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Sample records for mouse fallopian tube

  1. Fallopian Tube Catheterization

    PubMed Central

    Thurmond, Amy Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Fallopian tube catheterization is used for treatment of infertility caused by proximal tubal occlusion, and has replaced surgical treatment for this condition. More recently, fallopian tube catheterization has been used for tubal sterilization. Interventional radiologists tested numerous methods for tubal occlusion using the rabbit as an animal model. As a result, a tubal device has recently been Food and Drug Administration approved for permanent sterilization using hysteroscopic guidance; it can also be placed fluoroscopically by fallopian tube catheterization as an “off-label” procedure. This is a 5-year continuation and update on a procedure that has been done by interventional radiologists for 25 years; history of the development of fallopian tube catheterization in women has been published in detail in this journal. Highlighted in this article will be description of the basic components needed for fallopian tube catheterization. PMID:24436565

  2. Duplication of the fallopian tube

    PubMed Central

    R, Narayanan; MA, Rajeev

    2008-01-01

    Hysterosalpingography accurately delineates the uterine and tubal lumen, and hence is routinely performed for the evaluation of infertility.We observed a case of infertility where uterine cavity was normal but fallopian tubes were bifurcated at the ampullary region. Mullerian duct anomalies are reported in literature, but maldevelopment of fallopian tube in isolation is rare. This abnormality can present as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, in association with urinary tract anomalies or as failure of sterilisation method. PMID:19562063

  3. 21 CFR 884.3650 - Fallopian tube prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fallopian tube prosthesis. 884.3650 Section 884... § 884.3650 Fallopian tube prosthesis. (a) Identification. A fallopian tube prosthesis is a device designed to maintain the patency (openness) of the fallopian tube and is used after reconstructive...

  4. 21 CFR 884.3650 - Fallopian tube prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fallopian tube prosthesis. 884.3650 Section 884... § 884.3650 Fallopian tube prosthesis. (a) Identification. A fallopian tube prosthesis is a device designed to maintain the patency (openness) of the fallopian tube and is used after reconstructive...

  5. 21 CFR 884.3650 - Fallopian tube prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fallopian tube prosthesis. 884.3650 Section 884... § 884.3650 Fallopian tube prosthesis. (a) Identification. A fallopian tube prosthesis is a device designed to maintain the patency (openness) of the fallopian tube and is used after reconstructive...

  6. 21 CFR 884.3650 - Fallopian tube prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fallopian tube prosthesis. 884.3650 Section 884... § 884.3650 Fallopian tube prosthesis. (a) Identification. A fallopian tube prosthesis is a device designed to maintain the patency (openness) of the fallopian tube and is used after reconstructive...

  7. 21 CFR 884.3650 - Fallopian tube prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fallopian tube prosthesis. 884.3650 Section 884... § 884.3650 Fallopian tube prosthesis. (a) Identification. A fallopian tube prosthesis is a device designed to maintain the patency (openness) of the fallopian tube and is used after reconstructive...

  8. Pembrolizumab, Bevacizumab, and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-02

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  9. Confocal microlaparoscope for imaging the fallopian tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tzu-Yu; Schafer, Rachel; Rouse, Andrew R.; Gmitro, Arthur F.

    2012-02-01

    Recent evidence suggests that epithelial ovarian cancer may originate in the fimbriated end of the fallopian tube1. Unlike many other cancers, poor access to the ovary and fallopian tubes has limited the ability to study the progression of this deadly disease and to diagnosis it during the early stage when it is most amenable to therapy. We have previously reported on a rigid confocal microlaparoscope system that is currently undergoing a clinical trial to image the epithelial surface of the ovary2. In order to gain in vivo access to the fallopian tubes we have developed a new confocal microlaparoscope with an articulating distal tip. The new instrument builds upon the technology developed for the existing confocal microlaparoscope. It has an ergonomic handle fabricated by a rapid prototyping printer. While maintaining compatibility with a 5 mm trocar, the articulating distal tip of the instrument consists of a 2.2 mm diameter bare fiber bundle catheter with automated dye delivery for fluorescence imaging. This small and flexible catheter design should enable the confocal microlaparoscope to image early stage ovarian cancer arising inside the fallopian tube. Early ex vivo mages of human fallopian tube and in vivo imaging results from recent open surgeries using the rigid confocal microlaparoscope system are presented. Ex vivo images from animal models using the new articulating bare fiber system are also presented. These high quality images collected by the new flexible system are similar in quality to those obtained from the epithelial surface of ovaries with the rigid clinical confocal microlaparoscope.

  10. Confocal microlaparoscope for imaging the fallopian tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tzu-Yu; Rouse, Andrew R.; Chambers, Setsuko K.; Hatch, Kenneth D.; Gmitro, Arthur F.

    2014-11-01

    Recent evidence suggests that ovarian cancer can originate in the fallopian tube. Unlike many other cancers, poor access to the ovary and fallopian tubes has limited the ability to study the progression of this deadly disease and to diagnosis it during the early stage when it is most amenable to therapy. A rigid confocal microlaparoscope system designed to image the epithelial surface of the ovary in vivo was previously reported. A new confocal microlaparoscope with an articulating distal tip has been developed to enable in vivo access to human fallopian tubes. The new microlaparoscope is compatible with 5-mm trocars and includes a 2.2-mm-diameter articulating distal tip consisting of a bare fiber bundle and an automated dye delivery system for fluorescence confocal imaging. This small articulating device should enable the confocal microlaparoscope to image early stage ovarian cancer arising inside the fallopian tube. Ex vivo images of animal tissue and human fallopian tube using the new articulating device are presented along with in vivo imaging results using the rigid confocal microlaparoscope system.

  11. Drugs Approved for Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal ... primary peritoneal cancer that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal ...

  12. [Fallopian tube disease on magnetic resonance imaging].

    PubMed

    La Parra Casado, C; Molina Fàbrega, R; Forment Navarro, M; Cano Gimeno, J

    2013-09-01

    Knowledge about fallopian tube disease is essential in the assessment of the pelvis in female patients. Primary and secondary changes in the tubes vary widely, regardless of whether associated changes in the ovaries are present. Ultrasonography is the initial technique in the study of adnexal disease because it is very sensitive and widely available; however, MRI is also very useful in this context because its high tissue resolution and anatomic detail make it more specific. The morphologic findings and the characteristics of the contents of the tubes on MRI enable a more accurate diagnosis or limit the differential diagnosis, helping to ensure that the most appropriate treatment is provided in each case.

  13. Olaparib and Cediranib Maleate in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-24

    BRCA1 Gene Mutation; BRCA2 Gene Mutation; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; High Grade Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Tumor; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma

  14. Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Information about ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer treatment, prevention, genetics, causes, screening, clinical trials, research and statistics from the National Cancer Institute.

  15. Quality of Life and Care Needs of Patients With Persistent or Recurrent Ovarian Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-17

    Anxiety; Fatigue; Nausea and Vomiting; Neurotoxicity Syndrome; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  16. Chemotherapy Toxicity On Quality of Life in Older Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal Cavity, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-09

    Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  17. An uncommon twist: isolated fallopian tube torsion in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Kisku, Sundeep; Thomas, Reju Joseph

    2013-01-01

    We report a 13-year-old girl with bilateral paratubal cysts and left isolated fallopian tube torsion (IFTT). Paratubal cysts are uncommon in children, and IFTT is a rare complication. Awareness of this entity and prompt surgical intervention could potentially salvage the fallopian tube preserving fertility. PMID:24024061

  18. An Uncommon Twist: Isolated Fallopian Tube Torsion in an Adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Kisku, Sundeep; Thomas, Reju Joseph

    2013-01-01

    We report a 13-year-old girl with bilateral paratubal cysts and left isolated fallopian tube torsion (IFTT). Paratubal cysts are uncommon in children, and IFTT is a rare complication. Awareness of this entity and prompt surgical intervention could potentially salvage the fallopian tube preserving fertility. PMID:24024061

  19. Cediranib Maleate and Olaparib or Standard Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Recurrent Platinum-Resistant or -Refractory Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-02

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  20. Sunitinib Malate in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-01-15

    Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

  1. General Information About Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... condition or to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer ... PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  2. Sirolimus and Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage II-IV Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-26

    Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  3. Carboplatin, Paclitaxel and Gemcitabine Hydrochloride With or Without Bevacizumab After Surgery in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian, Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-04

    Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinofibroma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  4. Paraneoplastic Neurological Syndrome in Fallopian Tube Cancer.

    PubMed

    Maas, E; Skoberne, T; Werner, A; Braun, S; Jackisch, C

    2014-10-01

    We report on a rare case of paraneoplastic syndrome (PS) that was discovered on completion of diagnostic work-up to be an undifferentiated fallopian tube carcinoma. A 49-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to neurology with vertigo, gait ataxia and dysarthria, transient ischaemic attack (TIA) and stroke were quickly excluded. Indicative for the further diagnosis of a paraneoplastic syndrome was the identification of onconeuronal antibodies the detection of which can be associated with certain tumour entities. The strongly positive anti-Yo antibody that is formed above all by breast and lung cancers as well as ovarian cancer led to a corresponding staging. The tumour markers CEA, CA 125 and CA 15-3 were in the normal ranges. Mammography and thorax CT were also unremarkable; on transvaginal sonography the internal genitals were inconspicuous except for a follicular cyst on the left. On abdominal CT the only conspicuous finding was a 1.5 cm ovarian cyst. After consensual agreement a bilateral laparoscopic adenexectomy was performed but with unremarkable abdominal findings. The histological examination confirmed a right-sided undifferentiated tubal carcinoma with the provisional classification FIGO IIA. After a stage-related staging operation, the final classification was found to be the FIGO-IIIC stage on account of positive retroperitoneal lymph nodes. Thus adjuvant chemotherapy with 6 cycles of carboplatin and paclitaxel was performed. By means of a timely, guideline-conform therapy for tubal carcinoma, the neurological symptoms and, above all, the dysarthria could be improved after 10 months.

  5. [TORSION OF FALLOPIAN TUBE LEIOMYOMA TREATED BY LAPAROSCOPY].

    PubMed

    Blagovest, Bechev; Magunska, Nadya; Kovachev, Emil; Ivanov, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Leiomyomas of the Fallopian tubes are rare and their correct diagnosis is extremely difficult. Usually they are incidental findings seen at autopsy or unrelated surgical procedures: A 34-year-old woman presented with lower abdominal pain. Transvaginal ultrasound revealed a solid 7 cm extrauterine mass. Both ovaries are normal. Our preoperative diagnosis was torsion of the fallopian tube due intratubal leiomyoma. Laparoscopic surgery was performed and the leiomyoma was found to have originated from the isthmus of the right Fallopian tube. Laparoscopic myomectomy was performed with preservation of the ramus tubarius dextra. The histological examination concluded to a leiomyoma with ischemic changes. We report a case of torsion of a tubal leiomyoma, which was successfully managed laparoscopically. PMID:27509659

  6. [Isolated torsion of the fallopian tube: about two cases].

    PubMed

    Bouguern, H; Bouchikhi, C; Chaara, H; Melhouf, M A; Banani, A

    2008-02-01

    Isolated torsion of the fallopian tube is extremely rare and difficult to diagnose, requires a coelioscopy, or a laparotomy in centers which do not have coelioscpie; often carried out too tardily, to allow the conservation of the horn. We report two observations of isolated torsion of the fallopian tube and we recall through the two clinical cases the diagnostic difficulties, the useful complementary examinations, the treatment and the causes of this pathology which must be systematically evoked in front of any acute abdominal syndrome in order to hope for an early surgical treatment and if possible conservative. PMID:18372548

  7. Fallopian Tube Cancer with Palmar Fibromatosis or Fasciitis without Polyarthritis.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Shoichi; Fujiwara, Sho; Kobayashi, Satomi; Kamei, Satoshi; Takizawa, Yasunobu; Setoguchi, Keigo; Uno, Masaya; Funata, Nobuaki

    2015-01-01

    A 64-year-old Japanese woman had rapidly progressing bilateral palmar contracture associated with severe pain on both palms over the previous 8 weeks, without a history of arthritis in any joints. We suspected palmar fibromatosis or fasciitis without polyarthritis. Because palmar fibromatosis is known to be associated with cancer, we performed cancer screening and the patient was subsequently diagnosed with fallopian tube cancer. This is the first case report of palmar fibromatosis or fasciitis without polyarthritis associated with fallopian tube cancer. The characteristic rapid progression of palmar contracture is a key finding that suggests the potential existence of a malignancy.

  8. Is Surgical Repair of the Fallopian Tubes Ever Appropriate?

    PubMed Central

    Sotrel, Ginter

    2009-01-01

    The overall median prevalence of infertility, defined as no conception after more than 12 months of unprotected intercourse with the husband or cohabiting partner in women aged 15 to 44 years, is approximately 9%. About 25% to 33% of female infertility is the result of tubal disease and endometriosis. In view of very successful alternative treatment of tubal factor infertility, the surgical repair of the fallopian tubes is all but obsolete and has been replaced with assisted reproductive technology. This article reviews situations in which surgical repair of the fallopian tubes may facilitate conception. PMID:19826575

  9. Cysticercosis of the fallopian tube: histology and microanalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, J.L.; Spore, W.W.; Benirschke, K.

    1982-07-01

    The authors identified a degenerated, focally calcified cestode larva (cysticercus) in the fallopian tube of a 50-year-old woman with endometriosis. The physiologic reaction to the larva was minimal, with some focal granulomatous salpingitis. No other focus of infection was detected. The differential diagnosis included trophoblastic tissue, foreign material, and parasites. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis of the organism revealed concentration of iodine in the subcuticular connective tissue of the larva and confirmed the calcium phosphate composition of the calcareous corpuscles. The presumed source of the iodine was the continued exposure of the larva to an environment rich in iodide secreted by the epithelium of the fallopian tube.

  10. OPT-821 With or Without Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Peritoneal Cancer in Second or Third Complete Remission

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-16

    Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  11. Carboplatin, Paclitaxel, Bevacizumab, and Veliparib in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage II-IV Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-09

    Fallopian Tube Carcinosarcoma; Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Neoplasm; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Tumor; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  12. Intraperitoneal Bortezomib and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Persistent or Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-21

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  13. Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IIIC-IV Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer Following Surgery and Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-12

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Tumor; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Neoplasm; Fallopian Tube Serous Neoplasm; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  14. Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin Hydrochloride With Atezolizumab and/or Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-12

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; High Grade Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; High Grade Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal High Grade Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  15. Sarcomas of the fallopian tube: disentangling a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Zagouri, Flora; Dimopoulos, Meletios-Athanassios; Thomakos, Nikolaos; Chrysikos, Dimosthenis; Papadimitriou, Christos A

    2011-01-01

    Sarcomas of the fallopian tube are exceedingly rare malignancies. They have been considered the most lethal of all gynaecological malignancies with high metastatic potential, frequent recurrences and cancer-related deaths. The reported pathological types of the fallopian tube sarcomas are malignant mixed mullerian (mesodermal) tumours or carcinosarcomas, leiomyosarcomas, rhabdomyosarcomas, liposarcomas, and synovial sarcomas. The rarity of these sarcomas and their often aggressive clinical course has resulted in a relatively limited amount of literature. Thus a single hospital or specialist cannot gain sufficient experience with these tumours. This review article tries to elucidate this uncommon malignancy, in a systematic way, focusing on the different pathological types, epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, survival, and different therapeutic modalities (surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy).

  16. Titration and neutralization of rabies virus (ERA strain) following its replication in a pig fallopian tube cell line.

    PubMed

    Bouillant, A M; Tabel, H; Greig, A S

    1974-04-01

    The ERA strain of rabies virus was found to replicate and produce a constant cytopathic effect in a cell line derived from a gilt's Fallopian tube. Titration and neutralization tests were made by a microtest technique in which one TCID(50) corresponded approximately to one mouse LD(50).

  17. Dasatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, Endometrial or Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-02

    Endometrial Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma

  18. Tubal Ligation Induces Quiescence in the Epithelia of the Fallopian Tube Fimbria.

    PubMed

    Tiourin, Ekaterina; Velasco, Victor S; Rosales, Miguel A; Sullivan, Peggy S; Janzen, Deanna M; Memarzadeh, Sanaz

    2015-10-01

    Tubal ligation keeps the fimbriated end of the fallopian tube intact while interrupting the conduit for sperm and egg between the uterus and ovary. Tubal ligation is associated with an approximately 20% decreased risk of high-grade serous ovarian cancers, which mounting evidence suggests arise from the distal fallopian tube epithelium. We postulated that biological changes at the epithelial cellular level of the distal fallopian tube may account for the surgical procedure's observed risk reduction. We compared the histology, presence of epithelial progenitors (basally located CD44-positive cells), and degree of epithelial proliferation (Ki67-positive cells) of distal fallopian tube from 10 patients with previous tubal ligation and 10 age-matched patients with uncut fallopian tubes. A significantly reduced population of proliferating epithelial progenitors (basally located CD44/Ki67 dual-positive cells) was detected in the tubal ligated specimens (P = .0002). To functionally assess the effect of tubal ligation, a murine model was utilized to compare the growth capacity of distal fallopian tube epithelial cells isolated from either ligated or sham-operated tubal epithelia. Murine fallopian tube epithelial cells isolated after tubal ligation showed a significantly reduced capacity to grow organoids in culture compared to sham-operated controls (P = .002). The findings of this study show that tubal ligation is associated with a reduced presence and decreased proliferation of progenitor cells in the distal fallopian tube epithelium. These compositional and functional changes suggest that tubal ligation induces quiescence of distal fallopian tube epithelial cells.

  19. Carboplatin and Paclitaxel or Oxaliplatin and Capecitabine With or Without Bevacizumab as First-Line Therapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage II-IV or Recurrent Stage I Epithelial Ovarian or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-21

    Borderline Ovarian Mucinous Tumor; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer

  20. Ruxolitinib Phosphate, Paclitaxel, and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Epithelial Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-21

    Fallopian Tube Carcinosarcoma; Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Neoplasm; High Grade Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  1. A unilateral twin extrauterine pregnancy occurring in a solitary fallopian tube: therapeutic choices.

    PubMed

    Awwad, J T; ElHajj, M; Usta, I; Nassar, A; Awwad, S T; Khalil, A

    2002-01-01

    A unilateral twin tubal pregnancy occurring in a solitary fallopian tube is presented. The gynecological history was notable for a previous extrauterine pregnancy in the contralateral fallopian tube and reconstructive surgery to the ipsilateral one. Radical total salpingectomy was performed. The rationale for this management is discussed and different therapeutic alternatives presented.

  2. Macroscopic and microscopic studies of fallopian tube after laparoscopic sterilization.

    PubMed

    Donnez, J; Casanas-Roux, F; Ferin, J

    1979-11-01

    Histological study was carried out on human fallopian tubes one hour and one month after various methods of laparoscopic sterilization. Ciliated cells were counted and histological lesions were observed. Deciliation is proved at a distance from the site of sterilization. Taking into account these two data, it has been possible to display the substance loss provoked by each of the usual sterilization methods (unipolar electro-coagulation, bipolar electrocoagulation, silicone ring and Hulka-Clements clip) which have to be taken into consideration in case of surgical re-anastomosis. PMID:160861

  3. Macroscopic and microscopic studies of fallopian tube after laparoscopic sterilization.

    PubMed

    Donnez, J; Casanas-Roux, F; Ferin, J

    1979-11-01

    Histological study was carried out on human fallopian tubes one hour and one month after various methods of laparoscopic sterilization. Ciliated cells were counted and histological lesions were observed. Deciliation is proved at a distance from the site of sterilization. Taking into account these two data, it has been possible to display the substance loss provoked by each of the usual sterilization methods (unipolar electro-coagulation, bipolar electrocoagulation, silicone ring and Hulka-Clements clip) which have to be taken into consideration in case of surgical re-anastomosis.

  4. YKL-40 in Serum Samples From Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage III-IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal Cavity, or Fallopian Tube Cancer Receiving Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-19

    Fallopian Tube Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Clear Cell Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Endometrioid Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Mucinous Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Neoplasm; Malignant Ovarian Serous Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Transitional Cell Tumor; Ovarian Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  5. Tumorigenesis and peritoneal colonization from fallopian tube epithelium.

    PubMed

    Eddie, Sharon L; Quartuccio, Suzanne M; Ó hAinmhir, Eoghainin; Moyle-Heyrman, Georgette; Lantvit, Dan D; Wei, Jian-Jun; Vanderhyden, Barbara C; Burdette, Joanna E

    2015-08-21

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy, primarily because its origin and initiation factors are unknown. A secretory murine oviductal epithelial (MOE) model was generated to address the hypothesis that the fallopian tube is an origin for high-grade serous cancer. MOE cells were stably altered to express mutation in p53, silence PTEN, activate AKT, and amplify KRAS alone and in combination, to define if this cell type gives rise to tumors and what genetic alterations are required to drive malignancy. Cell lines were characterized in vitro and allografted into mice. Silencing PTEN formed high-grade carcinoma with wide spread tumor explants including metastasis into the ovary. Addition of p53 mutation to PTEN silencing did not enhance this phenotype, whereas addition of KRAS mutation reduced survival. Interestingly, PTEN silencing and KRAS mutation originating from ovarian surface epithelium generated endometrioid carcinoma, suggesting that different cellular origins with identical genetic manipulations can give rise to distinct cancer histotypes. Defining the roles of specific signaling modifications in tumorigenesis from the fallopian tube/oviduct is essential for early detection and development of targeted therapeutics. Further, syngeneic MOE allografts provide an ideal model for pre-clinical testing in an in vivo environment with an intact immune system.

  6. Surgery and Chemotherapy With or Without Chemotherapy After Surgery in Treating Patients With Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, Uterine, or Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-18

    Recurrent Uterine Corpus Cancer; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVB Uterine Corpus Cancer

  7. Morphologic 3D scanning of fallopian tubes to assist ovarian cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madore, Wendy-Julie; De Montigny, Etienne; Deschênes, Andréanne; Benboujja, Fouzi; Leduc, Mikael; Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie; Provencher, Diane M.; Rahimi, Kurosh; Boudoux, Caroline; Godbout, Nicolas

    2016-02-01

    Pathological evaluation of the fallopian tubes is an important diagnostic result but tumors can be missed using routine approaches. As the majority of high-grade serous ovarian cancers are now believed to originate in the fallopian tubes, pathological examination should include in a thorough examination of the excised ovaries and fallopian tubes. We present an dedicated imaging system for diagnostic exploration of human fallopian tubes. This system is based on optical coherence tomography (OCT), a laser imaging modality giving access to sub- epithelial tissue architecture. This system produces cross-sectional images up to 3 mm in depth, with a lateral resolution of ≍15μm and an axial resolution of ≍12μm. An endoscopic single fiber probe was developed to fit in a human fallopian tube. This 1.2 mm probe produces 3D volume data of the entire inner tube within a few minutes. To demonstrate the clinical potential of OCT for lesion identification, we studied 5 different ovarian lesions and healthy fallopian tubes. We imaged 52 paraffin-embedded human surgical specimens with a benchtop system and compared these images with histology slides. We also imaged and compared healthy oviducts from 3 animal models to find one resembling the human anatomy and to develop a functional ex vivo imaging procedure with the endoscopic probe. We also present an update on an ongoing clinical pilot study on women undergoing prophylactic or diagnostic surgery in which we image ex vivo fallopian tubes with the endoscopic probe.

  8. Epacadostat Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage III-IV Epithelial Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-09

    Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  9. Glutathione in Preventing Peripheral Neuropathy Caused by Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in Patients With Ovarian Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, and/or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-22

    Chemotherapeutic Agent Toxicity; Neuropathy; Neurotoxicity Syndrome; Pain; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  10. Olaparib or Cediranib Maleate and Olaparib Compared With Standard Platinum-Based Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Recurrent Platinum-Sensitive Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-17

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Tumor; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Tumor; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  11. Paclitaxel, Polyglutamate Paclitaxel, or Observation in Treating Patients With Stage III or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Peritoneal Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-17

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  12. Paclitaxel and Carboplatin With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-21

    Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinofibroma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  13. Carboplatin and Paclitaxel With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Stage III or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-18

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  14. Diet and Physical Activity Change or Usual Care in Improving Progression-Free Survival in Patients With Previously Treated Stage II, III, or IV Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-09

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  15. Polyglutamate Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Ovarian Epithelial, Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-07

    Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  16. Clinical implications of accessory fallopian tube ostium in endometriosis and primary infertility.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Nigel; Kligman, Isaac

    2016-07-01

    Several variations in fallopian tube anatomy may be noted during the evaluation of infertility. Some anatomical variants such as accessory tubal ostia are rare. A 31-year-old woman presented to our center with a 2-year history of primary infertility. Given her history of dysmenorrhea, a diagnostic laparoscopy was performed. Laparoscopy revealed a left utero-sacral endometriosis implant, which was resected. Although the left fallopian tube was normal, the right fallopian tube was noted to have two prongs with individual ostia. Tubal cannulation confirmed two separate ostia, with chromotubation showing free flow of dye through separate fimbrial ostia of the right fallopian tube. The current case highlights that accessory tubal ostia are rare müllerian duct anomalies seen during laparoscopy and can be associated with endometriois or primary infertility. PMID:27638894

  17. Bevacizumab and Intravenous or Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Stage II-III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-05

    Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  18. Metformin Hydrochloride, Carboplatin, and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-01

    Ovarian Papillary Serous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

  19. Stray light mitigation in a novel endoscope for fallopian tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swan, Elizabeth; Tate, Tyler; Keenan, Molly; Black, John F.; Utzinger, Urs; Barton, Jennifer

    2015-03-01

    Stray light in an endoscope largely contributes to whether a signal can be detected or not. This FRED analysis used a novel endoscope designed for the fallopian tubes to show how common endoscope elements cause stray light contamination, and to offer suggestions on how to mitigate it. Standard and advanced optical raytracing was performed. Raytrace reports determined which ray paths caused the highest power and irradiance distributions after reflecting one or more times from an element in the system. The analysis revealed that the cover plate introduced significantly more stray light into the system than other endoscope components. The imaging lenses and variable stop reflectivity had a negligible impact on the signal. To obtain acceptable signal-to- noise ratio, the source numerical aperture (NA) was lowered to 0.35 and 0.25 to keep the stray light within the same order of magnitude and an order of magnitude lower, respectively than the desired signal. There was a single specular reflection off of the cover plate distal surface. This illumination reflected back into the imaging fiber without first scattering off the tissue, which resulted in high stray power at the back of the imaging lenses. The specular light appeared brighter at higher source NAs and saturated the desired signal at the edge of the imaging fiber. An NA between 0.25 and 0.35 provides maximum illumination to image the tissue, with minimal stray light degrading the desired signal.

  20. In vivo laser-based imaging of the human fallopian tube for future cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibel, Eric J.; Melville, C. David; Johnston, Richard S.; Gong, Yuanzheng; Agnew, Kathy; Chiang, Seine; Swisher, Elizabeth M.

    2015-03-01

    Inherited mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 lead to 20-50% lifetime risk of ovarian, tubal, or peritoneal carcinoma. Clinical recommendations for women with these genetic mutations include the prophylactic removal of ovaries and fallopian tubes by age 40 after child-bearing. Recent findings suggest that many presumed ovarian or peritoneal carcinomas arise in fallopian tube epithelium. Although survival rate is <90% when ovarian cancer is detected early (Stage_I), 70% of women have advanced disease (Stage_III/IV) at presentation when survival is less than 30%. Over the years, effective early detection of ovarian cancer has remained elusive, possibly because screening techniques have mistakenly focused on the ovary as origin of ovarian carcinoma. Unlike ovaries, the fallopian tubes are amenable to direct visual imaging without invasive surgery, using access through the cervix. To develop future screening protocols, we investigated using our 1.2- mm diameter, forward-viewing, scanning fiber endoscope (SFE) to image luminal surfaces of the fallopian tube before laparoscopic surgical removal. Three anesthetized human subjects participated in our protocol development which eventually led to 70-80% of the length of fallopian tubes being imaged in scanning reflectance, using red (632nm), green (532nm), and blue (442nm) laser light. A hysteroscope with saline uterine distention was used to locate the tubal ostia. To facilitate passage of the SFE through the interstitial portion of the fallopian tube, an introducer catheter was inserted 1- cm through each ostia. During insertion, saline was flushed to reduce friction and provide clearer viewing. This is likely the first high-resolution intraluminal visualization of fallopian tubes.

  1. Vaccine Therapy and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Stage II-III Breast or Stage II-IV Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-07

    Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  2. Carboplatin and Gemcitabine Hydrochloride With or Without ATR Kinase Inhibitor VX-970 in Treating Patients With Recurrent and Metastatic Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-21

    High Grade Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Tumor; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  3. Sirolimus and Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage II-IV Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-25

    Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

  4. Incidence of Ovarian, Peritoneal, and Fallopian Tube Carcinomas in the United States, 1995–2004

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Marc T.; Shvetsov, Yurii B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The objective of this analysis was to describe the distribution of pelvic carcinomas in the United States by demographic, pathologic, and clinical features. Methods Carcinomas of the ovary (N=112,541), peritoneum (N=6,458), and fallopian tube (N=3,479) were identified through 24 population-based registries in the United States during the period 1995–2004. Age-adjusted incidence rates (AAIR) were calculated per million population using counts derived from the 2000 US census. Results The AAIR for ovarian carcinoma (119.9 per million) was substantially higher than for peritoneal (6.78 per million) or fallopian tube (3.72 per million) carcinomas. White women had the highest rates for all three malignancies. Rates for peritoneal carcinoma were lowest among Black women (2.88 per million) and rates for fallopian tube carcinoma were lowest among Hispanic women (2.45 per million). Serous carcinomas were the most commonly diagnosed histologic type for all anatomic sites. Peritoneal carcinomas were diagnosed at later ages (mean 67 years) and more advanced stages (85% regional/distant) compared to fallopian tube carcinomas (mean 64 years; 62% regional/distant) and ovarian carcinomas (mean 63 years; 76% regional/distant). Incidence for all three pelvic carcinomas was lowest in the South. Time trend analyses between 1973 and 2005 exhibited a significant decline in ovarian carcinoma incidence, and rises in the rates of peritoneal and fallopian tube cancers. Conclusions Similarities in the incidence patterns for ovarian, peritoneal, and fallopian tube carcinomas support the likelihood of a common molecular pathogenesis. PMID:19124490

  5. Metformin Hydrochloride and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-18

    Brenner Tumor; Malignant Ascites; Malignant Pleural Effusion; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

  6. Sister Mary Joseph's nodule as the first presenting sign of primary fallopian tube adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kirshtein, Boris; Meirovitz, Mihai; Okon, Elimelech; Piura, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    Umbilical metastasis (Sister Mary Joseph's nodule) is often the first sign of intraabdominal and/or pelvic carcinoma. We describe the fourth case reported in the literature of Sister Mary Joseph's nodule originating from fallopian tube carcinoma. In a 54-year-old woman, Sister Mary Joseph's nodule was unexpectedly detected during umbilical hernia repair. Subsequent laparoscopy revealed a 2-cm friable tumor located at the fimbriated end of right fallopian tube and 1-cm peritoneal implant in the pouch of Douglas. Laparoscopic bilateral adnexectomy and resection of the peritoneal implant were performed. Because frozen section examination revealed fallopian tube carcinoma, the procedure was continued with laparotomy including total abdominal hysterectomy, omentectomy, and pelvic lymph node sampling. Final diagnosis was stage IIIB fallopian tube carcinoma. The patient received postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy with single-agent carboplatin and has remained alive and with no evidence of disease. It is concluded that in cases of Sister Mary Joseph's nodule, laparoscopy can be a useful tool in the search of the primary tumor in the abdomen and/or pelvis. Laparoscopy can provide crucial information with respect to the location, size, and feasibility of optimal surgical resection of the intraabdominal and/or pelvic tumors.

  7. YAP Induces High-Grade Serous Carcinoma in Fallopian Tube Secretory Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Guohua; Lv, Xiangmin; He, Chunbo; Remmenga, Steven W.; Rodabough, Kerry J.; Dong, Jixin; Yang, Liguo; Lele, Subodh M.; Yang, Peixin; Zhou, Jin; Karst, Alison; Drapkin, Ronny I.; Davis, John S.; Wang, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) originates from Fallopian tube secretory epithelial cells (FTSECs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation and progression of HGSC derived from FTSECs remains unclear. In the present study, we found that the Hippo/YAP signaling pathway plays a critical role in the initiation and progression of Fallopian tube and ovarian HGSC. Importantly, YAP was overexpressed in inflammatory and cancerous Fallopian tube tissues. Further, overexpression of wild-type YAP, or constitutively active YAP in immortalized FTSECs, induced cell proliferation, migration, colony formation, and tumorigenesis. Moreover, the Hippo/YAP and the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling pathways formed an autocrine/paracrine positive feedback loop to drive the progression of the FTSECs-derived HGSC. Evidence in this study strongly suggests that combined therapy with inhibitors of YAP (such as verteporfin) and FGFRs (such as BGJ398) can provide a novel therapeutic strategy to treat Fallopian tube and ovarian HGSC. PMID:26364602

  8. Microplicae-like structures of the fallopian tube in postmenopausal women as shown by electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Correr, S; Makabe, S; Heyn, R; Relucenti, M; Naguro, T; Familiari, G

    2006-03-01

    Female reproductive aging is associated with several morphological changes of the genital tract with a subsequent decline in fertility; however, ultrastructural changes occurring after menopause have still not been well illustrated. Our aim was to characterize the three-dimensional microanatomy of the luminal surface of the human fallopian tube in perimenopause and postmenopause. Twenty bioptic samples of fallopian tubes were obtained after surgery under the informed consent of the patients. Samples were processed for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). As age increases the surface epithelium of the fallopian tube appeared somewhat flattened. Correlated TEM/FE-SEM observations showed gradual shortening of microvilli and deciliation. The most interesting finding was the gradual formation of microplicae-like structures on the surface epithelium, particularly from late perimenopause to postmenopause. Microplicae-like structures, associated with other regressive changes, represent an important adaptation of the epithelium of the fallopian tube; these are likely induced by the physiological process of aging, thus better withstanding hormonal changes associated with the advent of the menopause.

  9. Enterobius vermicularis infection of the fallopian tube in an infertile female.

    PubMed

    Young, Carmen; Tataryn, Ivanna; Kowalewska-Grochowska, Kinga T; Balachandra, Brinda

    2010-06-15

    Enterobius vermicularis (EV) is the most common nematode to infect humans. It inhabits the intestinal lumen, but rare, ectopic infections have been documented. The female genital tract is the most common ectopic site. We present a unique case of an EV infection of the fallopian tube resulting in inflammation, tubal obstruction, and infertility. A 30-year-old woman presented with infertility. Investigations included a laparoscopy with hydrotubation using methylene blue dye. This showed a left fallopian tube obstruction and extensive pelvic adhesions. A left salpingectomy was performed. Microscopic examination of the fallopian tube revealed numerous calcified and non-calcified ova associated with granulomatous reaction. The microscopic features were compatible with EV infection. Ectopic EV infections of the female genital tract result when the gravid female worm migrates from the perianal area to the vagina and ascends through the uterus and fallopian tubes to the peritoneal cavity. Microscopic examination of these ectopic sites can reveal adult worms or ova with granulomata formation, eosinophilic infiltrate, chronic inflammatory reaction, and fibrosis. The ova have a characteristic asymmetric oval configuration with flattening on one side. We postulate that our patient's salpingitis due to EV with accompanying fibrosis is a cause of her infertility.

  10. Paclitaxel and Carboplatin or Ifosfamide in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Persistent or Recurrent Uterine, Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-23

    Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Sarcoma; Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Uterine Sarcoma; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVB Uterine Sarcoma; Uterine Carcinosarcoma

  11. Vaccine Therapy and IDO1 Inhibitor INCB024360 in Treating Patients With Epithelial Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer Who Are in Remission

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-12-17

    Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

  12. Activated T-cell Therapy, Low-Dose Aldesleukin, and Sargramostim in Treating Patients With Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer That is Stage III-IV, Refractory, or Recurrent

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-15

    Malignant Ovarian Clear Cell Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Serous Tumor; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  13. Efficacy of Salpingography and Transcervical Recanalization in Diagnosis, Categorization, and Treatment of Fallopian Tube Obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, Erich K.; Dunaway, Herbert E.

    2000-11-15

    Purpose: The efficacy of selective salpingography (SS) and transcervical recanalization (TCR) in diagnosis, categorization, and determination of optimal treatment modality for fallopian tube obstruction was investigated.Methods: SS and, in some patients, TCR was performed in 430 patients with a diagnosis of obstruction of one or both fallopian tubes, as determined by hysterosalpingograms (HSG). All patients (age 21-46 years) had an infertility problem for at least 18 months.Results: In 196 patients, 325 tubes were patent on SS. TCR recanalized 243 tubes in 176 patients. Disease of the distal tube was demonstrated in 66 patients. There were 39 live babies in a group of 176 patients with successful TCR. Best live birth rate was in 7 of 12 (58%) patients with underlying endometriosis, followed by postsurgical strictures in inflammatory disease, 6 of 31 (19%), and salpingitis isthmica nodosa in 25 of 168 (15%). There were no pregnancies in patients with cobblestone pattern of the distal tubes.Conclusions: SS and TCR were capable of correcting obstruction of the proximal tubes in 243 of 465 tubes in 176 of 234 patients (75%). With patency of the proximal tube restored, the distal tube could be assessed for changes indicative of damage to the ciliated epithelium which was likely to reduce the ability to become pregnant. This allowed for the triage of patients into groups benefiting from the relatively inexpensive and low complication TCR or patients in need of in vitro fertilization or similar assisted reproductive technologies.

  14. Denileukin Diftitox Used in Treating Patients With Advanced Refractory Ovarian Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma, or Epithelial Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-02

    Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  15. A6 in Treating Patients With Persistent or Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-02-27

    Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  16. Changes in Brain Function in Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer Who Are Receiving Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-26

    Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Malignant Ovarian Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Dysgerminoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Polyembryoma; Ovarian Sarcoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Teratoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  17. Morphological study of extrauterine length of the fallopian tube at different age group in Bangladeshi people.

    PubMed

    Ara, Z G; Islam, M S; Sultana, S Z; Mannan, S; Zaman, U K; Rahman, M M; Sen, S

    2010-01-01

    This cross sectional descriptive study was done to see the length of the right & left fallopian tube in Bangladeshi female and to increase the knowledge regarding variational anatomy in our country. Sixty post mortem specimens containing uterus, uterine tube, ureter and surrounding structures were collected by non random or purposive sampling technique from cadavers of different age groups and fixed in 10% formol saline solution. This study was carried out in the department of Anatomy of Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh from July 2006 to June 2007. Gross and fine dissection was carried out to study the length of fallopian tube (right & left). In this study our findings were compared with those of the standard text books. Maximum length of fallopian tube was found in middle age group (B = 13 to 45 years). It is about 9.19 cm in right side and 8.82 cm in left side. It is also important to note that more kinking was observed in middle age group. PMID:20046169

  18. Fallopian Tube Torsion as a Cause of Acute Pelvic Pain in Adolescent Females

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Torsion of the fallopian tube, involving hydatids of Morgagni, though a rare cause of acute pelvic pain in young girls, can pose significant risks to future fertility. Tubal torsion may present as a diagnostic dilemma since the ovary itself usually appears normal on ultrasound. Thus, surgical intervention may be delayed which can lead to worsening necrosis and result in the need for resection of the affected tube. Methods. We reviewed two cases of fallopian tube torsion associated with hydatids of Morgagni in adolescent females. Results. The patients were premenarchal in both cases, aged 10 and 13 years. Both presented with acute clinical signs of ovarian torsion but ultrasound showed the ovary itself to be normal with an adjacent cystic structure. In both cases, the fallopian tube was detorsioned laparoscopically and preserved. The associated cyst was excised in one case and marsupialized in the other. Conclusions. We propose that prompt recognition and operative management of this relatively uncommon source of pelvic pain may prevent unnecessary tubal resection and improve long-term fertility in this population.

  19. Decidualised fallopian tube endometriotic implant causing spontaneous haemoperitoneum in a twin pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Ieera; Tan, Pamela; Mathur, Manisha

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous haemoperitoneum in pregnancy (SHiP) is a rare but serious condition associated with an adverse pregnancy outcome. We present a case of previable twin pregnancy presenting with SHiP secondary to endometriosis, necessitating an emergency laparotomy and hysterotomy as a life-saving measure to achieve haemostasis. At laparotomy there was massive haemoperitoneum with active bleeding from the left fallopian tube and a left salpingectomy was performed. Histological examination showed haemorrhagic foci of endometriosis on the fallopian tube exhibiting florid stromal decidual change. We wish to raise awareness of this uncommon but potentially life-threatening condition requiring early recognition and prompt recourse to surgical intervention to minimise the morbidity and mortality. PMID:25035449

  20. Inguinal Hernia Containing Uterus, Fallopian Tube, and Ovary in a Premature Newborn

    PubMed Central

    Karadeniz Cerit, Kıvılcım; Ergelen, Rabia; Colak, Emel; Dagli, Tolga E.

    2015-01-01

    A female infant weighing 2,200 g was delivered at 34 weeks of gestation by vaginal delivery. She presented with an irreducible mass in the left inguinal region at 32 days of age. An ultrasonography (US) was performed and an incarcerated hernia containing uterus, fallopian tube, and ovary was diagnosed preoperatively. Surgery was performed through an inguinal approach; the uterus, fallopian tube, and ovary were found in the hernia sac. High ligation and an additional repair of the internal inguinal ring were performed. Patent processus vaginalis was found during contralateral exploration and also closed. The postoperative course was uneventful. After one year of follow-up, there have been no signs of recurrence. PMID:26351609

  1. Fiber optic laser light scattering measurement of ciliary function of the fallopian tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halbert, Sheridan A.; Lim, Kap; Lee, Wylie I.

    1990-07-01

    A fiber-optic laser light-scattering system (FLS) for measuring ciliary function was evaluated by means of three sets of in vitro experiments. First, FLS performance was compared to that of a previously proven benchtop laser system (BLS). Using tissue excised from rabbit fallopian tubes, ciliary beat frequency (CBF) of each sample was measured with FLS and BLS. Paired CBF measurements showed excellent correlation between the two systems (r =0.93). Second, the FLS was used to evaluate the dependency of CBF on temperature (T) by using tissue sampies of rabbit oviductal fimbna. Regression analysis of CBF vs T showed a linear relationship over the range of 18-37°C for both individual samples (r =0.98) and pooled data from all experiments (r = 0.84). Fmally, the relalionship between CBF and ciliary ovum transport rate (TR) was tested by using T to modulate CBF of rabbit fimbria, in vitro. The relationship was linear over the range of CBF from 10 to 30 Hz (r2 = 0.83). At 37°C, CBF = 31+/-1 Hz, and TR = O.12+/-.02 mm/sec. equal to ovum transport rate in situ. The FLS is a valuable tool for characterizing ciliary activity and thus ovum transport function. Owing to the fact that ciliary dyskinesia resulting from disease of the fallopian tube is associated with infeitility, the FLS may be useful to acquire data important to the clinical evaluation of fallopian tube function and female infertility.

  2. Criteria for pathology recognition in optical coherence tomography of fallopian tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillin, Mikhail; Panteleeva, Olga; Yunusova, Ekaterina; Donchenko, Ekaterina; Shakhova, Natalia

    2012-08-01

    An increase of infertility and chronic pelvic pains syndrome, a growing level of latent diseases of this group, as well as a stably high percentage (up to 25% for infertility and up to 60% for the chronic pelvic pains syndrome) of undetermined origin raises the requirement for novel introscopic diagnostic techniques. We demonstrate abilities of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a complementary technique to laparoscopy in diagnostics of fallopian tubes pathologies. We have acquired OCT images of different parts of fallopian tubes in norm and with morphologically proven pathology. Based on comparative analysis of the OCT data and the results of histological studies, we have worked out the subjective OCT criteria for distinguishing between unaltered and pathologic tissues. The developed criteria are verified in blind recognition tests. Diagnostic efficacy of OCT diagnostics in the case ofpelvic inflammatory diseases has been statistically evaluated, and high diagnostic accuracy (88%) is shown. Basing of the subjective criteria, an attempt to develop independent criteria aimed for automated recognition of pathological states in fallopian tubes is undertaken. Enhanced diagnostic accuracy (96%) of the developed independent criteria is demonstrated.

  3. Epigenetic reprogramming of fallopian tube fimbriae in BRCA mutation carriers defines early ovarian cancer evolution

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Thomas E.; Chindera, Kantaraja; McDermott, Jacqueline; Breeze, Charles E.; Cooke, William R.; Jones, Allison; Reisel, Daniel; Karegodar, Smita T.; Arora, Rupali; Beck, Stephan; Menon, Usha; Dubeau, Louis; Widschwendter, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The exact timing and contribution of epigenetic reprogramming to carcinogenesis are unclear. Women harbouring BRCA1/2 mutations demonstrate a 30–40-fold increased risk of high-grade serous extra-uterine Müllerian cancers (HGSEMC), otherwise referred to as ‘ovarian carcinomas', which frequently develop from fimbrial cells but not from the proximal portion of the fallopian tube. Here we compare the DNA methylome of the fimbrial and proximal ends of the fallopian tube in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and non-carriers. We show that the number of CpGs displaying significant differences in methylation levels between fimbrial and proximal fallopian tube segments are threefold higher in BRCA mutation carriers than in controls, correlating with overexpression of activation-induced deaminase in their fimbrial epithelium. The differentially methylated CpGs accurately discriminate HGSEMCs from non-serous subtypes. Epigenetic reprogramming is an early pre-malignant event integral to BRCA1/2 mutation-driven carcinogenesis. Our findings may provide a basis for cancer-preventative strategies. PMID:27216078

  4. Multispectral fluorescence imaging of human ovarian and Fallopian tube tissue for early stage cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Tyler; Baggett, Brenda; Rice, Photini; Watson, Jennifer; Orsinger, Gabe; Nymeyer, Ariel C.; Welge, Weston A.; Keenan, Molly; Saboda, Kathylynn; Roe, Denise J.; Hatch, Kenneth; Chambers, Setsuko; Black, John; Utzinger, Urs; Barton, Jennifer

    2015-03-01

    With early detection, five year survival rates for ovarian cancer are over 90%, yet no effective early screening method exists. Emerging consensus suggests that perhaps over 50% of the most lethal form of the disease, high grade serous ovarian cancer, originates in the Fallopian tube. Cancer changes molecular concentrations of various endogenous fluorophores. Using specific excitation wavelengths and emissions bands on a Multispectral Fluorescence Imaging (MFI) system, spatial and spectral data over a wide field of view can be collected from endogenous fluorophores. Wavelength specific reflectance images provide additional information to normalize for tissue geometry and blood absorption. Ratiometric combination of the images may create high contrast between neighboring normal and abnormal tissue. Twenty-six women undergoing oophorectomy or debulking surgery consented the use of surgical discard tissue samples for MFI imaging. Forty-nine pieces of ovarian tissue and thirty-two pieces of Fallopian tube tissue were collected and imaged with excitation wavelengths between 280 nm and 550 nm. After imaging, each tissue sample was fixed, sectioned and HE stained for pathological evaluation. Comparison of mean intensity values between normal, benign, and cancerous tissue demonstrate a general trend of increased fluorescence of benign tissue and decreased fluorescence of cancerous tissue when compared to normal tissue. The predictive capabilities of the mean intensity measurements are tested using multinomial logistic regression and quadratic discriminant analysis. Adaption of the system for in vivo Fallopian tube and ovary endoscopic imaging is possible and is briefly described.

  5. Multispectral fluorescence imaging of human ovarian and fallopian tube tissue for early-stage cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Tyler H.; Baggett, Brenda; Rice, Photini F. S.; Koevary, Jennifer Watson; Orsinger, Gabriel V.; Nymeyer, Ariel C.; Welge, Weston A.; Saboda, Kathylynn; Roe, Denise J.; Hatch, Kenneth D.; Chambers, Setsuko K.; Utzinger, Urs; Barton, Jennifer Kehlet

    2016-05-01

    With early detection, 5-year survival rates for ovarian cancer exceed 90%, yet no effective early screening method exists. Emerging consensus suggests over 50% of the most lethal form of the disease originates in the fallopian tube. Twenty-eight women undergoing oophorectomy or debulking surgery provided informed consent for the use of surgical discard tissue samples for multispectral fluorescence imaging. Using multiple ultraviolet and visible excitation wavelengths and emissions bands, 12 fluorescence and 6 reflectance images of 47 ovarian and 31 fallopian tube tissue samples were recorded. After imaging, each sample was fixed, sectioned, and stained for pathological evaluation. Univariate logistic regression showed cancerous tissue samples had significantly lower intensity than noncancerous tissue for 17 image types. The predictive power of multiple image types was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression (MLR) and quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA). Two MLR models each using two image types had receiver operating characteristic curves with area under the curve exceeding 0.9. QDA determined 56 image type combinations with perfect resubstituting using as few as five image types. Adaption of the system for future in vivo fallopian tube and ovary endoscopic imaging is possible, which may enable sensitive detection of ovarian cancer with no exogenous contrast agents.

