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Sample records for mouse glioma-associated oncogene

  1. Genetic variations and alternative splicing: the Glioma associated oncogene 1, GLI1.

    PubMed

    Zaphiropoulos, Peter G

    2012-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a post-transcriptional regulatory process that is attaining stronger recognition as a modulator of gene expression. Alternative splicing occurs when the primary RNA transcript is differentially processed into more than one mature RNAs. This is the result of a variable definition/inclusion of the exons, the sequences that are excised from the primary RNA to form the mature RNAs. Consequently, RNA expression can generate a collection of differentially spliced RNAs, which may distinctly influence subsequent biological events, such as protein synthesis or other biomolecular interactions. Still the mechanisms that control exon definition and exon inclusion are not fully clarified. This mini-review highlights advances in this field as well as the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms in affecting splicing decisions. The Glioma-associated oncogene 1, GLI1, is taken as an example in addressing the role of nucleotide substitutions for splicing regulation.

  2. Genetic variations and alternative splicing: the Glioma associated oncogene 1, GLI1

    PubMed Central

    Zaphiropoulos, Peter G.

    2012-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a post-transcriptional regulatory process that is attaining stronger recognition as a modulator of gene expression. Alternative splicing occurs when the primary RNA transcript is differentially processed into more than one mature RNAs. This is the result of a variable definition/inclusion of the exons, the sequences that are excised from the primary RNA to form the mature RNAs. Consequently, RNA expression can generate a collection of differentially spliced RNAs, which may distinctly influence subsequent biological events, such as protein synthesis or other biomolecular interactions. Still the mechanisms that control exon definition and exon inclusion are not fully clarified. This mini-review highlights advances in this field as well as the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms in affecting splicing decisions. The Glioma-associated oncogene 1, GLI1, is taken as an example in addressing the role of nucleotide substitutions for splicing regulation. PMID:22833753

  3. Glioma-Associated Oncogene Homolog1 (Gli1)-Aquaporin1 pathway promotes glioma cell metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Zheng-qiang; Ye, Ming; Yu, Pei-gen; Xiao, Chun; Lin, Feng-yun

    2016-01-01

    Glioma-Associated Oncogene Homolog1 (Gli1) is known to be activated in malignant glioma; however, its downstream pathway has not been fully explained. The aim of this study was to explore the role of Gli1-Aquaporin1 (AQP1) signal pathway in glioma cell survival. Our data suggests that both Gli1 and AQP1 are upregulated in glioma tissues, as in comparison to in normal tissues. These up-regulation phenomena were also observed in glioma U251 and U87 cells. It was demonstrated that Gli1 positively regulated the AQP1 expression. By luciferase reporter gene and ChIP assay, we observed that this modulation process was realized by combination of Gli1 with AQP1 promotor. In addition, knock down of Gli1 by siRNA interference reduced the viability of glioma cells as well as suppressed cell metastasis. Also, the inhibitory effects of cell survival by silenced Gli1 were abrogated by AQP1 overexpression. In summary, glioma cell survival is a regulatory process and can be mediated by Gli1-AQP1 pathway. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(7): 394-399] PMID:27157540

  4. Immunolocalization of glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 in non melanoma skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Bakry, Ola Ahmed; Samaka, Rehab Monir; Shoeib, Mohamed Abdel Moneim; Megahed, Doaa Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    Glioma-associated oncogene homolog (GLI)1 is involved in controlling cell proliferation and angiogenesis. The aim of this work was to explore its possible role in non-melanoma skin cancer pathogenesis through its immunohistochemical (IHC) expression in skin biopsies of these diseases and correlating this expression with the clinico-pathological parameters of the studied cases. Seventy-six cutaneous specimens were studied; 30 cases with basal cell carcinoma (BCC), 30 cases with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 16 normal skin samples, from age- and gender-matched subjects, as a control group. GLI1 was expressed in all BCC cases and in 60% of SCC cases. All SCC cases showed cytoplasmic, while 70% of BCC cases showed nucleocytoplasmic immunoreactivity. It was over expressed in BCC and SCC compared to normal skin (p = 0.01 and 0.0006, respectively). Higher Histo (H) score in BCC cases was significantly associated with female gender (p = 0.04), multiple lesions, desmoplastic stromal reaction and stromal angiogenesis (p < 0.001 for all). Higher H score in SCC cases was significantly associated with scalp location, nodular type, recurrent lesions, high tumor grade, lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.004 for all), inflammatory stromal reaction (p = 0.01), lymph node involvement and absence of calcification (p = 0.001 for both). In conclusion, GLI1 may play a role in BCC pathogenesis through its role in cell proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis. Its upregulation and cytoplasmic localization in SCC may suggest that its role in tumor pathogenesis is through mechanisms other than Hedgehog pathway activation. Further studies are needed to clarify the exact molecular basis of its oncogenic action.

  5. Targeting the hedgehog-glioma-associated oncogene homolog pathway inhibits bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Moshai, Elika Farrokhi; Wémeau-Stervinou, Lidwine; Cigna, Natacha; Brayer, Stephanie; Sommé, Joëlle Marchal; Crestani, Bruno; Mailleux, Arnaud A

    2014-07-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis has been associated with the reactivation of developmental pathways, notably the Hedgehog-Glioma-associated oncogene homolog (GLI) pathway. In this study, we determined whether the Hedgehog pathway was activated in bleomycin-induced lung injury in mice, and whether targeting the Hedgehog-Gli pathway could decrease bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. After intratracheal injection of bleomycin on Day 0, C57Bl6 mice received GDC-0449 (an inhibitor of Smoothened, the transducer of the pathway), or 2,2'-[[Dihydro-2-(4-pyridinyl)-1,3(2H,4H)-pyrimidinediyl]bis(methylene)]bis[N,N dimethylbenzenamine (GANT61; an inhibitor of GLI transcription factors in the nucleus), from Day 7 to Day 13. At Day 14, whole-lung homogenates were obtained for morphological analysis, assessment of cell apoptosis and proliferation, collagen quantification, and evaluation of profibrotic (transforming growth factor-β, connective tissue growth factor, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, vascular endothelial growth factor-A) and proinflammatory mediators (IL-1β) expression. We showed that the Hedgehog pathway was activated in bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis on Day 14 after injury, with an increased lung expression of the ligand, Sonic Hedgehog, and with increased messenger RNA expression and nuclear localization of GLI1 and GLI2. Inhibition of Smoothened with GDC-0449 did not influence the development of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. By contrast, the inhibition of GLI activity with GANT61 decreased lung fibrosis and lung collagen accumulation, and promoted an antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory environment. Our results identify the hedgehog-Gli pathway as a profibrotic pathway in experimental fibrosis. Inhibition of the Hedgehog-Gli pathway at the level of GLI transcriptional activity could be a therapeutic option in fibrotic lung diseases.

  6. Critical role of glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 in maintaining invasive and mesenchymal-like properties of melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Gunarta, I Ketut; Li, Rong; Nakazato, Ryota; Suzuki, Ryusuke; Boldbaatar, Jambaldorj; Suzuki, Takeshi; Yoshioka, Katsuji

    2017-08-01

    Cutaneous melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer. This aggressiveness appears to be due to the cancer cells' ability to reversibly switch between phenotypes with non-invasive and invasive potential, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) is known to play a central role in this process. The transcription factor glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 (GLI1) is a component of the canonical and noncanonical sonic hedgehog pathways. Although GLI1 has been suggested to be involved in melanoma progression, its precise role and the mechanism underlying invasion remain unclear. Here we investigated whether and how GLI1 is involved in the invasive ability of melanoma cells. Gli1 knockdown (KD) melanoma cell lines, established by using Gli1-targeting lentiviral short hairpin RNA, exhibited a markedly reduced invasion ability, but their MITF expression and activity were the same as controls. Gli1 KD melanoma cells also led to less lung metastasis in mice compared with control melanoma cells. Furthermore, the Gli1 KD melanoma cells underwent a mesenchymal-to-epithelial-like transition, accompanied by downregulation of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-inducing transcription factors (EMT-TF) Snail1, Zeb1 and Twist1, but not Snail2 or Zeb2. Collectively, these results indicate that GLI1 is important for maintaining the invasive and mesenchymal-like properties of melanoma cells independent of MITF, most likely by modulating a subset of EMT-TF. Our findings provide new insight into how heterogeneity and plasticity are achieved and regulated in melanoma. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  7. Glioma-associated Oncogene 2 Is Essential for Trophoblastic Fusion by Forming a Transcriptional Complex with Glial Cell Missing-a.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chao; Tang, Lanfang; Wu, Xiaokai; Xiong, Wenyi; Ruan, Hongfeng; Hussain, Musaddique; Wu, Junsong; Zou, Chaochun; Wu, Ximei

    2016-03-11

    Cell-cell fusion of human villous trophoblasts, referred to as a process of syncytialization, acts as a prerequisite for the proper development and functional maintenance of the human placenta. Given the fact that the main components of the Hedgehog signaling pathway are expressed predominantly in the syncytial layer of human placental villi, in this study, we investigated the potential roles and underlying mechanisms of Hedgehog signaling in trophoblastic fusion. Activation of Hedgehog signaling by a variety of approaches robustly induced cell fusion and the expression of syncytial markers, whereas suppression of Hedgehog signaling significantly attenuated cell fusion and the expression of syncytial markers in both human primary cytotrophoblasts and trophoblast-like BeWo cells. Moreover, among glioma-associated oncogene (GLI) family transcriptional factors in Hedgehog signaling, knockdown of GLI2 but not GLI1 and GLI3 significantly attenuated Hedgehog-induced cell fusion, whereas overexpression of the GLI2 activator alone was sufficient to induce cell fusion. Finally, GLI2 not only stabilized glial cell missing-a, a pivotal transcriptional factor for trophoblastic syncytialization, but also formed a transcriptional heterodimer with glial cell missing-a to transactivate syncytin-1, a trophoblastic fusogen, and promote trophoblastic syncytialization. Taken together, this study uncovered a so far uncharacterized role of Hedgehog/GLI2 signaling in trophoblastic fusion, implicating that Hedgehog signaling, through GLI2, could be required for human placental development and pregnancy maintenance.

  8. Glioma-associated Oncogene 2 Is Essential for Trophoblastic Fusion by Forming a Transcriptional Complex with Glial Cell Missing-a*

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Chao; Tang, Lanfang; Wu, Xiaokai; Xiong, Wenyi; Ruan, Hongfeng; Hussain, Musaddique; Wu, Junsong; Zou, Chaochun; Wu, Ximei

    2016-01-01

    Cell-cell fusion of human villous trophoblasts, referred to as a process of syncytialization, acts as a prerequisite for the proper development and functional maintenance of the human placenta. Given the fact that the main components of the Hedgehog signaling pathway are expressed predominantly in the syncytial layer of human placental villi, in this study, we investigated the potential roles and underlying mechanisms of Hedgehog signaling in trophoblastic fusion. Activation of Hedgehog signaling by a variety of approaches robustly induced cell fusion and the expression of syncytial markers, whereas suppression of Hedgehog signaling significantly attenuated cell fusion and the expression of syncytial markers in both human primary cytotrophoblasts and trophoblast-like BeWo cells. Moreover, among glioma-associated oncogene (GLI) family transcriptional factors in Hedgehog signaling, knockdown of GLI2 but not GLI1 and GLI3 significantly attenuated Hedgehog-induced cell fusion, whereas overexpression of the GLI2 activator alone was sufficient to induce cell fusion. Finally, GLI2 not only stabilized glial cell missing-a, a pivotal transcriptional factor for trophoblastic syncytialization, but also formed a transcriptional heterodimer with glial cell missing-a to transactivate syncytin-1, a trophoblastic fusogen, and promote trophoblastic syncytialization. Taken together, this study uncovered a so far uncharacterized role of Hedgehog/GLI2 signaling in trophoblastic fusion, implicating that Hedgehog signaling, through GLI2, could be required for human placental development and pregnancy maintenance. PMID:26769961

  9. Transcription factor glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 is required for transforming growth factor-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of non-small cell lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    LI, HUA; DA, LI-JUN; FAN, WEI-DONG; LONG, XIAO-HONG; ZHANG, XIAN-QUAN

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is the process by which epithelial cells depolarize and acquire a mesenchymal phenotype, and is a common early step in the process of metastasis. Patients with lung cancer frequently already have distant metastases when they are diagnosed, highlighting the requirement for early and effective interventions to control metastatic disease. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is able to induce EMT, however the molecular mechanism of this remains unclear. In the current study, TGF-β1 was reported to induce EMT and promote the migration of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. A notable observation was that EMT induction was accompanied by the upregulation of human glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 (Gli1) mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, Gli1 levels were depleted by small interfering RNA, and the Gli1 inhibitor GANT 61 attenuated the TGF-β1-mediated induction of EMT and cell migration. The results of the current study suggest that Gli1 regulates TGF-β1-induced EMT, which may provide a novel therapeutic target to inhibit metastasis in patients with NSCLC. PMID:25586417

  10. Oncogenes

    SciTech Connect

    Compans, R.W.; Cooper, M.; Koprowski, H.; McConell, I.; Melchers, F.; Nussenzweig, V.; Oldstone, M.; Olsnes, S.; Saedler, H.; Vogt, P.K.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Roles of drosophila proto-oncogenes and growth factor homologs during development of the fly; Interaction of oncogenes with differentiation programs; Genetics of src: structure and functional organization of a protein tyrosine kinase; Structures and activities of activated abl oncogenes; Eukaryotic RAS proteins and yeast proteins with which they interact. This book presents up-to-data review articles on oncogenes. The editor includes five contributions which critically evaluate recent research in the field.

  11. Oncogenic Radiation Abscopal Effects In Vivo: Interrogating Mouse Skin

    SciTech Connect

    Mancuso, Mariateresa; Leonardi, Simona; Giardullo, Paola; Pasquali, Emanuela; Tanori, Mirella; De Stefano, Ilaria; Casciati, Arianna; Naus, Christian C.; Pazzaglia, Simonetta; Saran, Anna

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To investigate the tissue dependence in transmission of abscopal radiation signals and their oncogenic consequences in a radiosensitive mouse model and to explore the involvement of gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) in mediating radiation tumorigenesis in off-target mouse skin. Methods and Materials: Patched1 heterozygous (Ptch1{sup +/−}) mice were irradiated at postnatal day 2 (P2) with 10 Gy of x-rays. Individual lead cylinders were used to protect the anterior two-thirds of the body, whereas the hindmost part was directly exposed to radiation. To test the role of GJICs and their major constituent connexin43 (Cx43), crosses between Ptch1{sup +/−} and Cx43{sup +/−} mice were similarly irradiated. These mouse groups were monitored for their lifetime, and skin basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) were counted and recorded. Early responses to DNA damage - Double Strand Breaks (DSBs) and apoptosis - were also evaluated in shielded and directly irradiated skin areas. Results: We report abscopal tumor induction in the shielded skin of Ptch1{sup +/−} mice after partial-body irradiation. Endpoints were induction of early nodular BCC-like tumors and macroscopic infiltrative BCCs. Abscopal tumorigenesis was significantly modulated by Cx43 status, namely, Cx43 reduction was associated with decreased levels of DNA damage and oncogenesis in out-of-field skin, suggesting a key role of GJIC in transmission of oncogenic radiation signals to unhit skin. Conclusions: Our results further characterize the nature of abscopal responses and the implications they have on pathologic processes in different tissues, including their possible underlying mechanistic bases.

  12. Generation of transgenic mouse model using PTTG as an oncogene.

    PubMed

    Kakar, Sham S; Kakar, Cohin

    2015-01-01

    The close physiological similarity between the mouse and human has provided tools to understanding the biological function of particular genes in vivo by introduction or deletion of a gene of interest. Using a mouse as a model has provided a wealth of resources, knowledge, and technology, helping scientists to understand the biological functions, translocation, trafficking, and interaction of a candidate gene with other intracellular molecules, transcriptional regulation, posttranslational modification, and discovery of novel signaling pathways for a particular gene. Most importantly, the generation of the mouse model for a specific human disease has provided a powerful tool to understand the etiology of a disease and discovery of novel therapeutics. This chapter describes in detail the step-by-step generation of the transgenic mouse model, which can be helpful in guiding new investigators in developing successful models. For practical purposes, we will describe the generation of a mouse model using pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) as the candidate gene of interest.

  13. Activation of proto-oncogenes in human and mouse lung tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, S.H.; Anderson, M.W. )

    1991-06-01

    Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in several nations. Epidemiological studies have indicated that 85% of all lung cancer deaths and 30% of all cancer deaths in the US are associated with tobacco smoking. Various chemicals in tobacco smoke are thought to react with DNA and to ultimately yield heritable mutations. In an effort to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in lung tumorigenesis, the authors have analyzed proto-oncogene activation in a series of human lung tumors from smokers and spontaneously occurring and chemically induced lung tumors in mice. Approximately 86% of the human lung tumors and > 90% of the mouse lung tumors were found to contain activated oncogenes. ras Oncogenes activated by point mutations were detected in many of the human lung adenocarcinomas and virtually all of the mouse lung adenomas and adenocarcinomas. The mutation profiles of the activated K-ras genes detected in the chemically induced mouse lung tumors suggest that the observed mutations result from genotoxic effects of the chemicals. Comparison of the K-ras mutations observed in the human lung adenocarcinomas with mutation profiles observed in the mouse lung tumors suggest that bulky hydrophobic DNA adducts may be responsible for the majority of the mutations observed in the activated human K-ras genes. Other data indicate that approximately 20% of human lung tumors contain potentially novel transforming genes that may also be targets for mutagens in cigarette smoke.

  14. CYCLOPENTA-FUSED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN STRAIN A/J MOUSE LUNG: DNA ADDUCTS, ONCOGENE MUTATIONS, & TUMORIGENESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyclopenta-fused Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Strain AJJ Mouse Lung: DNA Adducts, Oncogene Mutations, and Tumorigenesis.

    We have examined the relationships between DNA adducts, Ki-ras oncogene mutations, DNA adducts, and adenoma induction in the lungs of strain A/J...

  15. CYCLOPENTA-FUSED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN STRAIN A/J MOUSE LUNG: DNA ADDUCTS, ONCOGENE MUTATIONS, & TUMORIGENESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyclopenta-fused Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Strain AJJ Mouse Lung: DNA Adducts, Oncogene Mutations, and Tumorigenesis.

    We have examined the relationships between DNA adducts, Ki-ras oncogene mutations, DNA adducts, and adenoma induction in the lungs of strain A/J...

  16. Oncogenic Kit signaling and therapeutic intervention in a mouse model of gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Ferdinand; Ehlers, Imke; Agosti, Valter; Socci, Nicholas D.; Viale, Agnes; Sommer, Gunhild; Yozgat, Yasemin; Manova, Katia; Antonescu, Cristina R.; Besmer, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Kit receptor-activating mutations are critical in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). We investigated mechanisms of oncogenic Kit signaling and the consequences of therapeutic intervention in a mouse model of human GIST. Treatment of GIST mice with imatinib decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis in the tumor. Analysis of tumor tissue from imatinib-treated mice showed diminished phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling suggesting that oncogenic Kit signaling critically contributes to the translational response in GIST. Treatment with RAD001 (everolimus), an mTOR inhibitor, diminished the translational response and cell proliferation in tumor lesions, pointing to mTOR inhibition as a therapeutic approach for imatinib-resistant GIST. Analysis of RNA expression profiles in GIST lesions with and without imatinib treatment showed changes in expression of IFN-inducible genes and cell cycle regulators. These results convincingly show that KitV558Δ/+ mice represent a unique faithful mouse model of human familial GIST, and they demonstrate the utility of these mice for preclinical investigations and to elucidate oncogenic signaling mechanisms by using genetic approaches and targeted pharmacological intervention. PMID:16908864

  17. Mouse Elk oncogene maps to chromosome X and a novel Elk oncogene (Elk3) maps to chromosome 10

    SciTech Connect

    Tamai, Yoshitaka; Taketo, Makoto; Nozaki, Masami

    1995-03-20

    The Elk protein is a member of the Ets family found in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Human ELK1 encoded by ELK1 binds alone or together with serum response factor to DNA and regulates gene expression in a variety of biological processes. Using a panel of interspecific backcross mice, we have mapped the Elk oncogene (Elk) and a novel type Elk oncogene (Elk3), closely related to ELK1. Elk maps to Chr X, and Elk3 maps to the proximal region of Chr 10. 18 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. Enhanced oncogenic behavior of human and mouse cells after cellular hybridization with Burkitt tumor cells.

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, R; Ablashi, D V; Nonoyama, M; Henle, W; Easton, J

    1977-01-01

    Studies were made of the expression of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in somatic hybrids of Burkitt tumor cells and human or mouse cells to determine whether EBV genetic information associated with the capacity to transform leukocytes of human and non-human primates could be maintained and expressed in nonlymphoblastoid cells. Data obtained thus far suggest that at least one characteristic associated with cellular transformation (loss of contact inhibition) is expressed only in nonlymphoblastoid cells in which the EBV genome is maintained. In addition, we have demonstrated that human epithelial/Burkitt hybrid cells (D98/HR-1 and D98/Raji) are more oncogenic in nude (athymic) mice than are cells of the human epithelial parental line, D98, or one of the Burkitt lymphoblastoid parent cell lines (Raji); the HR-1 Burkitt parent cell line was as oncogenic as the hybrid cell lines but the time required to induce tumors was much longer. Thus, human epithelial cells show alteration of growth properties in vitro and in vivo after cellular hybridization with Burkitt tumor cells. Images PMID:196293

  19. Oncogene-induced senescence and its evasion in a mouse model of thyroid neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Bellelli, Roberto; Vitagliano, Donata; Federico, Giorgia; Marotta, Pina; Tamburrino, Anna; Salerno, Paolo; Paciello, Orlando; Papparella, Serenella; Knauf, Jeffrey A; Fagin, James A; Refetoff, Samuel; Troncone, Giancarlo; Santoro, Massimo

    2017-06-23

    Here we describe a conditional doxycycline-dependent mouse model of RET/PTC3 (NCOA4-RET) oncogene-induced thyroid tumorigenesis. In these mice, after 10 days of doxycycline (dox) administration, RET/PTC3 expression induced mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) stimulation and a proliferative response which resulted in the formation of hyperplastic thyroid lesions. This was followed, after 2 months, by growth arrest accompanied by typical features of oncogene-induced senescence (OIS), including upregulation of p16INK4A and p21CIP, positivity at the Sudan black B, activation of the DNA damage response (DDR) markers γH2AX and pChk2 T68, and induction of p53 and p19ARF. After 5 months, about half of thyroid lesions escaped OIS and formed tumors that remained dependent on RET/PTC3 expression. This progression was accompanied by activation of AKT-FOXO1/3a pathway and increased serum TSH levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. p21Waf1 is required for complete oncogenic transformation of mouse embryo fibroblasts by E1Aad5 and c-Ha-ras oncogenes.

    PubMed

    Romanov, Vasily S; Bardin, Alexander A; Zubova, Svetlana G; Bykova, Tatiana V; Pospelov, Valery A; Pospelova, Tatiana V

    2011-09-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(Waf1) is known to have alternative functions associated with positive regulation of proliferation, actin cytoskeleton remodeling and suppression of apoptosis. The goal of the present study was to assess the role of p21(Waf1) in the establishment of the transformed phenotype of mouse embryo fibroblasts with stable expression of E1Aad5 and c-Ha-ras complementary oncogenes. Herein, we demonstrate that E1A/c-Ha-Ras-transformed p21(Waf1)-null fibroblasts possess some characteristic features of transformed cells, such as loss of contact inhibition, high saturation density, shortened cell cycle, inability to undergo cell-cycle arrest after DNA damage and serum deprivation, but, at the same time, they are not completely transformed in that they are unable to proliferate at clonal density, are anchorage-dependent, retain a fibroblast-like morphology with pronounced actin cytoskeleton and show reduced migration and invasion. Our data support the concept of p21(Waf1) "tumor suppressor" having alternative oncogenic functions in the cytoplasm and for the first time indicate that p21(Waf1) can be indispensable for complete oncogenic transformation.

  1. Retroviral transduction of the human c-Ha-ras-1 oncogene into midgestation mouse embryos promotes rapid epithelial hyperplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, S.J.; Baldacci, P.A.; Jaenisch, R.

    1989-01-01

    Infection of mouse embryos at 8 days of gestation with a replication-defective retrovirus carrying the human c-Ha-ras-1 oncogene led to efficient and rapid induction of hyperplastic lesions. Twenty-four percent of viable offspring developed abnormal growths after infection with purified virus. The lesions contained a single integrated provirus and produced viral RNA and the Ha-ras oncogene product (p21). The latency period between the time of infection and appearance of the lesions suggested that secondary alterations in addition to activated ras were necessary for neoplasms to develop. The earliest and most abundant growths were cutaneous and appeared from 4 to 36 weeks of age, with a median of 4 weeks of age. A number of subcutaneous lesions also developed over the same time span but at a median of 18 weeks of age. The rapid development of cutaneous lesions in response to transduction of the ras oncogene contrasts with other studies in which adult skin required secondary treatment with promoters prior to ras induction of epithelial hyperplasia. These results demonstrate that infection of midgestation mouse embryos allows rapid analysis of oncogene potency in skin.

  2. Retroviral transduction of the human c-Ha-ras-1 oncogene into midgestation mouse embryos promotes rapid epithelial hyperplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Compere, S J; Baldacci, P A; Sharpe, A H; Jaenisch, R

    1989-01-01

    Infection of mouse embryos at 8 days of gestation with a replication-defective retrovirus carrying the human c-Ha-ras-1 oncogene led to efficient and rapid induction of hyperplastic lesions. Twenty-four percent of viable off-spring developed abnormal growths after infection with purified virus. The lesions contained a single integrated provirus and produced viral RNA and the Ha-ras oncogene product (p21). The latency period between the time of infection and appearance of the lesions suggested that secondary alterations in addition to activated ras were necessary for neoplasms to develop. The earliest and most abundant growths were cutaneous and appeared from 4 to 36 weeks of age, with a median of 4 weeks of age. A number of subcutaneous lesions also developed over the same time span but at a median of 18 weeks of age. The rapid development of cutaneous lesions in response to transduction of the ras oncogene contrasts with other studies in which adult skin required secondary treatment with promoters prior to ras induction of epithelial hyperplasia. These results demonstrate that infection of midgestation mouse embryos allows rapid analysis of oncogene potency in skin. Images PMID:2648134

  3. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Mediates Bronchioalveolar Stem Cell Expansion in Mouse Models of Oncogenic K-ras-Induced Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yanan; Iwanaga, Kentaro; Raso, Maria Gabriela; Wislez, Marie; Hanna, Amy E.; Wieder, Eric D.; Molldrem, Jeffrey J.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Powis, Garth; Demayo, Francesco J.; Kim, Carla F.; Kurie, Jonathan M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common cause of cancer-related death in Western countries. Developing more effective NSCLC therapeutics will require the elucidation of the genetic and biochemical bases for this disease. Bronchioalveolar stem cells (BASCs) are a putative cancer stem cell population in mouse models of oncogenic K-ras-induced lung adenocarcinoma, an histologic subtype of NSCLC. The signals activated by oncogenic K-ras that mediate BASC expansion have not been fully defined. Methodology/Principal Findings We used genetic and pharmacologic approaches to modulate the activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), a key mediator of oncogenic K-ras, in two genetic mouse models of lung adenocarcinoma. Oncogenic K-ras-induced BASC accumulation and tumor growth were blocked by treatment with a small molecule PI3K inhibitor and enhanced by inactivation of phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted from chromosome 10, a negative regulator of PI3K. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that PI3K is a critical regulator of BASC expansion, supporting treatment strategies to target PI3K in NSCLC patients. PMID:18493606

  4. Oncogenic and tumor-suppressive mouse models for breast cancer engaging HER2/neu.

    PubMed

    Fry, Elizabeth A; Taneja, Pankaj; Inoue, Kazushi

    2017-02-01

    The human c-ErbB2 (HER2) gene is amplified in ∼20% of human breast cancers (BCs), but the protein is overexpressed in ∼30% of the cases indicating that multiple different mechanisms contribute to HER2 overexpression in tumors. It has long been used as a molecular marker of BC for subcategorization for the prediction of prognosis and determination of therapeutic strategies. In comparison to ER(+) BCs, HER2-positive BCs are more invasive, but the patients respond to monoclonal antibody therapy with trastuzumab or tyrosine kinase inhibitors at least at early stages. To understand the pathophysiology of HER2-driven carcinogenesis and test HER2-targeting therapeutic agents in vivo, numerous mouse models have been created that faithfully reproduce HER2(+) BCs in mice. They include MMTV-neu (active mutant or wild type, rat neu or HER2) models, neu promoter-driven neuNT-transgenic mice, neuNT-knock-in mice at the neu locus and doxycycline-inducible neuNT-transgenic models. HER2/neu activates the Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase-AKT-NF-κB pathway to stimulate the mitogenic cyclin D1/Cdk4-Rb-E2F pathway. Of note, overexpression of HER2 also stimulates the cell autonomous Dmp1-Arf-p53 tumor suppressor pathway to quench oncogenic signals to prevent the emergence of cancer cells. Hence tumor development by MMTV-neu mice was dramatically accelerated in mice that lack Dmp1, Arf or p53 with invasion and metastasis. Expressions of neuNT under the endogenous promoter underwent gene amplification, closely recapitulating human HER2(+) BCs. MMTV-HER2 models have been shown to be useful to test humanized monoclonal antibodies to HER2. These mouse models will be useful for the screening of novel therapeutic agents against BCs with HER2 overexpression.

  5. The putative oncogene Pim-1 in the mouse: its linkage and variation among t haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, J H; Phillips, S J

    1987-11-01

    Pim-1, a putative oncogene involved in T-cell lymphomagenesis, was mapped between the pseudo-alpha globin gene Hba-4ps and the alpha-crystallin gene Crya-1 on mouse chromosome 17 and therefore within the t complex. Pim-1 restriction fragment variants were identified among t haplotypes. Analysis of restriction fragment sizes obtained with 12 endonucleases demonstrated that the Pim-1 genes in some t haplotypes were indistinguishable from the sizes for the Pim-1b allele in BALB/c inbred mice. There are now three genes, Pim-1, Crya-1 and H-2 I-E, that vary among independently derived t haplotypes and that have indistinguishable alleles in t haplotypes and inbred strains. These genes are closely linked within the distal inversion of the t complex. Because it is unlikely that these variants arose independently in t haplotypes and their wild-type homologues, we propose that an exchange of chromosomal segments, probably through double crossingover, was responsible for indistinguishable Pim-1 genes shared by certain t haplotypes and their wild-type homologues. There was, however, no apparent association between variant alleles of these three genes among t haplotypes as would be expected if a single exchange introduced these alleles into t haplotypes. If these variant alleles can be shown to be identical to the wild-type allele, then lack of association suggests that multiple exchanges have occurred during the evolution of the t complex.

  6. INDUCTION OF DNA ADDUCTS, TUMORS, AND KI-RAS ONCOGENE MUTATIONS IN STRAIN A/J MOUSE LUNG BY IP. ADMINISTRATION OF DIBENZ[A,H]ANTHRACENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Induction of DNA adducts, tumors, and Ki-ras oncogene mutations in strain AlJ mouse lung by ip. administration of dibenz[a,h]anthracene

    Previous studies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (P AH) induced lung tumors in the strain NJ mouse model system have demonstrated qua...

  7. INDUCTION OF DNA ADDUCTS, TUMORS, AND KI-RAS ONCOGENE MUTATIONS IN STRAIN A/J MOUSE LUNG BY IP. ADMINISTRATION OF DIBENZ[A,H]ANTHRACENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Induction of DNA adducts, tumors, and Ki-ras oncogene mutations in strain AlJ mouse lung by ip. administration of dibenz[a,h]anthracene

    Previous studies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (P AH) induced lung tumors in the strain NJ mouse model system have demonstrated qua...

  8. Detection and identification of activated oncogenes in spontaneously occurring benign and malignant hepatocellular tumors of the B6C3F1 mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, S H; Stowers, S J; Maronpot, R R; Anderson, M W; Aaronson, S A

    1986-01-01

    Species- and strain-specific spontaneously occurring tumors have been observed in rodents maintained under normal laboratory conditions. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms associated with the development of these spontaneous tumors may provide a better understanding of tumor development associated with exposure to chemical carcinogens. In view of the high frequencies of oncogene activation shown in rodent tumors induced by known chemical carcinogens, we have investigated oncogene activation in spontaneous tumors of the B6C3F1 mouse and Fischer 344/N rat by DNA transfection techniques. A marked difference in the presence of activated oncogenes in spontaneous rat tumors versus spontaneous mouse liver tumors was observed in this study. All rat tumors tested failed to yield activated oncogenes (0/29), whereas 30% (3/10) of mouse hepatocellular adenomas and 77% (10/13) of hepatocellular carcinomas scored positive by DNA transfection. These transforming genes were identified as an activated Ha-ras gene in all the adenoma transfectants and in 8 of the 10 carcinoma transfectants. The two remaining hepatocellular carcinomas contained transforming genes that appear not to be members of the known ras gene family. The B6C3F1 mouse liver system might provide a very sensitive assay not only for assessing the potential of a chemical to activate a cellular proto-oncogene, but also for detecting various classes of proto-oncogenes that are susceptible to mutational activation. Images PMID:3510430

  9. The ras and myc oncogenes cooperate in tumor induction in many tissues when introduced into midgestation mouse embryos by retroviral vectors.

    PubMed Central

    Compere, S J; Baldacci, P; Sharpe, A H; Thompson, T; Land, H; Jaenisch, R

    1989-01-01

    Midgestation embryos were infected with replication-defective retroviral vectors that either transduced the myc oncogene, the ras oncogene, or both oncogenes simultaneously. The myc virus induced tumors in diverse organs at a very low frequency and with a long latency period, while approximately 20% of the mice derived from embryos infected with the ras virus developed tumors in the skin with a latency of 4-8 weeks. In contrast, infection of embryos with the ras/myc double oncogene virus resulted in 27% of the animals developing rapidly growing and malignant tumors in a great variety of tissues after a median latency period of 2-3 weeks. All tumors were of monoclonal origin, as shown by Southern analysis using the provirus as a molecular marker. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the ras and myc oncogenes cooperate in transforming cells, but that additional alterations are necessary for realization of the fully malignant phenotype. Our observations also suggest that a much wider range of cell types become targets for malignant transformation when the embryos are exposed to the myc and the ras oncogenes simultaneously than when exposed to the same oncogenes separately. Infection of mouse embryos with vectors carrying different oncogenes or oncogene combinations may be an efficient and rapid method for evaluating the spectrum of cell types at risk for malignant conversion following mutation of a protooncogene to a transforming gene. Images PMID:2648394

  10. Transgenic expression of oncogenic BRAF induces loss of stem cells in the mouse intestine, which is antagonized by β-catenin activity.

    PubMed

    Riemer, P; Sreekumar, A; Reinke, S; Rad, R; Schäfer, R; Sers, C; Bläker, H; Herrmann, B G; Morkel, M

    2015-06-11

    Colon cancer cells frequently carry mutations that activate the β-catenin and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades. Yet how oncogenic alterations interact to control cellular hierarchies during tumor initiation and progression is largely unknown. We found that oncogenic BRAF modulates gene expression associated with cell differentiation in colon cancer cells. We therefore engineered a mouse with an inducible oncogenic BRAF transgene, and analyzed BRAF effects on cellular hierarchies in the intestinal epithelium in vivo and in primary organotypic culture. We demonstrate that transgenic expression of oncogenic BRAF in the mouse strongly activated MAPK signal transduction, resulted in the rapid development of generalized serrated dysplasia, but unexpectedly also induced depletion of the intestinal stem cell (ISC) pool. Histological and gene expression analyses indicate that ISCs collectively converted to short-lived progenitor cells after BRAF activation. As Wnt/β-catenin signals encourage ISC identity, we asked whether β-catenin activity could counteract oncogenic BRAF. Indeed, we found that intestinal organoids could be partially protected from deleterious oncogenic BRAF effects by Wnt3a or by small-molecule inhibition of GSK3β. Similarly, transgenic expression of stabilized β-catenin in addition to oncogenic BRAF partially prevented loss of stem cells in the mouse intestine. We also used BRAF(V637E) knock-in mice to follow changes in the stem cell pool during serrated tumor progression and found ISC marker expression reduced in serrated hyperplasia forming after BRAF activation, but intensified in progressive dysplastic foci characterized by additional mutations that activate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Our study suggests that oncogenic alterations activating the MAPK and Wnt/β-catenin pathways must be consecutively and coordinately selected to assure stem cell maintenance during colon cancer initiation and progression. Notably, loss of

  11. Using a Novel Transgenic Mouse Model to Study c-Myc Oncogenic Pathway in Castration Resistance and Chemoresistance of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    model for tumor of epididymis together with prostate tumor. Tumor of epididymis is a rare type of cancer in human, and most of them are benign . The...Oncogenic Pathway in Castration Resistance and Chemoresistance of Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Feng Yang, Ph.D. CONTRACTING...CONTRACT NUMBER Using a Novel Transgenic Mouse Model to Study c-Myc Oncogenic Pathway in Castration Resistance and Chemoresistance of Prostate Cancer

  12. Pten Inactivation Accelerates Oncogenic K-ras-Initiated Tumorigenesis in a Mouse Model of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Iwanaga, Kentaro; Yang, Yanan; Raso, Maria Gabriela; Ma, Lijiang; Hanna, Amy E.; Thilaganathan, Nishan; Moghaddam, Seyed; Evans, Christopher M.; Li, Huaiguang; Cai, Wei-Wen; Sato, Mitsuo; Minna, John D.; Wu, Hong; Creighton, Chad J.; Demayo, Francesco J.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Kurie, Jonathan M.

    2009-01-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted from chromosome 10 (Pten) is expressed aberrantly in non-small cell lung cancer cells, but the role of Pten in lung neoplasia has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we used a genetic approach to inactivate Pten in the bronchial epithelium of mice. Although, by itself, Pten inactivation had no discernible effect on bronchial epithelial histology, it accelerated lung tumorigenesis initiated by oncogenic K-ras, causing more rapid lethality than that induced by oncogenic K-ras alone (8 weeks versus 24 weeks of median duration of survival, respectively). Lung tumors arose in K-ras mutant, Pten-deficient mice that rapidly obstructed bronchial lumina and replaced alveolar spaces. Relative to K-ras mutant tumors, the K-ras mutant, Pten-deficient tumors exhibited more advanced histologic severity and more prominent inflammation and vascularity. Thus, Pten inactivation cooperated with oncogenic K-ras in promoting lung tumorigenesis. PMID:18281487

  13. Analysis of SRC oncogenic signaling in colorectal cancer by stable isotope labeling with heavy amino acids in mouse xenografts.

    PubMed

    Sirvent, Audrey; Vigy, Oana; Orsetti, Beatrice; Urbach, Serge; Roche, Serge

    2012-12-01

    The non-receptor tyrosine kinase SRC is frequently deregulated in human colorectal cancer (CRC), and SRC increased activity has been associated with poor clinical outcomes. In nude mice engrafted with human CRC cells, SRC over-expression favors tumor growth and is accompanied by a robust increase in tyrosine phosphorylation in tumor cells. How SRC contributes to this tumorigenic process is largely unknown. We analyzed SRC oncogenic signaling in these tumors by means of a novel quantitative proteomic analysis. This method is based on stable isotope labeling with amino acids of xenograft tumors by the addition of [(13)C(6)]-lysine into mouse food. An incorporation level greater than 88% was obtained in xenograft tumors after 30 days of the heavy lysine diet. Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of these tumors allowed the identification of 61 proteins that exhibited a significant increase in tyrosine phosphorylation and/or association with tyrosine phosphorylated proteins upon SRC expression. These mainly included molecules implicated in vesicular trafficking and signaling and RNA binding proteins. Most of these proteins were specific targets of SRC signaling in vivo, as they were not identified by analysis via stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) of the same CRC cells in culture. This suggests that oncogenic signaling induced by SRC in tumors significantly differs from that induced by SRC in cell culture. We next confirmed this notion experimentally with the example of the vesicular trafficking protein and SRC substrate TOM1L1. We found that whereas TOM1L1 depletion only slightly affected SRC-induced proliferation of CRC cells in vitro, it drastically decreased tumor growth in xenografted nude mice. We thus concluded that this vesicular trafficking protein plays an important role in SRC-induced tumor growth. Overall, these data show that SILAC analysis in mouse xenografts is a valuable approach for deciphering tyrosine kinase oncogenic

  14. The RUNX Genes as Conditional Oncogenes: Insights from Retroviral Targeting and Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    Neil, James C; Gilroy, Kathryn; Borland, Gillian; Hay, Jodie; Terry, Anne; Kilbey, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The observation that the Runx genes act as targets for transcriptional activation by retroviral insertion identified a new family of dominant oncogenes. However, it is now clear that Runx genes are 'conditional' oncogenes whose over-expression is growth inhibitory unless accompanied by another event such as concomitant over-expression of MYC or loss of p53 function. Remarkably, while the oncogenic activities of either MYC or RUNX over-expression are suppressed while p53 is intact, the combination of both neutralises p53 tumour suppression in vivo by as yet unknown mechanisms. Moreover, there is emerging evidence that endogenous, basal RUNX activity is important to maintain the viability and proliferation of MYC-driven lymphoma cells. There is also growing evidence that the human RUNX genes play a similar conditional oncogenic role and are selected for over-expression in end-stage cancers of multiple types. Paradoxically, reduced RUNX activity can also predispose to cell immortalisation and transformation, particularly by mutant Ras. These apparently conflicting observations may be reconciled in a stage-specific model of RUNX involvement in cancer. A question that has yet to be fully addressed is the extent to which the three Runx genes are functionally redundant in cancer promotion and suppression.

  15. Oncogenic K-ras promotes early carcinogenesis in the mouse proximal colon.

    PubMed

    Calcagno, Shelly R; Li, Shuhua; Colon, Migdalisel; Kreinest, Pamela A; Thompson, E Aubrey; Fields, Alan P; Murray, Nicole R

    2008-06-01

    Oncogenic K-ras mutations are frequently observed in colon cancers and contribute to transformed growth. Oncogenic K-ras is detected in aberrant crypt foci (ACF), precancerous colonic lesions, demonstrating that acquisition of a K-ras mutation is an early event in colon carcinogenesis. Here, we investigate the role of oncogenic K-ras in neoplastic initiation and progression. Transgenic mice in which an oncogenic K-ras(G12D) allele is activated in the colonic epithelium by sporadic recombination (K-rasLA2 mice) develop spontaneous ACF that are morphologically indistinguishable from those induced by the colon carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM). Similar neoplastic changes involving the entire colon are induced in transgenic mice constitutively expressing K-ras(G12D) throughout the colon (LSL-K-ras(G12D)/Villin-Cre mice). However, the biochemistry and fate of K-ras-induced lesions differ depending upon their location within the colon in these mice. In the proximal colon, K-ras(G12D) induces increased expression of procarcinogenic protein kinase C beta II (PKC beta II), activation of the MEK/ERK signaling axis and increased epithelial cell proliferation. In contrast, in the distal colon, K-ras(G12D) inhibits expression of procarcinogenic PKC beta II and induces apoptosis. Treatment of K-rasLA2 mice with AOM leads to neoplastic progression of small ACF to large, dysplastic microadenomas in the proximal, but not the distal colon. Thus, oncogenic K-ras functions differently in the proximal and distal colon of mice, inducing ACF capable of neoplastic progression in the proximal colon, and ACF with little or no potential for progression in the distal colon. Our data indicate that acquisition of a K-ras mutation is an initiating neoplastic event in proximal colon cancer development in mice. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Oncogenic K-ras promotes early carcinogenesis in the mouse proximal colon

    PubMed Central

    Calcagno, Shelly R.; Li, Shuhua; Colon, Migdalisel; Kreinest, Pamela A.; Thompson, E. Aubrey; Fields, Alan P.; Murray, Nicole R.

    2014-01-01

    Oncogenic K-ras mutations are frequently observed in colon cancers and contribute to transformed growth. Oncogenic K-ras is detected in aberrant crypt foci (ACF), precancerous colonic lesions, demonstrating that acquisition of a K-ras mutation is an early event in colon carcinogenesis. Here, we investigate the role of oncogenic K-ras in neoplastic initiation and progression. Transgenic mice in which an oncogenic K-rasG12D allele is activated in the colonic epithelium by sporadic recombination (K-rasLA2 mice) develop spontaneous ACF that are morphologically indistinguishable from those induced by the colon carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM). Similar neoplastic changes involving the entire colon are induced in transgenic mice constitutively expressing K-rasG12D throughout the colon (LSL-K-rasG12D/Villin-Cre mice). However, the biochemistry and fate of K-ras-induced lesions differ depending upon their location within the colon in these mice. In the proximal colon, K-rasG12D induces increased expression of procarcinogenic protein kinase CβII (PKCβII), activation of the MEK/ERK signaling axis and increased epithelial cell proliferation. In contrast, in the distal colon, K-rasG12D inhibits expression of procarcinogenic PKCβII and induces apoptosis. Treatment of K-rasLA2 mice with AOM leads to neoplastic progression of small ACF to large, dysplastic microadenomas in the proximal, but not the distal colon. Thus, oncogenic K-ras functions differently in the proximal and distal colon of mice, inducing ACF capable of neoplastic progression in the proximal colon, and ACF with little or no potential for progression in the distal colon. Our data indicate that acquisition of a K-ras mutation is an initiating neoplastic event in proximal colon cancer development in mice. PMID:18271008

  17. [Arteriovenous malformation-glioma association: study of four cases].

    PubMed

    Borges, Lia Raquel R; Malheiros, Suzana M F; Pelaez, Maria Paula; Stávale, João Norberto; Santos, Adrialdo J; Carrete, Henrique; Nogueira, Roberto Gomes; Ferraz, Fernando A P; Gabbai, Alberto A

    2003-06-01

    We reviewed the clinical presentation, imaging and histopathologic findings in 4 patients with the diagnosis of arteriovenous malformation associated with glioma that were operated on from 1991 to 2000 in our institution. Four patients (2 males; age between 15 and 52 years) presented with progressive headache with clinical evidence of intracranial hypertension (in 3) and partial seizures (in 1). CT scan showed a brain tumor without any detectable pathologic vessels. Histologic examination revealed astrocytic tumors associated with arteriovenous malformation. No patient presented the vascular component intermixed with the tumor. The arteriovenous-glioma association is rare and must be identified by a clear demarcation between the malformation and the tumor.

  18. Mouse Model of Human Breast Cancer Initiated by a Fusion Oncogene

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-05-1-0502 TITLE: Mouse Model of Human Breast Cancer ...TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 15 AUG 2005 - 14 AUG 2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Mouse Model of Human Breast Cancer Initiated by a Fusion...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT: In this study, we generated a novel mouse model of human breast cancer based on a recurrent chromosomal

  19. Glioma associated microglial MMP9 expression is up regulated by TLR2 signalling and sensitive to minocycline

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Feng; Ku, Min-Chi; Markovic, Darko; Dzaye, Omar Dildar a; Lehnardt, Seija; Synowitz, Michael; Wolf, Susanne A.; Kettenmann, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    The invasiveness of malignant gliomas is one of the major obstacles in glioma therapy and the reason for the poor survival of patients. Glioma cells infiltrate into the brain parenchyma and thereby escape surgical resection. Glioma associated microglia/macrophages support glioma infiltration into the brain parenchyma by increased expression and activation of extracellular matrix degrading proteases such as matrix-metalloprotease 2, matrix-metalloprotease 9 and membrane-type 1 matrix metalloprotease. In this work we demonstrate that, matrix-metalloprotease 9 is predominantly expressed by glioma associated microglia/macrophages in mouse and human glioma tissue but not by the glioma cells. Supernatant from glioma cells induced the expression of matrix-metalloprotease 9 in cultured microglial cells. Using mice deficient for different Toll-like receptors we identified Toll-like receptor 2/6 as the signalling pathway for the glioma induced upregulation of microglial matrix-metalloprotease 9. Also in an experimental mouse glioma model, Toll-like receptor 2 deficiency attenuated the upregulation of microglial matrix-metalloprotease 9. Moreover, glioma supernatant triggered an upregulation of Toll-like receptor 2 expression in microglia. Both, the upregulation of matrix-metalloprotease 9 and Toll-like receptor 2 were attenuated by the antibiotic minocycline and a p38 mitogen activated protein kinase antagonist in vitro. Minocycline also extended the survival rate of glioma bearing mice when given to the drinking water. Thus glioma cells change the phenotype of glioma associated microglia/macrophages in a complex fashion using Toll-like receptor 2 as an important signalling pathway and minocycline further proved to be a potential candidate for adjuvant glioma therapy. PMID:24752463

  20. AKT1E¹⁷K Is Oncogenic in Mouse Lung and Cooperates with Chemical Carcinogens in Inducing Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Malanga, Donatella; Belmonte, Stefania; Colelli, Fabiana; Scarfò, Marzia; De Marco, Carmela; Oliveira, Duarte Mendes; Mirante, Teresa; Camastra, Caterina; Gagliardi, Monica; Rizzuto, Antonia; Mignogna, Chiara; Paciello, Orlando; Papparella, Serenella; Fagman, Henrik; Viglietto, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The hotspot AKT1E17K mutation in the pleckstrin homology domain of AKT1 occurs in approximately 0.6-2% of human lung cancers. Recently, we have demonstrated that AKT1E17K transforms immortalized human bronchial cells. Here by use of a transgenic Cre-inducible murine strain in the wild type Rosa26 (R26) locus (R26-AKT1E17K mice) we demonstrate that AKT1E17K is a bona-fide oncogene and plays a role in the development of lung cancer in vivo. In fact, we report that mutant AKT1E17K induces bronchial and/or bronchiolar hyperplastic lesions in murine lung epithelium, which progress to frank carcinoma at very low frequency, and accelerates tumor formation induced by chemical carcinogens. In conclusion, AKT1E17K induces hyperplasia of mouse lung epithelium in vivo and cooperates with urethane to induce the fully malignant phenotype.

  1. Developmental and oncogenic radiation effects on neural stem cells and their differentiating progeny in mouse cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Tanori, Mirella; Pasquali, Emanuela; Leonardi, Simona; Casciati, Arianna; Giardullo, Paola; De Stefano, Ilaria; Mancuso, Mariateresa; Saran, Anna; Pazzaglia, Simonetta

    2013-11-01

    Neural stem cells are highly susceptible to radiogenic DNA damage, however, little is known about their mechanisms of DNA damage response (DDR) and the long-term consequences of genotoxic exposure. Patched1 heterozygous mice (Ptc1(+/-)) provide a powerful model of medulloblastoma (MB), a frequent pediatric tumor of the cerebellum. Irradiation of newborn Ptc1(+/-) mice dramatically increases the frequency and shortens the latency of MB. In this model, we investigated the mechanisms through which multipotent neural progenitors (NSCs) and fate-restricted progenitor cells (PCs) of the cerebellum respond to DNA damage induced by radiation, and the long-term developmental and oncogenic consequences. These responses were assessed in mice exposed to low (0.25 Gy) or high (3 Gy) radiation doses at embryonic day 13.5 (E13.5), when NSCs giving rise to the cerebellum are specified but the external granule layer (EGL) has not yet formed, or at E16.5, during the expansion of granule PCs to form the EGL. We found crucial differences in DDR and apoptosis between NSCs and fate-restricted PCs, including lack of p21 expression in NSCs. NSCs also appear to be resistant to oncogenesis from low-dose radiation exposure but more vulnerable at higher doses. In addition, the pathway to DNA repair and the pattern of oncogenic alterations were strongly dependent on age at exposure, highlighting a differentiation-stage specificity of DNA repair pathways in NSCs and PCs. These findings shed light on the mechanisms used by NSCs and PCs to maintain genome integrity during neurogenesis and may have important implications for radiation risk assessment and for development of targeted therapies against brain tumors. Copyright © 2013 AlphaMed Press.

  2. c-Ki-ras oncogene amplification and FGF2 signaling pathways in the mouse Y1 adrenocortical cell line.

    PubMed

    Forti, Fábio L; Costa, Erico T; Rocha, Kátia M; Moraes, Miriam S; Armelin, Hugo A

    2006-06-01

    The mouse Y1 adrenocortical tumor cell line is highly responsive to FGF2-(Fibroblast Growth Factor 2) and possesses amplified and over-expressed c-Ki-ras proto-oncogene. We previously reported that this genetic lesion leads to high constitutive levels of activation of the c-Ki-Ras-GTP-->PI3K-->Akt signaling pathway (Forti et al. 2002). On the other hand, activation levels of another important pathway downstream of c-Ki-Ras-GTP, namely, Raf-->MEK-->ERK, remain strictly dependent on FGF2 stimulation (Rocha et al. 2003). Here we show that, first, FGF2 transiently up-regulates the c-Ki-Ras-GTP-->PI3K-->Akt pathway, in spite of its high basal levels. Second, c-Ki-Ras-GTP transient up-regulation likely underlies activation of the ERK1/2 pathway by FGF2. Third, c-Ki-Ras-GTP high basal levels suppress activation of the c-H-Ras onco-protein. But, Y1 cells, expressing dominant negative mutant RasN17, display a rapid and transient up-regulation of c-H-Ras-GTP upon FGF2 treatment. Elucidation of FGF2-signaling pathways in Y1 tumor cells can uncover new targets for drug development of interest in cancer therapy.

  3. AKT1E17K Is Oncogenic in Mouse Lung and Cooperates with Chemical Carcinogens in Inducing Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Malanga, Donatella; Belmonte, Stefania; Colelli, Fabiana; Scarfò, Marzia; De Marco, Carmela; Oliveira, Duarte Mendes; Mirante, Teresa; Camastra, Caterina; Gagliardi, Monica; Rizzuto, Antonia; Mignogna, Chiara; Paciello, Orlando; Papparella, Serenella; Fagman, Henrik; Viglietto, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The hotspot AKT1E17K mutation in the pleckstrin homology domain of AKT1 occurs in approximately 0.6–2% of human lung cancers. Recently, we have demonstrated that AKT1E17K transforms immortalized human bronchial cells. Here by use of a transgenic Cre-inducible murine strain in the wild type Rosa26 (R26) locus (R26-AKT1E17K mice) we demonstrate that AKT1E17K is a bona-fide oncogene and plays a role in the development of lung cancer in vivo. In fact, we report that mutant AKT1E17K induces bronchial and/or bronchiolar hyperplastic lesions in murine lung epithelium, which progress to frank carcinoma at very low frequency, and accelerates tumor formation induced by chemical carcinogens. In conclusion, AKT1E17K induces hyperplasia of mouse lung epithelium in vivo and cooperates with urethane to induce the fully malignant phenotype. PMID:26859676

  4. NKT cell adjuvant-based tumor vaccine for treatment of myc oncogene-driven mouse B-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    West, Alison C.; Steegh, Kim; Duret, Helene; Paget, Christophe; Martin, Ben; Matthews, Geoffrey M.; Shortt, Jake; Chesi, Marta; Bergsagel, P. Leif; Bots, Michael; Zuber, Johannes; Lowe, Scott W.; Johnstone, Ricky W.

    2012-01-01

    Immunomodulators are effective in controlling hematologic malignancy by initiating or reactivating host antitumor immunity to otherwise poorly immunogenic and immune suppressive cancers. We aimed to boost antitumor immunity in B-cell lymphoma by developing a tumor cell vaccine incorporating α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) that targets the immune adjuvant properties of NKT cells. In the Eμ-myc transgenic mouse model, single therapeutic vaccination of irradiated, α-GalCer–loaded autologous tumor cells was sufficient to significantly inhibit growth of established tumors and prolong survival. Vaccine-induced antilymphoma immunity required NKT cells, NK cells, and CD8 T cells, and early IL-12–dependent production of IFN-γ. CD4 T cells, gamma/delta T cells, and IL-18 were not critical. Vaccine treatment induced a large systemic spike of IFN-γ and transient peripheral expansion of both NKT cells and NK cells, the major sources of IFN-γ. Furthermore, this vaccine approach was assessed in several other hematopoietic tumor models and was also therapeutically effective against AML-ETO9a acute myeloid leukemia. Replacing α-GalCer with β-mannosylceramide resulted in prolonged protection against Eμ-myc lymphoma. Overall, our results demonstrate a potent immune adjuvant effect of NKT cell ligands in therapeutic anticancer vaccination against oncogene-driven lymphomas, and this work supports clinical investigation of NKT cell–based immunotherapy in patients with hematologic malignancies. PMID:22932803

  5. MUC4, a multifunctional transmembrane glycoprotein, induces oncogenic transformation of NIH3T3 mouse fibroblast cells

    PubMed Central

    Bafna, Sangeeta; Singh, Ajay P; Moniaux, Nicolas; Eudy, James D; Meza, Jane L; Batra, Surinder K.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have established the association of MUC4 with the progression of cancer and metastasis. An aberrant expression of MUC4 is reported in precancerous lesions indicating its early involvement in the disease process; however, its precise role in cellular transformation has not been explored. MUC4 contains many unique domains and is proposed to impact on cell signaling pathways and behavior of the tumor cells. In the present study, to decipher its oncogenic potential of MUC4, we stably expressed the MUC4 mucin in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblast cells. Stable ectopic expression of MUC4 resulted in increased growth, colony formation and motility of NIH3T3 cells in vitro and tumor formation in nude mice, when cells were injected subcutaneously. Microarray analysis demonstrated increased expression of several growth- and mitochondrial energy production-associated genes in MUC4-expressing NIH3T3 cells. In addition, expression of MUC4 in NIH3T3 cells resulted in enhanced levels of oncoprotein ErbB2 and its phosphorylated form (pY1248-ErbB2). In conclusion, our studies provide the first evidence that MUC4 alone induces cellular transformation and indicates a novel role of MUC4 in cancer biology. PMID:19010895

  6. Oncogenic evaluation of tetrachlorvinphos in the B6C3F1 mouse.

    PubMed

    Parker, C M; Van Gelder, G A; Chai, E Y; Gellatly, J B; Serota, D G; Voelker, R W; Vesselinovitch, S D

    1985-10-01

    was an increased incidence of renal tubular adenoma and renal tubular adenoma or carcinoma in male mice fed 16000 ppm TCVP. Use of results from these high-dose groups is contraindicated due to the many compromising factors affecting mice fed 8000 and 16000 ppm TCVP. TCVP was found not to be oncogenic in B6C3F1 mice at dose levels not exceeding the maximum tolerated dose.

  7. Current Protocols in Mouse Biology Tissue-specific regulation of oncogene expression using Cre-inducible ROSA26 knock-in transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Carofino, Brandi L.; Justice, Monica J.

    2015-01-01

    Cre-inducible mouse models are often utilized for the spatial and temporal expression of oncogenes. With the wide number of Cre recombinase lines available, inducible transgenesis represents a tractable approach to achieve discrete oncogene expression. Here, we describe a protocol for targeting Cre-inducible genes using a loxP-STOP-loxP approach to the ubiquitously expressed ROSA26 locus. Gene targeting provides several advantages over standard transgenic techniques, including a known site of integration and previously characterized pattern of expression. Historically, an inherent instability of ROSA26 targeting vectors has hampered the efficiency of developing ROSA26 knock-in lines. In this protocol, we provide individual steps for utilizing Gateway recombination for cloning, and detailed instructions for screening targeted ES cell clones. By following this protocol, one can achieve germline transmission of a ROSA26 knock-in line within several months. PMID:26069083

  8. The Homeodomain Transcription Factor Cdx1 Does Not Behave as an Oncogene in Normal Mouse Intestine1

    PubMed Central

    Crissey, Mary Ann S; Guo, Rong-Jun; Fogt, Franz; Li, Hong; Katz, Jonathan P; Silberg, Debra G; Suh, Eun Ran; Lynch, John P

    2008-01-01

    The Caudal-related homeobox genes Cdx1 and Cdx2 are intestine-specific transcription factors that regulate differentiation of intestinal cell types. Previously, we have shown Cdx1 to be antiproliferative and to promote cell differentiation. However, other studies have suggested that Cdx1 may be an oncogene. To test for oncogenic behavior, we used the murine villin promoter to ectopically express Cdx1 in the small intestinal villi and colonic surface epithelium. No changes in intestinal architecture, cell differentiation, or lineage selection were observed with expression of the transgene. Classic oncogenes enhance proliferation and induce tumors when ectopically expressed. However, the Cdx1 transgene neither altered intestinal proliferation nor induced spontaneous intestinal tumors. In a murine model for colitis-associated cancer, the Cdx1 transgene decreased, rather than increased, the number of adenomas that developed. In the polyps, the expression of the endogenous and the transgenic Cdx1 proteins was largely absent, whereas endogenous Villin expression was retained. This suggests that transgene silencing was specific and not due to a general Villin inactivation. In conclusion, neither the ectopic expression of Cdx1 was associated with changes in intestinal cell proliferation or differentiation nor was there increased intestinal cancer susceptibility. Our results therefore suggest that Cdx1 is not an oncogene in normal intestinal epithelium. PMID:18231635

  9. Normal ABL1 is a tumor suppressor and therapeutic target in human and mouse leukemias expressing oncogenic ABL1 kinases.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Yashodhara; Koptyra, Mateusz; Hoser, Grazyna; Kantekure, Kanchan; Roy, Darshan; Gornicka, Barbara; Nieborowska-Skorska, Margaret; Bolton-Gillespie, Elisabeth; Cerny-Reiterer, Sabine; Müschen, Markus; Valent, Peter; Wasik, Mariusz A; Richardson, Christine; Hantschel, Oliver; van der Kuip, Heiko; Stoklosa, Tomasz; Skorski, Tomasz

    2016-04-28

    Leukemias expressing constitutively activated mutants of ABL1 tyrosine kinase (BCR-ABL1, TEL-ABL1, NUP214-ABL1) usually contain at least 1 normal ABL1 allele. Because oncogenic and normal ABL1 kinases may exert opposite effects on cell behavior, we examined the role of normal ABL1 in leukemias induced by oncogenic ABL1 kinases. BCR-ABL1-Abl1(-/-) cells generated highly aggressive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)-blast phase-like disease in mice compared with less malignant CML-chronic phase-like disease from BCR-ABL1-Abl1(+/+) cells. Additionally, loss of ABL1 stimulated proliferation and expansion of BCR-ABL1 murine leukemia stem cells, arrested myeloid differentiation, inhibited genotoxic stress-induced apoptosis, and facilitated accumulation of chromosomal aberrations. Conversely, allosteric stimulation of ABL1 kinase activity enhanced the antileukemia effect of ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (imatinib and ponatinib) in human and murine leukemias expressing BCR-ABL1, TEL-ABL1, and NUP214-ABL1. Therefore, we postulate that normal ABL1 kinase behaves like a tumor suppressor and therapeutic target in leukemias expressing oncogenic forms of the kinase. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  10. Human papillomavirus E6/E7 oncogenes promote mouse ear regeneration by increasing the rate of wound re-epithelization and epidermal growth.

    PubMed

    Valencia, Concepción; Bonilla-Delgado, José; Oktaba, Katarzyna; Ocádiz-Delgado, Rodolfo; Gariglio, Patricio; Covarrubias, Luis

    2008-12-01

    Mammals have limited regeneration capacity. We report here that, in transgenic mice (Tg(bK6-E6/E7)), the expression of the E6/E7 oncogenes of human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV16) under the control of the bovine keratin 6 promoter markedly improves the mouse's capacity to repair portions of the ear after being wounded. Increased repair capacity correlates with an increased number of epidermal proliferating cells. In concordance with the expected effects of the E6 and E7 oncogenes, levels of p53 decreased and those of p16 in epidermal cells increased. In addition, we observed that wound re-epithelization proceeded faster in transgenic than in wild-type animals. After the initial re-epithelization, epidermal cell migration from the intact surrounding tissue appears to be a major contributor to the growing epidermis, especially in the repairing tissue of transgenic mice. We also found that there is a significantly higher number of putative epidermal stem cells in Tg(bK6-E6/E7) than in wild-type mice. Remarkably, hair follicles and cartilage regenerated within the repaired ear tissue, without evidence of tumor formation. We propose that the ability to regenerate ear portions is limited by the capacity of the epidermis to repair itself and grow.

  11. Inhibition of DNA synthesis by carvacrol in mouse myoblast cells bearing a human N-RAS oncogene.

    PubMed

    Zeytinoglu, H; Incesu, Z; Baser, K H C

    2003-05-01

    Monoterpenes are dietary components found in the essential oils of a wide variety of plants. A number of these monoterpenes have antitumor activity. We have investigated the effects of carvacrol obtained by fractional distillation of Origanum onites L. essential oil, on DNA synthesis of N-ras transformed myoblast cells, CO25. Incubation of the cells with different doses of carvacrol prevented DNA synthesis in the growth medium and ras-activating medium, which contains dexamethasone. This result demonstrates that carvacrol inhibits growth of myoblast cells even after activation of mutated N-ras oncogene, suggesting the possibility that carvacrol may find application in cancer therapy.

  12. Benzo[b]fluoranthene: tumorigenicity in strain A/J mouse lungs, DNA adducts and mutations in the Ki-ras oncogene.

    PubMed

    Mass, M J; Abu-Shakra, A; Roop, B C; Nelson, G; Galati, A J; Stoner, G D; Nesnow, S; Ross, J A

    1996-08-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[b]fluoranthene (B[b]F) is a pervasive constituent of environmental combustion products. We sought to examine the lung tumorigenic activity of B[b]F in strain A/J mice, to study the relationship between formation and decay of B[b]F-DNA adducts and to examine mutations in the Ki-ras proto-oncogene in DNA from B[b]F-induced tumors. Mice were given i.p. injections of 0, 10, 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg body wt and lung adenomas were scored after 8 months. B[b]F induced significant numbers of mouse lung adenomas in a dose-related fashion, with the highest dose (200 mg/kg) yielding 6.95 adenomas/ mouse, with 100% of the mice exhibiting an adenoma. In mice given tricaprylin, the vehicle control, there were 0.60 adenomas/mouse, with 55% of the mice exhibiting an adenoma. Based on dose, B[b]F was less active than benzo[a]pyrene. DNA adducts were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by 32P-post-labeling in lungs of strain A/J mice 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 21 days after i.p. injection. Maximal levels of adduction occurred 5 days after treatment with the 200 mg/kg dose group, producing 1230 amol B[b]F-DNA adducts/microgram DNA. The major B[b]F-DNA adduct was identified by co-chromatography as trans-9, 10-dihydroxy-anti-11, 12-epoxy-5-hydroxy-9, 10, 11, 12-tetra-hydro-B[b]F-deoxyguanosine. Approximately 86% of the tumors had a mutation in codon 12 of the Ki-ras oncogene, as determined by direct DNA sequencing of PCR-amplified exon 1 and single-stranded conformation polymorphism analysis. Analysis of the Ki-ras mutation spectrum in 25 of 29 B[b]F-induced tumors revealed the predominant mutation to be a G-->T transversion in the first or second base of codon 12, congruous with the DNA adduct data. Our data are consistent with previous reports in mouse skin implicating a phenolic diol epoxide as the proximate carcinogenic form of B[b]F that binds to guanine.

  13. Co-inhibition of colony stimulating factor-1 receptor and BRAF oncogene in mouse models of BRAF(V600E) melanoma.

    PubMed

    Ngiow, Shin Foong; Meeth, Katrina M; Stannard, Kimberley; Barkauskas, Deborah S; Bollag, Gideon; Bosenberg, Marcus; Smyth, Mark J

    2016-03-01

    The presence of colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF1)/CSF1 receptor (CSF1R)-driven tumor-infiltrating macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) is shown to promote targeted therapy resistance. In this study, we demonstrate the superior effect of a combination of CSF1R inhibitor, PLX3397 and BRAF inhibitor, PLX4720, in suppressing primary and metastatic mouse BRAF(V600E) melanoma. Using flow cytometry to assess SM1WT1 melanoma-infiltrating leukocytes immediately post therapy, we found that PLX3397 reduced the recruitment of CD11b(+) Gr1(lo) and CD11b(+) Gr1(int) M2-like macrophages, but this was accompanied by an accumulation of CD11b(+) Gr1(hi) cells. PDL1 expression on remaining myeloid cells potentially dampened the antitumor efficacy of PLX3397 and PLX4720 in combination, since PD1/PDL1 axis blockade improved outcome. We also reveal a role for PLX3397 in reducing tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, and interestingly, this feature was rescued by the co-administration of PLX4720. Our findings, from three different mouse models of BRAF-mutated melanoma, support clinical approaches that co-target BRAF oncogene and CSF1R.

  14. Structure, chromosome location, and expression of the mouse zinc finger gene Krox-20: multiple gene products and coregulation with the proto-oncogene c-fos.

    PubMed Central

    Chavrier, P; Janssen-Timmen, U; Mattéi, M G; Zerial, M; Bravo, R; Charnay, P

    1989-01-01

    We have analyzed the structure and the regulation of Krox-20, a mouse zinc finger-encoding gene which is transiently activated following serum stimulation of quiescent fibroblast cells in culture. The gene is localized on chromosome 10, band B5, in the mouse, and the homologous human gene also maps to chromosome 10 (region q21.1 to q22.1). Alternative splicing of the 5'-most intron of the Krox-20 gene gives rise to mRNAs encoding putative zinc finger proteins with different N termini. The first exon contains a sequence element with strong similarity to the c-fos proto-oncogene serum response element (SRE). This element can functionally substitute for the c-fos SRE, and it binds the same nuclear protein. It is probably responsible for the serum induction of Krox-20, possibly in combination with a weaker SRE located in the 5'-flanking region of the gene. Our findings suggest that c-fos, Krox-20, and a number of immediate-early serum response genes are coregulated and that the SRE and its cognate protein are essential components of this regulatory pathway. Images PMID:2496302

  15. Transformation by viral and cellular oncogenes of a mouse BALB/3T3 cell mutant resistant to transformation by chemical carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, M.; Yakushinji, M.; Segawa, K.; Kuwano, M.

    1988-10-01

    The mouse cell line MO-5 is resistant to transformation by various chemical carcinogens and also by UV irradiation. Northern (RNA) blot analysis showed active expression of ras and myc genes in MO-5 and BALB/3T3 cells. The effect of transfection of various oncogenes on transformation was compared in MO-5 cells and parental BALB/3T3 cells. Activated c-H-ras, c-N-ras, and v-mos gene induced transformation foci of MO-5 and BALB/3T3. Introduction of the polyomavirus middle T-antigen (mTag) or the Rous sarcoma virus-related oncogene v-src, however, efficiently transformed BALB/3T3 but not MO-5 cells. Expression and phosphorylation of mTag and the associated c-src proteins were observed in mTag-transfected clones of MO-5 as in BALB/3T3 and phosphorylation of the src protein was observed in v-src-transfected BALB/3T3 and MO-5 clones. Hybrids between mTag- or v-src-induced transformants of BALB/3T3 and untransformed MO-5 maintained the transformation phenotype, suggesting that no dominant suppressor of transformation exists in MO-5. A hybrid clone between BALB/3T3 and MO-5 induced efficient transformation foci after transfection with the mTag gene, suggesting that the deficient transformation phenotype of MO-5 was recessive. Instead, some other alteration of MO-5, plausibly membrane function, might lead to abortive transformation by chemical carcinogens and also by mTag and the v-src gene product.

  16. Suppression of the metastatic phenotype of a mouse skin carcinoma cell line independent of E-cadherin expression and correlated with reduced Ha-ras oncogene products.

    PubMed

    Caulín, C; López-Barcons, L; Gonzáles-Garrigues, M; Navarro, P; Lozano, E; Rodrigo, I; Gamallo, C; Cano, A; Fabra, A; Quintanilla, M

    1996-02-01

    The HaCa4 cell line, derived from a mouse skin carcinoma induced by Harvey murine sarcoma virus, is highly tumorigenic when injected into nude mice and produces multiple metastases in the lungs. HaCa4 cells express high levels of viral Ha-ras oncogene products, anomalously synthesize the embryonic/simple epithelial keratin K8, and have lost the expression of the cell-cell adhesion receptor E-cadherin (E-CD). E-CD(+) cell clones (E62 and E24), obtained by transfection of an exogenous E-CD cDNA into HaCa4 cells, had a decreased ability to migrate through type IV collagen matrices. However, the E-CD (+) E62 clone remained as metastatic as the parental cell line, whereas the E24 clone, which does not take up the exogenous cDNA but spontaneously switches on the endogenous E-CD gene, suppressed the metastatic phenotype although it maintained its tumorigenicity. E24 cells had fivefold to sixfold lower levels of viral Ha-ras mRNA and p21 protein than the other cell lines. In addition, they did not synthesize K8 but rather switched on keratin K19. The comparison of E-CD proteins synthesized by E62 and E24 cell lines revealed no structural or functional differences because both localized at cell-cell contacts and associated with alpha-catenin, beta-catenin, and plakoglobin. Furthermore, E-CD was still expressed in metastatic lung nodules produced by E62 cells. These results suggest that suppression of the metastatic phenotype in E24 cells occurs independently of E-CD expression and correlates with decreased levels of the oncogenic ras p21 protein.

  17. A Novel Role for Keratin 17 in Coordinating Oncogenic Transformation and Cellular Adhesion in Ewing Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Sankar, Savita; Tanner, Jason M.; Bell, Russell; Chaturvedi, Aashi; Randall, R. Lor; Beckerle, Mary C.

    2013-01-01

    Oncogenic transformation in Ewing sarcoma is caused by EWS/FLI, an aberrant transcription factor fusion oncogene. Glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 (GLI1) is a critical target gene activated by EWS/FLI, but the mechanism by which GLI1 contributes to the transformed phenotype of Ewing sarcoma was unknown. In this work, we identify keratin 17 (KRT17) as a direct downstream target gene upregulated by GLI1. We demonstrate that KRT17 regulates cellular adhesion by activating AKT/PKB (protein kinase B) signaling. In addition, KRT17 is necessary for oncogenic transformation in Ewing sarcoma and accounts for much of the GLI1-mediated transformation function but via a mechanism independent of AKT signaling. Taken together, our data reveal previously unknown molecular functions for a cytoplasmic intermediate filament protein, KRT17, in coordinating EWS/FLI- and GLI1-mediated oncogenic transformation and cellular adhesion in Ewing sarcoma. PMID:24043308

  18. Myc oncogene expression and nude mouse tumorigenicity and metastasis formation are higher in alveolar than embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kouraklis, G; Triche, T J; Wesley, R; Tsokos, M

    1999-04-01

    Accumulated clinical evidence suggests that alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) is more aggressive than embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS). Here, we study six childhood rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines, three ERMS and three ARMS. We have assayed the ability of the tumor cells to grow in culture and in nude mice as well as their propensity for pulmonary metastasis formation by tail vein injection. We also compared levels of c- and N-myc oncogene expression and DNA copy number. We find no correlation of histologic tumor type (i.e. ERMS versus ARMS) with growth rate in culture, but we do find suggestive correlations of histologic type with tumorigenicity (mean tumor diameter in millimeters at 6 wk: ARMS 30, ERMS 10; p1 = 0.1) and metastasis formation (ARMS 12, ERMS 0; p1 = 0.1). These properties also correlate with uniform greater overexpression of c-myc in ARMS (mean 39.3-fold, range 16-83) compared with ERMS (mean 5.3, range 4-8) (p1 = 0.05, control fibroblasts = 1). Although c-myc was often amplified in vitro (four of six lines), there was no correlation with histologic type (2/3 ARMS, 2/3 ERMS). These data on rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines derived from verified ERMS and ARMS tumors support the impression from previous clinicopathologic observations that ARMS is a more malignant form of rhabdomyosarcoma than ERMS.

