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Sample records for mouse fallopian tube

  1. Fallopian Tube Catheterization

    PubMed Central

    Thurmond, Amy Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Fallopian tube catheterization is used for treatment of infertility caused by proximal tubal occlusion, and has replaced surgical treatment for this condition. More recently, fallopian tube catheterization has been used for tubal sterilization. Interventional radiologists tested numerous methods for tubal occlusion using the rabbit as an animal model. As a result, a tubal device has recently been Food and Drug Administration approved for permanent sterilization using hysteroscopic guidance; it can also be placed fluoroscopically by fallopian tube catheterization as an “off-label” procedure. This is a 5-year continuation and update on a procedure that has been done by interventional radiologists for 25 years; history of the development of fallopian tube catheterization in women has been published in detail in this journal. Highlighted in this article will be description of the basic components needed for fallopian tube catheterization. PMID:24436565

  2. Epithelialization of mouse ovarian tumor cells originating in the fallopian tube stroma

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Yuanyuan; Choi, Pui-Wah; Trachtenberg, Alexander J.; Ng, Allen C.; Kuo, Winston P.; Ng, Shu-Kay; Dinulescu, Daniela M.; Matzuk, Martin M.; Berkowitz, Ross S.; Ng, Shu-Wing

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian carcinoma accounts for 90% of all ovarian cancer and is the most deadly gynecologic malignancy. Recent studies have suggested that fallopian tube fimbriae can be the origin of cells for high-grade serous subtype of epithelial ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC). A mouse HGSOC model with conditional Dicer-Pten double knockout (Dicer-Pten DKO) developed primary tumors, intriguingly, from the fallopian tube stroma. We examined the growth and epithelial phenotypes of the Dicer-Pten DKO mouse tumor cells contributable by each gene knockout. Unlike human ovarian epithelial cancer cells that expressed full-length E-cadherin, the Dicer-Pten DKO stromal tumor cells expressed cleaved E-cadherin fragments and metalloproteinase 2, a mixture of epithelial and mesenchymal markers. Although the Dicer-Pten DKO tumor cells lost the expression of mature microRNAs as expected, they showed high levels of tRNA fragment expression and enhanced AKT activation due to the loss of PTEN function. Introduction of a Dicer1-expressing construct into the DKO mouse tumor cells significantly reduced DNA synthesis and the cell growth rate, with concurrent diminished adhesion and ZO1 epithelial staining. Hence, it is likely that the loss of Dicer promoted mesenchymal-epithelial transition in fallopian tube stromal cells, and in conjunction with Pten loss, further promoted cell proliferation and epithelial-like tumorigenesis. PMID:27602775

  3. 21 CFR 884.3650 - Fallopian tube prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fallopian tube prosthesis. 884.3650 Section 884... § 884.3650 Fallopian tube prosthesis. (a) Identification. A fallopian tube prosthesis is a device designed to maintain the patency (openness) of the fallopian tube and is used after reconstructive...

  4. 21 CFR 884.3650 - Fallopian tube prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fallopian tube prosthesis. 884.3650 Section 884... § 884.3650 Fallopian tube prosthesis. (a) Identification. A fallopian tube prosthesis is a device designed to maintain the patency (openness) of the fallopian tube and is used after reconstructive...

  5. 21 CFR 884.3650 - Fallopian tube prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fallopian tube prosthesis. 884.3650 Section 884... § 884.3650 Fallopian tube prosthesis. (a) Identification. A fallopian tube prosthesis is a device designed to maintain the patency (openness) of the fallopian tube and is used after reconstructive...

  6. 21 CFR 884.3650 - Fallopian tube prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fallopian tube prosthesis. 884.3650 Section 884... § 884.3650 Fallopian tube prosthesis. (a) Identification. A fallopian tube prosthesis is a device designed to maintain the patency (openness) of the fallopian tube and is used after reconstructive...

  7. 21 CFR 884.3650 - Fallopian tube prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fallopian tube prosthesis. 884.3650 Section 884... § 884.3650 Fallopian tube prosthesis. (a) Identification. A fallopian tube prosthesis is a device designed to maintain the patency (openness) of the fallopian tube and is used after reconstructive...

  8. Pembrolizumab, Bevacizumab, and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-09

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  9. Confocal microlaparoscope for imaging the fallopian tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tzu-Yu; Schafer, Rachel; Rouse, Andrew R.; Gmitro, Arthur F.

    2012-02-01

    Recent evidence suggests that epithelial ovarian cancer may originate in the fimbriated end of the fallopian tube1. Unlike many other cancers, poor access to the ovary and fallopian tubes has limited the ability to study the progression of this deadly disease and to diagnosis it during the early stage when it is most amenable to therapy. We have previously reported on a rigid confocal microlaparoscope system that is currently undergoing a clinical trial to image the epithelial surface of the ovary2. In order to gain in vivo access to the fallopian tubes we have developed a new confocal microlaparoscope with an articulating distal tip. The new instrument builds upon the technology developed for the existing confocal microlaparoscope. It has an ergonomic handle fabricated by a rapid prototyping printer. While maintaining compatibility with a 5 mm trocar, the articulating distal tip of the instrument consists of a 2.2 mm diameter bare fiber bundle catheter with automated dye delivery for fluorescence imaging. This small and flexible catheter design should enable the confocal microlaparoscope to image early stage ovarian cancer arising inside the fallopian tube. Early ex vivo mages of human fallopian tube and in vivo imaging results from recent open surgeries using the rigid confocal microlaparoscope system are presented. Ex vivo images from animal models using the new articulating bare fiber system are also presented. These high quality images collected by the new flexible system are similar in quality to those obtained from the epithelial surface of ovaries with the rigid clinical confocal microlaparoscope.

  10. Confocal microlaparoscope for imaging the fallopian tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tzu-Yu; Rouse, Andrew R.; Chambers, Setsuko K.; Hatch, Kenneth D.; Gmitro, Arthur F.

    2014-11-01

    Recent evidence suggests that ovarian cancer can originate in the fallopian tube. Unlike many other cancers, poor access to the ovary and fallopian tubes has limited the ability to study the progression of this deadly disease and to diagnosis it during the early stage when it is most amenable to therapy. A rigid confocal microlaparoscope system designed to image the epithelial surface of the ovary in vivo was previously reported. A new confocal microlaparoscope with an articulating distal tip has been developed to enable in vivo access to human fallopian tubes. The new microlaparoscope is compatible with 5-mm trocars and includes a 2.2-mm-diameter articulating distal tip consisting of a bare fiber bundle and an automated dye delivery system for fluorescence confocal imaging. This small articulating device should enable the confocal microlaparoscope to image early stage ovarian cancer arising inside the fallopian tube. Ex vivo images of animal tissue and human fallopian tube using the new articulating device are presented along with in vivo imaging results using the rigid confocal microlaparoscope system.

  11. Olaparib and Cediranib Maleate in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-31

    BRCA1 Gene Mutation; BRCA2 Gene Mutation; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; High Grade Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Tumor; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma

  12. Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Information about ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer treatment, prevention, genetics, causes, screening, clinical trials, research and statistics from the National Cancer Institute.

  13. Quality of Life and Care Needs of Patients With Persistent or Recurrent Ovarian Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-17

    Anxiety; Fatigue; Nausea and Vomiting; Neurotoxicity Syndrome; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  14. Chemotherapy Toxicity On Quality of Life in Older Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal Cavity, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-09

    Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  15. Sunitinib Malate in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-01-15

    Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

  16. Sirolimus and Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage II-IV Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-06

    Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  17. Carboplatin, Paclitaxel and Gemcitabine Hydrochloride With or Without Bevacizumab After Surgery in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian, Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-13

    Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinofibroma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  18. Paraneoplastic Neurological Syndrome in Fallopian Tube Cancer.

    PubMed

    Maas, E; Skoberne, T; Werner, A; Braun, S; Jackisch, C

    2014-10-01

    We report on a rare case of paraneoplastic syndrome (PS) that was discovered on completion of diagnostic work-up to be an undifferentiated fallopian tube carcinoma. A 49-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to neurology with vertigo, gait ataxia and dysarthria, transient ischaemic attack (TIA) and stroke were quickly excluded. Indicative for the further diagnosis of a paraneoplastic syndrome was the identification of onconeuronal antibodies the detection of which can be associated with certain tumour entities. The strongly positive anti-Yo antibody that is formed above all by breast and lung cancers as well as ovarian cancer led to a corresponding staging. The tumour markers CEA, CA 125 and CA 15-3 were in the normal ranges. Mammography and thorax CT were also unremarkable; on transvaginal sonography the internal genitals were inconspicuous except for a follicular cyst on the left. On abdominal CT the only conspicuous finding was a 1.5 cm ovarian cyst. After consensual agreement a bilateral laparoscopic adenexectomy was performed but with unremarkable abdominal findings. The histological examination confirmed a right-sided undifferentiated tubal carcinoma with the provisional classification FIGO IIA. After a stage-related staging operation, the final classification was found to be the FIGO-IIIC stage on account of positive retroperitoneal lymph nodes. Thus adjuvant chemotherapy with 6 cycles of carboplatin and paclitaxel was performed. By means of a timely, guideline-conform therapy for tubal carcinoma, the neurological symptoms and, above all, the dysarthria could be improved after 10 months.

  19. Cysticercosis of the fallopian tube: histology and microanalysis.

    PubMed

    Abraham, J L; Spore, W W; Benirschke, K

    1982-07-01

    The authors identified a degenerated, focally calcified cestode larva (cysticercus) in the fallopian tube of a 50-year-old woman with endometriosis. The physiologic reaction to the larva was minimal, with some focal granulomatous salpingitis. No other focus of infection was detected. The differential diagnosis included trophoblastic tissue, foreign material, and parasites. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis of the organism revealed concentration of iodine in the subcuticular connective tissue of the larva and confirmed the calcium phosphate composition of the calcareous corpuscles. The presumed source of the iodine was the continued exposure of the larva to an environment rich in iodide secreted by the epithelium of the fallopian tube.

  20. Cysticercosis of the fallopian tube: histology and microanalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, J.L.; Spore, W.W.; Benirschke, K.

    1982-07-01

    The authors identified a degenerated, focally calcified cestode larva (cysticercus) in the fallopian tube of a 50-year-old woman with endometriosis. The physiologic reaction to the larva was minimal, with some focal granulomatous salpingitis. No other focus of infection was detected. The differential diagnosis included trophoblastic tissue, foreign material, and parasites. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis of the organism revealed concentration of iodine in the subcuticular connective tissue of the larva and confirmed the calcium phosphate composition of the calcareous corpuscles. The presumed source of the iodine was the continued exposure of the larva to an environment rich in iodide secreted by the epithelium of the fallopian tube.

  1. Is Surgical Repair of the Fallopian Tubes Ever Appropriate?

    PubMed Central

    Sotrel, Ginter

    2009-01-01

    The overall median prevalence of infertility, defined as no conception after more than 12 months of unprotected intercourse with the husband or cohabiting partner in women aged 15 to 44 years, is approximately 9%. About 25% to 33% of female infertility is the result of tubal disease and endometriosis. In view of very successful alternative treatment of tubal factor infertility, the surgical repair of the fallopian tubes is all but obsolete and has been replaced with assisted reproductive technology. This article reviews situations in which surgical repair of the fallopian tubes may facilitate conception. PMID:19826575

  2. OPT-821 With or Without Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Peritoneal Cancer in Second or Third Complete Remission

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-16

    Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  3. Carboplatin, Paclitaxel, Bevacizumab, and Veliparib in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage II-IV Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-31

    Fallopian Tube Carcinosarcoma; Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Neoplasm; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Tumor; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  4. Congenital interruption of the ampullary portion of the fallopian tube.

    PubMed

    Dahan, Michael H; Burney, Richard; Lathi, Ruth

    2006-06-01

    We present a rare case of a congenital isolated missing segment of the fallopian tube, including hysterosalpingographic and laparoscopic images. We conclude that when this occurs without concomitant müllerian anomalies, the mechanism of development would not be expected to be associated with an increase in renal abnormalities.

  5. Genomic aberrations of BRCA1-mutated fallopian tube carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Sally M; Ryland, Georgina L; Moss, Phillip; Gorringe, Kylie L; Campbell, Ian G

    2014-06-01

    Intraepithelial carcinomas of the fallopian tube are putative precursors to high-grade serous carcinomas of the ovary and peritoneum. Molecular characterization of these early precursors is limited but could be the key to identifying tumor biomarkers for early detection. This study presents a genome-wide copy number analysis of occult fallopian tube carcinomas identified through risk-reducing prophylactic oophorectomy from three women with germline BRCA1 mutations, demonstrating that extensive genomic aberrations are already established at this early stage. We found no indication of a difference in the level of genomic aberration observed in fallopian tube carcinomas compared with high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas. These findings suggest that spread to the peritoneal cavity may require no or very little further tumor evolution, which raises the question of what is the real window of opportunity to detect high-grade serous peritoneal carcinoma arising from the fallopian tube before it spreads. Nonetheless, the similarity of the genomic aberrations to those observed in high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas suggests that genetic biomarkers identified in late-stage disease may be relevant for early detection.

  6. Leiomyoma and leiomyoma cellulare of the fallopian tube: review of the literature and case reports

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Leiomyoma of the fallopian tube is extremely rare, and its version – leiomyoma cellulare (LC) of the fallopian tube is absolutely unique. Aim of the study was to review literature reports on leiomyomas of the fallopian tubes, and to present cases of leiomyoma and LC of the fallopian tubes in the patients operated on in our ward. Material and methods There were fewer than 100 cases of leiomyomas of the fallopian tubes discussed in the literature up to 1993. Case 1. Leiomyoma of the left fallopian tube was detected postoperatively in a 68-year-old patient, G.K., on histopathological examination after laparoscopic total hysterectomy with bilateral adnexa. Case 2. A 56-year-old patient, K.T., with LC of the fallopian tube was qualified for laparoscopy. At operation, the procedure was converted to microlaparotomy due to the tumor size. The adnexa on the right side with the tumor of the fallopian tube were excised, and the left fallopian tube was excised, too. Histopathological microscopy found leiomyoma cellulare partim epithelioides. Results In the presented cases, the extent of operation was connected with the clinical picture, and in the case of LC of the right fallopian tube, with intraoperative histopathological findings. In both cases the postoperative course was uneventful. Conclusions Diagnosis of leiomyoma and LC of the fallopian tube, like in the other organs of the female genital tract, is possible only due to results of histopathological microscopy. PMID:27980525

  7. Intraperitoneal Bortezomib and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Persistent or Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-31

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  8. Three-dimensional modeling of the human fallopian tube fimbriae

    PubMed Central

    Eddie, Sharon L.; Quartuccio, Suzanne M.; Zhu, Jie; Shepherd, Jessica A.; Kothari, Rajul; Kim, J. Julie; Woodruff, Teresa K.; Burdette, Joanna E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy that affects women. Recent data suggests the disease may originate in the fallopian fimbriae; however, the anatomical origin of ovarian carcinogenesis remains unclear. This is largely driven by our lack of knowledge regarding the structure and function of normal fimbriae and the relative paucity of models that accurately recapitulate the in vivo fallopian tube. Therefore, a human three-dimensional (3D) culture system was developed to examine the role of the fallopian fimbriae in serous tumorigenesis. Methods Alginate matrix was utilized to support human fallopian fimbriae ex vivo. Fimbriae were cultured with factors hypothesized to contribute to carcinogenesis, namely; H2O2 (1mM) a mimetic of oxidative stress, insulin (5 µg/ml) to stimulate glycolysis, and estradiol (E2, 10nM) which peaks before ovulation. Cultures were evaluated for changes in proliferation and p53 expression, criteria utilized to identify potential precursor lesions. Further, secretory factors were assessed after treatment with E2 to identify if steroid signaling induces a pro-tumorigenic microenvironment. Results 3D fimbriae cultures maintained normal tissue architecture up to 7 days, retaining both epithelial subtypes. Treatment of cultures with H2O2 or insulin significantly induced proliferation. However, p53 stabilization was unaffected by any particular treatment, although was induced by ex vivo culturing. Moreover, E2-alone treatment significantly induced its canonical target PR and expression of IL8, a factor linked to poor outcome. Conclusions 3D alginate cultures of human fallopian fimbriae provide an important microphysicological model, which can be further utilized to investigate serous tumorigenesis originating from the fallopian tube. PMID:25527363

  9. Ovarian Mouse Models with Targeted Fallopian Tubal Carcinogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    serous subtype of epithelial ovarian cancer may also arise from the fallopian epithelium. This shift in cell-of-origin for ovarian cancer has...hypothesis that high-grade serous ovarian cancer may arise from fallopian tubal epithelium are lacking. Therefore, in this proposal we generated a mouse...Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT To test the idea that ovarian cancer arises from oviductal

  10. Loop in the fallopian tube: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sinha, G R; Roy, K C; Saxena, N

    1970-10-01

    A case is reported of a 40-year-old woman with a Lippes loop intrauterine contraceptive device that was displaced into one of her Fallopian tubes. The IUD had been in situ for 3 years and the patient was admitted to the hospital with recurring spasmodic pain in the right iliac fossa. Exploratory laparotomy revealed the cranial end of the IUD hanging freely into the peritoneal cavity with the caudal end inside the fimbriated end of the Fallopian tube. Partial salpingectomy was performed. It is believed that placement of the IUD too high into the uterine cavity near the uterine pacemaker initiated peristaltic activity and drove the IUD into the lumen of the tube. It is suggested that a smaller IUD be used (27.5 mm long instead of the 30 mm in this case) and that care should be taken to keep the IUD lower in the uterine cavity.

  11. Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IIIC-IV Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer Following Surgery and Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-28

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Tumor; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Neoplasm; Fallopian Tube Serous Neoplasm; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  12. Ruxolitinib Phosphate, Paclitaxel, and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Epithelial Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-20

    Fallopian Tube Carcinosarcoma; Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Neoplasm; High Grade Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage III Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  13. Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin Hydrochloride With Atezolizumab and/or Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-31

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; High Grade Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; High Grade Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal High Grade Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  14. Dasatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, Endometrial or Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-05

    Endometrial Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma

  15. Carboplatin and Paclitaxel or Oxaliplatin and Capecitabine With or Without Bevacizumab as First-Line Therapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage II-IV or Recurrent Stage I Epithelial Ovarian or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-05

    Borderline Ovarian Mucinous Tumor; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer

  16. Cediranib Maleate and Olaparib or Standard Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Recurrent Platinum-Resistant or -Refractory Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-13

    Deleterious BRCA1 Gene Mutation; Deleterious BRCA2 Gene Mutation; Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  17. YKL-40 in Serum Samples From Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage III-IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal Cavity, or Fallopian Tube Cancer Receiving Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-19

    Fallopian Tube Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Clear Cell Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Endometrioid Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Mucinous Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Neoplasm; Malignant Ovarian Serous Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Transitional Cell Tumor; Ovarian Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  18. Unusual location of a plexiform neurofibroma in the fallopian tube: A case report.

    PubMed

    Czuczwar, Piotr; Stepniak, Anna; Szkodziak, Piotr; Korolczuk, Agnieszka; Paszkowski, Tomasz; Wozniak, Slawomir

    2016-11-01

    It is rare for neurofibromatosis to occur in the female genital tract. We report a case of a plexiform neurofibroma in the left fallopian tube in a 50-year-old postmenopausal woman. The initial diagnosis was a pedunculated leiomyoma or a fallopian tube tumor. Laparotomy was performed and a solid mass approximately 90 x 60 x 40 mm in size was found in the left fallopian tube. Total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with an appendectomy, lymphadenectomy and omentectomy was performed. The histopathological diagnosis was plexiform neurofibroma. Although neurofibromatosis may involve various gynecological structures, to the best of our knowledge, localized plexiform neurofibroma in the fallopian tube has not previously been reported. The presented case is the first report of clinical, ultrasound and histopathological findings in a fallopian tube neurofibroma. Neurofibroma is a neoplasm that should be taken into consideration when diagnosing pelvic masses.

  19. Morphologic 3D scanning of fallopian tubes to assist ovarian cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madore, Wendy-Julie; De Montigny, Etienne; Deschênes, Andréanne; Benboujja, Fouzi; Leduc, Mikael; Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie; Provencher, Diane M.; Rahimi, Kurosh; Boudoux, Caroline; Godbout, Nicolas

    2016-02-01

    Pathological evaluation of the fallopian tubes is an important diagnostic result but tumors can be missed using routine approaches. As the majority of high-grade serous ovarian cancers are now believed to originate in the fallopian tubes, pathological examination should include in a thorough examination of the excised ovaries and fallopian tubes. We present an dedicated imaging system for diagnostic exploration of human fallopian tubes. This system is based on optical coherence tomography (OCT), a laser imaging modality giving access to sub- epithelial tissue architecture. This system produces cross-sectional images up to 3 mm in depth, with a lateral resolution of ≍15μm and an axial resolution of ≍12μm. An endoscopic single fiber probe was developed to fit in a human fallopian tube. This 1.2 mm probe produces 3D volume data of the entire inner tube within a few minutes. To demonstrate the clinical potential of OCT for lesion identification, we studied 5 different ovarian lesions and healthy fallopian tubes. We imaged 52 paraffin-embedded human surgical specimens with a benchtop system and compared these images with histology slides. We also imaged and compared healthy oviducts from 3 animal models to find one resembling the human anatomy and to develop a functional ex vivo imaging procedure with the endoscopic probe. We also present an update on an ongoing clinical pilot study on women undergoing prophylactic or diagnostic surgery in which we image ex vivo fallopian tubes with the endoscopic probe.

  20. Surgery and Chemotherapy With or Without Chemotherapy After Surgery in Treating Patients With Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, Uterine, or Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-18

    Recurrent Uterine Corpus Cancer; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVB Uterine Corpus Cancer

  1. Glutathione in Preventing Peripheral Neuropathy Caused by Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in Patients With Ovarian Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, and/or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-05

    Chemotherapeutic Agent Toxicity; Neuropathy; Neurotoxicity Syndrome; Pain; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  2. Olaparib or Cediranib Maleate and Olaparib Compared With Standard Platinum-Based Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Recurrent Platinum-Sensitive Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-13

    Deleterious BRCA1 Gene Mutation; Deleterious BRCA2 Gene Mutation; Endometrial Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Tumor; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Tumor; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  3. Carboplatin and Paclitaxel With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Stage III or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-18

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  4. Paclitaxel and Carboplatin With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-21

    Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinofibroma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  5. Paclitaxel, Polyglutamate Paclitaxel, or Observation in Treating Patients With Stage III or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Peritoneal Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-17

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  6. IGFBP-2 Vaccine and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-29

    Stage III Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  7. Epacadostat Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage III-IV Epithelial Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-31

    Stage III Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  8. Anti-Yo antibody associated with occult fallopian tube carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Selby, Kevin J; Warner, Jeremy; Klempner, Samuel; Konstantinopoulos, Panagiotis A; Hecht, Jonathan L

    2011-11-01

    This is the case report of a 61-year-old woman who presented with progressive diplopia and ataxia. Her cerebrospinal fluid revealed high titers of anti-Yo (PCA-1) antibody and a magnetic resonance imaging with contrast showed cerebellar degeneration. Extensive imaging workup was negative for malignancy and she was otherwise asymptomatic. Given the association between anti-Yo antibodies and gynecologic malignancies, she underwent a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and cancer staging. Extensive section of the fimbriated end of the fallopian tube revealed a stage 1, microscopic serous adenocarcinoma. After surgery, her anti-YO titers fell and plans were made for adjuvant chemotherapy. Her neurologic symptoms are not expected to substantially improve, illustrating the urgent need for early surgical investigation in cases of paraneoplastic syndrome, even in the absence of imaging evidence of a lesion.

  9. Diet and Physical Activity Change or Usual Care in Improving Progression-Free Survival in Patients With Previously Treated Stage II, III, or IV Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-09

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  10. Genomics of Ovarian Cancer Progression Reveals Diverse Metastatic Trajectories Including Intraepithelial Metastasis to the Fallopian Tube.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Mark A; Pan, Shawn; Hernandez, Kyle M; Loth, Rachel M; Andrade, Jorge; Volchenboum, Samuel L; Faber, Pieter; Montag, Anthony; Lastra, Ricardo; Peter, Marcus E; Yamada, S Diane; Lengyel, Ernst

    2016-12-01

    Accumulating evidence has supported the fallopian tube rather than the ovary as the origin for high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). To understand the relationship between putative precursor lesions and metastatic tumors, we performed whole-exome sequencing on specimens from eight HGSOC patient progression series consisting of serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STIC), invasive fallopian tube lesions, invasive ovarian lesions, and omental metastases. Integration of copy number and somatic mutations revealed patient-specific patterns with similar mutational signatures and copy-number variation profiles across all anatomic sites, suggesting that genomic instability is an early event in HGSOC. Phylogenetic analyses supported STIC as precursor lesions in half of our patient cohort, but also identified STIC as metastases in 2 patients. Ex vivo assays revealed that HGSOC spheroids can implant in the fallopian tube epithelium and mimic STIC lesions. That STIC may represent metastases calls into question the assumption that STIC are always indicative of primary fallopian tube cancers.

  11. Polyglutamate Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Ovarian Epithelial, Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-07

    Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  12. Primary Bilateral Fallopian Tube Carcinoma The Report of a Single Case with Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Hariprasad, Prajna; S., Hariprasad; Srinivas, Teerthanath; Shetty K., Jayrama

    2013-01-01

    Primary fallopian tube carcinoma is an extremely uncommon neoplasm of the female genital tract. Primary Fallopian Tube Carcinoma (PFTC) has a clinical and a histological resemblance to Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC). We are reporting a case of PFTC in a 55 year old tubectomized, postmenopausal woman with the non-specific complaints of a watery vaginal discharge and lower abdominal pain. The clinical and radiological findings suggested a bilateral tubo-ovarian abscess. On laprotomy, a bilateral fallopian tube tumour was seen, with a focal extension to the surface of the right ovary from the right fallopian tube. Total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral adnexectomy andomentectomy, along with excision of the draining lymph nodes, was done. The histopathological examination revealed a bilateral papillary serous carcinoma of the fallopian tube. The patient was treated with adjuvant chemotherapy with Paclitaxel. There was no evidence of any recurrence, after 2 years of regular follow up. The clinical signs and symptoms of fallopian tube neoplasms are usually non-specific. The primary treatment remains a surgical resection, followed by adjuvant chemotherapy or radiation. The prognosis is poor, although long-term survivors have been reported. PMID:23814748

  13. Von Hippel-Lindau gene expression on the human fallopian tube epithelium during the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan-Yan; Zhu, Wei-Jie; Xie, Bao-Guo

    2015-06-01

    The Von Hippel-Lindau gene (VHL) is a tumor suppressor gene, which is widely expressed in kidney, lung, breast, ovary, and cervix. VHL gene mutations can induce VHL disease and tumorigenesis. However, whether this gene is expressed in the human fallopian tube has not been evaluated. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether the VHL gene is expressed in human fallopian tube, and to investigate its expression changes during the menstrual cycle. Twenty‑seven patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy with adnexectomy for benign uterine disease were enrolled in the study. Human fallopian tubes were divided into proliferative stage (n=14) and secretory stage (n=13) according to the stage of the menstrual cycle they were isolated from. The expression of the VHL gene and protein was studied by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blotting and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The results revealed positive expression of the VHL protein in the cytoplasm of ciliated cells of the human fallopian tube. The mRNA and protein expression of VHL in the fallopian tubes was higher in the proliferative compared to the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle, but this difference was not significant (P>0.05). Overall, this study presents data on the VHL mRNA and protein expression in the human fallopian tube, which may be relevant to the process of differentiation of ciliated and secretory cells.

  14. Bevacizumab and Intravenous or Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Stage II-III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-21

    Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  15. Metformin Hydrochloride, Carboplatin, and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-24

    Ovarian Papillary Serous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

  16. In vivo laser-based imaging of the human fallopian tube for future cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibel, Eric J.; Melville, C. David; Johnston, Richard S.; Gong, Yuanzheng; Agnew, Kathy; Chiang, Seine; Swisher, Elizabeth M.

    2015-03-01

    Inherited mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 lead to 20-50% lifetime risk of ovarian, tubal, or peritoneal carcinoma. Clinical recommendations for women with these genetic mutations include the prophylactic removal of ovaries and fallopian tubes by age 40 after child-bearing. Recent findings suggest that many presumed ovarian or peritoneal carcinomas arise in fallopian tube epithelium. Although survival rate is <90% when ovarian cancer is detected early (Stage_I), 70% of women have advanced disease (Stage_III/IV) at presentation when survival is less than 30%. Over the years, effective early detection of ovarian cancer has remained elusive, possibly because screening techniques have mistakenly focused on the ovary as origin of ovarian carcinoma. Unlike ovaries, the fallopian tubes are amenable to direct visual imaging without invasive surgery, using access through the cervix. To develop future screening protocols, we investigated using our 1.2- mm diameter, forward-viewing, scanning fiber endoscope (SFE) to image luminal surfaces of the fallopian tube before laparoscopic surgical removal. Three anesthetized human subjects participated in our protocol development which eventually led to 70-80% of the length of fallopian tubes being imaged in scanning reflectance, using red (632nm), green (532nm), and blue (442nm) laser light. A hysteroscope with saline uterine distention was used to locate the tubal ostia. To facilitate passage of the SFE through the interstitial portion of the fallopian tube, an introducer catheter was inserted 1- cm through each ostia. During insertion, saline was flushed to reduce friction and provide clearer viewing. This is likely the first high-resolution intraluminal visualization of fallopian tubes.

  17. Spinal Metastases from a Primary Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Eskander, Jonathan P.; Kuris, Eren O.; Younghein, Andrew J.; Landsman, Samuel; Japko, Leonard; Eskander, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective This case exemplifies the importance of a high index of suspicion when dealing with intractable pain and neurologic symptoms in patients with a history of cancer. Fallopian tube cancer is relatively uncommon, accounting for less than 0.2% of all female malignancies. Because of a low index of suspicion, it is often detected at an advanced stage. From an orthopedic perspective, osseous metastasis from primary fallopian tube malignancies is rare with only a few documented cases in the medical literature. Methods This case report documents a 68-year-old woman who developed back pain and leg weakness after undergoing surgical resection with adjuvant therapy of a primary fallopian tube adenocarcinoma. Her hospital course and follow-up are documented. Results Imaging revealed a compression fracture in the L1 vertebral body that when a biopsy confirmed a soft tissue diagnosis of a high-grade serous papillary adenocarcinoma of fallopian tube origin. The patient underwent a surgical decompression, posterior stabilization, and tumor debulking with postoperative resolution of her symptoms. Conclusions This is the first reported case of a spine metastasis from a fallopian tube serous carcinoma in a living patient. This case documents the diagnosis of a pathologic vertebral fracture due to metastasis of an atypical cancer. PMID:26430604

  18. Vaccine Therapy and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Stage II-III Breast or Stage II-IV Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-10

    Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  19. Carboplatin and Gemcitabine Hydrochloride With or Without ATR Kinase Inhibitor VX-970 in Treating Patients With Recurrent and Metastatic Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-31

    High Grade Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Tumor; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  20. Sirolimus and Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage II-IV Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-28

    Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

  1. The Notch and Wnt pathways regulate stemness and differentiation in human fallopian tube organoids.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Mirjana; Hoffmann, Karen; Brinkmann, Volker; Thieck, Oliver; Jackisch, Susan; Toelle, Benjamin; Berger, Hilmar; Mollenkopf, Hans-Joachim; Mangler, Mandy; Sehouli, Jalid; Fotopoulou, Christina; Meyer, Thomas F

    2015-12-08

    The epithelial lining of the fallopian tube is of critical importance for human reproduction and has been implicated as a site of origin of high-grade serous ovarian cancer. Here we report on the establishment of long-term, stable 3D organoid cultures from human fallopian tubes, indicative of the presence of adult stem cells. We show that single epithelial stem cells in vitro can give rise to differentiated organoids containing ciliated and secretory cells. Continuous growth and differentiation of organoids depend on both Wnt and Notch paracrine signalling. Microarray analysis reveals that inhibition of Notch signalling causes downregulation of stem cell-associated genes in parallel with decreased proliferation and increased numbers of ciliated cells and that organoids also respond to oestradiol and progesterone treatment in a physiological manner. Thus, our organoid model provides a much-needed basis for future investigations of signalling routes involved in health and disease of the fallopian tube.

  2. The Notch and Wnt pathways regulate stemness and differentiation in human fallopian tube organoids

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Mirjana; Hoffmann, Karen; Brinkmann, Volker; Thieck, Oliver; Jackisch, Susan; Toelle, Benjamin; Berger, Hilmar; Mollenkopf, Hans-Joachim; Mangler, Mandy; Sehouli, Jalid; Fotopoulou, Christina; Meyer, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial lining of the fallopian tube is of critical importance for human reproduction and has been implicated as a site of origin of high-grade serous ovarian cancer. Here we report on the establishment of long-term, stable 3D organoid cultures from human fallopian tubes, indicative of the presence of adult stem cells. We show that single epithelial stem cells in vitro can give rise to differentiated organoids containing ciliated and secretory cells. Continuous growth and differentiation of organoids depend on both Wnt and Notch paracrine signalling. Microarray analysis reveals that inhibition of Notch signalling causes downregulation of stem cell-associated genes in parallel with decreased proliferation and increased numbers of ciliated cells and that organoids also respond to oestradiol and progesterone treatment in a physiological manner. Thus, our organoid model provides a much-needed basis for future investigations of signalling routes involved in health and disease of the fallopian tube. PMID:26643275

  3. Metformin Hydrochloride and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-28

    Brenner Tumor; Malignant Ascites; Malignant Pleural Effusion; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

  4. Triple Synchronous Malignancies in Genital Tract; Primary Endometrial, Ovarian and Fallopian Tube Carcinoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Alkilic, Aysegul; Turgay, Batuhan; Gemici, Ali; Atabekoglu, Cem Somer

    2017-01-01

    Synchronous malignancies, including three or more tumours, are extremely rare. Herein, we present a case of a woman with a concurrent simultaneous endometrial, ovarian and fallopian tubal carcinoma with different histopathological characteristics. A 55-year-old postmenopausal woman with a diagnosis of endometrial adenocarcinoma by pipelle biopsy, underwent surgical staging. Final pathology result was reported as synchronous stage IA grade 2 endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterus, stage IA grade 2 mucinous adenocarcinoma of the right ovary and in situ serous cystadenocarcinoma of the right fallopian tube. In the postoperative period, patient followed without adjuvant therapy. To our knowledge, this a very rare case report in the literature of sychronous triple gynaecologic cancers including fallopian tube cancer and with the longest disease free survival time with over 39 months due to better prognosis than metastatic or advanced primitive diseases. PMID:28274004

  5. Experimental nonsurgical female sterilization: transcervical implantation of microspindles in fallopian tubes.

    PubMed

    Schmitz-Rode, T; Ross, P L; Timmermans, H; Thurmond, A S; Günther, R W; Rösch, J

    1994-01-01

    A simple, nonsurgical female sterilization method involving fallopian tube catheterization under fluoroscopic guidance and implantation of microspindles was investigated in laboratory animals. A self-expanding microspindle made from tubular metal mesh was implanted in a single fallopian tube of 12 New Zealand Cross rabbits through catheterization of a single uterus. The contralateral fallopian tube and uterus served as controls. 8 rabbits completed three cycles of breeding and pregnancy; 2 rabbits had one pregnancy and 2 rabbits did not conceive (one presumably because of incorrect spindle placement). Successful contraception was achieved in 9 rabbits, who had 25 gestations on the nonspindle side and none on the spindle side. The rabbit with bilateral pregnancy (the recipient of the shortest spindle) represents one contraceptive failure in a total of 26 valid cycles. At autopsy, all spindles were firmly embedded in the tubal wall with no signs of inflammation. Complete obstruction of the interior space of the spindle was absent in all cases, indicating that complete occlusion of the tubal lumen was not the mechanism of action. A more likely explanation for the contraceptive effect observed in this study is the impairment of contractility of the spindle-carrying segment of the fallopian tube. These findings suggest that microspindles of a certain minimum length merit further investigation as a transcervically implantable, permanent intratubal contraceptive device.

  6. Intrauterine fallopian tube incarceration: an uncommon complication of termination of pregnancy by vacuum aspiration.

    PubMed

    Deffieux, Xavier; Kane, Aminata; Faivre, Erika; Gervaise, Amélie; Frydman, René; Fernandez, Hervé

    2008-11-01

    A 34-year-old woman presented with an intermittent abdominal pain 5 years after voluntary vacuum aspiration for interruption of a first-trimester pregnancy. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated complete septate uterus and a cystic mass that infiltrated the posterior myometrial wall of the right side of the uterus. Laparoscopy and hysteroscopy revealed an intra uterine fallopian tube incarceration.

  7. YAP Induces High-Grade Serous Carcinoma in Fallopian Tube Secretory Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Guohua; Lv, Xiangmin; He, Chunbo; Remmenga, Steven W.; Rodabough, Kerry J.; Dong, Jixin; Yang, Liguo; Lele, Subodh M.; Yang, Peixin; Zhou, Jin; Karst, Alison; Drapkin, Ronny I.; Davis, John S.; Wang, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) originates from Fallopian tube secretory epithelial cells (FTSECs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation and progression of HGSC derived from FTSECs remains unclear. In the present study, we found that the Hippo/YAP signaling pathway plays a critical role in the initiation and progression of Fallopian tube and ovarian HGSC. Importantly, YAP was overexpressed in inflammatory and cancerous Fallopian tube tissues. Further, overexpression of wild-type YAP, or constitutively active YAP in immortalized FTSECs, induced cell proliferation, migration, colony formation, and tumorigenesis. Moreover, the Hippo/YAP and the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling pathways formed an autocrine/paracrine positive feedback loop to drive the progression of the FTSECs-derived HGSC. Evidence in this study strongly suggests that combined therapy with inhibitors of YAP (such as verteporfin) and FGFRs (such as BGJ398) can provide a novel therapeutic strategy to treat Fallopian tube and ovarian HGSC. PMID:26364602

  8. Vaccine Therapy and IDO1 Inhibitor INCB024360 in Treating Patients With Epithelial Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer Who Are in Remission

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-12-17

    Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

  9. Paclitaxel and Carboplatin or Ifosfamide in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Persistent or Recurrent Uterine, Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-23

    Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Sarcoma; Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Uterine Sarcoma; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVB Uterine Sarcoma; Uterine Carcinosarcoma

  10. Activated T-cell Therapy, Low-Dose Aldesleukin, and Sargramostim in Treating Patients With Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer That is Stage III-IV, Refractory, or Recurrent

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-15

    Malignant Ovarian Clear Cell Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Serous Tumor; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  11. Efficacy of Salpingography and Transcervical Recanalization in Diagnosis, Categorization, and Treatment of Fallopian Tube Obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, Erich K.; Dunaway, Herbert E.

    2000-11-15

    Purpose: The efficacy of selective salpingography (SS) and transcervical recanalization (TCR) in diagnosis, categorization, and determination of optimal treatment modality for fallopian tube obstruction was investigated.Methods: SS and, in some patients, TCR was performed in 430 patients with a diagnosis of obstruction of one or both fallopian tubes, as determined by hysterosalpingograms (HSG). All patients (age 21-46 years) had an infertility problem for at least 18 months.Results: In 196 patients, 325 tubes were patent on SS. TCR recanalized 243 tubes in 176 patients. Disease of the distal tube was demonstrated in 66 patients. There were 39 live babies in a group of 176 patients with successful TCR. Best live birth rate was in 7 of 12 (58%) patients with underlying endometriosis, followed by postsurgical strictures in inflammatory disease, 6 of 31 (19%), and salpingitis isthmica nodosa in 25 of 168 (15%). There were no pregnancies in patients with cobblestone pattern of the distal tubes.Conclusions: SS and TCR were capable of correcting obstruction of the proximal tubes in 243 of 465 tubes in 176 of 234 patients (75%). With patency of the proximal tube restored, the distal tube could be assessed for changes indicative of damage to the ciliated epithelium which was likely to reduce the ability to become pregnant. This allowed for the triage of patients into groups benefiting from the relatively inexpensive and low complication TCR or patients in need of in vitro fertilization or similar assisted reproductive technologies.

  12. Denileukin Diftitox Used in Treating Patients With Advanced Refractory Ovarian Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma, or Epithelial Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-02

    Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  13. A6 in Treating Patients With Persistent or Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-02-27

    Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  14. Changes in Brain Function in Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer Who Are Receiving Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-26

    Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Malignant Ovarian Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Dysgerminoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Polyembryoma; Ovarian Sarcoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Teratoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  15. Inguinal Hernia Containing Uterus, Fallopian Tube, and Ovary in a Premature Newborn

    PubMed Central

    Karadeniz Cerit, Kıvılcım; Ergelen, Rabia; Colak, Emel; Dagli, Tolga E.

    2015-01-01

    A female infant weighing 2,200 g was delivered at 34 weeks of gestation by vaginal delivery. She presented with an irreducible mass in the left inguinal region at 32 days of age. An ultrasonography (US) was performed and an incarcerated hernia containing uterus, fallopian tube, and ovary was diagnosed preoperatively. Surgery was performed through an inguinal approach; the uterus, fallopian tube, and ovary were found in the hernia sac. High ligation and an additional repair of the internal inguinal ring were performed. Patent processus vaginalis was found during contralateral exploration and also closed. The postoperative course was uneventful. After one year of follow-up, there have been no signs of recurrence. PMID:26351609

  16. Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma, chronic fallopian tube injury, and serous carcinoma development.

    PubMed

    Malmberg, Karin; Klynning, Charlotta; Flöter-Rådestad, Angelique; Carlson, Joseph W

    2016-06-01

    Ovarian carcinoma is the deadliest gynecological malignancy. Previous studies have suggested that the fallopian tube may be the primary site for high-grade serous carcinoma. In prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomies from women with hereditary high risk for ovarian cancer, precursors can be assessed prior to onset and studied as a model for serous cancer precursor lesions. Epidemiologic studies indicate that carcinogenesis may be a result of chronic fallopian tube injury. The aims of this study were to (1) to examine the incidence of serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) in relation to other clinical parameters and (2) to evaluate whether chronic fallopian tube injury was related to cancer development. This study enrolled 101 women, comprising the following three groups: hereditary (n = 60), sporadic serous cancer (n = 18; endometrial cancers were excluded), and control (n = 23). The cases were histologically examined and clinical risk factors were collected. The histological changes were compared between different patients and correlated to clinical risk factors. STICs were identified primarily on the fallopian tube fimbria. The incidence of STIC was 3 % in the hereditary patients. In sporadic serous cancer cases, 61 % were associated with STIC and tubal carcinoma (p < 0.001). No differences in tubal injury or inflammation were seen when comparing the sporadic serous cancer group and the control group or within the hereditary group. STIC and invasive cancer were seen more often in the older patients than in the younger patients (p = 0.528). This small study, no correlation with chronic tubal injury or inflammation was identified.

  17. Multispectral fluorescence imaging of human ovarian and Fallopian tube tissue for early stage cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Tyler; Baggett, Brenda; Rice, Photini; Watson, Jennifer; Orsinger, Gabe; Nymeyer, Ariel C.; Welge, Weston A.; Keenan, Molly; Saboda, Kathylynn; Roe, Denise J.; Hatch, Kenneth; Chambers, Setsuko; Black, John; Utzinger, Urs; Barton, Jennifer

    2015-03-01

    With early detection, five year survival rates for ovarian cancer are over 90%, yet no effective early screening method exists. Emerging consensus suggests that perhaps over 50% of the most lethal form of the disease, high grade serous ovarian cancer, originates in the Fallopian tube. Cancer changes molecular concentrations of various endogenous fluorophores. Using specific excitation wavelengths and emissions bands on a Multispectral Fluorescence Imaging (MFI) system, spatial and spectral data over a wide field of view can be collected from endogenous fluorophores. Wavelength specific reflectance images provide additional information to normalize for tissue geometry and blood absorption. Ratiometric combination of the images may create high contrast between neighboring normal and abnormal tissue. Twenty-six women undergoing oophorectomy or debulking surgery consented the use of surgical discard tissue samples for MFI imaging. Forty-nine pieces of ovarian tissue and thirty-two pieces of Fallopian tube tissue were collected and imaged with excitation wavelengths between 280 nm and 550 nm. After imaging, each tissue sample was fixed, sectioned and HE stained for pathological evaluation. Comparison of mean intensity values between normal, benign, and cancerous tissue demonstrate a general trend of increased fluorescence of benign tissue and decreased fluorescence of cancerous tissue when compared to normal tissue. The predictive capabilities of the mean intensity measurements are tested using multinomial logistic regression and quadratic discriminant analysis. Adaption of the system for in vivo Fallopian tube and ovary endoscopic imaging is possible and is briefly described.

  18. Fiber optic laser light scattering measurement of ciliary function of the fallopian tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halbert, Sheridan A.; Lim, Kap; Lee, Wylie I.

    1990-07-01

    A fiber-optic laser light-scattering system (FLS) for measuring ciliary function was evaluated by means of three sets of in vitro experiments. First, FLS performance was compared to that of a previously proven benchtop laser system (BLS). Using tissue excised from rabbit fallopian tubes, ciliary beat frequency (CBF) of each sample was measured with FLS and BLS. Paired CBF measurements showed excellent correlation between the two systems (r =0.93). Second, the FLS was used to evaluate the dependency of CBF on temperature (T) by using tissue sampies of rabbit oviductal fimbna. Regression analysis of CBF vs T showed a linear relationship over the range of 18-37°C for both individual samples (r =0.98) and pooled data from all experiments (r = 0.84). Fmally, the relalionship between CBF and ciliary ovum transport rate (TR) was tested by using T to modulate CBF of rabbit fimbria, in vitro. The relationship was linear over the range of CBF from 10 to 30 Hz (r2 = 0.83). At 37°C, CBF = 31+/-1 Hz, and TR = O.12+/-.02 mm/sec. equal to ovum transport rate in situ. The FLS is a valuable tool for characterizing ciliary activity and thus ovum transport function. Owing to the fact that ciliary dyskinesia resulting from disease of the fallopian tube is associated with infeitility, the FLS may be useful to acquire data important to the clinical evaluation of fallopian tube function and female infertility.

  19. Epigenetic reprogramming of fallopian tube fimbriae in BRCA mutation carriers defines early ovarian cancer evolution

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Thomas E.; Chindera, Kantaraja; McDermott, Jacqueline; Breeze, Charles E.; Cooke, William R.; Jones, Allison; Reisel, Daniel; Karegodar, Smita T.; Arora, Rupali; Beck, Stephan; Menon, Usha; Dubeau, Louis; Widschwendter, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The exact timing and contribution of epigenetic reprogramming to carcinogenesis are unclear. Women harbouring BRCA1/2 mutations demonstrate a 30–40-fold increased risk of high-grade serous extra-uterine Müllerian cancers (HGSEMC), otherwise referred to as ‘ovarian carcinomas', which frequently develop from fimbrial cells but not from the proximal portion of the fallopian tube. Here we compare the DNA methylome of the fimbrial and proximal ends of the fallopian tube in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and non-carriers. We show that the number of CpGs displaying significant differences in methylation levels between fimbrial and proximal fallopian tube segments are threefold higher in BRCA mutation carriers than in controls, correlating with overexpression of activation-induced deaminase in their fimbrial epithelium. The differentially methylated CpGs accurately discriminate HGSEMCs from non-serous subtypes. Epigenetic reprogramming is an early pre-malignant event integral to BRCA1/2 mutation-driven carcinogenesis. Our findings may provide a basis for cancer-preventative strategies. PMID:27216078

  20. Multispectral fluorescence imaging of human ovarian and fallopian tube tissue for early-stage cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Tyler H.; Baggett, Brenda; Rice, Photini F. S.; Koevary, Jennifer Watson; Orsinger, Gabriel V.; Nymeyer, Ariel C.; Welge, Weston A.; Saboda, Kathylynn; Roe, Denise J.; Hatch, Kenneth D.; Chambers, Setsuko K.; Utzinger, Urs; Barton, Jennifer Kehlet

    2016-05-01

    With early detection, 5-year survival rates for ovarian cancer exceed 90%, yet no effective early screening method exists. Emerging consensus suggests over 50% of the most lethal form of the disease originates in the fallopian tube. Twenty-eight women undergoing oophorectomy or debulking surgery provided informed consent for the use of surgical discard tissue samples for multispectral fluorescence imaging. Using multiple ultraviolet and visible excitation wavelengths and emissions bands, 12 fluorescence and 6 reflectance images of 47 ovarian and 31 fallopian tube tissue samples were recorded. After imaging, each sample was fixed, sectioned, and stained for pathological evaluation. Univariate logistic regression showed cancerous tissue samples had significantly lower intensity than noncancerous tissue for 17 image types. The predictive power of multiple image types was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression (MLR) and quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA). Two MLR models each using two image types had receiver operating characteristic curves with area under the curve exceeding 0.9. QDA determined 56 image type combinations with perfect resubstituting using as few as five image types. Adaption of the system for future in vivo fallopian tube and ovary endoscopic imaging is possible, which may enable sensitive detection of ovarian cancer with no exogenous contrast agents.

