their relationship to volcanism is, Galileo made several observations of Io's high mountains and plateaus during three flybys (I24, I25, and I27) of the Galileo Europa Mission [1-3]. These images, which ranged from 260 m/pixel to 1.5 km/pixel, showed significant variation in mountain morphologies and revealed the substantial role played by mass wasting upon Io [1,4] as well as a possible association with ionian paterae [1,5]. To build upon these observations several more, even higher resolution, observations were planned during the I31, I32, and I33 orbits of the Galileo Millennium Mission. Sadly, the I31 and I33 images were lost due to problems onboard the spacecraft caused by the high-radiation environment near Jupiter [6]. However, I32 has provided the best mountain images to date. These include: Telegonus Mensa at ~10 and ~40 m/pixel. In an I27 observation the arcuate nature of the southeastern margin of Telegonus Mensa had been noted as possible evidence that sapping by SO2 might be occurring [1,4]. The I32 observations indicate that the dominant erosion process at Telegonus' is mass wasting; the observations reveal large slump blocks on the scarps. Tohil Mons and Patera near the terminator at ~50 and ~325 m/pixel. Tohil was observed during both I24 and I27 to provide stereo data but limited vertical resolution and the high sun angles obscured topographic details. The I32 images reveal significant topographic information. For example, a lack of relief in Tohil Patera and a series of NW-SE trending scarps along the northeastern margin of the mountain which resemble an imbricate thrust belt [7] and which appear to have been interrupted by the formation of a small, dark patera. [1] Turtle E.P. et al. (2001) JGR, 106. [2] McEwen A.S. et al. (2000) Science, 288. [3] Schenk P.M. et al. (2001) J GR, 106. [4] Moore et al. (2001) JGR, 106. [5] Masursky H. et al. (1979) Nature, 280. [6] Keszthelyi L

  4. Final report on feasibility of real-time geochemical analysis at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, using LIBS technology

    SciTech Connect

    Blacic, J.D.; Pettit, D.R.; Cremers, D.A.

    1996-12-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an analytic method whereby an intense laser pulse is used to vaporize and excite a small volume of material into atomic emission. Calibrated spectral analysis of the laser spark light provides detection and quantification of the elemental composition of the target material. We performed laboratory and field tests to assess the feasibility of developing field-portable LIBS-based instruments for real-time analyses of Yucca Mountain rocks in conjunction with Yucca Mountain Project drilling, coring, sampling, and characterization tasks. We developed one prototype instrument designed to analyze air core drilling dust and another prototype instrument designed to analyze rock and fracture surfaces. In realistic field tests at the Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, we demonstrated that the LIBS prototypes are capable of measuring major, minor, and some trace elements in real time. Laboratory LIBS analyses show that we can identify characteristic element ratios in a range of manganese oxide minerals present at Yucca Mountain as fracture surface coatings and matrix grains. Preliminary LIBS analyses also indicate that the U/Na ratio may distinguish tuffs containing the hazardous zeolite mineral erionite from non-erionite bearing tuffs, and that a LIBS-based instrument may be useful to detect in real time the probable presence of erionite encountered in core drilling and other operations at Yucca Mountain.

  5. Symposium 9: Rocky Mountain futures: preserving, utilizing, and sustaining Rocky Mountain ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baron, Jill S.; Seastedt, Timothy; Fagre, Daniel B.; Hicke, Jeffrey A.; Tomback, Diana; Garcia, Elizabeth; Bowen, Zachary H.; Logan, Jesse A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2002 we published Rocky Mountain Futures, an Ecological Perspective (Island Press) to examine the cumulative ecological effects of human activity in the Rocky Mountains. We concluded that multiple local activities concerning land use, hydrologic manipulation, and resource extraction have altered ecosystems, although there were examples where the “tyranny of small decisions” worked in a positive way toward more sustainable coupled human/environment interactions. Superimposed on local change was climate change, atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and other pollutants, regional population growth, and some national management policies such as fire suppression.

  6. Economic geology of the Copper Mountain Supracrustal Belt, Owl Creek Mountains, Fremont County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Hausel, W.D.; Graff, P.J.; Albert, K.G.

    1985-01-01

    The Archean stratigraphy and associated mineral deposits at Copper Mountain were investigated to determine if this supracrustal belt has potential commercial mineral deposits. It was concluded Copper Mountain lacks the stratigraphic and structural character of a classical greenstone belt, exhibits higher metamorphic grade, and may be better classified as a high-grade terrain. However, potential is noted for stratiform Au associated with iron formation, stratiform W associated with gneiss, and Cu-Au mineralization in strike veins. 63 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs. (ACR)

  7. Characterizing recent and projecting future potential patterns of mountain pine beetle outbreaks in the Southern Rocky Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liang, Lu; Hawbaker, Todd J.; Chen, Yanlei; Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Gong, Peng

    2014-01-01

    The recent widespread mountain pine beetle (MPB) outbreak in the Southern Rocky Mountains presents an opportunity to investigate the relative influence of anthropogenic, biologic, and physical drivers that have shaped the spatiotemporal patterns of the outbreak. The aim of this study was to quantify the landscape-level drivers that explained the dynamic patterns of MPB mortality, and simulate areas with future potential MPB mortality under projected climate-change scenarios in Grand County, Colorado, USA. The outbreak patterns of MPB were characterized by analysis of a decade-long Landsat time-series stack, aided by automatic attribution of change detected by the Landsat-based Detection of Trends in Disturbance and Recovery algorithm (LandTrendr). The annual area of new MPB mortality was then related to a suite of anthropogenic, biologic, and physical predictor variables under a general linear model (GLM) framework. Data from years 2001–2005 were used to train the model and data from years 2006–2011 were retained for validation. After stepwise removal of non-significant predictors, the remaining predictors in the GLM indicated that neighborhood mortality, winter mean temperature anomaly, and residential housing density were positively associated with MPB mortality, whereas summer precipitation was negatively related. The final model had an average area under the curve (AUC) of a receiver operating characteristic plot value of 0.72 in predicting the annual area of new mortality for the independent validation years, and the mean deviation from the base maps in the MPB mortality areal estimates was around 5%. The extent of MPB mortality will likely expand under two climate-change scenarios (RCP 4.5 and 8.5) in Grand County, which implies that the impacts of MPB outbreaks on vegetation composition and structure, and ecosystem functioning are likely to increase in the future.

  8. Summary of geotechnical information in the Rattlesnake Mountain area

    SciTech Connect

    Fecht, K.R.; Gephart, R.E.; Graham, D.L.; Reidel, S.P.; Rohay, A.C.

    1984-08-01

    This document summarizes the available geotechnical information from the Rattlesnake Mountain area, located along the southwestern boundary of the Hanford Site. The discussion emphasizes the geohydrologic environment of the anticlinal ridges in the vicinity of Rattlesnake Mountain. Included in the document is information concerning the stratigraphy, structure, geomorphology, seismology, climatology, and hydrology, as well as the resource potential of the Rattlesnake Mountain area. 77 refs., 23 figs., 11 tabs.

  9. Invisible CO2 gas killing trees at Mammoth Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorey, Michael L.; Farrar, Christopher D.; Evans, William C.; Hill, David P.; Bailey, Roy A.; Hendley, James W.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1980, scientists have monitored geologic unrest in Long Valley Caldera and at adjacent Mammoth Mountain, California. After a persistent swarm of earthquakes beneath Mammoth Mountain in 1989, earth scientists discovered that large volumes of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas were seeping from beneath this volcano. This gas is killing trees on the mountain and also can be a danger to people. The USGS continues to study the CO2 emissions to help protect the public from this invisible potential hazard.

  10. Geohydrologic data for test well UE-25p1, Yucca Mountain area, Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craig, R.W.; Johnson, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    This report presents the following data for test well UE-25p 1 in Nye County, Nevada: drilling operations, lithology, availability of borehole geophysical logs, water levels, future availability of core analyses, water chemistry, pumping tests, borehole-flow surveys, and packer-injection tests. The well is one of a series of test wells drilled in and near Yucca Mountain adjacent to the Nevada Test Site in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy. These investigations are part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations to identify suitable sites for underground storage of high-level radioactive wastes. Test well UE-25p 1 was the first in the Yucca Mountain area to penetrate rocks of Paleozoic age. To a depth of 1,244 meters, the rocks are predominantly ash-flow tuffs of Tertiary age. From 1,244 meters to a total depth of 1,805 meters, the rock is dolomite of Paleozoic age. (USGS)

  11. Measurement of atmospheric composition by the ATMOS instrument from Table Mountain Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunson, Michael R.; Irion, Fredrick W.

    1991-01-01

    Following its first flight on board the Space Shuttle 'Challenger' as part of the Spacelab 3 payload, the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) instrument has been operated at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Table Mountain Observatory (TMO; 34.4 deg N, 117.7 deg W, 2.23 km altitude) in the San Gabriel Mountains of Southern California. With the delay in the resumption of regular Shuttle flights, ATMOS has acquired a large number of high-quality, high-resolution infrared solar absorption spectra, spanning a period between late-1985 and mid-1990. These spectra are being analyzed to derive the column abundances of several atmospheric species including O3, HCl, HF, and HNO3. Although limited in temporal coverage, the preliminary results for these gases are discussed here in the context of the requirement and contribution to be made by similar instruments in detecting long term changes in stratospheric composition.

  12. Schwartz operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyl, M.; Kiukas, J.; Werner, R. F.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we introduce Schwartz operators as a non-commutative analog of Schwartz functions and provide a detailed discussion of their properties. We equip them, in particular, with a number of different (but equivalent) families of seminorms which turns the space of Schwartz operators into a Fréchet space. The study of the topological dual leads to non-commutative tempered distributions which are discussed in detail as well. We show, in particular, that the latter can be identified with a certain class of quadratic forms, therefore making operations like products with bounded (and also some unbounded) operators and quantum harmonic analysis available to objects which are otherwise too singular for being a Hilbert space operator. Finally, we show how the new methods can be applied by studying operator moment problems and convergence properties of fluctuation operators.

  13. Mountain goat abundance and population trends in the Olympic Mountains, northwestern Washington, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Kurt J.; Happe, Patricia J.; Beirne, Katherine F.; Baccus, William T.

    2016-11-30

    Executive SummaryWe estimated abundance and trends of non-native mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in the Olympic Mountains of northwestern Washington, based on aerial surveys conducted during July 13–24, 2016. The surveys produced the seventh population estimate since the first formal aerial surveys were conducted in 1983. This was the second population estimate since we adjusted survey area boundaries and adopted new estimation procedures in 2011. Before 2011, surveys encompassed all areas free of glacial ice at elevations above 1,520 meters (m), but in 2011 we expanded survey unit boundaries to include suitable mountain goat habitats at elevations between 1,425 and 1,520 m. In 2011, we also began applying a sightability correction model allowing us to estimate undercounting bias associated with aerial surveys and to adjust survey results accordingly. The 2016 surveys were carried out by National Park Service (NPS) personnel in Olympic National Park and by Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) biologists in Olympic National Forest and in the southeastern part of Olympic National Park. We surveyed a total of 59 survey units, comprising 55 percent of the 60,218-hectare survey area. We estimated a mountain goat population of 623 ±43 (standard error, SE). Based on this level of estimation uncertainty, the 95-percent confidence interval ranged from 561 to 741 mountain goats at the time of the survey.We examined the rate of increase of the mountain goat population by comparing the current population estimate to previous estimates from 2004 and 2011. Because aerial survey boundaries changed between 2004 and 2016, we recomputed population estimates for 2011 and 2016 surveys based on the revised survey boundaries as well as the previously defined boundaries so that estimates were directly comparable across years. Additionally, because the Mount Washington survey unit was not surveyed in 2011, we used results from an independent survey of the Mount

  14. Impact of mountain gravity waves on infrasound propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiens, Florentin; Lott, François; Millet, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Linear theory of acoustic propagation is used to analyze how mountain waves can change the characteristics of infrasound signals. The mountain wave model is based on the integration of the linear inviscid Taylor-Goldstein equation forced by a nonlinear surface boundary condition. For the acoustic propagation we solve the wave equation using the normal mode method together with the effective sound speed approximation. For large-amplitude mountain waves we use direct numerical simulations to compute the interactions between the mountain waves and the infrasound component. It is shown that the mountain waves perturb the low level waveguide, which leads to significant acoustic dispersion. The mountain waves also impact the arrival time and spread of the signals substantially and can produce a strong absorption of the wave signal. To interpret our results we follow each acoustic mode separately and show which mode is impacted and how. We also show that the phase shift between the acoustic modes over the horizontal length of the mountain wave field may yield to destructive interferences in the lee side of the mountain, resulting in a new form of infrasound absorption. The statistical relevance of those results is tested using a stochastic version of the mountain wave model and large enough sample sizes.