  19. Urtica dioica leaves modulates hippocampal smoothened-glioma associated oncogene-1 pathway and cognitive dysfunction in chronically stressed mice.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sita Sharan; Mahindroo, Neeraj; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2016-10-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of Urtica dioica (UD) extract against chronic unpredictable stress (CUS)-induced associative memory dysfunction and attempted to explore the possible mechanism. Male Swiss albino mice (25-30g) were divided into six groups, viz. group-I received 0.3% carboxymethyl cellulose and served as control (CTRL), group II was exposed to CUS (21days) and received vehicle (CUS), group III was subjected to CUS and received Hypericum perforatum extract (350mg/kg, p.o.) (CUS+HYP), group IV received Hypericum perforatum extract (350mg/kg, p.o.) (CTRL+HYP); group V was subjected to CUS and received UD extract (50mg/kg, p.o.) (CUS+UD), group VI received UD extract (50mg/kg, p.o.) (CTRL+UD). CUS significantly induced body weight loss (p<0.05) and associative memory impairment in step down task (p<0.05) as compared to control mice. CUS significantly downregulated Smo (p<0.05), Gli1 (p<0.01), cyclin D1 (p<0.05), BDNF (p<0.01), TrKB (p<0.01) and MAPK1 (p<0.01) mRNA expression in hippocampus as compared to control mice. CUS significantly increased the levels of TBARS (p<0.01) and nitric oxide (p<0.001), and decreased catalase (p<0.001) and total thiol (p<0.01) in plasma resulting in oxidative stress and inflammation. Chronic UD administration significantly reverted CUS mediated body weight loss (p<0.05) and cognitive impairment (p<0.05). UD administration significantly decreased the levels of TBARS (p<0.01) and nitric oxide (p<0.05), and increased the levels of catalase (p<0.01) and total thiol (p<0.05) in plasma. Chronic UD administration significantly upregulated hippocampal Smo (p<0.05), Gli1 (p<0.001), cyclin D1 (p<0.05), BDNF (p<0.05), TrKB (p<0.05) and MAPK1 (p<0.05) in stressed mice. Further, UD extract did not reverse cyclopamine induced downregulation of Gli1 and Ptch1 mRNA in hippocampal slices. UD modulated Smo-Gli1 pathway in the hippocampus as well as exerted anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. UD extract might prove to be effective for stress mediated neurological disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Mutant p53(R270H) gain of function phenotype in a mouse model for oncogene-induced mammary carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Heinlein, Christina; Krepulat, Frauke; Löhler, Jürgen; Speidel, Daniel; Deppert, Wolfgang; Tolstonog, Genrich V

    2008-04-15

    In human breast cancer, mutations in the p53 gene are associated with poor prognosis. However, analysis of patient data so far did not clarify, whether missense point mutations in the p53 gene, in addition to causing loss of wild-type p53 function, also confer a gain of function phenotype to the encoded mutant p53. As heterogeneity of patient material and data might obscure a clear answer, we studied the effects of a coexpressed mutant p53(R270H) in transgenic mice in which SV40 early proteins initiate the development of mammary adenocarcinoma (WAP-T mice). In such tumors the endogenous wild-type p53 is functionally compromised by complex formation with SV40 T-antigen, thereby constituting a loss of wild-type p53 function situation that allowed analysis of the postulated gain of function effects of mutant p53(R270H). We found that mutant p53(R270H) in bi-transgenic mice enhanced the transition from intraepithelial neoplasia to invasive carcinoma, resulting in a higher frequency of invasive carcinoma per gland and per mouse, a more severe tumor phenotype, and more frequent pulmonary metastasis. Surprisingly, mutant p53(R270H) in this system does not increase genomic instability. Therefore, other postulated gain of function activities of mutant p53 must be responsible for the effects described here.

  1. G2 arrest and impaired nucleocytoplasmic transport in mouse embryos lacking the proto-oncogene CAN/Nup214.

    PubMed Central

    van Deursen, J; Boer, J; Kasper, L; Grosveld, G

    1996-01-01

    The vertebrate nucleopore complex (NPC) is a 125 MDa multiprotein assembly that mediates nucleocytoplasmic transport. One of its components, CAN/Nup214, is an FXFG repeat-containing protein known to be involved in myeloid leukemia in humans. We have devised a powerful genetic approach, using maternally derived protein in murine null embryos, to show that CAN/ Nup214 is essential for NPC function in vivo. We demonstrate that CAN-/- mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells are not viable and that CAN-/- embryos die in utero between 4.0 and 4.5 days postcoitum, following the depletion of their CAN from maternal sources. In 3.5-day-old mutant embryos, cultured in vitro, progressive depletion of CAN leads to cell cycle arrest in G2 phase, and eventually to blastocoel collapse, impaired NLS-mediated protein uptake and nuclear accumulation of polyadenylated RNA. Remarkably, these defective CAN-depleted embryos do not display any gross morphological abnormalities in their nuclear envelopes or NPCs. Our data suggest that CAN is critical to cell cycle progression and required for both nuclear protein import and mRNA export. Images PMID:8896451

  2. Mechanism of activation of the mouse c-mos oncogene by the LTR of an intracisternal A-particle gene.

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, M; Luria, S; Rechavi, G; Givol, D

    1984-01-01

    In the mouse myeloma XRPC-24 the DNA of an intracisternal A-particle (IAP) is inserted within the coding region of c-mos. This insertion splits the c-mos into a 3' rc-mos and a 5' rc-mos separated by approximately 4.7 kb of IAP DNA. The insertion is in a head-to-head orientation and brings the 5' LTR of the IAP in juxtaposition to the 3' rc-mos such that the IAP and the 3' rc-mos are transcribed in opposite directions. The intact c-mos gene is usually dormant, whereas the 3' rc-mos is actively transcribed and is capable of transforming NIH3T3 cells. In an effort to understand the nature of this activation we mapped the 5' ends of the 3' rc-mos mRNA present in XPRC-24. We found two main mRNA start sites, one mapping to the junction of the 3' rc-mos and the 5' LTR, and the other located 10 nucleotides upstream to this junction, within the 5' LTR. This result indicates that the 3' rc-mos in XRPC-24 was activated by insertion of a promoter provided by the LTR of an IAP genome. Furthermore, the 5' LTR appears to possess promoter activities in two directions. This conclusion was confirmed by the fact that this 5' LTR, in both orientations, was able to activate the bacterial gene coding for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) in the modular vector pSVOCAT. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 5. PMID:6098457

  3. Activation of H-ras oncogenes in male B6C3F1 mouse liver tumors induced by vinthionine or 2-chloroethyl-methyl sulfide.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Y W; Lee, G H; Liem, A; Miller, J A

    1996-06-01

    Vinthionine (S-vinyl-DL-homocysteine) is hepatocarcinogenic in rats and mice. [Vinyl-14C]vinthionine binds covalently to rat liver DNA, RNA and protein in vivo, but not in vitro. This amino acid is directly mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium TA100 and TA1535; the mechanism of its metabolic activation in vivo in bacteria and liver is under study. In the present study liver tumors were induced in 12-day-old male B6C3F1 mice by single i.p. injections of vinthionine or the alkylating agent 2-chloroethyl methyl sulfide (CEMS). At 10 months the gross tumors were examined for the presence of activated H-ras oncogenes. DNA was isolated from single tumors per mouse from 37 mice treated with vinthionine and from 31 mice treated with CEMS. These DNAs were screened for codon 61 mutations by restriction fragment length polymorphism of PCR-amplified H-ras gene fragments. Thirty seven of 37 vinthionine-induced hepatomas had H-ras mutations in this codon, which consisted of seven C-->A transversions in the first base, with 29 A-->T transversions and one A-->G transition in the second base. Twenty five of 31 CEMS-induced hepatomas had mutations in the same codon, which consisted of seven C-->A transversions in the first base, with eight A-->T transversions and 10 A-->G transitions in the second base. These mutation spectra are quite different to that noted by others in spontaneous hepatomas in untreated B6C3F1 mice. These data appear to result from the covalent binding of these carcinogens to the liver DNA.

  4. Methylation-independent repression of Dnmt3b contributes to oncogenic activity of Dnmt3a in mouse MYC-induced T-cell lymphomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Haney, S L; Hlady, R A; Opavska, J; Klinkebiel, D; Pirruccello, S J; Dutta, S; Datta, K; Simpson, M A; Wu, L; Opavsky, R

    2015-10-01

    DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A) catalyzes cytosine methylation of mammalian genomic DNA. In addition to myeloid malignancies, mutations in DNMT3A have been recently reported in T-cell lymphoma and leukemia, implying a possible involvement in the pathogenesis of human diseases. However, the role of Dnmt3a in T-cell transformation in vivo is poorly understood. Here we analyzed the functional consequences of Dnmt3a inactivation in a mouse model of MYC-induced T-cell lymphomagenesis (MTCL). Loss of Dnmt3a delayed tumorigenesis by suppressing cellular proliferation during disease progression. Gene expression profiling and pathway analysis identified upregulation of 17 putative tumor suppressor genes, including DNA methyltransferase Dnmt3b, in Dnmt3a-deficient lymphomas as molecular events potentially responsible for the delayed lymphomagenesis in Dnmt3a(Δ/Δ) mice. Interestingly, promoter and gene body methylation of these genes was not substantially changed between control and Dnmt3a-deficient lymphomas, suggesting that Dnmt3a may inhibit their expression in a methylation-independent manner. Re-expression of both wild type and catalytically inactive Dnmt3a in Dnmt3a(Δ/Δ) lymphoma cells in vitro inhibited Dnmt3b expression, indicating that Dnmt3b upregulation may be directly repressed by Dnmt3a. Importantly, genetic inactivation of Dnmt3b accelerated lymphomagenesis in Dnmt3a(Δ/Δ) mice, demonstrating that upregulation of Dnmt3b is a relevant molecular change in Dnmt3a-deficient lymphomas that inhibits disease progression. Collectively, our data demonstrate an unexpected oncogenic role for Dnmt3a in MTCL through methylation-independent repression of Dnmt3b and possibly other tumor suppressor genes.

  5. Initial Segment Differentiation Begins During a Critical Window and Is Dependent upon Lumicrine Factors and SRC Proto-Oncogene (SRC) in the Mouse.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bingfang; Washington, Angela M; Hinton, Barry T

    2016-07-01

    Without a fully developed and functioning initial segment, the most proximal region of the epididymis, male infertility results. Therefore, it is important to understand the development of the initial segment. During postnatal development of the epididymis, many cellular processes of the initial segment are regulated by lumicrine factors, which are produced by the testis and enter the epididymis with testicular luminal fluid. In this report, we showed that prior to Postnatal Day 15 (P15), the initial segment was lumicrine factor independent in the mouse. However, from P19 onward, lumicrine factors were essential for the proliferation and survival of initial segment epithelial cells. Therefore, P15 to P19 was a critical window that established the dependency of lumicrine factors in the initial segment epithelium. The initial segment-specific kinase activity profile, a marker of initial segment differentiation, was also established during this window. The SFK (SRC proto-oncogene family kinases), ERK pathway (known as the RAF/MEK/ERK pathway) components, and AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinases) pathway components had increased activities from P15 to P19, suggesting that lumicrine factors regulated SFK/ERK/AMPK signaling to initiate differentiation of the initial segment from P15 to P19. Compared with litter mate controls, juvenile Src null mice displayed lower levels of MAPK3/1 (mitogen-activated protein kinase 3/1) activity and a reduced level of differentiation in the initial segment epithelium, a similar phenotype resulting from inhibition of SRC activity within the window of P15 to P19. Therefore, lumicrine factor-dependent SRC activity signaling through MAPK3/1 is important for the initiation of initial segment differentiation during a critical window of development.

  6. Characterization of Leukemia-Inducing Genes Using a Proto-Oncogene/Homeobox Gene Retroviral Human cDNA Library in a Mouse In Vivo Model.

    PubMed

    Jang, Su Hwa; Lee, Sohyun; Chung, Hee Yong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a method to screen a large number of potential driver mutations of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) using a retroviral cDNA library and murine bone marrow transduction-transplantation system. As a proof-of-concept, murine bone marrow (BM) cells were transduced with a retroviral cDNA library encoding well-characterized oncogenes and homeobox genes, and the virus-transduced cells were transplanted into lethally irradiated mice. The proto-oncogenes responsible for leukemia initiation were identified by PCR amplification of cDNA inserts from genomic DNA isolated from leukemic cells. In an initial screen of ten leukemic mice, the MYC proto-oncogene was detected in all the leukemic mice. Of ten leukemic mice, 3 (30%) had MYC as the only transgene, and seven mice (70%) had additional proto-oncogene inserts. We repeated the same experiment after removing MYC-related genes from the library to characterize additional leukemia-inducing gene combinations. Our second screen using the MYC-deleted proto-oncogene library confirmed MEIS1and the HOX family as cooperating oncogenes in leukemia pathogenesis. The model system we introduced in this study will be valuable in functionally screening novel combinations of genes for leukemogenic potential in vivo, and the system will help in the discovery of new targets for leukemia therapy.

  7. DJ-1, an oncogene and causative gene for familial Parkinson's disease, is essential for SV40 transformation in mouse fibroblasts through up-regulation of c-Myc.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun Chul; Kitaura, Hirotake; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M M; Ariga, Hiroyoshi

    2010-09-24

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) is a tumor virus and its early gene product large T-antigen (LT) is responsible for the transforming activity of SV40. Parkinson's disease causative gene DJ-1 is also a ras-dependent oncogene, but the mechanism of its oncogene function is still not known. In this study, we found that there were no transformed foci when fibroblasts from DJ-1-knockout mice were transfected with LT. We also found that DJ-1 directly bound to LT and that the expression level of c-Myc in transformed cells was parallel to that of DJ-1. These findings indicate that DJ-1 is essential for SV40 transformation.

  8. Effects of cellular non-protein sulfhydryl depletion in radiation induced oncogenic transformation and genotoxicity in mouse C/sub 3/H 10T1/2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hei, T.K.; Geard, C.R.; Hall, E.J.

    1984-08-01

    A study was made of the effects of cellular non-protein sulfhydryl (NPSH) depletion on cytotoxicity, cell cycle kinetics, oncogenic transformation and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) in C/sub 3/H 10T1/2 cells. Using DL-Buthionine S-R-Sulfoximine (BSO) to deplete thiols, it was found spectrophotometrically that less than 5% of control NPSH level remained in the cells after 24-hour treatment under aerated conditions. Such NPSH depleted cells, when subject to a 3 Gy ..gamma..-ray treatment, were found to have no radiosensitizing response either in terms of cell survival or oncogenic transformation. In addition, decreased levels of NPSH had no effect on spontaneous or radiation-induced SCE nor were cell cycle kinetics additionally altered. Therefore, the inability of NPSH depletion to alter ..gamma..-ray induced cellular transformation was unrelated to any possible effect of BSO on the cell cycle. These results suggest that such depletion may result in little or no additional oncogenic or genotoxic effects on aerated normal tissues.

  9. Ablation of Neuropilin 1 from glioma-associated microglia and macrophages slows tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    Miyauchi, Jeremy T.; Chen, Danling; Choi, Matthew; Nissen, Jillian C.; Shroyer, Kenneth R.; Djordevic, Snezana; Zachary, Ian C.; Selwood, David; Tsirka, Stella E.

    2016-01-01

    Gliomas are the most commonly diagnosed primary tumors of the central nervous system (CNS). Median times of survival are dismal regardless of the treatment approach, underlying the need to develop more effective therapies. Modulation of the immune system is a promising strategy as innate and adaptive immunity play important roles in cancer progression. Glioma associated microglia and macrophages (GAMs) can comprise over 30% of the cells in glioma biopsies. Gliomas secrete cytokines that suppress the anti-tumorigenic properties of GAMs, causing them to secrete factors that support the tumor's spread and growth. Neuropilin 1 (Nrp1) is a transmembrane receptor that in mice both amplifies pro-angiogenic signaling in the tumor microenvironment and affects behavior of innate immune cells. Using a Cre-lox system, we generated mice that lack expression of Nrp1 in GAMs. We demonstrate, using an in vivo orthotopic glioma model, that tumors in mice with Nrp1-deficient GAMs exhibit less vascularity, grow at a slower pace, and are populated by increased numbers of anti-tumorigenic GAMs. Moreover, glioma survival times in mice with Nrp1-deficient GAMs were significantly longer. Treating wild-type mice with a small molecule inhibitor of Nrp1's b1 domain, EG00229, which we show here is selective for Nrp1 over Nrp2, yielded an identical outcome. Nrp1-deficient or EG00229-treated wild-type microglia exhibited a shift towards anti-tumorigenicity as evident by altered inflammatory marker profiles in vivo and decreased SMAD2/3 activation when conditioned in the presence of glioma-derived factors. These results provide support for the proposal that pharmacological inhibition of Nrp1 constitutes a potential strategy for suppressing glioma progression. PMID:26755653

  10. Spontaneous immune responses against glioma-associated antigens in a long term survivor with malignant glioma

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Ryo; Low, Keri L; Zhu, Xinmei; Fujita, Mitsugu; Sasaki, Kotaro; Whiteside, Theresa L; Butterfield, Lisa H; Okada, Hideho

    2007-01-01

    Background In patients with high grade glioma, little is known regarding existence of naturally occurring adaptive T cell reactivity against glioma-associated antigens (GAAs). In this report, we characterized GAA-specific CD8+ T cells and innate immune cells in a patient who has survived with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) for over 12 years without recurrence. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) derived from the long term survivor with AA were evaluated for the frequency, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity and differentiation status of CD8+ cells recognizing GAA-derived epitopes as well as relative numbers of other immune cell subsets. This patient's AA tissue was evaluated for expression of two GAAs EphA2 and interleukin-13 receptor α2 subunit (IL-13Rα2) by immunohistochemistry. Results The patient's tumor expressed both EphA2 and IL-13Rα2, and in vitro stimulated PBMC demonstrated superior EphA2883–891 and IL-13Rα2345–353-specific CTL reactivity compared to PBMC samples from two other patients with progressing malignant glioma. Unstimulated EphA2883–891-reactive CD8+ T cells contained high numbers of CD45RA-/CCR7- late effector and CD45RA-/CCR7+ central memory cells. Among other leukocyte subsets, elevated numbers of NK-T cells were found. Conclusion To our knowledge, the current study is one of the first demonstrating the presence of antigen-experienced, GAA-reactive CD8+ T cells in a patient who has survived with AA for over 12 years without recurrence. Further studies are warranted to determine whether the status of GAA-reactive CD8+ T cells dictates survival of patients and/or response to therapeutic vaccines. PMID:18093336

  11. Revealing the potential pathogenesis of glioma by utilizing a glioma associated protein-protein interaction network.

    PubMed

    Pan, Weiran; Li, Gang; Yang, Xiaoxiao; Miao, Jinming

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to explore the potential mechanism of glioma through bioinformatic approaches. The gene expression profile (GSE4290) of glioma tumor and non-tumor samples was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database. A total of 180 samples were available, including 23 non-tumor and 157 tumor samples. Then the raw data were preprocessed using robust multiarray analysis, and 8,890 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by using t-test (false discovery rate < 0.0005). Furthermore, 16 known glioma related genes were abstracted from Genetic Association Database. After mapping 8,890 DEGs and 16 known glioma related genes to Human Protein Reference Database, a glioma associated protein-protein interaction network (GAPN) was constructed. In addition, 51 sub-networks in GAPN were screened out through Molecular Complex Detection (score ≥ 1), and sub-network 1 was found to have the closest interaction (score = 3). What' more, for the top 10 sub-networks, Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis (p value < 0.05) was performed, and DEGs involved in sub-network 1 and 2, such as BRMS1L and CCNA1, were predicted to regulate cell growth, cell cycle, and DNA replication via interacting with known glioma related genes. Finally, the overlaps of DEGs and human essential, housekeeping, tissue-specific genes were calculated (p value = 1.0, 1.0, and 0.00014, respectively) and visualized by Venn Diagram package in R. About 61% of human tissue-specific genes were DEGs as well. This research shed new light on the pathogenesis of glioma based on DEGs and GAPN, and our findings might provide potential targets for clinical glioma treatment.

  12. Differential Glioma-Associated Tumor Antigen Expression Profiles of Human Glioma Cells Grown in Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Lisheng; Cornforth, Andrew N.; Hoa, Neil T.; Delgado, Christina; Chiou, Shiun Kwei; Zhou, Yi Hong; Jadus, Martin R.

    2012-01-01

    Human U251 and D54 glioma cells were tested for expression of 25 glioma-associated tumor antigen precursor proteins (TAPP) under hypoxic (1% O2) or normoxic (21% O2) conditions. Hypoxic glioma cell lines increased their mRNA expression for nine TAPP (Aim2, Art-4, EphA2, EZH2, Fosl1, PTH-rP, Sox 11, Whsc2 and YKL-40), as assessed by quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time/polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Increased differences with three hypoxic-induced TAPP: EZH2, Whsc2 and YKL-40 were shown at the protein levels by fluorescent antibody staining and quantitative electrophoretic analysis. Two TAPP (MRP3 and Trp1) were down-regulated by hypoxia in glioma cell lines. Growing the glioma cells under hypoxia for 13 days, followed by returning them back to normoxic conditions for 7 days, and restored the original normoxic TAPP profile. Thus, hypoxia was an environmental factor that stimulated the transient expression of these antigens. Intracranial xenografts grown in nude mice derived from U251 cells that had been cultured under neurosphere stem cell conditions showed increased expression of Whsc2 or YKL-40, demonstrating that these in vitro properties of glioma also occur in vivo. Whsc2-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes killed the hypoxic U251 glioma cells better than normoxic glioma cells. The antigens expressed by hypoxic tumor cells may be a better source of starting tumor material for loading dendritic cells for novel immunotherapy of glioma using tumor-associated antigens. PMID:22957023

  13. Differential glioma-associated tumor antigen expression profiles of human glioma cells grown in hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Ge, Lisheng; Cornforth, Andrew N; Hoa, Neil T; Delgado, Christina; Chiou, Shiun Kwei; Zhou, Yi Hong; Jadus, Martin R

    2012-01-01

    Human U251 and D54 glioma cells were tested for expression of 25 glioma-associated tumor antigen precursor proteins (TAPP) under hypoxic (1% O(2)) or normoxic (21% O(2)) conditions. Hypoxic glioma cell lines increased their mRNA expression for nine TAPP (Aim2, Art-4, EphA2, EZH2, Fosl1, PTH-rP, Sox 11, Whsc2 and YKL-40), as assessed by quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time/polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Increased differences with three hypoxic-induced TAPP: EZH2, Whsc2 and YKL-40 were shown at the protein levels by fluorescent antibody staining and quantitative electrophoretic analysis. Two TAPP (MRP3 and Trp1) were down-regulated by hypoxia in glioma cell lines. Growing the glioma cells under hypoxia for 13 days, followed by returning them back to normoxic conditions for 7 days, and restored the original normoxic TAPP profile. Thus, hypoxia was an environmental factor that stimulated the transient expression of these antigens. Intracranial xenografts grown in nude mice derived from U251 cells that had been cultured under neurosphere stem cell conditions showed increased expression of Whsc2 or YKL-40, demonstrating that these in vitro properties of glioma also occur in vivo. Whsc2-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes killed the hypoxic U251 glioma cells better than normoxic glioma cells. The antigens expressed by hypoxic tumor cells may be a better source of starting tumor material for loading dendritic cells for novel immunotherapy of glioma using tumor-associated antigens.

  14. Gain of function in the mouse model of a recurrent mutation p53(N236S) promotes the formation of double minute chromosomes and the oncogenic potential of p19(ARF).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lanjun; Wang, Boyuan; Zhao, Xilong; Wu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Qiushi; Wei, Chuanyu; Shi, Minling; Li, Yunlong; Tang, Wenru; Zhang, Jihong; Yang, Julun; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Jia, Shuting; Luo, Ying

    2017-09-26

    The mutation p53(N236S) (p53S) has been identified as one of the recurrent mutations in human cancers by TCGA database. Our in vitro data revealed the oncogenic gain of function of p53S. To understand the function of p53S in vivo, we generated the p53S knock-in mouse. The p53(S/S) mice manifested highly invasive lymphomas and metastatic sarcomas with dramatically increased double minute chromosomes. The survival curve, the incidence of tumors and the tumor spectrum of p53(S/S) mice is very similar to the p53(R172H) mouse model. The p53(S/+) mice showed delayed onset of tumorigenesis and a high metastasis rate (40%) and low loss of heterozygosity rate (2/16). The activation of CDKN2A pathway in p53(S/S) MEF and tumors, and the accumulation of p19(ARF) protein in tumor tissues suggested p19(ARF) might contribute to the accumulation of mutant p53S protein in the tumor and promote tumorigenesis. The high expression of p19(ARF) correlated with mutant p53 accumulation and tumor progression, suggesting a dual role of p19(ARF) in tumor promotion or suppression that might depend on the p53 mutation status in tumor cells. The oncogenic gain of function of this recurrent mutation p53S prompts the reconsideration of p53 mutations function that occurs at a low frequency. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Oncogenic Transformation of Human-Derived Gastric Organoids.

    PubMed

    Bertaux-Skeirik, Nina; Centeno, Jomaris; Gao, Jian; Gabre, Joel; Zavros, Yana

    2016-08-19

    The culture of organoids has represented a significant advancement in the gastrointestinal research field. Previous research studies have described the oncogenic transformation of human intestinal and mouse gastric organoids. Here we detail the protocol for the oncogenic transformation and orthotopic transplantation of human-derived gastric organoids.

  16. Akt-mediated phosphorylation of Bmi1 modulates its oncogenic potential, E3 ligase activity, and DNA damage repair activity in mouse prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nacerddine, Karim; Beaudry, Jean-Bernard; Ginjala, Vasudeva; Westerman, Bart; Mattiroli, Francesca; Song, Ji-Ying; van der Poel, Henk; Ponz, Olga Balagué; Pritchard, Colin; Cornelissen-Steijger, Paulien; Zevenhoven, John; Tanger, Ellen; Sixma, Titia K.; Ganesan, Shridar; van Lohuizen, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is a major lethal malignancy in men, but the molecular events and their interplay underlying prostate carcinogenesis remain poorly understood. Epigenetic events and the upregulation of polycomb group silencing proteins including Bmi1 have been described to occur during PCa progression. Here, we found that conditional overexpression of Bmi1 in mice induced prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and elicited invasive adenocarcinoma when combined with PTEN haploinsufficiency. In addition, Bmi1 and the PI3K/Akt pathway were coactivated in a substantial fraction of human high-grade tumors. We found that Akt mediated Bmi1 phosphorylation, enhancing its oncogenic potential in an Ink4a/Arf-independent manner. This process also modulated the DNA damage response and affected genomic stability. Together, our findings demonstrate the etiological role of Bmi1 in PCa, unravel an oncogenic collaboration between Bmi1 and the PI3K/Akt pathway, and provide mechanistic insights into the modulation of Bmi1 function by phosphorylation during prostate carcinogenesis. PMID:22505453

  17. Oncogenic potential of bifunctional bioreductive drugs.

    PubMed

    Hei, T K; Liu, S X; Hall, E J

    1996-07-01

    Potential oncogenicity must be a factor of concern in the design and development of novel bioreductive drugs. In the present studies, the cytotoxicity and oncogenic transforming potential of a series of heterocyclic mono-N-oxides, designed to be used as bioreductive drugs, were examined using the mouse C3H 10T1/2 cell system. Exponential phase cultures of 10T1/2 cells were treated with graded doses of the bioreductive drugs for a 4 h period, either in air or hypoxia, at 37 degrees C. After treatment, cultures were replated for both survival and transformation assays. The fused pyrazine mono-N-oxide RB 90740 and its N-deoxy analogue, RB 92816, demonstrated a dose-dependent cytotoxicity and oncogenic transforming potency under aerobic conditions. Similarly, the indoloquinone E09 and the structurally related mitomycin C demonstrated dose dependence in both toxicity and oncogenic transforming potential. The most cytotoxic aromatic-N-oxides tested, RB 92816, also demonstrated the highest oncogenic transformation incidence. In hypoxia, the bioreductive metabolites of RB 90740 were substantially more cytotoxic and induced a higher oncogenic transformation yield than the drug in air. These data are consistent with the structure-activity relationship for bioreductive drugs in that heterocyclic-N-oxides with reactive side chains such as RB 92816 are cytotoxic and potentially carcinogenic.

  18. Long-term isografts of cultured fetal mouse pancreatic islets. The oncogenic effects of streptozotocin and the prevention of diabetic renal complications.

    PubMed

    Mandel, T E; Hoffman, L; Carter, W M

    1981-09-01

    Female CBA mice made diabetic with a single intravenous dose of streptozotocin (STZ) were either grafted with cultured fetal mouse pancreatic islets onto the splenic capsule, treated with insulin, or left untreated. An age- and sex-matched group of nondiabetic mice served as normal controls. All islets-grafted and most insulin-treated mice survived and had normal fasting blood glucose levels. By contrast, of the untreated diabetic mice, one died and the survivors showed poor weight gain. Light-microscopic examination of the islet isografts showed a progressive increase in graft size and beta-cell granulation over the 9-month study period. Quantitative electron-microscopic examination of the kidney showed that, whereas the islet-grafted and nondiabetic control mice had similar glomerular capillary basement membrane (GCBM) thickness, the untreated diabetic and insulin-treated mice had markedly thickened GCBM. All STZ-treated mice develop diffuse hepatic dysplasia and, at later time points, some showed biliary hyperplasia, intrahepatic cysts, and occasionally nodular dysplasia. With increasing time after STZ, most mice developed renal adenomas. One untreated diabetic mouse also developed a solitary functional pancreatic beta-cell adenoma. STZ effects were not affected by treatment of diabetes.

  19. Developmental regulation of early mouse embryogenesis. A. Onset of insulin and related growth factor binding. B. Expression of selected proto-oncogenes

    SciTech Connect

    Mattson, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental and clinical evidence suggest a role for insulin and related growth factors in fetal growth. It was therefore of interest to determine the onset of insulin binding to cells of early embryos. These studies are the first to demonstrate stage-specific insulin binding during mouse preimplantation embryogenesis. Insulin binding was detected at the morula, blastocyst, and blastocyst outgrowth stages using indirect immunofluorescence and light microscopic autoradiographic techniques. No evidence of insulin binding was seen on unfertilized oocytes, two-, four-, or eight-cell embryos. Results of competitive inhibition studies using unlabeled insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) suggest binding of /sup 125/I-insulin to type I IGF receptors as well. Further studies are needed to confirm the presence of an IGF receptor in preimplantation embryos.

  20. Enhancer hijacking activates GFI1 family oncogenes in medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Northcott, Paul A; Lee, Catherine; Zichner, Thomas; Stütz, Adrian M; Erkek, Serap; Kawauchi, Daisuke; Shih, David J H; Hovestadt, Volker; Zapatka, Marc; Sturm, Dominik; Jones, David T W; Kool, Marcel; Remke, Marc; Cavalli, Florence M G; Zuyderduyn, Scott; Bader, Gary D; VandenBerg, Scott; Esparza, Lourdes Adriana; Ryzhova, Marina; Wang, Wei; Wittmann, Andrea; Stark, Sebastian; Sieber, Laura; Seker-Cin, Huriye; Linke, Linda; Kratochwil, Fabian; Jäger, Natalie; Buchhalter, Ivo; Imbusch, Charles D; Zipprich, Gideon; Raeder, Benjamin; Schmidt, Sabine; Diessl, Nicolle; Wolf, Stephan; Wiemann, Stefan; Brors, Benedikt; Lawerenz, Chris; Eils, Jürgen; Warnatz, Hans-Jörg; Risch, Thomas; Yaspo, Marie-Laure; Weber, Ursula D; Bartholomae, Cynthia C; von Kalle, Christof; Turányi, Eszter; Hauser, Peter; Sanden, Emma; Darabi, Anna; Siesjö, Peter; Sterba, Jaroslav; Zitterbart, Karel; Sumerauer, David; van Sluis, Peter; Versteeg, Rogier; Volckmann, Richard; Koster, Jan; Schuhmann, Martin U; Ebinger, Martin; Grimes, H Leighton; Robinson, Giles W; Gajjar, Amar; Mynarek, Martin; von Hoff, Katja; Rutkowski, Stefan; Pietsch, Torsten; Scheurlen, Wolfram; Felsberg, Jörg; Reifenberger, Guido; Kulozik, Andreas E; von Deimling, Andreas; Witt, Olaf; Eils, Roland; Gilbertson, Richard J; Korshunov, Andrey; Taylor, Michael D; Lichter, Peter; Korbel, Jan O; Wechsler-Reya, Robert J; Pfister, Stefan M

    2014-07-24

    Medulloblastoma is a highly malignant paediatric brain tumour currently treated with a combination of surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, posing a considerable burden of toxicity to the developing child. Genomics has illuminated the extensive intertumoral heterogeneity of medulloblastoma, identifying four distinct molecular subgroups. Group 3 and group 4 subgroup medulloblastomas account for most paediatric cases; yet, oncogenic drivers for these subtypes remain largely unidentified. Here we describe a series of prevalent, highly disparate genomic structural variants, restricted to groups 3 and 4, resulting in specific and mutually exclusive activation of the growth factor independent 1 family proto-oncogenes, GFI1 and GFI1B. Somatic structural variants juxtapose GFI1 or GFI1B coding sequences proximal to active enhancer elements, including super-enhancers, instigating oncogenic activity. Our results, supported by evidence from mouse models, identify GFI1 and GFI1B as prominent medulloblastoma oncogenes and implicate 'enhancer hijacking' as an efficient mechanism driving oncogene activation in a childhood cancer.

  1. The mystery of oncogenic KRAS: Lessons from studying its wild-type counter part.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuan-I; Damnernsawad, Alisa; Kong, Guangyao; You, Xiaona; Wang, Demin; Zhang, Jing

    2016-07-22

    Using conditional knock-in mouse models, we and others have shown that despite the very high sequence identity between Nras and Kras proteins, oncogenic Kras displays a much stronger leukemogenic activity than oncogenic Nras in vivo. In this manuscript, we will summarize our recent work of characterizing wild-type Kras function in adult hematopoiesis and in oncogenic Kras-induced leukemogenesis. We attribute the strong leukemogenic activity of oncogenic Kras to 2 unique aspects of Kras signaling. First, Kras is required in mediating cell type- and cytokine-specific ERK1/2 signaling. Second, oncogenic Kras, but not oncogenic Nras, induces hyperactivation of wild-type Ras, which significantly enhances Ras signaling in vivo. We will also discuss a possible mechanism that mediates oncogenic Kras-evoked hyperactivation of wild-type Ras and a potential approach to down-regulate oncogenic Kras signaling.

  2. Mapping of the Pim-1 oncogene in mouse t-haplotypes and its use to define the relative map positions of the tcl loci t0(t6) and tw12 and the marker tf (tufted).

    PubMed

    Ark, B; Gummere, G; Bennett, D; Artzt, K

    1991-06-01

    Pim-1 is an oncogene activated in mouse T-cell lymphomas induced by Moloney and AKR mink cell focus (MCF) viruses. Pim-1 was previously mapped to chromosome 17 by somatic cell hybrids, and subsequently to the region between the hemoglobin alpha-chain pseudogene 4 (Hba-4ps) and the alpha-crystalline gene (Crya-1) by Southern blot analysis of DNA obtained from panels of recombinant inbred strains. We have now mapped Pim-1 more accurately in t-haplotypes by analysis of recombinant t-chromosomes. The recombinants were derived from Tts6tf/t12 parents backcrossed to + tf/ + tf, and scored for recombination between the loci of T and tf. For simplicity all t-complex lethal genes properly named tcl-tx are shortened to tx. The Pim-1 gene was localized 0.6 cM proximal to the tw12 lethal gene, thus placing the Pim-1 gene 5.2 cM distal to the H-2 region in t-haplotypes. Once mapped, the Pim-1 gene was used as a marker for further genetic analysis of t-haplotypes. tw12 is so close to tf that even with a large number of recombinants it was not possible to determine whether it is proximal or distal to tf. Southern blot analysis of DNA from T-tf recombinants with a separation of tw12 and tf indicated that tw12 is proximal to tf. The mapping of two allelic t-lethals, t0 and t6 with respect to tw12 and tf has also been a problem.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Regulates the V-Ets Avian Erythroblastosis Virus E26 Oncogene Homolog 1/microRNA-27a Axis to Reduce Endothelin-1 and Endothelial Dysfunction in the Sickle Cell Mouse Lung.

    PubMed

    Kang, Bum-Yong; Park, Kathy; Kleinhenz, Jennifer M; Murphy, Tamara C; Sutliff, Roy L; Archer, David; Hart, C Michael

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH), a serious complication of sickle cell disease (SCD), causes significant morbidity and mortality. Although a recent study determined that hemin release during hemolysis triggers endothelial dysfunction in SCD, the pathogenesis of SCD-PH remains incompletely defined. This study examines peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) regulation in SCD-PH and endothelial dysfunction. PH and right ventricular hypertrophy were studied in Townes humanized sickle cell (SS) and littermate control (AA) mice. In parallel studies, SS or AA mice were gavaged with the PPARγ agonist, rosiglitazone (RSG), 10 mg/kg/day, or vehicle for 10 days. In vitro, human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAECs) were treated with vehicle or hemin for 72 hours, and selected HPAECs were treated with RSG. SS mice developed PH and right ventricular hypertrophy associated with reduced lung levels of PPARγ and increased levels of microRNA-27a (miR-27a), v-ets avian erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 1 (ETS1), endothelin-1 (ET-1), and markers of endothelial dysfunction (platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 and E selectin). HPAECs treated with hemin had increased ETS1, miR-27a, ET-1, and endothelial dysfunction and decreased PPARγ levels. These derangements were attenuated by ETS1 knockdown, inhibition of miR-27a, or PPARγ overexpression. In SS mouse lung or in hemin-treated HPAECs, activation of PPARγ with RSG attenuated reductions in PPARγ and increases in miR-27a, ET-1, and markers of endothelial dysfunction. In SCD-PH pathogenesis, ETS1 stimulates increases in miR-27a levels that reduce PPARγ and increase ET-1 and endothelial dysfunction. PPARγ activation attenuated SCD-associated signaling derangements, suggesting a novel therapeutic approach to attenuate SCD-PH pathogenesis.

  4. A new neurophysiological/neuropathological ex vivo model localizes the origin of glioma-associated epileptogenesis in the invasion area.

    PubMed

    Senner, Volker; Köhling, Rüdiger; Püttmann-Cyrus, Sylvia; Straub, Heidrun; Paulus, Werner; Speckmann, Erwin-Josef

    2004-01-01

    Seizures commonly occur in glioma patients, but their pathogenesis is poorly understood, in part due to a lack of valid and versatile experimental models. We have established a new model that enables comprehensive neuropathological and neurophysiological analysis on identical tissue preparations. Rat C6 glioma cells stably transfected with a green fluorescence protein (GFP) gene are transplanted into rat neocortex, giving rise to diffusely invading gliomas histologically resembling human glioblastomas. After 2 weeks, 500- micro m-thick cerebral slices are prepared, stained with the voltage-sensitive dye RH795, and fluorescence changes associated with origin and spread of abnormal bioelectric activity upon washout of Mg(2+) are detected by a 464-element photodiode array at a rate of 785 frames/s. GFP fluorescence promotes identification of tumor cells during electrophysiological experiments and in neuropathological analyses using frozen and paraffin-embedded tissue sections. By performing subsequent histological analysis of the slices examined neurophysiologically, origin and spread of abnormal activity can be correlated with structural and molecular (immunohistochemical) features. Specifically, we found that ictaform activity was initiated in cortical areas diffusely invaded by single tumor cells. This model is useful for further elucidating the electrophysiological, molecular and structural basis of glioma-associated epileptogenesis.

  5. Oncogenic human papillomaviruses.

    PubMed

    McBride, Alison A

    2017-10-19

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are an ancient group of viruses with small, double-stranded DNA circular genomes. They are species-specific and have a strict tropism for mucosal and cutaneous stratified squamous epithelial surfaces of the host. A subset of these viruses has been demonstrated to be the causative agent of several human cancers. Here, we review the biology, natural history, evolution and cancer association of the oncogenic HPVs.This article is part of the themed issue 'Human oncogenic viruses'. © 2017 The Authors.

  6. Oncogenic human papillomaviruses

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are an ancient group of viruses with small, double-stranded DNA circular genomes. They are species-specific and have a strict tropism for mucosal and cutaneous stratified squamous epithelial surfaces of the host. A subset of these viruses has been demonstrated to be the causative agent of several human cancers. Here, we review the biology, natural history, evolution and cancer association of the oncogenic HPVs. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Human oncogenic viruses’. PMID:28893940

  7. Oncogenic mutations of thyroid hormone receptor β

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong Won; Zhao, Li; Willingham, Mark; Cheng, Sheue-yann

    2015-01-01

    The C-terminal frame-shift mutant of the thyroid hormone receptor TRβ1, PV, functions as an oncogene. An important question is whether the oncogenic activity of mutated TRβ1 is uniquely dependent on the PV mutated sequence. Using four C-terminal frame-shift mutants—PV, Mkar, Mdbs, and AM—we examined that region in the oncogenic actions of TRβ1 mutants. Remarkably, these C-terminal mutants induced similar growth of tumors in mouse xenograft models. Molecular analyses showed that they physically interacted with the p85α regulatory subunit of PI3K similarly in cells. In vitro GST-binding assay showed that they bound to the C-terminal Src-homology 2 (CSH2) of p85α with markedly higher avidity. The sustained association of mutants with p85α led to activation of the common PI3K-AKT-ERK/STAT3 signaling to promote cell proliferation and invasion and to inhibit apoptosis. Thus, these results argue against the oncogenic activity of PV being uniquely dependent on the PV mutated sequence. Rather, these four mutants could favor a C-terminal conformation that interacted with the CSH2 domain of p85α to initiate activation of PI3K to relay downstream signaling to promote tumorigenesis. Thus, we propose that the mutated C-terminal region of TRβ1 could function as an “onco-domain” and TRβ1 is a potential therapeutic target. PMID:25924236

  8. Multiple oncogene activation in a radiation carcinogenesis model

    SciTech Connect

    Garte, S.J.; Sawey, M.J.; Burns, F.J.; Felber, M.; Ashkenazi-Kimmel, T.

    1987-01-01

    There is evidence from animal systems to suggest that certain oncogenes may be activated by the direct action of the initiating carcinogen. Consistent activation by a point mutation of a single member of the ras oncogene family in different tumors produced by a single agent has been demonstrated. In contrast the c-myc and other oncogenes have been shown to be activated by a process involving chromosomal translocations, enhanced expression, and/or gene amplification. We have examined a panel of 12 late stage rat skin tumors for activation of oncogenes from the ras and myc complementation groups. These tumors were four squamous cell carcinomas, three poorly differentiated carcinomas (clear cell), one each of basal cell carcinoma, sebaceous carcinoma, sarcoma, fibroma, and mixed (largely squamous) histology carcinoma. The positive tumor DNAs were from three poorly differentiated clear cell carcinomas, a sebaceous carcinoma, a squamous cell carcinoma, and a sarcoma. DNA from one of the primary transfectants was positive in a second round of transfection. The transformed phenotype of the transfectants was confirmed by anchorage independent growth and tumorigenicity in nude mice. Southern blot analysis of DNA from primary and secondary transfectants, as well as from nude mouse tumors arising after injection of transfectant cells revealed the presence of rat derived restriction fragments homologous to the K-ras oncogene against the mouse background. Similar experiments using N- and H-ras probes, revealed only the endogenous mouse fragments in transfectant DNA. 11 refs., 1 tab.

  9. Oncogenes in retroviruses and cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurth, Reinhard

    1983-09-01

    Oncogenes are genes that cause cancer. Retroviruses contain oncogenes and cause cancer in animals and, perhaps, in man. The viruses have appropriated their oncogenes from normal cellular DNA by genetic recombination. Correspondingly, uninfected vertebrate cells contain a family of evolutionary conserved cellular oncogenes. Retrovirus infection, introducing additional viral oncogenes into the cells, as well as carcinogen-mediated activation of cellular oncogenes may both lead to increased synthesis of oncogene encoded transforming proteins which convert normal cells to tumor cells. Unique retroviruses of human origin have recently been identified. They may, on occasion, directly cause tumors in man. However, the general significance of retroviruses may better be illustrated by their remarkable genetic composition which allows them to promote tumor growth by a variety of genetic mechanisms.

  10. The human oncogenic viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Luderer, A.A.; Weetall, H.H

    1986-01-01

    This book contains eight selections. The titles are: Cytogenetics of the Leukemias and Lymphomas; Cytogenetics of Solid Tumors: Renal Cell Carcinoma, Malignant Melanoma, Retinoblastoma, and Wilms' Tumor; Elucidation of a Normal Function for a Human Proto-Oncogene; Detection of HSV-2 Genes and Gene Products in Cervical Neoplasia; Papillomaviruses in Anogennital Neoplasms; Human Epstein-Barr Virus and Cancer; Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatocellular Carcinoma; and Kaposi's Sarcoma: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Associated Viruses.

  11. Surgical benefits of combined awake craniotomy and intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging for gliomas associated with eloquent areas.

    PubMed

    Motomura, Kazuya; Natsume, Atsushi; Iijima, Kentaro; Kuramitsu, Shunichiro; Fujii, Masazumi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Maesawa, Satoshi; Sugiura, Junko; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2017-01-06

    OBJECTIVE Maximum extent of resection (EOR) for lower-grade and high-grade gliomas can increase survival rates of patients. However, these infiltrative gliomas are often observed near or within eloquent regions of the brain. Awake surgery is of known benefit for the treatment of gliomas associated with eloquent regions in that brain function can be preserved. On the other hand, intraoperative MRI (iMRI) has been successfully used to maximize the resection of tumors, which can detect small amounts of residual tumors. Therefore, the authors assessed the value of combining awake craniotomy and iMRI for the resection of brain tumors in eloquent areas of the brain. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of 33 consecutive patients with glial tumors in the eloquent brain areas who underwent awake surgery using iMRI. Volumetric analysis of MRI studies was performed. The pre-, intra-, and postoperative tumor volumes were measured in all cases using MRI studies obtained before, during, and after tumor resection. RESULTS Intraoperative MRI was performed to check for the presence of residual tumor during awake surgery in a total of 25 patients. Initial iMRI confirmed no further tumor resection in 9 patients (36%) because all observable tumors had already been removed. In contrast, intraoperative confirmation of residual tumor during awake surgery led to further tumor resection in 16 cases (64%) and eventually an EOR of more than 90% in 8 of 16 cases (50%). Furthermore, EOR benefiting from iMRI by more than 15% was found in 7 of 16 cases (43.8%). Interestingly, the increase in EOR as a result of iMRI for tumors associated mainly with the insular lobe was significantly greater, at 15.1%, than it was for the other tumors, which was 8.0% (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS This study revealed that combining awake surgery with iMRI was associated with a favorable surgical outcome for intrinsic brain tumors associated with eloquent areas. In particular, these benefits were

  12. Retroviral Oncogenes: A Historical Primer

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Peter K.

    2012-01-01

    Retroviruses are the original source of oncogenes. The discovery and characterization of these genes were made possible by the introduction of quantitative cell biological and molecular techniques for the study of tumor viruses. Key features of all retroviral oncogenes were first identified in src, the oncogene of Rous sarcoma virus. These include non-involvement in viral replication, coding for a single protein, and cellular origin. The myc, ras and erbB oncogenes quickly followed src, and these together with pi3k are now recognized as critical driving forces in human cancer. PMID:22898541

  13. De-regulation of the sonic hedgehog pathway in the InsGas mouse model of gastric carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    El-Zaatari, M; Tobias, A; Grabowska, A M; Kumari, R; Scotting, P J; Kaye, P; Atherton, J; Clarke, P A; Powe, D G; Watson, S A

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated sonic hedgehog (Shh) signalling in gastric metaplasia in the insulin-gastrin (InsGas) hypergastrinaemic mouse +/− Helicobacter felis (H. felis) infection. Sonic hedgehog gene and protein expression was reduced in pre-metaplastic lesions from non-infected mice (90% gene reduction, P<0.01) compared to normal mucosa. Sonic hedgehog was reactivated in gastric metaplasia of H. felis-infected mice (3.5-fold increase, P<0.01) compared to pre-metaplastic lesions. Additionally, the Shh target gene, glioma-associated oncogene (Gli)-1, was significantly reduced in the gastric glands of InsGas mice (75% reduction, P<0.05) and reactivated with H. felis infection (P<0.05, base of glands, P<0.01 stroma of metaplastic glands). The ability of H. felis to activate the Shh pathway was investigated by measuring the effect of target cytokine, interleukin-8 (IL-8), on Shh expression in AGS and MGLVA1 cells, which was shown to induce Shh expression at physiological concentrations. H. felis induced the expression of NF-κB in inflammatory infiltrates in vivo, and the expression of the IL-8 mouse homologue, protein KC, in inflammatory infiltrates and metaplastic lesions. Sonic hedgehog pathway reactivation was paralleled with an increase in proliferation of metaplastic lesions (15.75 vs 4.39% in infected vs non-infected mice, respectively, P<0.001). Furthermore, Shh overexpression increased the growth rate of the gastric cancer cell line, AGS. The antiapoptotic protein, bcl-2, was expressed in the stroma of infected mice, along with a second Shh target gene, patched-1 (P=0.0001, stroma of metaplastic gland). This study provides evidence suggesting reactivation of Shh signalling from pre-metaplastic to advanced metaplastic lesions of the stomach and outlines the importance of the Shh pathway as a potential chemoprophylactic target for gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:17505514

  14. Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    utilizing mouse intestinal cells and rat fibroblasts suggest that PTK6 may be required for cell death triggered by specific stimuli such as DNA damage [41...Parallel data of 12 normal breast organoids RNA samples and 7 bulk normal breast tissue specimens were used as normal control. Array probe data were...JJ, Tyner AL (2009) Induction of protein tyrosine kinase 6 in mouse intestinal crypt epithelial cells promotes DNA damage-induced apoptosis

  15. Recurrent fusion oncogenes in carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Manuel R

    2006-12-01

    Chromosome structural aberrations giving rise to fusion oncogenes is one of the most common mechanisms in oncogenesis. Although this type of gene rearrangement has long been recognized as a fundamental pathogenetic mechanism in hematologi-cal malignancies and soft-tissue tumors, it has until recently only rarely been described in the common carcinomas. In this review, the existing information on recurrent fusion oncogenes characterizing carcinomas is summarized, namely, the RET and NTRK1 fusion oncogenes in papillary thyroid carcinoma, PAX8-PPARG in follicular thyroid carcinoma, MECT1-MAML2 in mucoepidermoid carcinoma, the TFE3 and TFEB fusion oncogenes in kidney carcinomas, BRD4-NUT in midline carcinomas, ETV6-NTRK3 in secretory breast carcinomas, and TMPRSS2-ETS fusion oncogenes in prostate carcinomas. As in hematological and soft-tissue malignancies, the most common types of genes involved in fusion oncogenes in carcinomas are transcription factors and tyrosine kinases. With a few exceptions, most fusion oncogenes are tumor type specific in carcinomas, as in other cancers. The mechanisms behind the relative specificity of this type of somatic mutation involve the cellular environment influencing the selection of oncogenic fusions, and the oncogenic fusions in turn driving differentiation programs that may alter the cellular environment. The data summarized on different types of carcinomas characterized by fusion oncogenes indicate that the pathogenetic mechanisms involved in epithelial carcino-genesis may be similar to those known to operate in hematological and soft-tissue malignancies, and further anticipates that many more fusion oncogenes await identification in the most common types of human cancer.

  16. Oncogenes in melanoma: an update.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma is a highly aggressive tumour with poor prognosis in the metastatic stage. BRAF, NRAS, and KIT are three well-known oncogenes involved in melanoma pathogenesis. Targeting of mutated BRAF kinase has recently been shown to significantly improve overall survival of metastatic melanoma patients, underscoring the particular role of this oncogene in melanoma biology. However, recurrences regularly occur within several months, which supposedly involve further oncogenes. Moreover, oncogenic driver mutations have not been described for up to 30% of all melanomas. In order to obtain a more complete picture of the mutational landscape of melanoma, more recent studies used high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies. A number of new oncogene candidates such as MAPK1/2, ERBB4, GRIN2A, GRM3, RAC1, and PREX2 were identified. Their particular role in melanoma biology is currently under investigation. Evidence for the functional relevance of some of these new oncogene candidates has been provided in in vitro and in vivo experiments. However, these findings await further validation in clinical studies. This review provides an overview on well-known melanoma oncogenes and new oncogene candidates, based on recent high-throughput sequencing studies. The list of genes discussed herein is of course not complete but highlights some of the most significant of recent findings in this area. The new candidates may support more individualized treatment approaches for metastatic melanoma patients in the future.

  17. Testing the Oncogenic Relevance of Cell Adhesion and Cytosketal Genes Affected by DNA Deletions in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    and hair follicle derived cells as targets for the v-rasHa oncogene in mouse skin carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis 12, 1119–1124. Wicki, A., Lehembre, F...potential oncogenic significance of genes directly involved in cell adhesion and the cytoskeleton. The aim of this study was therefore to directly test ...expression of candidate cancer genes belonging to the cytoskeletal/cell adhesion category, (2) use these tools to test the oncogenic significance of

  18. Developmental-stage-dependent transcriptional response to leukaemic oncogene expression

    PubMed Central

    Regha, Kakkad; Assi, Salam A.; Tsoulaki, Olga; Gilmour, Jane; Lacaud, Georges; Bonifer, Constanze

    2015-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is characterized by a block in myeloid differentiation the stage of which is dependent on the nature of the transforming oncogene and the developmental stage of the oncogenic hit. This is also true for the t(8;21) translocation that gives rise to the RUNX1-ETO fusion protein and initiates the most common form of human AML. Here we study the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells expressing an inducible RUNX1-ETO gene into blood cells as a model, combined with genome-wide analyses of transcription factor binding and gene expression. RUNX1-ETO interferes with both the activating and repressive function of its normal counterpart, RUNX1, at early and late stages of blood cell development. However, the response of the transcriptional network to RUNX1-ETO expression is developmental stage specific, highlighting the molecular mechanisms determining specific target cell expansion after an oncogenic hit. PMID:26018585

  19. Direct reprogramming by oncogenic Ras and Myc.

    PubMed

    Ischenko, Irene; Zhi, Jizu; Moll, Ute M; Nemajerova, Alice; Petrenko, Oleksi

    2013-03-05

    Genetically or epigenetically defined reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer cells. However, a causal association between genome reprogramming and cancer has not yet been conclusively established. In particular, little is known about the mechanisms that underlie metastasis of cancer, and even less is known about the identity of metastasizing cancer cells. In this study, we used a model of conditional expression of oncogenic KrasG12D allele in primary mouse cells to show that reprogramming and dedifferentiation is a fundamental early step in malignant transformation and cancer initiation. Our data indicate that stable expression of activated KrasG12D confers on cells a large degree of phenotypic plasticity that predisposes them to neoplastic transformation and acquisition of stem cell characteristics. We have developed a genetically tractable model system to investigate the origins and evolution of metastatic pancreatic cancer cells. We show that metastatic conversion of KrasG12D-expressing cells that exhibit different degrees of differentiation and malignancy can be reconstructed in cell culture, and that the proto-oncogene c-Myc controls the generation of self-renewing metastatic cancer cells. Collectively, our results support a model wherein non-stem cancer cells have the potential to dedifferentiate and acquire stem cell properties as a direct consequence of oncogene-induced plasticity. Moreover, the disturbance in the normally existing dynamic equilibrium between cancer stem cells and non-stem cancer cells allows the formation of cancer stem cells with high metastatic capacity at any time during cancer progression.

  20. Oncogenic effects of evolutionarily conserved noncoding RNA ECONEXIN on gliomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Deguchi, S; Katsushima, K; Hatanaka, A; Shinjo, K; Ohka, F; Wakabayashi, T; Zong, H; Natsume, A; Kondo, Y

    2017-04-03

    Accumulating studies have demonstrated the importance of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) during oncogenic transformation. However, because most lncRNAs are currently uncharacterized, the identification of novel oncogenic lncRNAs is difficult. Given that intergenic lncRNA have substantially less sequence conservation patterns than protein-coding genes across species, evolutionary conserved intergenic lncRNAs are likely to be functional. The current study identified a novel intergenic lncRNA, LINC00461 (ECONEXIN) using a combined approach consisting of searching lncRNAs by evolutionary conservation and validating their expression in a glioma mouse model. ECONEXIN was the most highly conserved intergenic lncRNA containing 83.0% homology with the mouse ortholog (C130071C03Rik) for a region over 2500 bp in length within its exon 3. Expressions of ECONEXIN and C130071C03Rik were significantly upregulated in both human and mouse glioma tissues. Moreover, the expression of C130071C03Rik was upregulated even in precancerous conditions and markedly increased during glioma progression. Functional analysis of ECONEXIN in glioma cell lines, U87 and U251, showed it was dominantly located in the cytoplasm and interacted with miR-411-5p via two binding sites within ECONEXIN. Inhibition of ECONEXIN upregulated miR-411-5p together with the downregulation of its target, Topoisomerase 2 alpha (TOP2A), in glioma cell lines, resulting in decreased cell proliferation. Our data demonstrated that ECONEXIN is a potential oncogene that regulates TOP2A by sponging miR-411-5p in glioma. In addition, our investigative approaches to identify conserved lncRNA and their molecular characterization by validation in mouse tumor models may be useful to functionally annotate novel lncRNAs, especially cancer-associated lncRNAs.Oncogene advance online publication, 3 April 2017; doi:10.1038/onc.2017.88.

  1. An in vivo screen identifies ependymoma oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes.

    PubMed

    Mohankumar, Kumarasamypet M; Currle, David S; White, Elsie; Boulos, Nidal; Dapper, Jason; Eden, Christopher; Nimmervoll, Birgit; Thiruvenkatam, Radhika; Connelly, Michele; Kranenburg, Tanya A; Neale, Geoffrey; Olsen, Scott; Wang, Yong-Dong; Finkelstein, David; Wright, Karen; Gupta, Kirti; Ellison, David W; Thomas, Arzu Onar; Gilbertson, Richard J

    2015-08-01

    Cancers are characterized by non-random chromosome copy number alterations that presumably contain oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes (TSGs). The affected loci are often large, making it difficult to pinpoint which genes are driving the cancer. Here we report a cross-species in vivo screen of 84 candidate oncogenes and 39 candidate TSGs, located within 28 recurrent chromosomal alterations in ependymoma. Through a series of mouse models, we validate eight new ependymoma oncogenes and ten new ependymoma TSGs that converge on a small number of cell functions, including vesicle trafficking, DNA modification and cholesterol biosynthesis, identifying these as potential new therapeutic targets.

  2. An in vivo screen identifies ependymoma oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes

    PubMed Central

    Mohankumar, Kumarasamypet M.; Currle, David S.; White, Elsie; Boulos, Nidal; Dapper, Jason; Eden, Christopher; Nimmervoll, Birgit; Thiruvenkatam, Radhika; Connelly, Michele; Kranenburg, Tanya A.; Neale, Geoffrey; Olsen, Scott; Wang, Yong-Dong; Finkelstein, David; Wright, Karen; Gupta, Kirti; Ellison, David W.; Thomas, Arzu Onar; Gilbertson, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Cancers are characterized by non-random, chromosome copy number alterations that presumably contain oncogenes and tumor–suppressor genes (TSGs). The affected loci are often large, making it difficult to pinpoint which genes are driving the cancer. Here, we report a cross-species in vivo screen of 84 candidate oncogenes and 39 candidate TSGs, located within 28 recurrent chromosomal alterations in ependymoma. Through a series of mouse models we validate eight new ependymoma oncogenes and 10 ependymoma TSGs that converge on a small number of cell functions including vesicle trafficking, DNA modification and cholesterol biosynthesis, pinpointing these as potential new therapeutic targets. PMID:26075792

  3. Effect of cellular determination on oncogenic transformation by chemicals and oncogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, M A; Gonzales, F; Jones, P A

    1988-01-01

    Three developmentally determined myogenic cell lines derived from C3H 10T1/2 C18 (10T1/2) mouse embryo cells treated with 5-azacytidine were compared with the parental 10T1/2 line for their susceptibility to oncogenic transformation by 3-methylcholanthrene or the activated human c-Ha-ras oncogene. Neither the 10T1/2 cells nor the myogenic derivatives grew in soft agar or formed tumors in nude mice. In contrast to 10T1/2 cells, the three myogenic derivatives were not susceptible to transformation by 3-methylcholanthrene, so that cellular determination altered the response of 10T1/2 cells to chemical carcinogen. On the other hand, all cell types were transformed to a tumorigenic phenotype following transfection with the activated c-Ha-ras gene. The transfected myogenic cells expressed both the c-Ha-ras gene and the muscle determination gene MyoD1. In contrast to other reports, the presence of as many as six copies of the c-Ha-ras gene per genome did not prevent the formation of striated muscle cells which expressed immunologically detectable muscle-specific myosin. The expression of the c-Ha-ras gene does not therefore necessarily preclude the expression of the determination gene for myogenesis or prevent end-stage myogenic differentiation. Images PMID:2460742

  4. G to A transitions and G to T transversions in codon 12 of the Ki-ras oncogene isolated from mouse lung tumors induced by 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and related DNA methylating and pyridyloxobutylating agents.

    PubMed

    Ronai, Z A; Gradia, S; Peterson, L A; Hecht, S S

    1993-11-01

    Lung tumors were induced in A/J mice by the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and the related compounds acetoxymethylmethylnitrosamine (AMMN) and 4-acetoxymethylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNKOAc). NNK both methylates and pyridyloxobutylates DNA while AMMN and NNKOAc only methylate or pyridyloxobutylate DNA, respectively. The lung tumors were analyzed for mutations in the Ki-ras oncogene by PCR amplification followed by either restriction fragment length polymorphism, hybridization, or sequencing procedures. NNK induced GGT to GAT mutations in codon 12 (26 of 28 samples analyzed). AMMN induced GGT to GAT mutations in 18 of 18 samples. In contrast, NNKOAc induced a variety of changes including GGT to GAT (8/21), GGT to TGT (5/21) and GGT to GTT (4/21) mutations. These results demonstrate that DNA methylation causes mainly G to A transitions in the Ki-ras gene of A/J mouse lung tumors, consistent with previous results and a role for O6-methyl-guanine, while DNA pyridyloxobutylation induces G to A transitions as well as G to T transversions, perhaps due to the steric bulk of the adducts which are formed. The results are discussed with respect to mutations observed in rodent and human lung tumors.

  5. Glioma-associated stem cells: a novel class of tumor-supporting cells able to predict prognosis of human low-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Bourkoula, Evgenia; Mangoni, Damiano; Ius, Tamara; Pucer, Anja; Isola, Miriam; Musiello, Daniela; Marzinotto, Stefania; Toffoletto, Barbara; Sorrentino, Marisa; Palma, Anita; Caponnetto, Federica; Gregoraci, Giorgia; Vindigni, Marco; Pizzolitto, Stefano; Falconieri, Giovanni; De Maglio, Giovanna; Pecile, Vanna; Ruaro, Maria Elisabetta; Gri, Giorgia; Parisse, Pietro; Casalis, Loredana; Scoles, Giacinto; Skrap, Miran; Beltrami, Carlo Alberto; Beltrami, Antonio Paolo; Cesselli, Daniela

    2014-05-01

    Translational medicine aims at transferring advances in basic science research into new approaches for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Low-grade gliomas (LGG) have a heterogeneous clinical behavior that can be only partially predicted employing current state-of-the-art markers, hindering the decision-making process. To deepen our comprehension on tumor heterogeneity, we dissected the mechanism of interaction between tumor cells and relevant components of the neoplastic environment, isolating, from LGG and high-grade gliomas (HGG), proliferating stem cell lines from both the glioma stroma and, where possible, the neoplasm. We isolated glioma-associated stem cells (GASC) from LGG (n=40) and HGG (n=73). GASC showed stem cell features, anchorage-independent growth, and supported the malignant properties of both A172 cells and human glioma-stem cells, mainly through the release of exosomes. Finally, starting from GASC obtained from HGG (n=13) and LGG (n=12) we defined a score, based on the expression of 9 GASC surface markers, whose prognostic value was assayed on 40 subsequent LGG-patients. At the multivariate Cox analysis, the GASC-based score was the only independent predictor of overall survival and malignant progression free-survival. The microenvironment of both LGG and HGG hosts non-tumorigenic multipotent stem cells that can increase in vitro the biological aggressiveness of glioma-initiating cells through the release of exosomes. The clinical importance of this finding is supported by the strong prognostic value associated with the characteristics of GASC. This patient-based approach can provide a groundbreaking method to predict prognosis and to exploit novel strategies that target the tumor stroma. © 2013 AlphaMed Press.

  6. Oncogenicity of human N-ras oncogene and proto-oncogene introduced into retroviral vectors

    SciTech Connect

    Souyri, M.; Vigon, I.; Charon, M.; Tambourin, P. )

    1989-09-01

    The N-ras gene is the only member of the ras family which has never been naturally transduced into a retrovirus. In order to study the in vitro and in vivo oncogenicity of N-ras and to compare its pathogenicity to that of H-ras, the authors have inserted an activated or a normal form of human N-ras cDNA into a slightly modified Harvey murine sarcoma virus-derived vector in which the H-ras p21 coding region had been deleted. The resulting constructions were transfected into NIH 3T3 cells. The activated N-ras-containing construct (HSN) induced 10{sup 4} foci per {mu}g of DNA and was found to be as transforming as H-ras was. After infection of the transfected cells by either the ecotropic Moloney murine leukemia virus or the amphotropic 4070A helper viruses, rescued transforming viruses were injected into newborn mice. Both pseudotypes of HSN virus containing activated N-ras induced the typical Harvey disease with similar latency. However, they found that the virus which contained normal N-ras p21 (HSn) was also pathogenic and induced splenomegaly, lymphadenopathies, and sarcoma in mice after a latency of 3 to 7 weeks. In addition, Moloney murine leukemia virus pseudotypes of N-ras caused neurological disorders in 30% of the infected animals. These results differed markedly from those of previous experiments in which the authors had inserted the activated form of N-ras in the pSV(X) vector: the resulting SVN-ras virus was transforming on NIH 3T3 cells but was poorly oncogenic in vivo. Altogether, these data demonstrated unequivocally that N-ras is potentially as oncogenic as H-ras and that such oncogenic effect could depend on the vector environment.

  7. Sensitizers, protectors and oncogenic transformation in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.C.; Osmak, R.; Zimmerman, M.; Hall, E.J.

    1982-03-01

    Systems developed to assay oncogenic transformation in vitro represent a rapid and powerful tool to screen and compare new radiosensitizers in their carcinogenic potential, and to search for compounds that reduce or inhibit carcinogenesis produced by both radiation and sensitizers. An established line of mouse embryo fibroblasts (C3H/10T1/2 cells) has been used to determine the incidence of transformation produced by a variety of 2 and 5 substituted nitroimidazoles; these include metronidazole, desmethylmisonidazle, misonidazole, SR 2508, SR 2555, R0-07-0741, RSU-1047 and RSU-1021. Most of these sensitizers produce a similar level of transformation; for example a three day exposure of aerated cells to a concentration of 1 mM of the drug results in a transformation incidence comparable to 1 Gy of X rays. The notable exception is SR 2508 which produces a five-fold higher incidence of transformation. The potential carcinogenicity of sensitizers must be considered in choosing which of the currently available new drugs is to be used in clinical trials as an alternative to misonidazle. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), a known free radical scavenger, has been shown to reduce the level of transformation produced by radiation and sensitizers. To be effective, SOD must be present for prolonged periods during the fixation and expression period of the transformation process.

  8. V-cbl, an oncogene from a dual-recombinant murine retrovirus that induces early B-lineage lymphomas

    SciTech Connect

    Langdon, W.Y.; Klinken, S.P. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD ); Hartley, J.W.; Morse, H.C. III ); Ruscetti, S.K. )

    1989-02-01

    Cas NS-1 is an acutely transforming murine retrovirus that induces pre-B and pro-B cell lymphomas. Molecular cloning showed it was generated from the ecotropic Cas-Br-M virus by sequential recombinations with endogenous retroviral sequences and a cellular oncogene. The oncogene sequence shows no homology with known oncogenes but some similarity to the yeast transcriptional activator GCN4. A 100-kDa gag-cbl fusion protein, with no detectable kinase activity, is responsible for the cellular transformation. The cellular homologue of v-cbl, present in mouse and human DNA, is expressed in a range of hemopoietic lineages.

  9. RNAi screens in mice identify physiological regulators of oncogenic growth

    PubMed Central

    Beronja, Slobodan; Janki, Peter; Heller, Evan; Lien, Wen-Hui; Keyes, Brice; Oshimori, Naoki; Fuchs, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Summary Tissue growth is the multifaceted outcome of a cell’s intrinsic capabilities and its interactions with the surrounding environment. Decoding these complexities is essential for understanding human development and tumorigenesis. Here, we tackle this problem by carrying out the first genome-wide RNAi-mediated screens in mice. Focusing on skin development and oncogenic (HrasG12V-induced) hyperplasia, our screens uncover novel as well as anticipated regulators of embryonic epidermal growth. Among top oncogenic screen hits are Mllt6 and the Wnt effector β-catenin; they maintain HrasG12V-dependent hyperproliferation. We also expose β-catenin as an unanticipated antagonist of normal epidermal growth, functioning through Wnt-independent intercellular adhesion. Finally, we document physiological relevance to mouse and human cancers, thereby establishing the feasibility of in vivo mammalian genome-wide investigations to dissect tissue development and tumorigenesis. By documenting some oncogenic growth regulators, we pave the way for future investigations of other hits and raise promise for unearthing new targets for cancer therapies. PMID:23945586

  10. Oncogenic transformation of diverse gastrointestinal tissues in primary organoid culture

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xingnan; Nadauld, Lincoln; Ootani, Akifumi; Corney, David C.; Pai, Reetesh K.; Gevaert, Olivier; Cantrell, Michael A.; Rack, Paul G.; Neal, James T.; Chan, Carol W-M.; Yeung, Trevor; Gong, Xue; Yuan, Jenny; Wilhelmy, Julie; Robine, Sylvie; Attardi, Laura D.; Plevritis, Sylvia K.; Hung, Kenneth E.; Chen, Chang-Zheng; Ji, Hanlee P.; Kuo, Calvin J.

    2014-01-01

    The application of primary organoid cultures containing epithelial and mesenchymal elements to cancer modeling holds promise for combining the accurate multilineage differentiation and physiology of in vivo systems with the facile in vitro manipulation of transformed cell lines. Here, a single air-liquid interface culture method was used without modification to engineer oncogenic mutations into primary epithelial/mesenchymal organoids from mouse colon, stomach and pancreas. Pancreatic and gastric organoids exhibited dysplasia upon KrasG12D expression and/or p53 loss, and readily generated adenocarcinoma upon in vivo transplantation. In contrast, primary colon organoids required combinatorial Apc, p53, KrasG12D and Smad4 mutations for progressive transformation to invasive adenocarcinoma-like histology in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo, recapitulating multi-hit models of colorectal cancer (CRC), and versus more promiscuous transformation of small intestinal organoids. Colon organoid culture functionally validated the microRNA miR-483 as a dominant driver oncogene at the Insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF2) 11p15.5 CRC amplicon, inducing dysplasia in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. These studies demonstrate the general utility of a highly tractable primary organoid system for cancer modeling and driver oncogene validation in diverse gastrointestinal tissues. PMID:24859528

  11. (Oncogenic action of ionizing radiation)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    An extensive experiment involving approximately 400 rats exposed to the neon ion beam at the Bevalac in Berkeley, CA and to electrons is nearing completion. The carcinogenicity of energetic electrons was determined for comparison with the neon ion results. As in past reports we will describe progress in three areas corresponding to the specific aims of the proposal: (1) carcinogenesis and DNA strand breaks in rat skin following exposure by the neon ions or electrons; (2) DNA strand breaks in the epidermis as a function of radiation penetration; (3) oncogene activation in radiation-induced rat skin cancers. 72 refs., 6 tabs.

  12. Expression of Cellular Oncogenes in Human Malignancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slamon, Dennis J.; Dekernion, Jean B.; Verma, Inder M.; Cline, Martin J.

    1984-04-01

    Cellular oncogenes have been implicated in the induction of malignant transformation in some model systems in vitro and may be related to malignancies in vivo in some vertebrate species. This article describes a study of the expression of 15 cellular oncogenes in fresh human tumors from 54 patients, representing 20 different tumor types. More than one cellular oncogene was transcriptionally active in all of the tumors examined. In 14 patients it was possible to study normal and malignant tissue from the same organ. In many of these patients, the transcriptional activity of certain oncogenes was greater in the malignant than the normal tissue. The cellular fes (feline sarcoma) oncogene, not previously known to be transcribed in mammalian tissue, was found to be active in lung and hematopoietic malignancies.

  13. Oncogene addiction: sometimes a temporary slavery.

    PubMed

    Jonkers, Jos; Berns, Anton

    2004-12-01

    Tumors induced in conditional oncomice can show remarkable different responses to subsequent oncogene deprivation. Complete sustained regression, concomitant with massive differentiation and/or apoptosis, and partial regression are both observed. In the latter case, tumor growth either resumes without being dependent any longer on the oncogene, or requires reactivation of the oncogene in cells that have become dormant. These models reflect many of the features we also witness in human cancer and can therefore assist us in understanding the underlying mechanisms and in designing more effective treatment protocols.

  14. Anti-tumor effects of genetic vaccines against HPV major oncogenes.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Marcelo Nazário; Paolini, Francesca; Massa, Silvia; Curzio, Gianfranca; Illiano, Elena; Duarte Silva, Anna Jéssica; Franconi, Rosella; Bissa, Massimiliano; Morghen, Carlo De Giuli; de Freitas, Antonio Carlos; Venuti, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    Expression of HPV E5, E6 and E7 oncogenes are likely to overcome the regulation of cell proliferation and to escape immunological control, allowing uncontrolled growth and providing the potential for malignant transformation. Thus, their three oncogenic products may represent ideal target antigens for immunotherapeutic strategies. In previous attempts, we demonstrated that genetic vaccines against recombinant HPV16 E7 antigen were able to affect the tumor growth in a pre-clinical mouse model. To improve this anti-HPV strategy we developed a novel approach in which we explored the effects of E5-based genetic immunization. We designed novel HPV16 E5 genetic vaccines based on two different gene versions: whole E5 gene and E5Multi. The last one is a long multi epitope gene designed as a harmless E5 version. Both E5 genes were codon optimized for mammalian expression. In addition, we demonstrated that HPV 16 E5 oncogene is expressed in C3 mouse cell line making it an elective model for the study of E5 based vaccine. In this mouse model the immunological and biological activity of the E5 vaccines were assessed in parallel with the activity of anti-E7 and anti-E6 vaccines already reported to be effective in an immunotherapeutic setting. These E7 and E6 vaccines were made with mutated oncogenes, the E7GGG mutant that does not bind pRb and the E6F47R mutant that is less effective in inhibiting p53, respectively. Results confirmed the immunological activity of genetic formulations based on attenuated HPV16 oncogenes and showed that E5-based genetic immunization provided notable anti-tumor effects.