  1. Ovarian Mouse Models with Targeted Fallopian Tubal Carcinogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    target genetic deletions to the oviductal epithelium. We are currently performing selective genetic deletion of ovarian cancer genes, such as TP53 ...fallopian epithelium, oviductal epithelium, BRCA1, Rb, TP53 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES

  2. Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, Carboplatin, Veliparib, and Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-31

    Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  3. Redox regulation of sperm surface thiols modulates adhesion to the fallopian tube epithelium.

    PubMed

    Talevi, Riccardo; Zagami, Maria; Castaldo, Marianna; Gualtieri, Roberto

    2007-04-01

    Sperm that adhere to the fallopian tube epithelium are of superior quality and adhesion extends their fertile life. It has been postulated that periovulatory signals, as yet undefined, promote sperm release. In the in vitro studies described here, we examined the effects of several antioxidants, reportedly present within oviductal fluid, on the modulation of sperm-oviduct adhesion in bovine species. Results showed that 1) the cell-permeant thiols (penicillamine, beta mercaptoethanol, cysteine, and dithiotreitol), as well as the nonpermeant thiol, reduced glutathione, cause adhering spermatozoa to release from the epithelium; 2) thiol action is exerted on spermatozoa; and 3) oxidized glutathione, as well as the non-thiol antioxidants (dimethylthiourea, trolox, superoxide dismutase, and catalase) have no effect. Sperm surface sulfhydryls labeled with iodoacetamide fluorescein showed that spermatozoa devoid of sulfhydryls on the head surface adhered to the fallopian epithelium in vitro, whereas thiol-induced release increased the exposure of sulfhydryls on the sperm head surface. Finally, analysis of capacitation status demonstrated that uncapacitated spermatozoa adhered to the oviduct, and that thiol-induced release of spermatozoa was accompanied by capacitation. In conclusion, thiol-reducing agents in the oviductal fluid may modulate the redox status of sperm surface proteins, leading to the release of spermatozoa selected and stored through adhesion to the fallopian tube epithelium in the bovine species.

  4. Salpingitis Isthmica Nodosa: Technical Success and Outcome of Fluoroscopic Transcervical Fallopian Tube Recanalization

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, J. Graeme; Machan, Lindsay S.

    1998-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the technical success and outcome of fallopian tube recanalization (FTR) in salpingitis isthmica nodosa (SIN). Methods: SIN is a well-recognized pathological condition affecting the proximal fallopian tube and is associated with infertility and ectopic pregnancy. We reviewed the presentations, films, and case records of all patients attending for FTR for infertility from 1990 to 1994. Technical success and total, intrauterine, and ectopic pregnancy rates at follow-up were determined. Results: SIN was observed in 22 of 349 (6%) patients. FTR was attempted in 34 tubes in these 22 patients. Technical success was achieved in 23 of 34 (68%) tubes affected by SIN. In 5 of the 11 failed recanalizations, failure was due to distal obstruction. At least one tube was patent on selective postprocedural salpingography in 17 of 22 (77%) patients. There were no recorded perforations or complications. At follow-up (mean 14 months), total, intrauterine, and ectopic pregnancy rates were 23%, 18%, and 4.5%, respectively. Conclusion: FTR in SIN is technically successful and, compared with previously reported results in unselected infertility patients, is associated with only a slightly less favorable intrauterine pregnancy rate and a comparable ectopic pregnancy rate. The findings of SIN at FTR should not discourage attempted fluoroscopic transcervical recanalization.

  5. The fallopian tube as the origin of high grade serous ovarian cancer: review of a paradigm shift.

    PubMed

    Reade, Clare J; McVey, Ruaidhrí M; Tone, Alicia A; Finlayson, Sarah J; McAlpine, Jessica N; Fung-Kee-Fung, Michael; Ferguson, Sarah E

    2014-02-01

    Research published over the past 10 years has suggested that most "ovarian cancer," and specifically the high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) subtype of ovarian cancer, actually originates in the fallopian tube. In this review, we examine the evidence supporting the tubal origin hypothesis for HGSC, and discuss the clinical implications of our improved understanding of the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer. We searched Medline R and Medline in-process and non-indexed citations from inception to December 15, 2012, to identify all English or French language articles discussing the origins of HGSC. Articles and findings were summarized descriptively. A step-wise transformation from normal epithelium to a lesion with the ability to invade and metastasize has been demonstrated within the fallopian tube. Intraepithelial or early invasive carcinoma of the fallopian tube is frequently identified in BRCA mutation carriers who undergo prophylactic risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy. In both BRCA mutation carriers and women from the general population, pre-invasive changes within the fimbriated end of the fallopian tube appear in association with early HGSC. Molecular and genetic studies, as well as in vitro and animal models, have also supported a tubal origin for HGSC. Whether the removal of fallopian tubes (salpingectomy) at the time of pelvic surgery for other reasons will lead to reductions in mortality from ovarian cancer is currently unknown, but it is an important area for future clinical research.

  6. Mutant p53 expression in fallopian tube epithelium drives cell migration.

    PubMed

    Quartuccio, Suzanne M; Karthikeyan, Subbulakshmi; Eddie, Sharon L; Lantvit, Daniel D; Ó hAinmhire, Eoghainín; Modi, Dimple A; Wei, Jian-Jun; Burdette, Joanna E

    2015-10-01

    Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer death among US women. Evidence supports the hypothesis that high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSC) may originate in the distal end of the fallopian tube. Although a heterogeneous disease, 96% of HGSC contain mutations in p53. In addition, the "p53 signature," or overexpression of p53 protein (usually associated with mutation), is a potential precursor lesion of fallopian tube derived HGSC suggesting an essential role for p53 mutation in early serous tumorigenesis. To further clarify p53-mutation dependent effects on cells, murine oviductal epithelial cells (MOE) were stably transfected with a construct encoding for the R273H DNA binding domain mutation in p53, the most common mutation in HGSC. Mutation in p53 was not sufficient to transform MOE cells but did significantly increase cell migration. A similar p53 mutation in murine ovarian surface epithelium (MOSE), another potential progenitor cell for serous cancer, was not sufficient to transform the cells nor change migration suggesting tissue specific effects of p53 mutation. Microarray data confirmed expression changes of pro-migratory genes in p53(R273H) MOE compared to parental cells, which could be reversed by suppressing Slug expression. Combining p53(R273H) with KRAS(G12V) activation caused transformation of MOE into high-grade sarcomatoid carcinoma when xenografted into nude mice. Elucidating the specific role of p53(R273H) in the fallopian tube will improve understanding of changes at the earliest stage of transformation. This information can help develop chemopreventative strategies to prevent the accumulation of additional mutations and reverse progression of the "p53 signature" thereby, improving survival rates.

  7. Evaluation of immunological interaction between spermatozoa and fallopian tube epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zandieh, Z; Ashrafi, M; Jameie, B; Amanpour, S; Mosaffa, N; Salman Yazdi, R; Pacey, A; Aflatoonian, R

    2015-12-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are one of the major compartments of innate immune system. It was revealed that the TLR have relevance in ovulation, sperm capacitation and fertilisation. So, in this study, the expression of TLR, their adaptor molecules and cytokines in human fallopian tube cell line under the effect of human normal spermatozoa was evaluated. TLR mRNA and protein were evaluated in OE-E6/E7 cell line. Semen samples from 10 donors were collected and co-incubated with OE-E6/E7 cell line and used as sperm group, and cell line without spermatozoa was used as control group. Afterwards, the level of TLR, their adaptor molecule and cytokine mRNA expression was compared using qPCR in sperm and control groups, and supernatant was used for ELISA. To determine whether elevated cytokine reaction to spermatozoa in OE-E6/E7 cell line is mediated via TLR, TLR3 function-blocking antibody was used. OE-E6/E7 cell line expressed TLR1-6 genes and proteins. TLR expressions, especially TLR3 and TLR5, in OE-E6/E7 cell line under the effect of spermatozoa were significantly higher. Also, levels of adaptor molecules and cytokine production were increased in sperm group than in control group (P < 0.05). So, it may be hypothesised that TLR are essential for spermatozoa and fallopian tube immunological interaction and for preparing safe environment for important events in fallopian tube.

  8. Fallopian tube secretory cell expansion: a sensitive biomarker for ovarian serous carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiying; Li, Li; Wang, Yue; Tang, Sarah Ngocvi; Zheng, Wenxin

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances suggest that precancerous lesions of pelvic serous carcinoma originate from tubal secretory cells. The purpose of our study was to determine if an increased number of secretory cells varies with age or location in the fallopian tube and to examine its association with serous neoplasia. Three groups (benign control, high-risk, and pelvic serous carcinoma) of age-matched patients were studied. The age data were stratified into 10-year intervals ranging from 20-29 to older than 80. The number of secretory and ciliated cells from both tubal fimbria and ampulla segments was counted by microscopy and immunohistochemical staining methods. The data were analyzed by standard contingency table and Poisson distribution methods after age justification. We found that the absolute number of tubal secretory cells increased significantly with age in all three groups. But a more dramatic increase of secretory cells was observed in high-risk and pelvic serous carcinoma patients. Secretory cell expansion is more prevalent than secretory cell outgrowth in both fimbria and ampulla tubal segments and is significantly associated with serous neoplasia (P < 0.001). Furthermore, age remained a significant risk factor for serous neoplasia after age adjustment. These findings suggest that secretory cell expansion could serve as a potential sensitive biomarker for early serous carcinogenesis within the fallopian tube. The study also supports a relationship between serous neoplasia and increased secretory to ciliated cell ratios, and the relationship between frequency of secretory cell expansion within the fallopian tube and increasing age and-more significantly-presence of high-risk factors or co-existing serous cancers.

  9. Fallopian tube secretory cell expansion: a sensitive biomarker for ovarian serous carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiying; Li, Li; Wang, Yue; Tang, Sarah Ngocvi; Zheng, Wenxin

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances suggest that precancerous lesions of pelvic serous carcinoma originate from tubal secretory cells. The purpose of our study was to determine if an increased number of secretory cells vary with age or location in the fallopian tube and to examine its association with serous neoplasia. Three groups (benign control, high-risk, and pelvic serous carcinoma) of age-matched patients were studied. The age data were stratified into 10-year intervals ranging from 20-29 to older than 80. The number of secretory and ciliated cells from both tubal fimbria and ampulla segments was counted by microscopy and immunohistochemical staining methods. The data were analyzed by standard contingency table and Poisson distribution methods after age justification. We found that the absolute number of tubal secretory cells increased significantly with age in all three groups. But a more dramatic increase of secretory cells was observed in high-risk and pelvic serous carcinoma patients. Secretory cell expansion is more prevalent than secretory cell outgrowth in both fimbria and ampulla tubal segments and is significantly associated with serous neoplasia (p < 0.001). Furthermore, age remained a significant risk factor for serous neoplasia after age adjustment. These findings suggest that secretory cell expansion could serve as a potential sensitive biomarker for early serous carcinogenesis within the fallopian tube. The study also supports a relationship between serous neoplasia and increased secretory to ciliated cell ratios, and the relationship between frequency of secretory cell expansion within the fallopian tube and increasing age and-more significantly-presence of high-risk factors or co-existing serous cancers.

  10. Effects of magnetized water on ovary, pre-implantation stage endometrial and fallopian tube epithelial cells in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hafizi, Leili; Gholizadeh, Mostafa; Karimi, Mohammad; Hosseini, Golkoo; Mostafavi-Toroghi, Hesam; Haddadi, Mehdi; Rezaiean, Amin; Ebrahimi, Mahmoud; Emami Meibodi, Neda

    2014-01-01

    Background: Magnetized water has made many improvements in industry, agriculture and medicine. However its utilization in medicine still remains controversial. Objective: In this study we aimed to investigate the effects of magnetized water on height of epithelial cells in pre-implantation stage endometrium and fallopian tube and number of corpus lutea in female mice. Materials and Methods: Eighty female NRMI mice were recruited to this experimental study and randomly divided into two groups: the control group which drank normal water and the experimental (case) group which drank magnetized water for 2 weeks. Super-ovulation was induced in these mice and then they were mated with male mice as well. Samples of ovary, uterus and fallopian tube were obtained at the pre-implantation stage. Then, after preparation, the number of corpus lutea in each ovary was counted and the height of fallopian and endometrial epithelial cells was measured by light microscopy. Results: Data analysis showed a significant increase in the mean number of corpus lutea and the height of epithelial cells in fallopian tube comparing the case with the control group (p=0.01, p=0.002 respectively) whereas uterus epithelial cells of the case group showed insignificant increase in height, in compare with the control group (p=0.052). Conclusion: Our results suggest that magnetized water intake increases the number of corpus lutea and the height of fallopian tube epithelial cells. Further research is needed to determine whether this will increase in the success rate of fertility. PMID:24976818

  11. Talazoparib and HSP90 Inhibitor AT13387 in Treating Patients With Metastatic Advanced Solid Tumor or Recurrent Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, Primary Peritoneal, or Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-22

    Adult Solid Neoplasm; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Fallopian Tube Serous Neoplasm; HER2/Neu Negative; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Tumor; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  12. Fallopian Tube Sperm Perfusion in Treatment of Nontubal Subfertility: Is It Crucial Step prior to ART?

    PubMed

    Shams Eldeen Hassan, Maher

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of double Fallopian tube sperm perfusion in comparison with single-sperm perfusion in patients with nontubal subfertility undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation. Study Design. Sixty-six patients undergoing standard ovarian stimulation regimen were randomized to receive either single-sperm perfusion group 1 (n = 33) or double-sperm perfusion group 2 (n = 33). The same insemination method was performed in subsequent cycles if the patient does not become pregnant in the first one. A maximum of three cycles was performed. Fallopian tube sperm perfusion was carried out with pediatric Foleys catheter, which prevents reflux of sperm suspension. Semen was prepared by a classical swim-up technique. Results. A total of 133 cycles performed 68 single FSP cycles and 65 FSP cycles. There were group, 19 clinical pregnancies (29.2% per cycle) of which 16 ongoing pregnancies (24.6% per cycle) were obtained. These differences were statistically significant. The prevalence of multiple pregnancies, abortions, and ectopic pregnancies was similar in both groups. Conclusion. The results of this study indicate that there is a significant improvement of pregnancy rates in patients with nontubal subfertility when treated with double-sperm perfusion after controlled ovarian stimulation in comparison with single-sperm perfusion. Double-sperm perfusion is simple, easy to perform, inexpensive, and convenient for the patients with nontubal subfertility before adoption of other methods of assisted reproduction.

  13. Carcinosarcoma of the fallopian tube with disappearance of carcinoma cells by neoadjuvant chemotherapy: case study.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Y; Ota, T; Aoki, Y; Ogura, K; Ogishima, D; Matsumoto, T

    2015-01-01

    The authors report a case of carcinosarcoma (CS) of the fimbria of the fallopian tube in which carcinoma cells disappeared with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). A 74-year-old woman visited the present hospital with a large pelvic mass and pleural effusion. A magnetic resonance image of the tumor was highly suggestive of ovarian carcinoma. Due to the presence of both serous.adenocarcinoma cells in pleural effusion and pulmonary thrombosis, the patient was given NAC consisting of carboplatin plus paclitaxel (TC) and anticoagulant therapy with warfarin potassium. With six courses of NAC, the pleural effusion and pulmonary thrombosis disappeared, and the tumor decreased 36.2% in greatest diameter. Maximum debulking surgery was then performed. The tumor was found to be located in the fimbria of the right fallopian tube. Hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed, and histologic examination revealed chondrosarcoma with the presence of necrotic epithelial cells. The necrotic areas were interspersed with papillary structures, and immunohistochemical study showed positivity for CK7 and negativity for CK20, p53, and estrogen receptor (ER), indicating serous adenocarcinoma. Thus, heterologous CS with disappearance of viable carcinoma cells by NAC was diagnosed. The patient was given adjuvant chemotherapy consisting of three courses of TC, and there has been no evidence of disease for 20 months. The authors' experience in this case of gynecologic CS indicates that a serous adenocarcinomatous component of tubal CS can be well cured by TC-based NAC.

  14. Fallopian tubes – literature review of anatomy and etiology in female infertility

    PubMed Central

    Briceag, I; Costache, A; Purcarea, VL; Cergan, R; Dumitru, M; Briceag, I; Sajin, M; Ispas, AT

    2015-01-01

    Rationale. Around 30% of the infertile women worldwide have associated Fallopian tubes pathology. Unfortunately, for a long time, this aspect of infertility has been neglected due to the possibility of bypassing this deadlock through IVF. Objective. Up to date free full text literature was reviewed, meaning 4 major textbooks and around 100 articles centered on tubal infertility, in order to raise the awareness on this subject. Methods and results. The anatomy of the Fallopian tube is complex starting from its embryological development and continuing with its vascular supply and ciliated microstructure, that is the key to the process of egg transport to the site of fertilization. There are many strongly documented causes of tubal infertility: infections (Chlamydia Trachomatis, Gonorrhea, and genital tuberculosis), intrauterine contraceptive devices, endometriosis, and complications after abdominal surgery, etc. Discussions. Although there are still many controversies about the etiology of tubal sterility with the advent of molecular diagnosis of infections there has been cleared the pathway of infection through endometriosis or through ciliary immobility towards the tubal obstruction. PMID:25866566

  15. Ovarian Cancer: The Fallopian Tube as the Site of Origin and Opportunities for Prevention

    PubMed Central

    George, Sophia H. L.; Garcia, Ruslan; Slomovitz, Brian M.

    2016-01-01

    High-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is the most common and aggressive histotype of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), and it is the predominant histotype associated with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC). Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are responsible for most of the known causes of HBOC, while mutations in mismatch repair genes and several genes of moderate penetrance are responsible for the remaining known hereditary risk. Women with a history of familial ovarian cancer or with known germline mutations in highly penetrant genes are offered the option of risk-reducing surgery that involves the removal of the ovaries and fallopian tubes (salpingo-oophorectomy). Growing evidence now supports the fallopian tube epithelia as an etiological site for the development of HGSC and consequently, salpingectomy alone is emerging as a prophylactic option. This review discusses the site of origin of EOC, the rationale for risk-reducing salpingectomy in the high-risk population, and opportunities for salpingectomy in the low-risk population. PMID:27200296

  16. Primary Carcinoma of the Fallopian Tube: A Review of a Single Institution Experience of 8 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Nanaiah, Shakuntala P.; Rathod, Praveen S.; Rajkumar, Namrata N.; Kundargi, Rajshekar; Subbian, Anbukkani; Ramachandra, Pallavi V.; Krishnappa, Shobha; Narayan, Abhilasha; Devi, Uma K.; Uttamchand, Bafna D.

    2014-01-01

    Aims and Objectives. To evaluate the clinicopathologic features, response to cytoreductive surgery and adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy with or without paclitaxel. Materials and Methods. A retrospective observational study of 8 women with a histopathologic diagnosis of primary fallopian tube carcinoma (PFTC) from January 2000 to February 2013. Results. 4/8 (50%) of the women were in the early stage and an intraoperative frozen section was 100% effective in identifying fallopian tube carcinoma and then a staging laparotomy was performed. All 4/8 cases in the early stage had received and responded to single agent carboplatin and all are alive without clinical, radiological, or biochemical evidence of recurrence at the end of 2 years and the longest survivor has completed 13 years. Primary optimal cytoreductive surgery was achievable in 3/4 (75%) in advanced disease. All showed response to adjuvant paclitaxel and carboplatin (T+C), but all had succumbed to the disease following recurrence with mean progression-free survival of 19 months (range 15–21 months) and mean overall survival of 27 months (range 22–36 months). Conclusion. The pivotal role played by a frozen section in diagnosing PFTC which is rare needs to be reemphasized, therefore justifying a primary staging laparotomy in an early stage. Prolonged survival observed in this group following an optimum tailored adjuvant single agent carboplatin is worth noting. PMID:24696653

  17. Design of an everting balloon to deploy a microendoscope to the fallopian tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keenan, Molly; Howard, Caitlin; Tate, Tyler; McGuiness, Ian; Sauer-Budge, Alexis; Black, John; Utzinger, Urs; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2016-02-01

    The 5-year survival rate for ovarian cancer is only 45% largely due to lack of effective screening methods. Current methods include palpation, transvaginal ultrasound, and the CA-125 blood test. Finding disease reliably and at an early stage increase survival to 92%. We have designed and built a 0.7 mm endoscope for the early detection of ovarian cancer. Inserted transvaginally through the working channel of a hysteroscope, the falloposcope creates a minimally invasive procedure for the screening of high risk women. To improve the ease-of-use and safety of falloposcope deployment, we are working to create an everting balloon. Currently, the falloposcope would require a skilled user to operate due to the challenging anatomy of the fallopian tubes - a small opening from the uterus (< 1 mm), tortuous path, and delicate lumenal features. A balloon delivery system would gently open the fallopian tube and guide the falloposcope down the center of lumen. We show balloon design and discuss integration with the falloposcope prototype. We test possible mechanical damage to the tissue due to scraping, puncture, or overstretching. Successful introduction of the everting balloon to simplify falloposcope delivery could expand screening beyond specialized centers to smaller clinical locations.

  18. In vitro assessment of some sperm function following exposure to levonorgestrel in human fallopian tubes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The mechanism of action of levonorgestrel (LNG) as emergency contraception (EC) remains a subject of debate and its effect on sperm function has been only partially explained. The aim of this study was to assess whether LNG at a similar dose to those found in serum following oral intake for EC could affect spermatozoa when exposed to human fallopian tubes in vitro. Methods Fifteen mini-laparotomies were performed, the side on which ovulation occurred was recorded, and both tubes were removed and perfused with a suspension containing 1 × 10(6) motile spermatozoa, with or without LNG. Following 4-hour incubation, the tubes were sectioned to separate the isthmus and the ampulla. Each segment was flushed and the material was evaluated to quantify the number of motile sperm, the number of spermatozoa adhering to the oviductal epithelium and the acrosome reaction (AR) rate. Results The addition of LNG did not significantly alter the number of recovered motile spermatozoa either at the isthmus or at the ampulla, nor did it have any effect on the number of recovered spermatozoa adhered to the human tubal epithelium. Furthermore, LNG did not affect the AR rate. No significant differences were found even when the side on which ovulation occurred was taken into account. Conclusions In a similar dose to that observed in serum following oral intake for EC, LNG had no effect on the number of motile spermatozoa recovered from the human fallopian tubes in vitro, on their adhesion to the tubal epithelium, distribution or AR rate. The possible effect of LNG as EC on sperm function remains poorly understood. PMID:22289514

  19. Removal of Ovaries and Fallopian Tubes Cuts Cancer Risk for BRCA1/2 Carriers | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Surgery that removes the ovaries and fallopian tubes, called salpingo-oophorectomy, is one of the most effective ways to decrease a woman's risk of breast and gynecologic cancer if she carries aBRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation. However, the true degree of risk reduction has not been precisely defined. |

  20. Efficacy of Yavakshara Taila Uttarabasti in the management of fallopian tube blockage

    PubMed Central

    Baria, Hetal P.; Donga, Shilpa B.; Dei, Laxmipriya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Tubal blockage is one of the most common causative factors for female barrenness. It accounts for about 25-35% of female infertility. It is very difficult to manage, as the treatment choices for it are only tubal re-constructive surgery and in vitro fertilization (IVF). On the other hand, there is not established any reliable Ayurvedic treatment for the tubal blockage. It is the need of the time to establish an efficient and cost-effective therapy for this problem. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of Yavakshara Taila Uttarabasti in fallopian tubal blockage. Materials and Methods: Patients of childbearing age with active marital life of 1 year or more, having complaint of failure to conceive with at least one fallopian tube blockage were selected. Total 19 patients were registered with 42.11% unilateral and 57.89% bilateral tubal blockage. Yavakshara Taila (5 ml) Intrauterine Uttarabasti was given for 6 days (with interval of 3 days in between), after completion of menstrual cycle for two consecutive cycles. Results: The tubal patency was found in 68.75% of patients and conception was achieved in 6.25% of patients. Conclusion: Yavakshara Taila Uttarabasti an effective procedure for treating tubal blockage with no apparent evidence of complication. PMID:26730135

  1. Fluoroscopically Guided Transcervical Fallopian Tube Recanalization of Post-Sterilization Reversal Mid-Tubal Obstructions

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, J. Graeme; Anderson, David; Mills, John; Harrold, Anthony

    2000-03-15

    Purpose: To assess the technical success and early outcome of fluoroscopically guided transcervical fallopian tube recanalization (FTR) in mid-tubal occlusion following sterilization reversal surgery.Methods: From July 1995 to January 1998, patients with greater than 12 months secondary infertility underwent hysterosalpingography (HSG). FTR was performed in proximal or mid-tubal occlusion. Cases of FTR in mid-tubal occlusion were included in this study. Technical success (defined as complete tubal patency) using a standard guidewire and hydrophilic glidewire, the number of patients with at least one patent tube, and the intrauterine and ectopic pregnancy rates were determined.Results: Twenty-six infertile patients with previous sterilization reversal underwent HSG. Eight of 26 (31%) patients (mean age 32 years, range 23-37 years), had attempted FTR for mid-tubal occlusion at the site of surgical anastomosis. Fourteen tubes were attempted as there were two previous salpingectomies. Technical success was achieved in eight of 14 (57%) tubes attempted, resulting in five of eight (62%) patients having at least one patent tube. At follow-up (mean 18 months, range 12-28 months) in these five patients there was one intrauterine pregnancy. There were no ectopic pregnancies.Conclusions: FTR in mid-tubal obstruction in infertile patients following sterilization reversal surgery is technically feasible and may result in intrauterine pregnancy. In this small group there was a lower technical success rate and lower pregnancy rate than in unselected proximal tubal occlusion.

  2. The Expression and Cellular Localization of Galectin-1 and Galectin-3 in the Fallopian Tube Are Altered in Women with Tubal Ectopic Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Nio-Kobayashi, Junko; Abidin, Hazirah B Z; Brown, Jeremy K; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Horne, Andrew W; Duncan, W Colin

    2015-01-01

    Galectin-1 and galectin-3 are abundantly expressed at implantation sites in the uterus, suggesting their involvement in the establishment of pregnancy. In this study, we examined the expression and localization of galectin-1 and galectin-3 in fallopian tubes from nonpregnant women, and in those presenting with tubal ectopic pregnancy. There was no significant difference in the expression of either galectin-1 (LGALS1) or galectin-3 (LGALS3) transcripts in the fallopian tube across the menstrual cycle. Their expressions in the fallopian tube were inversely correlated to each other (r = -0.5134, p < 0.0001) and differentially localized. Galectin-1 protein was abundant in the stroma of nonpregnant fallopian tubes, whereas galectin-3 was mainly localized to the epithelium, notably to the cilia of ciliated cells and the apical cytoplasm of secretory cells. In ectopic pregnancies, LGALS3 expression was significantly reduced (p < 0.0001), but LGALS1 expression did not change when compared to nonpregnant fallopian tubes collected during the mid-secretory phase. The percentage of fallopian tube epithelial cells expressing galectin-3 in cilia tended to be reduced (p = 0.0685), with an accompanying loss of a normal ciliary structure, while nuclear galectin-3 increased (p < 0.05) in ectopic pregnancies. Epithelial immunostaining for galectin-1 tended to be elevated in fallopian tubes from women with ectopic pregnancy. Coculture of human trophoblast origin SW71 cells significantly increased LGALS1 expression in human fallopian tube epithelial OE-E6/E7 cells, suggesting that trophoblast-derived products regulate LGALS1 expression in the oviductal epithelium. These findings imply a differential contribution of galectin-1 and galectin-3 in the homeostasis of human fallopian tubes and in the pathophysiology of ectopic pregnancy.

  3. Utility of peritoneal washing cytology in staging and prognosis of ovarian and fallopian tube neoplasms: a 10-year retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Whitney; Madan, Rashna; O'Neil, Maura; Tawfik, Ossama W; Fan, Fang

    2016-06-01

    The prognostic significance of peritoneal washing cytology in gynecologic neoplasms is controversial. The presence of neoplastic cells in peritoneal washings is currently part of the Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics and American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM staging systems in cases of ovarian and fallopian tube neoplasms without metastasis beyond the pelvis. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed all cases of ovarian and fallopian tube neoplasms in which cytologic studies were performed. The utility of cytology in tumor staging and the relationship between cytology results and patient outcome are studied. All cases of ovarian and fallopian tube neoplasms in our institution between July 2002 and July 2012 were reviewed. Primary tumor characteristics including type and pelvic extension were collected, categorized, and correlated with peritoneal washing cytology. Final tumor staging was reviewed and the impact of positive cytology was evaluated. A total of 120 cases of ovarian and fallopian tube neoplasms without extrapelvic metastasis were identified within the study period. Peritoneal washing cytology was positive in 24% (29/120) of neoplasms and upstaged the tumor 83% (24/29) of the time when positive. Overall, 20% (24/120) of reviewed cases were upstaged based on positive cytology results. Peritoneal washing cytology remains a useful staging tool for ovarian and fallopian tube neoplasms limited to the pelvic cavity. Positive cytology results in upstaging in a significant proportion of the cases regardless of the tumor type. A larger study is needed to analyze follow-up data to determine if upstaging based on positive cytology adversely affects outcome.

  4. Comparison of Virulence Markers of Peritoneal and Fallopian Tube Isolates with Endocervical Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates from Women with Acute Salpingitis

    PubMed Central

    Draper, D. L.; James, J. F.; Brooks, G. F.; Sweet, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains which cause acute salpingitis are presumed to ascend the genital tract from the cervix. Previous studies utilized isolates obtained from endocervical canal cultures, although it was not known if the isolates truly represented the organisms present in the fallopian tubes. In this study, we compared N. gonorrhoeae isolates from endocervical canal cultures with fallopian tube or peritoneal cul-de-sac isolates or isolates from both sites obtained at laparoscopy. Potential virulence markers were studied, including colony phenotype, auxotype, antimicrobial agent susceptibility, protein patterns on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and susceptibility to normal human serum. Six of seven cervical isolates had the same antibiograms and molecular weight for major outer membrane proteins as those of the corresponding peritoneal isolates. Auxotypes also were the same and included prototrophic, proline-requiring, and proline-and-arginine-requiring isolates. The isolates as a group appeared to be very susceptible to the bactericidal action of pooled serum from normal women. Colony phenotypes varied between sites; the fallopian tubecul-de-sac isolates were predominantly of transparent phenotype and piliated. The cervical isolates were either mixtures of equal quantities of opaque and transparent phenotypes or predominantly opaque phenotype. By these markers, patients' N. gonorrhoeae cervical isolates appeared to be the same as their isolates from fallopian tubes except for a difference or shift in colony phenotype. Images Fig. 1 PMID:6769811

  5. Human fallopian tube proteome shows high coverage of mesenchymal stem cells associated proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chenyuan; Liu, Yang; Chang, Cheng; Wu, Songfeng; Gao, Jie; Zhang, Yang; Chen, Yingjie; Zhong, Fan; Deng, Gaopi

    2016-01-01

    The object of this research was to report a draft proteome of human fallopian tube (hFT) comprises 5416 identified proteins, which could be considered as a physiological reference to complement Human Proteome Draft. The proteomic raw data and metadata were stored in an integrated proteome resources centre iProX (IPX00034300). This hFT proteome contains many hFT markers newly identified by mass spectrum. This hFT proteome comprises 660 high-, 3605 medium- and 1181 low-abundant proteins. Ribosome, cytoskeleton, vesicle and protein folding associated proteins showed obvious tendency to be higher abundance in hFT. The extraordinary high coverage of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-associated proteins were identified in this hFT proteome, which highly supported that hFT should contain a plenty of MSCs. PMID:26759384

  6. Molecular Requirements for Transformation of Fallopian Tube Epithelial Cells into Serous Carcinoma12

    PubMed Central

    Jazaeri, Amir A; Bryant, Jennifer L; Park, Hong; Li, Hui; Dahiya, Neetu; Stoler, Mark H; Ferriss, James Stuart; Dutta, Anindya

    2011-01-01

    Although controversial, recent studies suggest that serous ovarian carcinomas may arise from fallopian tube fimbria rather than ovarian surface epithelium. We developed an in vitro model for serous carcinogenesis in which primary human fallopian tube epithelial cells (FTECs) were exposed to potentially oncogenic molecular alterations delivered by retroviral vectors. To more closely mirror in vivo conditions, transformation of FTECs was driven by the positive selection of growth-promoting alterations rather antibiotic selection. Injection of the transformed FTEC lines in SCID mice resulted in xenografts with histologic and immunohistochemical features indistinguishable from poorly differentiated serous carcinomas. Transcriptional profiling revealed high similarity among the transformed and control FTEC lines and patient-derived serous ovarian carcinoma cells and was used to define a malignancy-related transcriptional signature. Oncogene-treated FTEC lines were serially analyzed using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot analysis to identify oncogenes whose expression was subject to positive selection. The combination of p53 and Rb inactivation (mediated by SV40 T antigen), hTERT expression, and oncogenic C-MYC and HRAS accumulation showed positive selection during transformation. Knockdown of each of these selected components resulted in significant growth inhibition of the transformed cell lines that correlated with p27 accumulation. The combination of SV40 T antigen and hTERT expression resulted in immortalized cells that were nontumorigenic in mice, whereas forced expression of a dominant-negative p53 isoform (p53DD) and hTERT resulted in senescence. Thus, our investigation supports the tubal origin of serous carcinoma and provides a dynamic model for studying early molecular alterations in serous carcinogenesis. PMID:22028616

  7. Human fallopian tube: a new source of multipotent adult mesenchymal stem cells discarded in surgical procedures

    PubMed Central

    Jazedje, Tatiana; Perin, Paulo M; Czeresnia, Carlos E; Maluf, Mariangela; Halpern, Silvio; Secco, Mariane; Bueno, Daniela F; Vieira, Natassia M; Zucconi, Eder; Zatz, Mayana

    2009-01-01

    Background The possibility of using stem cells for regenerative medicine has opened a new field of investigation. The search for sources to obtain multipotent stem cells from discarded tissues or through non-invasive procedures is of great interest. It has been shown that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) obtained from umbilical cords, dental pulp and adipose tissue, which are all biological discards, are able to differentiate into muscle, fat, bone and cartilage cell lineages. The aim of this study was to isolate, expand, characterize and assess the differentiation potential of MSCs from human fallopian tubes (hFTs). Methods Lineages of hFTs were expanded, had their karyotype analyzed, were characterized by flow cytometry and underwent in vitro adipogenic, chondrogenic, osteogenic, and myogenic differentiation. Results Here we show for the first time that hFTs, which are discarded after some gynecological procedures, are a rich additional source of MSCs, which we designated as human tube MSCs (htMSCs). Conclusion Human tube MSCs can be easily isolated, expanded in vitro, present a mesenchymal profile and are able to differentiate into muscle, fat, cartilage and bone in vitro. PMID:19538712

  8. Veliparib and Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer or Metastatic Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-04

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Male Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  9. Mirvetuximab Soravtansine and Gemcitabine Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With FRa-Positive Recurrent Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, Fallopian Tube, Endometrial, or Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-10

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  10. Acetyl-L-Carnitine Hydrochloride in Preventing Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients With Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-29

    Fatigue; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Neuropathy; Neurotoxicity Syndrome; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Pain; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma

  11. EGEN-001 and Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-08-11

    Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

  12. Elesclomol Sodium and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-23

    Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  13. Cediranib Maleate and Olaparib in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Peritoneal Cancer or Recurrent Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-04

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Surface Papillary Adenocarcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  14. Carboplatin, Gemcitabine Hydrochloride, and Mifepristone in Treating Patients With Advanced Breast Cancer or Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-28

    Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  15. Gemcitabine Hydrochloride With or Without WEE1 Inhibitor MK-1775 in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-31

    Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Surface Papillary Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  16. TLR8 Agonist VTX-2337 and Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin Hydrochloride or Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-23

    Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  17. Belinostat and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer That Did Not Respond to Carboplatin or Cisplatin

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-06-18

    Brenner Tumor; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  18. Progesterone inhibits insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) production by explants of the Fallopian tube.

    PubMed

    Davies, S; Richardson, M C; Anthony, F W; Mukhtar, D; Cameron, I T

    2004-12-01

    The Fallopian tube provides the environment for early embryo growth, a process which is influenced by insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in the tubal fluid. Whether the bioavailability of tubal IGFs is modulated by locally produced IGF-binding protein (IGFBP-1) is not clear. An explant culture system from human Fallopian tube mucosa was, therefore, developed enabling the potential for IGFBP-1 production by this tissue to be examined directly. Initial characterization of the system established that the explants maintained responsiveness to steroids. Thus, oviduct-specific glycoprotein production, a major product of the oviduct in vivo, continued to be made via an estrogen-sensitive pathway in the culture. The presence of mRNA for IGFBP-1 was established within the explants by the use of quantitative RT-PCR and IGFBP-1 protein was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Although insulin and estradiol had no consistent effect on IGFBP-1, addition of progesterone had a significant inhibitory effect on IGFBP-1 production, both at the mRNA and protein levels. A dose-range of progesterone revealed an incremental inhibitory effect of progesterone on IGFBP-1 output (maximal effect, 25-50 nmol/l), consistent with physiological inhibition of this process during the luteal phase. We suggest that progesterone might, therefore, play a role in controlling the bioavailability of IGFs to the embryo during early development within the Fallopian tube.

  19. Clomiphene citrate causes aberrant tubal apoptosis and estrogen receptor activation in rat fallopian tube: implications for tubal ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Shao, Ruijin; Nutu, Magdalena; Weijdegård, Birgitta; Egecioglu, Emil; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Julia; Karlsson-Lindahl, Linda; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Bergh, Christina; Billig, Håkan

    2009-06-01

    Clomiphene citrate (CC) therapy for disorders of anovulatory infertility has been linked to an increased frequency of tubal ectopic pregnancy. Although CC enhances apoptotic processes in the ovaries, villi, and decidual tissues, its effect on apoptosis in the fallopian tube is unknown. Here, we show that chronic treatment with CC induces tubal apoptosis, but not necrosis, through an intrinsic mitochondria-dependent signaling pathway in vivo. The apoptosis was specific to epithelial cells in the isthmus, and the damage was reversed with 17beta-estradiol (E2); however, pretreatment or concomitant treatment with E2 did not protect against tubal apoptosis induced by chronic treatment with CC. Chronic treatment activated estrogen receptors (ESRs), particularly cilia-localized ESR2A (formerly ERbeta2). In contrast to E2, acute treatment of superovulating rats with a high dose of CC or the ESR2-selective agonist 2,3-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile (DPN) significantly delayed the transport of oocyte-cumulus complexes through the fallopian tube. Our findings suggest that in response to chronic CC therapy, isthmus-specific apoptosis of epithelial cells and activation of cilia-ESR2A act in parallel to block gamete and embryo passage through the fallopian tube, eventually resulting in tubal ectopic pregnancy.

  20. Premalignant SOX2 overexpression in the fallopian tubes of ovarian cancer patients: Discovery and validation studies.

    PubMed

    Hellner, Karin; Miranda, Fabrizio; Fotso Chedom, Donatien; Herrero-Gonzalez, Sandra; Hayden, Daniel M; Tearle, Rick; Artibani, Mara; KaramiNejadRanjbar, Mohammad; Williams, Ruth; Gaitskell, Kezia; Elorbany, Samar; Xu, Ruoyan; Laios, Alex; Buiga, Petronela; Ahmed, Karim; Dhar, Sunanda; Zhang, Rebecca Yu; Campo, Leticia; Myers, Kevin A; Lozano, María; Ruiz-Miró, María; Gatius, Sónia; Mota, Alba; Moreno-Bueno, Gema; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Benítez, Javier; Witty, Lorna; McVean, Gil; Leedham, Simon; Tomlinson, Ian; Drmanac, Radoje; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Klein, Robert; Dunne, Kevin; Bast, Robert C; Kennedy, Stephen H; Hassan, Bassim; Lise, Stefano; Garcia, María José; Peters, Brock A; Yau, Christopher; Sauka-Spengler, Tatjana; Ahmed, Ahmed Ashour

    2016-08-01

    Current screening methods for ovarian cancer can only detect advanced disease. Earlier detection has proved difficult because the molecular precursors involved in the natural history of the disease are unknown. To identify early driver mutations in ovarian cancer cells, we used dense whole genome sequencing of micrometastases and microscopic residual disease collected at three time points over three years from a single patient during treatment for high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). The functional and clinical significance of the identified mutations was examined using a combination of population-based whole genome sequencing, targeted deep sequencing, multi-center analysis of protein expression, loss of function experiments in an in-vivo reporter assay and mammalian models, and gain of function experiments in primary cultured fallopian tube epithelial (FTE) cells. We identified frequent mutations involving a 40kb distal repressor region for the key stem cell differentiation gene SOX2. In the apparently normal FTE, the region was also mutated. This was associated with a profound increase in SOX2 expression (p<2(-16)), which was not found in patients without cancer (n=108). Importantly, we show that SOX2 overexpression in FTE is nearly ubiquitous in patients with HGSOCs (n=100), and common in BRCA1-BRCA2 mutation carriers (n=71) who underwent prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy. We propose that the finding of SOX2 overexpression in FTE could be exploited to develop biomarkers for detecting disease at a premalignant stage, which would reduce mortality from this devastating disease.

  1. Differential expression of extracellular matrix components in the Fallopian tubes throughout the menstrual cycle

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the unique characteristics of the female genital tract is the extensive tissue remodeling observed throughout the menstrual cycle. Multiple components of the extracellular matrix take part in this tissue rebuilding; however, the individual components involved have not been identified. Methods In the present study, the expression of extracellular matrix proteins and selected matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activities in Fallopian tubes (FT) throughout the menstrual cycle were examined by PCR array, immunocytochemistry, zymography and bioinformatics. Results Of the eighty-four genes analyzed, eighty-three were expressed in the FT during at least one stage of the menstrual cycle. We observed a significant increase (>/=2-fold) in ADAMTS1, ADAMTS13, COL7A1, MMP3, MMP9, PECAM1, and THBS3 in the periovulatory phase compared to the follicular phase. Meanwhile, we observed a significant decrease (>/= 2-fold) in COL7A1, ICAM1, ITGA8, MMP16, MMP9, CLEC3B, SELE and TIMP2 in the lutheal phase compared to the periovulatory phase. Immunocytochemistry showed that MMP-3 and MMP-9 were localized in the endosalpinx during all phases of the menstrual cycle. Gelatin zymograms detected non-cycle-dependent protease activity. Conclusions Several extracellular matrix components were regulated throughout the menstrual cycle in a cyclic pattern, suggesting a possible steroid regulation and a role in tissue remodeling and FT functions. PMID:22897899

  2. Automatic Detection of the Uterus and Fallopian Tube Junctions in Laparoscopic Images.

    PubMed

    Prokopetc, Kristina; Collins, Toby; Bartoli, Adrien

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for the automatic detection of the uterus and the Fallopian tube/Uterus junctions (FU-junctions) in a monocular laparoscopic image. The main application is to perform automatic registration and fusion between preoperative radiological images of the uterus and laparoscopic images for image-guided surgery. In the broader context of computer assisted intervention, our method is the first that detects an organ and registration landmarks from laparoscopic images without manual input. Our detection problem is challenging because of the large inter-patient anatomical variability and pathologies such as uterine fibroids. We solve the problem using learned contextual geometric constraints that statistically model the positions and orientations of the FU-junctions relative to the uterus' body. We train the uterus detector using a modern part-based approach and the FU-junction detector using junction-specific context-sensitive features. We have trained and tested on a database of 95 uterus images with cross validation, and successfully detected the uterus with Recall = 0.95 and average Number of False Positives per Image (NFPI) = 0.21, and FU-junctions with Recall = 0.80 and NFPI = 0.50. Our experimental results show that the contextual constraints are fundamental to achieve high quality detection.

  3. Expression of COX-2 and Bcl-2 in primary fallopian tube carcinoma: correlations with clinicopathologic features.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Sun, Guo-Ping; Zou, Yan-Feng; Wu, Qiang; Wu, Hong-Yang; Wu, Ji-Feng; Zhou, Jia-De; Chen, Ke; Zhang, Xiu-Shan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of COX-2 and Bcl-2 in primary fallopian tube carcinoma (PFTC), as well as their correlations with clinicopathologic features. We studied a cohort of 33 patients with a pathological diagnosis of PFTC. Thirty normal tubal tissues used for controls were obtained from patients diagnosed with uterine myomas. Expression analysis for COX-2 and Bcl-2 was performed using the immunohistochemical technique. The rate of preoperative diagnosis was 18.2%. With a median survival of 61.0 months (95% CI: 43.2 to 78.8 months), the estimated five-year overall survival rate in the 33 patients was 39.0%. Increased expression of COX-2 and Bcl-2 was observed in tumor specimens compared to normal controls (p = 0.026; p = 0.003). The expression rate of COX-2 in node-positive tumors was significantly higher than that of node-negative tumors (p = 0.024). Moreover, the expression rate of COX-2 was statistically significantly higher in patients with infiltration through the serosa (p = 0.019). Positive significant associations were observed between Bcl-2 staining index and FIGO stage (p = 0.015), and between Bcl-2 staining and lymph node metastasis (p = 0.010). There was a significant correlation between COX-2 expression and Bcl-2 staining index (r = 0.517, p = 0.002). We conclude that COX-2 and Bcl-2 may potentially be useful prognostic markers for PFTC. The exact molecular mechanism for correlations between COX-2 and Bcl-2 remains to be elucidated.

  4. Bevacizumab toxicity in heavily pretreated recurrent epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers

    PubMed Central

    Goff, Barbara A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Bevacizumab was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in recurrent platinum resistant epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), fallopian tube cancer (FTC), or primary peritoneal cancer (PPC) when no more than two prior cytotoxic regimens have been used; due to concerns for gastrointestinal perforation. We sought to determine bevacizumab-related toxicities in heavily pretreated recurrent EOC. Methods We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with recurrent EOC, FTC, and PPC from 2001 to 2011. Patients who received at least two prior chemotherapy regimens before bevacizumab were included. Medical records were reviewed for bevacizumab associated toxicities. The Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test was used to compare quantitative variables. Survival was estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Sixty patients met inclusion criteria. At the start of bevacizumab treatment, the median age was 60 years and the median body mass index was 26.5 kg/m2. More than 50% of patients received bevacizumab after three prior cytotoxic regimens. Grade 3 or higher bevacizumab associated toxicity events occurred in four patients, including one patient who developed a rectovaginal fistula. The median overall survival from the start of bevacizumab treatment was 21.05 months (95% CI, 18.23 to 32.67; range, 1.9 to 110 months). The number of cytotoxic regimens prior to bevacizumab treatment did not differ in those that experienced a toxicity versus those that did not (p=0.66). Conclusion The use of bevacizumab in heavily pretreated EOC, FTC, or PPC is worth consideration. PMID:27329195

  5. Expression of the repulsive SLIT/ROBO pathway in the human endometrium and Fallopian tube.

    PubMed

    Duncan, W C; McDonald, S E; Dickinson, R E; Shaw, J L V; Lourenco, P C; Wheelhouse, N; Lee, K-F; Critchley, H O D; Horne, A W

    2010-12-01

    We investigated whether the repulsive SLIT/ROBO pathway is expressed in the endometrium and is negatively regulated during implantation. We also examined whether deficient expression in the Fallopian tube (FT) may predispose to ectopic pregnancy (EP). Endometrium (n = 21) and FT (n = 17) were collected across the menstrual cycle from fertile women with regular cycles. Decidualized endometrium (n = 6) was obtained from women undergoing termination, and FT (n = 6) was obtained from women with EP. SLIT/ROBO expression was quantified by reverse transcription-PCR and protein localized by immunohistochemistry. The regulation of SLIT/ROBO expression in vitro, by sex steroids and hCG, was assessed in endometrial (hTERT-EEpC) epithelial cells, and the effects of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and smoking were studied in oviductal (OE-E6/E7) epithelial cells. Endometrial SLIT3 was highest in the mid-secretory phase (P = 0.0003) and SLIT1,2 and ROBO1 showed a similar trend. ROBO2 was highest in proliferative phase (P = 0.027) and ROBO3,4 showed a similar trend. SLIT2,3 and ROBO1, 4 were lower in decidua compared with mid-secretory endometrium (P < 0.05). SLITs and ROBOs, excepting ROBO2, were expressed in FT but there were no differences across the cycle or in EP. SLIT/ROBO proteins were localized to endometrial and FT epithelium. Treatment of hTERT-EEpC with a combination of estradiol and medroxyprogesterone acetate inhibited ROBO1 expression (P < 0.01) but hCG had no effect. Acute treatment of OE-E6/E7 with smoking metabolite, cotinine, and C. trachomatis had no effect. These findings imply a regulated role for the endometrial SLIT/ROBO interaction during normal development and pregnancy but that it may not be important in the aetiology of EP.