  6. Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, Carboplatin, Veliparib, and Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-26

    Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  7. Salpingitis Isthmica Nodosa: Technical Success and Outcome of Fluoroscopic Transcervical Fallopian Tube Recanalization

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, J. Graeme; Machan, Lindsay S.

    1998-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the technical success and outcome of fallopian tube recanalization (FTR) in salpingitis isthmica nodosa (SIN). Methods: SIN is a well-recognized pathological condition affecting the proximal fallopian tube and is associated with infertility and ectopic pregnancy. We reviewed the presentations, films, and case records of all patients attending for FTR for infertility from 1990 to 1994. Technical success and total, intrauterine, and ectopic pregnancy rates at follow-up were determined. Results: SIN was observed in 22 of 349 (6%) patients. FTR was attempted in 34 tubes in these 22 patients. Technical success was achieved in 23 of 34 (68%) tubes affected by SIN. In 5 of the 11 failed recanalizations, failure was due to distal obstruction. At least one tube was patent on selective postprocedural salpingography in 17 of 22 (77%) patients. There were no recorded perforations or complications. At follow-up (mean 14 months), total, intrauterine, and ectopic pregnancy rates were 23%, 18%, and 4.5%, respectively. Conclusion: FTR in SIN is technically successful and, compared with previously reported results in unselected infertility patients, is associated with only a slightly less favorable intrauterine pregnancy rate and a comparable ectopic pregnancy rate. The findings of SIN at FTR should not discourage attempted fluoroscopic transcervical recanalization.

  8. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor in the Ovarian Follicle Attracts the Stromal Cells of the Fallopian Tube Fimbriae

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chiu-Hua; Hsu, Che-Fang; Huang, Rui-Len; Ding, Dah-Ching; Chu, Tang-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    During human ovulation, the fallopian tube fimbriae must move to the ovulation site to catch the oocyte. As the tissue-of-origin of the majority of ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC), the fallopian tube fimbriae carrying a precursor cancer lesion may also approach the ovulatory site for metastasis. We hypothesize that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in mature follicle fluid (FF) attracts the migration of PDGFR-expressing fimbriae toward the ovulating follicle. We observed that more PDGFR-β was expressed in the distal part than in the proximal parts of the fallopian tube, particularly in stromal cells in the lamina propria. The stromal cells, but not the epithelial cells, from normal fimbriae and fallopian tube HGSC were highly chemotactic to mature FF. The chemotactic activities were positively correlated with PDGF-BB and estradiol levels in FF and were abolished by a blocking antibody of PDGFR-β and by tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib. When PDGF-BB/AB was depleted from the FF, more than 80% of chemotaxis activities were diminished. This study suggests an ovarian follicle-directed and PDGF-dependent attraction of fallopian tube fimbriae before ovulation. The same mechanism may also be crucial for the ovarian homing of HGSC, which largely originates in the fimbriae. PMID:27379403

  9. Mutant p53 expression in fallopian tube epithelium drives cell migration.

    PubMed

    Quartuccio, Suzanne M; Karthikeyan, Subbulakshmi; Eddie, Sharon L; Lantvit, Daniel D; Ó hAinmhire, Eoghainín; Modi, Dimple A; Wei, Jian-Jun; Burdette, Joanna E

    2015-10-01

    Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer death among US women. Evidence supports the hypothesis that high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSC) may originate in the distal end of the fallopian tube. Although a heterogeneous disease, 96% of HGSC contain mutations in p53. In addition, the "p53 signature," or overexpression of p53 protein (usually associated with mutation), is a potential precursor lesion of fallopian tube derived HGSC suggesting an essential role for p53 mutation in early serous tumorigenesis. To further clarify p53-mutation dependent effects on cells, murine oviductal epithelial cells (MOE) were stably transfected with a construct encoding for the R273H DNA binding domain mutation in p53, the most common mutation in HGSC. Mutation in p53 was not sufficient to transform MOE cells but did significantly increase cell migration. A similar p53 mutation in murine ovarian surface epithelium (MOSE), another potential progenitor cell for serous cancer, was not sufficient to transform the cells nor change migration suggesting tissue specific effects of p53 mutation. Microarray data confirmed expression changes of pro-migratory genes in p53(R273H) MOE compared to parental cells, which could be reversed by suppressing Slug expression. Combining p53(R273H) with KRAS(G12V) activation caused transformation of MOE into high-grade sarcomatoid carcinoma when xenografted into nude mice. Elucidating the specific role of p53(R273H) in the fallopian tube will improve understanding of changes at the earliest stage of transformation. This information can help develop chemopreventative strategies to prevent the accumulation of additional mutations and reverse progression of the "p53 signature" thereby, improving survival rates.

  10. Mutant p53 expression in fallopian tube epithelium drives cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Quartuccio, Suzanne M.; Karthikeyan, Subbulakshmi; Eddie, Sharon L.; Lantvit, Daniel D.; Ó hAinmhire, Eoghainín; Modi, Dimple A.; Wei, Jian-Jun; Burdette, Joanna E.

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer death among US women. Evidence supports the hypothesis that high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSC) may originate in the distal end of the fallopian tube. Although a heterogeneous disease, 96% of HGSC contain mutations in p53. In addition, the “p53 signature”, or overexpression of p53 protein (usually associated with mutation), is a potential precursor lesion of fallopian tube derived HGSC suggesting an essential role for p53 mutation in early serous tumorigenesis. To further clarify p53-mutation dependent effects on cells, murine oviductal epithelial cells (MOE) were stably transfected with a construct encoding for the R273H DNA binding domain mutation in p53, the most common mutation in HGSC. Mutation in p53 was not sufficient to transform MOE cells, but did significantly increase cell migration. A similar p53 mutation in murine ovarian surface epithelium (MOSE), another potential progenitor cell for serous cancer, was not sufficient to transform the cells nor change migration suggesting tissue specific effects of p53 mutation. Microarray data confirmed expression changes of pro-migratory genes in p53R273H MOE compared to parental cells, which could be reversed by suppressing Slug expression. Combining p53R273H with KRASG12V activation caused transformation of MOE into high-grade sarcomatoid carcinoma when xenografted into nude mice. Elucidating the specific role of p53R273H in the fallopian tube will improve understanding of changes at the earliest stage of transformation and could help develop chemopreventative strategies to prevent the accumulation of additional mutations and reverse progression of the “p53 signature” thereby, improving survival rates. PMID:25810107

  11. Fallopian tube secretory cell expansion: a sensitive biomarker for ovarian serous carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yiying; Li, Li; Wang, Yue; Tang, Sarah Ngocvi; Zheng, Wenxin

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances suggest that precancerous lesions of pelvic serous carcinoma originate from tubal secretory cells. The purpose of our study was to determine if an increased number of secretory cells vary with age or location in the fallopian tube and to examine its association with serous neoplasia. Three groups (benign control, high-risk, and pelvic serous carcinoma) of age-matched patients were studied. The age data were stratified into 10-year intervals ranging from 20-29 to older than 80. The number of secretory and ciliated cells from both tubal fimbria and ampulla segments was counted by microscopy and immunohistochemical staining methods. The data were analyzed by standard contingency table and Poisson distribution methods after age justification. We found that the absolute number of tubal secretory cells increased significantly with age in all three groups. But a more dramatic increase of secretory cells was observed in high-risk and pelvic serous carcinoma patients. Secretory cell expansion is more prevalent than secretory cell outgrowth in both fimbria and ampulla tubal segments and is significantly associated with serous neoplasia (p < 0.001). Furthermore, age remained a significant risk factor for serous neoplasia after age adjustment. These findings suggest that secretory cell expansion could serve as a potential sensitive biomarker for early serous carcinogenesis within the fallopian tube. The study also supports a relationship between serous neoplasia and increased secretory to ciliated cell ratios, and the relationship between frequency of secretory cell expansion within the fallopian tube and increasing age and-more significantly-presence of high-risk factors or co-existing serous cancers. PMID:27069556

  12. In vitro and in vivo correlates of physiological and neoplastic human Fallopian tube stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yusuke; Ning, Gang; Howitt, Brooke E; Mehra, Karishma; Wu, Lingyan; Wang, Xia; Hong, Yue; Kern, Florian; Wei, Tay Seok; Zhang, Ting; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Basuli, Debargha; Torti, Suzy; Brewer, Molly; Choolani, Mahesh; McKeon, Frank; Crum, Christopher P; Xian, Wa

    2016-03-01

    High-grade serous cancer (HGSC) progresses to advanced stages without symptoms and the 5-year survival rate is a dismal 30%. Recent studies of ovaries and Fallopian tubes in patients with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations have documented a pre-metastatic intramucosal neoplasm that is found almost exclusively in the Fallopian tube, termed 'serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma' or STIC. Moreover, other proliferations, termed p53 signatures, secretory cell outgrowths (SCOUTs), and lower-grade serous tubal intraepithelial neoplasms (STINs) fall short of STIC but share similar alterations in expression, in keeping with an underpinning of genomic disturbances involved in, or occurring in parallel with, serous carcinogenesis. To gain insight into the cellular origins of this unique tubal pathway to high-grade serous cancer, we cloned and both immortalized and transformed Fallopian tube stem cells (FTSCs). We demonstrated that pedigrees of FTSCs were capable of multipotent differentiation and that the tumours derived from transformed FTSCs shared the histological and molecular features of HGSC. We also demonstrated that altered expression of some biomarkers seen in transformed FTSCs and HGSCs (stathmin, EZH2, CXCR4, CXCL12, and FOXM1) could be seen as well in immortalized cells and their in vivo counterparts SCOUTs and STINs. Thus, a whole-genome transcriptome analysis comparing FTSCs, immortalized FTSCs, and transformed FTSCs showed a clear molecular progression sequence that is recapitulated by the spectrum of accumulated perturbations characterizing the range of proliferations seen in vivo. Biomarkers unique to STIC relative to normal tubal epithelium provide a basis for novel detection approaches to early HGSC, but must be viewed critically given their potential expression in lesser proliferations. Perturbations shared by both immortalized and transformed FTSCs may provide unique early targets for prevention strategies. Central to these efforts has been the ability to clone

  13. Evaluation of immunological interaction between spermatozoa and fallopian tube epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zandieh, Z; Ashrafi, M; Jameie, B; Amanpour, S; Mosaffa, N; Salman Yazdi, R; Pacey, A; Aflatoonian, R

    2015-12-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are one of the major compartments of innate immune system. It was revealed that the TLR have relevance in ovulation, sperm capacitation and fertilisation. So, in this study, the expression of TLR, their adaptor molecules and cytokines in human fallopian tube cell line under the effect of human normal spermatozoa was evaluated. TLR mRNA and protein were evaluated in OE-E6/E7 cell line. Semen samples from 10 donors were collected and co-incubated with OE-E6/E7 cell line and used as sperm group, and cell line without spermatozoa was used as control group. Afterwards, the level of TLR, their adaptor molecule and cytokine mRNA expression was compared using qPCR in sperm and control groups, and supernatant was used for ELISA. To determine whether elevated cytokine reaction to spermatozoa in OE-E6/E7 cell line is mediated via TLR, TLR3 function-blocking antibody was used. OE-E6/E7 cell line expressed TLR1-6 genes and proteins. TLR expressions, especially TLR3 and TLR5, in OE-E6/E7 cell line under the effect of spermatozoa were significantly higher. Also, levels of adaptor molecules and cytokine production were increased in sperm group than in control group (P < 0.05). So, it may be hypothesised that TLR are essential for spermatozoa and fallopian tube immunological interaction and for preparing safe environment for important events in fallopian tube.

  14. Talazoparib and HSP90 Inhibitor AT13387 in Treating Patients With Metastatic Advanced Solid Tumor or Recurrent Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, Primary Peritoneal, or Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-22

    Adult Solid Neoplasm; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Fallopian Tube Serous Neoplasm; HER2/Neu Negative; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Tumor; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  15. Indirect Inguinal Hernia Containing a Fallopian Tube and Ovary in a Reproductive Aged Woman

    PubMed Central

    Graul, Ashley; Ko, Emily

    2014-01-01

    An indirect inguinal hernia containing an incarcerated fallopian tube and ovary is extremely rare in adult females. The current report describes a woman of reproductive years presenting with an irreducible indirect hernia which required the surgical intervention of a general surgeon as well as counseling regarding future fertility by a gynecologist. The diagnosis was made by physical and sonographic examination and was confirmed by CT scan and surgical intervention. We suggest a multimodel and multidisciplinary approach in order to safely and efficiently preserve ovarian and fertility function in young women who present with an inguinal hernia containing reproductive organs. PMID:25028618

  16. On the reanastomosis of fallopian tubes after surgical sterilization.

    PubMed

    Jones, H W; Rock, J A

    1978-06-01

    A macrosurgical technique for tubal reanastomosis is described in detail. It has been used successfully on 12 patients in the last year, 10 of whom have already become pregnant. The technique is suitable for different methods of sterilization, sites of anastomosis, and lengths of segments. The procedures are characterized as isthmic-isthmic, isthmic-ampullary, and ampullary-ampullary. 2 patients had isthmic-isthmic operations; both had had Pomeroy sterilizations. Both became pregnant and delivered at term. 7 patients had isthmic-ampullary operations; 2 had had Pomeroy sterilization and 5 had had laparoscopic diathermy. 5 have normal pregnancies at the time of report; the 2 nonpregnant women have at least 1 patent tube. 3 patients had ampullary-ampullary operations; all had had Pomeroy sterilizations involving only the ampulla. All have become pregnant but 1 had a tubal pregnancy distal to the site of the anastomosis, which was somewhat constricted while the other tube was patent. Intervals from operation to pregnancy were 6 and 9 months for isthmic-isthmic; 2, 3, 7, 9, and 10 months for isthmic-ampullary; and 2, 3, and 7 months for ampullary-ampullary. The procedure should be carried out in the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle.

  17. Design of an everting balloon to deploy a microendoscope to the fallopian tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keenan, Molly; Howard, Caitlin; Tate, Tyler; McGuiness, Ian; Sauer-Budge, Alexis; Black, John; Utzinger, Urs; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2016-02-01

    The 5-year survival rate for ovarian cancer is only 45% largely due to lack of effective screening methods. Current methods include palpation, transvaginal ultrasound, and the CA-125 blood test. Finding disease reliably and at an early stage increase survival to 92%. We have designed and built a 0.7 mm endoscope for the early detection of ovarian cancer. Inserted transvaginally through the working channel of a hysteroscope, the falloposcope creates a minimally invasive procedure for the screening of high risk women. To improve the ease-of-use and safety of falloposcope deployment, we are working to create an everting balloon. Currently, the falloposcope would require a skilled user to operate due to the challenging anatomy of the fallopian tubes - a small opening from the uterus (< 1 mm), tortuous path, and delicate lumenal features. A balloon delivery system would gently open the fallopian tube and guide the falloposcope down the center of lumen. We show balloon design and discuss integration with the falloposcope prototype. We test possible mechanical damage to the tissue due to scraping, puncture, or overstretching. Successful introduction of the everting balloon to simplify falloposcope delivery could expand screening beyond specialized centers to smaller clinical locations.

  18. A possible association between sports and isolated fallopian tube torsion in children and adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Romano, Mercedes; Di Giuseppe, Jacopo; Serri, Matteo; Noviello, Carmine; Martino, Ascanio; Cobellis, Giovanni; Ciavattini, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Isolated fallopian tube torsion (IFTT) is a rare occurrence characterized by the rotation of the fallopian tube on its own axis, without twisting the ipsilateral ovary. Pre-operative diagnosis is difficult due to the lack of specific clinical symptoms and radiological signs. The etiology is to date unknown and only some pre-disposing factors have been reported. The history, clinical presentation, laboratory findings and surgical treatment of five patients aged 12-16 with IFTT were evaluated. All patients came to be examined for worsening abdominal pain, nausea or vomiting. 75% of them practiced sports involving sudden changes in body position. They all underwent blood tests, ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance and then laparoscopy for the persistence of acute symptoms. Laparoscopic salpingectomy was performed in three patients. Another two needed a conversion to open salpingectomy due to the presence of pelvic adhesions. During the follow-up period, every girl was fine. The cause of IFTT is undetermined. In this series, a close association between IFTT and sports causing rapid body movements was found. The possibility of IFTT should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain in children or adolescent females, especially if they practice sports.

  19. Ovarian Cancer: The Fallopian Tube as the Site of Origin and Opportunities for Prevention

    PubMed Central

    George, Sophia H. L.; Garcia, Ruslan; Slomovitz, Brian M.

    2016-01-01

    High-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is the most common and aggressive histotype of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), and it is the predominant histotype associated with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC). Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are responsible for most of the known causes of HBOC, while mutations in mismatch repair genes and several genes of moderate penetrance are responsible for the remaining known hereditary risk. Women with a history of familial ovarian cancer or with known germline mutations in highly penetrant genes are offered the option of risk-reducing surgery that involves the removal of the ovaries and fallopian tubes (salpingo-oophorectomy). Growing evidence now supports the fallopian tube epithelia as an etiological site for the development of HGSC and consequently, salpingectomy alone is emerging as a prophylactic option. This review discusses the site of origin of EOC, the rationale for risk-reducing salpingectomy in the high-risk population, and opportunities for salpingectomy in the low-risk population. PMID:27200296

  20. Primary fallopian tube carcinoma associated with ovulation induction; a case report.

    PubMed

    Deliveliotou, A; Hassiakos, D; Fotiou, S; Karvouni, E; Creatsas, G

    2008-01-01

    The potential relationship between ovulation induction and gynecological cancer has been raised recently. Primary fallopian tube carcinoma (PFTC) is an uncommon malignancy, not previously associated with fertility drugs use. We describe a case of a 38-year-old woman with primary infertility and a history of three ovulation inductions with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and gonadotrophins, referred for treatment of bilateral ovarian cysts, which were discovered in the beginning of the last cycle. During laparotomy, bilateral adnexal masses were identified, presumed to be of ovarian origin, and total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, infracolic omentectomy, and retroperitoneal lymph nodes sampling were performed. Histologic examination showed a primary right fallopian tube endometrioid adenocarcinoma and bilateral adnexal endometriosis. Surgery was followed by six cycles of combination chemotherapy using paclitaxel and carboplatin without significant complications. Although evidence of a direct causal link between ovarian stimulation and PFTC does not yet exist, this case highlights the importance for careful evaluation of all discovered adnexal masses in women undergoing ovulation induction treatment.

  1. Removal of Ovaries and Fallopian Tubes Cuts Cancer Risk for BRCA1/2 Carriers | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Surgery that removes the ovaries and fallopian tubes, called salpingo-oophorectomy, is one of the most effective ways to decrease a woman's risk of breast and gynecologic cancer if she carries aBRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation. However, the true degree of risk reduction has not been precisely defined. |

  2. Fallopian tube carcinoma in a patient with a pelvic kidney: surgical management with the da Vinci robot.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Mitchel S

    2012-06-01

    A patient with a known pelvic kidney and early fallopian tube carcinoma was managed with robotically assisted surgery. Associated conginital anomalies were noted and described. The final stage of the cancer was 1C, grade 3 and she is without evidence of recurrent cancer 2 years following completion of chemotherapy. PMID:27628284

  3. Efficacy of Yavakshara Taila Uttarabasti in the management of fallopian tube blockage

    PubMed Central

    Baria, Hetal P.; Donga, Shilpa B.; Dei, Laxmipriya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Tubal blockage is one of the most common causative factors for female barrenness. It accounts for about 25-35% of female infertility. It is very difficult to manage, as the treatment choices for it are only tubal re-constructive surgery and in vitro fertilization (IVF). On the other hand, there is not established any reliable Ayurvedic treatment for the tubal blockage. It is the need of the time to establish an efficient and cost-effective therapy for this problem. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of Yavakshara Taila Uttarabasti in fallopian tubal blockage. Materials and Methods: Patients of childbearing age with active marital life of 1 year or more, having complaint of failure to conceive with at least one fallopian tube blockage were selected. Total 19 patients were registered with 42.11% unilateral and 57.89% bilateral tubal blockage. Yavakshara Taila (5 ml) Intrauterine Uttarabasti was given for 6 days (with interval of 3 days in between), after completion of menstrual cycle for two consecutive cycles. Results: The tubal patency was found in 68.75% of patients and conception was achieved in 6.25% of patients. Conclusion: Yavakshara Taila Uttarabasti an effective procedure for treating tubal blockage with no apparent evidence of complication. PMID:26730135

  4. Fluoroscopically Guided Transcervical Fallopian Tube Recanalization of Post-Sterilization Reversal Mid-Tubal Obstructions

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, J. Graeme; Anderson, David; Mills, John; Harrold, Anthony

    2000-03-15

    Purpose: To assess the technical success and early outcome of fluoroscopically guided transcervical fallopian tube recanalization (FTR) in mid-tubal occlusion following sterilization reversal surgery.Methods: From July 1995 to January 1998, patients with greater than 12 months secondary infertility underwent hysterosalpingography (HSG). FTR was performed in proximal or mid-tubal occlusion. Cases of FTR in mid-tubal occlusion were included in this study. Technical success (defined as complete tubal patency) using a standard guidewire and hydrophilic glidewire, the number of patients with at least one patent tube, and the intrauterine and ectopic pregnancy rates were determined.Results: Twenty-six infertile patients with previous sterilization reversal underwent HSG. Eight of 26 (31%) patients (mean age 32 years, range 23-37 years), had attempted FTR for mid-tubal occlusion at the site of surgical anastomosis. Fourteen tubes were attempted as there were two previous salpingectomies. Technical success was achieved in eight of 14 (57%) tubes attempted, resulting in five of eight (62%) patients having at least one patent tube. At follow-up (mean 18 months, range 12-28 months) in these five patients there was one intrauterine pregnancy. There were no ectopic pregnancies.Conclusions: FTR in mid-tubal obstruction in infertile patients following sterilization reversal surgery is technically feasible and may result in intrauterine pregnancy. In this small group there was a lower technical success rate and lower pregnancy rate than in unselected proximal tubal occlusion.

  5. Utility of peritoneal washing cytology in staging and prognosis of ovarian and fallopian tube neoplasms: a 10-year retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Whitney; Madan, Rashna; O'Neil, Maura; Tawfik, Ossama W; Fan, Fang

    2016-06-01

    The prognostic significance of peritoneal washing cytology in gynecologic neoplasms is controversial. The presence of neoplastic cells in peritoneal washings is currently part of the Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics and American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM staging systems in cases of ovarian and fallopian tube neoplasms without metastasis beyond the pelvis. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed all cases of ovarian and fallopian tube neoplasms in which cytologic studies were performed. The utility of cytology in tumor staging and the relationship between cytology results and patient outcome are studied. All cases of ovarian and fallopian tube neoplasms in our institution between July 2002 and July 2012 were reviewed. Primary tumor characteristics including type and pelvic extension were collected, categorized, and correlated with peritoneal washing cytology. Final tumor staging was reviewed and the impact of positive cytology was evaluated. A total of 120 cases of ovarian and fallopian tube neoplasms without extrapelvic metastasis were identified within the study period. Peritoneal washing cytology was positive in 24% (29/120) of neoplasms and upstaged the tumor 83% (24/29) of the time when positive. Overall, 20% (24/120) of reviewed cases were upstaged based on positive cytology results. Peritoneal washing cytology remains a useful staging tool for ovarian and fallopian tube neoplasms limited to the pelvic cavity. Positive cytology results in upstaging in a significant proportion of the cases regardless of the tumor type. A larger study is needed to analyze follow-up data to determine if upstaging based on positive cytology adversely affects outcome. PMID:27180061

  6. Human fallopian tube proteome shows high coverage of mesenchymal stem cells associated proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenyuan; Liu, Yang; Chang, Cheng; Wu, Songfeng; Gao, Jie; Zhang, Yang; Chen, Yingjie; Zhong, Fan; Deng, Gaopi

    2016-01-01

    The object of this research was to report a draft proteome of human fallopian tube (hFT) comprises 5416 identified proteins, which could be considered as a physiological reference to complement Human Proteome Draft. The proteomic raw data and metadata were stored in an integrated proteome resources centre iProX (IPX00034300). This hFT proteome contains many hFT markers newly identified by mass spectrum. This hFT proteome comprises 660 high-, 3605 medium- and 1181 low-abundant proteins. Ribosome, cytoskeleton, vesicle and protein folding associated proteins showed obvious tendency to be higher abundance in hFT. The extraordinary high coverage of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-associated proteins were identified in this hFT proteome, which highly supported that hFT should contain a plenty of MSCs. PMID:26759384

  7. Human fallopian tube mesenchymal stromal cells enhance bone regeneration in a xenotransplanted model.

    PubMed

    Jazedje, Tatiana; Bueno, Daniela F; Almada, Bruno V P; Caetano, Heloisa; Czeresnia, Carlos E; Perin, Paulo M; Halpern, Silvio; Maluf, Mariangela; Evangelista, Lucila P; Nisenbaum, Marcelo G; Martins, Marília T; Passos-Bueno, Maria R; Zatz, Mayana

    2012-06-01

    We have recently reported that human fallopian tubes, which are discarded during surgical procedures of women submitted to sterilization or hysterectomies, are a rich source of human fallopian tube mesenchymal stromal cells (htMSCs). It has been previously shown that human mesenchymal stromal cells may be useful in enhancing the speed of bone regeneration. This prompted us to investigate whether htMSCs might be useful for the treatment of osteoporosis or other bone diseases, since they present a pronounced capacity for osteogenic differentiation in vitro. Based on this prior knowledge, our aim was to evaluate, in vivo, the osteogenic capacity of htMSCs to regenerate bone through an already described xenotransplantation model: nonimmunosuppressed (NIS) rats with cranial defects. htMSCs were obtained from five 30-50 years old healthy women and characterized by flow cytometry and for their multipotenciality in vitro capacity (osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic differentiations). Two symmetric full-thickness cranial defects on each parietal region of seven NIS rats were performed. The left side (LS) of six animals was covered with CellCeram (Scaffdex)-a bioabsorbable ceramic composite scaffold that contains 60% hydroxyapatite and 40% β-tricalciumphosphate-only, and the right side (RS) with the CellCeram and htMSCs (10(6) cells/scaffold). The animals were euthanized at 30, 60 and 90 days postoperatively and cranial tissue samples were taken for histological analysis. After 90 days we observed neobone formation in both sides. However, in animals euthanized 30 and 60 days after the procedure, a mature bone was observed only on the side with htMSCs. PCR and immunofluorescence analysis confirmed the presence of human DNA and thus that human cells were not rejected, which further supports the imunomodulatory property of htMSCs. In conclusion, htMSCs can be used successfully to enhance bone regeneration in vivo, opening a new field for future treatments of osteoporosis

  8. Molecular Requirements for Transformation of Fallopian Tube Epithelial Cells into Serous Carcinoma12

    PubMed Central

    Jazaeri, Amir A; Bryant, Jennifer L; Park, Hong; Li, Hui; Dahiya, Neetu; Stoler, Mark H; Ferriss, James Stuart; Dutta, Anindya

    2011-01-01

    Although controversial, recent studies suggest that serous ovarian carcinomas may arise from fallopian tube fimbria rather than ovarian surface epithelium. We developed an in vitro model for serous carcinogenesis in which primary human fallopian tube epithelial cells (FTECs) were exposed to potentially oncogenic molecular alterations delivered by retroviral vectors. To more closely mirror in vivo conditions, transformation of FTECs was driven by the positive selection of growth-promoting alterations rather antibiotic selection. Injection of the transformed FTEC lines in SCID mice resulted in xenografts with histologic and immunohistochemical features indistinguishable from poorly differentiated serous carcinomas. Transcriptional profiling revealed high similarity among the transformed and control FTEC lines and patient-derived serous ovarian carcinoma cells and was used to define a malignancy-related transcriptional signature. Oncogene-treated FTEC lines were serially analyzed using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot analysis to identify oncogenes whose expression was subject to positive selection. The combination of p53 and Rb inactivation (mediated by SV40 T antigen), hTERT expression, and oncogenic C-MYC and HRAS accumulation showed positive selection during transformation. Knockdown of each of these selected components resulted in significant growth inhibition of the transformed cell lines that correlated with p27 accumulation. The combination of SV40 T antigen and hTERT expression resulted in immortalized cells that were nontumorigenic in mice, whereas forced expression of a dominant-negative p53 isoform (p53DD) and hTERT resulted in senescence. Thus, our investigation supports the tubal origin of serous carcinoma and provides a dynamic model for studying early molecular alterations in serous carcinogenesis. PMID:22028616

  9. Veliparib and Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer or Metastatic Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-04

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Male Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  10. Belinostat and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer That Did Not Respond to Carboplatin or Cisplatin

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-06-18

    Brenner Tumor; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  11. Elesclomol Sodium and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-23

    Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  12. TLR8 Agonist VTX-2337 and Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin Hydrochloride or Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-23

    Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  13. Acetyl-L-Carnitine Hydrochloride in Preventing Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients With Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-29

    Fatigue; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Neuropathy; Neurotoxicity Syndrome; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Pain; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma

  14. Carboplatin, Gemcitabine Hydrochloride, and Mifepristone in Treating Patients With Advanced Breast Cancer or Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-28

    Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  15. Cediranib Maleate and Olaparib in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Peritoneal Cancer or Recurrent Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-27

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Surface Papillary Adenocarcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  16. Gemcitabine Hydrochloride With or Without WEE1 Inhibitor MK-1775 in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-10

    Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Surface Papillary Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  17. Premalignant SOX2 overexpression in the fallopian tubes of ovarian cancer patients: Discovery and validation studies.

    PubMed

    Hellner, Karin; Miranda, Fabrizio; Fotso Chedom, Donatien; Herrero-Gonzalez, Sandra; Hayden, Daniel M; Tearle, Rick; Artibani, Mara; KaramiNejadRanjbar, Mohammad; Williams, Ruth; Gaitskell, Kezia; Elorbany, Samar; Xu, Ruoyan; Laios, Alex; Buiga, Petronela; Ahmed, Karim; Dhar, Sunanda; Zhang, Rebecca Yu; Campo, Leticia; Myers, Kevin A; Lozano, María; Ruiz-Miró, María; Gatius, Sónia; Mota, Alba; Moreno-Bueno, Gema; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Benítez, Javier; Witty, Lorna; McVean, Gil; Leedham, Simon; Tomlinson, Ian; Drmanac, Radoje; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Klein, Robert; Dunne, Kevin; Bast, Robert C; Kennedy, Stephen H; Hassan, Bassim; Lise, Stefano; Garcia, María José; Peters, Brock A; Yau, Christopher; Sauka-Spengler, Tatjana; Ahmed, Ahmed Ashour

    2016-08-01

    Current screening methods for ovarian cancer can only detect advanced disease. Earlier detection has proved difficult because the molecular precursors involved in the natural history of the disease are unknown. To identify early driver mutations in ovarian cancer cells, we used dense whole genome sequencing of micrometastases and microscopic residual disease collected at three time points over three years from a single patient during treatment for high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). The functional and clinical significance of the identified mutations was examined using a combination of population-based whole genome sequencing, targeted deep sequencing, multi-center analysis of protein expression, loss of function experiments in an in-vivo reporter assay and mammalian models, and gain of function experiments in primary cultured fallopian tube epithelial (FTE) cells. We identified frequent mutations involving a 40kb distal repressor region for the key stem cell differentiation gene SOX2. In the apparently normal FTE, the region was also mutated. This was associated with a profound increase in SOX2 expression (p<2(-16)), which was not found in patients without cancer (n=108). Importantly, we show that SOX2 overexpression in FTE is nearly ubiquitous in patients with HGSOCs (n=100), and common in BRCA1-BRCA2 mutation carriers (n=71) who underwent prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy. We propose that the finding of SOX2 overexpression in FTE could be exploited to develop biomarkers for detecting disease at a premalignant stage, which would reduce mortality from this devastating disease.

  18. Automatic Detection of the Uterus and Fallopian Tube Junctions in Laparoscopic Images.

    PubMed

    Prokopetc, Kristina; Collins, Toby; Bartoli, Adrien

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for the automatic detection of the uterus and the Fallopian tube/Uterus junctions (FU-junctions) in a monocular laparoscopic image. The main application is to perform automatic registration and fusion between preoperative radiological images of the uterus and laparoscopic images for image-guided surgery. In the broader context of computer assisted intervention, our method is the first that detects an organ and registration landmarks from laparoscopic images without manual input. Our detection problem is challenging because of the large inter-patient anatomical variability and pathologies such as uterine fibroids. We solve the problem using learned contextual geometric constraints that statistically model the positions and orientations of the FU-junctions relative to the uterus' body. We train the uterus detector using a modern part-based approach and the FU-junction detector using junction-specific context-sensitive features. We have trained and tested on a database of 95 uterus images with cross validation, and successfully detected the uterus with Recall = 0.95 and average Number of False Positives per Image (NFPI) = 0.21, and FU-junctions with Recall = 0.80 and NFPI = 0.50. Our experimental results show that the contextual constraints are fundamental to achieve high quality detection.

  19. Differential expression of extracellular matrix components in the Fallopian tubes throughout the menstrual cycle

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the unique characteristics of the female genital tract is the extensive tissue remodeling observed throughout the menstrual cycle. Multiple components of the extracellular matrix take part in this tissue rebuilding; however, the individual components involved have not been identified. Methods In the present study, the expression of extracellular matrix proteins and selected matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activities in Fallopian tubes (FT) throughout the menstrual cycle were examined by PCR array, immunocytochemistry, zymography and bioinformatics. Results Of the eighty-four genes analyzed, eighty-three were expressed in the FT during at least one stage of the menstrual cycle. We observed a significant increase (>/=2-fold) in ADAMTS1, ADAMTS13, COL7A1, MMP3, MMP9, PECAM1, and THBS3 in the periovulatory phase compared to the follicular phase. Meanwhile, we observed a significant decrease (>/= 2-fold) in COL7A1, ICAM1, ITGA8, MMP16, MMP9, CLEC3B, SELE and TIMP2 in the lutheal phase compared to the periovulatory phase. Immunocytochemistry showed that MMP-3 and MMP-9 were localized in the endosalpinx during all phases of the menstrual cycle. Gelatin zymograms detected non-cycle-dependent protease activity. Conclusions Several extracellular matrix components were regulated throughout the menstrual cycle in a cyclic pattern, suggesting a possible steroid regulation and a role in tissue remodeling and FT functions. PMID:22897899

  20. Premalignant SOX2 overexpression in the fallopian tubes of ovarian cancer patients: Discovery and validation studies.

    PubMed

    Hellner, Karin; Miranda, Fabrizio; Fotso Chedom, Donatien; Herrero-Gonzalez, Sandra; Hayden, Daniel M; Tearle, Rick; Artibani, Mara; KaramiNejadRanjbar, Mohammad; Williams, Ruth; Gaitskell, Kezia; Elorbany, Samar; Xu, Ruoyan; Laios, Alex; Buiga, Petronela; Ahmed, Karim; Dhar, Sunanda; Zhang, Rebecca Yu; Campo, Leticia; Myers, Kevin A; Lozano, María; Ruiz-Miró, María; Gatius, Sónia; Mota, Alba; Moreno-Bueno, Gema; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Benítez, Javier; Witty, Lorna; McVean, Gil; Leedham, Simon; Tomlinson, Ian; Drmanac, Radoje; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Klein, Robert; Dunne, Kevin; Bast, Robert C; Kennedy, Stephen H; Hassan, Bassim; Lise, Stefano; Garcia, María José; Peters, Brock A; Yau, Christopher; Sauka-Spengler, Tatjana; Ahmed, Ahmed Ashour

    2016-08-01

    Current screening methods for ovarian cancer can only detect advanced disease. Earlier detection has proved difficult because the molecular precursors involved in the natural history of the disease are unknown. To identify early driver mutations in ovarian cancer cells, we used dense whole genome sequencing of micrometastases and microscopic residual disease collected at three time points over three years from a single patient during treatment for high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). The functional and clinical significance of the identified mutations was examined using a combination of population-based whole genome sequencing, targeted deep sequencing, multi-center analysis of protein expression, loss of function experiments in an in-vivo reporter assay and mammalian models, and gain of function experiments in primary cultured fallopian tube epithelial (FTE) cells. We identified frequent mutations involving a 40kb distal repressor region for the key stem cell differentiation gene SOX2. In the apparently normal FTE, the region was also mutated. This was associated with a profound increase in SOX2 expression (p<2(-16)), which was not found in patients without cancer (n=108). Importantly, we show that SOX2 overexpression in FTE is nearly ubiquitous in patients with HGSOCs (n=100), and common in BRCA1-BRCA2 mutation carriers (n=71) who underwent prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy. We propose that the finding of SOX2 overexpression in FTE could be exploited to develop biomarkers for detecting disease at a premalignant stage, which would reduce mortality from this devastating disease. PMID:27492892

  1. The comparison between Intrauterine Insemination and Fallopian Tube Sperm Perfusion Using FAST®System in Patients with Unexplained Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Peivandi, Sepideh; Ebadi, Aghdas; Modanlu, Shila

    2015-01-01

    Background Controlled ovarian stimulation (COH) with intrauterine insemination (IUI) is commonly offered to infertile couples with patent fallopian tubes because it is simple, non-invasive and cost-effective technique. Another non-invasive method is fallopian tube sperm perfusion (FSP). This study was performed to compare the relative efficacy between FSP using fallopian sperm transfer (FAST) system and standard IUI in patients with unexplained infertility. Materials and Methods This prospective randomized study was conducted at the IVF Unit, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran, from March 2011 to February 2012. A total of ninety patients with unexplained infertility underwent ovarian stimulation with clomiphene citrate and human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG). Patients were then randomly assigned into either group I (n=45) to undergo standard IUI or group II (n=45) to undergo FSP using FAST system. Results The patients’ basic characteristics, including age, primary infertility and duration of infertility, were not significantly different between two study groups. In the group I, there were 9 pregnancies (a pregnancy rate per cycle of 20%), whereas in the group II, 8 pregnancies occurred (a pregnancy rate per cycle of 17.8%, p>0.05). Conclusion FSP using FAST system offers no advantage over the standard IUI in order to increase pregnancy rate in patients with unexplained infertility. PMID:25780519

  2. Quinacrine-induced occlusive fibrosis in the human fallopian tube is due to a unique inflammatory response and modification of repair mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Growe, Roger G; Luster, Michael I; Fail, Patricia A; Lippes, Jack

    2013-04-01

    Quinacrine has been widely used in treatment of parasitic diseases such as malaria and giardiasis, and in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Quinacrine has also been used as an effective substitute for surgical contraception by causing occlusion of the fallopian tube. This minimally invasive treatment protocol involves intrauterine insertion of the drug in the form of pellets and has been studied in humans in a number of countries, including the United States. Despite its development in the 1970s, the cellular and molecular events induced by quinacrine in the human fallopian tube have not been described. Here we describe a plausible mechanism for quinacrine action in the fallopian tube. This is manifested as an acute pro-inflammatory response in the uterus and fallopian tube, characterized by loss of epithelial cell adhesion. This response relies on properties of gated channels found on the surface of epithelial cells in the reproductive tract. While the uterus returns to normal, the inflammatory response affects the uterotubal junction and transmural segment of the human fallopian tube, and initiates formation of mature collagen in the lumen of the fallopian tube, resulting in its permanent occlusion. The response within the fallopian tube appears similar to the protective mechanisms that have evolved in women to minimize the likelihood of systemic infection from Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and to some extent from Chlamydia trachomatis. This review could assist in development of experimental models used in investigating the mechanisms of fibrotic responses in humans as well as development of techniques for permanent non-surgical female contraception. PMID:23453701

  3. Olaparib and Hsp90 Inhibitor AT13387 in Treating Patients With Solid Tumors That Are Metastatic or Cannot Be Removed by Surgery or Recurrent Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, Primary Peritoneal, or Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-12

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; High Grade Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; High Grade Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Metastatic Solid Neoplasm; Primary Peritoneal High Grade Serous Adenocarcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma; Unresectable Solid Neoplasm

  4. Acute abdomen in pregnancy due to isolated Fallopian tube torsion: The laparoscopic treatment of a rare case

    PubMed Central

    Sidiropoulou, Zacharoula; Setúbal, António

    2014-01-01

    In the last years, operative laparoscopy became a standard approach in gynaecology and general surgery. Even in pregnancy its use is becoming more widely accepted. In fact, it offers advantages similar to those in no pregnant women, associated with good maternal and fetal outcomes. Around 0.2% of pregnant women require abdominal surgery. The most common indications of laparoscopy in pregnancy are cholelithiasis complications, appendicitis, persistent ovarian cyst and adnexal torsion. Authors describe a very rare case of acute abdomen due to isolated Fallopian tube torsion in a 24th weeks pregnant woman, managed by laparoscopic salpingectomy. PMID:25405198

  5. Variation in stability of endogenous reference genes in fallopian tubes and endometrium from healthy and ectopic pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Gebeh, Alpha K; Marczylo, Emma L; Amoako, Akwasi A; Willets, Jonathon M; Konje, Justin C

    2012-01-01

    RT-qPCR is commonly employed in gene expression studies in ectopic pregnancy. Most use RN18S1, β-actin or GAPDH as internal controls without validation of their suitability as reference genes. A systematic study of the suitability of endogenous reference genes for gene expression studies in ectopic pregnancy is lacking. The aims of this study were therefore to evaluate the stability of 12 reference genes and suggest those that are stable for use as internal control genes in fallopian tubes and endometrium from ectopic pregnancy and healthy non-pregnant controls. Analysis of the results showed that the genes consistently ranked in the top six by geNorm and NormFinder algorithms, were UBC, GAPDH, CYC1 and EIF4A2 (fallopian tubes) and UBC and ATP5B (endometrium). mRNA expression of NAPE-PLD as a test gene of interest varied between the groups depending on which of the 12 reference genes was used as internal controls. This study demonstrates that arbitrary selection of reference genes for normalisation in RT-qPCR studies in ectopic pregnancy without validation, risk producing inaccurate data and should therefore be discouraged.

  6. Effect of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on Neisseria gonorrhoeae invasion of and IgA secretion by human fallopian tube mucosa.

    PubMed

    Gorby, G L; Clemens, C M; Barley, L R; McGee, Z A

    1991-05-01

    The possible effect of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on the mucosal immune response and susceptibility of the fallopian tube mucosa to invasion by Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonococci) was investigated in the fallopian tube organ culture (FTOC) model. Immunohistochemical and radioreceptor assay techniques showed specific high affinity binding of hCG in vitro to the apices of non-ciliated fallopian tube cells (Kd approximately 10(-9) M). Continuous exposure of the FTOC mucosa to hCG during infection with gonococci resulted in a marked increase (6- to 15-fold) in IgA secretion and significantly reduced gonococcal invasion (invasion score range 0.7 to 1.75) compared to infected control tissue which was not exposed to hCG (invasion score range 2.9 to 4.95, P less than or equal to 0.01). By contrast, exposure of the mucosa to hCG during the 24 h preceding gonococcal infection followed by the removal of hCG from the system at the time of infection resulted in enhanced gonococcal invasion (invasion score range 7.95 to 9.7, P less than 0.001). We conclude that hCG can modulate the mucosal immune response and susceptibility of fallopian tube epithelium to gonococcal invasion.

  7. Cisplatin and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Stage IIB, Stage IIC, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-29

    Chemotherapeutic Agent Toxicity; Endometrial Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Gastrointestinal Complication; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Neurotoxicity Syndrome; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  8. Revised FIGO staging system for cancer of the ovary, fallopian tube, and peritoneum: important implications for radiologists.

    PubMed

    Saida, Tsukasa; Tanaka, Yumiko Oishi; Matsumoto, Koji; Satoh, Toyomi; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki; Minami, Manabu

    2016-02-01

    Ovarian cancer is the seventh most common cancer diagnosis among women worldwide. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics recently significantly revised staging criteria for cancer of the ovary. The latest revision was based on the concept that high-grade serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) may be the origin of some high-grade serous carcinomas of the ovary and peritoneum. Therefore, staging criteria for the ovary, fallopian tube, and peritoneum have been unified. Understanding this background and other important revised points are essential for radiologists concerned with imaging diagnosis in gynecologic oncology. Through this review, we introduce the STIC theory and show examples of diseases in accordance with the new staging criteria based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) results.

  9. Sphenoid and cavernous sinuses involvement as first site of metastasis from a fallopian tube carcinoma. Case report.

    PubMed

    Merimsky, O; Inbar, M; Groswasser-Reider, I; Neudorfer, M; Chaitchik, S

    1993-12-31

    The occurrence of central nervous system metastases in ovarian cancer patients ranges from 0.88 to 4.5%. Centra nervous system involvement in a fallopian tube carcinoma is extremely rare. A 77-year-old woman with an invasive tubal carcinoma was admitted because of ophthalmoplegia, sparing the lateral rectus muscle of the left eye, a decreased left corneal reflex and hypoesthesia along the distribution of the ophthalmic and maxillary branches of the left trigeminal nerve. CT scan showed a space occupying lesion in the left sphenoid sinus invading the left cavernous sinus and the submucosa of the left lateral wall of the nasopharynx, proven histologically to be a metastasis from her primary cancer. Attention should be paid to the possibility of distant and unusual metastases associated with tubal cancer in order to treat the patients promptly. PMID:8171748

  10. Expression of Cell Competition Markers at the Interface between p53 Signature and Normal Epithelium in the Human Fallopian Tube

    PubMed Central

    Kito, Masahiko; Maeda, Daichi; Kudo-Asabe, Yukitsugu; Sato, Naoki; Shih, Ie-Ming; Wang, Tian-Li; Tanaka, Masamitsu; Terada, Yukihiro; Goto, Akiteru

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence regarding cell competition between normal and mutant mammalian cells, which suggest that it may play a defensive role in the early phase of carcinogenesis. In vitro study in the past has shown that overexpression of vimentin in normal epithelial cells at the contact surface with transformed cells is essential for the cell competition involved in epithelial defense against cancer. In this study, we attempted to examine cell competition in human tissue in vivo by investigating surgically resected human fallopian tubes that contain p53 signatures and serous tubal intraepithelial lesions (STILs), a linear expansion of p53-immunopositive/TP53 mutant tubal epithelial cells that are considered as precursors of pelvic high grade serous carcinoma. Immunofluorescence double staining for p53 and the cell competition marker vimentin was performed in 21 sections of human fallopian tube tissue containing 17 p53 signatures and 4 STILs. The intensities of vimentin expression at the interface between p53-positive cells at the end of the p53 signature/STIL and adjacent p53-negative normal tubal epithelial cells were compared with the background tubal epithelium. As a result, the average vimentin intensity at the interfaces relative to the background intensity was 1.076 (95% CI, 0.9412 – 1.211 for p53 signature and 0.9790 (95% CI, 0.7206 – 1.237) for STIL. Thus, it can be concluded that overexpression of the cell competition marker vimentin are not observed in human tissue with TP53 alterations. PMID:27258067

  11. Antiviral Responses of Human Fallopian Tube Epithelial Cells to Toll-like Receptor 3 Agonist Poly(I:C)

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Mimi; Schaefer, Todd M.; Fahey, John V.; Wright, Jacqueline A.; Wira, Charles R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the expression of toll-like receptors (TLR) by primary human Fallopian tube epithelial cells (FTEC) and to determine whether exposure to the TLR3 agonist poly(I:C) would induce an antiviral response. Design Tissue culture study. Setting University Medical Center. Patient(s) Pre-menopausal women undergoing hysterectomy. Intervention(s) Primary human FTEC were grown to confluence and high transepithelial resistance and treated with TLR agonists. Conditioned media was collected and RNA was extracted and analyzed for the expression of cytokines, chemokines and antimicrobial genes. Main Outcome Measure(s) RNA was analyzed by real-time RT-PCR and protein levels were assessed by ELISA. Result(s) The FTEC were demonstrated to express TLR1-9 but not 10. Treatment of FTEC with TLR3 agonist poly(I:C) resulted in increased expression of IL-8, TNF-α, human β-defensin 2, interferon beta, and interferon stimulated genes myxovirus resistance gene 1, 2′,5′-oligoadenylate synthetase, and protein kinase R. Additionally, FTEC exposed to poly(I:C) also resulted in the induction of TLR 2, 3, and 7. Conclusion(s) Our results suggest that FTEC are sensitive to viral infection and/or exposure to viral dsRNA and can respond by secreting proinflammatory cytokines that mediate the initiation of an inflammatory response as well as expressing genes that can directly inhibit viral replication. PMID:17669408

  12. Transformation of the fallopian tube secretory epithelium leads to high-grade serous ovarian cancer in Brca;Tp53;Pten models.