  15. The HPV-16 E7 oncogene sensitizes malignant cells to IFN-alpha-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yisong

    2005-10-01

    Interferons (IFNs) exert antitumor effects in several human malignancies, but their mechanism of action is unclear. There is a great variability in sensitivity to IFN treatment depending on both tumor type and the individual patient. The reason for this variable sensitivity is not known. The fact that several IFN-induced anticellular effects are exerted through modulation of proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes may indicate that the malignant genotype may be decisive in the cell's sensitivity to IFN. To determine if a deregulated oncogene could alter the cellular response to IFN, a mouse lymphoma cell line (J3D) was stably transfected with the viral human papillomavirus-16 (HPV-16) E7 oncogene. The E7-transfected cells and their respective mock-transfected sister clones were treated with IFN-{alpha} and examined for possible IFN-induced anticellular effects. We found that the E7-transfected clones were greatly sensitized to IFN-{alpha}-induced apoptosis compared with their mock-transfected counterparts. Induction of apoptosis in the transfected cells correlated with the ability of IFN to activate parts of the proapoptotic machinery specifically in these cells, including activation of caspases and the proapoptotic protein Bak. In summary, our data suggest that transfection of malignant cells with the E7 oncogene can sensitize them to IFN-{alpha}-induced apoptosis. This demonstrates that an oncogenic event may alter the cellular sensitivity to IFN and might also have implications for treatment of HPV related diseases with IFN.

  16. Cancer induction by restriction of oncogene expression to the stem cell compartment

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Caro, María; Cobaleda, César; González-Herrero, Inés; Vicente-Dueñas, Carolina; Bermejo-Rodríguez, Camino; Sánchez-Beato, Margarita; Orfao, Alberto; Pintado, Belén; Flores, Teresa; Sánchez-Martín, Manuel; Jiménez, Rafael; Piris, Miguel A; Sánchez-García, Isidro

    2009-01-01

    In human cancers, all cancerous cells carry the oncogenic genetic lesions. However, to elucidate whether cancer is a stem cell-driven tissue, we have developed a strategy to limit oncogene expression to the stem cell compartment in a transgenic mouse setting. Here, we focus on the effects of the BCR-ABLp210 oncogene, associated with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) in humans. We show that CML phenotype and biology can be established in mice by restricting BCR-ABLp210 expression to stem cell antigen 1 (Sca1)+ cells. The course of the disease in Sca1-BCR-ABLp210 mice was not modified on STI571 treatment. However, BCR-ABLp210-induced CML is reversible through the unique elimination of the cancer stem cells (CSCs). Overall, our data show that oncogene expression in Sca1+ cells is all that is required to fully reprogramme it, giving rise to a full-blown, oncogene-specified tumour with all its mature cellular diversity, and that elimination of the CSCs is enough to eradicate the whole tumour. PMID:19037256

  17. The nucleotide sequence of the human int-1 mammary oncogene; evolutionary conservation of coding and non-coding sequences.

    PubMed Central

    van Ooyen, A; Kwee, V; Nusse, R

    1985-01-01

    The mouse mammary tumor virus can induce mammary tumors in mice by proviral activation of an evolutionarily conserved cellular oncogene called int-1. Here we present the nucleotide sequence of the human homologue of int-1, and compare it with the mouse gene. Like the mouse gene, the human homologue contains a reading frame of 370 amino acids, with only four substitutions. The amino acid changes are all in the hydrophobic leader domain of the int-1 encoded protein, and do not significantly alter its hydropathic index. The conservation between the mouse and the human int-1 genes is not restricted to exons; extensive parts of the introns are also homologous. Thus, int-1 ranks among the most conserved genes known, a property shared with other oncogenes. PMID:2998762

  18. REST regulates oncogenic properties of glioblastoma stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Mohamed M.; Sathyan, Pratheesh; Singh, Sanjay K.; Zinn, Pascal O.; Marisetty, Anantha L.; Liang, Shoudan; Gumin, Joy; El-Mesallamy, Hala Osman; Suki, Dima; Colman, Howard; Fuller, Gregory N.; Lang, Frederick F.; Majumder, Sadhan

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors are the most common malignant primary brain tumors in adults. Although many GBM tumors are believed to be caused by self-renewing, glioblastoma-derived stem-like cells (GSCs), the mechanisms that regulate self-renewal and other oncogenic properties of GSCs are only now being unraveled. Here we showed that GSCs derived from GBM patient specimens express varying levels of the transcriptional repressor REST, suggesting heterogeneity across different GSC lines. Loss- and gain-of-function experiments indicated that REST maintains self-renewal of GSCs. High REST-expressing GSCs (HR-GSCs) produced tumors histopathologically distinct from those generated by low REST-expressing GSCs (LR-GSCs) in orthotopic mouse brain tumor models. Knockdown of REST in HR-GSCs resulted in increased survival in GSC-transplanted mice and produced tumors with higher apoptotic and lower invasive properties. Conversely, forced expression of exogenous REST in LR-GSCs produced decreased survival in mice and produced tumors with lower apoptotic and higher invasive properties, similar to HR-GSCs. Thus, based on our results, we propose that a novel function of REST is to maintain self-renewal and other oncogenic properties of GSCs and that REST can play a major role in mediating tumorigenicity in GBM. PMID:22228704

  19. Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer Is Dependent on Oncogenic Kras in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Meredith A.; Brisset, Jean-Christophe; Zhang, Yaqing; Bednar, Filip; Pierre, Josette; Heist, Kevin A.; Galbán, Craig J.; Galbán, Stefanie; di Magliano, Marina Pasca

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the deadliest human malignancies, and its prognosis has not improved over the past 40 years. Mouse models that spontaneously develop pancreatic adenocarcinoma and mimic the progression of the human disease are emerging as a new tool to investigate the basic biology of this disease and identify potential therapeutic targets. Here, we describe a new model of metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma based on pancreas-specific, inducible and reversible expression of an oncogenic form of Kras, together with pancreas-specific expression of a mutant form of the tumor suppressor p53. Using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging to follow individual animals in longitudinal studies, we show that both primary and metastatic lesions depend on continuous Kras activity for their maintenance. However, re-activation of Kras* following prolonged inactivation leads to rapid tumor relapse, raising the concern that Kras*-resistance might eventually be acquired. Thus, our data identifies Kras* as a key oncogene in pancreatic cancer maintenance, but raises the possibility of acquired resistance should Kras inhibitors become available for use in pancreatic cancer. PMID:23226501

  20. Oncogenic Kras drives invasion and maintains metastases in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Boutin, Adam T; Liao, Wen-Ting; Wang, Melody; Hwang, Soyoon Sarah; Karpinets, Tatiana V; Cheung, Hannah; Chu, Gerald C; Jiang, Shan; Hu, Jian; Chang, Kyle; Vilar, Eduardo; Song, Xingzhi; Zhang, Jianhua; Kopetz, Scott; Futreal, Andrew; Wang, Y Alan; Kwong, Lawrence N; DePinho, Ronald A

    2017-02-15

    Human colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of cancer mortality and frequently harbors activating mutations in the KRAS gene. To understand the role of oncogenic KRAS in CRC, we engineered a mouse model of metastatic CRC that harbors an inducible oncogenic Kras allele (Kras(mut) ) and conditional null alleles of Apc and Trp53 (iKAP). The iKAP model recapitulates tumor progression from adenoma through metastases. Whole-exome sequencing revealed that the Kras(mut) allele was heterogenous in primary tumors yet homogenous in metastases, a pattern consistent with activated Kras(mut) signaling being a driver of progression to metastasis. System-level and functional analyses revealed the TGF-β pathway as a key mediator of Kras(mut) -driven invasiveness. Genetic extinction of Kras(mut) resulted in specific elimination of the Kras(mut) subpopulation in primary and metastatic tumors, leading to apoptotic elimination of advanced invasive and metastatic disease. This faithful CRC model provides genetic evidence that Kras(mut) drives CRC invasion and maintenance of metastases. © 2017 Boutin et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  1. Oncogenic Kras drives invasion and maintains metastases in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Boutin, Adam T.; Liao, Wen-Ting; Wang, Melody; Hwang, Soyoon Sarah; Karpinets, Tatiana V.; Cheung, Hannah; Chu, Gerald C.; Jiang, Shan; Hu, Jian; Chang, Kyle; Vilar, Eduardo; Song, Xingzhi; Zhang, Jianhua; Kopetz, Scott; Futreal, Andrew; Wang, Y. Alan; Kwong, Lawrence N.; DePinho, Ronald A.

    2017-01-01

    Human colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of cancer mortality and frequently harbors activating mutations in the KRAS gene. To understand the role of oncogenic KRAS in CRC, we engineered a mouse model of metastatic CRC that harbors an inducible oncogenic Kras allele (Krasmut) and conditional null alleles of Apc and Trp53 (iKAP). The iKAP model recapitulates tumor progression from adenoma through metastases. Whole-exome sequencing revealed that the Krasmut allele was heterogenous in primary tumors yet homogenous in metastases, a pattern consistent with activated Krasmut signaling being a driver of progression to metastasis. System-level and functional analyses revealed the TGF-β pathway as a key mediator of Krasmut-driven invasiveness. Genetic extinction of Krasmut resulted in specific elimination of the Krasmut subpopulation in primary and metastatic tumors, leading to apoptotic elimination of advanced invasive and metastatic disease. This faithful CRC model provides genetic evidence that Krasmut drives CRC invasion and maintenance of metastases. PMID:28289141

  2. Design of a small molecule against an oncogenic noncoding RNA

    PubMed Central

    Velagapudi, Sai Pradeep; Cameron, Michael D.; Haga, Christopher L.; Rosenberg, Laura H.; Lafitte, Marie; Duckett, Derek R.; Phinney, Donald G.; Disney, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    The design of precision, preclinical therapeutics from sequence is difficult, but advances in this area, particularly those focused on rational design, could quickly transform the sequence of disease-causing gene products into lead modalities. Herein, we describe the use of Inforna, a computational approach that enables the rational design of small molecules targeting RNA to quickly provide a potent modulator of oncogenic microRNA-96 (miR-96). We mined the secondary structure of primary microRNA-96 (pri-miR-96) hairpin precursor against a database of RNA motif–small molecule interactions, which identified modules that bound RNA motifs nearby and in the Drosha processing site. Precise linking of these modules together provided Targaprimir-96 (3), which selectively modulates miR-96 production in cancer cells and triggers apoptosis. Importantly, the compound is ineffective on healthy breast cells, and exogenous overexpression of pri-miR-96 reduced compound potency in breast cancer cells. Chemical Cross-Linking and Isolation by Pull-Down (Chem-CLIP), a small-molecule RNA target validation approach, shows that 3 directly engages pri-miR-96 in breast cancer cells. In vivo, 3 has a favorable pharmacokinetic profile and decreases tumor burden in a mouse model of triple-negative breast cancer. Thus, rational design can quickly produce precision, in vivo bioactive lead small molecules against hard-to-treat cancers by targeting oncogenic noncoding RNAs, advancing a disease-to-gene-to-drug paradigm. PMID:27170187

  3. Design of a small molecule against an oncogenic noncoding RNA.

    PubMed

    Velagapudi, Sai Pradeep; Cameron, Michael D; Haga, Christopher L; Rosenberg, Laura H; Lafitte, Marie; Duckett, Derek R; Phinney, Donald G; Disney, Matthew D

    2016-05-24

    The design of precision, preclinical therapeutics from sequence is difficult, but advances in this area, particularly those focused on rational design, could quickly transform the sequence of disease-causing gene products into lead modalities. Herein, we describe the use of Inforna, a computational approach that enables the rational design of small molecules targeting RNA to quickly provide a potent modulator of oncogenic microRNA-96 (miR-96). We mined the secondary structure of primary microRNA-96 (pri-miR-96) hairpin precursor against a database of RNA motif-small molecule interactions, which identified modules that bound RNA motifs nearby and in the Drosha processing site. Precise linking of these modules together provided Targaprimir-96 (3), which selectively modulates miR-96 production in cancer cells and triggers apoptosis. Importantly, the compound is ineffective on healthy breast cells, and exogenous overexpression of pri-miR-96 reduced compound potency in breast cancer cells. Chemical Cross-Linking and Isolation by Pull-Down (Chem-CLIP), a small-molecule RNA target validation approach, shows that 3 directly engages pri-miR-96 in breast cancer cells. In vivo, 3 has a favorable pharmacokinetic profile and decreases tumor burden in a mouse model of triple-negative breast cancer. Thus, rational design can quickly produce precision, in vivo bioactive lead small molecules against hard-to-treat cancers by targeting oncogenic noncoding RNAs, advancing a disease-to-gene-to-drug paradigm.

  4. CD3-epsilon overexpressed in prothymocytes acts as an oncogene.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, B.; She, J.; Salio, M.; Allen, D.; Lacy, E.; Lonberg, N.; Terhorst, C.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Upon engagement of the T cell receptor for antigen, its associated CD3 proteins recruit signal transduction molecules, which in turn regulate T lymphocyte proliferation, apoptosis, and thymocyte development. Because some signal transducing molecules recruited by CD3-epsilon, i.e., p56lck and p59fyn, are oncogenic and since we previously found that overexpression of CD3-epsilon transgenes causes a block in T lymphocyte and NK cell development, we tested the hypothesis that aberrant CD3-epsilon signaling leads both to abnormal T lymphocyte death and lymphomagenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten independently derived transgenic mouse lines were generated with four different genomic CD3-epsilon constructs. Mice either homozygous or hemizygous for each transgene were analyzed for an arrest in T lymphocyte development and for the occurrence of T cell lymphomas. RESULTS: Aggressive clonal T cell lymphomas developed at very high frequencies in seven mouse lines with intermediate levels of copies of CD3-epsilon derived transgenes. However, these lymphomas were not found when high copy numbers of CD3-epsilon transgenes caused a complete block in early thymic development or when a transgene was used in which the exons coding for the CD3-epsilon protein were deleted. Analyses of a series of double mutant mice, tgCD3-epsilon x RAG-2null, indicated that lymphomagenesis was initiated in lineage-committed prothymocytes, i.e., before rearrangement of the T cell receptor genes. In addition, the transgene coding for the CD3-epsilon cytoplasmic domain and its transmembrane region induced a T cell differentiation signal in premalignant tgCD3-epsilon x RAG-2null mice. CONCLUSION: The nonenzymatic CD3-epsilon protein acted as a potent oncogene when overexpressed early in T lymphocyte development. Lymphomagenesis was dependent on signal transduction events initiated by the cytoplasmic domain of CD3-epsilon. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:9132282

  5. Modeling oncogene addiction using RNA interference

    PubMed Central

    Rothenberg, S. Michael; Engelman, Jeffrey A.; Le, Sheila; Riese, David J.; Haber, Daniel A.; Settleman, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of selective kinase inhibitors suggests that some cancer cells may become dependent on a single oncogene for survival. RNAi has been increasingly used to understand such “oncogene addiction” and validate new therapeutic targets. However, RNAi approaches suffer from significant off-target effects that limit their utility. Here, we combine carefully titrated lentiviral-mediated short hairpin RNA knockdown of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with heterologous reconstitution by EGFR mutants to rigorously analyze the structural features and signaling activities that determine addiction to the mutationally activated EGFR in human lung cancer cells. EGFR dependence is differentially rescued by distinct EGFR variants and oncogenic mutants, is critically dependent on its heterodimerization partner ErbB-3, and surprisingly, does not require autophosphorylation sites in the cytoplasmic domain. Quantitative “oncogene rescue” analysis allows mechanistic dissection of oncogene addiction, and, when broadly applied, may provide functional validation for potential therapeutic targets identified through large-scale RNAi screens. PMID:18711136

  6. Inhibition of TWIST1 leads to activation of oncogene-induced senescence in oncogene-driven non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Burns, Timothy F; Dobromilskaya, Irina; Murphy, Sara C; Gajula, Rajendra P; Thiyagarajan, Saravanan; Chatley, Sarah N H; Aziz, Khaled; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Tran, Phuoc T; Rudin, Charles M

    2013-04-01

    A large fraction of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) are dependent on defined oncogenic driver mutations. Although targeted agents exist for EGFR- and EML4-ALK-driven NSCLCs, no therapies target the most frequently found driver mutation, KRAS. Furthermore, acquired resistance to the currently targetable driver mutations is nearly universally observed. Clearly a novel therapeutic approach is needed to target oncogene-driven NSCLCs. We recently showed that the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Twist1 cooperates with mutant Kras to induce lung adenocarcinoma in transgenic mouse models and that inhibition of Twist1 in these models led to Kras-induced senescence. In the current study, we examine the role of TWIST1 in oncogene-driven human NSCLCs. Silencing of TWIST1 in KRAS-mutant human NSCLC cell lines resulted in dramatic growth inhibition and either activation of a latent oncogene-induced senescence program or, in some cases, apoptosis. Similar effects were observed in EGFR mutation-driven and c-Met-amplified NSCLC cell lines. Growth inhibition by silencing of TWIST1 was independent of p53 or p16 mutational status and did not require previously defined mediators of senescence, p21 and p27, nor could this phenotype be rescued by overexpression of SKP2. In xenograft models, silencing of TWIST1 resulted in significant growth inhibition of KRAS-mutant, EGFR-mutant, and c-Met-amplified NSCLCs. Remarkably, inducible silencing of TWIST1 resulted in significant growth inhibition of established KRAS-mutant tumors. Together these findings suggest that silencing of TWIST1 in oncogene driver-dependent NSCLCs represents a novel and promising therapeutic strategy.

  7. Targeting the PyMT Oncogene to Diverse Mammary Cell Populations Enhances Tumor Heterogeneity and Generates Rare Breast Cancer Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Brittni A.; Shelton, Dawne N.; Kieffer, Collin; Milash, Brett; Usary, Jerry; Perou, Charles M.; Bernard, Philip S.

    2012-01-01

    Human breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease composed of different histologies and molecular subtypes, many of which are not replicated in animal models. Here, we report a mouse model of breast cancer that generates unique tumor histologies including tubular, adenosquamous, and lipid-rich carcinomas. Utilizing a nononcogenic variant of polyoma middle T oncogene (PyMT) that requires a spontaneous base-pair deletion to transform cells, in conjunction with lentiviral transduction and orthotopic transplantation of primary mammary epithelial cells, this model sporadically induces oncogene expression in both the luminal and myoepithelial cell lineages of the normal mouse mammary epithelium. Microarray and hierarchical analyses using an intrinsic subtype gene set revealed that lentiviral PyMT generates both luminal and basal-like tumors. Cumulatively, these results show that low-level expression of PyMT in a broad range of cell types significantly increases tumor heterogeneity and establishes a mouse model of several rare human breast cancer subtypes. PMID:23486760

  8. Myc mouse and anti-ageing therapy.

    PubMed

    Alic, Nazif; Partridge, Linda

    2015-04-01

    Reduction in the expression and activity of a well-known proto-oncogene, Myc, has a beneficial effect on mouse health and survival to old age, in part independently of cancer impact, a recent study reveals. Is this new anti-ageing intervention pointing a way towards new treatments for age-related diseases?

  9. Thrombospondin-1 mediates oncogenic Ras–induced senescence in premalignant lung tumors

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Kwan-Hyuck; Bhang, Dongha; Zaslavsky, Alexander; Wang, Liang-Chuan; Vachani, Anil; Kim, Carla F.; Albelda, Steven M.; Evan, Gerard I.; Ryeom, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Progression of premalignant lesions is restrained by oncogene-induced senescence. Oncogenic Ras triggers senescence in many organs, including the lung, which exhibits high levels of the angiogenesis inhibitor thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1). The contribution of TSP-1 upregulation to the modulation of tumorigenesis in the lung is unclear. Using a mouse model of lung cancer, we have shown that TSP-1 plays a critical and cell-autonomous role in suppressing Kras-induced lung tumorigenesis independent of its antiangiogenic function. Overall survival was decreased in a Kras-driven mouse model of lung cancer on a Tsp-1–/– background. We found that oncogenic Kras–induced TSP-1 upregulation in a p53-dependent manner. TSP-1 functioned in a positive feedback loop to stabilize p53 by interacting directly with activated ERK. TSP-1 tethering of ERK in the cytoplasm promoted a level of MAPK signaling that was sufficient to sustain p53 expression and a senescence response. Our data identify TSP-1 as a p53 target that contributes to maintaining Ras-induced senescence in the lung. PMID:24018559

  10. Oncogene v-jun modulates DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Wasylyk, C; Schneikert, J; Wasylyk, B

    1990-07-01

    Cell transformation leads to alterations in both transcription and DNA replication. Activation of transcription by the expression of a number of transforming oncogenes is mediated by the transcription factor AP1 (Herrlich & Ponta, 1989; Imler & Wasylyk, 1989). AP1 is a composite transcription factor, consisting of members of the jun and fos gene-families. c-jun and c-fos are progenitors of oncogenes, suggestion that an important transcriptional event in cell transformation is altered activity of AP1, which may arise either indirectly by oncogene expression or directly by structural modification of AP1. We report here that the v-jun oncogene and its progenitor c-jun, as fusion proteins with the lex-A-repressor DNA binding domain, can activate DNA replication from the Polyoma virus (Py) origin of replication, linked to the lex-A operator. The transcription-activation region of v-jun is required for activation of replication. When excess v-jun is expressed in the cell, replication is inhibited or 'squelched'. These results suggest that one consequence of deregulated jun activity could be altered DNA replication and that there are similarities in the way v-jun activates replication and transcription.

  11. Novel Oncogenes in Breast Cancer Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-07-01

    determinants that contribute to the development of breast cancer remain unknown We have developed and applied a novel retrovirus-based library ... screening strategy coupled to a biological assay for growth transformation, to identify novel oncogenes in breast cancer development The approach involves the

  12. Viral oncogenes, proto-oncogenes and homoeotic genes related to cell proliferation and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Antohi, S; Antohi-Talle, O

    1987-01-01

    Molecular studies on viral oncogenes and their products have led to the discovery of physiological proto-oncogenes, involved in the control of cell proliferation and gene activation. Other genetic and molecular investigations, initiated in Drosophila melanogaster and continued in different multicellular eukaryotes, have made evident the homoeotic genes, which are directly correlated with cell specialization, in the complex processes of differentiation and morphogenesis. Both gene classes are conserved to a high extent during evolution. They are involved in the eukaryotic mechanisms of differentiation control and proto-oncogenes, in particular, are related to malignant transformation. Some available data suggest a certain extent of relatedness between the gene products of both gene classes. A differentiation trigger model, including retroviral transposition, homoeotic genes and proto-oncogenes is discussed.

  13. Computational drugs repositioning identifies inhibitors of oncogenic PI3K/AKT/P70S6K-dependent pathways among FDA-approved compounds

    PubMed Central

    Carrella, Diego; Manni, Isabella; Tumaini, Barbara; Dattilo, Rosanna; Papaccio, Federica; Mutarelli, Margherita; Sirci, Francesco; Amoreo, Carla A.; Mottolese, Marcella; Iezzi, Manuela; Ciolli, Laura; Aria, Valentina; Bosotti, Roberta; Isacchi, Antonella; Loreni, Fabrizio; Bardelli, Alberto; Avvedimento, Vittorio E.; di Bernardo, Diego; Cardone, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of inhibitors for oncogenic signalling pathways remains a key focus in modern oncology, based on personalized and targeted therapeutics. Computational drug repurposing via the analysis of FDA-approved drug network is becoming a very effective approach to identify therapeutic opportunities in cancer and other human diseases. Given that gene expression signatures can be associated with specific oncogenic mutations, we tested whether a “reverse” oncogene-specific signature might assist in the computational repositioning of inhibitors of oncogenic pathways. As a proof of principle, we focused on oncogenic PI3K-dependent signalling, a molecular pathway frequently driving cancer progression as well as raising resistance to anticancer-targeted therapies. We show that implementation of “reverse” oncogenic PI3K-dependent transcriptional signatures combined with interrogation of drug networks identified inhibitors of PI3K-dependent signalling among FDA-approved compounds. This led to repositioning of Niclosamide (Niclo) and Pyrvinium Pamoate (PP), two anthelmintic drugs, as inhibitors of oncogenic PI3K-dependent signalling. Niclo inhibited phosphorylation of P70S6K, while PP inhibited phosphorylation of AKT and P70S6K, which are downstream targets of PI3K. Anthelmintics inhibited oncogenic PI3K-dependent gene expression and showed a cytostatic effect in vitro and in mouse mammary gland. Lastly, PP inhibited the growth of breast cancer cells harbouring PI3K mutations. Our data indicate that drug repositioning by network analysis of oncogene-specific transcriptional signatures is an efficient strategy for identifying oncogenic pathway inhibitors among FDA-approved compounds. We propose that PP and Niclo should be further investigated as potential therapeutics for the treatment of tumors or diseases carrying the constitutive activation of the PI3K/P70S6K signalling axis. PMID:27542212

  14. Dimerize RACK1 upon transformation with oncogenic ras

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, L.-Y.; Chen, Y.-H.; Chuang, N.-N. . E-mail: zonnc@sinica.edu.tw

    2005-05-06

    From our previous studies, we learned that syndecan-2/p120-GAP complex provided docking site for Src to prosecute tyrosine kinase activity upon transformation with oncogenic ras. And, RACK1 protein was reactive with syndecan-2 to keep Src inactivated, but not when Ras was overexpressed. In the present study, we characterized the reaction between RACK1 protein and Ras. RACK1 was isolated from BALB/3T3 cells transfected with plasmids pcDNA3.1-[S-ras(Q{sub 61}K)] of shrimp Penaeus japonicus and RACK1 was revealed to react with GTP-K{sub B}-Ras(Q{sub 61}K), not GDP-K{sub B}-Ras(Q{sub 61}K). This selective interaction between RACK1 and GTP-K{sub B}-Ras(Q{sub 61}K) was further confirmed with RACK1 of human placenta and mouse RACK1-encoded fusion protein. We found that RACK1 was dimerized upon reaction with GTP-K{sub B}-Ras(Q{sub 61}K), as well as with 14-3-3{beta} and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, as revealed by phosphorylation with Src tyrosine kinase. We reported the complex of RACK1/GTP-K{sub B}-Ras(Q{sub 61}K) reacted selectively with p120-GAP. This interaction was sufficient to dissemble RACK1 into monomers, a preferred form to compete for the binding of syndecan-2. These data indicate that the reaction of GTP-K{sub B}-Ras(Q{sub 61}K) with RACK1 in dimers may operate a mechanism to deplete RACK1 from reaction with syndecan-2 upon transformation by oncogenic ras and the RACK1/GTP-Ras complex may provide a route to react with p120-GAP and recycle monomeric RACK1 to syndecan-2.

  15. Identification of novel non-coding RNA-based negative feedback regulating the expression of the oncogenic transcription factor GLI1.

    PubMed

    Villegas, Victoria E; Rahman, Mohammed Ferdous-Ur; Fernandez-Barrena, Maite G; Diao, Yumei; Liapi, Eleni; Sonkoly, Enikö; Ståhle, Mona; Pivarcsi, Andor; Annaratone, Laura; Sapino, Anna; Ramírez Clavijo, Sandra; Bürglin, Thomas R; Shimokawa, Takashi; Ramachandran, Saraswathi; Kapranov, Philipp; Fernandez-Zapico, Martin E; Zaphiropoulos, Peter G

    2014-07-01

    Non-coding RNAs are a complex class of nucleic acids, with growing evidence supporting regulatory roles in gene expression. Here we identify a non-coding RNA located head-to-head with the gene encoding the Glioma-associated oncogene 1 (GLI1), a transcriptional effector of multiple cancer-associated signaling pathways. The expression of this three-exon GLI1 antisense (GLI1AS) RNA in cancer cells was concordant with GLI1 levels. siRNAs knockdown of GLI1AS up-regulated GLI1 and increased cellular proliferation and tumor growth in a xenograft model system. Conversely, GLI1AS overexpression decreased the levels of GLI1, its target genes PTCH1 and PTCH2, and cellular proliferation. Additionally, we demonstrate that GLI1 knockdown reduced GLI1AS, while GLI1 overexpression increased GLI1AS, supporting the role of GLI1AS as a target gene of the GLI1 transcription factor. Activation of TGFβ and Hedgehog signaling, two known regulators of GLI1 expression, conferred a concordant up-regulation of GLI1 and GLI1AS in cancer cells. Finally, analysis of the mechanism underlying the interplay between GLI1 and GLI1AS indicates that the non-coding RNA elicits a local alteration of chromatin structure by increasing the silencing mark H3K27me3 and decreasing the recruitment of RNA polymerase II to this locus. Taken together, the data demonstrate the existence of a novel non-coding RNA-based negative feedback loop controlling GLI1 levels, thus expanding the repertoire of mechanisms regulating the expression of this oncogenic transcription factor.

  16. Oncogenic transformation through the cell cycle and the LET dependent inverse dose rate effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geard, C. R.; Miller, R. C.; Brenner, D. J.; Hall, E. J.; Wachholz, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Synchronised populations of mouse C3H/10T-1/2 cells were obtained by a stringent mitotic dislodgment procedure. Mitotic cells rapidly attach and progress sequentially through the cell cycle. Irradiation (3 Gy of X rays) was carried out at intervals from 0 to 18 h after initiating cell cycle progression of the mitotic cells. Oncogenic transformation was enhanced 10-fold over cells irradiated soon after replating (G1 and S phases) for cells in a near 2 h period corresponding to cells in G2 phase but not in mitosis. The cell surviving fraction had a 2-1/2-fold variation with resistant peaks corresponding to the late G1 and late S phases. These findings provide experimental support for the hypothesis initiated by Rossi and Kellerer and developed by Brenner and Hall to explain the LET dependent inverse dose rate effect for oncogenic transformation.

  17. Oncogenic transformation through the cell cycle and the LET dependent inverse dose rate effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geard, C. R.; Miller, R. C.; Brenner, D. J.; Hall, E. J.; Wachholz, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Synchronised populations of mouse C3H/10T-1/2 cells were obtained by a stringent mitotic dislodgment procedure. Mitotic cells rapidly attach and progress sequentially through the cell cycle. Irradiation (3 Gy of X rays) was carried out at intervals from 0 to 18 h after initiating cell cycle progression of the mitotic cells. Oncogenic transformation was enhanced 10-fold over cells irradiated soon after replating (G1 and S phases) for cells in a near 2 h period corresponding to cells in G2 phase but not in mitosis. The cell surviving fraction had a 2-1/2-fold variation with resistant peaks corresponding to the late G1 and late S phases. These findings provide experimental support for the hypothesis initiated by Rossi and Kellerer and developed by Brenner and Hall to explain the LET dependent inverse dose rate effect for oncogenic transformation.

  18. Localisation of lung cancer by a radiolabelled monoclonal antibody against the c-myc oncogene product.

    PubMed Central

    Chan, S. Y.; Evan, G. I.; Ritson, A.; Watson, J.; Wraight, P.; Sikora, K.

    1986-01-01

    A set of mouse nonoclonal antibodies against the c-myc oncogene product, a 62,000 dalton nuclear binding protein involved in cell cycle control, has been constructed by immunisation with synthetic peptide fragments. One such antibody, CT14, was radiolabelled with 131I and administered to 20 patients with different malignant diseases. Good tumour localisation was observed in 12 out of 14 patients with primary bronchial carcinoma but not in patients with pulmonary metastases from primary tumours elsewhere. Successfully localised tumours were all 3 cm or more in diameter. Monoclonal antibodies against oncogene products may provide novel selective tools for the diagnosis and therapy of cancer. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:3801273

  19. EGF RECEPTOR SIGNALING IS ESSENTIAL FOR K-RAS ONCOGENE-DRIVEN PANCREATIC DUCTAL ADENOCARCINOMA

    PubMed Central

    Navas, Carolina; Hernández-Porras, Isabel; Schuhmacher, Alberto J; Sibilia, Maria; Guerra, Carmen; Barbacid, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    Clinical evidence indicates that mutation/activation of EGF receptors (EGFRs) is mutually exclusive with the presence of K-RAS oncogenes in lung and colon tumors. We have validated these observations using genetically engineered mouse models. However, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas driven by K-Ras oncogenes are totally dependent on EGFR signaling. Similar results were obtained using human pancreatic tumor cell lines. EGFRs were also essential even in the context of pancreatic injury and absence of p16Ink4a/p19Arf. Only loss of p53 made pancreatic tumors independent of EGFR signaling. Additional inhibition of PI3K and STAT3 effectively prevented proliferation of explants derived from these p53–defective pancreatic tumors. These findings may provide the bases for more rational approaches to treat pancreatic tumors in the clinic. PMID:22975375

  20. Carcinogen-specific mutations in preferred Ras-Raf pathway oncogenes directed by strand bias.

    PubMed

    Keller, Ross R; Gestl, Shelley A; Lu, Amy Q; Hoke, Alicia; Feith, David J; Gunther, Edward J

    2016-08-01

    Carcinogen exposures inscribe mutation patterns on cancer genomes and sometimes bias the acquisition of driver mutations toward preferred oncogenes, potentially dictating sensitivity to targeted agents. Whether and how carcinogen-specific mutation patterns direct activation of preferred oncogenes remains poorly understood. Here, mouse models of breast cancer were exploited to uncover a mechanistic link between strand-biased mutagenesis and oncogene preference. When chemical carcinogens were employed during Wnt1-initiated mammary tumorigenesis, exposure to either 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) or N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) dramatically accelerated tumor onset. Mammary tumors that followed DMBA exposure nearly always activated the Ras pathway via somatic Hras(CAA61CTA) mutations. Surprisingly, mammary tumors that followed ENU exposure typically lacked Hras mutations, and instead activated the Ras pathway downstream via Braf(GTG636GAG) mutations. Hras(CAA61CTA) mutations involve an A-to-T change on the sense strand, whereas Braf(GTG636GAG) mutations involve an inverse T-to-A change, suggesting that strand-biased mutagenesis may determine oncogene preference. To examine this possibility further, we turned to an alternative Wnt-driven tumor model in which carcinogen exposures augment a latent mammary tumor predisposition in Apc(min) mice. DMBA and ENU each accelerated mammary tumor onset in Apc(min) mice by introducing somatic, "second-hit" Apc mutations. Consistent with our strand bias model, DMBA and ENU generated strikingly distinct Apc mutation patterns, including stringently strand-inverse mutation signatures at A:T sites. Crucially, these contrasting signatures precisely match those proposed to confer bias toward Hras(CAA61CTA) versus Braf(GTG636GAG) mutations in the original tumor sets. Our findings highlight a novel mechanism whereby exposure history acts through strand-biased mutagenesis to specify activation of preferred oncogenes. © The Author 2016

  1. Effect of track structure and radioprotectors on the induction of oncogenic transformation in murine fibroblasts by heavy ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. C.; Martin, S. G.; Hanson, W. R.; Marino, S. A.; Hall, E. J.; Wachholz, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    The oncogenic potential of high-energy 56Fe particles (1 GeV/nucleon) accelerated with the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at the Brookhaven National Laboratory was examined utilizing the mouse C3H 10T1/2 cell model. The dose-averaged LET for high-energy 56Fe is estimated to be 143 keV/micrometer with the exposure conditions used in this study. For 56Fe ions, the maximum relative biological effectiveness (RBEmax) values for cell survival and oncogenic transformation were 7.71 and 16.5 respectively. Compared to 150 keV/micrometer 4He nuclei, high-energy 56Fe nuclei were significantly less effective in cell killing and oncogenic induction. The prostaglandin E1 analog misoprostol, an effective oncoprotector of C3H 10T1/2 cells exposed to X rays, was evaluated for its potential as a radioprotector of oncogenic transformation with high-energy 56Fe. Exposure of cells to misoprostol did not alter 56Fe cytotoxicity or the rate of 56Fe-induced oncogenic transformation.

  2. Two oncogenes, v-fos and v-ras, cooperate to convert normal keratinocytes to squamous cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Greenhalgh, D.A.; Welty, D.J.; Player, A.; Yuspa, S.H. )

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have been implicated the ras{sup Ha} oncogene in the initiation of skin carcinogenesis and the fos oncogene in malignant progression of premalignant skin cell lines. To determine if these two oncogenes are sufficient to convert normal keratinocytes to cancer cells, freshly isolated mouse keratinocytes were coinfected with replication-defective ({psi}-2) v-ras{sup Ha} and v-fos viruses in culture. When tested in nude mice within several days of infection, v-fos/v-ras{sup Ha}-coinfected keratinocytes produced squamous cell carcinomas. Introduction of v-fos alone resulted in normal or hyperplastic skin, whereas v-ras{sup Ha} alone produced squamous papillomas. These results indicate that two oncogenes are sufficient to produce the malignant phenotype in epidermal cells. Furthermore, they clearly link the fos oncogene with malignant conversion. Since fos acts as a transcriptional regulator of other genes, malignant conversion may be an indirect consequence of the overexpression of the fos-encoded protein leading to a change in the expression of fos-controlled cellular genes.

  3. Effect of track structure and radioprotectors on the induction of oncogenic transformation in murine fibroblasts by heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, R. C.; Martin, S. G.; Hanson, W. R.; Marino, S. A.; Hall, E. J.

    1998-11-01

    The oncogenic potential of high-energy 56Fe particles (1 GeV/nucleon) accelerated with the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at the Brookhaven National Laboratory was examined utilizing the mouse C3H 10T12 cell model. The dose-averaged LET for high-energy 56Fe is estimated to be 143 keV/μm with the exposure conditions used in this study. For 56Fe ions, the maximum relative biological effectiveness (RBEmax) values for cell survival and oncogenic transformation were 7.71 and 16.5 respectively. Compared to 150 keV/μm 4He nuclei, high-energy 56Fe nuclei were significantly less effective in cell killing and oncogenic induction. The prostaglandin E1 analog misoprostol, an effective oncoprotector of C3H 10T12 cells exposed to X rays, was evaluated for its potential as a radioprotector of oncogenic transformation with high-energy 56Fe. Exposure of cells to misoprostol did not alter 56Fe cytotoxicity or the rate of 56Fe-induced oncogenic transformation.

  4. Function of oncogenes in cancer development: a changing paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Vicente-Dueñas, Carolina; Romero-Camarero, Isabel; Cobaleda, Cesar; Sánchez-García, Isidro

    2013-01-01

    Tumour-associated oncogenes induce unscheduled proliferation as well as genomic and chromosomal instability. According to current models, therapeutic strategies that block oncogene activity are likely to selectively target tumour cells. However, recent evidences have revealed that oncogenes are only essential for the proliferation of some specific tumour cell types, but not all. Indeed, the latest studies of the interactions between the oncogene and its target cell have shown that oncogenes contribute to cancer development not only by inducing proliferation but also by developmental reprogramming of the epigenome. This provides the first evidence that tumorigenesis can be initiated by stem cell reprogramming, and uncovers a new role for oncogenes in the origin of cancer. Here we analyse these evidences and propose an updated model of oncogene function that can explain the full range of genotype–phenotype associations found in human cancer. Finally, we discuss how this vision opens new avenues for developing novel anti-cancer interventions. PMID:23632857

  5. Ras oncogene and inflammation: partners in crime.

    PubMed

    Sparmann, Anke; Bar-Sagi, Dafna

    2005-06-01

    It is well established that Ras oncogenes facilitate neoplastic conversion by stimulating tumor cell growth, survival and motility. However, current studies have indicated that the role of Ras in malignant transformation extends beyond these cell-intrinsic effects to include the establishment of a pro-tumorigenic host environment. We have recently demonstrated that Ras-induced secretion of the chemokine Interleukin-8 (CXCL-8/IL-8) elicits a local inflammatory reaction that is critical for neo-vascularization and sustained tumor growth. Our data identify a novel mechanism by which the Ras oncogene promotes tumor-host interactions that are essential for cancer progression, and suggest that CXCL-8 could serve as a surrogate marker for in-vivo Ras activity.

  6. Oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes.

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, T A; Reddel, R; Peiifer, A M; Spillare, E; Kaighn, M E; Weston, A; Gerwin, B I; Harris, C C

    1991-01-01

    The functional role of oncogenes in human lung carcinogenesis has been investigated by transfer of activated oncogenes into normal cells or an immortalized bronchial epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B. Transfection of v-Ha-ras, Ki-ras, or the combination of myc and raf into BEAS-2B cells produced tumorigenic cell lines, while transfection of raf or myc alone produced nontumorigenic cell lines. In addition to studying the pathogenic role of oncogenes, we are attempting to define negative growth-regulating genes that have tumor-suppressive effects for human lung carcinomas. Our strategy to identify tumor-suppressor genes involves loss of heterozygosity studies, monochromosome-cell fusion, and cell-cell fusion studies. Loss of heterozygosity studies have revealed consistent allelic DNA sequence deletions on chromosome 17p in squamous cell carcinomas, while large cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas retained this locus. Mutations in p53, a tumor-suppressor gene located on chromosome 17p, have been observed. Cell-cell hybrid clones produced from fusion of nontumorigenic BEAS-2B cells with tumorigenic HuT292DM cells generally are nontumorigenic. The mechanistic role of the known tumor-suppressor genes Rb-1 and p53 in the development of human lung carcinomas is being investigated in this epithelial cell model of human bronchogenic carcinogenesis. PMID:1685442

  7. Oncogenic transformation following sequential irradiations with monoenergetic neutrons and X rays.

    PubMed

    Miller, R C; Geard, C R; Marino, S A; Richards, M; Randers-Pehrson, G

    1991-03-01

    Mouse C3H 10T1/2 cells were exposed sequentially to low doses (0.1 and 0.3 Gy) of monoenergetic neutrons (0.35, 0.45, 5.9, and 13.7 MeV) and 250-kVp X rays (1 and 3 Gy). The incidences of oncogenic transformation in the cells exposed to neutrons followed by X rays indicated that the effects of the individual radiations were simply additive. This supports the contention that risks associated with the two different radiation modalities may be considered to be additive.

  8. Oncogenic and mutagenic effects of UV in mammalian cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, T. C.; Mei, M.; George, K. A.; Craise, L. M.

    Ultraviolet light is present in the solar system and can cause major biological effects. The potential cytotoxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic effects of UV have been studied at cellular and molecular level. Using cultured mouse embryonic fibroblasts (C3H10T1/2), we investigated the induction of mutation and transformation by UV and/or X-rays. Studies were also done with normal human mammary epithelial cells for cell inactivation and mutation induction. Curvlinear dose-response curves were observed for mutation and oncogenic transformation. The interaction between UV and X-rays depends on the sequence of exposure. When UV was given following X-irradiation, there was an additive effect. When UV was given prior to X-irradiation, however, there was a synergistic effect for both cell inactivation and transformation. The basic lesion(s) important for somatic mutation and transformation remains to be determined, and the fundamental mechanism(s) of UV and ionizing radiation interaction remains to be elucidated.

  9. Oncogene activation in spontaneous and chemically induced rodent tumors: implications for risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, S.H.; Stowers, S.J.; Patterson, R.M.; Maronpot, R.R.; Anderson, M.W.

    1988-06-01

    The validity of rodent tumor end points in assessing the potential hazards of chemical exposure to humans is a somewhat controversial but very important issue since most chemicals are classified as potentially hazardous to humans on the basis of long-term carcinogenesis studies in rodents. The ability to distinguish between genotoxic, cytotoxic, or receptor-mediated promotion effects of chemical treatment would aid in the interpretation of rodent carcinogenesis data. Activated oncogenes in spontaneously occurring and chemically induced rodent tumors were examined and compared as one approach to determine the mechanism by which chemical treatment caused an increased incidence of rodent tumors. Different patterns of activated oncogenes were found not only in spontaneous versus chemically induced mouse liver tumors but also in a variety of spontaneous rat tumors versus chemically induced rat lung tumors. In the absence of cytotoxic effects, it could be argued that the chemicals in question activated protooncogenes by a direct genotoxic mechanism. These results provided a basis for the analysis of activated oncogenes in spontaneous and chemically induced rodent tumors to provide information at a molecular level to aid in the extrapolation of rodent carcinogenesis data to human risk assessment.

  10. G protein-coupled receptors as oncogenic signals in glioma: emerging therapeutic avenues.

    PubMed

    Cherry, A E; Stella, N

    2014-10-10

    Gliomas are the most common malignant intracranial tumors. Newly developed targeted therapies for these cancers aim to inhibit oncogenic signals, many of which emanate from receptor tyrosine kinases, including the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR). Unfortunately, the first-generation treatments targeting these oncogenic signals provide little survival benefit in both mouse xenograft models and human patients. The search for new treatment options has uncovered several G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) candidates and generated a growing interest in this class of proteins as alternative therapeutic targets for the treatment of various cancers, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). GPCRs constitute a large family of membrane receptors that influence oncogenic pathways through canonical and non-canonical signaling. Accordingly, evidence indicates that GPCRs display a unique ability to crosstalk with receptor tyrosine kinases, making them important molecular components controlling tumorigenesis. This review summarizes the current research on GPCR functionality in gliomas and explores the potential of modulating these receptors to treat this devastating disease.

  11. G protein-coupled receptors as oncogenic signals in glioma: emerging therapeutic avenues

    PubMed Central

    Cherry, Allison E; Stella, Nephi

    2014-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common malignant intracranial tumors. Newly developed targeted therapies for these cancers aim to inhibit oncogenic signals, many of which emanate from receptor tyrosine kinases, including the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR). Unfortunately, the first generation treatments targeting these oncogenic signals provide little survival benefit in both mouse xenograft models and human patients. The search for new treatment options has uncovered several G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) candidates and generated a growing interest in this class of proteins as alternative therapeutic targets for the treatment of various cancers, including GBM. GPCRs constitute a large family of membrane receptors that influence oncogenic pathways through canonical and non-canonical signaling. Accordingly, evidence indicates that GPCRs display a unique ability to crosstalk with receptor tyrosine kinases, making them important molecular components controlling tumorigenesis. This review summarizes the current research on GPCR functionality in gliomas and explores the potential of modulating these receptors to treat this devastating disease. PMID:25158675

  12. Transglutaminase 2 contributes to a TP53-induced autophagy program to prevent oncogenic transformation.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Shi Yun; Itahana, Yoko; Guo, Alvin Kunyao; Han, Rachel; Iwamoto, Kozue; Nguyen, Hung Thanh; Bao, Yi; Kleiber, Kai; Wu, Ya Jun; Bay, Boon Huat; Voorhoeve, Mathijs; Itahana, Koji

    2016-03-09

    Genetic alterations which impair the function of the TP53 signaling pathway in TP53 wild-type human tumors remain elusive. To identify new components of this pathway, we performed a screen for genes whose loss-of-function debilitated TP53 signaling and enabled oncogenic transformation of human mammary epithelial cells. We identified transglutaminase 2 (TGM2) as a putative tumor suppressor in the TP53 pathway. TGM2 suppressed colony formation in soft agar and tumor formation in a xenograft mouse model. The depletion of growth supplements induced both TGM2 expression and autophagy in a TP53-dependent manner, and TGM2 promoted autophagic flux by enhancing autophagic protein degradation and autolysosome clearance. Reduced expression of both CDKN1A, which regulates the cell cycle downstream of TP53, and TGM2 synergized to promote oncogenic transformation. Our findings suggest that TGM2-mediated autophagy and CDKN1A-mediated cell cycle arrest are two important barriers in the TP53 pathway that prevent oncogenic transformation.

  13. Melanoma: oncogenic drivers and the immune system

    PubMed Central

    Karachaliou, Niki; Pilotto, Sara; Teixidó, Cristina; Viteri, Santiago; González-Cao, María; Riso, Aldo; Morales-Espinosa, Daniela; Molina, Miguel Angel; Chaib, Imane; Santarpia, Mariacarmela; Richardet, Eduardo; Bria, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Advances and in-depth understanding of the biology of melanoma over the past 30 years have contributed to a change in the consideration of melanoma as one of the most therapy-resistant malignancies. The finding that oncogenic BRAF mutations drive tumor growth in up to 50% of melanomas led to a molecular therapy revolution for unresectable and metastatic disease. Moving beyond BRAF, inactivation of immune regulatory checkpoints that limit T cell responses to melanoma has provided targets for cancer immunotherapy. In this review, we discuss the molecular biology of melanoma and we focus on the recent advances of molecularly targeted and immunotherapeutic approaches. PMID:26605311

  14. Different Roles of Negative and Positive Components of the Circadian Clock in Oncogene-induced Neoplastic Transformation.

    PubMed

    Katamune, Chiharu; Koyanagi, Satoru; Shiromizu, Shoya; Matsunaga, Naoya; Shimba, Shigeki; Shibata, Shigenobu; Ohdo, Shigehiro

    2016-05-13

    In mammals, circadian rhythms in physiological function are generated by a molecular oscillator driven by transcriptional-translational feedback loop consisting of negative and positive regulators. Disruption of this circadian clock machinery is thought to increase the risk of cancer development, but the potential contributions of each component of circadian clock to oncogenesis have been little explored. Here we reported that negative and positive transcriptional regulators of circadian feedback loop had different roles in oncogene-induced neoplastic transformation. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts prepared from animals deficient in negative circadian clock regulators, Period2 (Per2) or Cryptochrome1/2 (Cry1/2), were prone to transformation induced by co-expression of H-ras(V12) and SV40 large T antigen (SV40LT). In contrast, mouse embryonic fibroblasts prepared from mice deficient in positive circadian clock regulators, Bmal1 or Clock, showed resistance to oncogene-induced transformation. In Per2 mutant and Cry1/2-null cells, the introduction of oncogenes induced expression of ATF4, a potent repressor of cell senescence-associated proteins p16INK4a and p19ARF. Elevated levels of ATF4 were sufficient to suppress expression of these proteins and drive oncogenic transformation. Conversely, in Bmal1-null and Clock mutant cells, the expression of ATF4 was not induced by oncogene introduction, which allowed constitutive expression of p16INK4a and p19ARF triggering cellular senescence. Although genetic ablation of either negative or positive transcriptional regulators of the circadian clock leads to disrupted rhythms in physiological functions, our findings define their different contributions to neoplastic cellular transformation. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells-dependent Down-regulation of the Transcription Factor Glioma-associated Protein 1 (GLI1) Underlies the Growth Inhibitory Properties of Arachidonic Acid*

    PubMed Central

    Comba, Andrea; Almada, Luciana L.; Tolosa, Ezequiel J.; Iguchi, Eriko; Marks, David L.; Vara Messler, Marianela; Silva, Renata; Fernandez-Barrena, Maite G.; Enriquez-Hesles, Elisa; Vrabel, Anne L.; Botta, Bruno; Di Marcotulio, Lucia; Ellenrieder, Volker; Eynard, Aldo R.; Pasqualini, Maria E.; Fernandez-Zapico, Martin E.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous reports have demonstrated a tumor inhibitory effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). However, the molecular mechanisms modulating this phenomenon are in part poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence of a novel antitumoral mechanism of the PUFA arachidonic acid (AA). In vivo and in vitro experiments showed that AA treatment decreased tumor growth and metastasis and increased apoptosis. Molecular analysis of this effect showed significantly reduced expression of a subset of antiapoptotic proteins, including BCL2, BFL1/A1, and 4-1BB, in AA-treated cells. We demonstrated that down-regulation of the transcription factor glioma-associated protein 1 (GLI1) in AA-treated cells is the underlying mechanism controlling BCL2, BFL1/A1, and 4-1BB expression. Using luciferase reporters, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and expression studies, we found that GLI1 binds to the promoter of these antiapoptotic molecules and regulates their expression and promoter activity. We provide evidence that AA-induced apoptosis and down-regulation of antiapoptotic genes can be inhibited by overexpressing GLI1 in AA-sensitive cells. Conversely, inhibition of GLI1 mimics AA treatments, leading to decreased tumor growth, cell viability, and expression of antiapoptotic molecules. Further characterization showed that AA represses GLI1 expression by stimulating nuclear translocation of NFATc1, which then binds the GLI1 promoter and represses its transcription. AA was shown to increase reactive oxygen species. Treatment with antioxidants impaired the AA-induced apoptosis and down-regulation of GLI1 and NFATc1 activation, indicating that NFATc1 activation and GLI1 repression require the generation of reactive oxygen species. Collectively, these results define a novel mechanism underlying AA antitumoral functions that may serve as a foundation for future PUFA-based therapeutic approaches. PMID:26601952

  16. Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells-dependent Down-regulation of the Transcription Factor Glioma-associated Protein 1 (GLI1) Underlies the Growth Inhibitory Properties of Arachidonic Acid.

    PubMed

    Comba, Andrea; Almada, Luciana L; Tolosa, Ezequiel J; Iguchi, Eriko; Marks, David L; Vara Messler, Marianela; Silva, Renata; Fernandez-Barrena, Maite G; Enriquez-Hesles, Elisa; Vrabel, Anne L; Botta, Bruno; Di Marcotulio, Lucia; Ellenrieder, Volker; Eynard, Aldo R; Pasqualini, Maria E; Fernandez-Zapico, Martin E

    2016-01-22

    Numerous reports have demonstrated a tumor inhibitory effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). However, the molecular mechanisms modulating this phenomenon are in part poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence of a novel antitumoral mechanism of the PUFA arachidonic acid (AA). In vivo and in vitro experiments showed that AA treatment decreased tumor growth and metastasis and increased apoptosis. Molecular analysis of this effect showed significantly reduced expression of a subset of antiapoptotic proteins, including BCL2, BFL1/A1, and 4-1BB, in AA-treated cells. We demonstrated that down-regulation of the transcription factor glioma-associated protein 1 (GLI1) in AA-treated cells is the underlying mechanism controlling BCL2, BFL1/A1, and 4-1BB expression. Using luciferase reporters, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and expression studies, we found that GLI1 binds to the promoter of these antiapoptotic molecules and regulates their expression and promoter activity. We provide evidence that AA-induced apoptosis and down-regulation of antiapoptotic genes can be inhibited by overexpressing GLI1 in AA-sensitive cells. Conversely, inhibition of GLI1 mimics AA treatments, leading to decreased tumor growth, cell viability, and expression of antiapoptotic molecules. Further characterization showed that AA represses GLI1 expression by stimulating nuclear translocation of NFATc1, which then binds the GLI1 promoter and represses its transcription. AA was shown to increase reactive oxygen species. Treatment with antioxidants impaired the AA-induced apoptosis and down-regulation of GLI1 and NFATc1 activation, indicating that NFATc1 activation and GLI1 repression require the generation of reactive oxygen species. Collectively, these results define a novel mechanism underlying AA antitumoral functions that may serve as a foundation for future PUFA-based therapeutic approaches. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Pro-oncogenic and anti-oncogenic pathways: opportunities and challenges of cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiao; Chen, Yan-Hua; Lu, Qun

    2010-01-01

    Carcinogenesis is the uncontrolled growth of cells gaining the potential to invade and disrupt vital tissue functions. This malignant process includes the occurrence of ‘unwanted’ gene mutations that induce the transformation of normal cells, for example, by overactivation of pro-oncogenic pathways and inactivation of tumor-suppressive or anti-oncogenic pathways. It is now recognized that the number of major signaling pathways that control oncogenesis is not unlimited; therefore, suppressing these pathways can conceivably lead to a cancer cure. However, the clinical application of cancer intervention has not matched up to scientific expectations. Increasing numbers of studies have revealed that many oncogenic-signaling elements show double faces, in which they can promote or suppress cancer pathogenesis depending on tissue type, cancer stage, gene dosage and their interaction with other players in carcinogenesis. This complexity of oncogenic signaling poses challenges to traditional cancer therapy and calls for considerable caution when designing an anticancer drug strategy. We propose future oncology interventions with the concept of integrative cancer therapy. PMID:20373871

  18. Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes as paradigms in oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2007-09-01

    Cancer is the result of genetic and epigenetic changes that occur mainly in stem (precursor) cells of various cell types. Two main categories of genes are involved in the process of carcinogenesis. Oncogenes are activated proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes are inactivated by mutation in the global sense, that is point mutation, deletion, rearrangement, and duplication. Both types of genes are required for normal cell proliferation and differentiation and aberrant expression leads to abnormal cell proliferation. Ras and p53 genes are the paradigms for oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, respectively, whereas the oncogenes carried by the human papillomaviruses (HPV) comprise the best example of tumor viruses involvement in human cancer.

  19. Targeting CK2-driven non-oncogene addiction in B-cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Mandato, E; Manni, S; Zaffino, F; Semenzato, G; Piazza, F

    2016-11-24

    Genetic mutations of oncogenes often underlie deranged cell growth and altered differentiation pathways leading to malignant transformation of B-lymphocytes. However, addiction to oncogenes is not the only drive to lymphoid tumor pathogenesis. Dependence on non-oncogenes, which act by propelling basic mechanisms of cell proliferation and survival, has also been recognized in the pathobiology of lymphoid leukemias, lymphomas and multiple myeloma. Among the growing number of molecules that may uphold non-oncogene addiction, a key place is increasingly being recognized to the serine-threonine kinase CK2. This enzyme is overexpressed and overactive in B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia, multiple myeloma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphomas, such as mantle cell, follicular, Burkitt's and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. In these tumors, CK2 may serve the activity of oncogenes, similar to BCR-ABL and c-MYC, control the activation of critical signaling cascades, such as NF-κB (nuclear factor-κB), STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) and PTEN/PI3K/AKT (phosphatase and tensin homolog protein/phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKR thymoma), and sustain multiple cellular stress-elicited pathways, such as the proteotoxic stress, unfolded protein and DNA-damage responses. CK2 has also been shown to have an essential role in tuning signals derived from the stromal tumor microenvironment. Not surprisingly, targeting CK2 in lymphoid tumor cell lines or mouse xenograft models can boost the cytotoxic effects of both conventional chemotherapeutics and novel agents, similar to heat-shock protein 90, proteasome and tyrosine kinases inhibitors. In this review, we summarize the evidence indicating how CK2 embodies most of the features of a cancer growth-promoting non-oncogene, focusing on lymphoid tumors. We further discuss the preclinical data of the use of small ATP-competitive CK2 inhibitors, which hold the promise to be additional options in novel drug

  20. Oncogenic activation of NF-kappaB.

    PubMed

    Staudt, Louis M

    2010-06-01

    Recent genetic evidence has established a pathogenetic role for NF-kappaB signaling in cancer. NF-kappaB signaling is engaged transiently when normal B lymphocytes respond to antigens, but lymphomas derived from these cells accumulate genetic lesions that constitutively activate NF-kappaB signaling. Many genetic aberrations in lymphomas alter CARD11, MALT1, or BCL10, which constitute a signaling complex that is intermediate between the B-cell receptor and IkappaB kinase. The activated B-cell-like subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma activates NF-kappaB by a variety of mechanisms including oncogenic mutations in CARD11 and a chronic active form of B-cell receptor signaling. Normal plasma cells activate NF-kappaB in response to ligands in the bone marrow microenvironment, but their malignant counterpart, multiple myeloma, sustains a variety of genetic hits that stabilize the kinase NIK, leading to constitutive activation of the classical and alternative NF-kappaB pathways. Various oncogenic abnormalities in epithelial cancers, including mutant K-ras, engage unconventional IkappaB kinases to activate NF-kappaB. Inhibition of constitutive NF-kappaB signaling in each of these cancer types induces apoptosis, providing a rationale for the development of NF-kappaB pathway inhibitors for the treatment of cancer.

  1. Oncogenic regulation of tumor metabolic reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Tarrado-Castellarnau, Míriam; de Atauri, Pedro; Cascante, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Development of malignancy is accompanied by a complete metabolic reprogramming closely related to the acquisition of most of cancer hallmarks. In fact, key oncogenic pathways converge to adapt the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids to the dynamic tumor microenvironment, conferring a selective advantage to cancer cells. Therefore, metabolic properties of tumor cells are significantly different from those of non-transformed cells. In addition, tumor metabolic reprogramming is linked to drug resistance in cancer treatment. Accordingly, metabolic adaptations are specific vulnerabilities that can be used in different therapeutic approaches for cancer therapy. In this review, we discuss the dysregulation of the main metabolic pathways that enable cell transformation and its association with oncogenic signaling pathways, focusing on the effects of c-MYC, hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF1), phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), and the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) on cancer cell metabolism. Elucidating these connections is of crucial importance to identify new targets and develop selective cancer treatments that improve response to therapy and overcome the emerging resistance to chemotherapeutics. PMID:28040803

  2. Oncogenic KRAS signalling in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Eser, S; Schnieke, A; Schneider, G; Saur, D

    2014-08-26

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is almost universally fatal. The annual number of deaths equals the number of newly diagnosed cases, despite maximal treatment. The overall 5-year survival rate of <5% has remained stubbornly unchanged over the last 30 years, despite tremendous efforts in preclinical and clinical science. There is unquestionably an urgent need to further improve our understanding of pancreatic cancer biology, treatment response and relapse, and to identify novel therapeutic targets. Rigorous research in the field has uncovered genetic aberrations that occur during PDAC development and progression. In most cases, PDAC is initiated by oncogenic mutant KRAS, which has been shown to drive pancreatic neoplasia. However, all attempts to target KRAS directly have failed in the clinic and KRAS is widely assumed to be undruggable. This has led to intense efforts to identify druggable critical downstream targets and nodes orchestrated by mutationally activated KRAS. This includes context-specific KRAS effector pathways, synthetic lethal interaction partners and KRAS-driven metabolic changes. Here, we review recent advances in oncogenic KRAS signalling and discuss how these might benefit PDAC treatment in the future.

  3. The modulation of apoptosis by oncogenic viruses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Transforming viruses can change a normal cell into a cancer cell during their normal life cycle. Persistent infections with these viruses have been recognized to cause some types of cancer. These viruses have been implicated in the modulation of various biological processes, such as proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The study of infections caused by oncogenic viruses had helped in our understanding of several mechanisms that regulate cell growth, as well as the molecular alterations leading to cancer. Therefore, transforming viruses provide models of study that have enabled the advances in cancer research. Viruses with transforming abilities, include different members of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) family, Hepatitis C virus (HCV), Human T-cell Leukemia virus (HTLV-1), Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi’s Sarcoma Herpesvirus (KSHV). Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a tightly regulated process that plays an important role in development and homeostasis. Additionally, it functions as an antiviral defense mechanism. The deregulation of apoptosis has been implicated in the etiology of diverse diseases, including cancer. Oncogenic viruses employ different mechanisms to inhibit the apoptotic process, allowing the propagation of infected and damaged cells. During this process, some viral proteins are able to evade the immune system, while others can directly interact with the caspases involved in apoptotic signaling. In some instances, viral proteins can also promote apoptosis, which may be necessary for an accurate regulation of the initial stages of infection. PMID:23741982

  4. Acute sensitivity of the oral mucosa to oncogenic K-ras

    PubMed Central

    van der Weyden, Louise; Alcolea, Maria P; Jones, Philip H; Rust, Alistair G; Arends, Mark J; Adams, David J

    2011-01-01

    Mouse models of cancer represent powerful tools for analysing the role of genetic alterations in carcinogenesis. Using a mouse model that allows tamoxifen-inducible somatic activation (by Cre-mediated recombination) of oncogenic K-rasG12D in a wide range of tissues, we observed hyperplasia of squamous epithelium located in moist or frequently abraded mucosa, with the most dramatic effects in the oral mucosa. This epithelium showed a sequence of squamous hyperplasia followed by squamous papilloma with dysplasia, in which some areas progressed to early invasive squamous cell carcinoma, within 14 days of widespread oncogenic K-ras activation. The marked proliferative response of the oral mucosa to K-rasG12D was most evident in the basal layers of the squamous epithelium of the outer lip with hair follicles and wet mucosal surface, with these cells staining positively for pAKT and cyclin D1, showing Ras/AKT pathway activation and increased proliferation with Ki-67 and EdU positivity. The stromal cells also showed gene activation by recombination and immunopositivity for pERK indicating K-Ras/ERK pathway activation, but without Ki-67 positivity or increase in stromal proliferation. The oral neoplasms showed changes in the expression pattern of cytokeratins (CK6 and CK13), similar to those observed in human oral tumours. Sporadic activation of the K-rasG12D allele (due to background spontaneous recombination in occasional cells) resulted in the development of benign oral squamous papillomas only showing a mild degree of dysplasia with no invasion. In summary, we show that oral mucosa is acutely sensitive to oncogenic K-ras, as widespread expression of activated K-ras in the murine oral mucosal squamous epithelium and underlying stroma can drive the oral squamous papilloma–carcinoma sequence. Copyright © 2011 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:21381032

  5. The oncogenic role of the ETS transcription factors MEF and ERG.

    PubMed

    Sashida, Goro; Bazzoli, Elena; Menendez, Silvia; Liu, Yan; Nimer, Stephen D

    2010-09-01

    Several ETS transcription factors, including MEF/ELF4 and ERG, can function as oncogenes and are overexpressed in human cancer. MEF cooperates in tumorigenesis in retroviral insertional mutagenesis-based mouse models of cancer and MEF is overexpressed in human lymphoma and ovarian cancer tissues via unknown mechanisms. ERG (Ets related gene) overexpression or increased activity has been found in various human cancers, including sarcomas, acute myeloid leukemia and prostate cancer, where the ERG gene is rearranged due to chromosomal translocations. We have been examining how MEF functions as an oncogene and recently showed that MEF can cooperate with H-Ras(G12V) and can inhibit both p53 and p16 expression thereby promoting transformation. In fact, in cells lacking p53, the absence of Mef abrogates H-Ras(G12V)-induced transformation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts, at least in part due to increased p16 expression. We discuss the known mechanisms by which the ETS transcription factors MEF and ERG contribute to the malignant transformation of cells.

  6. Development of a highly efficient expression cDNA cloning system: application to oncogene isolation.

    PubMed Central

    Miki, T; Fleming, T P; Crescenzi, M; Molloy, C J; Blam, S B; Reynolds, S H; Aaronson, S A

    1991-01-01

    We developed an expression cDNA cloning system capable of generating high-complexity libraries with unidirectionally inserted cDNA fragments and allowing efficient plasmid rescue. As an application of this system, a cDNA library was constructed from an NIH 3T3 transformant induced by mouse hepatocellular carcinoma DNA. Transfection of NIH 3T3 cells by the library DNA led to the detection of several transformed foci from which identical plasmids with transforming ability could be rescued. Structure and sequence analysis of the cDNA clones revealed that the oncogene was created by recombinational events involving an unknown gene and the mouse homologue of the B-raf protooncogene. Detection of the same genetic rearrangement in independent primary transformants implied that generation of the oncogene occurred within the tumor rather than during DNA transfection or cDNA library construction. The high frequency at which clones were identified and the large sizes of some of the transforming cDNA inserts isolated suggest wide applicability of this mammalian expression cloning system for isolating cDNAs of biologic interest. Images PMID:2052597

  7. [Oncogenes and the origin of leukemia. Acute avian leukemia viruses].

    PubMed

    Graf, T

    1988-03-01

    Oncogenes have been intimately associated with the genesis of human neoplasms. A particularly useful system to study the mechanism of tumorigenesis is a small group of avian retroviruses that carry two oncogenes. These viruses causes acute leukemias and can transform hematopoietic cells in vitro. The mechanisms by which viral oncogenes affect the growth control and differentiation of their target cells is now understood in fair detail for two of these virus strains. In the avian erythroblastosis virus AEV, the v-erbB oncogene deregulates the growth control of erythroid precursors, while verbA blocks their terminal differentiation into erythrocytes. Based on the findings that v-erbB oncogene corresponds to a mutated growth factor receptor gene and that v-erbA corresponds to a mutated hormone receptor gene, models have been developed that explain the function of these two oncogenes on a molecular basis. The myelomonocytic leukemia virus MH2 acts by a completely different mechanism. In this case, the v-myc oncogene stimulates the proliferation of macrophage-like cells, while the v-mil gene stimulates them to produce their own growth factor, thus leading to autocrine growth. It will be interesting to determine whether the type of mechanisms of oncogene cooperativity elucidated for acute leukemia viruses are also operative during leukemogenesis in humans.

  8. Characteristics of the mouse genomic histamine H1 receptor gene

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Isao; Taniuchi, Ichiro; Kitamura, Daisuke

    1996-08-15

    We report here the molecular cloning of a mouse histamine H1 receptor gene. The protein deduced from the nucleotide sequence is composed of 488 amino acid residues with characteristic properties of GTP binding protein-coupled receptors. Our results suggest that the mouse histamine H1 receptor gene is a single locus, and no related sequences were detected. Interspecific backcross analysis indicated that the mouse histamine H1 receptor gene (Hrh1) is located in the central region of mouse Chromosome 6 linked to microphthalmia (Mitfmi), ras-related fibrosarcoma oncogene 1 (Raf1), and ret proto-oncogene (Ret) in a region of homology with human chromosome 3p. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Oncogenic pathways implicated in ovarian epithelial cancer.

    PubMed

    Nicosia, Santo V; Bai, Wenlong; Cheng, Jin Q; Coppola, Domenico; Kruk, Patricia A

    2003-08-01

    Characterization of intracellular signaling pathways should lead to a better understanding of ovarian epithelial carcinogenesis and provide an opportunity to interfere with signal transduction targets involved in ovarian tumor cell growth, survival, and progression. Challenges toward such an effort are significant because many of these signals are part of cascades within an intricate and likely redundant intracellular signaling network (Fig.1). For instance, a given signal may activate a dual intracellular pathway (ie, MEK1-MAPK and PI3K/Akt required for fibronectin-dependent activation of matrix metalloproteinase 9). A single pathway also may transduce more than one biologic or oncogenic signal (ie, PI3K signaling in epithelial and endothelial cell growth and sprouting of neovessels). Despite these challenges, evidence for therapeutic targeting of signal transduction pathways is accumulating in human cancer. For instance, the EGF-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor ZD 1839 (Iressa) may have a beneficial therapeutic effect on ovarian epithelial cancer. Therapy of this cancer may include inhibitors of PI kinase (quercetin), ezrin and PIP kinase (genistein). The G protein-coupled family of receptors, including LPA, also is an attractive target to drugs, although their frequent pleiotropic functions may be at times toxic and lack specificity. Because of the lack of notable toxicity, PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitors such as FTIs are a promising targeted therapy of ovarian epithelial cancer. Increasing insight into the oncogenic pathways involved in ovarian epithelial cancer also is helping clinicians to understand better the phenomenon of chemoresistance in this malignancy. Oncogenic activation of gamma-synuclein promotes cell survival and provides resistance to paclitaxel, but such a resistance is partially overcome by an MEK inhibitor that suppresses ERK activity. Ovarian epithelial cancer is a complex group of neoplasms with an overall poor prognosis. Comprehension of

  10. The Exceptional Oncogenicity of HTLV-1.

    PubMed

    Tagaya, Yutaka; Gallo, Robert C

    2017-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1) is the first pathogenic human retrovirus identified in 1979 by the Gallo group. HTLV-1 causes fatal T-cell leukemia (adult T cell leukemia) and a progressive myelopahy (HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/ tropical spastic paraparesis, HAM/TSP) and other disorders. Since the discovery of HTLV-1, several other microorganisms are demonstrated to cause cancer in humans. In this article, we investigated the oncogenic capacity of HTLV-1, in comparison with those of other oncoviruses and one oncobacterium (Helicobacter pylori, H. Pylori) based on published literature. We conclude here that HTLV-1 is one of the most and may be the most carcinogenic among them and arguably one of the most potent of the known human carcinogens. This fact has not been noted before and is particularly important to justify why we need to study HTLV-1 as an important model of human viral oncogenesis.

  11. Hedgehog Cholesterolysis: Specialized Gatekeeper to Oncogenic Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Brian P.; Wang, Chunyu

    2015-01-01

    Discussions of therapeutic suppression of hedgehog (Hh) signaling almost exclusively focus on receptor antagonism; however, hedgehog’s biosynthesis represents a unique and potentially targetable aspect of this oncogenic signaling pathway. Here, we review a key biosynthetic step called cholesterolysis from the perspectives of structure/function and small molecule inhibition. Cholesterolysis, also called cholesteroylation, generates cholesterol-modified Hh ligand via autoprocessing of a hedgehog precursor protein. Post-translational modification by cholesterol appears to be restricted to proteins in the hedgehog family. The transformation is essential for Hh biological activity and upstream of signaling events. Despite its decisive role in generating ligand, cholesterolysis remains conspicuously unexplored as a therapeutic target. PMID:26473928

  12. CDC25 phosphatases as potential human oncogenes.

    PubMed

    Galaktionov, K; Lee, A K; Eckstein, J; Draetta, G; Meckler, J; Loda, M; Beach, D

    1995-09-15

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are activated by CDC25 phosphatases, which remove inhibitory phosphate from tyrosine and threonine residues. In human cells, CDC25 proteins are encoded by a multigene family, consisting of CDC25A, CDC25B, and CDC25C. In rodent cells, human CDC25A or CDC25B but not CDC25C phosphatases cooperate with either Ha-RASG12V or loss of RB1 in oncogenic focus formation. Such transformants were highly aneuploid, grew in soft agar, and formed high-grade tumors in nude mice. Overexpression of CDC25B was detected in 32 percent of human primary breast cancers tested. The CDC25 phosphatases may contribute to the development of human cancer.

  13. K-ras oncogene mutation in pterygium.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, B T; Yıldırım, M S; Zamani, A; Bozkurt, B

    2017-03-01

    PurposePterygium is claimed to be a benign proliferation triggered by prolonged exposure to ultraviolet radiation. The frequency of K-ras oncogene mutation, which is among the initial mutations in tumorigenesis, is evaluated in this study.Patients and methodsIn this prospective randomized clinical, trial pterygium tissues and normal conjunctiva tissue specimens are obtained from the superotemporal quadrant of patients who underwent primary pterygium excision with autograft transplantation. DNA extraction from tissues was performed using the QIAamp DNA FFPE tissue kit. A PCR reaction was performed to amplify sequences containing codons 12, 13, and 61 of the K-ras gene in DNA. These PCR products then underwent the 'pyrosequencing' procedure for mutations at these codons.ResultsPterygium and normal conjunctival tissue samples of 25 patients (10 females, 15 males) were evaluated in the study. The mean age of the patients was 54.54±13.13 years. Genetic analysis revealed no K-ras mutations in normal conjunctival tissues, whereas pterygium tissues of the same cases demonstrated mutation at codon 12 in one case and mutations at codon 61 in seven cases, which was statistically significant (P<0.05). The point missense mutations at codon 61 were glutamine to arginine (Glu61Arg CAA>CGA) in four cases and glutamine to leucine (Glu61Leu CAA>CTA) in three cases.ConclusionThe significantly higher frequency of codon 61 mutation of the ras oncogene in primary and bilateral pterygium specimens compared with normal conjunctiva supports the tumoral origin of pterygium, and thus set the stage for research into a targeted therapy for pterygium with better outcomes than surgical excision.