  6. Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma-Waldenström macroglobulinemia: an unusual presentation in ovaries, fallopian tubes and uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Albawardi, Alia Saeed; Castella, Antonio; Almarzooqi, Saeeda Saleh

    2013-01-01

    Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma is an indolent malignancy of B cells and plasma cells. The disease presents in the adults with bone marrow and lymph nodes involvement. Extranodal involvement is rare but has been reported in spleen and liver. Herein, we present a case of a 50-year-old woman who underwent hysterectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy for irregular uterine bleeding. Histologic examination of uterine cervix, uterine walls and fallopian tubes reveal dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate that was most pronounced in ovaries. This is the first case report on lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma-Waldenström macroglobulinemia initially presenting and secondarily involving both ovaries and other gynecological organs.

  7. Olaparib and Hsp90 Inhibitor AT13387 in Treating Patients With Solid Tumors That Are Metastatic or Cannot Be Removed by Surgery or Recurrent Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, Primary Peritoneal, or Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-10

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; High Grade Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; High Grade Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Metastatic Malignant Solid Neoplasm; Primary Peritoneal High Grade Serous Adenocarcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma; Unresectable Solid Neoplasm

  8. Modified profile of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 production by human Fallopian tube epithelial cells following infection in vitro with Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Rodas, Paula I; Pérez, Doris; Jaffret, Claudia; González, Yaquelin; Carreño, Carolina; Tapia, Cecilia V; Osorio, Eduardo; Velasquez, Luis A; Christodoulides, Myron

    2016-12-08

    Epithelial shedding and scarring of Fallopian tube mucosa are the main consequences of sexually transmitted Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection and likely involves an imbalance of host extracellular matrix components (ECM) and their regulators such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). In this brief report, primary human Fallopian tube epithelial cells were infected with N. gonorrhoeae and MMP patterns examined. Gonococcal infection induced a significant increase in secreted MMP-9 and an accumulation of cytoplasmic MMP-2 over time, but no significant MMP-3 or MMP-8 production was observed. Thus, MMP-9 in particular could play a role in tubal scarring in response to gonococcal infection.

  9. Variation in stability of endogenous reference genes in fallopian tubes and endometrium from healthy and ectopic pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Gebeh, Alpha K; Marczylo, Emma L; Amoako, Akwasi A; Willets, Jonathon M; Konje, Justin C

    2012-01-01

    RT-qPCR is commonly employed in gene expression studies in ectopic pregnancy. Most use RN18S1, β-actin or GAPDH as internal controls without validation of their suitability as reference genes. A systematic study of the suitability of endogenous reference genes for gene expression studies in ectopic pregnancy is lacking. The aims of this study were therefore to evaluate the stability of 12 reference genes and suggest those that are stable for use as internal control genes in fallopian tubes and endometrium from ectopic pregnancy and healthy non-pregnant controls. Analysis of the results showed that the genes consistently ranked in the top six by geNorm and NormFinder algorithms, were UBC, GAPDH, CYC1 and EIF4A2 (fallopian tubes) and UBC and ATP5B (endometrium). mRNA expression of NAPE-PLD as a test gene of interest varied between the groups depending on which of the 12 reference genes was used as internal controls. This study demonstrates that arbitrary selection of reference genes for normalisation in RT-qPCR studies in ectopic pregnancy without validation, risk producing inaccurate data and should therefore be discouraged.

  10. Cisplatin and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Stage IIB, Stage IIC, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-29

    Chemotherapeutic Agent Toxicity; Endometrial Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Gastrointestinal Complication; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Neurotoxicity Syndrome; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  11. Expression of proinflammatory cytokines and receptors by human fallopian tubes in organ culture following challenge with Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Maisey, Kevin; Nardocci, Gino; Imarai, Monica; Cardenas, Hugo; Rios, Miguel; Croxatto, Horacio B; Heckels, John E; Christodoulides, Myron; Velasquez, Luis A

    2003-01-01

    Infection of the Fallopian tubes (FT) by Neisseria gonorrhoeae can lead to acute salpingitis, an inflammatory condition, which is a major cause of infertility. Challenge of explants of human FT with gonococci induced mRNA expression and protein secretion for the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-1beta, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) but not for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. In contrast, FT expression of IL-6 and of the cytokine receptors IL-6R, TNF receptor I (TNF-RI), and TNF-RII was constitutive and was not increased by gonococcal challenge. These studies suggest that several proinflammatory cytokines are likely to contribute to the cell and tissue damage observed in gonococcal salpingitis.

  12. Expression of Proinflammatory Cytokines and Receptors by Human Fallopian Tubes in Organ Culture following Challenge with Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    PubMed Central

    Maisey, Kevin; Nardocci, Gino; Imarai, Monica; Cardenas, Hugo; Rios, Miguel; Croxatto, Horacio B.; Heckels, John E.; Christodoulides, Myron; Velasquez, Luis A.

    2003-01-01

    Infection of the Fallopian tubes (FT) by Neisseria gonorrhoeae can lead to acute salpingitis, an inflammatory condition, which is a major cause of infertility. Challenge of explants of human FT with gonococci induced mRNA expression and protein secretion for the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) but not for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. In contrast, FT expression of IL-6 and of the cytokine receptors IL-6R, TNF receptor I (TNF-RI), and TNF-RII was constitutive and was not increased by gonococcal challenge. These studies suggest that several proinflammatory cytokines are likely to contribute to the cell and tissue damage observed in gonococcal salpingitis. PMID:12496205

  13. Incidental nonuterine high-grade serous carcinomas arise in the fallopian tube in most cases: further evidence for the tubal origin of high-grade serous carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Gilks, C Blake; Irving, Julie; Köbel, Martin; Lee, Chenghan; Singh, Naveena; Wilkinson, Nafisa; McCluggage, W Glenn

    2015-03-01

    Most nonuterine high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSCs) in women with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, due to germline BRCA1/2 mutation, arise in the fimbria of the fallopian tube. However, the site of origin of sporadic HGSC, which is usually widely disseminated at presentation, is not well established. We sought to characterize cases of HGSC discovered incidentally in patients not known to be at high risk, in order to determine the site distribution and possible origin of sporadic HGSC. Incidental microscopic, non-mass-forming cases of serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma or HGSC in salpingo-oophorectomy specimens in which the tubes and ovaries had been extensively examined were identified. No patients were known or suspected BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Twenty-one cases were identified (mean age: 57 y). Surgery was for benign disease (n=15), uterine endometrioid adenocarcinoma or atypical hyperplasia (n=3), bladder carcinoma (n=1), or ovarian serous borderline tumor (n=2). In 16 of 21 cases, the lesion was confined to the fallopian tube (unilateral in 14 cases, bilateral in 2). There was serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma in all cases and invasive HGSC into the underlying lamina propria in 8 of these 16 cases; the invasive focus measured 1.3 cm or less in every case. In the remaining 5 cases, there was fallopian tube mucosal and ovarian involvement; in 2 of these cases, there was also microscopic peritoneal involvement. Sporadic cases of nonuterine HGSC arise in the fallopian tube fimbria in a large majority of cases, providing further evidence for the tubal origin of these neoplasms.

  14. The Fallopian Tube Origin and Primary Site Assignment in Extrauterine High-grade Serous Carcinoma: Findings of a Survey of Pathologists and Clinicians.

    PubMed

    McCluggage, W Glenn; Hirschowitz, Lynn; Gilks, C Blake; Wilkinson, Nafisa; Singh, Naveena

    2016-10-31

    Accumulating recent evidence suggests that the majority of extrauterine high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSCs) do not arise from the ovary as historically accepted but from the distal, fimbrial end of the fallopian tube from a precursor known as serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma. There has been variable acceptance of this evidence among pathologists and clinicians dealing with "ovarian" cancer and this has resulted in wide variation in the assignment of primary site between different institutions when HGSC involves >1 anatomic site. This has obvious implications for cancer epidemiology, registration, and entry into clinical trials. We undertook a survey of members of several national and international gynecologic pathology and clinical cancer societies with a view to ascertaining the degree of acceptance of the fallopian tube origin of extrauterine HGSC and to explore various aspects regarding site assignment, pathologic sampling, diagnosis, FIGO staging, and reporting of these neoplasms. The results indicate wide acceptance among both pathologists and clinicians of the fallopian tube theory of origin of HGSC (86% pathologists, 92% clinicians), although there is significant variation regarding the perceived importance of assigning a primary site given the limited prognostic and therapeutic significance. Interestingly, clinicians feel it is more important to assign a primary site than pathologists (71% vs. 49%). The survey also indicates widespread acceptance of recently proposed criteria for site assignment in extrauterine HGSC.

  15. Multi-drug resistance gene (MDR-1) and risk of brain metastasis in epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Koji; Eno, Michele L.; Ahn, Edward H.; Shahzad, Mian M.K.; Im, Dwight D.; Rosenshein, Neil B.; Sood, Anil K.

    2011-01-01

    Background To evaluate risk factors that predict brain metastasis in epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal cancer. Methods All patients with FIGO stage I to IV who underwent initial cytoreductive surgery between January 1995 and January 2009 were evaluated. The tumor samples were evaluated for 7 markers including multi-drug resistance gene (MDR-1), DNA aneuploidity and S-phase fraction, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, p53 mutation, epidermal growth factor receptor, and CD31. Biomarker expression was evaluated as a predictor of hematogenous metastasis to the following locations: (i) liver and spleen, (ii) lung, and (iii) brain. Results There were 309 cases identified during the period. Of those, five (1.6%, 95%CI 0.2-3.0%) women developed brain metastasis. Time to onset of brain metastasis was significantly longer than for other recurrent sites (median time to recurrence after initial cytoreduction, brain vs lung vs liver, 21.4 vs 12.6 vs 11.0 months, p<0.05). Significantly increased expression of MDR-1 was seen in tumors from women who developed brain metastasis (brain vs non-brain sites, 80% vs 4.2-24.3%, p=0.004). In multivariate analysis, MDR-1 was the only significant variable associated with the risk of brain metastasis. MDR-1 expression predicted brain metastasis (Receiver-operator-characteristic curve analysis, AUC 0.808, p=0.018), and with a 10% positive expression of MDR-1 as the cutoff value, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, accuracy of prediction of brain metastasis were 80%, 86.1%, 15.4%, 99.3%, and 85.9%, respectively (odds ratio 24.7, 95%CI 2.64-232, p=0.002). Conclusions Increased expression of MDR-1 in the tumor tissue obtained at initial cytoreduction is associated with increased risk of developing brain metastases in women with epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or peritoneal cancer. PMID:20921883

  16. Expressions of candidate molecules in the human fallopian tube and chorionic villi of tubal pregnancy exposed to levonorgestrel emergency contraception

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cases of ectopic pregnancy (EP) following levonorgestrel (LNG) emergency contraception (EC) failure were reported, however, the effects of LNG on tubal microenvironment or chorionic villi in EP have not yet been documented. Methods Fifty-five women with tubal pregnancy were divided into two groups according to whether LNG-EC was administrated during the cycle of conception. The serum concentrations of beta-hCG, E2 and P were measured. The mRNA and protein expressions of estrogen and progesterone receptors, leukemia inhibitory factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and endocannabinoid receptor - CB1 in the ectopic implantation site and chorionic villi were examined. Results Compared to those unexposed to LNG-EC, women with tubal pregnancy exposed to LNG-EC during the cycle of conception had no statistically significances in the serum concentrations of beta-hCG, E2 P, nor in the pathological types of tubal pregnancy or the expressions of ER-alpha, PR, LIF, VEGF, iNOS and CB1. Conclusions The expressions of candidate molecules in the fallopian tube and chorionic villi were not altered by exposure to LNG-EC. A routine therapy with no additional intervention might thus be applied to tubal pregnancy exposed to LNG-EC. PMID:23687977

  17. Antiviral Responses of Human Fallopian Tube Epithelial Cells to Toll-like Receptor 3 Agonist Poly(I:C)

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Mimi; Schaefer, Todd M.; Fahey, John V.; Wright, Jacqueline A.; Wira, Charles R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the expression of toll-like receptors (TLR) by primary human Fallopian tube epithelial cells (FTEC) and to determine whether exposure to the TLR3 agonist poly(I:C) would induce an antiviral response. Design Tissue culture study. Setting University Medical Center. Patient(s) Pre-menopausal women undergoing hysterectomy. Intervention(s) Primary human FTEC were grown to confluence and high transepithelial resistance and treated with TLR agonists. Conditioned media was collected and RNA was extracted and analyzed for the expression of cytokines, chemokines and antimicrobial genes. Main Outcome Measure(s) RNA was analyzed by real-time RT-PCR and protein levels were assessed by ELISA. Result(s) The FTEC were demonstrated to express TLR1-9 but not 10. Treatment of FTEC with TLR3 agonist poly(I:C) resulted in increased expression of IL-8, TNF-α, human β-defensin 2, interferon beta, and interferon stimulated genes myxovirus resistance gene 1, 2′,5′-oligoadenylate synthetase, and protein kinase R. Additionally, FTEC exposed to poly(I:C) also resulted in the induction of TLR 2, 3, and 7. Conclusion(s) Our results suggest that FTEC are sensitive to viral infection and/or exposure to viral dsRNA and can respond by secreting proinflammatory cytokines that mediate the initiation of an inflammatory response as well as expressing genes that can directly inhibit viral replication. PMID:17669408

  18. Human fallopian tube epithelium constitutively expresses integrin endometrial receptivity markers: no evidence for a tubal implantation window.

    PubMed

    Brown, J K; Shaw, J L V; Critchley, H O D; Horne, A W

    2012-03-01

    Understanding of ectopic implantation within the Fallopian tube (FT) is limited. In the human uterus, the putative 'window of implantation' in the mid-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle is accompanied by increased endometrial epithelial expression of the integrins α(1)β(1), α(4)β(1) and α(v)β(3) and its ligand osteopontin. Similar cyclical changes in FT integrin expression have been proposed to contribute to ectopic implantation, but supporting data are limited. In the current study, we present quantitative data on human FT transcription and translation of the integrin subunits α(1), α(4), α(V), β(1) and β(3) during the follicular and mid-luteal phases of the menstrual cycle, together with a supporting immuocytochemical analysis of their spatial distribution within the FT, and that of osteopontin. In contrast to previous studies, our data indicate that all five integrin receptivity markers are constitutively transcribed and translated in the FT, with no evidence for changes in their expression or distribution during the window of implantation in the mid-luteal phase of the cycle. Furthermore, we could find no evidence for cyclic redistribution of the integrin α(v)β(3) ligand osteopontin within the FT. Although we do not rule out the involvement of integrin endometrial receptivity markers in the establishment of ectopic pregnancy, our findings do not support their differential expression during a tubal implantation window.

  19. Cadherin-6 type 2, K-cadherin (CDH6) is regulated by mutant p53 in the fallopian tube but is not expressed in the ovarian surface.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Subbulakshmi; Lantvit, Daniel D; Chae, Dam Hee; Burdette, Joanna E

    2016-10-25

    High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is the most lethal gynecological malignancy and may arise in either the fallopian tube epithelium (FTE) or ovarian surface epithelium (OSE). A mutation in p53 is reported in 96% of HGSOC, most frequently at R273 and R248. The goal of this study was to identify specific gene targets in the FTE that are altered by mutant p53, but not in the OSE. Gene analysis revealed that both R273 and R248 mutant p53 reduces CDH6 expression in the oviduct, but CDH6 was not detected in murine OSE cells. p53R273H induced SLUG and FOXM1 while p53R248W did not induce SLUG and only modestly increased FOXM1, which correlated with less migration as compared to p53R273H. An oviduct specific PAX8Cre/+/p53R270H/+ mouse model was created and confirmed that in vivo mutant p53 repressed CDH6 but was not sufficient to stabilize p53 expression alone. Overexpression of mutant p53 in the p53 null OVCAR5 cells decreased CDH6 levels indicating this was a gain-of-function. SLUG knockdown in murine oviductal cells with p53R273H restored CDH6 repression and a ChIP analysis revealed direct binding of mutant p53 on the CDH6 promoter. NSC59984, a small molecule that degrades mutant p53R273H, rescued CDH6 expression. In summary, CDH6 is expressed in the oviduct, but not the ovary, and is repressed by mutant p53. CDH6 expression with further validations may aide in establishing markers that inform upon the cell of origin of high grade serous tumors.

  20. Bevacizumab combination therapy: a review of its use in patients with epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Sohita

    2013-08-01

    Bevacizumab (Avastin®) is a recombinant, humanized anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) monoclonal antibody that neutralizes the biological activity of VEGF and inhibits tumor angiogenesis. In the EU, in adult patients with epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer, bevacizumab (in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel) is approved for the first-line treatment of advanced disease and (in combination with carboplatin and gemcitabine) is approved for the treatment of patients with first recurrence of platinum-sensitive disease who have not received prior therapy with bevacizumab or other VEGF inhibitors or VEGF receptor-targeted agents. This article summarizes the pharmacology of bevacizumab and reviews the efficacy and tolerability of bevacizumab combination therapy in well-designed clinical studies in these indications. The addition of bevacizumab to first-line carboplatin plus paclitaxel, followed by bevacizumab maintenance therapy significantly prolonged progression-free survival in women with newly-diagnosed advanced disease (GOG-0218 and ICON7 studies). Progression-free survival was also significantly prolonged after second-line treatment with bevacizumab in combination with carboplatin and gemcitabine, followed by maintenance treatment with bevacizumab alone in women with recurrence (≥ 6 months after front-line platinum-based therapy) of platinum-sensitive disease (OCEANS study). Bevacizumab combination therapy had a generally acceptable tolerability profile in these studies, with the nature of adverse events generally similar to that observed in previous clinical trials in patients with other solid tumors. Although several unanswered questions remain, such as the optimal dosage and duration of treatment, current evidence suggests that bevacizumab combination therapy extends the treatment options available for patients with ovarian cancer.

  1. Infection of Human Fallopian Tube Epithelial Cells with Neisseria gonorrhoeae Protects Cells from Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Priscilla; Reyes, Paz; Vargas, Macarena; Rios, Miguel; Imarai, Mónica; Cardenas, Hugo; Croxatto, Horacio; Orihuela, Pedro; Vargas, Renato; Fuhrer, Juan; Heckels, John E.; Christodoulides, Myron; Velasquez, Luis

    2006-01-01

    Following infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, bacteria may ascend into the Fallopian tubes (FT) and induce salpingitis, a major cause of infertility. In the FT, interactions between mucosal epithelial cells and gonococci are pivotal events in the pathogen's infection cycle and the inflammatory response. In the current study, primary FT epithelial cells were infected in vitro with different multiplicities of infection (MOI) of Pil+ Opa+ gonococci. Bacteria showed a dose-dependent association with cells and induced the secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). A significant finding was that gonococcal infection (MOI = 1) induced apoptosis in approximately 30% of cells, whereas increasing numbers of bacteria (MOI = 10 to 100) did not induce apoptosis. Apoptosis was observed in only 11% of cells with associated bacteria, whereas >84% of cells with no adherent bacteria were apoptotic. TNF-α was a key contributor to apoptosis, since (i) culture supernatants from cells infected with gonococci (MOI = 1) induced apoptosis in naïve cultures, suggesting that a soluble factor was responsible; (ii) gonococcal infection-induced apoptosis was inhibited with anti-TNF-α antibodies; and (iii) the addition of exogenous TNF-α induced apoptosis, which was inhibited by the presence of increasing numbers of bacteria (MOI = 10 to 100). These data suggest that TNF-α-mediated apoptosis of FT epithelial cells is likely a primary host defense mechanism to prevent pathogen colonization. However, epithelial cell-associated gonococci have evolved a mechanism to protect the cells from undergoing TNF-α-mediated apoptosis, and this modulation of the host innate response may contribute to establishment of infection. Understanding the antiapoptotic mechanisms used by Neisseria gonorrhoeae will inform the pathogenesis of salpingitis and could suggest new intervention strategies for prevention and treatment of the disease. PMID:16714596

  2. Association between increased expression of endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase in the human fallopian tube and tubal ectopic pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Fath Bayati, Leyla; Ghaffari Novin, Marefat; Fadaei Fathabadi, Fatemeh; Piryaei, Abbas; Heidari, Mohammad Hasan; Bandehpour, Mozhgan; Norouzian, Mohsen; Alizadeh Parhizgar, Mahdi; Shakooriyan Fard, Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tubal ectopic pregnancy (tEP) is the most common type of extra-uterine pregnancy and the most common cause of maternal mortality. Nitric oxide (NO) is a molecule that incorporates in many physiological processes of female reproductive system. Recent studies have demonstrated the possible role of endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) enzyme in the regulation of many reproductive events that occur in the fallopian tube (FT). Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of eNOS in the FTs of women with tEP. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, a total number of 30FTs samples were obtained from three groups including: 10 FTs of women that bearing an EP, 10 FTs from the non-pregnant women at luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, and 10 FTs of healthy pregnant women (n=10). Samples were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and then were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Results: Localization of eNOS was seen in secretory and ciliated luminal epithelium and vascular endothelium of all groups. However, we did not observed the expression of eNOS in smooth muscle cells of all groups. Expression of eNOS in luminal epithelium of women with EP compared to non-pregnant women at luteal phase of menstrual cycle and healthy pregnant group showed statistically significant increase (p=0.00). Significant difference in expression of eNOS was not observed in luminal epithelium of FTs of women at luteal phase compared to healthy pregnant groups (p=0.78). Conclusion: This study indicates that changes in expression of eNOS in luminal epithelium of FT may lead to development of EP. This article extracted from M.Sc. thesis. (Leyla Fath Bayati) PMID:24799858

  3. Quantitative analysis of γ-H2AX and p53 nuclear expression levels in ovarian and fallopian tube epithelium from risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomies in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Staff, Synnöve; Tolonen, Teemu; Laasanen, Satu-Leena; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka; Isola, Jorma; Mäenpää, Johanna

    2014-05-01

    Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes confer an increased lifetime risk for breast and ovarian cancer. Increased lifetime ovarian cancer risk among BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers can be substantially decreased by risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO), which also provides material for molecular research on early pathogenesis of serous ovarian cancer. RRSO studies have suggested fallopian tube as a primary site of serous high-grade ovarian cancer. In this study, the nuclear expression levels of γ-H2AX and p53 using immunohistochemical (IHC) study was quantitatively assessed in ovarian and fallopian tube epithelium derived from RRSOs in 29 BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and in 1 patient with a strong family history of breast and ovarian cancer but showing an unknown BRCA status. Both p53 and γ-H2AX nuclear staining levels were significantly higher in BRCA1/2 mutation-positive fallopian tube epithelium compared with the control fallopian tube epithelium (P<0.006 and P=0.011, respectively). Nuclear expression levels of p53 and γ-H2AX were similar between the BRCA1/2 mutation-positive ovarian epithelium and controls. Both γ-H2AX and p53 showed significantly higher nuclear expression levels in BRCA1/2 mutation-positive fallopian tube epithelium compared with BRCA1/2 mutation-positive ovarian epithelium (P<0.0001 and P<0.0001, respectively). BRCA1/2 mutation-positive fallopian tube epithelium showed a positive correlation between the γ-H2AX and p53 nuclear expression levels (Pearson r=0.508, P=0.003). Our results of quantitative nuclear p53 and γ-H2AX expression levels in ovarian and fallopian tube epithelium derived from RRSO in high-risk patients support the previously suggested role of fallopian tube epithelium serving as a possible site of initial serous ovarian carcinogenesis.

  4. Japan Society of Gynecologic Oncology guidelines 2015 for the treatment of ovarian cancer including primary peritoneal cancer and fallopian tube cancer.

    PubMed

    Komiyama, Shinichi; Katabuchi, Hidetaka; Mikami, Mikio; Nagase, Satoru; Okamoto, Aikou; Ito, Kiyoshi; Morishige, Kenichiro; Suzuki, Nao; Kaneuchi, Masanori; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Udagawa, Yasuhiro; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    The fourth edition of the Japan Society of Gynecologic Oncology guidelines for the treatment of ovarian cancer including primary peritoneal cancer and fallopian tube cancer was published in 2015. The guidelines contain seven chapters and six flow charts. The major changes in this new edition are as follows-(1) the format has been changed from reviews to clinical questions (CQ), and the guidelines for optimal clinical practice in Japan are now shown as 41 CQs and answers; (2) the 'flow charts' have been improved and placed near the beginning of the guidelines; (3) the 'basic points', including tumor staging, histological classification, surgical procedures, chemotherapy, and palliative care, are described before the chapter; (4) the FIGO surgical staging of ovarian cancer, fallopian tube cancer, and primary peritoneal cancer was revised in 2014 and the guideline has been revised accordingly to take the updated version of this classification into account; (5) the procedures for examination and management of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer are described; (6) information on molecular targeting therapy has been added; (7) guidelines for the treatment of recurrent cancer based on tumor markers alone are described, as well as guidelines for providing hormone replacement therapy after treatment.

  5. Detection of serous precursor lesions in resected fallopian tubes from patients with benign diseases and a relatively low risk for ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Naoyo; Murakami, Fumihiro; Higaki, Koichi

    2016-06-01

    The frequency of ovarian cancers in Japan has increased; however, doubts have been raised concerning the mechanism by which high-grade serous adenocarcinomas (HGSCs) arise. Conventionally, HGSC is thought to originate from the ovarian surface epithelium or epithelial inclusion cyst. However, recent data indicate that HGSCs may in fact develop from precursor lesions in the fallopian tube, including epithelia with a p53 signature, serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STICs), secretory cell outgrowths (SCOUTs), and tubal intraepithelial lesions in transition (TILT). Here, we determined the frequency of these fallopian tube precursors in surgically excised samples from 123 patients with benign pelvic diseases. We identified 12 cases with a p53 signature (9.7%), 26 with observable SCOUTs (21.1%), and 4 with TILT (3.2%), but no STIC cases. Although the lifetime risk for developing ovarian cancer is only around 1.4% for women without germ-line mutations, it is important to evaluate the presence of precursor lesions to understand HGSC pathogenesis better. Taken together, salpingectomy appears to be an option for women who are past their childbearing age and plan to undergo elective pelvic surgery. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the presence of these specific precursors post-salpingectomy in low-risk patients.

  6. Paclitaxel, Bevacizumab And Adjuvant Intraperitoneal Carboplatin in Treating Patients Who Had Initial Debulking Surgery for Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-06-18

    Brenner Tumor; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  7. Carboplatin and Paclitaxel With or Without Bevacizumab Compared to Docetaxel, Carboplatin, and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cavity Carcinoma (Cancer)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-03-18

    Brenner Tumor; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  8. Sargramostim and Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Patients With Advanced Ovarian Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer That Did Not Respond to Previous Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-01-15

    Brenner Tumor; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  9. MV-NIS or Investigator's Choice Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Ovarian, Fallopian, or Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-24

    Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Clear Cell Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Endometrioid Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Serous Tumor; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  10. Recent advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of serous carcinoma: the concept of low- and high-grade disease and the role of the fallopian tube

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Joseph; Roh, Michael H.; Chang, Martin C.; Crum, Christopher P.

    2008-01-01

    Summary In the past 50 years, the concept of serous ovarian cancer has been progressively refined, with the distinction of the borderline serous tumour, identification of a smaller subset of well-differentiated serous malignancies and, recently, closer attention to the pathogenesis of high-grade serous malignancies. High-grade serous carcinoma, traditionally presumed to arise within Müllerian inclusion cysts of the ovarian surface, cortex and peritoneum, has recently been linked to the distal fallopian tube. This review addresses the disparate forms of serous neoplasia, which reflect both different genetic abnormalities and stages of differentiation of Müllerian epithelium. The significance of these different origins is addressed in the context of ovarian cancer prevention. PMID:20953242

  11. Randomized trial of oral cyclophosphamide and veliparib in high-grade serous ovarian, primary peritoneal, or fallopian tube cancers, or BRCA-mutant ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kummar, Shivaani; Oza, Amit M.; Fleming, Gini F.; Sullivan, Daniel M.; Gandara, David R.; Naughton, Michael J.; Villalona-Calero, Miguel A.; Morgan, Robert J.; Szabo, Peter M.; Youn, Ahrim; Chen, Alice P.; Ji, Jiuping; Allen, Deborah E.; Lih, Chih-Jian; Mehaffey, Michele G.; Walsh, William D.; McGregor, Paul M.; Steinberg, Seth M.; Williams, Paul M.; Kinders, Robert J.; Conley, Barbara A.; Simon, Richard M.; Doroshow, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Veliparib, a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, demonstrated clinical activity in combination with oral cyclophosphamide in patients with BRCA-mutant solid tumors in a phase 1 trial. To define the relative contribution of PARP inhibition to the observed clinical activity, we conducted a randomized phase 2 trial to determine the response rate of veliparib in combination with cyclophosphamide compared to cyclophosphamide alone in patients with pretreated BRCA-mutant ovarian cancer or in patients with pretreated primary peritoneal, fallopian tube, or high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSOC). Methods Adult patients were randomized to receive cyclophosphamide alone (50 mg orally once daily) or with veliparib (60 mg orally once daily) in 21-day cycles. Crossover to the combination was allowed at disease progression. Results Seventy-five patients were enrolled and 72 were evaluable for response; 38 received cyclophosphamide alone and 37 the combination as their initial treatment regimen. Treatment was well tolerated. One complete response was observed in each arm, with three partial responses (PR) in the combination arm and six PRs in the cyclophosphamide alone arm. Genetic sequence and expression analyses were performed for 211 genes involved in DNA repair; none of the detected genetic alterations were significantly associated with treatment benefit. Conclusion This is the first trial that evaluated single agent, low dose cyclophosphamide in HGSOC, peritoneal, fallopian tube, and BRCA-mutant ovarian cancers. It was well tolerated and clinical activity was observed; the addition of veliparib at 60 mg daily did not improve either the response rate or the median progression free survival. PMID:25589624

  12. The onset of human ectopic pregnancy demonstrates a differential expression of miRNAs and their cognate targets in the Fallopian tube.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yi; Zou, Shien; Weijdegård, Birgitta; Chen, Jie; Cong, Qing; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Julia; Wang, Lei; Billig, Håkan; Shao, Ruijin

    2014-01-01

    Human ectopic pregnancy (EP) is a leading cause of pregnancy-related death, but the molecular basis underlying the onset of tubal EP is largely unknown. Female Dicer1 conditional knockout mice are infertile with dysfunctional Fallopian tube and have a different miRNA expression profile compared to wild-type mice, and we speculated that Dicer-mediated regulation of miRNA expression and specific miRNA-controlled targets might contribute to the onset of tubal EP. In the present study, we used microarray analysis and quantitative RT-PCR to examine the expression of miRNAs and core miRNA regulatory components in Fallopian tube tissues from women with EP. We found that the levels of DICER1, four miRNAs (let-7i, miR-149, miR-182, and miR-424), and estrogen receptor α distinguished the tubal implantation site from the non-implantation site. Computational algorithms and screening for interactions with the estrogen and progesterone receptor signaling pathways showed that the four miRNAs were predicted to target ten genes, including NEDD4, TAF15, and SPEN. Subsequent experiments showed differences in NEDD4 mRNA and protein levels between the implantation and non-implantation sites. Finally, we revealed that increases in smooth muscle cell NEDD4 and stromal cell TAF15, in parallel with a decrease in epithelial cell SPEN, were associated with tubal implantation. Our study suggests that changes in miRNA levels by the DICER-mediated miRNA-processing machinery result in aberrant expression of cell type-specific proteins that are potentially involved in the onset of tubal EP.

  13. Mouse models for neural tube closure defects.

    PubMed

    Juriloff, D M; Harris, M J

    2000-04-12

    Neural tube closure defects (NTDs), in particular anencephaly and spina bifida, are common human birth defects (1 in 1000), their genetics is complex and their risk is reduced by periconceptional maternal folic acid supplementation. There are > 60 mouse mutants and strains with NTDs, many reported within the past 2 years. Not only are NTD mutations at loci widely heterogeneous in function, but also most of the mutants demonstrate variable low penetrance and some show complex inheritance patterns (e.g. SELH/Bc, Abl / Arg, Mena / Profilin1 ). In most of these mouse models, the NTDs are exencephaly (equivalent to anencephaly) or spina bifida or both, reflecting failure of neural fold elevation in well defined, mechanistically distinct elevation zones. NTD risk is reduced in various models by different maternal nutrient supplements, including folic acid ( Pax3, Cart1, Cd mutants), inositol ( ct ) and methionine ( Axd ). Lack of de novo methylation in embryos ( Dnmt3b -null) leads to NTD risk, and we suggest a potential link between methylation and the observed female excess among cranial NTDs in several models. Some surprising NTD mutants ( Gadd45a, Terc, Trp53 ) suggest that genes with a basic mitotic function also have a function specific to neural fold elevation. The genes mutated in several mouse NTD models involve actin regulation ( Abl/Arg, Macs, Mena/Profilin1, Mlp, Shrm, Vcl ), support the postulated key role of actin in neural fold elevation, and may be a good candidate pathway to search for human NTD genes.

  14. Repeated Chlamydia trachomatis infection of Macaca nemestrina fallopian tubes produces a Th1-like cytokine response associated with fibrosis and scarring.

    PubMed Central

    Van Voorhis, W C; Barrett, L K; Sweeney, Y T; Kuo, C C; Patton, D L

    1997-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis-associated female infertility and ectopic pregnancy are caused by postinflammatory fibrosis and scarring of the upper genital tract. Scarring of the upper genital tract is associated with multiple infectious episodes with C. trachomatis. To study the immune response that occurs with multiple infections of C. trachomatis in the female upper genital tract, a Macaca nemestrina model was used. Subcutaneous pockets containing autologous salpingeal tissue implants were inoculated three times with C. trachomatis. The inflammation after three inoculations was associated with a mononuclear infiltrate dominated by CD8 T-cell lymphocytes. Perforin mRNA was induced in infected pockets, demonstrating that activated cytolytic lymphocytes were present in the lesions. Fibrosis, as evidenced by fibroblast proliferation and connective tissue deposition, was observed by the third infection. Cytokine mRNAs induced by repeated chlamydial infection included gamma interferon, interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-6, and IL-10 mRNAs, but IL-4 mRNA was not induced. Nearly identical findings were found in macaque fallopian tubes infected in situ repeatedly with C. trachomatis, validating the subcutaneous pocket model of chlamydial salpingitis. However, it was not possible to evaluate if there was an induction of perforin mRNA in infected salpingeal tubes in situ, because there was a high basal level of perforin mRNA in these tissues. These results suggest that repeated chlamydial infection of the female upper genital tract leads to CD8 T-cell predominance, a Th1-like cytokine milieu, and these inflammatory changes are associated with progression to fibrosis associated with female infertility. PMID:9169748

  15. Cediranib, an Oral Inhibitor of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor Kinases, Is an Active Drug in Recurrent Epithelial Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Peritoneal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Matulonis, Ursula A.; Berlin, Suzanne; Ivy, Percy; Tyburski, Karin; Krasner, Carolyn; Zarwan, Corrine; Berkenblit, Anna; Campos, Susana; Horowitz, Neil; Cannistra, Stephen A.; Lee, Hang; Lee, Julie; Roche, Maria; Hill, Margaret; Whalen, Christin; Sullivan, Laura; Tran, Chau; Humphreys, Benjamin D.; Penson, Richard T.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Angiogenesis is important for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) growth, and blocking angiogenesis can lead to EOC regression. Cediranib is an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) -1, VEGFR-2, VEGFR-3, and c-kit. Patients and Methods We conducted a phase II study of cediranib for recurrent EOC or peritoneal or fallopian tube cancer; cediranib was administered as a daily oral dose, and the original dose was 45 mg daily. Because of toxicities observed in the first 11 patients, the dose was lowered to 30 mg. Eligibility included ≤ two lines of chemotherapy for recurrence. End points included response rate (via Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors [RECIST] or modified Gynecological Cancer Intergroup CA-125), toxicity, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Results Forty-seven patients were enrolled; 46 were treated. Clinical benefit rate (defined as complete response [CR] or partial response [PR], stable disease [SD] > 16 weeks, or CA-125 nonprogression > 16 weeks), which was the primary end point, was 30%; eight patients (17%; 95% CI, 7.6% to 30.8%) had a PR, six patients (13%; 95% CI, 4.8% to 25.7%) had SD, and there were no CRs. Eleven patients (23%) were removed from study because of toxicities before two cycles. Grade 3 toxicities (> 20% of patients) included hypertension (46%), fatigue (24%), and diarrhea (13%). Grade 2 hypothyroidism occurred in 43% of patients. Grade 4 toxicities included CNS hemorrhage (n = 1), hypertriglyceridemia/hypercholesterolemia/elevated lipase (n = 1), and dehydration/elevated creatinine (n = 1). No bowel perforations or fistulas occurred. Median PFS was 5.2 months, and median OS has not been reached; median follow-up time is 10.7 months. Conclusion Cediranib has activity in recurrent EOC, tubal cancer, and peritoneal cancer with predictable toxicities observed with other TKIs. PMID:19826113

  16. Data set for reporting of ovary, fallopian tube and primary peritoneal carcinoma: recommendations from the International Collaboration on Cancer Reporting (ICCR).

    PubMed

    McCluggage, W Glenn; Judge, Meagan J; Clarke, Blaise A; Davidson, Ben; Gilks, C Blake; Hollema, Harry; Ledermann, Jonathan A; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Mikami, Yoshiki; Stewart, Colin J R; Vang, Russell; Hirschowitz, Lynn

    2015-08-01

    A comprehensive pathological report is essential for optimal patient management, cancer staging and prognostication. In many countries, proforma reports are used but these vary in their content. The International Collaboration on Cancer Reporting (ICCR) is an alliance formed by the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia, the Royal College of Pathologists of the United Kingdom, the College of American Pathologists, the Canadian Partnership Against Cancer and the European Society of Pathology, with the aim of developing an evidence-based reporting data set for each cancer site. This will reduce the global burden of cancer data set development and reduplication of effort by different international institutions that commission, publish and maintain standardised cancer reporting data sets. The resultant standardisation of cancer reporting will benefit not only those countries directly involved in the collaboration but also others not in a position to develop their own data sets. We describe the development of a cancer data set by the ICCR expert panel for the reporting of primary ovarian, fallopian tube and peritoneal carcinoma and present the 'required' and 'recommended' elements to be included in the report with an explanatory commentary. This data set encompasses the recent International Federation of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists staging system for these neoplasms and the updated World Health Organisation Classification of Tumours of the Female Reproductive Organs. The data set also addresses issues about site assignment of the primary tumour in high-grade serous carcinomas and proposes a scoring system for the assessment of tumour response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The widespread implementation of this data set will facilitate consistent and accurate data collection, comparison of epidemiological and pathological parameters between different populations, facilitate research and hopefully will result in improved patient management.

  17. Prevalence of cytomegalovirus, and its effect on the expression of inducible and endothelial nitric oxide synthases in Fallopian tubes collected from women with and without ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Batwa, S A; Ashshi, A M; Kamfar, F F; Ahmad, J; Idris, S; Khojah, A; Al-Qadi, N M; Refaat, B

    2016-01-01

    To measure the prevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in ectopic pregnancy (EP) and its effect on the expression of inducible and endothelial nitric oxide synthases (iNOS, eNOS) by Fallopian tubes (FT) bearing an EP. This was a prospective case-control study. Blood and tubal samples were collected from 84 Eps and 51 controls (20 total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) during the luteal phase and another 31 tubal ligations). CMV IgM and IgG antibodies were measured by ELISA, and an IVD CE PCR kit was used to detect CMV in the FTs. iNOS and eNOS were measured by immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR in FTs obtained from CMV-positive EP (n = 12), and the results were compared with those obtained from CMV-negative EP (n = 11) and TAH (n = 8). The frequencies of CMV IgM (51.2 % vs 17.6 %), IgG (77.4 % vs 52.9 %) or both antibodies (41.6 % vs 11.7 %) were significantly higher in EP compared with control. CMV was more common by PCR in FTs from EP (21.4 %) than controls (5.9 %). Twelve women from the PCR positive EP cases (66.6 %) were also simultaneously positive for both CMV IgM & IgG antibodies and had higher expression of eNOS and iNOS at the protein and gene levels compared with negative EP and TAH. Tubal infection with CMV may lead to EP by increasing the production of endothelial and inducible NOS by the FT epithelial cells. Further studies are required to illustrate the role of CMV in the pathogenesis of EP.

  18. Cotinine exposure increases Fallopian tube PROKR1 expression via nicotinic AChRalpha-7: a potential mechanism explaining the link between smoking and tubal ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Julie L V; Oliver, Elizabeth; Lee, Kai-Fai; Entrican, Gary; Jabbour, Henry N; Critchley, Hilary O D; Horne, Andrew W

    2010-11-01

    Tubal ectopic pregnancy (EP) is the most common cause of maternal mortality in the first trimester of pregnancy; however, its etiology is uncertain. In EP, embryo retention within the Fallopian tube (FT) is thought to be due to impaired smooth muscle contractility (SMC) and alterations in the tubal microenvironment. Smoking is a major risk factor for EP. FTs from women with EP exhibit altered prokineticin receptor-1 (PROKR1) expression, the receptor for prokineticins (PROK). PROK1 is angiogenic, regulates SMC, and is involved in intrauterine implantation. We hypothesized that smoking predisposes women to EP by altering tubal PROKR1 expression. Sera/FT were collected at hysterectomy (n=21). Serum levels of the smoking metabolite, cotinine, were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. FTs were analyzed by q-RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting for expression of PROKR1 and the predicted cotinine receptor, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α-7 (AChRα-7). FT explants (n=4) and oviductal epithelial cells (cell line OE-E6/E7) were treated with cotinine and an nAChRα-7 antagonist. PROKR1 transcription was higher in FTs from smokers (P<0.01). nAChRα-7 expression was demonstrated in FT epithelium. Cotinine treatment of FT explants and OE-E6/E7 cells increased PROKR1 expression (P<0.05), which was negated by cotreatment with nAChRα-7 antagonist. Smoking targets human FTs via nAChRα-7 to increase tubal PROKR1, leading to alterations in the tubal microenvironment that could predispose to EP.

  19. Chlamydia trachomatis IgG3 seropositivity is a predictor of reproductive outcomes in infertile women with patent fallopian tubes

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Anne Z.; Diamond, Michael P.; Legro, Richard S.; Schlaff, William D.; Barnhart, Kurt T.; Casson, Peter R.; Christman, Gregory M.; Alvero, Ruben; Hansen, Karl R.; Geisler, William M.; Thomas, Tracey; Santoro, Nanette; Zhang, Heping; Eisenberg, Esther

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) seropositivity as detected by the Ct elementary body (EB)-based enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Ct EB ELISA) predicts pregnancy and pregnancy outcome among infertile women with documented tubal patency. Design Cohort study Setting Outpatient clinics participating in the reproductive medicine network Patients 1250 infertile women with documented tubal patency enrolled in one of two randomized controlled trials: PPCOSII and AMIGOS Intervention Sera were analyzed for anti-Ct IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies using a research Ct EB ELISA. OD405 readings ≥0.35 and ≥0.1 were considered positive for IgG1 and IgG3, respectively. Main Outcome Measures Primary outcomes included pregnancy, live birth, and ectopic pregnancy. Log linear regression was used to determine the relative risk after adjusting for age, race, treatment medication, smoking status, and current alcohol use. Results 243 (19%) women were seropositive for anti-Ct IgG3. They tended to be non-White and smokers. Anti-Ct IgG3 seropositive women were significantly less likely to conceive (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.52-0.83) or to have a live birth (RR 0.59, 95% 0.43-0.80); these associations were weakened after adjusting for number of HSG-documented patent tubes (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.56-0.97) and (0.73, 95% CI: 0.50-1.04), respectively. Anti-Ct IgG3 seropositive women who conceived had 2.7 (95% CI: 1.40-5.34) times the risk of ectopic pregnancy. Conclusions Even in the presence of tubal patency, anti-Ct IgG3 seropositivity is associated with lower likelihood of pregnancy. Anti-Ct IgG3 seropositive women have up to 3 times the risk of ectopic pregnancy. PMID:26413816

  20. Phytosphingosine-containing neutral glycosphingolipids and sulfatides in the human female genital tract: their association in the cervical epithelium and the uterine endometrium and their dissociation in the mucosa of fallopian tube with the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Takamatsu, K

    1992-09-01

    In human cervical epithelium and uterine endometrium, globo-series neutral glycosphingolipids with N-alpha-hydroxy fatty acyl phytosphingosine (4-D-hydroxysphinganine) as the ceramide and sulfatide (I3SO3-GalCer), which were contained in trace amount at the follicular phase, significantly increased in concentration at the luteal phase, comprising about 20% of the individual neutral glycosphingolipids and about 15% of the total acidic glycosphingolipids, respectively. However, in the mucosa of fallopian tube, neutral glycosphingolipids with the same polarity as those in the cervical epithelium and uterine endometrium at the luteal phase and sulfatide remained at a constant and higher level independently of the menstrual cycle. The structures of neutral glycosphingolipids in the fallopian tube, having the same polarity as that of N-alpha-hydroxy fatty acyl phytosphingosine-containing molecules appeared in the cervical epithelium and uterine endometrium at the luteal phase, were determined to be N-alpha-hydroxy palmitoyl 4-sphingenine-containing ones by negative-ion FABMS. Also, laminin, but not collagen type IV, was found to be contained in the concentration correlated well with that of sulfatide in the genital tract, when determined by western blotting with monoclonal anti-laminin and anti-collagen type IV antibodies, indicating a possible function of sulfatide as a receptor for laminin in the human female genital tract.

  1. Expression of messenger ribonucleic acid and presence of immunoreactive proteins for epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) and EGF/TGF alpha receptors and 125I-EGF binding sites in human fallopian tube.

    PubMed

    Chegini, N; Zhao, Y; McLean, F W

    1994-05-01

    Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that the Fallopian tubes express epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor (TGF alpha), and EGF receptor (EGF-R) mRNA. The RT-PCR product was verified by restriction enzyme digestion analysis. Immunohistochemically, EGF, TGF alpha, and EGF-R were localized in Fallopian tubes by use of specific antibodies to human EGF, mature fragments of human TGF alpha, and monoclonal antibodies to the extracellular binding domain of EGF-R. The tubal epithelial cells were the primary site of immunoreactive EGF, TGF alpha, and EGF-R, which were present to a lesser extent in the stromal cells, smooth muscle cell layers, fibroblasts of serosal tissue, and arterial endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Using antibodies generated against the amino and carboxy termini of TGF alpha precursor produced a similar cellular distribution to that observed for mature TGF alpha. The intensity of immunoreactive TGF alpha with these antibodies was similar to that seen with EGF. The ciliated and nonciliated epithelial cells in the ampullary and isthmus regions immunostained with similar intensity for EGF, TGF alpha, and EGF-R. The immunostaining for EGF, TGF alpha, and EGF-R was cycle-dependent, was considerably higher during late proliferative and early-to-mid-secretory phases than during early proliferative and late secretory phases of the menstrual cycle, and was reduced during the postmenopausal period. Specimens obtained 5-12 yr after tubal ligation immunostained for EGF, TGF alpha, and EGF-R similarly to sections from unligated tubes taken during the same phase of the cycle. Quantitative autoradiography of 125I-EGF binding generated a pattern similar to that of immunostaining for EGF-R binding. Net grain density/100 microns 2 calculated for different cell types indicated that the epithelial cells had a significantly higher grain density than did other tubal cell types (p < 0.05) without the cycle dependency seen

  2. Early detection of high-grade tubal serous carcinoma in women at low risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome by systematic examination of fallopian tubes incidentally removed during benign surgery.

    PubMed

    Rabban, Joseph T; Garg, Karuna; Crawford, Beth; Chen, Lee-may; Zaloudek, Charles J

    2014-06-01

    Early detection of sporadic pelvic serous carcinoma remains an elusive goal. In women at high risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome who undergo prophylactic salpingectomy, systematic pathologic examination of the fallopian tubes will detect occult tubal cancer, mostly in the fimbriae, of a minority of women. Such tubal cancers are the putative precursor to advanced-stage pelvic cancer. We hypothesized that early tubal cancer detection can also be accomplished in women at low risk using a similar approach. In this study, we performed complete and systematic examination of the fallopian tubes removed during surgery performed for benign indications. Among 522 women, 4 cases of serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) were identified. Three of these cases would have gone undetected using the current standard of care of sampling only a single random section of the tube. The fourth case was accompanied by occult ovarian carcinoma. The fimbriae contained STIC in 3 of the 4 cases and atypical mucosa in 1 case in which the STIC was in the nonfimbriated portion of the tube. The morphologic and immunohistochemical features (aberrant p53 and MIB-1) of these STICs were similar to those expected in high-risk women. All 4 patients with STIC underwent BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene testing; no germline mutations were identified in any patient. An additional 11 specimens contained atypical mucosal proliferations that fell short of morphologic and immunohistochemical criteria for STIC. Two of these 11 fulfilled criteria for a serous tubal intraepithelial lesion, and the remaining atypical proliferations exhibited normal p53 and MIB-1. For most specimens, the fimbriae could be completely submitted in 1 or 2 cassettes per tube. These results demonstrate that systematic examination of the tubal fimbriae can serve as a form of early detection of sporadic tubal cancer without incurring significant labor or cost. We propose that the tubal fimbriae should be completely examined

  3. Morphogenetic movements in the neural plate and neural tube: mouse.

    PubMed

    Massarwa, R'ada; Ray, Heather J; Niswander, Lee

    2014-01-01

    The neural tube (NT), the embryonic precursor of the vertebrate brain and spinal cord, is generated by a complex and highly dynamic morphological process. In mammals, the initially flat neural plate bends and lifts bilaterally to generate the neural folds followed by fusion of the folds at the midline during the process of neural tube closure (NTC). Failures in any step of this process can lead to neural tube defects (NTDs), a common class of birth defects that occur in approximately 1 in 1000 live births. These severe birth abnormalities include spina bifida, a failure of closure at the spinal level; craniorachischisis, a failure of NTC along the entire body axis; and exencephaly, a failure of the cranial neural folds to close which leads to degeneration of the exposed brain tissue termed anencephaly. The mouse embryo presents excellent opportunities to explore the genetic basis of NTC in mammals; however, its in utero development has also presented great challenges in generating a deeper understanding of how gene function regulates the cell and tissue behaviors that drive this highly dynamic process. Recent technological advances are now allowing researchers to address these questions through visualization of NTC dynamics in the mouse embryo in real time, thus offering new insights into the morphogenesis of mammalian NTC.