  15. Climate and Geomorphic Risks in High-Mountain Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huggel, Christian; Kääb, Andreas; Schneider, Jean

    2010-03-01

    Glacier Hazards, Permafrost Hazards, and Glacier Lake Outburst Floods in Mountain Areas: Processes, Assessment, Prevention, Mitigation; Vienna, Austria, 10-13 November 2009; Recent atmospheric warming is profoundly affecting high-mountain environments around the world. Glaciers are thinning and retreating, new and often unstable lakes are forming at glacier margins, other lakes are suddenly draining, and permafrost is degrading. These changes pose serious hazards to people and property in mountain valleys. Several tens of thousands of people were killed by landslides, floods, and debris flows from high-mountain regions during the twentieth century, and there is concern that such events will increase as temperatures warm through the 21st century.

  16. Geo-Hazards and Mountain Road Development in Nepal: Understanding the Science-Policy-Governance Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugar, Sumit; Dahal, Vaskar

    2015-04-01

    The foothills of Nepalese Himalayas located in the neotectonic mountain environment are among some of the most unstable and geomorphologically dynamic landscapes in the world. Young fold mountains in this region are characterized by complex tectonics that influence the occurrence of earthquakes, while climatic processes such as intense orographic rainfall often dictate the occurrence of floods and landslides. Development of linear infrastructures, such as roads, in mountainous terrain characterized by high relief and orogeny is considerably challenging where the complexity of landscape in steep and irregular topography, difficult ground conditions and weak geology, presents engineers and planners with numerous difficulties to construct and maintain mountain roads. Whilst application of engineering geology, geomorphic interpretation of terrain in terms of physiography and hydrology, and identification of geo-hazards along the road corridor is critical for long term operation of mountain roads, low-cost arterial roads in the Himalayan foothills generally fail to incorporate standard road slope engineering structures. This research provides unique insights on policy and governance issues in developing mountainous countries such as Nepal, where achieving a sound balance between sustainability and affordability is a major challenge for road construction. Road development in Nepal is a complex issue where socio-economic and political factors influence the budget allocation for road construction in rural hilly areas. Moreover, most mountain roads are constructed without any geological or geo-technical site investigations due to rampant corruption and lack of adequate engineering supervision. Despite having good examples of rural road construction practices such as the Dharan-Dhankuta Road in Eastern Nepal where comprehensive terrain-evaluation methods and geo-technical surveys led to an improved understanding of road construction, learnings from this project have not

  17. Geoethics and pedagogy of mountain and risk: the case of transhumance in Sila (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardo, Marcello; Muto, Francesco; De Pascale, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    , could bring out the range of perceptions that mountains can arouse in a child or pre-adolescent: from images of sadness and unhappiness to others of joy and elation. Perception is, of course, the first operational level and is essential in the exploration and understanding of space. This exploration and understanding is initially based on sensory perceptions and is then added to by perceptions of the environmental condition of the mountains, the weaknesses and risks, the links to history and to demographic, economic, social and cultural trends. The school, traditionally delegated to the training of the boy, can contribute to the acquisition of a new consciousness that can change the current image that the public has of the mountain and the phenomena connected with it as, indeed, the transhumance. Transhumance is a technical term of the pastoral economy, the "best" that is to point out a typical aspect of life, almost symbiotic, leading, for the whole year, men and flocks, with a double seasonal allocation, in mountain and plain, and a dual path (outward and return), almost always quite long, and for particular routes. In Calabria, the most significant and sustained transhumance settled between Sila plateau and Crotone plains.

  18. The importance of atmospheric ammonia in the Rocky Mountain region of the western U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collett, J. L.; Benedict, K. B.; Chen, D.; Day, D.; Prenni, A. J.; Li, Y.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Schichtel, B. A.; McDade, C.; Malm, W. C.

    2013-12-01

    Although it is not a regulated pollutant, ammonia is an important contributor to several air quality problems. Included among these are the formation of fine particles that contribute to visibility degradation and adverse health effects as well as contributions to excess nitrogen deposition to sensitive ecosystems. Because it is not regulated, gaseous ammonia and fine particle ammonium have traditionally not been routinely measured in many air quality monitoring networks. Measurements of ammonium wet deposition by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program, however, clearly indicate an increasing contribution to reactive nitrogen deposition. Here we report observations of several recent research efforts to characterize atmospheric ammonia and ammonium in the Rocky Mountain region of the western United States. These include measurements made as part of the Rocky Mountain Atmospheric Nitrogen and Sulfur (RoMANS) deposition study (2006-10), the Grand Teton Reactive Nitrogen Deposition Study (GrandTReNDS) (2011), and through pilot-scale operation of an NHx (NHx = gaseous NH3 plus fine particle NH4+) monitoring effort at 9 sites within the Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) program (2011-12). Measurements during RoMANS clearly reveal the importance of agricultural source emission contributions to both dry and wet reactive nitrogen deposition in Rocky Mountain National Park. The importance of ammonia and ammonium deposition is even greater at Grand Teton National Park, which often sits downwind of extensive agricultural operations in central Idaho and northern Utah. Over a year of measurements in the IMPROVE NHx pilot network reveals strong spatial gradients in reduced nitrogen concentrations across the Rocky Mountain region, with higher concentrations in regions closer to agricultural sources and at locations and times strongly impacted by wildfires. These observations, along with additional observations from other related studies in the

  19. [Life cycles of ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) from the mountain taiga and mountain forest-steppe in the Eastern Sayan].

    PubMed

    Khobrakova, L Ts; Sharova, I Kh

    2005-01-01

    Seasonal dynamics and demographic structure was studied in 15 dominant ground beetle species in the mountain taiga and mountain forest-steppe belts of the Eastern Sayan (Okinskoe Plateau). Life cycles of the dominant ground beetle species were classified by developmental time, seasonal dynamics, and intrapopulation groups with different reproduction timing. The strategies of carabid life cycles adapted to severe mountain conditions of the Eastern Sayan were revealed.

  20. Relief Evolution in Tectonically Active Mountain Ranges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, Kelin X.

    2004-01-01

    The overall aims of this 3-yr project, as originally proposed were to: (1) investigate quantitatively the roles of fluvial and glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions, and (2) test rigorously the quality and accuracy of SRTM topographic data in areas of rugged relief - both the most challenging and of greatest interest to geomorphic, neotectonic, and hazards applications. Natural laboratories in both the western US and the Southern Alps of New Zealand were identified as most promising. The project has been both successful and productive, despite the fact that no SRTM data for our primary field sites in New Zealand were released on the time frame of the work effort. Given the delayed release of SRTM data, we pursued the scientific questions of the roles of fluvial and, especially, glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions using available digital elevation models (DEMs) for the Southern Alps of New Zealand (available at both 25m and 50m pixel sizes), and USGS 10m and 30m DEMs within the Western US. As emphasized in the original proposal, we chose the emphasis on the role of glacial modification of topographic relief because there has been little quantitative investigation of glacial erosion processes at landscape scale. This is particularly surprising considering the dramatic sculpting of most mid- and high-latitude mountain ranges, the prodigious quantities of glacially-derived sediment in terrestrial and marine basins, and the current cross-disciplinary interest in the role of denudational processes in orogenesis and the evolution of topography in general. Moreover, the evolution of glaciated landscapes is not only a fundamental problem in geomorphology in its own right, but also is at the heart of the debate over Late Cenozoic linkages between climate and tectonics.

  1. Mountain ranges and the deformation of continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avouac, J.

    2007-12-01

    Mountain ranges are the most spectacular manifestation of continental dynamics and a primary locus of geo- hazards. Their geological imprint is ubiquitous since all continents consist of cratonic cores that grew with time through collisions with accreting terrains. Understanding how mountain range form and evolve as a result of the interaction between deep seated tectonic processes, and climate driven surface processes is thus a major issue in earth science. The Himalaya is probably the best place on earth where orogenic processes can be observed at work today and where the geological history of a mountain belt can be compared with its current tectonic processes. We now have a reasonably solid understanding of the structure of the range, of its petro-metamorphic history, and of the kinematics of its active deformation and seismicity. The long-term geological history of the range - from several millions to a few tens of millions of years - has been documented by structural, thermobarometric and thermochronological studies. Morphotectonic investigations have revealed its evolution over the past several thousands or tens of thousands of years. And, finally, geodetic measurements and seismological monitoring have revealed the pattern of strain and stress build-up over several years, or due to single large earthquakes. The presentation will show how the results of these investigations can be assembled into a simple, coherent picture of the structure and evolution of the range. The Himalayan model will be compared to other case examples of active orogeny and some implications regarding continental deformation and the influence of surface processes will be drawn.

  2. Landscape Morphology of the Canadian Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinlan, K. T.; Barnes, J. B.; Pavelsky, T.

    2013-12-01

    Glaciers and rivers can significantly modify the shape of mountain landscapes. Following deformation and glaciation, bedrock river form and incision patterns are primarily controlled by variations in geologic structure, the glacial preconditioning of the landscape, and climate. However, the extent to which these factors integrate to affect Holocene patterns and rates of fluvial processes is poorly understood. Fluvial processes dominate the morphology of the Canadian Rocky Mountains today, though the inherited imprint of glaciers remains substantial. This study of fluvial geomorphology in the Athabasca River watershed in Jasper National Park, Alberta, addresses two primary ideas: (1) the fluvial response to deglaciation in alpine environments, and (2) the role of thrust belt geology affecting differential erosion in shaping post-orogenic topography. We use the 0.75 arc-second GeoBase Digital Elevation Model (~18m resolution) to analyze patterns of river concavity (θ) and normalized steepness index (ksn), estimate rock erodibility with field-based proxy measurements, and determine basin-averaged erosion rates using existing river gauge data. We find that bedrock geology and glacial preconditioning exhibit different yet recognizable morphological signatures and that they appear to be related to basin erosion rate. The principal differences we observe include the shape and scale of knickzones, magnitude of channel steepness values, channel concavity patterns, and relationship to bedrock geology. We find that lithologically controlled channel steepness patterns are contained to local spatial scales (<500m) and feature sharp increases in channel steepness at or near contacts between lithologies with differences in measured erodibility. By contrast, glacially controlled steepness patterns are expansive in spatial extent (1-10km), are insensitive to bedrock geology, and have higher overall channel steepness values than areas of lithologically controlled channel steepness

  3. The Occurrence of Erionite at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2004-07-01

    The naturally-occurring zeolite mineral erionite has a fibrous morphology and is a known human carcinogen (inhalation hazard). Erionite has been found typically in very small quantities and restricted occurrences in the course of mineralogic characterization of Yucca Mountain as a host for a high-level nuclear waste repository. The first identification of erionite was made in 1984 on the basis of morphology and chemical composition and later confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. It was found in the lower vitrophyre (Tptpv3) of the Topopah Spring Tuff in a borehole sidewall sample. Most erionite occurrences identified at Yucca Mountain are in the Topopah Spring Tuff, within an irregular zone of transition between the lower boundary of devitrified tuff and underlying glassy tuff. This zone is fractured and contains intermingled devitrified and vitric tuff. In 1997, a second host of erionite mineralization was identified in the Exploratory Studies Facility within and adjacent to a high-angle fracture/breccia zone transgressing the boundary between the lowermost devitrified tuff (Tpcplnc) and underlying moderately welded vitric tuff (Tpcpv2) of the Tiva Canyon Tuff. The devitrified-vitric transition zones where erionite is found tend to have complex secondary-mineral assemblages, some of very localized occurrence. Secondary minerals in addition to erionite may include smectite, heulandite-clinoptilolite, chabazite, opal-A, opal-CT, cristobalite, quartz, kenyaite, and moganite. Incipient devitrification within the Topopah Spring Tuff transition zone includes patches that are highly enriched in potassium feldspar relative to the precursor volcanic glass. Geochemical conditions during glass alteration may have led to local evolution of potassium-rich fluids. Thermodynamic modeling of zeolite stability shows that erionite and chabazite stability fields occur only at aqueous K concentrations much higher than in present Yucca Mountain waters. The association of erionite

  4. The appropriateness of one-dimensional Yucca Mountain hydrologic calculations; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, R.R.