  14. Glycerophospholipid profile in oncogene-induced senescence.

    PubMed

    Cadenas, Cristina; Vosbeck, Sonja; Hein, Eva-Maria; Hellwig, Birte; Langer, Alice; Hayen, Heiko; Franckenstein, Dennis; Büttner, Bettina; Hammad, Seddik; Marchan, Rosemarie; Hermes, Matthias; Selinski, Silvia; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Peksel, Begüm; Török, Zsolt; Vígh, László; Hengstler, Jan G

    2012-09-01

    Alterations in lipid metabolism and in the lipid composition of cellular membranes are linked to the pathology of numerous diseases including cancer. However, the influence of oncogene expression on cellular lipid profile is currently unknown. In this work we analyzed changes in lipid profiles that are induced in the course of ERBB2-expression mediated premature senescence. As a model system we used MCF-7 breast cancer cells with doxycycline-inducible expression of NeuT, an oncogenic ERBB2 variant. Affymetrix gene array data showed NeuT-induced alterations in the transcription of many enzymes involved in lipid metabolism, several of which (ACSL3, CHPT1, PLD1, LIPG, MGLL, LDL and NPC1) could be confirmed by quantitative realtime PCR. A study of the glycerophospholipid and lyso-glycerophospholipid profiles, obtained by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry revealed senescence-associated changes in numerous lipid species, including mitochondrial lipids. The most prominent changes were found in PG(34:1), PG(36:1) (increased) and LPE(18:1), PG(40:7) and PI(36:1) (decreased). Statistical analysis revealed a general trend towards shortened phospholipid acyl chains in senescence and a significant trend to more saturated acyl chains in the class of phosphatidylglycerol. Additionally, the cellular cholesterol content was elevated and accumulated in vacuoles in senescent cells. These changes were accompanied by increased membrane fluidity. In mitochondria, loss of membrane potential along with altered intracellular distribution was observed. In conclusion, we present a comprehensive overview of altered cholesterol and glycerophospholipid patterns in senescence, showing that predominantly mitochondrial lipids are affected and lipid species less susceptible to peroxidation are increased.

  15. The transcription factor LSF: a novel oncogene for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Santhekadur, Prasanna K; Rajasekaran, Devaraja; Siddiq, Ayesha; Gredler, Rachel; Chen, Dong; Schaus, Scott E; Hansen, Ulla; Fisher, Paul B; Sarkar, Devanand

    2012-01-01

    The transcription factor LSF (Late SV40 Factor), also known as TFCP2, belongs to the LSF/CP2 family related to Grainyhead family of proteins and is involved in many biological events, including regulation of cellular and viral promoters, cell cycle, DNA synthesis, cell survival and Alzheimer’s disease. Our recent studies establish an oncogenic role of LSF in Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). LSF overexpression is detected in human HCC cell lines and in more than 90% cases of human HCC patients, compared to normal hepatocytes and liver, and its expression level showed significant correlation with the stages and grades of the disease. Forced overexpression of LSF in less aggressive HCC cells resulted in highly aggressive, angiogenic and multi-organ metastatic tumors in nude mice. Conversely, inhibition of LSF significantly abrogated growth and metastasis of highly aggressive HCC cells in nude mice. Microarray studies revealed that as a transcription factor LSF modulated specific genes regulating invasion, angiogenesis, chemoresistance and senescence. LSF transcriptionally regulates thymidylate synthase (TS) gene, thus contributing to cell cycle regulation and chemoresistance. Our studies identify a network of proteins, including osteopontin (OPN), Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), c-Met and complement factor H (CFH), that are directly regulated by LSF and play important role in LSF-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. A high throughput screening identified small molecule inhibitors of LSF DNA binding and the prototype of these molecules, Factor Quinolinone inhibitor 1 (FQI1), profoundly inhibited cell viability and induced apoptosis in human HCC cells without exerting harmful effects to normal immortal human hepatocytes and primary mouse hepatocytes. In nude mice xenograft studies, FQI1 markedly inhibited growth of human HCC xenografts as well as angiogenesis without exerting any toxicity. These studies establish a key role of LSF in hepatocarcinogenesis and usher in a

  16. Novel Oncogenic PDGFRA Mutations in Pediatric High-Grade Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Paugh, Barbara S.; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Qu, Chunxu; Endersby, Raelene; Diaz, Alexander K.; Zhang, Junyuan; Bax, Dorine A.; Carvalho, Diana; Reis, Rui M.; Onar-Thomas, Arzu; Broniscer, Alberto; Wetmore, Cynthia; Zhang, Jinghui; Jones, Chris; Ellison, David W.; Baker, Suzanne J.

    2013-01-01

    The outcome for children with high-grade gliomas (HGG) remains dismal, with a two-year survival rate of only 10–30%. Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) comprise a subset of HGG that arise in brainstem almost exclusively in children. Genome-wide analyses of copy number imbalances previously showed that platelet derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) is the most frequent target of focal amplification in pediatric HGGs, including DIPGs. To determine whether PDGFRA is also targeted by more subtle mutations missed by copy number analysis, we sequenced all PDGFRA coding exons from a cohort of pediatric HGGs. Somatic activating mutations were identified in 14.4% (13/90) of non-brainstem pediatric HGGs and 4.7% (2/43) of DIPGs, including missense mutations and in-frame deletions and insertions not previously described. 40% of tumors with mutation showed concurrent amplification, while 60% carried heterozygous mutations. Six different mutations impacting different domains all resulted in ligand-independent receptor activation that was blocked by small molecule inhibitors of PDGFR. Expression of mutants in p53-null primary mouse astrocytes conferred a proliferative advantage in vitro, and generated HGGs in vivo with complete penetrance when implanted into brain. The gene expression signatures of these murine HGGs reflected the spectrum of human diffuse HGGs. PDGFRA intragenic deletion of exons 8 and 9 were previously shown in adult HGG, but were not detected in 83 non-brainstem pediatric HGG and 57 DIPGs. Thus, a distinct spectrum of mutations confers constitutive receptor activation and oncogenic activity to PDGFRα in childhood HGG. PMID:23970477

  17. ELF4/MEF activates MDM2 expression and blocks oncogene-induced p16 activation to promote transformation.

    PubMed

    Sashida, Goro; Liu, Yan; Elf, Shannon; Miyata, Yasuhiko; Ohyashiki, Kazuma; Izumi, Miki; Menendez, Silvia; Nimer, Stephen D

    2009-07-01

    Several ETS transcription factors, including ELF4/MEF, can function as oncogenes in murine cancer models and are overexpressed in human cancer. We found that Elf4/Mef activates Mdm2 expression; thus, lack of or knockdown of Elf4/Mef reduces Mdm2 levels in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (mef's), leading to enhanced p53 protein accumulation and p53-dependent senescence. Even though p53 is absent in Elf4(-/-) p53(-/-) mef's, neither oncogenic H-Ras(V12) nor c-myc can induce transformation of these cells. This appears to relate to the INK4a/ARF locus; both p19(ARF) and p16 are increased in Elf4(-/-) p53(-/-) mef's, and expression of Bmi-1 or knockdown of p16 in this context restores H-Ras(V12)-induced transformation. Thus, ELF4/MEF promotes tumorigenesis by inhibiting both the p53 and p16/Rb pathways.

  18. Activation of ras oncogenes preceding the onset of neoplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Barbacid, M. ); Sukumar, S. )

    1990-06-01

    The identification of ras oncogenes in human and animal cancers including precancerous lesions indicates that these genes participate in the early stages of neoplastic development. Yet, these observations do not define the timing of ras oncogene activation in the multistep process of carcinogenesis. To ascertain the timing of ras oncogene activation, an animal model system was devised that involves the induction of mammary carcinomas in rats exposed at birth to the carcinogen nitrosomethylurea. High-resolution restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified ras sequences revealed the presence of both H-ras and K-ras oncogenes in normal mammary glands 2 weeks after carcinogen treatment and at least 2 months before the onset of neoplasia. These ras oncogenes can remain latent within the mammary gland until exposure to estrogens, demonstrating that activation of ras oncogenes can precede the onset of neoplasia and suggesting that normal physiological proliferative processes such as estrogen-induced mammary gland development may lead to neoplasia if the targeted cells harbor latent ras oncogenes.

  19. Lovastatin, a cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor, inhibits the growth of human H-ras oncogene transformed cells in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Sebti, S M; Tkalcevic, G T; Jani, J P

    1991-05-01

    Post-translational modification of oncogenic p21ras proteins with farnesyl, a lipid intermediate in cholesterol biosynthesis, is required for p21ras membrane association and for the ability of p21ras to transform cultured cells. We have tested the ability of lovastatin, a specific inhibitor of cholesterol biosynthesis, to inhibit the growth of ras oncogene-transformed cells in vivo. Balb/c mouse 3T3 cells, transfected with H-ras oncogene from human EJ bladder carcinoma, were highly tumorigenic in nude mice. Immunoprecipitation studies with transformed EJ cells showed that lovastatin (1-100 microM) inhibited p21ras membrane association in a concentration-dependent manner and that a 10 microM concentration reduced the amount of p21ras bound to the membrane by 50%. Lovastatin also inhibited EJ cell growth in a concentration range that closely paralleled that required for inhibition of p21ras membrane association. Treatment of nude mice bearing subcutaneous (s.c.) EJ tumors with lovastatin (50 mg/kg) significantly inhibited the abilities of these tumors to grow as early as four days and, by day 12, the lovastatin treated group of animals had tumors with an average size that was 3-fold smaller than those in the saline treated group. Western blotting studies showed that lovastatin (50 mg/kg) was also able to inhibit p21ras membrane association in EJ tumors implanted s.c. in nude mice. These results demonstrate that lovastatin, an inhibitor of cholesterol biosynthesis, inhibited in vivo tumor growth of H-ras oncogene transformed cells. The results also suggest that inhibition of p21ras membrane association, an essential step in ras oncogene neoplastic transformation, is one mechanism by which lovastatin may express its antitumor activity.

  20. The oncogenic action of ionizing radiation on rat skin

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    Progress has occurred in several areas corresponding to the specific aims of the proposal: (1) Progression and multiple events in radiation carcinogenesis of rat skin as a function of LET; (2) cell cycle kinetics of irradiated rat epidermis as determined by double labeling and double emulsion autoradiography; (3) oncogene activation detected by in situ hybridization in radiation-induced rat skin tumors; (4) amplification of the c-myc oncogene in radiation-induced rat skin tumors as a function of LET; and (5) transformation of rat skin keratinocytes by ionizing radiation in combination with c-Ki-ras and c-myc oncogenes. 111 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs.

  1. Oncogenic ras-driven cancer cell vesiculation leads to emission of double-stranded DNA capable of interacting with target cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Tae Hoon; Chennakrishnaiah, Shilpa; Audemard, Eric; Montermini, Laura; Meehan, Brian; Rak, Janusz

    2014-08-22

    Highlights: • Oncogenic H-ras stimulates emission of extracellular vesicles containing double-stranded DNA. • Vesicle-associated extracellular DNA contains mutant N-ras sequences. • Vesicles mediate intercellular transfer of mutant H-ras DNA to normal fibroblasts where it remains for several weeks. • Fibroblasts exposed to vesicles containing H-ras DNA exhibit increased proliferation. - Abstract: Cell free DNA is often regarded as a source of genetic cancer biomarkers, but the related mechanisms of DNA release, composition and biological activity remain unclear. Here we show that rat epithelial cell transformation by the human H-ras oncogene leads to an increase in production of small, exosomal-like extracellular vesicles by viable cancer cells. These EVs contain chromatin-associated double-stranded DNA fragments covering the entire host genome, including full-length H-ras. Oncogenic N-ras and SV40LT sequences were also found in EVs emitted from spontaneous mouse brain tumor cells. Disruption of acidic sphingomyelinase and the p53/Rb pathway did not block emission of EV-related oncogenic DNA. Exposure of non-transformed RAT-1 cells to EVs containing mutant H-ras DNA led to the uptake and retention of this material for an extended (30 days) but transient period of time, and stimulated cell proliferation. Thus, our study suggests that H-ras-mediated transformation stimulates vesicular emission of this histone-bound oncogene, which may interact with non-transformed cells.

  2. The malignant conversion step of mouse skin carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Yuspa, S.H.; Hennings, H.; Roop, D.; Strickland, J.; Greenhalgh, D.A. )

    1990-08-01

    Multiple benign squamous papillomas commonly precede the development of an occasional squamous cell carcinoma in mouse skin carcinogenesis. The incidence of carcinomas can be enhanced by treating papilloma-bearing mice with mutagens such as urethane, nitroquinoline-N-oxide, or cisplatinum. This observation suggests that a genetic change is required for malignant conversion. The malignant phenotype is characterized by a marked reduction in the transcription of specific epidermal differentiation markers, a pattern which is useful for the early diagnosis of malignant conversion. Cells expressing a benign phenotype can be obtained by introducing the v-ras{sup Ha} oncogene into cultured epidermal cells by a replication-defective retrovirus. Alternatively, benign tumor cells can be cultured from papillomas induced by chemical carcinogens in vivo or from carcinogen-treated mouse epidermis. In all cases, the benign phenotype in vitro is characterized by an altered biological response to changes in extracellular calcium, an important determinant of the differentiation state of cultured normal keratinocytes. Transfection of cloned plasmid DNA into benign tumor cells has revealed that transforming constructs of the fos oncogene induce malignant conversion, whereas myc and adenovirus E1A oncogenes do not. Cultured normal epidermal cells, exposed to the v-ras and the v-fos oncogenes simultaneously, are malignantly transformed. Alone, the fos oncogene does not detectably alter the phenotype of normal keratinocytes. These studies indicate that a limited number of genes is involved in epidermal carcinogenesis.

  3. SBRT for oligoprogressive oncogene addicted NSCLC.

    PubMed

    Basler, L; Kroeze, S G C; Guckenberger, M

    2017-04-01

    Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death in men and women and treatment outcome continues to lag behind other common cancer types. A subset of lung adenocarcinoma patients exhibit a somatic mutation in EGFR or an ALK rearrangement. In these patients, targeted TKI therapy results in higher response rates, improved PFS and reduced side effects compared with platinum-based chemotherapy. Despite initial activity of the TKIs, ultimately all patients present with disease progression after about a year on TKI therapy due to resistance development. About 15-47% of patients present with limited oligoprogressive disease (OPD): such patients show only a limited number of metastases with progression in radiological imaging. Radical local treatment to all oligoprogressive lesions is thought to eradicate the de-differentiated clones and restore overall sensitivity of the metastatic disease. Retrospective studies suggest that aggressive local treatment using stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), surgery or others can be used to eradicate TKI-resistant subpopulations enabling prolonged TKI treatment "beyond progression", which may lead to increased PFS and overall survival. This review focuses on the biological background of resistance development, systemic and local treatment options with a focus on SBRT, as well as challenges in defining the state of OPD and current clinical studies in oligoprogressive oncogene addicted NSCLC.

  4. Oncogenic senescence: a multi-functional perspective

    PubMed Central

    van Deursen, Jan M.; Campisi, Judith; Hildesheim, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    Cellular senescence is defined as an irreversible growth arrest with the acquisition of a distinctive secretome. The growth arrest is a potent anticancer mechanism whereas the secretome facilitates wound healing, tissue repair, and development. The senescence response has also become increasingly recognized as an important contributor to aging and age-related diseases, including cancer. Although oncogenic mutations are capable of inducing a beneficial senescence response that prevents the growth of premalignant cells and promotes cancer immune-surveillance, the secretome of senescent cells also includes factors with pro-tumorigenic properties. On June 23rd and 24th, 2016, the Division of Cancer Biology of the National Cancer Institute sponsored a workshop to discuss the complex role of cellular senescence in tumorigenesis with the goal to define the major challenges and opportunities within this important field of cancer research. Additionally, it was noted how the development of novel tools and technologies are required to accelerate research into a mechanistic understanding of senescent cells in carcinogenesis in order to overcome the current limitations in this exciting, yet ill-defined area. PMID:28416761

  5. Oncogenes: The Passport for Viral Oncolysis Through PKR Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Janaina

    2016-01-01

    The transforming properties of oncogenes are derived from gain-of-function mutations, shifting cell signaling from highly regulated homeostatic to an uncontrolled oncogenic state, with the contribution of the inactivating mutations in tumor suppressor genes P53 and RB, leading to tumor resistance to conventional and target-directed therapy. On the other hand, this scenario fulfills two requirements for oncolytic virus infection in tumor cells: inactivation of tumor suppressors and presence of oncoproteins, also the requirements to engage malignancy. Several of these oncogenes have a negative impact on the main interferon antiviral defense, the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR), which helps viruses to spontaneously target tumor cells instead of normal cells. This review is focused on the negative impact of overexpression of oncogenes on conventional and targeted therapy and their positive impact on viral oncolysis due to their ability to inhibit PKR-induced translation blockage, allowing virion release and cell death. PMID:27486347

  6. Oncogenes: The Passport for Viral Oncolysis Through PKR Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Janaina

    2016-01-01

    The transforming properties of oncogenes are derived from gain-of-function mutations, shifting cell signaling from highly regulated homeostatic to an uncontrolled oncogenic state, with the contribution of the inactivating mutations in tumor suppressor genes P53 and RB, leading to tumor resistance to conventional and target-directed therapy. On the other hand, this scenario fulfills two requirements for oncolytic virus infection in tumor cells: inactivation of tumor suppressors and presence of oncoproteins, also the requirements to engage malignancy. Several of these oncogenes have a negative impact on the main interferon antiviral defense, the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR), which helps viruses to spontaneously target tumor cells instead of normal cells. This review is focused on the negative impact of overexpression of oncogenes on conventional and targeted therapy and their positive impact on viral oncolysis due to their ability to inhibit PKR-induced translation blockage, allowing virion release and cell death.

  7. Oncogenic Kras is required for both the initiation and maintenance of pancreatic cancer in mice

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Meredith A.; Bednar, Filip; Zhang, Yaqing; Brisset, Jean-Christophe; Galbán, Stefanie; Galbán, Craig J.; Rakshit, Sabita; Flannagan, Karen S.; Adsay, N. Volkan; Pasca di Magliano, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is almost invariably associated with mutations in the KRAS gene, most commonly KRASG12D, that result in a dominant-active form of the KRAS GTPase. However, how KRAS mutations promote pancreatic carcinogenesis is not fully understood, and whether oncogenic KRAS is required for the maintenance of pancreatic cancer has not been established. To address these questions, we generated two mouse models of pancreatic tumorigenesis: mice transgenic for inducible KrasG12D, which allows for inducible, pancreas-specific, and reversible expression of the oncogenic KrasG12D, with or without inactivation of one allele of the tumor suppressor gene p53. Here, we report that, early in tumorigenesis, induction of oncogenic KrasG12D reversibly altered normal epithelial differentiation following tissue damage, leading to precancerous lesions. Inactivation of KrasG12D in established precursor lesions and during progression to cancer led to regression of the lesions, indicating that KrasG12D was required for tumor cell survival. Strikingly, during all stages of carcinogenesis, KrasG12D upregulated Hedgehog signaling, inflammatory pathways, and several pathways known to mediate paracrine interactions between epithelial cells and their surrounding microenvironment, thus promoting formation and maintenance of the fibroinflammatory stroma that plays a pivotal role in pancreatic cancer. Our data establish that epithelial KrasG12D influences multiple cell types to drive pancreatic tumorigenesis and is essential for tumor maintenance. They also strongly support the notion that inhibiting KrasG12D, or its downstream effectors, could provide a new approach for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:22232209

  8. IL-33 Facilitates Oncogene Induced Cholangiocarcinoma in Mice by an IL-6 Sensitive Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Daisaku; Rizvi, Sumera; Razumilava, Nataliya; Bronk, Steven F.; Davila, Jaime I.; Champion, Mia D.; Borad, Mitesh J.; Bezerra, Jorge A.; Chen, Xin; Gores, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a lethal hepatobiliary neoplasm originating from the biliary apparatus. In humans, CCA risk factors include hepatobiliary inflammation and fibrosis. The recently identified IL-1 family member, IL-33, has been shown to be a biliary mitogen which also promotes liver inflammation and fibrosis. Our aim was to generate a mouse model of CCA mimicking the human disease. Ectopic oncogene expression in the biliary tract was accomplished by the Sleeping Beauty transposon transfection system with transduction of constitutively active AKT (myr-AKT) and Yes-associated protein (YAP). Intrabiliary instillation of the transposon-transposase complex was coupled with lobar bile duct ligation in CL57BL/6 mice, followed by administration of IL-33 for three consecutive days. Tumors developed in 72% of the male mice receiving both oncogenes plus IL-33 by 10 weeks, but in only 20% of the male mice transduced with the oncogenes alone. Tumors expressed SOX9 and pancytokeratin (PanCK) [features of cholangiocarcinoma] but were negative for HepPar1 [a marker of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)]. RNA profiling revealed substantive overlap with human CCA specimens. Not only did IL-33 induce IL-6 expression by human cholangiocytes, but IL-33 likely facilitated tumor development in vivo by an IL-6 sensitive process, as tumor development was significantly attenuated in Il-6 -/- male animals. Furthermore, tumor formation occurred at a similar rate when IL-6 was substituted for IL-33 in this model. In conclusion, the transposase-mediated transduction of constitutively active AKT and YAP in the biliary epithelium coupled with lobar obstruction and IL-33 administration results in the development of CCA with morphological and biochemical features of the human disease. This model highlights the role of inflammatory cytokines in CCA oncogenesis. PMID:25580681

  9. The BCL6 proto-oncogene: a leading role during germinal center development and lymphomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Jardin, Fabrice; Ruminy, Philippe; Bastard, Christian; Tilly, Hervé

    2007-02-01

    The BCL6 proto-oncogene encodes a nuclear transcriptional repressor, with pivotal roles in germinal center (GC) formation and regulation of lymphocyte function, differentiation, and survival. BCL6 suppresses p53 in GCB-cells and its constitutive expression can protect B-cell lines from apoptosis induced by DNA damage. BCL6-mediated expression may allow GCB-cells to sustain the low levels of physiological DNA breaks related to somatic mutation (SM) and immunoglobulin class switch recombination which physiologically occur in GCB-cells. Three types of genetic events occur in the BCL6 locus and involve invariably the 5' non-coding region and include translocations, deletions and SM actively targeted to the 5' untranslated region. These acquired mutations occur independently of translocations but may be involved in the deregulation of the gene and/or translocation mechanisms. The favorable prognostic value of high levels of BCL6 gene expression in NHL seems well-established. By contrast, the relevance of SM or translocation of the gene remains unclear. However, it is likely that non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) harboring the most frequent translocation involving BCL6, i.e. t(3;14), are characterized by a common cell of origin and similar oncogenic mechanisms. Several experiments and mouse models mimicking BCL6 translocation occurring in human lymphoma have demonstrated the oncogenic role of BCL6 and constitute a rational to consider BCL6 as a new therapeutic target in NHL. BCL6 blockade can be achieved by different strategies which include siRNA, interference by specific peptides or regulation of BCL6 acetylation by pharmacological agents such as SAHA or niacinamide and would be applicable to most type of B-cell NHL.

  10. Know thy neighbor: stromal cells can contribute oncogenic signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tlsty, T. D.; Hein, P. W.

    2001-01-01

    Although the stroma within carcinogenic lesions is known to be supportive and responsive to tumors, new data increasingly show that the stroma also has a more active, oncogenic role in tumorigenesis. Stromal cells and their products can transform adjacent tissues in the absence of pre-existing tumor cells by inciting phenotypic and genomic changes in the epithelial cells. The oncogenic action of distinctive stromal components has been demonstrated through a variety of approaches, which provide clues about the cellular pathways involved.

  11. Know thy neighbor: stromal cells can contribute oncogenic signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tlsty, T. D.; Hein, P. W.

    2001-01-01

    Although the stroma within carcinogenic lesions is known to be supportive and responsive to tumors, new data increasingly show that the stroma also has a more active, oncogenic role in tumorigenesis. Stromal cells and their products can transform adjacent tissues in the absence of pre-existing tumor cells by inciting phenotypic and genomic changes in the epithelial cells. The oncogenic action of distinctive stromal components has been demonstrated through a variety of approaches, which provide clues about the cellular pathways involved.

  12. A database of breast oncogenic specific siRNAs.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Atul; Semwal, Manoj; Sharma, Ashok

    2017-08-18

    Breast cancer is a serious problem causing the death of women across the world. At present, one of the major challenges is to design drugs to target breast cancer specific gene(s). RNA interference (RNAi) is an important technique for targeted gene silencing that may lead to promising novel therapeutic strategies for breast cancer. Therefore, identification of such molecules having high oncogene specificity is the need of the hour. Here, we have developed a database named as Breast Oncogenic Specific siRNAs (BOSS, http://bioinformatics.cimap.res.in/sharma/boss/ ) on the basis of the current research status on siRNA-mediated repression of oncogenes in different breast cancer cell lines. BOSS is a resource of experimentally validated breast oncogenic siRNAs, collected from research articles and patents published yet. The present database contains information on 865 breast oncogenic siRNA entries. Each entry provides comprehensive information of an siRNA that includes its name, sequence, target gene, type of cells, and inhibition value, etc. Additionally, some useful tools like siRNAMAP and BOSS BLAST were also developed and linked with the database. siRNAMAP can be used for the selection of best siRNA against a target gene while BOSS BLAST tool helps to locate the siRNA sequences in deferent oncogenes.

  13. RUNX1 is required for oncogenic Myb and Myc enhancer activity in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Choi, AHyun; Illendula, Anuradha; Pulikkan, John A; Roderick, Justine E; Tesell, Jessica; Yu, Jun; Hermance, Nicole; Zhu, Lihua Julie; Castilla, Lucio H; Bushweller, John H; Kelliher, Michelle A

    2017-08-08

    The gene encoding the RUNX1 transcription factor is mutated in a subset of T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) patients and RUNX1 mutations are associated with a poor prognosis. These mutations cluster in the DNA binding Runt domain, are thought to represent loss-of-function mutations, indicating that RUNX1 suppresses T cell transformation. RUNX1 has been proposed to have tumor suppressor roles in TLX1/3 transformed human T-ALL cell lines and NOTCH1 T-ALL mouse models. Yet retroviral insertional mutagenesis screens identify RUNX genes as collaborating oncogenes in MYC-driven leukemia mouse models. To elucidate RUNX1 function(s) in leukemogenesis, we generated Tal1/Lmo2/Rosa26-CreER(T2)Runx1(f/f) mice and examined leukemia progression in the presence of vehicle or tamoxifen. We found that Runx1 deletion inhibits mouse leukemic growth in vivo and that RUNX silencing in human T-ALL cells triggers apoptosis. We demonstrate that a small molecule inhibitor, designed to interfere with CBFβ binding to RUNX proteins, impairs the growth of human T-ALL cell lines and primary patient samples. We demonstrate that a RUNX1 deficiency alters the expression of a crucial subset of TAL1- and NOTCH1-regulated genes including the MYB and MYC oncogenes, respectively. These studies provide genetic and pharmacologic evidence that RUNX1 has oncogenic roles and reveal RUNX1 as a novel therapeutic target in T-ALL. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Hematology.

  14. Identification of MYC-Dependent Transcriptional Programs in Oncogene-Addicted Liver Tumors.

    PubMed

    Kress, Theresia R; Pellanda, Paola; Pellegrinet, Luca; Bianchi, Valerio; Nicoli, Paola; Doni, Mirko; Recordati, Camilla; Bianchi, Salvatore; Rotta, Luca; Capra, Thelma; Ravà, Micol; Verrecchia, Alessandro; Radaelli, Enrico; Littlewood, Trevor D; Evan, Gerard I; Amati, Bruno

    2016-06-15

    Tumors driven by activation of the transcription factor MYC generally show oncogene addiction. However, the gene expression programs that depend upon sustained MYC activity remain unknown. In this study, we employed a mouse model of liver carcinoma driven by a reversible tet-MYC transgene, combined with chromatin immunoprecipitation and gene expression profiling to identify MYC-dependent regulatory events. As previously reported, MYC-expressing mice exhibited hepatoblastoma- and hepatocellular carcinoma-like tumors, which regressed when MYC expression was suppressed. We further show that cellular transformation, and thus initiation of liver tumorigenesis, were impaired in mice harboring a MYC mutant unable to associate with the corepressor protein MIZ1 (ZBTB17). Notably, switching off the oncogene in advanced carcinomas revealed that MYC was required for the continuous activation and repression of distinct sets of genes, constituting no more than half of all genes deregulated during tumor progression and an even smaller subset of all MYC-bound genes. Altogether, our data provide the first detailed analysis of a MYC-dependent transcriptional program in a fully developed carcinoma and offer a guide to identifying the critical effectors contributing to MYC-driven tumor maintenance. Cancer Res; 76(12); 3463-72. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Beyond ALK-RET, ROS1 and other oncogene fusions in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nakaoku, Takashi; Tsuta, Koji; Tsuchihara, Katsuya; Matsumoto, Shingo; Yoh, Kiyotaka; Goto, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Fusions of the RET and ROS1 protein tyrosine kinase oncogenes with several partner genes were recently identified as new targetable genetic aberrations in cases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) lacking activating EGFR, KRAS, ALK, BRAF, or HER2 oncogene aberrations. RET and ROS1 fusion-positive tumors are mainly observed in young, female, and/or never smoking patients. Studies based on in vitro and in vivo (i.e., mouse) models and studies of several fusion-positive patients indicate that inhibiting the kinase activity of the RET and ROS1 fusion proteins is a promising therapeutic strategy. Accordingly, there are several ongoing clinical trials aimed at examining the efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) against RET and ROS1 proteins in patients with fusion-positive lung cancer. Other gene fusions (NTRK1, NRG1, and FGFR1/2/3) that are targetable by existing TKIs have also been identified in NSCLCs. Options for personalized lung cancer therapy will be increased with the help of multiplex diagnosis systems able to detect multiple druggable gene fusions. PMID:25870798

  16. Complex oncogenic translocations with gene amplification are initiated by specific DNA breaks in lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Wright, Sarah M; Woo, Yong H; Alley, Travis L; Shirley, Bobbi-Jo; Akeson, Ellen C; Snow, Kathy J; Maas, Sarah A; Elwell, Rachel L; Foreman, Oded; Mills, Kevin D

    2009-05-15

    Chromosomal instability is a hallmark of many tumor types. Complex chromosomal rearrangements with associated gene amplification, known as complicons, characterize many hematologic and solid cancers. Whereas chromosomal aberrations, including complicons, are useful diagnostic and prognostic cancer markers, their molecular origins are not known. Although accumulating evidence has implicated DNA double-strand break repair in suppression of oncogenic genome instability, the genomic elements required for chromosome rearrangements, especially complex lesions, have not been elucidated. Using a mouse model of B-lineage lymphoma, characterized by complicon formation involving the immunoglobulin heavy chain (Igh) locus and the c-myc oncogene, we have now investigated the requirement for specific genomic segments as donors for complex rearrangements. We now show that specific DNA double-strand breaks, occurring within a narrow segment of Igh, are necessary to initiate complicon formation. By contrast, neither specific DNA breaks nor the powerful intronic enhancer Emu are required for complicon-independent oncogenesis. This study is the first to delineate mechanisms of complex versus simple instability and the first to identify specific chromosomal elements required for complex chromosomal aberrations. These findings will illuminate genomic cancer susceptibility and risk factors.

  17. TALEN-mediated targeting of HPV oncogenes ameliorates HPV-related cervical malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zheng; Ding, Wencheng; Zhu, Da; Yu, Lan; Jiang, Xiaohui; Wang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Changlin; Wang, Liming; Ji, Teng; Liu, Dan; He, Dan; Xia, Xi; Zhu, Tao; Wei, Juncheng; Wu, Peng; Wang, Changyu; Xi, Ling; Gao, Qinglei; Chen, Gang; Liu, Rong; Li, Kezhen; Li, Shuang; Wang, Shixuan; Zhou, Jianfeng; Ma, Ding; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Persistent HPV infection is recognized as the main etiologic factor for cervical cancer. HPV expresses the oncoproteins E6 and E7, both of which play key roles in maintaining viral infection and promoting carcinogenesis. While siRNA-mediated targeting of E6 and E7 transcripts temporarily induces apoptosis in HPV-positive cells, it does not eliminate viral DNA within the host genome, which can harbor escape mutants. Here, we demonstrated that specifically targeting E6 and E7 within host DNA with transcription activator–like effector nucleases (TALENs) induces apoptosis, inhibits growth, and reduces tumorigenicity in HPV-positive cell lines. TALEN treatment efficiently disrupted E6 and E7 oncogenes, leading to the restoration of host tumor suppressors p53 and retinoblastoma 1 (RB1), which are targeted by E6 and E7, respectively. In the K14-HPV16 transgenic mouse model of HPV-driven neoplasms, direct cervical application of HPV16-E7–targeted TALENs effectively mutated the E7 oncogene, reduced viral DNA load, and restored RB1 function and downstream targets transcription factor E2F1 and cycling-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), thereby reversing the malignant phenotype. Together, the results from our study suggest that TALENs have potential as a therapeutic strategy for HPV infection and related cervical malignancy. PMID:25500889

  18. Activation of ras oncogene in aflatoxin-induced rat liver carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, S; Webber, C; Marshall, C J; Knowles, M A; Proctor, A; Barrass, N C; Neal, G E

    1988-01-01

    The presence of activated transforming genes was investigated in four primary aflatoxin-induced rat liver tumors in male Fischer rats, in two cell lines generated from such tumors, in an epithelial liver-derived nontransformed cell line, and in the latter cell line after transformation by aflatoxin B1 in vitro. When DNA extracted from these sources was transfected into NIH 3T3 cells, negative results were obtained from focus assays. Cotransfection of these DNA samples with a gene for resistance to G418, followed by selection for resistance to that antibiotic, and tumorigenicity testing in nude mice demonstrated DNA-mediated transfer of the neoplastic phenotype in all cases except for DNA from the nontransformed cell line. DNA extracted from these primary nude mouse tumors used in a secondary round of transfection with NIH 3T3 cells gave positive results in focus assays, which were conserved through succeeding rounds of transfection. By use of appropriate radiolabeled probes, activated ras oncogenes were detected in all samples. N-ras activation was detected in three of the primary rat liver tumors and both hepatoma cell lines. Ki-ras activation was detected in one primary rat liver tumor, and Ha-ras activation was detected in the cell line transformed in vitro with activated aflatoxin B1. The activated Ki-ras oncogene was further characterized by use of synthetic oligonucleotide probes and was shown to contain a G----A transition at the second nucleotide in codon 12. Images PMID:3287372

  19. Exploiting oncogene-induced replicative stress for the selective killing of Myc-driven tumors.

    PubMed

    Murga, Matilde; Campaner, Stefano; Lopez-Contreras, Andres J; Toledo, Luis I; Soria, Rebeca; Montaña, Maria F; Artista, Luana D'; Schleker, Thomas; Guerra, Carmen; Garcia, Elena; Barbacid, Mariano; Hidalgo, Manuel; Amati, Bruno; Fernandez-Capetillo, Oscar

    2011-11-27

    Oncogene-induced replicative stress activates an Atr- and Chk1-dependent response, which has been proposed to be widespread in tumors. We explored whether the presence of replicative stress could be exploited for the selective elimination of cancer cells. To this end, we evaluated the impact of targeting the replicative stress-response on cancer development. In mice (Mus musculus), the reduced levels of Atr found on a mouse model of the Atr-Seckel syndrome completely prevented the development of Myc-induced lymphomas or pancreatic tumors, both of which showed abundant levels of replicative stress. Moreover, Chk1 inhibitors were highly effective in killing Myc-driven lymphomas. By contrast, pancreatic adenocarcinomas initiated by K-Ras(G12V) showed no detectable evidence of replicative stress and were nonresponsive to this therapy. Besides its impact on cancer, Myc overexpression aggravated the phenotypes of Atr-Seckel mice, revealing that oncogenes can modulate the severity of replicative stress-associated diseases.

  20. AID-expressing epithelium is protected from oncogenic transformation by an NKG2D surveillance pathway

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-García, Arantxa; Pérez-Durán, Pablo; Wossning, Thomas; Sernandez, Isora V; Mur, Sonia M; Cañamero, Marta; Real, Francisco X; Ramiro, Almudena R

    2015-01-01

    Activation-induced deaminase (AID) initiates secondary antibody diversification in germinal center B cells, giving rise to higher affinity antibodies through somatic hypermutation (SHM) or to isotype-switched antibodies through class switch recombination (CSR). SHM and CSR are triggered by AID-mediated deamination of cytosines in immunoglobulin genes. Importantly, AID activity in B cells is not restricted to Ig loci and can promote mutations and pro-lymphomagenic translocations, establishing a direct oncogenic mechanism for germinal center-derived neoplasias. AID is also expressed in response to inflammatory cues in epithelial cells, raising the possibility that AID mutagenic activity might drive carcinoma development. We directly tested this hypothesis by generating conditional knock-in mouse models for AID overexpression in colon and pancreas epithelium. AID overexpression alone was not sufficient to promote epithelial cell neoplasia in these tissues, in spite of displaying mutagenic and genotoxic activity. Instead, we found that heterologous AID expression in pancreas promotes the expression of NKG2D ligands, the recruitment of CD8+ T cells, and the induction of epithelial cell death. Our results indicate that AID oncogenic potential in epithelial cells can be neutralized by immunosurveillance protective mechanisms. PMID:26282919

  1. SIRT6 deacetylates PKM2 to suppress its nuclear localization and oncogenic functions

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Abhishek; Das, Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    SIRT6 (sirtuin 6) is a member of sirtuin family of deacetylases involved in diverse processes including genome stability, metabolic homeostasis, and tumorigenesis. However, the role of SIRT6 deacetylase activity in its tumor-suppressor functions is not well understood. Here we report that SIRT6 binds to and deacetylates nuclear PKM2 (pyruvate kinase M2) at the lysine 433 residue. PKM2 is a glycolytic enzyme with nonmetabolic nuclear oncogenic functions. SIRT6-mediated deacetylation results in PKM2 nuclear export. We further have identified exportin 4 as the specific transporter mediating PKM2 nuclear export. As a result of SIRT6-mediated deacetylation, PKM2 nuclear protein kinase and transcriptional coactivator functions are abolished. Thus, SIRT6 suppresses PKM2 oncogenic functions, resulting in reduced cell proliferation, migration potential, and invasiveness. Furthermore, studies in mouse tumor models demonstrate that PKM2 deacetylation is integral to SIRT6-mediated tumor suppression and inhibition of metastasis. Additionally, reduced SIRT6 levels correlate with elevated nuclear acetylated PKM2 levels in increasing grades of hepatocellular carcinoma. These findings provide key insights into the pivotal role of deacetylase activity in SIRT6 tumor-suppressor functions. PMID:26787900

  2. mTORC1 is a critical mediator of oncogenic Semaphorin3A signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Daisuke; Kawahara, Kohichi; Maeda, Takehiko

    2016-08-05

    Aberration of signaling pathways by genetic mutations or alterations in the surrounding tissue environments can result in tumor development or metastasis. However, signaling molecules responsible for these processes have not been completely elucidated. Here, we used mouse Lewis lung carcinoma cells (LLC) to explore the mechanism by which the oncogenic activity of Semaphorin3A (Sema3A) signaling is regulated. Sema3A knockdown by shRNA did not affect apoptosis, but decreased cell proliferation in LLCs; both the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) level and glycolytic activity were also decreased. In addition, Sema3A knockdown sensitized cells to inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation by oligomycin, but conferred resistance to decreased cell viability induced by glucose starvation. Furthermore, recombinant SEMA3A rescued the attenuation of cell proliferation and glycolytic activity in LLCs after Sema3A knockdown, whereas mTORC1 inhibition by rapamycin completely counteracted this effect. These results demonstrate that Sema3A signaling exerts its oncogenic effect by promoting an mTORC1-mediated metabolic shift from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis. -- Highlights: •Sema3A knockdown decreased proliferation of Lewis lung carcinoma cells (LLCs). •Sema3A knockdown decreased mTORC1 levels and glycolytic activity in LLCs. •Sema3A knockdown sensitized cells to inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation. •Sema3A promotes shift from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis via mTORC1.

  3. CDK7 Inhibition Suppresses Super-Enhancer-Linked Oncogenic Transcription in MYCN-Driven Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chipumuro, Edmond; Marco, Eugenio; Christensen, Camilla L.; Kwiatkowski, Nicholas; Zhang, Tinghu; Hatheway, Clark M.; Abraham, Brian J.; Sharma, Bandana; Yeung, Caleb; Altabef, Abigail; Perez-Atayde, Antonio; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Yuan, Guo-Cheng; Gray, Nathanael S.; Young, Richard A.; George, Rani E.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The MYC oncoproteins are thought to stimulate tumor cell growth and proliferation through amplification of gene transcription, a mechanism that has thwarted most efforts to inhibit MYC function as potential cancer therapy. Using a novel covalent inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 7 (CDK7) to disrupt the transcription of amplified MYCN in neuroblastoma cells, we demonstrate downregulation of the oncoprotein with consequent massive suppression of MYCN-driven global transcriptional amplification. This response translated to significant tumor regression in a mouse model of high-risk neuroblastoma, without the introduction of systemic toxicity. The striking treatment selectivity of MYCN-overexpressing cells correlated with preferential downregulation of super-enhancer-associated genes, including MYCN and other known oncogenic drivers in neuroblastoma. These results indicate that CDK7 inhibition, by selectively targeting the mechanisms that promote global transcriptional amplification in tumor cells, may be useful therapy for cancers that are driven by MYC family oncoproteins. PMID:25416950

  4. KIBRA attains oncogenic activity by repressing RASSF1A.

    PubMed

    Anuj; Arivazhagan, Lakshmi; Surabhi, Rohan Prasad; Kanakarajan, Archana; Sundaram, Sandhya; Pitani, Ravi Shankar; Mudduwa, Lakmini; Kremerskothen, Joachim; Venkatraman, Ganesh; Rayala, Suresh K

    2017-06-29

    KIBRA-initially identified as a neuronal associated protein is now shown to be functionally associated with other tissue types as well. KIBRA interacts with dyenin light chain 1 and this interaction is essential for oestrogen receptor transactivation in breast cancer cells. KIBRA as a substrate of Cdk1, Aurora kinase and ERK plays an important role in regulating cell cycle, cell proliferation and migration. Despite these evidences, the exact role of KIBRA in cancer progression is not known. We studied the expression of KIBRA in breast tissues and breast cancer cell lines by western blotting, immunohistochemisry (IHC) and RT-PCR. Stable over expression and knockdown clones were generated to study the transforming properties of KIBRA by conventional assays. Xenograft studies were performed in nude mice to study the in vivo tumourigenic efficacy of KIBRA. qPCR array was performed to understand the molecular mechanism behind oncogenic activity of KIBRA. Our results showed that KIBRA is upregulated in breast cancer cells and in malignant human breast tumours by both western blotting and IHC. Interestingly, we found that KIBRA expression level goes up with increase in breast cancer progression in well-established MCF10A model system. Further, results from stable overexpression clones of KIBRA in fibroblasts (Rat-1) and epithelial breast cancer cells (ZR75) and lentiviral short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown (KD) clones of KIBRA in ZR75 showed increase in transforming properties with KIBRA overexpression and vice-versa. Results also showed that fibroblasts stably overexpressing KIBRA showed increased tumourigenic potential in nude mice. By adopting a quantitative PCR array-based approach, we identified RASSF1A, a tumour suppressor, as a transcriptional target of KIBRA. This is the first study to demonstrate the in vivo tumourigenic property of KIBRA in a nude mouse model and also unravel the underlying molecular mechanism of KIBRA-mediated transformation via repression of

  5. Prox1-Heterozygosis Sensitizes the Pancreas to Oncogenic Kras-Induced Neoplastic Transformation12

    PubMed Central

    Drosos, Yiannis; Neale, Geoffrey; Ye, Jianming; Paul, Leena; Kuliyev, Emin; Maitra, Anirban; Means, Anna L; Washington, M Kay; Rehg, Jerold; Finkelstein, David B; Sosa-Pineda, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    The current paradigm of pancreatic neoplastic transformation proposes an initial step whereby acinar cells convert into acinar-to-ductal metaplasias, followed by progression of these lesions into neoplasias under sustained oncogenic activity and inflammation. Understanding the molecular mechanisms driving these processes is crucial to the early diagnostic and prevention of pancreatic cancer. Emerging evidence indicates that transcription factors that control exocrine pancreatic development could have either, protective or facilitating roles in the formation of preneoplasias and neoplasias in the pancreas. We previously identified that the homeodomain transcription factor Prox1 is a novel regulator of mouse exocrine pancreas development. Here we investigated whether Prox1 function participates in early neoplastic transformation using in vivo, in vitro and in silico approaches. We found that Prox1 expression is transiently re-activated in acinar cells undergoing dedifferentiation and acinar-to-ductal metaplastic conversion. In contrast, Prox1 expression is largely absent in neoplasias and tumors in the pancreas of mice and humans. We also uncovered that Prox1-heterozygosis markedly increases the formation of acinar-to-ductal-metaplasias and early neoplasias, and enhances features associated with inflammation, in mouse pancreatic tissues expressing oncogenic Kras. Furthermore, we discovered that Prox1-heterozygosis increases tissue damage and delays recovery from inflammation in pancreata of mice injected with caerulein. These results are the first demonstration that Prox1 activity protects pancreatic cells from acute tissue damage and early neoplastic transformation. Additional data in our study indicate that this novel role of Prox1 involves suppression of pathways associated with inflammatory responses and cell invasiveness. PMID:26992918

  6. Oncogene-specific formation of chemoresistant murine hepatic cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Chow, Edward Kai-Hua; Fan, Ling-ling; Chen, Xin; Bishop, J Michael

    2012-10-01

    At least some cancer stem cells (CSCs) display intrinsic drug resistance that may thwart eradication of a malignancy by chemotherapy. We explored the genesis of such resistance by studying mouse models of liver cancer driven by either MYC or the combination of oncogenic forms of activation of v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (AKT) and NRAS. A common manifestation of chemoresistance in CSCs is efflux of the DNA-binding dye Hoechst 33342. We found that only the MYC-driven tumors contained a subset of cells that efflux Hoechst 33342. This "side population" (SP) was enriched for CSCs when compared to non-SP tumor cells and exhibited markers of hepatic progenitor cells. The SP cells could differentiate into non-SP tumor cells, with coordinate loss of chemoresistance, progenitor markers, and the enrichment for CSCs. In contrast, non-SP cells did not give rise to SP cells. Exclusion of Hoechst 33342 is mediated by ATP binding cassette drug transporter proteins that also contribute to chemoresistance in cancer. We found that the multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1) transporter was responsible for the efflux of Hoechst from SP cells in our MYC-driven model. Accordingly, SP cells and their tumor-initiating subset were more resistant than non-SP cells to chemotherapeutics that are effluxed by MDR1. The oncogenotype of a tumor can promote a specific mechanism of chemoresistance that can contribute to the survival of hepatic CSCs. Under circumstances that promote differentiation of CSCs into more mature tumor cells, the chemoresistance can be quickly lost. Elucidation of the mechanisms that govern chemoresistance in these mouse models may illuminate the genesis of chemoresistance in human liver cancer. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  7. Oncogenic mutations in intestinal adenomas regulate Bim-mediated apoptosis induced by TGF-β

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, Zoltán; Band, Arja M.; Kallio, Pauliina; Högström, Jenny; Hyvönen, Ville; Kaijalainen, Seppo; Ritvos, Olli; Haglund, Caj; Kruuna, Olli; Robine, Sylvie; Louvard, Daniel; Ben-Neriah, Yinon; Alitalo, Kari

    2014-01-01

    In the majority of microsatellite-stable colorectal cancers (CRCs), an initiating mutation occurs in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) or β-catenin gene, activating the β-catenin/TCF pathway. The progression of resulting adenomas is associated with oncogenic activation of KRas and inactivation of the p53 and TGF-β/Smad functions. Most established CRC cell lines contain mutations in the TGF-β/Smad pathway, but little is known about the function of TGF-β in the early phases of intestinal tumorigenesis. We used mouse and human ex vivo 3D intestinal organoid cultures and in vivo mouse models to study the effect of TGF-β on the Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells and their progeny in intestinal adenomas. We found that the TGF-β–induced apoptosis in Apc-mutant organoids, including the Lgr5+ stem cells, was mediated by up-regulation of the BH3-only proapoptotic protein Bcl-2–like protein 11 (Bim). BH3-mimetic compounds recapitulated the effect of Bim not only in the adenomas but also in human CRC organoids that had lost responsiveness to TGF-β–induced apoptosis. However, wild-type intestinal crypts were markedly less sensitive to TGF-β than Apc-mutant adenomas, whereas the KRas oncogene increased resistance to TGF-β via the activation of the Erk1/2 kinase pathway, leading to Bim down-regulation. Our studies identify Bim as a critical mediator of TGF-β–induced apoptosis in intestinal adenomas and show that the common progression mutations modify Bim levels and sensitivity to TGF-β during intestinal adenoma development. PMID:24825889

  8. Identification of Novel Small Molecule Inhibitors of Oncogenic RET Kinase.

    PubMed

    Moccia, Marialuisa; Liu, Qingsong; Guida, Teresa; Federico, Giorgia; Brescia, Annalisa; Zhao, Zheng; Choi, Hwan Geun; Deng, Xianming; Tan, Li; Wang, Jinhua; Billaud, Marc; Gray, Nathanael S; Carlomagno, Francesca; Santoro, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Oncogenic mutation of the RET receptor tyrosine kinase is observed in several human malignancies. Here, we describe three novel type II RET tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), ALW-II-41-27, XMD15-44 and HG-6-63-01, that inhibit the cellular activity of oncogenic RET mutants at two digit nanomolar concentration. These three compounds shared a 3-trifluoromethyl-4-methylpiperazinephenyl pharmacophore that stabilizes the 'DFG-out' inactive conformation of RET activation loop. They blocked RET-mediated signaling and proliferation with an IC50 in the nM range in fibroblasts transformed by the RET/C634R and RET/M918T oncogenes. They also inhibited autophosphorylation of several additional oncogenic RET-derived point mutants and chimeric oncogenes. At a concentration of 10 nM, ALW-II-41-27, XMD15-44 and HG-6-63-01 inhibited RET kinase and signaling in human thyroid cancer cell lines carrying oncogenic RET alleles; they also inhibited proliferation of cancer, but not non-tumoral Nthy-ori-3-1, thyroid cells, with an IC50 in the nM range. The three compounds were capable of inhibiting the 'gatekeeper' V804M mutant which confers substantial resistance to established RET inhibitors. In conclusion, we have identified a type II TKI scaffold, shared by ALW-II-41-27, XMD15-44 and HG-6-63-01, that may be used as novel lead for the development of novel agents for the treatment of cancers harboring oncogenic activation of RET.

  9. Identification of Novel Small Molecule Inhibitors of Oncogenic RET Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Moccia, Marialuisa; Liu, Qingsong; Guida, Teresa; Federico, Giorgia; Brescia, Annalisa; Zhao, Zheng; Choi, Hwan Geun; Deng, Xianming; Tan, Li; Wang, Jinhua; Billaud, Marc; Gray, Nathanael S.

    2015-01-01

    Oncogenic mutation of the RET receptor tyrosine kinase is observed in several human malignancies. Here, we describe three novel type II RET tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), ALW-II-41-27, XMD15-44 and HG-6-63-01, that inhibit the cellular activity of oncogenic RET mutants at two digit nanomolar concentration. These three compounds shared a 3-trifluoromethyl-4-methylpiperazinephenyl pharmacophore that stabilizes the ‘DFG-out’ inactive conformation of RET activation loop. They blocked RET-mediated signaling and proliferation with an IC50 in the nM range in fibroblasts transformed by the RET/C634R and RET/M918T oncogenes. They also inhibited autophosphorylation of several additional oncogenic RET-derived point mutants and chimeric oncogenes. At a concentration of 10 nM, ALW-II-41-27, XMD15-44 and HG-6-63-01 inhibited RET kinase and signaling in human thyroid cancer cell lines carrying oncogenic RET alleles; they also inhibited proliferation of cancer, but not non-tumoral Nthy-ori-3-1, thyroid cells, with an IC50 in the nM range. The three compounds were capable of inhibiting the ‘gatekeeper’ V804M mutant which confers substantial resistance to established RET inhibitors. In conclusion, we have identified a type II TKI scaffold, shared by ALW-II-41-27, XMD15-44 and HG-6-63-01, that may be used as novel lead for the development of novel agents for the treatment of cancers harboring oncogenic activation of RET. PMID:26046350

  10. Rb-dependent cellular senescence, multinucleation and susceptibility to oncogenic transformation through PKC scaffolding by SSeCKS/AKAP12

    PubMed Central

    Akakura, Shin; Nochajski, Peter; Gao, Lingqiu; Sotomayor, Paul; Matsui, Sei-ichi

    2010-01-01

    A subset of AKAPs (A Kinase Anchoring Proteins) regulate signaling and cytoskeletal pathways through the spaciotemporal scaffolding of multiple protein kinases (PK), such as PKC and PKA, and associations with the plasma membrane and the actin-based cytoskeleton. SSeCKS/Gravin/Akap12 expression is severely downregulated in many advanced cancers and exhibits tumor- and metastasis-suppressing activity. akap12-null (KO) mice develop prostatic hyperplasia with focal dysplasia, but the precise mechanism how Akap12 prevents oncogenic progression remains unclear. Here, we show that KO mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) exhibit premature senescence marked by polyploidy and multinucleation, and by increased susceptibility to oncogenic transformation. Although p53 and Rb pathways are activated in the absence of Akap12, senescence is dependent on Rb. Senescence is driven by the activation of PKCα, which induces p16Ink4a/Rb through a MEK-dependent downregulation of Id1, and PKCδ, which downregulates Lats1/Warts, a mitotic exit network kinase required for cytokinesis. Our data strongly suggest that Akap12 controls Rb-mediated cell aging and oncogenic progression by directly scaffolding and attenuating PKCα/δ. PMID:21099353

  11. Illuminating Cancer Systems With Genetically-Engineered Mouse Models and Coupled Luciferase Reporters In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kocher, Brandon; Piwnica-Worms, David

    2013-01-01

    Bioluminescent imaging (BLI) is a powerful non-invasive tool that has dramatically accelerated the in vivo interrogation of cancer systems and longitudinal analysis of mouse models of cancer over the past decade. Various luciferase enzymes have been genetically engineered into mouse models (GEMMs) of cancer which permit investigation of cellular and molecular events associated with oncogenic transcription, post-transcriptional processing, protein-protein interactions, transformation and oncogene addiction in live cells and animals. Luciferase-coupled GEMMs ultimately serve as a non-invasive, repetitive, longitudinal, and physiological means by which cancer systems and therapeutic responses can be investigated accurately within the autochthonous context of a living animal. PMID:23585416

  12. Latent cellular oncogenes: the paradox dissolves.

    PubMed

    Duesberg, P H

    1987-01-01

    The 20 known transforming onc genes of retroviruses are defined by sequences which are transduced from cellular genes, termed proto-onc genes. Based on these sequences, viral onc genes have been postulated to be transduced cellular cancer genes and proto-onc genes have been postulated to be latent cancer genes that can be activated from within the cell, to cause virus-negative tumours. The hypothesis is popular because it promises direct access to cellular cancer genes. However the existence of latent cancer genes presents a paradox since such genes would be most undesirable for eukaryotes. The hypothesis predicts (i) that viral onc genes and proto-onc genes are isogenic, (ii) that expression of proto-onc genes induces tumours, (iii) that activated proto-onc genes transform diploid cells upon transfection, like viral onc genes, and (iv) it predicts diploid tumours. As yet, none of these predictions is confirmed. Instead: (i) Structural comparisons between viral onc genes, essential retroviral genes, and the proto-onc genes show that all viral onc genes are indeed new genes, rather than transduced cellular cancer genes. They are genetic hybrids put together from truncated viral and truncated proto-onc genes. (ii) Proto-onc genes are frequently expressed in normal cells. (iii) To date, not one activated proto-onc gene has been isolated that transforms diploid cells. (iv) Above all, no diploid tumours with activated proto-onc genes have been found. Moreover the probability of spontaneous transformation in vivo is at least 10(9) times lower than predicted from the mechanisms thought to activate proto-onc genes. Therefore the hypothesis, that proto-onc genes are latent cellular oncogenes, appears to be an over-interpretation of sequence homology to structural and functional homology with viral onc genes. Here is is proposed that only rare truncations and recombinations, that alter the germline configuration of cellular genes, generate viral and possibly cellular cancer

  13. Hedgehog signaling plays roles in epithelial cell proliferation in neonatal mouse uterus and vagina.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Tadaaki; Iguchi, Taisen; Sato, Tomomi

    2012-04-01

    Both the uterus and vagina develop from the Müllerian duct but are quite distinct in morphology and function. To investigate factors controlling epithelial differentiation and cell proliferation in neonatal uterus and vagina, we focused on Hedgehog (HH) signaling. In neonatal mice, Sonic hh (Shh) was localized in the vaginal epithelium and Indian hh (Ihh) was slightly expressed in the uterus and vagina, whereas all Glioma-associated oncogene homolog (Gli) genes were mainly expressed in the stroma. The expression of target genes of HH signaling was high in the neonatal vagina and in the uterus, it increased with growth. Thus, in neonatal mice, Shh in the vaginal epithelium and Ihh in the uterus and vagina activated HH signaling in the stroma. Tissue recombinants showed that vaginal Shh expression was inhibited by the vaginal stroma and uterine Ihh expression was stimulated by the uterine stroma. Addition of a HH signaling inhibitor decreased epithelial cell proliferation in organ-cultured uterus and vagina and increased stromal cell proliferation in organ-cultured uterus. However, it did not affect epithelial differentiation or the expression of growth factors in organ-cultured uterus and vagina. Thus, activated HH signaling stimulates epithelial cell proliferation in neonatal uterus and vagina but inhibits stromal cell proliferation in neonatal uterus.

  14. Dual function of suppressor of fused in Hh pathway activation and mouse spinal cord patterning.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinling; Heydeck, Westley; Zeng, Huiqing; Liu, Aimin

    2012-02-15

    The morphogen Sonic hedgehog, one of the Hedgehog (Hh) family of secreted proteins, plays a key role in patterning the mammalian spinal cord along its dorsoventral (D/V) axis through the activation of Glioma-associated oncogene (Gli) family of transcription factors. Suppressor of Fused (Sufu), a Gli-interacting protein, modulates the D/V patterning of the spinal cord by antagonizing Hh signaling. The molecular mechanisms underlying the function of Sufu in Hh pathway activation and spinal cord D/V patterning remain controversial, particularly in light of recent findings that Sufu protects Gli2 and Gli3 proteins from proteasomal degradation. In the current study, we show that Hh pathway activation and dorsal expansion of ventral spinal cord cell types in the absence of Sufu depend on the activator activities of all three Gli family proteins. We also show that Sufu plays a positive role in the maximal activation of Hh signaling that defines the ventral-most cell fate in the mammalian spinal cord, likely through protecting Gli2 and Gli3 proteins from degradation. Finally, by altering the level of Gli3 repressor on a background of reduced Gli activator activities, we reveal an important contribution of Gli3 repressor activity to the Hh pathway activation and the D/V patterning of the spinal cord.

  15. Oncogenes and RNA splicing of human tumor viruses.

    PubMed

    Ajiro, Masahiko; Zheng, Zhi-Ming

    2014-09-01

    Approximately 10.8% of human cancers are associated with infection by an oncogenic virus. These viruses include human papillomavirus (HPV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV), human T-cell leukemia virus 1 (HTLV-1), Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). These oncogenic viruses, with the exception of HCV, require the host RNA splicing machinery in order to exercise their oncogenic activities, a strategy that allows the viruses to efficiently export and stabilize viral RNA and to produce spliced RNA isoforms from a bicistronic or polycistronic RNA transcript for efficient protein translation. Infection with a tumor virus affects the expression of host genes, including host RNA splicing factors, which play a key role in regulating viral RNA splicing of oncogene transcripts. A current prospective focus is to explore how alternative RNA splicing and the expression of viral oncogenes take place in a cell- or tissue-specific manner in virus-induced human carcinogenesis.

  16. Oncogenes and RNA splicing of human tumor viruses

    PubMed Central

    Ajiro, Masahiko; Zheng, Zhi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 10.8% of human cancers are associated with infection by an oncogenic virus. These viruses include human papillomavirus (HPV), Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV), human T-cell leukemia virus 1 (HTLV-1), Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). These oncogenic viruses, with the exception of HCV, require the host RNA splicing machinery in order to exercise their oncogenic activities, a strategy that allows the viruses to efficiently export and stabilize viral RNA and to produce spliced RNA isoforms from a bicistronic or polycistronic RNA transcript for efficient protein translation. Infection with a tumor virus affects the expression of host genes, including host RNA splicing factors, which play a key role in regulating viral RNA splicing of oncogene transcripts. A current prospective focus is to explore how alternative RNA splicing and the expression of viral oncogenes take place in a cell- or tissue-specific manner in virus-induced human carcinogenesis. PMID:26038756

  17. Protein kinase Cι: human oncogene, prognostic marker and therapeutic target

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Alan P.; Regala, Roderick P.

    2009-01-01

    The Protein kinase C (PKC) family of serine/threonine kinases has been the subject of intensive study in the field of cancer since their initial discovery as major cellular receptors for the tumor promoting phorbol esters nearly thirty years ago. However, despite these efforts, the search for a direct genetic link between members of the PKC family and human cancer has yielded only circumstantial evidence that any PKC isozyme is a true cancer gene. This situation changed in the past year with the discovery that atypical protein kinase C iota (PKCι) is a bonafide human oncogene. PKCι is required for the transformed growth of human cancer cells and the PKCι gene is the target of tumor-specific gene amplification in multiple forms of human cancer. PKCι participates in multiple aspects of the transformed phenotype of human cancer cells including transformed growth, invasion and survival. Herein, we review pertinent aspects of atypical PKC structure, function and regulation that relate to the role of these enzymes in oncogenesis. We discuss the evidence that PKCι is a human oncogene, review mechanisms controlling PKCι expression in human cancers, and describe the molecular details of PKCι-mediated oncogenic signaling. We conclude with a discussion of how oncogenic PKCι signaling has been successfully targeted to identify a novel, mechanism-based therapeutic drug currently entering clinical trials for treatment of human lung cancer. Throughout, we identify key unanswered questions and exciting future avenues of investigation regarding this important oncogenic molecule. PMID:17570678

  18. The PDZ-binding motif of Yes-associated protein is required for its co-activation of TEAD-mediated CTGF transcription and oncogenic cell transforming activity

    SciTech Connect

    Shimomura, Tadanori; Miyamura, Norio; Hata, Shoji; Miura, Ryota; Hirayama, Jun Nishina, Hiroshi

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •Loss of the PDZ-binding motif inhibits constitutively active YAP (5SA)-induced oncogenic cell transformation. •The PDZ-binding motif of YAP promotes its nuclear localization in cultured cells and mouse liver. •Loss of the PDZ-binding motif inhibits YAP (5SA)-induced CTGF transcription in cultured cells and mouse liver. -- Abstract: YAP is a transcriptional co-activator that acts downstream of the Hippo signaling pathway and regulates multiple cellular processes, including proliferation. Hippo pathway-dependent phosphorylation of YAP negatively regulates its function. Conversely, attenuation of Hippo-mediated phosphorylation of YAP increases its ability to stimulate proliferation and eventually induces oncogenic transformation. The C-terminus of YAP contains a highly conserved PDZ-binding motif that regulates YAP’s functions in multiple ways. However, to date, the importance of the PDZ-binding motif to the oncogenic cell transforming activity of YAP has not been determined. In this study, we disrupted the PDZ-binding motif in the YAP (5SA) protein, in which the sites normally targeted by Hippo pathway-dependent phosphorylation are mutated. We found that loss of the PDZ-binding motif significantly inhibited the oncogenic transformation of cultured cells induced by YAP (5SA). In addition, the increased nuclear localization of YAP (5SA) and its enhanced activation of TEAD-dependent transcription of the cell proliferation gene CTGF were strongly reduced when the PDZ-binding motif was deleted. Similarly, in mouse liver, deletion of the PDZ-binding motif suppressed nuclear localization of YAP (5SA) and YAP (5SA)-induced CTGF expression. Taken together, our results indicate that the PDZ-binding motif of YAP is critical for YAP-mediated oncogenesis, and that this effect is mediated by YAP’s co-activation of TEAD-mediated CTGF transcription.

  19. Oncogene addiction: pathways of therapeutic response, resistance, and road maps toward a cure

    PubMed Central

    Pagliarini, Raymond; Shao, Wenlin; Sellers, William R

    2015-01-01

    A key goal of cancer therapeutics is to selectively target the genetic lesions that initiate and maintain cancer cell proliferation and survival. While most cancers harbor multiple oncogenic mutations, a wealth of preclinical and clinical data supports that many cancers are sensitive to inhibition of single oncogenes, a concept referred to as ‘oncogene addiction’. Herein, we describe the clinical evidence supporting oncogene addiction and discuss common mechanistic themes emerging from the response and acquired resistance to oncogene-targeted therapies. Finally, we suggest several opportunities toward exploiting oncogene addiction to achieve curative cancer therapies. PMID:25680965

  20. In vitro irradiation is able to cause RET oncogene rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Ito, T; Seyama, T; Iwamoto, K S; Hayashi, T; Mizuno, T; Tsuyama, N; Dohi, K; Nakamura, N; Akiyama, M

    1993-07-01

    Elevated risk of thyroid cancers among the atomic bomb survivors as compared to the nonexposed population suggests that some genetic events related to thyroid cancer must be caused by ionizing radiation. Accordingly, inducibility of RET oncogene rearrangements, i.e., the generation of the RET-PTC oncogene, specific for thyroid cancer, was investigated among human undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma cells (8505C), which do not have RET oncogene rearrangement, after 0, 10, 50, and 100 Gy of in vitro X-irradiation by means of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. After testing 10(8) cells at each dose point, 3 independent samples obtained with 50 Gy of X-irradiation and 6 independent samples obtained with 100 Gy of X-irradiation showed a rearranged RET oncogene amplified band. No rearranged transcripts were obtained from cells irradiated with 0 or 10 Gy. All of the transcripts were sequenced and found to contain the D10S170 and RET sequence. Interestingly, two types of rearrangements were included in these transcripts: one is specific for thyroid cancer and the other, which contains a 150-base pair insert, is atypical, not usually seen in vivo. This insert was found to be the exon of D10S170. Furthermore, in fibrosarcoma cells (HT1080), X-irradiation also induced RET oncogene rearrangements, which included the same two types of rearrangements observed in the X-irradiated thyroid cells (8505C). These results are in favor of the hypothesis that some radiation-induced thyroid cancers, including those among atomic bomb survivors, might have developed when a growth advantage was obtained through a specific form of RET oncogene rearrangement induced by radiation exposure.

  1. Oncogene-mediated transformation of fetal rat colon in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pories, S; Jaros, K; Steele, G; Pauley, A; Summerhayes, I C

    1992-05-01

    Short-term maintenance of fetal rat colonic tissue in vitro has been demonstrated using a collagen matrix organ culture system. The introduction of single (v-myc, v-rasH, v-src) oncogenes or combinations of oncogenes (v-myc/rasH, v-myc/src) into normal colon mucosal elements was established using retroviral vectors, resulting in enhanced proliferation and migration of epithelial cells from the lumen of tissue implants. Expression of a single oncogene in normal colon epithelium did not result in the establishment of cell lines. In contrast, expression of cooperating oncogenic elements resulted in cell lines in greater than 80% of experiments, revealing different morphological characteristics dependent upon the oncogene combination used. Confirmation of the expression of viral transcripts was determined using Northern blot analysis and viral oncoprotein expression using Western blot analysis (p21) and an immunoprecipitation kinase assay (src). Expression of keratin filaments was lost following passaging of cell lines but could be induced by the myc/ras transformants by growth on Rat-1 feeder layers. This induction phenomenon was not observed with myc/src lines, and although these expressed high levels of sucrase isomaltase the epithelial origin of these cells is unclear. Karyotypic analysis performed on three myc/ras-transformed cell lines revealed a normal chromosome complement associated with transformation. In this report we describe a novel in vitro transformation system for normal rat colonic epithelium mediated by the introduction of oncogene elements using different retroviral vector constructs. The potential to generate cell lines representing different stages of neoplastic progression using relevant genetic components presents significant advantages for the study of cellular and molecular interactions underlying colon neoplastic progression.

  2. Avian oncogenic virus differential diagnosis in chickens using oligonucleotide microarray.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lih-Chiann; Huang, Dean; Pu, Chang-En; Wang, Ching-Ho

    2014-12-15

    Avian oncogenic viruses include the avian leukosis virus (ALV), reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) and Marek's disease virus (MDV). Multiple oncogenic viral infections are frequently seen, with even Marek's disease vaccines reported to be contaminated with ALV and REV. The gross lesions caused by avian oncogenic viruses often overlap, making differentiation diagnosis based on histopathology difficult. The objective of this study is to develop a rapid approach to simultaneously differentiate, subgroup and pathotype the avian oncogenic viruses. The oligonucleotide microarray was employed in this study. Particular DNA sequences were recognized using specific hybridization between the DNA target and probe on the microarray, followed with colorimetric development through enzyme reaction. With 10 designed probes, ALV-A, ALV-E, ALV-J, REV, MDV pathogenic and vaccine strains were clearly discriminated on the microarray with the naked eyes. The detection limit was 27 copy numbers, which was 10-100 times lower than multiplex PCR. Of 102 field samples screened using the oligonucleotide microarray, 32 samples were positive for ALV-E, 17 samples were positive for ALV-J, 6 samples were positive for REV, 4 samples were positive for MDV, 7 samples were positive for both ALV-A and ALV-E, 5 samples were positive for ALV-A, ALV-E and ALV-J, one sample was positive for both ALV-J and MDV, and 3 samples were positive for both REV and MDV. The oligonucleotide microarray, an easy-to-use, high-specificity, high-sensitivity and extendable assay, presents a potent technique for rapid differential diagnosis of avian oncogenic viruses and the detection of multiple avian oncogenic viral infections under field conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular biology of oncogenic inflammatory processes. I. Non-oncogenic and oncogenic pathogens, intrinsic inflammatory reactions without pathogens, and microRNA/DNA interactions (Review).

    PubMed

    Sinkovics, Joseph G

    2012-02-01

    In some inflammasomes tumor cells are generated. The internal environment of the inflammasome is conducive to the induction of malignant transformation. Epigenetic changes initiate this process. The subverted stromal connective tissue cells act to promote and sustain the process of malignant trans-formation. In its early stages, the premalignant cells depend on paracrine circuitries for the reception of growth factors. The ligands are derived from the connective tissue, and the receptors are expressed on the recipient premalignant cells. The initial events are not a direct attack on the proto-oncogenes, and thus it may be entirely reversible. Epigenetic processes of hypermethylation of the genes at the promoters of tumor suppressor genes (to silence them), and deacetylation of the histones aimed at the promoters of proto-oncogenes (to activate them) are on-going. A large number of short RNA sequences (interfering, micro-, short hairpin, non-coding RNAs) silence tumor suppressor genes, by neutralizing their mRNAs. In a serial sequence oncogenes undergo amplifications, point-mutations, translocations and fusions. In its earliest stage, the process is reversible by demethylation of the silenced suppressor gene promoters (to reactivate them), or re-acetylation of the histones of the oncogene promoters, thus de-activating them. The external administration of histone deacetylase inhibitors usually leads to the restoration of histone acetylation. In time, the uncorrected processes solidify into constitutive and irreversible gene mutations. Some of the pathogens inducing inflammations with consquential malignant transformation contain oncogenic gene sequences (papilloma viruses, Epstein-Barr virus, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, hepatitis B and C viruses, Merkel cell polyoma virus, Helicobacter pylori, enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis). These induced malignancies may be multifocal. Other pathogens are devoid of any known oncogenic genomic sequences

  4. High incidence of lung, bone, and lymphoid tumors in transgenic mice overexpressing mutant alleles of the p53 oncogene.

    PubMed Central

    Lavigueur, A; Maltby, V; Mock, D; Rossant, J; Pawson, T; Bernstein, A

    1989-01-01

    We have investigated the role of the p53 gene in oncogenesis in vivo by generating transgenic mice carrying murine p53 genomic fragments isolated from a mouse Friend erythroleukemia cell line or BALB/c mouse liver DNA. Elevated levels of p53 mRNA were detected in several tissues of two transgenic lines tested. Increased levels of p53 protein were also detected in most of the tissues analyzed by Western blotting (immunoblotting). Because both transgenes encoded p53 proteins that were antigenically distinct from wild-type p53, it was possible to demonstrate that overexpression of the p53 protein was mostly, if not entirely, due to the expression of the transgenes. Neoplasms developed in 20% of the transgenic mice, with a high incidence of lung adenocarcinomas, osteosarcomas, and lymphomas. Tissues such as ovaries that expressed the transgene at high levels were not at higher risk of malignant transformation than tissues expressing p53 protein at much lower levels. The long latent period and low penetrance suggest that overexpression of p53 alone is not sufficient to induce malignancies and that additional events are required. These observations provide direct evidence that mutant alleles of the p53 oncogene have oncogenic potential in vivo and that different cell types show intrinsic differences in susceptibility to malignant transformation by p53. Since recent data suggest that p53 may be a recessive oncogene, it is possible that the elevated tumor incidence results from functional inactivation of endogenous p53 by overexpression of the mutant transgene. The high incidence of lung and bone tumors suggests that p53 transgenic mice may provide a useful model to investigate the molecular events that underlie these malignancies in humans. Images PMID:2476668

  5. Cooperativity of Oncogenic K-Ras and Downregulated p16/INK4A in Human Pancreatic Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Jianhua; Zhuang, Zhuonan; Li, Zhongkui; Wang, Huamin; Fleming, Jason B.; Freeman, James W.; Yu, Dihua; Huang, Peng; Chiao, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Activation of K-ras and inactivation of p16 are the most frequently identified genetic alterations in human pancreatic epithelial adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Mouse models engineered with mutant K-ras and deleted p16 recapitulate key pathological features of PDAC. However, a human cell culture transformation model that recapitulates the human pancreatic molecular carcinogenesis is lacking. In this study, we investigated the role of p16 in hTERT-immortalized human pancreatic epithelial nestin-expressing (HPNE) cells expressing mutant K-ras (K-rasG12V). We found that expression of p16 was induced by oncogenic K-ras in these HPNE cells and that silencing of this induced p16 expression resulted in tumorigenic transformation and development of metastatic PDAC in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model. Our results revealed that PI3K/Akt, ERK1/2 pathways and TGFα signaling were activated by K-ras and involved in the malignant transformation of human pancreatic cells. Also, p38/MAPK pathway was involved in p16 up-regulation. Thus, our findings establish an experimental cell-based model for dissecting signaling pathways in the development of human PDAC. This model provides an important tool for studying the molecular basis of PDAC development and gaining insight into signaling mechanisms and potential new therapeutic targets for altered oncogenic signaling pathways in PDAC. PMID:25029561

  6. Cooperativity of oncogenic K-ras and downregulated p16/INK4A in human pancreatic tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zhe; Ju, Huaiqiang; Ling, Jianhua; Zhuang, Zhuonan; Li, Zhongkui; Wang, Huamin; Fleming, Jason B; Freeman, James W; Yu, Dihua; Huang, Peng; Chiao, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Activation of K-ras and inactivation of p16 are the most frequently identified genetic alterations in human pancreatic epithelial adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Mouse models engineered with mutant K-ras and deleted p16 recapitulate key pathological features of PDAC. However, a human cell culture transformation model that recapitulates the human pancreatic molecular carcinogenesis is lacking. In this study, we investigated the role of p16 in hTERT-immortalized human pancreatic epithelial nestin-expressing (HPNE) cells expressing mutant K-ras (K-rasG12V). We found that expression of p16 was induced by oncogenic K-ras in these HPNE cells and that silencing of this induced p16 expression resulted in tumorigenic transformation and development of metastatic PDAC in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model. Our results revealed that PI3K/Akt, ERK1/2 pathways and TGFα signaling were activated by K-ras and involved in the malignant transformation of human pancreatic cells. Also, p38/MAPK pathway was involved in p16 up-regulation. Thus, our findings establish an experimental cell-based model for dissecting signaling pathways in the development of human PDAC. This model provides an important tool for studying the molecular basis of PDAC development and gaining insight into signaling mechanisms and potential new therapeutic targets for altered oncogenic signaling pathways in PDAC.