  4. Development of a Conditional Transgenic Mouse Model to Test the Fallopian Tube Origin of Serous Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    transgene plasmid to follow up on this next strategy. KEY RESEARCH ACCOMPLISHMENTS: • molecular cloning of Ovgp1-lacZ reporter gene plasmid...high-expressing 242 line • molecular cloning of Ovgp1-Cre transgene plasmid REPORTABLE OUTCOMES: • generation of two Ovgp1-lacZ transgenic

  5. Efficacy and Safety of Bevacizumab Plus Erlotinib for Patients with Recurrent Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, and Fallopian Tube Cancer: A Trial of the Chicago, PMH, and California Phase II Consortia

    PubMed Central

    Nimeiri, Halla S.; Oza, Amit M.; Morgan, Robert J.; Friberg, Gregory; Kasza, Kristen; Faoro, Leonardo; Salgia, Ravi; Stadler, Walter M.; Vokes, Everett E.; Fleming, Gini F.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this phase II trial were to assess the activity and tolerability of the combination of bevacizumab and erlotinib in patients with recurrent ovarian, primary peritoneal or fallopian tube cancer. Methods This was a single arm, multicenter phase II trial with overall objective response as the primary endpoint. Eligible patients had two or fewer prior chemotherapy regimens for recurrent or refractory disease and no prior anti-VEGF or anti- EGFR agents. Bevacizumab, 15 mg/kg, was administered intravenously every 21 days and erlotinib, 150 mg orally, was given daily. Results Between July and October 2005, 13 patients were enrolled. There were two major objective responses, one complete response of 16+ months duration and one partial response of 11 months duration, for a response rate of 15% (95% CI 1.9% to 45.4%). Seven patients had a best response of stable disease. The most common grade 3 or 4 toxicities included anemia (n=1), nausea (n=2), vomiting (n=1), hypertension (n=1), and diarrhea (n=2). One patient with an ileostomy was removed from the study secondary to grade 3 diarrhea. Two patients had fatal gastrointestinal perforations. Conclusion There was no strong suggestion that this combination was superior to single agent bevacizumab, and the rate of gastrointestinal perforation was of concern. The study was therefore stopped. Identification of risk factors for gastrointestinal perforation will be of importance for the use of bevacizumab in the treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:18423560

  6. mouseTube – a database to collaboratively unravel mouse ultrasonic communication

    PubMed Central

    Torquet, Nicolas; de Chaumont, Fabrice; Faure, Philippe; Bourgeron, Thomas; Ey, Elodie

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic vocalisation is a broadly used proxy to evaluate social communication in mouse models of neuropsychiatric disorders. The efficacy and robustness of testing these models suffer from limited knowledge of the structure and functions of these vocalisations as well as of the way to analyse the data. We created mouseTube, an open database with a web interface, to facilitate sharing and comparison of ultrasonic vocalisations data and metadata attached to a recording file. Metadata describe 1) the acquisition procedure, e.g., hardware, software, sampling frequency, bit depth; 2) the biological protocol used to elicit ultrasonic vocalisations; 3) the characteristics of the individual emitting ultrasonic vocalisations ( e.g., strain, sex, age). To promote open science and enable reproducibility, data are made freely available. The website provides searching functions to facilitate the retrieval of recording files of interest. It is designed to enable comparisons of ultrasonic vocalisation emission between strains, protocols or laboratories, as well as to test different analysis algorithms and to search for protocols established to elicit mouse ultrasonic vocalisations. Over the long term, users will be able to download and compare different analysis results for each data file. Such application will boost the knowledge on mouse ultrasonic communication and stimulate sharing and comparison of automatic analysis methods to refine phenotyping techniques in mouse models of neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:27830061

  7. Follow-up of patients who are clinically disease-free after primary treatment for fallopian tube, primary peritoneal, or epithelial ovarian cancer: a Program in Evidence-Based Care guideline adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Le, T.; Kennedy, E.B.; Dodge, J.; Elit, L.

    2016-01-01

    Background A need for follow-up recommendations for survivors of fallopian tube, primary peritoneal, or epithelial ovarian cancer after completion of primary treatment was identified by Cancer Care Ontario’s Program in Evidence-Based Care. Methods We searched for existing guidelines, conducted a systematic review (medline, embase, and cdsr, January 2010 to March 2015), created draft recommendations, and completed a comprehensive review process. Outcomes included overall survival, quality of life, and patient preferences. Results The Cancer Australia guidance document Follow Up of Women with Epithelial Ovarian Cancer was adapted for the Ontario context. A key randomized controlled trial found that the overall survival rate did not differ between asymptomatic women who received early treatment based on elevated serum cancer antigen 125 (ca125) alone and women who waited for the appearance of clinical symptoms before initiating treatment (hazard ratio: 0.98; 95% confidence interval: 0.80 to 1.20; p = 0.85); in addition, patients in the delayed treatment group reported good global health scores for longer. No randomized studies were found for other types of follow-up. We recommend that survivors be made aware of the potential harms and benefits of surveillance, including a discussion of the limitations of ca125 testing. Women could be offered the option of no formal follow-up or a follow-up schedule that is agreed upon by the woman and her health care provider. Education about the most common symptoms of recurrence should be provided. Alternative models of care such as nurse-led or telephone-based follow-up (or both) could be emerging options. Conclusions The recommendations provided in this guidance document have a limited evidence base. Recommendations should be updated as further information becomes available. PMID:27803599

  8. Multistep level sections to detect occult fallopian tube carcinoma in risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomies from women with BRCA mutations: implications for defining an optimal specimen dissection protocol.

    PubMed

    Rabban, Joseph T; Krasik, Ellen; Chen, Lee-May; Powell, Catherine B; Crawford, Beth; Zaloudek, Charles J

    2009-12-01

    Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) significantly lowers the incidence of ovarian, tubal, peritoneal, and breast cancer in women who carry BRCA1 or BRCA2 germline mutations. A minority of RRSO specimens from these women will contain occult early-stage carcinoma. Most occult cancer is localized in the fallopian tube fimbriae and is as small as 1 mm in size. Pathologic detection is dependent on thoroughness of tissue examination. Recommended protocols to maximize tumor detection emphasize the role of thinly slicing the tubes and ovaries and embedding the entire specimen for microscopic examination. Additional multistep level sections of tubal fimbriae tissue blocks could theoretically increase detection of occult tubal carcinoma but the value of level sections has not been formally evaluated. This study tests the diagnostic utility of multistep level sections in RRSO specimens from 102 women with BRCA germline mutations. The original diagnoses were based on a single section from each block of thinly sliced (2 to 3 mm intervals) tissues of the entire RRSO specimen. Three multistep level sections were retrospectively obtained from each block containing tubal fimbriae. Clinically occult carcinoma ranging in size from 1 to 13 mm was initially detected in 11 of 102 women (5 in tubal fimbriae only, 1 in tubal isthmus only, 2 in fimbriae and ovary, and 3 in ovary only). Diagnoses in the original fimbrial slides and their level sections were concordant in all cases. All tubal cancers were detected in both the original sections and in the multistep level sections. None of the tubal carcinomas that were noninvasive on the original slides showed invasive growth on additional level sections. No tubal carcinoma was identified in the level sections of any case originally classified as benign. Clinical follow-up among women with benign RRSO findings revealed that 2 women subsequently developed peritoneal carcinomatosis at 22 and 62 months postoperatively. Retrospective

  9. A Molar Pregnancy within the Fallopian Tube

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Charlotte; Nascu, Patricia; Rouse, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    Background. Discussion of the incidence of molar pregnancy and ectopic pregnancy. Role of salpingostomy and special considerations for postoperative care. Case. The patient is a 29-year-old G7P4 who presented with vaginal bleeding in the first trimester and was initially thought to have a spontaneous abortion. Ultrasound was performed due to ongoing symptoms and an adnexal mass was noted. She underwent uncomplicated salpingostomy and was later found to have a partial molar ectopic pregnancy. Conclusion. This case illustrates the rare occurrence of a molar ectopic pregnancy. There was no indication of molar pregnancy preoperatively and this case highlights the importance of submitting and reviewing pathological specimens. PMID:28044117

  10. Nucleotide precursors prevent folic acid-resistant neural tube defects in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Leung, Kit-Yi; De Castro, Sandra C P; Savery, Dawn; Copp, Andrew J; Greene, Nicholas D E

    2013-09-01

    Closure of the neural tube during embryogenesis is a crucial step in development of the central nervous system. Failure of this process results in neural tube defects, including spina bifida and anencephaly, which are among the most common birth defects worldwide. Maternal use of folic acid supplements reduces risk of neural tube defects but a proportion of cases are not preventable. Folic acid is thought to act through folate one-carbon metabolism, which transfers one-carbon units for methylation reactions and nucleotide biosynthesis. Hence suboptimal performance of the intervening reactions could limit the efficacy of folic acid. We hypothesized that direct supplementation with nucleotides, downstream of folate metabolism, has the potential to support neural tube closure. Therefore, in a mouse model that exhibits folic acid-resistant neural tube defects, we tested the effect of specific combinations of pyrimidine and purine nucleotide precursors and observed a significant protective effect. Labelling in whole embryo culture showed that nucleotides are taken up by the neurulating embryo and incorporated into genomic DNA. Furthermore, the mitotic index was elevated in neural folds and hindgut of treated embryos, consistent with a proposed mechanism of neural tube defect prevention through stimulation of cellular proliferation. These findings may provide an impetus for future investigations of supplemental nucleotides as a means to prevent a greater proportion of human neural tube defects than can be achieved by folic acid alone.

  11. Novel Mode of Defective Neural Tube Closure in the Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) Mouse Strain.

    PubMed

    Salbaum, J Michael; Kruger, Claudia; MacGowan, Jacalyn; Herion, Nils J; Burk, David; Kappen, Claudia

    2015-11-23

    Failure to close the neural tube results in birth defects, with severity ranging from spina bifida to lethal anencephaly. Few genetic risk factors for neural tube defects are known in humans, highlighting the critical role of environmental risk factors, such as maternal diabetes. Yet, it is not well understood how altered maternal metabolism interferes with embryonic development, and with neurulation in particular. We present evidence from two independent mouse models of diabetic pregnancy that identifies impaired migration of nascent mesodermal cells in the primitive streak as the morphogenetic basis underlying the pathogenesis of neural tube defects. We conclude that perturbed gastrulation not only explains the neurulation defects, but also provides a unifying etiology for the broad spectrum of congenital malformations in diabetic pregnancies.

  12. Reconstitution of a Patterned Neural Tube from Single Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Keisuke; Ranga, Adrian; Lutolf, Matthias P; Tanaka, Elly M; Meinhardt, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The recapitulation of tissue development and patterning in three-dimensional (3D) culture is an important dimension of stem cell research. Here, we describe a 3D culture protocol in which single mouse ES cells embedded in Matrigel under neural induction conditions clonally form a lumen containing, oval-shaped epithelial structure within 3 days. By Day 7 an apicobasally polarized neuroepithelium with uniformly dorsal cell identity forms. Treatment with retinoic acid at Day 2 results in posteriorization and self-organization of dorsal-ventral neural tube patterning. Neural tube organoid growth is also supported by pure laminin gels as well as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based artificial extracellular matrix hydrogels, which can be fine-tuned for key microenvironment characteristics. The rapid generation of a simple, patterned tissue in well-defined culture conditions makes the neural tube organoid a tractable model for studying neural stem cell self-organization.

  13. Dynamic imaging and quantitative analysis of cranial neural tube closure in the mouse embryo using optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shang; Garcia, Monica D.; Lopez, Andrew L.; Overbeek, Paul A.; Larin, Kirill V.; Larina, Irina V.

    2016-01-01

    Neural tube closure is a critical feature of central nervous system morphogenesis during embryonic development. Failure of this process leads to neural tube defects, one of the most common forms of human congenital defects. Although molecular and genetic studies in model organisms have provided insights into the genes and proteins that are required for normal neural tube development, complications associated with live imaging of neural tube closure in mammals limit efficient morphological analyses. Here, we report the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for dynamic imaging and quantitative assessment of cranial neural tube closure in live mouse embryos in culture. Through time-lapse imaging, we captured two neural tube closure mechanisms in different cranial regions, zipper-like closure of the hindbrain region and button-like closure of the midbrain region. We also used OCT imaging for phenotypic characterization of a neural tube defect in a mouse mutant. These results suggest that the described approach is a useful tool for live dynamic analysis of normal neural tube closure and neural tube defects in the mouse model. PMID:28101427

  14. Dynamic imaging and quantitative analysis of cranial neural tube closure in the mouse embryo using optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shang; Garcia, Monica D; Lopez, Andrew L; Overbeek, Paul A; Larin, Kirill V; Larina, Irina V

    2017-01-01

    Neural tube closure is a critical feature of central nervous system morphogenesis during embryonic development. Failure of this process leads to neural tube defects, one of the most common forms of human congenital defects. Although molecular and genetic studies in model organisms have provided insights into the genes and proteins that are required for normal neural tube development, complications associated with live imaging of neural tube closure in mammals limit efficient morphological analyses. Here, we report the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for dynamic imaging and quantitative assessment of cranial neural tube closure in live mouse embryos in culture. Through time-lapse imaging, we captured two neural tube closure mechanisms in different cranial regions, zipper-like closure of the hindbrain region and button-like closure of the midbrain region. We also used OCT imaging for phenotypic characterization of a neural tube defect in a mouse mutant. These results suggest that the described approach is a useful tool for live dynamic analysis of normal neural tube closure and neural tube defects in the mouse model.

  15. Self-assembly of "Mickey Mouse" shaped colloids into tube-like structures: experiments and simulations.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Joost R; Avvisati, Guido; Hagemans, Fabian; Vissers, Teun; Kraft, Daniela J; Dijkstra, Marjolein; Kegel, Willem K

    2015-02-14

    The self-assembly of anisotropic patchy particles with a triangular shape was studied by experiments and computer simulations. The colloidal particles were synthesized in a two-step seeded emulsion polymerization process, and consist of a central smooth lobe connected to two rough lobes at an angle of ∼90°, resembling the shape of a "Mickey Mouse" head. Due to the difference in overlap volume, adding an appropriate depletant induces an attractive interaction between the smooth lobes of the colloids only, while the two rough lobes act as steric constraints. The essentially planar geometry of the Mickey Mouse particles is a first geometric deviation of dumbbell shaped patchy particles. This new geometry enables the formation of one-dimensional tube-like structures rather than spherical, essentially zero-dimensional micelles. At sufficiently strong attractions, we indeed find tube-like structures with the sticky lobes at the core and the non-sticky lobes pointing out as steric constraints that limit the growth to one direction, providing the tubes with a well-defined diameter but variable length both in experiments and simulations. In the simulations, we found that the internal structure of the tubular fragments could either be straight or twisted into so-called Bernal spirals.

  16. METHYLMERCURY INDUCED TOXICOGENOMIC RESPONSE IN C57 AND SWV MOUSE EMBRYOS UNDERGOING NEURAL TUBE CLOSURE

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Joshua F.; Griffith, William C.; Yu, Xiaozhong; Hong, Sungwoo; Kim, Euvin; Faustman, Elaine M.

    2010-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a developmental neurotoxicant and teratogen and is hypothesized to perturb a wide range of biological processes, like other metals including arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd). Common inbred mouse strains including C57 (sensitive) and SWV (resistant) display differences in sensitivity to metals such as As and Cd when exposed during neurulation. In this study, we investigated the impact of MeHg on neurulation, assessing for potential differences in sensitivity and associated toxicogenomic response in C57 and SWV mouse embryos. Parallel with morphological assessments of neural tube closure, we evaluated quantitative differences in MeHg-induced alterations in expression between strains at the gene level and within gene-enriched biological processes. Specifically, we observed differing sensitivities to MeHg-induced impacts on neural tube closure between C57 and SWV embryos in a time-dependent manner. These observations correlated with greater impact on the expression of genes associated with development and environmental stress-related pathways in the C57 compared to the SWV. Additional developmental parameters (e.g. mortality, growth effects) evaluated showed mixed significant effects across the two strains and did not support observations of differential sensitivity to MeHg. This study provides potential insights into MeHg-induced mechanisms of developmental toxicity, alterations associated with increased MeHg sensitivity and common biological processes affected by metals in embryos undergoing neurulation. PMID:20493249

  17. Transplantation Into the Mouse Ovarian Fat Pad

    PubMed Central

    Flesken-Nikitin, Andrea; Harlan, Blaine A.; Nikitin, Alexander Yu.

    2016-01-01

    Orthotopic transplantation assays in mice are invaluable for studies of cell regeneration and neoplastic transformation. Common approaches for orthotopic transplantation of ovarian surface and tubal epithelia include intraperitoneal and intrabursal administration of cells. The respective limitations of these methods include poorly defined location of injected cells and limited space volume. Furthermore, they are poorly suited for long-term structural preservation of transplanted organs. To address these challenges, we have developed an alternative approach, which is based on the introduction of cells and tissue fragments into the mouse fat pad. The mouse ovarian fat pad is located in the immediate vicinity of the ovary and uterine tube (aka oviduct, fallopian tube), and provides a familiar microenvironment for cells and tissues of these organs. In our approach fluorescence-labeled mouse and human cells, and fragments of the uterine tube are engrafted by using minimally traumatic dorsal incision surgery. Transplanted cells and their outgrowths are easily located in the ovarian fat pad for over 40 days. Long-term transplantation of the entire uterine tube allows correct preservation of all principle tissue components, and does not result in adverse side effects, such as fibrosis and inflammation. Our approach should be uniquely applicable for answering important biological questions such as differentiation, regenerative and neoplastic potential of specific cell populations. Furthermore, it should be suitable for studies of microenvironmental factors in normal development and cancer. PMID:27684746

  18. Effect of mitomycin C on the neural tube defects of the curly-tail mouse.

    PubMed

    Seller, M J; Perkins, K J

    1986-06-01

    Around 60% of the mouse mutants called curly-tail, have tail aberrations in the form of a coil or a kink, with or without lumbosacral spina bifida, and rarely, exencephaly. These neural tube defects (NTD) are the result of an incompletely penetrant recessive gene. A single injection of various doses (1-6 mg/kg) of the DNA inhibitor mitomycin C was given to pregnant curly-tail mice on day 7, 8, or 9 of gestation, and its effect on the NTD of the embryos was noted. No dose used was lethal to the embryo. When given on day 7 or day 8, mitomycin C markedly increased the number of exencephalics, and additionally, on day 8, it reduced the number of posterior abnormalities. However, on day 9, no exencephaly was produced, and there was a drastic reduction in the number of tail and spinal defects, the overall incidence of NTD being as low as 15% with 2 mg/kg. A twofold effect of mitomycin C on the curly-tail embryos was thus observed--according to the time in development it was administered, firstly, a teratogenic effect, and later, a "remedial" or preventive effect.

  19. Cellular basis of neuroepithelial bending during mouse spinal neural tube closure.

    PubMed

    McShane, Suzanne G; Molè, Matteo A; Savery, Dawn; Greene, Nicholas D E; Tam, Patrick P L; Copp, Andrew J

    2015-08-15

    Bending of the neural plate at paired dorsolateral hinge points (DLHPs) is required for neural tube closure in the spinal region of the mouse embryo. As a step towards understanding the morphogenetic mechanism of DLHP development, we examined variations in neural plate cellular architecture and proliferation during closure. Neuroepithelial cells within the median hinge point (MHP) contain nuclei that are mainly basally located and undergo relatively slow proliferation, with a 7 h cell cycle length. In contrast, cells in the dorsolateral neuroepithelium, including the DLHP, exhibit nuclei distributed throughout the apico-basal axis and undergo rapid proliferation, with a 4 h cell cycle length. As the neural folds elevate, cell numbers increase to a greater extent in the dorsolateral neural plate that contacts the surface ectoderm, compared with the more ventromedial neural plate where cells contact paraxial mesoderm and notochord. This marked increase in dorsolateral cell number cannot be accounted for solely on the basis of enhanced cell proliferation in this region. We hypothesised that neuroepithelial cells may translocate in a ventral-to-dorsal direction as DLHP formation occurs, and this was confirmed by vital cell labelling in cultured embryos. The translocation of cells into the neural fold, together with its more rapid cell proliferation, leads to an increase in cell density dorsolaterally compared with the more ventromedial neural plate. These findings suggest a model in which DLHP formation may proceed through 'buckling' of the neuroepithelium at a dorso-ventral boundary marked by a change in cell-packing density.

  20. An update to the list of mouse mutants with neural tube closure defects and advances toward a complete genetic perspective of neural tube closure.

    PubMed

    Harris, Muriel J; Juriloff, Diana M

    2010-08-01

    The number of mouse mutants and strains with neural tube defects (NTDs) now exceeds 240, including 205 representing specific genes, 30 for unidentified genes, and 9 multifactorial strains. These mutants identify genes needed for embryonic neural tube closure. Reports of 50 new NTD mutants since our 2007 review (Harris and Juriloff, 2007) were considered in relation to the previously reviewed mutants to obtain new insights into mechanisms of NTD etiology. In addition to null mutations, some are hypomorphs or conditional mutants. Some mutations do not cause NTDs on their own, but do so in digenic, trigenic, and oligogenic combinations, an etiology that likely parallels the nature of genetic etiology of human NTDs. Mutants that have only exencephaly are fourfold more frequent than those that have spina bifida aperta with or without exencephaly. Many diverse cellular functions and biochemical pathways are involved; the NTD mutants draw new attention to chromatin modification (epigenetics), the protease-activated receptor cascade, and the ciliopathies. Few mutants directly involve folate metabolism. Prevention of NTDs by maternal folate supplementation has been tested in 13 mutants and reduces NTD frequency in six diverse mutants. Inositol reduces spina bifida aperta frequency in the curly tail mutant, and three new mutants involve inositol metabolism. The many NTD mutants are the foundation for a future complete genetic understanding of the processes of neural fold elevation and fusion along mechanistically distinct cranial-caudal segments of the neural tube, and they point to several candidate processes for study in human NTD etiology.

  1. Cellular basis of neuroepithelial bending during mouse spinal neural tube closure

    PubMed Central

    McShane, Suzanne G.; Molè, Matteo A.; Savery, Dawn; Greene, Nicholas D. E; Tam, Patrick P.L.; Copp, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Bending of the neural plate at paired dorsolateral hinge points (DLHPs) is required for neural tube closure in the spinal region of the mouse embryo. As a step towards understanding the morphogenetic mechanism of DLHP development, we examined variations in neural plate cellular architecture and proliferation during closure. Neuroepithelial cells within the median hinge point (MHP) contain nuclei that are mainly basally located and undergo relatively slow proliferation, with a 7 h cell cycle length. In contrast, cells in the dorsolateral neuroepithelium, including the DLHP, exhibit nuclei distributed throughout the apico-basal axis and undergo rapid proliferation, with a 4 h cell cycle length. As the neural folds elevate, cell numbers increase to a greater extent in the dorsolateral neural plate that contacts the surface ectoderm, compared with the more ventromedial neural plate where cells contact paraxial mesoderm and notochord. This marked increase in dorsolateral cell number cannot be accounted for solely on the basis of enhanced cell proliferation in this region. We hypothesised that neuroepithelial cells may translocate in a ventral-to-dorsal direction as DLHP formation occurs, and this was confirmed by vital cell labelling in cultured embryos. The translocation of cells into the neural fold, together with its more rapid cell proliferation, leads to an increase in cell density dorsolaterally compared with the more ventromedial neural plate. These findings suggest a model in which DLHP formation may proceed through ‘buckling’ of the neuroepithelium at a dorso-ventral boundary marked by a change in cell-packing density. PMID:26079577

  2. Drugs Approved for Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for ovarian cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  3. Fallopian Tubes: Is Pregnancy Possible with Only One?

    MedlinePlus

    ... for an infection, a tumor or a past ectopic pregnancy. Occasionally, some women are born with only one ... Pruthi, M.D. References Lentz GM, et al. Ectopic pregnancy. In: Comprehensive Gynecology. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby ...

  4. General Information About Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview History of NCI Contributing to Cancer Research Senior Leadership Director Previous Directors NCI Organization Divisions, Offices & Centers Advisory Boards & Groups Budget & Appropriations Current Year Budget Annual Plan & Budget ...

  5. Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview History of NCI Contributing to Cancer Research Senior Leadership Director Previous Directors NCI Organization Divisions, Offices & Centers Advisory Boards & Groups Budget & Appropriations Current Year Budget Annual Plan & Budget ...

  6. Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... ovaries are a pair of organs in the female reproductive system . They are located in the pelvis , one on ... at these cancers together. Enlarge Anatomy of the female reproductive system. The organs in the female reproductive system include ...

  7. Stages of Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... ovaries are a pair of organs in the female reproductive system . They are in the pelvis , one on each ... spreads to the ovary. Enlarge Anatomy of the female reproductive system. The organs in the female reproductive system include ...

  8. Risks of Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... ovaries are a pair of organs in the female reproductive system . They are located in the pelvis , one on ... at these cancers together. Enlarge Anatomy of the female reproductive system. The organs in the female reproductive system include ...

  9. Olaparib for Maintenance Treatment of BRCA 1 or 2 Mutated, Relapsed, Platinum-Sensitive Ovarian, Fallopian Tube and Peritoneal Cancer in People Whose Relapsed Disease has Responded to Platinum-Based Chemotherapy: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a NICE Single Technology Appraisal.

    PubMed

    Tappenden, Paul; Harnan, Sue; Ren, Shijie; Thokala, Praveen; Wong, Ruth; Mukuria, Clara; Green, Clare; Pledge, Simon; Tidy, John

    2017-01-01

    As part of its Single Technology Appraisal process, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the manufacturer of olaparib (AstraZeneca) to submit evidence on the clinical and cost effectiveness of olaparib for the maintenance treatment of BRCA1/2 mutated (BRCAm), platinum-sensitive relapsed (PSR) ovarian, fallopian tube and peritoneal cancer in people whose relapsed disease has responded to platinum-based chemotherapy. The Evidence Review Group (ERG) produced a critical review of the evidence contained within the company's submission (CS) to NICE. The clinical evidence related to one phase II, double-blind randomised controlled trial that recruited 265 patients with PSR serous ovarian cancer (OC) regardless of BRCAm status. Patients received olaparib 400 mg twice daily (b.i.d.) or matched placebo. In the whole population, the primary endpoint of progression-free survival (PFS) was met (hazard ratio [HR] 0.35; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.25-0.49, p < 0.01) for olaparib versus placebo. The BRCAm subgroup analysis (added after the study commenced but 1 month before the primary analysis was undertaken) reported an HR for PFS of 0.18 (95 % CI 0.10-0.31, p < 0.0001) for olaparib versus placebo, though interaction tests appeared inconclusive. Overall survival was not statistically significant in the whole group (HR 0.88; 95 % CI 0.64-1.21; p = 0.44) or the BRCAm subgroup (0.73; 95 % CI 0.45-1.17; p = 0.19), though treatment switching may have confounded results. The exclusion of data from sites allowing crossover resulted in an HR for overall survival (OS) of 0.52 (95 % CI 0.28-0.97, p = 0.039) in the BRCAm group. Health-related quality-of-life measures were not significantly different between groups. All post hoc exploratory outcomes (time to treatment discontinuation/death, time to first subsequent therapy/death, and time to second subsequent therapy/death) were statistically significantly better in the olaparib arm in

  10. Epithelial tension in the second heart field promotes mouse heart tube elongation

    PubMed Central

    Francou, Alexandre; De Bono, Christopher; Kelly, Robert G.

    2017-01-01

    Extension of the vertebrate heart tube is driven by progressive addition of second heart field (SHF) progenitor cells to the poles of the heart. Defects in this process cause a spectrum of congenital anomalies. SHF cells form an epithelial layer in splanchnic mesoderm in the dorsal wall of the pericardial cavity. Here we report oriented cell elongation, polarized actomyosin distribution and nuclear YAP/TAZ in a proliferative centre in the posterior dorsal pericardial wall during heart tube extension. These parameters are indicative of mechanical stress, further supported by analysis of cell shape changes in wound assays. Time course and mutant analysis identifies SHF deployment as a source of epithelial tension. Moreover, cell division and oriented growth in the dorsal pericardial wall align with the axis of cell elongation, suggesting that epithelial tension in turn contributes to heart tube extension. Our results implicate tissue-level forces in the regulation of heart tube extension. PMID:28357999

  11. The effect of the space flight environment on mucin production in the mouse uterine tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svalina, Gorica; Forsman, Allan D.

    2013-06-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that the microgravity environment of space has harmful effects on several tissues throughout the body. Although this phenomenon is well documented, research in this area is still in its relative infancy. This study investigates the effects of space flight on mucin production of the uterine tubes of mice. This study examined the epithelium of the uterine tubes from female mice that were flown on the space shuttle Endeavour for 13 days in August, 2007 and their concomitant controls. The tissue was qualitatively analyzed for the type of mucin produced, i.e., acidic, neutral, acidic/neutral mixture. Further, the tissue was quantitatively analyzed for the amounts of mucins produced by measuring the thickness of the mucin layer for each region of the uterine tube: isthmus, ampulla, and infundibulum. One way ANOVA tests were used to compare mucin thickness between all three sets of animals. Results indicate similar but not identical results between the three regions of the uterine tube. The Baseline tissue had the thickest mucin layer regardless of treatment group. In the ampulla the mucin layer was the thinnest in the Flight tissue, followed by the Ground Control, with the Baseline being the thickest. Analysis of the mucin layer of the infundibulum of the three treatment groups indicated no difference in its thickness between the three regions of the uterine tube. These results indicate a trend toward thinning of the mucin layer of the uterine tube in space flight, but also indicate an influence by the housing environment.

  12. Insights into prevention of human neural tube defects by folic acid arising from consideration of mouse mutants.

    PubMed

    Harris, Muriel J

    2009-04-01

    Almost 30 years after the initial study by Richard W. Smithells and coworkers, it is still unknown how maternal periconceptional folic acid supplementation prevents human neural tube defects (NTDs). In this article, questions about human NTD prevention are considered in relation to three groups of mouse models: NTD mutants that respond to folate, NTD mutants and strains that do not respond to folate, and mutants involving folate-pathway genes. Of the 200 mouse NTD mutants, only a few have been tested with folate; half respond and half do not. Among responsive mutants, folic acid supplementation reduces exencephaly and/or spina bifida aperta frequency in the Sp(2H), Sp, Cd, Cited2, Cart1, and Gcn5 mutants. Prevention ranges from 35 to 85%. The responsive Sp(2H) (Pax3) mutant has abnormal folate metabolism, but the responsive Cited2 mutant does not. Neither folic nor folinic acid reduces NTD frequency in Axd, Grhl3, Fkbp8, Map3k4, or Nog mutants or in the curly tail or SELH/Bc strains. Spina bifida frequency is reduced in Axd by methionine and in curly tail by inositol. Exencephaly frequency is reduced in SELH/Bc by an alternative commercial ration. Mutations in folate-pathway genes do not cause NTDs, except for 30% exencephaly in folate-treated Folr1. Among folate-pathway mutants, neural tube closure is normal in Cbs, Folr2, Mthfd1, Mthfd2, Mthfr, and Shmt1 mutants. Embryos die by midgestation in Folr1, Mtr, Mtrr, and RFC1 mutants. The mouse models point to genetic heterogeneity in the ability to respond to folic acid and also to heterogeneity in genetic cause of NTDs that can be prevented by folic acid.

  13. The iron exporter ferroportin 1 is essential for development of the mouse embryo, forebrain patterning and neural tube closure

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Jinzhe; McKean, David M.; Warrier, Sunita; Corbin, Joshua G.; Niswander, Lee; Zohn, Irene E.

    2010-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are some of the most common birth defects observed in humans. The incidence of NTDs can be reduced by peri-conceptional folic acid supplementation alone and reduced even further by supplementation with folic acid plus a multivitamin. Here, we present evidence that iron maybe an important nutrient necessary for normal development of the neural tube. Following implantation of the mouse embryo, ferroportin 1 (Fpn1) is essential for the transport of iron from the mother to the fetus and is expressed in the visceral endoderm, yolk sac and placenta. The flatiron (ffe) mutant mouse line harbors a hypomorphic mutation in Fpn1 and we have created an allelic series of Fpn1 mutations that result in graded developmental defects. A null mutation in the Fpn1 gene is embryonic lethal before gastrulation, hypomorphic Fpn1ffe/ffe mutants exhibit NTDs consisting of exencephaly, spina bifida and forebrain truncations, while Fpn1ffe/KI mutants exhibit even more severe NTDs. We show that Fpn1 is not required in the embryo proper but rather in the extra-embryonic visceral endoderm. Our data indicate that loss of Fpn1 results in abnormal morphogenesis of the anterior visceral endoderm (AVE). Defects in the development of the forebrain in Fpn1 mutants are compounded by defects in multiple signaling centers required for maintenance of the forebrain, including the anterior definitive endoderm (ADE), anterior mesendoderm (AME) and anterior neural ridge (ANR). Finally, we demonstrate that this loss of forebrain maintenance is due in part to the iron deficiency that results from the absence of fully functional Fpn1. PMID:20702562

  14. Understanding the causes and prevention of neural tube defects: Insights from the splotch mouse model.

    PubMed

    Greene, Nicholas D E; Massa, Valentina; Copp, Andrew J

    2009-04-01

    Splotch mutant mice develop neural tube defects (NTDs), comprising exencephaly and/or spina bifida, as well as neural crest-related defects and abnormalities of limb musculature. Defects in splotch mice result from mutations in Pax3, and some human NTDs may also result from mutations in the human PAX3 gene. Pax3 encodes a transcription factor whose function may influence expression of multiple downstream genes associated with a variety of cellular properties (including apoptosis, adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation), that could be important for neural tube closure. The frequency of NTDs varies between mutant alleles and is also influenced by genetic background and environmental factors. Notably, splotch provides a model for folic acid-preventable NTDs, and conversely, dietary folate deficiency exacerbates NTDs. Understanding the molecular and cellular basis of splotch NTDs, as well as the mechanisms by which the frequency of defects is influenced by genetic and environmental factors (such as sub-optimal folate status), may provide insight into the causation of these severe congenital malformations in humans.

  15. Inositol prevents folate-resistant neural tube defects in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Greene, N D; Copp, A J

    1997-01-01

    Clinical trials demonstrate that up to 70% of neural tube defects (NTDs) can be prevented by folic acid supplementation in early pregnancy, whereas the remaining NTDs are resistant to folate. Here, we show that a second vitamin, myo-inositol, is capable of significantly reducing the incidence of spinal NTDs in curly tail mice, a genetic model of folate-resistant NTDs. Inositol increases flux through the inositol/lipid cycle, stimulating protein kinase C activity and upregulating expression of retinoic acid receptor beta, specifically in the caudal portion of the embryonic hindgut. This reduces the delay in closure of the posterior neuropore, the embryonic defect that is known to lead directly to spina bifida in curly tail embryos. Our findings reveal a molecular pathway of NTD prevention and suggest the possible efficacy of combined treatment with folate and inositol in overcoming the majority of human NTDs.

  16. Differentiation Induction of Mouse Neural Stem Cells in Hydrogel Tubular Microenvironments with Controlled Tube Dimensions.

    PubMed

    Onoe, Hiroaki; Kato-Negishi, Midori; Itou, Akane; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a tubular 3D microenvironment created in a calcium alginate hydrogel microtube with respect to the effect of scaffold dimensions on the differentiation of mouse neuronal stem cells (mNSCs) is evaluated. Five types of hydrogel microtubes with different core diameters (≈65-200 μm) and shell thicknesses (≈30-110 μm) are fabricated by using a double coaxial microfluidic device, and differentiation of encapsulated mNSCs is induced by changing the growth medium to the differentiation medium. The influence of the microtube geometries is examined by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and fluorescent immunocytochemistry. The analyses reveal that differences in microtube thickness within 30-110 μm affected the relative Tuj1 expression but do not affect the morphology of encapsulated mNSCs. The diameters of cores influence both the relative Tuj1 expression and morphology of the differentiated neurons. It is found that the tubular microenvironment with a core diameter of less than ≈100 μm contributes to forming highly viable and aligned neural tissue. The tubular microenvironment can provide an effective method for constructing microfiber-shaped neural tissues with geometrically controlled differentiation induction.

  17. ARSENATE-INDUCED MATERNAL GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE AND NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS IN A MOUSE MODEL

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Denise S.; Wlodarczyk, Bogdan J.; Mitchell, Laura E.; Finnell, Richard H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have linked environmental arsenic (As) exposure to increased type 2 diabetes risk. Periconceptional hyperglycemia is a significant risk factor for neural tube defects (NTDs), the second most common structural birth defect. A suspected teratogen, arsenic (As) induces NTDs in laboratory animals. Objectives We investigated whether maternal glucose homeostasis disruption was responsible for arsenate-induced NTDs in a well-established dosing regimen used in studies of arsenic’s teratogenicity in early neurodevelopment. Methods We evaluated maternal intraperitoneal (I.P.) exposure to As 9.6 mg/kg (as sodium arsenate) in LM/Bc/Fnn mice for teratogenicity and disruption of maternal plasma glucose and insulin levels. Selected compounds (insulin pellet, sodium selenate (SS), N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), L-methionine (L-Met), N-tert-Butyl-α-phenylnitrone (PBN)) were investigated for their potential to mitigate arsenate’s effects. Results Arsenate caused significant glucose elevation during an I.P. glucose tolerance test (IPGTT). Insulin levels were not different between arsenate and control dams before (arsenate, 0.55 ng/dl; control, 0.48 ng/dl) or after glucose challenge (arsenate, 1.09 ng/dl; control, 0.81 ng/dl). HOMA-IR index was higher for arsenate (3.9) vs control (2.5) dams (p=0.0260). Arsenate caused NTDs (100%, p<0.0001). Insulin pellet and NAC were the most successful rescue agents, reducing NTD rates to 45% and 35%. Conclusions IPGTT, insulin assay, and HOMA-IR results suggest a modest failure of glucose stimulated insulin secretion and insulin resistance characteristic of glucose intolerance. Insulin’s success in preventing arsenate-induced NTDs provides evidence that these arsenate-induced NTDs are secondary to elevated maternal glucose. The NAC rescue, which did not restore maternal glucose or insulin levels, suggests oxidative disruption plays a role. PMID:19446573

  18. Arsenate-induced maternal glucose intolerance and neural tube defects in a mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Denise S.; Wlodarczyk, Bogdan J.; Mitchell, Laura E.; Finnell, Richard H.

    2009-08-15

    Background: Epidemiological studies have linked environmental arsenic (As) exposure to increased type 2 diabetes risk. Periconceptional hyperglycemia is a significant risk factor for neural tube defects (NTDs), the second most common structural birth defect. A suspected teratogen, arsenic (As) induces NTDs in laboratory animals. Objectives: We investigated whether maternal glucose homeostasis disruption was responsible for arsenate-induced NTDs in a well-established dosing regimen used in studies of arsenic's teratogenicity in early neurodevelopment. Methods: We evaluated maternal intraperitoneal (IP) exposure to As 9.6 mg/kg (as sodium arsenate) in LM/Bc/Fnn mice for teratogenicity and disruption of maternal plasma glucose and insulin levels. Selected compounds (insulin pellet, sodium selenate (SS), N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), L-methionine (L-Met), N-tert-Butyl-{alpha}-phenylnitrone (PBN)) were investigated for their potential to mitigate arsenate's effects. Results: Arsenate caused significant glucose elevation during an IP glucose tolerance test (IPGTT). Insulin levels were not different between arsenate and control dams before (arsenate, 0.55 ng/dl; control, 0.48 ng/dl) or after glucose challenge (arsenate, 1.09 ng/dl; control, 0.81 ng/dl). HOMA-IR index was higher for arsenate (3.9) vs control (2.5) dams (p = 0.0260). Arsenate caused NTDs (100%, p < 0.0001). Insulin pellet and NAC were the most successful rescue agents, reducing NTD rates to 45% and 35%. Conclusions: IPGTT, insulin assay, and HOMA-IR results suggest a modest failure of glucose stimulated insulin secretion and insulin resistance characteristic of glucose intolerance. Insulin's success in preventing arsenate-induced NTDs provides evidence that these arsenate-induced NTDs are secondary to elevated maternal glucose. The NAC rescue, which did not restore maternal glucose or insulin levels, suggests oxidative disruption plays a role.

  19. Coordination of Intercellular Ca2+ Signaling in Endothelial Cell Tubes of Mouse Resistance Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Socha, Matthew J.; Domeier, Timothy L.; Behringer, Erik J.; Segal, Steven S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that Ca2+ responses to G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) activation are coordinated between neighboring endothelial cells of resistance arteries. Methods Endothelial cell tubes were freshly isolated from superior epigastric arteries of C57BL/6 mice. Intercellular coupling was tested using microinjection of propidium iodide. Following loading with fluo-4 dye, intracellular Ca2+ responses to ACh were imaged with confocal microscopy. Results Cell-to-cell transfer of propidium iodide confirmed functional gap junction channels. 1 μM ACh evoked Ca2+ responses [9.8±0.8/min, (F/F0)=3.11±0.2] which pseudo-linescan analysis revealed to be composed of Ca2+ waves and spatially-restricted Ca2+ release events. 100 nM ACh induced Ca2+ responses of lower frequency (4.5±0.7/min) and amplitude (F/F0=1.95±0.11) composed primarily of spatially-restricted events. The interval between Ca2+ waves in Adjacent cells (0.79±0.12 s) was shorter (P<0.05) than between Nonadjacent cells (1.56±0.25 s). Spatially-restricted Ca2+ release events had similar frequencies and latencies between Adjacent and Nonadjacent cells. Inhibiting intracellular Ca2+ release with 2-APB, Xestospongin C or thapsigargin eliminated Ca2+ responses. Conclusions With moderate GPCR stimulation, localized Ca2+ release events predominate among cells. Greater GPCR stimulation evokes coordinated intercellular Ca2+ waves via the endoplasmic reticulum. Calcium signaling during GPCR activation is complex among cells, varying with stimulus intensity and proximity to actively signaling cells. PMID:22860994

  20. A mutation in the tuft mouse disrupts TET1 activity and alters the expression of genes that are crucial for neural tube closure

    PubMed Central

    Khadka, Vedbar S.; Corley, Michael J.; Maunakea, Alika K.; Fogelgren, Ben; Ahmed, Zubair M.; Lozanoff, Scott

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genetic variations affecting neural tube closure along the head result in malformations of the face and brain. Neural tube defects (NTDs) are among the most common birth defects in humans. We previously reported a mouse mutant called tuft that arose spontaneously in our wild-type 3H1 colony. Adult tuft mice present midline craniofacial malformations with or without an anterior cephalocele. In addition, affected embryos presented neural tube closure defects resulting in insufficient closure of the anterior neuropore or exencephaly. Here, through whole-genome sequencing, we identified a nonsense mutation in the Tet1 gene, which encodes a methylcytosine dioxygenase (TET1), co-segregating with the tuft phenotype. This mutation resulted in premature termination that disrupts the catalytic domain that is involved in the demethylation of cytosine. We detected a significant loss of TET enzyme activity in the heads of tuft embryos that were homozygous for the mutation and had NTDs. RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis indicated that multiple gene pathways associated with neural tube closure were dysregulated in tuft embryo heads. Among them, the expressions of Cecr2, Epha7 and Grhl2 were significantly reduced in some embryos presenting neural tube closure defects, whereas one or more components of the non-canonical WNT signaling pathway mediating planar cell polarity and convergent extension were affected in others. We further show that the recombinant mutant TET1 protein was capable of entering the nucleus and affected the expression of endogenous Grhl2 in IMCD-3 (inner medullary collecting duct) cells. These results indicate that TET1 is an epigenetic determinant for regulating genes that are crucial to closure of the anterior neural tube and its mutation has implications to craniofacial development, as presented by the tuft mouse. PMID:26989192

  1. A mutation in the tuft mouse disrupts TET1 activity and alters the expression of genes that are crucial for neural tube closure.

    PubMed

    Fong, Keith S K; Hufnagel, Robert B; Khadka, Vedbar S; Corley, Michael J; Maunakea, Alika K; Fogelgren, Ben; Ahmed, Zubair M; Lozanoff, Scott

    2016-05-01

    Genetic variations affecting neural tube closure along the head result in malformations of the face and brain. Neural tube defects (NTDs) are among the most common birth defects in humans. We previously reported a mouse mutant called tuft that arose spontaneously in our wild-type 3H1 colony. Adult tuft mice present midline craniofacial malformations with or without an anterior cephalocele. In addition, affected embryos presented neural tube closure defects resulting in insufficient closure of the anterior neuropore or exencephaly. Here, through whole-genome sequencing, we identified a nonsense mutation in the Tet1 gene, which encodes a methylcytosine dioxygenase (TET1), co-segregating with the tuft phenotype. This mutation resulted in premature termination that disrupts the catalytic domain that is involved in the demethylation of cytosine. We detected a significant loss of TET enzyme activity in the heads of tuft embryos that were homozygous for the mutation and had NTDs. RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis indicated that multiple gene pathways associated with neural tube closure were dysregulated in tuft embryo heads. Among them, the expressions of Cecr2, Epha7 and Grhl2 were significantly reduced in some embryos presenting neural tube closure defects, whereas one or more components of the non-canonical WNT signaling pathway mediating planar cell polarity and convergent extension were affected in others. We further show that the recombinant mutant TET1 protein was capable of entering the nucleus and affected the expression of endogenous Grhl2 in IMCD-3 (inner medullary collecting duct) cells. These results indicate that TET1 is an epigenetic determinant for regulating genes that are crucial to closure of the anterior neural tube and its mutation has implications to craniofacial development, as presented by the tuft mouse.

  2. Fallopian Metaplastic Papillary Tumour: An Atypical Transdifferentiation of the Tubal Epithelium?

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Miguel Fdo.; Moscoso, Isaías Estrada; Vázquez, Lorena Troncoso; López García, Nubia Leticia; Escalante Abril, Paola Andrea

    2015-01-01

    A metaplastic papillary tumor of the Fallopian tube is an extremely uncommon condition, with odd and confusing features that make it difficult to categorize as benign or borderline. Here, we summarize all the published cases to date and document the case of a 41-year-old woman diagnosed with this alteration after her last childbirth and ensuing tubal ligation. One of the tubes was bulky and filled with a caramel-like substance encircling a blurry spot. Light microscopy detailed a slender stalk covered by eosinophilic, columnar plump cells, showing atypical nuclei and focal budding. Mitotic figures were absent. The immunohistochemistry panel was positive for pan-cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, cyclin D1, and hormone receptors. Additionally, a proliferation index of less than 5% was rated using Ki-67. The true nature of this tumor (reactive vs neoplastic) is uncertain. Nonetheless, its association with pregnancy suggests an adaptive change, likely similar to the atypical transdifferentiation proposed for Arias-Stella reaction. PMID:25812736

  3. Physical and transcriptional map of a 3-Mb region of mouse chromosome 1 containing the gene for the neural tube defect mutant loop-tail (Lp).

    PubMed

    Eddleston, J; Murdoch, J N; Copp, A J; Stanier, P

    1999-03-01

    The Lp mouse mutant provides a model for the severe human neural tube defect (NTD), cranio-rachischisis. To identify the Lp gene, a positional cloning approach has been adopted. Previously, linkage analysis in a large intraspecific backcross was used to map the Lp locus to distal mouse chromosome 1. Here we report a detailed physical map of this region. The interval surrounding Lp has been cloned in a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig consisting of 63 clones spanning approximately 3.2 Mb. Fifty sequence tagged sites (STSs) have been used to construct the contig and establish marker order across the interval. Based on the high level of conserved synteny between distal mouse chromosome 1 and human 1q21-q24, many of these STSs were designed from expressed sequences identified by cross-screening human and mouse databases of expressed sequence tags. Added to other known genes in the region, a total of 29 genes were located and ordered within the contig. Seven novel polymorphisms were identified within the region, allowing refinement of the genetic map and a reduction in the size of the physical interval containing the Lp gene. The Lp interval, between D1Mit113 and Tagln2, can be spanned by two nonchimeric overlapping YACs that define a physical distance of approximately 1 Mb. Within this region, 10 potential candidate genes have been mapped. The materials and genes described here will provide a resource for the identification and further study of the mutated Lp gene that causes this severe neural tube defect and will provide candidates for other defects known to map to the homologous region on human chromosome 1q.