    1993-07-01

    This report brings into focus the results of numerous studies that have addressed issues associated with the validity of assumptions which are used to justify reducing the dimensionality of numerical calculations of water flow through Yucca Mountain, NV. it is shown that, in many cases, one-dimensional modeling is more rigorous than previously assumed.

  5. Mountain Medicine Papers. Proceedings of the Mountain Medicine Symposium (5th, Issaquah, Washington, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Dick; And Others

    The proceedings of the fifth symposium on mountain and survival medicine include the program for the 4-day conference which was addressed by 21 guest lecturers from Canada, Nepal, and the United States. The proceedings include abstracts for and background information on the authors of 17 papers. It also includes the texts of 13 symposium papers:…

  6. Structural analysis of Boat Mountain area in Rocky Mountain foreland, Madison Range, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Sablock, J.M.

    1987-08-01

    Detailed mapping, together with stereographic analysis of over 400 field measurements, has been used to determine the geological structure of the Boat Mountain area in southern Madison Range, Gallatin County, Montana. The principal structure is a north-plunging, north-northwest-trending, overturned and thrusted synform, termed the Bear Creek syncline. Thrusting consists of a duplex of roof and sole thrusts enclosing an imbricate stack of horses in the southwest part of Boat Mountain. Precambrian to Cretaceous (Kootenai Formation) strata are involved in the deformation, which is interpreted as Laramide and of a Foothills Family type, involving several separate pulses of deformation. Stereographic determinations of maximum principal stress directions have shown that an initial northeast-directed stress formed and overturned the synform, caused movement on the out-of-syncline sole thrust, and imbricated the overturned limb. A later, easterly directed stress moved the back-limb roof thrust over the already folded and thrust-faulted rocks of Boat Mountain. Thrusting was succeeded by sinistrally directed tear (or strike-slip) faulting along a northeast-striking fault at the southern end of Boat Mountain. Listric normal faulting on Laramide thrust-fault planes is interpreted as a response to Tertiary extension. Recent normal faulting, on steep-dipping, east-west-striking fault planes and continuing to the present, is interpreted as a response to Yellowstone doming.

  7. MOUNTAIN ACID DEPOSITION PROGRAM (MADPRO): CLOUD DEPOSITION TO THE APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS, 1994 THROUGH 1999

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mountain Acid Deposition Program (MADPro) was initiated in 1993 as part of the research necessary to support the objectives of the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet), which was created to address the requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). The two ma...

  8. Mineral resources of the Sheepshead Mountains, Wildcat Canyon, and Table Mountain Wilderness Study Areas, Malheur and Harney counties, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Sherrod, D.R.; Griscom, A.; Turner, R.L.; Minor, S.A.; Graham, D.E.; Buehler, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    The Sheepshead Mountains, Wildcat Canyon, and Table Mountain Wilderness Study Areas encompass most of the Sheepshead Mountains in southeast Oregon. The mountains comprise several fault blocks of middle and late Miocene basalt, basaltic andesite, andesite, and dacite lava; pyroclastic and sedimentary rocks are minor. The three wilderness study areas have low resource potential for gold, silver, and oil and gas. A few small areas have low-to-high resource potential for diatomite, as indicated by the occurrence of low-grade diatomite. Some fault zones have a moderate potential for geothermal energy.

  9. [Pothole ecosystem in mountain river: A review].

    PubMed

    Ren, Hai-qing; Yuan, Xing-zhong; Liu, Hong; Zhang, Yue-wei; Deng, Wei; Yue, Jun-sheng; Wang, Xiao-feng

    2015-05-01

    The pothole is one of the special habitats in river ecosystems, which is simply structured, well-defined, food chain-short, and easily controlled, thus making it a model system in ecological, evolutionary and phenological studies. Here we first reviewed hydrological, chemical and physical characteristics of potholes, their biological community (biodiversity, environmental factors) as well as food chain (competition, predation and parasitism) in mountain rivers. The differences between pothole ecosystems and river ecosystems in hydrological characteristics, biological community and food-chain were analyzed. Hydrological, physical chemical, and ecological characteristics of potholes were largely unexplored in China. Finally, we suggested future directions and recommendations in pothole ecosystems.

  10. ROCK PILE MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MISSOURI.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, Walden P.; Ellis, Clarence

    1984-01-01

    A geologic and mineral-occurrence survey of the Rock Pile Mountain Wilderness study area in southeastern Missouri indicates the area has little promise for the occurrence of energy and mineral resources. Exploratory drill holes on private land along the west side of the area encountered no mineralization, and none of the rocks or sediments exposed in the area contain any detectable evidence of significant mineralization. Drilling through the Bonneterre Formation, supplemented by geochemical studies of the drill-hole samples, would test the remote possibility of lead mineralization close to the contact with Precambrian rocks.

  11. Lead Speciation in remote Mountain Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plöger, A.; van den Berg, C. M. G.

    2003-04-01

    In natural waters trace metals can become complexed by organic matter. This complexation can change the geochemistry of the metals by preventing them being scavenged, thereby increasing their residence time in the water column. The chemical speciation of trace metals also affects the bioavalability and their toxicological impact on organisms. It is therefore important to determine the chemical speciation of trace metals as well as their concentrations. Mountain lakes have been less studied in the past than other lakes- partly because of their remoteness and partly because they were perceived to be unpolluted and undisturbed. But work so far on mountain lakes has shown that most sites are affected and threatened, for example by transboundary air pollutants like trace metals. One of the important features that distinguishes these lakes from lowland lakes at similar latitudes is the fact that they may be isolated from the atmosphere for six months or more during the winter by a thick ice cover. Also, as these lakes are remote from direct anthropogenic influences, they reflect the regional distribution of pollutants transferred via the atmosphere. For this work, under the framework of the EMERGE (European Mountain lake Ecosystems: Regionalisation, diaGnostic and socio-economic Evaluation) programme, two remote mountain lakes have been studied in detail, with water sampling taking place at different times of the year to investigate possible seasonal differences in lead concentrations and speciation. Results so far have shown that lead-complexing ligand concentrations are in excess to dissolved lead concentrations, indicating that dissolved lead probably occurs fully complexed in these lakes. Therefore the toxic fraction is likely to be less than the dissolved lead concentration. Also, lead concentrations at the time of the spring thaw are higher than autumn concentrations just before ice cover, indicating that a significant proportion of fallout onto the lake catchment

  12. Plant biodiversity patterns on Helan Mountain, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yuan; Kang, Muyi; Zhu, Yuan; Xu, Guangcai

    2007-09-01

    A case study was conducted to mountainous ecosystems in the east side of Helan Mountain, located in the transitional zone between steppe and desert regions of China, aiming to reveal the influences of four environmental factors on features of plant biodiversity—the spatial pattern of vegetation types, and the variation of α- and β-diversities in vegetation and flora. Field surveys on vegetation and flora and on environmental factors were conducted, and those field data were analyzed through CCA (Canonical Correspondence Analysis), and through Shannon-Weiner index for α-diversity and Sørensen index for β-diversity. The preliminary results are: (1) Ranked in terms of their impacts on spatial patterns of plant biodiversity, the four selected environmental factors would be: elevation > location > slope > exposure. (2) The variation of Shannon-Weiner index along the altitudinal gradient is similar to that of species amount within altitudinal belts spanning 200 m each, which suggests a unimodal relationship between the species richness and the environmental condition with regards to altitudinal factors. Both the Shannon-Weiner index and the species richness within each altitudinal belt reach their maximum at elevation range from about 1700 to 2000 m a.s.l. (3) The altitudinal extent with the highest Shannon-Weiner index is identical to the range, where both the deciduous broad-leaved forest, and the temperate evergreen coniferous and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest distribute. The altitudinal range from 1700 to 2200 m a.s.l. is the sector with both high level of species richness and diversified vegetation types. (4) The variation of β-diversity along the altitude is consistent with the vegetation vertical zones. According to the Sørensen index between each pair of altitudinal belts, the transition of vegetation spectrum from one zone to another, as from the base horizontal zone, the desert steppe, to the first vertical zone, the mountain open forest and

  13. What's new in Rocky Mountain spotted fever?

    PubMed

    Chen, Luke F; Sexton, Daniel J

    2008-09-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) remains an important illness despite an effective therapy because it is difficult to diagnose and is capable of producing a fatal outcome. The pathogenesis of RMSF remains, in large part, an enigma. However, recent research has helped shed light on this mystery. Importantly, the diagnosis of RMSF must be considered in all febrile patients who have known or possible exposure to ticks, especially if they live in or have traveled to endemic regions during warmer months. Decisions about giving empiric therapy to such patients are difficult and require skill and careful judgement.

  14. Roentgenographic abnormalities in Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever.

    PubMed

    McCook, T A; Briley, C; Ravin, C E

    1982-02-01

    Rock Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a tick-borne rickettsial disease which produces a widespread vasculitis. A mortality of 7% to 13% has been reported in the United States which is due at least in part to delay in diagnosis and appropriate treatment. The classic features of this disease include a history of tick bite with the clinical presentation of skin rash and fever in association with thrombocytopenia. Few reports have emphasized the radiologic chest abnormalities in this disease or their relationship to thrombocytopenia. We review 70 cases of RMSF with abnormal roentgenographic features and their pathologic correlation.

  15. Archaeological program for the Yucca Mountain Site

    SciTech Connect

    Pippin, L.C.; Rhode, D.

    1991-12-31

    Archaeological surveys, limited surface collections and selected test excavations in the Yucca Mountain Project Area have revealed four distinct aboriginal hunting and gathering adaptive strategies and a separate historic Euroamerican occupation. The four aboriginal adaptations are marked by gradual shifts in settlement locations that reflect changing resource procurement strategies. Whereas the earliest hunters and gatherers focused their activities around the exploitation of toolstone along ephemeral drainages and the hunting of game animals in the uplands, the latest aboriginal settlements reflect intensive procurement of early spring plant resources in specific upland environments. The final Euroamerican occupation in the area is marked by limited prospecting activities and travel through the area by early immigrants.

  16. Analysis of the marriage and fertility survey of Yi minority women in the fringe areas of Liangshan Mountain.

    PubMed

    Pan, X; Wang, R; Zhang, P

    1991-01-01

    Based on data from a survey of 937 Yi women aged 15-64 years in Bianyuan on Liangshan Mountain in Malong and Gaoping Townships in China, this study compared the marriage and fertility characteristics of 1986 to those of 1982. The more closely the Yi live together, the worse their economic and health care conditions are due to their isolation from the outside world. These conditions are not conducive to the practice of birth control. The results show that married Yi women living in fringe areas have fewer live births than Yi women living on Liangshan Mountain. Child survival is similar in both areas. The Yi of Liangshan Mountain believe that high fertility is a necessary compensation for high mortality. Evidence from Yi in fringe areas may help dispel the fears of birth control and change beliefs about the balance between mortality and births. The Yi in fringe areas have better economic, cultural, and health care facilities. They exhibited a postponed mean age of first marriage, fewer early marriages, and lower mortality. Life expectancy was longer and fertility lower as a result of the birth control program operating in the fringe area. Fertility among the Yi women in Bianyuan is 19.85% among the unmarried, 75.46% among the married, 4.48% among the widowed, and .21% among the divorced. Fertility is higher for the married and unmarried but lower for the divorced or widowed than in fringe areas. A higher percentage of 15-19 years old and a lower percentage of 20-24 years olds are married in Liangshan Mountain. 80% of Yi women 20-24 years old who live in fringe areas are married. The mean age at marriage has been slowly rising, and until the 1980s, there was little significant difference between Yi women in fringe or mountain areas. There is as low rate of widowed and divorced women in fringe areas. The mean age of first birth has also risen over time. Liangshan Mountain fertility was 201.12/1000 for general fertility and 7.49993 for total fertility, while for fringe

  17. 76 FR 9350 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting From Rocky Mountain Patient Safety Organization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... Delisting From Rocky Mountain Patient Safety Organization AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Delisting. SUMMARY: Rocky Mountain Patient Safety Organization: AHRQ has accepted a notification of voluntary relinquishment from Rocky Mountain Patient Safety Organization,...