    PubMed

    Perets, Ruth; Wyant, Gregory A; Muto, Katherine W; Bijron, Jonathan G; Poole, Barish B; Chin, Kenneth T; Chen, Jin Yun H; Ohman, Anders W; Stepule, Corey D; Kwak, Soongu; Karst, Alison M; Hirsch, Michelle S; Setlur, Sunita R; Crum, Christopher P; Dinulescu, Daniela M; Drapkin, Ronny

    2013-12-01

    High-grade serous ovarian carcinoma presents significant clinical and therapeutic challenges. Although the traditional model of carcinogenesis has focused on the ovary as a tumor initiation site, recent studies suggest that there may be additional sites of origin outside the ovary, namely the secretory cells of the fallopian tube. Our study demonstrates that high-grade serous tumors can originate in fallopian tubal secretory epithelial cells and also establishes serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma as the precursor lesion to high-grade serous ovarian and peritoneal carcinomas in animal models targeting the Brca, Tp53, and Pten genes. These findings offer an avenue to address clinically important questions that are critical for cancer prevention and early detection in women carrying BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations.

  13. Infection of human fallopian tube epithelial cells with Neisseria gonorrhoeae protects cells from tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Morales, Priscilla; Reyes, Paz; Vargas, Macarena; Rios, Miguel; Imarai, Mónica; Cardenas, Hugo; Croxatto, Horacio; Orihuela, Pedro; Vargas, Renato; Fuhrer, Juan; Heckels, John E; Christodoulides, Myron; Velasquez, Luis

    2006-06-01

    Following infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, bacteria may ascend into the Fallopian tubes (FT) and induce salpingitis, a major cause of infertility. In the FT, interactions between mucosal epithelial cells and gonococci are pivotal events in the pathogen's infection cycle and the inflammatory response. In the current study, primary FT epithelial cells were infected in vitro with different multiplicities of infection (MOI) of Pil+ Opa+ gonococci. Bacteria showed a dose-dependent association with cells and induced the secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). A significant finding was that gonococcal infection (MOI = 1) induced apoptosis in approximately 30% of cells, whereas increasing numbers of bacteria (MOI = 10 to 100) did not induce apoptosis. Apoptosis was observed in only 11% of cells with associated bacteria, whereas >84% of cells with no adherent bacteria were apoptotic. TNF-alpha was a key contributor to apoptosis, since (i) culture supernatants from cells infected with gonococci (MOI = 1) induced apoptosis in naïve cultures, suggesting that a soluble factor was responsible; (ii) gonococcal infection-induced apoptosis was inhibited with anti-TNF-alpha antibodies; and (iii) the addition of exogenous TNF-alpha induced apoptosis, which was inhibited by the presence of increasing numbers of bacteria (MOI = 10 to 100). These data suggest that TNF-alpha-mediated apoptosis of FT epithelial cells is likely a primary host defense mechanism to prevent pathogen colonization. However, epithelial cell-associated gonococci have evolved a mechanism to protect the cells from undergoing TNF-alpha-mediated apoptosis, and this modulation of the host innate response may contribute to establishment of infection. Understanding the antiapoptotic mechanisms used by Neisseria gonorrhoeae will inform the pathogenesis of salpingitis and could suggest new intervention strategies for prevention and treatment of the disease. PMID:16714596

  14. Infection of Human Fallopian Tube Epithelial Cells with Neisseria gonorrhoeae Protects Cells from Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Priscilla; Reyes, Paz; Vargas, Macarena; Rios, Miguel; Imarai, Mónica; Cardenas, Hugo; Croxatto, Horacio; Orihuela, Pedro; Vargas, Renato; Fuhrer, Juan; Heckels, John E.; Christodoulides, Myron; Velasquez, Luis

    2006-01-01

    Following infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, bacteria may ascend into the Fallopian tubes (FT) and induce salpingitis, a major cause of infertility. In the FT, interactions between mucosal epithelial cells and gonococci are pivotal events in the pathogen's infection cycle and the inflammatory response. In the current study, primary FT epithelial cells were infected in vitro with different multiplicities of infection (MOI) of Pil+ Opa+ gonococci. Bacteria showed a dose-dependent association with cells and induced the secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). A significant finding was that gonococcal infection (MOI = 1) induced apoptosis in approximately 30% of cells, whereas increasing numbers of bacteria (MOI = 10 to 100) did not induce apoptosis. Apoptosis was observed in only 11% of cells with associated bacteria, whereas >84% of cells with no adherent bacteria were apoptotic. TNF-α was a key contributor to apoptosis, since (i) culture supernatants from cells infected with gonococci (MOI = 1) induced apoptosis in naïve cultures, suggesting that a soluble factor was responsible; (ii) gonococcal infection-induced apoptosis was inhibited with anti-TNF-α antibodies; and (iii) the addition of exogenous TNF-α induced apoptosis, which was inhibited by the presence of increasing numbers of bacteria (MOI = 10 to 100). These data suggest that TNF-α-mediated apoptosis of FT epithelial cells is likely a primary host defense mechanism to prevent pathogen colonization. However, epithelial cell-associated gonococci have evolved a mechanism to protect the cells from undergoing TNF-α-mediated apoptosis, and this modulation of the host innate response may contribute to establishment of infection. Understanding the antiapoptotic mechanisms used by Neisseria gonorrhoeae will inform the pathogenesis of salpingitis and could suggest new intervention strategies for prevention and treatment of the disease. PMID:16714596

  15. Structure and function of the fallopian tubes following exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) during gestation.

    PubMed

    DeCherney, A H; Cholst, I; Naftolin, F

    1981-12-01

    The association between the use of diethylstilbestrol (DES) and vaginal and cervical adenocarcinoma and adenosis in the progeny was first reported by Herbst et al. in 1971. This progeny will reach a peak as far as reproduction is concerned in this decade. It is estimated that 2 million women may be involved to varying degrees. Changes in uterine and cervical contour and structure have been detailed. Thus DES exposure and anatomic changes in the Müllerian system have been documented. In this report 16 women in the reproductive age group who were exposed to DES in utero and presented with infertility are discussed. On workup for infertility they were found to have unique tubal morphologic features consisting of a foreshortened, convoluted tube with "withered" fimbria with a pinpoint os at laparoscopy. The diagnosis could not be made at the time of hysterosalpingogram. Three patients had surgery in an attempt to correct this condition; and in all cases the surgery was unsuccessful. No statistical data is offered as to epidemiologic factors or incidence rates, but the suspected increase in infertility and ectopic pregnancy rates in patients with DES exposure may corroborate these findings.

  16. Japan Society of Gynecologic Oncology guidelines 2015 for the treatment of ovarian cancer including primary peritoneal cancer and fallopian tube cancer.

    PubMed

    Komiyama, Shinichi; Katabuchi, Hidetaka; Mikami, Mikio; Nagase, Satoru; Okamoto, Aikou; Ito, Kiyoshi; Morishige, Kenichiro; Suzuki, Nao; Kaneuchi, Masanori; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Udagawa, Yasuhiro; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    The fourth edition of the Japan Society of Gynecologic Oncology guidelines for the treatment of ovarian cancer including primary peritoneal cancer and fallopian tube cancer was published in 2015. The guidelines contain seven chapters and six flow charts. The major changes in this new edition are as follows-(1) the format has been changed from reviews to clinical questions (CQ), and the guidelines for optimal clinical practice in Japan are now shown as 41 CQs and answers; (2) the 'flow charts' have been improved and placed near the beginning of the guidelines; (3) the 'basic points', including tumor staging, histological classification, surgical procedures, chemotherapy, and palliative care, are described before the chapter; (4) the FIGO surgical staging of ovarian cancer, fallopian tube cancer, and primary peritoneal cancer was revised in 2014 and the guideline has been revised accordingly to take the updated version of this classification into account; (5) the procedures for examination and management of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer are described; (6) information on molecular targeting therapy has been added; (7) guidelines for the treatment of recurrent cancer based on tumor markers alone are described, as well as guidelines for providing hormone replacement therapy after treatment. PMID:27142770

  17. MV-NIS or Investigator's Choice Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Ovarian, Fallopian, or Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-24

    Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Clear Cell Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Endometrioid Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Serous Tumor; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  18. Carboplatin and Paclitaxel With or Without Bevacizumab Compared to Docetaxel, Carboplatin, and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cavity Carcinoma (Cancer)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-03-18

    Brenner Tumor; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  19. Paclitaxel, Bevacizumab And Adjuvant Intraperitoneal Carboplatin in Treating Patients Who Had Initial Debulking Surgery for Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-06-18

    Brenner Tumor; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  20. Sargramostim and Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Patients With Advanced Ovarian Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer That Did Not Respond to Previous Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-01-15

    Brenner Tumor; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  1. Statement by the Kommission Ovar of the AGO: The New FIGO and WHO Classifications of Ovarian, Fallopian Tube and Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Meinhold-Heerlein, I.; Fotopoulou, C.; Harter, P.; Kurzeder, C.; Mustea, A.; Wimberger, P.; Hauptmann, S.; Sehouli, J.

    2015-01-01

    More than 25 years after the last revision, in 2012 the FIGO Oncology Committee began revising the FIGO classification for staging ovarian, Fallopian tube and primary peritoneal cancers. The new classification has become effective with its publication at the beginning of 2014. Following recent findings on the pathogenesis of ovarian, Fallopian tube and primary peritoneal cancer and reflecting standard clinical practice, the three entities have now been classified uniformly. The histological subtype is included (high-grade serous – HGSC; low-grade serous – LGSC; mucinous – MC; clear cell – CCC; endometrioid – EC). Stages III and IV have been fundamentally changed: stage IIIA now refers to a localized tumor limited to the pelvis with (only) retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis (formerly classified as IIIC). Stage IV has been divided into IVA and IVB, with IVA defined as malignant pleural effusion and IVB as parenchymatous or extra-abdominal metastasis including inguinal and mediastinal lymph node metastasis as well as umbilical metastasis. A new WHO classification was published almost concurrently. The classification of serous tumors addresses the issue of the tubal carcinogenesis of serous ovarian cancer, even if no tubal precursor lesions are found for up to 30 % of serous high-grade cancers. The number of subgroups was reduced and subgroups now include only high-grade serous, low-grade serous, mucinous, seromucinous, endometrioid, clear cell and Brenner tumors. The category “transitional cell carcinomas” has been dropped and the classification “seromucinous tumors” has been newly added. More attention has been focused on the role of borderline tumors as a stage in the progression from benign to invasive lesions. PMID:26556905

  2. Randomized trial of oral cyclophosphamide and veliparib in high-grade serous ovarian, primary peritoneal, or fallopian tube cancers, or BRCA-mutant ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kummar, Shivaani; Oza, Amit M.; Fleming, Gini F.; Sullivan, Daniel M.; Gandara, David R.; Naughton, Michael J.; Villalona-Calero, Miguel A.; Morgan, Robert J.; Szabo, Peter M.; Youn, Ahrim; Chen, Alice P.; Ji, Jiuping; Allen, Deborah E.; Lih, Chih-Jian; Mehaffey, Michele G.; Walsh, William D.; McGregor, Paul M.; Steinberg, Seth M.; Williams, Paul M.; Kinders, Robert J.; Conley, Barbara A.; Simon, Richard M.; Doroshow, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Veliparib, a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, demonstrated clinical activity in combination with oral cyclophosphamide in patients with BRCA-mutant solid tumors in a phase 1 trial. To define the relative contribution of PARP inhibition to the observed clinical activity, we conducted a randomized phase 2 trial to determine the response rate of veliparib in combination with cyclophosphamide compared to cyclophosphamide alone in patients with pretreated BRCA-mutant ovarian cancer or in patients with pretreated primary peritoneal, fallopian tube, or high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSOC). Methods Adult patients were randomized to receive cyclophosphamide alone (50 mg orally once daily) or with veliparib (60 mg orally once daily) in 21-day cycles. Crossover to the combination was allowed at disease progression. Results Seventy-five patients were enrolled and 72 were evaluable for response; 38 received cyclophosphamide alone and 37 the combination as their initial treatment regimen. Treatment was well tolerated. One complete response was observed in each arm, with three partial responses (PR) in the combination arm and six PRs in the cyclophosphamide alone arm. Genetic sequence and expression analyses were performed for 211 genes involved in DNA repair; none of the detected genetic alterations were significantly associated with treatment benefit. Conclusion This is the first trial that evaluated single agent, low dose cyclophosphamide in HGSOC, peritoneal, fallopian tube, and BRCA-mutant ovarian cancers. It was well tolerated and clinical activity was observed; the addition of veliparib at 60 mg daily did not improve either the response rate or the median progression free survival. PMID:25589624

  3. Role of miR-182 in response to oxidative stress in the cell fate of human fallopian tube epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yugang; Qiang, Wenan; Xu, Xiaofei; Dong, Ruifen; Karst, Alison M.; Liu, Zhaojian; Kong, Beihua; Drapkin, Ronny I.; Wei, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    High grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSC) is a DNA instable tumor and its precursor is commonly found originating from the fimbriated end of the fallopian tube secretory epithelial (FTSE) cells. The local stresses via ovulation and related inflammation are risks for HGSC. In this study, we examined the cellular and molecular responses of FTSE cells to stress. We found that excess intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in normal FTSE cells upregulated a subset of microRNA expression (defined as ROSmiRs). Most ROSmiRs' expression and function were influenced and regulated by p53, and together they drove the cells into stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS). However, ROS-induced miR-182 is regulated by β-catenin, not by p53. In normal FTSE cells, miR-182 overexpression triggers cellular senescence by p53-mediated upregulation of p21. Conversely, in cells with p53 mutations, miR-182 overexpression no longer enhances p21 but functions as an “Onco-miR”. p53 dysfunction is a prerequisite for miR-182-mediated tumorigenesis. In addition, we found that human follicular fluid could significantly induce intracellular ROS in normal FTSE cells. These findings suggest that ROS and p53 mutations may trigger a series of events, beginning with overexpressing miR-182 by ROS and β-catenin, impairing the DNA damage response, promoting DNA instability, bypassing senescence and eventually leading to DNA instable tumors in FTSE cells. PMID:26472020

  4. Loss of PAX8 in high-grade serous ovarian cancer reduces cell survival despite unique modes of action in the fallopian tube and ovarian surface epithelium.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Laura H; Ó hAinmhire, Eoghainín; Young, Alexandria N; Burdette, Joanna E

    2016-05-31

    High-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is the most common and lethal form of ovarian cancer. PAX8 is a transcription factor expressed in fallopian tube epithelial cells and in 80-96% of HGSC tumors. The ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) only acquires PAX8 expression after malignant transformation. In this study, forced PAX8 expression in OSE cells increased proliferation and migration through upregulation of EMT factors such as N-cadherin and Fibronectin. OSE cells expressing PAX8 also had an increase in the FOXM1 pathway, but PAX8 alone was not sufficient to drive tumorigenesis. PAX8 knockdown in the oviductal epithelium cells did not decrease expression of the FOXM1 pathway and induced only a slight decrease in cell proliferation. No changes in migration, cell cycle, or apoptosis were detected after PAX8 knockdown in oviductal cells. Finally, PAX8 knockdown in HGSC cell lines resulted in increased apoptosis and decreased FOXM1 levels. The results presented here suggest that PAX8 has a cell specific role in governing proliferation and migration in nontransformed ovarian surface epithelium cells compared to the oviductal cells, but its reduction in serous cancer cell lines provides a common mechanism for reducing cell survival.

  5. Prognostic Significance of Retroperitoneal Lymphadenectomy, Preoperative Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio and Platelet Lymphocyte Ratio in Primary Fallopian Tube Carcinoma: A Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Gungorduk, Kemal; Ertas, Ibrahim E.; Ozdemir, Aykut; Akkaya, Emrah; Telli, Elcin; Taskin, Salih; Gokcu, Mehmet; Guzel, Ahmet Baris; Oge, Tufan; Akman, Levent; Toptas, Tayfun; Solmaz, Ulas; Dogan, Askın; Terek, Mustafa Cosan; Sanci, Muzaffer; Ozsaran, Aydin; Simsek, Tayyup; Vardar, Mehmet Ali; Yalcin, Omer Tarik; Ozalp, Sinan; Yildirim, Yusuf; Ortac, Firat

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prognostic role of preoperative neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and the need for para-aortic lymphadectomy in patients with primary fallopian tube carcinoma (PFTC). Materials and Methods Ninety-one patients with a diagnosis of PFTC were identified through the gynecologic oncology service database of six academic centers. Clinicopathological, surgical, and complete blood count data were collected. Results In univariate analysis, advanced stage, suboptimal surgery, and NLR > 2.7 were significant prognostic factors for progression-free survival, whereas in multivariate analysis, only advanced stage and suboptimal surgery were significant. In addition, in univariate analysis, cancer antigen 125 ≥ 35 U/mL, ascites, advanced stage, suboptimal surgery, NLR > 2.7, PLR > 233.3, platelet count ≥ 400,000 cells/mm3, staging type, and histological subtype were significant prognostic factors for overall survival (OS); however, in multivariate analysis, only advanced stage, suboptimal surgery, NLR > 2.7, and staging type were significant. Inclusion of pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy in surgery showed significant association with longer OS, with a mean and median OS of 42.0 months and 35.5 months (range, 22 to 78 months), respectively, vs. 33.5 months and 27.5 months (range, 14 to 76 months), respectively, for patients who underwent surgery without para-aortic lymphadenectomy (hazard ratio, 3.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.4 to 5.7; p=0.002). Conclusion NLR (in both univariate and multivariate analysis) and PLR (only in univariate analysis) were prognostic factors in PFTC. NLR and PLR are inexpensive and easy tests to perform. In addition, patients with PFTC who underwent bilateral pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy had longer OS. PMID:25622588

  6. Data set for reporting of ovary, fallopian tube and primary peritoneal carcinoma: recommendations from the International Collaboration on Cancer Reporting (ICCR).

    PubMed

    McCluggage, W Glenn; Judge, Meagan J; Clarke, Blaise A; Davidson, Ben; Gilks, C Blake; Hollema, Harry; Ledermann, Jonathan A; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Mikami, Yoshiki; Stewart, Colin J R; Vang, Russell; Hirschowitz, Lynn

    2015-08-01

    A comprehensive pathological report is essential for optimal patient management, cancer staging and prognostication. In many countries, proforma reports are used but these vary in their content. The International Collaboration on Cancer Reporting (ICCR) is an alliance formed by the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia, the Royal College of Pathologists of the United Kingdom, the College of American Pathologists, the Canadian Partnership Against Cancer and the European Society of Pathology, with the aim of developing an evidence-based reporting data set for each cancer site. This will reduce the global burden of cancer data set development and reduplication of effort by different international institutions that commission, publish and maintain standardised cancer reporting data sets. The resultant standardisation of cancer reporting will benefit not only those countries directly involved in the collaboration but also others not in a position to develop their own data sets. We describe the development of a cancer data set by the ICCR expert panel for the reporting of primary ovarian, fallopian tube and peritoneal carcinoma and present the 'required' and 'recommended' elements to be included in the report with an explanatory commentary. This data set encompasses the recent International Federation of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists staging system for these neoplasms and the updated World Health Organisation Classification of Tumours of the Female Reproductive Organs. The data set also addresses issues about site assignment of the primary tumour in high-grade serous carcinomas and proposes a scoring system for the assessment of tumour response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The widespread implementation of this data set will facilitate consistent and accurate data collection, comparison of epidemiological and pathological parameters between different populations, facilitate research and hopefully will result in improved patient management. PMID:26089092

  7. Data set for reporting of ovary, fallopian tube and primary peritoneal carcinoma: recommendations from the International Collaboration on Cancer Reporting (ICCR).

    PubMed

    McCluggage, W Glenn; Judge, Meagan J; Clarke, Blaise A; Davidson, Ben; Gilks, C Blake; Hollema, Harry; Ledermann, Jonathan A; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Mikami, Yoshiki; Stewart, Colin J R; Vang, Russell; Hirschowitz, Lynn

    2015-08-01

    A comprehensive pathological report is essential for optimal patient management, cancer staging and prognostication. In many countries, proforma reports are used but these vary in their content. The International Collaboration on Cancer Reporting (ICCR) is an alliance formed by the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia, the Royal College of Pathologists of the United Kingdom, the College of American Pathologists, the Canadian Partnership Against Cancer and the European Society of Pathology, with the aim of developing an evidence-based reporting data set for each cancer site. This will reduce the global burden of cancer data set development and reduplication of effort by different international institutions that commission, publish and maintain standardised cancer reporting data sets. The resultant standardisation of cancer reporting will benefit not only those countries directly involved in the collaboration but also others not in a position to develop their own data sets. We describe the development of a cancer data set by the ICCR expert panel for the reporting of primary ovarian, fallopian tube and peritoneal carcinoma and present the 'required' and 'recommended' elements to be included in the report with an explanatory commentary. This data set encompasses the recent International Federation of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists staging system for these neoplasms and the updated World Health Organisation Classification of Tumours of the Female Reproductive Organs. The data set also addresses issues about site assignment of the primary tumour in high-grade serous carcinomas and proposes a scoring system for the assessment of tumour response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The widespread implementation of this data set will facilitate consistent and accurate data collection, comparison of epidemiological and pathological parameters between different populations, facilitate research and hopefully will result in improved patient management.

  8. Neural Tube Closure in Mouse Whole Embryo Culture

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Jason; Ross, M. Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Genetic mouse models are an important tool in the study of mammalian neural tube closure (Gray & Ross, 2009; Ross, 2010). However, the study of mouse embryos in utero is limited by our inability to directly pharmacologically manipulate the embryos in isolation from the effects of maternal metabolism on the reagent of interest. Whether using a small molecule, recombinant protein, or siRNA, delivery of these substances to the mother, through the diet or by injection will subject these unstable compounds to a variety of bodily defenses that could prevent them from reaching the embryo. Investigations in cultures of whole embryos can be used to separate maternal from intrinsic fetal effects on development. Here, we present a method for culturing mouse embryos using highly enriched media in a roller incubator apparatus that allows for normal neural tube closure after dissection (Crockett, 1990). Once in culture, embryos can be manipulated using conventional in vitro techniques that would not otherwise be possible if the embryos were still in utero. Embryo siblings can be collected at various time points to study different aspects of neurulation, occurring from E7-7.5 (neural plate formation, just prior to the initiation of neurulation) to E9.5-10 (at the conclusion of cranial fold and caudal neuropore closure, Kaufman, 1992). In this protocol, we demonstrate our method for dissecting embryos at timepoints that are optimal for the study of cranial neurulation. Embryos will be dissected at E8.5 (approx. 10-12 somities), after the initiation of neural tube closure but prior to embryo turning and cranial neural fold closure, and maintained in culture till E10 (26-28 somities), when cranial neurulation should be complete. PMID:22042150

  9. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium tubal infections and their effects on the expression of IL-6 and leukaemia inhibitory factor in Fallopian tubes with and without an ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Refaat, Bassem; Ashshi, Ahmed Mohamed; Batwa, Sarah Abdullah; Ahmad, Jawwad; Idris, Shakir; Kutbi, Seham Yahia; Malibary, Faizah Ahmed; Kamfar, Fadi Fayez

    2016-10-01

    This was a prospective case-control study that measured the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) by an IVD CE multiplex PCR kit in fresh Fallopian tubes (FT) obtained from 96 ectopic pregnancies (EP) and 61 controls in the midluteal phase of the cycle. We later measured the expression profile of IL-6, leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and their signalling molecules, in respect to the type and number of infections, by immunohistochemistry, ELISA and quantitative RT-PCR. The frequencies of CT, and MG mono- and co-infections were significantly higher in EP. IL-6, LIF, their receptors and intracellular mediators were significantly up-regulated at the gene and protein levels in positive compared with negative FTs within each group (P < 0.05). EP tubal samples with co-infections showed the highest significant expression of the candidate cytokines by all techniques (P < 0.05). CT and MG are frequent in EP and up-regulate the tubal expression of IL-6, LIF and their signalling molecules. Both cytokines could be involved in the tubal immune response against bacterial infections, as well as the pathogenesis of EP. Further studies are needed to explore the roles of IL-6 family in infection-induced tubal inflammation and EP. PMID:27511901

  10. Follow-up of patients who are clinically disease-free after primary treatment for fallopian tube, primary peritoneal, or epithelial ovarian cancer: a Program in Evidence-Based Care guideline adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Le, T.; Kennedy, E.B.; Dodge, J.; Elit, L.

    2016-01-01

    Background A need for follow-up recommendations for survivors of fallopian tube, primary peritoneal, or epithelial ovarian cancer after completion of primary treatment was identified by Cancer Care Ontario’s Program in Evidence-Based Care. Methods We searched for existing guidelines, conducted a systematic review (medline, embase, and cdsr, January 2010 to March 2015), created draft recommendations, and completed a comprehensive review process. Outcomes included overall survival, quality of life, and patient preferences. Results The Cancer Australia guidance document Follow Up of Women with Epithelial Ovarian Cancer was adapted for the Ontario context. A key randomized controlled trial found that the overall survival rate did not differ between asymptomatic women who received early treatment based on elevated serum cancer antigen 125 (ca125) alone and women who waited for the appearance of clinical symptoms before initiating treatment (hazard ratio: 0.98; 95% confidence interval: 0.80 to 1.20; p = 0.85); in addition, patients in the delayed treatment group reported good global health scores for longer. No randomized studies were found for other types of follow-up. We recommend that survivors be made aware of the potential harms and benefits of surveillance, including a discussion of the limitations of ca125 testing. Women could be offered the option of no formal follow-up or a follow-up schedule that is agreed upon by the woman and her health care provider. Education about the most common symptoms of recurrence should be provided. Alternative models of care such as nurse-led or telephone-based follow-up (or both) could be emerging options. Conclusions The recommendations provided in this guidance document have a limited evidence base. Recommendations should be updated as further information becomes available. PMID:27803599

  11. A phase I study with an expanded cohort to assess the feasibility of intravenous paclitaxel, intraperitoneal carboplatin and intraperitoneal paclitaxel in patients with untreated ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal carcinoma: A Gynecologic Oncology Group study☆,☆☆,★

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Natalie; Sill, Michael W.; Mannel, Robert S.; Thaker, P.H.; DiSilvestro, Paul; Waggoner, Steve; Yamada, S. Diane; Armstrong, Deborah K.; Wenzel, Lari; Huang, Helen; Fracasso, Paula M.; Walker, Joan L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and assess the feasibility of intravenous (IV) paclitaxel, intraperitoneal (IP) carboplatin, and IP paclitaxel in women with newly diagnosed Stages II–IV ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal carcinoma. Methods Patients received escalating doses of paclitaxel IV and carboplatin IP on day 1 and paclitaxel IP 60 mg/m2 on day 8. A standard 3+3 design was used in the escalation phase. A two-stage group sequential design with 20 patients at the MTD was used in the feasibility phase. Patient-reported neurotoxicity was assessed pre and post treatment. Results Patients were treated with paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 IV and carboplatin IP from AUC 5–7 on day 1 and paclitaxel 60 mg/m2 IP on day 8. The MTD was estimated at carboplatin AUC 6 IP and 25 patients enrolled at this dose level. Within the first 4 cycles, seven (35%) of twenty evaluable patients had dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) including grade 4 thrombocytopenia (1), grade 3 neutropenic fever (3), >2 week delay due to ANC recovery (1), grade 3 LFT (1), and grade 3 infection (1). De-escalation to paclitaxel 135 mg/m2 IV was given to improve the safety. After six evaluable patients completed 4 cycles without a DLT, bevacizumab was added and six evaluable patients completed 4 cycles with one DLT (grade 3 hyponatremia). Conclusions Paclitaxel at 175 mg/m2 IV, carboplatin AUC 6 IP day 1 and paclitaxel 60 mg/m2 IP day 8 yield 18–56% patients with DLTs. The tolerability of the regimen in combination with bevacizumab was indicated in a small cohort. PMID:22155262

  12. A phase I study with an expanded cohort to assess feasibility of intravenous docetaxel, intraperitoneal carboplatin and intraperitoneal paclitaxel in patients with previously untreated ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal carcinoma: A Gynecologic Oncology Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Natalie; Sill, Michael W.; Mannel, Robert S.; Thaker, Premal H.; DiSilvestro, Paul A.; Waggoner, Steven E.; Yamada, S. Diane; Armstrong, Deborah K.; Fracasso, Paula M.; Walker, Joan L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and assess the feasibility of intravenous (IV) docetaxel, intraperitoneal (IP) carboplatin and IP paclitaxel in women with Stage II-IV untreated ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal carcinoma. Methods Patients received docetaxel (55-75 mg/m2) IV and carboplatin (AUC 5-7) IP on day 1 and paclitaxel 60 mg/m2 IP on day 8. A standard 3+3 design was used in the dose escalation phase. A 2-stage group sequential design with 20 patients at the MTD was used in the feasibility phase. Results The MTD determined during the dose escalation phase was day 1 docetaxel 75 mg/m2 IV, carboplatin AUC 6 IP and day 8 IP paclitaxel 60 mg/m2. Forty-six patients were enrolled in the feasibility portion at this dose level. Six were unevaluable. Fifteen evaluable patients had dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) within the first four cycles. These DLTs were prolonged neutropenia (2), neutropenic fever (7), grade 4 thrombocytopenia (1), grade 4 dehydration (1), grade 3 infection (2), grade 3 oral mucositis (1) and pulmonary embolism (1). Conclusions Docetaxel 75 mg/m2 IV, carboplatin AUC 6 IP administered on day 1, and paclitaxel 60 mg/m2 IP administered on day 8, is the MTD when considering one cycle of treatment but was not feasible over four cycles due to bone marrow toxicity. We recommend reduction of carboplatin to AUC 5 should this regimen be considered for treatment in women with newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer. PMID:22943879

  13. Nucleotide precursors prevent folic acid-resistant neural tube defects in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Leung, Kit-Yi; De Castro, Sandra C P; Savery, Dawn; Copp, Andrew J; Greene, Nicholas D E

    2013-09-01

    Closure of the neural tube during embryogenesis is a crucial step in development of the central nervous system. Failure of this process results in neural tube defects, including spina bifida and anencephaly, which are among the most common birth defects worldwide. Maternal use of folic acid supplements reduces risk of neural tube defects but a proportion of cases are not preventable. Folic acid is thought to act through folate one-carbon metabolism, which transfers one-carbon units for methylation reactions and nucleotide biosynthesis. Hence suboptimal performance of the intervening reactions could limit the efficacy of folic acid. We hypothesized that direct supplementation with nucleotides, downstream of folate metabolism, has the potential to support neural tube closure. Therefore, in a mouse model that exhibits folic acid-resistant neural tube defects, we tested the effect of specific combinations of pyrimidine and purine nucleotide precursors and observed a significant protective effect. Labelling in whole embryo culture showed that nucleotides are taken up by the neurulating embryo and incorporated into genomic DNA. Furthermore, the mitotic index was elevated in neural folds and hindgut of treated embryos, consistent with a proposed mechanism of neural tube defect prevention through stimulation of cellular proliferation. These findings may provide an impetus for future investigations of supplemental nucleotides as a means to prevent a greater proportion of human neural tube defects than can be achieved by folic acid alone.

  14. Nucleotide precursors prevent folic acid-resistant neural tube defects in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Leung, Kit-Yi; De Castro, Sandra C P; Savery, Dawn; Copp, Andrew J; Greene, Nicholas D E

    2013-09-01

    Closure of the neural tube during embryogenesis is a crucial step in development of the central nervous system. Failure of this process results in neural tube defects, including spina bifida and anencephaly, which are among the most common birth defects worldwide. Maternal use of folic acid supplements reduces risk of neural tube defects but a proportion of cases are not preventable. Folic acid is thought to act through folate one-carbon metabolism, which transfers one-carbon units for methylation reactions and nucleotide biosynthesis. Hence suboptimal performance of the intervening reactions could limit the efficacy of folic acid. We hypothesized that direct supplementation with nucleotides, downstream of folate metabolism, has the potential to support neural tube closure. Therefore, in a mouse model that exhibits folic acid-resistant neural tube defects, we tested the effect of specific combinations of pyrimidine and purine nucleotide precursors and observed a significant protective effect. Labelling in whole embryo culture showed that nucleotides are taken up by the neurulating embryo and incorporated into genomic DNA. Furthermore, the mitotic index was elevated in neural folds and hindgut of treated embryos, consistent with a proposed mechanism of neural tube defect prevention through stimulation of cellular proliferation. These findings may provide an impetus for future investigations of supplemental nucleotides as a means to prevent a greater proportion of human neural tube defects than can be achieved by folic acid alone. PMID:23935126

  15. Novel Mode of Defective Neural Tube Closure in the Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) Mouse Strain.

    PubMed

    Salbaum, J Michael; Kruger, Claudia; MacGowan, Jacalyn; Herion, Nils J; Burk, David; Kappen, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Failure to close the neural tube results in birth defects, with severity ranging from spina bifida to lethal anencephaly. Few genetic risk factors for neural tube defects are known in humans, highlighting the critical role of environmental risk factors, such as maternal diabetes. Yet, it is not well understood how altered maternal metabolism interferes with embryonic development, and with neurulation in particular. We present evidence from two independent mouse models of diabetic pregnancy that identifies impaired migration of nascent mesodermal cells in the primitive streak as the morphogenetic basis underlying the pathogenesis of neural tube defects. We conclude that perturbed gastrulation not only explains the neurulation defects, but also provides a unifying etiology for the broad spectrum of congenital malformations in diabetic pregnancies. PMID:26593875

  16. Novel Mode of Defective Neural Tube Closure in the Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) Mouse Strain

    PubMed Central

    Salbaum, J. Michael; Kruger, Claudia; MacGowan, Jacalyn; Herion, Nils J.; Burk, David; Kappen, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Failure to close the neural tube results in birth defects, with severity ranging from spina bifida to lethal anencephaly. Few genetic risk factors for neural tube defects are known in humans, highlighting the critical role of environmental risk factors, such as maternal diabetes. Yet, it is not well understood how altered maternal metabolism interferes with embryonic development, and with neurulation in particular. We present evidence from two independent mouse models of diabetic pregnancy that identifies impaired migration of nascent mesodermal cells in the primitive streak as the morphogenetic basis underlying the pathogenesis of neural tube defects. We conclude that perturbed gastrulation not only explains the neurulation defects, but also provides a unifying etiology for the broad spectrum of congenital malformations in diabetic pregnancies. PMID:26593875

  17. Dynamic expression of LIM cofactors in the developing mouse neural tube.

    PubMed

    Ostendorff, Heather P; Tursun, Baris; Cornils, Kerstin; Schlüter, Anne; Drung, Alexander; Güngör, Cenap; Bach, Ingolf

    2006-03-01

    The developmental regulation of LIM homeodomain transcription factors (LIM-HD) by the LIM domain-binding cofactors CLIM/Ldb/NLI and RLIM has been demonstrated. Whereas CLIM cofactors are thought to be required for at least some of the in vivo functions of LIM-HD proteins, the ubiquitin ligase RLIM functions as a negative regulator by its ability to target CLIM cofactors for proteasomal degradation. In this report, we have investigated and compared the protein expression of both factors in the developing mouse neural tube. We co-localize both proteins in many tissues and, although widely expressed, we detect high levels of both cofactors in specific neural tube regions, e.g., in the ventral neural tube, where motor neurons reside. The mostly ubiquitous distribution of RLIM- and CLIM-encoding mRNA differs from the more specific expression of both cofactors at the protein level, indicating post-transcriptional regulation. Furthermore, we show that both cofactors not only co-localize with each other but also with Isl and Lhx3 LIM-HD proteins in developing ventral neural tube neurons. Our results demonstrate the dynamic expression of cofactors participating in the regulation of LIM-HD proteins during the development of the neural tube in mice and suggest additional post-transcriptional regulation in the nuclear LIM-HD protein network.

  18. Transplantation Into the Mouse Ovarian Fat Pad.

    PubMed

    Flesken-Nikitin, Andrea; Harlan, Blaine A; Nikitin, Alexander Yu

    2016-01-01

    Orthotopic transplantation assays in mice are invaluable for studies of cell regeneration and neoplastic transformation. Common approaches for orthotopic transplantation of ovarian surface and tubal epithelia include intraperitoneal and intrabursal administration of cells. The respective limitations of these methods include poorly defined location of injected cells and limited space volume. Furthermore, they are poorly suited for long-term structural preservation of transplanted organs. To address these challenges, we have developed an alternative approach, which is based on the introduction of cells and tissue fragments into the mouse fat pad. The mouse ovarian fat pad is located in the immediate vicinity of the ovary and uterine tube (aka oviduct, fallopian tube), and provides a familiar microenvironment for cells and tissues of these organs. In our approach fluorescence-labeled mouse and human cells, and fragments of the uterine tube are engrafted by using minimally traumatic dorsal incision surgery. Transplanted cells and their outgrowths are easily located in the ovarian fat pad for over 40 days. Long-term transplantation of the entire uterine tube allows correct preservation of all principle tissue components, and does not result in adverse side effects, such as fibrosis and inflammation. Our approach should be uniquely applicable for answering important biological questions such as differentiation, regenerative and neoplastic potential of specific cell populations. Furthermore, it should be suitable for studies of microenvironmental factors in normal development and cancer. PMID:27684746

  19. The effects of sex and mutation rate on adaptation in test tubes and to mouse hosts by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Grimberg, Brian; Zeyl, Clifford

    2005-02-01

    Some hypotheses for the evolution of sex focus on adaptation to changing or heterogeneous environments, but these hypotheses have rarely been tested. We tested for advantages of sex and of increased mutation rates in yeast strains in two contrasting environments: a standard and relatively homogeneous laboratory environment of minimal medium in test tubes, and the variable environment of a mouse brain experienced by pathogenic strains. Evolving populations were founded as equal mixtures of sexual and obligately asexual genotypes. In the sexuals, cycles of sporulation, meiosis, and mating were induced approximately every 50 mitotic generations, with the asexuals undergoing sporulation but not ploidy cycles or recombination. In both environments, replicate negative control populations established with the same pair of strains were propagated with neither mating nor meiosis. In test tubes with no sex induced, sexuals were fixed in all five replicates within 250 mitotic generations, whereas in mice with no sex induced, asexuals were fixed in all four replicates by 170 generations. Inducing sex altered these outcomes in opposite directions in test tubes and mice, decreasing the fixation frequencies of sexuals in test tubes but increasing them in mice. These contrasts with asexual controls suggest an advantage for sex in mice but not in test tubes, although there was no difference between test tubes and mice in the numbers of populations fixed-for sexuals. In analogous experiments testing for an advantage of increased mutation rates, wild-type genotypes became fixed at the expense of mutators in every replicate of both test tube and mouse populations, indicating a disadvantage for mutators in both environments. Increased rates of point mutation do not appear to accelerate adaptation.

  20. Live imaging of apoptosis in a novel transgenic mouse highlights its role in neural tube closure

    PubMed Central

    Shinotsuka, Naomi; Nonomura, Keiko; Takemoto, Kiwamu; Kuida, Keisuke; Yosida, Hiroki

    2011-01-01

    Many cells die during development, tissue homeostasis, and disease. Dysregulation of apoptosis leads to cranial neural tube closure (NTC) defects like exencephaly, although the mechanism is unclear. Observing cells undergoing apoptosis in a living context could help elucidate their origin, behavior, and influence on surrounding tissues, but few tools are available for this purpose, especially in mammals. In this paper, we used insulator sequences to generate a transgenic mouse that stably expressed a genetically encoded fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)–based fluorescent reporter for caspase activation and performed simultaneous time-lapse imaging of apoptosis and morphogenesis in living embryos. Live FRET imaging with a fast-scanning confocal microscope revealed that cells containing activated caspases showed typical and nontypical apoptotic behavior in a region-specific manner during NTC. Inhibiting caspase activation perturbed and delayed the smooth progression of cranial NTC, which might increase the risk of exencephaly. Our results suggest that caspase-mediated cell removal facilitates NTC completion within a limited developmental window. PMID:22162136

  1. Cellular basis of neuroepithelial bending during mouse spinal neural tube closure

    PubMed Central

    McShane, Suzanne G.; Molè, Matteo A.; Savery, Dawn; Greene, Nicholas D. E; Tam, Patrick P.L.; Copp, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Bending of the neural plate at paired dorsolateral hinge points (DLHPs) is required for neural tube closure in the spinal region of the mouse embryo. As a step towards understanding the morphogenetic mechanism of DLHP development, we examined variations in neural plate cellular architecture and proliferation during closure. Neuroepithelial cells within the median hinge point (MHP) contain nuclei that are mainly basally located and undergo relatively slow proliferation, with a 7 h cell cycle length. In contrast, cells in the dorsolateral neuroepithelium, including the DLHP, exhibit nuclei distributed throughout the apico-basal axis and undergo rapid proliferation, with a 4 h cell cycle length. As the neural folds elevate, cell numbers increase to a greater extent in the dorsolateral neural plate that contacts the surface ectoderm, compared with the more ventromedial neural plate where cells contact paraxial mesoderm and notochord. This marked increase in dorsolateral cell number cannot be accounted for solely on the basis of enhanced cell proliferation in this region. We hypothesised that neuroepithelial cells may translocate in a ventral-to-dorsal direction as DLHP formation occurs, and this was confirmed by vital cell labelling in cultured embryos. The translocation of cells into the neural fold, together with its more rapid cell proliferation, leads to an increase in cell density dorsolaterally compared with the more ventromedial neural plate. These findings suggest a model in which DLHP formation may proceed through ‘buckling’ of the neuroepithelium at a dorso-ventral boundary marked by a change in cell-packing density. PMID:26079577

  2. Successful pregnancy outcome following gamete intra-Fallopian transfer in a patient with Müllerian dysgenesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Colin S S; Lie, Aldrin T M

    2012-05-01

    A 29-year-old lady with Müllerian dysgenesis was keen to have a baby. Clinically, she was medium built with well-developed secondary female sexual characteristics. There was a short and blind vagina. She had undergone surgery for an imperforated hymen. Her FSH and LH concentrations were normal. Laparoscopy revealed a patent right Fallopian tube, a rudimentary right uterus and extensive pelvic endometriosis. She subsequently underwent gamete intra-Fallopian transfer (GIFT). Oocyte retrieval was carried out laparoscopically and a total of nine oocytes were retrieved. Four of the oocytes were transferred together with motile spermatozoa into the right Fallopian tube and the remaining five oocytes were inseminated with spermatozoa for IVF. Three embryos resulted and were frozen. She subsequently developed moderate ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Serum β-human chorionic gonadotrophin concentration 14 days after GIFT was 1612 IU/l. Her antenatal care was relatively uneventful until 31 weeks of gestation when she was diagnosed to have intrauterine growth retardation and oligohydramnios. She then underwent an emergency Caesarean section at 32 weeks of pregnancy delivering a normal baby. This case study describes a successful pregnancy outcome following gamete intra-Fallopian transfer (GIFT) in a woman with malformation of the vagina (Müllerian dysgenesis). A 29-year-old lady with Müllerian dysgenesis diagnosed at 16 years of age was keen to become pregnant. Upon examination, a decision was made for a William's vulvovaginoplasty but as the patient was indecisive the surgery was deferred. Clinically, she is a medium-built lady with well-developed secondary female sexual characteristics. There was a short and blind vagina. Her serum FSH and LH concentrations were normal. Laparoscopy revealed a patent right Fallopian tube, a rudimentary right uterus and extensive pelvic endometriosis. She subsequently underwent GIFT. Nine oocytes were retrieved through laparoscopy. Four

  3. Risks of Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... ovaries are a pair of organs in the female reproductive system . They are located in the pelvis , one on ... spreads to the ovary. Enlarge Anatomy of the female reproductive system. The organs in the female reproductive system include ...

  4. Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... ovaries are a pair of organs in the female reproductive system . They are located in the pelvis , one on ... spreads to the ovary. Enlarge Anatomy of the female reproductive system. The organs in the female reproductive system include ...

  5. Stages of Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... ovaries are a pair of organs in the female reproductive system . They are in the pelvis , one on each ... spreads to the ovary. Enlarge Anatomy of the female reproductive system. The organs in the female reproductive system include ...

  6. Drugs Approved for Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for ovarian cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  7. Effect of Kumari Taila Uttar Basti on fallopian tube blockage

    PubMed Central

    Shukla (Upadhyay), Kamayani; Karunagoda, Kaumadi; Sata, Nita; Dei, L. P.

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the role of Uttar Basti in tubal blockage, in order to establish it as a safer and cost-effective Ayurvedic treatment modality. The criteria for selection of patients and assessment of results were unilateral or bilateral tubal blockage diagnosed in hysterosalpingography (HSG). A total of 16 patients in the reproductive age group were registered for the study, with 62.50% unilateral and 37.50% bilateral tubal blockage. Fifteen patients completed the course of treatment. The patients with an evidence of active infection or chronic diseases were excluded. Kumari Taila was selected for its Vata Kapha Shamaka and Lekhana properties. The dose of Uttar Basti was 5 ml with duration of two consecutive cycles (six days of Uttar Basti in each cycle with an interval of three days in between). Uttar Basti was administered, after cessation of menstruation, to the screened patients, through hematological, urinary, and serological (HIV, VDRL, HBsAg) investigations. The tubal blockage was removed in 80% of the patients, and 40% of the patients had conceived within the follow-up period of two months. The results suggest that Uttar Basti is a highly significant treatment modality for tubal blockage, with no apparent complications. PMID:22048533

  8. [Treatment of primary cancer of the fallopian tube].

    PubMed

    Pakisch, B; Poschauko, J; Stücklschweiger, G; Poier, E; Lahousen, M; Pickel, H; Kohek, P; Klug, P; Hackl, A

    1990-08-01

    33 patients treated since 1970 at the Medical School of the University of Graz, were classified using the FIGO system for ovarian carcinoma, fourteen were in stage I, 8 stage II, 8 stage III and 3 stage IV. In 17 patients, surgery consisted of total abdominal or vaginal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy; 12 patients underwent additional pelvic +/- paraaortic lymph node extirpation and in 4 the tumour excision was incomplete. Treatment in 6 patients was surgery alone (2/stage I, 4 with advanced disease) (Group A). Adjuvant radiotherapy was performed in 14 patients (Group B); the remaining patients were treated with single (2/13) or multiple agent chemotherapy (11/13) (Group C). The 3-year survival rate was 55% for stage I, 42% for stage II; 10/11 of the stage III/IV patients died within 26 months. The 4-year actuarial survival rate for group B was 68%, for group C 11%. There was no difference between the short-time results of stage II tumours when comparing radiotherapy against chemotherapy. The tumour progression rate was 60%, indicating the need for radical surgery as well as for more aggressive adjuvant treatment. Surgery alone is recommended for stage I disease confined to the mucosa. More advanced disease (extension to the serosa, stage Ic, stage II) requires whole abdominal irradiation with a boost to the pelvic lymph nodes. For stage III/IV tumours a multi-modality treatment is recommended. Chemotherapy (cis-platinum, cyclophosphamide) for recurrent disease resulted in remission in some cases. PMID:2210307

  9. Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... lifestyle or eating habits. Avoiding things known to cause cancer. Taking medicines to treat a precancerous condition or ... called the endometrium. Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer of the female reproductive system. In recent years, ...

  10. The effect of the space flight environment on mucin production in the mouse uterine tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svalina, Gorica; Forsman, Allan D.

    2013-06-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that the microgravity environment of space has harmful effects on several tissues throughout the body. Although this phenomenon is well documented, research in this area is still in its relative infancy. This study investigates the effects of space flight on mucin production of the uterine tubes of mice. This study examined the epithelium of the uterine tubes from female mice that were flown on the space shuttle Endeavour for 13 days in August, 2007 and their concomitant controls. The tissue was qualitatively analyzed for the type of mucin produced, i.e., acidic, neutral, acidic/neutral mixture. Further, the tissue was quantitatively analyzed for the amounts of mucins produced by measuring the thickness of the mucin layer for each region of the uterine tube: isthmus, ampulla, and infundibulum. One way ANOVA tests were used to compare mucin thickness between all three sets of animals. Results indicate similar but not identical results between the three regions of the uterine tube. The Baseline tissue had the thickest mucin layer regardless of treatment group. In the ampulla the mucin layer was the thinnest in the Flight tissue, followed by the Ground Control, with the Baseline being the thickest. Analysis of the mucin layer of the infundibulum of the three treatment groups indicated no difference in its thickness between the three regions of the uterine tube. These results indicate a trend toward thinning of the mucin layer of the uterine tube in space flight, but also indicate an influence by the housing environment.