  4. In vitro study of cell differentiation by two type mouse embryo stem cells on mono- and multilayer nanocarbon tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Koichi; Akasaka, Tsukasa; Watari, Fumio; Tanoue, Akito; Nakamura, Kazuaki; Suese, Kazuhiko; Takashima, Hiromasa; Nishikawa, Tetsunari; Tanaka, Akio; Takeda, Shoji

    2012-09-01

    The effects of nanomaterials on human reproduction and development remain unknown. The risks of nanomaterials for future generations should be elucidated. Thus, it is important to establish an experimental method to accurately examine embryotoxicity. We previously investigated the myocardial cell differentiation of ES-D3 cells using monolayer (SWCNTs) and multilayer (MWCNTs) nanocarbon tubes. As a result, in spite of having the same carbon composition, the effects on the cell differentiation levels differed between the tubes. We investigated their cell differentiation and cytotoxic effects on EL M3 and ES-R1-EGFP B2/EGFP cells, which require feeder cells. As a result, myocardial pulse rates differed between the presence of SWCNTs and MWCNTs even when feeder cells existed between the samples and cells. The different surface structures of SWCNTs and MWCNTs may have influenced ES cell differentiation.

  5. Fat1 interacts with Fat4 to regulate neural tube closure, neural progenitor proliferation and apical constriction during mouse brain development.

    PubMed

    Badouel, Caroline; Zander, Mark A; Liscio, Nicole; Bagherie-Lachidan, Mazdak; Sopko, Richelle; Coyaud, Etienne; Raught, Brian; Miller, Freda D; McNeill, Helen

    2015-08-15

    Mammalian brain development requires coordination between neural precursor proliferation, differentiation and cellular organization to create the intricate neuronal networks of the adult brain. Here, we examined the role of the atypical cadherins Fat1 and Fat4 in this process. We show that mutation of Fat1 in mouse embryos causes defects in cranial neural tube closure, accompanied by an increase in the proliferation of cortical precursors and altered apical junctions, with perturbations in apical constriction and actin accumulation. Similarly, knockdown of Fat1 in cortical precursors by in utero electroporation leads to overproliferation of radial glial precursors. Fat1 interacts genetically with the related cadherin Fat4 to regulate these processes. Proteomic analysis reveals that Fat1 and Fat4 bind different sets of actin-regulating and junctional proteins. In vitro data suggest that Fat1 and Fat4 form cis-heterodimers, providing a mechanism for bringing together their diverse interactors. We propose a model in which Fat1 and Fat4 binding coordinates distinct pathways at apical junctions to regulate neural progenitor proliferation, neural tube closure and apical constriction.

  6. Fat1 interacts with Fat4 to regulate neural tube closure, neural progenitor proliferation and apical constriction during mouse brain development

    PubMed Central

    Badouel, Caroline; Zander, Mark A.; Liscio, Nicole; Bagherie-Lachidan, Mazdak; Sopko, Richelle; Coyaud, Etienne; Raught, Brian; Miller, Freda D.; McNeill, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian brain development requires coordination between neural precursor proliferation, differentiation and cellular organization to create the intricate neuronal networks of the adult brain. Here, we examined the role of the atypical cadherins Fat1 and Fat4 in this process. We show that mutation of Fat1 in mouse embryos causes defects in cranial neural tube closure, accompanied by an increase in the proliferation of cortical precursors and altered apical junctions, with perturbations in apical constriction and actin accumulation. Similarly, knockdown of Fat1 in cortical precursors by in utero electroporation leads to overproliferation of radial glial precursors. Fat1 interacts genetically with the related cadherin Fat4 to regulate these processes. Proteomic analysis reveals that Fat1 and Fat4 bind different sets of actin-regulating and junctional proteins. In vitro data suggest that Fat1 and Fat4 form cis-heterodimers, providing a mechanism for bringing together their diverse interactors. We propose a model in which Fat1 and Fat4 binding coordinates distinct pathways at apical junctions to regulate neural progenitor proliferation, neural tube closure and apical constriction. PMID:26209645

  7. Analyses of copy number variation reveal putative susceptibility loci in MTX-induced mouse neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianhua; Wang, Xiuwei; Guan, Tao; Xiang, Qian; Wang, Mingsheng; Zhang, Zhi; Guan, Zhen; Wang, Guoliang; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Xie, Qiu; Li, Guannan; Guo, Jin; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Zhengguo; Niu, Bo; Zhang, Ting

    2014-09-01

    Copy number variations (CNVs) are thought to act as an important genetic mechanism underlying phenotypic heterogeneity. Impaired folate metabolism can result in neural tube defects (NTDs). However, the precise nature of the relationship between low folate status and NTDs remains unclear. Using an array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) assay, we investigated whether CNVs could be detected in the NTD embryonic neural tissues of methotrexate (MTX)-induced folate dysmetabolism pregnant C57BL/6 mice and confirmed the findings with quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The CNVs were then comprehensively investigated using bioinformatics methods to prioritize candidate genes. We measured dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) activity and concentrations of folate and relevant metabolites in maternal serum using enzymologic method and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Three high confidence CNVs on XqA1.1, XqA1.1-qA2, and XqE3 were found in the NTD embryonic neural tissues. Twelve putative genes and three microRNAs were identified as potential susceptibility candidates in MTX-induced NTDs and possible roles in NTD pathogenesis. DHFR activity and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MeTHF), 5-formyltetrahydrofolate (5-FoTHF), and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) concentrations of maternal serum decreased significantly after MTX injection. These findings suggest that CNVs caused by defects in folate metabolism lead to NTD, and further support the hypothesis that folate dysmetabolism is a direct cause for CNVs in MTX-induced NTDs.

  8. Tube support

    DOEpatents

    Mullinax, Jerry L.

    1988-01-01

    A tube support for supporting horizontal tubes from an inclined vertical support tube passing between the horizontal tubes. A support button is welded to the vertical support tube. Two clamping bars or plates, the lower edges of one bearing on the support button, are removably bolted to the inclined vertical tube. The clamping bars provide upper and lower surface support for the horizontal tubes.

  9. Infertility in Women: Hysterosalpingographic Assessment of the Fallopian Tubes in Lagos, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinola, R. A.; Akinola, O. I.; Fabamwo, A. O.

    2009-01-01

    Tubal disease constitutes a major factor in infertility especially in developing countries. This study was undertaken to assess the hysterosalpingographic patterns seen in infertile patients in an urban centre in Lagos. Two hundred and twenty patients who reported from the gynaecology clinic to the radiology department of Lagos State University…

  10. Treatment Option Overview (Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ovaries are a pair of organs in the female reproductive system . They are in the pelvis , one on each ... spreads to the ovary. Enlarge Anatomy of the female reproductive system. The organs in the female reproductive system include ...

  11. Treatment Options by Stage (Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ovaries are a pair of organs in the female reproductive system . They are in the pelvis , one on each ... spreads to the ovary. Enlarge Anatomy of the female reproductive system. The organs in the female reproductive system include ...

  12. [Positive and negative aspects of Fallopian tube sterilization as viewed by sterilized women

    PubMed

    Minella

    1998-03-30

    The objective of this paper is to point out the positive and negative aspects of female sterilization as seen by two groups of sterilized women in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil, based on a sociological discussion of their present health status, evaluating the associations that they generally make with the fact that they have been sterilized. The first group included mostly housewives from a low-income neighborhood, while the second involved upper-middle-class female public employees, students, and university professors, totaling 40 women. Data were obtained through a structured questionnaire with open-ended questions. Information on social, economic, and demographic variables was recorded, along with subjective data associated with women's representations of the post-sterilization period. We concluded that there was no consensus as to the consequences of sterilization, since a number of the women (11/40), mostly sterilized before the age of 30, perceived changes in their health status after surgery.

  13. Ear Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Tubes Ear Tubes Patient Health Information News media interested ... throat specialist) may be considered. What are ear tubes? Ear tubes are tiny cylinders placed through the ...

  14. Elevated Nuclear and Cytoplasmic FTY720-Phosphate in Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts Suggests the Potential for Multiple Mechanisms in FTY720-Induced Neural Tube Defects.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Nicole M; Riley, Ronald T; Showker, Jency L; Voss, Kenneth A; Sachs, Andrew J; Maddox, Joyce R; Gelineau-van Waes, Janee B

    2016-03-01

    FTY720 (fingolimod) is a U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved drug to treat relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. FTY720 treatment in pregnant inbred LM/Bc mice results in approximately 60% of embryos having a neural tube defect (NTD). Sphingosine kinases (Sphk1, Sphk2) phosphorylate FTY720 in vivo to form the bioactive metabolite FTY720-1-phosphate (FTY720-P). Cytoplasmic FTY720-P is an agonist for 4 of the 5 sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors (S1P1, 3-5) and can also act as a functional antagonist of S1P1, whereas FTY720-P generated in the nucleus inhibits histone deacetylases (HDACs), leading to increased histone acetylation. This study demonstrates that treatment of LM/Bc mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) with FTY720 results in a significant accumulation of FTY720-P in both the cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments. Elevated nuclear FTY720-P is associated with decreased HDAC activity and increased histone acetylation at H3K18 and H3K23 in LM/Bc MEFs. Treatment of LM/Bc MEFs with FTY720 and a selective Sphk2 inhibitor, ABC294640, significantly reduces the amount of FTY720-P that accumulates in the nucleus. The data provide insight into the relative amounts of FTY720-P generated in the nuclear versus cytoplasmic subcellular compartments after FTY720 treatment and the specific Sphk isoforms involved. The results of this study suggest that FTY720-induced NTDs may involve multiple mechanisms, including: (1) sustained and/or altered S1P receptor activation and signaling by FTY720-P produced in the cytoplasm and (2) HDAC inhibition and histone hyperacetylation by FTY720-P generated in the nucleus that could lead to epigenetic changes in gene regulation.

  15. Genetic backgrounds and modifier genes of NTD mouse models: An opportunity for greater understanding of the multifactorial etiology of neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Leduc, Renee Y M; Singh, Parmveer; McDermid, Heather E

    2016-10-21

    Neurulation, the early embryonic process of forming the presumptive brain and spinal cord, is highly complex and involves hundreds of genes in multiple genetic pathways. Mice have long served as a genetic model for studying human neurulation, and the resulting neural tube defects (NTDs) that arise when neurulation is disrupted. Because mice appear to show mostly single gene inheritance for NTDs and humans show multifactorial inheritance, mice sometimes have been characterized as a simpler model for the identification and study of NTD genes. But are they a simple model? When viewed on different genetic backgrounds, many genes show significant variation in the penetrance and expressivity of NTD phenotypes, suggesting the presence of modifier loci that interact with the target gene to affect the phenotypic expression. Looking at mutations on different genetic backgrounds provides us with an opportunity to explore these complex genetic interactions, which are likely to better emulate similar processes in human neurulation. Here, we review NTD genes known to show strain-specific phenotypic variation. We focus particularly on the gene Cecr2, which is studied using both a hypomorphic and a presumptive null mutation on two different backgrounds: one susceptible (BALB/c) and one resistant (FVB/N) to NTDs. This strain difference has led to a search for genetic modifiers within a region on murine chromosome 19. Understanding how genetic variants alter the phenotypic outcome in NTD mouse models will help to direct future studies in humans, particularly now that more genome wide sequencing approaches are being used. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Formate supplementation enhances folate-dependent nucleotide biosynthesis and prevents spina bifida in a mouse model of folic acid-resistant neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Sudiwala, Sonia; De Castro, Sandra C P; Leung, Kit-Yi; Brosnan, John T; Brosnan, Margaret E; Mills, Kevin; Copp, Andrew J; Greene, Nicholas D E

    2016-07-01

    The curly tail mouse provides a model for neural tube defects (spina bifida and exencephaly) that are resistant to prevention by folic acid. The major ct gene, responsible for spina bifida, corresponds to a hypomorphic allele of grainyhead-like 3 (Grhl3) but the frequency of NTDs is strongly influenced by modifiers in the genetic background. Moreover, exencephaly in the curly tail strain is not prevented by reinstatement of Grhl3 expression. In the current study we found that expression of Mthfd1L, encoding a key component of mitochondrial folate one-carbon metabolism (FOCM), is significantly reduced in ct/ct embryos compared to a partially congenic wild-type strain. This expression change is not attributable to regulation by Grhl3 or the genetic background at the Mthfd1L locus. Mitochondrial FOCM provides one-carbon units as formate for FOCM reactions in the cytosol. We found that maternal supplementation with formate prevented NTDs in curly tail embryos and also resulted in increased litter size. Analysis of the folate profile of neurulation-stage embryos showed that formate supplementation resulted in an increased proportion of formyl-THF and THF but a reduction in proportion of 5-methyl THF. In contrast, THF decreased and 5-methyl THF was relatively more abundant in the liver of supplemented dams than in controls. In embryos cultured through the period of spinal neurulation, incorporation of labelled thymidine and adenine into genomic DNA was suppressed by supplemental formate, suggesting that de novo folate-dependent biosynthesis of nucleotides (thymidylate and purines) was enhanced. We hypothesise that reduced Mthfd1L expression may contribute to susceptibility to NTDs in the curly tail strain and that formate acts as a one-carbon donor to prevent NTDs.

  17. TUBE TESTER

    DOEpatents

    Gittings, H.T. Jr.; Kalbach, J.F.

    1958-01-14

    This patent relates to tube testing, and in particular describes a tube tester for automatic testing of a number of vacuum tubes while in service and as frequently as may be desired. In it broadest aspects the tube tester compares a particular tube with a standard tube tarough a difference amplifier. An unbalanced condition in the circuit of the latter produced by excessive deviation of the tube in its characteristics from standard actuates a switch mechanism stopping the testing cycle and indicating the defective tube.

  18. A Third Surgically Managed Ectopic Pregnancy after Two Salpingectomies Involving the Opposite Tube

    PubMed Central

    Deguchi, Yoko; Horiuchi, Yuko; Ino, Kazuhiko; Furukawa, Kenichi

    2017-01-01

    Recurrent ectopic pregnancy in a remnant fallopian tube after ipsilateral salpingectomy is clinically rare. We report the extremely rare case of a third recurrent ectopic pregnancy after two previous salpingectomy procedures involving the opposite tube. A 26-year-old woman, gravida 3 para 0, experienced three ectopic pregnancies brought about by natural conception, all of which were treated surgically (right partial salpingectomy, right remnant tube resection, and left total salpingectomy). During the two salpingectomy procedures involving the right tube, the patency of the intact left tube was intraoperatively confirmed with indigo carmine. The most appropriate surgical intervention should be discussed when managing recurrent ectopic pregnancies. It might be necessary to perform total salpingectomy to reduce the risk of future recurrence on the remaining tube. PMID:28116193

  19. Wnt activation downregulates olfactomedin-1 in Fallopian tubal epithelial cells: a microenvironment predisposed to tubal ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kodithuwakku, Suranga P; Pang, Ronald T K; Ng, Ernest H Y; Cheung, Annie N Y; Horne, Andrew W; Ho, Pak-Chung; Yeung, William S B; Lee, Kai-Fai

    2012-02-01

    Ectopic pregnancy (EP) occurs when the embryo fails to transit to the uterus and attach to the luminal epithelium of the Fallopian tube (FT). Tubal EP is a common gynecological emergency and more than 95% of EP occurs in the ampullary region of the FT. In humans, Wnt activation and downregulation of olfactomedin-1 (Olfm-1) occur in the receptive endometrium and coincided with embryo implantation in vivo. Whether similar molecular changes happen in the FT leading to EP remains unclear. We hypothesized that activation of Wnt signaling downregulates Olfm-1 expression predisposes to EP. We investigated the spatiotemporal expression of Olfm-1 in FT from non-pregnant women and women with EP, and used a novel trophoblastic spheroid (embryo surrogate)-FT epithelial cell co-culture model (JAr and OE-E6/E7 cells) to study the role of Olfm-1 on spheroid attachment. Olfm-1 mRNA expression in the ampullary region of non-pregnant FT was higher (P<0.05) in the follicular phase than in the luteal phase. Ampullary tubal Olfm-1 expression was lower in FT from women with EP compared to normal controls at the luteal phase (histological scoring (H-SCORE)=1.3±0.2 vs 2.4±0.5; P<0.05). Treatment of OE-E6/E7 with recombinant Olfm-1 (0.2-5 μg/ml) suppressed spheroid attachment to OE-E6/E7 cells, while activation of Wnt-signaling pathway by Wnt3a or LiCl reduced endogenous Olfm-1 expression and increased spheroid attachment. Conversely, suppression of Olfm-1 expression by RNAi increased spheroid attachment to OE-E6/E7 cells. Taken together, Wnt activation suppresses Olfm-1 expression, and this may predispose a favorable microenvironment of the retained embryo in the FT, leading to EP in humans.

  20. Elevated nuclear and cytoplasmic FTY720-phosphate in mouse embryonic fibroblasts suggests the potential for multiple mechanisms in FTY720-induced neural tube defects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    FTY720 (fingolimod) is an FDA-approved drug to treat relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. FTY720 treatment in pregnant inbred LM/Bc mice results in approximately 60% of embryos having a neural tube defect (NTD). Sphingosine kinases (Sphk1, Sphk2) phosphorylate FTY720 in vivo to form the bioactive...

  1. Feeding Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Tubes Health Information Sheet Q & A with Experts Patient Stories Social Security Disability Application Process For Kids ... Feeding Tubes Health Information Sheet Q & A with Experts Patient Stories Social Security Disability Application Process For Kids ...

  2. Tracheostomy tubes.

    PubMed

    Hess, Dean R; Altobelli, Neila P

    2014-06-01

    Tracheostomy tubes are used to administer positive-pressure ventilation, to provide a patent airway, and to provide access to the lower respiratory tract for airway clearance. They are available in a variety of sizes and styles from several manufacturers. The dimensions of tracheostomy tubes are given by their inner diameter, outer diameter, length, and curvature. Differences in dimensions between tubes with the same inner diameter from different manufacturers are not commonly appreciated but may have important clinical implications. Tracheostomy tubes can be cuffed or uncuffed and may be fenestrated. Some tracheostomy tubes are designed with an inner cannula. It is important for clinicians caring for patients with a tracheostomy tube to appreciate the nuances of various tracheostomy tube designs and to select a tube that appropriately fits the patient. The optimal frequency of changing a chronic tracheostomy tube is controversial. Specialized teams may be useful in managing patients with a tracheostomy. Speech can be facilitated with a speaking valve in patients with a tracheostomy tube who are breathing spontaneously. In mechanically ventilated patients with a tracheostomy, a talking tracheostomy tube, a deflated cuff technique with a speaking valve, or a deflated cuff technique without a speaking valve can be used to facilitate speech.

  3. Mutations in PTF1A are not a common cause for human VATER/VACTERL association or neural tube defects mirroring Danforth's short tail mouse.

    PubMed

    Gurung, Nirmala; Grosse, Greta; Draaken, Markus; Hilger, Alina C; Nauman, Nuzhat; Müller, Andreas; Gembruch, Ulrich; Merz, Waltraut M; Reutter, Heiko; Ludwig, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Danforth's short tail (Sd) mutant mice exhibit defects of the neural tube and other abnormalities, which are similar to the human vertebral anomalies, anal atresia, cardiac defects, tracheosophageal fistula and/or esophageal atresia, renal and radial abnormalities, and limb defects (VATER/VACTERL) association, including defects of the hindgut. Sd has been shown to underlie ectopic gene expression of murine Ptf1a, which encodes pancreas-specific transcription factor 1A, due to the insertion of a retrotansposon in its 5' regulatory domain. In order to investigate the possible involvement of this gene in human VATER/VACTERL association and human neural tube defects (NTDs), a sequence analysis was performed. DNA samples from 103 patients with VATER/VACTERL and VATER/VACTERL‑like association, all presenting with anorectal malformations, and 72 fetuses with NTDs, where termination of pregnancy had been performed, were included in the current study. The complete PTF1A coding region, splice sites and 1.5 kb of the 5' flanking promotor region was sequenced. However, no pathogenic alterations were detected. The results of the present study do not support the hypothesis that high penetrant mutations in these regions of PTF1A are involved in the development of human VATER/VACTERL association or NTDs, although rare mutations may be detectable in larger patient samples.

  4. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... tube insertion; G-tube insertion; PEG tube insertion; Stomach tube insertion; Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube insertion ... and down the esophagus, which leads to the stomach. After the endoscopy tube is inserted, the skin ...

  5. Generation and characterization of a novel neural crest marker allele, Inka1-LacZ, reveals a role for Inka1 in mouse neural tube closure

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Bethany S.; Sargent, Thomas D.; Williams, Trevor

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies identified Inka1 as a gene regulated by AP-2α in the neural crest required for craniofacial morphogenesis in fish and frog. Here, we extend the analysis of Inka1 function and regulation to the mouse by generating a LacZ knock-in allele. Inka1-LacZ allele expression occurs in the cephalic mesenchyme, heart, and paraxial mesoderm prior to E8.5. Subsequently, expression is observed in the migratory neural crest cells and their derivatives. Consistent with expression of Inka1 in tissues of the developing head during neurulation, a low percentage of Inka1−/− mice show exencephaly while the remainder are viable and fertile. Further studies indicate that AP-2α is not required for Inka1 expression in the mouse, and suggest that there is no significant genetic interaction between these two factors during embryogenesis. Together, these data demonstrate that while the expression domain of Inka1 is conserved among vertebrates, its function and regulation are not. PMID:20175189

  6. Gastrostomy Tube (G-Tube)

    MedlinePlus

    ... warmth at the tube site; discharge that's yellow, green, or foul-smelling; fever) excessive bleeding or drainage from the tube site severe abdominal pain persistent vomiting or diarrhea trouble passing gas or having a bowel movement pink-red tissue (called granulation tissue) coming out ...

  7. Protective tubes for sodium heated water tubes

    DOEpatents

    Essebaggers, Jan

    1979-01-01

    A heat exchanger in which water tubes are heated by liquid sodium which minimizes the results of accidental contact between the water and the sodium caused by failure of one or more of the water tubes. A cylindrical protective tube envelopes each water tube and the sodium flows axially in the annular spaces between the protective tubes and the water tubes.

  8. Timing of Referral for Genetic Counseling and Genetic Testing in Patients with Ovarian, Fallopian Tube or Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Novetsky, Akiva P.; Smith, Kylie; Babb, Sheri A.; Jeffe, Donna B.; Hagemann, Andrea R.; Thaker, Premal H.; Powell, Matthew A.; Mutch, David G.; Massad, L. Stewart; Zighelboim, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess patients' preferences of the timing of referral for genetic counseling and testing in relation to the diagnosis, treatment and recurrence of ovarian, tubal, or primary peritoneal cancers. Methods/Materials Ninety-two patients who underwent counseling and testing by one certified genetic counselor were identified. Introductory letter, consent form and questionnaire were mailed to gather information regarding factors influencing the decision to undergo genetic counseling and testing and opinions regarding optimal timing. Medical records were reviewed for demographic and clinical data. Results Of 47 consenting women, 45 underwent testing. Eight (18%) were found to have a genetic mutation. Women lacked consensus about the optimal time for referral for and to undergo genetic testing, though women with stage I disease preferred testing after completion of chemotherapy. Most women were comfortable receiving the results by phone, but 1/3 preferred an office visit. Conclusions Patients' views regarding the best time to be referred for and undergo counseling and testing varied greatly. Due to the high mortality of this disease, clinicians should discuss referral early and personalize the timing to each patient. The subset of patients who prefer results disclosure during an office visit should be identified at the time of their initial counseling. PMID:23748176

  9. [Morphology and development of blood vessels of the fallopian tubes of cattle in the fetal and neonatal periods].

    PubMed

    Wyrost, P; Molenda, O; Radek, J; Radek, T

    1987-01-01

    The experiments on morphology and development of oviduct arteries and veins in cattle have been carried out on 79 specimens that is on 68 fetuses from 9-40 weeks of pregnancy and on 11 newborn animals at the age of 1-14 days. The age of fetuses has been determined by Kantorova method supplemented by the methods of other authors. The conducted experiments have been made by means of microanatomical method using rubber latex which was forced into the vessels being under observation by means of automatic injection set constructed by one of the authors. The preparation of the tested arteries and veins has been done by anatomical needles and arrows under stereoscopic microscope using magnification of 3-25 times depending on the needs. The conducted experiments have been recapitulated by the following conclusions and generalizations: 1. Except for the youngest fetuses oviduct of fetuses and new-born animals is vascularized mainly by uterine branch and tubal branch or tubo-ovarian branch of ovarian artery and ovarian vein. Besides blood supply of this organ is periodically complemented by the following vessels: accessory tubal branch of artery and ovarian vein, accessory tubal branch of arterial and venous plexus of ovary, and accessory tubal branch of uterine artery. 2. In the course of the fetus development the examined vessels undergo a number of qualitative and quantitative transformations of which the rate is especially high in the first weeks of the fetus development; the quantitative transformations are divided into the progressive and regressive changes, manifested first by the origination and then by atrophy of majority of accessory tubal vessels from which the vein transformations get ahead of the artery transformations. 3. Finally the oviduct in new-born animals is vascularized by two main branches of artery and ovarian vein--tubal branch and uterine branch and in approximately 20% of examined specimens--accessory tubal branch of artery and venous plexus of ovary.

  10. Multiple tube premixing device

    DOEpatents

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin; Stevenson, Christian; Felling, David

    2012-12-11

    The present application provides a premixer for a combustor. The premixer may include a fuel plenum with a number of fuel tubes and a burner tube with a number of air tubes. The fuel tubes extend about the air tubes.

  11. Multiple tube premixing device

    DOEpatents

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Naidu, Balachandar; Ziminksy, Willy Steve; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin; Stevenson, Christian; Felling, David

    2013-08-13

    The present application provides a premixer for a combustor. The premixer may include a fuel plenum with a number of fuel tubes and a burner tube with a number of air tubes. The fuel tubes extend about the air tubes.

  12. Tube Feedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy

    This module on tube feedings is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who work in long-term care. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then provided. A brief discussion follows…

  13. Neutron tubes

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lou, Tak Pui; Reijonen, Jani

    2008-03-11

    A neutron tube or generator is based on a RF driven plasma ion source having a quartz or other chamber surrounded by an external RF antenna. A deuterium or mixed deuterium/tritium (or even just a tritium) plasma is generated in the chamber and D or D/T (or T) ions are extracted from the plasma. A neutron generating target is positioned so that the ion beam is incident thereon and loads the target. Incident ions cause D-D or D-T (or T-T) reactions which generate neutrons. Various embodiments differ primarily in size of the chamber and position and shape of the neutron generating target. Some neutron generators are small enough for implantation in the body. The target may be at the end of a catheter-like drift tube. The target may have a tapered or conical surface to increase target surface area.

  14. QUANTIZING TUBE

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, A.S.; Gray, G.W.

    1958-07-01

    Beam deflection tubes are described for use in switching or pulse amplitude analysis. The salient features of the invention reside in the target arrangement whereby outputs are obtained from a plurality of collector electrodes each correspondlng with a non-overlapping range of amplitudes of the input sigmal. The tube is provded with mcans for deflecting the electron beam a1ong a line in accordance with the amplitude of an input signal. The target structure consists of a first dymode positioned in the path of the beam wlth slots spaced a1ong thc deflection line, and a second dymode posltioned behind the first dainode. When the beam strikes the solid portions along the length of the first dymode the excited electrons are multiplied and collected in separate collector electrodes spaced along the beam line. Similarly, the electrons excited when the beam strikes the second dynode are multiplied and collected in separate electrodes spaced along the length of the second dyode.

  15. Electron tube

    DOEpatents

    Suyama, Motohiro [Hamamatsu, JP; Fukasawa, Atsuhito [Hamamatsu, JP; Arisaka, Katsushi [Los Angeles, CA; Wang, Hanguo [North Hills, CA

    2011-12-20

    An electron tube of the present invention includes: a vacuum vessel including a face plate portion made of synthetic silica and having a surface on which a photoelectric surface is provided, a stem portion arranged facing the photoelectric surface and made of synthetic silica, and a side tube portion having one end connected to the face plate portion and the other end connected to the stem portion and made of synthetic silica; a projection portion arranged in the vacuum vessel, extending from the stem portion toward the photoelectric surface, and made of synthetic silica; and an electron detector arranged on the projection portion, for detecting electrons from the photoelectric surface, and made of silicon.

  16. Chest tube insertion

    MedlinePlus

    Chest drainage tube insertion; Insertion of tube into chest; Tube thoracostomy; Pericardial drain ... When your chest tube is inserted, you will lie on your side or sit partly upright, with one arm over your head. Sometimes, ...

  17. Nasogastric feeding tube

    MedlinePlus

    Feeding - nasogastric tube; NG tube; Bolus feeding; Continuous pump feeding; Gavage tube ... If your child has an NG tube, try to keep your child from touching or pulling on the tube. After your nurse teaches you how to flush the tube ...

  18. Tube furnace

    DOEpatents

    Foster, Kenneth G.; Frohwein, Eugene J.; Taylor, Robert W.; Bowen, David W.

    1991-01-01

    A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

  19. Tube furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, K.G.; Frohwein, E.J.; Taylor, R.W.; Bowen, D.W.

    1990-12-31

    A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

  20. Tube furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, K.G.; Frohwein, E.J.; Taylor, R.W.; Bowen, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

  1. Tapered pulse tube for pulse tube refrigerators

    DOEpatents

    Swift, Gregory W.; Olson, Jeffrey R.

    1999-01-01

    Thermal insulation of the pulse tube in a pulse-tube refrigerator is maintained by optimally varying the radius of the pulse tube to suppress convective heat loss from mass flux streaming in the pulse tube. A simple cone with an optimum taper angle will often provide sufficient improvement. Alternatively, the pulse tube radius r as a function of axial position x can be shaped with r(x) such that streaming is optimally suppressed at each x.

  2. Tube-in-tube thermophotovoltaic generator

    DOEpatents

    Ashcroft, J.; Campbell, B.; DePoy, D.

    1998-06-30

    A thermophotovoltaic device includes at least one thermal radiator tube, a cooling tube concentrically disposed within each thermal radiator tube and an array of thermophotovoltaic cells disposed on the exterior surface of the cooling tube. A shell having a first end and a second end surrounds the thermal radiator tube. Inner and outer tubesheets, each having an aperture corresponding to each cooling tube, are located at each end of the shell. The thermal radiator tube extends within the shell between the inner tubesheets. The cooling tube extends within the shell through the corresponding apertures of the two inner tubesheets to the corresponding apertures of the two outer tubesheets. A plurality of the thermal radiator tubes can be arranged in a staggered or an in-line configuration within the shell. 8 figs.

  3. Tube-in-tube thermophotovoltaic generator

    SciTech Connect

    Ashcroft, John; Campbell, Brian; DePoy, David

    1998-01-01

    A thermophotovoltaic device includes at least one thermal radiator tube, a cooling tube concentrically disposed within each thermal radiator tube and an array of thermophotovoltaic cells disposed on the exterior surface of the cooling tube. A shell having a first end and a second end surrounds the thermal radiator tube. Inner and outer tubesheets, each having an aperture corresponding to each cooling tube, are located at each end of the shell. The thermal radiator tube extends within the shell between the inner tubesheets. The cooling tube extends within the shell through the corresponding apertures of the two inner tubesheets to the corresponding apertures of the two outer tubesheets. A plurality of the thermal radiator tubes can be arranged in a staggered or an in-line configuration within the shell.

  4. Gastrostomy feeding tube - bolus

    MedlinePlus

    Feeding - gastrostomy tube - bolus; G-tube - bolus; Gastrostomy button - bolus; Bard Button - bolus; MIC-KEY - bolus ... Your child's gastrostomy tube (G-tube) is a special tube in your child's stomach that will help deliver food and medicines until your ...

  5. Feeding tube - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007235.htm Feeding tube - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A feeding tube is a small, soft, plastic tube placed ...

  6. Tracheostomy tube - eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000464.htm Tracheostomy tube - eating To use the sharing features on this ... you swallow foods or liquids. Eating and Tracheostomy Tubes When you get your tracheostomy tube, or trach, ...

  7. Eustachian tube patency

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001630.htm Eustachian tube patency To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Eustachian tube patency refers to how much the eustachian tube ...

  8. Heat exchanger tube mounts

    DOEpatents

    Wolowodiuk, W.; Anelli, J.; Dawson, B.E.

    1974-01-01

    A heat exchanger in which tubes are secured to a tube sheet by internal bore welding is described. The tubes may be moved into place in preparation for welding with comparatively little trouble. A number of segmented tube support plates are provided which allow a considerable portion of each of the tubes to be moved laterally after the end thereof has been positioned in preparation for internal bore welding to the tube sheet. (auth)

  9. Bender/Coiler for Tubing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoltzfus, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Easy-to-use tool makes coils of tubing. Tubing to be bend clamped with stop post. Die positioned snugly against tubing. Operator turns handle to slide die along tubing, pushing tubing into spiral groove on mandrel.

  10. Folate receptors and neural tube closure.

    PubMed

    Saitsu, Hirotomo

    2017-02-28

    Neural tube defects (NTD) are among the most common human congenital malformations, affecting 0.5-8/1000 of live births. Human clinical trials have shown that periconceptional folate supplementation significantly decreases the occurrence of NTD in offspring. However, the mechanism by which folate acts on NTD remains largely unknown. Folate receptor (Folr) is one of the three membrane proteins that mediate cellular uptake of folates. Recent studies suggest that mouse Folr1 (formerly referred to as Fbp1) is essential for neural tube closure. Therefore, we examined spatial and temporal expression patterns of Folr1 in developing mouse embryos, showing a close association between Folr1 and anterior neural tube closure. Transient transgenic analysis was performed using lacZ as a reporter; we identified a 1.1-kb enhancer that directs lacZ expression in the neural tube and optic vesicle in a manner that is similar to endogenous Folr1. The 1.1-kb enhancer sequences were highly conserved between humans and mice, suggesting that human FOLR1 is associated with anterior neural tube closure in humans. Several experimental studies in mice and human epidemiological and genetics studies have suggested that folate receptor abnormalities are involved in a portion of human NTDs, although the solo defect of FOLR1 did not cause NTD.

  11. PEG tube insertion -- discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... shower or bathe. Keeping the PEG-tube in Place If the feeding tube comes out, the stoma ... eds. Pfenninger and Fowler's Procedures for Primary Care . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2011:chap 100. ...

  12. Glass tube splitting tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, J. A.; Murray, C. D.; Stein, J. A.

    1971-01-01

    Tool accurately splits glass tubing so cuts are aligned 180 deg apart and reassembled tube forms low pressure, gastight enclosure. Device should interest industries using cylindrical closed glass containers.

  13. Eustachian tube (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... are more common in children because their eustachian tubes are shorter, narrower, and more horizontal than in ... become trapped when the tissue of the eustachian tube becomes swollen from colds or allergies. Bacteria trapped ...

  14. Neural Tube Defects

    MedlinePlus

    Neural tube defects are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They happen in the first month ... she is pregnant. The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. In spina ...

  15. Guide tube flow diffuser

    SciTech Connect

    Berringer, R.T.; Myron, D.L.

    1980-11-04

    A nuclear reactor upper internal guide tube has a flow diffuser integral with its bottom end. The guide tube provides guidance for control rods during their ascent or descent from the reactor core. The flow diffuser serves to divert the upward flow of reactor coolant around the outside of the guide tube thereby limiting the amount of coolant flow and turbulence within the guide tube, thus enhancing the ease of movement of the control rods.

  16. Microhole Tubing Bending Report

    DOE Data Explorer

    Oglesby, Ken

    2012-01-01

    A downhole tubing bending study was made and is reported herein. IT contains a report and 2 excel spreadsheets to calculate tubing bending and to estimate contact points of the tubing to the drilled hole wall (creating a new support point).

  17. 1992 tubing tables

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This paper is helpful to those designing oil well completions or purchasing tubing with proprietary or premium connections. Tables contain specifications and application data for over 100 different tubing joints, including those used with fiberglass pipe. The tables this year contain dimensional and performance data for coiled tubing.

  18. 21 CFR 868.5800 - Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. 868.5800 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5800 Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. (a) Identification. A tracheostomy tube and tube cuff is a device intended to be placed into...

  19. 21 CFR 868.5800 - Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. 868.5800 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5800 Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. (a) Identification. A tracheostomy tube and tube cuff is a device intended to be placed into...

  20. 21 CFR 868.5800 - Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. 868.5800 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5800 Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. (a) Identification. A tracheostomy tube and tube cuff is a device intended to be placed into...

  1. Pollen tube development.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mark A; Kost, Benedikt

    2010-01-01

    Pollen tubes grow rapidly in a strictly polarized manner as they transport male reproductive cells through female flower tissues to bring about fertilization. Vegetative pollen tube cells are an excellent model system to investigate processes underlying directional cell expansion. In this chapter, we describe materials and methods required for (1) the identification of novel factors essential for polarized cell growth through the isolation and analysis of Arabidopsis mutants with defects in pollen tube growth and (2) the detailed functional characterization of pollen tube proteins based on transient transformation and microscopic analysis of cultured tobacco pollen tubes.

  2. REACTOR COOLANT TUBE SEAL

    DOEpatents

    Morris, W.J.

    1958-12-01

    A plle-flattenlng control element and a fluid seal therefore to permit movement of the element into a liquld contnining region of a neutronlc reactor are described. The device consists of flattened, thin-walled aluminum tubing contalnlng a uniform mixture of thermal neutron absorbing material, and a number of soft rubber closures for the process tubes, having silts capable of passing the flattened elements therethrough, but effectively sealing the process tubes against fluld leaknge by compression of the rubber. The flattened tubing is sufficiently flexible to enable it to conform to the configuratlon of the annular spacing surrounding the fuel elements ln the process tubes.

  3. Heat tube device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khattar, Mukesh K. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The present invention discloses a heat tube device through which a working fluid can be circulated to transfer heat to air in a conventional air conditioning system. The heat tube device is disposable about a conventional cooling coil of the air conditioning system and includes a plurality of substantially U-shaped tubes connected to a support structure. The support structure includes members for allowing the heat tube device to be readily positioned about the cooling coil. An actuatable adjustment device is connected to the U-shaped tubes for allowing, upon actuation thereof, for the heat tubes to be simultaneously rotated relative to the cooling coil for allowing the heat transfer from the heat tube device to air in the air conditioning system to be selectively varied.

  4. Intercostal drainage tube or intracardiac drainage tube?

    PubMed Central

    Anitha, N.; Kamath, S. Ganesh; Khymdeit, Edison; Prabhu, Manjunath

    2016-01-01

    Although insertion of chest drain tubes is a common medical practice, there are risks associated with this procedure, especially when inexperienced physicians perform it. Wrong insertion of the tube has been known to cause morbidity and occasional mortality. We report a case where the left ventricle was accidentally punctured leading to near-exsanguination. This report is to highlight the need for experienced physicians to supervise the procedure and train the younger physician in the safe performance of the procedure. PMID:27397467

  5. Pulse Tube Refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, Yoichi

    The pulse tube refrigerator is one of the regenerative cycle refrigerators such as Stirling cycle or Gifford-McMahon cycle which gives the cooling temperature below 150 K down to liquid helium temperature. In 1963, W. E. Gifford invented a simple refrigeration cycle which is composed of compressor, regenerator and simple tube named as pulse tube which gives a similar function of the expander in Stirling or Gifford-McMahon cycle. The thermodynamically performance of this pulse tube refrigerator is inferior to that of other regenerative cycles. In 1984, however, Mikulin and coworkers made a significant advance in pulse tube configuration called as orifice pulse tube. After this, several modifications of the pulse tube hot end configuration have been developed. With those modifications, the thermodynamic performance of the pulse tube refrigerator became the same order to that of Stirling and Gifford-McMahon refrigerator. This article reviews the brief history of the pulse tube refrigerator development in the view point of its thermodynamically efficiency. Simplified theories of the energy flow in the pulse tube have also been described.

  6. Lunar Lava Tube Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    York, Cheryl Lynn; Walden, Bryce; Billings, Thomas L.; Reeder, P. Douglas

    1992-01-01

    Large (greater than 300 m diameter) lava tube caverns appear to exist on the Moon and could provide substantial safety and cost benefits for lunar bases. Over 40 m of basalt and regolith constitute the lava tube roof and would protect both construction and operations. Constant temperatures of -20 C reduce thermal stress on structures and machines. Base designs need not incorporate heavy shielding, so lightweight materials can be used and construction can be expedited. Identification and characterization of lava tube caverns can be incorporated into current precursor lunar mission plans. Some searches can even be done from Earth. Specific recommendations for lunar lava tube search and exploration are (1) an Earth-based radar interferometer, (2) an Earth-penetrating radar (EPR) orbiter, (3) kinetic penetrators for lunar lava tube confirmation, (4) a 'Moon Bat' hovering rocket vehicle, and (5) the use of other proposed landers and orbiters to help find lunar lava tubes.

  7. Conduction cooled tube supports

    DOEpatents

    Worley, Arthur C.; Becht, IV, Charles

    1984-01-01

    In boilers, process tubes are suspended by means of support studs that are in thermal contact with and attached to the metal roof casing of the boiler and the upper bend portions of the process tubes. The support studs are sufficiently short that when the boiler is in use, the support studs are cooled by conduction of heat to the process tubes and the roof casing thereby maintaining the temperature of the stud so that it does not exceed 1400.degree. F.

  8. Programming DNA tube circumferences.

    PubMed

    Yin, Peng; Hariadi, Rizal F; Sahu, Sudheer; Choi, Harry M T; Park, Sung Ha; Labean, Thomas H; Reif, John H

    2008-08-08

    Synthesizing molecular tubes with monodisperse, programmable circumferences is an important goal shared by nanotechnology, materials science, and supermolecular chemistry. We program molecular tube circumferences by specifying the complementarity relationships between modular domains in a 42-base single-stranded DNA motif. Single-step annealing results in the self-assembly of long tubes displaying monodisperse circumferences of 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, or 20 DNA helices.

  9. Ruggedized electronographic tube development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nevin, S.

    1981-01-01

    Because of their glass components and lack of far ultraviolet sensitivity, currently available Spectracons are not suited for rocket launch. Technology developed for second generation image tubes and for magnetically focused image tubes can be applied to improve the optical and mechanical properties of these magnetically focused electronographic tubes whose 40 kilovolt signal electrons exit a 4-micrometer thick mica window and penetrate a photographic recording emulsion.

  10. Retrograde gastrojejunostomy tube migration.

    PubMed

    Adesina, Adeleke; Rammohan, Guhan; Jeanmonod, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous enteral feeding tubes are placed about 250,000 times each year in the United States. Although they are relatively safe, their placement may be complicated by perforation, infection, bleeding, vomiting, dislodgment, and obstruction. There have been numerous reports of antegrade migration of gastrojejunostomy (G-J) tubes. We report a case of G-J tube regurgitation following protracted vomiting and discuss the management of this very rare entity.

  11. COAXIAL TUBE COUPLING

    DOEpatents

    Niemoth, H.R.

    1963-02-26

    BS>This patent shows a device for quickly coupling coaxial tubes in metal-to-metal fashion, so as to be suitable for use in a nuclear reactor. A threaded coliar urges a tapered metal extension on the outer coaxial tube into a tapered seat in the device and simultaneously exerts pressure through a coaxial helical spring so that a similar extension on the inner tube seats in a similar seat near the other end. (AEC)

  12. TUBE SPLITTING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Frantz, C.E.; Cawley, W.E.

    1961-05-01

    A tool is described for cutting a coolant tube adapted to contain fuel elements to enable the tube to be removed from a graphite moderator mass. The tool splits the tube longitudinally into halves and curls the longitudinal edges of the halves inwardly so that they occupy less space and can be moved radially inwardly away from the walls of the hole in the graphite for easy removal from the graphite.

  13. PET Imaging of Ovarian Carcinoma With 18F-FSPG

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-16

    Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  14. Sapphire tube pressure vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Outwater, J.O.

    2000-05-23

    A pressure vessel is provided for observing corrosive fluids at high temperatures and pressures. A transparent Teflon bag contains the corrosive fluid and provides an inert barrier. The Teflon bag is placed within a sapphire tube, which forms a pressure boundary. The tube is received within a pipe including a viewing window. The combination of the Teflon bag, sapphire tube and pipe provides a strong and inert pressure vessel. In an alternative embodiment, tie rods connect together compression fittings at opposite ends of the sapphire tube.

  15. Composite Pulse Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Jerry L.; Cloyd, Jason H.

    2007-01-01

    A modification of the design of the pulse tube in a pulse-tube cryocooler reduces axial thermal conductance while preserving radial thermal conductance. It is desirable to minimize axial thermal conductance in the pulse-tube wall to minimize leakage of heat between the warm and cold ends of the pulse tube. At the same time, it is desirable to maximize radial thermal conductance at the cold end of the pulse tube to ensure adequate thermal contact between (1) a heat exchanger in the form of a stack of copper screens inside the pulse tube at the cold end and (2) the remainder of the cold tip, which is the object to which the heat load is applied and from which heat must be removed. The modified design yields a low-heat-leak pulse tube that can be easily integrated with a cold tip. A typical pulse tube of prior design is either a thin-walled metal tube or a metal tube with a nonmetallic lining. It is desirable that the outer surface of a pulse tube be cylindrical (in contradistinction to tapered) to simplify the design of a regenerator that is also part of the cryocooler. Under some conditions, it is desirable to taper the inner surface of the pulse tube to reduce acoustic streaming. The combination of a cylindrical outer surface and a tapered inner surface can lead to unacceptably large axial conduction if the pulse tube is made entirely of metal. Making the pulse-tube wall of a nonmetallic, lowthermal- conductivity material would not solve the problem because the wall would not afford the needed thermal contact for the stack of screens in the cold end. The modified design calls for fabricating the pulse tube in two parts: a longer, nonmetallic part that is tapered on the inside and cylindrical on the outside and a shorter, metallic part that is cylindrical on both the inside and the outside. The nonmetallic part can be made from G-10 fiberglass-reinforced epoxy or other low-thermal-conductivity, cryogenically compatible material. The metallic part must have high

  16. Wound tube heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1983-01-01

    What is disclosed is a wound tube heat exchanger in which a plurality of tubes having flattened areas are held contiguous adjacent flattened areas of tubes by a plurality of windings to give a double walled heat exchanger. The plurality of windings serve as a plurality of effective force vectors holding the conduits contiguous heat conducting walls of another conduit and result in highly efficient heat transfer. The resulting heat exchange bundle is economical and can be coiled into the desired shape. Also disclosed are specific embodiments such as the one in which the tubes are expanded against their windings after being coiled to insure highly efficient heat transfer.

  17. Sapphire tube pressure vessel

    DOEpatents

    Outwater, John O.

    2000-01-01

    A pressure vessel is provided for observing corrosive fluids at high temperatures and pressures. A transparent Teflon bag contains the corrosive fluid and provides an inert barrier. The Teflon bag is placed within a sapphire tube, which forms a pressure boundary. The tube is received within a pipe including a viewing window. The combination of the Teflon bag, sapphire tube and pipe provides a strong and inert pressure vessel. In an alternative embodiment, tie rods connect together compression fittings at opposite ends of the sapphire tube.

  18. Fuel nozzle tube retention

    DOEpatents

    Cihlar, David William; Melton, Patrick Benedict

    2017-02-28

    A system for retaining a fuel nozzle premix tube includes a retention plate and a premix tube which extends downstream from an outlet of a premix passage defined along an aft side of a fuel plenum body. The premix tube includes an inlet end and a spring support feature which is disposed proximate to the inlet end. The premix tube extends through the retention plate. The spring retention feature is disposed between an aft side of the fuel plenum and the retention plate. The system further includes a spring which extends between the spring retention feature and the retention plate.

  19. Steam generator tube failures

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

    1996-04-01

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service.

  20. Method for shaping polyethylene tubing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    Method forms polyethylene plastic tubing into configurations previously only possible with metal tubing. By using polyethylene in place of copper or stain less steel tubing inlow pressure systems, fabrication costs are significantly reduced. Polyethylene tubing can be used whenever low pressure tubing is needed in oil operations, aircraft and space applications, powerplants, and testing laboratories.