  18. 77 FR 281 - Green Mountain Power Corporation; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Green Mountain Power Corporation; Notice of Application Accepted for...: Green Mountain Power Corporation. e. Name of Projects: Waterbury Hydroelectric Project. f. Location.... h. Applicant Contact: Mr. Jason Lisai, Green Mountain Power Corporation, 163 Acorn Lane,...

  19. Potential and limitations of ICESat over small mountain glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treichler, D.; Kaeaeb, A.

    2014-12-01

    While the use of ICESat GLAS data is well established for monitoring elevation changes on ice sheets, this data holds valuable information also for more complex terrain and small glaciers, as recently demonstrated for example for high mountain Asia. This study aims at exploring the potential and limitations of ICESat over glaciated, mountainous terrain on the example of Southern Norway. The glaciers in Southern Norway are spread over an area of roughly 100'000 km2 in size. Despite high cloud coverage due to coastal proximity, we found that on average 85% of the laser returns per operational campaign contain valid elevation information from the Earth's surface, as compared with reference elevations from DEMs of 20m spatial resolution.While only 1.5% of the study area is glacierised, the laser footprints on ice represent Southern Norway's glaciers well in elevation, aspect, slope, glacier size, and spatial distribution, even for individual campaigns. With decreasing number of data points towards the end of ICESat's operational period, relative oversampling of larger ice bodies and spatial clumping occurs. Employing GLAS data for smaller or less glacierised areas might thus lead to a spatial bias due to overrepresentation of a particular glacier, and contrasting mass change estimates compared to traditional mass balance programs that are rather biased towards smaller valley glaciers with different glacier behaviour. Using only data captured at the end of the hydrological year as a proxy for yearly net mass balance, we find a slightly negative glacier surface elevation trend of -0.28 +/- 0.1 m ice per year for the ICESat period 2003 to 2008. This is in accordance with the heterogeneous but overall negative net balance in the range of -0.82 to +0.36 m w.eq. per year obtained by traditional in-situ measurements for ten glaciers in Southern Norway. When including the ICESat winter campaigns, yearly variations in snow height of 50 to 100 cm in the lowlands are accurately

  20. Construction features of the exploratory shaft at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Adair, G.W.; Fiore, J.N.

    1984-12-31

    The Exploratory Shaft (ES) at Yucca Mountain is planned to be constructed during 1985 and 1986 as part of the detailed site characterization for one of three sites which may be selected as candidates for location of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Conventional mining methods will be used for the shaft sinking phase of the ES project. The ES will be comprised of surface support facilities, a 1480-ft-deep circular shaft lined with concrete to a finished inside diameter of 12 ft, lateral excavations and test installations extending up to 200 ft from the shaft, and long lateral borings extending up to 2300 ft from the shaft. The estimated time for sinking the shaft to a total depth of about 1480 ft and completing the lateral excavations and borings is about two years. The major underground development planned for the primary test level at a depth of 1200 ft consists of the equivalent of 1150 ft of 15- by 15-ft drift. The total volume of rock to be removed from the shaft proper and the lateral excavations totals about 1/2 million cubic feet. Construction equipment for the shaft and underground excavation phases consists of conventional mine hoisting equipment, shot hole and rock bolt drilling jumbos, mucking machines, and hauling machines. The desire to maintain relatively uniform and even walls in selected shaft and drift intervals will require that controlled blasting techniques be employed. Certain lateral boring operations associated with tests to be conducted in the underground development may pose some unusual problems or require specialized equipment. One of the operations is boring and lining a 30-in.-diam by 600-ft-long horizontal hole with a boring machine being developed under the direction of Sandia National Laboratories. Another special operation is coring long lateral holes (500 to 2000 ft) with minimum use of liquid circulating fluids. 8 figures.

  1. Business & Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with John D. Musso, executive director of the Association of School Business Officials (ASBO) International. Musso talks about trends and issues that will most affect school business and operations in 2007 and beyond. Despite the challenges facing school operations, he believes that the key to being successful at…

  2. Operational Amplifiers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foxcroft, G. E.

    1986-01-01

    Addresses the introduction of low cost equipment into high school and college physical science classes. Examines the properties of an "ideal" operational amplifier and discusses how it might be used under saturated and non-saturated conditions. Notes the action of a "real" operational amplifier. (TW)

  3. Corps Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-26

    Coordinates and synchronizes aviation operations. Coordinates and synchronizes space support. Provides terrain visualization and terrain...section acquires, manages, and distributes geospatial data and terrain visualization products to the CG and staff. This section includes imagery analysts...operations by integrating information from internal and external sources. The ABCS provides a COP using a common map set and database to present a visual

  4. Payload Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cissom, R. D.; Melton, T. L.; Schneider, M. P.; Lapenta, C. C.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide the future ISS scientist and/or engineer a sense of what ISS payload operations are expected to be. This paper uses a real-time operations scenario to convey this message. The real-time operations scenario begins at the initiation of payload operations and runs through post run experiment analysis. In developing this scenario, it is assumed that the ISS payload operations flight and ground capabilities are fully available for use by the payload user community. Emphasis is placed on telescience operations whose main objective is to enable researchers to utilize experiment hardware onboard the International Space Station as if it were located in their terrestrial laboratory. An overview of the Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) systems and user ground system options is included to provide an understanding of the systems and interfaces users will utilize to perform payload operations. Detailed information regarding POIC capabilities can be found in the POIC Capabilities Document, SSP 50304.

  5. Operating Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denning, Peter J.; Brown, Robert L.

    1984-01-01

    A computer operating system spans multiple layers of complexity, from commands entered at a keyboard to the details of electronic switching. In addition, the system is organized as a hierarchy of abstractions. Various parts of such a system and system dynamics (using the Unix operating system as an example) are described. (JN)

  6. Mountain torrents: Quantifying vulnerability and assessing uncertainties

    PubMed Central

    Totschnig, Reinhold; Fuchs, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Vulnerability assessment for elements at risk is an important component in the framework of risk assessment. The vulnerability of buildings affected by torrent processes can be quantified by vulnerability functions that express a mathematical relationship between the degree of loss of individual elements at risk and the intensity of the impacting process. Based on data from the Austrian Alps, we extended a vulnerability curve for residential buildings affected by fluvial sediment transport processes to other torrent processes and other building types. With respect to this goal to merge different data based on different processes and building types, several statistical tests were conducted. The calculation of vulnerability functions was based on a nonlinear regression approach applying cumulative distribution functions. The results suggest that there is no need to distinguish between different sediment-laden torrent processes when assessing vulnerability of residential buildings towards torrent processes. The final vulnerability functions were further validated with data from the Italian Alps and different vulnerability functions presented in the literature. This comparison showed the wider applicability of the derived vulnerability functions. The uncertainty inherent to regression functions was quantified by the calculation of confidence bands. The derived vulnerability functions may be applied within the framework of risk management for mountain hazards within the European Alps. The method is transferable to other mountain regions if the input data needed are available. PMID:27087696

  7. Yucca Mountain drift scale test progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Apps, J.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Peterson,J.E.; Sonnenthal, E.; Spycher, N.; Tsang, Y.W.; Williams, K.H.

    1999-01-01

    The Drift Scale Test (DST) is part of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Thermal Test being conducted underground at the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The purpose of the ESF Thermal Test is to acquire a more in-depth understanding of the coupled thermal, mechanical, hydrological, and chemical processes likely to be encountered in the rock mass surrounding the potential geological repository at Yucca Mountain. These processes are monitored by a multitude of sensors to measure the temperature, humidity, gas pressure, and mechanical displacement, of the rock formation in response to the heat generated by the heaters. In addition to collecting passive monitoring data, active hydrological and geophysical testing is also being carried out periodically in the DST. These active tests are intended to monitor changes in the moisture redistribution in the rock mass, to collect water and gas samples for chemical and isotopic analysis, and to detect microfiacturing due to heating. On December 3, 1998, the heaters in the DST were activated. The planned heating phase of the DST is 4 years, and the cooling phase following the power shutoff will be of similar duration. The present report summarizes interpretation and analysis of thermal, hydrological, chemical, and geophysical data for the first 6 months; it is the first of many progress reports to be prepared during the DST.

  8. Recreating Galileo's 1609 Discovery of Lunar Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Needham, Paul S.; Wright, Ernest T.; Gingerich, Owen

    2014-11-01

    The question of exactly which lunar features persuaded Galileo that there were mountains on the moon has not yet been definitively answered; Galileo was famously more interested in the concepts rather than the topographic mapping in his drawings and the eventual engravings. Since the pioneering work of Ewen Whitaker on trying to identify which specific lunar-terminator features were those that Galileo identified as mountains on the moon in his 1609 observations reported in his Sidereus Nuncius (Venice, 1610), and since the important work on the sequence of Galileo's observations by Owen Gingerich (see "The Mystery of the Missing 2" in Galilaeana IX, 2010, in which he concludes that "the Florentine bifolium sheet [with Galileo's watercolor images] is Galileo's source for the reworked lunar diagrams in Sidereus Nuncius"), there have been advances in lunar topographical measurements that should advance the discussion. In particular, one of us (E.T.W.) at the Scientific Visualization Studio of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center has used laser-topography from NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter to recreate what Galileo would have seen over a sequence of dates in late November and early December 1609, and provided animations both at native resolution and at the degraded resolution that Galileo would have observed with his telescope. The Japanese Kaguya spacecraft also provides modern laser-mapped topographical maps.

  9. Magma Dynamics at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D. Krier

    2005-08-29

    Small-volume basaltic volcanic activity at Yucca Mountain has been identified as one of the potential events that could lead to release of radioactive material from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) designated nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Release of material could occur indirectly as a result of magmatic dike intrusion into the repository (with no associated surface eruption) by changing groundwater flow paths, or as a result of an eruption (dike intrusion of the repository drifts, followed by surface eruption of contaminated ash) or volcanic ejection of material onto the Earth's surface and the redistribution of contaminated volcanic tephra. Either release method includes interaction between emplacement drifts and a magmatic dike or conduit, and natural (geologic) processes that might interrupt or halt igneous activity. This analysis provides summary information on two approaches to evaluate effects of disruption at the repository by basaltic igneous activity: (1) descriptions of the physical geometry of ascending basaltic dikes and their interaction with silicic host rocks similar in composition to the repository host rocks; and (2) a summary of calculations developed to quantify the response of emplacement drifts that have been flooded with magma and repressurized following blockage of an eruptive conduit. The purpose of these analyses is to explore the potential consequences that could occur during the full duration of an igneous event.

  10. Mountain hydrology of the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bales, R.C.; Molotch, N.P.; Painter, T.H.; Dettinger, M.D.; Rice, R.; Dozier, J.

    2006-01-01

    Climate change and climate variability, population growth, and land use change drive the need for new hydrologic knowledge and understanding. In the mountainous West and other similar areas worldwide, three pressing hydrologic needs stand out: first, to better understand the processes controlling the partitioning of energy and water fluxes within and out from these systems; second, to better understand feedbacks between hydrological fluxes and biogeochemical and ecological processes; and, third, to enhance our physical and empirical understanding with integrated measurement strategies and information systems. We envision an integrative approach to monitoring, modeling, and sensing the mountain environment that will improve understanding and prediction of hydrologic fluxes and processes. Here extensive monitoring of energy fluxes and hydrologic states are needed to supplement existing measurements, which are largely limited to streamflow and snow water equivalent. Ground-based observing systems must be explicitly designed for integration with remotely sensed data and for scaling up to basins and whole ranges. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Geology of the Southern Guadalupe Mountains, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Philip B.