  11. Midline craniofacial malformations with a lipomatous cephalocele are associated with insufficient closure of the neural tube in the tuft mouse

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Keith S. K.; Adachi, Dana A. T.; Chang, Shaun B.; Lozanoff, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variations affecting neural tube closure along the head result in malformations to the face and brain, posing a significant impact on health care costs and the quality of life. We have established a mouse line from a mutation that arose spontaneously in our wildtype colony that we called tuft. Tuft mice have heritable midline craniofacial defects featuring an anterior lipomatous cephalocele. Whole mount skeletal stains indicated that affected newborns had a broader interfrontal suture where the cephalocele emerged between the frontal bones. Mice with a cephalocele positioned near the rostrum also presented craniofacial malformations such as ocular hypertelorism and midfacial cleft of the nose. Gross and histological examination revealed that the lipomatous cephalocele originated as a fluid filled cyst no earlier than E14.5 while embryos with a midfacial cleft was evident during craniofacial development at E11.5. Histological sections of embryos with a midfacial cleft revealed the cephalic neuroectoderm remained proximal or fused to the frontonasal ectoderm about the closure site of the anterior neuropore, indicating a defect to neural tube closure. We found the neural folds along the rostrum of E9-10.5 embryos curled inward and failed to close as well as embryos with exencephaly and anencephaly at later stages. Whole mount in situ hybridization of anterior markers Fgf8 and Shh indicated closure of the rostral site was compromised in severe cases. We present a model demonstrating how anterior cranial cephaloceles are generated following a defect to neural tube closure and relevance to subsequent craniofacial morphogenesis in the tuft mouse. PMID:24931720

  12. Insights into prevention of human neural tube defects by folic acid arising from consideration of mouse mutants.

    PubMed

    Harris, Muriel J

    2009-04-01

    Almost 30 years after the initial study by Richard W. Smithells and coworkers, it is still unknown how maternal periconceptional folic acid supplementation prevents human neural tube defects (NTDs). In this article, questions about human NTD prevention are considered in relation to three groups of mouse models: NTD mutants that respond to folate, NTD mutants and strains that do not respond to folate, and mutants involving folate-pathway genes. Of the 200 mouse NTD mutants, only a few have been tested with folate; half respond and half do not. Among responsive mutants, folic acid supplementation reduces exencephaly and/or spina bifida aperta frequency in the Sp(2H), Sp, Cd, Cited2, Cart1, and Gcn5 mutants. Prevention ranges from 35 to 85%. The responsive Sp(2H) (Pax3) mutant has abnormal folate metabolism, but the responsive Cited2 mutant does not. Neither folic nor folinic acid reduces NTD frequency in Axd, Grhl3, Fkbp8, Map3k4, or Nog mutants or in the curly tail or SELH/Bc strains. Spina bifida frequency is reduced in Axd by methionine and in curly tail by inositol. Exencephaly frequency is reduced in SELH/Bc by an alternative commercial ration. Mutations in folate-pathway genes do not cause NTDs, except for 30% exencephaly in folate-treated Folr1. Among folate-pathway mutants, neural tube closure is normal in Cbs, Folr2, Mthfd1, Mthfd2, Mthfr, and Shmt1 mutants. Embryos die by midgestation in Folr1, Mtr, Mtrr, and RFC1 mutants. The mouse models point to genetic heterogeneity in the ability to respond to folic acid and also to heterogeneity in genetic cause of NTDs that can be prevented by folic acid.

  13. Transgenic Mouse Models Transferred into the Test Tube: New Perspectives for Developmental Toxicity Testing In Vitro?

    PubMed

    Kugler, Josephine; Luch, Andreas; Oelgeschläger, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Despite our increasing understanding of molecular mechanisms controlling embryogenesis, the identification and characterization of teratogenic substances still heavily relies on animal testing. Embryonic development depends on cell-autonomous and non-autonomous processes including spatiotemporally regulated extracellular signaling activities. These have been elucidated in transgenic mouse models harboring easily detectable reporter genes under the control of evolutionarily conserved signaling cascades. We propose combining these transgenic mouse models and cells derived thereof with existing alternative toxicological testing strategies. This would enable the plausibility of in vitro data to be verified in light of in vivo data and, ultimately, facilitate regulatory acceptance of in vitro test methods.

  14. Cumulative pregnancy and live birth rates after gamete intra-Fallopian transfer.

    PubMed

    Rombauts, L; Dear, M; Breheny, S; Healy, D L

    1997-06-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of gamete intra-Fallopian transfer (GIFT) the Kaplan-Meier life table method was used to analyse a patient cohort treated with GIFT between 1991 and 1994. In a tertiary referral centre for reproductive medicine, 1628 women with a median age of 33 years and various causes of infertility were included to calculate cumulative pregnancy and live birth rates. Age and cause of infertility were main factor variables and the study was based on a total of 2941 consecutive GIFT cycles, leading to a first clinical pregnancy, and 3052 cycles, leading to a first live birth. The cumulative pregnancy and live birth rates were 49.6 and 38.8% respectively, after three initiated cycles and 64.1 and 52.0% respectively, after five initiated cycles. The multiple pregnancy rate was 22.6%. The implantation rate of 13.1% after GIFT demonstrates that the developing embryo benefits from a period of exposure within the environment of the Fallopian tube. The present results indicate that approximately 50% of couples will have at least one live baby after five initiated GIFT cycles. Advancing age was a major negative prognostic factor for the cumulative live birth rate because of higher cancellation rates, lower implantation rates and higher pregnancy failure rates. PMID:9222027

  15. Understanding the causes and prevention of neural tube defects: Insights from the splotch mouse model.

    PubMed

    Greene, Nicholas D E; Massa, Valentina; Copp, Andrew J

    2009-04-01

    Splotch mutant mice develop neural tube defects (NTDs), comprising exencephaly and/or spina bifida, as well as neural crest-related defects and abnormalities of limb musculature. Defects in splotch mice result from mutations in Pax3, and some human NTDs may also result from mutations in the human PAX3 gene. Pax3 encodes a transcription factor whose function may influence expression of multiple downstream genes associated with a variety of cellular properties (including apoptosis, adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation), that could be important for neural tube closure. The frequency of NTDs varies between mutant alleles and is also influenced by genetic background and environmental factors. Notably, splotch provides a model for folic acid-preventable NTDs, and conversely, dietary folate deficiency exacerbates NTDs. Understanding the molecular and cellular basis of splotch NTDs, as well as the mechanisms by which the frequency of defects is influenced by genetic and environmental factors (such as sub-optimal folate status), may provide insight into the causation of these severe congenital malformations in humans.

  16. Amelioration of sodium valproate-induced neural tube defects in mouse fetuses by maternal folic acid supplementation during gestation.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, R; Shafiullah, M Mohamed

    2003-03-01

    Infants of epileptic women treated with valproic acid (VPA) during pregnancy have a higher risk of developing spina bifida than those of the general population. VPA induces exencephaly in experimental animal embryos. But the pathogenetic mechanism remains rather elusive. Antiepileptic drugs (AED) in general accentuate pregnancy-imposed fall in maternal folate levels. Periconceptional folic acid supplementation is reported to protect embryos from developing neural tube defects (NTD). Conflicting results have been reported by experimental studies that attempted to alleviate VPA-induced NTD by folic acid. Our objectives were to determine the critical developmental stages and an effective dose of folic acid for the prevention of VPA-induced exencephaly in mouse fetuses. A single teratogenic dose of 400 mg/kg of VPA was administered to TO mice on gestation day (GD) 7 or 8. It was followed by (1) a single dose of 12 mg/kg of FA (folinic acid) or (2) 3 doses of FA 4 mg/kg each. In experiment (3), FA (4 mg/kg) was administered thrice daily starting on GD 5 and continued through GD 10. These animals received VPA on GD 7 or 8. VPA and B12 concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay. The single heavy dose of FA had no rescue effect on NTD. Three divided doses of FA on GD 7 and continuous dosing of FA from GD 5 through GD 10 substantially reduced the VPA-induced exencephaly in the fetuses. In the later experiments, the neural folds elevated faster than the non-supplemented group. VPA considerably reduced maternal plasma folate and B12 concentrations. The heavy dose of FA only moderately improved vitamin levels. Three divided doses of FA elevated the vitamin levels slightly better but it was the prolonged dosing of FA that was associated with sustained elevation of plasma levels higher than the control levels and acceleration of neural tube closure thus accounting for the pronounced protection against VPA-induced NTD development. These data suggest that plasma levels of

  17. Arsenate-induced maternal glucose intolerance and neural tube defects in a mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Denise S.; Wlodarczyk, Bogdan J.; Mitchell, Laura E.; Finnell, Richard H.

    2009-08-15

    Background: Epidemiological studies have linked environmental arsenic (As) exposure to increased type 2 diabetes risk. Periconceptional hyperglycemia is a significant risk factor for neural tube defects (NTDs), the second most common structural birth defect. A suspected teratogen, arsenic (As) induces NTDs in laboratory animals. Objectives: We investigated whether maternal glucose homeostasis disruption was responsible for arsenate-induced NTDs in a well-established dosing regimen used in studies of arsenic's teratogenicity in early neurodevelopment. Methods: We evaluated maternal intraperitoneal (IP) exposure to As 9.6 mg/kg (as sodium arsenate) in LM/Bc/Fnn mice for teratogenicity and disruption of maternal plasma glucose and insulin levels. Selected compounds (insulin pellet, sodium selenate (SS), N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), L-methionine (L-Met), N-tert-Butyl-{alpha}-phenylnitrone (PBN)) were investigated for their potential to mitigate arsenate's effects. Results: Arsenate caused significant glucose elevation during an IP glucose tolerance test (IPGTT). Insulin levels were not different between arsenate and control dams before (arsenate, 0.55 ng/dl; control, 0.48 ng/dl) or after glucose challenge (arsenate, 1.09 ng/dl; control, 0.81 ng/dl). HOMA-IR index was higher for arsenate (3.9) vs control (2.5) dams (p = 0.0260). Arsenate caused NTDs (100%, p < 0.0001). Insulin pellet and NAC were the most successful rescue agents, reducing NTD rates to 45% and 35%. Conclusions: IPGTT, insulin assay, and HOMA-IR results suggest a modest failure of glucose stimulated insulin secretion and insulin resistance characteristic of glucose intolerance. Insulin's success in preventing arsenate-induced NTDs provides evidence that these arsenate-induced NTDs are secondary to elevated maternal glucose. The NAC rescue, which did not restore maternal glucose or insulin levels, suggests oxidative disruption plays a role.

  18. Severe neural tube defects in the loop-tail mouse result from mutation of Lpp1, a novel gene involved in floor plate specification.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, J N; Doudney, K; Paternotte, C; Copp, A J; Stanier, P

    2001-10-15

    Neural tube defects (NTD) are clinically important congenital malformations whose molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. The loop-tail (Lp) mutant mouse provides a model for the most severe NTD, craniorachischisis, in which the brain and spinal cord remain open. During a positional cloning approach, we have identified a mutation in a novel gene, Lpp1, in the Lp mouse, providing a strong candidate for the genetic causation of craniorachischisis in LP: Lpp1 encodes a protein of 521 amino acids, with four transmembrane domains related to the Drosophila protein strabismus/van gogh (vang). The human orthologue, LPP1, shares 89% identity with the mouse gene at the nucleotide level and 99% identity at the amino acid level. Lpp1 is expressed in the ventral part of the developing neural tube, but is excluded from the floor plate where Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is expressed. Embryos lacking Shh express Lpp1 throughout the ventral neural tube, suggesting negative regulation of Lpp1 by SHH: Our findings suggest that the mutual interaction between Lpp1 and Shh may define the lateral boundary of floor plate differentiation. Loss of Lpp1 function disrupts neurulation by permitting more extensive floor plate induction by Shh, thereby inhibiting midline bending of the neural plate during initiation of neurulation.

  19. A mutation in the tuft mouse disrupts TET1 activity and alters the expression of genes that are crucial for neural tube closure.

    PubMed

    Fong, Keith S K; Hufnagel, Robert B; Khadka, Vedbar S; Corley, Michael J; Maunakea, Alika K; Fogelgren, Ben; Ahmed, Zubair M; Lozanoff, Scott

    2016-05-01

    Genetic variations affecting neural tube closure along the head result in malformations of the face and brain. Neural tube defects (NTDs) are among the most common birth defects in humans. We previously reported a mouse mutant called tuft that arose spontaneously in our wild-type 3H1 colony. Adult tuft mice present midline craniofacial malformations with or without an anterior cephalocele. In addition, affected embryos presented neural tube closure defects resulting in insufficient closure of the anterior neuropore or exencephaly. Here, through whole-genome sequencing, we identified a nonsense mutation in the Tet1 gene, which encodes a methylcytosine dioxygenase (TET1), co-segregating with the tuft phenotype. This mutation resulted in premature termination that disrupts the catalytic domain that is involved in the demethylation of cytosine. We detected a significant loss of TET enzyme activity in the heads of tuft embryos that were homozygous for the mutation and had NTDs. RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis indicated that multiple gene pathways associated with neural tube closure were dysregulated in tuft embryo heads. Among them, the expressions of Cecr2, Epha7 and Grhl2 were significantly reduced in some embryos presenting neural tube closure defects, whereas one or more components of the non-canonical WNT signaling pathway mediating planar cell polarity and convergent extension were affected in others. We further show that the recombinant mutant TET1 protein was capable of entering the nucleus and affected the expression of endogenous Grhl2 in IMCD-3 (inner medullary collecting duct) cells. These results indicate that TET1 is an epigenetic determinant for regulating genes that are crucial to closure of the anterior neural tube and its mutation has implications to craniofacial development, as presented by the tuft mouse. PMID:26989192

  20. A mutation in the tuft mouse disrupts TET1 activity and alters the expression of genes that are crucial for neural tube closure

    PubMed Central

    Khadka, Vedbar S.; Corley, Michael J.; Maunakea, Alika K.; Fogelgren, Ben; Ahmed, Zubair M.; Lozanoff, Scott

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genetic variations affecting neural tube closure along the head result in malformations of the face and brain. Neural tube defects (NTDs) are among the most common birth defects in humans. We previously reported a mouse mutant called tuft that arose spontaneously in our wild-type 3H1 colony. Adult tuft mice present midline craniofacial malformations with or without an anterior cephalocele. In addition, affected embryos presented neural tube closure defects resulting in insufficient closure of the anterior neuropore or exencephaly. Here, through whole-genome sequencing, we identified a nonsense mutation in the Tet1 gene, which encodes a methylcytosine dioxygenase (TET1), co-segregating with the tuft phenotype. This mutation resulted in premature termination that disrupts the catalytic domain that is involved in the demethylation of cytosine. We detected a significant loss of TET enzyme activity in the heads of tuft embryos that were homozygous for the mutation and had NTDs. RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis indicated that multiple gene pathways associated with neural tube closure were dysregulated in tuft embryo heads. Among them, the expressions of Cecr2, Epha7 and Grhl2 were significantly reduced in some embryos presenting neural tube closure defects, whereas one or more components of the non-canonical WNT signaling pathway mediating planar cell polarity and convergent extension were affected in others. We further show that the recombinant mutant TET1 protein was capable of entering the nucleus and affected the expression of endogenous Grhl2 in IMCD-3 (inner medullary collecting duct) cells. These results indicate that TET1 is an epigenetic determinant for regulating genes that are crucial to closure of the anterior neural tube and its mutation has implications to craniofacial development, as presented by the tuft mouse. PMID:26989192

  1. Ltap, a mammalian homolog of Drosophila Strabismus/Van Gogh, is altered in the mouse neural tube mutant Loop-tail.

    PubMed

    Kibar, Z; Vogan, K J; Groulx, N; Justice, M J; Underhill, D A; Gros, P

    2001-07-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) such as spina bifida and anencephaly are common congenital malformations in humans (1/1,000 births) that result from failure of the neural tube to close during embryogenesis. The etiology of NTDs is complex, with both genetic and environmental contributions; the genetic component has been extensively studied with mouse models. Loop-tail (Lp) is a semidominant mutation on mouse chromosome 1 (ref. 4). In the two known Lp alleles (Lp, Lpm1Jus), heterozygous mice exhibit a characteristic looped tail, and homozygous embryos show a completely open neural tube in the hindbrain and spinal region, a condition similar to the severe craniorachischisis defect in humans. Morphological and neural patterning studies indicate a role for the Lp gene product in controlling early morphogenesis and patterning of both axial midline structures and the developing neural plate. The 0.6-cM/0.7-megabase (Mb) Lp interval is delineated proximally by D1Mit113/Apoa2/Fcer1g and distally by Fcer1a/D1Mit149/Spna1 and contains a minimum of 17 transcription units. One of these genes, Ltap, encodes a homolog of Drosophila Strabismus/Van Gogh (Stbm/Vang), a component of the frizzled/dishevelled tissue polarity pathway. Ltap is expressed broadly in the neuroectoderm throughout early neurogenesis and is altered in two independent Lp alleles, identifying this gene as a strong candidate for Lp.

  2. Fallopian Metaplastic Papillary Tumour: An Atypical Transdifferentiation of the Tubal Epithelium?

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Miguel Fdo.; Moscoso, Isaías Estrada; Vázquez, Lorena Troncoso; López García, Nubia Leticia; Escalante Abril, Paola Andrea

    2015-01-01

    A metaplastic papillary tumor of the Fallopian tube is an extremely uncommon condition, with odd and confusing features that make it difficult to categorize as benign or borderline. Here, we summarize all the published cases to date and document the case of a 41-year-old woman diagnosed with this alteration after her last childbirth and ensuing tubal ligation. One of the tubes was bulky and filled with a caramel-like substance encircling a blurry spot. Light microscopy detailed a slender stalk covered by eosinophilic, columnar plump cells, showing atypical nuclei and focal budding. Mitotic figures were absent. The immunohistochemistry panel was positive for pan-cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, cyclin D1, and hormone receptors. Additionally, a proliferation index of less than 5% was rated using Ki-67. The true nature of this tumor (reactive vs neoplastic) is uncertain. Nonetheless, its association with pregnancy suggests an adaptive change, likely similar to the atypical transdifferentiation proposed for Arias-Stella reaction. PMID:25812736

  3. Bradykinin- and sodium nitroprusside-induced increases in capillary tube haematocrit in mouse cremaster muscle are associated with impaired glycocalyx barrier properties

    PubMed Central

    VanTeeffelen, Jurgen W G E; Constantinescu, Alina A; Brands, Judith; Spaan, Jos A E; Vink, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that agonists may increase functionally perfused capillary volume by modulation of blood-excluding glycocalyx volume, but direct evidence for this association is lacking at the moment. Using intravital microscopic visualization of mouse cremaster muscle, we determined the effects of bradykinin (10−5 m) and sodium nitroprusside (10−6 m) on capillary tube haematocrit and glycocalyx barrier properties. In control C57Bl/6 mice (n = 10), tube haematocrit in capillaries (n = 71) increased (P < 0.05) from 8.7 ± 0.3% during baseline to 21.2 ± 1.2 and 22.2 ± 0.9% during superfusion with bradykinin and nitroprusside, respectively. In parallel, the exclusion zone of FITC-labelled 70 kDa dextrans decreased (P < 0.05) from 0.37 ± 0.01 μm during baseline to 0.17 ± 0.01 μm with bradykinin and 0.15 ± 0.01 μm with nitroprusside. Bradykinin and nitroprusside had no effect on dextran exclusion and tube haematocrit in capillaries (n = 55) of hyperlipidemic ApoE3-Leiden mice, which showed impaired exclusion of 70 kDa dextrans (0.05 ± 0.02 μm; P < 0.05 versus C57Bl/6) and increased capillary tube haematocrit (23 ± 0.8%; P < 0.05 versus C57Bl/6) under baseline conditions, indicating glycocalyx degradation. Our data show that vasodilator substances increase functionally perfused capillary volume and that this effect is associated with a reduction in glycocalyx exclusion of 70 kDa dextrans. Modulation of glycocalyx volume might represent a novel mechanism of perfusion control at the capillary level. PMID:18450777

  4. In vitro study of cell differentiation by two type mouse embryo stem cells on mono- and multilayer nanocarbon tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Koichi; Akasaka, Tsukasa; Watari, Fumio; Tanoue, Akito; Nakamura, Kazuaki; Suese, Kazuhiko; Takashima, Hiromasa; Nishikawa, Tetsunari; Tanaka, Akio; Takeda, Shoji

    2012-09-01

    The effects of nanomaterials on human reproduction and development remain unknown. The risks of nanomaterials for future generations should be elucidated. Thus, it is important to establish an experimental method to accurately examine embryotoxicity. We previously investigated the myocardial cell differentiation of ES-D3 cells using monolayer (SWCNTs) and multilayer (MWCNTs) nanocarbon tubes. As a result, in spite of having the same carbon composition, the effects on the cell differentiation levels differed between the tubes. We investigated their cell differentiation and cytotoxic effects on EL M3 and ES-R1-EGFP B2/EGFP cells, which require feeder cells. As a result, myocardial pulse rates differed between the presence of SWCNTs and MWCNTs even when feeder cells existed between the samples and cells. The different surface structures of SWCNTs and MWCNTs may have influenced ES cell differentiation.

  5. Fat1 interacts with Fat4 to regulate neural tube closure, neural progenitor proliferation and apical constriction during mouse brain development.

    PubMed

    Badouel, Caroline; Zander, Mark A; Liscio, Nicole; Bagherie-Lachidan, Mazdak; Sopko, Richelle; Coyaud, Etienne; Raught, Brian; Miller, Freda D; McNeill, Helen

    2015-08-15

    Mammalian brain development requires coordination between neural precursor proliferation, differentiation and cellular organization to create the intricate neuronal networks of the adult brain. Here, we examined the role of the atypical cadherins Fat1 and Fat4 in this process. We show that mutation of Fat1 in mouse embryos causes defects in cranial neural tube closure, accompanied by an increase in the proliferation of cortical precursors and altered apical junctions, with perturbations in apical constriction and actin accumulation. Similarly, knockdown of Fat1 in cortical precursors by in utero electroporation leads to overproliferation of radial glial precursors. Fat1 interacts genetically with the related cadherin Fat4 to regulate these processes. Proteomic analysis reveals that Fat1 and Fat4 bind different sets of actin-regulating and junctional proteins. In vitro data suggest that Fat1 and Fat4 form cis-heterodimers, providing a mechanism for bringing together their diverse interactors. We propose a model in which Fat1 and Fat4 binding coordinates distinct pathways at apical junctions to regulate neural progenitor proliferation, neural tube closure and apical constriction.

  6. Fat1 interacts with Fat4 to regulate neural tube closure, neural progenitor proliferation and apical constriction during mouse brain development

    PubMed Central

    Badouel, Caroline; Zander, Mark A.; Liscio, Nicole; Bagherie-Lachidan, Mazdak; Sopko, Richelle; Coyaud, Etienne; Raught, Brian; Miller, Freda D.; McNeill, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian brain development requires coordination between neural precursor proliferation, differentiation and cellular organization to create the intricate neuronal networks of the adult brain. Here, we examined the role of the atypical cadherins Fat1 and Fat4 in this process. We show that mutation of Fat1 in mouse embryos causes defects in cranial neural tube closure, accompanied by an increase in the proliferation of cortical precursors and altered apical junctions, with perturbations in apical constriction and actin accumulation. Similarly, knockdown of Fat1 in cortical precursors by in utero electroporation leads to overproliferation of radial glial precursors. Fat1 interacts genetically with the related cadherin Fat4 to regulate these processes. Proteomic analysis reveals that Fat1 and Fat4 bind different sets of actin-regulating and junctional proteins. In vitro data suggest that Fat1 and Fat4 form cis-heterodimers, providing a mechanism for bringing together their diverse interactors. We propose a model in which Fat1 and Fat4 binding coordinates distinct pathways at apical junctions to regulate neural progenitor proliferation, neural tube closure and apical constriction. PMID:26209645

  7. Analyses of copy number variation reveal putative susceptibility loci in MTX-induced mouse neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianhua; Wang, Xiuwei; Guan, Tao; Xiang, Qian; Wang, Mingsheng; Zhang, Zhi; Guan, Zhen; Wang, Guoliang; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Xie, Qiu; Li, Guannan; Guo, Jin; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Zhengguo; Niu, Bo; Zhang, Ting

    2014-09-01

    Copy number variations (CNVs) are thought to act as an important genetic mechanism underlying phenotypic heterogeneity. Impaired folate metabolism can result in neural tube defects (NTDs). However, the precise nature of the relationship between low folate status and NTDs remains unclear. Using an array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) assay, we investigated whether CNVs could be detected in the NTD embryonic neural tissues of methotrexate (MTX)-induced folate dysmetabolism pregnant C57BL/6 mice and confirmed the findings with quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The CNVs were then comprehensively investigated using bioinformatics methods to prioritize candidate genes. We measured dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) activity and concentrations of folate and relevant metabolites in maternal serum using enzymologic method and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Three high confidence CNVs on XqA1.1, XqA1.1-qA2, and XqE3 were found in the NTD embryonic neural tissues. Twelve putative genes and three microRNAs were identified as potential susceptibility candidates in MTX-induced NTDs and possible roles in NTD pathogenesis. DHFR activity and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MeTHF), 5-formyltetrahydrofolate (5-FoTHF), and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) concentrations of maternal serum decreased significantly after MTX injection. These findings suggest that CNVs caused by defects in folate metabolism lead to NTD, and further support the hypothesis that folate dysmetabolism is a direct cause for CNVs in MTX-induced NTDs.

  8. Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) induces high occurrence of neural tube defects in embryonic mouse brain during neurulation.

    PubMed

    Quan, Hongyu; Ma, Teng; Zhao, Xianxian; Zhao, Baixiong; Liu, Yunlai; Li, Hongli

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the direct embryonic teratogenicity of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM), especially the toxic effects on the early development of the nervous system and its underlying mechanisms. Pregnant mice at embryonic day 6.5 (E6.5) were injected with different doses of VCM (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg) and embryos were harvested at E10.5. Our results showed that doses higher than 400 mg/kg of VCM increased the incidence of malformed embryos, especially the neural tube defects (NTDs). In addition, high-dose of VCM decreased mitotic figure counts in the neuroepithelium and enhanced the percentage of cells in G0/G1 phase, while they were reduced in S phase. The more VCM was injected into mice, the fewer positive PCNA cells were seen and the more positive TUNEL cells were observed in the neuroepithelium. Moreover, significant increases in the levels of caspase-3 protein were observed in NTD embryos. Our results demonstrate that during early pregnancy, exposure to doses higher than 400 mg/kg of VCM increases the incidence of malformations and particularly the rate of NTDs. High-dose of VCM inhibits the proliferation of neural cells and induces cell apoptosis, leading to an imbalance in the ratio of proliferation and apoptosis. Meanwhile, the apoptosis of neuroepithelial cells might be accelerated by the activation of the caspase-3 pathway, and it might be a reason for NTDs.

  9. Treatment Option Overview (Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ovaries are a pair of organs in the female reproductive system . They are in the pelvis , one on each ... spreads to the ovary. Enlarge Anatomy of the female reproductive system. The organs in the female reproductive system include ...

  10. Treatment Options by Stage (Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ovaries are a pair of organs in the female reproductive system . They are in the pelvis , one on each ... spreads to the ovary. Enlarge Anatomy of the female reproductive system. The organs in the female reproductive system include ...

  11. Infertility in Women: Hysterosalpingographic Assessment of the Fallopian Tubes in Lagos, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinola, R. A.; Akinola, O. I.; Fabamwo, A. O.

    2009-01-01

    Tubal disease constitutes a major factor in infertility especially in developing countries. This study was undertaken to assess the hysterosalpingographic patterns seen in infertile patients in an urban centre in Lagos. Two hundred and twenty patients who reported from the gynaecology clinic to the radiology department of Lagos State University…

  12. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional imaging of uterus and fallopian tubes in female infertility.

    PubMed

    Carrascosa, Patricia; Capuñay, Carlos; Vallejos, Javier; Carpio, Jimena; Baronio, Mariano; Papier, Sergio

    2016-06-01

    Noninvasive imaging techniques play an important role in the female infertility diagnostic algorithm. In this review article, a description of the diagnostic performance and potential clinical value of both computerized tomographic virtual hysterosalpingography (CT-VHGS) and magnetic-resonance virtual hysterosalpingography (MR-VHSG) is made, describing for both techniques, to guarantee the best possible diagnostic outcome, patient preparation and normal and principal pathologic findings. Both noninvasive diagnostic imaging modalities improve the diagnostic confidence in identification of the specific cause of female infertility. These procedures are well tolerated and can be performed without tenaculum and sedation. The combined analysis of all the imaging data offers the gynecologist a wide information spectrum, enabling a better therapeutic decision. CT-VHSG and MR-VHSG are consistent diagnostic imaging modalities for the evaluation of the female reproductive system, with an excellent diagnostic performance compared with traditional diagnostic exams and allowing a comprehensive assessment of the female reproductive system. PMID:27140290

  13. Microbiological and histological findings in the fallopian tubes of women using various contraceptive methods.

    PubMed

    Collins, J A; Gillett, P G; Perlin, I A; Embil, J A; Zayid, I; Richards, G; Kirk, M E

    1984-11-01

    The oviducts of seventy-three women undergoing sterilization by partial salpingectomy were submitted for microbiological and histologic studies. Twenty women were intrauterine device users, twenty-five women were oral contraceptive pill users and twenty-eight women used natural or barrier methods of contraception. Among intrauterine device users, there was an excess of mild and severe acute inflammatory histologic changes involving both the lumen and the tubal mucosa. Five of the eight intrauterine device users with acute inflammatory change had sterile tubal cultures.

  14. [Positive and negative aspects of Fallopian tube sterilization as viewed by sterilized women

    PubMed

    Minella

    1998-03-30

    The objective of this paper is to point out the positive and negative aspects of female sterilization as seen by two groups of sterilized women in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil, based on a sociological discussion of their present health status, evaluating the associations that they generally make with the fact that they have been sterilized. The first group included mostly housewives from a low-income neighborhood, while the second involved upper-middle-class female public employees, students, and university professors, totaling 40 women. Data were obtained through a structured questionnaire with open-ended questions. Information on social, economic, and demographic variables was recorded, along with subjective data associated with women's representations of the post-sterilization period. We concluded that there was no consensus as to the consequences of sterilization, since a number of the women (11/40), mostly sterilized before the age of 30, perceived changes in their health status after surgery.

  15. Novel mutations in Lrp6 orthologs in mouse and human neural tube defects affect a highly dosage-sensitive Wnt non-canonical planar cell polarity pathway

    PubMed Central

    Allache, Redouane; Lachance, Stéphanie; Guyot, Marie Claude; De Marco, Patrizia; Merello, Elisa; Justice, Monica J.; Capra, Valeria; Kibar, Zoha

    2014-01-01

    Wnt signaling has been classified as canonical Wnt/β-catenin-dependent or non-canonical planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway. Misregulation of either pathway is linked mainly to cancer or neural tube defects (NTDs), respectively. Both pathways seem to antagonize each other, and recent studies have implicated a number of molecular switches that activate one pathway while simultaneously inhibiting the other thereby partially mediating this antagonism. The lipoprotein receptor–related protein Lrp6 is crucial for the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, but its function in Wnt/PCP signaling remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigate the role of Lrp6 as a molecular switch between both Wnt pathways in a novel ENU mouse mutant of Lrp6 (Skax26m1Jus) and in human NTDs. We demonstrate that Skax26m1Jus represents a hypermorphic allele of Lrp6 with increased Wnt canonical and abolished PCP-induced JNK activities. We also show that Lrp6Skax26-Jus genetically interacts with a PCP mutant (Vangl2Lp) where double heterozygotes showed an increased frequency of NTDs and defects in cochlear hair cells’ polarity. Importantly, our study also demonstrates the association of rare and novel missense mutations in LRP6 that is an inhibitor rather than an activator of the PCP pathway with human NTDs. We show that three LRP6 mutations in NTDs led to a reduced Wnt canonical activity and enhanced PCP signaling. Our data confirm an inhibitory role of Lrp6 in PCP signaling in neurulation and indicate the importance of a tightly regulated and highly dosage-sensitive antagonism between both Wnt pathways in this process. PMID:24203697

  16. Tube support

    DOEpatents

    Mullinax, Jerry L.

    1988-01-01

    A tube support for supporting horizontal tubes from an inclined vertical support tube passing between the horizontal tubes. A support button is welded to the vertical support tube. Two clamping bars or plates, the lower edges of one bearing on the support button, are removably bolted to the inclined vertical tube. The clamping bars provide upper and lower surface support for the horizontal tubes.

  17. Electrophysiological basis of human fallopian tubal fluid formation.

    PubMed

    Downing, S J; Maguiness, S D; Watson, A; Leese, H J

    1997-09-01

    A preparation for the maintenance of human Fallopian tubal epithelial cells as a polarized layer in primary culture was used to study the electrophysiological basis of tubal fluid formation in terms of the movement of Na+, K+ and Cl- ions. Transepithelial potential difference (PD) and short-circuit current (Iscc) were recorded by mounting the epithelial cells in a modified Ussing chamber. Resistance (R) was calculated from the measurements of PD and Iscc. The epithelia, although confluent, formed a 'leaky' electrical system and resistances greater than 300 omega cm-2 were rarely achieved. The sodium channel blocker, amiloride (100 mumol l-1), produced only small effects on PD and Iscc. The potassium channel blocker, tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA) (25 mmol l-1), also produced small, but significant changes in PD, Iscc and R while the chloride channel blocker, 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (SITS) (1 mmol l-1), induced a marked increase in PD and Iscc, and a fall in R, when added to the basal surface of the cells. Bathing the apical surface of the cells with chloride-free medium also produced a marked increase in PD, Iscc and R: bathing the basal surface of the cells with chloride-free medium produced a marked decrease in PD and Iscc. Extracellular ATP (10 mumol l-1), added to either the apical or the basal surface of the cells, induced a transient increase in PD and Iscc and a decrease in R. Amiloride, TEA or furosemide had no effect on the response of the cells to ATP. SITS, applied to the apical surface, significantly reduced the response of the cells to ATP. We conclude that the major driving force for human tubal fluid formation is the transepithelial secretion of chloride ions into the oviduct lumen and that exogenous ATP is a potential modulator of secretion. PMID:9370964

  18. Feeding Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... administer the TPN. Tubes Used for Enteral Feeds NG (Nasogastric Tube) A flexible tube is placed via ... down through the esophagus into the stomach. The NG tube can be used to empty the stomach ...

  19. Ear Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Tubes Ear Tubes Patient Health Information News media ... and throat specialist) may be considered. What are ear tubes? Ear tubes are tiny cylinders placed through ...

  20. TUBE TESTER

    DOEpatents

    Gittings, H.T. Jr.; Kalbach, J.F.

    1958-01-14

    This patent relates to tube testing, and in particular describes a tube tester for automatic testing of a number of vacuum tubes while in service and as frequently as may be desired. In it broadest aspects the tube tester compares a particular tube with a standard tube tarough a difference amplifier. An unbalanced condition in the circuit of the latter produced by excessive deviation of the tube in its characteristics from standard actuates a switch mechanism stopping the testing cycle and indicating the defective tube.

  1. Elevated Nuclear and Cytoplasmic FTY720-Phosphate in Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts Suggests the Potential for Multiple Mechanisms in FTY720-Induced Neural Tube Defects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    FTY720 (fingolimod) is an FDA-approved drug to treat relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. FTY720 treatment in pregnant inbred LM/Bc mice results in approximately 60% of embryos having a neural tube defect (NTD). Sphingosine kinases (Sphk1, Sphk2) phosphorylate FTY720 in vivo to form the bioactive...

  2. [Effect of kinetin on ovary and uterus in D-galactose-induced female mouse model of aging].

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiang-Hong; Liu, Yu-Mei; Cao, Tong; Ouyang, Wu-Qing

    2013-08-25

    The present study was to investigate the effect of kinetin on ovary and uterus of D-galactose-induced female mouse model of aging. Aging female mice model caused by D-galactose were used as model group, the aging model mice intragastrically administered with kinetin solution (daily 25 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg) were used as kinetin groups, and the mice with solvent as normal group (n = 20). To detect the effects of kinetin, estrous cycle, estradiol content, ovarian and uterine wet weight and organ index, SOD and GSH-Px activities, MDA and total protein contents, as well as the reserve function of ovaries were examined. The results showed that, kinetin-induced changes in two kinetin groups were observed, compared with the model group: (1) the estrous cycle was shortened; (2) serum estradiol content was significantly increased; (3) the wet weights of the ovary and uterus were increased significantly; (4) SOD and GSH-Px activities of ovary and uterus were significantly higher; (5) the MDA contents of the ovary and uterus were reduced significantly; (6) total protein contents of the ovary and uterus were increased significantly; (7) the numbers of mature oocytes in fallopian tubes were increased significantly. The results show that kinetin can protect ovary and uterus against oxidative damage, prevent low estrogen secretion caused by ovarian oxidative damage, shorten the estrous cycle in mice, and eventually maintain ovarian and uterine vitalities.

  3. Nasogastric feeding tube

    MedlinePlus

    Feeding - nasogastric tube; NG tube; Bolus feeding; Continuous pump feeding; Gavage tube ... A nasogastric tube (NG tube) is a special tube that carries food and medicine to the stomach through the nose. It can be ...

  4. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... tube insertion; G-tube insertion; PEG tube insertion; Stomach tube insertion; Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube insertion ... and down the esophagus, which leads to the stomach. After the endoscopy tube is inserted, the skin ...

  5. Endometriosis coexisting with mature cystic teratoma in the same ovary and ectopic pregnancy of left fallopian tube: a rare coexistence.

    PubMed

    Chae, Heesuk; Rheu, Chulhee

    2015-05-01

    A coexistence of endometriosis and mature cystic teratoma in the same ovary is a rare occurrence although such tumors of ovaries are said to be common in the reproductive age group. We report a case of fimbrial ectopic pregnancy combined with simultaneous ipsilateral ovarian presentation of endometriosis and mature teratoma.

  6. Immunization with chlamydial type III secretion antigens reduces vaginal shedding and prevents fallopian tube pathology following live C. muridarum challenge.

    PubMed

    Bulir, David C; Liang, Steven; Lee, Amanda; Chong, Sylvia; Simms, Elizabeth; Stone, Christopher; Kaushic, Charu; Ashkar, Ali; Mahony, James B

    2016-07-25

    Chlamydia trachomatis infections in women are often asymptomatic and if left untreated can lead to significant late sequelae including pelvic inflammatory disease and tubal factor infertility. Vaccine development efforts over the past three decades have been unproductive and there is no vaccine approved for use in humans. The existence of serologically distinct strains or serovars of C. trachomatis mandates a vaccine that will provide protection against multiple serovars. Chlamydia spp. use a highly conserved type III secretion system (T3SS) composed of both structural and effector proteins which is an essential virulence factor for infection and intracellular replication. In this study we evaluated a novel fusion protein antigen (BD584) which consists of three T3SS proteins from C. trachomatis (CopB, CopD, and CT584) as a potential chlamydial vaccine candidate. Intranasal immunization with BD584 elicited serum neutralizing antibodies that inhibited C. trachomatis infection in vitro. Following intravaginal challenge with C. muridarum, immunized mice had a 95% reduction in chlamydial shedding from the vagina at the peak of infection and cleared the infection sooner than control mice. Immunization with BD584 also reduced the rate of hydrosalpinx by 87.5% compared to control mice. Together, these results suggest that highly conserved proteins of the chlamydial T3SS may represent good candidates for a Chlamydia vaccine. PMID:27325352

  7. Germline and Somatic Mutations in Homologous Recombination Genes Predict Platinum Response and Survival in Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Peritoneal Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Pennington, Kathryn P.; Walsh, Tom; Harrell, Maria I.; Lee, Ming K.; Pennil, Christopher C.; Rendi, Mara H.; Thornton, Anne; Norquist, Barbara M.; Casadei, Silvia; Nord, Alexander S.; Agnew, Kathy J.; Pritchard, Colin C.; Scroggins, Sheena; Garcia, Rochelle L.; King, Mary-Claire; Swisher, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Hallmarks of germline BRCA1/2-associated ovarian carcinomas include chemosensitivity and improved survival. The therapeutic impact of somatic BRCA1/2 mutations and mutations in other homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair genes is uncertain. Experimental Design Using targeted capture and massively parallel genomic sequencing, we assessed 390 ovarian carcinomas for germline and somatic loss-of-function mutations in 30 genes, including BRCA1, BRCA2, and 11 other genes in the HR pathway. Results 31% of ovarian carcinomas had a deleterious germline (24%) and/or somatic (9%) mutation in one or more of the 13 HR genes: BRCA1, BRCA2, ATM, BARD1, BRIP1, CHEK1, CHEK2, FAM175A, MRE11A, NBN, PALB2, RAD51C, and RAD51D. Non-serous ovarian carcinomas had similar rates of HR mutations to serous carcinomas (28% vs. 31%, p=0.6), including clear cell, endometrioid, and carcinosarcoma. The presence of germline and somatic HR mutations was highly predictive of primary platinum sensitivity (p=0.0002) and improved overall survival (p=0.0006), with median overall survival 66 months in germline HR mutation carriers, 59 months in cases with a somatic HR mutation, and 41 months for cases without an HR mutation. Conclusions Germline or somatic mutations in HR genes are present in almost one-third of ovarian carcinomas, including both serous and non-serous histologies. Somatic BRCA1/2 mutations and mutations in other HR genes have a similar positive impact on overall survival and platinum responsiveness as germline BRCA1/2 mutations. The similar rate of HR mutations in non-serous carcinomas supports their inclusion in PARP inhibitor clinical trials. PMID:24240112

  8. The history and current status of fallopian tube pressures - developing alternate methods for confirmation of tubal occlusion.

    PubMed

    Patil, Eva; Thurmond, Amy

    2015-08-01

    Permanent contraception with hysteroscopic tubal ligation is an increasingly popular choice for women around the world. However, inconveniences associated with the required confirmation test for tubal occlusion can be prohibitive. As new methods of permanent contraception are being investigated, ways of making all aspects of the procedure more accessible and comfortable for women should be considered. Means of examining tubal patency in the infertility population, such as tubal perfusion pressures measured at the time of hysterosalpingogram (HSG), provide inspiration for alternative methods of tubal occlusion confirmation after contraception. Evaluation of intrauterine pressures measured by a manometer attached to an intrauterine balloon catheter could serve as a preliminary tool for verification of tubal occlusion; higher pressures would indicate tubal occlusion and lower pressures would indicate the need for confirmatory HSG. The development and validation of this technique is ongoing and could reduce overall costs and patient burdens associated with the current tubal occlusion confirmation procedure.

  9. Vitrification by Cryotop and the Maturation, Fertilization, and Developmental Rates of Mouse Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Abedpour, Neda; Rajaei, Farzad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oocyte cryopreservation is an important part of modern fertility treatment. The effect of vitrification on the fertilization and developmental rates of embryo is still a matter of debate. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effect of vitrification on the success of mouse oocyte maturation, fertilization, and preimplantation development in vitro. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, a total of 200 germinal vesicle (GV) and 200 metaphase II (MII) oocytes were obtained from ovaries and fallopian tubes of NMRI mice, respectively and divided into two control and experimental (vitrified) groups. Oocytes in the experimental group were vitrified by Cryotop using vitrification medium (Origio, Denmark) and kept in liquid nitrogen for one month. Then, they were cultured in maturation medium for 24 hours. In vitro maturated metaphase 2 (IVM-MII) and ovulated metaphase 2 (OV-MII) oocytes were inseminated and the fertilized embryos assessed until the hatching blastocyst stage. Outcomes were assessed for statistical significance by Chi-square test using SPSS software. Results: Vitrification caused a significant reduction in the maturation rate of oocytes. Of those that matured, the fertilization rate of vitrified IVM-MII (44.1%) and OV-MII oocytes (50%) was not significantly different from each other but both were significantly lower than the control group (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in developmental rates of both vitrified groups and the control group. Conclusions: The present study showed that vitrification using Cryotop and freezing medium can damage oocytes by reducing the maturation and fertilization rates in both developmental stages. PMID:26568845

  10. Protective tubes for sodium heated water tubes

    DOEpatents

    Essebaggers, Jan

    1979-01-01

    A heat exchanger in which water tubes are heated by liquid sodium which minimizes the results of accidental contact between the water and the sodium caused by failure of one or more of the water tubes. A cylindrical protective tube envelopes each water tube and the sodium flows axially in the annular spaces between the protective tubes and the water tubes.

  11. Multiple tube premixing device

    DOEpatents

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Naidu, Balachandar; Ziminksy, Willy Steve; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin; Stevenson, Christian; Felling, David

    2013-08-13

    The present application provides a premixer for a combustor. The premixer may include a fuel plenum with a number of fuel tubes and a burner tube with a number of air tubes. The fuel tubes extend about the air tubes.

  12. Multiple tube premixing device

    DOEpatents

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin; Stevenson, Christian; Felling, David

    2012-12-11

    The present application provides a premixer for a combustor. The premixer may include a fuel plenum with a number of fuel tubes and a burner tube with a number of air tubes. The fuel tubes extend about the air tubes.

  13. Ear tube insertion

    MedlinePlus

    Myringotomy; Tympanostomy; Ear tube surgery; Pressure equalization tubes; Ventilating tubes; Ear infection - tubes; Otitis - tubes ... trapped fluid can flow out of the middle ear. This prevents hearing loss and reduces the risk ...

  14. Tube Feedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy

    This module on tube feedings is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who work in long-term care. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then provided. A brief discussion follows…

  15. Angular glass tubing drawn from round tubing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Round glass tubing softened in a furnace is drawn over a shaped plug or mandel to form shapes with other than a circular cross section. Irregularly shaped tubing is formed without limitations on tube length or wall thickness.

  16. Neutron tubes

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lou, Tak Pui; Reijonen, Jani

    2008-03-11

    A neutron tube or generator is based on a RF driven plasma ion source having a quartz or other chamber surrounded by an external RF antenna. A deuterium or mixed deuterium/tritium (or even just a tritium) plasma is generated in the chamber and D or D/T (or T) ions are extracted from the plasma. A neutron generating target is positioned so that the ion beam is incident thereon and loads the target. Incident ions cause D-D or D-T (or T-T) reactions which generate neutrons. Various embodiments differ primarily in size of the chamber and position and shape of the neutron generating target. Some neutron generators are small enough for implantation in the body. The target may be at the end of a catheter-like drift tube. The target may have a tapered or conical surface to increase target surface area.

  17. QUANTIZING TUBE

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, A.S.; Gray, G.W.

    1958-07-01

    Beam deflection tubes are described for use in switching or pulse amplitude analysis. The salient features of the invention reside in the target arrangement whereby outputs are obtained from a plurality of collector electrodes each correspondlng with a non-overlapping range of amplitudes of the input sigmal. The tube is provded with mcans for deflecting the electron beam a1ong a line in accordance with the amplitude of an input signal. The target structure consists of a first dymode positioned in the path of the beam wlth slots spaced a1ong thc deflection line, and a second dymode posltioned behind the first dainode. When the beam strikes the solid portions along the length of the first dymode the excited electrons are multiplied and collected in separate collector electrodes spaced along the beam line. Similarly, the electrons excited when the beam strikes the second dynode are multiplied and collected in separate electrodes spaced along the length of the second dyode.

  18. Electron tube

    DOEpatents

    Suyama, Motohiro; Fukasawa, Atsuhito; Arisaka, Katsushi; Wang, Hanguo

    2011-12-20

    An electron tube of the present invention includes: a vacuum vessel including a face plate portion made of synthetic silica and having a surface on which a photoelectric surface is provided, a stem portion arranged facing the photoelectric surface and made of synthetic silica, and a side tube portion having one end connected to the face plate portion and the other end connected to the stem portion and made of synthetic silica; a projection portion arranged in the vacuum vessel, extending from the stem portion toward the photoelectric surface, and made of synthetic silica; and an electron detector arranged on the projection portion, for detecting electrons from the photoelectric surface, and made of silicon.

  19. Tube Feeding Troubleshooting Guide

    MedlinePlus

    ... profile tube also has a stem length). Note: NG and NJ tubes (that go through a person’s ... Immediate Action: • Discontinue feeding. • If you have an NG or NJ tube, and the tube is curled ...

  20. Chest tube insertion

    MedlinePlus

    Chest drainage tube insertion; Insertion of tube into chest; Tube thoracostomy; Pericardial drain ... When your chest tube is inserted, you will lie on your side or sit partly upright, with one arm over your head. Sometimes, ...

  1. Tube furnace

    DOEpatents

    Foster, Kenneth G.; Frohwein, Eugene J.; Taylor, Robert W.; Bowen, David W.

    1991-01-01

    A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

  2. Tapered pulse tube for pulse tube refrigerators

    DOEpatents

    Swift, Gregory W.; Olson, Jeffrey R.

    1999-01-01

    Thermal insulation of the pulse tube in a pulse-tube refrigerator is maintained by optimally varying the radius of the pulse tube to suppress convective heat loss from mass flux streaming in the pulse tube. A simple cone with an optimum taper angle will often provide sufficient improvement. Alternatively, the pulse tube radius r as a function of axial position x can be shaped with r(x) such that streaming is optimally suppressed at each x.