  1. Accumulation of Regulatory T Cells and Chronic Inflammation in the Middle Ear in a Mouse Model of Chronic Otitis Media with Effusion Induced by Combined Eustachian Tube Blockage and Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Satoru; Kawano, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is associated with chronic otitis media (COM). In this study, we generated a murine model of COM by using eustachian tube (ET) obstruction and NTHi (107 CFU) inoculation into the tympanic bulla, and we investigated the relationship between regulatory T cells (Treg) and chronic inflammation in the middle ear. Middle ear effusions (MEEs) and middle ear mucosae (MEM) were collected at days 3 and 14 and at 1 and 2 months after inoculation. Untreated mice served as controls. MEEs were used for bacterial counts and to measure the concentrations of cytokines. MEM were collected for histological evaluation and flow cytometric analysis. Inflammation of the MEM was prolonged throughout this study, and the incidence of NTHi culture-positive MEE was 38% at 2 months after inoculation. The levels of interleukin-1β (IL-β), tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL-10, and transforming growth factor β were increased in the middle ear for up to 2 months after inoculation. CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ Treg accumulated in the middle ear, and the percentage of Treg in the MEM increased for up to 2 months after inoculation. Treg depletion induced a 99.9% reduction of bacterial counts in MEEs and also significantly reduced the ratio of NTHi culture-positive MEE. The levels of these cytokines were also reduced in MEEs. In summary, we developed a murine model of COM, and our findings indicate that Treg confer infectious tolerance to NTHi in the middle ear. PMID:26553466

  2. Pyrotechnic Tubing Connector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, Thomas J.; Yang, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    Tool forms mechanical seal at joint without levers or hydraulic apparatus. Proposed tool intended for use in outer space used on Earth by heavily garbed workers to join tubing in difficult environments. Called Pyrotool, used with Lokring (or equivalent) fittings. Piston slides in cylinder when pushed by gas from detonating pyrotechnic charge. Impulse of piston compresses fittings, sealing around butting ends of tubes.

  3. Using the Scroll Wheel on a Wireless Mouse as a Motion Sensor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Richard S.; Wilson, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Since its inception in the mid-80s, the computer mouse has undergone several design changes. As the mouse has evolved, physicists have found new ways to utilize it as a motion sensor. For example, the rollers in a mechanical mouse have been used as pulleys to study the motion of a magnet moving through a copper tube as a quantitative demonstration…

  4. [Enteral tube feeding].

    PubMed

    Haller, Alois

    2014-03-01

    Tube feeding is an integral part of medical therapies, and can be easily managed also in the outpatient setting. Tube feeding by the stomach or small intestine with nasogastral or nasojejunal tubes is common in clinical practice. Long-term nutrition is usually provided through a permanent tube, i. e. a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). Modern portable nutrition pumps are used to cover the patient's nutritional needs. Enteral nutrition is always indicated if patients can not or should not eat or if nutritional requirements cannot be covered within 3 days after an intervention, e. g. after abdominal surgery. Industrially produced tube feedings with defined substrate concentrations are being used; different compositions of nutrients, such as glutamine fish oil etc., are used dependent on the the condition of the patient. Enteral nutrition may be associated with complications of the tube, e. g. dislocation, malposition or obstruction, as well as the feeding itself, e. g.hyperglycaemia, electrolyte disturbances, refeeding syndrome diarrhea or aspiration). However, the benefit of tube feeding usually exceeds the potential harm substantially.

  5. Snorkeling and Jones tubes.

    PubMed

    Lam, Lewis Y W; Weatherhead, Robert G

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of tympanic membrane rupture during snorkeling in a 17-year-old young man who had previously undergone bilateral Jones tubes placed for epiphora. To our knowledge, this phenomenon has not been previously reported.

  6. Enteral nutrition by tube.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, P J; Hand, M S; Frederick, G S

    1990-01-01

    When oral intake is unsatisfactory or contraindicated, maintenance of nutrition by tube feeding is an alternative to the parenteral route. A large volume of research data supports the decision to use the enteral route whenever possible. Entry of food into the alimentary tract is a stimulus to structural and functional maintenance of that tract. Enteral nutrition can be given via indwelling nasoesophageal, pharyngostomy, esophagostomy, percutaneous or surgical gastrostomy, or enterostomy tube. Use of an appropriate catheter, familiarity with the technique used, and careful patient selection and monitoring are important factors in successful tube feeding. Blenderized pet food diets should be fed whenever possible; commercially available liquid diets provide an alternative when tube caliber or patient factors preclude the use of blenderized foods.

  7. Integrated structure vacuum tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimeff, J.; Kerwin, W. J. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    High efficiency, multi-dimensional thin film vacuum tubes suitable for use in high temperature, high radiation environments are described. The tubes are fabricated by placing thin film electrode members in selected arrays on facing interior wall surfaces of an alumina substrate envelope. Cathode members are formed using thin films of triple carbonate. The photoresist used in photolithography aids in activation of the cathodes by carbonizing and reacting with the reduced carbonates when heated in vacuum during forming. The finely powdered triple carbonate is mixed with the photoresist used to delineate the cathode locations in the conventional solid state photolithographic manner. Anode and grid members are formed using thin films of refractory metal. Electron flow in the tubes is between grid elements from cathode to anode as in a conventional three-dimensional tube.

  8. Tube-Forming Assays.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ryan M; Meah, Christopher J; Heath, Victoria L; Styles, Iain B; Bicknell, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis involves the generation of new blood vessels from the existing vasculature and is dependent on many growth factors and signaling events. In vivo angiogenesis is dynamic and complex, meaning assays are commonly utilized to explore specific targets for research into this area. Tube-forming assays offer an excellent overview of the molecular processes in angiogenesis. The Matrigel tube forming assay is a simple-to-implement but powerful tool for identifying biomolecules involved in angiogenesis. A detailed experimental protocol on the implementation of the assay is described in conjunction with an in-depth review of methods that can be applied to the analysis of the tube formation. In addition, an ImageJ plug-in is presented which allows automatic quantification of tube images reducing analysis times while removing user bias and subjectivity.

  9. Kinking of medical tubes.

    PubMed

    Ingles, David

    2004-05-01

    The phenomenon of kinking in medical tubing remains a problem for some applications, particularly critical ones such as transporting gasses or fluids. Design features are described to prevent its occurrence.

  10. Ear tube insertion

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ear tube surgery - what to ask your doctor Review Date 8/5/2015 Updated by: Sumana Jothi ... Otolaryngology, NCHCS VA, SFVA, San Francisco, CA. Internal review and update on 09/01/2016 by David ...

  11. Ear tube insertion - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100045.htm Ear tube insertion - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... 4 Overview The eardrum (tympanic membrane) separates the ear canal from the middle ear. Review Date 8/ ...

  12. Tracheostomy tube - speaking

    MedlinePlus

    Air passing through vocal cords (larynx) causes them to vibrate, creating sounds and speech. A tracheostomy tube blocks most of the air from passing through your vocal cords. Instead, your breath (air) goes out ...

  13. Gastrostomy tube placement - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... presentations/100125.htm Gastrostomy tube placement - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  14. Clearing obstructed feeding tubes.

    PubMed

    Marcuard, S P; Stegall, K L; Trogdon, S

    1989-01-01

    This is a report of an in vitro study evaluating the ability of six solutions to dissolve clotted enteral feeding, which can cause feeding tube occlusion. The following clotted enteral feeding products were tested: Ensure Plus, Ensure Plus with added protein (Promod 20 g/liter), Osmolite, Enrich, and Pulmocare. Clot dissolution was then tested by adding Adolf's Meat Tenderizer, Viokase, Sprite, Pepsi, Coke, or Mountain Dew. Distilled water served as control. Dissolution score for each mixture was assessed blindly. Best dissolution was observed with Viokase in pH 7.9 solution (p less than 0.01). Similar results were obtained when feeding tube patency was restored in eight in vitro occluded feeding tubes (Dobbhoff, French size 8) by using first Pepsi (two/eight successful) and then Viokase in pH 7.9 (six/six successful). We also report our experience in the first 10 patients with occluded feeding tubes using this Viokase solution injected through a Drum catheter into the feeding tube. In seven patients, this method proved to be successful, and the reasons for failure in three patients include a knotted tube, impacted tablet powder, and a formula clot fo 24 hr duration and 45 cm in length.

  15. Neural tube defects: recent advances, unsolved questions, and controversies.

    PubMed

    Copp, Andrew J; Stanier, Philip; Greene, Nicholas D E

    2013-08-01

    Neural tube defects are severe congenital malformations affecting around one in every 1000 pregnancies. An innovation in clinical management has come from the finding that closure of open spina bifida lesions in utero can diminish neurological dysfunction in children. Primary prevention with folic acid has been enhanced through introduction of mandatory food fortification in some countries, although not yet in the UK. Genetic predisposition accounts for most of the risk of neural tube defects, and genes that regulate folate one-carbon metabolism and planar cell polarity have been strongly implicated. The sequence of human neural tube closure events remains controversial, but studies of mouse models of neural tube defects show that anencephaly, open spina bifida, and craniorachischisis result from failure of primary neurulation, whereas skin-covered spinal dysraphism results from defective secondary neurulation. Other malformations, such as encephalocele, are likely to be postneurulation disorders.

  16. Coiled tubing operations and services

    SciTech Connect

    Jaworsky, A.S. II )

    1991-11-01

    Coiled tubing offers many advantages over conventional jointed tubing used for drilling in oil fields, including time savings, pumping flexibility, fluid placement, reduced formation damage and safety. The article gives an overview of coiled tubing history and development. Operating concepts are explained, along with descriptions of the major equipment and components associated with coiled tubing use in the oil field today.

  17. Genetics and development of neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Copp, Andrew J; Greene, Nicholas D E

    2010-01-01

    Congenital defects of neural tube closure (neural tube defects; NTDs) are among the commonest and most severe disorders of the fetus and newborn. Disturbance of any of the sequential events of embryonic neurulation produce NTDs, with the phenotype (eg anencephaly, spina bifida) varying depending on the region of neural tube that remains open. While mutation of > 200 genes is known to cause NTDs in mice, the pattern of occurrence in humans suggests a multifactorial polygenic or oligogenic aetiology. This emphasizes the importance of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions in the origins of these defects. A number of cell biological functions are essential for neural tube closure, with defects of the cytoskeleton, cell cycle and molecular regulation of cell viability prominent among the mouse NTD mutants. Many transcriptional regulators and proteins that affect chromatin structure are also required for neural tube closure, although the downstream molecular pathways regulated by these proteins is unknown. Some key signalling pathways for NTDs have been identified: over-activation of sonic hedgehog signalling and loss of function in the planar cell polarity (non-canonical Wnt) pathway are potent causes of NTD, with requirements also for retinoid and inositol signalling. Folic acid supplementation is an effective method for primary prevention of a proportion of NTDs in both humans and mice, although the embryonic mechanism of folate action remains unclear. Folic acid-resistant cases can be prevented by inositol supplementation in mice, raising the possibility that this could lead to an additional preventive strategy for human NTDs in future.

  18. Circle nephrostomy tube revisited

    PubMed Central

    Noureldin, Yasser A.; Diab, Christian; Valenti, David; Andonian, Sero

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: There are few options for patients requiring chronic urinary drainage using nephrostomy tubes. Although circle nephrostomy tube (CNT) was invented in 1954, it is rarely used. Its advantages include longer indwelling time such that it is changed semi-annually when compared with the standard nephrostomy tube (SNT), which is changed monthly. However, there are no studies comparing indwelling times and costs with these two tubes. The aim of the present study was to compare CNT with SNT in terms of frequency of tube changes, reasons for earlier tube changes, and associated costs. Methods: Patients who had CNT inserted between 2009 and 2015 were reviewed. The indications for chronic indwelling nephrostomy tubes were tabulated. The frequency of tube changes was compared between CNT and SNT in the same patients. Furthermore, costs associated with insertion and exchange of CNT and SNT were analyzed. Results: Seven patients with mean age of 71.9 ± 7.6 years (range 43–96) had a total of 36 CNT changes. The mean number of CNT changes was four (range 2–5) at a mean interval of 168.3 ± 15.6 days (range 120–231). All patients had SNT prior to converting to CNT. When compared with the mean interval for SNT changes, the mean interval for CNT changes was significantly longer (44.8 ± 19.4 vs. 168.3 ± 41.3 days; p=0.028). Tube blockage and urinary leakage were the most common reasons for earlier than scheduled CNT changes. In our centre, CNT insertion and exchange cost $1965.48 and $923.96 compared with $1450.43 and $803.81 for SNT, respectively. There was an estimated cost savings of $46 861.10 (range $87 414.30 –$40 553.20) for the whole cohort by switching from SNTs to CNTs. Conclusions: Despite the small sample size as the main limitation, this study confirms that CNTs are associated with significantly fewer changes and lower cost when compared with SNTs for poor-surgical-risk patients requiring chronic NTs.

  19. Neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Greene, Nicholas D E; Copp, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs), including spina bifida and anencephaly, are severe birth defects of the central nervous system that originate during embryonic development when the neural tube fails to close completely. Human NTDs are multifactorial, with contributions from both genetic and environmental factors. The genetic basis is not yet well understood, but several nongenetic risk factors have been identified as have possibilities for prevention by maternal folic acid supplementation. Mechanisms underlying neural tube closure and NTDs may be informed by experimental models, which have revealed numerous genes whose abnormal function causes NTDs and have provided details of critical cellular and morphological events whose regulation is essential for closure. Such models also provide an opportunity to investigate potential risk factors and to develop novel preventive therapies.

  20. The electrostatic storage tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutherford, R. E., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    An electrostatic camera system is discussed which is based on the electrostatic storage tube. The development of the system was begun following a series of experiments which indicated that the device offers signficantly improved performance over currently available devices. The approach used in developing the high performance camera involves: converting the input image to an electron image at low loss, applying a low noise gain process, and storing the resulting charge pattern in a low-loss target. The basic processes and elements of the electrostatic storage tube are illustrated and discussed. Graphs that depict the camera performance characteristics are included.

  1. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM TUBING

    DOEpatents

    Creutz, E.C.

    1958-04-15

    The manufacture of thin-walled uranium tubing by the hot-piercing techique is described. Uranium billets are preheated to a temperature above 780 d C. The heated billet is fed to a station where it is engaged on its external surface by three convex-surfaced rotating rollers which are set at an angle to the axis of the billet to produce a surface friction force in one direction to force the billet over a piercing mandrel. While being formed around the mandrel and before losing the desired shape, the tube thus formed is cooled by a water spray.

  2. Manufacturing SP-100 rhenium tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayre, Edwin D.; Ruffo, Thomas J.

    1992-01-01

    A process for producing high quality, thin walled, wrought, rhenium tubing was successfully developed and qualified in the SP-100 fuel fabrication program. Rhenium was selected for the fuel-cladding barrier versus tungsten because of the cold workability and nuclear characteristics of rhenium. Several tube fabricating processes including swaging, drawing, and extruding sintered tube shells and chemical vapor deposition were evaluated before a drawn tube made by forming and electron beam welding rhenium strip was selected as the most cost effective. The process for making the rhenium tubes is discussed in general and the tube, room temperature, tensile properties are compared favorably with the properties reported in the literature.

  3. Heat-shrink plastic tubing seals joints in glass tubing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Duca, B.; Downey, A.

    1968-01-01

    Small units of standard glass apparatus held together by short lengths of transparent heat-shrinkable polyolefin tubing. The tubing is shrunk over glass O-ring type connectors having O-rings but no lubricant.

  4. Flux Tube Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, O.

    2011-05-01

    This Fortran code computes magnetohydrostatic flux tubes and sheets according to the method of Steiner, Pneuman, & Stenflo (1986) A&A 170, 126-137. The code has many parameters contained in one input file that are easily modified. Extensive documentation is provided in README files.

  5. Snorkeling and Jones tubes

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Lewis Y. W.; Weatherhead, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary We report a case of tympanic membrane rupture during snorkeling in a 17-year-old young man who had previously undergone bilateral Jones tubes placed for epiphora. To our knowledge, this phenomenon has not been previously reported. PMID:27330470

  6. Tube Feeding Transition Plateaus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Marsha Dunn

    2007-01-01

    The journey children make from tube feeding to oral feeding is personal for each child and family. There is a sequence of predictable plateaus that children climb as they move toward orally eating. By better understanding this sequence, parents and children can maximize the development, learning, enjoyment and confidence at each plateau. The…

  7. Misdirected Minitracheostomy Tube

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajmer; Nanda, Chinmaya; Mehta, Yatin

    2017-01-01

    We report a patient who after an uneventful coronary artery bypass graft surgery and left ventricular aneurysmorrhaphy developed intracerebral hemorrhage and subsequently required minitracheostomy. Chest X-ray showed misdirected minitracheostomy tube facing upward toward the laryngeal opening which was repositioned using bronchoscope. PMID:28074805

  8. Misdirected minitracheostomy tube.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajmer; Nanda, Chinmaya; Mehta, Yatin

    2017-01-01

    We report a patient who after an uneventful coronary artery bypass graft surgery and left ventricular aneurysmorrhaphy developed intracerebral hemorrhage and subsequently required minitracheostomy. Chest X-ray showed misdirected minitracheostomy tube facing upward toward the laryngeal opening which was repositioned using bronchoscope.

  9. Investigation of Pitot tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herschel, W H; Buckingham, E

    1917-01-01

    Report describes the principles of operation and characteristics of some of the instruments which have been devised or used to measure both low and high speeds of aeroplanes. Since the pitot tube is the instrument which has been most commonly used in the United States and Great Britain as a speedometer for aeroplanes, it is treated first and somewhat more fully than the others.

  10. Downhole pulse tube refrigerators

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, G.; Gardner, D.

    1997-12-01

    This report summarizes a preliminary design study to explore the plausibility of using pulse tube refrigeration to cool instruments in a hot down-hole environment. The original motivation was to maintain Dave Reagor`s high-temperature superconducting electronics at 75 K, but the study has evolved to include three target design criteria: cooling at 30 C in a 300 C environment, cooling at 75 K in a 50 C environment, cooling at both 75 K and 30 C in a 250 C environment. These specific temperatures were chosen arbitrarily, as representative of what is possible. The primary goals are low cost, reliability, and small package diameter. Pulse-tube refrigeration is a rapidly growing sub-field of cryogenic refrigeration. The pulse tube refrigerator has recently become the simplest, cheapest, most rugged and reliable low-power cryocooler. The authors expect this technology will be applicable downhole because of the ratio of hot to cold temperatures (in absolute units, such as Kelvin) of interest in deep drilling is comparable to the ratios routinely achieved with cryogenic pulse-tube refrigerators.

  11. How Is Ovarian Cancer Staged?

    MedlinePlus

    ... recent FIGO staging. Stages of ovarian and fallopian tube cancer Once a patient's T, N, and M ... only within the ovary (or ovaries) or fallopian tube(s). It has not spread to organs and tissues ...

  12. Rubens Flame-Tube Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ficken, George W.; Stephenson, Francis C.

    1979-01-01

    Investigates and explains the phenomenon associated with Rubens flame-tube demonstration, specifically the persistance of flames at regular intervals along the tube for few minutes after the gas is turned off. (GA)

  13. Tubing For Sampling Hydrazine Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Travis, Josh; Taffe, Patricia S.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Wyatt, Jeffrey R.

    1993-01-01

    Report evaluates flexible tubing used for transporting such hypergolic vapors as those of hydrazines for quantitative analysis. Describes experiments in which variety of tubing materials, chosen for their known compatibility with hydrazine, flexibility, and resistance to heat.

  14. Collapse pressure of coiled tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.S.

    1996-09-01

    The collapse pressure is a measure of an external force required to collapse a tube in the absence of internal pressure. It is defined as the minimum pressure required to yield the tube in the absence of internal pressure. Coiled tubing is sometimes used in high-pressure wells. If the external pressure becomes too high, the coiled tubing will collapse. This could not only lead to serious well-control problems, but may result in extensive fishing operations. A reliable safety criterion of collapse pressure for the coiled tubing is needed by the coiled tubing operators. Theoretical models of collapse pressure are well developed for perfectly round coiled tubing but not for oval coiled tubing. Coiled tubing is initially manufactured with nearly perfect roundness, sometimes having a small ovality (typically {le} 0.5%). Perfectly round CT becomes oval owing to the plastic mechanical deformation of the coiled tubing as it spooled on and off the reel and over the gooseneck. As the cycling continues, the ovality usually increases. This ovality significantly decreases the collapse failure pressure as compared to perfectly round tubing. In this paper, an analytical model of collapse pressure for oval tubing under axial tension or compression is developed based on elastic instability theory and the von Mises criterion. The theoretical model shows satisfactory agreement with experimental data.

  15. Enteral Tube Feeding and Pneumonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David Sheridan; Kimmel, David

    2006-01-01

    To determine the effects of enteral tube feeding on the incidence of pneumonia, we performed a retrospective review of all clients at our institution who had gastrostomy or jejunostomy tubes placed over a 10-year period. Ninety-three subjects had a history of pneumonia before feeding tube insertion. Eighty had gastrostomy and 13, jejunostomy…

  16. YouTube Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riendeau, Diane

    2012-09-01

    To date, this column has presented videos to show in class, Don Mathieson from Tulsa Community College suggested that YouTube could be used in another fashion. In Don's experience, his students are not always prepared for the mathematic rigor of his course. Even at the high school level, math can be a barrier for physics students. Walid Shihabi, a colleague of Don's, decided to compile a list of YouTube videos that his students could watch to relearn basic mathematics. I thought this sounded like a fantastic idea and a great service to the students. Walid graciously agreed to share his list and I have reproduced a large portion of it below.

  17. Tube coupling device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, William N. (Inventor); Hein, Leopold A. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A first annular ring of a tube coupling device has a keyed opening sized to fit around the nut region of a male coupling, and a second annular ring has a keyed opening sized to fit around the nut of a female coupling. Each ring has mating ratchet teeth and these rings are biased together, thereby engaging these teeth and preventing rotation of these rings. This in turn prevents the rotation of the male nut region with respect to the female nut. For tube-to-bulkhead locking, one facet of one ring is notched, and a pin is pressed into an opening in the bulkhead. This pin is sized to fit within one of the notches in the ring, thereby preventing rotation of this ring with respect to the bulkhead.

  18. Induction plasma tube

    DOEpatents

    Hull, D.E.

    1982-07-02

    An induction plasma tube having a segmented, fluid-cooled internal radiation shield is disclosed. The individual segments are thick in cross-section such that the shield occupies a substantial fraction of the internal volume of the plasma enclosure, resulting in improved performance and higher sustainable plasma temperatures. The individual segments of the shield are preferably cooled by means of a counterflow fluid cooling system wherein each segment includes a central bore and a fluid supply tube extending into the bore. The counterflow cooling system results in improved cooling of the individual segments and also permits use of relatively larger shield segments which permit improved electromagnetic coupling between the induction coil and a plasma located inside the shield. Four embodiments of the invention, each having particular advantages, are disclosed.

  19. Induction plasma tube

    DOEpatents

    Hull, Donald E.

    1984-01-01

    An induction plasma tube having a segmented, fluid-cooled internal radiation shield is disclosed. The individual segments are thick in cross-section such that the shield occupies a substantial fraction of the internal volume of the plasma enclosure, resulting in improved performance and higher sustainable plasma temperatures. The individual segments of the shield are preferably cooled by means of a counterflow fluid cooling system wherein each segment includes a central bore and a fluid supply tube extending into the bore. The counterflow cooling system results in improved cooling of the individual segments and also permits use of relatively larger shield segments which permit improved electromagnetic coupling between the induction coil and a plasma located inside the shield. Four embodiments of the invention, each having particular advantages, are disclosed.

  20. Joined concentric tubes

    DOEpatents

    DeJonghe, Lutgard; Jacobson, Craig; Tucker, Michael; Visco, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Tubular objects having two or more concentric layers that have different properties are joined to one another during their manufacture primarily by compressive and friction forces generated by shrinkage during sintering and possibly mechanical interlocking. It is not necessary for the concentric tubes to display adhesive-, chemical- or sinter-bonding to each other in order to achieve a strong bond. This facilitates joining of dissimilar materials, such as ceramics and metals.

  1. Apparatus Splits Glass Tubes Longitudinally

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Ernest; Manahan, Robert O'neil

    1993-01-01

    Tubes split into half cylinders by hot-wire/thermal-shock method. Tube to be cut placed on notched jig in apparatus. Nichrome wire stretched between arms of pivoted carriage and oriented parallel to notch. Wire heated by electrical current while resting on tube. After heating for about 1 minute for each millimeter of thickness of glass, tube quenched in water and split by resulting thermal shock. Apparatus used to split tubes in sizes ranging from 3/8 in. in diameter by 1 in. long to 1 1/2 in. in diameter by 4 in. long.

  2. Tube bundle system

    PubMed Central

    Marchewka, W.; Mohamed, K.; Addis, J.; Karnack, F.

    2015-01-01

    A tube bundle system (TBS) is a mechanical system for continuously drawing gas samples through tubes from multiple monitoring points located in an underground coal mine. The gas samples are drawn via vacuum pump to the surface and are typically analyzed for oxygen, methane, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. Results of the gas analyses are displayed and recorded for further analysis. Trends in the composition of the mine atmosphere, such as increasing methane or carbon monoxide concentration, can be detected early, permitting rapid intervention that prevents problems, such as a potentially explosive atmosphere behind seals, fire or spontaneous combustion. TBS is a well-developed technology and has been used in coal mines around the world for more than 50 years. Most longwall coal mines in Australia deploy a TBS, usually with 30 to 40 monitoring points as part of their atmospheric monitoring. The primary uses of a TBS are detecting spontaneous combustion and maintaining sealed areas inert. The TBS might also provide mine atmosphere gas composition data after a catastrophe occurs in an underground mine, if the sampling tubes are not damaged. TBSs are not an alternative to statutory gas and ventilation airflow monitoring by electronic sensors or people; rather, they are an option to consider in an overall mine atmosphere monitoring strategy. This paper describes the hardware, software and operation of a TBS and presents one example of typical data from a longwall coal mine PMID:26306052

  3. Traveling-Wave Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kory, Carol L.

    1998-01-01

    The traveling-wave tube (TWT) is a vacuum device invented in the early 1940's used for amplification at microwave frequencies. Amplification is attained by surrendering kinetic energy from an electron beam to a radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic wave. The demand for vacuum devices has been decreased largely by the advent of solid-state devices. However, although solid state devices have replaced vacuum devices in many areas, there are still many applications such as radar, electronic countermeasures and satellite communications, that require operating characteristics such as high power (Watts to Megawatts), high frequency (below 1 GHz to over 100 GHz) and large bandwidth that only vacuum devices can provide. Vacuum devices are also deemed irreplaceable in the music industry where musicians treasure their tube-based amplifiers claiming that the solid-state and digital counterparts could never provide the same "warmth" (3). The term traveling-wave tube includes both fast-wave and slow-wave devices. This article will concentrate on slow-wave devices as the vast majority of TWTs in operation fall into this category.

  4. Concentric tube support assembly

    DOEpatents

    Rubio, Mark F.; Glessner, John C.

    2012-09-04

    An assembly (45) includes a plurality of separate pie-shaped segments (72) forming a disk (70) around a central region (48) for retaining a plurality of tubes (46) in a concentrically spaced apart configuration. Each segment includes a support member (94) radially extending along an upstream face (96) of the segment and a plurality of annularly curved support arms (98) transversely attached to the support member and radially spaced apart from one another away from the central region for receiving respective upstream end portions of the tubes in arc-shaped spaces (100) between the arms. Each segment also includes a radial passageway (102) formed in the support member for receiving a fluid segment portion (106) and a plurality of annular passageways (104) formed in the support arms for receiving respective arm portions (108) of the fluid segment portion from the radial passageway and for conducting the respective arm portions into corresponding annular spaces (47) formed between the tubes retained by the disk.

  5. TUBE SHEARING VALVE

    DOEpatents

    Wilner, L.B.

    1960-05-24

    Explosive operated valves can be used to join two or more containers in fluid flow relationship, one such container being a sealed reservoir. The valve is most simply disposed by mounting it on the reservoir so thst a tube extends from the interior of the reservoir through the valve body, terminating at the bottom of the bore in a closed end; other containers may be similarly connected or may be open connected, as desired. The piston of the valve has a cutting edge at its lower end which shears off the closed tube ends and a recess above the cutting edge to provide a flow channel. Intermixing of the fluid being transferred with the explosion gases is prevented by a copper ring at the top of the piston which is force fitted into the bore at the beginning of the stroke. Although designed to avoid backing up of the piston at pressures up to 10,000 psi in the transferred fluid, proper operation is independent of piston position, once the tube ends were sheared.

  6. Reliability of steam generator tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Kadokami, E.

    1997-02-01

    The author presents results on studies made of the reliability of steam generator (SG) tubing. The basis for this work is that in Japan the issue of defects in SG tubing is addressed by the approach that any detected defect should be repaired, either by plugging the tube or sleeving it. However, this leaves open the issue that there is a detection limit in practice, and what is the effect of nondetectable cracks on the performance of tubing. These studies were commissioned to look at the safety issues involved in degraded SG tubing. The program has looked at a number of different issues. First was an assessment of the penetration and opening behavior of tube flaws due to internal pressure in the tubing. They have studied: penetration behavior of the tube flaws; primary water leakage from through-wall flaws; opening behavior of through-wall flaws. In addition they have looked at the question of the reliability of tubing with flaws during normal plant operation. Also there have been studies done on the consequences of tube rupture accidents on the integrity of neighboring tubes.

  7. Hybrid endotracheal tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakezles, Christopher Thomas

    Intubation involves the placement of a tube into the tracheal lumen and is prescribed in any setting in which the airway must be stabilized or the patient anesthetized. The purpose of the endotracheal tube in these procedures is to maintain a viable airway, facilitate mechanical ventilation, allow the administration of anesthetics, and prevent the reflux of vomitus into the lungs. In order to satisfy these requirements a nearly airtight seal must be maintained between the tube and the tracheal lining. Most conventional endotracheal tubes provide this seal by employing a cuff that is inflated once the tube is in place. However, the design of this cuff and properties of the material are a source of irritation and injury to the tracheal tissues. In fact, the complication rate for endotracheal intubation is reported to be between 10 and 60%, with manifestations ranging from severe sore throat to erosion through the tracheal wall. These complications are caused by a combination of the materials employed and the forces exerted by the cuff on the tracheal tissues. In particular, the abrasive action of the cuff shears cells from the lining, epithelium adhering to the cuff is removed during extubation, and normal forces exerted on the basement tissues disrupt the blood supply and cause pressure necrosis. The complications associated with tracheal intubation may be reduced or eliminated by employing airway devices constructed from hydrogel materials. Hydrogels are a class of crosslinked polymers which swell in the presence of moisture, and may contain more than 95% water by weight. For the current study, several prototype airway devices were constructed from hydrogel materials including poly(vinyl alcohol), poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate), and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone). The raw hydrogel materials from this group were subjected to tensile, swelling, and biocompatibility testing, while the finished devices were subjected to extensive mechanical simulation and animal trials

  8. A Low-Cost Viscometer from an Opto-Mechanical Mouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doroodmand, Mohammad Mahdi; Maleki, Norooz; Kazemi, Hojjatollah

    2010-01-01

    A simple, sensitive, and portable viscometer has been designed using an opto-mechanical mouse. The viscosity of a fluid is measured using the infrared light-emitting diodes and the optical diodes of an opto-mechanical mouse. These components are positioned near the top and bottom of a glass tube containing the fluid to be measured. The viscosity…

  9. Tube thoracostomy; chest tube implantation and follow up

    PubMed Central

    Kuhajda, Ivan; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Huang, Haidong; Li, Qiang; Dryllis, Georgios; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Lampaki, Sofia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Zaric, Bojan; Branislav, Perin; Porpodis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Pneumothorax is an urgent medical situation that requires urgent treatment. We can divide this entity based on the etiology to primary and secondary. Chest tube implantation can be performed either in the upper chest wall or lower. Both thoracic surgeons and pulmonary physicians can place a chest tube with minimal invasive techniques. In our current work, we will demonstrate chest tube implantation to locations, methodology and tools. PMID:25337405

  10. A flexible mouse-on-mouse immunohistochemical staining technique adaptable to biotin-free reagents, immunofluorescence, and multiple antibody staining.

    PubMed

    Goodpaster, Tracy; Randolph-Habecker, Julie

    2014-03-01

    Immunohistochemistry on mouse tissue utilizing mouse monoclonal antibodies presents a challenge. Secondary antibodies directed against the mouse monoclonal primary antibody of interest will also detect endogenous mouse immunoglobulin in the tissue. This can lead to significant spurious staining. Therefore, a "mouse-on-mouse" staining strategy is needed to yield credible data. This paper presents a method that is easy to use and highly flexible to accommodate both an avidin-biotin detection system as well as a biotin-free polymer detection system. The mouse primary antibody is first combined with an Fab fragment of an anti-mouse antibody in a tube and allowed sufficient time to form an antibody complex. Any non-complexed secondary antibody is bound up with mouse serum. The mixture is then applied to the tissue. The flexibility of this method is confirmed with the use of different anti-mouse antibodies followed by a variety of detection reagents. These techniques can be used for immunohistochemistry (IHC), immunofluorescence (IF), as well as staining with multiple primary antibodies. This method has also been adapted to other models, such as using human antibodies on human tissue and using multiple rabbit antibodies in dual immunofluorescence.

  11. Gun Tube Heating

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    for computing the interior boundary condition at the wall, given a proper convective coefficient, which must include the effects of pressure , gas...calculated z ,(Pz’AZ) x 1 , (1)Pz using a Mach number weighted pressure Pz = M4 1),2 (2) where M= U (3) The compressible Reynolds number is then computed as...shown to work fairly well for short periods of firing (Talley 1989). Due to the boundary at the breech of tha gun tube, this velocity- dependent

  12. Lava Tube Collapse Pits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

    These collapse pits are found in the southern hemisphere of Mars. They are likely lava tube collapse pits related to flows from Hadriaca Patera.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -36.8, Longitude 89.6 East (270.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space

  13. Steam generator tube integrity program

    SciTech Connect

    Dierks, D.R.; Shack, W.J.; Muscara, J.

    1996-03-01

    A new research program on steam generator tubing degradation is being sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at Argonne National Laboratory. This program is intended to support a performance-based steam generator tube integrity rule. Critical areas addressed by the program include evaluation of the processes used for the in-service inspection of steam generator tubes and recommendations for improving the reliability and accuracy of inspections; validation and improvement of correlations for evaluating integrity and leakage of degraded steam generator tubes, and validation and improvement of correlations and models for predicting degradation in steam generator tubes as aging occurs. The studies will focus on mill-annealed Alloy 600 tubing, however, tests will also be performed on replacement materials such as thermally-treated Alloy 600 or 690. An overview of the technical work planned for the program is given.

  14. Free compression tube. Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusu, Ioan

    2012-11-01

    During the flight of vehicles, their propulsion energy must overcome gravity, to ensure the displacement of air masses on vehicle trajectory, to cover both energy losses from the friction between a solid surface and the air and also the kinetic energy of reflected air masses due to the impact with the flying vehicle. The flight optimization by increasing speed and reducing fuel consumption has directed research in the aerodynamics field. The flying vehicles shapes obtained through studies in the wind tunnel provide the optimization of the impact with the air masses and the airflow along the vehicle. By energy balance studies for vehicles in flight, the author Ioan Rusu directed his research in reducing the energy lost at vehicle impact with air masses. In this respect as compared to classical solutions for building flight vehicles aerodynamic surfaces which reduce the impact and friction with air masses, Ioan Rusu has invented a device which he named free compression tube for rockets, registered with the State Office for Inventions and Trademarks of Romania, OSIM, deposit f 2011 0352. Mounted in front of flight vehicles it eliminates significantly the impact and friction of air masses with the vehicle solid. The air masses come into contact with the air inside the free compression tube and the air-solid friction is eliminated and replaced by air to air friction.

  15. First Reconnected Flux Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, L.; Lapenta, G.; Newman, D. L.; Markidis, S.; Spanswick, E. L.; Baker, J. B.; Clausen, L. B.; Larson, D. E.; Ergun, R. E.; Frey, H. U.; Singer, H. J.; Angelopoulos, V.; Bonnell, J. W.; McFadden, J. P.; Glassmeier, K.; Wolfgang, B.

    2011-12-01

    THEMIS observations from the magnetic equator (the equatorial plane) in the near-earth tail reveal a great amount of information regarding the plasma environment in the vicinity of the first reconnected flux tubes (a subgroup of dipolarization fronts). Two sequential observations of dipolarization fronts are analyzed in detail using three of the THEMIS spacecraft. Particle acceleration to high energies (>50 keV) is observed together with a void region interpreted as a region to which the full electron distribution has incomplete access. Whistler waves, which are observed, could be driven by one of the two electron populations located in the wake of the first reconnected flux tubes. The detailed observations are compared with 2D and 3D implicit kinetic simulation of reconnection events. This presentation focuses on the similarity between observation and simulation. One key aspect of this presentation is a demonstration of how different the signature is when observing at vs off the magnetic equator, since most observations in the literature (unlike the observations presented here) are from off the equator. For this event, additional spacecraft and ground observations have been analyzed, which demonstrate that a reconfiguration of the magnetosphere is taking place. However, the focus of this presentation is on the small scale (<~10 di), rather than the large scale (~20 Re).

  16. Improved Mechanical Seals For Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babel, Henry W.; Anderson, Raymond H.; Fuson, Phillip L.; Chickles, Colin D.; Jones, Cherie A.

    1996-01-01

    Improved tube-to-fitting seals made by application of soft metal pieces to either ends of tubes or to interior of fittings. Metal silver, gold, platinum, tin, or other easily malleable metal selected to be inert with fluid of use. Metal plated, evaporated, or sputter-deposited. Coat of soft metal thin, so no changes required in design or tolerances of standard fittings. Technique suitable for hydraulic or other fluid systems in which leakage from mechanically joined sections of tubes occur.

  17. Ion plated electronic tube device

    DOEpatents

    Meek, T.T.

    1983-10-18

    An electronic tube and associated circuitry which is produced by ion plating techniques. The process is carried out in an automated process whereby both active and passive devices are produced at very low cost. The circuitry is extremely reliable and is capable of functioning in both high radiation and high temperature environments. The size of the electronic tubes produced are more than an order of magnitude smaller than conventional electronic tubes.

  18. YouTube Sharathon Crackerbarrel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riendeau, Diane

    2012-10-01

    This year at the AAPT Summer Meeting in Philadelphia, there was a session called ``YouTube Sharathon Crackerbarrel.'' The session allowed many teachers to share their YouTube videos and explain how they use YouTube in their classroom. Unfortunately, I had a conflicting meeting and had to miss this session. Dean Baird was the originator of the session and also served as host. In addition, he forwarded a few of the best videos to me.

  19. Tubing for augmented heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Yampolsky, J.S.; Pavlics, P.

    1983-08-01

    The objectives of the program reported were: to determine the heat transfer and friction characteristics on the outside of spiral fluted tubing in single phase flow of water, and to assess the relative cost of a heat exchanger constructed with spiral fluted tubing with one using conventional smooth tubing. An application is examined where an isolation water/water heat exchanger was used to transfer the heat from a gaseous diffusion plant to an external system for energy recovery. (LEW)

  20. Alternate tube plugging criteria for steam generator tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Cueto-Felgueroso, C.; Aparicio, C.B.

    1997-02-01

    The tubing of the Steam Generators constitutes more than half of the reactor coolant pressure boundary. Specific requirements governing the maintenance of steam generator tubes integrity are set in Plant Technical Specifications and in Section XI of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The operating experience of Steam Generator tubes of PWR plants has shown the existence of some types of degradatory processes. Every one of these has an specific cause and affects one or more zones of the tubes. In the case of Spanish Power Plants, and depending on the particular Plant considered, they should be mentioned the Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) at the roll transition zone (RTZ), the Outside Diameter Stress Corrosion Cracking (ODSCC) at the Tube Support Plate (TSP) intersections and the fretting with the Anti-Vibration Bars (AVBs) or with the Support Plates in the preheater zone. The In-Service Inspections by Eddy Currents constitutes the standard method for assuring the SG tubes integrity and they permit the monitoring of the defects during the service life of the plant. When the degradation reaches a determined limit, called the plugging limit, the SG tube must be either repaired or retired from service by plugging. Customarily, the plugging limit is related to the depth of the defect. Such depth is typically 40% of the wall thickness of the tube and is applicable to any type of defect in the tube. In its origin, that limit was established for tubes thinned by wastage, which was the predominant degradation in the seventies. The application of this criterion for axial crack-like defects, as, for instance, those due to PWSCC in the roll transition zone, has lead to an excessive and unnecessary number of tubes being plugged. This has lead to the development of defect specific plugging criteria. Examples of the application of such criteria are discussed in the article.

  1. Learning from YouTube [Video Book

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhasz, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    YouTube is a mess. YouTube is for amateurs. YouTube dissolves the real. YouTube is host to inconceivable combos. YouTube is best for corporate-made community. YouTube is badly baked. These are a few of the things Media Studies professor Alexandra Juhasz (and her class) learned about YouTube when she set out to investigate what actually happens…

  2. Robotic Booking Of Coolant Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Garret E.; Gutow, David A.; Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Deily, David C.

    1994-01-01

    Robotic tube-booking subsystem proposed for use in automated manufacturing cell described in "Robotic Processing of Rocket-Engine Nozzles" (MFS-29927). Includes electric or pneumatic end effector that inspects gaps under guidance of control processor connected to robotic vision subsystem. After inspecting each gap, end effector books tubes in vicinity, then reinspects to ensure attainment of desired gap. Makes entire tube-gap area brazeable, without damage to tubes, with consistent results. In addition, robotic booking takes less time and costs less than manual booking.

  3. Coiled tubing; Operations and services

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, J.L.; Stephens, R.K. )

    1992-09-01

    This paper reports on coiled tubing units which are used for many types of remedial well operations, including sand plugbacks, cement squeezes, fill cleanouts, underreaming, acid stimulations, and fishing. Fishing operations include removal of inflatable bridge plugs, lock mandrels stuck in profile nipples, coiled tubing, coiled tubing bottomhole assemblies (BHAs) and wireline. Recommended guidelines for selecting candidates, proper tool string configuration and operational techniques are presented here to assist coiled tubing supervisors and company representatives in the planning and implementation of efficient and effective fishing operations. Treatment of these areas are not intended to be exhaustive, but rather generally representative of common applications. Each fishing operation requires individualized analysis and planning.

  4. Coiled tubing. operations and services

    SciTech Connect

    Hightower, C.M. )

    1992-11-01

    Coiled tubing is being used with increasing frequency in conventional or traditional production operations. Demand for coiled pipe in these types of applications is expected to experience rapid growth as standard 2 (3/8) and 2 (7/8)-in. OD tubing sizes and units equipped to run larger pipe become more readily available. This paper reports on a recent market survey which indicated that coiled tubing used for velocity strings and standard production tubing installations are two areas with the most potential for immediate and near-term expansion. Other applications include: well casing and liners, gravel packing, artificial lift, flowlines and pipelines.

  5. Rubber tubes in the sea.

    PubMed

    Farley, F J M; Rainey, R C T; Chaplin, J R

    2012-01-28

    A long tube with elastic walls containing water is immersed in the sea aligned in the direction of wave travel. The waves generate bulges that propagate at a speed determined by the distensibility of the tube. If the bulge speed is close to the phase velocity of the waves, there is a resonant transfer of energy from the sea wave to the bulge. At the end of the tube, useful energy can be extracted. This paper sets out the theory of bulge tubes in the sea, and describes some experiments on the model scale and practical problems. The potential of a full-scale device is assessed.

  6. Circular Scan Streak Tube Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nevin, S.

    1980-01-01

    A streak tube having circular scan was designed, built and tested. Continuous circular scan, easily derived from out of phase sine waves applied to the conventional deflection plates, permits the timing of pulses traveling long baselines. At the tube's output a circular array of 720 elements is scanned to provide 30 to 40 picosecond resolution. Initial difficulties with electron bombarded silicon arrays were circumvented by using microchannel plates within the streak tube to provide the needed electronic amplification and digital sensitivity and coupling the 720 element arrays to the electron beam by means of a phosphor on a fiber optics. Two ceramic body tubes with S-20 photocathodes were tested and delivered.

  7. YouTube and 'psychiatry'.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Robert; Miller, John; Collins, Noel

    2015-12-01

    YouTube is a video-sharing website that is increasingly used to share and disseminate health-related information, particularly among younger people. There are reports that social media sites, such as YouTube, are being used to communicate an anti-psychiatry message but this has never been confirmed in any published analysis of YouTube clip content. This descriptive study revealed that the representation of 'psychiatry' during summer 2012 was predominantly negative. A subsequent smaller re-analysis suggests that the negative portrayal of 'psychiatry' on YouTube is a stable phenomenon. The significance of this and how it could be addressed are discussed.

  8. Electron tubes for industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellert, Bernd

    1994-05-01

    This report reviews research and development efforts within the last years for vacuum electron tubes, in particular power grid tubes for industrial applications. Physical and chemical effects are discussed that determine the performance of todays devices. Due to the progress made in the fundamental understanding of materials and newly developed processes the reliability and reproducibility of power grid tubes could be improved considerably. Modern computer controlled manufacturing methods ensure a high reproducibility of production and continuous quality certification according to ISO 9001 guarantees future high quality standards. Some typical applications of these tubes are given as an example.

  9. Charm production in flux tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiar, C. E.; Kodama, T.; Nazareth, R. A. M. S.; Pech, G.

    1996-01-01

    We argue that the nonperturbative Schwinger mechanism may play an important role in the hadronic production of charm. We present a flux tube model which assumes that the colliding hadrons become color charged because of gluon exchange, and that a single nonelementary flux tube is built up as they recede. The strong chromoelectric field inside this tube creates quark pairs (including charmed ones) and the ensuing color screening breaks the tube into excited hadronic clusters. In their turn these clusters, or ``fireballs,'' decay statistically into the final hadrons. The model is able to account for the soft production of charmed, strange, and lighter hadrons within a unified framework.

  10. Reduced-vibration tube array

    DOEpatents

    Bruck, Gerald J.; Bartolomeo, Daniel R.

    2004-07-20

    A reduced-vibration tube array is disclosed. The array includes a plurality of tubes in a fixed arrangement and a plurality of damping members positioned within the tubes. The damping members include contoured interface regions characterized by bracing points that selectively contact the inner surface of an associated tube. Each interface region is sized and shaped in accordance with the associated tube, so that the damping member bracing points are spaced apart a vibration-reducing distance from the associated tube inner surfaces at equilibrium. During operation, mechanical interaction between the bracing points and the tube inner surfaces reduces vibration by a damage-reducing degree. In one embodiment, the interface regions are serpentine shaped. In another embodiment, the interface regions are helical in shape. The interface regions may be simultaneously helical and serpentine in shape. The damping members may be fixed within the associated tubes, and damping member may be customized several interference regions having attributes chosen in accordance with desired flow characteristics and associated tube properties.

  11. Method for producing a tube

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Rohde, Steven B.; Pfeifer, Kent B.; Turner, Timothy S.

    2007-01-02

    A method is described for producing tubular substrates having parallel spaced concentric rings of electrical conductors that can be used as the drift tube of an Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS). The invention comprises providing electrodes on the inside of a tube that are electrically connected to the outside of the tube through conductors that extend between adjacent plies of substrate that are combined to form the tube. Tubular substrates are formed from flexible polymeric printed wiring board materials, ceramic materials and material compositions of glass and ceramic, commonly known as Low Temperature Co-Fired Ceramic (LTCC). The adjacent plies are sealed together around the electrode.

  12. Effect of the sequence of tube rolling in a tube bundle of a shell and tube heat exchanger on the stress-deformed state of the tube sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tselishchev, M. F.; Plotnikov, P. N.; Brodov, Yu. M.

    2015-11-01

    Rolling the tube sheet of a heat exchanger with U-shaped tubes, as exemplified by the vapor cooler GP-24, was simulated. The simulation was performed using the finite element method with account of elas- tic-plastic properties of the tube and tube sheet materials. The simulation consisted of two stages; at the first stage, maximum and residual contact stress in the conjunction of a separate tube and the tube sheet was determined using the "equivalent sleeve" model; at the second stage, the obtained contact stress was applied to the hole surface in the tube sheet. Thus, different tube rolling sequences were simulated: from the center to the periphery of the tube sheet and from the periphery to the center along a spiral line. The studies showed that the tube rolling sequence noticeably influences the value of the tube sheet residual deflection for the same rolling parameters of separate tubes. Residual deflection of the tube sheet in different planes was determined. It was established that the smallest residual deflection corresponds to the tube rolling sequence from the periphery to the center of the tube sheet. The following dependences were obtained for different rolling sequences: maximum deformation of the tube sheet as a function of the number of rolled tubes, residual deformation of the tube sheet along its surface, and residual deflection of the tube sheet as a function of the rotation angle at the periphery. The preferred sequence of tube rolling for minimizing the tube sheet deformation is indicated.