  7. In vivo evolution of c-rel oncogenic potential.

    PubMed

    Hrdlicková, R; Nehyba, J; Humphries, E H

    1994-04-01

    The c-rel proto-oncogene belongs to the NF-kappa B/rel and I kappa B gene families, which regulate several inducible processes, including self-defense/repair and embryogenesis. Transduction of the c-rel transcription factor by the avian retrovirus resulted in the formation of a highly oncogenic virus, reticuloendotheliosis virus strain T (REV-T), that encodes the oncogene v-rel. To examine the oncogenic potential of c-rel, we inserted it into a REV-T-based retroviral vector, rescued virus [REV-C(CSV)], and infected 1-day-old chicks. All birds developed tumors, and all cell lines established from REV-C-induced tumors expressed c-rel proteins that lacked C-terminal sequences. These proteins, responsible for both in vivo and in vitro cell proliferation, were apparently selected for their oncogenic potential. In order to examine the cooperation of C-terminal deletions with other oncogenic alterations in vivo, point mutations present in the N-terminal and middle regions of v-rel were analyzed by a similar protocol. The data obtained support four conclusions. (i) c-rel proteins bearing any of three single-amino-acid mutations present in the N-terminal portion of v-rel were sufficiently oncogenic to induce tumor development in the absence of additional mutations. (ii) Combining a mutation from the N-terminal region of v-rel with a deletion of the C-terminal sequences of c-rel increases the oncogenicity of the protein in an additive manner. (iii) Mutations present in the middle of v-rel cooperated synergistically with C-terminal deletions to produce highly transforming viruses. (iv) Deletion of c-rel produced a variety of transforming rel proteins with sizes that extended from 42 to 65 kDa. The most frequently isolated rel deletion was 62 kDa in size. To examine the basis for the selection of different rel mutants, their ability to induce immunoregulatory surface receptors was analyzed. The data revealed a correlation between the induction capacity of these mutants and

  8. Members of the src and ras oncogene families supplant the epidermal growth factor requirement of BALB/MK-2 keratinocytes and induce distinct alterations in their terminal differentiation program.

    PubMed Central

    Weissman, B; Aaronson, S A

    1985-01-01

    BALB-/MK-2 mouse epidermal keratinocytes required epidermal growth factor for proliferation and terminally differentiated in response to high Ca2+ concentration. Infection with retroviruses containing transforming genes of the src and ras oncogene families led to rapid loss of epidermal growth factor dependence, in some cases, accompanied by alterations in cellular morphology. The virus-altered cells continued to proliferate in the presence of high levels of extracellular calcium but exhibited alterations in normal keratinocyte terminal differentiation that appear to be specific to the particular oncogene. These alterations bore similarities to abnormalities in differentiation observed in naturally occurring squamous epithelial malignancies. Images PMID:2427928

  9. Oncogenic ras-driven cancer cell vesiculation leads to emission of double-stranded DNA capable of interacting with target cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae Hoon; Chennakrishnaiah, Shilpa; Audemard, Eric; Montermini, Laura; Meehan, Brian; Rak, Janusz

    2014-08-22

    Cell free DNA is often regarded as a source of genetic cancer biomarkers, but the related mechanisms of DNA release, composition and biological activity remain unclear. Here we show that rat epithelial cell transformation by the human H-ras oncogene leads to an increase in production of small, exosomal-like extracellular vesicles by viable cancer cells. These EVs contain chromatin-associated double-stranded DNA fragments covering the entire host genome, including full-length H-ras. Oncogenic N-ras and SV40LT sequences were also found in EVs emitted from spontaneous mouse brain tumor cells. Disruption of acidic sphingomyelinase and the p53/Rb pathway did not block emission of EV-related oncogenic DNA. Exposure of non-transformed RAT-1 cells to EVs containing mutant H-ras DNA led to the uptake and retention of this material for an extended (30days) but transient period of time, and stimulated cell proliferation. Thus, our study suggests that H-ras-mediated transformation stimulates vesicular emission of this histone-bound oncogene, which may interact with non-transformed cells.

  10. Control of PD-L1 Expression by Oncogenic Activation of the AKT-mTOR Pathway in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lastwika, Kristin J; Wilson, Willie; Li, Qing Kay; Norris, Jeffrey; Xu, Haiying; Ghazarian, Sharon R; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Kawabata, Shigeru; Taube, Janis M; Yao, Sheng; Liu, Linda N; Gills, Joell J; Dennis, Phillip A

    2016-01-15

    Alterations in EGFR, KRAS, and ALK are oncogenic drivers in lung cancer, but how oncogenic signaling influences immunity in the tumor microenvironment is just beginning to be understood. Immunosuppression likely contributes to lung cancer, because drugs that inhibit immune checkpoints like PD-1 and PD-L1 have clinical benefit. Here, we show that activation of the AKT-mTOR pathway tightly regulates PD-L1 expression in vitro and in vivo. Both oncogenic and IFNγ-mediated induction of PD-L1 was dependent on mTOR. In human lung adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas, membranous expression of PD-L1 was significantly associated with mTOR activation. These data suggest that oncogenic activation of the AKT-mTOR pathway promotes immune escape by driving expression of PD-L1, which was confirmed in syngeneic and genetically engineered mouse models of lung cancer where an mTOR inhibitor combined with a PD-1 antibody decreased tumor growth, increased tumor-infiltrating T cells, and decreased regulatory T cells.

  11. Aneuploidy, oncogene amplification and epithelial to mesenchymal transition define spontaneous transformation of murine epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Padilla-Nash, Hesed M.; McNeil, Nicole E.

    2013-01-01

    Human epithelial cancers are defined by a recurrent distribution of specific chromosomal aneuploidies, a trait less typical for murine cancer models induced by an oncogenic stimulus. After prolonged culture, mouse epithelial cells spontaneously immortalize, transform and become tumorigenic. We assessed genome and transcriptome alterations in cultures derived from bladder and kidney utilizing spectral karyotyping, array CGH, FISH and gene expression profiling. The results show widespread aneuploidy, yet a recurrent and tissue-specific distribution of genomic imbalances, just as in human cancers. Losses of chromosome 4 and gains of chromosome 15 are common and occur early during the transformation process. Global gene expression profiling revealed early and significant transcriptional deregulation. Chromosomal aneuploidy resulted in expression changes of resident genes and consequently in a massive deregulation of the cellular transcriptome. Pathway interrogation of expression changes during the sequential steps of transformation revealed enrichment of genes associated with DNA repair, centrosome regulation, stem cell characteristics and aneuploidy. Genes that modulate the epithelial to mesenchymal transition and genes that define the chromosomal instability phenotype played a dominant role and were changed in a directionality consistent with loss of cell adhesion, invasiveness and proliferation. Comparison with gene expression changes during human bladder and kidney tumorigenesis revealed remarkable overlap with changes observed in the spontaneously transformed murine cultures. Therefore, our novel mouse models faithfully recapitulate the sequence of genomic and transcriptomic events that define human tumorigenesis, hence validating them for both basic and preclinical research. PMID:23619298

  12. INTU is essential for oncogenic Hh signaling through regulating primary cilia formation in basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yang, N; Leung, E L-H; Liu, C; Li, L; Eguether, T; Jun Yao, X-J; Jones, E C; Norris, D A; Liu, A; Clark, R A; Roop, D R; Pazour, G J; Shroyer, K R; Chen, J

    2017-08-31

    Inturned (INTU), a cilia and planar polarity effector, performs prominent ciliogenic functions during morphogenesis, such as in the skin. INTU is expressed in adult tissues but its role in tissue maintenance is unknown. Here, we report that the expression of the INTU gene is aberrantly elevated in human basal cell carcinoma (BCC), coinciding with increased primary cilia formation and activated hedgehog (Hh) signaling. Disrupting Intu in an oncogenic mutant Smo (SmoM2)-driven BCC mouse model prevented the formation of BCC through suppressing primary cilia formation and Hh signaling, suggesting that Intu performs a permissive role during BCC formation. INTU is essential for intraflagellar transport A complex assembly during ciliogenesis. To further determine whether Intu is directly involved in the activation of Hh signaling downstream of ciliogenesis, we examined the Hh signaling pathway in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, which readily responds to the Hh pathway activation. Depleting Intu blocked Smo agonist-induced Hh pathway activation, whereas the expression of Gli2ΔN, a constitutively active Gli2, restored Hh pathway activation in Intu-deficient cells, suggesting that INTU functions upstream of Gli2 activation. In contrast, overexpressing Intu did not promote ciliogenesis or Hh signaling. Taken together, data obtained from this study suggest that INTU is indispensable during BCC tumorigenesis and that its aberrant upregulation is likely a prerequisite for primary cilia formation during Hh-dependent tumorigenesis.

  13. Oncogenic deregulation of EZH2 as an opportunity for targeted therapy in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haikuo; Qi, Jun; Reyes, Jaime M.; Li, Lewyn; Rao, Prakash K.; Li, Fugen; Lin, Charles Y.; Perry, Jennifer A.; Lawlor, Matthew A.; Federation, Alexander; De Raedt, Thomas; Li, Yvonne Y.; Liu, Yan; Duarte, Melissa A.; Zhang, Yanxi; Herter-Sprie, Grit S.; Kikuchi, Eiki; Carretero, Julian; Perou, Charles M.; Reibel, Jacob B.; Paulk, Joshiawa; Bronson, Roderick T.; Watanabe, Hideo; Fillmore, Christine M.; Kim, Carla F.; Hammerman, Peter S.; Brown, Myles; Cichowski, Karen; Long, Henry; Bradner, James E.; Wong, Kwok-Kin

    2016-01-01

    As a master regulator of chromatin function, the lysine methyltransferase EZH2 orchestrates transcriptional silencing of developmental gene networks. Overexpression of EZH2 is commonly observed in human epithelial cancers, such as non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), yet definitive demonstration of malignant transformation by deregulated EZH2 remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate the causal role of EZH2 overexpression in NSCLC with new genetically-engineered mouse models of lung adenocarcinoma. Deregulated EZH2 silences normal developmental pathways leading to epigenetic transformation independent from canonical growth factor pathway activation. As such, tumors feature a transcriptional program distinct from KRAS- and EGFR-mutant mouse lung cancers, but shared with human lung adenocarcinomas exhibiting high EZH2 expression. To target EZH2-dependent cancers, we developed a novel and potent EZH2 inhibitor JQEZ5 that promoted the regression of EZH2-driven tumors in vivo, confirming oncogenic addiction to EZH2 in established tumors and providing the rationale for epigenetic therapy in a subset of lung cancer. PMID:27312177

  14. Oncogenic KRAS Regulates Tumor Cell Signaling via Stromal Reciprocation

    PubMed Central

    Tape, Christopher J.; Ling, Stephanie; Dimitriadi, Maria; McMahon, Kelly M.; Worboys, Jonathan D.; Leong, Hui Sun; Norrie, Ida C.; Miller, Crispin J.; Poulogiannis, George; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.; Jørgensen, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Summary Oncogenic mutations regulate signaling within both tumor cells and adjacent stromal cells. Here, we show that oncogenic KRAS (KRASG12D) also regulates tumor cell signaling via stromal cells. By combining cell-specific proteome labeling with multivariate phosphoproteomics, we analyzed heterocellular KRASG12D signaling in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) cells. Tumor cell KRASG12D engages heterotypic fibroblasts, which subsequently instigate reciprocal signaling in the tumor cells. Reciprocal signaling employs additional kinases and doubles the number of regulated signaling nodes from cell-autonomous KRASG12D. Consequently, reciprocal KRASG12D produces a tumor cell phosphoproteome and total proteome that is distinct from cell-autonomous KRASG12D alone. Reciprocal signaling regulates tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis and increases mitochondrial capacity via an IGF1R/AXL-AKT axis. These results demonstrate that oncogene signaling should be viewed as a heterocellular process and that our existing cell-autonomous perspective underrepresents the extent of oncogene signaling in cancer. Video Abstract PMID:27087446

  15. c-Abl antagonizes the YAP oncogenic function

    PubMed Central

    Keshet, R; Adler, J; Ricardo Lax, I; Shanzer, M; Porat, Z; Reuven, N; Shaul, Y

    2015-01-01

    YES-associated protein (YAP) is a central transcription coactivator that functions as an oncogene in a number of experimental systems. However, under DNA damage, YAP activates pro-apoptotic genes in conjunction with p73. This program switching is mediated by c-Abl (Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene) via phosphorylation of YAP at the Y357 residue (pY357). YAP as an oncogene coactivates the TEAD (transcriptional enhancer activator domain) family transcription factors. Here we asked whether c-Abl regulates the YAP–TEAD functional module. We found that DNA damage, through c-Abl activation, specifically depressed YAP–TEAD-induced transcription. Remarkably, c-Abl counteracts YAP-induced transformation by interfering with the YAP–TEAD transcriptional program. c-Abl induced TEAD1 phosphorylation, but the YAP–TEAD complex remained unaffected. In contrast, TEAD coactivation was compromised by phosphomimetic YAP Y357E mutation but not Y357F, as demonstrated at the level of reporter genes and endogenous TEAD target genes. Furthermore, YAP Y357E also severely compromised the role of YAP in cell transformation, migration, anchorage-independent growth, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human mammary MCF10A cells. These results suggest that YAP pY357 lost TEAD transcription activation function. Our results demonstrate that YAP pY357 inactivates YAP oncogenic function and establish a role for YAP Y357 phosphorylation in cell-fate decision. PMID:25361080

  16. c-Abl antagonizes the YAP oncogenic function.

    PubMed

    Keshet, R; Adler, J; Ricardo Lax, I; Shanzer, M; Porat, Z; Reuven, N; Shaul, Y

    2015-06-01

    YES-associated protein (YAP) is a central transcription coactivator that functions as an oncogene in a number of experimental systems. However, under DNA damage, YAP activates pro-apoptotic genes in conjunction with p73. This program switching is mediated by c-Abl (Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene) via phosphorylation of YAP at the Y357 residue (pY357). YAP as an oncogene coactivates the TEAD (transcriptional enhancer activator domain) family transcription factors. Here we asked whether c-Abl regulates the YAP-TEAD functional module. We found that DNA damage, through c-Abl activation, specifically depressed YAP-TEAD-induced transcription. Remarkably, c-Abl counteracts YAP-induced transformation by interfering with the YAP-TEAD transcriptional program. c-Abl induced TEAD1 phosphorylation, but the YAP-TEAD complex remained unaffected. In contrast, TEAD coactivation was compromised by phosphomimetic YAP Y357E mutation but not Y357F, as demonstrated at the level of reporter genes and endogenous TEAD target genes. Furthermore, YAP Y357E also severely compromised the role of YAP in cell transformation, migration, anchorage-independent growth, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human mammary MCF10A cells. These results suggest that YAP pY357 lost TEAD transcription activation function. Our results demonstrate that YAP pY357 inactivates YAP oncogenic function and establish a role for YAP Y357 phosphorylation in cell-fate decision.

  17. Targeting Oncogenic Mutant p53 for Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Parrales, Alejandro; Iwakuma, Tomoo

    2015-01-01

    Among genetic alterations in human cancers, mutations in the tumor suppressor p53 gene are the most common, occurring in over 50% of human cancers. The majority of p53 mutations are missense mutations and result in the accumulation of dysfunctional p53 protein in tumors. These mutants frequently have oncogenic gain-of-function activities and exacerbate malignant properties of cancer cells, such as metastasis and drug resistance. Increasing evidence reveals that stabilization of mutant p53 in tumors is crucial for its oncogenic activities, while depletion of mutant p53 attenuates malignant properties of cancer cells. Thus, mutant p53 is an attractive druggable target for cancer therapy. Different approaches have been taken to develop small-molecule compounds that specifically target mutant p53. These include compounds that restore wild-type conformation and transcriptional activity of mutant p53, induce depletion of mutant p53, inhibit downstream pathways of oncogenic mutant p53, and induce synthetic lethality to mutant p53. In this review article, we comprehensively discuss the current strategies targeting oncogenic mutant p53 in cancers, with special focus on compounds that restore wild-type p53 transcriptional activity of mutant p53 and those reducing mutant p53 levels.

  18. Role of ets Oncogenes in the Progression of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-10-01

    Mazabraud A. (1988). Cancer Kato J, Matsuoka M, Polyak K, Massague J and Sherr CJ. Genet. Cytogenet., 32, 229-238. (1994). Cell, 79, 487-496. Vairo G...Francisco LV , Roach JC, Argonza R, D, Weber BL and EI-Deiryh WS. (1998). Oncogene, 16, King MC and Ostrander EA. (1996). Human Mol. Genet., 1713-1721. 5

  19. Oncogenic cancer/testis antigens: prime candidates for immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Andersen, Mads H; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2015-06-30

    Recent developments have set the stage for immunotherapy as a supplement to conventional cancer treatment. Consequently, a significant effort is required to further improve efficacy and specificity, particularly the identification of optimal therapeutic targets for clinical testing. Cancer/testis antigens are immunogenic, highly cancer-specific, and frequently expressed in various types of cancer, which make them promising candidate targets for cancer immunotherapy, including cancer vaccination and adoptive T-cell transfer with chimeric T-cell receptors. Our current understanding of tumor immunology and immune escape suggests that targeting oncogenic antigens may be beneficial, meaning that identification of cancer/testis antigens with oncogenic properties is of high priority. Recent work from our lab and others provide evidence that many cancer/testis antigens, in fact, have oncogenic functions, including support of growth, survival and metastasis. This novel insight into the function of cancer/testis antigens has the potential to deliver more effective cancer vaccines. Moreover, immune targeting of oncogenic cancer/testis antigens in combination with conventional cytotoxic therapies or novel immunotherapies such as checkpoint blockade or adoptive transfer, represents a highly synergistic approach with the potential to improve patient survival.

  20. Folate levels modulate oncogene-induced replication stress and tumorigenicity

    PubMed Central

    Lamm, Noa; Maoz, Karin; Bester, Assaf C; Im, Michael M; Shewach, Donna S; Karni, Rotem; Kerem, Batsheva

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomal instability in early cancer stages is caused by replication stress. One mechanism by which oncogene expression induces replication stress is to drive cell proliferation with insufficient nucleotide levels. Cancer development is driven by alterations in both genetic and environmental factors. Here, we investigated whether replication stress can be modulated by both genetic and non-genetic factors and whether the extent of replication stress affects the probability of neoplastic transformation. To do so, we studied the effect of folate, a micronutrient that is essential for nucleotide biosynthesis, on oncogene-induced tumorigenicity. We show that folate deficiency by itself leads to replication stress in a concentration-dependent manner. Folate deficiency significantly enhances oncogene-induced replication stress, leading to increased DNA damage and tumorigenicity in vitro. Importantly, oncogene-expressing cells, when grown under folate deficiency, exhibit a significantly increased frequency of tumor development in mice. These findings suggest that replication stress is a quantitative trait affected by both genetic and non-genetic factors and that the extent of replication stress plays an important role in cancer development. PMID:26197802

  1. The Oncogenic Hazard from Chronic Inhalation of Hydrazine,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    kidneys, thyroids, adrenals; and liver hemosiderosis, kidney mineralization, general degeneration of the adrenals; and senile atrophy ...nasal polyps. Small numbers of villous nasal polyps, muco-epidermoid papillomas, and squamous cell papillomas were also noted. The incidence of these...unexposed controls that are usually associated with aging such as amyloidosis and senile atrophy of the testes. Analysis of the oncogenic changes and other

  2. Activation of oncogenes by radon progeny and x-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    The overall goal of this proposal is to study the carcinogenic effect of both high and low LET radiation at the molecular level, utilizing techniques developed in molecular biology, cancer cell biology and radiation biology. The underlying assumption is that malignant transformation of normal cells is a multistep process requiring two or more molecular events in the genomic DNA. These events are most likely the activation of proto-oncogenes, or the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. We hypothesize that radiation may induce such events in one or more steps of the multistep process. We will use in vitro models of transformation that reproduce the stepwise progression of normal cells towards the transformed phenotype and ask whether radiation can provide the necessary activating function at discrete steps along this path. Our strategy involves transfecting into normal primary cells a variety of cloned oncogenes that are known to supply only some of the functions necessary for full transformation. These partially transformed'' cells will be the targets for irradiation by x-rays and alpha particles. The results will provide the basis for assessing the ability of ionizing radiation to activate oncogenic functions that complement'' the oncogene already present in the transfected ells and produce the fully transformed phenotype. 121 refs.

  3. Protein Kinase Cι Expression and Oncogenic Signaling Mechanisms in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Nicole R.; Kalari, Krishna R.; Fields, Alan P.

    2010-01-01

    Accumulating evidence demonstrates that PKCι is an oncogene and prognostic marker that is frequently targeted for genetic alteration in many major forms of human cancer. Functional data demonstrate that PKCι is required for the transformed phenotype of NSCLC, pancreatic, ovarian, prostate, colon and brain cancer cells. Future studies will be required to determine whether PKCι is also an oncogene in the many other cancer types that also overexpress PKCι. Studies of PKCι using genetically defined models of tumorigenesis have revealed a critical role for PKCι in multiple stages of tumorigenesis, including tumor initiation, progression and metastasis. Recent studies in a genetic model of lung adenocarcinoma suggest a role for PKCι in transformation of lung cancer stem cells. These studies have important implications for the therapeutic use of aurothiomalate (ATM), a highly selective PKCι signaling inhibitor currently undergoing clinical evaluation. Significant progress has been made in determining the molecular mechanisms by which PKCι drives the transformed phenotype, particularly the central role played by the oncogenic PKCι-Par6 complex in transformed growth and invasion, and of several PKCι-dependent survival pathways in chemo-resistance. Future studies will be required to determine the composition and dynamics of the PKCι-Par6 complex, and the mechanisms by which oncogenic signaling through this complex is regulated. Likewise, a better understanding of the critical downstream effectors of PKCι in various human tumor types holds promise for identifying novel prognostic and surrogate markers of oncogenic PKCι activity that may be clinically useful in ongoing clinical trials of ATM. PMID:20945390

  4. Salivary gland tumors in transgenic mice with targeted PLAG1 proto-oncogene overexpression.

    PubMed

    Declercq, Jeroen; Van Dyck, Frederik; Braem, Caroline V; Van Valckenborgh, Isabelle C; Voz, Marianne; Wassef, Michel; Schoonjans, Luc; Van Damme, Boudewijn; Fiette, Laurence; Van de Ven, Wim J M

    2005-06-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) proto-oncogene overexpression is implicated in various human neoplasias, including salivary gland pleomorphic adenomas. To further assess the oncogenic capacity of PLAG1, two independent PLAG1 transgenic mouse strains were established, PTMS1 and PTMS2, in which activation of PLAG1 overexpression is Cre mediated. Crossbreeding of PTMS1 or PTMS2 mice with MMTV-Cre transgenic mice was done to target PLAG1 overexpression to salivary and mammary glands, in the P1-Mcre/P2-Mcre offspring. With a prevalence of 100% and 6%, respectively, P1-Mcre and P2-Mcre mice developed salivary gland tumors displaying various pleomorphic adenoma features. Moreover, histopathologic analysis of salivary glands of 1-week-old P1-Mcre mice pointed at early tumoral stages in epithelial structures. Malignant characteristics in the salivary gland tumors and frequent lung metastases were found in older tumor-bearing mice. PLAG1 overexpression was shown in all tumors, including early tumoral stages. The tumors revealed an up-regulation of the expression of two distinct, imprinted gene clusters (i.e., Igf2/H19 and Dlk1/Gtl2). With a latency period of about 1 year, 8% of the P2-Mcre mice developed mammary gland tumors displaying similar histopathologic features as the salivary gland tumors. In conclusion, our results establish the strong and apparently direct in vivo tumorigenic capacity of PLAG1 and indicate that the transgenic mice constitute a valuable model for pleomorphic salivary gland tumorigenesis and potentially for other glands as well.

  5. ESPL1 is a candidate oncogene of luminal B breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Finetti, Pascal; Guille, Arnaud; Adelaide, José; Birnbaum, Daniel; Chaffanet, Max; Bertucci, François

    2014-08-01

    ESPL1/separase is a putative oncogene of luminal B breast cancers. Histoclinical correlations of its expression have never been explored in large series of breast tumors, and specifically in the luminal subtype. In a pooled series of invasive breast carcinomas profiled using DNA microarrays, we identified 3,074 luminal cases, including 1,307 luminal B tumors, in which we searched for correlations between ESPL1 mRNA expression and molecular and histoclinical features. Compared to normal breast samples, ESPL1 was overexpressed in 52 % of luminal tumors, and much more frequently in luminal B (83 %) than luminal A tumors (29 %). In luminal breast cancers, higher ESPL1 expression was associated with poor-prognosis criteria (age ≤ 50 years, ductal type, advanced stage, large tumor size, lymph node-positive status, high grade, PR-negative status, luminal B subtype) and with poor metastasis-free survival in both uni- and multivariate analyses. This independent prognostic value was also observed in luminal B tumors only, and persisted when compared with gene expression signatures (PAM50, Recurrence Score, Mammaprint, EndoPredict) currently proposed to refine the indications of adjuvant chemotherapy in hormone receptor-positive/HER2-negative breast cancer. We also confirmed the observations made with experimental mouse models: ESPL1-overexpressing luminal tumors showed complex genomic profiles and molecular features of chromosomal instability and loss of tumor suppressor genes (P53 and Rb). Our results reinforce the idea that ESPL1 is a candidate oncogene in luminal B cancers. Its expression may help improve the prognostication. Inhibiting ESPL1 may represent a promising therapeutic approach for these poor-prognosis tumors.

  6. Multiple endocrine neoplasia induced by the promiscuous expression of a viral oncogene.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, R K; Hoekzema, G S; Vogel, J; Hinrichs, S H; Jay, G

    1988-05-01

    There is increasing evidence for the importance of events that govern and influence the interaction between the transformed cell and its host being ultimately responsible for the establishment of the cancer phenotype. To derive an animal model that will allow us to define some of these phenomena at the molecular level, we have chosen to induce the expression of a viral oncogene in all tissue types, with the hope of identifying sites that are more susceptible to malignant transformation. When the gene for simian virus 40 large tumor antigen (T antigen) was placed under the control of a major histocompatibility complex class I gene enhancer, the resulting transgenic mice not only developed choroid plexus papillomas, as seen with wild-type simian virus 40, but also lymphoid hyperplasia and multiple endocrine neoplasias. The development of lymphoid hyperplasia was preceded by an elevated level of expression of T antigen in these tissues at an early age. Surprisingly, the striking thymic hyperplasia has not been observed to progress toward malignancy. The multiple endocrine neoplasias developed later in life and involved the pancreas, pituitary, thyroid, adrenals, and testes. While not preceded by an elevated level of expression of T antigen, once endocrine tumors appeared they quickly progressed toward malignant growth. Although other tissues also exhibited a basal level of expression of the viral oncogene similar to that detected in endocrine tissues, they rarely developed tumors. This transgenic mouse model seems particularly suitable for a molecular understanding of events responsible for certain tissue types being so much more susceptible to neoplastic conversion, with others being so refractory.

  7. Mitochondrial clearance by the STK38 kinase supports oncogenic Ras-induced cell transformation

    PubMed Central

    Bettoun, Audrey; Surdez, Didier; Vallerand, David; Gundogdu, Ramazan; Sharif, Ahmad A.D.; Gomez, Marta; Cascone, Ilaria; Meunier, Brigitte; White, Michael A.; Codogno, Patrice; Parrini, Maria Carla; Camonis, Jacques H.; Hergovich, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Oncogenic Ras signalling occurs frequently in many human cancers. However, no effective targeted therapies are currently available to treat patients suffering from Ras-driven tumours. Therefore, it is imperative to identify downstream effectors of Ras signalling that potentially represent promising new therapeutic options. Particularly, considering that autophagy inhibition can impair the survival of Ras-transformed cells in tissue culture and mouse models, an understanding of factors regulating the balance between autophagy and apoptosis in Ras-transformed human cells is needed. Here, we report critical roles of the STK38 protein kinase in oncogenic Ras transformation. STK38 knockdown impaired anoikis resistance, anchorage-independent soft agar growth, and in vivo xenograft growth of Ras-transformed human cells. Mechanistically, STK38 supports Ras-driven transformation through promoting detachment-induced autophagy. Even more importantly, upon cell detachment STK38 is required to sustain the removal of damaged mitochondria by mitophagy, a selective autophagic process, to prevent excessive mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production that can negatively affect cancer cell survival. Significantly, knockdown of PINK1 or Parkin, two positive regulators of mitophagy, also impaired anoikis resistance and anchorage-independent growth of Ras-transformed human cells, while knockdown of USP30, a negative regulator of PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy, restored anchorage-independent growth of STK38-depleted Ras-transformed human cells. Therefore, our findings collectively reveal novel molecular players that determine whether Ras-transformed human cells die or survive upon cell detachment, which potentially could be exploited for the development of novel strategies to target Ras-transformed cells. PMID:27283898

  8. Oncogenic Transformation of Dendritic Cells and Their Precursors Leads to Rapid Cancer Development in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Böttcher, Jan P.; Zelenay, Santiago; Rogers, Neil C.; Helft, Julie; Schraml, Barbara U.

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are powerful APCs that can induce Ag-specific adaptive immune responses and are increasingly recognized as important players in innate immunity to both infection and malignancy. Interestingly, although there are multiple described hematological malignancies, DC cancers are rarely observed in humans. Whether this is linked to the immunogenic potential of DCs, which might render them uniquely susceptible to immune control upon neoplastic transformation, has not been fully investigated. To address the issue, we generated a genetically engineered mouse model in which expression of Cre recombinase driven by the C-type lectin domain family 9, member a (Clec9a) locus causes expression of the Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (Kras)G12D oncogenic driver and deletion of the tumor suppressor p53 within developing and differentiated DCs. We show that these Clec9aKras-G12D mice rapidly succumb from disease and display massive accumulation of transformed DCs in multiple organs. In bone marrow chimeras, the development of DC cancer could be induced by a small number of transformed cells and was not prevented by the presence of untransformed DCs. Notably, activation of transformed DCs did not happen spontaneously but could be induced upon stimulation. Although Clec9aKras-G12D mice showed altered thymic T cell development, peripheral T cells were largely unaffected during DC cancer development. Interestingly, transformed DCs were rejected upon adoptive transfer into wild-type but not lymphocyte-deficient mice, indicating that immunological control of DC cancer is in principle possible but does not occur during spontaneous generation in Clec9aKras-G12D mice. Our findings suggest that neoplastic transformation of DCs does not by default induce anti-cancer immunity and can develop unhindered by immunological barriers. PMID:26459350

  9. Role of cannabinoid receptor CB2 in HER2 pro-oncogenic signaling in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Gómez, Eduardo; Andradas, Clara; Blasco-Benito, Sandra; Caffarel, María M; García-Taboada, Elena; Villa-Morales, María; Moreno, Estefanía; Hamann, Sigrid; Martín-Villar, Ester; Flores, Juana M; Wenners, Antonia; Alkatout, Ibrahim; Klapper, Wolfram; Röcken, Christoph; Bronsert, Peter; Stickeler, Elmar; Staebler, Annette; Bauer, Maret; Arnold, Norbert; Soriano, Joaquim; Pérez-Martínez, Manuel; Megías, Diego; Moreno-Bueno, Gema; Ortega-Gutiérrez, Silvia; Artola, Marta; Vázquez-Villa, Henar; Quintanilla, Miguel; Fernández-Piqueras, José; Canela, Enric I; McCormick, Peter J; Guzmán, Manuel; Sánchez, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Pharmacological activation of cannabinoid receptors elicits antitumoral responses in different cancer models. However, the biological role of these receptors in tumor physio-pathology is still unknown. We analyzed CB2 cannabinoid receptor protein expression in two series of 166 and 483 breast tumor samples operated in the University Hospitals of Kiel, Tübingen, and Freiburg between 1997 and 2010 and CB2 mRNA expression in previously published DNA microarray datasets. The role of CB2 in oncogenesis was studied by generating a mouse line that expresses the human V-Erb-B2 Avian Erythroblastic Leukemia Viral Oncogene Homolog 2 (HER2) rat ortholog (neu) and lacks CB2 and by a variety of biochemical and cell biology approaches in human breast cancer cells in culture and in vivo, upon modulation of CB2 expression by si/shRNAs and overexpression plasmids. CB2-HER2 molecular interaction was studied by colocalization, coimmunoprecipitation, and proximity ligation assays. Statistical tests were two-sided. We show an association between elevated CB2 expression in HER2+ breast tumors and poor patient prognosis (decreased overall survival, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.09 to 0.71, P = .009) and higher probability to suffer local recurrence (HR = 0.09, 95% CI = 0.049 to 0.54, P = .003) and to develop distant metastases (HR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.13 to 0.75, P = .009). We also demonstrate that genetic inactivation of CB2 impairs tumor generation and progression in MMTV-neu mice. Moreover, we show that HER2 upregulates CB2 expression by activating the transcription factor ELK1 via the ERK cascade and that an increased CB2 expression activates the HER2 pro-oncogenic signaling at the level of the tyrosine kinase c-SRC. Finally, we show HER2 and CB2 form heteromers in cancer cells. Our findings reveal an unprecedented role of CB2 as a pivotal regulator of HER2 pro-oncogenic signaling in breast cancer, and they suggest that CB2 may be a biomarker with

  10. Long-range oncogenic activation of Igh-c-myc translocations by the Igh 3' regulatory region.

    PubMed

    Gostissa, Monica; Yan, Catherine T; Bianco, Julia M; Cogné, Michel; Pinaud, Eric; Alt, Frederick W

    2009-12-10

    B-cell malignancies, such as human Burkitt's lymphoma, often contain translocations that link c-myc or other proto-oncogenes to the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus (IgH, encoded by Igh). The nature of elements that activate oncogenes within such translocations has been a long-standing question. Translocations within Igh involve DNA double-strand breaks initiated either by the RAG1/2 endonuclease during variable, diversity and joining gene segment (V(D)J) recombination, or by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID, also known as AICDA) during class switch recombination (CSR). V(D)J recombination in progenitor B (pro-B) cells assembles Igh variable region exons upstream of mu constant region (Cmu) exons, which are the first of several sets of C(H) exons ('C(H) genes') within a C(H) locus that span several hundred kilobases (kb). In mature B cells, CSR deletes Cmu and replaces it with a downstream C(H) gene. An intronic enhancer (iEmu) between the variable region exons and Cmu promotes V(D)J recombination in developing B cells. Furthermore, the Igh 3' regulatory region (Igh3'RR) lies downstream of the C(H) locus and modulates CSR by long-range transcriptional enhancement of C(H) genes. Transgenic mice bearing iEmu or Igh3'RR sequences fused to c-myc are predisposed to B lymphomas, demonstrating that such elements can confer oncogenic c-myc expression. However, in many B-cell lymphomas, Igh-c-myc translocations delete iEmu and place c-myc up to 200 kb upstream of the Igh3'RR. Here we address the oncogenic role of the Igh3'RR by inactivating it in two distinct mouse models for B-cell lymphoma with Igh-c-myc translocations. We show that the Igh3'RR is dispensable for pro-B-cell lymphomas with V(D)J recombination-initiated translocations, but is required for peripheral B-cell lymphomas with CSR-associated translocations. As the Igh3'RR is not required for CSR-associated Igh breaks or Igh-c-myc translocations in peripheral B-cell lymphoma progenitors, we conclude that

  11. Inhibition of carcinogen induced c-Ha-ras and c-fos proto-oncogenes expression by dietary curcumin

    PubMed Central

    Limtrakul, Porn-ngarm; Anuchapreeda, Songyot; Lipigorngoson, Suwiwek; Dunn, Floyd W

    2001-01-01

    Background We investigated the chemopreventive action of dietary curcumin on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-initiated and 12,0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-promoted skin tumor formation in Swiss albino mice. Curcumin, a yellow coloring matter isolated from roots of Curcuma longa Linn, is a phenolic compound possessing antioxidant, free radical scavenger, and antiinflammatory properties. It has been shown by previously reported work that TPA-induced skin tumors were inhibited by topical application of curcumin, and curcumin has been shown to inhibit a variety of biological activities of TPA. Topical application of curcumin was reported to inhibit TPA-induced c-fos, c-jun and c-myc gene expression in mouse skin. This paper reports the effects of orally administered curcumin, which was consumed as a dietary component at concentrations of 0.2 % or 1 %, in ad libitum feeding. Results Animals in which tumors had been initiated with DMBA and promoted with TPA experienced significantly fewer tumors and less tumor volume if they ingested either 0.2% or 1% curcumin diets. Also, the dietary consumption of curcumin resulted in a significantly decreased expression of ras and fos proto-oncogenes in the tumorous skin, as measured by enhanced chemiluminesence Western blotting detection system (Amersham). Conclusions Whereas earlier work demonstrated that topical application of curcumin to mouse skin inhibited TPA-induced expression of c-fos, c-jun and c-myc oncogenes, our results are the first to show that orally consumed curcumin significantly inhibited DMBA- and TPA-induced ras and fos gene expression in mouse skin. PMID:11231886

  12. Role of Virus Receptor Hyal2 in Oncogenic Transformation of Rodent Fibroblasts by Sheep Betaretrovirus Env Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shan-Lu; Duh, Fuh-Mei; Lerman, Michael I.; Miller, A. Dusty

    2003-01-01

    The ovine betaretroviruses jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) and enzootic nasal tumor virus (ENTV) cause contagious cancers in the lungs and upper airways of sheep and goats. Oncogenic transformation assays using mouse and rat fibroblasts have localized the transforming activity to the Env proteins encoded by these viruses, which require the putative lung and breast cancer tumor suppressor hyaluronidase 2 (Hyal2) to promote virus entry into cells. These results suggested the hypothesis that the JSRV and ENTV Env proteins cause cancer by inhibiting the tumor suppressor activity of Hyal2. Consistent with this hypothesis, we show that human Hyal2 and other Hyal2 orthologs that can promote virus entry, including rat Hyal2, can suppress transformation by the Env proteins of JSRV and ENTV. Furthermore, we provide direct evidence for binding of the surface (SU) region of JSRV Env to human and rat Hyal2. However, mouse Hyal2 did not mediate entry of virions bearing JSRV or ENTV Env proteins, bound JSRV SU poorly if at all, and did not suppress transformation by the JSRV or ENTV Env proteins, indicating that mouse Hyal2 plays no role in transformation of mouse fibroblasts and that the Env proteins can transform at least some cells by a Hyal2-independent mechanism. Expression of human Hyal2 in mouse cells expressing JSRV Env caused a marked reduction in Env protein levels, indicating that human Hyal2 suppresses Env-mediated transformation in mouse cells by increasing Env degradation rather than by exerting a more general Env-independent tumor suppressor activity. PMID:12584308

  13. A genomic analysis of mouse models of breast cancer reveals molecular features of mouse models and relationships to human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hollern, Daniel P; Andrechek, Eran R

    2014-06-05

    Genomic variability limits the efficacy of breast cancer therapy. To simplify the study of the molecular complexity of breast cancer, researchers have used mouse mammary tumor models. However, the degree to which mouse models model human breast cancer and are reflective of the human heterogeneity has yet to be demonstrated with gene expression studies on a large scale. To this end, we have built a database consisting of 1,172 mouse mammary tumor samples from 26 different major oncogenic mouse mammary tumor models. In this dataset we identified heterogeneity within mouse models and noted a surprising amount of interrelatedness between models, despite differences in the tumor initiating oncogene. Making comparisons between models, we identified differentially expressed genes with alteration correlating with initiating events in each model. Using annotation tools, we identified transcription factors with a high likelihood of activity within these models. Gene signatures predicted activation of major cell signaling pathways in each model, predictions that correlated with previous genetic studies. Finally, we noted relationships between mouse models and human breast cancer at both the level of gene expression and predicted signal pathway activity. Importantly, we identified individual mouse models that recapitulate human breast cancer heterogeneity at the level of gene expression. This work underscores the importance of fully characterizing mouse tumor biology at molecular, histological and genomic levels before a valid comparison to human breast cancer may be drawn and provides an important bioinformatic resource.

  14. The use of Gene Ontology terms and KEGG pathways for analysis and prediction of oncogenes.

    PubMed

    Xing, Zhihao; Chu, Chen; Chen, Lei; Kong, Xiangyin

    2016-11-01

    Oncogenes are a type of genes that have the potential to cause cancer. Most normal cells undergo programmed cell death, namely apoptosis, but activated oncogenes can help cells avoid apoptosis and survive. Thus, studying oncogenes is helpful for obtaining a good understanding of the formation and development of various types of cancers. In this study, we proposed a computational method, called OPM, for investigating oncogenes from the view of Gene Ontology (GO) and biological pathways. All investigated genes, including validated oncogenes retrieved from some public databases and other genes that have not been reported to be oncogenes thus far, were encoded into numeric vectors according to the enrichment theory of GO terms and KEGG pathways. Some popular feature selection methods, minimum redundancy maximum relevance and incremental feature selection, and an advanced machine learning algorithm, random forest, were adopted to analyze the numeric vectors to extract key GO terms and KEGG pathways. Along with the oncogenes, GO terms and KEGG pathways were discussed in terms of their relevance in this study. Some important GO terms and KEGG pathways were extracted using feature selection methods and were confirmed to be highly related to oncogenes. Additionally, the importance of these terms and pathways in predicting oncogenes was further demonstrated by finding new putative oncogenes based on them. This study investigated oncogenes based on GO terms and KEGG pathways. Some important GO terms and KEGG pathways were confirmed to be highly related to oncogenes. We hope that these GO terms and KEGG pathways can provide new insight for the study of oncogenes, particularly for building more effective prediction models to identify novel oncogenes. The program is available upon request. We hope that the new findings listed in this study may provide a new insight for the investigation of oncogenes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "System Genetics" Guest Editor

  15. Mouse phenotyping.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Adler, Thure; Aguilar-Pimentel, Juan Antonio; Becker, Lore; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Da Silva-Buttkus, Patricia; Neff, Frauke; Götz, Alexander; Hans, Wolfgang; Hölter, Sabine M; Horsch, Marion; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Kemter, Elisabeth; Lengger, Christoph; Maier, Holger; Matloka, Mikolaj; Möller, Gabriele; Naton, Beatrix; Prehn, Cornelia; Puk, Oliver; Rácz, Ildikó; Rathkolb, Birgit; Römisch-Margl, Werner; Rozman, Jan; Wang-Sattler, Rui; Schrewe, Anja; Stöger, Claudia; Tost, Monica; Adamski, Jerzy; Aigner, Bernhard; Beckers, Johannes; Behrendt, Heidrun; Busch, Dirk H; Esposito, Irene; Graw, Jochen; Illig, Thomas; Ivandic, Boris; Klingenspor, Martin; Klopstock, Thomas; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Mempel, Martin; Neschen, Susanne; Ollert, Markus; Schulz, Holger; Suhre, Karsten; Wolf, Eckhard; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Andreas; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin

    2011-02-01

    Model organisms like the mouse are important tools to learn more about gene function in man. Within the last 20 years many mutant mouse lines have been generated by different methods such as ENU mutagenesis, constitutive and conditional knock-out approaches, knock-down, introduction of human genes, and knock-in techniques, thus creating models which mimic human conditions. Due to pleiotropic effects, one gene may have different functions in different organ systems or time points during development. Therefore mutant mouse lines have to be phenotyped comprehensively in a highly standardized manner to enable the detection of phenotypes which might otherwise remain hidden. The German Mouse Clinic (GMC) has been established at the Helmholtz Zentrum München as a phenotyping platform with open access to the scientific community (www.mousclinic.de; [1]). The GMC is a member of the EUMODIC consortium which created the European standard workflow EMPReSSslim for the systemic phenotyping of mouse models (http://www.eumodic.org/[2]). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mouse homologues of human hereditary disease.

    PubMed Central

    Searle, A G; Edwards, J H; Hall, J G

    1994-01-01

    Details are given of 214 loci known to be associated with human hereditary disease, which have been mapped on both human and mouse chromosomes. Forty two of these have pathological variants in both species; in general the mouse variants are similar in their effects to the corresponding human ones, but exceptions include the Dmd/DMD and Hprt/HPRT mutations which cause little, if any, harm in mice. Possible reasons for phenotypic differences are discussed. In most pathological variants the gene product seems to be absent or greatly reduced in both species. The extensive data on conserved segments between human and mouse chromosomes are used to predict locations in the mouse of over 50 loci of medical interest which are mapped so far only on human chromosomes. In about 80% of these a fairly confident prediction can be made. Some likely homologies between mapped mouse loci and unmapped human ones are also given. Sixty six human and mouse proto-oncogene and growth factor gene homologies are also listed; those of confirmed location are all in known conserved segments. A survey of 18 mapped human disease loci and chromosome regions in which the manifestation or severity of pathological effects is thought to be the result of genomic imprinting shows that most of the homologous regions in the mouse are also associated with imprinting, especially those with homologues on human chromosomes 11p and 15q. Useful methods of accelerating the production of mouse models of human hereditary disease include (1) use of a supermutagen, such as ethylnitrosourea (ENU), (2) targeted mutagenesis involving ES cells, and (3) use of gene transfer techniques, with production of 'knockout mutations'. PMID:8151633

  17. Regulation of oncogene-induced cell cycle exit and senescence by chromatin modifiers.

    PubMed

    David, Gregory

    2012-09-01

    Oncogene activation leads to dramatic changes in numerous biological pathways controlling cellular division, and results in the initiation of a transcriptional program that promotes transformation. Conversely, it also triggers an irreversible cell cycle exit called cellular senescence, which allows the organism to counteract the potentially detrimental uncontrolled proliferation of damaged cells. Therefore, a tight transcriptional control is required at the onset of oncogenic signal, coordinating both positive and negative regulation of gene expression. Not surprisingly, numerous chromatin modifiers contribute to the cellular response to oncogenic stress. While these chromatin modifiers were initially thought of as mere mediators of the cellular response to oncogenic stress, recent studies have uncovered a direct and specific regulation of chromatin modifiers by oncogenic signals. We review here the diverse functions of chromatin modifiers in the cellular response to oncogenic stress, and discuss the implications of these findings on the regulation of cell cycle progression and proliferation by activated oncogenes.

  18. Tumour microvesicles contain retrotransposon elements and amplified oncogene sequences

    PubMed Central

    Balaj, Leonora; Lessard, Ryan; Dai, Lixin; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Pomeroy, Scott L.; Breakefield, Xandra O.; Skog, Johan

    2011-01-01

    Tumour cells release an abundance of microvesicles containing a selected set of proteins and RNAs. Here, we show that tumour microvesicles also carry DNA, which reflects the genetic status of the tumour, including amplification of the oncogene c-Myc. We also find amplified c-Myc in serum microvesicles from tumour-bearing mice. Further, we find remarkably high levels of retrotransposon RNA transcripts, especially for some human endogenous retroviruses, such as LINE-1 and Alu retrotransposon elements, in tumour microvesicles and these transposable elements could be transferred to normal cells. These findings expand the nucleic acid content of tumour microvesicles to include: elevated levels of specific coding and non-coding RNA and DNA, mutated and amplified oncogene sequences and transposable elements. Thus, tumour microvesicles contain a repertoire of genetic information available for horizontal gene transfer and potential use as blood biomarkers for cancer. PMID:21285958

  19. Malignant transformation of diploid human fibroblasts by transfection of oncogenes

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    This document consist of brief reports prepared by postdoctoral students supported by the project, each describing his accomplishments under the grant. Topics include (1) Malignant Transformation of MSU-1. 1 Cells by Gamma Radiation, (2) Correlation between Levels of ras Expression and Presence of Transformed Phenotypes Including Tumorigenicity, Using a Modulatable Promoter, (3) Relation between Specific rad Oncogene Expression, (4) Correlation of Genetic Changes in Fibroblastic Tumors with Malignancies, (5)Transformation of MSU-1.1 Cells by sis Oncogene, (6) Malignant Transformation of MSU-1.0 Cells, (7) Correlation of Urokinase Plasminogen Activation (mu-PA) with Malignant Phenotype, (8)Two Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis Studies of the Proteins of the Major Cell Strains of the MSU-1 Family of Cells, and (9) Correlation between Proteinase Activity Levels and Malignancy.

  20. The ETS family of oncogenic transcription factors in solid tumours.

    PubMed

    Sizemore, Gina M; Pitarresi, Jason R; Balakrishnan, Subhasree; Ostrowski, Michael C

    2017-06-01

    Findings over the past decade have identified aberrant activation of the ETS transcription factor family throughout all stages of tumorigenesis. Specifically in solid tumours, gene rearrangement and amplification, feed-forward growth factor signalling loops, formation of gain-of-function co-regulatory complexes and novel cis-acting mutations in ETS target gene promoters can result in increased ETS activity. In turn, pro-oncogenic ETS signalling enhances tumorigenesis through a broad mechanistic toolbox that includes lineage specification and self-renewal, DNA damage and genome instability, epigenetics and metabolism. This Review discusses these different mechanisms of ETS activation and subsequent oncogenic implications, as well as the clinical utility of ETS factors.

  1. SUMOylated IRF-1 shows oncogenic potential by mimicking IRF-2

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sun-Mi; Chae, Myounghee; Kim, Bo-Kyoung; Seo, Taegun; Jang, Ik-Soon; Choi, Jong-Soon; Kim, Il-Chul; Lee, Je-Ho; Park, Junsoo

    2010-01-01

    Interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) is an interferon-induced transcriptional activator that suppresses tumors by impeding cell proliferation. Recently, we demonstrated that the level of SUMOylated IRF-1 is elevated in tumor cells, and that SUMOylation of IRF-1 attenuates its tumor-suppressive function. Here we report that SUMOylated IRF-1 mimics IRF-2, an antagonistic repressor, and shows oncogenic potential. To demonstrate the role of SUMOylated IRF-1 in tumorigenesis, we used SUMO-IRF-1 recombinant protein. Stable expression of SUMO-IRF-1 in NIH3T3 cells resulted in focus formation and anchorage-independent growth in soft agar. Inoculation of SUMO-IRF-1-transfected cells into athymic nude mice resulted in tumor formation and infiltration of adipose tissues. Finally, we demonstrated that SUMO-IRF-1 transforms NIH3T3 cells in a dose-dependent manner suggesting that SUMOylated IRF-1 may act as an oncogenic protein in tumor cells.

  2. Small genomic insertions form enhancers that misregulate oncogenes

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Brian J.; Hnisz, Denes; Weintraub, Abraham S.; Kwiatkowski, Nicholas; Li, Charles H.; Li, Zhaodong; Weichert-Leahey, Nina; Rahman, Sunniyat; Liu, Yu; Etchin, Julia; Li, Benshang; Shen, Shuhong; Lee, Tong Ihn; Zhang, Jinghui; Look, A. Thomas; Mansour, Marc R.; Young, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    The non-coding regions of tumour cell genomes harbour a considerable fraction of total DNA sequence variation, but the functional contribution of these variants to tumorigenesis is ill-defined. Among these non-coding variants, somatic insertions are among the least well characterized due to challenges with interpreting short-read DNA sequences. Here, using a combination of Chip-seq to enrich enhancer DNA and a computational approach with multiple DNA alignment procedures, we identify enhancer-associated small insertion variants. Among the 102 tumour cell genomes we analyse, small insertions are frequently observed in enhancer DNA sequences near known oncogenes. Further study of one insertion, somatically acquired in primary leukaemia tumour genomes, reveals that it nucleates formation of an active enhancer that drives expression of the LMO2 oncogene. The approach described here to identify enhancer-associated small insertion variants provides a foundation for further study of these abnormalities across human cancers. PMID:28181482

  3. Pharmacological strategies to target oncogenic KRAS signaling in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Hsiao-Ching; Huang, Po-Hsien; Kulp, Samuel K; Chen, Ching-Shih

    2017-03-01

    The clear importance of mutated KRAS as a therapeutic target has driven the investigation of multiple approaches to inhibit oncogenic KRAS signaling at different molecular levels. However, no KRAS-targeted therapy has reached the clinic to date, which underlies the intrinsic difficulty in developing effective, direct inhibitors of KRAS. Thus, this article provides an overview of the history and recent progress in the development of pharmacological strategies to target oncogenic KRAS with small molecule agents. Mechanistically, these KRAS-targeted agents can be classified into the following four categories. (1) Small-molecule RAS-binding ligands that prevent RAS activation by binding within or outside the nucleotide-binding motif. (2) Inhibitors of KRAS membrane anchorage. (3) Inhibitors that bind to RAS-binding domains of RAS-effector proteins. (4) Inhibitors of KRAS expression. The advantage and limitation of each type of these anti-KRAS agents are discussed.

  4. Developing a Novel Mouse Model for Breast Cancer by Targeting Oncogenes to Mammary Progenitor Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    obtained and rederived into our facility this line of mice from another investigator Tom O’Brien (1). We are in the process of testing this line for...Breed K6-rtTA transgenic mice with established tetO-c-Myc mice. Transplant the mammary cells from the resulting bi -transgenic mice into 10 inguinal...concentrated RCAS-K-RasG12D-IRES-Cre virus to inguinal mammary glands of 10 pubertal and 10 estrogen-stimulated K6-TVA /p53flox/flox bi -genic females. Monitor

  5. The oncogenic action of ionizing radiation on rat skin

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, F.J.; Garte, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    An extensive experiment involving approximately 400 rats exposed to the neon ion beam at the Bevalac in Berkeley, CA and to electrons is nearing completion. Progress is described in three areas corresponding to the specific aims of the proposal: (1) carcinogenesis and DNA strand breaks in rat skin following exposure by the neon ions or electrons; (2) oncogene activation in radiation-induced rat skin cancers; (3) DNA strand breaks in the epidermis as a function of radiation penetration. 59 refs., 4 tabs.

  6. Serum antibodies to some oncogenic viruses in the child.

    PubMed

    Arnaudova, V; Nastac, E; Predescu, E

    1978-01-01

    The presence of complement fixing antibodies to four viruses with oncogenic potential for animals was studied in children (including neonates and infants). Antibodies to herpes, adenovirus and avian "gs" sarcoma-leukosis antigens were detected, but there were no antibodies to SV-40. Positivity percentages varied with age and with the antigen used. Possible explanations of the appearance of these antibodies in the child are provided.

  7. The Oncogenic Palmitoyl-Protein Network in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-31

    fatty acid palmitate , or a closely related fatty acid , is affixed to proteins). Studies from our laboratory and others indicate that these lipid...an enzyme, fatty acid synthase (FASN), as a biochemically relevant protein in PCa. FASN has been described as a "metabolic oncogene," which operates...by an unknown mechanism to promote tumor growth. We know that FASN is the source of a class of lipids called long-chain fatty acids . Most of the long

  8. Mutations in the RET proto-oncogene in sporadic pheochromocytomas

    SciTech Connect

    Thibodeau, S.N.; Lindor, N.M.; Honchel, R.

    1994-09-01

    Mutations in the RET proto-oncogene have recently been demonstrated in kindreds with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN) types 2A and 2B. Both of these autosomal dominant disorders are characterized by the development of neoplasia in cell lines of neural crest origin, such as medullary throid carcinomas and pheochromocytomas. Individuals with MEN 2B have, in addition, ganglioneuromas of the lips, tongue and colon, a marfanoid habitus, and corneal nerve thickening. Approximately 90% of patients with MEN 2A have a germline mutation in exons 10 or 11, while 95% of patients with MEN 2B have a T{yields}C transition in codon 918 of exon 16. In this study, pheochromocytomas from 29 individuals who had no clinical evidence of MEN 2A or 2B (sporadic) were examined for the presence of either germline or somatic mutations in exons 10, 11, and 16 of the RET proto-oncogene. Of the 29 tumors examined, 3 (10%) were found to have a mutation in one of the three exons. One tumor had a G{yields}A transition in codon 609 (exon 10), another had a 6 bp deletion encompassing codons 632 & 633 (exon 11), and the final tumor had a T{yields}C transition in codon 918 (exon 16). These mutations were not found in the corresponding normal DNA from these individuals, indicating that the mutation were somatic in origin. Although we cannot exclude the possibility of mutations in other regions of the RET proto-oncogene, our data suggests that: (1) individuals presenting with apparently sporadic pheochromocytomas are not likely to have undiagnosed MEN 2A or 2B; and (2) somatic mutations in the RET proto-oncogene contribute to the process of tumorigenesis in a small percentage of sporadic pheochromocytomas.

  9. Oncogenes induce the cancer-associated fibroblast phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Lisanti, Michael P; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Sotgia, Federica

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic coupling, between mitochondria in cancer cells and catabolism in stromal fibroblasts, promotes tumor growth, recurrence, metastasis, and predicts anticancer drug resistance. Catabolic fibroblasts donate the necessary fuels (such as L-lactate, ketones, glutamine, other amino acids, and fatty acids) to anabolic cancer cells, to metabolize via their TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). This provides a simple mechanism by which metabolic energy and biomass are transferred from the host microenvironment to cancer cells. Recently, we showed that catabolic metabolism and “glycolytic reprogramming” in the tumor microenvironment are orchestrated by oncogene activation and inflammation, which originates in epithelial cancer cells. Oncogenes drive the onset of the cancer-associated fibroblast phenotype in adjacent normal fibroblasts via paracrine oxidative stress. This oncogene-induced transition to malignancy is “mirrored” by a loss of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) and an increase in MCT4 in adjacent stromal fibroblasts, functionally reflecting catabolic metabolism in the tumor microenvironment. Virtually identical findings were obtained using BRCA1-deficient breast and ovarian cancer cells. Thus, oncogene activation (RAS, NFkB, TGF-β) and/or tumor suppressor loss (BRCA1) have similar functional effects on adjacent stromal fibroblasts, initiating “metabolic symbiosis” and the cancer-associated fibroblast phenotype. New therapeutic strategies that metabolically uncouple oxidative cancer cells from their glycolytic stroma or modulate oxidative stress could be used to target this lethal subtype of cancers. Targeting “fibroblast addiction” in primary and metastatic tumor cells may expose a critical Achilles’ heel, leading to disease regression in both sporadic and familial cancers. PMID:23860382

  10. Genome-Wide Chromosomal Targets of Oncogenic Transcription Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    cancer. Cancer involves, at least in part, aberrant programs of gene expression often mediated by oncogenic transcription factors activating downstream...networks that underlie complex gene expression programs that are activated in cancer. Indeed, transcription factors have been proposed as targets of...some of the limitations of ChIP-chip analysis and can be applied to transcription factors important in breast cancer such as c-myc and ER ( estrogen

  11. Generation of a tetracycline regulated mouse model of MYC-induced T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Rakhra, Kavya; Felsher, Dean W

    2013-01-01

    The tetracycline regulatory system provides a tractable strategy to interrogate the role of oncogenes in the initiation and maintenance of tumorigenesis through both spatial and temporal control of expression. This approach has several potential advantages over conventional methods to generate genetically engineered mouse models. First, continuous constitutive overexpression of an oncogene can be lethal to the host impeding further study. Second, constitutive overexpression fails to model adult onset of disease. Third, constitutive deletion does not permit, whereas conditional overexpression of an oncogene enables the study of the consequences of restoring expression of an oncogene back to endogenous levels. Fourth, the conditional activation of oncogenes enables examination of specific and/or developmental state-specific consequences. Hence, by allowing precise control of when and where a gene is expressed, the tetracycline regulatory system provides an ideal approach for the study of putative oncogenes in both the initiation and maintenance of tumorigenesis. In this protocol, we describe the methods involved in the development of a conditional mouse model of MYC-induced T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

  12. CRAF R391W is a melanoma driver oncogene

    PubMed Central

    Atefi, Mohammad; Titz, Bjoern; Tsoi, Jennifer; Avramis, Earl; Le, Allison; Ng, Charles; Lomova, Anastasia; Lassen, Amanda; Friedman, Michael; Chmielowski, Bartosz; Ribas, Antoni; Graeber, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 75% of melanomas have known driver oncogenic mutations in BRAF, NRAS, GNA11 or GNAQ, while the mutations providing constitutive oncogenic signaling in the remaining melanomas are not known. We established a melanoma cell line from a tumor with none of the common driver mutations. This cell line demonstrated a signaling profile similar to BRAF-mutants, but lacked sensitivity to the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib. RNA-seq mutation data implicated CRAF R391W as the alternative driver mutation of this melanoma. CRAF R391W was homozygous and over expressed. These melanoma cells were highly sensitive to CRAF, but not BRAF knockdown. In reconstitution experiments, CRAF R391W, but not CRAF WT, transformed NIH3T3 cells in soft-agar colony formation assays, increased kinase activity in vitro, induced MAP kinase signaling and conferred vemurafenib resistance. MAP kinase inducing activity was dependent on CRAF dimerization. Thus, CRAF is a bona fide alternative oncogene for BRAF/NRAS/GNAQ/GNA11 wild type melanomas. PMID:27273450

  13. KRAS insertion mutations are oncogenic and exhibit distinct functional properties

    PubMed Central

    White, Yasmine; Bagchi, Aditi; Van Ziffle, Jessica; Inguva, Anagha; Bollag, Gideon; Zhang, Chao; Carias, Heidi; Dickens, David; Loh, Mignon; Shannon, Kevin; Firestone, Ari J.

    2016-01-01

    Oncogenic KRAS mutations introduce discrete amino acid substitutions that reduce intrinsic Ras GTPase activity and confer resistance to GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). Here we discover a partial duplication of the switch 2 domain of K-Ras encoding a tandem repeat of amino acids G60_A66dup in a child with an atypical myeloproliferative neoplasm. K-Ras proteins containing this tandem duplication or a similar five amino acid E62_A66dup mutation identified in lung and colon cancers transform the growth of primary myeloid progenitors and of Ba/F3 cells. Recombinant K-RasG60_A66dup and K-RasE62_A66dup proteins display reduced intrinsic GTP hydrolysis rates, accumulate in the GTP-bound conformation and are resistant to GAP-mediated GTP hydrolysis. Remarkably, K-Ras proteins with switch 2 insertions are impaired for PI3 kinase binding and Akt activation, and are hypersensitive to MEK inhibition. These studies illuminate a new class of oncogenic KRAS mutations and reveal unexpected plasticity in oncogenic Ras proteins that has diagnostic and therapeutic implications. PMID:26854029

  14. PRG3 induces Ras-dependent oncogenic cooperation in gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Yakubov, Eduard; Chen, Daishi; Broggini, Thomas; Sehm, Tina; Majernik, Gökce Hatipoglu; Hock, Stefan W.; Schwarz, Marc; Engelhorn, Tobias; Doerfler, Arnd; Buchfelder, Michael; Eyupoglu, Ilker Y.; Savaskan, Nicolai E.

    2016-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are one of the most devastating cancers in humans. One characteristic hallmark of malignant gliomas is their cellular heterogeneity with frequent genetic lesions and disturbed gene expression levels conferring selective growth advantage. Here, we report on the neuronal-associated growth promoting gene PRG3 executing oncogenic cooperation in gliomas. We have identified perturbed PRG3 levels in human malignant brain tumors displaying either elevated or down-regulated PRG3 levels compared to non-transformed specimens. Further, imbalanced PRG3 levels in gliomas foster Ras-driven oncogenic amplification with increased proliferation and cell migration although angiogenesis was unaffected. Hence, PRG3 interacts with RasGEF1 (RasGRF1/CDC25), undergoes Ras-induced challenges, whereas deletion of the C-terminal domain of PRG3 (PRG3ΔCT) inhibits Ras. Moreover PRG3 silencing makes gliomas resistant to Ras inhibition. In vivo disequilibrated PRG3 gliomas show aggravated proliferation, invasion, and deteriorate clinical outcome. Thus, our data show that the interference with PRG3 homeostasis amplifies oncogenic properties and foster the malignancy potential in gliomas. PMID:27058420

  15. Hepatoprotective versus Oncogenic Functions of STAT3 in Liver Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Lafdil, Fouad; Wang, Lei; Park, Ogyi; Yin, Shi; Niu, Junyang; Miller, Andrew M.; Sun, Zhaoli; Gao, Bin

    2011-01-01

    Aberrantly hyperactivated STAT3 has been found in human liver cancers as an oncogene; however, STAT3 has also been shown to exert hepatoprotective effects during liver injury. The balancing act that STAT3 plays between hepatoprotection and liver tumorigenesis remains poorly defined. In this study, the diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced liver tumor model and the chronic carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)–induced liver fibrosis model were both used to investigate the role of STAT3 in liver tumorigenesis. Hepatocyte-specific STAT3 knockout mice were resistant to liver tumorigenesis induced by a single DEN injection, whose tumorigenesis was associated with minimal chronic liver inflammation, injury, and fibrosis. In contrast, long-term CCl4 treatment resulted in severe hepatic oxidative damage, inflammation, and fibrosis but rarely induced liver tumor formation in wild-type mice. Despite the oncogenic function of STAT3 in DEN-induced liver tumor, hepatocyte-specific STAT3 knockout mice were more susceptible to liver tumorigenesis after 16 weeks of CCl4 injection, which was associated with higher levels of liver injury, inflammation, fibrosis, and oxidative DNA damage compared with wild-type mice. These findings suggest that the hepatoprotective feature of STAT3 prevents hepatic damage and fibrosis under the condition of persistent inflammatory stress, consequently suppressing injury-driven liver tumor initiation. Once liver tumor cells have developed, STAT3 likely acts as an oncogenic factor to promote tumor growth. PMID:21684247

  16. Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase: potential therapeutic target and putative metabolic oncogene.

    PubMed

    Zogg, Cheryl K

    2014-01-01

    Exemplified by cancer cells' preference for glycolysis, for example, the Warburg effect, altered metabolism in tumorigenesis has emerged as an important aspect of cancer in the past 10-20 years. Whether due to changes in regulatory tumor suppressors/oncogenes or by acting as metabolic oncogenes themselves, enzymes involved in the complex network of metabolic pathways are being studied to understand their role and assess their utility as therapeutic targets. Conversion of glycolytic intermediate 3-phosphoglycerate into phosphohydroxypyruvate by the enzyme phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH)-a rate-limiting step in the conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate to serine-represents one such mechanism. Forgotten since classic animal studies in the 1980s, the role of PHGDH as a potential therapeutic target and putative metabolic oncogene has recently reemerged following publication of two prominent papers near-simultaneously in 2011. Since that time, numerous studies and a host of metabolic explanations have been put forward in an attempt to understand the results observed. In this paper, I review the historic progression of our understanding of the role of PHGDH in cancer from the early work by Snell through its reemergence and rise to prominence, culminating in an assessment of subsequent work and what it means for the future of PHGDH.

  17. Mislocalized activation of oncogenic RTKs switches downstream signaling outcomes.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Chunaram; Olsen, Jesper V; Brandts, Christian; Cox, Jürgen; Reddy, Pavankumar N G; Böhmer, Frank D; Gerke, Volker; Schmidt-Arras, Dirk-E; Berdel, Wolfgang E; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Mann, Matthias; Serve, Hubert

    2009-10-23

    Inappropriate activation of oncogenic kinases at intracellular locations is frequently observed in human cancers, but its effects on global signaling are incompletely understood. Here, we show that the oncogenic mutant of Flt3 (Flt3-ITD), when localized at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), aberrantly activates STAT5 and upregulates its targets, Pim-1/2, but fails to activate PI3K and MAPK signaling. Conversely, membrane targeting of Flt3-ITD strongly activates the MAPK and PI3K pathways, with diminished phosphorylation of STAT5. Global phosphoproteomics quantified 12,186 phosphorylation sites, confirmed compartment-dependent activation of these pathways and discovered many additional components of Flt3-ITD signaling. The differential activation of Akt and Pim kinases by ER-retained Flt3-ITD helped to identify their putative targets. Surprisingly, we find spatial regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation patterns of the receptor itself. Thus, intracellular activation of RTKs by oncogenic mutations in the biosynthetic route may exploit cellular architecture to initiate aberrant signaling cascades, thus evading negative regulation.

  18. PERK Integrates Oncogenic Signaling and Cell Survival During Cancer Development.

    PubMed

    Bu, Yiwen; Diehl, J Alan

    2016-10-01

    Unfolded protein responses (UPR), consisting of three major transducers PERK, IRE1, and ATF6, occur in the midst of a variety of intracellular and extracellular challenges that perturb protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). ER stress occurs and is thought to be a contributing factor to a number of human diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and various metabolic syndromes. In the context of neoplastic growth, oncogenic stress resulting from dysregulation of oncogenes such as c-Myc, Braf(V600E) , and HRAS(G12V) trigger the UPR as an adaptive strategy for cancer cell survival. PERK is an ER resident type I protein kinase harboring both pro-apoptotic and pro-survival capabilities. PERK, as a coordinator through its downstream substrates, reprograms cancer gene expression to facilitate survival in response to oncogenes and microenvironmental challenges, such as hypoxia, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Herein, we discuss how PERK kinase engages in tumor initiation, transformation, adaption microenvironmental stress, chemoresistance and potential opportunities, and potential opportunities for PERK targeted therapy. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2088-2096, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Activation of oncogenes by radon progeny and x-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    The overall goal of this proposal is to study the carcinogenic effect of both high and low LET radiation at the molecular level, utilizing techniques developed in molecular biology, cancer cell biology and radiation biology. The underlying assumption is that malignant transformation of normal cells is a multistep process requiring two or more molecular events in the genomic DNA. We hypothesize that radiation may induce such events in one or more steps of the multistep process. We will use in vitro models of transformation that reproduce the stepwise progression of normal cells toward the transformed phenotype and ask whether radiation can provide the necessary activating function at discrete steps along this path. Our strategy involves transfecting into normal primary cells a variety of cloned oncogenes that are known to supply only some of the functions necessary for full transformation. These partially transformed'' cells will be the targets for irradiation by x-rays and alpha particles. The results will provide the basis for assessing the ability of ionizing radiation to activate oncogenic functions that complement'' the oncogene already present in the transfected cells and produce the fully transformed phenotype. Progress is described. 121 refs.

  20. Processing, secretion, and biological properties of a novel growth factor of the fibroblast growth factor family with oncogenic potential

    SciTech Connect

    Delli-Bovi, P.; Curatola, A.M.; Newman, K.M.; Sato, Y.; Moscatelli, D.; Hewick, R.M.; Rifkin, D.B.; Basilico, C.

    1988-07-01

    The authors recently reported that the protein encoded in a novel human oncogene isolated from Kaposi sarcoma DNA was a growth factor with significant homology to basic and acidic fibroblast growth factors (FGFs). To study the properties of this growth factor (referred to as K-FGF) and the mechanism by which the K-fgf oncogene transforms cells, the authors have studied the production and processing of K-FGF in COS-1 cells transfected with a plasmid encoding the K-fgf cDNA. The results show that, unkike basic and acidic FGFs, the K-FGF protein is cleaved after a single peptide, glycosylated, and efficiently secreted as a mature protein of 176 or 175 amino acids. Inhibition of glycosylation impaired secretion, and the stability of the secreted K-FGF was greatly enhanced by the presence of heparin in the cultured medium. They have used the conditioned medium from transfected COS-1 cells to test the K-FGF biological activity. Similar to basic FGF, the K-FGF protein was mitogenic for fibroblasts and endothelial cells and induced the growth of NIH 3T3 mouse cells in serum-free medium. Accordingly, K-fgf-transformed NIH 3T3 cells grew in serum-free medium consistent with an autorcrine mechanism of growth. The authors have also expressed the protein encoded in the K-fgf protooncogene in COS-1 cells, and it was indistinguishable in its molecular weight, glycosylation, secretion, and biological activity from K-FGF. Taken together, these results suggest that the mechanism of activation of this oncogene is due to overexpression rather than to mutations in the coding sequences.

  1. ΔNp73 Facilitates Cell Immortalization and Cooperates with Oncogenic Ras in Cellular Transformation In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Petrenko, Oleksi; Zaika, Alexander; Moll, Ute M.

    2003-01-01

    TP73, despite significant homology to TP53, is not a classic tumor suppressor gene, since it exhibits upregulation of nonmutated products in human tumors and lacks a tumor phenotype in p73-deficient mice. We recently reported that an N-terminally truncated isoform, ΔNp73, is upregulated in breast and gynecological cancers. We further showed that ΔNp73 is a potent transdominant inhibitor of wild-type p53 and TAp73 in cultured human tumor cells by efficiently counteracting their target gene transactivations, apoptosis, and growth suppression functions (A. I. Zaika et al., J. Exp. Med. 6:765-780, 2002). Although these data strongly suggest oncogenic properties of ΔNp73, this can only be directly shown in primary cells. We report here that ΔNp73 confers resistance to spontaneous replicative senescence of primary mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) and immortalizes MEFs at a 1,000-fold-higher frequency than occurs spontaneously. ΔNp73 cooperates with cMyc and E1A in promoting primary cell proliferation and colony formation and compromises p53-dependent MEF apoptosis. Importantly, ΔNp73 rescues Ras-induced senescence. Moreover, ΔNp73 cooperates with oncogenic Ras in transforming primary fibroblasts in vitro and in inducing MEF-derived fibrosarcomas in vivo in nude mice. Wild-type p53 is likely a major target of ΔNp73 inhibition in primary fibroblasts since deletion of p53 or its requisite upstream activator ARF abrogates the growth-promoting effect of ΔNp73. Taken together, ΔNp73 behaves as an oncogene that targets p53 that might explain why ΔNp73 upregulation may be selected for during tumorigenesis of human cancers. PMID:12897129

  2. Kit K641E oncogene up-regulates Sprouty homolog 4 and Trophoblast glycoprotein in interstitial cells of Cajal in a murine model of gastrointestinal stromal tumours

    PubMed Central

    Gromova, Petra; Ralea, Sebastian; Lefort, Anne; Libert, Frédérick; Rubin, Brian P; Erneux, Christophe; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are thought to derive from the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) or an ICC precursor. Oncogenic mutations of the receptor tyrosine kinase KIT are present in most GIST. KIT K642E was originally identified in sporadic GIST and later found in the germ line of a familial GIST cohort. A mouse model harbouring a germline Kit K641E mutant was created to model familial GIST. The expression profile was investigated in the gastric antrum of the KitK641E murine GIST model by microarray, quantitative PCR and immunofluorescence. Gja1/Cx43, Gpc6, Gpr133, Pacrg, Pde3a, Prkar2b, Prkcq/Pkce, Rasd2, Spry4 and Tpbg/5T4 were found to be up-regulated. The proteins encoded by Gja1/Cx43, Pde3a, Prkcq/Pkce were localized in Kit-ir ICC in wild-type and KitK641E animals while Spry4 and Tpbg/5T4 were detected in Kit-ir cells only in KitK641E, but not in KitWT/WT animals. Most up-regulated genes in this mouse model belong to the gene expression profile of human GIST but also to the profile of normal Kit+ ICC in the mouse small intestine. Spry4 and Tpbg/5T4 may represent candidates for targeted therapeutic approaches in GIST with oncogenic KIT mutations. PMID:19453770

  3. Pancreatitis promotes oncogenic Kras(G12D)-induced pancreatic transformation through activation of Nupr1.

    PubMed

    Grasso, Daniel; Garcia, Maria Noé; Hamidi, Tewfik; Cano, Carla; Calvo, Ezequiel; Lomberk, Gwen; Urrutia, Raul; Iovanna, Juan L

    2014-01-01

    During the initiation stage of pancreatic adenocarcinoma induced by oncogenic Kras, pancreatic cells are exposed to both a protumoral effect and an opposing tumor suppressive process known as oncogene-induced senescence. Pancreatitis disrupts this balance in favor of the transforming effect of oncogenes by lowering the tumor suppressive threshold of oncogene-induced senescence through expression of the stress protein Nupr1.