  3. Comparison of Pregnancy Outcome between Ultrasound- Guided Tubal Recanalization and Office-Based Microhysteroscopic Ostial Dilatation in Patients with Proximal Blocked Tubes

    PubMed Central

    Seyam, Emaduldin Mostafa; Hassan, Momen Mohamed; Tawfeek Mohamed Sayed Gad, Mohamed; Mahmoud, Hazem Salah; Ibrahim, Mostafa Gamal

    2016-01-01

    Background The current research to the best of my knowledge is the first to compare the pregnancy outcome between ultrasound-guided tubal recanalization (UGTR) using a special fallopian tubal catheter, and office-based micrhysteroscopic ostial dilatation (MHOD) using the same tubal catherter in infertile women with previously diagnosed bilateral proximal tubal obstruction (PTO). Materials and Methods This prospective study reported the pregnancy outcomes for 200 women in private infertility care center in Arafa hospital in Fayoum and in El Minya University Hospital in the period between January 2010 and October 2013 treated as outpatients for their bilateral PTO after the routine hysterosalpingography (HSG). A Cook’s catheter, special fallopian tubal catheter, were used to recanalize the blocked tubes in 100 women (group A) under UGTR, and the same Cook’s tubal catheter was used through 2mm microhysteroscope to cannulate both ostia using MHOD in another 100 women (group B). Pregnancy outcome was determined after the procedures for a 12-month period follow-up. Results The number of the recanalization of PTO was not significantly different between two groups. As of the 200 blocked fallopian tubes in group A, 140 tubes (70%) were successfully recanalized by passing the ultrasound-guided special cannula, while 150 tubes (75%) were successfully recanalized in group B, using the same tubal catheter through a 2mm microhysteroscope. The cumulative pregnancy rate after the two procedures was not statistically different between two groups. It was 25.9% in group A, while it was 26.3% in group B, after a 12-month period follow-up. Conclusion UGTR is highly recommended as the first step to manage infertile women due to PTO, as it is easier procedure; however, there is possible to obtain nearly similar results after MHOD. PMID:26985337

  4. Collapse Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA02154 Collapse Tubes

    The discontinuous channels in this image are collapsed lava tubes.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -19.7N, Longitude 317.5E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  5. A tube-in-tube thermophotovoltaic generator

    SciTech Connect

    Ashcroft, J.; Campbell, B.; Depoy, D.

    1996-12-31

    A thermophotovoltaic device includes at least one thermal radiator tube, a cooling tube concentrically disposed within each thermal radiator tube and an array of thermophotovoltaic cells disposed on the exterior surface of the cooling tube. A shell having a first end and a second end surrounds the thermal radiator tube. Inner and outer tubesheets, each having an aperture corresponding to each cooling tube, are located at each end of the shell. The thermal radiator tube extends within the shell between the inner tubesheets. The cooling tube extends within the shell through the corresponding apertures of the two inner tubesheets to the corresponding apertures of the two outer tubesheets. A plurality of the thermal radiator tubes can be arranged in a staggered or an in-line configuration within the shell.

  6. Tube-in-tube thermophotovoltaic generator

    DOEpatents

    Ashcroft, John; Campbell, Brian; DePoy, David

    1998-01-01

    A thermophotovoltaic device includes at least one thermal radiator tube, a cooling tube concentrically disposed within each thermal radiator tube and an array of thermophotovoltaic cells disposed on the exterior surface of the cooling tube. A shell having a first end and a second end surrounds the thermal radiator tube. Inner and outer tubesheets, each having an aperture corresponding to each cooling tube, are located at each end of the shell. The thermal radiator tube extends within the shell between the inner tubesheets. The cooling tube extends within the shell through the corresponding apertures of the two inner tubesheets to the corresponding apertures of the two outer tubesheets. A plurality of the thermal radiator tubes can be arranged in a staggered or an in-line configuration within the shell.

  7. Tube-in-tube thermophotovoltaic generator

    DOEpatents

    Ashcroft, J.; Campbell, B.; DePoy, D.

    1998-06-30

    A thermophotovoltaic device includes at least one thermal radiator tube, a cooling tube concentrically disposed within each thermal radiator tube and an array of thermophotovoltaic cells disposed on the exterior surface of the cooling tube. A shell having a first end and a second end surrounds the thermal radiator tube. Inner and outer tubesheets, each having an aperture corresponding to each cooling tube, are located at each end of the shell. The thermal radiator tube extends within the shell between the inner tubesheets. The cooling tube extends within the shell through the corresponding apertures of the two inner tubesheets to the corresponding apertures of the two outer tubesheets. A plurality of the thermal radiator tubes can be arranged in a staggered or an in-line configuration within the shell. 8 figs.

  8. Gastrostomy feeding tube - bolus

    MedlinePlus

    Feeding - gastrostomy tube - bolus; G-tube - bolus; Gastrostomy button - bolus; Bard Button - bolus; MIC-KEY - bolus ... Your child's gastrostomy tube (G-tube) is a special tube in your child's stomach that will help deliver food and medicines until your ...

  9. Conditional inactivation of p53 in mouse ovarian surface epithelium does not alter MIS driven Smad2-dominant negative epithelium-lined inclusion cysts or teratomas.

    PubMed

    Quartuccio, Suzanne M; Lantvit, Daniel D; Bosland, Maarten C; Burdette, Joanna E

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy among US women. The etiology of this disease, although poorly understood, may involve the ovarian surface epithelium or the epithelium of the fallopian tube fimbriae as the progenitor cell. Disruptions in the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) pathway and p53 are frequently found in chemotherapy-resistant serous ovarian tumors. Transgenic mice expressing a dominant negative form of Smad2 (Smad2DN), a downstream transcription factor of the TGFβ signaling pathway, targeted to tissues of the reproductive tract were created on a FVB background. These mice developed epithelium-lined inclusion cysts, a potential precursor lesion to ovarian cancer, which morphologically resembled oviductal epithelium but exhibited protein expression more closely resembling the ovarian surface epithelium. An additional genetic "hit" of p53 deletion was predicted to result in ovarian tumors. Tissue specific deletion of p53 in the ovaries and oviducts alone was attempted through intrabursal or intraoviductal injection of Cre-recombinase expressing adenovirus (AdCreGFP) into p53 (flox/flox) mice. Ovarian bursal cysts were detected in some mice 6 months after intrabursal injection. No pathological abnormalities were detected in mice with intraoviductal injections, which may be related to decreased infectivity of the oviductal epithelium with adenovirus as compared to the ovarian surface epithelium. Bitransgenic mice, expressing both the Smad2DN transgene and p53 (flox/flox), were then exposed to AdCreGFP in the bursa and oviductal lumen. These mice did not develop any additional phenotypes. Exposure to AdCreGFP is not an effective methodology for conditional deletion of floxed genes in oviductal epithelium and tissue specific promoters should be employed in future mouse models of the disease. In addition, a novel phenotype was observed in mice with high expression of the Smad2DN transgene as validated through q

  10. Heat exchanger tube mounts

    DOEpatents

    Wolowodiuk, W.; Anelli, J.; Dawson, B.E.

    1974-01-01

    A heat exchanger in which tubes are secured to a tube sheet by internal bore welding is described. The tubes may be moved into place in preparation for welding with comparatively little trouble. A number of segmented tube support plates are provided which allow a considerable portion of each of the tubes to be moved laterally after the end thereof has been positioned in preparation for internal bore welding to the tube sheet. (auth)

  11. Torsion Tests of Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stang, Ambrose H; Ramberg, Walter; Back, Goldie

    1937-01-01

    This report presents the results of tests of 63 chromium-molybdenum steel tubes and 102 17st aluminum-alloy tubes of various sizes and lengths made to study the dependence of the torsional strength on both the dimensions of the tube and the physical properties of the tube material. Three types of failure are found to be important for sizes of tubes frequently used in aircraft construction: (1) failure by plastic shear, in which the tube material reached its yield strength before the critical torque was reached; (2) failure by elastic two-lobe buckling, which depended only on the elastic properties of the tube material and the dimensions of the tube; and (3) failure by a combination of (1) and (2) that is, by buckling taking place after some yielding of the tube material.

  12. Tracheostomy tube - speaking

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000465.htm Tracheostomy tube - speaking To use the sharing features on ... are even speaking devices that can help you. Tracheostomy Tubes and Speaking Air passing through vocal cords ( ...

  13. Glass tube splitting tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, J. A.; Murray, C. D.; Stein, J. A.

    1971-01-01

    Tool accurately splits glass tubing so cuts are aligned 180 deg apart and reassembled tube forms low pressure, gastight enclosure. Device should interest industries using cylindrical closed glass containers.

  14. Neural Tube Defects

    MedlinePlus

    Neural tube defects are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They happen in the first month ... she is pregnant. The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. In spina ...

  15. Eustachian tube (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... are more common in children because their eustachian tubes are shorter, narrower, and more horizontal than in ... become trapped when the tissue of the eustachian tube becomes swollen from colds or allergies. Bacteria trapped ...

  16. Feeding tube - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... tube is misplaced and not in the proper position, the baby may have problems with: An abnormally slow heart rate (bradycardia) Breathing Spitting up Rarely, the feeding tube can puncture the stomach.

  17. Microhole Tubing Bending Report

    DOE Data Explorer

    Oglesby, Ken

    2012-01-01

    A downhole tubing bending study was made and is reported herein. IT contains a report and 2 excel spreadsheets to calculate tubing bending and to estimate contact points of the tubing to the drilled hole wall (creating a new support point).

  18. 21 CFR 868.5800 - Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. 868.5800 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5800 Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. (a) Identification. A tracheostomy tube and tube cuff is a device intended to be placed into...

  19. 21 CFR 868.5800 - Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. 868.5800 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5800 Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. (a) Identification. A tracheostomy tube and tube cuff is a device intended to be placed into...

  20. 21 CFR 868.5800 - Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. 868.5800 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5800 Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. (a) Identification. A tracheostomy tube and tube cuff is a device intended to be placed into...

  1. 21 CFR 868.5800 - Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. 868.5800 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5800 Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. (a) Identification. A tracheostomy tube and tube cuff is a device intended to be placed into...

  2. 21 CFR 868.5800 - Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. 868.5800 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5800 Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. (a) Identification. A tracheostomy tube and tube cuff is a device intended to be placed into...

  3. REACTOR COOLANT TUBE SEAL

    DOEpatents

    Morris, W.J.

    1958-12-01

    A plle-flattenlng control element and a fluid seal therefore to permit movement of the element into a liquld contnining region of a neutronlc reactor are described. The device consists of flattened, thin-walled aluminum tubing contalnlng a uniform mixture of thermal neutron absorbing material, and a number of soft rubber closures for the process tubes, having silts capable of passing the flattened elements therethrough, but effectively sealing the process tubes against fluld leaknge by compression of the rubber. The flattened tubing is sufficiently flexible to enable it to conform to the configuratlon of the annular spacing surrounding the fuel elements ln the process tubes.

  4. PET Imaging of Ovarian Carcinoma With 18F-FSPG

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-16

    Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  5. Intercostal drainage tube or intracardiac drainage tube?

    PubMed Central

    Anitha, N.; Kamath, S. Ganesh; Khymdeit, Edison; Prabhu, Manjunath

    2016-01-01

    Although insertion of chest drain tubes is a common medical practice, there are risks associated with this procedure, especially when inexperienced physicians perform it. Wrong insertion of the tube has been known to cause morbidity and occasional mortality. We report a case where the left ventricle was accidentally punctured leading to near-exsanguination. This report is to highlight the need for experienced physicians to supervise the procedure and train the younger physician in the safe performance of the procedure. PMID:27397467

  6. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    MedlinePlus

    ... YouTube Videos > NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration Amblyopia ... of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI on Twitter NEI on YouTube NEI ...

  7. Using the Scroll Wheel on a Wireless Mouse as a Motion Sensor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Richard S.; Wilson, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Since its inception in the mid-80s, the computer mouse has undergone several design changes. As the mouse has evolved, physicists have found new ways to utilize it as a motion sensor. For example, the rollers in a mechanical mouse have been used as pulleys to study the motion of a magnet moving through a copper tube as a quantitative demonstration…

  8. ADENOCARCINOMA AND TUBERCULOSIS OF THE SIGMOID COLON AND FALLOPIAN TUBE--A RARE ASSOCIATION. A CASE REPORT AND REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.

    PubMed

    Ionescu, Lidia; Dănilă, R; Ciobanu, Delia; Ciortescu, Irina; Livadariu, Roxana; Timofte, D

    2016-01-01

    Association of adenocarcinoma and tuberculosis (TB) of the sigmoid colon is a rare clinical condition even in an endemic country as Romania, with challenging diagnosis and treatment. Case report. We present the case of a 57-year-old female patient who was admitted on emergency basis for a diagnosis of obstructive sigmoid adenocarcinoma. The patient was operated on and it an obstructive sigmoid tumor with serosal invasion, adherent (invading) to the body of uterus and left adnexa and urinary bladder serosa, no liver or peritoneal metastases. A sigmoidectomy was performed "en bloc" with subtotal hysterectomy, left adnexectomy and extramucosal cistectomy. The histopathological exam showed a moderately differentiated, ulcerated adenocarcinoma, widely infiltrating the colon wall invading the myometrium. Ziehl Neelsen (ZN) stain identified the presence of metachromatic bacillary structures in the colonic wall, lymph nodes and adnexal areas. Postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged 10 days postoperatively in good clinical condition. After one year when the patient completed the full course of anti-tubercular drugs, a thorough work-up was performed. Colonoscopy, CT of the thorax, abdomen, pelvis showed no signs of recurrence while tumoral marker CEA (1.62 ng/ml - n<3.4) and QFT (Quantiferon-TB Gold) test were within normal range. Discussion and conclusion. Although digestive tuberculosis is included in differential diagnosis for those patients presenting abdominal pain or obstructive digestive symptoms in endemic regions, in this case the absence of TB infection criteria and positive endoscopic biopsy for colonic adenocarcinoma did not allow a complete pre- or perioperative diagnosis. PMID:27483723

  9. Accumulation of Regulatory T Cells and Chronic Inflammation in the Middle Ear in a Mouse Model of Chronic Otitis Media with Effusion Induced by Combined Eustachian Tube Blockage and Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Infection.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Takashi; Kodama, Satoru; Kawano, Toshiaki; Suzuki, Masashi

    2015-11-09

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is associated with chronic otitis media (COM). In this study, we generated a murine model of COM by using eustachian tube (ET) obstruction and NTHi (10(7) CFU) inoculation into the tympanic bulla, and we investigated the relationship between regulatory T cells (Treg) and chronic inflammation in the middle ear. Middle ear effusions (MEEs) and middle ear mucosae (MEM) were collected at days 3 and 14 and at 1 and 2 months after inoculation. Untreated mice served as controls. MEEs were used for bacterial counts and to measure the concentrations of cytokines. MEM were collected for histological evaluation and flow cytometric analysis. Inflammation of the MEM was prolonged throughout this study, and the incidence of NTHi culture-positive MEE was 38% at 2 months after inoculation. The levels of interleukin-1β (IL-β), tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL-10, and transforming growth factor β were increased in the middle ear for up to 2 months after inoculation. CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+) Treg accumulated in the middle ear, and the percentage of Treg in the MEM increased for up to 2 months after inoculation. Treg depletion induced a 99.9% reduction of bacterial counts in MEEs and also significantly reduced the ratio of NTHi culture-positive MEE. The levels of these cytokines were also reduced in MEEs. In summary, we developed a murine model of COM, and our findings indicate that Treg confer infectious tolerance to NTHi in the middle ear.

  10. Accumulation of Regulatory T Cells and Chronic Inflammation in the Middle Ear in a Mouse Model of Chronic Otitis Media with Effusion Induced by Combined Eustachian Tube Blockage and Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Satoru; Kawano, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is associated with chronic otitis media (COM). In this study, we generated a murine model of COM by using eustachian tube (ET) obstruction and NTHi (107 CFU) inoculation into the tympanic bulla, and we investigated the relationship between regulatory T cells (Treg) and chronic inflammation in the middle ear. Middle ear effusions (MEEs) and middle ear mucosae (MEM) were collected at days 3 and 14 and at 1 and 2 months after inoculation. Untreated mice served as controls. MEEs were used for bacterial counts and to measure the concentrations of cytokines. MEM were collected for histological evaluation and flow cytometric analysis. Inflammation of the MEM was prolonged throughout this study, and the incidence of NTHi culture-positive MEE was 38% at 2 months after inoculation. The levels of interleukin-1β (IL-β), tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL-10, and transforming growth factor β were increased in the middle ear for up to 2 months after inoculation. CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ Treg accumulated in the middle ear, and the percentage of Treg in the MEM increased for up to 2 months after inoculation. Treg depletion induced a 99.9% reduction of bacterial counts in MEEs and also significantly reduced the ratio of NTHi culture-positive MEE. The levels of these cytokines were also reduced in MEEs. In summary, we developed a murine model of COM, and our findings indicate that Treg confer infectious tolerance to NTHi in the middle ear. PMID:26553466

  11. Lunar Lava Tube Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    York, Cheryl Lynn; Walden, Bryce; Billings, Thomas L.; Reeder, P. Douglas

    1992-01-01

    Large (greater than 300 m diameter) lava tube caverns appear to exist on the Moon and could provide substantial safety and cost benefits for lunar bases. Over 40 m of basalt and regolith constitute the lava tube roof and would protect both construction and operations. Constant temperatures of -20 C reduce thermal stress on structures and machines. Base designs need not incorporate heavy shielding, so lightweight materials can be used and construction can be expedited. Identification and characterization of lava tube caverns can be incorporated into current precursor lunar mission plans. Some searches can even be done from Earth. Specific recommendations for lunar lava tube search and exploration are (1) an Earth-based radar interferometer, (2) an Earth-penetrating radar (EPR) orbiter, (3) kinetic penetrators for lunar lava tube confirmation, (4) a 'Moon Bat' hovering rocket vehicle, and (5) the use of other proposed landers and orbiters to help find lunar lava tubes.

  12. Ruggedized electronographic tube development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nevin, S.

    1981-01-01

    Because of their glass components and lack of far ultraviolet sensitivity, currently available Spectracons are not suited for rocket launch. Technology developed for second generation image tubes and for magnetically focused image tubes can be applied to improve the optical and mechanical properties of these magnetically focused electronographic tubes whose 40 kilovolt signal electrons exit a 4-micrometer thick mica window and penetrate a photographic recording emulsion.

  13. Conduction cooled tube supports

    DOEpatents

    Worley, Arthur C.; Becht, IV, Charles

    1984-01-01

    In boilers, process tubes are suspended by means of support studs that are in thermal contact with and attached to the metal roof casing of the boiler and the upper bend portions of the process tubes. The support studs are sufficiently short that when the boiler is in use, the support studs are cooled by conduction of heat to the process tubes and the roof casing thereby maintaining the temperature of the stud so that it does not exceed 1400.degree. F.

  14. TUBE SPLITTING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Frantz, C.E.; Cawley, W.E.

    1961-05-01

    A tool is described for cutting a coolant tube adapted to contain fuel elements to enable the tube to be removed from a graphite moderator mass. The tool splits the tube longitudinally into halves and curls the longitudinal edges of the halves inwardly so that they occupy less space and can be moved radially inwardly away from the walls of the hole in the graphite for easy removal from the graphite.

  15. COAXIAL TUBE COUPLING

    DOEpatents

    Niemoth, H.R.

    1963-02-26

    BS>This patent shows a device for quickly coupling coaxial tubes in metal-to-metal fashion, so as to be suitable for use in a nuclear reactor. A threaded coliar urges a tapered metal extension on the outer coaxial tube into a tapered seat in the device and simultaneously exerts pressure through a coaxial helical spring so that a similar extension on the inner tube seats in a similar seat near the other end. (AEC)

  16. Wound tube heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1983-01-01

    What is disclosed is a wound tube heat exchanger in which a plurality of tubes having flattened areas are held contiguous adjacent flattened areas of tubes by a plurality of windings to give a double walled heat exchanger. The plurality of windings serve as a plurality of effective force vectors holding the conduits contiguous heat conducting walls of another conduit and result in highly efficient heat transfer. The resulting heat exchange bundle is economical and can be coiled into the desired shape. Also disclosed are specific embodiments such as the one in which the tubes are expanded against their windings after being coiled to insure highly efficient heat transfer.

  17. Flared tube attachment fitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkire, I. D.; King, J. P., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Tubes can be flared first, then attached to valves and other flow line components, with new fitting that can be disassembled and reused. Installed fitting can be disassembled so parts can be inspected. It can be salvaged and reused without damaging flared tube; tube can be coated, tempered, or otherwise treated after it has been flared, rather than before, as was previously required. Fitting consists of threaded male portion with conical seating surface, hexagonal nut with hole larger than other diameter of flared end of tube, and split ferrule.

  18. Composite Pulse Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Jerry L.; Cloyd, Jason H.

    2007-01-01

    A modification of the design of the pulse tube in a pulse-tube cryocooler reduces axial thermal conductance while preserving radial thermal conductance. It is desirable to minimize axial thermal conductance in the pulse-tube wall to minimize leakage of heat between the warm and cold ends of the pulse tube. At the same time, it is desirable to maximize radial thermal conductance at the cold end of the pulse tube to ensure adequate thermal contact between (1) a heat exchanger in the form of a stack of copper screens inside the pulse tube at the cold end and (2) the remainder of the cold tip, which is the object to which the heat load is applied and from which heat must be removed. The modified design yields a low-heat-leak pulse tube that can be easily integrated with a cold tip. A typical pulse tube of prior design is either a thin-walled metal tube or a metal tube with a nonmetallic lining. It is desirable that the outer surface of a pulse tube be cylindrical (in contradistinction to tapered) to simplify the design of a regenerator that is also part of the cryocooler. Under some conditions, it is desirable to taper the inner surface of the pulse tube to reduce acoustic streaming. The combination of a cylindrical outer surface and a tapered inner surface can lead to unacceptably large axial conduction if the pulse tube is made entirely of metal. Making the pulse-tube wall of a nonmetallic, lowthermal- conductivity material would not solve the problem because the wall would not afford the needed thermal contact for the stack of screens in the cold end. The modified design calls for fabricating the pulse tube in two parts: a longer, nonmetallic part that is tapered on the inside and cylindrical on the outside and a shorter, metallic part that is cylindrical on both the inside and the outside. The nonmetallic part can be made from G-10 fiberglass-reinforced epoxy or other low-thermal-conductivity, cryogenically compatible material. The metallic part must have high

  19. Sapphire tube pressure vessel

    DOEpatents

    Outwater, John O.

    2000-01-01

    A pressure vessel is provided for observing corrosive fluids at high temperatures and pressures. A transparent Teflon bag contains the corrosive fluid and provides an inert barrier. The Teflon bag is placed within a sapphire tube, which forms a pressure boundary. The tube is received within a pipe including a viewing window. The combination of the Teflon bag, sapphire tube and pipe provides a strong and inert pressure vessel. In an alternative embodiment, tie rods connect together compression fittings at opposite ends of the sapphire tube.

  20. Steam generator tube failures

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

    1996-04-01

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service.

  1. Method for shaping polyethylene tubing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    Method forms polyethylene plastic tubing into configurations previously only possible with metal tubing. By using polyethylene in place of copper or stain less steel tubing inlow pressure systems, fabrication costs are significantly reduced. Polyethylene tubing can be used whenever low pressure tubing is needed in oil operations, aircraft and space applications, powerplants, and testing laboratories.

  2. Gastrostomy feeding tube - pump - child

    MedlinePlus

    Feeding - gastrostomy tube - pump; G-tube - pump; Gastrostomy button - pump; Bard Button - pump; MIC-KEY - pump ... Your child has a gastrostomy tube (G-tube). This is a soft, plastic tube placed into your child's stomach. It delivers nutrition (food) and medicines until your ...

  3. Hologram recording tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajchman, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    Optical memories allow extremely large numbers of bits to be stored and recalled in a matter of microseconds. Two recording tubes, similar to conventional image-converting tubes, but having a soft-glass surface on which hologram is recorded, do not degrade under repeated hologram read/write cycles.

  4. Robotic Tube-Gap Inspector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Gutow, David A.; Maslakowski, John E.

    1993-01-01

    Robotic vision system measures small gaps between nearly parallel tubes. Robot-held video camera examines closely spaced tubes while computer determines gaps between tubes. Video monitor simultaneously displays data on gaps.

  5. What Are Neural Tube Defects?

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Neural Tube Defects (NTDs): Condition Information Skip sharing on ... media links Share this: Page Content What are neural tube defects? Neural (pronounced NOOR-uhl ) tube defects ...

  6. [Enteral tube feeding].

    PubMed

    Haller, Alois

    2014-03-01

    Tube feeding is an integral part of medical therapies, and can be easily managed also in the outpatient setting. Tube feeding by the stomach or small intestine with nasogastral or nasojejunal tubes is common in clinical practice. Long-term nutrition is usually provided through a permanent tube, i. e. a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). Modern portable nutrition pumps are used to cover the patient's nutritional needs. Enteral nutrition is always indicated if patients can not or should not eat or if nutritional requirements cannot be covered within 3 days after an intervention, e. g. after abdominal surgery. Industrially produced tube feedings with defined substrate concentrations are being used; different compositions of nutrients, such as glutamine fish oil etc., are used dependent on the the condition of the patient. Enteral nutrition may be associated with complications of the tube, e. g. dislocation, malposition or obstruction, as well as the feeding itself, e. g.hyperglycaemia, electrolyte disturbances, refeeding syndrome diarrhea or aspiration). However, the benefit of tube feeding usually exceeds the potential harm substantially.

  7. Eustachian Tube Function.

    PubMed

    Ars, Bernard; Dirckx, Joris

    2016-10-01

    The fibrocartilaginous eustachian tube is part of a system of contiguous organs including the nose, palate, rhinopharynx, and middle ear cleft. The middle ear cleft consists of the tympanic cavity, which includes the bony eustachian tube (protympanum) and the mastoid gas cells system. The tympanic cavity and mastoid gas cells are interconnected and allow gaseous exchange and pressure regulation. The fibrocartilaginous eustachian tube is a complex organ consisting of a dynamic conduit with its mucosa, cartilage, surrounding soft tissue, peritubal muscles (ie, tensor and levator veli palatine, salpingopharyngeus and tensor tympani), and superior bony support (the sphenoid sulcus). PMID:27468632

  8. Tube flare inspection tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meunier, G. E.

    1980-01-01

    Flare angle and symmetry of tube ends can be checked by simple tool that consists of two stainless steel pins bonded to rubber plug. Primary function of tool is to inspect tubes before they are installed, thereby eliminating expense and inconvenience of repairing leaks caused by imperfect flares. Measuring hole tapers, countersink angles, and bearing race angles are other possible uses. Tool is used with optical comparator. Axis of tool is alined with centerline of tube. Shadow of seated pins on comparator screen allows operator to verify flare angle is within tolerance.

  9. Tube Alinement for Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, J.

    1984-01-01

    Tool with stepped shoulders alines tubes for machining in preparation for welding. Alinement with machine tool axis accurate to within 5 mils (0.13mm) and completed much faster than visual setup by machinist.

  10. Kinking of medical tubes.

    PubMed

    Ingles, David

    2004-05-01

    The phenomenon of kinking in medical tubing remains a problem for some applications, particularly critical ones such as transporting gasses or fluids. Design features are described to prevent its occurrence.

  11. Ear tube insertion - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100045.htm Ear tube insertion - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... 4 Overview The eardrum (tympanic membrane) separates the ear canal from the middle ear. Update Date 8/ ...

  12. Tracheostomy tube - eating

    MedlinePlus

    Trach - eating ... take your first bites. Certain factors may make eating or swallowing harder, such as: Changes in the ... easier to swallow. Suction the tracheostomy tube before eating. This will keep you from coughing while eating, ...

  13. Tube-Forming Assays.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ryan M; Meah, Christopher J; Heath, Victoria L; Styles, Iain B; Bicknell, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis involves the generation of new blood vessels from the existing vasculature and is dependent on many growth factors and signaling events. In vivo angiogenesis is dynamic and complex, meaning assays are commonly utilized to explore specific targets for research into this area. Tube-forming assays offer an excellent overview of the molecular processes in angiogenesis. The Matrigel tube forming assay is a simple-to-implement but powerful tool for identifying biomolecules involved in angiogenesis. A detailed experimental protocol on the implementation of the assay is described in conjunction with an in-depth review of methods that can be applied to the analysis of the tube formation. In addition, an ImageJ plug-in is presented which allows automatic quantification of tube images reducing analysis times while removing user bias and subjectivity.

  14. Building with Tubes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Eugenio, Terrance, Ed.

    Text and illustrations show how to assemble furniture and toys out of cardboard tubes and sheets. Basic directions are provided, and the tools and materials necessary to the assembly of specific items are described. (MLF)

  15. Using a nasogastric tube.

    PubMed

    Candy, C

    1986-09-01

    This discussion of the use of a nasogastric tube covers the equipment needed, the method, rehydration and feeding, prolonged nasogastric feeding, and stopping nasogastric feeding. A nasogastric tube is useful when children are unable to drink safely and in sufficient amounts for any of the following reasons: severe dehydration; if intravenous (IV) therapy is unavailable; low birth weight infants; or the child is drowsy or vomiting. Severely malnourished children may be fed initially in this way if they are too weak or anorexic to eat or drink normally. The following equipment is needed: nasogastric tube; lubricating fluid; a syringe; blue litmus paper, if available; adhesive tape; stethoscope if available; and fluid to be given. Explain to the child's parents and the child, if old enough to understand, what will be done; lie infants flat; measure the approximate length from the child's nostril to the ear lobe and then to the top of the abdomen with the tube and mark the position; clean the nostrils to remove the mucus, and lubricate the tip of the tube and gently insert into the nostril; give the child a drink of water if he or she is conscious; continue to pass the tube down until the position marked reaches the nostril; use the syringe to suck up some fluid and test with blue litmus paper to check that the tube is in the stomach; and inject 5-10 ml of fluid (saline or oral rehydration solution, not milk formula) by syringe if satisfied the tube is in the correct position. Where possible, give a continuous drip of fluid. If this is not possible, give frequent small amounts using the syringe as a funnel. If feeding continues for more than 24 hours, clean the nostrils daily with warm water and change the tube to the other nostril every few days. Also keep the mouth very clean with a dilute solution of 8% sodium bicarbonate, if available, or citrus fruit juice. To remove the tube, remove the adhesive tape, take the tube out gently and smoothly, and offer the child a

  16. Tubing crimping pliers

    DOEpatents

    Lindholm, G.T.

    1981-02-27

    The disclosure relates to pliers and more particularly to pliers for crimping two or more pieces of copper tubing together prior to their being permanently joined by brazing, soldering or the like. A die containing spring-loaded pins rotates within a cammed ring in the head of the pliers. As the die rotates, the pins force a crimp on tubing held within the pliers.

  17. Gamete intra-fallopian transfer or intrauterine insemination after controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for treatment of infertility due to endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Lodhi, S; Abdel Fattah, A; Abozaid, T; Murphy, J; Formantini, E; Sasy, M; Barber, K; Abuzeid, M

    2004-09-01

    We compared the effectiveness of gamete intra-Fallopian transfer (GIFT) and intrauterine insemination (IUI) after controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) in the treatment of infertility due to endometriosis. This was a retrospective study carried out at a tertiary teaching medical center. A total of 127 consecutive patients with endometriosis were treated with GIFT or IUI after COH between June 1990 and December 1998. Patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 (n = 97) included patients with stages 1 and 2 endometriosis, and group 2 (n = 30) included patients with stages 3 and 4 endometriosis. Laparoscopic conservative surgery for endometriosis was performed prior to IUI for patients in both group 1 and group 2. In group 1, 55 patients underwent 95 cycles of IUI after COH and 42 patients underwent 57 cycles of GIFT. In group 2, 14 patients underwent 16 cycles of IUI after COH, while 16 patients underwent 22 cycles of GIFT. The stimulation protocol for both GIFT and IUI was mid-luteal pituitary down-regulation with a gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) followed by gonadotropins. In group 1, the pregnancy rates (GIFT = 50.9%, IUI = 29.4%) and the delivery rates (GIFT = 28.1%, IUI = 14.7%) per cycle were significantly higher in GIFT compared to IUI (p = 0.009 and p = 0.05, respectively). There was no significant differences in the pregnancy rate (GIFT 69%, IUI 50.9%, respectively) or the delivery rate (GIFT 38.1%, IUI 25.5%) per patient. In group 2, there was no significant difference in the pregnancy rate (GIFT 54.5%, IUI 31.3%) or the delivery rate (GIFT 40.9%, IUI 12.5%) per cycle, but the difference in the pregnancy rate (GIFT 75%, IUI 35.7%) and the delivery rate (GIFT 56.3%, IUI 14.3%) per patient was significantly higher in GIFT compared to IUI (p = 0.04 and p = 0.02, respectively). We conclude that, when the same stimulation protocol is used in the early stages of endometriosis, a few cycles of IUI can achieve similar results to GIFT, and

  18. Aeronautical tubes and pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauclair, N.

    1984-12-01

    The main and subcomponent French suppliers of aircraft tubes and pipes are discussed, and the state of the industry is analyzed. Quality control is essential for tubes with regard to their i.d. and metallurgical compositions. French regulations do not allow welded seam tubes in hydraulic circuits unless no other form is available, and then rustproofed steel must be installed. The actual low level of orders for any run of tubes dictates that the product is only one of several among the manufacturers' line. Automation, both in NDT and quality control, assures that the tubes meet specifications. A total of 10 French companies participate in the industry, serving both civil and military needs, with some companies specializing only in titanium, steel, or aluminum materials. Concerns wishing to enter the market must upgrade their equipment to meet the higher aeronautical specifications and be prepared to furnish tubes and pipes that serve both functional and structural purposes simultaneously. Additionally, pipe-bending machines must also perform to tight specifications. Pipes can range from 0.2 mm exterior diameter to 40 mm, with wall thicknesses from 0.02 mm to 3 mm. A chart containing a list of manufacturers and their respective specifications and characteristics is presented, and a downtrend in production with reduction of personnel is noted.

  19. Clearing obstructed feeding tubes.

    PubMed

    Marcuard, S P; Stegall, K L; Trogdon, S

    1989-01-01

    This is a report of an in vitro study evaluating the ability of six solutions to dissolve clotted enteral feeding, which can cause feeding tube occlusion. The following clotted enteral feeding products were tested: Ensure Plus, Ensure Plus with added protein (Promod 20 g/liter), Osmolite, Enrich, and Pulmocare. Clot dissolution was then tested by adding Adolf's Meat Tenderizer, Viokase, Sprite, Pepsi, Coke, or Mountain Dew. Distilled water served as control. Dissolution score for each mixture was assessed blindly. Best dissolution was observed with Viokase in pH 7.9 solution (p less than 0.01). Similar results were obtained when feeding tube patency was restored in eight in vitro occluded feeding tubes (Dobbhoff, French size 8) by using first Pepsi (two/eight successful) and then Viokase in pH 7.9 (six/six successful). We also report our experience in the first 10 patients with occluded feeding tubes using this Viokase solution injected through a Drum catheter into the feeding tube. In seven patients, this method proved to be successful, and the reasons for failure in three patients include a knotted tube, impacted tablet powder, and a formula clot fo 24 hr duration and 45 cm in length. PMID:2494372

  20. Clearing obstructed feeding tubes.

    PubMed

    Marcuard, S P; Stegall, K L; Trogdon, S

    1989-01-01

    This is a report of an in vitro study evaluating the ability of six solutions to dissolve clotted enteral feeding, which can cause feeding tube occlusion. The following clotted enteral feeding products were tested: Ensure Plus, Ensure Plus with added protein (Promod 20 g/liter), Osmolite, Enrich, and Pulmocare. Clot dissolution was then tested by adding Adolf's Meat Tenderizer, Viokase, Sprite, Pepsi, Coke, or Mountain Dew. Distilled water served as control. Dissolution score for each mixture was assessed blindly. Best dissolution was observed with Viokase in pH 7.9 solution (p less than 0.01). Similar results were obtained when feeding tube patency was restored in eight in vitro occluded feeding tubes (Dobbhoff, French size 8) by using first Pepsi (two/eight successful) and then Viokase in pH 7.9 (six/six successful). We also report our experience in the first 10 patients with occluded feeding tubes using this Viokase solution injected through a Drum catheter into the feeding tube. In seven patients, this method proved to be successful, and the reasons for failure in three patients include a knotted tube, impacted tablet powder, and a formula clot fo 24 hr duration and 45 cm in length.

  1. Islet Insulin Secretion Measurements in the Mouse.

    PubMed

    Hugill, Alison; Shimomura, Kenju; Cox, Roger D

    2016-01-01

    This article describes detailed protocols for in vitro measurements of insulin function and secretion in isolated mouse islets for the analysis of glucose homeostasis. We specify a method of enzyme digestion and hand picking to isolate and release the greatest number of high quality islets from the pancreas of the mouse. We describe an effective method for generating dynamic measurements of insulin secretion using a perifusion assay including a detailed protocol for constructing a peristaltic pump and tubing assembly. In addition we describe an alternative and simple technique for measuring insulin secretion using static incubation of isolated islets. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27584553

  2. Tube plug inspection system

    SciTech Connect

    Pirl, W.E.; Ray, E.A.; Costlow, A.M.; Roth, C.H. Jr.; Gradich, F.X.; Chizmar, D.A.

    1992-03-31

    This patent describes a system for inspecting a tube plug defining a chamber therein and having an open end in communication with the chamber, the chamber having disposed therein an expander element having a bore therethrough. It comprises: probe means having a sensor probe connected thereto for inspecting the tube plug, the probe means capable of being connected to the tube plug for extending the sensor probe a predetermined distance into the chamber through the open end of the tube plug; means connected to the probe means for rotating and translating the sensor probe within the chamber to provide an inspection scan interiorly of the tube plug, the rotating and translating means including: a flexible hose connected to the probe means for translating and rotating the probe means, the hose having adjacent segments so that the hose is flexible; and a connector interposed between adjacent segments of the hose for maintaining the hose in a tangle-free state; and drive means engaging the rotating and translating means for driving the rotating and translating means.

  3. Neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Greene, Nicholas D E; Copp, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs), including spina bifida and anencephaly, are severe birth defects of the central nervous system that originate during embryonic development when the neural tube fails to close completely. Human NTDs are multifactorial, with contributions from both genetic and environmental factors. The genetic basis is not yet well understood, but several nongenetic risk factors have been identified as have possibilities for prevention by maternal folic acid supplementation. Mechanisms underlying neural tube closure and NTDs may be informed by experimental models, which have revealed numerous genes whose abnormal function causes NTDs and have provided details of critical cellular and morphological events whose regulation is essential for closure. Such models also provide an opportunity to investigate potential risk factors and to develop novel preventive therapies. PMID:25032496

  4. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM TUBING

    DOEpatents

    Creutz, E.C.

    1958-04-15

    The manufacture of thin-walled uranium tubing by the hot-piercing techique is described. Uranium billets are preheated to a temperature above 780 d C. The heated billet is fed to a station where it is engaged on its external surface by three convex-surfaced rotating rollers which are set at an angle to the axis of the billet to produce a surface friction force in one direction to force the billet over a piercing mandrel. While being formed around the mandrel and before losing the desired shape, the tube thus formed is cooled by a water spray.

  5. Less invasive transjugular approach with Fallopian bridge technique for facial nerve protection and hearing preservation in surgery of glomus jugulare tumors.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Yoichi; Fukushima, Takanori; Watanabe, Kentaro; Friedman, Allan H; McElveen, John T; Cunningham, Calhoun D; Zomorodi, Ali R

    2013-10-01

    For the past three decades, surgery of glomus jugulare tumors (GJTs) has been characterized by extensive combined head and neck, neuro-otologic, and neurosurgical approaches. In recent years, the authors have modified the operative technique to a less invasive approach for preservation of cranial nerves while achieving satisfactory tumor resection. We evaluated and compared the clinical outcomes of our current less invasive approach with our previous more extensive procedures. The clinical records of 39 cases of GJT surgically treated between 1992 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. The less invasive transjugular approach with Fallopian bridge technique (LI-TJ) was used for the most recent five cases. The combined transmastoid-transjugular and high cervical (TM-HC) approach was performed in 30 cases, while four cases were treated with a transmastoid-transsigmoid approach with facial nerve translocation. Operative technique, extent of tumor resection, operating time, hospital stay, and morbidity were examined through the operative records, and a comparison was made between the LI-TJ cases and the more invasive cases. No facial nerve palsy was seen in the LI-TJ group while the TM-HC group demonstrated six cases (17.6%) of facial palsy (House-Brackmann facial nerve function grading scale grade II and III). The complication rate was 0 % in the LI-TJ group and 16.7% in the more invasive group. The mean operative time and hospital stay were shorter in the LI-TJ group (6.4 h and 4.3 days, respectively) compared with the more invasive group (10.7 h and 8.0 days, respectively). The LI-TJ approach with Fallopian bridge technique provided adequate tumor resection with cranial preservation and definitive advantage over the more extensive approach. PMID:23739840

  6. Heat-shrink plastic tubing seals joints in glass tubing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Duca, B.; Downey, A.

    1968-01-01

    Small units of standard glass apparatus held together by short lengths of transparent heat-shrinkable polyolefin tubing. The tubing is shrunk over glass O-ring type connectors having O-rings but no lubricant.

  7. Tube Feeding Transition Plateaus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Marsha Dunn

    2007-01-01

    The journey children make from tube feeding to oral feeding is personal for each child and family. There is a sequence of predictable plateaus that children climb as they move toward orally eating. By better understanding this sequence, parents and children can maximize the development, learning, enjoyment and confidence at each plateau. The…

  8. Downhole pulse tube refrigerators

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, G.; Gardner, D.

    1997-12-01

    This report summarizes a preliminary design study to explore the plausibility of using pulse tube refrigeration to cool instruments in a hot down-hole environment. The original motivation was to maintain Dave Reagor`s high-temperature superconducting electronics at 75 K, but the study has evolved to include three target design criteria: cooling at 30 C in a 300 C environment, cooling at 75 K in a 50 C environment, cooling at both 75 K and 30 C in a 250 C environment. These specific temperatures were chosen arbitrarily, as representative of what is possible. The primary goals are low cost, reliability, and small package diameter. Pulse-tube refrigeration is a rapidly growing sub-field of cryogenic refrigeration. The pulse tube refrigerator has recently become the simplest, cheapest, most rugged and reliable low-power cryocooler. The authors expect this technology will be applicable downhole because of the ratio of hot to cold temperatures (in absolute units, such as Kelvin) of interest in deep drilling is comparable to the ratios routinely achieved with cryogenic pulse-tube refrigerators.

  9. A Low-Cost Viscometer from an Opto-Mechanical Mouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doroodmand, Mohammad Mahdi; Maleki, Norooz; Kazemi, Hojjatollah

    2010-01-01

    A simple, sensitive, and portable viscometer has been designed using an opto-mechanical mouse. The viscosity of a fluid is measured using the infrared light-emitting diodes and the optical diodes of an opto-mechanical mouse. These components are positioned near the top and bottom of a glass tube containing the fluid to be measured. The viscosity…

  10. Quarter-wave pulse tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, G. W.; Gardner, D. L.; Backhaus, S. N.

    2011-10-01

    In high-power pulse-tube refrigerators, the pulse tube itself can be very long without too much dissipation of acoustic power on its walls. The pressure amplitude, the volume-flow-rate amplitude, and the time phase between them evolve significantly along a pulse tube that is about a quarter-wavelength long. Proper choice of length and area makes the oscillations at the ambient end of the long pulse tube optimal for driving a second, smaller pulse-tube refrigerator, thereby utilizing the acoustic power that would typically have been dissipated in the first pulse-tube refrigerator's orifice. Experiments show that little heat is carried from the ambient heat exchanger to the cold heat exchanger in such a long pulse tube, even though the oscillations are turbulent and even when the tube is compactly coiled.

  11. Rubens Flame-Tube Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ficken, George W.; Stephenson, Francis C.

    1979-01-01

    Investigates and explains the phenomenon associated with Rubens flame-tube demonstration, specifically the persistance of flames at regular intervals along the tube for few minutes after the gas is turned off. (GA)

  12. Vanadium tube processing and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kautz, D.D.; Tanaka, G.J.

    1993-08-11

    Vanadium tubing obtained from Century Tubes, a custom tubing manufacturer, was studied to determine as-received quality and fabricability. Applications for this tubing involve crimping and sealing operations at Pantex Plant requiring very high levels of leak-tightness (leak rates less than 10{sup {minus}8} atm-cc He/sec). The as-received material had poor OD and ID surface finish and cleanliness that needed to be improved before use in component fabrication. Savannah River Technical Center (SRTC) personnel developed a cleaning procedure to make this tubing acceptable for crimping and sealing operations. After suitably cleaning the tubing, we tested several tube sealing techniques and all showed some degree of success. Pantex Plant personnel are now implementing a tube sealing process very similar to one of the techniques studied, a mechanical crimp followed by seal welding.

  13. Multiple test tubes stirred mechanically

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, H. J.; Strong, I. J.

    1965-01-01

    Mechanical device simultaneously stirs multiple test tubes under controlled laboratory conditions. The invention provides a variable stirring rate, minimal amount of contamination of tube contents, unattended and simple operation, and easy maintenance and cleaning.

  14. Composite Cathode-Ray Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangal, Mukund D.

    1988-01-01

    Proposed composite cathode-ray tube consists of rectangular array of cathode-ray tubes joined at edges, sharing common vacuum. Each electron gun generates independent image on portion of screen. Composite tube operates most advantageously under digital control to make available several display modes. Brightness and resolution of large images increased. Useful for classroom presentations, conferences, and the like.

  15. Enteral Tube Feeding and Pneumonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David Sheridan; Kimmel, David

    2006-01-01

    To determine the effects of enteral tube feeding on the incidence of pneumonia, we performed a retrospective review of all clients at our institution who had gastrostomy or jejunostomy tubes placed over a 10-year period. Ninety-three subjects had a history of pneumonia before feeding tube insertion. Eighty had gastrostomy and 13, jejunostomy…

  16. Tubing rotator reduces tubing wear in rod pumped wells

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, M. ); Brown, C. )

    1994-04-04

    Tubing failures are both expensive and time-consuming. The most common failure results from rod cutting, or, erosion of the tubing ID because of continuous, reciprocating contact with the rod string. Installation of tubing rotators has decreased tubing failures in West Texas waterflood sucker-rod pumped wells. Pumping unit movement powers the rotator system, turning the tubing string at about 1 revolution/day. The rotator system has both surface and subsurface components. A reduction gear box attached to the walking beam converts the pumping unit's reciprocating strokes into rotary motion. A drive line transfers this rotary motion to a gear-driven suspension mandrel in the rotating tubing hanger. Near the bottom of the tubing string, a rotating tubing anchor/catcher allows the entire tubing string, including the tail pipe, seating nipple, and gas and mud anchor to rotate. The rotator hanger suspends the weight of the tubing string on a bearing system. One model of the hanger has a load capacity of 135,000 lb. A surface swivel allows rotation below the pumping tee so that the flow lines remain stationary. Also included in the string is a safety shear coupling to prevent over torquing the tubing.

  17. YouTube Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riendeau, Diane

    2012-09-01

    To date, this column has presented videos to show in class, Don Mathieson from Tulsa Community College suggested that YouTube could be used in another fashion. In Don's experience, his students are not always prepared for the mathematic rigor of his course. Even at the high school level, math can be a barrier for physics students. Walid Shihabi, a colleague of Don's, decided to compile a list of YouTube videos that his students could watch to relearn basic mathematics. I thought this sounded like a fantastic idea and a great service to the students. Walid graciously agreed to share his list and I have reproduced a large portion of it below.

  18. Induction plasma tube

    DOEpatents

    Hull, D.E.

    1982-07-02

    An induction plasma tube having a segmented, fluid-cooled internal radiation shield is disclosed. The individual segments are thick in cross-section such that the shield occupies a substantial fraction of the internal volume of the plasma enclosure, resulting in improved performance and higher sustainable plasma temperatures. The individual segments of the shield are preferably cooled by means of a counterflow fluid cooling system wherein each segment includes a central bore and a fluid supply tube extending into the bore. The counterflow cooling system results in improved cooling of the individual segments and also permits use of relatively larger shield segments which permit improved electromagnetic coupling between the induction coil and a plasma located inside the shield. Four embodiments of the invention, each having particular advantages, are disclosed.

  19. Induction plasma tube

    DOEpatents

    Hull, Donald E.

    1984-01-01

    An induction plasma tube having a segmented, fluid-cooled internal radiation shield is disclosed. The individual segments are thick in cross-section such that the shield occupies a substantial fraction of the internal volume of the plasma enclosure, resulting in improved performance and higher sustainable plasma temperatures. The individual segments of the shield are preferably cooled by means of a counterflow fluid cooling system wherein each segment includes a central bore and a fluid supply tube extending into the bore. The counterflow cooling system results in improved cooling of the individual segments and also permits use of relatively larger shield segments which permit improved electromagnetic coupling between the induction coil and a plasma located inside the shield. Four embodiments of the invention, each having particular advantages, are disclosed.

  20. [Patulous eustachian tube].