    1948-01-01

    This report deals with an area of 425 square miles in the western part of Texas, immediately south of the New Mexico line. The area comprises the south end of the Guadalupe Mountains and the adjacent part of the Delaware Mountains; it includes the highest peaks in the State of Texas. The area is a segment of a large mountain mass that extends 50 miles or more northward and southward. The report describes the geology of the area, that is, the nature of its rocks, tectonics, and surface features, and the evidence that they give as to the evolution of the area through geologic time. Incidental reference is made to the geology of surrounding regions in order to place the area in its environment. Stratigraphy of Permian rocks - The consolidated rocks of the area are all marine sediments of Permian age, whose total exposed thickness is about 4,000 feet. Most of the rocks contain abundant invertebrate fossils, some of which were described by B. F. Shumard in 1858. They were made famous by the classic study of G. H. Girty in 1908. The rocks consist chiefly of sandstones and limestones of various textures and structures, and are notable for their abrupt change from one rock type into another within short distances. This characteristic is believed to have been caused by the rocks being laid down on the margin of the Delaware Basin, a structural feature of Permian time. The margin lay between the more rapidly subsiding basin and a less rapidly subsiding shelf area to the northwest. The lowest exposed formation is the Bone Spring limestone. Two deep wells indicate that it is underlain by the Hueco limestone (of Carboniferous or Permian age), and this by rocks of Pennsylvanian age. The Bone Spring is predominantly black, thin-bedded limestone to the southeast, in the basin area, but to the northwest this facies changes into gray, thicker-bedded limestone. At the margin of the basin, the formation is raised along the Bone Spring flexure, which was apparently in movement toward

  12. Monitoring Mountain Meteorology without Much Money (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, J. D.

    2009-12-01

    Mountains are the water towers of the world, storing winter precipitation in the form of snow until summer, when it can be used for agriculture and cities. However, mountain weather is highly variable, and measurements are sparsely distributed. In order adequately sample snow and climate variables in complex terrain, we need as many measurements as possible. This means that instruments must be inexpensive and relatively simple to deploy. Here, we demonstrate how dime-sized temperature sensors developed for the refrigeration industry can be used to monitor air temperature (using evergreen trees as radiation shields) and snow cover duration (using the diurnal cycle in near-surface soil temperature). Together, these measurements can be used to recreate accumulated snow water equivalent over the prior year. We also demonstrate how buckets of water may be placed under networked acoustic snow depth sensors to provide an index of daily evaporation rates at SNOTEL stations. (a) Temperature sensor sealed for deployment in the soil. (b) Launching a temperature sensor into a tree. (c) Pulley system to keep sensor above the snow. (a) Photo of bucket underneath acoustic snow depth sensor. (b) Water depth in the bucket as calculated by the snow depth sensor and by a pressure sensor inside the bucket.

  13. Atmosphere Processes Dynamic and Mountain Region Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davitashvili, T.; Khvedelidze, Z.; Javakhishvili, Kh.; Sharikadze, I.

    As is known, on the whole regional climate is depended on the Sun's lope relation to the horizon and the characteristics of the Earth relief. In the mountain regions (Caucasian region) compound relief conduce additional turbulence craetion and flow round stream increasing or decreasing. All that bring climate change special feature in the mountain regions. Climate formation and change internal factors are enough interconnected. We had study reverse connection between temperature, moisture, cloudness radiation balance, the Sun's activity and its components on the basis of the data over last 140 years. For the central months of the seasons, there was comparison day-night, monthly an annual motion of the radiation and temperature, temperature and Sun's activity, with account of cloud and moisture. Reverse connection between climate elements was valuated with help of correlation coefficient (r>0.8), but period of its reiteration analysis of the calculated fields the available natural data and the semiempirical calculation it was shown, that in the Western Georgia temperature was not increased unlike the Eastern Georgia.

  14. TBM tunneling on the Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J.P.; Hansmire, W.H. |

    1995-03-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) is a scientific endeavor to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain for the first long-term, high-level nuclear waste repository in the United States. The current status of this long-term project from the construction perspective is described. A key element is construction of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Tunnel, which is being excavated with a 7.6 m (25 ft) diameter tunnel boring machine (TBM). Development of the ESF may include the excavation of over 15 km (9.3 mi) of tunnel varying in size from 3.0 to 7.6 m (10 to 25 ft). Prior to construction, extensive constructability reviews were an interactive part of the final design. The intent was to establish a constructable design that met the long-term stability requirements for radiological safety of a future repository, while maintaining flexibility for the scientific investigations and acceptable tunneling productivity.

  15. Effective discharge in Rocky Mountain headwater streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunte, Kristin; Abt, Steven R.; Swingle, Kurt W.; Cenderelli, Dan A.

    2014-11-01

    Whereas effective discharge (Qeff) in mountain streams is commonly associated with a moderate flow such as bankfull discharge (Qbf), this study found that the maximum discharge (Qmax), and not bankfull discharge, is the channel forming or effective flow for gravel transport in plane-bed streams where partial bed mobility causes steep gravel transport rating curves. Qeff may approach bankfull flow in some step-pool channels where gravel moves over a static cobble/boulder bed. Our conclusions are based on magnitude-frequency analyses conducted at 41 gauged Rocky Mountain headwater streams. Because these gauged streams lacked gravel transport data, as is typical, comparable streams with measured transport rates were used to develop scaling relations for rating curve exponents with stream and watershed characteristics. Those scaling relations were then used to estimate the steepness of gravel rating curves at the 41 gauged but unsampled sites. The measured flow frequency distributions were characterized by two fitted power functions. The steepness of the flow frequency distributions and the estimated steepness of gravel transport relations were combined in magnitude-frequency analyses to compute Qeff.

  16. Use of thermal data to estimate infiltration, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    LeCain, Gary D.; Kurzmack, Mark

    2001-04-29

    Temperature and pressure monitoring in a vertical borehole in Pagany Wash, Yucca Mountain, Nevada, measured disruptions of the natural gradients associated with the February, 1998, El Nino precipitation events. The temperature and pressure disruptions indicated infiltration and percolation through the 12.1 m of Pagany Wash alluvium and deep percolation to greater than 35.2 m into the Yucca Mountain Tuff.

  17. Bergsteigen in den Alpen (Mountain Climbing in the Alps).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawrysz, Ilse; Budzinski, Elisabeth

    German second language instructional materials contain a short text in German on mountain climbing in the Alps, a vocabulary list with translation, a simple German climbing song, a recipe for goulash soup in English, and a short text in English on mountain climbing. (MSE)

  18. 15. BALD MOUNTAIN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRECIPITATION AREA FROM NORTH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. BALD MOUNTAIN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRECIPITATION AREA FROM NORTH, c. 1934. SHOWS PRECIPITATION TANK No. 1 (NOTE LOCKS), ZINC FEEDER WITH MIXING CONE, VACUUM RECEIVER AND PIPING. CREDIT WR. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  19. Bioprospecting for podophyllotoxin in the Big Horn Mountains, Wyoming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate variations in podophyllotoxin concentrations in Juniperus species found in the Big Horn Mountains in Wyoming. It was found that Juniperus species in the Big Horn Mountains included three species; J. communis L. (common juniper), J. horizontalis Moench. (c...

  20. 11. BALD MOUNTAIN MILL, EXTERIOR FROM NORTHEAST, c. 194059. ROASTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. BALD MOUNTAIN MILL, EXTERIOR FROM NORTHEAST, c. 1940-59. ROASTER AND OTHER UNOXIDIZED ORE CIRCUIT ADDITIONS PRESENT, ALONG WITH SECONDARY THICKENER No. 7 AND ADDITIONS TO MACHINE SHOP. CREDIT JW. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  1. 14 CFR 95.15 - Western United States Mountainous Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Western United States Mountainous Area. 95... Western United States Mountainous Area. All of the following area excluding that portion specified in the exceptions: (a) Area. From the Pacific coastline of the United States, eastward along the Canadian...

  2. 14 CFR 95.15 - Western United States Mountainous Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Western United States Mountainous Area. 95... Western United States Mountainous Area. All of the following area excluding that portion specified in the exceptions: (a) Area. From the Pacific coastline of the United States, eastward along the Canadian...

  3. 14 CFR 95.13 - Eastern United States Mountainous Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eastern United States Mountainous Area. 95.13 Section 95.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Eastern United States Mountainous Area. All of the following area excluding those portions specified...

  4. 14 CFR 95.15 - Western United States Mountainous Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Western United States Mountainous Area. 95... Western United States Mountainous Area. All of the following area excluding that portion specified in the exceptions: (a) Area. From the Pacific coastline of the United States, eastward along the Canadian...

  5. 14 CFR 95.13 - Eastern United States Mountainous Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eastern United States Mountainous Area. 95.13 Section 95.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Eastern United States Mountainous Area. All of the following area excluding those portions specified...

  6. 14 CFR 95.13 - Eastern United States Mountainous Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eastern United States Mountainous Area. 95.13 Section 95.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Eastern United States Mountainous Area. All of the following area excluding those portions specified...

  7. 36 CFR 7.93 - Guadalupe Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guadalupe Mountains National Park. 7.93 Section 7.93 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.93 Guadalupe Mountains National...

  8. 36 CFR 7.7 - Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rocky Mountain National Park. 7.7 Section 7.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.7 Rocky Mountain National Park....

  9. 36 CFR 7.7 - Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rocky Mountain National Park. 7.7 Section 7.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.7 Rocky Mountain National Park....

  10. 36 CFR 7.93 - Guadalupe Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Guadalupe Mountains National Park. 7.93 Section 7.93 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.93 Guadalupe Mountains National...

  11. 18. Rocky Mountain Viaduct. This view shows the stone faced ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Rocky Mountain Viaduct. This view shows the stone faced arched piers. It is the only structure on the parkway with this feature. View is facing east. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  12. Sarcocystis oreamni n. sp. from the mountain goat (oreamnos americanus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous species of Sarcocystis have been reported from wild ruminants but none has been named from the Rocky Mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus). Mature sarcocysts were found in frozen muscle samples of 3 of 7 mountain goats from Alaska, USA. Two morphological types of sarcocysts were found; 1 had ...

  13. 245. Rocky Mountain Viaduct. This steel girder viaduct was built ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    245. Rocky Mountain Viaduct. This steel girder viaduct was built in 1942. All of the reinforced concrete was faced with a rusticated stone. It is the only structure on the parkway with stone faced arched piers. The view is facing east. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  14. 17. Rocky Mountain viaduct. This steel girder viaduct was built ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Rocky Mountain viaduct. This steel girder viaduct was built in 1942. All of the reinforced concrete was faced with a rustic stone facade. View is to east. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  15. 3. WEST SIDE OF FLORIDA MOUNTAIN UPSLOPE FROM CAMERA POINTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. WEST SIDE OF FLORIDA MOUNTAIN UPSLOPE FROM CAMERA POINTED SOUTH SOUTHEAST. THE LOW POINT ON THE HORIZON LINE ON THE FAR RIGHT OF THE IMAGE IS THE GENERAL DIRECTION TO GO TO UPPER/LOWER NOTTINGHAM. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  16. 36 CFR 7.93 - Guadalupe Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Guadalupe Mountains National Park. 7.93 Section 7.93 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.93 Guadalupe Mountains National...

  17. 36 CFR 7.7 - Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rocky Mountain National Park. 7.7 Section 7.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.7 Rocky Mountain National Park....

  18. 36 CFR 7.93 - Guadalupe Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Guadalupe Mountains National Park. 7.93 Section 7.93 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.93 Guadalupe Mountains National...

  19. 36 CFR 7.7 - Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rocky Mountain National Park. 7.7 Section 7.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.7 Rocky Mountain National Park....

  20. 36 CFR 7.93 - Guadalupe Mountains National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Guadalupe Mountains National Park. 7.93 Section 7.93 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.93 Guadalupe Mountains National...

  1. 36 CFR 7.7 - Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rocky Mountain National Park. 7.7 Section 7.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.7 Rocky Mountain National Park....

  2. HYDROLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FAULTS AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    R.P. Dickerson

    2000-10-19

    Yucca Mountain comprises a series of north-trending ridges composed of tuffs within the southwest Nevada volcanic field, 120 km northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. These ridges are formed of east-dipping blocks of interbedded welded and nonwelded tuff that are offset along steep, mostly west-dipping faults that have tens to hundreds of meters of vertical separation. Yucca Mountain is currently under study as a potential site for underground storage of high-level radioactive waste, with the principle goal being the safe isolation of the waste from the accessible environment. To this end, an understanding of the behavior of ground-water flow through the mountain in the unsaturated zone and beneath the mountain in the saturated zone is critical. The percolation of water through the mountain and into the ground-water flow system beneath the potential repository site is predicated on: (1) the amount of water available at the surface as a result of the climatic conditions, (2) the hydrogeologic characteristics of the volcanic strata that compose the mountain. and (3) the hydrogeologic characteristics of the structures, particularly fault zones and fracture networks, that disrupt these strata. This paper addresses the hydrogeologic characteristics of the fault zones at Yucca Mountain, focusing primarily on the central part of the mountain where the potential repository block is located.