  13. Infrared imaging of LED lighting tubes and fluorescent tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siikanen, Sami; Kivi, Sini; Kauppinen, Timo; Juuti, Mikko

    2011-05-01

    The low energy efficiency of conventional light sources is mainly caused by generation of waste heat. We used infrared (IR) imaging in order to monitor the heating of both LED tube luminaires and ordinary T8 fluorescent tubes. The IR images showed clearly how the surface temperatures of the fluorescent tube ends quickly rose up to about +50...+70°C, whereas the highest surface temperatures seen on the LED tubes were only about +30...+40°C. The IR images demonstrated how the heat produced by the individual LED chips can be efficiently guided to the supporting structure in order to keep the LED emitters cool and hence maintain efficient operation. The consumed electrical power and produced illuminance were also recorded during 24 hour measurements. In order to assess the total luminous efficacy of the luminaires, separate luminous flux measurements were made in a large integrating sphere. The currently available LED tubes showed efficacies of up to 88 lm/W, whereas a standard "cool white" T8 fluorescent tube produced ca. 75 lm/W. Both lamp types gave ca. 110 - 130 lx right below the ceiling-mounted luminaire, but the LED tubes consume only 40 - 55% of the electric power compared to fluorescent tubes.

  14. Nasogastric tube syndrome induced by an indwelling long intestinal tube.

    PubMed

    Sano, Naoki; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Nagai, Kentaro; Yamada, Keiichi; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2016-04-21

    The nasogastric tube (NGT) has become a frequently used device to alleviate gastrointestinal symptoms. Nasogastric tube syndrome (NTS) is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening complication of an indwelling NGT. NTS is characterized by acute upper airway obstruction due to bilateral vocal cord paralysis. We report a case of a 76-year-old man with NTS, induced by an indwelling long intestinal tube. He was admitted to our hospital for treatment of sigmoid colon cancer. He underwent sigmoidectomy to release a bowel obstruction, and had a long intestinal tube inserted to decompress the intestinal tract. He presented acute dyspnea following prolonged intestinal intubation, and bronchoscopy showed bilateral vocal cord paralysis. The NGT was removed immediately, and tracheotomy was performed. The patient was finally discharged in a fully recovered state. NTS be considered in patients complaining of acute upper airway obstruction, not only with a NGT inserted but also with a long intestinal tube.

  15. Explosive welding of a tube into a tube sheet

    DOEpatents

    Green, Sheryll C.; Linse, Vonne D.

    1978-10-03

    A cartridge containing an explosive charge is placed within a tube assembled within a tube sheet. The charge is detonated through use of a detonator cord containing a minimum but effective amount of explosive material. The cord is contained inside a tubular shield throughout most of its length within the cartridge. A small length of the cord extends beyond the tubular shield to contact and detonate the explosive charge in its rear portion near the cartridge base. The cartridge base is provided of substantial mass and thickness in respect to side and front walls of the cartridge to minimize bulging beyond the rear face of the tube sheet. For remote activation an electrically activated detonator of higher charge density than the cord is attached to the cord at a location spaced from the tube sheet, cartridge and tube.

  16. Equations determine coiled tubing collapse pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Avakov, V.; Taliaferro, W.

    1995-07-24

    A set of equations has been developed for calculating pipe collapse pressure for oval tubing such as coiled tubing. When coiled tubing is placed onto a reel, the tubing is forced into an oval shape and never again returns to perfect roundness because the coiling process exceeds the plasticity limits of the tubing. Straightening the tubing for the trip into the well does not restore roundness. The consequence of this physical property is that all coiled tubing collapse pressure calculations should be made considering oval tubing, not round tubing. Tubing collapse can occur when formation pressure against the coiled tubing exceeds the collapse resistance inherent in the coiled tubing. As coiled tubing becomes more oval in shape, it becomes more oval in shape, it becomes more susceptible to collapse from outside pressure.

  17. Drop tube technical tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    Criteria, using fundamental thermochemical dynamics, were developed to assist a scientist using the Drop Tube Facility in designing a good experiment. The types of parameters involved in designing the experiments include the type of furnace, the type of atmosphere, and in general which materials are better behaved than others as determined by past experience in the facility. One of the major advantages of the facility lies in its ability to provide large undercoolings in the cooling curve during the drops. A beginning was to consider the effect of oxygen and other gases upon the amount of undercooling observed. The starting point of the thermochemistry was given by Ellingham and later transformed into what is known as the Richardson Chart. The effect of surface oxidations upon the nucleation phenomena can be observed in each specimen.

  18. Piezoelectric Rotary Tube Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Charles D.; Badescu, Mircea; Braun, David F.; Culhane, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A custom rotary SQUIGGLE(Registered TradeMark) motor has been developed that sets new benchmarks for small motor size, high position resolution, and high torque without gear reduction. Its capabilities cannot be achieved with conventional electromagnetic motors. It consists of piezoelectric plates mounted on a square flexible tube. The plates are actuated via voltage waveforms 90 out of phase at the resonant frequency of the device to create rotary motion. The motors were incorporated into a two-axis postioner that was designed for fiber-fed spectroscopy for ground-based and space-based projects. The positioner enables large-scale celestial object surveys to take place in a practical amount of time.

  19. Coiled tubing - Operations and services

    SciTech Connect

    Gronseth, J.M. )

    1993-04-01

    Drilling with a continuous (rather than jointed) drill string is an old concept that is gaining new attention as a result of recent advances made in coiled tubing and drilling technology. The development of larger diameter, reliable, high-strength coiled tubing and smaller diameter, positive displacement motors, orienting tools, surveying systems and fixed cutting drill bits have given drilling with a continuous drill string a capability that was previously unattainable. Like its many other uses, (e.g., squeeze cementing, wellbore cleanouts, flow initiation, logging) the continuity of coiled tubing gives it several advantages over conventional drill strings. These include: drilling underbalanced safely, significantly reduced trip time, continuous circulation, smaller surface requirements. Coiled tubing drilling operations have smaller surface lease requirements than most conventional rigs due to the smaller footprint of the coiled tubing unit and associated equipment. Current coiled tubing drilling operations have the following limitations: conventional rig assistance is required for well preparation; conventional rigs must assist in running long protective and production casing strings or liners; hole sizes are smaller; working depth capabilities are shallower, coiled tubing life is less. This paper goes on to discuss the history of continuous drill strings and includes information on tubing units, circulating systems, drilling fluids, well control systems, downhole tools, orientation tools, and bottomhole assemblies. It then gives a cost comparison and an application of this type of drilling.

  20. Interpreting Shock Tube Ignition Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-10-01

    times only for high concentrations (of order 1% fuel or greater). The requirements of engine (IC, HCCI , CI and SI) modelers also present a different...Paper 03F-61 Interpreting Shock Tube Ignition Data D. F. Davidson and R. K. Hanson Mechanical Engineering ... Engineering Department Stanford University, Stanford CA 94305 Abstract Chemical kinetic modelers make extensive use of shock tube ignition data

  1. Tube-Wall Thickness Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleint, R. E.; Baily, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    Eddy-current measurements detect wear of thin walls (0.01 in) (0.25 mm) in small diameter (0.19 in) (5 mm) heat exchanger tubing. Flexible durable thin rod inserts eddy-current coil into the heatexchanger tube.

  2. Modeling anterior development in mice: diet as modulator of risk for neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Kappen, Claudia

    2013-11-01

    Head morphogenesis is a complex process that is controlled by multiple signaling centers. The most common defects of cranial development are craniofacial defects, such as cleft lip and cleft palate, and neural tube defects, such as anencephaly and encephalocoele in humans. More than 400 genes that contribute to proper neural tube closure have been identified in experimental animals, but only very few causative gene mutations have been identified in humans, supporting the notion that environmental influences are critical. The intrauterine environment is influenced by maternal nutrition, and hence, maternal diet can modulate the risk for cranial and neural tube defects. This article reviews recent progress toward a better understanding of nutrients during pregnancy, with particular focus on mouse models for defective neural tube closure. At least four major patterns of nutrient responses are apparent, suggesting that multiple pathways are involved in the response, and likely in the underlying pathogenesis of the defects. Folic acid has been the most widely studied nutrient, and the diverse responses of the mouse models to folic acid supplementation indicate that folic acid is not universally beneficial, but that the effect is dependent on genetic configuration. If this is the case for other nutrients as well, efforts to prevent neural tube defects with nutritional supplementation may need to become more specifically targeted than previously appreciated. Mouse models are indispensable for a better understanding of nutrient-gene interactions in normal pregnancies, as well as in those affected by metabolic diseases, such as diabetes and obesity.

  3. Modeling Anterior Development in Mice: Diet as Modulator of Risk for Neural Tube Defects

    PubMed Central

    Kappen, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Head morphogenesis is a complex process that is controlled by multiple signaling centers. The most common defects of cranial development are craniofacial defects, such as cleft lip and cleft palate, and neural tube defects, such as anencephaly and encephalocoele in humans. More than 400 genes that contribute to proper neural tube closure have been identified in experimental animals, but only very few causative gene mutations have been identified in humans, supporting the notion that environmental influences are critical. The intrauterine environment is influenced by maternal nutrition, and hence, maternal diet can modulate the risk for cranial and neural tube defects. This article reviews recent progress toward a better understanding of nutrients during pregnancy, with particular focus on mouse models for defective neural tube closure. At least four major patterns of nutrient responses are apparent, suggesting that multiple pathways are involved in the response, and likely in the underlying pathogenesis of the defects. Folic acid has been the most widely studied nutrient, and the diverse responses of the mouse models to folic acid supplementation indicate that folic acid is not universally beneficial, but that the effect is dependent on genetic configuration. If this is the case for other nutrients as well, efforts to prevent neural tube defects with nutritional supplementation may need to become more specifically targeted than previously appreciated. Mouse models are indispensable for a better understanding of nutrient–gene interactions in normal pregnancies, as well as in those affected by metabolic diseases, such as diabetes and obesity. PMID:24124024

  4. Open vacuum tube in space.

    PubMed

    Gonfalone, A A; Arends, H J

    1979-11-01

    After having reviewed briefly the reliability of vacuum tubes on spacecraft, it is shown that the operation in space of a vacuum tube with an open structure is possible provided adequate measures are taken. The tube considered here is a multielectrode electron gun emitting electrons into space, in order to control the potential of a satellite. To avoid the failure of the most sensitive element of the gun, namely the impregnated tungsten cathode, the gun design includes such characteristics as a slow warming up of the heater element, a reactivation program used in case of cathode contamination, and a clean opening system which is not contaminant. Similarities with communication tubes are considered and the advantages of open tubes are mentioned.

  5. Water-storage-tube systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hemker, P.

    1981-12-24

    Passive solar collection/storage/distribution systems were surveyed, designed, fabricated, and mechanically and thermally tested. The types studied were clear and opaque fiberglass tubes, metal tubes with plastic liners, and thermosyphoning tubes. (MHR)

  6. Eddy current signal comparison for tube identification

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, S. W. E-mail: Ratko.Vojvodic@areva.com; Vojvodic, R. E-mail: Ratko.Vojvodic@areva.com

    2015-03-31

    Inspection of nuclear power plant steam generator tubes is required to justify continued safe plant operation. The steam generators consist of thousands of tubes with nominal diameters of 15 to 22mm, approximately 1mm wall thickness, and 20 to 30m in length. The tubes are inspected by passing an eddy current probe through the tubes from tube end to tube end. It is critical to know exactly which tube identification (row and column) is associated with each tube's data. This is controlled by a precision manipulator that provides the tube ID to the eddy current system. Historically there have been some instances where the manipulator incorrectly reported the tube ID. This can have serious consequences including lack of inspection of a tube, or if a pluggable indication is detected, the tube is likely to be mis-plugged thereby risking a primary to secondary leak.

  7. Eddy current signal comparison for tube identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, S. W.; Vojvodic, R.

    2015-03-01

    Inspection of nuclear power plant steam generator tubes is required to justify continued safe plant operation. The steam generators consist of thousands of tubes with nominal diameters of 15 to 22mm, approximately 1mm wall thickness, and 20 to 30m in length. The tubes are inspected by passing an eddy current probe through the tubes from tube end to tube end. It is critical to know exactly which tube identification (row and column) is associated with each tube's data. This is controlled by a precision manipulator that provides the tube ID to the eddy current system. Historically there have been some instances where the manipulator incorrectly reported the tube ID. This can have serious consequences including lack of inspection of a tube, or if a pluggable indication is detected, the tube is likely to be mis-plugged thereby risking a primary to secondary leak.

  8. Comparison of Streak Tube Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lerche, R A; Andrews, D S; Bell, P M; Griffiths, R L; Huey, A W; McDonald, J W; de Dios, G V

    2004-11-04

    The performance of four streak tubes in six streak camera configurations is reported. Evaluations were made as part of a search for a streak tube to replace the obsolete RCA C73435 used in the ICF Program's optical streak cameras. Characteristics measured include linearity, spatial and temporal resolution, line-spread function, contrast transfer ratio (CTR), and dynamic range. Tubes evaluated are the RCA C73435, Photonis P510, Photek ST-Y, and Hamamatsu N8059. The RCA C73435 was evaluated in three camera configurations: large format CCD coupled directly to the streak tube, CCD directly coupled to an image intensifier tube (IIT), and the original configuration with a smaller CCD lens coupled to the IIT output. The Photonis and Photek tubes were characterized in configurations where they were directly coupled to large format CCDs. Optimum spatial resolution is achieved when the IIT is removed. Maximum dynamic range requires a configuration where a single photoelectron from the photocathode produces a signal that is {approx}5 times the CCD read noise. The Photonis P510 tube with the E2V CCD forms a well-optimized streak camera system.

  9. Mouse Curve Biometrics

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, Douglas A.

    2007-10-08

    A biometric system suitable for validating user identity using only mouse movements and no specialized equipment is presented. Mouse curves (mouse movements with little or no pause between them) are individually classied and used to develop classication histograms, which are representative of an individual's typical mouse use. These classication histograms can then be compared to validate identity. This classication approach is suitable for providing continuous identity validation during an entire user session.

  10. Nonsteady Flow in Capillary Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Ayako

    2000-03-01

    Surface phenomena in the field of electron devices and the problem of how long. It takes plants to absorb water during their growth in hydroponic cultivation is attraching the attention of riseachers. However, the related study of non-steady flow in capillary tubes has a number of issues that require investigation. In response to this situation, we made attempted to assess nonsteady fiow in capillary tubes, the liquid rise time and other issues, using a motion equation that takes factors including the friction force of the tube and the surface tension into consideration.

  11. Building a Brainier Mouse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsien, Joe Z.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a genetic engineering project to build an intelligent mouse. Cites understanding the molecular basis of learning and memory as a very important step. Concludes that while science will never create a genius mouse that plays the stock market, it can turn a mouse into a quick learner with a better memory. (YDS)

  12. Pulsed Drift Tube Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Faltens, A.

    2004-10-25

    The pulsed drift-tube accelerator (DTA) concept was revived by Joe Kwan and John Staples and is being considered for the HEDP/WDM application. It could be used to reach the full energy or as an intermediate accelerator between the diode and a high gradient accelerator such as multi-beam r.f. In the earliest LBNL HIF proposals and conceptual drivers it was used as an extended injector to reach energies where an induction linac with magnetic quadrupoles is the best choice. For HEDP, because of the very short pulse duration, the DTA could provide an acceleration rate of about 1MV/m. This note is divided into two parts: the first, a design based on existing experience; the second, an optimistic extrapolation. The first accelerates 16 parallel K{sup +} beams at a constant line charge density of 0.25{micro} C/m per beam to 10 MeV; the second uses a stripper and charge selector at around 4MeV followed by further acceleration to reach 40 MeV. Both benefit from more compact sources than the present 2MV injector source, although that beam is the basis of the first design and is a viable option. A pulsed drift-tube accelerator was the first major HIF experiment at LBNL. It was designed to produce a 2{micro}s rectangular 1 Ampere C{sub s}{sup +} beam at 2MeV. It ran comfortably at 1.6MeV for several years, then at lower voltages and currents for other experiments, and remnants of that experiment are in use in present experiments, still running 25 years later. The 1A current, completely equivalent to 1.8A K{sup +}, was chosen to be intermediate between the beamlets appropriate for a multi-beam accelerator, and a single beam of, say, 10A, at injection energies. The original driver scenarios using one large beam on each side of the reactor rapidly fell out of favor because of the very high transverse and longitudinal fields from the beam space charge, circa 1MV/cm and 250 kV/cm respectively, near the chamber and because of aberrations in focusing a large diameter beam down to a 1

  13. Tube-wave seismic imaging

    DOEpatents

    Korneev, Valeri A [LaFayette, CA

    2009-05-05

    The detailed analysis of cross well seismic data for a gas reservoir in Texas revealed two newly detected seismic wave effects, recorded approximately 2000 feet above the reservoir. A tube-wave (150) is initiated in a source well (110) by a source (111), travels in the source well (110), is coupled to a geological feature (140), propagates (151) through the geological feature (140), is coupled back to a tube-wave (152) at a receiver well (120), and is and received by receiver(s) (121) in either the same (110) or a different receiving well (120). The tube-wave has been shown to be extremely sensitive to changes in reservoir characteristics. Tube-waves appear to couple most effectively to reservoirs where the well casing is perforated, allowing direct fluid contact from the interior of a well case to the reservoir.

  14. Tube-wave seismic imaging

    DOEpatents

    Korneev, Valeri A.; Bakulin, Andrey

    2009-10-13

    The detailed analysis of cross well seismic data for a gas reservoir in Texas revealed two newly detected seismic wave effects, recorded approximately 2000 feet above the reservoir. A tube-wave (150) is initiated in a source well (110) by a source (111), travels in the source well (110), is coupled to a geological feature (140), propagates (151) through the geological feature (140), is coupled back to a tube-wave (152) at a receiver well (120), and is and received by receiver(s) (121) in either the same (110) or a different receiving well (120). The tube-wave has been shown to be extremely sensitive to changes in reservoir characteristics. Tube-waves appear to couple most effectively to reservoirs where the well casing is perforated, allowing direct fluid contact from the interior of a well case to the reservoir.

  15. Photomultiplier tube gain regulating system

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Wayne F.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved system for regulating the gain of a photomultiplier tube, and was designed for use with the photomultiplier tubes of a GeMSAEC fast analyzers. It has the following advantages over the prior system: noise is virtually eliminated; sample analysis can begin after 3 to 4 revolutions of the rotor; fluorescent and light scattering solutions can be used as a reference; and the reference solution can be in any cuvette on the rotor.

  16. Coiled tubing; Operations and services

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, J.L. ); Whitlow, R.R. )

    1992-07-01

    This paper reports that pulling tubing to clean out a production liner at Prudhoe Bay Unit Western Operating Area (PBU WOA) averages $600,000 to $800,000. Coiled tubing underreaming was developed to accomplish this objective at lower costs. Beginning in 1988, these operations have been improved through several generations of procedures and tool designs. Using current technology, the underreamer, in conjunction with coiled tubing, can reduce the cost of drilling out to a liner to about $50,000 or $100,000, depending on the amount and type of material to be removed. PBU WOA, operated by BP Exploration, produces about 600,000 bopd from 395 wells. Another 61 wells are used to inject produced water, seawater and miscible fluids. Most of the remedial well servicing operations are conducted using coiled tubing (CT). Three contract coiled tubing units (CTUs) work daily, performing wellbore cleanouts, stimulations, inflatable bridge plug installations and cement squeeze operations. About 42 underreaming jobs were performed from 1990 to 1991 at PBU WOA for an average cost of between $75,000 and $100,000, a cost savings of $500,000 power well compared to pulling tubing and cleaning out the wells conventionally.

  17. Dermatology on YouTube.

    PubMed

    Boyers, Lindsay N; Quest, Tyler; Karimkhani, Chante; Connett, Jessica; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2014-06-15

    YouTube, reaches upwards of six billion users on a monthly basis and is a unique source of information distribution and communication. Although the influence of YouTube on personal health decision-making is well established, this study assessed the type of content and viewership on a broad scope of dermatology related content on YouTube. Select terms (i.e. dermatology, sun protection, skin cancer, skin cancer awareness, and skin conditions) were searched on YouTube. Overall, the results included 100 videos with over 47 million viewers. Advocacy was the most prevalent content type at 24% of the total search results. These 100 videos were "shared" a total of 101,173 times and have driven 6,325 subscriptions to distinct YouTube user pages. Of the total videos, 35% were uploaded by or featured an MD/DO/PhD in dermatology or other specialty/field, 2% FNP/PA, 1% RN, and 62% other. As one of the most trafficked global sites on the Internet, YouTube is a valuable resource for dermatologists, physicians in other specialties, and the general public to share their dermatology-related content and gain subscribers. However, challenges of accessing and determining evidence-based data remain an issue.

  18. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lagasse, P.R.

    1985-06-21

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and radius by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  19. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lagasse, Paul R.

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and circumference by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  20. 27 CFR 41.35 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 41.35... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.35 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette tubes are taxed at the following...

  1. 27 CFR 40.352 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 40.352... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.352 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette...

  2. 27 CFR 41.35 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Cigarette tubes. 41.35... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.35 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette tubes are taxed at the following...

  3. 27 CFR 41.35 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 41.35... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.35 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette tubes are taxed at the following...

  4. 27 CFR 40.352 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 40.352... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.352 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette...

  5. 27 CFR 40.352 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 40.352... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.352 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette...

  6. 27 CFR 41.35 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 41.35... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.35 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette tubes are taxed at the following...

  7. 27 CFR 40.352 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Cigarette tubes. 40.352... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.352 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette...

  8. 21 CFR 872.6570 - Impression tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Impression tube. 872.6570 Section 872.6570 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6570 Impression tube. (a) Identification. An impression tube is a device consisting of a hollow copper tube intended to take an impression of a single...

  9. 21 CFR 868.5720 - Bronchial tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bronchial tube. 868.5720 Section 868.5720 Food and... ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5720 Bronchial tube. (a) Identification. A bronchial tube is a... leading directly to the lung) in order to isolate a portion of lung distal to the tube. (b)...

  10. 21 CFR 872.6570 - Impression tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Impression tube. 872.6570 Section 872.6570 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6570 Impression tube. (a) Identification. An impression tube is a device consisting of a hollow copper tube intended to take an impression of a single...

  11. 21 CFR 868.5720 - Bronchial tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bronchial tube. 868.5720 Section 868.5720 Food and... ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5720 Bronchial tube. (a) Identification. A bronchial tube is a... leading directly to the lung) in order to isolate a portion of lung distal to the tube. (b)...

  12. 21 CFR 872.6570 - Impression tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Impression tube. 872.6570 Section 872.6570 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6570 Impression tube. (a) Identification. An impression tube is a device consisting of a hollow copper tube intended to take an impression of a single...

  13. 21 CFR 868.5720 - Bronchial tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bronchial tube. 868.5720 Section 868.5720 Food and... ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5720 Bronchial tube. (a) Identification. A bronchial tube is a... leading directly to the lung) in order to isolate a portion of lung distal to the tube. (b)...

  14. 21 CFR 872.6570 - Impression tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Impression tube. 872.6570 Section 872.6570 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6570 Impression tube. (a) Identification. An impression tube is a device consisting of a hollow copper tube intended to take an impression of a single...

  15. 21 CFR 868.5720 - Bronchial tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bronchial tube. 868.5720 Section 868.5720 Food and... ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5720 Bronchial tube. (a) Identification. A bronchial tube is a... leading directly to the lung) in order to isolate a portion of lung distal to the tube. (b)...

  16. 21 CFR 868.5720 - Bronchial tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bronchial tube. 868.5720 Section 868.5720 Food and... ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5720 Bronchial tube. (a) Identification. A bronchial tube is a... leading directly to the lung) in order to isolate a portion of lung distal to the tube. (b)...

  17. 27 CFR 40.352 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 40.352... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.352 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette...

  18. 21 CFR 872.6570 - Impression tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Impression tube. 872.6570 Section 872.6570 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6570 Impression tube. (a) Identification. An impression tube is a device consisting of a hollow copper tube intended to take an impression of a single...

  19. 27 CFR 41.35 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 41.35... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.35 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette tubes are taxed at the following...

  20. Glareless light-emitting diode lighting tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Rong-Seng; Li, Tung-Yen; Jwo, Ko-Wen; Wang, Sha-Wei; Tsai, Jang-Zern

    2012-03-01

    We develop a novel light bar waveguide design to produce a glareless light-emitting diode (LED) lighting tube. We design optimal parameters, such as the gap y between the tube and the reflective surface, the relative distance x between the lens and the LED, and so on. Using these parameters, we fabricate an illumination system consisting of LED light bulb installed at both ends of lighting tube. The lighting tube is shaped the same as a traditional fluorescent lighting tube in order to replace traditional lighting tubes without the modification of the lighting stand. The LED lighting tube is glareless to the observer from the side view.

  1. Slit/Robo1 signaling regulates neural tube development by balancing neuroepithelial cell proliferation and differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Guang; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiao-yu; Han, Zhe; Chuai, Manli; Wang, Li-jing; Ho Lee, Kenneth Ka; Geng, Jian-guo; Yang, Xuesong

    2013-05-01

    development by tightly coordinating cell proliferation and differentiation during neurulation. - Highlights: ► The role of Slit/Robo1 signaling was investigated with chick and mouse models. ► Disturbance of Slit/Robo1 signaling resulted in neural tube defects. ► Slit/Robo1 signaling regulated the proliferation of neural tube cells. ► Slit/Robo1 signaling modulated the differentiation of neural tube cells. ► Slit/Robo1 signaling balanced the proliferation and differentiation of neural tube.

  2. 49 CFR 230.61 - Arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators and thermic siphons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators and... MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Washing Boilers § 230.61 Arch tubes, water bar tubes... water bar tubes shall thoroughly be cleaned mechanically, washed, and inspected. Circulators and...

  3. 49 CFR 230.61 - Arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators and thermic siphons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators and... MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Washing Boilers § 230.61 Arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators and thermic siphons. (a) Frequency of cleaning. Each time the boiler is washed, arch tubes...

  4. 49 CFR 230.61 - Arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators and thermic siphons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators and... MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Washing Boilers § 230.61 Arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators and thermic siphons. (a) Frequency of cleaning. Each time the boiler is washed, arch tubes...

  5. 49 CFR 230.61 - Arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators and thermic siphons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators and... MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Washing Boilers § 230.61 Arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators and thermic siphons. (a) Frequency of cleaning. Each time the boiler is washed, arch tubes...

  6. 49 CFR 230.61 - Arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators and thermic siphons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators and... MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Washing Boilers § 230.61 Arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators and thermic siphons. (a) Frequency of cleaning. Each time the boiler is washed, arch tubes...

  7. Dynamic behaviors of the non-neural ectoderm during mammalian cranial neural tube closure.

    PubMed

    Ray, Heather J; Niswander, Lee A

    2016-08-15

    The embryonic brain and spinal cord initially form through the process of neural tube closure (NTC). NTC is thought to be highly similar between rodents and humans, and studies of mouse genetic mutants have greatly increased our understanding of the molecular basis of NTC with relevance for human neural tube defects. In addition, studies using amphibian and chick embryos have shed light into the cellular and tissue dynamics underlying NTC. However, the dynamics of mammalian NTC has been difficult to study due to in utero development until recently when advances in mouse embryo ex vivo culture techniques along with confocal microscopy have allowed for imaging of mouse NTC in real time. Here, we have performed live imaging of mouse embryos with a particular focus on the non-neural ectoderm (NNE). Previous studies in multiple model systems have found that the NNE is important for proper NTC, but little is known about the behavior of these cells during mammalian NTC. Here we utilized a NNE-specific genetic labeling system to assess NNE dynamics during murine NTC and identified different NNE cell behaviors as the cranial region undergoes NTC. These results bring valuable new insight into regional differences in cellular behavior during NTC that may be driven by different molecular regulators and which may underlie the various positional disruptions of NTC observed in humans with neural tube defects.

  8. Inspecting coiled tubing for well operations

    SciTech Connect

    Gard, M.F.; Pasternack, E.S.; Smith, L.J.

    1992-02-18

    This patent describes improvement in a coiled tubing system for insertion of a substantially continuous bendable length of metal tubing into and withdrawal from a wellbore, the system including a tubing injection unit disposed for injecting the length of tubing into the well bore and storage means for dispensing the length of tubing and receiving the length of tubing from the injection unit. The improvement includes: tubing inspection apparatus for substantially continuously inspecting the wall section of the tubing to detect cracks and structural defects which may lead to tubing failure, the apparatus comprising: a source of electromagnetic radiation mounted in proximity to the tubing between the injection unit and a wellhead into which the tubing is injected; a radiation detector unit for receiving signals from the source which have been projected through the wall of the tubing; means for receiving signals form the detector unit for monitoring the structural integrity o the wall of the tubing during one of injecting and withdrawing the tubing with respect to the wellhead; and housing means supported for rotation about a longitudinal axis of the tubing.

  9. Coiled tubing - Operations and services

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, D.A.; Blue, T.H. )

    1993-03-01

    Sand production can severely impact well performance and profitability by damaging production equipment or plugging wellbores. Sand control in existing wells may be required because of inadequate initial completion design, recompletion to new intervals or changes in reservoir production characteristics. The most durable and reliable sand control is by conventional gravel packing, but in some cases, conventional packs may not be economic or feasible. Improvements in coiled tubing technology and reliability have resulted in better application and increased acceptance of through-tubing sand control. Concentric gravel packing and sand consolidation are being used more because of advances in equipment, services, downhole tools and fluids. Candidates for these techniques include conventional completions that begin producing sand and wells with gravel pack failures. Economical jobs have been performed successfully in several different wellbore configurations. Some initially non-gravel packed wells are now being designed for possible through-tubing gravel packing, anticipating sand production later in the completion's producing life. This paper reviews the general procedures for installing a through-tubing, washdown mechanical gravel pack using coiled tubing conveyance and placement techniques.

  10. Using the Scroll Wheel on a Wireless Mouse as a Motion Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Richard S.; Wilson, William R.

    2010-12-01

    Since its inception in the mid-80s, the computer mouse has undergone several design changes. As the mouse has evolved, physicists have found new ways to utilize it as a motion sensor. For example, the rollers in a mechanical mouse have been used as pulleys to study the motion of a magnet moving through a copper tube as a quantitative demonstration of Lenz's law and to study mechanical oscillators (e.g., mass-spring system and compound pendulum).1-3 Additionally, the optical system in an optical mouse has been used to study a mechanical oscillator (e.g., mass-spring system).4 The argument for using a mouse as a motion sensor has been and continues to be availability and cost. This paper continues this tradition by detailing the use of the scroll wheel on a wireless mouse as a motion sensor.

  11. Coiled tubing -- Operations and services

    SciTech Connect

    Sas-Jaworsky, A. II ); Blount, C.G. ); Tailby, R.J. )

    1993-06-01

    This paper reviews three industry authority's views on developments that will impact coiled tubing equipment and techniques for conventional land locations, Arctic and harsh offshore environments. Examples which are provided include the development of high-strength steels, composite pipe, integral lift devices, abrasive jet drilling, and extended reach drilling. It discusses the application of coiled tubing to well completion and maintenance, including the applications to plugged pipelines. The use of new steels and alloys help increase the corrosion resistance of the drilling stem along with greater load-bearing capacity. The economic advantages of coiled drilling versus jointed tubing drilling is somewhat more questionable as the cost for downhole motors and directional tools remain prohibitively high and borehole diameters remain small.

  12. Coiled tubing; Operations and services

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, P.T.; Wimberly, R.D.

    1992-10-01

    Oil and gas wells that flow on initial completion eventually reach a condition of liquid loading that kills the wells. This results form declining reservoir pressure, decreased gas volume (velocity), increased water production and other factors that cause liquids to accumulate at the bottom of the well and exert back pressure on the formation. This restricts or in some cases prevents fluid entry into the wellbore form the formation. Flowing production can be restored or increased by reducing surface backpressure, well bore stimulation, pressure maintenance or by installing a string of smaller diameter tubing. This paper reports on installation (hanging off) of a concentric string of coiled tubing inside existing production tubing which is an economically viable, safe, convenient and effective alterative for returning some of these liquid loaded )logged-up) wells to flowing status.

  13. End Calorimeter Warm Tube Heater

    SciTech Connect

    Primdahl, K.; /Fermilab

    1991-08-06

    The Tevatron accelerator beam tube must pass through the End Calorimeter cryostats of the D-Zero Collider Detector. Furthermore, the End Calorimeter cryostats must be allowed to roll back forty inches without interruption of the vacuum system; hence, the Tev tube must slide through the End Calorimeter cryostat as it is rolled back. The Tev pass through the End Calorimeter can actually be thought of as a cluster of concentric tubes: Tev tube, warm (vacuum vessel) tube, IS layers of superinsulation, cold tube (argon vessel), and Inner Hadronic center support tube. M. Foley generated an ANSYS model to study the heat load. to the cryostat. during collider physics studies; that is, without operation of the heater. A sketch of the model is included in the appendix. The vacuum space and superinsulation was modeled as a thermal solid, with conductivity derived from tests performed at Fermilab. An additional estimate was done. by this author, using data supplied by NR-2. a superinsulation manufacturer. The ANSYS result and hand calculation are in close agreement. The ANSYS model was modified. by this author. to incorporate the effect of the heater. Whereas the earlier model studied steady state operation only. the revised model considers the heater-off steady state mode as the initial condition. then performs a transient analysis with a final load step for time tending towards infinity. Results show the thermal gradient as a function of time and applied voltage. It should be noted that M. Foley's model was generated for one half the warm tube. implying the tube to be symmetric. In reality. the downstream connection (relative to the collision point) attachment to the vacuum shell is via several convolutions of a 0.020-inch wall bellows; hence. a nearly adiabatic boundary condition. Accordingly. the results reported in the table reflect extrapolation of the curves to the downstream end of the tube. Using results from the ANSYS analysis, that is, tube temperature and

  14. Tubing and cable cutting tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcsmith, D. D.; Richardson, J. I. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A hand held hydraulic cutting tool was developed which is particularly useful in deactivating ejection seats in military aircraft rescue operations. The tool consists primarily of a hydraulic system composed of a fluid reservoir, a pumping piston, and an actuator piston. Mechanical cutting jaws are attached to the actuator piston rod. The hydraulic system is controlled by a pump handle. As the pump handle is operated the actuator piston rod is forced outward and thus the cutting jaws are forced together. The frame of the device is a flexible metal tubing which permits easy positioning of the tool cutting jaws in remote and normally inaccessible locations. Bifurcated cutting edges ensure removal of a section of the tubing or cable to thereby reduce the possibility of accidental reactivation of the tubing or cable being severed.

  15. Core-tube data logger

    SciTech Connect

    Henfling, J.A.; Normann, R.A.; Knudsen, S.; Drumheller, D.

    1997-01-01

    Wireline core drilling, increasingly used for geothermal exploration, employs a core-tube to capture a rock core sample during drilling. Three types of core-tube data loggers (CTDL) have been built and tested to date by Sandia national Laboratories. They are: (1) temperature-only logger, (2) temperature/inclinometer logger and (3) heat-shielded temperature/inclinometer logger. All were tested during core drilling operations using standard wireline diamond core drilling equipment. While these tools are designed for core-tube deployment, the tool lends itself to be adapted to other drilling modes and equipment. Topics covered in this paper include: (1) description on how the CTDLs are implemented, (2) the components of the system, (3) the type of data one can expect from this type of tool, (4) lessons learned, (5) comparison to its counterpart and (6) future work.

  16. Hobetron current regulating switch tube

    SciTech Connect

    True, R.B.; Hansen, R.J.; Deb, D.N.; Good, G.R.; Reass, W.A.

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes a novel high power electron tube that can hold off voltages up to hundreds of kilovolts, and switch hundreds of amps of current. They call the divide the Hobertron since it utilizes a hollow electron beam. Unlike magnetron injection gun (MIG) switch tubes, it does not require a magnet. Further, it uses nonintercepting control laments, and a dispenser cathode for long life and reliability. Finally, it features a double walled Faraday cage collector for high power dissipation capability. Current is very tightly controlled against changes in voltage across the switch (it is an almost perfect pentode), thus this tube is ideally suited for direct series switching applications. In the paper, various Hobertron designs, and the computer codes and methods used to create them, will be described.

  17. An approach for safe conversion of an oral endotracheal tube to a nasal endotracheal tube

    PubMed Central

    Diao, Zhiying

    2017-01-01

    We present an approach for safe management of a patient with an oral endotracheal tube who required conversion to a nasal endotracheal tube. A 35-year-old man presented for mandibular fracture repair after multiple injuries sustained in a motor vehicle accident. The patient already had an oral endotracheal tube, and the surgical team requested a nasal endotracheal tube to facilitate surgical exposure and postoperative airway management in anticipation of a wired jaw. A nasal endotracheal tube was inserted through the naris and a video laryngoscope was used to visualize the glottis. A tracheal tube introducer was inserted through the oral endotracheal tube, and the oral endotracheal tube was then withdrawn approximately 5 cm. The nasal endotracheal tube was advanced through the vocal cords alongside the tracheal tube introducer. The nasal endotracheal tube cuff was then inflated and the tracheal tube introducer was withdrawn. PMID:28127145

  18. An approach for safe conversion of an oral endotracheal tube to a nasal endotracheal tube.

    PubMed

    Hofkamp, Michael; Diao, Zhiying

    2017-01-01

    We present an approach for safe management of a patient with an oral endotracheal tube who required conversion to a nasal endotracheal tube. A 35-year-old man presented for mandibular fracture repair after multiple injuries sustained in a motor vehicle accident. The patient already had an oral endotracheal tube, and the surgical team requested a nasal endotracheal tube to facilitate surgical exposure and postoperative airway management in anticipation of a wired jaw. A nasal endotracheal tube was inserted through the naris and a video laryngoscope was used to visualize the glottis. A tracheal tube introducer was inserted through the oral endotracheal tube, and the oral endotracheal tube was then withdrawn approximately 5 cm. The nasal endotracheal tube was advanced through the vocal cords alongside the tracheal tube introducer. The nasal endotracheal tube cuff was then inflated and the tracheal tube introducer was withdrawn.

  19. An encyclopedia of mouse DNA elements (Mouse ENCODE).

    PubMed

    Stamatoyannopoulos, John A; Snyder, Michael; Hardison, Ross; Ren, Bing; Gingeras, Thomas; Gilbert, David M; Groudine, Mark; Bender, Michael; Kaul, Rajinder; Canfield, Theresa; Giste, Erica; Johnson, Audra; Zhang, Mia; Balasundaram, Gayathri; Byron, Rachel; Roach, Vaughan; Sabo, Peter J; Sandstrom, Richard; Stehling, A Sandra; Thurman, Robert E; Weissman, Sherman M; Cayting, Philip; Hariharan, Manoj; Lian, Jin; Cheng, Yong; Landt, Stephen G; Ma, Zhihai; Wold, Barbara J; Dekker, Job; Crawford, Gregory E; Keller, Cheryl A; Wu, Weisheng; Morrissey, Christopher; Kumar, Swathi A; Mishra, Tejaswini; Jain, Deepti; Byrska-Bishop, Marta; Blankenberg, Daniel; Lajoie, Bryan R; Jain, Gaurav; Sanyal, Amartya; Chen, Kaun-Bei; Denas, Olgert; Taylor, James; Blobel, Gerd A; Weiss, Mitchell J; Pimkin, Max; Deng, Wulan; Marinov, Georgi K; Williams, Brian A; Fisher-Aylor, Katherine I; Desalvo, Gilberto; Kiralusha, Anthony; Trout, Diane; Amrhein, Henry; Mortazavi, Ali; Edsall, Lee; McCleary, David; Kuan, Samantha; Shen, Yin; Yue, Feng; Ye, Zhen; Davis, Carrie A; Zaleski, Chris; Jha, Sonali; Xue, Chenghai; Dobin, Alex; Lin, Wei; Fastuca, Meagan; Wang, Huaien; Guigo, Roderic; Djebali, Sarah; Lagarde, Julien; Ryba, Tyrone; Sasaki, Takayo; Malladi, Venkat S; Cline, Melissa S; Kirkup, Vanessa M; Learned, Katrina; Rosenbloom, Kate R; Kent, W James; Feingold, Elise A; Good, Peter J; Pazin, Michael; Lowdon, Rebecca F; Adams, Leslie B

    2012-08-13

    To complement the human Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project and to enable a broad range of mouse genomics efforts, the Mouse ENCODE Consortium is applying the same experimental pipelines developed for human ENCODE to annotate the mouse genome.

  20. High Speed Flow in Tubes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-14

    variables such as density or pressure are assumed to depend only on time and not on position along the tube so that only some of the 1-D effects are...ideal gas law). 2) The local linear burning rate (rb) depends on the spatial- average pressure within the tube assembly. 3) The ratio of specific... depends on local pressure . 3) Case AD is the same as case AC except that the ratio of specific heats is no longer constant (i.e., Eq. (2.20) is used to

  1. Coiled tubing; Operations and services

    SciTech Connect

    Sas-Jaworsky, A. II )

    1991-12-01

    This article outlines the minimum safety requirements that should be considered for onshore and offshore oil well service operations with coiled tubing equipment. These guidelines comply with Minerals Management Service (MMS) regulations issued on May 31, 1988, for offshore work. Where specific MMS regulations are sited, the regulation reference, Incident of Non-Compliance (INC), number is provided. These guidelines can be used by operators and contractors, and although U.S. offshore operations are emphasized, they are applicable wherever coiled tubing services are used.

  2. Mechanical Instabilities of Biological Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannezo, Edouard; Prost, Jacques; Joanny, Jean-François

    2012-07-01

    We study theoretically the morphologies of biological tubes affected by various pathologies. When epithelial cells grow, the negative tension produced by their division provokes a buckling instability. Several shapes are investigated: varicose, dilated, sinuous, or sausagelike. They are all found in pathologies of tracheal, renal tubes, or arteries. The final shape depends crucially on the mechanical parameters of the tissues: Young’s modulus, wall-to-lumen ratio, homeostatic pressure. We argue that since tissues must be in quasistatic mechanical equilibrium, abnormal shapes convey information as to what causes the pathology. We calculate a phase diagram of tubular instabilities which could be a helpful guide for investigating the underlying genetic regulation.

  3. Anatomy of the Eustachian Tube.

    PubMed

    Leuwer, Rudolf

    2016-10-01

    The eustachian tube consists of 2 compartments: the Rüdinger's safety canal and the auxiliary gap. It is surrounded by a cartilaginous wall on the craniomedial side and a membranous wall on the inferolateral side. The eustachian tube cartilage is firmly attached to the skull base by the lateral and the medial suspensory ligaments, which are separated by the medial Ostmann fat pad. The function of the isometric tensor veli palatini muscle is modulated by hypomochlia, which have an influence on the muscular force vectors.

  4. Working session 3: Tubing integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Cueto-Felgueroso, C.; Strosnider, J.

    1997-02-01

    Twenty-three individuals representing nine countries (Belgium, Canada, the Czech Republic, France, Japan, the Slovak Republic, Spain, the UK, and the US) participated in the session on tube integrity. These individuals represented utilities, vendors, consultants and regulatory authorities. The major subjects discussed by the group included overall objectives of managing steam generator tube degradation, necessary elements of a steam generator degradation management program, the concept of degradation specific management, structural integrity evaluations, leakage evaluations, and specific degradation mechanisms. The group`s discussions on these subjects, including conclusions and recommendations, are summarized in this article.

  5. Coiled tubing 1994: Enhanced value through innovation

    SciTech Connect

    Teel, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the growth in use of coiled tubing in well completion and development processes. Larger tubing is now available and operations expand into more demanding and critical areas as a result of research and development, innovation, and better understanding of materials and tube development. This article highlights significant coiled tubing operations, services, practices, and applications since 1990. It describes the types of materials used in coiled tubing and the strength associated with each type. Various case studies are described which use this tubing in both horizontal and directional drilling. It also is discussed as it relates to various types of enhanced recovery techniques for oil and gas wells.

  6. TORC1/2 Inhibitor MLN0128 and Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Recurrent Glioblastoma or Advanced Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-31

    Adult Glioblastoma; Endometrial Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Solid Neoplasm; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  7. Neural Tube Defect Induction by Fumonisin B1 in LM/Bc Mice Fed Folate Deficient or Folate Replete Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum. FB1 is found in corn-based foods and evidence suggests that it is a risk factor for neural tube defects (NTD). The mechanism(s) underlying NTD induction by FB1 in the sensitive LM/Bc mouse model is not well...

  8. Fumonisin B1 induced neural tube defects were not increased in LM/Bc mice fed folate-deficient diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium verticillioides that is found in corn-based foods and is possibly a risk factor for neural tube defects (NTD). The mechanism(s) underlying NTD induction by FB1 in the sensitive LM/Bc mouse model is not well understood, however, there is evidenc...

  9. High resolution melt analysis (HRMA); a viable alternative to agarose gel electrophoresis for mouse genotyping.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Nicole; Ali, Radiya G; Ahmed, Jehangir N; Arkell, Ruth M

    2012-01-01

    Most mouse genetics laboratories maintain mouse strains that require genotyping in order to identify the genetically modified animals. The plethora of mutagenesis strategies and publicly available mouse alleles means that any one laboratory may maintain alleles with random or targeted insertions of orthologous or unrelated sequences as well as random or targeted deletions and point mutants. Many experiments require that different strains be cross bred conferring the need to genotype progeny at more than one locus. In contrast to the range of new technologies for mouse mutagenesis, genotyping methods have remained relatively static with alleles typically discriminated by agarose gel electrophoresis of PCR products. This requires a large amount of researcher time. Additionally it is susceptible to contamination of future genotyping experiments because it requires that tubes containing PCR products be opened for analysis. Progress has been made with the genotyping of mouse point mutants because a range of new high-throughput techniques have been developed for the detection of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms. Some of these techniques are suitable for genotyping point mutants but do not detect insertion or deletion alleles. Ideally, mouse genetics laboratories would use a single, high-throughput platform that enables closed-tube analysis to genotype the entire range of possible insertion and deletion alleles and point mutants. Here we show that High Resolution Melt Analysis meets these criteria, it is suitable for closed-tube genotyping of all allele types and current genotyping assays can be converted to this technology with little or no effort.

  10. A malfunctioning nasogastric feeding tube.

    PubMed

    Cereda, Emanuele; Costa, Antonio; Caccialanza, Riccardo; Pedrolli, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    A critical point of nasogastric feeding tube placement, potentially resulting in an unsafe and/or non-effective operation of the device, is the monitoring of its proper placement into the stomach. A properly obtained and interpreted radiograph is currently recommended to confirm placement. We reported the case of a 68-year-old demented woman referred for complicated dysphagia. A nasogastric tube was blindly inserted and its placement was confirmed by the radiologist. Enteral nutrition was initiated but the patient began to vomit immediately. After reviewing the radiograph it was understood that a gastric loop in the tube and its tip pointing upwards did not allow a safe infusion of the feeding formula. It is not enough having the radiologist reporting that a nasogastric feeding tube is placed in the stomach; the inclusion in the report of specific warnings on any potential cause of malfunctioning of the device should be considered. The presence of a gastric loop should be taken into account as a cause of potential malfunctioning.

  11. Kundt's Tube Experiment Using Smartphones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parolin, Sara Orsola; Pezzi, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with a modern version of Kundt's tube experiment. Using economic instruments and a couple of smartphones, it is possible to "see" nodes and antinodes of standing acoustic waves in a column of vibrating air and to measure the speed of sound.

  12. Working session 1: Tubing degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Kharshafdjian, G.; Turluer, G.

    1997-02-01

    A general introductory overview of the purpose of the group and the general subject area of SG tubing degradation was given by the facilitator. The purpose of the session was described as to {open_quotes}develop conclusions and proposals on regulatory and technical needs required to deal with the issues of SG tubing degradation.{close_quotes} Types, locations and characteristics of tubing degradation in steam generators were briefly reviewed. The well-known synergistic effects of materials, environment, and stress and strain/strain rate, subsequently referred to by the acronym {open_quotes}MESS{close_quotes} by some of the group members, were noted. The element of time (i.e., evolution of these variables with time) was emphasized. It was also suggested that the group might want to consider the related topics of inspection capabilities, operational variables, degradation remedies, and validity of test data, and some background information in these areas was provided. The presentation given by Peter Millet during the Plenary Session was reviewed; Specifically, the chemical aspects and the degradation from the secondary side of the steam generator were noted. The main issues discussed during the October 1995 EPRI meeting on secondary side corrosion were reported, and a listing of the potential SG tube degradations was provided and discussed.

  13. Apparatus for connecting aligned abutted tubes

    DOEpatents

    Williams, R.E.

    1984-11-29

    An apparatus for connecting abutted tubes and for maintaining their rotary alignment during connection. The apparatus comprises first and second tubes, a rotation prevention element, a collar and a retainer. Each tube has inside and outside walls, and first and second ends, each end having an inside and outside edge. The first tube has portions defining a first plurality of cavities located at the outside edge of its first end. An external threaded portion is on the outside wall of the first tube and next to the first plurality of cavities. The second tube has portions defining a second plurality of cavities located at the outside edge of its first end. The first plurality has a different number than the second plurality. The first ends of the first and second tubes have substantially the same outside diameter and are abutted during connection so that an orifice is formed whenever first and second tube cavities substantially overlap. A rotation prevension element is placed in the orifice to prevent rotation of the first and second tubes. A collar with an internal threaded portion is slidably disposed about the second tube. The internal threaded portion engages the external threaded portion of the first tube to connect the tubes. A lip connected to the collar prevents separation of the collar from the second tube.