  4. c-Fos and Dusp1 confer non-oncogene addiction in BCR-ABL induced leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Kesarwani, Meenu; Kincaid, Zachary; Gomaa, Ahmed; Huber, Erika; Rohrabaugh, Sara; Siddiqui, Zain; Bouso, Muhammad F.; Latif, Tahir; Xu, Ming; Komurov, Kakajan; Mulloy, James C.; Cancelas, Jose A.; Grimes, H. Leighton; Azam, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy for human cancers is not curative, with relapse due to the continuing presence of tumor cells, referred to as minimal residual disease (MRD) cells. MRD stem or progenitor cells survival in the absence of oncogenic kinase signaling, a phenomenon referred to as intrinsic resistance, depends on diverse growth factors. Here, we report that oncogenic kinase and growth factor signaling converge to induce the expression of the signaling proteins c-Fos and Dusp1. Genetic deletion of c-Fos and Dusp1 suppressed tumor growth in a BCR-ABL-induced mouse model of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Pharmacological inhibition of c-Fos, Dusp1 and BCR-ABL eradicated MRD in multiple in vivo models, as well as in primary CML patient xenotransplanted mice. Growth factor signaling also conferred TKI resistance and induced c-FOS and DUSP1 expression in tumor cells modeling other types of kinase-driven leukemias. Our data demonstrate that c-Fos and Dusp1 expression levels determine the threshold of TKI efficacy, such that growth factor-induced expression of c-Fos and Dusp1 confers intrinsic resistance to TKI therapy in a wide-ranging set of leukemias, and may represent a unifying Achilles heel of kinase-driven cancers. PMID:28319094

  5. From General Aberrant Alternative Splicing in Cancers and Its Therapeutic Application to the Discovery of an Oncogenic DMTF1 Isoform.

    PubMed

    Tian, Na; Li, Jialiang; Shi, Jinming; Sui, Guangchao

    2017-03-02

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing is a crucial process that allows the generation of diversified RNA and protein products from a multi-exon gene. In tumor cells, this mechanism can facilitate cancer development and progression through both creating oncogenic isoforms and reducing the expression of normal or controllable protein species. We recently demonstrated that an alternative cyclin D-binding myb-like transcription factor 1 (DMTF1) pre-mRNA splicing isoform, DMTF1β, is increasingly expressed in breast cancer and promotes mammary tumorigenesis in a transgenic mouse model. Aberrant pre-mRNA splicing is a typical event occurring for many cancer-related functional proteins. In this review, we introduce general aberrant pre-mRNA splicing in cancers and discuss its therapeutic application using our recent discovery of the oncogenic DMTF1 isoform as an example. We also summarize new insights in designing novel targeting strategies of cancer therapies based on the understanding of deregulated pre-mRNA splicing mechanisms.

  6. From General Aberrant Alternative Splicing in Cancers and Its Therapeutic Application to the Discovery of an Oncogenic DMTF1 Isoform

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Na; Li, Jialiang; Shi, Jinming; Sui, Guangchao

    2017-01-01

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing is a crucial process that allows the generation of diversified RNA and protein products from a multi-exon gene. In tumor cells, this mechanism can facilitate cancer development and progression through both creating oncogenic isoforms and reducing the expression of normal or controllable protein species. We recently demonstrated that an alternative cyclin D-binding myb-like transcription factor 1 (DMTF1) pre-mRNA splicing isoform, DMTF1β, is increasingly expressed in breast cancer and promotes mammary tumorigenesis in a transgenic mouse model. Aberrant pre-mRNA splicing is a typical event occurring for many cancer-related functional proteins. In this review, we introduce general aberrant pre-mRNA splicing in cancers and discuss its therapeutic application using our recent discovery of the oncogenic DMTF1 isoform as an example. We also summarize new insights in designing novel targeting strategies of cancer therapies based on the understanding of deregulated pre-mRNA splicing mechanisms. PMID:28257090

  7. Kinase-dead ATM protein is highly oncogenic and can be preferentially targeted by Topo-isomerase I inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kenta; Wang, Jiguang; Sprinzen, Lisa; Xu, Jun; Haddock, Christopher J; Li, Chen; Lee, Brian J; Loredan, Denis G; Jiang, Wenxia; Vindigni, Alessandro; Wang, Dong; Rabadan, Raul; Zha, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Missense mutations in ATM kinase, a master regulator of DNA damage responses, are found in many cancers, but their impact on ATM function and implications for cancer therapy are largely unknown. Here we report that 72% of cancer-associated ATM mutations are missense mutations that are enriched around the kinase domain. Expression of kinase-dead ATM (AtmKD/-) is more oncogenic than loss of ATM (Atm-/-) in mouse models, leading to earlier and more frequent lymphomas with Pten deletions. Kinase-dead ATM protein (Atm-KD), but not loss of ATM (Atm-null), prevents replication-dependent removal of Topo-isomerase I-DNA adducts at the step of strand cleavage, leading to severe genomic instability and hypersensitivity to Topo-isomerase I inhibitors. Correspondingly, Topo-isomerase I inhibitors effectively and preferentially eliminate AtmKD/-, but not Atm-proficientor Atm-/- leukemia in animal models. These findings identify ATM kinase-domain missense mutations as a potent oncogenic event and a biomarker for Topo-isomerase I inhibitor based therapy. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14709.001 PMID:27304073

  8. Kinase-dead ATM protein is highly oncogenic and can be preferentially targeted by Topo-isomerase I inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kenta; Wang, Jiguang; Sprinzen, Lisa; Xu, Jun; Haddock, Christopher J; Li, Chen; Lee, Brian J; Loredan, Denis G; Jiang, Wenxia; Vindigni, Alessandro; Wang, Dong; Rabadan, Raul; Zha, Shan

    2016-06-15

    Missense mutations in ATM kinase, a master regulator of DNA damage responses, are found in many cancers, but their impact on ATM function and implications for cancer therapy are largely unknown. Here we report that 72% of cancer-associated ATM mutations are missense mutations that are enriched around the kinase domain. Expression of kinase-dead ATM (Atm(KD/-)) is more oncogenic than loss of ATM (Atm(-/-)) in mouse models, leading to earlier and more frequent lymphomas with Pten deletions. Kinase-dead ATM protein (Atm-KD), but not loss of ATM (Atm-null), prevents replication-dependent removal of Topo-isomerase I-DNA adducts at the step of strand cleavage, leading to severe genomic instability and hypersensitivity to Topo-isomerase I inhibitors. Correspondingly, Topo-isomerase I inhibitors effectively and preferentially eliminate Atm(KD/-), but not Atm-proficientor Atm(-/-) leukemia in animal models. These findings identify ATM kinase-domain missense mutations as a potent oncogenic event and a biomarker for Topo-isomerase I inhibitor based therapy.

  9. Suppression of Type I Interferon Signaling Overcomes Oncogene-Induced Senescence and Mediates Melanoma Development and Progression.

    PubMed

    Katlinskaya, Yuliya V; Katlinski, Kanstantsin V; Yu, Qiujing; Ortiz, Angelica; Beiting, Daniel P; Brice, Angela; Davar, Diwakar; Sanders, Cindy; Kirkwood, John M; Rui, Hallgeir; Xu, Xiaowei; Koumenis, Constantinos; Diehl, J Alan; Fuchs, Serge Y

    2016-04-05

    Oncogene activation induces DNA damage responses and cell senescence. We report a key role of type I interferons (IFNs) in oncogene-induced senescence. IFN signaling-deficient melanocytes expressing activated Braf do not exhibit senescence and develop aggressive melanomas. Restoration of IFN signaling in IFN-deficient melanoma cells induces senescence and suppresses melanoma progression. Additional data from human melanoma patients and mouse transplanted tumor models suggest the importance of non-cell-autonomous IFN signaling. Inactivation of the IFN pathway is mediated by the IFN receptor IFNAR1 downregulation that invariably occurs during melanoma development. Mice harboring an IFNAR1 mutant, which is partially resistant to downregulation, delay melanoma development, suppress metastatic disease, and better respond to BRAF or PD-1 inhibitors. These results suggest that IFN signaling is an important tumor-suppressive pathway that inhibits melanoma development and progression and argue for targeting IFNAR1 downregulation to prevent metastatic disease and improve the efficacy of molecularly target and immune-targeted melanoma therapies.

  10. A novel oncogene, ost, encodes a guanine nucleotide exchange factor that potentially links Rho and Rac signaling pathways.

    PubMed Central

    Horii, Y; Beeler, J F; Sakaguchi, K; Tachibana, M; Miki, T

    1994-01-01

    Transfection of NIH3T3 cells with an osteosarcoma expression cDNA library led to the appearance of foci of morphologically transformed cells which were found to harbor a novel oncogene, ost. The ost product was activated by truncation of the N-terminal domain of the ost proto-oncogene and was highly tumorigenic in nude mouse assays. The proto-ost cDNA, isolated subsequently, encodes a predicted protein of 100 kDa containing DH (Db1 homology) and PH (pleckstrin homology) domains. Ost is mainly phosphorylated on serine and localized in the cytoplasm. Purified Ost protein catalyzed guanine nucleotide exchange on RhoA and Cdc42 among the Rho and Ras family members tested, indicating that Ost can activate these small GTP-binding proteins. Ost did not detectably associate with RhoA or Cdc42, but interacted specifically with the GTP-bound form of Rac1, suggesting that Ost can function as an effector of Rac1. These results suggest that Ost is a critical regulatory component which links pathways that signal through Rac1, RhoA and Cdc42. Of the tissues examined, expression of ost was the highest in brain and could be localized to neurons and alpha-tanycytes, suggesting that Ost may participate in axonal transport in these specialized cells. Images PMID:7957046

  11. Biological Basis of Differential Susceptibility to Hepatocarcinogenesis among Mouse Strains*

    PubMed Central

    Maronpot, Robert R.

    2009-01-01

    There is a vast amount of literature related to mouse liver tumorigenesis generated over the past 60 years, not all of which has been captured here. The studies reported in this literature have generally been state of the art at the time they were carried out. A PubMed search on the topic “mouse liver tumors” covering the past 10 years yields over 7000 scientific papers. This review address several important topics related to the unresolved controversy regarding the relevance of mouse liver tumor responses observed in cancer bioassays. The inherent mouse strain differential sensitivities to hepatocarcinogenesis largely parallel the strain susceptibility to chemically induced liver neoplasia. The effects of phenobarbital and halogenated hydrocarbons in mouse hepatocarcinogenesis have been summarized because of recurring interest and numerous publications on these topics. No single simple paradigm fully explains differential mouse strain responses, which can vary more than 50-fold among inbred strains. In addition to inherent genetics, modifying factors including cell cycle balance, enzyme induction, DNA methylation, oncogenes and suppressor genes, diet, and intercellular communication influence susceptibility to spontaneous and induced mouse hepatocarcinogenesis. Comments are offered on the evaluation, interpretation, and relevance of mouse liver tumor responses in the context of cancer bioassays. PMID:22271974

  12. Expression of MALT1 oncogene in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells recapitulates the pathogenesis of human lymphoma in mice.

    PubMed

    Vicente-Dueñas, Carolina; Fontán, Lorena; Gonzalez-Herrero, Ines; Romero-Camarero, Isabel; Segura, Victor; Aznar, M Angela; Alonso-Escudero, Esther; Campos-Sanchez, Elena; Ruiz-Roca, Lucía; Barajas-Diego, Marcos; Sagardoy, Ainara; Martinez-Ferrandis, Jose I; Abollo-Jimenez, Fernando; Bertolo, Cristina; Peñuelas, Ivan; Garcia-Criado, Francisco J; García-Cenador, María B; Tousseyn, Thomas; Agirre, Xabier; Prosper, Felipe; Garcia-Bragado, Federico; McPhail, Ellen D; Lossos, Izidore S; Du, Ming-Qing; Flores, Teresa; Hernandez-Rivas, Jesus M; Gonzalez, Marcos; Salar, Antonio; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Conde, Eulogio; Siebert, Reiner; Sagaert, Xavier; Cobaleda, Cesar; Sanchez-Garcia, Isidro; Martinez-Climent, Jose A

    2012-06-26

    Chromosomal translocations involving the MALT1 gene are hallmarks of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. To date, targeting these translocations to mouse B cells has failed to reproduce human disease. Here, we induced MALT1 expression in mouse Sca1(+)Lin(-) hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, which showed NF-κB activation and early lymphoid priming, being selectively skewed toward B-cell differentiation. These cells accumulated in extranodal tissues and gave rise to clonal tumors recapitulating the principal clinical, biological, and molecular genetic features of MALT lymphoma. Deletion of p53 gene accelerated tumor onset and induced transformation of MALT lymphoma to activated B-cell diffuse large-cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL). Treatment of MALT1-induced lymphomas with a specific inhibitor of MALT1 proteolytic activity decreased cell viability, indicating that endogenous Malt1 signaling was required for tumor cell survival. Our study shows that human-like lymphomas can be modeled in mice by targeting MALT1 expression to hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, demonstrating the oncogenic role of MALT1 in lymphomagenesis. Furthermore, this work establishes a molecular link between MALT lymphoma and ABC-DLBCL, and provides mouse models to test MALT1 inhibitors. Finally, our results suggest that hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of human mature B-cell lymphomas.

  13. Expression of MALT1 oncogene in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells recapitulates the pathogenesis of human lymphoma in mice

    PubMed Central

    Vicente-Dueñas, Carolina; Fontán, Lorena; Gonzalez-Herrero, Ines; Romero-Camarero, Isabel; Segura, Victor; Aznar, M. Angela; Alonso-Escudero, Esther; Campos-Sanchez, Elena; Ruiz-Roca, Lucía; Barajas-Diego, Marcos; Sagardoy, Ainara; Martinez-Ferrandis, Jose I.; Abollo-Jimenez, Fernando; Bertolo, Cristina; Peñuelas, Ivan; Garcia-Criado, Francisco J.; García-Cenador, María B.; Tousseyn, Thomas; Agirre, Xabier; Prosper, Felipe; Garcia-Bragado, Federico; McPhail, Ellen D.; Lossos, Izidore S.; Du, Ming-Qing; Flores, Teresa; Hernandez-Rivas, Jesus M.; Gonzalez, Marcos; Salar, Antonio; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Conde, Eulogio; Siebert, Reiner; Sagaert, Xavier; Cobaleda, Cesar; Sanchez-Garcia, Isidro; Martinez-Climent, Jose A.

    2012-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations involving the MALT1 gene are hallmarks of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. To date, targeting these translocations to mouse B cells has failed to reproduce human disease. Here, we induced MALT1 expression in mouse Sca1+Lin− hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, which showed NF-κB activation and early lymphoid priming, being selectively skewed toward B-cell differentiation. These cells accumulated in extranodal tissues and gave rise to clonal tumors recapitulating the principal clinical, biological, and molecular genetic features of MALT lymphoma. Deletion of p53 gene accelerated tumor onset and induced transformation of MALT lymphoma to activated B-cell diffuse large-cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL). Treatment of MALT1-induced lymphomas with a specific inhibitor of MALT1 proteolytic activity decreased cell viability, indicating that endogenous Malt1 signaling was required for tumor cell survival. Our study shows that human-like lymphomas can be modeled in mice by targeting MALT1 expression to hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, demonstrating the oncogenic role of MALT1 in lymphomagenesis. Furthermore, this work establishes a molecular link between MALT lymphoma and ABC-DLBCL, and provides mouse models to test MALT1 inhibitors. Finally, our results suggest that hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of human mature B-cell lymphomas. PMID:22689981

  14. Can plant oncogenes inhibit programmed cell death? The rolB oncogene reduces apoptosis-like symptoms in transformed plant cells.

    PubMed

    Gorpenchenko, Tatiana Y; Aminin, Dmitry L; Vereshchagina, Yuliya V; Shkryl, Yuri N; Veremeichik, Galina N; Tchernoded, Galina K; Bulgakov, Victor P

    2012-09-01

    The rolB oncogene was previously identified as an important player in ROS metabolism in transformed plant cells. Numerous reports indicate a crucial role for animal oncogenes in apoptotic cell death. Whether plant oncogenes such as rolB can induce programmed cell death (PCD) in transformed plant cells is of particular importance. In this investigation, we used a single-cell assay based on confocal microscopy and fluorescent dyes capable of discriminating between apoptotic and necrotic cells. Our results indicate that the expression of rolB in plant cells was sufficient to decrease the proportion of apoptotic cells in steady-state conditions and diminish the rate of apoptotic cells during induced PCD. These data suggest that plant oncogenes, like animal oncogenes, may be involved in the processes mediating PCD.

  15. Progesterone receptor gene maps to human chromosome band 11q13, the site of the mammary oncogene int-2

    SciTech Connect

    Law, M.L.; Kao, F.T.; Wei, Q.; Hartz, J.A.; Greene, G.L.; Zarucki-Schulz, T.; Conneely, O.M.; Jones, C.; Puck, T.T.; O'Malley, B.W.; Horwitz, K.B.

    1987-05-01

    Progesterone is involved in the development and progression of breast cancers, and progesterone receptors (PR) are important markers of hormone dependence and disease prognosis. The authors have used a human PR cDNA probe, genomic DNA blotting of a series of Chinese hamster-human cell hybrids, and in situ hybridization to map the human PR gene to chromosome 11, band q13. This band also contains the human homolog of the mouse mammary tumor virus integration site, int-2, which surrounds a protooncogene thought to be involved in the development of murine mammary cancers. That these two genes share the same chromosomal location raises important questions about their possible linkage and about the relationship between the mammary-specific oncogene and the steroid hormone in the development, growth, and hormone dependence of human breast cancers.

  16. PUMA and BIM are required for oncogene inactivation-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Bean, Gregory R; Ganesan, Yogesh Tengarai; Dong, Yiyu; Takeda, Shugaku; Liu, Han; Chan, Po M; Huang, Yafen; Chodosh, Lewis A; Zambetti, Gerard P; Hsieh, James J-D; Cheng, Emily H-Y

    2013-03-26

    The clinical efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors supports the dependence of distinct subsets of cancers on specific driver mutations for survival, a phenomenon called "oncogene addiction." We demonstrate that PUMA and BIM are the key apoptotic effectors of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in breast cancers with amplification of the gene encoding human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and lung cancers with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutants. The BH3 domain containing proteins BIM and PUMA can directly activate the proapoptotic proteins BAX and BAK to permeabilize mitochondria, leading to caspase activation and apoptosis. We delineated the signal transduction pathways leading to the induction of BIM and PUMA by tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Inhibition of the mitogen-activated or extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase kinase (MEK)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway caused increased abundance of BIM, whereas antagonizing the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathway triggered nuclear translocation of the FOXO transcription factors, which directly activated the PUMA promoter. In a mouse breast tumor model, the abundance of PUMA and BIM was increased after inactivation of HER2. Moreover, deficiency of Bim or Puma impaired caspase activation and reduced tumor regression caused by inactivation of HER2. Similarly, deficiency of Puma impeded the regression of EGFR(L858R)-driven mouse lung tumors upon inactivation of the EGFR-activating mutant. Overall, our study identified PUMA and BIM as the sentinels that interconnect kinase signaling networks and the mitochondrion-dependent apoptotic program, which offers therapeutic insights for designing novel cell death mechanism-based anticancer strategies.

  17. PUMA and BIM Are Required for Oncogene Inactivation–Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Bean, Gregory R.; Ganesan, Yogesh Tengarai; Dong, Yiyu; Takeda, Shugaku; Liu, Han; Chan, Po M.; Huang, Yafen; Chodosh, Lewis A.; Zambetti, Gerard P.; Hsieh, James J.-D.; Cheng, Emily H.-Y.

    2013-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors supports the dependence of distinct subsets of cancers on specific driver mutations for survival, a phenomenon called “oncogene addiction.” We demonstrate that PUMA and BIM are the key apoptotic effectors of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in breast cancers with amplification of the gene encoding human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and lung cancers with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutants. The BH3 domain containing proteins BIM and PUMA can directly activate the proapoptotic proteins BAX and BAK to permeabilize mitochondria, leading to caspase activation and apoptosis. We delineated the signal transduction pathways leading to the induction of BIM and PUMA by tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Inhibition of the mitogen-activated or extracellular signal–regulated protein kinase kinase (MEK)–extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK) pathway caused increased abundance of BIM, whereas antagonizing the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)–AKT pathway triggered nuclear translocation of the FOXO transcription factors, which directly activated the PUMA promoter. In a mouse breast tumor model, the abundance of PUMA and BIM was increased after inactivation of HER2. Moreover, deficiency of Bim or Puma impaired caspase activation and reduced tumor regression caused by inactivation of HER2. Similarly, deficiency of Puma impeded the regression of EGFRL858R-driven mouse lung tumors upon inactivation of the EGFR-activating mutant. Overall, our study identified PUMA and BIM as the sentinels that interconnect kinase signaling networks and the mitochondrion-dependent apoptotic program, which offers therapeutic insights for designing novel cell death mechanism–based anticancer strategies. PMID:23532334

  18. The oncogenic effects of p53-inducible gene 3 (PIG3) in colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seon-Joo; Kim, Hong Beum; Kim, Jeeho

    2017-01-01

    The p53-inducible gene 3 (PIG3), initially identified as a gene downstream of p53, plays an important role in the apoptotic process triggered by p53-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Recently, several studies have suggested that PIG3 may play a role in various types of cancer. However, the functional significance of PIG3 in cancer remains unclear. Here, we found that PIG3 was highly expressed in human colon cancer cell lines compared to normal colonderived fibroblasts. Therefore, we attempted to elucidate the functional role of PIG3 in colon cancer. PIG3 overexpression increases the colony formation, migration and invasion ability of HCT116 colon cancer cells. Conversely, these tumorigenic abilities were significantly decreased in in vitro studies with PIG3 knockdown HCT116 cells. PIG3 knockdown also attenuated the growth of mouse xenograft tumors. These results demonstrate that PIG3 is associated with the tumorigenic potential of cancer cells, both in vitro and in vivo, and could play a key oncogenic role in colon cancer. PMID:28280421

  19. Proto-oncogene PBF/PTTG1IP regulates thyroid cell growth and represses radioiodide treatment.

    PubMed

    Read, Martin L; Lewy, Greg D; Fong, Jim C W; Sharma, Neil; Seed, Robert I; Smith, Vicki E; Gentilin, Erica; Warfield, Adrian; Eggo, Margaret C; Knauf, Jeffrey A; Leadbeater, Wendy E; Watkinson, John C; Franklyn, Jayne A; Boelaert, Kristien; McCabe, Christopher J

    2011-10-01

    Pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG)-binding factor (PBF or PTTG1IP) is a little characterized proto-oncogene that has been implicated in the etiology of breast and thyroid tumors. In this study, we created a murine transgenic model to target PBF expression to the thyroid gland (PBF-Tg mice) and found that these mice exhibited normal thyroid function, but a striking enlargement of the thyroid gland associated with hyperplastic and macrofollicular lesions. Expression of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS), a gene essential to the radioiodine ablation of thyroid hyperplasia, neoplasia, and metastasis, was also potently inhibited in PBF-Tg mice. Critically, iodide uptake was repressed in primary thyroid cultures from PBF-Tg mice, which could be rescued by PBF depletion. PBF-Tg thyroids exhibited upregulation of Akt and the TSH receptor (TSHR), each known regulators of thyrocyte proliferation, along with upregulation of the downstream proliferative marker cyclin D1. We extended and confirmed findings from the mouse model by examining PBF expression in human multinodular goiters (MNG), a hyperproliferative thyroid disorder, where PBF and TSHR was strongly upregulated relative to normal thyroid tissue. Furthermore, we showed that depleting PBF in human primary thyrocytes was sufficient to increase radioiodine uptake. Together, our findings indicate that overexpression of PBF causes thyroid cell proliferation, macrofollicular lesions, and hyperplasia, as well as repression of the critical therapeutic route for radioiodide uptake.

  20. Ablation of the oncogenic transcription factor ERG by deubiquitinase inhibition in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shan; Kollipara, Rahul K; Srivastava, Nishi; Li, Rui; Ravindranathan, Preethi; Hernandez, Elizabeth; Freeman, Eva; Humphries, Caroline G; Kapur, Payal; Lotan, Yair; Fazli, Ladan; Gleave, Martin E; Plymate, Stephen R; Raj, Ganesh V; Hsieh, Jer-Tsong; Kittler, Ralf

    2014-03-18

    The transcription factor E-twenty-six related gene (ERG), which is overexpressed through gene fusion with the androgen-responsive gene transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2) in ∼40% of prostate tumors, is a key driver of prostate carcinogenesis. Ablation of ERG would disrupt a key oncogenic transcriptional circuit and could be a promising therapeutic strategy for prostate cancer treatment. Here, we show that ubiquitin-specific peptidase 9, X-linked (USP9X), a deubiquitinase enzyme, binds ERG in VCaP prostate cancer cells expressing TMPRSS2-ERG and deubiquitinates ERG in vitro. USP9X knockdown resulted in increased levels of ubiquitinated ERG and was coupled with depletion of ERG. Treatment with the USP9X inhibitor WP1130 resulted in ERG degradation both in vivo and in vitro, impaired the expression of genes enriched in ERG and prostate cancer relevant gene signatures in microarray analyses, and inhibited growth of ERG-positive tumors in three mouse xenograft models. Thus, we identified USP9X as a potential therapeutic target in prostate cancer cells and established WP1130 as a lead compound for the development of ERG-depleting drugs.

  1. Ablation of the oncogenic transcription factor ERG by deubiquitinase inhibition in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shan; Kollipara, Rahul K.; Srivastava, Nishi; Li, Rui; Ravindranathan, Preethi; Hernandez, Elizabeth; Freeman, Eva; Humphries, Caroline G.; Kapur, Payal; Lotan, Yair; Fazli, Ladan; Gleave, Martin E.; Plymate, Stephen R.; Raj, Ganesh V.; Hsieh, Jer-Tsong; Kittler, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor E-twenty-six related gene (ERG), which is overexpressed through gene fusion with the androgen-responsive gene transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2) in ∼40% of prostate tumors, is a key driver of prostate carcinogenesis. Ablation of ERG would disrupt a key oncogenic transcriptional circuit and could be a promising therapeutic strategy for prostate cancer treatment. Here, we show that ubiquitin-specific peptidase 9, X-linked (USP9X), a deubiquitinase enzyme, binds ERG in VCaP prostate cancer cells expressing TMPRSS2-ERG and deubiquitinates ERG in vitro. USP9X knockdown resulted in increased levels of ubiquitinated ERG and was coupled with depletion of ERG. Treatment with the USP9X inhibitor WP1130 resulted in ERG degradation both in vivo and in vitro, impaired the expression of genes enriched in ERG and prostate cancer relevant gene signatures in microarray analyses, and inhibited growth of ERG-positive tumors in three mouse xenograft models. Thus, we identified USP9X as a potential therapeutic target in prostate cancer cells and established WP1130 as a lead compound for the development of ERG-depleting drugs. PMID:24591637

  2. Enhanced human papillomavirus type 8 oncogene expression levels are crucial for skin tumorigenesis in transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hufbauer, M.; Lazic, D.; Akguel, B.; Brandsma, J.L.; Pfister, H.; Weissenborn, S.J.

    2010-08-01

    Human papillomavirus 8 (HPV8) is involved in skin cancer development in epidermodysplasia verruciformis patients. Transgenic mice expressing HPV8 early genes (HPV8-CER) developed papillomas, dysplasias and squamous cell carcinomas. UVA/B-irradiation and mechanical wounding of HPV8-CER mouse skin led to prompt papilloma induction in about 3 weeks. The aim of this study was to analyze the kinetics and level of transgene expression in response to skin irritations. Transgene expression was already enhanced 1 to 2 days after UVA/B-irradiation or tape-stripping and maintained during papilloma development. The enhanced transgene expression could be assigned to UVB and not to UVA. Papilloma development was thus always paralleled by an increased transgene expression irrespective of the type of skin irritation. A knock-down of E6 mRNA by tattooing HPV8-E6-specific siRNA led to a delay and a lower incidence of papilloma development. This indicates that the early increase of viral oncogene expression is crucial for induction of papillomatosis.

  3. MELK is an oncogenic kinase essential for mitotic progression in basal-like breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yubao; Lee, Young-Mi; Baitsch, Lukas; Huang, Alan; Xiang, Yi; Tong, Haoxuan; Lako, Ana; Von, Thanh; Choi, Christine; Lim, Elgene; Min, Junxia; Li, Li; Stegmeier, Frank; Schlegel, Robert; Eck, Michael J; Gray, Nathanael S; Mitchison, Timothy J; Zhao, Jean J

    2014-01-01

    Despite marked advances in breast cancer therapy, basal-like breast cancer (BBC), an aggressive subtype of breast cancer usually lacking estrogen and progesterone receptors, remains difficult to treat. In this study, we report the identification of MELK as a novel oncogenic kinase from an in vivo tumorigenesis screen using a kinome-wide open reading frames (ORFs) library. Analysis of clinical data reveals a high level of MELK overexpression in BBC, a feature that is largely dependent on FoxM1, a master mitotic transcription factor that is also found to be highly overexpressed in BBC. Ablation of MELK selectively impairs proliferation of basal-like, but not luminal breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, depletion of MELK in BBC cells induces caspase-dependent cell death, preceded by defective mitosis. Finally, we find that Melk is not required for mouse development and physiology. Together, these data indicate that MELK is a normally non-essential kinase, but is critical for BBC and thus represents a promising selective therapeutic target for the most aggressive subtype of breast cancer. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01763.001 PMID:24844244

  4. Proto-oncogene PBF/PTTG1IP regulates thyroid cell growth and represses radioiodide treatment

    PubMed Central

    Read, Martin L.; Lewy, Greg D.; Fong, Jim C.W.; Sharma, Neil; Seed, Robert I.; Smith, Vicki E.; Gentilin, Erica; Warfield, Adrian; Eggo, Margaret C.; Knauf, Jeffrey A.; Leadbeater, Wendy E.; Watkinson, John C.; Franklyn, Jayne A.; Boelaert, Kristien; McCabe, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    PTTG Binding Factor (PBF or PTTG1IP) is a little characterised proto-oncogene that has been implicated in the etiology of breast and thyroid tumors. In this study, we created a murine transgenic model to target PBF expression to the thyroid gland (PBF-Tg mice) and found that these mice exhibited normal thyroid function but a striking enlargement of the thyroid gland associated with hyperplastic and macrofollicular lesions. Expression of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS), a gene essential to the radioiodine ablation of thyroid hyperplasia, neoplasia and metastasis, was also potently inhibited in PBF-Tg mice. Critically, iodide uptake was repressed in primary thyroid cultures from PBF-Tg mice, which could be rescued by PBF depletion. PBF-Tg thyroids exhibited upregulation of Akt and the TSH receptor (TSHR), each known regulators of thyrocyte proliferation, along with upregulation of the downstream proliferative marker cyclin D1. We extended and confirmed findings from the mouse model by examining PBF expression in human multinodular goitres (MNG), a hyperproliferative thyroid disorder, where PBF and TSHR was strongly upregulated relative to normal thyroid tissue. Further, we showed that depleting PBF in human primary thyrocytes was sufficient to increase radioiodine uptake. Together, our findings indicate that overexpression of PBF causes thyroid cell proliferation, macrofollicular lesions and hyperplasia, as well as repression of the critical therapeutic route for radioiodide uptake. PMID:21844185

  5. In vivo engineering of oncogenic chromosomal rearrangements with the CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    PubMed

    Maddalo, Danilo; Manchado, Eusebio; Concepcion, Carla P; Bonetti, Ciro; Vidigal, Joana A; Han, Yoon-Chi; Ogrodowski, Paul; Crippa, Alessandra; Rekhtman, Natasha; de Stanchina, Elisa; Lowe, Scott W; Ventura, Andrea

    2014-12-18

    Chromosomal rearrangements have a central role in the pathogenesis of human cancers and often result in the expression of therapeutically actionable gene fusions. A recently discovered example is a fusion between the genes echinoderm microtubule-associated protein like 4 (EML4) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), generated by an inversion on the short arm of chromosome 2: inv(2)(p21p23). The EML4-ALK oncogene is detected in a subset of human non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) and is clinically relevant because it confers sensitivity to ALK inhibitors. Despite their importance, modelling such genetic events in mice has proven challenging and requires complex manipulation of the germ line. Here we describe an efficient method to induce specific chromosomal rearrangements in vivo using viral-mediated delivery of the CRISPR/Cas9 system to somatic cells of adult animals. We apply it to generate a mouse model of Eml4-Alk-driven lung cancer. The resulting tumours invariably harbour the Eml4-Alk inversion, express the Eml4-Alk fusion gene, display histopathological and molecular features typical of ALK(+) human NSCLCs, and respond to treatment with ALK inhibitors. The general strategy described here substantially expands our ability to model human cancers in mice and potentially in other organisms.

  6. An identity crisis for fps/fes: oncogene or tumor suppressor?

    PubMed

    Sangrar, Waheed; Zirgnibl, Ralph A; Gao, Yan; Muller, William J; Jia, Zongchao; Greer, Peter A

    2005-05-01

    Fps/Fes proteins were among the first members of the protein tyrosine kinase family to be characterized as dominant-acting oncoproteins. Addition of retroviral GAG sequences or other experimentally induced mutations activated the latent transforming potential of Fps/Fes. However, activating mutations in fps/fes had not been found in human tumors until recently, when mutational analysis of a panel of colorectal cancers identified four somatic mutations in sequences encoding the Fps/Fes kinase domain. Here, we report biochemical and theoretical structural analysis demonstrating that three of these mutations result in inactivation, not activation, of Fps/Fes, whereas the fourth mutation compromised in vivo activity. These results did not concur with a classic dominant-acting oncogenic role for fps/fes involving activating somatic mutations but instead raised the possibility that inactivating fps/fes mutations might promote tumor progression in vivo. Consistent with this, we observed that tumor onset in a mouse model of breast epithelial cancer occurred earlier in mice targeted with either null or kinase-inactivating fps/fes mutations. Furthermore, a fps/fes transgene restored normal tumor onset kinetics in targeted fps/fes null mice. These data suggest a novel and unexpected tumor suppressor role for Fps/Fes in epithelial cells.

  7. Long noncoding RNA linc00617 exhibits oncogenic activity in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Hengyu; Zhu, Li; Xu, Lu; Qin, Keyu; Liu, Chaoqian; Yu, Yue; Su, Dongwei; Wu, Kainan; Sheng, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Protein-coding genes account for only 2% of the human genome, whereas the vast majority of transcripts are noncoding RNAs including long noncoding RNAs. LncRNAs are involved in the regulation of a diverse array of biological processes, including cancer progression. An evolutionarily conserved lncRNA TUNA, was found to be required for pluripotency of mouse embryonic stem cells. In this study, we found the human ortholog of TUNA, linc00617, was upregulated in breast cancer samples. Linc00617 promoted motility and invasion of breast cancer cells and induced epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT), which was accompanied by generation of stem cell properties. Moreover, knockdown of linc00617 repressed lung metastasis in vivo. We demonstrated that linc00617 upregulated the expression of stemness factor Sox2 in breast cancer cells, which was shown to promote the oncogenic activity of breast cancer cells by stimulating epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and enhancing the tumor-initiating capacity. Thus, our data indicate that linc00617 functions as an important regulator of EMT and promotes breast cancer progression and metastasis via activating the transcription of Sox2. Together, it suggests that linc00617 may be a potential therapeutic target for aggressive breast cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Gene Essentiality Profiling Reveals Gene Networks and Synthetic Lethal Interactions with Oncogenic Ras.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tim; Yu, Haiyan; Hughes, Nicholas W; Liu, Bingxu; Kendirli, Arek; Klein, Klara; Chen, Walter W; Lander, Eric S; Sabatini, David M

    2017-02-23

    The genetic dependencies of human cancers widely vary. Here, we catalog this heterogeneity and use it to identify functional gene interactions and genotype-dependent liabilities in cancer. By using genome-wide CRISPR-based screens, we generate a gene essentiality dataset across 14 human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines. Sets of genes with correlated patterns of essentiality across the lines reveal new gene relationships, the essential substrates of enzymes, and the molecular functions of uncharacterized proteins. Comparisons of differentially essential genes between Ras-dependent and -independent lines uncover synthetic lethal partners of oncogenic Ras. Screens in both human AML and engineered mouse pro-B cells converge on a surprisingly small number of genes in the Ras processing and MAPK pathways and pinpoint PREX1 as an AML-specific activator of MAPK signaling. Our findings suggest general strategies for defining mammalian gene networks and synthetic lethal interactions by exploiting the natural genetic and epigenetic diversity of human cancer cells.

  9. Activation of oncogenic tyrosine kinase signaling promotes insulin receptor-mediated cone photoreceptor survival

    PubMed Central

    Rajala, Ammaji; Wang, Yuhong; Rajala, Raju V.S.

    2016-01-01

    In humans, daylight vision is primarily mediated by cone photoreceptors. These cells die in age-related retinal degenerations. Prolonging the life of cones for even one decade would have an enormous beneficial effect on usable vision in an aging population. Photoreceptors are postmitotic, but shed 10% of their outer segments daily, and must synthesize the membrane and protein equivalent of a proliferating cell each day. Although activation of oncogenic tyrosine kinase and inhibition of tyrosine phosphatase signaling is known to be essential for tumor progression, the cellular regulation of this signaling in postmitotic photoreceptor cells has not been studied. In the present study, we report that a novel G-protein coupled receptor–mediated insulin receptor (IR) signaling pathway is regulated by non-receptor tyrosine kinase Src through the inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase IB (PTP1B). We demonstrated the functional significance of this pathway through conditional deletion of IR and PTP1B in cones, in addition to delaying the death of cones in a mouse model of cone degeneration by activating the Src. This is the first study demonstrating the molecular mechanism of a novel signaling pathway in photoreceptor cells, which provides a window of opportunity to save the dying cones in retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:27391439

  10. Satellite RNAs promote pancreatic oncogenic processes via the dysfunction of YBX1

    PubMed Central

    Kishikawa, Takahiro; Otsuka, Motoyuki; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Ohno, Motoko; Ijichi, Hideaki; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Highly repetitive tandem arrays at the centromeric and pericentromeric regions in chromosomes, previously considered silent, are actively transcribed, particularly in cancer. This aberrant expression occurs even in K-ras-mutated pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) tissues, which are precancerous lesions. To examine the biological roles of the satellite RNAs in carcinogenesis, we construct mouse PanIN-derived cells expressing major satellite (MajSAT) RNA and show increased malignant properties. We find an increase in frequency of chromosomal instability and point mutations in both genomic and mitochondrial DNA. We identify Y-box binding protein 1 (YBX1) as a protein that binds to MajSAT RNA. MajSAT RNA inhibits the nuclear translocation of YBX1 under stress conditions, thus reducing its DNA-damage repair function. The forced expression of YBX1 significantly decreases the aberrant phenotypes. These findings indicate that during the early stage of cancer development, satellite transcripts may act as ‘intrinsic mutagens' by inducing YBX1 dysfunction, which may be crucial in oncogenic processes. PMID:27667193

  11. TIF-IA: An oncogenic target of pre-ribosomal RNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Rui; Zhou, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Cancer cells devote the majority of their energy consumption to ribosome biogenesis, and pre-ribosomal RNA transcription accounts for 30-50% of all transcriptional activity. This aberrantly elevated biological activity is an attractive target for cancer therapeutic intervention if approaches can be developed to circumvent the development of side effects in normal cells. TIF-IA is a transcription factor that connects RNA polymerase I with the UBF/SL-1 complex to initiate the transcription of pre-ribosomal RNA. Its function is conserved in eukaryotes from yeast to mammals, and its activity is promoted by the phosphorylation of various oncogenic kinases in cancer cells. The depletion of TIF-IA induces cell death in lung cancer cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts but not in several other normal tissue types evaluated in knock-out studies. Furthermore, the nuclear accumulation of TIF-IA under UTP down-regulated conditions requires the activity of LKB1 kinase, and LKB1-inactivated cancer cells are susceptible to cell death under such stress conditions. Therefore, TIF-IA may be a unique target to suppress ribosome biogenesis without significantly impacting the survival of normal tissues.

  12. Genetic Modeling of PIM Proteins in Cancer: Proviral Tagging and Cooperation with Oncogenes, Tumor Suppressor Genes, and Carcinogens

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, Enara; Renner, Oliver; Narlik-Grassow, Maja; Blanco-Aparicio, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The PIM proteins, which were initially discovered as proviral insertion sites in Moloney-murine leukemia virus infection, are a family of highly homologous serine/threonine kinases that have been reported to be overexpressed in hematological malignancies and solid tumors. The PIM proteins have also been associated with metastasis and overall treatment responses and implicated in the regulation of apoptosis, metabolism, the cell cycle, and homing and migration, which makes these proteins interesting targets for anti-cancer drug discovery. The use of retroviral insertional mutagenesis and refined approaches such as complementation tagging has allowed the identification of myc, pim, and a third group of genes (including bmi1 and gfi1) as complementing genes in lymphomagenesis. Moreover, mouse modeling of human cancer has provided an understanding of the molecular pathways that are involved in tumor initiation and progression at the physiological level. In particular, genetically modified mice have allowed researchers to further elucidate the role of each of the Pim isoforms in various tumor types. PIM kinases have been identified as weak oncogenes because experimental overexpression in lymphoid tissue, prostate, and liver induces tumors at a relatively low incidence and with a long latency. However, very strong synergistic tumorigenicity between Pim1/2 and c-Myc and other oncogenes has been observed in lymphoid tissues. Mouse models have also been used to study whether the inhibition of specific PIM isoforms is required to prevent carcinogen-induced sarcomas, indicating that the absence of Pim2 and Pim3 greatly reduces sarcoma growth and bone invasion; the extent of this effect is similar to that observed in the absence of all three isoforms. This review will summarize some of the animal models that have been used to understand the isoform-specific contribution of PIM kinases to tumorigenesis. PMID:24860787

  13. Dexamethasone-dependent inhibition of differentiation of C2 myoblasts bearing steroid-inducible N-ras oncogenes

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    ras proteins are localized to the plasma membrane where they are postulated to interact with growth factor receptors and other proximal elements in intracellular cascades triggered by growth factors. The molecular events associated with terminal differentiation of certain skeletal myoblasts are inhibited by specific polypeptide growth factors and by constitutive expression of transforming ras oncogenes. To determine whether the inhibitory effects of ras on myogenic differentiation were reversible and to investigate whether muscle- specific genes remained susceptible to ras-dependent repression in terminally differentiated myotubes, the murine myoblast cell line, C2, was transfected with a plasmid containing a mutationally activated human N-ras oncogene under transcriptional control of the steroid- sensitive promoter of the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat. Addition of dexamethasone to myoblasts bearing steroid- inducible ras oncogenes prevented myotube formation and induction of muscle creatine kinase and acetylcholine receptors. Inhibition of differentiation by dexamethasone occurred in a dose-dependent manner and was a titratable function of ras expression. In the presence of dexamethasone, myoblasts bearing steroid-inducible ras genes retained their dependence on exogenous growth factors to divide and exhibited contact inhibition of growth at confluent densities, indicating that the inhibitory effects of ras on differentiation were independent of cell proliferation. Removal of dexamethasone from N-ras-transfected myoblasts led to fusion and induction of muscle-specific gene products in a manner indistinguishable from control C2 cells. Examination of the effects of culture media conditioned by ras-transfected myoblasts on differentiation of normal C2 cells yielded no evidence for inhibition of differentiation via an autocrine mechanism. In contrast to the ability of N-ras to prevent up-regulation of muscle-specific gene products in myoblasts

  14. The PDZ-binding motif of Yes-associated protein is required for its co-activation of TEAD-mediated CTGF transcription and oncogenic cell transforming activity.

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Tadanori; Miyamura, Norio; Hata, Shoji; Miura, Ryota; Hirayama, Jun; Nishina, Hiroshi

    2014-01-17

    YAP is a transcriptional co-activator that acts downstream of the Hippo signaling pathway and regulates multiple cellular processes, including proliferation. Hippo pathway-dependent phosphorylation of YAP negatively regulates its function. Conversely, attenuation of Hippo-mediated phosphorylation of YAP increases its ability to stimulate proliferation and eventually induces oncogenic transformation. The C-terminus of YAP contains a highly conserved PDZ-binding motif that regulates YAP's functions in multiple ways. However, to date, the importance of the PDZ-binding motif to the oncogenic cell transforming activity of YAP has not been determined. In this study, we disrupted the PDZ-binding motif in the YAP (5SA) protein, in which the sites normally targeted by Hippo pathway-dependent phosphorylation are mutated. We found that loss of the PDZ-binding motif significantly inhibited the oncogenic transformation of cultured cells induced by YAP (5SA). In addition, the increased nuclear localization of YAP (5SA) and its enhanced activation of TEAD-dependent transcription of the cell proliferation gene CTGF were strongly reduced when the PDZ-binding motif was deleted. Similarly, in mouse liver, deletion of the PDZ-binding motif suppressed nuclear localization of YAP (5SA) and YAP (5SA)-induced CTGF expression. Taken together, our results indicate that the PDZ-binding motif of YAP is critical for YAP-mediated oncogenesis, and that this effect is mediated by YAP's co-activation of TEAD-mediated CTGF transcription.

  15. Molecular cloning of the akt oncogene and its human homologues AKT1 and AKT2: amplification of AKT1 in a primary human gastric adenocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Staal, S.P.

    1987-07-01

    A previous report described the isolation of a directly transforming retrovirus, AKT8, from a spontaneous thymoma of an AKR mouse. The AKT8 provirus has now been molecularly cloned from a transformed, nonproducer cell line. The virus genome contains both viral and nonviral, cell-related sequences; the nonviral sequence has been designated v-akt, the presumed viral oncogene of the AKT8 virus. This gene lacks homology to the 16 other oncogenes tested. The cloned provirus has undergone a partial deletion, during cell passage in vitro, that prevents direct demonstration of the transforming ability of this molecular clone. Two human homologues of the v-akt oncogene, AKT1 and AKT2, were cloned. A survey of 225 human tumors for changes involving ATK1 led to the discovery of a 20-fold amplification of this gene in one of the five gastric adenocarcinomas tested. The results demonstrate that AKT8 has the characteristic structure of a directly transforming retrovirus and that it contains a gene derived from highly conserved cellular sequences that may be involved in the pathogenesis of some human malignancies.

  16. Risk assessment of oncogenic potency of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Keikotlhaile, B M; Spanoghe, P; Steurbaut, W

    2011-01-01

    Pesticides are used in agriculture to improve food security by assuring good harvest, however, they can have harmful effects in human beings and animals. One of the harmful effects of pesticides is their carcinogenicity. Exposure to oncogenic compounds may result in cancer to the exposed animal or person. In this paper, exposure assessment of oncogenic potency of pesticides was performed from raw and processed fruits and vegetables. The oncogenic risk was calculated by multiplying the estimated daily intake (EDI) of the pesticide residue with the oncogenic potency factor (Q*) of the concerned pesticide. The total potential oncogenic risk was calculated to be 2.76 x 10(-3) before processing and 8.97 x 10(-4) after processing. The risk was higher than the EPA acceptable limit of 1 x10(-6). Despite the calculated levels exceeding the EPA acceptable limit, food processing activities reduced the dietary oncogenic risk to an average 33.8%.

  17. EGFR/ARF6 regulation of Hh signalling stimulates oncogenic Ras tumour overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Chabu, Chiswili; Li, Da-Ming; Xu, Tian

    2017-03-10

    Multiple signalling events interact in cancer cells. Oncogenic Ras cooperates with Egfr, which cannot be explained by the canonical signalling paradigm. In turn, Egfr cooperates with Hedgehog signalling. How oncogenic Ras elicits and integrates Egfr and Hedgehog signals to drive overgrowth remains unclear. Using a Drosophila tumour model, we show that Egfr cooperates with oncogenic Ras via Arf6, which functions as a novel regulator of Hh signalling. Oncogenic Ras induces the expression of Egfr ligands. Egfr then signals through Arf6, which regulates Hh transport to promote Hh signalling. Blocking any step of this signalling cascade inhibits Hh signalling and correspondingly suppresses the growth of both, fly and human cancer cells harbouring oncogenic Ras mutations. These findings highlight a non-canonical Egfr signalling mechanism, centered on Arf6 as a novel regulator of Hh signalling. This explains both, the puzzling requirement of Egfr in oncogenic Ras-mediated overgrowth and the cooperation between Egfr and Hedgehog.

  18. EGFR/ARF6 regulation of Hh signalling stimulates oncogenic Ras tumour overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Chabu, Chiswili; Li, Da-Ming; Xu, Tian

    2017-01-01

    Multiple signalling events interact in cancer cells. Oncogenic Ras cooperates with Egfr, which cannot be explained by the canonical signalling paradigm. In turn, Egfr cooperates with Hedgehog signalling. How oncogenic Ras elicits and integrates Egfr and Hedgehog signals to drive overgrowth remains unclear. Using a Drosophila tumour model, we show that Egfr cooperates with oncogenic Ras via Arf6, which functions as a novel regulator of Hh signalling. Oncogenic Ras induces the expression of Egfr ligands. Egfr then signals through Arf6, which regulates Hh transport to promote Hh signalling. Blocking any step of this signalling cascade inhibits Hh signalling and correspondingly suppresses the growth of both, fly and human cancer cells harbouring oncogenic Ras mutations. These findings highlight a non-canonical Egfr signalling mechanism, centered on Arf6 as a novel regulator of Hh signalling. This explains both, the puzzling requirement of Egfr in oncogenic Ras-mediated overgrowth and the cooperation between Egfr and Hedgehog. PMID:28281543

  19. ENL links histone acetylation to oncogenic gene expression in AML

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Liling; Wen, Hong; Li, Yuanyuan; Lyu, Jie; Xi, Yuanxin; Hoshii, Takayuki; Joseph, Julia; Wang, Xiaolu; Loh, Yong-Hwee E.; Erb, Michael A.; Souza, Amanda L.; Bradner, James E.; Shen, Li; Li, Wei; Li, Haitao; Allis, C. David; Armstrong, Scott A.; Shi, Xiaobing

    2017-01-01

    Cancer cells are characterized by aberrant epigenetic landscapes and often exploit chromatin machinery to activate oncogenic gene expression programs1. Recognition of modified histones by “reader” proteins constitutes a key mechanism underlying these processes; therefore, targeting such pathways holds clinical promise, as exemplified by the development of BET bromodomain inhibitors2, 3. We recently identified the YEATS domain as a novel acetyllysine-binding module4, yet its functional importance in human cancer remains unknown. Here we show that the YEATS domain-containing protein ENL, but not its paralog AF9, is required for disease maintenance in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). CRISPR-Cas9 mediated depletion of ENL led to anti-leukemic effects, including increased terminal myeloid differentiation and suppression of leukaemia growth in vitro and in vivo. Biochemical and crystal structural studies and ChIP-seq analyses revealed that ENL binds to acetylated histone H3, and colocalizes with H3K27ac and H3K9ac on the promoters of actively transcribed genes that are essential for leukaemias. Disrupting the interaction between the YEATS domain and histone acetylation via structure-based mutagenesis reduced RNA polymerase II recruitment to ENL target genes, leading to suppression of oncogenic gene expression programs. Importantly, disruption of ENL’s functionality further sensitized leukaemia cells to BET inhibitors. Together, our study identifies ENL as a histone acetylation reader that regulates oncogenic transcriptional programs in AML and suggests that displacement of ENL from chromatin may be a promising epigenetic therapy alone or in combination with BET inhibitors for AML. PMID:28241141

  20. Autism Linked to Increased Oncogene Mutations but Decreased Cancer Rate

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, M. Bridget; Mahajan, Vinit B.; Bassuk, Alexander G.

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is one phenotypic aspect of many monogenic, hereditary cancer syndromes. Pleiotropic effects of cancer genes on the autism phenotype could lead to repurposing of oncology medications to treat this increasingly prevalent neurodevelopmental condition for which there is currently no treatment. To explore this hypothesis we sought to discover whether autistic patients more often have rare coding, single-nucleotide variants within tumor suppressor and oncogenes and whether autistic patients are more often diagnosed with neoplasms. Exome-sequencing data from the ARRA Autism Sequencing Collaboration was compared to that of a control cohort from the Exome Variant Server database revealing that rare, coding variants within oncogenes were enriched for in the ARRA ASD cohort (p<1.0x10-8). In contrast, variants were not significantly enriched in tumor suppressor genes. Phenotypically, children and adults with ASD exhibited a protective effect against cancer, with a frequency of 1.3% vs. 3.9% (p<0.001), but the protective effect decreased with age. The odds ratio of neoplasm for those with ASD relative to controls was 0.06 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.19; p<0.0001) in the 0 to 14 age group; 0.35 (95% CI: 0.14, 0.87; p = 0.024) in the 15 to 29 age group; 0.41 (95% CI: 0.15, 1.17; p = 0.095) in the 30 to 54 age group; and 0.49 (95% CI: 0.14, 1.74; p = 0.267) in those 55 and older. Both males and females demonstrated the protective effect. These findings suggest that defects in cellular proliferation, and potentially senescence, might influence both autism and neoplasm, and already approved drugs targeting oncogenic pathways might also have therapeutic value for treating autism. PMID:26934580

  1. Comprehensive Characterization of Oncogenic Drivers in Asian Lung Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiyong; Choi, Yoon-La; Gong, Zhuolin; Liu, Xiao; Lira, Maruja; Kan, Zhengyan; Oh, Ensel; Wang, Jian; Ting, Jason C; Ye, Xiangsheng; Reinhart, Christoph; Liu, Xiaoqiao; Pei, Yunfei; Zhou, Wei; Chen, Ronghua; Fu, Shijun; Jin, Gang; Jiang, Awei; Fernandez, Julio; Hardwick, James; Kang, Min Woong; I, Hoseok; Zheng, Hancheng; Kim, Jhingook; Mao, Mao

    2016-12-01

    The incidence rate of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), the predominant histological subtype of lung cancer, is elevated in Asians, particularly in female nonsmokers. The mutation patterns in LUAD in Asians might be distinct from those in LUAD in whites. We profiled 271 resected LUAD tumors (mainly stage I) to characterize the genomic landscape of LUAD in Asians with a focus on female nonsmokers. Mutations in EGFR, KRAS, erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 gene (ERBB2), and BRAF; gene fusions involving anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase gene (ALK), ROS1, and ret proto-oncogene (RET); and Met Proto-Oncogene Tyrosine Kinase (MET) exon 14 skipping were the major drivers in LUAD in Asians, exhibiting mutually exclusive and differing prevalence from those reported in studies of LUAD in non-Asians. In addition, we identified a novel mutational signature of XNX (the mutated base N in the middle flanked by two identical bases at the 5' and 3' positions) that was overrepresented in LUAD tumors in nonsmokers and negatively correlated with the overall mutational frequency. In this cohort, approximately 85% of individuals have known driver mutations (EGFR 59.4%, KRAS 7.4%, ALK 7.4%, ERBB2 2.6%, ROS1 2.2%, RET 2.2%, MET 1.8%, BRAF 1.1%, and NRAS 0.4%). Seventy percent of smokers and 90% of nonsmokers had defined oncogenic drivers matching the U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved targeted therapies. Copyright © 2016 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Oncogenic NRAS Primes Primary Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells for Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Millahn, Axel; Stiewe, Thorsten; Krause, Michael; Stabla, Kathleen; Ross, Petra; Huynh, Minh; Illmer, Thomas; Mernberger, Marco; Barckhausen, Christina; Neubauer, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    RAS mutations are frequently found among acute myeloid leukemia patients (AML), generating a constitutively active signaling protein changing cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. We have previously shown that treatment of AML patients with high-dose cytarabine is preferentially beneficial for those harboring oncogenic RAS. On the basis of a murine AML cell culture model, we ascribed this effect to a RAS-driven, p53-dependent induction of differentiation. Hence, in this study we sought to confirm the correlation between RAS status and differentiation of primary blasts obtained from AML patients. The gene expression signature of AML blasts with oncogenic NRAS indeed corresponded to a more mature profile compared to blasts with wildtype RAS, as demonstrated by gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and real-time PCR analysis of myeloid ecotropic viral integration site 1 homolog (MEIS1) in a unique cohort of AML patients. In addition, in vitro cell culture experiments with established cell lines and a second set of primary AML cells showed that oncogenic NRAS mutations predisposed cells to cytarabine (AraC) driven differentiation. Taken together, our findings show that AML with inv(16) and NRAS mutation have a differentiation gene signature, supporting the notion that NRAS mutation may predispose leukemic cells to AraC induced differentiation. We therefore suggest that promotion of differentiation pathways by specific genetic alterations could explain the superior treatment outcome after therapy in some AML patient subgroups. Whether a differentiation gene expression status may generally predict for a superior treatment outcome in AML needs to be addressed in future studies. PMID:25901794

  3. Histone Code Modulation by Oncogenic PWWP-Domain Protein in Breast Cancers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    amplicon for identifying candidate oncogenes in breast cancer. We identified Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome candidate 1-like 1 (WHSC1L1) as a candidate...amplicon for identifying candidate oncogenes in breast cancer (4). We identified Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome candidate 1-like 1 (WHSC1L1) as a candidate...oncogenes that are drugable targets for cancer therapy in the near future? Pharmacol Ther 2007; 115: 419-34. 16. Kim JK, Esteve PO, Jacobsen SE

  4. Oncogenic PTEN functions and models in T-cell malignancies.

    PubMed

    Tesio, M; Trinquand, A; Macintyre, E; Asnafi, V

    2016-07-28

    PTEN is a protein phosphatase that is crucial to prevent the malignant transformation of T-cells. Although a numerous mechanisms regulate its expression and function, they are often altered in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemias and T-cell lymphomas. As such, PTEN inactivation frequently occurs in these malignancies, where it can be associated with chemotherapy resistance and poor prognosis. Different Pten knockout models recapitulated the development of T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma, demonstrating that PTEN loss is at the center of a complex oncogenic network that sustains and drives tumorigenesis via the activation of multiple signalling pathways. These aspects and their therapeutic implications are discussed in this review.

  5. ERBB oncogene proteins as targets for monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Polanovski, O L; Lebedenko, E N; Deyev, S M

    2012-03-01

    General properties of the family of tyrosine kinase ERBB receptors are considered in connection with their role in the generation of cascades of signal transduction in normal and tumor cells. Causes of acquisition of oncogene features by genes encoding these receptors and their role in tumorigenesis are analyzed. Anti-ERBB monoclonal antibodies approved for therapy are described in detail, and mechanisms of their antitumor activity and development of resistance to them are reviewed. The existing and the most promising strategies for creating and using monoclonal antibodies and their derivatives for therapy of cancer are discussed.

  6. Hedgehog Signal Transduction: Key Players, Oncogenic Drivers, and Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Pak, Ekaterina; Segal, Rosalind A

    2016-08-22

    The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway governs complex developmental processes, including proliferation and patterning within diverse tissues. These activities rely on a tightly regulated transduction system that converts graded Hh input signals into specific levels of pathway activity. Uncontrolled activation of Hh signaling drives tumor initiation and maintenance. However, recent entry of pathway-specific inhibitors into the clinic reveals mixed patient responses and thus prompts further exploration of pathway activation and inhibition. In this review, we share emerging insights into regulated and oncogenic Hh signaling, supplemented with updates on the development and use of Hh pathway-targeted therapies.

  7. Hedgehog signal transduction: key players, oncogenic drivers, and cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pak, Ekaterina; Segal, Rosalind A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway governs complex developmental processes, including proliferation and patterning within diverse tissues. These activities rely on a tightly-regulated transduction system that converts graded Hh input signals into specific levels of pathway activity. Uncontrolled activation of Hh signaling drives tumor initiation and maintenance. However, recent entry of pathway-specific inhibitors into the clinic reveals mixed patient responses and thus prompts further exploration of pathway activation and inhibition. In this review, we share emerging insights on regulated and oncogenic Hh signaling, supplemented with updates on the development and use of Hh pathway-targeted therapies. PMID:27554855

  8. Detecting and Targeting Oncogenic Myc in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    Proteomics, Ontario Cancer Institute/Princess Margaret Hospital, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Canada M5G 2M9. Phone: 416- 946 -2276; Fax: 416- 946 -2840; E...rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.ejca.2005.08.017 * Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 416 946 2276; fax: +1 416 946 2840. E-mail address: lpenn...etic cells [133], mammary gland [134], liver [135], skin [135,136] and pancreatic islets [137] have demonstrated that induction of oncogenic Myc leads

  9. Role of ets Oncogenes in the Progression of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-10-01

    4 Introduction 5-9 Body 9-17 Conclusion 17-18 Figures 19-31 References 32-36 Veena N. Rao, Ph.D. INTRODUCTION Majority of the ets-oncogene superfamily...threshold by BRCA 1/elk-I gene therapy may have the potential to prevent the progression of these malignancies. BODY Task 1 COMPLETED PREVIOUSLY Task 2...weights of ýý 175, 125 and BRCAI protein using several BRCA1 specific anti- 110 kD (Figure 2a). All these results suggest BRCA1 bodies in normal, breast

  10. Global expression profiling reveals gain-of-function onco-genic activity of a mutated thyroid hormone receptor in thyroid carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Changxue; Mishra, Alok; Zhu, Yuelin J; Meltzer, Paul; Cheng, Sheue-yann

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are critical in regulating gene expression in normal physiological processes. Decreased expression and/or somatic mutations of TRs have been shown to be associated several types of human cancers including liver, breast, lung, and thyroid. To understand the molecular mechanisms by which mutated TRs promote carcinogenesis, an animal model of follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) (Thrbpv/pv mice) was used in the present study. The Thrbpv/pv mouse harbors a knockin dominant negative PV mutation, identified in a patient with resistance to thyroid hormone. To understand whether oncogenic actions of PV involve not only the loss of normal TR functions but also gain-of-function activities, we compared the gene expression profiles of thyroid lesions in Thrbpv/pv mice and Thra1-/- Thrb-/- mice that also spontaneously develop FTC, but with less severe malignancy. Analysis of the cDNA microarray data derived from microdissected thyroid tumor cells of these two mice showed contrasting global gene expression profiles. With stringent selection using 2.5-fold change (p<0.01) in cDNA microarray analysis, 241 genes with altered gene expression were identified. Nearly half of the genes (n=103: 42.7% of total) with altered gene expression in thyroid tumor cells of Thrbpv/pv mice were associated with tumorigenesis and metastasis; some of these genes function as oncogenes in human thyroid cancers. The remaining genes were found to function in transcriptional regulation, RNA processing, cell proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and cytoskeleton modification. These results indicate that the more aggressive thyroid tumor progression in Thrbpv/pv mice was not due simply to the loss of tumor suppressor functions of TR via mutation but also, importantly, to gain-of-function in the oncogenic activities of PV to drive thyroid carcinogenesis. Thus, the present study identifies a novel mechanism by which a mutated TRβ evolves with an oncogenic advantage to promote

  11. Uncoupling of the LKB1-AMPKalpha energy sensor pathway by growth factors and oncogenic BRAF.

    PubMed

    Esteve-Puig, Rosaura; Canals, Francesc; Colomé, Núria; Merlino, Glenn; Recio, Juan Angel

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the biochemical mechanisms contributing to melanoma development and progression is critical for therapeutical intervention. LKB1 is a multi-task Ser/Thr kinase that phosphorylates AMPK controlling cell growth and apoptosis under metabolic stress conditions. Additionally, LKB1(Ser428) becomes phosphorylated in a RAS-Erk1/2-p90(RSK) pathway dependent manner. However, the connection between the RAS pathway and LKB1 is mostly unknown. Using the UV induced HGF transgenic mouse melanoma model to investigate the interplay among HGF signaling, RAS pathway and PI3K pathway in melanoma, we identified LKB1 as a protein directly modified by HGF induced signaling. A variety of molecular techniques and tissue culture revealed that LKB1(Ser428) (Ser431 in the mouse) is constitutively phosphorylated in BRAF(V600E) mutant melanoma cell lines and spontaneous mouse tumors with high RAS pathway activity. Interestingly, BRAF(V600E) mutant melanoma cells showed a very limited response to metabolic stress mediated by the LKB1-AMPK-mTOR pathway. Here we show for the first time that RAS pathway activation including BRAF(V600E) mutation promotes the uncoupling of AMPK from LKB1 by a mechanism that appears to be independent of LKB1(Ser428) phosphorylation. Notably, the inhibition of the RAS pathway in BRAF(V600E) mutant melanoma cells recovered the complex formation and rescued the LKB1-AMPKalpha metabolic stress-induced response, increasing apoptosis in cooperation with the pro-apoptotic proteins Bad and Bim, and the down-regulation of Mcl-1. These data demonstrate that growth factor treatment and in particular oncogenic BRAF(V600E) induces the uncoupling of LKB1-AMPKalpha complexes providing at the same time a possible mechanism in cell proliferation that engages cell growth and cell division in response to mitogenic stimuli and resistance to low energy conditions in tumor cells. Importantly, this mechanism reveals a new level for therapeutical intervention particularly

  12. Lessons Learned from Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus in Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, Jaquelin P.; Golovkina, Tatyana V.; Ross, Susan R.

    2016-01-01

    Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV), which was discovered as a milk-transmitted, infectious, cancer-inducing agent in the 1930s, has been used as an animal model for the study of retroviral infection and transmission, antiviral immune responses, and breast cancer and lymphoma biology. The main target cells for MMTV infection in vivo are cells of the immune system and mammary epithelial cells. Although the host mounts an immune response to the virus, MMTV has evolved multiple means of evading this response. MMTV causes mammary tumors when the provirus integrates into the mammary epithelial and lymphoid cell genome during viral replication and thereby activates cellular oncogene expression. Thus, tumor induction is a by-product of the infection cycle. A number of important oncogenes have been discovered by carrying out MMTV integration site analysis, some of which may play a role in human breast cancer. PMID:27034391

  13. Mouse Models of Thyroid Cancer: A 2015 Update

    PubMed Central

    Kirschner, Lawrence S.; Qamri, Zahida; Kari, Suresh; Ashtekar, Amruta

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine neoplasm, and its rate is rising at an alarming pace. Thus, there is a compelling need to develop in vivo models which will not only enable the confirmation of the oncogenic potential of driver genes, but also point the way towards the development of new therapeutics. Over the past 20 years, techniques for the generation of mouse models of human diseases have progressed substantially, accompanied by parallel advances in the genetics and genomics of human tumors. This convergence has enabled the development of mouse lines carrying mutations in the genes that cause thyroid cancers of all subtypes, including differentiated papillary and follicular thyroid cancers, poorly differentiated/anaplastic cancers, and medullary thyroid cancers. In this review, we will discuss the state of the art of mouse modeling of thyroid cancer, with the eventual goal of providing insight into tumor biology and treatment. PMID:26123589

  14. Modeling cutaneous squamous carcinoma development in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Huang, Phillips Y; Balmain, Allan

    2014-09-02

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is one of the most common cancers in Caucasian populations and is associated with a significant risk of morbidity and mortality. The classic mouse model for studying SCC involves two-stage chemical carcinogenesis, which has been instrumental in the evolution of the concept of multistage carcinogenesis, as widely applied to both human and mouse cancers. Much is now known about the sequence of biological and genetic events that occur in this skin carcinogenesis model and the factors that can influence the course of tumor development, such as perturbations in the oncogene/tumor-suppressor signaling pathways involved, the nature of the target cell that acquires the first genetic hit, and the role of inflammation. Increasingly, studies of tumor-initiating cells, malignant progression, and metastasis in mouse skin cancer models will have the potential to inform future approaches to treatment and chemoprevention of human squamous malignancies. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  15. Reverse engineering a hierarchical regulatory network downstream of oncogenic KRAS

    PubMed Central

    Stelniec-Klotz, Iwona; Legewie, Stefan; Tchernitsa, Oleg; Witzel, Franziska; Klinger, Bertram; Sers, Christine; Herzel, Hanspeter; Blüthgen, Nils; Schäfer, Reinhold

    2012-01-01

    RAS mutations are highly relevant for progression and therapy response of human tumours, but the genetic network that ultimately executes the oncogenic effects is poorly understood. Here, we used a reverse-engineering approach in an ovarian cancer model to reconstruct KRAS oncogene-dependent cytoplasmic and transcriptional networks from perturbation experiments based on gene silencing and pathway inhibitor treatments. We measured mRNA and protein levels in manipulated cells by microarray, RT–PCR and western blot analysis, respectively. The reconstructed model revealed complex interactions among the transcriptional and cytoplasmic components, some of which were confirmed by double pertubation experiments. Interestingly, the transcription factors decomposed into two hierarchically arranged groups. To validate the model predictions, we analysed growth parameters and transcriptional deregulation in the KRAS-transformed epithelial cells. As predicted by the model, we found two functional groups among the selected transcription factors. The experiments thus confirmed the predicted hierarchical transcription factor regulation and showed that the hierarchy manifests itself in downstream gene expression patterns and phenotype. PMID:22864383

  16. Endogenous Retrotransposition Activates Oncogenic Pathways in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Ruchi; Upton, Kyle R.; Muñoz-Lopez, Martin; Gerhardt, Daniel J.; Fisher, Malcolm E.; Nguyen, Thu; Brennan, Paul M.; Baillie, J. Kenneth; Collino, Agnese; Ghisletti, Serena; Sinha, Shruti; Iannelli, Fabio; Radaelli, Enrico; Dos Santos, Alexandre; Rapoud, Delphine; Guettier, Catherine; Samuel, Didier; Natoli, Gioacchino; Carninci, Piero; Ciccarelli, Francesca D.; Garcia-Perez, Jose Luis; Faivre, Jamila; Faulkner, Geoffrey J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposons are mobile genetic elements comprising ∼17% of the human genome. New L1 insertions can profoundly alter gene function and cause disease, though their significance in cancer remains unclear. Here, we applied enhanced retrotransposon capture sequencing (RC-seq) to 19 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) genomes and elucidated two archetypal L1-mediated mechanisms enabling tumorigenesis. In the first example, 4/19 (21.1%) donors presented germline retrotransposition events in the tumor suppressor mutated in colorectal cancers (MCC). MCC expression was ablated in each case, enabling oncogenic β-catenin/Wnt signaling. In the second example, suppression of tumorigenicity 18 (ST18) was activated by a tumor-specific L1 insertion. Experimental assays confirmed that the L1 interrupted a negative feedback loop by blocking ST18 repression of its enhancer. ST18 was also frequently amplified in HCC nodules from Mdr2−/− mice, supporting its assignment as a candidate liver oncogene. These proof-of-principle results substantiate L1-mediated retrotransposition as an important etiological factor in HCC. PMID:23540693

  17. Oncogenicity of the developmental transcription factor Sox9

    PubMed Central

    Matheu, Ander; Collado, Manuel; Wise, Clare; Manterola, Lorea; Cekaite, Lina; Tye, Angela J.; Canamero, Marta; Bujanda, Luis; Schedl, Andreas; Cheah, Kathryn S.E.; Skotheim, Rolf I.; Lothe, Ragnhild A.; de Munain, Adolfo López; Briscoe, James; Serrano, Manuel; Lovell-Badge, Robin

    2012-01-01

    SOX9, a high mobility group (HMG) box transcription factor, plays critical roles during embryogenesis and its activity is required for development, differentiation and lineage commitment in various tissues including the intestinal epithelium. Here, we present functional and clinical data of a broadly important role for SOX9 in tumorigenesis. SOX9 was overexpressed in a wide range of human cancers, where its expression correlated with malignant character and progression. Gain of SOX9 copy number is detected in some primary colorectal cancers. SOX9 exhibited several pro-oncogenic properties, including the ability to promote proliferation, inhibit senescence and collaborate with other oncogenes in neoplastic transformation. In primary MEFs and colorectal cancer cells, SOX9 expression facilitated tumor growth and progression whilst its inactivation reduced tumorigenicity. Mechanistically, we have found that Sox9 directly binds and activates the promoter of the polycomb protein Bmi1, whose upregulation represses the tumor suppressor Ink4a/Arf locus. In agreement with this, human colorectal cancers showed a positive correlation between expression levels of SOX9 and BMI1 and a negative correlation between SOX9 and ARF in clinical samples. Taken together, our findings provide direct mechanistic evidence of the involvement of SOX9 in neoplastic pathobiology, particularly in colorectal cancer. PMID:22246670

  18. Association of oncogenic and nononcogenic human papillomavirus with HIV incidence

    PubMed Central

    Auvert, Bertran; Lissouba, Pascale; Cutler, Ewalde; Zarca, Kevin; Puren, Adrian; Taljaard, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Objective Little is known about the interaction between HPV and HIV. This study aimed to explore the association of oncogenic (HR) and non oncogenic (LR) human papillomavirus (HPV) with HIV incidence. Methods We used urethral swabs collected at the last follow-up visit of a male circumcision trial conducted in Orange Farm (South Africa). Swabs analyses and HPV genotyping were performed by polymerase chain reaction. We estimated HIV adjusted incidence rate ratios (aIRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using survival analysis. Background characteristics, male circumcision status, sexual behavior, HPV status and other sexually transmitted infections were used as covariates. Results The prevalence of HR and LR HPV was 14.0% (95%CI: 12.4 to 15.7) and 17.3% (95%CI: 15.6 to 19.2), respectively. When controlling for HR-HPV status, LR-HPV status was not associated with HIV incidence (aIRR = 1.13, 95%CI: 0.40 to 3.16; P = 0.82). When controlling for all covariates, HIV incidence increased significantly with HR-HPV positivity (aIRR=3.76, 95%CI: 1.83 to 7.73, P < 0.001) and with the number of HR-HPV genotypes (adjusted-P linear trend = 0.0074). Conclusions Several explanations could account for our findings. One is that HR-HPV facilitates HIV acquisition. The association of HPV with HIV acquisition requires further investigations. PMID:19779357

  19. CCAT1: an oncogenic long noncoding RNA in human cancers.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoqiang; Hua, Yuming

    2017-04-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a new class of noncoding RNAs that participate in a variety of biological processes such as cell proliferation, cell cycle, differentiation and apoptosis, mainly by regulation of gene expression at various levels, including chromatin, splicing, transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. CCAT1 is a recently identified oncogenic lncRNA, which has been reported to be consistently upregulated in multiple cancer tissues and closely correlated with initiation and progression of cancers. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of various roles of CCAT1 in human cancers. We searched studies in electronic databases. Studies have shown the high expression pattern and oncogenic role of CCAT1 in different types of cancer, and aberrant expression of CCAT1 is involved in several processes correlated with carcinogenesis such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion by regulating different target genes and pathways. LncRNA CCAT1 promises to be a novel diagnostic biomarker, therapeutic target, as well as prognostic biomarker in human cancers.

  20. Extrachromosomal oncogene amplification drives tumour evolution and genetic heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Turner, Kristen M; Deshpande, Viraj; Beyter, Doruk; Koga, Tomoyuki; Rusert, Jessica; Lee, Catherine; Li, Bin; Arden, Karen; Ren, Bing; Nathanson, David A; Kornblum, Harley I; Taylor, Michael D; Kaushal, Sharmeela; Cavenee, Webster K; Wechsler-Reya, Robert; Furnari, Frank B; Vandenberg, Scott R; Rao, P Nagesh; Wahl, Geoffrey M; Bafna, Vineet; Mischel, Paul S

    2017-03-02

    Human cells have twenty-three pairs of chromosomes. In cancer, however, genes can be amplified in chromosomes or in circular extrachromosomal DNA (ecDNA), although the frequency and functional importance of ecDNA are not understood. We performed whole-genome sequencing, structural modelling and cytogenetic analyses of 17 different cancer types, including analysis of the structure and function of chromosomes during metaphase of 2,572 dividing cells, and developed a software package called ECdetect to conduct unbiased, integrated ecDNA detection and analysis. Here we show that ecDNA was found in nearly half of human cancers; its frequency varied by tumour type, but it was almost never found in normal cells. Driver oncogenes were amplified most commonly in ecDNA, thereby increasing transcript level. Mathematical modelling predicted that ecDNA amplification would increase oncogene copy number and intratumoural heterogeneity more effectively than chromosomal amplification. We validated these predictions by quantitative analyses of cancer samples. The results presented here suggest that ecDNA contributes to accelerated evolution in cancer.