  3. Geophysical expression of the Ghost Dance fault, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ponce, D.A.; Langenheim, V.E.; ,

    1995-01-01

    Gravity and ground magnetic data collected along surveyed traverses across Antler and Live Yucca Ridges, on the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, reveal small-scale faulting associated with the Ghost Dance and possibly other faults. These studies are part of an effort to evaluate faulting in the vicinity of a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain.

  4. 78 FR 5438 - Green Mountain Power Corporation; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Green Mountain Power Corporation; Notice of Filing Take notice that on July 27, 2012, Green Mountain Power Corporation filed a notice of material change in facts...

  5. 76 FR 11193 - Sequoia National Forest; California; Piute Mountains Travel Management Plan; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Sequoia National Forest; California; Piute Mountains Travel... for the Piute Mountains Travel Management Plan. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Warren L. Niemi,...

  6. Mountain geomorphosites in Odle Group (Dolomites, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coratza, Paola; Ghinoi, Alessandro; Marchetti, Mauro; Soldati, Mauro

    2016-04-01

    The area, considered in the present study, is located in the north-eastern sector of the Gardena valley, in the Odle Group, a popular destination of summer and winter tourism (more than 3000 m a.s.l.). The area has a strong hiking-tourism vocation thanks to its spectacular high-mountain landscape and a dense network of hiking tracks. The well-developed network of hiking paths and slopes for many different climbing skills offers a lot of possibilities for high-mountain excursions. Permanent dwelling-places are absent with the exceptions of a few tourist structures nearby opened during certain periods of the year. This area, as all Dolomites, which became UNESCO Word Heritage Site in 2009, represent landscape mosaics, which express the summation of landscape histories and processes offering an almost complete educational open-air laboratory due to the variety and complexity of phenomena and processes taking place during present climate conditions and during recent geological periods. These mountains, due to the aggregation of relict, recent and active landforms constitute an outstanding geoheritage, suitable for educational and tourist purposes. Landforms typical of past morphoclimatic conditions (inherited geomorphosites) share the stage with forms and processes active in the current morphoclimatic conditions (active geomorphosites); their spatial and geometrical relationships may be sufficient to trace a relative time-line of the geomorphological history of the area. Several glacial landforms testify for the presence and the activity of a glacial tongue hosted in the valley during the Lateglacial, mainly located in the northern sector of the area, where altitudes range from about 2000 m to about 2300 m a.s.l. Among these, worth of note are the well-preserved glacial cirques of Val dla Roa and those located at the southern margin of the Odle Group. Quite well preserved moraine ridges are present at a mean altitude of some 2000 m at the Alpe di Cisles as well as

  7. Mountain Search and Rescue with Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvagni, Mario; Tonoli, Andrea; Zenerino, Enrico; Chiaberge, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) also known as Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are nowadays becoming more and more popular in several applications. Even though a complete regulation is not yet available all over the world, researches, tests and some real case applications are wide spreading. These technologies can bring many benefits also to the mountain operations especially in emergencies and harsh environmental conditions, such as Search and Rescue (SAR) and avalanche rescue missions. In fact, during last decade, the number of people practicing winter sports in backcountry environment is increased and one of the greatest hazards for recreationists and professionals are avalanches. Often these accidents have severe consequences leading, mostly, to asphyxia-related death, which is confirmed by the hard drop of survival probability after ten minutes from the burying. Therefore, it is essential to minimize the time of burial. Modern avalanche beacon (ARTVA) interface guides the rescuer during the search phase reducing its time. Even if modern avalanche beacons are valid and reliable, the seeking range influences the rescue time. Furthermore, the environment and morphologic conditions of avalanches usually complicates the rescues. The recursive methodology of this kind of searching offers the opportunity to use automatic device like drones (RPAS). These systems allow performing all the required tasks autonomously, with high accuracy and without exposing the rescuers to additional risks due to secondary avalanches. The availability of highly integrated electronics and subsystems specifically meant for the applications, better batteries, miniaturized payload and, in general, affordable prices, has led to the availability of small RPAS with very good performances that can give interesting application opportunities in unconventional environments. The present work is one of the outcome from the experience made by the authors in RPAS fields and in Mechatronics

  8. Seismicity in the Vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the Period October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2004

    SciTech Connect

    von Seggern, David; Smith, Ken

    2007-10-15

    This report describes the seismicity and earthquake monitoring activities within the Yucca Mountain region during fiscal year 2004 (FY2004 - October 1, 2003, through September 30, 2004) based on operation of the Southern Great Basin Digital Seismic Network (SGBDSN). Network practices and earthquake monitoring conducted at the Nevada Seismological Laboratory (NSL) under DOE directives for prior fiscal years are covered in similar yearly reports (see references). Real-time systems, including regional data telemetry and data management at NSL, provide for the automatic determination of earthquake locations and magnitudes and notification of important earthquakes in the region to UNR staff and DOE management. All waveform and meta-data, including automatic locations, phase arrival information, and analyst reviewed information, are managed through a relational database system allowing quick and reliable evaluation and analysis of ongoing earthquake activity near Yucca Mountain. This network, which contains weak-motion and strong-motion instrumentation, addresses the seismic hazard of the Yucca Mountain area by providing accurate earthquake magnitudes for earthquake recurrence estimates, spatial hypocentral control to very low magnitudes for identifying and assessing active faults and verifying tectonic models, true ground motions over the complete range of expected earthquake amplitudes for developing predictive models, and earthquake source information for characterizing active faulting. The Nevada Seismological Laboratory operated a 30-station monitoring network within a ring of approximately 50 km radius around Yucca Mountain during FY2004. This year showed the second-lowest seismic moment rate in the NTS and Yucca Mountain region for any fiscal year reporting period since prior to the 1992 M 5.6 Little Skull Mountain (LSM) earthquake. A total of 2180 earthquakes were located for FY2004. The largest event during FY2004 was M 2.99 and there were only 12 earthquakes

  9. Black Mountains crustal section, Death Valley extended terrain, California

    SciTech Connect

    Holm, D.K.; Wernicke, B. )

    1990-06-01

    Recent reconstructions of Cenozoic extension in the southern Great Basin juxtapose the Panamint Range above the Black Mountains and indicate major tectonic denudation of the Black Mountains during Tertiary extension. Structural and geologic characteristics of the Black Mountains and consideration of the regional geology of surrounding ranges suggest that the Black Mountains block may represent a 10 to 30 km preextensional crustal section that has been uplifted along a major detachment zone. Geobarometry and ductile deformation features in a synrift, intermediate to mafic batholith and metamorphism of Eocambrian sedimentary rock on the western side of the range appear to support this hypothesis. These data suggest that the Black Mountains block is one of the youngest and perhaps among the deepest exposed examples of Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes.

  10. Venomous snakebite in mountainous terrain: prevention and management.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Jeff J; Agazzi, Giancelso; Svajda, Dario; Morgan, Arthur J; Ferrandis, Silvia; Norris, Robert L

    2007-01-01

    The prevention and management of venomous snakebite in the world's mountains present unique challenges. This paper presents a series of practical, clinically sound recommendations for management of venomous snakebite in a mountain environment. The authors performed an extensive review of current literature using search engines and manual searches. They then fused the abundant knowledge of snakebite with the realities of remote first aid and mountain rescue to develop recommendations. A summary is provided of the world's most troublesome mountain snakes and the mechanisms of toxicity from their bites. Preventive measures are described. Expected symptoms and signs are reviewed in lay and medical terms. A review of currently recommended first-aid measures and advanced medical management for physicians, paramedics, and other clinicians is included. Venomous snakebites in mountainous environments present unique challenges for management. This paper offers practical recommendations for managing such cases and summarizes the approach to first aid and advanced management in 2 algorithms.

  11. SR-71 in Flight over Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    NASA 844, an SR-71A flown by NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later, Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, cruises over the Tehachapi Mountains during a 1992 flight. The aircraft is one of two SR-71As initially loaned to NASA by the Air Force for use as high-speed, high-altitude testbeds for research in such areas as aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, and instrumentation. Data from the SR-71 research program could aid designers of future supersonic-hypersonic aircraft and propulsion systems. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of

  12. SR-71 in Flight over Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The streamlined profile of the Mach 3 Blackbird is clearly evident in this photo of NASA 844, an SR-71A flown by NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later, Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, as it cruised over the Tehachapi Mountains during a 1992 flight. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the airstream. One of Dryden's SR-71s was used for the Linear Aerospike Rocket Engine, or LASRE Experiment. Another earlier project consisted of a series of flights using the SR-71 as a

  13. Distribution of potentially hazardous phases in the subsurface at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Guthrie, G.D. Jr.; Bish, D.L.; Chipera, S.J.; Raymond, R. Jr.

    1995-05-01

    Drilling, trenching, excavation of the Exploratory Studies Facility, and other surface and underground-distributing activities have the potential to release minerals into the environment from tuffs at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Some of these minerals may be potential respiratory health hazards. Therefore, an understanding of the distribution of the minerals that may potentially be liberated during site-characterization and operation of the potential repository is crucial to ensuring worker and public safety. Analysis of previously reported mineralogy of Yucca Mountain tuffs using data and criteria from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) suggests that the following minerals are of potential concern: quartz, cristobalite, tridymite, opal-CT, erionite, mordenite, and palygorskite. The authors have re-evaluated the three-dimensional mineral distribution at Yucca Mountain above the static water level both in bulk-rock samples and in fractures, using quantitative X-ray powder diffraction analysis. Erionite, mordenite, and palygorskite occur primarily in fractures; the crystalline-silica minerals, quartz, cristobalite, and tridymite are major bulk-rock phases. Erionite occurs in the altered zone just above the lower Topopah Spring Member vitrophyre, and an occurrence below the vitrophyre but above the Calico Hills has recently been identified. In this latter occurrence, erionite is present in the matrix at levels up to 35 wt%. Mordenite and palygorskite occur throughout the vadose zone nearly to the surface. Opal-CT is limited to zeolitic horizons.

  14. Study of the atmospheric conditions affecting infrared astronomical measurements at White Mountain, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Field, G. B.

    1974-01-01

    Measurements are described of atmospheric conditions affecting astronomical observations at White Mountain, California. Measurements were made at more than 1400 times spaced over more than 170 days at the Summit Laboratory and a small number of days at the Barcroft Laboratory. The recorded quantities were ten micron sky noise and precipitable water vapor, plus wet and dry bulb temperatures, wind speed and direction, brightness of the sky near the sun, fisheye lens photographs of the sky, description of cloud cover and other observable parameters, color photographs of air pollution astronomical seeing, and occasional determinations of the visible light brightness of the night sky. Measurements of some of these parameters have been made for over twenty years at the Barcroft and Crooked Creek Laboratories, and statistical analyses were made of them. These results and interpretations are given. The bulk of the collected data are statistically analyzed, and disposition of the detailed data is described. Most of the data are available in machine readable form. A detailed discussion of the techniques proposed for operation at White Mountain is given, showing how to cope with the mountain and climatic problems.

  15. GENISES: A GIS Database for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Beckett, J.

    1991-12-31

    This paper provides a general description of the Geographic Nodal Information Study and Evaluation System (GENISES) database design. The GENISES database is the Geographic Information System (GIS) component of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Technical Database (TDB). The GENISES database has been developed and is maintained by EG & G Energy Measurements, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (EG & G/EM). As part of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) Site Characterization Technical Data Management System, GENISES provides a repository for geographically oriented technical data. The primary objective of the GENISES database is to support the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project with an effective tool for describing, analyzing, and archiving geo-referenced data. The database design provides the maximum efficiency in input/output, data analysis, data management and information display. This paper provides the systematic approach or plan for the GENISES database design and operation. The paper also discusses the techniques used for data normalization or the decomposition of complex data structures as they apply to GIS database. ARC/INFO and INGRES files are linked or joined by establishing ``relate`` fields through the common attribute names. Thus, through these keys, ARC can allow access to normalized INGRES files greatly reducing redundancy and the size of the database.