  14. Impulse generation by detonation tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Marcia Ann

    Impulse generation with gaseous detonation requires conversion of chemical energy into mechanical energy. This conversion process is well understood in rocket engines where the high pressure combustion products expand through a nozzle generating high velocity exhaust gases. The propulsion community is now focusing on advanced concepts that utilize non-traditional forms of combustion like detonation. Such a device is called a pulse detonation engine in which laboratory tests have proven that thrust can be achieved through continuous cyclic operation. Because of poor performance of straight detonation tubes compared to conventional propulsion systems and the success of using nozzles on rocket engines, the effect of nozzles on detonation tubes is being investigated. Although previous studies of detonation tube nozzles have suggested substantial benefits, up to now there has been no systematic investigations over a range of operating conditions and nozzle configurations. As a result, no models predicting the impulse when nozzles are used exist. This lack of data has severely limited the development and evaluation of models and simulations of nozzles on pulse detonation engines. The first experimental investigation measuring impulse by gaseous detonation in plain tubes and tubes with nozzles operating in varying environment pressures is presented. Converging, diverging, and converging-diverging nozzles were tested to determine the effect of divergence angle, nozzle length, and volumetric fill fraction on impulse. The largest increases in specific impulse, 72% at an environment pressure of 100 kPa and 43% at an environment pressure of 1.4 kPa, were measured with the largest diverging nozzle tested that had a 12° half angle and was 0.6 m long. Two regimes of nozzle operation that depend on the environment pressure are responsible for these increases and were first observed from these data. To augment this experimental investigation, all data in the literature regarding

  15. Mouse genome database 2016

    PubMed Central

    Bult, Carol J.; Eppig, Janan T.; Blake, Judith A.; Kadin, James A.; Richardson, Joel E.

    2016-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; http://www.informatics.jax.org) is the primary community model organism database for the laboratory mouse and serves as the source for key biological reference data related to mouse genes, gene functions, phenotypes and disease models with a strong emphasis on the relationship of these data to human biology and disease. As the cost of genome-scale sequencing continues to decrease and new technologies for genome editing become widely adopted, the laboratory mouse is more important than ever as a model system for understanding the biological significance of human genetic variation and for advancing the basic research needed to support the emergence of genome-guided precision medicine. Recent enhancements to MGD include new graphical summaries of biological annotations for mouse genes, support for mobile access to the database, tools to support the annotation and analysis of sets of genes, and expanded support for comparative biology through the expansion of homology data. PMID:26578600

  16. Mouse genome database 2016.

    PubMed

    Bult, Carol J; Eppig, Janan T; Blake, Judith A; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E

    2016-01-04

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; http://www.informatics.jax.org) is the primary community model organism database for the laboratory mouse and serves as the source for key biological reference data related to mouse genes, gene functions, phenotypes and disease models with a strong emphasis on the relationship of these data to human biology and disease. As the cost of genome-scale sequencing continues to decrease and new technologies for genome editing become widely adopted, the laboratory mouse is more important than ever as a model system for understanding the biological significance of human genetic variation and for advancing the basic research needed to support the emergence of genome-guided precision medicine. Recent enhancements to MGD include new graphical summaries of biological annotations for mouse genes, support for mobile access to the database, tools to support the annotation and analysis of sets of genes, and expanded support for comparative biology through the expansion of homology data.

  17. Small bore ceramic laser tube inspection light table

    DOEpatents

    Updike, Earl O.

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for inspecting small bore ceramic laser tubes, which includes a support base with one or more support rollers. A fluorescent light tube is inserted within the laser tube and the laser tube is supported by the support rollers so that a gap is maintained between the laser tube and the fluorescent tube to enable rotation of the laser tube. In operation, the ceramic tube is illuminated from the inside by the fluorescent tube to facilitate visual inspection. Centering the tube around the axial light of the fluorescent tube provides information about straightness and wall thickness of the laser tube itself.

  18. Experimental study on thermal performance of filled-type evacuated tube with U-tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Ruobing; Ma, Liangdong; Zhang, Jili; Zhao, Dan

    2012-06-01

    The filled-type evacuated tube with U-tube, in which the filled layer is used to transfer energy absorbed by working fluid in the U-tube, is proposed to eliminate the effect of thermal resistance between the absorber tube and copper fin of the conventional solar collector. In this paper, the thermal performance of the filled-type evacuated tube was researched by means of experimental study. In order to avoid the effect of some uncertain factors, the single collector tube was considered as investigated objective. The test setup of the thermal performance of the filled-type evacuated tube with U-tube was established. The results show that the filled-type evacuated tube with U-tube has a favorable thermal performance compared with the evacuated tube with copper fin. The heat efficiency of filled-type evacuated tube is higher than that of copper fin evacuated tube by 12%. The useful energy gain of filled-type evacuated tube is 22% higher than that of copper fin evacuated tube at the practical irradiance received I T = 800 W/m2 and flow rate M f = 0.005 L/s. In addition, the exergy efficiency of the filled-type evacuated tube is higher than that of copper fin evacuated tube.

  19. A Phase I Study of Unimolecular Pentavalent (Globo-H-GM2-sTn-TF-Tn) Immunization of Patients with Epithelial Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Peritoneal Cancer in First Remission

    PubMed Central

    O’Cearbhaill, Roisin E.; Ragupathi, Govind; Zhu, Jianglong; Wan, Qian; Mironov, Svetlana; Yang, Guangbin; Spassova, Maria K.; Iasonos, Alexia; Kravetz, Sara; Ouerfelli, Ouathek; Spriggs, David R.; Danishefsky, Samuel J.; Sabbatini, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a phase I study in ovarian cancer patients to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a synthetic unimolecular pentavalent carbohydrate vaccine (Globo-H, GM2, sTn, TF, and Tn) supported on a peptide backbone, conjugated to keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH), and mixed with immunological adjuvant QS-21. Twenty-four advanced-stage, poor-risk, first-remission ovarian cancer patients were enrolled from January 2011–Septermber 2013. Three dose levels were planned (25, 50, 100 mcg) with three cohorts of six patients each, with an additional 6-patient expansion cohort at the MTD. ELISA serologic IgM and IgG responses for each antigen was defined as positive response if antibody titers were ≥1:80 over the respective patient’s pre-vaccination serum. The study would be considered positive if at least four of 12 patients treated at the MTD showed immune responses for at least three of the five antigens. Twenty-four patients (median age, 54 years [range, 36–68]) were included in the safety analysis. Histology was high-grade serous in 22 patients (92%); 18 had stage III and six stage IV disease. The vaccine was well-tolerated at all doses, with no DLTs. At the highest treated dose, IgG and/or IgM responses were recorded against ≥3 antigens in 9/12 patients (75%), ≥4 in 7/12 (58%), and 5 in 3/12 (25%). With a median follow-up of 19 months (range, 2–39), 20 patients (83%) recurred and six (25%) died. The unimolecular pentavalent vaccine construct was shown to be safe and immunogenic. Such a construct greatly simplifies regulatory requirements and manufacturing, facilitates scalability, and provides adaptability. PMID:27110823

  20. Chemical recombination in an expansion tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakos, Robert J.; Morgan, Richard G.

    1994-01-01

    The note describes the theoretical basis of chemical recombination in an expansion tube which simulates energy, Reynolds number, and stream chemistry at near-orbital velocities. Expansion tubes can satisfy ground-based hypersonic propulsion and aerothermal testing requirements.

  1. When to change a tracheostomy tube.

    PubMed

    White, Alexander C; Kher, Sucharita; O'Connor, Heidi H

    2010-08-01

    Knowing when to change a tracheostomy tube is important for optimal management of all patients with tracheostomy tubes. The first tracheostomy tube change, performed 1-2 weeks after placement, carries some risk and should be performed by a skilled operator in a safe environment. The risk associated with changing the tracheostomy tube then usually diminishes over time as the tracheo-cutaneous tract matures. A malpositioned tube can be a source of patient distress and patient-ventilator asynchrony, and is important to recognize and correct. Airway endoscopy can be helpful to ensure optimal positioning of a replacement tracheostomy tube. Some of the specialized tracheostomy tubes available on the market are discussed. There are few data available to guide the timing of routine tracheostomy tube changes. Some guidelines are suggested.

  2. Alx3-deficient mice exhibit folic acid-resistant craniofacial midline and neural tube closure defects.

    PubMed

    Lakhwani, Sita; García-Sanz, Patricia; Vallejo, Mario

    2010-08-15

    Neural tube closure defects are among the most frequent congenital malformations in humans. Supplemental maternal intake of folic acid before and during pregnancy reduces their incidence significantly, but the mechanism underlying this preventive effect is unknown. As a number of genes that cause neural tube closure defects encode transcriptional regulators in mice, one possibility is that folic acid could induce the expression of transcription factors to compensate for the primary genetic defect. We report that folic acid is required in mouse embryos for the specific expression of the homeodomain gene Alx3 in the head mesenchyme, an important tissue for cranial neural tube closure. Alx3-deficient mice exhibit increased failure of cranial neural tube closure and increased cell death in the craniofacial region, two effects that are also observed in wild type embryos developing in the absence of folic acid. Folic acid cannot prevent these defects in Alx3-deficient embryos, indicating that one mechanism of folic acid action is through induced expression of Alx3. Thus, Alx3 emerges as a candidate gene for human neural tube defects and reveals the existence of induced transcription factor gene expression as a previously unknown mechanism by which folic acid prevents neural tube closure defects.

  3. Genetic analysis of disheveled 2 and disheveled 3 in human neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    De Marco, Patrizia; Merello, Elisa; Consales, Alessandro; Piatelli, Gianluca; Cama, Armando; Kibar, Zoha; Capra, Valeria

    2013-03-01

    Neural tube defects are severe malformations affecting 1/1,000 live births. The planar cell polarity pathway controls the neural tube closure and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neural tube defects both in animal models and human cohorts. In mouse disruption of Dvl2 alone (Dvl2 (-/-)) or Dvl2 and Dvl3 (Dvl2 (-/-); Dvl3 (+/-), Dvl2 (+/-); Dvl3 (-/-)) results in incomplete neurulation, suggesting a role for Disheveled in neural tube closure. Disheveled is a multifunctional protein that is involved in both the canonical Wnt signaling and the noncanonical planar cell polarity pathway. In this study, we analyzed the role of the human orthologs DVL2 and DVL3 in a cohort of 473 patients with neural tube defects. Rare variants were genotyped in 639 ethnically matched controls. We identified seven rare missense mutations that were absent in all controls analyzed. Two of these mutations, p.Tyr667Cys and p.Ala53Val, identified in DVL2 were predicted to be detrimental in silico. Significantly, a 1-bp insertion (c.1801_1802insG) in exon 15 of DVL2 predicted to lead to the truncation of the protein was identified in a patient with a complex form of caudal agenesis. In summary, we demonstrate a possible role for rare variants in DVL2 gene as risk factors for neural tube defects.

  4. Conceptual optimization using genetic algorithms for tube in tube structures

    SciTech Connect

    Pârv, Bianca Roxana; Hulea, Radu; Mojolic, Cristian

    2015-03-10

    The purpose of this article is to optimize the tube in tube structural systems for tall buildings under the horizontal wind loads. It is well-known that the horizontal wind loads is the main criteria when choosing the structural system, the types and the dimensions of structural elements in the majority of tall buildings. Thus, the structural response of tall buildings under the horizontal wind loads will be analyzed for 40 story buildings and a total height of 120 meters; the horizontal dimensions will be 30m × 30m for the first two optimization problems and 15m × 15m for the third. The optimization problems will have the following as objective function the cross section area, as restrictions the displacement of the building< the admissible displacement (H/500), and as variables the cross section dimensions of the structural elements.

  5. Coiled tubing solves multiple downhole problems

    SciTech Connect

    Bedford, S. ); Smith, I. )

    1994-11-01

    Declining reservoir pressure and water breakthrough in the UK North Sea Magnus field has coincided with general advances in application of coiled tubing and a continuous drive to reduce operating costs, particularly in a climate of weak oil prices. These factors have led to a dramatic increase in diversity and volume of coiled tubing interventions. In the following article, coiled tubing interventions, and results of those interventions, are discussed. An assessment of future coiled tubing activity on Magnus field is provided.

  6. Models for Automated Tube Performance Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    C. Brunkhorst

    2002-12-12

    High power radio-frequency systems, as typically used in fusion research devices, utilize vacuum tubes. Evaluation of vacuum tube performance involves data taken from tube operating curves. The acquisition of data from such graphical sources is a tedious process. A simple modeling method is presented that will provide values of tube currents for a given set of element voltages. These models may be used as subroutines in iterative solutions of amplifier operating conditions for a specific loading impedance.

  7. Cheaper Fabrication Of Tube-Wall Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bales, Daniel A.; Joyce, James R.

    1993-01-01

    Relatively inexpensive method of forming metal tubes into wall component devised. One initially selects ordinary, imprecisely dimensioned tubes having passed both pressure test and inspections for wall thickness and surface imperfections, and tubes bonded to each other in shorter, simpler procedure. Eliminates need for progressive die forming and attendant inspections after forming steps. Also applicable in fabrication of heat exchangers and other unitary assemblies of tubes.

  8. Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation and Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Stage IV Melanoma That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery or Gynecological Cancers

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-21

    Cervical Adenosarcoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Carcinosarcoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Endometrial Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Mixed Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Fallopian Tube Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Epithelial Tumor; Malignant Peritoneal Neoplasm; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Melanoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage IV Skin Melanoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma; Uterine Corpus Carcinosarcoma

  9. Granisetron, Aprepitant, and Dexamethasone in Preventing Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Receiving Chemotherapy for Stage II, III, or IV Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-16

    Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Nausea and Vomiting; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  10. Inositol, neural tube closure and the prevention of neural tube defects

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Kit‐Yi; Copp, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    Susceptibility to neural tube defects (NTDs), such as anencephaly and spina bifida is influenced by genetic and environmental factors including maternal nutrition. Maternal periconceptional supplementation with folic acid significantly reduces the risk of an NTD‐affected pregnancy, but does not prevent all NTDs, and “folic acid non‐responsive” NTDs continue to occur. Similarly, among mouse models of NTDs, some are responsive to folic acid but others are not. Among nutritional factors, inositol deficiency causes cranial NTDs in mice while supplemental inositol prevents spinal and cranial NTDs in the curly tail (Grhl3 hypomorph) mouse, rodent models of hyperglycemia or induced diabetes, and in a folate‐deficiency induced NTD model. NTDs also occur in mice lacking expression of certain inositol kinases. Inositol‐containing phospholipids (phosphoinositides) and soluble inositol phosphates mediate a range of functions, including intracellular signaling, interaction with cytoskeletal proteins, and regulation of membrane identity in trafficking and cell division. Myo‐inositol has been trialed in humans for a range of conditions and appears safe for use in human pregnancy. In pilot studies in Italy and the United Kingdom, women took inositol together with folic acid preconceptionally, after one or more previous NTD‐affected pregnancies. In nonrandomized cohorts and a randomized double‐blind study in the United Kingdom, no recurrent NTDs were observed among 52 pregnancies reported to date. Larger‐scale fully powered trials are needed to determine whether supplementation with inositol and folic acid would more effectively prevent NTDs than folic acid alone. Birth Defects Research 109:68–80, 2017. © 2016 The Authors Birth Defects Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27324558

  11. The Fuge Tube Diode Array Spectrophotometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arneson, B. T.; Long, S. R.; Stewart, K. K.; Lagowski, J. J.

    2008-01-01

    We present the details for adapting a diode array UV-vis spectrophotometer to incorporate the use of polypropylene microcentrifuge tubes--fuge tubes--as cuvettes. Optical data are presented validating that the polyethylene fuge tubes are equivalent to the standard square cross section polystyrene or glass cuvettes generally used in…

  12. Double tube helical coil steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Garabedian, G.; De Luca, R.A.

    1987-02-24

    A steam generator is described comprising a container having a closed lower end, divided into longitudinally arranged sections including an uppermost disengaging chamber, an upper plenum, and a lower plenum. The upper plenum is above the lower plenum and contains a multiplicity of double tube helical coils, wherein each of the double tube helical coils is comprised of an inner tube individually enclosed for at least a portion of its length by an outer tube to form a double tube portion and thereby define an annular gap which is outside the inner tube but enclosed by the outer tube; the inner tube being attached at one end to a feedwater inlet, and the inner tube being attached at the other end to a steam outlet; the outer tube being in open communication at both ends with the disengaging chamber; the double tube portion being in the configuration of a helix for part of its length; the upper plenum having no communication with the disengaging chamber and having restricted communication with the lower plenum such that liquid metal entering the upper plenum and flowing to the lower plenum closely contacts at least a portion of the double tube helical coils; and the annular gap being at least partially filled with liquid metal.

  13. Manifold For Flushing Tubes With Cleaning Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E.; Fogel, Irving

    1995-01-01

    Custom-built manifold mounted on cleaning basket enables simultaneous flushing of 80 tubes with cleaning solution. In original application, tubes components of rocket-engine nozzle under construction. However, basic manifold configuration adapted to other applications (e.g., fabrication of heat exchangers) in which there is need for simultaneous cleaning of many tubes of identical size and shape.

  14. Spring/dimple instrument tube restraint

    DOEpatents

    DeMario, Edmund E.; Lawson, Charles N.

    1993-01-01

    A nuclear fuel assembly for a pressurized water nuclear reactor has a spring and dimple structure formed in a non-radioactive insert tube placed in the top of a sensor receiving instrumentation tube thimble disposed in the fuel assembly and attached at a top nozzle, a bottom nozzle, and intermediate grids. The instrumentation tube thimble is open at the top, where the sensor or its connection extends through the cooling water for coupling to a sensor signal processor. The spring and dimple insert tube is mounted within the instrumentation tube thimble and extends downwardly adjacent the top. The springs and dimples restrain the sensor and its connections against lateral displacement causing impact with the instrumentation tube thimble due to the strong axial flow of cooling water. The instrumentation tube has a stainless steel outer sleeve and a zirconium alloy inner sleeve below the insert tube adjacent the top. The insert tube is relatively non-radioactivated inconel alloy. The opposed springs and dimples are formed on diametrically opposite inner walls of the insert tube, the springs being formed as spaced axial cuts in the insert tube, with a web of the insert tube between the cuts bowed radially inwardly for forming the spring, and the dimples being formed as radially inward protrusions opposed to the springs.

  15. Spring/dimple instrument tube restraint

    DOEpatents

    DeMario, E.E.; Lawson, C.N.

    1993-11-23

    A nuclear fuel assembly for a pressurized water nuclear reactor has a spring and dimple structure formed in a non-radioactive insert tube placed in the top of a sensor receiving instrumentation tube thimble disposed in the fuel assembly and attached at a top nozzle, a bottom nozzle, and intermediate grids. The instrumentation tube thimble is open at the top, where the sensor or its connection extends through the cooling water for coupling to a sensor signal processor. The spring and dimple insert tube is mounted within the instrumentation tube thimble and extends downwardly adjacent the top. The springs and dimples restrain the sensor and its connections against lateral displacement causing impact with the instrumentation tube thimble due to the strong axial flow of cooling water. The instrumentation tube has a stainless steel outer sleeve and a zirconium alloy inner sleeve below the insert tube adjacent the top. The insert tube is relatively non-radioactivated inconel alloy. The opposed springs and dimples are formed on diametrically opposite inner walls of the insert tube, the springs being formed as spaced axial cuts in the insert tube, with a web of the insert tube between the cuts bowed radially inwardly for forming the spring, and the dimples being formed as radially inward protrusions opposed to the springs. 7 figures.

  16. Roll-forming tubes to header plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, K.

    1976-01-01

    Technique has been developed for attaching and sealing tubes to header plates using a unique roll-forming tool. Technique is useful for attaching small tubes which are difficult to roll into conventional grooves in header plate tube holes, and for attaching when welding, brazing, or soldering is not desirable.

  17. Kundt's Tube: An Acoustic Gas Analyzer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aristov, Natasha; Habekost, Gehsa; Habekost, Achim

    2011-01-01

    A Kundt tube is normally used to measure the speed of sound in gases. Therefore, from known speeds of sound, a Kundt tube can be used to identify gases and their fractions in mixtures. In these experiments, the speed of sound is determined by measuring the frequency of a standing sound wave at a fixed tube length, temperature, and pressure. This…

  18. 21 CFR 874.3880 - Tympanostomy tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tympanostomy tube. 874.3880 Section 874.3880 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3880 Tympanostomy tube. (a) Identification. A tympanostomy tube is a device that is intended to be implanted for ventilation or drainage of...

  19. 21 CFR 874.3880 - Tympanostomy tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tympanostomy tube. 874.3880 Section 874.3880 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3880 Tympanostomy tube. (a) Identification. A tympanostomy tube is a device that is intended to be implanted for ventilation or drainage of...

  20. 21 CFR 868.5730 - Tracheal tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tracheal tube. 868.5730 Section 868.5730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5730 Tracheal tube. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube is...

  1. 21 CFR 868.5730 - Tracheal tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tracheal tube. 868.5730 Section 868.5730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5730 Tracheal tube. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube is...

  2. Heat exchanger with a removable tube section

    DOEpatents

    Wolowodiuk, W.; Anelli, J.

    1975-07-29

    A heat exchanger is described in which the tube sheet is secured against primary liquid pressure, but which allows for easy removal of the tube section. The tube section is supported by a flange which is secured by a number of shear blocks, each of which extends into a slot which is immovable with respect to the outer shell of the heat exchanger. (auth)

  3. 21 CFR 874.3880 - Tympanostomy tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tympanostomy tube. 874.3880 Section 874.3880 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3880 Tympanostomy tube. (a) Identification. A tympanostomy tube is a device that is intended to be implanted for ventilation or drainage of...

  4. 21 CFR 874.3880 - Tympanostomy tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tympanostomy tube. 874.3880 Section 874.3880 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3880 Tympanostomy tube. (a) Identification. A tympanostomy tube is a device that is intended to be implanted for ventilation or drainage of...

  5. Manual tube-to-tubesheet welding torch

    DOEpatents

    Kiefer, Joseph H.; Smith, Danny J.

    1982-01-01

    A welding torch made of a high temperature plastic which fits over a tube intermediate the ends thereof for welding the juncture between the tube and the back side of a tube plate and has a ballooned end in which an electrode, filler wire guide, fiber optic bundle, and blanketing gas duct are disposed.

  6. 21 CFR 868.5730 - Tracheal tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tracheal tube. 868.5730 Section 868.5730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5730 Tracheal tube. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube is...

  7. 21 CFR 868.5730 - Tracheal tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tracheal tube. 868.5730 Section 868.5730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5730 Tracheal tube. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube is...

  8. 21 CFR 874.3880 - Tympanostomy tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tympanostomy tube. 874.3880 Section 874.3880 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3880 Tympanostomy tube. (a) Identification. A tympanostomy tube is a device that is intended to be implanted for ventilation or drainage of...

  9. 21 CFR 868.5730 - Tracheal tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tracheal tube. 868.5730 Section 868.5730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5730 Tracheal tube. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube is...

  10. Dynamic characteristics of heat exchanger tubes vibrating in a tube support plate inactive mode

    SciTech Connect

    Jendrzejczyk, J.A.

    1984-06-01

    Tubes in shell-and-tube heat exchangers, including nuclear plant steam generators, derive their support from longitudinally positioned tube support plates (TSPs). Typically there is a clearance between the tube and TSP hole. Depending on design and fabrication tolerances, the tube may or may not contract all of the TSPs. Noncontact results in an inactive TSP which can lead to detrimental flow induced tube vibrations under certain conditions dependent on the resulting tube-TSP interaction dynamics and the fluid excitation forces. The purpose of this study is to investigate the tube-TSP interaction dynamics. Results of an experimental study of damping and natural frequency as functions of tube-TSP diametral clearance and TSP thickness are reported. Calculated values of damping ratio and frequency of a tube vibrating within an inactive TSP are also presented together with a comparison of calculated and experimental quantities.

  11. Dynamic characteristics of heat exchanger tubes vibrating in a tube support plate inactive mode

    SciTech Connect

    Jendrzejczyk, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Tubes in shell-and-tube heat exchangers, including nuclear plant steam generators, derive their support from longitudinally positioned tube support plates (TSPs). Typically there is a clearance between the tube and TSP hole. Depending on design and fabrication tolerances, the tube may or may not contact all of the TSPs. Noncontact results in an inactive TSP which can lead to detrimental flow induced tube vibrations under certain conditions dependent on the resulting tube-TSP interaction dynamics and the fluid excitation forces. The purpose of this study is to investigate the tube-TSP interaction dynamics. Results of an experimental study of damping and natural frequency as functions of tube-TSP diametral clearance and TSP thickness are reported. Calculated values of damping ratio and frequency of a tube vibrating within an inactive TSP are also presented together with a comparison of calculated and experimetnal quantities.

  12. The Wurst protein: a novel endocytosis regulator involved in airway clearance and respiratory tube size control.

    PubMed

    Wingen, Christian; Aschenbrenner, Anna C; Stümpges, Birgit; Hoch, Michael; Behr, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    The mammalian lung and the Drosophila airways are composed of an intricate network of epithelial tubes that transports fluids or gases and converts during late embryogenesis from liquid- to air-filling. Conserved growth factor pathways have been characterized in model organisms such as Drosophila or the mouse that control patterning and branching of tubular networks. In contrast, knowledge of the coordination of respiratory tube size and physiology is still limited. Latest studies have shown that endocytosis plays a major role in size determination and liquid clearance of the respiratory tubes and a new key regulator of these processes was identified, the Drosophila Wurst protein. wurst encodes a J-domain transmembrane protein which is essential for Clathrin-mediated endocytosis. It is evolutionary conserved and single Wurst orthologs are found in mammals (termed DNAJC22). In this commentary, we discuss the role of Wurst/DNAJC22 and address whether these proteins may be general regulators of Clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

  13. HIGH CURRENT COAXIAL PHOTOMULTIPLIER TUBE

    DOEpatents

    Glass, N.W.

    1960-01-19

    A medium-gain photomultiplier tube having high current output, fast rise- time, and matched output impedance was developed. The photomultiplier tube comprises an elongated cylindrical envelope, a cylindrical anode supported at the axis of the envelope, a plurality of elongated spaced opaque areas on the envelope, and a plurality of light admitting windows. A photo-cathode is supported adjacent to each of the windows, and a plurality of secondary emissive dynodes are arranged in two types of radial arrays which are alternately positioned to fill the annular space between the anode and the envelope. The dynodes are in an array being radially staggered with respect to the dynodes in the adjacent array, the dynodes each having a portion arranged at an angle with respect to the electron path, such that electrons emitted by each cathode undergo multiplication upon impingement on a dynode and redirected flight to the next adjacent dynode.

  14. ATLS: Catheter and tube placement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosbee, John; Krupa, Debra T.; Pepper, L.; Orsak, Debra

    1991-01-01

    The specific objectives of this experiment are: to evaluate the rack mounted equipment and medical supplies necessary for medical procedures; to evaluate the attachments, mounting points, and inner drawer assemblies for the medical supplies; and to evaluate the procedures for performing medical scenarios. The resources available in the HMF miniracks to accomplish medical scenarios and/or procedures include: medical equipment mounted in the racks; a patch panel with places to attach tubing and catheters; self contained drawers full of critical care medical supplies; and an ALS 'backpack' for deploying supplies. The attachment lines, tubing and associated medical supplies will be deployed and used with the equipment and a patient mannequin. Data collection is provided by direct observations by the inflight experimenters, and analysis of still and video photography.

  15. Origami interleaved tube cellular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Kenneth C.; Tachi, Tomohiro; Calisch, Sam; Miura, Koryo

    2014-09-01

    A novel origami cellular material based on a deployable cellular origami structure is described. The structure is bi-directionally flat-foldable in two orthogonal (x and y) directions and is relatively stiff in the third orthogonal (z) direction. While such mechanical orthotropicity is well known in cellular materials with extruded two dimensional geometry, the interleaved tube geometry presented here consists of two orthogonal axes of interleaved tubes with high interfacial surface area and relative volume that changes with fold-state. In addition, the foldability still allows for fabrication by a flat lamination process, similar to methods used for conventional expanded two dimensional cellular materials. This article presents the geometric characteristics of the structure together with corresponding kinematic and mechanical modeling, explaining the orthotropic elastic behavior of the structure with classical dimensional scaling analysis.

  16. Capillary imbibition in parallel tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McRae, Oliver; Ramakrishnan, T. S.; Bird, James

    2016-11-01

    In modeling porous media two distinct approaches can be employed; the sample can be examined holistically, using global variables such as porosity, or it can be treated as a network of capillaries connected in series to various intermediate reservoirs. In forced imbibition this series-based description is sufficient to characterize the flow, due to the presence of an externally maintained pressure difference. However, in spontaneous imbibition, flow is driven by an internal capillary pressure, making it unclear whether a series-based model is appropriate. In this talk, we show using numerical simulations the dynamics of spontaneous imbibition in concentrically arranged capillary tubes. This geometry allows both tubes access to a semi-infinite reservoir but with inlets in close enough proximity to allow for interference. We compare and contrast the results of our simulations with theory and previous experiments. Schlumberger-Doll Research.

  17. Ionization tube simmer current circuit

    DOEpatents

    Steinkraus, R.F. Jr.

    1994-12-13

    A highly efficient flash lamp simmer current circuit utilizes a fifty percent duty cycle square wave pulse generator to pass a current over a current limiting inductor to a full wave rectifier. The DC output of the rectifier is then passed over a voltage smoothing capacitor through a reverse current blocking diode to a flash lamp tube to sustain ionization in the tube between discharges via a small simmer current. An alternate embodiment of the circuit combines the pulse generator and inductor in the form of an FET off line square wave generator with an impedance limited step up output transformer which is then applied to the full wave rectifier as before to yield a similar simmer current. 6 figures.

  18. Ionization tube simmer current circuit

    DOEpatents

    Steinkraus, Jr., Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    A highly efficient flash lamp simmer current circuit utilizes a fifty percent duty cycle square wave pulse generator to pass a current over a current limiting inductor to a full wave rectifier. The DC output of the rectifier is then passed over a voltage smoothing capacitor through a reverse current blocking diode to a flash lamp tube to sustain ionization in the tube between discharges via a small simmer current. An alternate embodiment of the circuit combines the pulse generator and inductor in the form of an FET off line square wave generator with an impedance limited step up output transformer which is then applied to the full wave rectifier as before to yield a similar simmer current.

  19. Fields in multilayer beam tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Lambertson, Glen

    1999-08-01

    Equations are presented for calculating the fields from a bunched beam that penetrate into the layers of a beam tube of circular cross section. Starting from the radial wave impedance of an outer surface, the wave functions in inner layers are calculated numerically to obtain field strengths or the longitudinal beam impedance. Examples of a vertex-detector region and of an injection kicker are given.

  20. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, Gordon E.

    1998-01-01

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by carbon vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging.

  1. Film holder for radiographing tubing

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Earl V.; Foster, Billy E.

    1976-01-01

    A film cassette is provided which may be easily placed about tubing or piping and readily held in place while radiographic inspection is performed. A pair of precurved light-impervious semi-rigid plastic sheets, hinged at one edge, enclose sheet film together with any metallic foils or screens. Other edges are made light-tight with removable caps, and the entire unit is held securely about the object to be radiographed with a releasable fastener such as a strip of Velcro.

  2. Gated SIT Vidicon Streak Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, D. L.; Yates, G. J.; Black, J. P.

    1986-01-01

    A recently developed prototype streak tube designed to produce high gain and resolution by incorporating the streak and readout functions in one envelope thereby minimizing photon-to-charge transformations and eliminating external coupling losses is presented. The tube is based upon a grid-gated Silicon-Intensified-Target Vidicon (SITV) with integral Focus Projection Scan (FPS) TV readout. Demagnifying electron optics (m=0.63) in the image section map the 40-mm-diameter photocathode image unto a 25-mm-diameter silicon target where gains >= 103 are achieved with only 10 KV accelerating voltage. This is compared with much lower gains (~ 50) at much higher voltages (~ 30 KV) reported for streak tubes using phosphor screens. Because SIT technology is well established means for electron imaging in vacuum, such fundamental problems as "backside thinning" required for electron imaging unto CCDs do not exist. The high spatial resolution (~ 30 1p/mm), variable scan formats, and high speed electrostatic deflection (250 mm2 areas are routinely rastered with 256 scan lines in 1.6 ms) available from FPS readout add versatility not available in CCD devices. Theoretical gain and spatial resolution for this design (developed jointly by Los Alamos National Laboratory and General Electric Co.) are compared with similar calculations and measured data obtained for RCA 73435 streaks fiber optically coupled to (1) 25-mm-diameter SIT FPS vidicons and (2) 40-mm-diameter MCPTs (proximity-focused microchannel plate image intensifier tubes) fiber optically coupled to 18-mm-diameter Sb2S3 FPS vidicons. Sweep sensitivity, shutter ratio, and record lengths for nanosecond duration (20 to 200 ns) streak applications are discussed.

  3. Eustachian tube evaluation in aviators.

    PubMed

    Iannella, Giannicola; Lucertini, Marco; Pasquariello, Benedetta; Manno, Alessandra; Angeletti, Diletta; Re, Massimo; Magliulo, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the Eustachian tube functionality in a group of aviators to underline a subclinical dysfunction and the related risk of ear fullness or barotitis. Hypobaric chamber allows to simulate the pressure variation of the flight. This prospective study enrolled 42 aviation pilots, members of the Italian Air Force, to whom were evaluated Eustachian tube functionality by Tubomanometry, patients subjective assessments concerning feasibility of Valsalva's and Toynbee's clinical symptoms, tympanometry, and objective Valsalva before and after exposure to hypobaric chamber. The new Eustachian tube score (ETS-7) was also calculated for each pilot before and after exposure to hypobaric chamber. Results of our examination showed that: before chamber exposition, in 92.8 % of pilots, an ETS-7 of eight or more was found bilaterally. In three (7.2 %) cases, a unilateral ETS-7 ≤ 7 was found and two of those had a positive history. After undergoing the hypobaric chamber session, the evaluation of ETS-7 showed only 19 % of pilots with an ETD score ≤7, in particular three bilateral and five unilateral cases. Three of those pilots were clinically positive: two airmen reported persistent fullness, while the other one had a barotitis. Therefore, the combined use of TMM and ETS-7 before and after hypobaric chamber exposure appears to be a reliable method for assessing the functional capacity of the Eustachian tube in aviators, the stressful effect of flight on it, to exclude subjects at increased risk of ear pain, fullness, or barotrauma.

  4. Genetic interaction between members of the Vangl family causes neural tube defects in mice

    PubMed Central

    Torban, Elena; Patenaude, Anne-Marie; Leclerc, Severine; Rakowiecki, Staci; Gauthier, Susan; Andelfinger, Gregor; Epstein, Douglas J.; Gros, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are very frequent congenital abnormalities in humans. Recently, we have documented independent association of Vangl1 and Vangl2 gene mutations with NTDs. In the Looptail mouse, homozygosity (but not heterozygosity) for loss-of-function alleles at Vangl2 causes the severe NTD craniorachischisis, whereas heterozygosity for mutant variants of VANGL1 is associated with NTDs in a human cohort of sporadic and familial cases. To understand the role of Vangl1 in normal development, we created a mouse mutant with an inactivating mutation at Vangl1 (Vangl1gt). Vangl1 shows a dynamic pattern of expression in the developing neural tube and notochord at the time of neural tube closure. Vangl1gt/+ heterozygotes and Vangl1gt/gt homozygotes are viable and fertile, although Vangl1gt/gt display subtle alterations in polarity of inner hair cells of the cochlea. Remarkably, and as opposed to healthy Vangl1gt/+ and Vangl2lp/+ heterozygotes, Vangl1gt/+;Vangl2lp/+ double heterozygotes show profound developmental defects that include severe craniorachischisis, inner ear defects (disorganization of the stereociliary bundles of hair cells of the organ of Corti), and cardiac abnormality (aberrant right subclavian artery). These results show that genetic interaction between Vangl1 and Vangl2 genes causes neural tube defects and raise the possibility that interaction between individual Vangl genes and other genetic loci and/or environmental factors may additionally contribute to the etiology of NTDs. PMID:18296642

  5. Hysterosalpingography

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... of the fallopian tubes, and to monitor the effects of tubal surgery, including: Blockage of the fallopian ... ray examination. X-rays usually have no side effects in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. ...

  6. Method of repairing hidden leaks in tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duesberg, J. D. (Inventor); Mills, R. C., Sr. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A method of repairing a tubular assembly in which access to a defect in the tube is limited includes the steps of cutting an opening in the tube on the side opposite the defect so as to expose the defect from the inside of the tube. A tubular insert is inserted into the tube to cover the defect and is secured in place by means of brazing or welding. The remaining space between the opening and insert is closed by means of close-out patches which are welded or brazed to both the insert and the tube. The result is a permanent repair having great structural integrity.

  7. Useful Scaling Parameters for the Pulse Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. M.; Kittel, P.; Timmerhaus, K. D.; Radebaugh, R.; Cheng, Pearl L. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A set of eight non-dimensional scaling parameters for use in evaluating the performance of Pulse Tube Refrigerators is presented. The parameters result after scaling the mass, momentum and energy conservation equations for an axisymmetric, two-dimensional system. The physical interpretation of the parameters are described, and their usefulness is outlined for the enthalpy flow tube (open tube of the pulse tube). The scaling parameters allow the experimentalist to characterize three types of transport: enthalpy flow, mass streaming and heat transfer between the gas and the tube. Also reported are the results from a flow visualization experiment in which steady mass streaming in compressible oscillating flow is observed.

  8. Turbine nozzle stage having thermocouple guide tube

    DOEpatents

    Schotsch, Margaret Jones; Kirkpatrick, Francis Lawrence; Lapine, Eric Michael

    2002-01-01

    A guide tube is fixed adjacent opposite ends in outer and inner covers of a nozzle stage segment. The guide tube is serpentine in shape between the outer and inner covers and extends through a nozzle vane. An insert is disposed in the nozzle vane and has apertures to accommodate serpentine portions of the guide tube. Cooling steam is also supplied through chambers of the insert on opposite sides of a central insert chamber containing the guide tube. The opposite ends of the guide tube are fixed to sleeves, in turn fixed to the outer and inner covers.

  9. Underbalanced coiled tubing sidetrack successful

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, J.; Berry, M.

    1995-12-18

    The technique of drilling through a completion string, underbalanced, with coiled tubing eliminated some of the problems encountered with overbalanced drilling in a group of offset wells. This project confirmed that performing drilling operations in live wells can be carried out safely and effectively. Dalen is a sour gas field in the eastern part of The Netherlands and produces from vertical fractures in the Zechstein carbonate reservoir. The proposal for Dalen 2 was to abandon the lower section of the original hole and subsequently sidetrack conventionally to the top of the reservoir, run and cement a 5-in. liner, complete the well with a 5-in. monobore completion, and install the christmas tree. This part of the operation would be performed with a workover hoist. Thereafter, a 3 3/4-in. hole would be drilled through the completion and into the reservoir, underbalanced with coiled tubing. The drilling proposal had to address a number of key issues: creating underbalanced conditions; handling sour gas production at surface; handling and treating drilling fluids at surface; removing drilled solids from the returned fluid system; and deploying a long coiled tubing drilling bottom hole assembly (BHA) into a live well. The paper discusses planning, legislative issues, well preparation, the drilling program, and lessons learned.

  10. Spina bifida and other neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Northrup, H; Volcik, K A

    2000-01-01

    NTDs, resulting from failure of the neural tube to close during the fourth week of embryogenesis, are the most common severely disabling birth defects in the United States, with a frequency of approximately 1 of every 2000 births. Neural tube malformations involving the spinal cord and vertebral arches are referred to as spina bifida, with severe types of spina bifida involving protrusion of the spinal cord and/or meninges through a defect in the vertebral arch. Depending on the level of the lesion, interruption of the spinal cord at the site of the spina bifida defect causes paralysis of the legs, incontinence of urine and feces, anesthesia of the skin, and abnormalities of the hips, knees, and feet. Two additional abnormalities often seen in children with spina bifida include hydrocephalus and the Arnold-Chiari type II malformation. Despite the physical and particular learning disabilities children with spina bifida must cope with, participation in individualized educational programs can allow these children to develop skills necessary for autonomy in adulthood. Advances in research to uncover the molecular basis of NTDs is enhanced by knowledge of the link between both the environmental and genetic factors involved in the etiology of NTDs. The most recent development in NTD research for disease-causing genes is the discovery of a genetic link to the most well-known environmental cause of neural tube malformation, folate deficiency in pregnant women. Nearly a decade ago, periconceptional folic acid supplementation was proven to decrease both the recurrence and occurrence of NTDs. The study of folate and its association with NTDs is an ongoing endeavor that has led to numerous studies of different genes involved in the folate metabolism pathway, including the most commonly studied thermolabile mutation (C677T) in the MTHFR gene. An additional focus for NTD research involves mouse models that exhibit both naturally occurring NTDs, as well as those created by

  11. Gastroenteric tube feeding: Techniques, problems and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Blumenstein, Irina; Shastri, Yogesh M; Stein, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Gastroenteric tube feeding plays a major role in the management of patients with poor voluntary intake, chronic neurological or mechanical dysphagia or gut dysfunction, and patients who are critically ill. However, despite the benefits and widespread use of enteral tube feeding, some patients experience complications. This review aims to discuss and compare current knowledge regarding the clinical application of enteral tube feeding, together with associated complications and special aspects. We conducted an extensive literature search on PubMed, Embase and Medline using index terms relating to enteral access, enteral feeding/nutrition, tube feeding, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy/jejunostomy, endoscopic nasoenteric tube, nasogastric tube, and refeeding syndrome. The literature showed common routes of enteral access to include nasoenteral tube, gastrostomy and jejunostomy, while complications fall into four major categories: mechanical, e.g., tube blockage or removal; gastrointestinal, e.g., diarrhea; infectious e.g., aspiration pneumonia, tube site infection; and metabolic, e.g., refeeding syndrome, hyperglycemia. Although the type and frequency of complications arising from tube feeding vary considerably according to the chosen access route, gastrointestinal complications are without doubt the most common. Complications associated with enteral tube feeding can be reduced by careful observance of guidelines, including those related to food composition, administration rate, portion size, food temperature and patient supervision. PMID:25024606

  12. [Echocardiography in mouse].

    PubMed

    Fayssoil, A

    2008-06-01

    Assessing cardiac phenotype requires invasive or noninvasive techniques in mouse. Echocardiography is a noninvasive technique for evaluating cardiac function. The purpose of this paper is to underline echocardiography modalities and new tools Doppler applications like tissue Doppler imaging.

  13. Intagliated phosphor screen image tube project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hertzel, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    The production and evaluation of a magnetic focus image tube for astronomical photography that has an intagliated phosphor screen is described. The modulation transfer function of such a tube was measured by electronic means and by film tests, and the results compared with tubes of more conventional construction. The physical properties of the image tube and film combination, the analytical model of the optical interface, and the salient features of the intagliated screen tube are described. The results of electronic MTF tests of the intagliated image tube and of the densitometry of the tube and film test samples are presented. It is concluded that the intagliated screen is a help, but that the thickness of the photographic film is also important.

  14. The dynamics of open precipitation tubes.

    PubMed

    Kaminker, V; Maselko, J; Pantaleone, J

    2014-06-28

    When a flowing fluid is channeled by chemical or physical precipitation, then tubular structures form. These patterns are common in nature, however, there have been few quantitative studies of their formation. Here, we report measurements of the radius, length, and internal pressure, as functions of time and flow rate, for precipitation tubes growing in chemical gardens. Using these measurements we develop models for how single tubes grow and also for how multiple tubes interact with each other. In particular, when multiple tubes grow from the same source they compete for resources; short/wide tubes have less resistance to flow, and so consume more of the resources, "killing" the growth of long/narrow tubes. These tube interactions are described by an equation similar to an unstable logistic equation.

  15. Minimum wear tube support hole design

    DOEpatents

    Glatthorn, Raymond H.

    1986-01-01

    A minimum-wear through-bore (16) is defined within a heat exchanger tube support plate (14) so as to have an hourglass configuration as determined by means of a constant radiused surface curvature (18) as defined by means of an external radius (R3), wherein the surface (18) extends between the upper surface (20) and lower surface (22) of the tube support plate (14). When a heat exchange tube (12) is disposed within the tube support plate (14) so as to pass through the through-bore (16), the heat exchange tube (12) is always in contact with a smoothly curved or radiused portion of the through-bore surface (16) whereby unacceptably excessive wear upon the heat exchange tube (12), as normally developed by means of sharp edges, lands, ridges, or the like conventionally part of the tube support plates, is eliminated or substantially reduced.

  16. Mouse Cleaning Apparatus and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Glenn L. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The method of using the mouse pad cleaning apparatus is disclosed and claimed. The method comprises the steps of uncovering the mouse cleaning surface, applying the mouse and ball of the mouse to the cleaning surface, moving the mouse in a rotational pattern on the mouse cleaning surface, removing the mouse form the mouse cleaning surface, washing the cleaning surface, and covering the mouse cleaning surface. A mouse pad cleaning apparatus comprising a plurality of substrates, each said substrate having adhesive thereon, said plurality of substrates residing in and affixed to a receptacle. A single substrate having adhesive, which may be washable or non-washable, thereon may be employed. The washable adhesive may be an organopolysiloxane or gelatinous elastomer.

  17. Multi-tube arrangement for combustor and method of making the multi-tube arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Ziminsky, Willy Steve

    2012-07-31

    A fuel injector tube includes a one piece, unitary, polygonal tube having an inlet end and an outlet end. The fuel injector tube further includes a fuel passage extending from the inlet end to the outlet end along a longitudinal axis of the polygonal tube, a plurality of air passages extending from the inlet end to the outlet end and surrounding the fuel passage, and a plurality of fuel holes. Each fuel hole connects an air passage with the fuel passage. The inlet end of the polygonal tube is formed into a fuel tube. A fuel injector includes a plurality of fuel injector tubes and a plate. The plurality of fuel tubes are connected to the plate adjacent the inlet ends of the plurality of fuel injector tubes.

  18. Pulse tube cooler having 1/4 wavelength resonator tube instead of reservoir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gedeon, David R. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An improved pulse tube cooler having a resonator tube connected in place of a compliance volume or reservoir. The resonator tube has a length substantially equal to an integer multiple of 1/4 wavelength of an acoustic wave in the working gas within the resonator tube at its operating frequency, temperature and pressure. Preferably, the resonator tube is formed integrally with the inertance tube as a single, integral tube with a length approximately 1/2 of that wavelength. Also preferably, the integral tube is spaced outwardly from and coiled around the connection of the regenerator to the pulse tube at a cold region of the cooler and the turns of the coil are thermally bonded together to improve heat conduction through the coil.

  19. Vacuum and the electron tube industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redhead, P. A.

    2005-07-01

    The electron tube industry started with the patenting of the thermionic diode by John Ambrose Fleming in 1904. The vacuum technology used by the infant tube industry was copied from the existing incandescent lamp industry. The growing demands for electron tubes for the military in the first world war led to major improvements in pumps and processing methods. By the 1920s, mass production methods were developing to satisfy the demands for receiving tubes by the burgeoning radio industry. Further expansion in the 1930s and 1940s resulted in improvements in automatic equipment for pumping vacuum tubes leading to the massive production rates of electron tubes in the second world war and the following two decades. The demand for radar during the war resulted in the development of techniques for large-scale production of microwave tubes and CRTs, the latter technology being put to good use later in TV picture tube production. The commercial introduction of the transistor ended the massive demand for receiving tubes. This review concentrates on the vacuum technology developed for receiving tube production.

  20. Sorption of parabens by flexible tubings.

    PubMed

    Bahal, S M; Romansky, J M

    2001-08-01

    Flexible tubings are extensively used in pharmaceuticals, food industry, and in hospitals. This study was undertaken to compare various flexible tubings to determine their sorption characteristics, using methyl and propyl parabens. After 24 h, some tubings showed 100% sorption of propylparaben and over 40% for methylparaben. Significant losses were observed within a few hours using several tubings. For methylparaben, the losses were in the following decreasing order of sorption: Tygon, Clearflo, silicone, Nylotube, and Newtex. For propylparaben, the losses were in the following order: Tygon, Clearflo, silicone, Newtex, and Nylotube. Teflon, Zelite, and Vitube showed little to no losses of methyl and propylparaben over 120 h of study. The silicone tubing, refilled after 120 h with fresh methylparaben or propylparaben solutions, again showed significant losses within a few hours. The tubings show slow desorption when filled with the buffer vehicle. For Silastic tubing, increase in temperature from 25 to 40 degrees C, increase in pH from 3.5 to 6.5, tubing lot to lot variation, or curing with peroxide or platinum had little or no effect on paraben sorption. As expected, the sorption of parabens increased with increasing surface area of Silastic tubing. Results provided can be used to select the best tubings and to minimize paraben losses during production and filling of liquid pharmaceuticals andfood products containing these antimicrobial preservatives.