    PubMed

    Kovacević, D; Radosavljević, M; Jelesijević, J

    1995-01-01

    Patulous eustachian tube is a pathological condition which exists more often than we make a diagnosis, and a patient is not often aware of his disease. This disease can be manifested with various symptoms: respiratory synchrony noises in the ear, because of the penetration of the air current through the eustachian tube and with the movement of the eardrum outwards and inside, with autophony, reduction of the hearing, the buzzing, dizziness and disturbance of the balance. Two patients are presented. The first one was sick for many years from various chronics exhausted diseases: Jackson's epilepsy, temporary vascular brain disturbances, tuberculosis of lung, stomach ulcer, heart diseases, the patient is from low class, on one side, and also suffers from some local diseases: a paralysis of soft palate and palatal arcs, a chronic catarrhal rhinitis and sinusitis, a deviation of nasal dividing wall and hindered breathing through the nose, on the other side. Many years the patient didn't know for patological condition in the ears and in the eustachian tubes. After improving the hygienic conditions, the physical condition and local therapy, the patient felt much better. The second patient, with considerable shorter evolution of the disease and mild symptomatology, showed the amplified symptoms of the disease of the Eustachian tube in the course of the acute otitis. It is attained a satisfying calming of the manifestative symptoms by remedy therapie. Man must thing about possibility of the appearance of this pathology condition in various disease or conditions, which can take to the fast lost of the weight and physical and moral exhaustion of the patient, i.e. an adult, first as the protection of the appearance of the disease (condition) and afterwards, eventually early and regulary treatment in order to prevent various possible, above mentioned complications. PMID:16296237

  1. Joined concentric tubes

    SciTech Connect

    DeJonghe, Lutgard; Jacobson, Craig; Tucker, Michael; Visco, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Tubular objects having two or more concentric layers that have different properties are joined to one another during their manufacture primarily by compressive and friction forces generated by shrinkage during sintering and possibly mechanical interlocking. It is not necessary for the concentric tubes to display adhesive-, chemical- or sinter-bonding to each other in order to achieve a strong bond. This facilitates joining of dissimilar materials, such as ceramics and metals.

  2. Traveling-Wave Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kory, Carol L.

    1998-01-01

    The traveling-wave tube (TWT) is a vacuum device invented in the early 1940's used for amplification at microwave frequencies. Amplification is attained by surrendering kinetic energy from an electron beam to a radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic wave. The demand for vacuum devices has been decreased largely by the advent of solid-state devices. However, although solid state devices have replaced vacuum devices in many areas, there are still many applications such as radar, electronic countermeasures and satellite communications, that require operating characteristics such as high power (Watts to Megawatts), high frequency (below 1 GHz to over 100 GHz) and large bandwidth that only vacuum devices can provide. Vacuum devices are also deemed irreplaceable in the music industry where musicians treasure their tube-based amplifiers claiming that the solid-state and digital counterparts could never provide the same "warmth" (3). The term traveling-wave tube includes both fast-wave and slow-wave devices. This article will concentrate on slow-wave devices as the vast majority of TWTs in operation fall into this category.

  3. Concentric tube support assembly

    DOEpatents

    Rubio, Mark F.; Glessner, John C.

    2012-09-04

    An assembly (45) includes a plurality of separate pie-shaped segments (72) forming a disk (70) around a central region (48) for retaining a plurality of tubes (46) in a concentrically spaced apart configuration. Each segment includes a support member (94) radially extending along an upstream face (96) of the segment and a plurality of annularly curved support arms (98) transversely attached to the support member and radially spaced apart from one another away from the central region for receiving respective upstream end portions of the tubes in arc-shaped spaces (100) between the arms. Each segment also includes a radial passageway (102) formed in the support member for receiving a fluid segment portion (106) and a plurality of annular passageways (104) formed in the support arms for receiving respective arm portions (108) of the fluid segment portion from the radial passageway and for conducting the respective arm portions into corresponding annular spaces (47) formed between the tubes retained by the disk.

  4. TUBE SHEARING VALVE

    DOEpatents

    Wilner, L.B.

    1960-05-24

    Explosive operated valves can be used to join two or more containers in fluid flow relationship, one such container being a sealed reservoir. The valve is most simply disposed by mounting it on the reservoir so thst a tube extends from the interior of the reservoir through the valve body, terminating at the bottom of the bore in a closed end; other containers may be similarly connected or may be open connected, as desired. The piston of the valve has a cutting edge at its lower end which shears off the closed tube ends and a recess above the cutting edge to provide a flow channel. Intermixing of the fluid being transferred with the explosion gases is prevented by a copper ring at the top of the piston which is force fitted into the bore at the beginning of the stroke. Although designed to avoid backing up of the piston at pressures up to 10,000 psi in the transferred fluid, proper operation is independent of piston position, once the tube ends were sheared.

  5. Tube bundle system

    PubMed Central

    Marchewka, W.; Mohamed, K.; Addis, J.; Karnack, F.

    2015-01-01

    A tube bundle system (TBS) is a mechanical system for continuously drawing gas samples through tubes from multiple monitoring points located in an underground coal mine. The gas samples are drawn via vacuum pump to the surface and are typically analyzed for oxygen, methane, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. Results of the gas analyses are displayed and recorded for further analysis. Trends in the composition of the mine atmosphere, such as increasing methane or carbon monoxide concentration, can be detected early, permitting rapid intervention that prevents problems, such as a potentially explosive atmosphere behind seals, fire or spontaneous combustion. TBS is a well-developed technology and has been used in coal mines around the world for more than 50 years. Most longwall coal mines in Australia deploy a TBS, usually with 30 to 40 monitoring points as part of their atmospheric monitoring. The primary uses of a TBS are detecting spontaneous combustion and maintaining sealed areas inert. The TBS might also provide mine atmosphere gas composition data after a catastrophe occurs in an underground mine, if the sampling tubes are not damaged. TBSs are not an alternative to statutory gas and ventilation airflow monitoring by electronic sensors or people; rather, they are an option to consider in an overall mine atmosphere monitoring strategy. This paper describes the hardware, software and operation of a TBS and presents one example of typical data from a longwall coal mine PMID:26306052

  6. Apparatus Splits Glass Tubes Longitudinally

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Ernest; Manahan, Robert O'neil

    1993-01-01

    Tubes split into half cylinders by hot-wire/thermal-shock method. Tube to be cut placed on notched jig in apparatus. Nichrome wire stretched between arms of pivoted carriage and oriented parallel to notch. Wire heated by electrical current while resting on tube. After heating for about 1 minute for each millimeter of thickness of glass, tube quenched in water and split by resulting thermal shock. Apparatus used to split tubes in sizes ranging from 3/8 in. in diameter by 1 in. long to 1 1/2 in. in diameter by 4 in. long.

  7. Reliability of steam generator tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Kadokami, E.

    1997-02-01

    The author presents results on studies made of the reliability of steam generator (SG) tubing. The basis for this work is that in Japan the issue of defects in SG tubing is addressed by the approach that any detected defect should be repaired, either by plugging the tube or sleeving it. However, this leaves open the issue that there is a detection limit in practice, and what is the effect of nondetectable cracks on the performance of tubing. These studies were commissioned to look at the safety issues involved in degraded SG tubing. The program has looked at a number of different issues. First was an assessment of the penetration and opening behavior of tube flaws due to internal pressure in the tubing. They have studied: penetration behavior of the tube flaws; primary water leakage from through-wall flaws; opening behavior of through-wall flaws. In addition they have looked at the question of the reliability of tubing with flaws during normal plant operation. Also there have been studies done on the consequences of tube rupture accidents on the integrity of neighboring tubes.

  8. Hybrid endotracheal tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakezles, Christopher Thomas

    Intubation involves the placement of a tube into the tracheal lumen and is prescribed in any setting in which the airway must be stabilized or the patient anesthetized. The purpose of the endotracheal tube in these procedures is to maintain a viable airway, facilitate mechanical ventilation, allow the administration of anesthetics, and prevent the reflux of vomitus into the lungs. In order to satisfy these requirements a nearly airtight seal must be maintained between the tube and the tracheal lining. Most conventional endotracheal tubes provide this seal by employing a cuff that is inflated once the tube is in place. However, the design of this cuff and properties of the material are a source of irritation and injury to the tracheal tissues. In fact, the complication rate for endotracheal intubation is reported to be between 10 and 60%, with manifestations ranging from severe sore throat to erosion through the tracheal wall. These complications are caused by a combination of the materials employed and the forces exerted by the cuff on the tracheal tissues. In particular, the abrasive action of the cuff shears cells from the lining, epithelium adhering to the cuff is removed during extubation, and normal forces exerted on the basement tissues disrupt the blood supply and cause pressure necrosis. The complications associated with tracheal intubation may be reduced or eliminated by employing airway devices constructed from hydrogel materials. Hydrogels are a class of crosslinked polymers which swell in the presence of moisture, and may contain more than 95% water by weight. For the current study, several prototype airway devices were constructed from hydrogel materials including poly(vinyl alcohol), poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate), and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone). The raw hydrogel materials from this group were subjected to tensile, swelling, and biocompatibility testing, while the finished devices were subjected to extensive mechanical simulation and animal trials

  9. Liquid-Nitrogen Test for Blocked Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, W. R.

    1984-01-01

    Nondestructive test identifies obstructed tube in array of parallel tubes. Trickle of liquid nitrogen allowed to flow through tube array until array accumulates substantial formation of frost from moisture in air. Flow stopped and warm air introduced into inlet manifold to heat tubes in array. Tubes still frosted after others defrosted identified as obstructed tubes. Applications include inspection of flow systems having parallel legs.

  10. RBMK pressure tube rupture assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, B.E.; Tsiklauri, G.V.

    1994-08-01

    The Russian RBMK reactor core design consists of multiple parallel pressure tube channels that contain Zr clad, UO{sub 2} fuel pin bundles. These parallel channels are contained within graphite moderator blocks which are, in turn, contained within a sealed core cavity. Current safety evaluation efforts of the RBMK reactors have been concentrating in the area of tube ruptures within the core cavity and, in particular, multiple tube ruptures that could threaten the reactor core integrity. Tube rupture events result in a pressurization of the reactor core cavity. The original design overpressure for the cavity region was based on a single tube rupture, resulting in considerable margin to the top plate lift pressure. The top plate lift pressure is 3.1 bar, and a single tube rupture would result in approximately 1.4 bar. RBMK plant specific cavity pressure relief designs provide for between three and in simultaneous tube ruptures before exceeding the top plate lift pressure. Thus, current safety evaluations have begun to examine the potential for multiple tube ruptures that could exceed the current cavity pressure relief designs. One such scenario being examined is a partial rupture in a group distribution header that results in stagnated (low) flow to up to 40 pressure tubes. The subsequent fuel heatup in these reduced flow tubes could result in multiple tube ruptures beyond the design relief capacity of the core cavity. This paper examines several key issues in evaluating this transient, including: (1) the effects of low flow, (2) the effects of axial peaking, and (3) the effects of radial peaking, all relative to the time to tube rupture. These issues each play a significant role in attempting to evaluate the likelihood and severity of multiple tube ruptures for a partial group distribution header break.

  11. Mouse Curve Biometrics

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, Douglas A.

    2007-10-08

    A biometric system suitable for validating user identity using only mouse movements and no specialized equipment is presented. Mouse curves (mouse movements with little or no pause between them) are individually classied and used to develop classication histograms, which are representative of an individual's typical mouse use. These classication histograms can then be compared to validate identity. This classication approach is suitable for providing continuous identity validation during an entire user session.

  12. Gyrotron transmitting tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmahl, H. G. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An RF transmitting tube for the 20 GHz to 500 GHz range comprises a gyrotron and a multistage depressed collector. A winding provides a magnetic field which acts on spent, spinning or orbiting electrons changing their motion to substantially forward linear motion in a downstream direction. The spent electrons then pass through a focusser into the collector. Nearly all of the electrons injected into the collector will remain within an imaginary envelope as they travel forward toward the end collector plate. The apertures in the collector plates are at least as large in diameter as the envelope at any particular axial position.

  13. Lava Tube Collapse Pits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

    These collapse pits are found in the southern hemisphere of Mars. They are likely lava tube collapse pits related to flows from Hadriaca Patera.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -36.8, Longitude 89.6 East (270.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space

  14. Building a Brainier Mouse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsien, Joe Z.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a genetic engineering project to build an intelligent mouse. Cites understanding the molecular basis of learning and memory as a very important step. Concludes that while science will never create a genius mouse that plays the stock market, it can turn a mouse into a quick learner with a better memory. (YDS)

  15. Gastrostomy tube dislodgment acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous gastrostomy is well established root for long term feeding of patients who cannot be fed orally. The risks of percutanous gastrostomy insertion are low. Tube related complications often resolved by placing a Foley catheter or other balloon gastrostomy tube as a temporary solution. Gastrostomy tube related gastric, duodenal and billiary obstruction were reported. Gastrostomy tube related pancreatitis is scarcely described. We described a patient who suffered a pancreatitis related to Foley catheter gastrostomy dislodgment. Reviewing all reported cases of gastrostomy related pancreatitis revealed higher incidence in patient with Foley catheter used as gastrostomy and revealed questionable trends in conducting tube replacement. We suggest a proper manner for tube replacement and concluded that should a Foley catheter used as a temporary solution a replacement should be schedule in a timely manner to avoid life threatening complications. PMID:24674106

  16. Steam generator tube integrity program

    SciTech Connect

    Dierks, D.R.; Shack, W.J.; Muscara, J.

    1996-03-01

    A new research program on steam generator tubing degradation is being sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at Argonne National Laboratory. This program is intended to support a performance-based steam generator tube integrity rule. Critical areas addressed by the program include evaluation of the processes used for the in-service inspection of steam generator tubes and recommendations for improving the reliability and accuracy of inspections; validation and improvement of correlations for evaluating integrity and leakage of degraded steam generator tubes, and validation and improvement of correlations and models for predicting degradation in steam generator tubes as aging occurs. The studies will focus on mill-annealed Alloy 600 tubing, however, tests will also be performed on replacement materials such as thermally-treated Alloy 600 or 690. An overview of the technical work planned for the program is given.

  17. Free compression tube. Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusu, Ioan

    2012-11-01

    During the flight of vehicles, their propulsion energy must overcome gravity, to ensure the displacement of air masses on vehicle trajectory, to cover both energy losses from the friction between a solid surface and the air and also the kinetic energy of reflected air masses due to the impact with the flying vehicle. The flight optimization by increasing speed and reducing fuel consumption has directed research in the aerodynamics field. The flying vehicles shapes obtained through studies in the wind tunnel provide the optimization of the impact with the air masses and the airflow along the vehicle. By energy balance studies for vehicles in flight, the author Ioan Rusu directed his research in reducing the energy lost at vehicle impact with air masses. In this respect as compared to classical solutions for building flight vehicles aerodynamic surfaces which reduce the impact and friction with air masses, Ioan Rusu has invented a device which he named free compression tube for rockets, registered with the State Office for Inventions and Trademarks of Romania, OSIM, deposit f 2011 0352. Mounted in front of flight vehicles it eliminates significantly the impact and friction of air masses with the vehicle solid. The air masses come into contact with the air inside the free compression tube and the air-solid friction is eliminated and replaced by air to air friction.

  18. Tubing for augmented heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Yampolsky, J.S.; Pavlics, P.

    1983-08-01

    The objectives of the program reported were: to determine the heat transfer and friction characteristics on the outside of spiral fluted tubing in single phase flow of water, and to assess the relative cost of a heat exchanger constructed with spiral fluted tubing with one using conventional smooth tubing. An application is examined where an isolation water/water heat exchanger was used to transfer the heat from a gaseous diffusion plant to an external system for energy recovery. (LEW)

  19. Ion plated electronic tube device

    DOEpatents

    Meek, T.T.

    1983-10-18

    An electronic tube and associated circuitry which is produced by ion plating techniques. The process is carried out in an automated process whereby both active and passive devices are produced at very low cost. The circuitry is extremely reliable and is capable of functioning in both high radiation and high temperature environments. The size of the electronic tubes produced are more than an order of magnitude smaller than conventional electronic tubes.

  20. Alternate tube plugging criteria for steam generator tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Cueto-Felgueroso, C.; Aparicio, C.B.

    1997-02-01

    The tubing of the Steam Generators constitutes more than half of the reactor coolant pressure boundary. Specific requirements governing the maintenance of steam generator tubes integrity are set in Plant Technical Specifications and in Section XI of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The operating experience of Steam Generator tubes of PWR plants has shown the existence of some types of degradatory processes. Every one of these has an specific cause and affects one or more zones of the tubes. In the case of Spanish Power Plants, and depending on the particular Plant considered, they should be mentioned the Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) at the roll transition zone (RTZ), the Outside Diameter Stress Corrosion Cracking (ODSCC) at the Tube Support Plate (TSP) intersections and the fretting with the Anti-Vibration Bars (AVBs) or with the Support Plates in the preheater zone. The In-Service Inspections by Eddy Currents constitutes the standard method for assuring the SG tubes integrity and they permit the monitoring of the defects during the service life of the plant. When the degradation reaches a determined limit, called the plugging limit, the SG tube must be either repaired or retired from service by plugging. Customarily, the plugging limit is related to the depth of the defect. Such depth is typically 40% of the wall thickness of the tube and is applicable to any type of defect in the tube. In its origin, that limit was established for tubes thinned by wastage, which was the predominant degradation in the seventies. The application of this criterion for axial crack-like defects, as, for instance, those due to PWSCC in the roll transition zone, has lead to an excessive and unnecessary number of tubes being plugged. This has lead to the development of defect specific plugging criteria. Examples of the application of such criteria are discussed in the article.

  1. YouTube and 'psychiatry'.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Robert; Miller, John; Collins, Noel

    2015-12-01

    YouTube is a video-sharing website that is increasingly used to share and disseminate health-related information, particularly among younger people. There are reports that social media sites, such as YouTube, are being used to communicate an anti-psychiatry message but this has never been confirmed in any published analysis of YouTube clip content. This descriptive study revealed that the representation of 'psychiatry' during summer 2012 was predominantly negative. A subsequent smaller re-analysis suggests that the negative portrayal of 'psychiatry' on YouTube is a stable phenomenon. The significance of this and how it could be addressed are discussed.

  2. Reduced-vibration tube array

    DOEpatents

    Bruck, Gerald J.; Bartolomeo, Daniel R.

    2004-07-20

    A reduced-vibration tube array is disclosed. The array includes a plurality of tubes in a fixed arrangement and a plurality of damping members positioned within the tubes. The damping members include contoured interface regions characterized by bracing points that selectively contact the inner surface of an associated tube. Each interface region is sized and shaped in accordance with the associated tube, so that the damping member bracing points are spaced apart a vibration-reducing distance from the associated tube inner surfaces at equilibrium. During operation, mechanical interaction between the bracing points and the tube inner surfaces reduces vibration by a damage-reducing degree. In one embodiment, the interface regions are serpentine shaped. In another embodiment, the interface regions are helical in shape. The interface regions may be simultaneously helical and serpentine in shape. The damping members may be fixed within the associated tubes, and damping member may be customized several interference regions having attributes chosen in accordance with desired flow characteristics and associated tube properties.

  3. Electron tubes for industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellert, Bernd

    1994-05-01

    This report reviews research and development efforts within the last years for vacuum electron tubes, in particular power grid tubes for industrial applications. Physical and chemical effects are discussed that determine the performance of todays devices. Due to the progress made in the fundamental understanding of materials and newly developed processes the reliability and reproducibility of power grid tubes could be improved considerably. Modern computer controlled manufacturing methods ensure a high reproducibility of production and continuous quality certification according to ISO 9001 guarantees future high quality standards. Some typical applications of these tubes are given as an example.

  4. YouTube and 'psychiatry'.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Robert; Miller, John; Collins, Noel

    2015-12-01

    YouTube is a video-sharing website that is increasingly used to share and disseminate health-related information, particularly among younger people. There are reports that social media sites, such as YouTube, are being used to communicate an anti-psychiatry message but this has never been confirmed in any published analysis of YouTube clip content. This descriptive study revealed that the representation of 'psychiatry' during summer 2012 was predominantly negative. A subsequent smaller re-analysis suggests that the negative portrayal of 'psychiatry' on YouTube is a stable phenomenon. The significance of this and how it could be addressed are discussed. PMID:26755987

  5. Method for producing a tube

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Rohde, Steven B.; Pfeifer, Kent B.; Turner, Timothy S.

    2007-01-02

    A method is described for producing tubular substrates having parallel spaced concentric rings of electrical conductors that can be used as the drift tube of an Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS). The invention comprises providing electrodes on the inside of a tube that are electrically connected to the outside of the tube through conductors that extend between adjacent plies of substrate that are combined to form the tube. Tubular substrates are formed from flexible polymeric printed wiring board materials, ceramic materials and material compositions of glass and ceramic, commonly known as Low Temperature Co-Fired Ceramic (LTCC). The adjacent plies are sealed together around the electrode.

  6. Learning from YouTube [Video Book

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhasz, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    YouTube is a mess. YouTube is for amateurs. YouTube dissolves the real. YouTube is host to inconceivable combos. YouTube is best for corporate-made community. YouTube is badly baked. These are a few of the things Media Studies professor Alexandra Juhasz (and her class) learned about YouTube when she set out to investigate what actually happens…

  7. Development and characterization of a homologous radioimmunoassay for deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii) prolactin

    SciTech Connect

    Marr, G.A.; Colosi, P.; Desjardins, C.; Talamantes, F.

    1983-12-05

    A highly specific and sensitive homologous radioimmunoassay has been developed for the secreted form of prolactin from the deer mouse Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii. Peromyscus serum and pituitary homogenates displayed paralled dilution response curves, and no cross reaction was seen with either mouse prolactin, mouse growth hormone or rat prolactin. The assay was sensitive to 25 picograms per tube and the intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 5 and 3.6%, respectively. In addition, the authors have demonstrated that Peromyscus prolactin does not show parallel displacement in a homologous radioimmunoassay utilized for measuring prolactin in the common laboratory mouse.

  8. Infrared imaging of LED lighting tubes and fluorescent tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siikanen, Sami; Kivi, Sini; Kauppinen, Timo; Juuti, Mikko

    2011-05-01

    The low energy efficiency of conventional light sources is mainly caused by generation of waste heat. We used infrared (IR) imaging in order to monitor the heating of both LED tube luminaires and ordinary T8 fluorescent tubes. The IR images showed clearly how the surface temperatures of the fluorescent tube ends quickly rose up to about +50...+70°C, whereas the highest surface temperatures seen on the LED tubes were only about +30...+40°C. The IR images demonstrated how the heat produced by the individual LED chips can be efficiently guided to the supporting structure in order to keep the LED emitters cool and hence maintain efficient operation. The consumed electrical power and produced illuminance were also recorded during 24 hour measurements. In order to assess the total luminous efficacy of the luminaires, separate luminous flux measurements were made in a large integrating sphere. The currently available LED tubes showed efficacies of up to 88 lm/W, whereas a standard "cool white" T8 fluorescent tube produced ca. 75 lm/W. Both lamp types gave ca. 110 - 130 lx right below the ceiling-mounted luminaire, but the LED tubes consume only 40 - 55% of the electric power compared to fluorescent tubes.

  9. Modeling anterior development in mice: diet as modulator of risk for neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Kappen, Claudia

    2013-11-01

    Head morphogenesis is a complex process that is controlled by multiple signaling centers. The most common defects of cranial development are craniofacial defects, such as cleft lip and cleft palate, and neural tube defects, such as anencephaly and encephalocoele in humans. More than 400 genes that contribute to proper neural tube closure have been identified in experimental animals, but only very few causative gene mutations have been identified in humans, supporting the notion that environmental influences are critical. The intrauterine environment is influenced by maternal nutrition, and hence, maternal diet can modulate the risk for cranial and neural tube defects. This article reviews recent progress toward a better understanding of nutrients during pregnancy, with particular focus on mouse models for defective neural tube closure. At least four major patterns of nutrient responses are apparent, suggesting that multiple pathways are involved in the response, and likely in the underlying pathogenesis of the defects. Folic acid has been the most widely studied nutrient, and the diverse responses of the mouse models to folic acid supplementation indicate that folic acid is not universally beneficial, but that the effect is dependent on genetic configuration. If this is the case for other nutrients as well, efforts to prevent neural tube defects with nutritional supplementation may need to become more specifically targeted than previously appreciated. Mouse models are indispensable for a better understanding of nutrient-gene interactions in normal pregnancies, as well as in those affected by metabolic diseases, such as diabetes and obesity.

  10. Modeling Anterior Development in Mice: Diet as Modulator of Risk for Neural Tube Defects

    PubMed Central

    Kappen, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Head morphogenesis is a complex process that is controlled by multiple signaling centers. The most common defects of cranial development are craniofacial defects, such as cleft lip and cleft palate, and neural tube defects, such as anencephaly and encephalocoele in humans. More than 400 genes that contribute to proper neural tube closure have been identified in experimental animals, but only very few causative gene mutations have been identified in humans, supporting the notion that environmental influences are critical. The intrauterine environment is influenced by maternal nutrition, and hence, maternal diet can modulate the risk for cranial and neural tube defects. This article reviews recent progress toward a better understanding of nutrients during pregnancy, with particular focus on mouse models for defective neural tube closure. At least four major patterns of nutrient responses are apparent, suggesting that multiple pathways are involved in the response, and likely in the underlying pathogenesis of the defects. Folic acid has been the most widely studied nutrient, and the diverse responses of the mouse models to folic acid supplementation indicate that folic acid is not universally beneficial, but that the effect is dependent on genetic configuration. If this is the case for other nutrients as well, efforts to prevent neural tube defects with nutritional supplementation may need to become more specifically targeted than previously appreciated. Mouse models are indispensable for a better understanding of nutrient–gene interactions in normal pregnancies, as well as in those affected by metabolic diseases, such as diabetes and obesity. PMID:24124024

  11. Explosive welding of a tube into a tube sheet

    DOEpatents

    Green, Sheryll C.; Linse, Vonne D.

    1978-10-03

    A cartridge containing an explosive charge is placed within a tube assembled within a tube sheet. The charge is detonated through use of a detonator cord containing a minimum but effective amount of explosive material. The cord is contained inside a tubular shield throughout most of its length within the cartridge. A small length of the cord extends beyond the tubular shield to contact and detonate the explosive charge in its rear portion near the cartridge base. The cartridge base is provided of substantial mass and thickness in respect to side and front walls of the cartridge to minimize bulging beyond the rear face of the tube sheet. For remote activation an electrically activated detonator of higher charge density than the cord is attached to the cord at a location spaced from the tube sheet, cartridge and tube.

  12. Nasogastric tube syndrome induced by an indwelling long intestinal tube

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Naoki; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Nagai, Kentaro; Yamada, Keiichi; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2016-01-01

    The nasogastric tube (NGT) has become a frequently used device to alleviate gastrointestinal symptoms. Nasogastric tube syndrome (NTS) is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening complication of an indwelling NGT. NTS is characterized by acute upper airway obstruction due to bilateral vocal cord paralysis. We report a case of a 76-year-old man with NTS, induced by an indwelling long intestinal tube. He was admitted to our hospital for treatment of sigmoid colon cancer. He underwent sigmoidectomy to release a bowel obstruction, and had a long intestinal tube inserted to decompress the intestinal tract. He presented acute dyspnea following prolonged intestinal intubation, and bronchoscopy showed bilateral vocal cord paralysis. The NGT was removed immediately, and tracheotomy was performed. The patient was finally discharged in a fully recovered state. NTS be considered in patients complaining of acute upper airway obstruction, not only with a NGT inserted but also with a long intestinal tube. PMID:27099450

  13. Nasogastric tube syndrome induced by an indwelling long intestinal tube.

    PubMed

    Sano, Naoki; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Nagai, Kentaro; Yamada, Keiichi; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2016-04-21

    The nasogastric tube (NGT) has become a frequently used device to alleviate gastrointestinal symptoms. Nasogastric tube syndrome (NTS) is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening complication of an indwelling NGT. NTS is characterized by acute upper airway obstruction due to bilateral vocal cord paralysis. We report a case of a 76-year-old man with NTS, induced by an indwelling long intestinal tube. He was admitted to our hospital for treatment of sigmoid colon cancer. He underwent sigmoidectomy to release a bowel obstruction, and had a long intestinal tube inserted to decompress the intestinal tract. He presented acute dyspnea following prolonged intestinal intubation, and bronchoscopy showed bilateral vocal cord paralysis. The NGT was removed immediately, and tracheotomy was performed. The patient was finally discharged in a fully recovered state. NTS be considered in patients complaining of acute upper airway obstruction, not only with a NGT inserted but also with a long intestinal tube.

  14. Drop tube technical tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    Criteria, using fundamental thermochemical dynamics, were developed to assist a scientist using the Drop Tube Facility in designing a good experiment. The types of parameters involved in designing the experiments include the type of furnace, the type of atmosphere, and in general which materials are better behaved than others as determined by past experience in the facility. One of the major advantages of the facility lies in its ability to provide large undercoolings in the cooling curve during the drops. A beginning was to consider the effect of oxygen and other gases upon the amount of undercooling observed. The starting point of the thermochemistry was given by Ellingham and later transformed into what is known as the Richardson Chart. The effect of surface oxidations upon the nucleation phenomena can be observed in each specimen.

  15. Traveling wave tube circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, D. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A traveling wave tube (TWT) has a slow wave structure (SWS) which is severed into two or more sections. A signal path, connects the end of an SWS section to the beginning of the following SWS section. The signal path comprises an impedance matching coupler (IMC), followed by an isolator, a variable phase shifter, and a second IMC. The aggregate band pass characteristic of the components in the signal path is chosen to reject, or strongly attenuate, all frequencies outside the desired operating frequency range of the TWT and yet pass, with minimal attenuation in the forward direction, all frequencies within the desired operating frequency range. The isolator is chosen to reject, or strongly attenuate, waves, of all frequencies, which propagate in the backward direction. The aggregate phase shift characteristic of the components in the signal path is chosen to apply signal power to the beginning of the following SWS section with the phase angle yielding maximum efficiency.

  16. Piezoelectric Rotary Tube Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Charles D.; Badescu, Mircea; Braun, David F.; Culhane, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A custom rotary SQUIGGLE(Registered TradeMark) motor has been developed that sets new benchmarks for small motor size, high position resolution, and high torque without gear reduction. Its capabilities cannot be achieved with conventional electromagnetic motors. It consists of piezoelectric plates mounted on a square flexible tube. The plates are actuated via voltage waveforms 90 out of phase at the resonant frequency of the device to create rotary motion. The motors were incorporated into a two-axis postioner that was designed for fiber-fed spectroscopy for ground-based and space-based projects. The positioner enables large-scale celestial object surveys to take place in a practical amount of time.

  17. Forming tool improves quality of tubing flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Punch and die set improves the quality of tubing flares for use with standard flared-tube fittings in high-pressure systems. It forges a dimensionally accurate flare in the tubing and forces more tubing material into the high-stress areas to improve the strength and tightness of the tubing connection.

  18. Water-storage-tube systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hemker, P.

    1981-12-24

    Passive solar collection/storage/distribution systems were surveyed, designed, fabricated, and mechanically and thermally tested. The types studied were clear and opaque fiberglass tubes, metal tubes with plastic liners, and thermosyphoning tubes. (MHR)

  19. Eddy current signal comparison for tube identification

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, S. W. E-mail: Ratko.Vojvodic@areva.com; Vojvodic, R. E-mail: Ratko.Vojvodic@areva.com

    2015-03-31

    Inspection of nuclear power plant steam generator tubes is required to justify continued safe plant operation. The steam generators consist of thousands of tubes with nominal diameters of 15 to 22mm, approximately 1mm wall thickness, and 20 to 30m in length. The tubes are inspected by passing an eddy current probe through the tubes from tube end to tube end. It is critical to know exactly which tube identification (row and column) is associated with each tube's data. This is controlled by a precision manipulator that provides the tube ID to the eddy current system. Historically there have been some instances where the manipulator incorrectly reported the tube ID. This can have serious consequences including lack of inspection of a tube, or if a pluggable indication is detected, the tube is likely to be mis-plugged thereby risking a primary to secondary leak.

  20. Eddy current signal comparison for tube identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, S. W.; Vojvodic, R.

    2015-03-01

    Inspection of nuclear power plant steam generator tubes is required to justify continued safe plant operation. The steam generators consist of thousands of tubes with nominal diameters of 15 to 22mm, approximately 1mm wall thickness, and 20 to 30m in length. The tubes are inspected by passing an eddy current probe through the tubes from tube end to tube end. It is critical to know exactly which tube identification (row and column) is associated with each tube's data. This is controlled by a precision manipulator that provides the tube ID to the eddy current system. Historically there have been some instances where the manipulator incorrectly reported the tube ID. This can have serious consequences including lack of inspection of a tube, or if a pluggable indication is detected, the tube is likely to be mis-plugged thereby risking a primary to secondary leak.

  1. Vidicon storage tube electrical input/output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipoma, P.

    1972-01-01

    Electrical data storage tube is assembled from standard vidicon tube using conventional amplification and control circuits. Vidicon storage tube is simple, inexpensive and has an erase and preparation time of less than 5 microseconds.

  2. Neural tube defects – recent advances, unsolved questions and controversies

    PubMed Central

    Copp, Andrew J.; Stanier, Philip; Greene, Nicholas D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are severe congenital malformations affecting around 1 in every 1000 pregnancies. Here we review recent advances and currently unsolved issues in the NTD field. An innovation in clinical management has come from the demonstration that closure of open spina bifida lesions in utero can diminish neurological dysfunction in children. Primary prevention by folic acid has been enhanced through introduction of mandatory food fortification in some countries, although not yet in UK. Genetic predisposition comprises the majority of NTD risk, and genes that regulate folate one-carbon metabolism and planar cell polarity have been strongly implicated. The sequence of human neural tube closure events remains controversial, but study of mouse NTD models shows that anencephaly, open spina bifida and craniorachischisis result from failure of primary neurulation, while skin-covered spinal dysraphism results from defective secondary neurulation. Other ‘NTD’ malformations, such as encephalocele, are likely to be post-neurulation disorders. PMID:23790957

  3. Lack of embryotoxicity of homocysteine thiolactone in mouse embryos in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hansen, D K; Grafton, T F; Melnyk, S; James, S J

    2001-01-01

    Recent work from humans and chick embryos has suggested that homocysteine may play a role in producing neural tube defects (NTDs). In an effort to determine if homocysteine is able to produce NTDs in mammalian embryos, mouse embryos were explanted on GD 8 and cultured for 44 h. When either homocysteine or homocysteine thiolactone was added to the culture medium, treated embryos developed as well as controls and had closed neural tubes. Homocysteine thiolactone was also microinjected into the amniotic sac of mouse embryos. Again, development proceeded normally with no significant increase in the number of embryos with open neural tubes at the end of the culture period. HPLC analysis of embryonic thiols 24 h after microinjection revealed a significant increase in embryonic cystathionine levels. These data suggest that homocysteine does not produce NTDs in mouse embryos cultured in vitro and that early organogenesis-stage embryos are able to metabolize homocysteine.

  4. Flux tubes at finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cea, Paolo; Cosmai, Leonardo; Cuteri, Francesca; Papa, Alessandro

    2016-06-01

    The chromoelectric field generated by a static quark-antiquark pair, with its peculiar tube-like shape, can be nicely described, at zero temperature, within the dual superconductor scenario for the QCD confining vacuum. In this work we investigate, by lattice Monte Carlo simulations of the SU (3) pure gauge theory, the fate of chromoelectric flux tubes across the deconfinement transition. We find that, if the distance between the static sources is kept fixed at about 0.76 fm˜eq 1.6/√{σ } and the temperature is increased towards and above the deconfinement temperature T c , the amplitude of the field inside the flux tube gets smaller, while the shape of the flux tube does not vary appreciably across deconfinement. This scenario with flux-tube "evaporation" above T c has no correspondence in ordinary (type-II) superconductivity, where instead the transition to the phase with normal conductivity is characterized by a divergent fattening of flux tubes as the transition temperature is approached from below. We present also some evidence about the existence of flux-tube structures in the magnetic sector of the theory in the deconfined phase.

  5. Tube wall temperature monitoring technique

    SciTech Connect

    Granton, R.L.

    1985-07-01

    In 1977, Monsanto and Conoco undertook the construction of a new, modern technology ethylene plant at Chocolate Bayou, near Alvin, Texas. This plant included high severity cracking furnaces with potential tube wall temperatures considerably higher than any we had previously experienced. Furnace on-stream time between decokes, a factor in the economics of plant operation, was limited by tube wall temperature, thus requiring its accurate knowledge. Earlier work with other ethylene furnaces had also demonstrated our lack of knowledge concerning high temperature measurements in a furnace firebox environment. This had to change. An outside consultant was called upon to provide a threeday workshop on radiant tube temperature sensing. The workshop consisted of two days of formal training in the theory and practice of temperature measurement and one day of field training. This workshop was conducted at a site away from the plant. Approximately 20 engineers (manufacturing and technical groups) attended. The major topics covered by this workshop are as follows: radiant tube temperature sensing, radiation situation of radiant tubes, g.a. method: sample calculations, noncontact sensors: methods of specifying and purchasing, thermal imager strategies, calibration of noncontact sensors, avoiding problems with noncontact sensors, optical aids to radiant tube viewing, tube temperature management and its environmental implications, and contact temperature sensors.

  6. An encyclopedia of mouse DNA elements (Mouse ENCODE).

    PubMed

    Stamatoyannopoulos, John A; Snyder, Michael; Hardison, Ross; Ren, Bing; Gingeras, Thomas; Gilbert, David M; Groudine, Mark; Bender, Michael; Kaul, Rajinder; Canfield, Theresa; Giste, Erica; Johnson, Audra; Zhang, Mia; Balasundaram, Gayathri; Byron, Rachel; Roach, Vaughan; Sabo, Peter J; Sandstrom, Richard; Stehling, A Sandra; Thurman, Robert E; Weissman, Sherman M; Cayting, Philip; Hariharan, Manoj; Lian, Jin; Cheng, Yong; Landt, Stephen G; Ma, Zhihai; Wold, Barbara J; Dekker, Job; Crawford, Gregory E; Keller, Cheryl A; Wu, Weisheng; Morrissey, Christopher; Kumar, Swathi A; Mishra, Tejaswini; Jain, Deepti; Byrska-Bishop, Marta; Blankenberg, Daniel; Lajoie, Bryan R; Jain, Gaurav; Sanyal, Amartya; Chen, Kaun-Bei; Denas, Olgert; Taylor, James; Blobel, Gerd A; Weiss, Mitchell J; Pimkin, Max; Deng, Wulan; Marinov, Georgi K; Williams, Brian A; Fisher-Aylor, Katherine I; Desalvo, Gilberto; Kiralusha, Anthony; Trout, Diane; Amrhein, Henry; Mortazavi, Ali; Edsall, Lee; McCleary, David; Kuan, Samantha; Shen, Yin; Yue, Feng; Ye, Zhen; Davis, Carrie A; Zaleski, Chris; Jha, Sonali; Xue, Chenghai; Dobin, Alex; Lin, Wei; Fastuca, Meagan; Wang, Huaien; Guigo, Roderic; Djebali, Sarah; Lagarde, Julien; Ryba, Tyrone; Sasaki, Takayo; Malladi, Venkat S; Cline, Melissa S; Kirkup, Vanessa M; Learned, Katrina; Rosenbloom, Kate R; Kent, W James; Feingold, Elise A; Good, Peter J; Pazin, Michael; Lowdon, Rebecca F; Adams, Leslie B

    2012-08-13

    To complement the human Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project and to enable a broad range of mouse genomics efforts, the Mouse ENCODE Consortium is applying the same experimental pipelines developed for human ENCODE to annotate the mouse genome.

  7. Neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Hasenau, Susan M; Covington, Chandice

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the etiology of neural tube defects (NTDs) and the role of folic acid in their prevention. NTDs are all too common and devastating outcomes of many pregnancies. The brain and spinal cord malformations that develop during gestation in the NTD-affected pregnancies are expressed through various anomalies. Estimates by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for 1995 reported over 4,000 occurrences of NTDs in the United States alone. Research has demonstrated that the preconception and prenatal addition of folic acid can greatly reduce the incidence of NTDs. Recent advances in genetic studies have increased awareness of the important role of folic acid in preventing NTDs. Identification of a genetic marker will allow for specific treatment of those women at high risk for NTDs. Despite recommendations from the CDC for folic acid supplementation, there is insufficient awareness of these guidelines by both the public and by healthcare providers. A National campaign to promote awareness of the role of folic acid in the prevention of NTDs has been initiated, and has been successful at reducing NTDs's by 19%. Nurses can be instrumental in the dissemination of information not only to women of childbearing age, but also to other nurses and physicians. PMID:11984276

  8. Assembly of carbon tube-in-tube nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, D. S.; Zhu, Z. P.; Liu, X.; Weinberg, G.; Wang, N.; Schlögl, R.

    2005-09-01

    Tube-in-tube carbon nanostructures were prepared by reorganization of graphitic impurity nanoparticles outside or inside of the pristine carbon nanotubes. Graphitic impurity nanoparticles were first disintegrated into small graphene fragments by a chemical oxidation with nitric acid, which also modifies the graphene fragments with carboxyl and hydroxyl groups at their edges. The functionalized graphene fragments were then reintegrated outside or inside of pristine carbon nanotubes to construct into tube-in-tube nanostructures. The combination of oxidatively functionalized graphene units, their solvate in a polar organic medium allowing for dispersive forces to effect supramolecular organization with carbon nanotubes acting as templates and their polycondensation by acid-catalysed esterification followed by pyrolysis of the oxygen functionalities lead to complex nanostructures inaccessible by direct synthesis.

  9. Acoustical studies on corrugated tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaguru, Rajavel

    Corrugated tubes and pipes offer greater global flexibility combined with local rigidity. They are used in numerous engineering applications such as vacuum cleaner hosing, air conditioning systems of aircraft and automobiles, HVAC control systems of heating ducts in buildings, compact heat exchangers, medical equipment and offshore gas and oil transportation flexible riser pipelines. Recently there has been a renewed research interest in analyzing the flow through a corrugated tube to understand the underlying mechanism of so called whistling, although the whistling in such a tube was identified in early twentieth century. The phenomenon of whistling in a corrugated tube is interesting because an airflow through a smooth walled tube of similar dimensions will not generate any whistling tones. Study of whistling in corrugated tubes is important because, it not only causes an undesirable noise problem but also results in flow-acoustic coupling. Such a coupling can cause significant structural vibrations due to flow-acoustic-structure interaction. This interaction would cause flow-induced vibrations that could result in severe damage to mechanical systems having corrugated tubes. In this research work, sound generation (whistling) in corrugated tubes due to airflow is analyzed using experimental as well as Computational Fluid Dynamics-Large Eddy Simulation (CFD-LES) techniques. Sound generation mechanisms resulting in whistling have been investigated. The whistling in terms of frequencies and sound pressure levels for different flow velocities are studied. The analytical and experimental studies are carried out to understand the influence of various parameters of corrugated tubes such as cavity length, cavity width, cavity depth, pitch, Reynolds numbers and number of corrugations. The results indicate that there is a good agreement between theoretically calculated, computationally predicted and experimentally measured whistling frequencies and sound pressure levels

  10. Expansion tube test time predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gourlay, Christopher M.

    1988-01-01

    The interaction of an interface between two gases and strong expansion is investigated and the effect on flow in an expansion tube is examined. Two mechanisms for the unsteady Pitot-pressure fluctuations found in the test section of an expansion tube are proposed. The first mechanism depends on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of the driver-test gas interface in the presence of a strong expansion. The second mechanism depends on the reflection of the strong expansion from the interface. Predictions compare favorably with experimental results. The theory is expected to be independent of the absolute values of the initial expansion tube filling pressures.

  11. PEG tubes: dealing with complications.

    PubMed

    Malhi, Hardip; Thompson, Rosie

    A percutaneous endoscopic gastronomy tube can be used to deliver nutrition, hydration and medicines directly into the patient's stomach. Patients will require a tube if they are unable to swallow safely, putting them at risk of aspiration of food, drink and medicines into their lungs. It is vital that nurses are aware of the complications that may arise when caring for a patient with a PEG tube. It is equally important that nurses know how to deal with these complications or from where tc seek advice. This article provides a quick troubleshooting guide to help nurses deal with complications that can arise with PEG feeding.

  12. Nonsteady Flow in Capillary Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Ayako

    2000-03-01

    Surface phenomena in the field of electron devices and the problem of how long. It takes plants to absorb water during their growth in hydroponic cultivation is attraching the attention of riseachers. However, the related study of non-steady flow in capillary tubes has a number of issues that require investigation. In response to this situation, we made attempted to assess nonsteady fiow in capillary tubes, the liquid rise time and other issues, using a motion equation that takes factors including the friction force of the tube and the surface tension into consideration.

  13. Thermal stresses in composite tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyer, M. W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper summarizes work to determine the thermally-induced stresses and deformations in specially-constructed angle-ply composite tubes subjected to a uniform temperature change relative to their stress-free cure state. The tubes are designed for application to space structures and have high axial stiffness. Four angle-ply designs are examined in an effort to determine which design might have the most favorable thermally-induced response. A planar elasticity solution is used, the solution being valid away from the ends of the tube. Of the four designs considered, none has any particular advantage as far as stress levels are concerned. However, despite the fact that the tube wall is a balanced laminate, one design exhibits a significant amount of thermally-induced twist.

  14. Confined explosive joining of tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.

    1979-01-01

    Technique uses explosive ribbon to join and seal tubes hermetically while totally confining explosive products, such as smoke, light, and sound. Only click is audible. Process yields joints of the same strengths as parent metal.

  15. Tube-wave seismic imaging

    DOEpatents

    Korneev, Valeri A [LaFayette, CA

    2009-05-05

    The detailed analysis of cross well seismic data for a gas reservoir in Texas revealed two newly detected seismic wave effects, recorded approximately 2000 feet above the reservoir. A tube-wave (150) is initiated in a source well (110) by a source (111), travels in the source well (110), is coupled to a geological feature (140), propagates (151) through the geological feature (140), is coupled back to a tube-wave (152) at a receiver well (120), and is and received by receiver(s) (121) in either the same (110) or a different receiving well (120). The tube-wave has been shown to be extremely sensitive to changes in reservoir characteristics. Tube-waves appear to couple most effectively to reservoirs where the well casing is perforated, allowing direct fluid contact from the interior of a well case to the reservoir.

  16. Tube-wave seismic imaging

    DOEpatents

    Korneev, Valeri A.; Bakulin, Andrey

    2009-10-13

    The detailed analysis of cross well seismic data for a gas reservoir in Texas revealed two newly detected seismic wave effects, recorded approximately 2000 feet above the reservoir. A tube-wave (150) is initiated in a source well (110) by a source (111), travels in the source well (110), is coupled to a geological feature (140), propagates (151) through the geological feature (140), is coupled back to a tube-wave (152) at a receiver well (120), and is and received by receiver(s) (121) in either the same (110) or a different receiving well (120). The tube-wave has been shown to be extremely sensitive to changes in reservoir characteristics. Tube-waves appear to couple most effectively to reservoirs where the well casing is perforated, allowing direct fluid contact from the interior of a well case to the reservoir.

  17. The MOUSE Squad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a New York city after-school program started by MOUSE (Making Opportunities for Upgrading Schools and Education), a national nonprofit group that teaches students how to fix computers, and equips them with the communication and problem-solving skills to help them in the working world. The MOUSE program is part of a trend…

  18. Photomultiplier tube gain regulating system

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Wayne F.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved system for regulating the gain of a photomultiplier tube, and was designed for use with the photomultiplier tubes of a GeMSAEC fast analyzers. It has the following advantages over the prior system: noise is virtually eliminated; sample analysis can begin after 3 to 4 revolutions of the rotor; fluorescent and light scattering solutions can be used as a reference; and the reference solution can be in any cuvette on the rotor.

  19. Mouse genome database 2016.

    PubMed

    Bult, Carol J; Eppig, Janan T; Blake, Judith A; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E

    2016-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; http://www.informatics.jax.org) is the primary community model organism database for the laboratory mouse and serves as the source for key biological reference data related to mouse genes, gene functions, phenotypes and disease models with a strong emphasis on the relationship of these data to human biology and disease. As the cost of genome-scale sequencing continues to decrease and new technologies for genome editing become widely adopted, the laboratory mouse is more important than ever as a model system for understanding the biological significance of human genetic variation and for advancing the basic research needed to support the emergence of genome-guided precision medicine. Recent enhancements to MGD include new graphical summaries of biological annotations for mouse genes, support for mobile access to the database, tools to support the annotation and analysis of sets of genes, and expanded support for comparative biology through the expansion of homology data.

  20. Mouse genome database 2016

    PubMed Central

    Bult, Carol J.; Eppig, Janan T.; Blake, Judith A.; Kadin, James A.; Richardson, Joel E.