  16. Transport of pollutants from cow feedlots in eastern Colorado into Rocky Mountain alpine lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pina, A.; Denning, S.; Schumacher, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs), also called factory farms, are known for raising tens of millions head of livestock including cows (beef and dairy), swine, and poultry. With as many as 250 head of cattle per acre, a United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Agricultural Research Service (ARS) report showed beef cattle from CAFOs in the United States produce as much as 24.1 million tons of manure annually. Gases released from cow manure include methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and ammonia (NH3). During boreal summers Colorado experiences fewer synoptic weather systems, allowing the diurnal cycle to exert greater control of meteorological events along the mountain-plains interface. Anabatic, or upslope winds induced by the diurnal cycle, contribute largely to the transport of gases and particulates from feedlots in eastern Colorado into the Rocky Mountains, presenting a potential harm to natural alpine ecosystems. This study focuses on locating the source of transport of gases from feedlots along the eastern Front Range of Colorado into alpine lakes of the Rocky Mountains. Source regions are approximated using backward time simulation of a Lagrangian Transport model.

  17. Environmental Assessment for the Installation of the Taylor Mountain Long-Range Radar System Taylor Mountain, Alaska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    diameter (Photograph 2). Drill log samples collected from Taylor Mountain indicate that a moderately weathered granodiorite extends to 10 feet below...ground surface followed by granodiorite bedrock. Regional geology maps indicate that Kechumstuk Mountain has the similar lithology. 3.1.3.3 Soils

  18. [Genetic diversity of isoenzymes in mountain pine (Pinus mugo Turra) in natural populations in the Ukrainian Carpathian mountains].

    PubMed

    Pirko, Ia V

    2000-01-01

    Electrophoretic spectra of GOT, GDH, DIA, MDH, SOD, FDH, ADH, ACP, IDH enzymes in the megagametophytes of seeds of 69 mountain pine (Pinus mugo Turra) trees from natural populations of the Ukrainian Carpathian mountains have been described. 19 loci products had efficient electrophoretic separation. The analysis of alleles segregation of the heterozygous trees on the whole confirms monogenic inheritance of the discovered variants.

  19. Thrust faults of southern Diamond Mountains, central Nevada: Implications for hydrocarbons in Diamond Valley and at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    French, D.E.

    1993-04-01

    Overmature Mississippian hydrocarbon source rocks in the southern Diamond Mountains have been interpreted to be a klippe overlying less mature source rocks and represented as an analogy to similar conditions near Yucca Mountain (Chamberlain, 1991). Geologic evidence indicates an alternative interpretation. Paleogeologic mapping indicates the presence of a thrust fault, referred to here as the Moritz Nager Thrust Fault, with Devonian rocks emplaced over Permian to Mississippian strata folded into an upright to overturned syncline, and that the overmature rocks of the Diamond Mountains are in the footwall of this thrust. The upper plate has been eroded from most of the Diamond Mountains but remnants are present at the head of Moritz Nager Canyon and at Sentinel Mountain. Devonian rocks of the upper plate comprised the earliest landslide megabreccia. Later, megabreccias of Pennsylvanian and Permian rocks of the overturned syncline of the lower plate were deposited. By this interpretation the maturity of lower-plate source rocks in the southern Diamond Mountains, which have been increased by tectonic burial, is not indicative of conditions in Diamond Valley, adjacent to the west, where upper-plate source rocks might be present in generating conditions. The interpretation that overmature source rocks of the Diamond Mountains are in a lower plate rather than in a klippe means that this area is an inappropriate model for the Eleana Range near Yucca Mountain.

  20. Native Terranes of the Central Klamath Mountains, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Gary G.

    1986-12-01

    The Klamath Mountains of northern California and southern Oregon contain several good examples of terranes which have developed in situ. The term "native" is proposed for five of these terranes and all terranes whose development can be tied to an adjacent cratonal area. The Klamath terranes discussed herein include disrupted, stratigraphic, and metamorphic types. Three disrupted terranes, the Rattlesnake Creek, eastern Hayfork, and North Fork, contain fossiliferous blocks derived from both North American and exotic sources. The unique mixed faunal assemblage, stratigraphic ties to North America in the source terranes of the blocks, and paleomagnetic evidence indicate that the tectonic and sedimentary processes responsible for mixing these blocks occurred in proximity to North America, not distant from the terranes' present positions. Coeval blueschist metamorphism in a fourth, inboard terrane, the Stuart Fork, suggests that all four terranes developed during a Late Triassic to Early Jurassic subduction event. A fifth, stratigraphic terrane, the western Hayfork, was constructed upon the assembled disrupted and metamorphic terranes in the Middle Jurassic. Disrupted terranes with similar mixtures of North American and exotic faunas occur throughout the Cordillera from central California possibly as far north as British Columbia. Late Triassic deformation has been documented in several of these terranes, suggesting that (1) subduction operated along at least this portion of North America during the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic, and (2) many additional Cordilleran terranes should also be considered native.

  1. Environmental impacts of forest road construction on mountainous terrain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Forest roads are the base infrastructure foundation of forestry operations. These roads entail a complex engineering effort because they can cause substantial environmental damage to forests and include a high-cost construction. This study was carried out in four sample sites of Giresun, Trabzon(2) and Artvin Forest Directorate, which is in the Black Sea region of Turkey. The areas have both steep terrain (30-50% gradient) and very steep terrain (51-80% gradient). Bulldozers and hydraulic excavators were determined to be the main machines for forest road construction, causing environmental damage and cross sections in mountainous areas. As a result of this study, the percent damage to forests was determined as follows: on steep terrain, 21% of trees were damaged by excavators and 33% of trees were damaged by bulldozers during forest road construction, and on very steep terrain, 27% of trees were damaged by excavators and 44% of trees were damaged by bulldozers during forest road construction. It was also determined that on steep terrain, when excavators were used, 12.23% less forest area was destroyed compared with when bulldozers were used and 16.13% less area was destroyed by excavators on very steep terrain. In order to reduce the environmental damage on the forest ecosystem, especially in steep terrains, hydraulic excavators should replace bulldozers in forest road construction activities. PMID:23497078

  2. Licensing A Geologic Repository At Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, R. J.

    2003-02-24

    After completing more than twenty years of intensive scientific and engineering investigations at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that the site is suitable for development of a geologic repository for disposal of the Nation's spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Following this determination, the site was recommended to the President for repository development. The President approved the recommendation and forwarded it to the U.S. Congress for site designation. The Governor of Nevada vetoed the recommendation with a notice of disapproval to the U.S. Congress. Congress subsequently over-rode the Governor's veto with a joint resolution which the President signed into law. With site designation in effect, DOE is now focusing its work on the development of a license application for repository construction. This paper will summarize the work that had been done to support site recommendation, work that is currently being done for license application, and the necessary next steps that may be required to allow repository operations to begin in 2010.

  3. Mountain goat response to hydroelectric exploration in northwestern British Columbia

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, B.R.; Rahs, E.Y.

    1983-03-01

    The behavioral responses of more than 800 mountain goats, comprised of 195 social groups, were recorded during hydroelectric exploration activities (primarily aircraft) in northwestern British Columbia. Four categories of overt response were recorded during case tests, ranging from maintenance activity to severe flight. More than 80 percent (n=667) of the observed goats elicited some form of behavioral stress-response, with 33 percent (n=265) displaying a severe flight response to local rock or plant cover. Multiple regression analysis inferred goat responses to be statistically independent of the time of year, type, and vertical orientation of disturbance and group size. As expected, significant correlations (p less than or equal to 0.05) existed between distance of disturbance, geographic area, cover availability, and degree of awareness. Responses were stimulated primarily by auditory and secondarily by visual cues. Repeated aerial and ground follow-up surveys documented temporary range abandonment and changing observability indices (habitat use and activity patterns) associated with areas of intense exploration activity. The assessed data offer mitigation possibilities and enable formulation of management guidelines to lessen project impacts during future exploration, construction, and operation phases.

  4. Mountain goat response to hydroelectric exploration in northwestern British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Bryan R.; Rahs, Engel Y.

    1983-03-01

    The behavioral responses of more than 800 mountain goats, comprised of 195 social groups, were recorded during hydroelectric exploration activities (primarily aircraft) in northwestern British Columbia. Four categories of overt response were recorded during case tests, ranging from maintenance activity to severe flight. More than 80 percent ( n=667) of the observed goats elicited some form of behavioral stress-response, with 33 percent ( n=265) displaying a severe flight response to local rock or plant cover. Multiple regression analysis inferred goat responses to be statistically independent of the time of year, type, and vertical orientation of disturbance and group size. As expected, significant correlations ( p≤0.05) existed between distance of disturbance, geographic area, cover availability, and degree of awareness. Responses were stimulated primarily by auditory and secondarily by visual cues. Repeated aerial and ground follow-up surveys documented temporary range abandonment and changing observability indices (habitat use and activity patterns) associated with areas of intense exploration activity. The assessed data offer mitigation possibilities and enable formulation of management guidelines to lessen project impacts during future exploration, construction, and operation phases.

  5. Environmental impacts of forest road construction on mountainous terrain.

    PubMed

    Caliskan, Erhan

    2013-03-15

    Forest roads are the base infrastructure foundation of forestry operations. These roads entail a complex engineering effort because they can cause substantial environmental damage to forests and include a high-cost construction. This study was carried out in four sample sites of Giresun, Trabzon(2) and Artvin Forest Directorate, which is in the Black Sea region of Turkey. The areas have both steep terrain (30-50% gradient) and very steep terrain (51-80% gradient). Bulldozers and hydraulic excavators were determined to be the main machines for forest road construction, causing environmental damage and cross sections in mountainous areas.As a result of this study, the percent damage to forests was determined as follows: on steep terrain, 21% of trees were damaged by excavators and 33% of trees were damaged by bulldozers during forest road construction, and on very steep terrain, 27% of trees were damaged by excavators and 44% of trees were damaged by bulldozers during forest road construction. It was also determined that on steep terrain, when excavators were used, 12.23% less forest area was destroyed compared with when bulldozers were used and 16.13% less area was destroyed by excavators on very steep terrain. In order to reduce the environmental damage on the forest ecosystem, especially in steep terrains, hydraulic excavators should replace bulldozers in forest road construction activities.

  6. The SAMCO Web-platform for resilience assessment in mountainous valleys impacted by landslide risks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandjean, Gilles; Thomas, Loic; Bernardie, Severine

    2016-04-01

    The ANR-SAMCO project aims to develop a proactive resilience framework enhancing the overall resilience of societies on the impacts of mountain risks. The project aims to elaborate methodological tools to characterize and measure ecosystem and societal resilience from an operative perspective on three mountain representative case studies. To achieve this objective, the methodology is split in several points: (1) the definition of the potential impacts of global environmental changes (climate system, ecosystem e.g. land use, socio-economic system) on landslide hazards, (2) the analysis of these consequences in terms of vulnerability (e.g. changes in the location and characteristics of the impacted areas and level of their perturbation) and (3) the implementation of a methodology for quantitatively investigating and mapping indicators of mountain slope vulnerability exposed to several hazard types, and the development of a GIS-based demonstration platform available on the web. The strength and originality of the SAMCO project lies in the combination of different techniques, methodologies and models (multi-hazard assessment, risk evolution in time, vulnerability functional analysis, and governance strategies) that are implemented in a user-oriented web-platform, currently in development. We present the first results of this development task, architecture and functions of the web-tools, the case studies database showing the multi-hazard maps and the stakes at risks. Risk assessment over several area of interest in Alpine or Pyrenean valleys are still in progress, but the first analyses are presented for current and future periods for which climate change and land-use (economical, geographical and social aspects) scenarios are taken into account. This tool, dedicated to stakeholders, should be finally used to evaluate resilience of mountainous regions since multiple scenarios can be tested and compared.