  1. Insulator dysfunction and oncogene activation in IDH mutant gliomas.

    PubMed

    Flavahan, William A; Drier, Yotam; Liau, Brian B; Gillespie, Shawn M; Venteicher, Andrew S; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat O; Suvà, Mario L; Bernstein, Bradley E

    2016-01-07

    Gain-of-function IDH mutations are initiating events that define major clinical and prognostic classes of gliomas. Mutant IDH protein produces a new onco-metabolite, 2-hydroxyglutarate, which interferes with iron-dependent hydroxylases, including the TET family of 5'-methylcytosine hydroxylases. TET enzymes catalyse a key step in the removal of DNA methylation. IDH mutant gliomas thus manifest a CpG island methylator phenotype (G-CIMP), although the functional importance of this altered epigenetic state remains unclear. Here we show that human IDH mutant gliomas exhibit hypermethylation at cohesin and CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-binding sites, compromising binding of this methylation-sensitive insulator protein. Reduced CTCF binding is associated with loss of insulation between topological domains and aberrant gene activation. We specifically demonstrate that loss of CTCF at a domain boundary permits a constitutive enhancer to interact aberrantly with the receptor tyrosine kinase gene PDGFRA, a prominent glioma oncogene. Treatment of IDH mutant gliomaspheres with a demethylating agent partially restores insulator function and downregulates PDGFRA. Conversely, CRISPR-mediated disruption of the CTCF motif in IDH wild-type gliomaspheres upregulates PDGFRA and increases proliferation. Our study suggests that IDH mutations promote gliomagenesis by disrupting chromosomal topology and allowing aberrant regulatory interactions that induce oncogene expression.

  2. Expression of hpttg proto-oncogene in lymphoid neoplasias.

    PubMed

    Sáez, Carmen; Pereda, Teresa; Borrero, Juan J; Espina, Agueda; Romero, Francisco; Tortolero, María; Pintor-Toro, José A; Segura, Dolores I; Japón, Miguel A

    2002-11-21

    Pituitary tumor-transforming gene (pttg) is a distinct proto-oncogene which is expressed in certain normal tissues with high proliferation rate and in a variety of tumors. PTTG is the vertebrate analog of yeast securins Pds1 and Cut2 with a key role in the regulation of sister chromatid separation during mitosis. Impairment of PTTG regulated functions is expected to lead to chromosomal instability and aneuploidy. Human pttg (hpttg) is abundantly expressed in Jurkat T lymphoblastic lymphoma cells but not in normal peripheral blood leukocytes. To obtain additional data on the potential role of hpttg in lymphomagenesis we selected 150 cases of lymphoid tumors for the assessment of hpttg expression in tumor tissues. Immunohistochemical studies on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues revealed hPTTG in 38.8% of B-cell lymphomas, 70.2% of T-cell lymphomas, and 73.1% of Hodgkin's lymphomas. Among B-cell lymphomas, the most frequently immunostained tumors were plasma cell tumors, diffuse large cell lymphomas, and follicle center cell lymphomas. In Hodgkin's disease, immunoreactivity was mainly noted in Reed-Sternberg cells. In conclusion, the frequent overexpression of hpttg in many histological subtypes of lymphoma suggests the involvement of this proto-oncogene in lymphomagenesis.

  3. Early regulation of membrane excitability by ras oncogene proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Collin, C; Papageorge, A G; Sakakibara, M; Huddie, P L; Lowy, D R; Alkon, D L

    1990-01-01

    Two electrode voltage clamp conditions were used to study the early effects on ionic membrane channels of the intracellularly injected proto-oncogenic form of c-Ha-ras (c-ras) and its oncogenic counterpart v-Ha-ras (v-ras). These experiments were conducted on isolated somata of identified fully differentiated neurons of the sea snail Hermissenda. 20 min after c-ras, and 10 min after v-ras intracellular injections into type B medial photoreceptors of Hermissenda, the peak amplitude of two outward potassium currents (IA and IC), across the isolated Type B soma membrane begin to decrease. These two currents have been previously isolated by differences in activation and inactivation kinetics and their response to pharmacological blockers. c- or v-ras injections did not have any effect on a voltage-dependent inward calcium current. Reduction of IA preceded that of IC. Current reductions due to c-ras, but not to v-ras injection reversed spontaneously after 40 min. The voltage dependence of the steady state inactivation of IA shifted toward more negative potentials with ras injections. Ras-mediated cell transformations therefore, could involve, perhaps as initial events, prolonged modification of membrane currents. PMID:2207264

  4. Oncogenic mechanisms of HOXB13 missense mutations in prostate carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Marta; Maia, Sofia; Paulo, Paula; Teixeira, Manuel R.

    2016-01-01

    The recurrent germline mutation HOXB13 p.(Gly84Glu) (G84E) has recently been identified as a risk factor for prostate cancer. In a recent study, we have performed full sequencing of the HOXB13 gene in 462 Portuguese prostate cancer patients with early-onset and/or familial/hereditary disease, and identified two novel missense mutations, p.(Ala128Asp) (A128D) and p.(Phe240Leu) (F240L), that were predicted to be damaging to protein function. In the present work we aimed to investigate the potential oncogenic role of these mutations, comparing to that of the recurrent G84E mutation and wild-type HOXB13. We induced site-directed mutagenesis in a HOXB13 expression vector and established in vitro cell models of prostate carcinogenesis with stable overexpression of either the wild-type or the mutated HOXB13 variants. By performing in vitro assays we observed that, while the wild-type promotes proliferation, also observed with the F240L variant along with a decrease in apoptosis, the A128D mutation decreases apoptosis and promotes anchorage independent growth. No phenotypic impact was observed for the G84E mutation in the cell line model used. Our data show that specific HOXB13 mutations are involved in the acquisition of different cancer-associated capabilities and further support an oncogenic role for HOXB13 in prostate carcinogenesis. PMID:28050579

  5. Oncogenic programmes and Notch activity: an 'organized crime'?

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Maria

    2014-04-01

    The inappropriate Notch signalling can influence virtually all aspect of cancer, including tumour-cell growth, survival, apoptosis, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis, although it does not do this alone. Hence, elucidating the partners of Notch that are active in cancer is now the focus of much intense research activity. The genetic toolkits available, coupled to the small size and short life of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, makes this an inexpensive and effective animal model, suited to large-scale cancer gene discovery studies. The fly eye is not only a non-vital organ but its stereotyped size and disposition also means it is easy to screen for mutations that cause tumours and metastases and provides ample opportunities to test cancer theories and to unravel unanticipated nexus between Notch and other cancer genes, or to discover unforeseen Notch's partners in cancer. These studies suggest that Notch's oncogenic capacity is brought about not simply by increasing signal strength but through partnerships, whereby oncogenes gain more by cooperating than acting individually, as in a ring 'organized crime'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Artemin promotes oncogenicity, metastasis and drug resistance in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hezam, Kamal; Jiang, Jiahao; Sun, Fumou; Zhang, Xinrong; Zhang, Juan

    2017-09-22

    Artemin (ARTN) is a member of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family of ligands, and its signaling is mediated via a multi-component receptor complex including the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored GDNF family receptors a (GFRa1, GFRa3) and RET receptor tyrosine kinase. The major mechanism of ARTN action is via binding to a non-signaling co-receptor. The major function of ARTN is to drive the molecule to induce migration and axonal projection from sympathetic neurons. It also promotes the survival, proliferation and neurite outgrowth of sympathetic neurons in vitro. ARTN triggers oncogenicity and metastasis by the activation of the AKT signaling pathway. Recent studies have reported that the expression of ARTN in hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with increased tumor size, quick relapse and shorter survival. Furthermore, ARTN promotes drug resistance such as antiestrogens, doxorubicin, fulvestrant, paclitaxel, tamoxifen and trastuzumab. Moreover, ARTN also stimulates the radio-therapeutic resistance. This review highlights the proposed roles of ARTN in cancer cells and discusses recent results supporting its emerging role as an oncogenic, metastatic and drug-resisting agent with a special focus on how these new insights may facilitate rational development of ARTN for targeted therapies in the future.

  7. mTOR links oncogenic signaling to tumor cell metabolism.

    PubMed

    Yecies, Jessica L; Manning, Brendan D

    2011-03-01

    As a key regulator of cell growth and proliferation, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) has been the subject of intense investigation for its role in tumor development and progression. This research has revealed a signaling network of oncogenes and tumor suppressors lying upstream of mTORC1, and oncogenic perturbations to this network result in the aberrant activation of this kinase complex in the majority of human cancers. However, the molecular events downstream of mTORC1 contributing to tumor cell growth and proliferation are just coming to light. In addition to its better-known functions in promoting protein synthesis and suppressing autophagy, mTORC1 has emerged as a key regulator of cellular metabolism. Recent studies have found that mTORC1 activation is sufficient to stimulate an increase in glucose uptake, glycolysis, and de novo lipid biosynthesis, which are considered metabolic hallmarks of cancer, as well as the pentose phosphate pathway. Here, we focus on the molecular mechanisms of metabolic regulation by mTORC1 and the potential consequences for anabolic tumor growth and therapeutic strategies.

  8. Proteogenomic analysis reveals exosomes are more oncogenic than ectosomes

    PubMed Central

    Liem, Michael; Fonseka, Pamali; Atukorala, Ishara; Ozcitti, Cemil; Mechler, Adam; Adda, Christopher G.; Ang, Ching-Seng; Mathivanan, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) include the exosomes (30-100 nm) that are produced through the endocytic pathway via the multivesicular bodies and the ectosomes (100-1000 nm) that are released through the budding of the plasma membrane. Despite the differences in the mode of biogenesis and size, reliable markers that can distinguish between exosomes and ectosomes are non-existent. Moreover, the precise functional differences between exosomes and ectosomes remains poorly characterised. Here, using label-free quantitative proteomics, we highlight proteins that could be exploited as markers to discriminate between exosomes and ectosomes. For the first time, a global proteogenomics analysis unveiled the secretion of mutant proteins that are implicated in cancer progression through tumor-derived EVs. Follow up integrated bioinformatics analysis highlighted the enrichment of oncogenic cargo in exosomes and ectosomes. Interestingly, exosomes induced significant cell proliferation and migration in recipient cells compared to ectosomes confirming the oncogenic nature of exosomes. These findings ascertain that cancer cells facilitate oncogenesis by the secretion of mutant and oncoproteins into the tumor microenvironment via exosomes and ectosomes. The integrative proteogenomics approach utilized in this study has the potential to identify disease biomarker candidates which can be later assayed in liquid biopsies obtained from cancer patients. PMID:25944692

  9. Proteogenomic analysis reveals exosomes are more oncogenic than ectosomes.

    PubMed

    Keerthikumar, Shivakumar; Gangoda, Lahiru; Liem, Michael; Fonseka, Pamali; Atukorala, Ishara; Ozcitti, Cemil; Mechler, Adam; Adda, Christopher G; Ang, Ching-Seng; Mathivanan, Suresh

    2015-06-20

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) include the exosomes (30-100 nm) that are produced through the endocytic pathway via the multivesicular bodies and the ectosomes (100-1000 nm) that are released through the budding of the plasma membrane. Despite the differences in the mode of biogenesis and size, reliable markers that can distinguish between exosomes and ectosomes are non-existent. Moreover, the precise functional differences between exosomes and ectosomes remains poorly characterised. Here, using label-free quantitative proteomics, we highlight proteins that could be exploited as markers to discriminate between exosomes and ectosomes. For the first time, a global proteogenomics analysis unveiled the secretion of mutant proteins that are implicated in cancer progression through tumor-derived EVs. Follow up integrated bioinformatics analysis highlighted the enrichment of oncogenic cargo in exosomes and ectosomes. Interestingly, exosomes induced significant cell proliferation and migration in recipient cells compared to ectosomes confirming the oncogenic nature of exosomes. These findings ascertain that cancer cells facilitate oncogenesis by the secretion of mutant and oncoproteins into the tumor microenvironment via exosomes and ectosomes. The integrative proteogenomics approach utilized in this study has the potential to identify disease biomarker candidates which can be later assayed in liquid biopsies obtained from cancer patients.

  10. Oncogenes Activate an Autonomous Transcriptional Regulatory Circuit That Drives Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dinesh K; Kollipara, Rahul K; Vemireddy, Vamsidara; Yang, Xiao-Li; Sun, Yuxiao; Regmi, Nanda; Klingler, Stefan; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J; Raisanen, Jack; Cho, Steve K; Sirasanagandla, Shyam; Nannepaga, Suraj; Piccirillo, Sara; Mashimo, Tomoyuki; Wang, Shan; Humphries, Caroline G; Mickey, Bruce; Maher, Elizabeth A; Zheng, Hongwu; Kim, Ryung S; Kittler, Ralf; Bachoo, Robert M

    2017-01-24

    Efforts to identify and target glioblastoma (GBM) drivers have primarily focused on receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Clinical benefits, however, have been elusive. Here, we identify an SRY-related box 2 (SOX2) transcriptional regulatory network that is independent of upstream RTKs and capable of driving glioma-initiating cells. We identified oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2 (OLIG2) and zinc-finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1), which are frequently co-expressed irrespective of driver mutations, as potential SOX2 targets. In murine glioma models, we show that different combinations of tumor suppressor and oncogene mutations can activate Sox2, Olig2, and Zeb1 expression. We demonstrate that ectopic co-expression of the three transcription factors can transform tumor-suppressor-deficient astrocytes into glioma-initiating cells in the absence of an upstream RTK oncogene. Finally, we demonstrate that the transcriptional inhibitor mithramycin downregulates SOX2 and its target genes, resulting in markedly reduced proliferation of GBM cells in vivo.

  11. Secreted primary human malignant mesothelioma exosome signature reflects oncogenic cargo

    PubMed Central

    Greening, David W.; Ji, Hong; Chen, Maoshan; Robinson, Bruce W. S.; Dick, Ian M.; Creaney, Jenette; Simpson, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a highly-aggressive heterogeneous malignancy, typically diagnosed at advanced stage. An important area of mesothelioma biology and progression is understanding intercellular communication and the contribution of the secretome. Exosomes are secreted extracellular vesicles shown to shuttle cellular cargo and direct intercellular communication in the tumour microenvironment, facilitate immunoregulation and metastasis. In this study, quantitative proteomics was used to investigate MM-derived exosomes from distinct human models and identify select cargo protein networks associated with angiogenesis, metastasis, and immunoregulation. Utilising bioinformatics pathway/network analyses, and correlation with previous studies on tumour exosomes, we defined a select mesothelioma exosomal signature (mEXOS, 570 proteins) enriched in tumour antigens and various cancer-specific signalling (HPGD/ENO1/OSMR) and secreted modulators (FN1/ITLN1/MAMDC2/PDGFD/GBP1). Notably, such circulating cargo offers unique insights into mesothelioma progression and tumour microenvironment reprogramming. Functionally, we demonstrate that oncogenic exosomes facilitate the migratory capacity of fibroblast/endothelial cells, supporting the systematic model of MM progression associated with vascular remodelling and angiogenesis. We provide biophysical and proteomic characterisation of exosomes, define a unique oncogenic signature (mEXOS), and demonstrate the regulatory capacity of exosomes in cell migration/tube formation assays. These findings contribute to understanding tumour-stromal crosstalk in the context of MM, and potential new diagnostic and therapeutic extracellular targets. PMID:27605433

  12. [Nature of cancer explored from the perspective of the functional evolution of proto-oncogenes].

    PubMed

    Watari, Akihiro

    2012-01-01

    The products of proto-oncogene play critical roles in the development or maintenance of multicellular societies in animals via strict regulatory systems. When these regulatory systems are disrupted, proto-oncogenes can become oncogenes, and thereby induce cell transformation and carcinogenesis. To understand the molecular basis for development of the regulatory system of proto-oncogenes during evolution, we screened for ancestral proto-oncogenes from the unicellular choanoflagellate Monosiga ovata (M. ovata) by monitoring their transforming ability in mammalian cells; consequently, we isolated a Pak gene ortholog, which encodes a serine/threonine kinase as a 'primitive oncogene'. We also cloned Pak orthologs from fungi and the multicellular sponge Ephydatia fluviatilis, and compared their regulatory features with that of M. ovata Pak (MoPak). MoPak is constitutively active and induces cell transformation in mammalian cells. In contrast, Pak orthologs from multicellular animals are strictly regulated. Analyses of Pak mutants revealed that structural alterations in the auto-inhibitory domain (AID) are responsible for the enhanced kinase activity and the oncogenic activity of MoPak. Furthermore, we show that Rho family GTPases-mediated regulatory system of Pak kinase is conserved throughout the evolution from unicellular to multicellular animals, but the MoPak is more sensitive to the Rho family GTPases-mediated activation than multicellular Pak. These results show that maturation of AID function was required for the development of the strict regulatory system of the Pak proto-oncogene, and support the potential link between the development of the regulatory system of proto-oncogenes and the evolution of multicellularity. Further analysis of oncogenic functions of proto-oncogene orthologs in the unicellular genes would provide some insights into the mechanisms of the destruction of multicellular society in cancer.

  13. Prediction of oncogenic interactions and cancer-related signaling networks based on network topology.

    PubMed

    Acencio, Marcio Luis; Bovolenta, Luiz Augusto; Camilo, Esther; Lemke, Ney

    2013-01-01

    Cancer has been increasingly recognized as a systems biology disease since many investigators have demonstrated that this malignant phenotype emerges from abnormal protein-protein, regulatory and metabolic interactions induced by simultaneous structural and regulatory changes in multiple genes and pathways. Therefore, the identification of oncogenic interactions and cancer-related signaling networks is crucial for better understanding cancer. As experimental techniques for determining such interactions and signaling networks are labor-intensive and time-consuming, the development of a computational approach capable to accomplish this task would be of great value. For this purpose, we present here a novel computational approach based on network topology and machine learning capable to predict oncogenic interactions and extract relevant cancer-related signaling subnetworks from an integrated network of human genes interactions (INHGI). This approach, called graph2sig, is twofold: first, it assigns oncogenic scores to all interactions in the INHGI and then these oncogenic scores are used as edge weights to extract oncogenic signaling subnetworks from INHGI. Regarding the prediction of oncogenic interactions, we showed that graph2sig is able to recover 89% of known oncogenic interactions with a precision of 77%. Moreover, the interactions that received high oncogenic scores are enriched in genes for which mutations have been causally implicated in cancer. We also demonstrated that graph2sig is potentially useful in extracting oncogenic signaling subnetworks: more than 80% of constructed subnetworks contain more than 50% of original interactions in their corresponding oncogenic linear pathways present in the KEGG PATHWAY database. In addition, the potential oncogenic signaling subnetworks discovered by graph2sig are supported by experimental evidence. Taken together, these results suggest that graph2sig can be a useful tool for investigators involved in cancer research

  14. Three dimensional structure of the transmembrane region of the proto-oncogenic and oncogenic forms of the neu protein.

    PubMed Central

    Gullick, W J; Bottomley, A C; Lofts, F J; Doak, D G; Mulvey, D; Newman, R; Crumpton, M J; Sternberg, M J; Campbell, I D

    1992-01-01

    The neu proto-oncogene may be converted into a dominantly transforming oncogene by a single point mutation. Substitution of a valine residue at position 664 in the transmembrane region with glutamic acid activates the tyrosine kinase of the molecule and is associated with increased receptor dimerization. Previously we have proposed a model in which the glutamic acid side chain stabilizes receptor dimerization by hydrogen bonding. Other models have been proposed in which the mutation leads to a conformational change in the transmembrane region mimicking that assumed to occur following binding of a natural ligand. Synthetic peptides representing part of the transmembrane region were prepared. Some residues were replaced with serine in order to improve peptide solubility to allow purification and analysis. Both the peptides containing valine and glutamic acid dissolved in water and in an artificial lipid monolayer. The structures of the peptides were determined by NMR spectroscopy to be alpha-helical. No significant difference in conformation was observed between the two peptides. This result does not support the model proposing a conformational change. The receptor structures determined experimentally do allow alternative models involving receptor transmembrane region packing. Images PMID:1346763

  15. The cyclin D1-CDK4 oncogenic interactome enables identification of potential novel oncogenes and clinical prognosis.

    PubMed

    Jirawatnotai, Siwanon; Sharma, Samanta; Michowski, Wojciech; Suktitipat, Bhoom; Geng, Yan; Quackenbush, John; Elias, Joshua E; Gygi, Steven P; Wang, Yaoyu E; Sicinski, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Overexpression of cyclin D1 and its catalytic partner, CDK4, is frequently seen in human cancers. We constructed cyclin D1 and CDK4 protein interaction network in a human breast cancer cell line MCF7, and identified novel CDK4 protein partners. Among CDK4 interactors we observed several proteins functioning in protein folding and in complex assembly. One of the novel partners of CDK4 is FKBP5, which we found to be required to maintain CDK4 levels in cancer cells. An integrative analysis of the extended cyclin D1 cancer interactome and somatic copy number alterations in human cancers identified BAIAPL21 as a potential novel human oncogene. We observed that in several human tumor types BAIAPL21 is expressed at higher levels as compared to normal tissue. Forced overexpression of BAIAPL21 augmented anchorage independent growth, increased colony formation by cancer cells and strongly enhanced the ability of cells to form tumors in vivo. Lastly, we derived an Aggregate Expression Score (AES), which quantifies the expression of all cyclin D1 interactors in a given tumor. We observed that AES has a prognostic value among patients with ER-positive breast cancers. These studies illustrate the utility of analyzing the interactomes of proteins involved in cancer to uncover potential oncogenes, or to allow better cancer prognosis.

  16. Cell Penetrating Bispecific Antibodies for Targeting Oncogenic Transcription Factors in Advanced Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    Cancer REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average...Bispecific Antibodies for Targeting Oncogenic Transcription Factors in Advanced Prostate Cancer Michael Lilly, MD Richard Weisbart, MD Medical...0534, entitled Cell- penetrating bispecific antibodies for targeting oncogenic transcription factors in advanced prostate cancer . The research is a

  17. Herpesvirus saimiri strains from three DNA subgroups have different oncogenic potentials in New Zealand white rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Medveczky, M M; Szomolanyi, E; Hesselton, R; DeGrand, D; Geck, P; Medveczky, P G

    1989-01-01

    Herpesvirus saimiri is a primate tumor virus that induces acute T-cell lymphomas in New World monkeys. Strains of this virus have been previously classified into three groups on the basis of extreme DNA variability of the rightmost region of unique L-DNA. To compare the oncogenic potentials of various strains, we inoculated New Zealand White rabbits with viruses representing groups A, B, and C of herpesvirus saimiri. The results showed that a group C strain were highly oncogenic in New Zealand White rabbits; however, group A or B viruses were not oncogenic in these rabbits. Analysis of DNAs of tumor tissues and lymphoid cell lines established from tumors showed that the viral genome exists in circular episomal form. To identify which part of the genome of the group C strain is responsible for the highly oncogenic phenotype, group B-C recombinant strains were constructed by an efficient drug selection technique. Two group B recombinant strains in which the right-end 9.2 kilobase pairs of unique DNA is replaced by group C virus DNA were oncogenic in rabbits, indicating that the rightmost sequences contribute to the oncogenic properties of the group C strain. Oncogenicity of herpesvirus saimiri has been traditionally evaluated in New World monkeys; infection of rabbits with group C strain 484-77 offers a much more accessible animal model to study the mechanism of oncogenicity of this virus. Images PMID:2547988

  18. Can anti-tumor immunity help to explain “oncogene addiction”?

    PubMed Central

    Restifo, Nicholas P.

    2010-01-01

    Summary “Oncogene addiction” refers to the process of tumor cell death that can occur after inactivation of a single oncogene. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Rakhra, et al. argue that complete tumor clearance after molecular targeted therapies requires a functioning immune system, pointing the way toward radically new combination therapies. PMID:21075303

  19. Antibody targeting intracellular oncogenic Ras mutants exerts anti-tumour effects after systemic administration

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Seung-Min; Choi, Dong-Ki; Jung, Keunok; Bae, Jeomil; Kim, Ji-sun; Park, Seong-wook; Song, Ki-Hoon; Kim, Yong-Sung

    2017-01-01

    Oncogenic Ras mutants, frequently detected in human cancers, are high-priority anticancer drug targets. However, direct inhibition of oncogenic Ras mutants with small molecules has been extremely challenging. Here we report the development of a human IgG1 format antibody, RT11, which internalizes into the cytosol of living cells and selectively binds to the activated GTP-bound form of various oncogenic Ras mutants to block the interactions with effector proteins, thereby suppressing downstream signalling and exerting anti-proliferative effects in a variety of tumour cells harbouring oncogenic Ras mutants. When systemically administered, an RT11 variant with an additional tumour-associated integrin binding moiety for tumour tissue targeting significantly inhibits the in vivo growth of oncogenic Ras-mutated tumour xenografts in mice, but not wild-type Ras-harbouring tumours. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of developing therapeutic antibodies for direct targeting of cytosolic proteins that are inaccessible using current antibody technology. PMID:28489072

  20. RET oncogene in MEN2, MEN2B, MTC and other forms of thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Lodish, Maya B; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2008-04-01

    Hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is caused by specific autosomal dominant gain-of-function mutations in the RET proto-oncogene. Genotype-phenotype correlations exist that help predict the presence of other associated endocrine neoplasms as well as the timing of thyroid cancer development. MTC represents a promising model for targeted cancer therapy, as the oncogenic event responsible for initiating malignancy has been well characterized. The RET proto-oncogene has become the target for molecularly designed drug therapy. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting activated RET are currently in clinical trials for the treatment of patients with MTC. This review will provide a brief overview of MTC and the associated RET oncogenic mutations, and will summarize the therapies designed to strategically interfere with the pathologic activation of the RET oncogene.

  1. TRKing down an old oncogene in a new era of targeted therapy

    PubMed Central

    Vaishnavi, Aria; Le, Anh; Doebele, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    The employment of high-throughput next-generation sequencing techniques in multiple tumor types during the last few years has identified NTRK1, 2, and 3 gene rearrangements encoding novel oncogenic fusions in 19 different tumor types to date. These recent developments have led us to revisit an old oncogene, Trk, (originally identified as OncD), which encodes the TPM3-NTRK1 gene fusion and was one of the first transforming chromosomal rearrangements identified 32 years ago. However, no drug has yet been approved by the US FDA for cancers harboring this oncogene. This review will discuss the biology of the Trk family of receptors, their role in human cancer, the types of oncogenic alterations, and drugs that are currently in development for this family of oncogene targets. PMID:25527197

  2. A Mouse Model of Uterine Leiomyosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Politi, Katerina; Szabolcs, Matthias; Fisher, Peter; Kljuic, Ana; Ludwig, Thomas; Efstratiadis, Argiris

    2004-01-01

    We are using an approach that is based on the cre/loxP recombination process and involves a binary system of Cre-producing and Cre-responding transgenic mice to achieve ubiquitous or tissue-specific expression of oncoproteins. To develop mouse models of tumorigenesis, Cre-producers are mated with responder animals carrying a dormant oncogene targeted into the 3′ untranslated region of the locus encoding cytoplasmic β-actin (actin cassette). Production of oncoprotein from a bicistronic message is accomplished in bitransgenic progeny by Cre-mediated excision of a segment flanked by loxP sites that is located upstream from the oncogenic sequence. Widespread Cre-dependent activation and expression of an actin-cassette transgene encoding the T antigens of the SV40 early region (SVER) commencing in embryos was compatible with normal development and did not impair viability. However, at ∼3 months of age, all female animals developed massive uterine leiomyosarcomas, whereas practically all males exhibited enormously enlarged seminal vesicles because of pronounced hyperplasia of the smooth muscle layers. In addition, because of smooth muscle hyperproliferation, marked dilation of the gallbladder was observed in mice of both sexes. To begin exploring aberrant signaling events in the SVER-triggered tumorigenic pathways, we analyzed the expression profile of leiomyosarcomas by DNA microarray analysis. PMID:14695345

  3. Structural Effects of Oncogenic PI3K alpha Mutations

    SciTech Connect

    S Gabelli; C Huang; D Mandelker; O Schmidt-Kittler; B Vogelstein; L Amzel

    2011-12-31

    Physiological activation of PI3K{alpha} is brought about by the release of the inhibition by p85 when the nSH2 binds the phosphorylated tyrosine of activated receptors or their substrates. Oncogenic mutations of PI3K{alpha} result in a constitutively activated enzyme that triggers downstream pathways that increase tumor aggressiveness and survival. Structural information suggests that some mutations also activate the enzyme by releasing p85 inhibition. Other mutations work by different mechanisms. For example, the most common mutation, His1047Arg, causes a conformational change that increases membrane association resulting in greater accessibility to the substrate, an integral membrane component. These effects are examples of the subtle structural changes that result in increased activity. The structures of these and other mutants are providing the basis for the design of isozyme-specific, mutation-specific inhibitors for individualized cancer therapies.

  4. Viral subversion of autophagy impairs oncogene-induced senescence.

    PubMed

    Leidal, Andrew M; Lee, Patrick W K; McCormick, Craig

    2012-07-01

    Many viruses have evolved elegant strategies to co-opt cellular autophagic responses to facilitate viral propagation and evasion of immune surveillance. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) establishes a life-long persistent infection in its human host, and is etiologically linked to several cancers. KSHV gene products have been shown to modulate autophagy but their contribution to pathogenesis remains unclear. Our recent study demonstrated that KSHV subversion of autophagy promotes bypass of oncogene-induced senescence (OIS), an important host barrier to tumor initiation. These findings suggest that KSHV has evolved to subvert autophagy, at least in part, to establish an optimal niche for infection, concurrently dampening host antiviral defenses and allowing the ongoing proliferation of infected cells.

  5. Tumor-derived exosomes in oncogenic reprogramming and cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Sarmad N; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B

    2015-01-01

    In multicellular organisms, effective communication between cells is a crucial part of cellular and tissue homeostasis. This communication mainly involves direct cell-cell contact as well as the secretion of molecules that bind to receptors at the recipient cells. However, a more recently characterized mode of intercellular communication-the release of membrane vesicles known as exosomes-has been the subject of increasing interest and intensive research over the past decade. Following the discovery of the exosome-mediated immune activation, the pathophysiological roles of exosomes have been recognized in different diseases, including cancer. In this review, we describe the biogenesis and main physical characteristics that define exosomes as a specific population of secreted vesicles, with a special focus on their role in oncogenic transformation and cancer progression.

  6. Tumor-Derived Exosomes in Oncogenic Reprogramming and Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Sarmad N; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B

    2014-01-01

    In multicellular organisms, effective communication between cells is a crucial part of cellular and tissue homeostasis. This communication mainly involves direct cell–cell contact as well as the secretion of molecules that bind to receptors at the recipient cells. However, a more recently characterized mode of intercellular communication — the release of membrane vesicles known as exosomes — has been the subject of increasing interest and intensive research over the past decade. Following the discovery of the exosome-mediated immune activation, the pathophysiological roles of exosomes have been recognized in different diseases, including cancer. In this review, we describe the biogenesis and main physical characteristics that define exosomes as a specific population of secreted vesicles, with a special focus on their role in oncogenic transformation and cancer progression. PMID:25156068

  7. Induction of promyelocytic leukemia (PML) oncogenic domains (PODs) by papillomavirus

    SciTech Connect

    Nakahara, Tomomi; Lambert, Paul F.

    2007-09-30

    Promyelocytic leukemia oncogenic domains (PODs), also called nuclear domain 10 (ND10), are subnuclear structures that have been implicated in a variety of cellular processes as well as the life cycle of DNA viruses including papillomaviruses. In order to investigate the interplay between papillomaviruses and PODs, we analyzed the status of PODs in organotypic raft cultures of human keratinocytes harboring HPV genome that support the differentiation-dependent HPV life cycle. The number of PODs per nucleus was increased in the presence of HPV genomes selectively within the poorly differentiated layers but was absent in the terminally differentiated layers of the stratified epithelium. This increase in PODs was correlated with an increase in abundance of post-translationally modified PML protein. Neither the E2-dependent transcription nor viral DNA replication was reliant upon the presence of PML. Implications of these findings in terms of HPV's interaction with its host are discussed.

  8. Structural effects of oncogenic PI3Kα mutations.

    PubMed

    Gabelli, Sandra B; Huang, Chuan-Hsiang; Mandelker, Diana; Schmidt-Kittler, Oleg; Vogelstein, Bert; Amzel, L Mario

    2010-01-01

    Physiological activation of PI3Kα is brought about by the release of the inhibition by p85 when the nSH2 binds the phosphorylated tyrosine of activated receptors or their substrates. Oncogenic mutations of PI3Kα result in a constitutively activated enzyme that triggers downstream pathways that increase tumor aggressiveness and survival. Structural information suggests that some mutations also activate the enzyme by releasing p85 inhibition. Other mutations work by different mechanisms. For example, the most common mutation, His1047Arg, causes a conformational change that increases membrane association resulting in greater accessibility to the substrate, an integral membrane component. These effects are examples of the subtle structural changes that result in increased activity. The structures of these and other mutants are providing the basis for the design of isozyme-specific, mutation-specific inhibitors for individualized cancer therapies.

  9. Use of glycolytic pathways for inhibiting or measuring oncogenic signaling

    DOEpatents

    Onodera, Yasuhito; Bissell, Mina

    2017-06-27

    Disclosed are methods in which glucose metabolism is correlated to oncogenesis through certain specific pathways; inhibition of certain enzymes is shown to interfere with oncogenic signaling, and measurement of certain enzyme levels is correlated with patient survival. The present methods comprise measuring level of expression of at least one of the enzymes involved in glucose uptake or metabolism, wherein increased expression of the at least one of the enzymes relative to expression in a normal cell correlates with poor prognosis of disease in a patient. Preferably the genes whose expression level is measured include GLUT3, PFKP, GAPDH, ALDOC, LDHA and GFPT2. Also disclosed are embodiments directed towards downregulating the expression of some genes in glucose uptake and metabolism.

  10. Intrinsic Structural Disorder Confers Cellular Viability on Oncogenic Fusion Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hegyi, Hedi; Buday, László; Tompa, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations, which often generate chimeric proteins by fusing segments of two distinct genes, represent the single major genetic aberration leading to cancer. We suggest that the unifying theme of these events is a high level of intrinsic structural disorder, enabling fusion proteins to evade cellular surveillance mechanisms that eliminate misfolded proteins. Predictions in 406 translocation-related human proteins show that they are significantly enriched in disorder (43.3% vs. 20.7% in all human proteins), they have fewer Pfam domains, and their translocation breakpoints tend to avoid domain splitting. The vicinity of the breakpoint is significantly more disordered than the rest of these already highly disordered fusion proteins. In the unlikely event of domain splitting in fusion it usually spares much of the domain or splits at locations where the newly exposed hydrophobic surface area approximates that of an intact domain. The mechanisms of action of fusion proteins suggest that in most cases their structural disorder is also essential to the acquired oncogenic function, enabling the long-range structural communication of remote binding and/or catalytic elements. In this respect, there are three major mechanisms that contribute to generating an oncogenic signal: (i) a phosphorylation site and a tyrosine-kinase domain are fused, and structural disorder of the intervening region enables intramolecular phosphorylation (e.g., BCR-ABL); (ii) a dimerisation domain fuses with a tyrosine kinase domain and disorder enables the two subunits within the homodimer to engage in permanent intermolecular phosphorylations (e.g., TFG-ALK); (iii) the fusion of a DNA-binding element to a transactivator domain results in an aberrant transcription factor that causes severe misregulation of transcription (e.g. EWS-ATF). Our findings also suggest novel strategies of intervention against the ensuing neoplastic transformations. PMID:19888473

  11. Factors affecting responses to murine oncogenic viral infections.

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, J. J.; Rager-Zisman, B.; Wheelock, E. F.; Nevin, P. A.

    1980-01-01

    Silica specifically kills macrophages in vitro, and in vivo has been used as a method of determining the possible immunological or other roles of macrophages in a number of viral infections. In experiments reported here, injection of 30 or 50 mg silica i.p. increased the severity of the oncogenic effects of the murine sarcoma virus (MSV) and Friend virus (FV) in BALB/c mice. Unlike Herpes simplex and Coxsackie B-3 infections, however, passive transfer of adult macrophages to suckling mice did not protect the latter against MSV. In mice injected with silica, histological evidence of the compensatory proliferation of macrophages suggests that precursors of these cells may act as target cells for the virus and that this may override any immunosuppressive response effected by the silica. In addition, there was a considerable enhancing effect on the erythroproliferative response to both MSV and FV by injection of saline 5 h before the virus, and indeed to FV after only a simple abdominal needle puncture. We attributed this to the lymphopenic immunodepressive effects of stress, and our data may explain previously published findings of augmented oncogenic responses in mice after "normal" serum injections. Newborn BALB/c (FV-1b) mice were susceptible to N-tropic FV, but developed resistance by 29 days of age. Antithymocyte serum (ATS) but not silica injections or adult thymectomy ablated this resistance. C57BL (FV-2r) mice were completely resistant to FV; however, those receiving FV and ATS developed late-onset leukaemia histologically characteristic of that produced by the helper component of the FV complex. Images Fig. PMID:6248095

  12. “Hit-and-Run” Transformation by Adenovirus Oncogenes

    PubMed Central

    Nevels, Michael; Täuber, Birgitt; Spruss, Thilo; Wolf, Hans; Dobner, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    According to classical concepts of viral oncogenesis, the persistence of virus-specific oncogenes is required to maintain the transformed cellular phenotype. In contrast, the “hit-and-run” hypothesis claims that viruses can mediate cellular transformation through an initial “hit,” while maintenance of the transformed state is compatible with the loss (“run”) of viral molecules. It is well established that the adenovirus E1A and E1B gene products can cooperatively transform primary human and rodent cells to a tumorigenic phenotype and that these cells permanently express the viral oncogenes. Additionally, recent studies have shown that the adenovirus E4 region encodes two novel oncoproteins, the products of E4orf6 and E4orf3, which cooperate with the viral E1A proteins to transform primary rat cells in an E1B-like fashion. Unexpectedly, however, cells transformed by E1A and either E4orf6 or E4orf3 fail to express the viral E4 gene products, and only a subset contain E1A proteins. In fact, the majority of these cells lack E4- and E1A-specific DNA sequences, indicating that transformation occurred through a hit-and-run mechanism. We provide evidence that the unusual transforming activities of the adenoviral oncoproteins may be due to their mutagenic potential. Our results strongly support the possibility that even tumors that lack any detectable virus-specific molecules can be of viral origin, which could have a significant impact on the use of adenoviral vectors for gene therapy. PMID:11238835

  13. Pancreatitis promotes oncogenic KrasG12D-induced pancreatic transformation through activation of Nupr1

    PubMed Central

    Grasso, Daniel; Garcia, Maria Noé; Hamidi, Tewfik; Cano, Carla; Calvo, Ezequiel; Lomberk, Gwen; Urrutia, Raul; Iovanna, Juan L

    2014-01-01

    During the initiation stage of pancreatic adenocarcinoma induced by oncogenic Kras, pancreatic cells are exposed to both a protumoral effect and an opposing tumor suppressive process known as oncogene-induced senescence. Pancreatitis disrupts this balance in favor of the transforming effect of oncogenes by lowering the tumor suppressive threshold of oncogene-induced senescence through expression of the stress protein Nupr1. PMID:27308320

  14. c-Rel Regulates Inscuteable Gene Expression during Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation*

    PubMed Central

    Ishibashi, Riki; Kozuki, Satoshi; Kamakura, Sachiko; Sumimoto, Hideki; Toyoshima, Fumiko

    2016-01-01

    Inscuteable (Insc) regulates cell fate decisions in several types of stem cells. Although it is recognized that the expression levels of mouse INSC govern the balance between symmetric and asymmetric stem cell division, regulation of mouse Insc gene expression remains poorly understood. Here, we showed that mouse Insc expression transiently increases at an early stage of differentiation, when mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells differentiate into bipotent mesendoderm capable of producing both endoderm and mesoderm in defined culture conditions. We identified the minimum transcriptional regulatory element (354 bases) that drives mouse Insc transcription in mES cells within a region >5 kb upstream of the mouse Insc transcription start site. We found that the transcription factor reticuloendotheliosis oncogene (c-Rel) bound to the minimum element and promoted mouse Insc expression in mES cells. In addition, short interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of either mouse INSC or c-Rel protein decreased mesodermal cell populations without affecting differentiation into the mesendoderm or endoderm. Furthermore, overexpression of mouse INSC rescued the mesoderm-reduced phenotype induced by knockdown of c-Rel. We propose that regulation of mouse Insc expression by c-Rel modulates cell fate decisions during mES cell differentiation. PMID:26694615

  15. c-Rel Regulates Inscuteable Gene Expression during Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Riki; Kozuki, Satoshi; Kamakura, Sachiko; Sumimoto, Hideki; Toyoshima, Fumiko

    2016-02-12

    Inscuteable (Insc) regulates cell fate decisions in several types of stem cells. Although it is recognized that the expression levels of mouse INSC govern the balance between symmetric and asymmetric stem cell division, regulation of mouse Insc gene expression remains poorly understood. Here, we showed that mouse Insc expression transiently increases at an early stage of differentiation, when mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells differentiate into bipotent mesendoderm capable of producing both endoderm and mesoderm in defined culture conditions. We identified the minimum transcriptional regulatory element (354 bases) that drives mouse Insc transcription in mES cells within a region >5 kb upstream of the mouse Insc transcription start site. We found that the transcription factor reticuloendotheliosis oncogene (c-Rel) bound to the minimum element and promoted mouse Insc expression in mES cells. In addition, short interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of either mouse INSC or c-Rel protein decreased mesodermal cell populations without affecting differentiation into the mesendoderm or endoderm. Furthermore, overexpression of mouse INSC rescued the mesoderm-reduced phenotype induced by knockdown of c-Rel. We propose that regulation of mouse Insc expression by c-Rel modulates cell fate decisions during mES cell differentiation.

  16. AN ENZYMATIC FUNCTION ASSOCIATED WITH TRANSFORMATION OF FIBROBLASTS BY ONCOGENIC VIRUSES

    PubMed Central

    Ossowski, L.; Unkeless, J. C.; Tobia, A.; Quigley, J. P.; Rifkin, D. B.; Reich, E.

    1973-01-01

    Chick, hamster, mouse, and rat embryo fibroblast cultures, transformed by either DNA or RNA viruses, show fibrinolytic activity under suitable conditions of growth and in appropriate media; normal counterpart cultures do not. The fibrinolysin is produced by the interaction of two protein factors: one of these, a cell factor, is released by transformed cells and accumulates in the medium when cultures are incubated in the absence of scrum. The second factor, the serum factor, is a specific protein that is present in sera of many avian and mammalian species, including man. Not all sera yield fibrinolysin on interaction with any given transformed cell factor, and the spectrum of activating sera is distinctive for each cell factor. This pattern appears to be determined by the cell type, rather than by the transforming virus. An important role for the fibrinolysin in oncogenic transformation is suggested by the following correlations. (a) The initial appearance of fibrinolysin precedes the morphological change after the transfer to permissive temperatures of chick fibroblast cultures infected with a temperature-sensitive mutant of RSV. (b) The initiation of fibrinolysis and of morphological change both require the synthesis of new protein, but not the synthesis of either DNA or rRNA. (c) The activity of the fibrinolysin is correlated with the retention of abnormal morphology in hamster cells transformed by SV-40. (d) The sera of normal chicks effectively activate fibrinolysis with the cell factor from transformed chick cells. In contrast the sera of chicks with RSV tumors do not; these contain an inhibitor of the fibrinolytic activity. PMID:4347288

  17. Oncogenic microRNA-4534 regulates PTEN pathway in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Nip, Hannah; Dar, Altaf A; Saini, Sharanjot; Colden, Melissa; Varahram, Shahryari; Chowdhary, Harshika; Yamamura, Soichiro; Mitsui, Yozo; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Kato, Taku; Hashimoto, Yutaka; Shiina, Marisa; Kulkarni, Priyanka; Dasgupta, Pritha; Imai-Sumida, Mitsuho; Tabatabai, Z Laura; Greene, Kirsten; Deng, Guoren; Dahiya, Rajvir; Majid, Shahana

    2016-10-18

    Prostate carcinogenesis involves alterations in several signaling pathways, the most prominent being the PI3K/AKT pathway. This pathway is constitutively active and drives prostate cancer (PCa) progression to advanced metastatic disease. PTEN, a critical tumor and metastasis suppressor gene negatively regulates cell survival, proliferation, migration and angiogenesis via the PI3K/Akt pathway. PTEN is mutated, downregulated/dysfunctional in many cancers and its dysregulation correlates with poor prognosis in PCa. Here, we demonstrate that microRNA-4534 (miR-4534) is overexpressed in PCa and show that miR-4534 is hypermethylated in normal tissues and cell lines compared to PCa tissues/cells. miR-4534 exerts its oncogenic effects partly by downregulating the tumor suppressor PTEN gene. Knockdown of miR-4534 impaired cell proliferation, migration/invasion and induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in PCa. Suppression of miR-4534 and its effects on tumor growth was confirmed in a xenograft mouse model. We performed parallel experiments in non-cancer RWPE1 cells by overexpessing miR-4534 followed by functional assays. Overexpression of miR-4534 induced pro-cancerous characteristics in this non-cancer cell line. Statistical analyses revealed that miR-4534 has potential to independently distinguish malignant from normal tissues and positively correlated with poor overall and PSA recurrence free survival. Taken together, our results show that depletion of miR-4534 in PCa induces a tumor suppressor phenotype partly through induction of PTEN. These results have important implications for identifying and defining the role of new PTEN regulators such as microRNAs in prostate tumorigenesis. Understanding aberrantly overexpressed miR-4534 and its downregulation of PTEN will provide mechanistic insight and therapeutic targets for PCa therapy.

  18. Oncogenic microRNA-4534 regulates PTEN pathway in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nip, Hannah; Dar, Altaf A.; Saini, Sharanjot; Colden, Melissa; Varahram, Shahryari; Chowdhary, Harshika; Yamamura, Soichiro; Mitsui, Yozo; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Kato, Taku; Hashimoto, Yutaka; Shiina, Marisa; Kulkarni, Priyanka; Dasgupta, Pritha; Imai-Sumida, Mitsuho; Tabatabai, Z. Laura; Greene, Kirsten; Deng, Guoren; Dahiya, Rajvir; Majid, Shahana

    2016-01-01

    Prostate carcinogenesis involves alterations in several signaling pathways, the most prominent being the PI3K/AKT pathway. This pathway is constitutively active and drives prostate cancer (PCa) progression to advanced metastatic disease. PTEN, a critical tumor and metastasis suppressor gene negatively regulates cell survival, proliferation, migration and angiogenesis via the PI3K/Akt pathway. PTEN is mutated, downregulated/dysfunctional in many cancers and its dysregulation correlates with poor prognosis in PCa. Here, we demonstrate that microRNA-4534 (miR-4534) is overexpressed in PCa and show that miR-4534 is hypermethylated in normal tissues and cell lines compared to PCa tissues/cells. miR-4534 exerts its oncogenic effects partly by downregulating the tumor suppressor PTEN gene. Knockdown of miR-4534 impaired cell proliferation, migration/invasion and induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in PCa. Suppression of miR-4534 and its effects on tumor growth was confirmed in a xenograft mouse model. We performed parallel experiments in non-cancer RWPE1 cells by overexpessing miR-4534 followed by functional assays. Overexpression of miR-4534 induced pro-cancerous characteristics in this non-cancer cell line. Statistical analyses revealed that miR-4534 has potential to independently distinguish malignant from normal tissues and positively correlated with poor overall and PSA recurrence free survival. Taken together, our results show that depletion of miR-4534 in PCa induces a tumor suppressor phenotype partly through induction of PTEN. These results have important implications for identifying and defining the role of new PTEN regulators such as microRNAs in prostate tumorigenesis. Understanding aberrantly overexpressed miR-4534 and its downregulation of PTEN will provide mechanistic insight and therapeutic targets for PCa therapy. PMID:27634912

  19. Frequently rearranged in advanced T-cell lymphomas-1 demonstrates oncogenic properties in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Xiong, Hua; Zou, Yanmei; Xu, Sanpeng; Quan, Lanping; Yuan, Xianglin; Xu, Ningzhi; Wang, Yihua

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer-associated mortality for males worldwide. Although dysregulation of the β-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF) pathway has been previously reported in prostate cancer, the mechanisms underlying this process remain unknown. Frequently rearranged in advanced T-cell lymphomas-1 (FRAT1) functions as a positive regulator of the β-catenin/TCF signaling pathway. However, to the best of our knowledge, the molecular association between FRAT1 and the β-catenin/TCF pathway in prostate cancer has not been investigated. In the present study, FRAT1 expression was analyzed in normal prostate tissues and prostate adenocarcinoma samples using publicly available databases, a commercial tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry techniques. In addition, FRAT1 expression levels were altered by overexpression or RNA interference-mediated depletion in prostate cancer cells. The effects of FRAT1 expression on tumor growth were determined using cell growth curves in vitro and xenografts in nude mice in vivo. The effects of FRAT1 on β-catenin/TCF activity were measured using the TOPFLASH reporter assay. FRAT1 was expressed exclusively in the nuclei of normal prostate basal cells, and nuclear FRAT1 was detected in 68% (40/59) of prostate adenocarcinoma samples. In addition, FRAT1 activated the TCF luciferase reporter gene promoter in prostate cancer cells, and was observed to promote the growth of prostate cancer cells in vitro. Furthermore, FRAT1 expression was sufficient to transform NIH3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cells and lead to tumor formation in vivo. These results suggest that FRAT1 demonstrates oncogenic properties in prostate cancer, potentially by suppressing the inhibitory effect of nuclear glycogen synthase 3β against β-catenin/TCF activity, thus activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and promoting cell growth. PMID:27599661

  20. Oncogenic effects of urotensin-II in cells lacking tuberous sclerosis complex-2

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Alexander A.; Joung, Kwang-Bo; Mansuri, Asma; Kang, Yujin; Echavarria, Raquel; Nikolajev, Ljiljana; Sun, Yang; Yu, Jane J.; Laporte, Stephane A.; Schwertani, Adel; Kristof, Arnold S.

    2016-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a destructive lung disease that can arise sporadically or in adults suffering from the tumor syndrome tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Microscopic tumors (‘LAM nodules’) in the lung interstitium arise from lymphatic invasion and metastasis. These consist of smooth muscle-like cells (LAM cells) that exhibit markers of neural crest differentiation and loss of the tumor suppressor protein ‘tuberous sclerosis complex-2’ (TSC2). Consistent with a neural phenotype, expression of the neuropeptide urotensin-II and its receptor was detected in LAM nodules. We hypothesized that loss of TSC2 sensitizes cells to the oncogenic effects of urotensin-II. TSC2-deficient Eker rat uterine leiomyoma ELT3 cells were stably transfected with empty vector or plasmid for the expression of TSC2. Urotensin-II increased cell viability and proliferation in TSC2-deficient cells, but not in TSC2-reconstituted cells. When exposed to urotensin-II, TSC2-deficient cells exhibited greater migration, anchorage-independent cell growth, and matrix invasion. The effects of urotensin-II on TSC2-deficient cells were blocked by the urotensin receptor antagonist SB657510, and accompanied by activation of Erk mitogen-activated protein kinase and focal adhesion kinase. Urotensin-II-induced proliferation and migration were reproduced in TSC2-deficient human angiomyolipoma cells, but not in those stably expressing TSC2. In a mouse xenograft model, SB657510 blocked the growth of established ELT3 tumors, reduced the number of circulating tumor cells, and attenuated the production of VEGF-D, a clinical biomarker of LAM. Urotensin receptor antagonists may be selective therapeutic agents for the treatment of LAM or other neural crest-derived neoplasms featuring loss of TSC2 or increased expression of the urotensin receptor. PMID:27458154

  1. Trisomy of the Dscr1 gene suppresses early progression of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia driven by oncogenic Kras

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jang Choon; Shin, Jimin; Baek, Kwan-Hyuck

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •A single extra copy of Dscr1 restrains progression of PanIN-1A to PanIN-1B lesions. •Dscr1 trisomy attenuates calcineurin–NFAT pathway in neoplastic ductal epithelium. •Dscr1 trisomy leads to upregulation of p15{sup INK4b} in neoplastic ductal epithelium. •A single extra copy of Dscr1 reduces epithelial proliferation in early PanIN lesions. •Dscr1 trisomy may protect Down syndrome individuals from pancreatic cancer. -- Abstract: Individuals with Down syndrome exhibit remarkably reduced incidence of most solid tumors including pancreatic cancer. Multiple mechanisms arising from the genetic complexity underlying Down syndrome has been suggested to contribute to such a broad cancer protection. In this study, utilizing a genetically engineered mouse model of pancreatic cancer, we demonstrate that trisomy of the Down syndrome critical region-1 (Dscr1), an endogenous calcineurin inhibitor localized on chromosome 21, suppresses the progression of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia-1A (PanIN-1A) to PanIN-1B lesions without affecting the initiation of PanIN lesions mediated by oncogenic Kras{sup G12D}. In addition, we show that Dscr1 trisomy attenuates nuclear localization of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) accompanied by upregulation of the p15{sup Ink4b} tumor suppressor and reduction of cell proliferation in early PanIN lesions. Our data suggest that attenuation of calcineurin–NFAT signaling in neoplastic pancreatic ductal epithelium by a single extra copy of Dscr1 is sufficient to inhibit the progression of early PanIN lesions driven by oncogenic Kras, and thus may be a potential mechanism underlying reduced incidence of pancreatic cancer in Down syndrome individuals.

  2. The cell cycle regulator ecdysoneless cooperates with H-Ras to promote oncogenic transformation of human mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bele, Aditya; Mirza, Sameer; Zhang, Ying; Ahmad Mir, Riyaz; Lin, Simon; Kim, Jun Hyun; Gurumurthy, Channabasavaiah Basavaraju; West, William; Qiu, Fang; Band, Hamid; Band, Vimla

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian ortholog of Drosophila ecdysoneless (Ecd) gene product regulates Rb-E2F interaction and is required for cell cycle progression. Ecd is overexpressed in breast cancer and its overexpression predicts shorter survival in patients with ErbB2-positive tumors. Here, we demonstrate Ecd knock down (KD) in human mammary epithelial cells (hMECs) induces growth arrest, similar to the impact of Ecd Knock out (KO) in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Furthermore, whole-genome mRNA expression analysis of control vs. Ecd KD in hMECs demonstrated that several of the top 40 genes that were down-regulated were E2F target genes. To address the role of Ecd in mammary oncogenesis, we overexpressed Ecd and/or mutant H-Ras in hTERT-immortalized hMECs. Cell cycle analyses revealed hMECs overexpressing Ecd+Ras showed incomplete arrest in G1 phase upon growth factor deprivation, and more rapid cell cycle progression in growth factor-containing medium. Analyses of cell migration, invasion, acinar structures in 3-D Matrigel and anchorage-independent growth demonstrated that Ecd+Ras-overexpressing cells exhibit substantially more dramatic transformed phenotype as compared to cells expressing vector, Ras or Ecd. Under conditions of nutrient deprivation, Ecd+Ras-overexpressing hMECs exhibited better survival, with substantial upregulation of the autophagy marker LC3 both at the mRNA and protein levels. Significantly, while hMECs expressing Ecd or mutant Ras alone did not form tumors in NOD/SCID mice, Ecd+Ras-overexpressing hMECs formed tumors, clearly demonstrating oncogenic cooperation between Ecd and mutant Ras. Collectively, we demonstrate an important co-oncogenic role of Ecd in the progression of mammary oncogenesis through promoting cell survival.

  3. The cell cycle regulator ecdysoneless cooperates with H-Ras to promote oncogenic transformation of human mammary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Bele, Aditya; Mirza, Sameer; Zhang, Ying; Ahmad Mir, Riyaz; Lin, Simon; Kim, Jun Hyun; Gurumurthy, Channabasavaiah Basavaraju; West, William; Qiu, Fang; Band, Hamid; Band, Vimla

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian ortholog of Drosophila ecdysoneless (Ecd) gene product regulates Rb-E2F interaction and is required for cell cycle progression. Ecd is overexpressed in breast cancer and its overexpression predicts shorter survival in patients with ErbB2-positive tumors. Here, we demonstrate Ecd knock down (KD) in human mammary epithelial cells (hMECs) induces growth arrest, similar to the impact of Ecd Knock out (KO) in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Furthermore, whole-genome mRNA expression analysis of control vs. Ecd KD in hMECs demonstrated that several of the top 40 genes that were down-regulated were E2F target genes. To address the role of Ecd in mammary oncogenesis, we overexpressed Ecd and/or mutant H-Ras in hTERT-immortalized hMECs. Cell cycle analyses revealed hMECs overexpressing Ecd+Ras showed incomplete arrest in G1 phase upon growth factor deprivation, and more rapid cell cycle progression in growth factor-containing medium. Analyses of cell migration, invasion, acinar structures in 3-D Matrigel and anchorage-independent growth demonstrated that Ecd+Ras-overexpressing cells exhibit substantially more dramatic transformed phenotype as compared to cells expressing vector, Ras or Ecd. Under conditions of nutrient deprivation, Ecd+Ras-overexpressing hMECs exhibited better survival, with substantial upregulation of the autophagy marker LC3 both at the mRNA and protein levels. Significantly, while hMECs expressing Ecd or mutant Ras alone did not form tumors in NOD/SCID mice, Ecd+Ras-overexpressing hMECs formed tumors, clearly demonstrating oncogenic cooperation between Ecd and mutant Ras. Collectively, we demonstrate an important co-oncogenic role of Ecd in the progression of mammary oncogenesis through promoting cell survival. PMID:25616580

  4. Sequence comparison in the crossover region of an oncogenic avian retrovirus recombinant and its nononcogenic parent: Genetic regions that control growth rate and oncogenic potential

    SciTech Connect

    Tsichlis, P.N.; Donehower, L.; Hager, G.; Zeller, N.; Malavarca, R.; Astrin, S.; Skalka, A.M.

    1982-11-01

    NTRE is an avian retrovirus recombinant of the endogeneous nononcogenic Rous-associated virus-0 (RAV-0) and the oncogenic, exogeneous, transformation-defective (td) Prague strain of Rous sarcoma virus B (td-PrRSV-B). Oligonucleotide mapping had shown that the recombinant virus is indistinguishable from its RAV-0 parent except for the 3'-end sequences, which were derived from td-PrRSV-B. However, the virus exhibits properties which are typical of an exogenous virus: it grows to high titers in tissue culture, and it is oncogenic in vivo. To accurately define the genetic region responsible for these properties, the authors determined the nucleotide sequences of the recombinant and its RAV-0 parent by using molecular clones of their DNA. These were compared with sequences already available for PrRSV-C, a virus closely related to the exogenous parent td-PrRSV-B. The results suggested that the crossover event which generated NTRE 7 took place in a region -501 to -401 nucleotides from the 3' end of the td-PrRSV parental genome and that sequences to the right of the recombination region were responsible for its growth properties and oncogenic potential. Since the exogenous-virus-specific sequences are expected to be missing from transformation-defective mutants of the Schmidt-Ruppin strain of RSV, which, like other exogeneous viruses, grow to high tiers in tissue culture and are oncogenic in vivo, the authors concluded that the growth properties and oncogenic potential of the exogeneous viruses are determined by sequences in the U3 region of the long terminal repeat. However, the authors propose that the exogeneous-virus-specific region may play a role in determining the oncogenic spectrum of a given oncogenic virus.

  5. Multiple oncogenic mutations and clonal relationship in spatially distinct benign human epidermal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Hafner, Christian; Toll, Agustí; Fernández-Casado, Alejandro; Earl, Julie; Marqués, Miriam; Acquadro, Francesco; Méndez-Pertuz, Marinela; Urioste, Miguel; Malats, Núria; Burns, Julie E.; Knowles, Margaret A.; Cigudosa, Juan C.; Hartmann, Arndt; Vogt, Thomas; Landthaler, Michael; Pujol, Ramón M.; Real, Francisco X.

    2010-01-01

    Malignant tumors result from the accumulation of genetic alterations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Much less is known about the genetic changes in benign tumors. Seborrheic keratoses (SK) are very frequent benign human epidermal tumors without malignant potential. We performed a comprehensive mutational screen of genes in the FGFR3-RAS-MAPK and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathways from 175 SK, including multiple lesions from each patient. SK commonly harbored multiple bona fide oncogenic mutations in FGFR3, PIK3CA, KRAS, HRAS, EGFR, and AKT1 oncogenes but not in tumor suppressor genes TSC1 and PTEN. Despite the occurrence of oncogenic mutations and the evidence for downstream ERK/MAPK and PI3K pathway signaling, we did not find induction of senescence or a DNA damage response. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis revealed that SK are genetically stable. The pattern of oncogenic mutations and X chromosome inactivation departs significantly from randomness and indicates that spatially independent lesions from a given patient share a clonal relationship. Our findings show that multiple oncogenic mutations in the major signaling pathways involved in cancer are not sufficient to drive malignant tumor progression. Furthermore, our data provide clues on the origin and spread of oncogenic mutations in tissues, suggesting that apparently independent (multicentric) adult benign tumors may have a clonal origin. PMID:21078999

  6. [Recent findings on the effect and role of oncogenes in carcinogenesis].

    PubMed

    Kremen, J

    1989-04-28

    The tumourous phenotype of cells may be induced by physical, chemical and biological factors. All have the same target, the cell genoma where they can produce minor (e.g. point mutations) or major changes (e.g. reconstruction--chromosomal aberrations, or gene insertion--oncoretroviruses). At present it may be assumed that these factors participate in the activation of proto-oncogenes (cellular oncogenes, c-onc) or in the inactivation of yet not well recognized "tumour suppressor" genes, so-called "anti-oncogenes". So far it was found that deletion of both alleles of "suppressor" genes causes the development of several recessive hereditary tumours (retinoblastoma, Wilms tumours etc.). Activation of proto-oncogenes (by point mutation, amplification, translocation) was found in a number of advanced primary tumours and in metastases. Probably activation of proto-oncogenes will play a more important part in the development of "acquired" tumours and in their progression. The problem of the mutual relationship of proto-oncogenes and "anti-oncogenes" remains so far obscure and controversial.

  7. DNA damage and repair in oncogenic transformation by heavy ion radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, T. C.; Mei, M.; George, K. A.; Craise, L. M.

    Energetic heavy ions are present in galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events. One of the most important late effects in risk assessment is carcinogenesis. We have studied the carcinogenic effects of heavy ions at the cellular and molecular levels and have obtained quantitative data on dose-response curves and on the repair of oncogenic lesions for heavy particles with various charges and energies. Studies with repair inhibitors and restriction endonucleases indicated that for oncogenic transformation DNA is the primary target. Results from heavy ion experiments showed that the cross section increased with LET and reached a maximum value of about 0.02 mum^2 at about 500 keV/mum. This limited size of cross section suggests that only a fraction of cellular genomic DNA is important in radiogenic transformation. Free radical scavengers, such as DMSO, do not give any effect on induction of oncogenic transformation by 600 MeV/u iron particles, suggesting most oncogenic damage induced by high-LET heavy ions is through direct action. Repair studies with stationary phase cells showed that the amount of reparable oncogenic lesions decreased with an increase of LET and that heavy ions with LET greater than 200 keV/mum produced only irreparable oncogenic damage. An enhancement effect for oncogenic transformation was observed in cells irradiated by low-dose-rate argon ions (400 MeV/u; 120 keV/mum). Chromosomal aberrations, such as translocation and deletion, but not sister chromatid exchange, are essential for heavy-ion-induced oncogenic transformation. The basic mechanism(s) of misrepair of DNA damage, which form oncogenic lesions, is unknown.

  8. DNA damage and repair in oncogenic transformation by heavy ion radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T. C.; Mei, M.; George, K. A.; Craise, L. M.

    1996-01-01

    Energetic heavy ions are present in galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events. One of the most important late effects in risk assessment is carcinogenesis. We have studied the carcinogenic effects of heavy ions at the cellular and molecular levels and have obtained quantitative data on dose-response curves and on the repair of oncogenic lesions for heavy particles with various charges and energies. Studies with repair inhibitors and restriction endonucleases indicated that for oncogenic transformation DNA is the primary target. Results from heavy ion experiments showed that the cross section increased with LET and reached a maximum value of about 0.02 micrometer2 at about 500 keV/micrometer. This limited size of cross section suggests that only a fraction of cellular genomic DNA is important in radiogenic transformation. Free radical scavengers, such as DMSO, do not give any effect on induction of oncogenic transformation by 600 MeV/u iron particles, suggesting most oncogenic damage induced by high-LET heavy ions is through direct action. Repair studies with stationary phase cells showed that the amount of reparable oncogenic lesions decreased with an increase of LET and that heavy ions with LET greater than 200 keV/micrometer produced only irreparable oncogenic damage. An enhancement effect for oncogenic transformation was observed in cells irradiated by low-dose-rate argon ions (400 MeV/u; 120 keV/micrometer). Chromosomal aberrations, such as translocation and deletion, but not sister chromatid exchange, are essential for heavy-ion-induced oncogenic transformation. The basic mechanism(s) of misrepair of DNA damage, which form oncogenic lesions, is unknown.

  9. DNA damage and repair in oncogenic transformation by heavy ion radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T. C.; Mei, M.; George, K. A.; Craise, L. M.

    1996-01-01

    Energetic heavy ions are present in galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events. One of the most important late effects in risk assessment is carcinogenesis. We have studied the carcinogenic effects of heavy ions at the cellular and molecular levels and have obtained quantitative data on dose-response curves and on the repair of oncogenic lesions for heavy particles with various charges and energies. Studies with repair inhibitors and restriction endonucleases indicated that for oncogenic transformation DNA is the primary target. Results from heavy ion experiments showed that the cross section increased with LET and reached a maximum value of about 0.02 micrometer2 at about 500 keV/micrometer. This limited size of cross section suggests that only a fraction of cellular genomic DNA is important in radiogenic transformation. Free radical scavengers, such as DMSO, do not give any effect on induction of oncogenic transformation by 600 MeV/u iron particles, suggesting most oncogenic damage induced by high-LET heavy ions is through direct action. Repair studies with stationary phase cells showed that the amount of reparable oncogenic lesions decreased with an increase of LET and that heavy ions with LET greater than 200 keV/micrometer produced only irreparable oncogenic damage. An enhancement effect for oncogenic transformation was observed in cells irradiated by low-dose-rate argon ions (400 MeV/u; 120 keV/micrometer). Chromosomal aberrations, such as translocation and deletion, but not sister chromatid exchange, are essential for heavy-ion-induced oncogenic transformation. The basic mechanism(s) of misrepair of DNA damage, which form oncogenic lesions, is unknown.

  10. Clinical correlates in acromegalic patients with pituitary tumors expressing GSP oncogenes.

    PubMed

    Buchfelder, M; Fahlbusch, R; Merz, T; Symowski, H; Adams, E F

    1999-05-01

    We herein review published findings on the clinical characteristics of acromegalic patients harboring pituitary somatotrophinomas expressing adenylyl cyclase activating gsp mutations and present an update of our own data on a large series of 176 patients with and without these oncogenes. Gsp oncogenes are the result of point mutations in either codon 201 or 227 of the Gs-alpha subunit of the Gs-protein which controls adenylyl cyclase. They result ultimately in increased intracellular cAMP levels and thus in excessive growth hormone (GH) secretion. Our large series has allowed us to characterise patients with mutations in codon 201 and the far rarer group possessing codon 227 defects. Both groups were compared with patients without gsp oncogenes. In accordance with previous findings, there was no statistically significant difference in age of the patients belonging to each group, the overall average tumor diameter nor in pre-operative serum GH levels, although the latter showed a tendency to be lower in patients with gsp oncogenes. The distribution of different types of response during an oral glucose tolerance test (no change, paradoxical rise or greater than 50% decrease in serum GH levels) did not differ between the 3 groups. However, the incidence of microadenomas was higher in acromegalics expressing gsp oncogenes in patients possessing mutations in codon 227. Additionally, the incidence of invasiveness was much lower (10% v. 33%) in those tumors with mutations in codon 227. Finally, previous in-vitro data indicating that gsp oncogene-expressing tumors may respond more efficiently to the somatostatin analogue, octreotide, have been confirmed by subsequent in-vivo studies showing a better reduction in serum GH levels in patients with gsp oncogenes. These latter findings suggest that presence of gsp oncogenes may be a marker for good reponsiveness to octreotide. Assessment of gsp oncogene status of surgically removed pituitary somatotrophinomas may thus be

  11. Oncogenically active MYD88 mutations in human lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Vu N.; Young, Ryan M.; Schmitz, Roland; Jhavar, Sameer; Xiao, Wenming; Lim, Kian-Huat; Kohlhammer, Holger; Xu, Weihong; Yang, Yandan; Zhao, Hong; Shaffer, Arthur L.; Romesser, Paul; Wright, George; Powell, John; Rosenwald, Andreas; Muller-Hermelink, Hans Konrad; Ott, German; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Connors, Joseph M.; Rimsza, Lisa M.; Campo, Elias; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Delabie, Jan; Smeland, Erlend B.; Fisher, Richard I.; Braziel, Rita M.; Tubbs, Raymond R.; Cook, J. R.; Weisenburger, Denny D.; Chan, Wing C.; Staudt, Louis M.

    2016-01-01

    The activated B-cell-like (ABC) subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) remains the least curable form of this malignancy despite recent advances in therapy1. Constitutive nuclear factor (NF)-κB and JAK kinase signalling promotes malignant cell survival in these lymphomas, but the genetic basis for this signalling is incompletely understood. Here we describe the dependence of ABC DLBCLs on MYD88, an adaptor protein that mediates toll and interleukin (IL)-1 receptor signalling2,3, and the discovery of highly recurrent oncogenic mutations affecting MYD88 in ABC DLBCL tumours. RNA interference screening revealed that MYD88 and the associated kinases IRAK1 and IRAK4 are essential for ABC DLBCL survival. High-throughput RNA resequencing uncovered MYD88 mutations in ABC DLBCL lines. Notably, 29% of ABC DLBCL tumours harboured the same amino acid substitution, L265P, in the MYD88 Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain at an evolutionarily invariant residue in its hydrophobic core. This mutation was rare or absent in other DLBCL subtypes and Burkitt’s lymphoma, but was observed in 9% of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas. At a lower frequency, additional mutations were observed in the MYD88 TIR domain, occurring in both the ABC and germinal centre B-cell-like (GCB) DLBCL subtypes. Survival of ABC DLBCL cells bearing the L265P mutation was sustained by the mutant but not the wild-type MYD88 isoform, demonstrating that L265P is a gain-of-function driver mutation. The L265P mutant promoted cell survival by spontaneously assembling a protein complex containing IRAK1 and IRAK4, leading to IRAK4 kinase activity, IRAK1 phosphorylation, NF-κB signalling, JAK kinase activation of STAT3, and secretion of IL-6, IL-10 and interferon-β. Hence, theMYD88 signalling pathway is integral to the pathogenesis of ABC DLBCL, supporting the development of inhibitors of IRAK4 kinase and other components of this pathway for the treatment of tumours bearing oncogenic MYD88 mutations

  12. Cancer genes: rare recombinants instead of activated oncogenes (a review).

    PubMed Central

    Duesberg, P H

    1987-01-01

    The 20 known transforming (onc) genes of retroviruses are defined by sequences that are transduced from cellular genes termed protooncogenes or cellular oncogenes. Based on these sequences, viral onc genes have been postulated to be transduced cellular cancer genes, and proto-onc genes have been postulated to be latent cancer genes that can be activated from within the cell to cause virus-negative tumors. The hypothesis is popular because it promises direct access to cellular cancer genes. However, the existence of latent cancer genes presents a paradox, since such genes are clearly undesirable. The hypothesis predicts that viral onc genes and proto-onc genes are isogenic; that expression of proto-onc genes induces tumors; that activated proto-onc genes transform diploid cells upon transfection, like viral onc genes; and that diploid tumors exist. As yet, none of these predictions is confirmed. Instead: Structural comparisons between viral onc genes, essential retroviral genes, and proto-onc genes show that all viral onc genes are indeed new genes, rather than transduced cellular cancer genes. They are recombinants put together from truncated viral and truncated proto-onc genes. Proto-onc genes are frequently expressed in normal cells. To date, not one activated proto-onc gene has been isolated that transforms diploid cells. Above all, no diploid tumors with activated proto-onc genes have been found. Moreover, the probability of spontaneous transformation in vivo is at least 10(9) times lower than predicted from the mechanisms thought to activate proto-onc genes. Therefore, the hypothesis that proto-onc genes are latent cellular oncogenes appears to be an overinterpretation of sequence homology to structural and functional homology with viral onc genes. Here it is proposed that only rare truncations and illegitimate recombinations that alter the germ-line configuration of cellular genes generate viral and possibly cellular cancer genes. The clonal chromosome

  13. An Interaction with Ewing's Sarcoma Breakpoint Protein EWS Defines a Specific Oncogenic Mechanism of ETS Factors Rearranged in Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kedage, Vivekananda; Selvaraj, Nagarathinam; Nicholas, Taylor R; Budka, Justin A; Plotnik, Joshua P; Jerde, Travis J; Hollenhorst, Peter C

    2016-10-25

    More than 50% of prostate tumors have a chromosomal rearrangement resulting in aberrant expression of an oncogenic ETS family transcription factor. However, mechanisms that differentiate the function of oncogenic ETS factors expressed in prostate tumors from non-oncogenic ETS factors expressed in normal prostate are unknown. Here, we find that four oncogenic ETS (ERG, ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5), and no other ETS, interact with the Ewing's sarcoma breakpoint protein, EWS. This EWS interaction was necessary and sufficient for oncogenic ETS functions including gene activation, cell migration, clonogenic survival, and transformation. Significantly, the EWS interacting region of ERG has no homology with that of ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5. Therefore, this finding may explain how divergent ETS factors have a common oncogenic function. Strikingly, EWS is fused to various ETS factors by the chromosome translocations that cause Ewing's sarcoma. Therefore, these findings link oncogenic ETS function in both prostate cancer and Ewing's sarcoma.