    2016-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; http://www.informatics.jax.org) is the primary community model organism database for the laboratory mouse and serves as the source for key biological reference data related to mouse genes, gene functions, phenotypes and disease models with a strong emphasis on the relationship of these data to human biology and disease. As the cost of genome-scale sequencing continues to decrease and new technologies for genome editing become widely adopted, the laboratory mouse is more important than ever as a model system for understanding the biological significance of human genetic variation and for advancing the basic research needed to support the emergence of genome-guided precision medicine. Recent enhancements to MGD include new graphical summaries of biological annotations for mouse genes, support for mobile access to the database, tools to support the annotation and analysis of sets of genes, and expanded support for comparative biology through the expansion of homology data. PMID:26578600

  1. Mouse genome database 2016.

    PubMed

    Bult, Carol J; Eppig, Janan T; Blake, Judith A; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E

    2016-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; http://www.informatics.jax.org) is the primary community model organism database for the laboratory mouse and serves as the source for key biological reference data related to mouse genes, gene functions, phenotypes and disease models with a strong emphasis on the relationship of these data to human biology and disease. As the cost of genome-scale sequencing continues to decrease and new technologies for genome editing become widely adopted, the laboratory mouse is more important than ever as a model system for understanding the biological significance of human genetic variation and for advancing the basic research needed to support the emergence of genome-guided precision medicine. Recent enhancements to MGD include new graphical summaries of biological annotations for mouse genes, support for mobile access to the database, tools to support the annotation and analysis of sets of genes, and expanded support for comparative biology through the expansion of homology data. PMID:26578600

  2. Dermatology on YouTube.

    PubMed

    Boyers, Lindsay N; Quest, Tyler; Karimkhani, Chante; Connett, Jessica; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2014-06-01

    YouTube, reaches upwards of six billion users on a monthly basis and is a unique source of information distribution and communication. Although the influence of YouTube on personal health decision-making is well established, this study assessed the type of content and viewership on a broad scope of dermatology related content on YouTube. Select terms (i.e. dermatology, sun protection, skin cancer, skin cancer awareness, and skin conditions) were searched on YouTube. Overall, the results included 100 videos with over 47 million viewers. Advocacy was the most prevalent content type at 24% of the total search results. These 100 videos were "shared" a total of 101,173 times and have driven 6,325 subscriptions to distinct YouTube user pages. Of the total videos, 35% were uploaded by or featured an MD/DO/PhD in dermatology or other specialty/field, 2% FNP/PA, 1% RN, and 62% other. As one of the most trafficked global sites on the Internet, YouTube is a valuable resource for dermatologists, physicians in other specialties, and the general public to share their dermatology-related content and gain subscribers. However, challenges of accessing and determining evidence-based data remain an issue.

  3. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lagasse, Paul R.

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and circumference by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  4. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lagasse, P.R.

    1985-06-21

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and radius by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  5. 21 CFR 872.6570 - Impression tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Impression tube. 872.6570 Section 872.6570 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6570 Impression tube. (a) Identification. An impression tube is a device consisting of a hollow copper tube intended to take an impression of a single...

  6. 21 CFR 868.5720 - Bronchial tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bronchial tube. 868.5720 Section 868.5720 Food and... ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5720 Bronchial tube. (a) Identification. A bronchial tube is a... leading directly to the lung) in order to isolate a portion of lung distal to the tube. (b)...

  7. 21 CFR 868.5720 - Bronchial tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bronchial tube. 868.5720 Section 868.5720 Food and... ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5720 Bronchial tube. (a) Identification. A bronchial tube is a... leading directly to the lung) in order to isolate a portion of lung distal to the tube. (b)...

  8. 21 CFR 872.6570 - Impression tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Impression tube. 872.6570 Section 872.6570 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6570 Impression tube. (a) Identification. An impression tube is a device consisting of a hollow copper tube intended to take an impression of a single...

  9. 21 CFR 868.5720 - Bronchial tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bronchial tube. 868.5720 Section 868.5720 Food and... ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5720 Bronchial tube. (a) Identification. A bronchial tube is a... leading directly to the lung) in order to isolate a portion of lung distal to the tube. (b)...

  10. 21 CFR 872.6570 - Impression tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Impression tube. 872.6570 Section 872.6570 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6570 Impression tube. (a) Identification. An impression tube is a device consisting of a hollow copper tube intended to take an impression of a single...

  11. 27 CFR 41.35 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 41.35... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.35 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette tubes are taxed at the following...

  12. 27 CFR 40.352 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 40.352... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.352 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette...

  13. 27 CFR 41.35 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 41.35... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.35 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette tubes are taxed at the following...

  14. 21 CFR 872.6570 - Impression tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Impression tube. 872.6570 Section 872.6570 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6570 Impression tube. (a) Identification. An impression tube is a device consisting of a hollow copper tube intended to take an impression of a single...

  15. 27 CFR 40.352 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Cigarette tubes. 40.352... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.352 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette...

  16. 27 CFR 40.352 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 40.352... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.352 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette...

  17. 27 CFR 40.352 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 40.352... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.352 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette...

  18. 21 CFR 868.5720 - Bronchial tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bronchial tube. 868.5720 Section 868.5720 Food and... ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5720 Bronchial tube. (a) Identification. A bronchial tube is a... leading directly to the lung) in order to isolate a portion of lung distal to the tube. (b)...

  19. 27 CFR 40.352 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 40.352... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.352 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette...

  20. 27 CFR 41.35 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 41.35... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.35 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette tubes are taxed at the following...

  1. 21 CFR 872.6570 - Impression tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Impression tube. 872.6570 Section 872.6570 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6570 Impression tube. (a) Identification. An impression tube is a device consisting of a hollow copper tube intended to take an impression of a single...

  2. 27 CFR 41.35 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Cigarette tubes. 41.35... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.35 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette tubes are taxed at the following...

  3. 21 CFR 868.5720 - Bronchial tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bronchial tube. 868.5720 Section 868.5720 Food and... ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5720 Bronchial tube. (a) Identification. A bronchial tube is a... leading directly to the lung) in order to isolate a portion of lung distal to the tube. (b)...

  4. 27 CFR 41.35 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 41.35... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.35 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette tubes are taxed at the following...

  5. Gage tests tube flares quickly and accurately

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, F. D.

    1966-01-01

    Flared tube gage with a test cone that is precisely made with a tapering surface to complement the tube flare is capable of determining the accuracy of a tube flare efficiently and economically. This device should improve the speed, efficiency, and accuracy of tube flare inspections.

  6. Slit/Robo1 signaling regulates neural tube development by balancing neuroepithelial cell proliferation and differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Guang; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiao-yu; Han, Zhe; Chuai, Manli; Wang, Li-jing; Ho Lee, Kenneth Ka; Geng, Jian-guo; Yang, Xuesong

    2013-05-01

    development by tightly coordinating cell proliferation and differentiation during neurulation. - Highlights: ► The role of Slit/Robo1 signaling was investigated with chick and mouse models. ► Disturbance of Slit/Robo1 signaling resulted in neural tube defects. ► Slit/Robo1 signaling regulated the proliferation of neural tube cells. ► Slit/Robo1 signaling modulated the differentiation of neural tube cells. ► Slit/Robo1 signaling balanced the proliferation and differentiation of neural tube.

  7. Artificial rearing of mouse pups: development of a mouse pup in a cup model.

    PubMed

    Beierle, Elizabeth A; Chen, Mike K; Hartwich, Joseph E; Iyengar, Meera; Dai, Wei; Li, Nan; Demarco, Vince; Neu, Josef

    2004-08-01

    Artificial rearing of rat pups has been used in the investigation of the neonatal gut. We propose to adapt the model of artificially rearing rat pups for use in mouse pups, thereby allowing the use of transgenic animals for our research. We hypothesized that gastrostomy catheters may be placed successfully into neonatal mouse pups and that the pups may be artificially reared without significant alterations in their growth or intestinal development. Gastrostomy tubes are placed into 5-d-old mouse pups [artificially reared (AR); n = 32], and the mice are fed rodent milk substitute. Littermate pups [maternally reared (MR); n = 22] are used as controls. After 5 d, pups are killed and their organs are harvested. Intestinal villus measurements, protein content, and DNA content are determined. Data are reported as mean +/- SEM, compared with appropriate statistical methods, and significance is determined at P < 0.05. Initial weights and lengths are not different between the two groups, but after 5 d, MR pups weigh more than their AR counterparts (5.0 +/- 0.13 versus 4.1 +/- 0.14 g, MR versus AR; P < 0.01). However, the pups' length and the intestinal villus height-to-width ratios, protein, and DNA content are not different between the MR and AR pups. To our knowledge, this is the first report of artificially rearing mouse pups. Development of this technique will permit nutritional manipulation in neonatal mice, a mammalian model wherein the genome is sequenced and transgenic mutants are available.

  8. Characterization of Bcor expression in mouse development.

    PubMed

    Wamstad, Joseph A; Bardwell, Vivian J

    2007-04-01

    Mutation of the gene encoding the transcriptional corepressor BCOR results in the X-linked disorder Oculofaciocardiodental syndrome (OFCD or MCOPS2). Female OFCD patients suffer from severe ocular, craniofacial, cardiac, and digital developmental defects and males do not survive through gestation. BCOR can mediate transcriptional repression by the oncoprotein BCL6 and has the ability to reduce transcriptional activation by AF9, a known mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) fusion partner. The essential role of BCOR in development and its ability to modulate activity of known oncogenic proteins prompted us to determine the expression profile of Bcor during mouse development. Identification of independently transcribed exons in the 5' untranslated region of Bcor suggests that three independent promoters control the expression of Bcor in mice. Although Bcor is widely expressed in adult mouse tissues, analysis of known spliced isoforms in the coding region of Bcor reveals differential isoform usage. Whole mount in situ hybridization of mouse embryos shows that Bcor is strongly expressed in the extraembryonic tissue during gastrulation and expression significantly increases throughout the embryo after embryonic turning. During organogenesis and fetal stages Bcor is differentially expressed in multiple tissue lineages, with a notable presence in the developing nervous system. Strikingly, we observed that Bcor expression in the eye, brain, neural tube, and branchial arches correlates with tissues affected in OFCD patients. PMID:17344103

  9. TORC1/2 Inhibitor MLN0128 and Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Recurrent Glioblastoma or Advanced Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-17

    Adult Glioblastoma; Endometrial Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Solid Neoplasm; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  10. Outcomes following percutaneous upper gastrointestinal decompressive tube placement for malignant bowel obstruction in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rath, KS; Loseth, D; Muscarella, P; Phillips, GS; Fowler, JM; O’Malley, DM; Cohn, DE; Copeland, LJ; Eisenhauer, EL; Salani, R

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate peri-operative and survival outcomes of ovarian cancer patients undergoing percutaneous upper gastrointestinal decompression for malignant bowel obstruction (MBO). Methods Retrospective chart review was used to identify patients with ovarian, peritoneal, or fallopian tube cancer who underwent palliative decompressive treatment for MBO from 1/2002–12/2010. Kaplan-Meier methods were used to estimate the median survival (MS) and multivariate analysis used to determine if any variables were associated with the hazard of death. Results Fifty-three patients met inclusion criteria. Median length of diagnosis prior to intervention was 21 months. Fifteen (28.3%) patients experienced complications and 9 required revision. Forty-nine (92.5%) experienced relief of symptoms after placement, and 91% tolerated some form of oral intake. Following placement, 19 (36%) patients received additional chemotherapy and 21(41%) patients received total parental nutrition (TPN). Thirty-five patients were discharged home/outpatient facility, 16 to hospice care, and 2 died prior to discharge. MS for all patients was 46 days. Patients who received chemotherapy had a MS of 169 days compared to 33 days (p<0.001). We failed to find an association between survival and TPN or performance status. Conclusions Malignant bowel obstruction is a common complication of ovarian cancer. Management is palliative; risks and benefits of any therapy must be considered. Percutaneous decompressive therapy provides relief from associated symptoms, and allows patients to be discharged home. Median survival in this group is limited, and decisions regarding aggressive therapy should be individualized. PMID:23369942

  11. Laser initiated endotracheal tube explosion.

    PubMed

    De Vane, G G

    1990-06-01

    A 62-year-old male with a diagnosis of subglottic and tracheal stenosis resulting from a prolonged intubation was scheduled for a laser bronchoscopy and placement of a silicon T-shaped tube. His history was significant for two myocardial infarctions, an episode of congestive heart failure and exertional angina. A 6 mm polyvinyl chloride endotracheal tube, wrapped with aluminum tape, was placed in an existing tracheostomy stoma. During the course of the procedure, a sudden bright flash occurred followed by an explosive noise and black smoke rising in the anesthesia circuit and from the patient's mouth. The endotracheal tube was removed and the patient was treated for first and second degree burns in the supraglottic area and base of the tongue. In laser surgery of the airway, special care should be given to reducing the flammability of the inspired gases which can be best accomplished by the mixture of helium with oxygen. Helium acts to retard ignition of polyvinyl chloride tubes in concentrations of 60% or greater. The external surface of the tube can also be protected with the application of a metallic tape affixed in a spiral fashion. Finally, a protocol for the management and treatment of this emergency should be adopted and rehearsed. PMID:2378234

  12. Superluminal subway: The Krasnikov tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, Allen E.; Roman, Thomas A.

    1997-08-01

    The ``warp drive'' metric recently presented by Alcubierre has the problem that an observer at the center of the warp bubble is causally separated from the outer edge of the bubble wall. Hence such an observer can neither create a warp bubble on demand nor control one once it has been created. In addition, such a bubble requires negative energy densities. One might hope that elimination of the first problem might ameliorate the second as well. We analyze and generalize a metric, originally proposed by Krasnikov for two spacetime dimensions, which does not suffer from the first difficulty. As a consequence, the Krasnikov metric has the interesting property that, although the time for a one-way trip to a distant star cannot be shortened, the time for a round trip, as measured by clocks on Earth, can be made arbitrarily short. In our four-dimensional extension of this metric, a ``tube'' is constructed along the path of an outbound spaceship, which connects the Earth and the star. Inside the tube spacetime is flat, but the light cones are opened out so as to allow superluminal travel in one direction. We show that, although a single Krasnikov tube does not involve closed timelike curves, a time machine can be constructed with a system of two nonoverlapping tubes. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that Krasnikov tubes, like warp bubbles and traversable wormholes, also involve unphysically thin layers of negative energy density, as well as large total negative energies, and, therefore, probably cannot be realized in practice.

  13. Mouse Cleaning Apparatus and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Glenn L. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The method of using the mouse pad cleaning apparatus is disclosed and claimed. The method comprises the steps of uncovering the mouse cleaning surface, applying the mouse and ball of the mouse to the cleaning surface, moving the mouse in a rotational pattern on the mouse cleaning surface, removing the mouse form the mouse cleaning surface, washing the cleaning surface, and covering the mouse cleaning surface. A mouse pad cleaning apparatus comprising a plurality of substrates, each said substrate having adhesive thereon, said plurality of substrates residing in and affixed to a receptacle. A single substrate having adhesive, which may be washable or non-washable, thereon may be employed. The washable adhesive may be an organopolysiloxane or gelatinous elastomer.

  14. Failure analysis of brass tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, S.J.; Bodnar, R.L.

    1997-02-01

    The 1996 Jacquet Lucas Award for Excellence in Metallography was won by Samuel J. Lawrence and Richard L. Bodnar for their analysis of cracks in Admiralty brass cooling tubes, which are part of a heat exchanger in a turbogenerator that provides electricity to a manufacturing plant. A mixture of non-recirculating city and spring pit water flows through bundles of tubes to cool the oil in which they are immersed. However, a problem developed when several of the brass tubes cracked transversely, allowing cooling water to mix with the oil. This award-winning entry in the ASM/IMS competition shows how the metallographers analyzed the cracks, and what the results were.

  15. Tubing and cable cutting tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcsmith, D. D.; Richardson, J. I. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A hand held hydraulic cutting tool was developed which is particularly useful in deactivating ejection seats in military aircraft rescue operations. The tool consists primarily of a hydraulic system composed of a fluid reservoir, a pumping piston, and an actuator piston. Mechanical cutting jaws are attached to the actuator piston rod. The hydraulic system is controlled by a pump handle. As the pump handle is operated the actuator piston rod is forced outward and thus the cutting jaws are forced together. The frame of the device is a flexible metal tubing which permits easy positioning of the tool cutting jaws in remote and normally inaccessible locations. Bifurcated cutting edges ensure removal of a section of the tubing or cable to thereby reduce the possibility of accidental reactivation of the tubing or cable being severed.

  16. Core-tube data logger

    SciTech Connect

    Henfling, J.A.; Normann, R.A.; Knudsen, S.; Drumheller, D.

    1997-01-01

    Wireline core drilling, increasingly used for geothermal exploration, employs a core-tube to capture a rock core sample during drilling. Three types of core-tube data loggers (CTDL) have been built and tested to date by Sandia national Laboratories. They are: (1) temperature-only logger, (2) temperature/inclinometer logger and (3) heat-shielded temperature/inclinometer logger. All were tested during core drilling operations using standard wireline diamond core drilling equipment. While these tools are designed for core-tube deployment, the tool lends itself to be adapted to other drilling modes and equipment. Topics covered in this paper include: (1) description on how the CTDLs are implemented, (2) the components of the system, (3) the type of data one can expect from this type of tool, (4) lessons learned, (5) comparison to its counterpart and (6) future work.

  17. End Calorimeter Warm Tube Heater

    SciTech Connect

    Primdahl, K.; /Fermilab

    1991-08-06

    The Tevatron accelerator beam tube must pass through the End Calorimeter cryostats of the D-Zero Collider Detector. Furthermore, the End Calorimeter cryostats must be allowed to roll back forty inches without interruption of the vacuum system; hence, the Tev tube must slide through the End Calorimeter cryostat as it is rolled back. The Tev pass through the End Calorimeter can actually be thought of as a cluster of concentric tubes: Tev tube, warm (vacuum vessel) tube, IS layers of superinsulation, cold tube (argon vessel), and Inner Hadronic center support tube. M. Foley generated an ANSYS model to study the heat load. to the cryostat. during collider physics studies; that is, without operation of the heater. A sketch of the model is included in the appendix. The vacuum space and superinsulation was modeled as a thermal solid, with conductivity derived from tests performed at Fermilab. An additional estimate was done. by this author, using data supplied by NR-2. a superinsulation manufacturer. The ANSYS result and hand calculation are in close agreement. The ANSYS model was modified. by this author. to incorporate the effect of the heater. Whereas the earlier model studied steady state operation only. the revised model considers the heater-off steady state mode as the initial condition. then performs a transient analysis with a final load step for time tending towards infinity. Results show the thermal gradient as a function of time and applied voltage. It should be noted that M. Foley's model was generated for one half the warm tube. implying the tube to be symmetric. In reality. the downstream connection (relative to the collision point) attachment to the vacuum shell is via several convolutions of a 0.020-inch wall bellows; hence. a nearly adiabatic boundary condition. Accordingly. the results reported in the table reflect extrapolation of the curves to the downstream end of the tube. Using results from the ANSYS analysis, that is, tube temperature and

  18. [The Use of a Tracheal Tube for Guiding Nasogastric Tube Insertion].

    PubMed

    Saima, Shunsuke; Asai, Takashi; Okuda, Yasuhisa

    2016-04-01

    An obese patient was scheduled for shoulder joint surgery under general anesthesia. After induction of anesthesia and tracheal intubation, insertion of a gastric tube was difficult. A new tracheal tube was prepared, the connecter was removed, and the tube was cut longitudinally. The tube was inserted orally into the esophagus. A gastric tube was passed through the nose, and its tip was taken out of the mouth. The tip of the gastric tube was passed through the tracheal tube, and its correct position in the stomach was confirmed by auscultation of the epigastrium. The tracheal tube was carefully taken out from the esophagus leaving the gastric tube in the stomach. The cut tracheal tube was peeled off from the gastric tube. Correct positioning of the gastric tube was re-confirmed.

  19. Working session 3: Tubing integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Cueto-Felgueroso, C.; Strosnider, J.

    1997-02-01

    Twenty-three individuals representing nine countries (Belgium, Canada, the Czech Republic, France, Japan, the Slovak Republic, Spain, the UK, and the US) participated in the session on tube integrity. These individuals represented utilities, vendors, consultants and regulatory authorities. The major subjects discussed by the group included overall objectives of managing steam generator tube degradation, necessary elements of a steam generator degradation management program, the concept of degradation specific management, structural integrity evaluations, leakage evaluations, and specific degradation mechanisms. The group`s discussions on these subjects, including conclusions and recommendations, are summarized in this article.

  20. The pollen tube paradigm revisited.

    PubMed

    Kroeger, Jens; Geitmann, Anja

    2012-12-01

    The polar growth process characterizing pollen tube elongation has attracted numerous modeling attempts over the past years. While initial models focused on recreating the correct cellular geometry, recent models are increasingly based on experimentally assessed cellular parameters such as the dynamics of signaling processes and the mechanical properties of the cell wall. Recent modeling attempts have therefore substantially gained in biological relevance and predictive power. Different modeling methods are explained and the power and limitations of individual models are compared. Focus is on several recent models that use closed feedback loops in order to generate limit cycles representing the oscillatory behavior observed in growing tubes. PMID:23000432

  1. A Phase I Study of Unimolecular Pentavalent (Globo-H-GM2-sTn-TF-Tn) Immunization of Patients with Epithelial Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Peritoneal Cancer in First Remission.

    PubMed

    O'Cearbhaill, Roisin E; Ragupathi, Govind; Zhu, Jianglong; Wan, Qian; Mironov, Svetlana; Yang, Guangbin; Spassova, Maria K; Iasonos, Alexia; Kravetz, Sara; Ouerfelli, Ouathek; Spriggs, David R; Danishefsky, Samuel J; Sabbatini, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a phase I study in ovarian cancer patients to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a synthetic unimolecular pentavalent carbohydrate vaccine (Globo-H, GM2, sTn, TF, and Tn) supported on a peptide backbone, conjugated to keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH), and mixed with immunological adjuvant QS-21. Twenty-four advanced-stage, poor-risk, first-remission ovarian cancer patients were enrolled from January 2011-Septermber 2013. Three dose levels were planned (25, 50, 100 mcg) with three cohorts of six patients each, with an additional 6-patient expansion cohort at the MTD. ELISA serologic IgM and IgG responses for each antigen was defined as positive response if antibody titers were ≥1:80 over the respective patient's pre-vaccination serum. The study would be considered positive if at least four of 12 patients treated at the MTD showed immune responses for at least three of the five antigens. Twenty-four patients (median age, 54 years [range, 36-68]) were included in the safety analysis. Histology was high-grade serous in 22 patients (92%); 18 had stage III and six stage IV disease. The vaccine was well-tolerated at all doses, with no DLTs. At the highest treated dose, IgG and/or IgM responses were recorded against ≥3 antigens in 9/12 patients (75%), ≥4 in 7/12 (58%), and 5 in 3/12 (25%). With a median follow-up of 19 months (range, 2-39), 20 patients (83%) recurred and six (25%) died. The unimolecular pentavalent vaccine construct was shown to be safe and immunogenic. Such a construct greatly simplifies regulatory requirements and manufacturing, facilitates scalability, and provides adaptability. PMID:27110823

  2. A Phase II Trial of Intraperitoneal EGEN-001, An IL-12 Plasmid Formulated with PEG-PEI-Cholesterol Lipopolymer in the Treatment of Persistent or Recurrent Epithelial Ovarian, Fallopian Tube or Primary Peritoneal Cancer: A Gynecologic Oncology Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Ronald D.; Sill, Michael W.; Davidson, Susan A.; Muller, Carolyn Y.; Bender, David P.; DeBernardo, Robert L.; Behbakht, Kian; Huh, Warner K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this phase II trial was to evaluate the toxicity and antitumor activity of EGEN-001 in platinum resistant recurrent ovarian cancer. Methods Eligible patients had weekly IP infusion of EGEN-001 at a dose of 24 mg/m2. Toxicity and antitumor activity were evaluated using CTCAE and RESIST criteria, respectively. Co-primary endpoints were tumor response and survival without progression (PFS) for at least 6 months. Survival without progression before going onto a subsequent therapy (EFS) for at least six months was also considered. Results A total of 58 EGEN-001 cycles were administered to 20/ 22 enrolled patients (median 2 cycles, range 1–9). The most frequently associated adverse events related specifically to EGEN-001 treatment were grade 1/2 fatigue, fever, chills, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia. Three of 20 EGEN-001 treated patients evaluable for toxicity elected to withdraw from the study motivated in part by grade 1 treatment related toxicities. There were no patients with partial or complete response (0%; 90% CI 0~10.9%). Seven (35%) of 16 patients evaluable for response had stable disease, and 9 (45%) had progressive disease. Six (30%) patients had a PFS of greater than six months, although three had gone off study and onto other therapies before six months. The estimated six-month EFS was 15%. The median PFS and OS was 2.89 and 9.17 months, respectively. Conclusion EGEN-001 at the dose and schedule evaluated was associated with some but limited activity and was seemingly less tolerated in platinum resistant recurrent ovarian cancer patients. PMID:24708919

  3. A Phase I Study of Unimolecular Pentavalent (Globo-H-GM2-sTn-TF-Tn) Immunization of Patients with Epithelial Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Peritoneal Cancer in First Remission.

    PubMed

    O'Cearbhaill, Roisin E; Ragupathi, Govind; Zhu, Jianglong; Wan, Qian; Mironov, Svetlana; Yang, Guangbin; Spassova, Maria K; Iasonos, Alexia; Kravetz, Sara; Ouerfelli, Ouathek; Spriggs, David R; Danishefsky, Samuel J; Sabbatini, Paul J

    2016-04-22

    We conducted a phase I study in ovarian cancer patients to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a synthetic unimolecular pentavalent carbohydrate vaccine (Globo-H, GM2, sTn, TF, and Tn) supported on a peptide backbone, conjugated to keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH), and mixed with immunological adjuvant QS-21. Twenty-four advanced-stage, poor-risk, first-remission ovarian cancer patients were enrolled from January 2011-Septermber 2013. Three dose levels were planned (25, 50, 100 mcg) with three cohorts of six patients each, with an additional 6-patient expansion cohort at the MTD. ELISA serologic IgM and IgG responses for each antigen was defined as positive response if antibody titers were ≥1:80 over the respective patient's pre-vaccination serum. The study would be considered positive if at least four of 12 patients treated at the MTD showed immune responses for at least three of the five antigens. Twenty-four patients (median age, 54 years [range, 36-68]) were included in the safety analysis. Histology was high-grade serous in 22 patients (92%); 18 had stage III and six stage IV disease. The vaccine was well-tolerated at all doses, with no DLTs. At the highest treated dose, IgG and/or IgM responses were recorded against ≥3 antigens in 9/12 patients (75%), ≥4 in 7/12 (58%), and 5 in 3/12 (25%). With a median follow-up of 19 months (range, 2-39), 20 patients (83%) recurred and six (25%) died. The unimolecular pentavalent vaccine construct was shown to be safe and immunogenic. Such a construct greatly simplifies regulatory requirements and manufacturing, facilitates scalability, and provides adaptability.

  4. A Phase I Study of Unimolecular Pentavalent (Globo-H-GM2-sTn-TF-Tn) Immunization of Patients with Epithelial Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Peritoneal Cancer in First Remission

    PubMed Central

    O’Cearbhaill, Roisin E.; Ragupathi, Govind; Zhu, Jianglong; Wan, Qian; Mironov, Svetlana; Yang, Guangbin; Spassova, Maria K.; Iasonos, Alexia; Kravetz, Sara; Ouerfelli, Ouathek; Spriggs, David R.; Danishefsky, Samuel J.; Sabbatini, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a phase I study in ovarian cancer patients to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a synthetic unimolecular pentavalent carbohydrate vaccine (Globo-H, GM2, sTn, TF, and Tn) supported on a peptide backbone, conjugated to keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH), and mixed with immunological adjuvant QS-21. Twenty-four advanced-stage, poor-risk, first-remission ovarian cancer patients were enrolled from January 2011–Septermber 2013. Three dose levels were planned (25, 50, 100 mcg) with three cohorts of six patients each, with an additional 6-patient expansion cohort at the MTD. ELISA serologic IgM and IgG responses for each antigen was defined as positive response if antibody titers were ≥1:80 over the respective patient’s pre-vaccination serum. The study would be considered positive if at least four of 12 patients treated at the MTD showed immune responses for at least three of the five antigens. Twenty-four patients (median age, 54 years [range, 36–68]) were included in the safety analysis. Histology was high-grade serous in 22 patients (92%); 18 had stage III and six stage IV disease. The vaccine was well-tolerated at all doses, with no DLTs. At the highest treated dose, IgG and/or IgM responses were recorded against ≥3 antigens in 9/12 patients (75%), ≥4 in 7/12 (58%), and 5 in 3/12 (25%). With a median follow-up of 19 months (range, 2–39), 20 patients (83%) recurred and six (25%) died. The unimolecular pentavalent vaccine construct was shown to be safe and immunogenic. Such a construct greatly simplifies regulatory requirements and manufacturing, facilitates scalability, and provides adaptability. PMID:27110823

  5. Packing tube assembly for pumping wells

    SciTech Connect

    Towner, G.F.; Carter, C.A.

    1987-09-22

    A packing tube assembly for replacing a conventional stuffing box is described. The packing tube assembly comprising: a packing tube; a rod adaptor adapted to be coupled between the polished rod and the sucker rod string and adapted to extend throughout the packing tube when positioned therein; compressible packing means on the rod adaptor adapted to provide a seal between the rod adaptor and the packing tube when the rod adaptor is in position within the packing tube; stabilizing means on the rod adaptor adapted to engage the packing tube to stabilize the rod adaptor within the packing tube during operation; and a mounting bushing connected to the top of the packing tube and adapted to be threaded into the pumping tee to secure the packing tube position within the production tubing string. A method of converting a conventional stuffing box-equipped pumping well to a packing tube-equipped well is described. It consists of: disconnecting the polished rod of the pumping well from the sucker rod string while suspending the sucker rod string within the well by the use of slips; unthreading the conventional stuffing box from the pumping tee of the well and removing the stuffing box; attaching the polished rod to the upper end of a rod adaptor of a packing tube assembly, inserting the rod adaptor with the polished rod attached into the packing tube of the packing tube assembly; aligning the packing tube assembly with the sucker rod string; connecting the lower end of the rod adaptor to the sucker rod string; removing the slips and lowering the packer tube assembly through the pumping tee; and connecting the upper end of the packing tube to the pumping tee.

  6. Granisetron, Aprepitant, and Dexamethasone in Preventing Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Receiving Chemotherapy for Stage II, III, or IV Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-16

    Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Nausea and Vomiting; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  7. Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation and Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Stage IV Melanoma That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery or Gynecological Cancers

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-20

    Cervical Adenosarcoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Carcinosarcoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Endometrial Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Mixed Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Fallopian Tube Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Epithelial Tumor; Malignant Peritoneal Neoplasm; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Melanoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage IV Skin Melanoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma; Uterine Corpus Carcinosarcoma

  8. Fin-tube solar collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Report presents test procedures and results of thermal-performance evaluation of seven commercial fin tube (liquid) solar collector-absorber plates. Tests were conducted indoors at Marshall Space Flight Center Solar simulator. Results are graphically shown along with supporting test data and summary, indicating efficiency as function of collector inlet temperature.

  9. Working session 1: Tubing degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Kharshafdjian, G.; Turluer, G.

    1997-02-01

    A general introductory overview of the purpose of the group and the general subject area of SG tubing degradation was given by the facilitator. The purpose of the session was described as to {open_quotes}develop conclusions and proposals on regulatory and technical needs required to deal with the issues of SG tubing degradation.{close_quotes} Types, locations and characteristics of tubing degradation in steam generators were briefly reviewed. The well-known synergistic effects of materials, environment, and stress and strain/strain rate, subsequently referred to by the acronym {open_quotes}MESS{close_quotes} by some of the group members, were noted. The element of time (i.e., evolution of these variables with time) was emphasized. It was also suggested that the group might want to consider the related topics of inspection capabilities, operational variables, degradation remedies, and validity of test data, and some background information in these areas was provided. The presentation given by Peter Millet during the Plenary Session was reviewed; Specifically, the chemical aspects and the degradation from the secondary side of the steam generator were noted. The main issues discussed during the October 1995 EPRI meeting on secondary side corrosion were reported, and a listing of the potential SG tube degradations was provided and discussed.

  10. Kundt's Tube Experiment Using Smartphones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parolin, Sara Orsola; Pezzi, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with a modern version of Kundt's tube experiment. Using economic instruments and a couple of smartphones, it is possible to "see" nodes and antinodes of standing acoustic waves in a column of vibrating air and to measure the speed of sound.

  11. A malfunctioning nasogastric feeding tube.

    PubMed

    Cereda, Emanuele; Costa, Antonio; Caccialanza, Riccardo; Pedrolli, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    A critical point of nasogastric feeding tube placement, potentially resulting in an unsafe and/or non-effective operation of the device, is the monitoring of its proper placement into the stomach. A properly obtained and interpreted radiograph is currently recommended to confirm placement. We reported the case of a 68-year-old demented woman referred for complicated dysphagia. A nasogastric tube was blindly inserted and its placement was confirmed by the radiologist. Enteral nutrition was initiated but the patient began to vomit immediately. After reviewing the radiograph it was understood that a gastric loop in the tube and its tip pointing upwards did not allow a safe infusion of the feeding formula. It is not enough having the radiologist reporting that a nasogastric feeding tube is placed in the stomach; the inclusion in the report of specific warnings on any potential cause of malfunctioning of the device should be considered. The presence of a gastric loop should be taken into account as a cause of potential malfunctioning.

  12. Remote-Action Tube Crimper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robbins, R. L.; Harrison, S. T.

    1983-01-01

    Long-handled tube crimper stops leaks or reduces fluid flow in hard to reach and hazardous areas. Tool includes steel plunger, contained within pipe, and long cam-action handles that open and close crimping jaw. Movable jaw is wedge shaped and stationary jaw cylindrical.

  13. Impulse generation by detonation tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Marcia Ann

    Impulse generation with gaseous detonation requires conversion of chemical energy into mechanical energy. This conversion process is well understood in rocket engines where the high pressure combustion products expand through a nozzle generating high velocity exhaust gases. The propulsion community is now focusing on advanced concepts that utilize non-traditional forms of combustion like detonation. Such a device is called a pulse detonation engine in which laboratory tests have proven that thrust can be achieved through continuous cyclic operation. Because of poor performance of straight detonation tubes compared to conventional propulsion systems and the success of using nozzles on rocket engines, the effect of nozzles on detonation tubes is being investigated. Although previous studies of detonation tube nozzles have suggested substantial benefits, up to now there has been no systematic investigations over a range of operating conditions and nozzle configurations. As a result, no models predicting the impulse when nozzles are used exist. This lack of data has severely limited the development and evaluation of models and simulations of nozzles on pulse detonation engines. The first experimental investigation measuring impulse by gaseous detonation in plain tubes and tubes with nozzles operating in varying environment pressures is presented. Converging, diverging, and converging-diverging nozzles were tested to determine the effect of divergence angle, nozzle length, and volumetric fill fraction on impulse. The largest increases in specific impulse, 72% at an environment pressure of 100 kPa and 43% at an environment pressure of 1.4 kPa, were measured with the largest diverging nozzle tested that had a 12° half angle and was 0.6 m long. Two regimes of nozzle operation that depend on the environment pressure are responsible for these increases and were first observed from these data. To augment this experimental investigation, all data in the literature regarding

  14. Apparatus for connecting aligned abutted tubes

    DOEpatents

    Williams, R.E.

    1984-11-29

    An apparatus for connecting abutted tubes and for maintaining their rotary alignment during connection. The apparatus comprises first and second tubes, a rotation prevention element, a collar and a retainer. Each tube has inside and outside walls, and first and second ends, each end having an inside and outside edge. The first tube has portions defining a first plurality of cavities located at the outside edge of its first end. An external threaded portion is on the outside wall of the first tube and next to the first plurality of cavities. The second tube has portions defining a second plurality of cavities located at the outside edge of its first end. The first plurality has a different number than the second plurality. The first ends of the first and second tubes have substantially the same outside diameter and are abutted during connection so that an orifice is formed whenever first and second tube cavities substantially overlap. A rotation prevension element is placed in the orifice to prevent rotation of the first and second tubes. A collar with an internal threaded portion is slidably disposed about the second tube. The internal threaded portion engages the external threaded portion of the first tube to connect the tubes. A lip connected to the collar prevents separation of the collar from the second tube.

  15. Small bore ceramic laser tube inspection light table

    DOEpatents

    Updike, Earl O.

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for inspecting small bore ceramic laser tubes, which includes a support base with one or more support rollers. A fluorescent light tube is inserted within the laser tube and the laser tube is supported by the support rollers so that a gap is maintained between the laser tube and the fluorescent tube to enable rotation of the laser tube. In operation, the ceramic tube is illuminated from the inside by the fluorescent tube to facilitate visual inspection. Centering the tube around the axial light of the fluorescent tube provides information about straightness and wall thickness of the laser tube itself.

  16. Reduce - and Report - Enteral Feeding Tube Misconnections

    MedlinePlus

    ... patient requiring mechanical ventilation also had a nasogastric (NG) tube in place. After being transported to another ... high-flow oxygen was accidentally connected to the NG tube. The patient subsequently underwent emergency surgery to ...

  17. When to change a tracheostomy tube.

    PubMed

    White, Alexander C; Kher, Sucharita; O'Connor, Heidi H

    2010-08-01

    Knowing when to change a tracheostomy tube is important for optimal management of all patients with tracheostomy tubes. The first tracheostomy tube change, performed 1-2 weeks after placement, carries some risk and should be performed by a skilled operator in a safe environment. The risk associated with changing the tracheostomy tube then usually diminishes over time as the tracheo-cutaneous tract matures. A malpositioned tube can be a source of patient distress and patient-ventilator asynchrony, and is important to recognize and correct. Airway endoscopy can be helpful to ensure optimal positioning of a replacement tracheostomy tube. Some of the specialized tracheostomy tubes available on the market are discussed. There are few data available to guide the timing of routine tracheostomy tube changes. Some guidelines are suggested. PMID:20667154

  18. Chemical recombination in an expansion tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakos, Robert J.; Morgan, Richard G.

    1994-01-01

    The note describes the theoretical basis of chemical recombination in an expansion tube which simulates energy, Reynolds number, and stream chemistry at near-orbital velocities. Expansion tubes can satisfy ground-based hypersonic propulsion and aerothermal testing requirements.

  19. Immunochemical detection of arylamine N-acetyltransferase during mouse embryonic development and in adult mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Stanley, L A; Copp, A J; Pope, J; Rolls, S; Smelt, V; Perry, V H; Sim, E

    1998-11-01

    Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are important in susceptibility to xenobiotic-induced disorders (e.g., drug-induced autoimmune disease, bladder cancer), but their role in endogenous metabolism is yet to be elucidated. The discovery that human NAT1 acts upon p-aminobenzoylgluatamate (p-ABG) to generate p-acetamidobenzoylglutamate (p-AABG), a major urinary metabolite of folic acid, suggests that human NAT1 may play a role in folic acid metabolism and hence in the normal development of the neural tube. In this study we examined the distribution of NAT in neuronal tissue from adult mice and embryos. Immunohistochemical staining of the adult mouse cerebellum revealed NAT2 (the mouse homologue of human NAT1) expression in the cell bodies and dendrites of Purkinje cells and in the neuroglia of the molecular layer. In embryos, NAT2 was detected in developing neuronal tissue on days 9.5, 11.5, and 13.5. It was expressed intensely in the nerual tube around the time of closure. The level of expression subsequently declined in the neuroepithelium but increased in glial cells. In addition, NAT2 was detected in the developing heart and gut. These findings demonstrate that the embryo itself expresses an enzyme which is involved in the metabolism of folic acid, so that the role played by both mother and embryo must be considered when examining the role of folic acid in embryonic development. These findings imply that polymorphisms in NAT genes could play a role in determining susceptibility to neural tube defects (NTD) and orofacial clefting, developmental disorders which can be prevented by dietary administration of folic acid. PMID:9839355

  20. Conceptual optimization using genetic algorithms for tube in tube structures

    SciTech Connect

    Pârv, Bianca Roxana; Hulea, Radu; Mojolic, Cristian

    2015-03-10

    The purpose of this article is to optimize the tube in tube structural systems for tall buildings under the horizontal wind loads. It is well-known that the horizontal wind loads is the main criteria when choosing the structural system, the types and the dimensions of structural elements in the majority of tall buildings. Thus, the structural response of tall buildings under the horizontal wind loads will be analyzed for 40 story buildings and a total height of 120 meters; the horizontal dimensions will be 30m × 30m for the first two optimization problems and 15m × 15m for the third. The optimization problems will have the following as objective function the cross section area, as restrictions the displacement of the building< the admissible displacement (H/500), and as variables the cross section dimensions of the structural elements.

  1. Tubal ligation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tubal sterilization - discharge; Tube tying - discharge; Tying the tubes - discharge; Contraception - tubal ... You had tubal ligation (or tying the tubes) surgery to close your fallopian tubes. These tubes connect the ovaries to the uterus. After tubal ...

  2. Models for Automated Tube Performance Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    C. Brunkhorst

    2002-12-12

    High power radio-frequency systems, as typically used in fusion research devices, utilize vacuum tubes. Evaluation of vacuum tube performance involves data taken from tube operating curves. The acquisition of data from such graphical sources is a tedious process. A simple modeling method is presented that will provide values of tube currents for a given set of element voltages. These models may be used as subroutines in iterative solutions of amplifier operating conditions for a specific loading impedance.

  3. [A tube retractor for cardiac surgery].

    PubMed

    Ohkado, A; Shiikawa, A; Ishitoya, H; Murata, A

    2001-03-01

    A retractor exclusively used to retract the tubes in cardiac surgery which needs cardiopulmonary bypass was developed. The half-cylinder-shaped end, the lightly curved handle and the flat and triangular grip enable easy and effective grasp of the tubes. This new instrument facilitates operative procedures by effectively retracting the tubes which persistently obstruct the operative field, in such a case of placement of a retrograde cardioplegia tube via the right atrium.

  4. Mouse bladder wall injection.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chi-Ling; Apelo, Charity A; Torres, Baldemar; Thai, Kim H; Hsieh, Michael H

    2011-07-12

    Mouse bladder wall injection is a useful technique to orthotopically study bladder phenomena, including stem cell, smooth muscle, and cancer biology. Before starting injections, the surgical area must be cleaned with soap and water and antiseptic solution. Surgical equipment must be sterilized before use and between each animal. Each mouse is placed under inhaled isoflurane anesthesia (2-5% for induction, 1-3% for maintenance) and its bladder exposed by making a midline abdominal incision with scissors. If the bladder is full, it is partially decompressed by gentle squeezing between two fingers. The cell suspension of interest is intramurally injected into the wall of the bladder dome using a 29 or 30 gauge needle and 1 cc or smaller syringe. The wound is then closed using wound clips and the mouse allowed to recover on a warming pad. Bladder wall injection is a delicate microsurgical technique that can be mastered with practice.

  5. Progressive Differentiation and Instructive Capacities of Amniotic Fluid and Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteomes following Neural Tube Closure.

    PubMed

    Chau, Kevin F; Springel, Mark W; Broadbelt, Kevin G; Park, Hye-Yeon; Topal, Salih; Lun, Melody P; Mullan, Hillary; Maynard, Thomas; Steen, Hanno; LaMantia, Anthony S; Lehtinen, Maria K

    2015-12-21

    After neural tube closure, amniotic fluid (AF) captured inside the neural tube forms the nascent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Neuroepithelial stem cells contact CSF-filled ventricles, proliferate, and differentiate to form the mammalian brain, while neurogenic placodes, which generate cranial sensory neurons, remain in contact with the AF. Using in vivo ultrasound imaging, we quantified the expansion of the embryonic ventricular-CSF space from its inception. We developed tools to obtain pure AF and nascent CSF, before and after neural tube closure, and to define how the AF and CSF proteomes diverge during mouse development. Using embryonic neural explants, we demonstrate that age-matched fluids promote Sox2-positive neurogenic identity in developing forebrain and olfactory epithelia. Nascent CSF also stimulates SOX2-positive self-renewal of forebrain progenitor cells, some of which is attributable to LIFR signaling. Our Resource should facilitate the investigation of fluid-tissue interactions during this highly vulnerable stage of early brain development.

  6. The Fuge Tube Diode Array Spectrophotometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arneson, B. T.; Long, S. R.; Stewart, K. K.; Lagowski, J. J.

    2008-01-01

    We present the details for adapting a diode array UV-vis spectrophotometer to incorporate the use of polypropylene microcentrifuge tubes--fuge tubes--as cuvettes. Optical data are presented validating that the polyethylene fuge tubes are equivalent to the standard square cross section polystyrene or glass cuvettes generally used in…

  7. Kundt's Tube: An Acoustic Gas Analyzer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aristov, Natasha; Habekost, Gehsa; Habekost, Achim

    2011-01-01

    A Kundt tube is normally used to measure the speed of sound in gases. Therefore, from known speeds of sound, a Kundt tube can be used to identify gases and their fractions in mixtures. In these experiments, the speed of sound is determined by measuring the frequency of a standing sound wave at a fixed tube length, temperature, and pressure. This…

  8. Spring/dimple instrument tube restraint

    DOEpatents

    DeMario, Edmund E.; Lawson, Charles N.

    1993-01-01

    A nuclear fuel assembly for a pressurized water nuclear reactor has a spring and dimple structure formed in a non-radioactive insert tube placed in the top of a sensor receiving instrumentation tube thimble disposed in the fuel assembly and attached at a top nozzle, a bottom nozzle, and intermediate grids. The instrumentation tube thimble is open at the top, where the sensor or its connection extends through the cooling water for coupling to a sensor signal processor. The spring and dimple insert tube is mounted within the instrumentation tube thimble and extends downwardly adjacent the top. The springs and dimples restrain the sensor and its connections against lateral displacement causing impact with the instrumentation tube thimble due to the strong axial flow of cooling water. The instrumentation tube has a stainless steel outer sleeve and a zirconium alloy inner sleeve below the insert tube adjacent the top. The insert tube is relatively non-radioactivated inconel alloy. The opposed springs and dimples are formed on diametrically opposite inner walls of the insert tube, the springs being formed as spaced axial cuts in the insert tube, with a web of the insert tube between the cuts bowed radially inwardly for forming the spring, and the dimples being formed as radially inward protrusions opposed to the springs.

  9. Spring/dimple instrument tube restraint

    DOEpatents

    DeMario, E.E.; Lawson, C.N.

    1993-11-23

    A nuclear fuel assembly for a pressurized water nuclear reactor has a spring and dimple structure formed in a non-radioactive insert tube placed in the top of a sensor receiving instrumentation tube thimble disposed in the fuel assembly and attached at a top nozzle, a bottom nozzle, and intermediate grids. The instrumentation tube thimble is open at the top, where the sensor or its connection extends through the cooling water for coupling to a sensor signal processor. The spring and dimple insert tube is mounted within the instrumentation tube thimble and extends downwardly adjacent the top. The springs and dimples restrain the sensor and its connections against lateral displacement causing impact with the instrumentation tube thimble due to the strong axial flow of cooling water. The instrumentation tube has a stainless steel outer sleeve and a zirconium alloy inner sleeve below the insert tube adjacent the top. The insert tube is relatively non-radioactivated inconel alloy. The opposed springs and dimples are formed on diametrically opposite inner walls of the insert tube, the springs being formed as spaced axial cuts in the insert tube, with a web of the insert tube between the cuts bowed radially inwardly for forming the spring, and the dimples being formed as radially inward protrusions opposed to the springs. 7 figures.

  10. Heat exchanger with a removable tube section

    DOEpatents

    Wolowodiuk, W.; Anelli, J.

    1975-07-29

    A heat exchanger is described in which the tube sheet is secured against primary liquid pressure, but which allows for easy removal of the tube section. The tube section is supported by a flange which is secured by a number of shear blocks, each of which extends into a slot which is immovable with respect to the outer shell of the heat exchanger. (auth)

  11. Intraoperative monitoring of Jones tube function.

    PubMed

    Kartchner, M J; Mather, T R; Dryden, R M

    1989-01-01

    If intraoperative visualization is impossible when placing a secondary Jones tube, the presence of tube drainage may confirm correct intranasal positioning. A simple suction method is presented to evaluate the intranasal position of the Jones tube in the anesthetized or uncooperative patient.

  12. Manual tube-to-tubesheet welding torch

    DOEpatents

    Kiefer, Joseph H.; Smith, Danny J.

    1982-01-01

    A welding torch made of a high temperature plastic which fits over a tube intermediate the ends thereof for welding the juncture between the tube and the back side of a tube plate and has a ballooned end in which an electrode, filler wire guide, fiber optic bundle, and blanketing gas duct are disposed.

  13. 21 CFR 868.5730 - Tracheal tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tracheal tube. 868.5730 Section 868.5730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5730 Tracheal tube. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube is...

  14. 21 CFR 868.5730 - Tracheal tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tracheal tube. 868.5730 Section 868.5730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5730 Tracheal tube. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube is...

  15. 21 CFR 874.3880 - Tympanostomy tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tympanostomy tube. 874.3880 Section 874.3880 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3880 Tympanostomy tube. (a) Identification. A tympanostomy tube is a device that is intended to be implanted for ventilation or drainage of...