  7. Paleoflood discharge reconstruction in Tatra Mountain streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros-Cánovas, Juan Antonio; Stoffel, Markus; Spyt, Barbara; Janecka, Karolina; Kaczka, Ryszard J.; Lempa, Michał

    2016-11-01

    Floods represent a common process in Tatra Mountain streams and may cause flood risk in the valleys of the Tatra foreland. Dealing with the hazards and risks caused by floods requires a detailed analysis of the frequency and magnitude of past and recent events. However, the Polish Tatra region is characterized by a scarcity of data on past floods in general and on systematic peak discharge in particular. In this study, we performed a paleohydrological analyses in four high-gradient mountain streams using scarred trees as paleostage indicators. We couple two-dimensional hydraulic modelling in a highly-resolved topographic environment (LiDAR data) with an important spatiotemporal data set of scars on trees to investigate (i) the magnitude of unrecorded major floods of the twentieth century, (ii) the effect of variability in geomorphic tree positions on the peak discharge reconstruction, and (iii) the impact of reconstructed events on the results of flood frequency analyses. The data set is based on a total of 55 scarred trees and allows peak discharge reconstruction of 16 major floods covering the last 113 years. Results suggest that trees growing in straight stream reaches or in the inner side of channel bends would be better candidates for peak discharge reconstructions than trees located on the outer side of channel bends or growing in overbank sections with dense vegetation cover. The largest reconstructed flood is dated to 1903 with an estimated peak discharge of 115.9 ± 59.2 m3 s- 1, and larger-than-today floods are found to have occurred at Strążyska and Łysa Polana in the first half of the twentieth century. The inclusion of our results into the flood frequency analyses suggests that flood hazards might have been underestimated by up to 25.5% in the case of a 100-year flood in Strążyski Stream. In that sense, our findings will be useful for the design of future strategies dealing with flood risks in the foreland of the Polish Tatra Mountains.

  8. Analysis of a snowfall event produced by mountains waves in Guadarrama Mountains (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascón, Estíbaliz; Sánchez, José Luis; Fernández-González, Sergio; Merino, Andrés; López, Laura; García-Ortega, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    Heavy snowfall events are fairly uncommon precipitation processes in the Iberian Peninsula. When large amounts of snow accumulate in large cities with populations that are unaccustomed to or unprepared for heavy snow, these events have a major impact on their daily activities. On 16 January 2013, an extreme snowstorm occurred in Guadarrama Mountains (Madrid, Spain) during an experimental winter campaign as a part of the TECOAGUA Project. Strong northwesterly winds, high precipitation and temperatures close to 0°C were detected throughout the whole day. During this episode, it was possible to continuously take measurements of different variables involved in the development of the convection using a multichannel microwave radiometer (MMWR). The significant increase in the cloud thickness observed vertically by the MMWR and registered precipitation of 43 mm in 24 hours at the station of Navacerrada (Madrid) led us to consider that we were facing an episode of strong winter convection. Images from the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite suggested that the main source of the convection was the formation of mountain waves on the south face of the Guadarrama Mountains. The event was simulated in high resolution using the WRF mesoscale model, an analysis of which is based on the observational simulations and data. Finally, the continuous measurements obtained with the MMWR allowed us to monitor the vertical situation above the Guadarrama Mountains with temporal resolution of 2 minutes. This instrument has a clear advantage in monitoring short-term episodes of this kind in comparison to radiosondes, which usually produce data at 0000 and 1200 UTC. Acknowledgements This study was supported by the following grants: GRANIMETRO (CGL2010-15930); MICROMETEO (IPT-310000-2010-22). The authors would like to thank the Regional Government of Castile-León for its financial support through the project LE220A11-2.

  9. Site environmental report for calendar year 1994, Yucca Mountain Site, Nye County, Nevada.

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization office has established an environmental program to ensure that facilities are operated in order to protect, maintain, and restore environmental quality, minimize potential threats to the environment and the public, and comply with environmental policies and US DOE orders. The status of the environmental program has been summarized in this annual report to characterize performance, confirm compliance with environmental requirements, and highlight significant programs and efforts during CY 1994. Monitoring, archaeology, groundwater, ecosystems, tortoise conservation, waste minimization, etc., are covered.

  10. Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System Robotic Welding and Inspection System

    SciTech Connect

    C. I. Nichol; D. P. Pace; E. D. Larsen; T. R. McJunkin; D. E. Clark; M. L. Clark; K. L. Skinner; A. D. Watkins; H. B. Smartt

    2011-10-01

    The Waste Package Closure System (WPCS), for the closure of radioactive waste in canisters for permanent storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level waste in the Yucca Mountain Repository was designed, fabricated, and successfully demonstrated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This article focuses on the robotic hardware and tools necessary to remotely weld and inspect the closure lid welds. The system was operated remotely and designed for use in a radiation field, due to the SNF contained in the waste packages being closed.

  11. Remedy risk evaluation for the shell section 36 trench area of the Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    SciTech Connect

    1993-08-01

    The Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) is a 17,000-acre U.S. Army facility located in Adams County, Colorado. Liquid and solid wastes produced by Shell operations in the South Plants area were disposed of in an on-post section of the RMA known as the Shell Section 36 Trench (Shell Trench) Area. While there is considerable uncertainty regarding the composition of these wastes, historical process records and environmental sampling results indicate the presence of a heterogeneous mixture of chemicals consisting primarily of organochlorine pesticides and volatile organic compounds. The Army may have also used this area of the RMA for the disposal of munitions and chemical agents.

  12. Results from transient tests and spherical valve closure tests, Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Plant

    SciTech Connect

    March, P.A.

    1984-09-01

    Tests were conducted at the Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Plant to obtain data on hydraulic system characteristics during transient-state operation, to compare measured values for system pressures and surge levels with design values, to provide information for review of hydaulic transient computations, and to provide confirmation that the spherical valves are capable of shutting off plant flow under emergency conditions. The tests included single-unit load rejection, single-unit pump power loss, multi-unit emergency shutdown from generating, multi-unit emergency shutdown from pumping, and spherical valve closure.

  13. Sampling protocol for monitoring abiotic and biotic characteristics of mountain ponds and lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, Robert L.; Tyler, Torrey J.; Larson, Gary L.; Adams, Michael J.; Wente, Wendy; Galvan, Stephanie

    2005-01-01

    This document describes field techniques and procedures used for sampling mountain ponds and lakes. These techniques and procedures will be used primarily to monitor, as part of long-term programs in National Parks and other protected areas, the abiotic and biotic characteristics of naturally occurring permanent montane lentic systems up to 75 ha in surface area. However, the techniques and procedures described herein also can be used to sample temporary or ephemeral montane lentic sites. Each Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) section addresses a specific component of the limnological investigation, and describes in detail field sampling methods pertaining to parameters to be measured for each component.

  14. Installation-Restoration Program Preliminary Assessment, Granite Mountain Radio Relay Station, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    The Hazardous Materials Technical Center (HMTC) was retained in January 1988 to conduct the Installation-Restoration Program (IRP) Preliminary Assessment of Granite Mountain Radio Relay Station (RRS), Alaska; DoD policy is to identify and fully evaluate suspected problems associated with past hazardous material disposal sites on DoD facilities, control the migration of hazardous contamination from such facilities, and control hazards to health and welfare that may have resulted from these past operations. The major operations of the installation that used and diposed of hazardous materials/hazardous waste (HM/HW) included management of fuel and electrical equipment, maintenance of the facility and vehicles, and use of asbestos as a construction material. Based on information obtained through interviews with Air Force personnel and review of installation records, hazardous materials were used at Granite Mountain RRS while the facility was in operation. Although no evidence of contamination was visible at the time of the site visit, it was common practice at similar facilities to bury drums and waste liquids and these wastes may be present in the solid-waste landfill at the RRS. In addition, asbestos may remain within the buildings.

  15. PRESERVATION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL MATERIALS IN ARID ENVIRONMENTS RELEVANT TO YUCCA MOUNTAIN

    SciTech Connect

    N. Chapman, A. Dansie, C. McCombie

    2006-02-24

    The objective of this study was to evaluate archaeological materials from underground openings or shallow burial in arid environments relevant to Yucca Mountain and to draw conclusions about how their state and their environment of preservation could be of relevance to design and operational aspects of the high-level waste repository. The study has evaluated materials from cultures in the arid regions of the ancient Middle East and compared them with the preservation of ancient materials in dry cave sites in the Great Basin desert area of Nevada. The emphasis has been on materials found in undisturbed underground openings such as caves and un-backfilled tombs. Long-term preservation of such materials in underground openings and the stability of the openings themselves provide useful analogue information that serves as a reference point for considering the operation and evolution of the Yucca Mountain repository. Being able to shed light, by close physical and environmental analogy, on what happens in underground openings over many thousands of years provides valuable underpinning to illustrations of expected system performance and offers pointers towards optimizing repository system and operational design.

  16. Cheat Mountain Roadless Area, West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Englund, K.J.; Behum, P.T.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey by the USGS and USBM in 1980 determined that coal is the most important mineral resource in the Cheat Mountain Roadless Area, West Virginia. It is tentatively ranked as high-volatile A to medium-volatile bituminous similar to coal in nearby mining areas, and is primarily of coking quality. Demonstrated coal resources are estimated to total about 11.6 million short tons in beds more than 28 in. thick in areas of substantiated resource potential and an additional 32.7 million short tons in beds between 14 and 28 in. thick have been identified. Limestone, shale, clay, and sandstone occur in the area but these commodities are readily available outside the roadless area. Available information suggests little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral or other energy resources in the area.

  17. CHEAT MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA, WEST VIRGINIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Englund, K.J.; Behum, P.T.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey determined that coal is the most important mineral resource in the Cheat Mountain Roadless Area, West Virginia. It is tentatively ranked as high-volatile A to medium-volatile bituminous similar to coal in nearby mining areas, and is primarily of coking quality. Demonstrated coal resources are estimated to total about 11. 6 million short tons in beds more than 28 in. thick in areas of substantiated resource potential and an additional 32. 7 million short tons in beds between 14 and 28 in. thick have been identified. Limestone, shale, clay, and sandstone occur in the area but these commodities are readily available outside the roadless area. Available information suggests little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral or other energy resources in the area.

  18. Lyman Spitzer: Astronomer, Physicist, Engineer, and Mountaineer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, D. C.

    2006-12-01

    NASA's naming of the Spitzer Space Telescope after Lyman Spitzer was a most appropriate choice, recognizing an outstanding scientist who also contributed extensively to space astronomy. As an astronomer he was a leading authority in the physics of both the interstellar medium and stellar dynamics, wrote textbooks for both fields, and guided many research students. As a physicist he conceived the Stellarator for magnetic confinement, managed a laboratory for controlled fusion, and wrote a textbook on plasma physics. As an engineer he led the development of the payload for the successful Copernicus satellite, which fulfilled his 1946 proposal for an extraterrestrial observatory. His mountaineering included first ascents on Baffin Island and in the Canadian Rockies as well as the summit of the challenging Mt Waddington in the Coast Range.

  19. Terrestrial ecosystem biomonitoring at Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, R.; Matiatos, D.; Seery, D.; Hetrick, M.; Griess, J.; Henry, C.; Vaughn, S.; Miesner, J.

    1994-12-31

    In 1987 the Fish and Wildlife Service became actively involved in wildlife population monitoring at the Arsenal because of the discovery of a bald eagle roost on the site. Since that time the Service has conducted or funded a variety of investigations to inventory the wildlife species present at the Arsenal and determine their population status. As time progressed and as a result of the passage of the Rocky Mountain Arsenal Refuge legislation in 1992, the Service developed a biomonitoring strategy to determine the current effects of contaminants on terrestrial wildlife resources at the Arsenal and evaluate the efficacy of remediation to ensure the protection and restoration of wildlife resources at the future refuge. This poster will present an overview of the species being studied, measurement and assessment endpoints, strategies, and methods being used by the Service to assess wildlife health as it relates to contaminant exposure.

  20. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Paddock, Christopher D; Fernandez, Susana; Echenique, Gustavo A; Sumner, John W; Reeves, Will K; Zaki, Sherif R; Remondegui, Carlos E

    2008-04-01

    We describe the first molecular confirmation of Rickettsia rickettsii, the cause of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), from a tick vector, Amblyomma cajennense, and from a cluster of fatal spotted fever cases in Argentina. Questing A. cajennense ticks were collected at or near sites of presumed or confirmed cases of spotted fever rickettsiosis in Jujuy Province and evaluated by polymerase chain reaction assays for spotted fever group rickettsiae. DNA of R. rickettsii was amplified from a pool of A. cajennense ticks and from tissues of one of four patients who died during 2003-2004 after illnesses characterized by high fever, severe headache, myalgias, and petechial rash. The diagnosis of spotted fever rickettsiosis was confirmed in the other patients by indirect immunofluorescence antibody and immunohistochemical staining techniques. These findings show the existence of RMSF in Argentina and emphasize the need for clinicians throughout the Americas to consider RMSF in patients with febrile rash illnesses.