  16. 21 CFR 868.5730 - Tracheal tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tracheal tube. 868.5730 Section 868.5730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5730 Tracheal tube. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube is...

  17. 21 CFR 868.5730 - Tracheal tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tracheal tube. 868.5730 Section 868.5730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5730 Tracheal tube. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube is...

  18. 21 CFR 874.3880 - Tympanostomy tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tympanostomy tube. 874.3880 Section 874.3880 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3880 Tympanostomy tube. (a) Identification. A tympanostomy tube is a device that is intended to be implanted for ventilation or drainage of...

  19. 21 CFR 874.3880 - Tympanostomy tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tympanostomy tube. 874.3880 Section 874.3880 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3880 Tympanostomy tube. (a) Identification. A tympanostomy tube is a device that is intended to be implanted for ventilation or drainage of...

  20. 21 CFR 868.5730 - Tracheal tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tracheal tube. 868.5730 Section 868.5730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5730 Tracheal tube. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube is...

  1. A Three-Cent Reusable Craig Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Thomas J.

    1998-07-01

    A rugged three-cent reusable Craig tube is easily made from a cotton swab and disposable pipet tip. The tube costs three cents or less and can be reused. Craig tubes made of glass cost as much as $15 and are very fragile.

  2. Ionization tube simmer current circuit

    DOEpatents

    Steinkraus, R.F. Jr.

    1994-12-13

    A highly efficient flash lamp simmer current circuit utilizes a fifty percent duty cycle square wave pulse generator to pass a current over a current limiting inductor to a full wave rectifier. The DC output of the rectifier is then passed over a voltage smoothing capacitor through a reverse current blocking diode to a flash lamp tube to sustain ionization in the tube between discharges via a small simmer current. An alternate embodiment of the circuit combines the pulse generator and inductor in the form of an FET off line square wave generator with an impedance limited step up output transformer which is then applied to the full wave rectifier as before to yield a similar simmer current. 6 figures.

  3. ATLS: Catheter and tube placement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosbee, John; Krupa, Debra T.; Pepper, L.; Orsak, Debra

    1991-01-01

    The specific objectives of this experiment are: to evaluate the rack mounted equipment and medical supplies necessary for medical procedures; to evaluate the attachments, mounting points, and inner drawer assemblies for the medical supplies; and to evaluate the procedures for performing medical scenarios. The resources available in the HMF miniracks to accomplish medical scenarios and/or procedures include: medical equipment mounted in the racks; a patch panel with places to attach tubing and catheters; self contained drawers full of critical care medical supplies; and an ALS 'backpack' for deploying supplies. The attachment lines, tubing and associated medical supplies will be deployed and used with the equipment and a patient mannequin. Data collection is provided by direct observations by the inflight experimenters, and analysis of still and video photography.

  4. HIGH CURRENT COAXIAL PHOTOMULTIPLIER TUBE

    DOEpatents

    Glass, N.W.

    1960-01-19

    A medium-gain photomultiplier tube having high current output, fast rise- time, and matched output impedance was developed. The photomultiplier tube comprises an elongated cylindrical envelope, a cylindrical anode supported at the axis of the envelope, a plurality of elongated spaced opaque areas on the envelope, and a plurality of light admitting windows. A photo-cathode is supported adjacent to each of the windows, and a plurality of secondary emissive dynodes are arranged in two types of radial arrays which are alternately positioned to fill the annular space between the anode and the envelope. The dynodes are in an array being radially staggered with respect to the dynodes in the adjacent array, the dynodes each having a portion arranged at an angle with respect to the electron path, such that electrons emitted by each cathode undergo multiplication upon impingement on a dynode and redirected flight to the next adjacent dynode.

  5. Ionization tube simmer current circuit

    DOEpatents

    Steinkraus, Jr., Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    A highly efficient flash lamp simmer current circuit utilizes a fifty percent duty cycle square wave pulse generator to pass a current over a current limiting inductor to a full wave rectifier. The DC output of the rectifier is then passed over a voltage smoothing capacitor through a reverse current blocking diode to a flash lamp tube to sustain ionization in the tube between discharges via a small simmer current. An alternate embodiment of the circuit combines the pulse generator and inductor in the form of an FET off line square wave generator with an impedance limited step up output transformer which is then applied to the full wave rectifier as before to yield a similar simmer current.

  6. Convergent extension analysis in mouse whole embryo culture

    PubMed Central

    Pryor, Sophie E.; Massa, Valentina; Savery, Dawn; Greene, Nicholas D. E.; Copp, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Mutations have been identified in a non-canonical Wnt signalling cascade (the planar cell polarity pathway) in several mouse genetic models of severe neural tube defects. In each of these models, neurulation fails to be initiated at the 3-4 somite stage, leading to an almost entirely open neural tube (termed craniorachischisis). Studies in whole embryo culture have identified a defect in the morphogenetic process of convergent extension during gastrulation, preceding the onset of neural tube closure. The principal defect is a failure of midline extension, both in the neural plate and axial mesoderm. This leads to an abnormally wide neural plate in which the elevating neural folds are too far apart to achieve closure. In this chapter, we provide details of several experimental methods that can be used to evaluate convergent extension in cultured mouse embryos. We describe analytical methods that can reveal the abnormalities that characterise neurulation-stage embryos with defective planar cell polarity signalling, in particular the loop-tail (Lp; Vangl2) mutant. PMID:22218898

  7. Through tubing progressing cavity pump

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, A.E.

    1986-06-03

    A method is described of installing a progressing cavity pump assembly within a well, the pump assembly being of the type having a stator, a helical rotor located in the stator and rotated by a string of sucker rods extending through tubing to the surface. The method consists of: securing a tubular seating member to a lower end of the tubing and lowering the tubing into the well; mounting a seating member on a lower end of the pump assembly; mounting a rotor nipple to the upper end of the stator and a drive rod to the upper end of the rotor, and providing the rotor nipple and drive rod with engaging means that allows a selected amount of vertical movement of the rotor with respect to the stator; connecting the upper end of the drive rod to the sucker rods; lowering the pump assembly into the tubing on the sucker rods until the seating member on the pump assembly contacts the tubular seating member; continuing to lower the sucker rods without rotation, moving the rotor downward with respect to the stator and forcing the seating members together with the weight of the sucker rods applied to the stator through the engaging means; then moving the sucker rods and the rotor a selected distance upward while the stator remains stationary to position the top of the rotor above the stator a selected distance; then connecting the sucker rods at the surface to a rotary power source and rotating the sucker rods to cause the pump to operate.

  8. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, Gordon E.

    1998-01-01

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by carbon vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging.

  9. Gated SIT Vidicon Streak Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, D. L.; Yates, G. J.; Black, J. P.

    1986-01-01

    A recently developed prototype streak tube designed to produce high gain and resolution by incorporating the streak and readout functions in one envelope thereby minimizing photon-to-charge transformations and eliminating external coupling losses is presented. The tube is based upon a grid-gated Silicon-Intensified-Target Vidicon (SITV) with integral Focus Projection Scan (FPS) TV readout. Demagnifying electron optics (m=0.63) in the image section map the 40-mm-diameter photocathode image unto a 25-mm-diameter silicon target where gains >= 103 are achieved with only 10 KV accelerating voltage. This is compared with much lower gains (~ 50) at much higher voltages (~ 30 KV) reported for streak tubes using phosphor screens. Because SIT technology is well established means for electron imaging in vacuum, such fundamental problems as "backside thinning" required for electron imaging unto CCDs do not exist. The high spatial resolution (~ 30 1p/mm), variable scan formats, and high speed electrostatic deflection (250 mm2 areas are routinely rastered with 256 scan lines in 1.6 ms) available from FPS readout add versatility not available in CCD devices. Theoretical gain and spatial resolution for this design (developed jointly by Los Alamos National Laboratory and General Electric Co.) are compared with similar calculations and measured data obtained for RCA 73435 streaks fiber optically coupled to (1) 25-mm-diameter SIT FPS vidicons and (2) 40-mm-diameter MCPTs (proximity-focused microchannel plate image intensifier tubes) fiber optically coupled to 18-mm-diameter Sb2S3 FPS vidicons. Sweep sensitivity, shutter ratio, and record lengths for nanosecond duration (20 to 200 ns) streak applications are discussed.

  10. High contrast cathode ray tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisovicz, E. J.; Catlaw, T. G. (Inventor)

    1971-01-01

    A layer of material is described, which contains fine grains of phosphor material stimulated by electrons to produce visible radiation. The layer, which also contains fine grains of cobalt oxide, is deposited on the glass screen of a cathode ray tube to provide high contrast, by absorbing most of the visible radiation which is directed to the layer through the screen, while not materially affecting the visible light which the phosphor material produces in response to the electron stimulation.

  11. Underbalanced coiled tubing sidetrack successful

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, J.; Berry, M.

    1995-12-18

    The technique of drilling through a completion string, underbalanced, with coiled tubing eliminated some of the problems encountered with overbalanced drilling in a group of offset wells. This project confirmed that performing drilling operations in live wells can be carried out safely and effectively. Dalen is a sour gas field in the eastern part of The Netherlands and produces from vertical fractures in the Zechstein carbonate reservoir. The proposal for Dalen 2 was to abandon the lower section of the original hole and subsequently sidetrack conventionally to the top of the reservoir, run and cement a 5-in. liner, complete the well with a 5-in. monobore completion, and install the christmas tree. This part of the operation would be performed with a workover hoist. Thereafter, a 3 3/4-in. hole would be drilled through the completion and into the reservoir, underbalanced with coiled tubing. The drilling proposal had to address a number of key issues: creating underbalanced conditions; handling sour gas production at surface; handling and treating drilling fluids at surface; removing drilled solids from the returned fluid system; and deploying a long coiled tubing drilling bottom hole assembly (BHA) into a live well. The paper discusses planning, legislative issues, well preparation, the drilling program, and lessons learned.

  12. Useful Scaling Parameters for the Pulse Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. M.; Kittel, P.; Timmerhaus, K. D.; Radebaugh, R.; Cheng, Pearl L. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A set of eight non-dimensional scaling parameters for use in evaluating the performance of Pulse Tube Refrigerators is presented. The parameters result after scaling the mass, momentum and energy conservation equations for an axisymmetric, two-dimensional system. The physical interpretation of the parameters are described, and their usefulness is outlined for the enthalpy flow tube (open tube of the pulse tube). The scaling parameters allow the experimentalist to characterize three types of transport: enthalpy flow, mass streaming and heat transfer between the gas and the tube. Also reported are the results from a flow visualization experiment in which steady mass streaming in compressible oscillating flow is observed.

  13. Siphon flows in isolated magnetic flux tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, John H.

    1988-01-01

    The paper considers steady siphon flows in isolated thin magnetic flux tubes surrounded by field-free gas, with plasma beta greater than or equal to 1, appropriate for conditions in the solar photosphere. The cross-sectional area of the flux tube varies along the tube in response to pressure changes induced by the siphon flow. Consideration is also given to steady isothermal siphon flows in arched magnetic flux tubes in a stratified atmosphere. Applications of the results to intense magnetic flux tubes in the solar photosphere and to the photospheric Evershed flow in a sunspot penumbra are addressed.

  14. Endoscopic removal of retained T- tube fragment.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekar, Thoguluva Seshadri; Murugesh, Mallaiyappan; Radhakrishnan, Subbaiah; Sadagopan, Thiruvengadam; Hussain, Abdul Cadar Mohammed Hameed

    2009-01-01

    T-tube usage is common following common bile duct exploration for calculi and other complex biliary surgeries to ensure proper biliary diversion and healing. A 25-year-old woman was referred from a surgical unit with a history of open cholecystectomy and common bile duct exploration for cholelithiasis and choledocholithiasis with T-tube placement in the common bile duct for postoperative biliary diversion. While retrieving the T-tube, it got fractured and the fragment remained in the bile duct. We report a rare case of retained T-tube fragment after T-tube removal that was retrieved endoscopically.

  15. Endoscopic removal of retained T- tube fragment

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekar, Thoguluva Seshadri; Murugesh, Mallaiyappan; Radhakrishnan, Subbaiah; Sadagopan, Thiruvengadam; Hussain, Abdul cadar Mohammed Hameed

    2009-01-01

    T-tube usage is common following common bile duct exploration for calculi and other complex biliary surgeries to ensure proper biliary diversion and healing. A 25-year-old woman was referred from a surgical unit with a history of open cholecystectomy and common bile duct exploration for cholelithiasis and choledocholithiasis with T-tube placement in the common bile duct for postoperative biliary diversion. While retrieving the T-tube, it got fractured and the fragment remained in the bile duct. We report a rare case of retained T-tube fragment after T-tube removal that was retrieved endoscopically. PMID:21686845

  16. [Development of salicylic acid detector tube].

    PubMed

    Ishizawa, Fujio; Kirihara, Miho; Ishiwata, Tetsuya; Yashiki, Mikio; Namera, Akira; Nishida, Manami; Kimura, Kojiro

    2004-04-01

    A detector tube was successfully devised for the screening of salicylic acid in urine. It, named "salicylic acid detector tube", consists of glass tube in which silica gel coated with 5% (w/w) of ferric chloride is enclosed. A pipette rubber cap was attached to an end of the tube, and another end was inserted into urine sample. The sample was then introduced into the tube, the color of the reagent immediately turned purple under the condition of more than 50 microg/ml of salicylic acid in urine. This device was useful for the emergency screening of salicylic acid in acute poisoning cases with aspirin.

  17. Endoscopic removal of retained T- tube fragment.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekar, Thoguluva Seshadri; Murugesh, Mallaiyappan; Radhakrishnan, Subbaiah; Sadagopan, Thiruvengadam; Hussain, Abdul Cadar Mohammed Hameed

    2009-01-01

    T-tube usage is common following common bile duct exploration for calculi and other complex biliary surgeries to ensure proper biliary diversion and healing. A 25-year-old woman was referred from a surgical unit with a history of open cholecystectomy and common bile duct exploration for cholelithiasis and choledocholithiasis with T-tube placement in the common bile duct for postoperative biliary diversion. While retrieving the T-tube, it got fractured and the fragment remained in the bile duct. We report a rare case of retained T-tube fragment after T-tube removal that was retrieved endoscopically. PMID:21686845

  18. Preparation of chitosan nanofiber tube by electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Atsushi; Kagata, Go; Kino, Rikako; Tanaka, Junzo

    2007-03-01

    Water-insoluble chitosan nanofiber sheets and tubes coated with chitosan-cast film were prepared by electrospinning. When as-spun chitosan nanofiber sheets and tubes were immersed in 28% ammonium aqueous solution, they became insoluble in water and showed nanofiber structures confirmed by SEM micrography. Mechanical properties of chitosan nanofiber sheets and tubes were improved by coating with chitosan-cast film, which gave them a compressive strength higher than that of crab-tendon chitosan, demonstrating that chitosan nanofiber tubes coated with chitosan-cast film are usable as nerve-regenerative guide tubes.

  19. Turbine nozzle stage having thermocouple guide tube

    DOEpatents

    Schotsch, Margaret Jones; Kirkpatrick, Francis Lawrence; Lapine, Eric Michael

    2002-01-01

    A guide tube is fixed adjacent opposite ends in outer and inner covers of a nozzle stage segment. The guide tube is serpentine in shape between the outer and inner covers and extends through a nozzle vane. An insert is disposed in the nozzle vane and has apertures to accommodate serpentine portions of the guide tube. Cooling steam is also supplied through chambers of the insert on opposite sides of a central insert chamber containing the guide tube. The opposite ends of the guide tube are fixed to sleeves, in turn fixed to the outer and inner covers.

  20. The Mouse SAGE Site: database of public mouse SAGE libraries.

    PubMed

    Divina, Petr; Forejt, Jirí

    2004-01-01

    The Mouse SAGE Site is a web-based database of all available public libraries generated by the Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) from various mouse tissues and cell lines. The database contains mouse SAGE libraries organized in a uniform way and provides web-based tools for browsing, comparing and searching SAGE data with reliable tag-to-gene identification. A modified approach based on the SAGEmap database is used for reliable tag identification. The Mouse SAGE Site is maintained on an ongoing basis at the Institute of Molecular Genetics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic and is accessible at the internet address http://mouse.biomed.cas.cz/sage/.

  1. Transurethral induction of mouse urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Thai, Kim H; Thathireddy, Anuradha; Hsieh, Michael H

    2010-08-05

    Uropathogenic bacterial strains of interest are grown on agar. Generally, uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) and other strains can be grown overnight on Luria-Bertani (LB) agar at 37 degrees C in ambient air. UPEC strains grow as yellowish-white translucent colonies on LB agar. Following confirmation of appropriate colony morphology, single colonies are then picked to be cultured in broth. LB broth can be used for most uropathogenic bacterial strains. Two serial, overnight LB broth cultures can be employed to enhance expression of type I pili, a well-defined virulence factor for uropathogenic bacteria. Broth cultures are diluted to the desired concentration in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Eight to 12 week old female mice are placed under isoflurane anesthesia and transurethrally inoculated with bacteria using polyethylene tubing-covered 30 gauge syringes. Typical inocula, which must be empirically determined for each bacterial/mouse strain combination, are 10(6) to 10(8) cfu per mouse in 10 to 50 microliters of PBS. After the desired infection period (one day to several weeks), urine samples and the bladder and both kidneys are harvested. Each organ is minced, placed in PBS, and homogenized in a Blue Bullet homogenizer. Urine and tissue homogenates are serially diluted in PBS and cultured on appropriate agar. The following day, colony forming units are counted.

  2. Candida albicans escapes from mouse neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Ermert, David; Niemiec, Maria J; Röhm, Marc; Glenthøj, Andreas; Borregaard, Niels; Urban, Constantin F

    2013-08-01

    Candida albicans, the most commonly isolated human fungal pathogen, is able to grow as budding yeasts or filamentous forms, such as hyphae. The ability to switch morphology has been attributed a crucial role for the pathogenesis of C. albicans. To mimic disseminated candidiasis in humans, the mouse is the most widely used model organism. Neutrophils are essential immune cells to prevent opportunistic mycoses. To explore potential differences between the rodent infection model and the human host, we compared the interactions of C. albicans with neutrophil granulocytes from mice and humans. We revealed that murine neutrophils exhibited a significantly lower ability to kill C. albicans than their human counterparts. Strikingly, C. albicans yeast cells formed germ tubes upon internalization by murine neutrophils, eventually rupturing the neutrophil membrane and thereby, killing the phagocyte. On the contrary, growth and subsequent escape of C. albicans are blocked inside human neutrophils. According to our findings, this blockage in human neutrophils might be a result of higher levels of MPO activity and the presence of α-defensins. We therefore outline differences in antifungal immune defense between humans and mouse strains, which facilitates a more accurate interpretation of in vivo results.

  3. Gastroenteric tube feeding: techniques, problems and solutions.

    PubMed

    Blumenstein, Irina; Shastri, Yogesh M; Stein, Jürgen

    2014-07-14

    Gastroenteric tube feeding plays a major role in the management of patients with poor voluntary intake, chronic neurological or mechanical dysphagia or gut dysfunction, and patients who are critically ill. However, despite the benefits and widespread use of enteral tube feeding, some patients experience complications. This review aims to discuss and compare current knowledge regarding the clinical application of enteral tube feeding, together with associated complications and special aspects. We conducted an extensive literature search on PubMed, Embase and Medline using index terms relating to enteral access, enteral feeding/nutrition, tube feeding, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy/jejunostomy, endoscopic nasoenteric tube, nasogastric tube, and refeeding syndrome. The literature showed common routes of enteral access to include nasoenteral tube, gastrostomy and jejunostomy, while complications fall into four major categories: mechanical, e.g., tube blockage or removal; gastrointestinal, e.g., diarrhea; infectious e.g., aspiration pneumonia, tube site infection; and metabolic, e.g., refeeding syndrome, hyperglycemia. Although the type and frequency of complications arising from tube feeding vary considerably according to the chosen access route, gastrointestinal complications are without doubt the most common. Complications associated with enteral tube feeding can be reduced by careful observance of guidelines, including those related to food composition, administration rate, portion size, food temperature and patient supervision.

  4. Development boiling to sprinkled tube bundle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kracík, Petr; Pospíšil, Jiří

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents results of a studied heat transfer coefficient at the surface of a sprinkled tube bundle where boiling occurs. Research in the area of sprinkled exchangers can be divided into two major parts. The first part is research on heat transfer and determination of the heat transfer coefficient at sprinkled tube bundles for various liquids, whether boiling or not. The second part is testing of sprinkle modes for various tube diameters, tube pitches and tube materials and determination of individual modes' interface. All results published so far for water as the falling film liquid apply to one to three tubes for which the mentioned relations studied are determined in rigid laboratory conditions defined strictly in advance. The sprinkled tubes were not viewed from the operational perspective where there are more tubes and various modes may occur in different parts with various heat transfer values. The article focuses on these processes. The tube is located in a low-pressure chamber where vacuum is generated using an exhauster via ejector. The tube consists of smooth copper tubes of 12 mm diameter placed horizontally one above another.

  5. Gastroenteric tube feeding: Techniques, problems and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Blumenstein, Irina; Shastri, Yogesh M; Stein, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Gastroenteric tube feeding plays a major role in the management of patients with poor voluntary intake, chronic neurological or mechanical dysphagia or gut dysfunction, and patients who are critically ill. However, despite the benefits and widespread use of enteral tube feeding, some patients experience complications. This review aims to discuss and compare current knowledge regarding the clinical application of enteral tube feeding, together with associated complications and special aspects. We conducted an extensive literature search on PubMed, Embase and Medline using index terms relating to enteral access, enteral feeding/nutrition, tube feeding, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy/jejunostomy, endoscopic nasoenteric tube, nasogastric tube, and refeeding syndrome. The literature showed common routes of enteral access to include nasoenteral tube, gastrostomy and jejunostomy, while complications fall into four major categories: mechanical, e.g., tube blockage or removal; gastrointestinal, e.g., diarrhea; infectious e.g., aspiration pneumonia, tube site infection; and metabolic, e.g., refeeding syndrome, hyperglycemia. Although the type and frequency of complications arising from tube feeding vary considerably according to the chosen access route, gastrointestinal complications are without doubt the most common. Complications associated with enteral tube feeding can be reduced by careful observance of guidelines, including those related to food composition, administration rate, portion size, food temperature and patient supervision. PMID:25024606

  6. Modeling Orifice Pulse Tube Coolers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roach, Kittel P.; Roach, P. R.; Lee, J. M.; Kashani, A.; McCreight, Craig R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a calculational model that treats all the components of an orifice pulse tube cooler. We base our analysis on 1-dimensional thermodynamic equations for the regenerator and we assume that all mass flows, pressure oscillations and temperature oscillations are small and sinusoidal. Non-linear pressure drop effects are included in the regenerator to account for finite pressure amplitude effects. The resulting mass flows and pressures are matched at the boundaries with the other components of the cooler: compressor, aftercooler, cold heat exchanger, pulse tube, hot heat exchanger, orifice and reservoir. The results of the calculation are oscillating pressures, mass flows and enthalpy flows in the main components of the cooler. By comparing with the calculations of other available models, we show that our model is very similar to REGEN 3 from NIST and DeltaE from Los Alamos National Lab. Our model is much easier to use than other available models because of its simple graphical interface and the fact that no guesses are required for the operating pressures or mass flows. In addition, the model only requires a few minutes of running time allowing many parameters to be optimized in a reasonable time. A version of the model is available for use over the World Wide Web at http://irtek.arc.nasa.gov. Future enhancements include adding a bypass orifice and including second order terms in steady mass streaming and steady heat transfer. A two-dimensional anelastic approximation of the fluid equations will be used as the basis for the latter analysis. Preliminary results are given in dimensionless numbers appropriate for oscillating compressible flows. The model shows how transverse heat transfer reduces enthalpy flow, particularly for small pulse tubes. The model also clearly shows mass recirculation in the open tube on the order of the tube length. They result from the higher order Reynolds stresses. An interesting result of the linearized approach is that the

  7. Precision heat forming of tetrafluoroethylene tubing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruiz, W. V.; Thatcher, C. S. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An invention that provides a method of altering the size of tetrafluoroethylene tubing which is only available in limited combination of wall thicknesses and diameter are discussed. The method includes the steps of sliding the tetrafluoroethylene tubing onto an aluminum mandrel and clamping the ends of the tubing to the mandrel by means of clamps. The tetrafluorethylene tubing and mandrel are then placed in a supporting coil which with the mandrel and tetrafluorethylene tubing are then positioned in a insulated steel pipe which is normally covered with a fiber glass insulator to smooth out temperature distribution therein. The entire structure is then placed in an event which heats the tetrafluorethylene tubing which is then shrunk by the heat to the outer dimension of the aluminum mandrel. After cooling the aluminum mandrel is removed from the newly sized tetrafluorethylene tubing by a conventional chemical milling process.

  8. Minimum wear tube support hole design

    DOEpatents

    Glatthorn, Raymond H.

    1986-01-01

    A minimum-wear through-bore (16) is defined within a heat exchanger tube support plate (14) so as to have an hourglass configuration as determined by means of a constant radiused surface curvature (18) as defined by means of an external radius (R3), wherein the surface (18) extends between the upper surface (20) and lower surface (22) of the tube support plate (14). When a heat exchange tube (12) is disposed within the tube support plate (14) so as to pass through the through-bore (16), the heat exchange tube (12) is always in contact with a smoothly curved or radiused portion of the through-bore surface (16) whereby unacceptably excessive wear upon the heat exchange tube (12), as normally developed by means of sharp edges, lands, ridges, or the like conventionally part of the tube support plates, is eliminated or substantially reduced.

  9. The dynamics of open precipitation tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminker, V.; Maselko, J.; Pantaleone, J.

    2014-06-01

    When a flowing fluid is channeled by chemical or physical precipitation, then tubular structures form. These patterns are common in nature, however, there have been few quantitative studies of their formation. Here, we report measurements of the radius, length, and internal pressure, as functions of time and flow rate, for precipitation tubes growing in chemical gardens. Using these measurements we develop models for how single tubes grow and also for how multiple tubes interact with each other. In particular, when multiple tubes grow from the same source they compete for resources; short/wide tubes have less resistance to flow, and so consume more of the resources, "killing" the growth of long/narrow tubes. These tube interactions are described by an equation similar to an unstable logistic equation.

  10. Multi-tube arrangement for combustor and method of making the multi-tube arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Ziminsky, Willy Steve

    2012-07-31

    A fuel injector tube includes a one piece, unitary, polygonal tube having an inlet end and an outlet end. The fuel injector tube further includes a fuel passage extending from the inlet end to the outlet end along a longitudinal axis of the polygonal tube, a plurality of air passages extending from the inlet end to the outlet end and surrounding the fuel passage, and a plurality of fuel holes. Each fuel hole connects an air passage with the fuel passage. The inlet end of the polygonal tube is formed into a fuel tube. A fuel injector includes a plurality of fuel injector tubes and a plate. The plurality of fuel tubes are connected to the plate adjacent the inlet ends of the plurality of fuel injector tubes.

  11. Pulse tube cooler having 1/4 wavelength resonator tube instead of reservoir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gedeon, David R. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An improved pulse tube cooler having a resonator tube connected in place of a compliance volume or reservoir. The resonator tube has a length substantially equal to an integer multiple of 1/4 wavelength of an acoustic wave in the working gas within the resonator tube at its operating frequency, temperature and pressure. Preferably, the resonator tube is formed integrally with the inertance tube as a single, integral tube with a length approximately 1/2 of that wavelength. Also preferably, the integral tube is spaced outwardly from and coiled around the connection of the regenerator to the pulse tube at a cold region of the cooler and the turns of the coil are thermally bonded together to improve heat conduction through the coil.

  12. Etiology, pathogenesis and prevention of neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Rengasamy

    2006-06-01

    Spina bifida, anencephaly, and encephalocele are commonly grouped together and termed neural tube defects (NTD). Failure of closure of the neural tube during development results in anencephaly or spina bifida aperta but encephaloceles are possibly post-closure defects. NTD are associated with a number of other central nervous system (CNS) and non-neural malformations. Racial, geographic and seasonal variations seem to affect their incidence. Etiology of NTD is unknown. Most of the non-syndromic NTD are of multifactorial origin. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies have highlighted the molecular mechanisms of neurulation in vertebrates but the morphologic development of human neural tube is poorly understood. A multisite closure theory, extrapolated directly from mouse experiments highlighted the clinical relevance of closure mechanisms to human NTD. Animal models, such as circle tail, curly tail, loop tail, shrm and numerous knockouts provide some insight into the mechanisms of NTD. Also available in the literature are a plethora of chemically induced preclosure and a few post-closure models of NTD, which highlight the fact that CNS malformations are of hetergeneitic nature. No Mendelian pattern of inheritance has been reported. Association with single gene defects, enhanced recurrence risk among siblings, and a higher frequency in twins than in singletons indicate the presence of a strong genetic contribution to the etiology of NTD. Non-availability of families with a significant number of NTD cases makes research into genetic causation of NTD difficult. Case reports and epidemiologic studies have implicated a number of chemicals, widely differing therapeutic drugs, environmental contaminants, pollutants, infectious agents, and solvents. Maternal hyperthermia, use of valproate by epileptic women during pregnancy, deficiency and excess of certain nutrients and chronic maternal diseases (e.g. diabetes mellitus) are reported to cause a manifold increase in the

  13. Vacuum and the electron tube industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redhead, P. A.

    2005-07-01

    The electron tube industry started with the patenting of the thermionic diode by John Ambrose Fleming in 1904. The vacuum technology used by the infant tube industry was copied from the existing incandescent lamp industry. The growing demands for electron tubes for the military in the first world war led to major improvements in pumps and processing methods. By the 1920s, mass production methods were developing to satisfy the demands for receiving tubes by the burgeoning radio industry. Further expansion in the 1930s and 1940s resulted in improvements in automatic equipment for pumping vacuum tubes leading to the massive production rates of electron tubes in the second world war and the following two decades. The demand for radar during the war resulted in the development of techniques for large-scale production of microwave tubes and CRTs, the latter technology being put to good use later in TV picture tube production. The commercial introduction of the transistor ended the massive demand for receiving tubes. This review concentrates on the vacuum technology developed for receiving tube production.

  14. Counter-driver shock tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamba, T.; Nguyen, T. M.; Takeya, K.; Harasaki, T.; Iwakawa, A.; Sasoh, A.

    2015-11-01

    A "counter-driver" shock tube was developed. In this device, two counter drivers are actuated with an appropriate delay time to generate the interaction between a shock wave and a flow in the opposite direction which is induced by another shock wave. The conditions for the counter drivers can be set independently. Each driver is activated by a separate electrically controlled diaphragm rupture device, in which a pneumatic piston drives a rupture needle with a temporal jitter of better than 1.1 ms. Operation demonstrations were conducted to evaluate the practical performance.

  15. Microscopic tubes in igneous rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, D.; Simmons, G.

    1977-01-01

    Microscopic tubes have been observed in several igneous rocks and may be quite common. They occur in single crystals and have either elliptical or circular cross-sections 1 to 5 microns in diameter and are ten to hundreds of microns long. Microtubes may be hollow or partially or completely filled with another phase, but are distinct from acicular crystals of accessory minerals such as rutile. Microtubes can form by at least three processes: (1) the partial annealing of microcracks, (2) the natural etching of dislocations, or (3) the primary inclusion of fluid material during crystal growth.

  16. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1998-03-10

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, are disclosed with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by carbon vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging. 15 figs.

  17. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1998-04-14

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition are disclosed. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging. 14 figs.

  18. Closed End Launch Tube (CELT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lueck, Dale E.; Immer, Christopher D.

    2004-02-01

    A small-scale test apparatus has been built and tested for the CELT pneumatic launch assist concept presented at STAIF 2001. The 7.5 cm (3-inch) diameter × 305 M (1000 feet) long system accelerates and pneumatically brakes a 6.35 cm diameter projectile with variable weight (1.5 - 5 Kg). The acceleration and braking tube has been instrumented with optical sensors and pressure transducers at 14 stations to take data throughout the runs. Velocity and pressure profiles for runs with various accelerator pressures and projectile weights are given. This test apparatus can serve as an important experimental tool for verifying this concept.

  19. Human neural tube defects: genetic causes and prevention.

    PubMed

    De Marco, Patrizia; Merello, Elisa; Cama, Armando; Kibar, Zoha; Capra, Valeria

    2011-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are severe congenital malformations affecting 1-2 in 1,000 live births, whose etiology is multifactorial, involving environmental and genetic factors. NTDs arise as consequence of the failure of fusion of the neural tube early during embryogenesis. NTDs' pathogenesis has been linked to genes involved in folate metabolism, consistent with an epidemiologic evidence that 70% of NTDs can be prevented by maternal periconceptional supplementation. However, polymorphisms in such genes are not linked in all populations, suggesting that other genetic factors and environmental factors could be involved. Animal models have provided crucial mechanistic information and possible candidate genes to explain susceptibility to NTDs. A crucial role has been assigned to the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, a highly conserved, non-canonical Wnt-frizzled-dishevelled signaling cascade that plays a key role in establishing and maintaining polarity in the plane of the epithelium and in the process of convergent extension during gastrulation and neurulation in vertebrates. The Loop-tail (Lp) mouse that develops craniorachischisis carry missense mutations in the PCP core gene Vangl2, that is the mammalian homolog of the Drosophila Strabismus/Van gogh (Stbm/Vang). The presence of mutations in human VANGL1 and VANGL2 genes encourages us to extend the investigation to other PCP genes that, with VANGL, play an essential role in neurulation during development.

  20. Investigation on the Inertance Tubes of Pulse Tube Cryocooler Without Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. J.; Yang, L. W.; Liang, J. T.; Hong, G. T.

    2010-04-01

    Phase angle is of vital importance for high-efficiency pulse tube cryocoolers (PTCs). Inertance tube as the main phase shifter is useful for the PTCs to obtain appropriate phase angle. Experiments of inertance tube without reservoir under variable frequency, variable length and diameter of inertance tube and variable pressure amplitude are investigated respectively. In addition, the authors used DeltaEC, a computer program to predict the performance of low-amplitude thermoacoustic engines, to simulate the effects of inertance tube without reservoir. According to the comparison of experiments and theoretical simulations, DeltaEC method is feasible and effective to direct and improve the design of inertance tubes.

  1. Effectiveness of bait tubes for brown treesnake control on Guam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lardner, B.; Savidge, J.A.; Rodda, G.H.; Reed, R.N.; Yackel Adams, A.A.; Clark, C.S.

    2011-01-01

    A bait tube is a device with which a toxicant inserted in a dead mouse (Mus musculus) can be delivered to invasive brown treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) with low risk of non-target bait take. We tested two bait tube designs in a 5ha snake enclosure where the identity of virtually every snake is known. Instead of using toxicants, we implanted radio transmitters in small (6.6±1.4 g) and large (21.8±2.9 g) bait mice. Knowing all snakes present in the population allowed us to characterize not only covariates of snakes taking bait, but also those of snakes evading our mock control effort, and if snake covariates interacted with any design variable in determining targeting rate. Tube design had no effect on take rate. Snake snout-vent length was a strong predictor of success: none of the 29 snakes smaller than 843 mm took any bait, while the 126 snakes ≥843 mm were responsible for a total of 164 bait takes. The smallest of these snakes were able to ingest small and large mice, but tended to consume small bait at a higher rate than large bait. The main reason for our failure to target smallest snakes appears not to be gape limitation, but rather that small snakes prefer other prey (lizards). The time it takes a snake to grow from the size threshold observed to the size of maturation has implications for the interval between discrete efforts using toxic bait. Targeting all snakes before reproduction can occur is highly desirable; otherwise, a new cohort of refractory snakes may enter the population.

  2. ISOLATION OF MOUSE NEUTROPHILS

    PubMed Central

    Swamydas, Muthulekha; Luo, Yi; Dorf, Martin E.; Lionakis, Michail S.

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophils represent the first line of defense against bacterial and fungal pathogens. Indeed, patients with inherited and acquired qualitative and quantitative neutrophil defects are at high risk for developing bacterial and fungal infections and suffering adverse outcomes from these infections. Therefore, research aiming at defining the molecular factors that modulate neutrophil effector function under homeostatic conditions and during infection is essential for devising strategies to augment neutrophil function and improve the outcome of infected individuals. This unit describes a reproducible density gradient centrifugation-based protocol that can be applied in any laboratory to harvest large numbers of highly enriched and highly viable neutrophils from the bone marrow of mice both at the steady state and following infection with Candida albicans as described in UNIT 19.6. In another protocol, we also present a method that combines gentle enzymatic tissue digestion with a positive immunomagnetic selection technique or Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to harvest highly pure and highly viable preparations of neutrophils directly from mouse tissues such as the kidney, the liver or the spleen. Finally, methods for isolating neutrophils from mouse peritoneal fluid and peripheral blood are included. Mouse neutrophils isolated by these protocols can be used for examining several aspects of cellular function ex vivo including pathogen binding, phagocytosis and killing, neutrophil chemotaxis, oxidative burst, degranulation and cytokine production, and for performing neutrophil adoptive transfer experiments. PMID:26237011

  3. RIKEN mouse genome encyclopedia.

    PubMed

    Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

    2003-01-01

    We have been working to establish the comprehensive mouse full-length cDNA collection and sequence database to cover as many genes as we can, named Riken mouse genome encyclopedia. Recently we are constructing higher-level annotation (Functional ANnoTation Of Mouse cDNA; FANTOM) not only with homology search based annotation but also with expression data profile, mapping information and protein-protein database. More than 1,000,000 clones prepared from 163 tissues were end-sequenced to classify into 159,789 clusters and 60,770 representative clones were fully sequenced. As a conclusion, the 60,770 sequences contained 33,409 unique. The next generation of life science is clearly based on all of the genome information and resources. Based on our cDNA clones we developed the additional system to explore gene function. We developed cDNA microarray system to print all of these cDNA clones, protein-protein interaction screening system, protein-DNA interaction screening system and so on. The integrated database of all the information is very useful not only for analysis of gene transcriptional network and for the connection of gene to phenotype to facilitate positional candidate approach. In this talk, the prospect of the application of these genome resourced should be discussed. More information is available at the web page: http://genome.gsc.riken.go.jp/.

  4. Tube support grid and spacer therefor

    DOEpatents

    Ringsmuth, Richard J.; Kaufman, Jay S.

    1986-01-01

    A tube support grid and spacers therefor provide radially inward preloading of heat exchange tubes to minimize stress upon base welds due to differential thermal expansion. The grid comprises a concentric series of rings and spacers with opposing concave sides for conforming to the tubes and V-shaped ends to provide resilient flexibility. The flexibility aids in assembly and in transmitting seismic vibrations from the tubes to a shroud. The tube support grid may be assembled in place to achieve the desired inwardly radial preloading of the heat exchange tubes. Tab and slot assembly further minimizes stresses in the system. The radii of the grid rings may be preselected to effect the desired radially inward preloading.

  5. Large Diameter Lasing Tube Cooling Arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Jerome P.; Alger, Terry W.; Anderson, Andrew T.; Arnold, Philip A.

    2004-05-18

    A cooling structure (16) for use inside a ceramic cylindrical tube (11) of a metal vapor laser (10) to cool the plasma in the tube (11), the cooling structure (16) comprising a plurality of circular metal members (17,31) and mounting members (18, 34) that position the metal members (17,31) coaxially in the tube (11) to form an annular lasing volume, with the metal members (17, 31) being axially spaced from each other along the length of the tube (11) to prevent the metal members from shorting out the current flow through the plasma in the tube (11) and to provide spaces through which the heat from localized hot spots in the plasma may radiate to the other side of the tube (11).

  6. Large diameter lasing tube cooling arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Jerome P.; Alger, Terry W.; Anderson, Andrew T.; Arnold, Phillip A.

    2004-05-18

    A cooling structure (16) for use inside a ceramic cylindrical tube (11) of a metal vapor laser (10) to cool the plasma in the tube (11), the cooling structure (16) comprising a plurality of circular metal members (17, 31) and mounting members (18, 34) that position the metal members (17, 31) coaxially in the tube (11) to form an annular lasing volume, with the metal members (17, 31) being axially spaced from each other along the length of the tube (11) to prevent the metal members from shorting out the current flow through the plasma in the tube (11) and to provide spaces through which the heat from localized hot spots in the plasma may radiate to the other side of the tube (11).

  7. On Flow Stagnation in a Tube Radiator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motil, Brian; Chao, David F.; Sankovic, John M.; Zhang, Nengli

    2007-01-01

    An analysis of the physical process for occurrence of flow stagnation in a space tube-radiator is performed and the mechanism and mathematic description for the flow stagnation are presented. Two causes for pressure drop unbalance between tubes of the radiator are identified: non-uniform cooling environment and different local flow resistances between the tubes. This analysis provides a theoretical basis for experimental simulations of the flow stagnation in a ground-based lab as well as two suggested methods to experimentally simulate flow stagnation. Criteria for the flow stagnation, depending on the viscosity data regressive polynomial, are derived from the extreme condition of the pressure drop in colder tubes. A preliminary numerical calculation is conducted for a space tube-radiator model which confirms the physical and mathematical analyses. The prediction by the criteria for flow stagnation in the tube-radiator model coincides with the numerical calculation result.

  8. Various factors affect coiled tubing limits

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.S.

    1996-01-15

    Safety and reliability remain the primary concerns in coiled tubing operations. Factors affecting safety and reliability include corrosion, flexural bending, internal (or external) pressure and tension (or compression), and mechanical damage due to improper use. Such limits as coiled tubing fatigue, collapse, and buckling need to be understood to avoid disaster. With increased use of coiled tubing, operators will gain more experience. But at the same time, with further research and development of coiled tubing, the manufacturing quality will be improved and fatigue, collapse, and buckling models will become more mature, and eventually standard specifications will be available. This paper reviews the uses of coiled tubing and current research on mechanical behavior of said tubing. It also discusses several models used to help predict fatigue and failure levels.

  9. Refractory shield for superheater tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Green, K.E.; Johnson, D.K.; Woodruff, R.W.

    1987-07-28

    A refractory shield is described for protecting superheater tubes against attack by the products of combustion comprising: a pair of elongated molded and fired refractory half shields of predetermined identical interchangeable interlocking size and shape adapted when one of the half shields is rotated 180/sup 0/ and extends longitudinally relative to the other half shields to be slid axially together and interlocked together solely without additional fastening means, surround and shield the superheater tube. Each half shield has: an elongated refractory sidewall portion of predetermined axial length and thickness between opposite ends extending circumferentially between and to diametrically opposite refractory tongue and grooved side wall portions of predetermined axially engageable interlocking shape. An elongated tongue of predetermined shape, width and radial length projects radially outwardly from the tongue sidewall portion; and an elongated internal groove projects radially outward in the grooved side wall portion and of predetermined interlocking shape. Sufficient width and radial depth accept an elongated tongue of the other one of the pair of half shields assembled and locked together against relative rotation solely by axially inserting the tongues into the grooves.

  10. Making Internal Molds Of Long, Curved Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard K.

    1989-01-01

    Mold material carried to internal weld joint and removed after impression taken. Remotely operated device makes impression mold of interior surface of tube at weld joint. Mold provides indication of extent of mismatch between members at joint. Maneuvered to weld inspected through curved tube 3 in. in diameter by 50 in. long. Readily adapted to making molds to measure depth of corrosion in boiler tubes or other pipes.

  11. Joining of tubes by gas detonation forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkouk, Vahid; Patil, Sandeep; Markert, Bernd

    2016-08-01

    For many applications, such as in structural components, it is required to join two tubes - sometimes with dissimilar material properties. Only few research studies have investigated the joining of tubular metallic components by means of high-velocity forming processes. In this paper, we present the novel process of joining of two tubes by a gas detonation pressure wave. In particular, the joining of a copper and a steel tube is discussed by means of a finite element study and a conducted experiment.

  12. Hand-Operated Hydraulic Tube Expander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagan, David W.; Wolff, Edwin D.

    1995-01-01

    Hand-operated tool expands end portion of narrow metal or plastic tube to slightly larger diameter. Used on tubes with original inner diameters as small as 0.060 in. Includes replaceable tip comprising ferrule and tubular expansion sleeve sized for sliding fit into tube to be expanded. Expansion sleeve swells in response to internal hydraulic pressure generated by turning handle and thereby advancing piston.

  13. Preparation of nitrogen-doped carbon tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Hoon Taek; Zelenay, Piotr

    2015-12-22

    A method for synthesizing nitrogen-doped carbon tubes involves preparing a solution of cyanamide and a suitable transition metal-containing salt in a solvent, evaporating the solvent to form a solid, and pyrolyzing the solid under an inert atmosphere under conditions suitable for the production of nitrogen-doped carbon tubes from the solid. Pyrolyzing for a shorter period of time followed by rapid cooling resulted in a tubes with a narrower average diameter.

  14. Hose- and Tube-Cleaning Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rollins, F. P.; Glass, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    Self-contained, single-use module enables hose or tube to be cleaned thoroughly in field, in one operation, using water of unknown or questionable quality. Previously, chemicals for flow cleaning had to be mixed, diluted and pumped through tubes and hoses in many successive steps; deionizers, water-treatment facilities, and chemical storage required. With proposed device cleaning performed safely, without special training. Ready to use, device packaged as cleaning kit with tube to be cleaned.

  15. Comparative Tests of Pitot-static Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merriam, Kenneth G; Spaulding, Ellis R

    1935-01-01

    Comparative tests were made on seven conventional Pitot-static tubes to determine their static, dynamic, and resultant errors. The effect of varying the dynamic opening, static opening, wall thickness, and inner-tube diameter was investigated. Pressure-distribution measurements showing stem and tip effects were also made. A tentative design for a standard Pitot-static tube for use in measuring air velocity is submitted.

  16. The nasogastric tube syndrome in infants.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Jeffrey; Balakrishnan, Karthik; de Alarcon, Alessandro; Hart, Catherine K

    2014-05-01

    This series of three patients is the first description of the presentation, clinical course, and endoscopic findings of nasogastric tube-related airway distress, or nasogastric tube syndrome, in infants. We identify key differences in disease features from those described in adults, based on our literature review. Specifically, infant nasogastric tube syndrome presented as significant respiratory distress and postcricoid inflammation without vocal fold immobility. Symptoms resolved more quickly (mean±SD, 2±1 days) than reported in adults. We suggest that nasogastric tube syndrome should be considered in infants with otherwise unexplained respiratory distress, even in the absence of impaired vocal fold mobility.

  17. Simplified Explosive Joining of Tubes to Fittings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.; Bailey, J. W.; Perry, R.; Finch, M. S.

    1987-01-01

    Technique simplifies tube-to-fitting joining, as compared to fusion welding, and provides improvement on standard procedures used to join tubes explosively to tube fittings. Special tool inserted into tube to be joined. Tool allows strip of ribbon explosive to be placed right at joint. Ribbon explosive and mild detonating fuse allows use of smaller charge. Assembled tool storable, and process amenable to automation. Assembly of components, insertion of tool into weld site, and joining operation mechanized without human contact. Used to assemble components in nuclear reactors or in other environments hostile to humans.

  18. The structure of photospheric flux tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, John H.

    1990-01-01

    Basic physical mechanisms for producing the observed intense magnetic flux tubes in the solar photosphere are reviewed. The mechanism of flux expulsion by convective cells can concentrate magnetic flux up to the equipartition field strength, which is only about 200 G at the solar surface for the observed granular convection. Other mechanisms that partially evacuate the flux tube are needed to produce further concentration of magnetic flux to the observed values of 1000-1500 G. Two such mechanisms are discussed: concentration by convective collapse of a vertical flux tube in the superadiabatic layer just below the solar surface, and concentration by a siphon flow in an arched, isolated flux tube.

  19. Modeling Pulse Tube Cryocoolers with CFD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flake, Barrett; Razani, Arsalan

    2004-06-01

    A commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package is used to model the oscillating flow inside a pulse tube cryocooler. Capabilities for modeling pulse tubes are demonstrated with preliminary case studies and the results presented. The 2D axi-symmetric simulations demonstrate the time varying temperature and velocity fields in the tube along with computation of the heat fluxes at the hot and cold heat exchangers. The only externally imposed boundary conditions are a cyclically moving piston wall at one end of the tube and constant temperature or heat flux boundaries at the external walls of the hot and cold heat exchangers.

  20. Reducing gain shifts in photomultiplier tubes

    DOEpatents

    Cohn, Charles E.

    1976-01-01

    A means is provided for reducing gain shifts in multiplier tubes due to varying event count rates. It includes means for limiting the number of cascaded, active dynodes of the multiplier tube to a predetermined number with the last of predetermined number of dynodes being the output terminal of the tube. This output is applied to an amplifier to make up for the gain sacrificed by not totally utilizing all available active stages of the tube. Further reduction is obtained by illuminating the predetermined number of dynodes with a light source of such intensity that noise appearing at the output dynode associated with the illumination is negligible.