  14. Glioma-associated endothelial cells show evidence of replicative senescence

    SciTech Connect

    Charalambous, Christiana; Virrey, Jenilyn; Kardosh, Adel; Jabbour, Mark N.; Qazi-Abdullah, Lubna; Pen, Ligaya; Zidovetzki, Raphael; Schoenthal, Axel H.; Chen, Thomas C.; Hofman, Florence M. . E-mail: hofman@usc.edu

    2007-04-01

    The innately programmed process of replicative senescence has been studied extensively with respect to cancer, but primarily from the perspective of tumor cells overcoming this stringent innate barrier and acquiring the capacity for unlimited proliferation. In this study, we focus on the potential role of replicative senescence affecting the non-transformed endothelial cells of the blood vessels within the tumor microenvironment. Based on the well-documented aberrant structural and functional features of blood vessels within solid tumors, we hypothesized that tumor-derived factors may lead to premature replicative senescence in tumor-associated brain endothelial cells (TuBEC). We show here that glioma tissue, but not normal brain tissue, contains cells that express the signature of replicative senescence, senescence-associated {beta}-galactosidase (SA-{beta}-gal), on CD31-positive endothelial cells. Primary cultures of human TuBEC stain for SA-{beta}-gal and exhibit characteristics of replicative senescence, including increased levels of the cell cycle inhibitors p21 and p27, increased resistance to cytotoxic drugs, increased growth factor production, and inability to proliferate. These data provide the first demonstration that tumor-derived brain endothelial cells may have reached an end-stage of differentiation known as replicative senescence and underscore the need for anti-angiogenic therapies to target this unique tumor-associated endothelial cell population.

  15. rgr oncogene: activation by elimination of translational controls and mislocalization.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Muñoz, Inmaculada; Benet, Marta; Calero, Miguel; Jiménez, Maria; Díaz, Roberto; Pellicer, Angel

    2003-07-15

    Previous studies have identified a novel oncogene, rgr, which has homology to the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Ral guanine dissociation stimulator (RALGDS). To determine the mechanism of activation of rgr, the wild-type form was isolated. rgr is expressed physiologically at very low levels, due, at least in part, to a long 5'-untranslated region that contains eight AUGs, which inhibit translation of the main open reading frame. When these regulatory sequences are removed, the wild-type gene is expressed at high levels. An investigation of how this GEF could transform cells showed that RGR interacts with RAS, supporting its involvement as a RAS-GEF. Because RAL is localized mainly to the Golgi, the expression of the RGR protein was identified in RK13 cells, a cell line that expresses endogenous rgr. RGR localizes to endomembranes. To determine its location upon transformation, a green fluorescent protein-RGR fusion protein was used to track the movement of RGR. Increasing amounts of expression result in enhanced localization of RGR to the plasma membrane. These results indicate that rgr is activated when its tight translational controls are eliminated and increased expression allows its relocation to the plasma membrane, where efficient activation of RAS occurs.

  16. Oncogenic role of Merlin/NF2 in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, P A; Yin, W; Camacho, L; Marchetti, D

    2015-05-14

    Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor in adults, with a poor prognosis because of its resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Merlin/NF2 (moesin-ezrin-radixin-like protein/neurofibromatosis type 2) is a tumor suppressor found to be mutated in most nervous system tumors; however, it is not mutated in glioblastomas. Merlin associates with several transmembrane receptors and intracellular proteins serving as an anchoring molecule. Additionally, it acts as a key component of cell motility. By selecting sub-populations of U251 glioblastoma cells, we observed that high expression of phosphorylated Merlin at serine 518 (S518-Merlin), NOTCH1 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) correlated with increased cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. These cells were defective in cell-contact inhibition with changes in Merlin phosphorylation directly affecting NOTCH1 and EGFR expression, as well as downstream targets HES1 (hairy and enhancer of split-1) and CCND1 (cyclin D1). Of note, we identified a function for S518-Merlin, which is distinct from what has been reported when the expression of Merlin is diminished in relation to EGFR and NOTCH1 expression, providing first-time evidence that demonstrates that the phosphorylation of S518-Merlin in glioblastoma promotes oncogenic properties that are not only the result of inactivation of the tumor suppressor role of Merlin but also an independent process implicating a Merlin-driven regulation of NOTCH1 and EGFR.

  17. TEADs mediate nuclear retention of TAZ to promote oncogenic transformation.

    PubMed

    Chan, Siew Wee; Lim, Chun Jye; Loo, Li Shen; Chong, Yaan Fun; Huang, Caixia; Hong, Wanjin

    2009-05-22

    The transcriptional coactivators YAP and TAZ are downstream targets inhibited by the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway. The expression level of TAZ is recently shown to be elevated in invasive breast cancer cells and some primary breast cancers. TAZ is important for breast cancer cell migration, invasion, and tumorigenesis, but the underlying mechanism is not defined. In this study, we show that TAZ interacts with TEAD transcriptional factors. Knockdown of TEADs suppresses TAZ-mediated oncogenic transformation of MCF10A cells. Uncoupling TAZ from Hippo regulation by S89A mutation enhances its transforming ability. Several residues located in the N-terminal region of TAZ are identified to be important for interaction with TEADs, and these same residues are equally important for TAZ to transform MCF10A cells. Mechanistically, TAZ mutants defective in interaction with TEADs fail to accumulate in the nucleus. Live cell imaging of enhanced green fluorescent protein-TAZ and its mutant defective in TEAD interaction suggests that TEAD interaction mediates nuclear retention. These results reveal a novel mechanism for TEADs to regulate nuclear retention and thus the transforming ability of TAZ.

  18. Therapeutic Potential of Targeting the Oncogenic SHP2 Phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Src homology 2 domain containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP2) is an oncogenic phosphatase associated with various kinds of leukemia and solid tumors. Thus, there is substantial interest in developing SHP2 inhibitors as potential anticancer and antileukemia agents. Using a structure-guided and fragment-based library approach, we identified a novel hydroxyindole carboxylic acid-based SHP2 inhibitor 11a-1, with an IC50 value of 200 nM and greater than 5-fold selectivity against 20 mammalian PTPs. Structural and modeling studies reveal that the hydroxyindole carboxylic acid anchors the inhibitor to the SHP2 active site, while interactions of the oxalamide linker and the phenylthiophene tail with residues in the β5–β6 loop contribute to 11a-1’s binding potency and selectivity. Evidence suggests that 11a-1 specifically attenuates the SHP2-dependent signaling inside the cell. Moreover, 11a-1 blocks growth factor mediated Erk1/2 and Akt activation and exhibits excellent antiproliferative activity in lung cancer and breast cancer as well as leukemia cell lines. PMID:25003231

  19. Copper is required for oncogenic BRAF signaling and tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Donita C.; Crowe, Matthew S.; Turski, Michelle L.; Hobbs, G. Aaron; Yao, Xiaojie; Chaikuad, Apirat; Knapp, Stefan; Xiao, Kunhong; Campbell, Sharon L.; Thiele, Dennis J.; Counter, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    The BRAF kinase is mutated, typically V600E, to induce an active oncogenic state in a large fraction of melanoma, thyroid, hairy cell leukemia, and to a lesser extent, a wide spectrum of other cancers1,2. BRAFV600E phosphorylates and activates the kinases MEK1 and MEK2, which in turn phosphorylate and activate the kinases ERK1 and ERK2, stimulating the MAPK pathway to promote cancer3. Targeting MEK1/2 is proving to be an important therapeutic strategy, as a MEK1/2 inhibitor provides a survival advantage in metastatic melanoma4, which is increased when co-administered with a BRAFV600E inhibitor5. In this regard, we previously found that copper (Cu) influx enhances MEK1 phosphorylation of ERK1/2 through a Cu-MEK1 interaction6. We now show that genetic loss of the high affinity Cu transporter Ctr1 or mutations in MEK1 that disrupt Cu binding reduced BRAFV600E-driven signaling and tumorigenesis. Conversely, a MEK1-MEK5 chimera that phosphorylates ERK1/2 independent of Cu or an active ERK2 restored tumor growth to cells lacking Ctr1. Importantly, Cu chelators used in the treatment of Wilson disease7 reduced tumor growth of both BRAFV600E-transformed cells and cells resistant to BRAF inhibition. Taken together, these results suggest that Cu-chelation therapy could be repurposed to treat BRAFV600E mutation-positive cancers. PMID:24717435

  20. CXCR4 in breast cancer: oncogenic role and therapeutic targeting.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chao; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Haitao; Yao, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    Chemokines are 8-12 kDa peptides that function as chemoattractant cytokines and are involved in cell activation, differentiation, and trafficking. Chemokines bind to specific G-protein-coupled seven-span transmembrane receptors. Chemokines play a fundamental role in the regulation of a variety of cellular, physiological, and developmental processes. Their aberrant expression can lead to a variety of human diseases including cancer. C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), also known as fusin or CD184, is an alpha-chemokine receptor specific for stromal-derived-factor-1 (SDF-1 also called CXCL12). CXCR4 belongs to the superfamily of the seven transmembrane domain heterotrimeric G protein-coupled receptors and is functionally expressed on the cell surface of various types of cancer cells. CXCR4 also plays a role in the cell proliferation and migration of these cells. Recently, CXCR4 has been reported to play an important role in cell survival, proliferation, migration, as well as metastasis of several cancers including breast cancer. This review is mainly focused on the current knowledge of the oncogenic role and potential drugs that target CXCR4 in breast cancer. Additionally, CXCR4 proangiogenic molecular mechanisms will be reviewed. Strict biunivocal binding affinity and activation of CXCR4/CXCL12 complex make CXCR4 a unique molecular target for prevention and treatment of breast cancer.

  1. Fusion oncogenes in salivary gland tumors: molecular and clinical consequences.

    PubMed

    Stenman, Göran

    2013-07-01

    Salivary gland tumors constitute a heterogeneous group of uncommon diseases that pose significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. However, the recent discovery of a translocation-generated gene fusion network in salivary gland carcinomas as well in benign salivary gland tumors opens up new avenues for improved diagnosis, prognostication, and development of specific targeted therapies. The gene fusions encode novel fusion oncoproteins or ectopically expressed normal or truncated oncoproteins. The major targets of the translocations are transcriptional coactivators, tyrosine kinase receptors, and transcription factors involved in growth factor signaling and cell cycle regulation. Notably, several of these targets or pathways activated by these targets are druggable. Examples of clinically significant gene fusions in salivary gland cancers are the MYB-NFIB fusion specific for adenoid cystic carcinoma, the CRTC1-MAML2 fusion typical of low/intermediate-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and the recently identified ETV6-NTRK3 fusion in mammary analogue secretory carcinoma. Similarly, gene fusions involving the PLAG1 and HMGA2 oncogenes are specific for benign pleomorphic adenomas. Continued studies of the molecular consequences of these fusion oncoproteins and their down-stream targets will ultimately lead to the identification of novel driver genes in salivary gland neoplasms and will also form the basis for the development of new therapeutic strategies for salivary gland cancers and, perhaps, other neoplasms.

  2. Control of autophagy by oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes.

    PubMed

    Maiuri, M C; Tasdemir, E; Criollo, A; Morselli, E; Vicencio, J M; Carnuccio, R; Kroemer, G

    2009-01-01

    Multiple oncogenes (in particular phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, PI3K; activated Akt1; antiapoptotic proteins from the Bcl-2 family) inhibit autophagy. Similarly, several tumor suppressor proteins (such as BH3-only proteins; death-associated protein kinase-1, DAPK1; the phosphatase that antagonizes PI3K, PTEN; tuberous sclerosic complex 1 and 2, TSC1 and TSC2; as well as LKB1/STK11) induce autophagy, meaning that their loss reduces autophagy. Beclin-1, which is required for autophagy induction acts as a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor protein, and other essential autophagy mediators (such as Atg4c, UVRAG and Bif-1) are bona fide oncosuppressors. One of the central tumor suppressor proteins, p53 exerts an ambiguous function in the regulation of autophagy. Within the nucleus, p53 can act as an autophagy-inducing transcription factor. Within the cytoplasm, p53 exerts a tonic autophagy-inhibitory function, and its degradation is actually required for the induction of autophagy. The role of autophagy in oncogenesis and anticancer therapy is contradictory. Chronic suppression of autophagy may stimulate oncogenesis. However, once a tumor is formed, autophagy inhibition may be a therapeutic goal for radiosensitization and chemosensitization. Altogether, the current state-of-the art suggests a complex relationship between cancer and deregulated autophagy that must be disentangled by further in-depth investigation.

  3. Autocrine Human Growth Hormone Stimulates Oncogenicity of Endometrial Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Vijay; Perry, Jo K.; Mohankumar, Kumarasamypet M.; Kong, Xiang-Jun; Liu, Shu-Min; Wu, Zheng-Sheng; Mitchell, Murray D.; Zhu, Tao; Lobie, Peter E.

    2008-01-01

    Recent published data have demonstrated elevated levels of human GH (hGH) in endometriosis and endometrial adenocarcinoma. Herein, we demonstrate that autocrine production of hGH can enhance the in vitro and in vivo oncogenic potential of endometrial carcinoma cells. Forced expression of hGH in endometrial carcinoma cell lines RL95-2 and AN3 resulted in an increased total cell number through enhanced cell cycle progression and decreased apoptotic cell death. In addition, autocrine hGH expression in endometrial carcinoma cells promoted anchorage-independent growth and increased cell migration/invasion in vitro. In a xenograft model of human endometrial carcinoma, autocrine hGH enhanced tumor size and progression. Changes in endometrial carcinoma cell gene expression stimulated by autocrine hGH was consistent with the altered in vitro and in vivo behavior. Functional antagonism of hGH in wild-type RL95-2 cells significantly reduced cell proliferation, cell survival, and anchorage-independent cell growth. These studies demonstrate a functional role for autocrine hGH in the development and progression of endometrial carcinoma and indicate potential therapeutic relevance of hGH antagonism in the treatment of endometrial carcinoma. PMID:18450952

  4. CXCR4 in breast cancer: oncogenic role and therapeutic targeting

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chao; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Haitao; Yao, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    Chemokines are 8–12 kDa peptides that function as chemoattractant cytokines and are involved in cell activation, differentiation, and trafficking. Chemokines bind to specific G-protein-coupled seven-span transmembrane receptors. Chemokines play a fundamental role in the regulation of a variety of cellular, physiological, and developmental processes. Their aberrant expression can lead to a variety of human diseases including cancer. C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), also known as fusin or CD184, is an alpha-chemokine receptor specific for stromal-derived-factor-1 (SDF-1 also called CXCL12). CXCR4 belongs to the superfamily of the seven transmembrane domain heterotrimeric G protein-coupled receptors and is functionally expressed on the cell surface of various types of cancer cells. CXCR4 also plays a role in the cell proliferation and migration of these cells. Recently, CXCR4 has been reported to play an important role in cell survival, proliferation, migration, as well as metastasis of several cancers including breast cancer. This review is mainly focused on the current knowledge of the oncogenic role and potential drugs that target CXCR4 in breast cancer. Additionally, CXCR4 proangiogenic molecular mechanisms will be reviewed. Strict biunivocal binding affinity and activation of CXCR4/CXCL12 complex make CXCR4 a unique molecular target for prevention and treatment of breast cancer. PMID:26356032

  5. Oncogenic potential diverge among human papillomavirus type 16 natural variants

    SciTech Connect

    Sichero, Laura; Simao Sobrinho, Joao; Lina Villa, Luisa

    2012-10-10

    We compared E6/E7 protein properties of three different HPV-16 variants: AA, E-P and E-350G. Primary human foreskin keratinocytes (PHFK) were transduced with HPV-16 E6 and E7 and evaluated for proliferation and ability to grow in soft agar. E-P infected keratinocytes presented the lowest efficiency in colony formation. AA and E-350G keratinocytes attained higher capacity for in vitro transformation. We observed similar degradation of TP53 among HPV-16 variants. Furthermore, we accessed the expression profile in early (p5) and late passage (p30) transduced cells of 84 genes commonly involved in carcinogenesis. Most differences could be attributed to HPV-16 E6/E7 expression. In particular, we detected different expression of ITGA2 and CHEK2 in keratinocytes infected with AA and AA/E-350G late passage cells, respectively, and higher expression of MAP2K1 in E-350G transduced keratinocytes. Our results indicate differences among HPV-16 variants that could explain, at least in part, differences in oncogenic potential attributed to these variants.

  6. Papillomavirus sequences integrate near cellular oncogenes in some cervical carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Duerst, M.; Croce, C.M.; Gissmann, L.; Schwarz, E.; Huebner, K.

    1987-02-01

    The chromosomal locations of cellular sequences flanking integrated papillomavirus DNA in four cervical cell lines and a primary cervical carcinoma have been determined. The two human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 flanking sequences derived from the tumor were localized to chromosomes regions 20pter..-->..20q13 and 3p25..-->..3qter, regions that also contain the protooncogenes c-src-1 and c-raf-1, respectively. The HPV 16 integration site in the SiHa cervical carcinoma-derived cell line is in chromosome region 13q14..-->..13q32. The HPV 18 integration site in SW756 cervical carcinoma cells is in chromosome 12 but is not closely linked to the Ki-ras2 gene. Finally, in two cervical carcinoma cell lines, HeLa and C4-I, HPV 18 DNA is integrated in chromosome 8, 5' of the c-myc gene. The HeLaHPV 18 integration site is within 40 kilobases 5' of the c-myc gene, inside the HL60 amplification unit surrounding and including the c-myc gene. Additionally, steady-state levels of c-myc mRNA are elevated in HeLa and C4-I cells relative to other cervical carcinoma cell lines. Thus, in at least some genital tumors, cis-activation of cellular oncogenes by HPV may be involved in malignant transformation of cervical cells.

  7. The LMO2 oncogene regulates DNA replication in hematopoietic cells

    PubMed Central

    Sincennes, Marie-Claude; Humbert, Magali; Grondin, Benoît; Lisi, Véronique; Veiga, Diogo F. T.; Haman, André; Cazaux, Christophe; Mashtalir, Nazar; Affar, EL Bachir; Verreault, Alain; Hoang, Trang

    2016-01-01

    Oncogenic transcription factors are commonly activated in acute leukemias and subvert normal gene expression networks to reprogram hematopoietic progenitors into preleukemic stem cells, as exemplified by LIM-only 2 (LMO2) in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Whether or not these oncoproteins interfere with other DNA-dependent processes is largely unexplored. Here, we show that LMO2 is recruited to DNA replication origins by interaction with three essential replication enzymes: DNA polymerase delta (POLD1), DNA primase (PRIM1), and minichromosome 6 (MCM6). Furthermore, tethering LMO2 to synthetic DNA sequences is sufficient to transform these sequences into origins of replication. We next addressed the importance of LMO2 in erythroid and thymocyte development, two lineages in which cell cycle and differentiation are tightly coordinated. Lowering LMO2 levels in erythroid progenitors delays G1-S progression and arrests erythropoietin-dependent cell growth while favoring terminal differentiation. Conversely, ectopic expression in thymocytes induces DNA replication and drives these cells into cell cycle, causing differentiation blockade. Our results define a novel role for LMO2 in directly promoting DNA synthesis and G1-S progression. PMID:26764384

  8. The LMO2 oncogene regulates DNA replication in hematopoietic cells.

    PubMed

    Sincennes, Marie-Claude; Humbert, Magali; Grondin, Benoît; Lisi, Véronique; Veiga, Diogo F T; Haman, André; Cazaux, Christophe; Mashtalir, Nazar; Affar, El Bachir; Verreault, Alain; Hoang, Trang

    2016-02-02

    Oncogenic transcription factors are commonly activated in acute leukemias and subvert normal gene expression networks to reprogram hematopoietic progenitors into preleukemic stem cells, as exemplified by LIM-only 2 (LMO2) in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Whether or not these oncoproteins interfere with other DNA-dependent processes is largely unexplored. Here, we show that LMO2 is recruited to DNA replication origins by interaction with three essential replication enzymes: DNA polymerase delta (POLD1), DNA primase (PRIM1), and minichromosome 6 (MCM6). Furthermore, tethering LMO2 to synthetic DNA sequences is sufficient to transform these sequences into origins of replication. We next addressed the importance of LMO2 in erythroid and thymocyte development, two lineages in which cell cycle and differentiation are tightly coordinated. Lowering LMO2 levels in erythroid progenitors delays G1-S progression and arrests erythropoietin-dependent cell growth while favoring terminal differentiation. Conversely, ectopic expression in thymocytes induces DNA replication and drives these cells into cell cycle, causing differentiation blockade. Our results define a novel role for LMO2 in directly promoting DNA synthesis and G1-S progression.

  9. Separase: Function Beyond Cohesion Cleavage and an Emerging Oncogene.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ravinder

    2016-12-14

    Proper and timely segregation of genetic endowment is necessary for survival and perpetuation of every species. Mis-segregation of chromosomes and resulting aneuploidy leads to genetic instability, which can jeopardize the survival of an individual or population as a whole. Abnormality with segregation of genetic contents has been associated with several medical consequences including cancer, sterility, mental retardation, spontaneous abortion, miscarriages, and other birth related defects. Separase, by irreversible cleavage of cohesin complex subunit, paves the way for metaphase/anaphase transition during the cell cycle. Both over or reduced expression and altered level of separase have been associated with several medical consequences including cancer, as a result separase now emerges as an important oncogene and potential molecular target for medical intervenes. Recently, separase is also found to be essential in separation and duplication of centrioles. Here, I review the role of separase in mitosis, meiosis, non-canonical roles of separase, separase regulation, as a regulator of centriole disengagement, nonproteolytic roles, diverse substrates, structural insights, and association of separase with cancer. At the ends, I proposed a model which showed that separase is active throughout the cell cycle and there is a mere increase in separase activity during metaphase contrary to the common believes that separase is inactive throughout cell cycle except for metaphase. J. Cell. Biochem. 9999: 1-17, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Gallium-68: chemistry and radiolabeled peptides exploring different oncogenic pathways.

    PubMed

    Morgat, Clément; Hindié, Elif; Mishra, Anil K; Allard, Michèle; Fernandez, Philippe

    2013-03-01

    Abstract Early and specific tumor detection and also therapy selection and response evaluation are some challenges of personalized medicine. This calls for high sensitive and specific molecular imaging such as positron emission tomography (PET). The use of peptides for PET molecular imaging has undeniable advantages: possibility of targeting through peptide-receptor interaction, small size and low-molecular weight conferring good penetration in the tissue or at cellular level, low toxicity, no antigenicity, and possibility of wide choice for radiolabeling. Among β(+)-emitter radioelements, Gallium-68 is a very attractive positron-emitter compared with carbon-11 or fluorine-18 taking into account its easy production via a (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator and well established radiochemistry. Gallium-68 chemistry is based on well-defined coordination complexes with macrocycle or chelates having strong binding properties, particularly suitable for linking peptides that allow resistance to in vivo transchelation of the metal ion. Understanding specific and nonspecific molecular mechanisms involved in oncogenesis is one major key to develop new molecular imaging tools. The present review focuses on peptide signaling involved in different oncogenic pathways. This peptide signalization might be common for tumoral and non-tumoral processes or could be specific of an oncological process. This review describes gallium chemistry and different (68)Ga-radiolabeled peptides already in use or under development aiming at developing molecular PET imaging of different oncological processes.

  11. The Viral Interferon Regulatory Factors of KSHV: Immunosuppressors or Oncogenes?

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Sarah R.; Damania, Blossom

    2011-01-01

    Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a large double-stranded DNA gammaherpesvirus, and the etiological agent for three human malignancies: Kaposi’s sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman’s disease. To establish and maintain infection, KSHV has evolved unique mechanisms to evade the host immune response. Cellular interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) are a critical part of the host anti-viral immune response. KSHV encodes four homologs of IRFs, vIRF1–4, which inhibit the activity of their cellular counterparts. vIRF1, 2, and 3 have been shown to interact directly with cellular IRFs. Additionally, the vIRFs have other functions such as modulation of Myc, p53, Notch, transforming growth factor-β, and NF-κB signaling. These activities of vIRFs may contribute to KSHV tumorigenesis. KSHV vIRF1 and vIRF3 have been implicated as oncogenes, making the understanding of KSHV vIRF function vital to understanding KSHV pathogenesis. PMID:22566809

  12. Oncogene-like induction of cellular invasion from centrosome amplification

    PubMed Central

    Godinho, Susana A.; Picone, Remigio; Burute, Mithila; Dagher, Regina; Su, Ying; Leung, Cheuk T.; Polyak, Kornelia; Brugge, Joan S.; Thery, Manuel; Pellman, David

    2014-01-01

    Centrosome amplification has long been recognized as a feature of human tumors, however its role in tumorigenesis remains unclear1. Centrosome amplification is poorly tolerated by non-transformed cells, and, in the absence of selection, extra centrosomes are spontaneously lost2. Thus, the high frequency of centrosome amplification, particularly in more aggressive tumors3, raises the possibility that extra centrosomes could, in some contexts, confer advantageous characteristics that promote tumor progression. Using a three-dimensional model system and other approaches to culture human mammary epithelial cells, we find that centrosome amplification triggers cell invasion. This invasive behavior is similar to that induced by overexpression of the breast cancer oncogene ErbB24 and indeed enhances invasiveness triggered by ErbB2. We show that, through increased centrosomal microtubule nucleation, centrosome amplification increases Rac1 activity, which disrupts normal cell-cell adhesion and promotes invasion. These findings demonstrate that centrosome amplification, a structural alteration of the cytoskeleton, can promote features of malignant transformation. PMID:24739973

  13. Genomic and oncogenic preference of HBV integration in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ling-Hao; Liu, Xiao; Yan, He-Xin; Li, Wei-Yang; Zeng, Xi; Yang, Yuan; Zhao, Jie; Liu, Shi-Ping; Zhuang, Xue-Han; Lin, Chuan; Qin, Chen-Jie; Zhao, Yi; Pan, Ze-Ya; Huang, Gang; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Ruo-Yu; Yang, Yun; Wen, Wen; Lv, Gui-Shuai; Zhang, Hui-Lu; Wu, Han; Huang, Shuai; Wang, Ming-Da; Tang, Liang; Cao, Hong-Zhi; Wang, Ling; Lee, Tin-Lap; Jiang, Hui; Tan, Ye-Xiong; Yuan, Sheng-Xian; Hou, Guo-Jun; Tao, Qi-Fei; Xu, Qin-Guo; Zhang, Xiu-Qing; Wu, Meng-Chao; Xu, Xun; Wang, Jun; Yang, Huan-Ming; Zhou, Wei-Ping; Wang, Hong-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) can integrate into the human genome, contributing to genomic instability and hepatocarcinogenesis. Here by conducting high-throughput viral integration detection and RNA sequencing, we identify 4,225 HBV integration events in tumour and adjacent non-tumour samples from 426 patients with HCC. We show that HBV is prone to integrate into rare fragile sites and functional genomic regions including CpG islands. We observe a distinct pattern in the preferential sites of HBV integration between tumour and non-tumour tissues. HBV insertional sites are significantly enriched in the proximity of telomeres in tumours. Recurrent HBV target genes are identified with few that overlap. The overall HBV integration frequency is much higher in tumour genomes of males than in females, with a significant enrichment of integration into chromosome 17. Furthermore, a cirrhosis-dependent HBV integration pattern is observed, affecting distinct targeted genes. Our data suggest that HBV integration has a high potential to drive oncogenic transformation. PMID:27703150

  14. Oncogenic ras-induced expression of cytokines: a new target of anti-cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Ancrile, Brooke B; O'Hayer, Kevin M; Counter, Christopher M

    2008-02-01

    The Ras family of small guanosine triphosphatases normally transmit signals from cell surface receptors to the interior of the cell. Stimulation of cell surface receptors leads to the activation of guanine exchange factors, which, in turn, convert Ras from an inactive GDP-bound state to an active GTP-bound state. However, in one third of human cancers, RAS is mutated and remains in the constitutively active GTP-bound state. In this oncogenic state, RAS activates a constellation of signaling that is known to promote tumorigenesis. One consequence of this oncogenic RAS signal in cancer cells is the upregulation of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and chemokine growth-regulated oncogene 1 (GRO-1). We review the evidence supporting a role for these cytokines in oncogenic RAS-driven solid tumors.

  15. ARF and ATM/ATR cooperate in p53-mediated apoptosis upon oncogenic stress

    SciTech Connect

    Pauklin, Siim . E-mail: spauklin@ut.ee; Kristjuhan, Arnold; Maimets, Toivo; Jaks, Viljar

    2005-08-26

    Induction of apoptosis is pivotal for eliminating cells with damaged DNA or deregulated proliferation. We show that tumor suppressor ARF and ATM/ATR kinase pathways cooperate in the induction of apoptosis in response to elevated expression of c-myc, {beta}-catenin or human papilloma virus E7 oncogenes. Overexpression of oncogenes leads to the formation of phosphorylated H2AX foci, induction of Rad51 protein levels and ATM/ATR-dependent phosphorylation of p53. Inhibition of ATM/ATR kinases abolishes both induction of Rad51 and phosphorylation of p53, and remarkably reduces the level of apoptosis induced by co-expression of oncogenes and ARF. However, the induction of apoptosis is downregulated in p53-/- cells and does not depend on activities of ATM/ATR kinases, indicating that efficient induction of apoptosis by oncogene activation depends on coordinated action of ARF and ATM/ATR pathways in the regulation of p53.

  16. Practical use of advanced mouse models for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Safari, Roghaiyeh; Meuwissen, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    To date a variety of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) mouse models have been developed that mimic human lung cancer. Chemically induced or spontaneous lung cancer in susceptible inbred strains has been widely used, but the more recent genetically engineered somatic mouse models recapitulate much better the genotype-phenotype correlations found in human lung cancer. Additionally, improved orthotopic transplantation of primary human cancer tissue fragments or cells into lungs of immune-compromised mice can be valuable tools for preclinical research such as antitumor drug tests. Here we give a short overview of most somatic mouse models for lung cancer that are currently in use. We accompany each different model with a description of its practical use and application for all major lung tumor types, as well as the intratracheal injection or direct injection of fresh or freeze-thawed tumor cells or tumor cell lines into lung parenchyma of recipient mice. All here presented somatic mouse models are based on the ability to (in) activate specific alleles at a time, and in a tissue-specific cell type, of choice. This spatial-temporal controlled induction of genetic lesions allows the selective introduction of main genetic lesions in an adult mouse lung as found in human lung cancer. The resulting conditional somatic mouse models can be used as versatile powerful tools in basic lung cancer research and preclinical translational studies alike. These distinctively advanced lung cancer models permit us to investigate initiation (cell of origin) and progression of lung cancer, along with response and resistance to drug therapy. Cre/lox or FLP/frt recombinase-mediated methods are now well-used techniques to develop tissue-restricted lung cancer in mice with tumor-suppressor gene and/or oncogene (in)activation. Intranasal or intratracheal administration of engineered adenovirus-Cre or lentivirus-Cre has been optimized for introducing Cre

  17. Role of DLC1 tumor suppressor gene and MYC oncogene in pathogenesis of human hepatocellular carcinoma: potential prospects for combined targeted therapeutics (review).

    PubMed

    Zimonjic, Drazen B; Popescu, Nicholas C

    2012-08-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer death, and its incidence is increasing worldwide in an alarming manner. The development of curative therapy for advanced and metastatic HCC is a high clinical priority. The HCC genome is complex and heterogeneous; therefore, the identification of recurrent genomic and related gene alterations is critical for developing clinical applications for diagnosis, prognosis and targeted therapy of the disease. This article focuses on recent research progress and our contribution in identifying and deciphering the role of defined genetic alterations in the pathogenesis of HCC. A significant number of genes that promote or suppress HCC cell growth have been identified at the sites of genomic reorganization. Notwithstanding the accumulation of multiple genetic alterations, highly recurrent changes on a single chromosome can alter the expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) whose deregulation may be sufficient to drive the progression of normal hepatocytes to malignancy. A distinct and highly recurrent pattern of genomic imbalances in HCC includes the loss of DNA copy number (associated with loss of heterozygosity) of TSG-containing chromosome 8p and gain of DNA copy number or regional amplification of protooncogenes on chromosome 8q. Even though 8p is relatively small, it carries an unusually large number of TSGs, while, on the other side, several oncogenes are dispersed along 8q. Compelling evidence demonstrates that DLC1, a potent TSG on 8p, and MYC oncogene on 8q play a critical role in the pathogenesis of human HCC. Direct evidence for their role in the genesis of HCC has been obtained in a mosaic mouse model. Knockdown of DLC1 helps MYC in the induction of hepatoblast transformation in vitro, and in the development of HCC in vivo. Therapeutic interventions, which would simultaneously target signaling pathways governing both DLC1 and MYC functions in hepatocarcinogenesis, could

  18. Loss of Keratinocytic RXRα Combined with Activated CDK4 or oncogenic NRAS Generates UVB-induced Melanomas via Loss of p53 and PTEN in the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Daniel J.; Chagani, Sharmeen; Hyter, Stephen; Sherman, Anna M.; Löhr, Christiane V.; Liang, Xiaobo; Ganguli-Indra, Gitali; Indra, Arup K.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms behind formation of melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer, is crucial for improved diagnosis and treatment. One key is to better understand the cross-talk between epidermal keratinocytes and pigment-producing melanocytes. Here, using a bigenic mouse model system combining mutant oncogenic NRASQ61K (constitutively active RAS) or mutant activated CDK4R24C/R24C (prevents binding of CDK4 by kinase inhibitor p16INK4A) with an epidermis-specific knockout of the nuclear retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRαep−/−) results in increased melanoma formation after chronic ultraviolet-B (UVB) irradiation compared to control mice with functional RXRα. Melanomas from both groups of bigenic RXRαep−/− mice are larger in size with higher proliferative capacity, and exhibit enhanced angiogenic properties and increased expression of malignant melanoma markers. Analysis of tumor adjacent normal skin from these mice revealed altered expression of several biomarkers indicative of enhanced melanoma susceptibility, including reduced expression of tumor suppressor p53 and loss of PTEN, with concomitant increase in activated AKT. Loss of epidermal RXRα in combination with UVB significantly enhances invasion of melanocytic cells to draining lymph nodes in bigenic mice expressing oncogenic NRASQ61K compared to controls with functional RXRα. These results suggest a crucial role of keratinocytic RXRα to suppress formation of UVB-induced melanomas and their progression to malignant cancers in the context of driver mutations such as activated CDK4R24C/R24C or oncogenic NRASQ61K. PMID:25189354

  19. Oncogenes and inflammation rewire host energy metabolism in the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Curry, Joseph M; Ko, Ying-Hui; Lin, Zhao; Tuluc, Madalina; Cognetti, David; Birbe, Ruth C; Pribitkin, Edmund; Bombonati, Alessandro; Pestell, Richard G; Howell, Anthony; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Here, we developed a model system to evaluate the metabolic effects of oncogene(s) on the host microenvironment. A matched set of “normal” and oncogenically transformed epithelial cell lines were co-cultured with human fibroblasts, to determine the “bystander” effects of oncogenes on stromal cells. ROS production and glucose uptake were measured by FACS analysis. In addition, expression of a panel of metabolic protein biomarkers (Caveolin-1, MCT1, and MCT4) was analyzed in parallel. Interestingly, oncogene activation in cancer cells was sufficient to induce the metabolic reprogramming of cancer-associated fibroblasts toward glycolysis, via oxidative stress. Evidence for “metabolic symbiosis” between oxidative cancer cells and glycolytic fibroblasts was provided by MCT1/4 immunostaining. As such, oncogenes drive the establishment of a stromal-epithelial “lactate-shuttle”, to fuel the anabolic growth of cancer cells. Similar results were obtained with two divergent oncogenes (RAS and NFκB), indicating that ROS production and inflammation metabolically converge on the tumor stroma, driving glycolysis and upregulation of MCT4. These findings make stromal MCT4 an attractive target for new drug discovery, as MCT4 is a shared endpoint for the metabolic effects of many oncogenic stimuli. Thus, diverse oncogenes stimulate a common metabolic response in the tumor stroma. Conversely, we also show that fibroblasts protect cancer cells against oncogenic stress and senescence by reducing ROS production in tumor cells. Ras-transformed cells were also able to metabolically reprogram normal adjacent epithelia, indicating that cancer cells can use either fibroblasts or epithelial cells as “partners” for metabolic symbiosis. The antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) selectively halted mitochondrial biogenesis in Ras-transformed cells, but not in normal epithelia. NAC also blocked stromal induction of MCT4, indicating that NAC effectively functions as an “MCT4

  20. Cooperativity Between Oncogenic PKC Epsilon and Pten Loss in Prostate Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    pathway that correlates with motility and metastasis. Based on our preliminary data, PKCε overexpression and Pten loss individually and synergically confer...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0535 TITLE: Cooperativity Between Oncogenic PKC Epsilon and Pten Loss in Prostate Cancer Progression PRINCIPAL...Sep 2015 - 29 Sep 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Cooperativity Between Oncogenic PKC Epsilon and Pten Loss in Prostate Cancer

  1. In Vivo p53 Signaling in Breast Epithelial Cells After Oncogenic Stimulus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    AD Award Number: DAMD17-02-1-0605 TITLE: In Vivo p53 Signaling in Breast Epithelial Cells After Oncogenic Stimulus PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jamie M...SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS In Vivo p53 Signaling in Breast Epithelial Cells After DAMD17-02-1-0605 Oncogenic Stimulus 6. A UTHOR(S) Jamie M. Hearnes...NUMBER Atlanta, Georgia 31192-0303 E-Mail: Jamie . hearnes@vanderbilt. edu 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING 10. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND

  2. Determining the Function of the fps/fes Proto-oncogene in Breast Development and Malignancy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Abstract The fps/fes proto-oncogene encodes a 92 kDa protein tyrosine kinase. To understand the physiological...mammary tissue has revealed that Fps (and Fer) interact with protein components of the E- cadherin based adherens junction complex. Specifically, E...Introduction: The fps/fes proto-oncogene encodes a 92 kDa protein tyrosine kinase. To understand the biological

  3. Unique prevalence of oncogenic genetic alterations in young patients with lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kosuke; Hida, Toyoaki; Oya, Yuko; Yoshida, Tatsuya; Shimizu, Junichi; Mizuno, Tetsuya; Kuroda, Hiroaki; Sakakura, Noriaki; Yoshimura, Kenichi; Horio, Yoshitsugu; Sakao, Yukinori; Yatabe, Yasushi

    2017-05-15

    Lung adenocarcinoma in the young is a rare entity, and the oncogenic genetic alterations (GAs) and clinical characteristics associated with this disease are poorly understood. Conversely, it has been demonstrated that young age at diagnosis defines unique biology in other cancers. For this report, the effects of young age on lung adenocarcinoma are reported. The authors retrospectively screened 1746 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with stage I through IV adenocarcinoma between 2009 and 2015 and identified 81 who were aged 40 years or younger at diagnosis. The clinical and genetic characteristics of this younger population were analyzed. Of the 81 younger patients identified, 36 (44%) were men, 36 (44%) were never smokers, and the median age was 36 years (range, 26-40 years). Thirty-three patients (41%) harbored anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) translocations, 24 (30%) had epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, and 2 (2%) had v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) mutations. Rare oncogenic GAs also were studied in patients who had wild-type ALK/EGFR/KRAS adenocarcinoma, including 4 patients with HER2 mutations, 2 with Ret proto-oncogene (RET) translocations, and 2 with ROS proto-oncogene 1 receptor tyrosine kinase (ROS1) translocations. Notably, oncogenic GAs (P < .001), ALK (P < .001) and ROS1 (P = .033) translocations, and HER2 mutations (P < .001) were associated with young age, and a similar trend was observed for RET translocations (P = .108). Younger patients who had adenocarcinoma without GAs had a significantly worse prognosis compared with older patients without GAs (overall survival, 8.9 vs 16.4 months; P < .001) and patients with GAs (24.9 months; P < .001). Younger patients with adenocarcinoma have a distinctly unique prevalence of oncogenic GAs. Comprehensive oncogenic GA screening is especially recommended for personalized medicine strategies in this population. Cancer 2017;123:1731-1740. © 2017 American Cancer

  4. Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation Factor ERLIN2: Oncogenic Roles and Molecular Targeting of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    phenotype. Oncogenes, such as Her2 , play important roles in uncontrolled proliferation and survival of breast cancer cells. However, cancer cells must...transforming roles of ERLIN2 and molecular mechanisms by which ERLIN2 coordinates ER pathways in breast cancer have not been elucidated. In this... signaling in aggressive forms of human breast cancer . Accordingly, we propose that ERLIN2 represents a novel class of oncogenic factors and that

  5. Dana Farber Cancer Institute: Discovery of Novel Oncogenes | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Widespread recurrent copy number alterations are observed across the majority of human cancers, yet the specific targets of such amplified or deleted regions remain undefined. Here, the CTD2 Center at the Dana Farber Cancer Institute took a systematic approach using cDNA overexpression screening to identify and validate oncogenes residing in such amplified regions. In representative examples, these experiments have identified the adaptor proteins CRKL, GAB2, FRS2 and the TLOC and SKIL proteins as novel amplified oncogenes.

  6. Deciphering the Role of Oncogenic MITFE318K in Senescence Delay and Melanoma Progression.

    PubMed

    Bonet, Caroline; Luciani, Flavie; Ottavi, Jean-François; Leclerc, Justine; Jouenne, Fanélie-Marie; Boncompagni, Marina; Bille, Karine; Hofman, Véronique; Bossis, Guillaume; Marco de Donatis, Gian; Strub, Thomas; Cheli, Yann; Ohanna, Mickaël; Luciano, Frédéric; Marchetti, Sandrine; Rocchi, Stéphane; Birling, Marie-Christine; Avril, Marie-Françoise; Poulalhon, Nicolas; Luc, Thomas; Bertolotto, Corine

    2017-08-01

    MITF encodes an oncogenic lineage-specific transcription factor in which a germline mutation ( MITFE318K ) was identified in human patients predisposed to both nevus formation and, among other tumor types, melanoma. The molecular mechanisms underlying the oncogenic activity of MITF E318K remained uncharacterized. Here, we compared the SUMOylation status of endogenous MITF by proximity ligation assay in melanocytes isolated from wild-type (n = 3) or E318K (n = 4) MITF donors. We also used a newly generated Mitf E318K knock-in (KI) mouse model to assess the role of Mitf E318K (n = 7 to 13 mice per group) in tumor development in vivo and performed transcriptomic analysis of the tumors to identify the molecular mechanisms. Finally, using immortalized or normal melanocytes (wild-type or E318K MITF, n = 2 per group), we assessed the role of MITF E318K on the induction of senescence mediated by BRAF V600E . All statistical tests were two-sided. We demonstrated a decrease in endogenous MITF SUMOylation in melanocytes from MITF E318K patients (mean of cells with hypoSUMOylated MITF, MITF E318K vs MITF WT , 94% vs 44%, difference = 50%, 95% CI = 21.8% to 67.2%, P  = .004). The Mitf E318K mice were slightly hypopigmented (mean melanin content Mitf WT vs Mitf E318K/+ , 0.54 arbitrary units [AU] vs 0.36 AU, difference = -0.18, 95% CI = -0.36 to -0.007, P  = .04). We provided genetic evidence that Mitf E318K enhances BRaf V600E -induced nevus formation in vivo (mean nevus number for Mitf E318K , BRaf V600E vs Mitf WT , BRaf V600E , 68 vs 44, difference = 24, 95% CI = 9.1 to 38.9, P  = .006). Importantly, although Mitf E318K was not sufficient to cooperate with BRaf V600E alone in promoting metastatic melanoma, it accelerated tumor formation on a BRaf V600E , Pten-deficient background (median survival, Mitf E318K/+  = 42 days, 95% CI = 31 to 46 vs Mitf WT  = 51 days, 95% CI = 50 to 55, P  < .001

  7. Translation Start Sequences Affect the Efficiency of Silencing of Agrobacterium tumefaciens T-DNA Oncogenes1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyewon; Humann, Jodi L.; Pitrak, Jennifer S.; Cuperus, Josh T.; Parks, T. Dawn; Whistler, Cheryl A.; Mok, Machteld C.; Ream, L. Walt

    2003-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens oncogenes cause transformed plant cells to overproduce auxin and cytokinin. Two oncogenes encode enzymes that convert tryptophan to indole-3-acetic acid (auxin): iaaM (tryptophan mono-oxygenase) and iaaH (indole-3-acetamide hydrolase). A third oncogene (ipt) encodes AMP isopentenyl transferase, which produces cytokinin (isopentenyl-AMP). Inactivation of ipt and iaaM (or iaaH) abolishes tumorigenesis. Because adequate means do not exist to control crown gall, we created resistant plants by introducing transgenes designed to elicit posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) of iaaM and ipt. Transgenes that elicit silencing trigger sequence-specific destruction of the inducing RNA and messenger RNAs with related sequences. Although PTGS has proven effective against a variety of target genes, we found that a much higher percentage of transgenic lines silenced iaaM than ipt, suggesting that transgene sequences influenced the effectiveness of PTGS. Sequences required for oncogene silencing included a translation start site. A transgene encoding a translatable sense-strand RNA from the 5′ end of iaaM silenced the iaaM oncogene, but deletion of the translation start site abolished the ability of the transgene to silence iaaM. Silencing A. tumefaciens T-DNA oncogenes is a new and effective method to produce plants resistant to crown gall disease. PMID:12972655

  8. Genetic disruption of oncogenic Kras sensitizes lung cancer cells to Fas receptor-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Mou, Haiwei; Moore, Jill; Malonia, Sunil K; Li, Yingxiang; Ozata, Deniz M; Hough, Soren; Song, Chun-Qing; Smith, Jordan L; Fischer, Andrew; Weng, Zhiping; Green, Michael R; Xue, Wen

    2017-04-04

    Genetic lesions that activate KRAS account for ∼30% of the 1.6 million annual cases of lung cancer. Despite clinical need, KRAS is still undruggable using traditional small-molecule drugs/inhibitors. When oncogenic Kras is suppressed by RNA interference, tumors initially regress but eventually recur and proliferate despite suppression of Kras Here, we show that tumor cells can survive knockout of oncogenic Kras, indicating the existence of Kras-independent survival pathways. Thus, even if clinical KRAS inhibitors were available, resistance would remain an obstacle to treatment. Kras-independent cancer cells exhibit decreased colony formation in vitro but retain the ability to form tumors in mice. Comparing the transcriptomes of oncogenic Kras cells and Kras knockout cells, we identified 603 genes that were specifically up-regulated in Kras knockout cells, including the Fas gene, which encodes a cell surface death receptor involved in physiological regulation of apoptosis. Antibodies recognizing Fas receptor efficiently induced apoptosis of Kras knockout cells but not oncogenic Kras-expressing cells. Increased Fas expression in Kras knockout cells was attributed to decreased association of repressive epigenetic marks at the Fas promoter. Concordant with this observation, treating oncogenic Kras cells with histone deacetylase inhibitor and Fas-activating antibody efficiently induced apoptosis, thus bypassing the need to inhibit Kras. Our results suggest that activation of Fas could be exploited as an Achilles' heel in tumors initiated by oncogenic Kras.

  9. Oncogenic ETS proteins mimic activated RAS/MAPK signaling in prostate cells

    PubMed Central

    Hollenhorst, Peter C.; Ferris, Mary W.; Hull, Megan A.; Chae, Heejoon; Kim, Sun; Graves, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    The aberrant expression of an oncogenic ETS transcription factor is implicated in the progression of the majority of prostate cancers, 40% of melanomas, and most cases of gastrointestinal stromal tumor and Ewing's sarcoma. Chromosomal rearrangements in prostate cancer result in overexpression of any one of four ETS transcription factors. How these four oncogenic ETS genes differ from the numerous other ETS genes expressed in normal prostate and contribute to tumor progression is not understood. We report that these oncogenic ETS proteins, but not other ETS factors, enhance prostate cell migration. Genome-wide binding analysis matched this specific biological function to occupancy of a unique set of genomic sites highlighted by the presence of ETS- and AP-1-binding sequences. ETS/AP-1-binding sequences are prototypical RAS-responsive elements, but oncogenic ETS proteins activated a RAS/MAPK transcriptional program in the absence of MAPK activation. Thus, overexpression of oncogenic ETS proteins can replace RAS/MAPK pathway activation in prostate cells. The genomic description of this ETS/AP-1-regulated, RAS-responsive, gene expression program provides a resource for understanding the role of these ETS factors in both an oncogenic setting and the developmental processes where these genes normally function. PMID:22012618

  10. State of the art address oncogenes and tumor-suppressing genes

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, M.E.

    1989-05-01

    Cancer has a myriad of causes but, whatever the cause, the changes that result in neoplasia are usually genetic. Although not all DNA damage results in cancer, evidence implicates two broad classes of genes in carcinogenesis. The first class, oncogenes are genes that cause cancer. An oncogene results when there is increased and/or changed expression of the proto-oncogene. Oncogenes are dominant: when activated, they predominate over the activity of any normal alleles in the cell. Thus oncogenes act directly to cause cancer. The second class of genes associated with cancer are tumor-suppressing genes, which either code directly for, or control expression of a wide spectrum of tissue-specific differentiation antigens. Malignancy occurs in a specific cell type when expression of an appropriate tumor-suppressing gene is, homozygously, seriously distorted or completely lacking. Tumor suppressing genes also appear to regulate expression of a third, uncharacterized group of cancer-related genes that act in a recessive manner and are not expressed in the presence of the tumor-suppressing genes. We will first discuss oncogenes, then the tumor-suppressing genes. Experimental data will be used to illustrate key features of the carcinogenic process.

  11. Mouse Curve Biometrics

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, Douglas A.

    2007-10-08

    A biometric system suitable for validating user identity using only mouse movements and no specialized equipment is presented. Mouse curves (mouse movements with little or no pause between them) are individually classied and used to develop classication histograms, which are representative of an individual's typical mouse use. These classication histograms can then be compared to validate identity. This classication approach is suitable for providing continuous identity validation during an entire user session.

  12. Mutant p53 (p53-R248Q) functions as an oncogene in promoting endometrial cancer by up-regulating REGγ.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huihui; Bao, Wei; Jiang, Feizhou; Che, Qi; Chen, Zheng; Wang, Fangyuan; Tong, Huan; Dai, Chenyun; He, Xiaoying; Liao, Yun; Liu, Binya; Sun, Jing; Wan, Xiaoping

    2015-05-01

    P53 mutation plays a pivotal role in tumorigenesis of endometrial cancer (EC), here we report that the gain-of-function mutant p53-R248Q targets the proteasome activator REGγ to promote EC progression. Increased p53 expression significantly correlated with high pathological grade and lymph node metastasis in EC specimens. Manipulation of p53-R248Q in EC cells caused coincident changes in REGγ expression, and chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with PCR further indicated that p53-R248Q bound to the REGγ gene promoter at a p53 responsive element. Silencing of REGγ in EC cells attenuated the cell proliferation, migration and invasion abilities, whereas overexpression of p53-R248Q rescued these activities. Overexpression of REGγ also induced an epithelial-mesenchymal transition phenotype. Moreover, a mouse xenograft tumor model showed that REGγ promoted tumor growth, further demonstrating a p53-R248Q-REGγ oncogenic pathway. Finally, examination of EC and normal endometrium specimens confirmed the oncogenic role of REGγ, in that REGγ was more highly overexpressed in p53-positive specimens than in p53-negative specimens. Our data suggest that REGγ is a promising therapeutic target for EC with the p53-R248Q mutation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Centrosomal Nlp is an oncogenic protein that is gene-amplified in human tumors and causes spontaneous tumorigenesis in transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Shujuan; Liu, Rong; Wang, Yang; Song, Yongmei; Zuo, Lihui; Xue, Liyan; Lu, Ning; Hou, Ning; Wang, Mingrong; Yang, Xiao; Zhan, Qimin

    2010-01-01

    Disruption of mitotic events contributes greatly to genomic instability and results in mutator phenotypes. Indeed, abnormalities of mitotic components are closely associated with malignant transformation and tumorigenesis. Here we show that ninein-like protein (Nlp), a recently identified BRCA1-associated centrosomal protein involved in microtubule nucleation and spindle formation, is an oncogenic protein. Nlp was found to be overexpressed in approximately 80% of human breast and lung carcinomas analyzed. In human lung cancers, this deregulated expression was associated with NLP gene amplification. Further analysis revealed that Nlp exhibited strong oncogenic properties; for example, it conferred to NIH3T3 rodent fibroblasts the capacity for anchorage-independent growth in vitro and tumor formation in nude mice. Consistent with these data, transgenic mice overexpressing Nlp displayed spontaneous tumorigenesis in the breast, ovary, and testicle within 60 weeks. In addition, Nlp overexpression induced more rapid onset of radiation-induced lymphoma. Furthermore, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from Nlp transgenic mice showed centrosome amplification, suggesting that Nlp overexpression mimics BRCA1 loss. These findings demonstrate that Nlp abnormalities may contribute to genomic instability and tumorigenesis and suggest that Nlp might serve as a potential biomarker for clinical diagnosis and therapeutic target. PMID:20093778

  14. Ha-ras oncogene expression directed by a milk protein gene promoter: tissue specificity, hormonal regulation, and tumor induction in transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Andres, A.C.; Schoenenberger, C.A.; Groner, B.; Henninghausen, L.; LeMeur, M.; Gelinger, P.

    1987-03-01

    The activated human Ha-ras oncogene was subjected to the control of the promoter region of the murine whey acidic protein (Wap) gene, which is expressed in mammary epithelial cells in response to lactogenic hormones. The Wap-ras gene was stably introduced into the mouse germ line of five transgenic mice (one male and four females). Wap-ras expression was observed in the mammary glands of lactating females in two lines derived from female founders. The tissue-directed and hormone-dependent Wap expression was conferred on the Ha-ras oncogene. The signals governing Wap expression are located within 2.5 kilobases of 5' flanking sequence. The other two lines derived from female founders did not express the chimeric gene. In the line derived from the male founder the Wap-ras gene is integrated into the Y chromosome. Expression was found in the salivary gland of male animals only. After a long latency, Wap-ras-expressing mice developed tumors. The tumors arose in tissues expressing Wap-ras - i.e., mammary or salivary glands. Compared to the corresponding nonmalignant tissues, Wap-ras expression was enhanced in the tumors.

  15. P120-GAP associated with syndecan-2 to function as an active switch signal for Src upon transformation with oncogenic ras

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J.-W.; Chen, C.-L.; Chuang, N.-N. . E-mail: zonnc@sinica.edu.tw

    2005-04-15

    BALB/3T3 cells transfected with plasmids pcDNA3.1-[S-ras(Q{sub 61}K)] of shrimp Penaeus japonicus were applied to reveal a complex of p120-GAP/syndecan-2 being highly expressed upon transformation. Of interest, most of the p120-GAP/syndecan-2 complex was localized at caveolae, a membrane microdomain enriched with caveolin-1. To confirm the molecular interaction between syndecan-2 and p120-GAP, we further purified p120-GAP protein from mouse brains by using an affinity column of HiTrap-RACK1 and expressed mouse RACK1-encoded fusion protein and mouse syndecan-2-encoded fusion protein in bacteria. We report molecular affinities exist between p120-GAP and RACK1, syndecan-2 and RACK1 as well as p120-GAP and syndecan-2. The selective affinity between p120-GAP and syndecan-2 was found to be sufficient to detach RACK1. The p120-GAP/syndecan-2 complex was demonstrated to keep Src tyrosine kinase in an activated form. On the other hand, the syndecan-2/RACK1 complex was found to have Src in an inactivated form. These data indicate that the p120-GAP/syndecan-2 complex at caveolae could provide a docking site for Src to transmit tyrosine signaling, implying that syndecan-2/p120-GAP functions as a tumor promoter upon transformation with oncogenic ras of shrimp P. japonicus.

  16. Building a Brainier Mouse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsien, Joe Z.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a genetic engineering project to build an intelligent mouse. Cites understanding the molecular basis of learning and memory as a very important step. Concludes that while science will never create a genius mouse that plays the stock market, it can turn a mouse into a quick learner with a better memory. (YDS)

  17. Building a Brainier Mouse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsien, Joe Z.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a genetic engineering project to build an intelligent mouse. Cites understanding the molecular basis of learning and memory as a very important step. Concludes that while science will never create a genius mouse that plays the stock market, it can turn a mouse into a quick learner with a better memory. (YDS)

  18. Immunoprevention of Chemical Carcinogenesis through Early Recognition of Oncogene Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Nasti, Tahseen H.; Rudemiller, Kyle J.; Cochran, J. Barry; Kim, Hee Kyung; Tsuruta, Yuko; Fineberg, Naomi S.; Athar, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Prevention of tumors induced by environmental carcinogens has not been achieved. Skin tumors produced by polyaromatic hydrocarbons, such as 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA), often harbor an H-ras point mutation, suggesting that it is a poor target for early immunosurveillance. The application of pyrosequencing and allele-specific PCR techniques established that mutations in the genome and expression of the Mut H-ras gene could be detected as early as 1 d after DMBA application. Further, DMBA sensitization raised Mut H-ras epitope–specific CTLs capable of eliminating Mut H-ras+ preneoplastic skin cells, demonstrating that immunosurveillance is normally induced but may be ineffective owing to insufficient effector pool size and/or immunosuppression. To test whether selective pre-expansion of CD8 T cells with specificity for the single Mut H-ras epitope was sufficient for tumor prevention, MHC class I epitope–focused lentivector-infected dendritic cell– and DNA-based vaccines were designed to bias toward CTL rather than regulatory T cell induction. Mut H-ras, but not wild-type H-ras, epitope-focused vaccination generated specific CTLs and inhibited DMBA-induced tumor initiation, growth, and progression in preventative and therapeutic settings. Transferred Mut H-ras–specific effectors induced rapid tumor regression, overcoming established tumor suppression in tumor-bearing mice. These studies support further evaluation of oncogenic mutations for their potential to act as early tumor-specific, immunogenic epitopes in expanding relevant immunosurveillance effectors to block tumor formation, rather than treating established tumors. PMID:25694611

  19. Deciphering and Targeting Oncogenic Mutations and Pathways in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bottai, Giulia; Kelly, Catherine M.; Győrffy, Balázs; Székely, Borbala

    2016-01-01

    Advances in DNA and RNA sequencing revealed substantially greater genomic complexity in breast cancer than simple models of a few driver mutations would suggest. Only very few, recurrent mutations or copy-number variations in cancer-causing genes have been identified. The two most common alterations in breast cancer are TP53 (affecting the majority of triple-negative breast cancers) and PIK3CA (affecting almost half of estrogen receptor-positive cancers) mutations, followed by a long tail of individually rare mutations affecting <1%–20% of cases. Each cancer harbors from a few dozen to a few hundred potentially high-functional impact somatic variants, along with a much larger number of potentially high-functional impact germline variants. It is likely that it is the combined effect of all genomic variations that drives the clinical behavior of a given cancer. Furthermore, entirely new classes of oncogenic events are being discovered in the noncoding areas of the genome and in noncoding RNA species driven by errors in RNA editing. In light of this complexity, it is not unexpected that, with the exception of HER2 amplification, no robust molecular predictors of benefit from targeted therapies have been identified. In this review, we summarize the current genomic portrait of breast cancer, focusing on genetic aberrations that are actively being targeted with investigational drugs. Implications for Practice: Next-generation sequencing is now widely available in the clinic, but interpretation of the results is challenging, and its impact on treatment selection is often limited. This work provides an overview of frequently encountered molecular abnormalities in breast cancer and discusses their potential therapeutic implications. This review emphasizes the importance of administering investigational targeted therapies, or off-label use of approved targeted drugs, in the context of a formal clinical trial or registry programs to facilitate learning about the clinical

  20. Human papillomavirus DNA and oncogene alterations in colorectal tumors.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Luis Orlando; Barbisan, Gisela; Ottino, Anabel; Pianzola, Horacio; Golijow, Carlos Daniel

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine the presence and molecular integrity of high-risk HPV types in colorectal adenocarcinomas and to assess whether viral DNA is related to common proto-oncogene alterations, such as k-ras mutations and c-myc gene amplification, in colorectal cancer. Seventy-five colorectal adenocarcinomas were screened for HPV infection using nested-PCR (MY09/11-GP5+/6+). HPV typing was performed by type-specific PCR for HPV 16 and HPV 18 DNA. Unidentified samples were subsequently sequenced to determine the viral genotype. The physical status of HPV was determined by a nested PCR approach for type-specific E2 sequences. C-myc amplification was assessed by co-amplification with β-globin as control locus, and mutation in k-ras codons 12 and 13 by ARMS-PCR. Overall, HPV was detected in thirty-three colorectal specimens (44%). HPV 16 was the prevalent type (16/75), followed by HPV 18 (15/75), HPV 31 (1/75) and HPV 66 (1/75). E2 disruption was detected in 56.3% of HPV 16 and in 40% of HPV 18 positive tumors. C-myc amplification was detected in 29.4% of cases, while k-ras mutations in 30.7%. There was no significant trend for HPV infection in tumors harboring either k-ras or c-myc alterations. This study demonstrates HPV DNA and viral integration in colorectal tumors, suggesting a potential role of this virus in colorectal carcinogenesis. There was no concurrence, however, of k-ras and c-myc activation with viral infection.

  1. Dominant negative and loss of function mutations of the c-kit (mast/stem cell growth factor receptor) proto-oncogene in human piebaldism

    SciTech Connect

    Spritz, R.A.; Giebel, L.B.; Holmes, S.A. )

    1992-02-01

    Piebaldism is an autosomal dominant disorder of melanocyte development and is characterized by congenital white parches of skin and hair from which melanocytes are completely absent. A similar disorder of the mouse, 'dominant white spotting' (W), results from mutations of the c-kit proto-oncogene, which encodes the cellular tyrosine kinases receptor for the mast/stem cell growth factor. The authors have identified c-kit gene mutations in three patients with piebaldism. A missense substitution (Phe[r arrow]Leu) at codon 584, within the tyrosine kinases domain, is associated with a severe piebald phenotype, whereas two different frameshifts, within codons 561 and 642, are both associated with a variable and relatively mild piebald phenotype. This is consistent with a possible 'dominant negative' effect of missense c-kit polypeptides on the function of the dimeric receptor.

  2. Spi-1, Fli-1 and Fli-3 (miR-17-92) oncogenes contribute to a single oncogenic network controlling cell proliferation in friend erythroleukemia.

    PubMed

    Kayali, Samer; Giraud, Guillaume; Morlé, François; Guyot, Boris

    2012-01-01

    Clonal erythroleukemia developing in susceptible mice infected by Friend virus complex are associated with highly recurrent proviral insertions at one of three loci called Spi-1, Fli-1 or Fli-3, leading to deregulated expression of oncogenic Spi-1 or Fli-1 transcription factors or miR-17-92 miRNA cluster, respectively. Deregulated expression of each of these three oncogenes has been independently shown to contribute to cell proliferation of erythroleukemic clones. Previous studies showed a close relationship between Spi-1 and Fli-1, which belong to the same ETS family, Spi-1 activating fli-1 gene, and both Spi-1 and Fli-1 activating multiple common target genes involved in ribosome biogenesis. In this study, we demonstrated that Spi-1 and Fli-1 are also involved in direct miR-17-92 transcriptional activation through their binding to a conserved ETS binding site in its promoter. Moreover, we demonstrated that physiological re-expression of exogenous miR-17 and miR-20a are able to partially rescue the proliferation loss induced by Fli-1 knock-down and identified HBP1 as a target of these miRNA in erythroleukemic cells. These results establish that three of the most recurrently activated oncogenes in Friend erythroleukemia are actually involved in a same oncogenic network controlling cell proliferation. The putative contribution of a similar ETS-miR-17-92 network module in other normal or pathological proliferative contexts is discussed.

  3. Spi-1, Fli-1 and Fli-3 (miR-17-92) Oncogenes Contribute to a Single Oncogenic Network Controlling Cell Proliferation in Friend Erythroleukemia

    PubMed Central

    Kayali, Samer; Giraud, Guillaume; Morlé, François; Guyot, Boris

    2012-01-01

    Clonal erythroleukemia developing in susceptible mice infected by Friend virus complex are associated with highly recurrent proviral insertions at one of three loci called Spi-1, Fli-1 or Fli-3, leading to deregulated expression of oncogenic Spi-1 or Fli-1 transcription factors or miR-17-92 miRNA cluster, respectively. Deregulated expression of each of these three oncogenes has been independently shown to contribute to cell proliferation of erythroleukemic clones. Previous studies showed a close relationship between Spi-1 and Fli-1, which belong to the same ETS family, Spi-1 activating fli-1 gene, and both Spi-1 and Fli-1 activating multiple common target genes involved in ribosome biogenesis. In this study, we demonstrated that Spi-1 and Fli-1 are also involved in direct miR-17-92 transcriptional activation through their binding to a conserved ETS binding site in its promoter. Moreover, we demonstrated that physiological re-expression of exogenous miR-17 and miR-20a are able to partially rescue the proliferation loss induced by Fli-1 knock-down and identified HBP1 as a target of these miRNA in erythroleukemic cells. These results establish that three of the most recurrently activated oncogenes in Friend erythroleukemia are actually involved in a same oncogenic network controlling cell proliferation. The putative contribution of a similar ETS-miR-17-92 network module in other normal or pathological proliferative contexts is discussed. PMID:23056458

  4. Specific Oncogenic Activity of the Src-Family Tyrosine Kinase c-Yes in Colon Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Paquay de Plater, Ludmilla; Edmonds, Thomas; David, Géraldine; Jan, Michel; de Montrion, Catherine; Cogé, Francis; Léonce, Stéphane; Burbridge, Michael; Bruno, Alain; Boutin, Jean A.; Lockhart, Brian; Roche, Serge; Cruzalegui, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    c-Yes, a member of the Src tyrosine kinase family, is found highly activated in colon carcinoma but its importance relative to c-Src has remained unclear. Here we show that, in HT29 colon carcinoma cells, silencing of c-Yes, but not of c-Src, selectively leads to an increase of cell clustering associated with a localisation of β-catenin at cell membranes and a reduction of expression of β-catenin target genes. c-Yes silencing induced an increase in apoptosis, inhibition of growth in soft-agar and in mouse xenografts, inhibition of cell migration and loss of the capacity to generate liver metastases in mice. Re-introduction of c-Yes, but not c -Src, restores transforming properties of c-Yes depleted cells. Moreover, we found that c-Yes kinase activity is required for its role in β-catenin localisation and growth in soft agar, whereas kinase activity is dispensable for its role in cell migration. We conclude that c-Yes regulates specific oncogenic signalling pathways important for colon cancer progression that is not shared with c-Src. PMID:21390316

  5. Specific oncogenic activity of the Src-family tyrosine kinase c-Yes in colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sancier, Florence; Dumont, Aurélie; Sirvent, Audrey; Paquay de Plater, Ludmilla; Edmonds, Thomas; David, Géraldine; Jan, Michel; de Montrion, Catherine; Cogé, Francis; Léonce, Stéphane; Burbridge, Michael; Bruno, Alain; Boutin, Jean A; Lockhart, Brian; Roche, Serge; Cruzalegui, Francisco

    2011-02-24

    c-Yes, a member of the Src tyrosine kinase family, is found highly activated in colon carcinoma but its importance relative to c-Src has remained unclear. Here we show that, in HT29 colon carcinoma cells, silencing of c-Yes, but not of c-Src, selectively leads to an increase of cell clustering associated with a localisation of β-catenin at cell membranes and a reduction of expression of β-catenin target genes. c-Yes silencing induced an increase in apoptosis, inhibition of growth in soft-agar and in mouse xenografts, inhibition of cell migration and loss of the capacity to generate liver metastases in mice. Re-introduction of c-Yes, but not c -Src, restores transforming properties of c-Yes depleted cells. Moreover, we found that c-Yes kinase activity is required for its role in β-catenin localisation and growth in soft agar, whereas kinase activity is dispensable for its role in cell migration. We conclude that c-Yes regulates specific oncogenic signalling pathways important for colon cancer progression that is not shared with c-Src.

  6. Cytokinesis failure due to derailed integrin traffic induces aneuploidy and oncogenic transformation in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Högnäs, G; Tuomi, S; Veltel, S; Mattila, E; Murumägi, A; Edgren, H; Kallioniemi, O; Ivaska, J

    2012-01-01

    Aneuploidy is frequently detected in solid tumors but the mechanisms regulating the generation of aneuploidy and their relevance in cancer initiation remain under debate and are incompletely characterized. Spatial and temporal regulation of integrin traffic is critical for cell migration and cytokinesis. Impaired integrin endocytosis, because of the loss of Rab21 small GTPase or mutations in the integrin β-subunit cytoplasmic tail, induces failure of cytokinesis in vitro. Here, we describe that repeatedly failed cytokinesis, because of impaired traffic, is sufficient to trigger the generation of aneuploid cells, which display characteristics of oncogenic transformation in vitro and are tumorigenic in vivo. Furthermore, in an in vivo mouse xenograft model, non-transformed cells with impaired integrin traffic formed tumors with a long latency. More detailed investigation of these tumors revealed that the tumor cells were aneuploid. Therefore, abnormal integrin traffic was linked with generation of aneuploidy and cell transformation also in vivo. In human prostate and ovarian cancer samples, downregulation of Rab21 correlates with increased malignancy. Loss-of-function experiments demonstrate that long-term depletion of Rab21 is sufficient to induce chromosome number aberrations in normal human epithelial cells. These data are the first to demonstrate that impaired integrin traffic is sufficient to induce conversion of non-transformed cells to tumorigenic cells in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22120710

  7. RelA regulates CXCL1/CXCR2-dependent oncogene-induced senescence in murine Kras-driven pancreatic carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lesina, Marina; Wörmann, Sonja Maria; Diakopoulos, Kalliope Nina; Korneeva, Olga; Wimmer, Margit; Sperveslage, Jan; Demir, Ihsan Ekin; Kehl, Timo; Saur, Dieter; Heikenwälder, Mathias; Steiner, Jörg Manfred; Wang, Timothy Cragin; Sansom, Owen J.; Schmid, Roland Michael

    2016-01-01

    Tumor suppression that is mediated by oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) is considered to function as a safeguard during development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). However, the mechanisms that regulate OIS in PDAC are poorly understood. Here, we have determined that nuclear RelA reinforces OIS to inhibit carcinogenesis in the Kras mouse model of PDAC. Inactivation of RelA accelerated pancreatic lesion formation in Kras mice by abrogating the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) gene transcription signature. Using genetic and pharmacological tools, we determined that RelA activation promotes OIS via elevation of the SASP factor CXCL1 (also known as KC), which activates CXCR2, during pancreatic carcinogenesis. In Kras mice, pancreas-specific inactivation of CXCR2 prevented OIS and was correlated with increased tumor proliferation and decreased survival. Moreover, reductions in CXCR2 levels were associated with advanced neoplastic lesions in tissue from human pancreatic specimens. Genetically disabling OIS in Kras mice caused RelA to promote tumor proliferation, suggesting a dual role for RelA signaling in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Taken together, our data suggest a pivotal role for RelA in regulating OIS in preneoplastic lesions and implicate the RelA/CXCL1/CXCR2 axis as an essential mechanism of tumor surveillance in PDAC. PMID:27454298

  8. NF-κB in T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Oncogenic Functions in Leukemic and in Microenvironmental Cells

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Nuno R.; Ghezzo, Marinella N.; da Silva, Ricardo C.; Fernandes, Mónica T.

    2010-01-01

    Two main NF-κB signaling pathways, canonical and noncanonical, performing distinct functions in organisms have been characterized. Identification of mutations in genes encoding components of these NF-κB signaling pathways in lymphoid malignancies confirmed their key role in leukemogenesis. T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive malignancy of thymocytes that despite significant therapeutic advances can still be fatal. Although mutations in NF-κB genes have not been reported in T-ALL, NF-κB constitutive activation in human T-ALL and in acute T-cell leukemia mouse models has been observed. Although these studies revealed activation of members of both canonical and noncanonical NF-κB pathways in acute T-cell leukemia, only inhibition of canonical NF-κB signaling was shown to impair leukemic T cell growth. Besides playing an important pro-oncogenic role in leukemic T cells, NF-κB signaling also appears to modulate T-cell leukemogenesis through its action in microenvironmental stromal cells. This article reviews recent data on the role of these transcription factors in T-ALL and pinpoints further research crucial to determine the value of NF-κB inhibition as a means to treat T-ALL. PMID:24281204

  9. Histone deacetylase 1 plays a predominant pro-oncogenic role in Eμ-myc driven B cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Pillonel, Vincent; Reichert, Nina; Cao, Chun; Heideman, Marinus R.; Yamaguchi, Teppei; Matthias, Gabriele; Tzankov, Alexandar; Matthias, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The two histone deacetylases (Hdacs), Hdac1 and Hdac2, are erasers of acetylation marks on histone tails, and are important regulators of gene expression that were shown to play important roles in hematological malignancies. However, several recent studies reported opposing tumor-suppressive or tumor-promoting roles for Hdac1 and Hdac2. Here, we investigated the functional role of Hdac1 and Hdac2 using the Eμ-myc mouse model of B cell lymphoma. We demonstrate that Hdac1 and Hdac2 have a pro-oncogenic role in both Eμ-myc tumorigenesis and tumor maintenance. Hdac1 and Hdac2 promote tumorigenesis in a gene dose-dependent manner, with a predominant function of Hdac1. Our data show that Hdac1 and Hdac2 impact on Eμ-myc B cell proliferation and apoptosis and suggest that a critical level of Hdac activity may be required for Eμ-myc tumorigenesis and proper B cell development. This provides the rationale for utilization of selective Hdac1 and Hdac2 inhibitors in the treatment of hematological malignancies. PMID:27886239

  10. Transcriptional regulation of the proto‐oncogene Zfp521 by SPI1 (PU.1) and HOXC13

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ming; Al‐Dallal, Salma; Al‐Haj, Latifa; Panjwani, Shiraj; McCartney, Akina S.; Edwards, Sarah M.; Manjunath, Pooja; Walker, Catherine; Awgulewitsch, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The mouse zinc‐finger gene Zfp521 (also known as ecotropic viral insertion site 3; Evi3; and ZNF521 in humans) has been identified as a B‐cell proto‐oncogene, causing leukemia in mice following retroviral insertions in its promoter region that drive Zfp521 over‐expression. Furthermore, ZNF521 is expressed in human hematopoietic cells, and translocations between ZNF521 and PAX5 are associated with pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However, the regulatory factors that control Zfp521 expression directly have not been characterized. Here we demonstrate that the transcription factors SPI1 (PU.1) and HOXC13 synergistically regulate Zfp521 expression, and identify the regions of the Zfp521 promoter required for this transcriptional activity. We also show that SPI1 and HOXC13 activate Zfp521 in a dose‐dependent manner. Our data support a role for this regulatory mechanism in vivo, as transgenic mice over‐expressing Hoxc13 in the fetal liver show a strong correlation between Hoxc13 expression levels and Zfp521 expression. Overall these experiments provide insights into the regulation of Zfp521 expression in a nononcogenic context. The identification of transcription factors capable of activating Zfp521 provides a foundation for further investigation of the regulatory mechanisms involved in ZFP521‐driven cell differentiation processes and diseases linked to Zfp521 mis‐expression. PMID:27506447

  11. Characterization of c-Ki-ras oncogene alleles by direct sequencing of enzymatically amplified DNA from carcinogen-induced tumors

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, G.; Davis, E.; Wogan, G.N.

    1987-07-01

    Activated c-Ki-ras genes in liver tumors from rats exposed to the potent hepatocarcinogen aflatoxin B/sub 1/ were analyzed to determine the nature of their activation by characterization of two c-Ki-ras alleles present in tumor-derived NIH 3T3 mouse transformants. Using selective hybridization of synthetic oligonucleotides to transformant DNA, the authors have determined that a single G x C to A x T base transition in either the first or second position of the 12th codon is associated with activation of the gene. Such mutations would lead to amino acid substitutions of aspartate or serine for glycine in the mutant proteins. To confirm these findings, they applied a technique for direct sequence analysis of a 90-base-pair region of the rat c-Ki-ras gene produced by primer-directed enzymatic amplification. Findings produced by this approach, which provides a convenient method to characterize mutations in multiple alleles without the necessity to clone individual genes, confirmed the presence and identify of the 12th codon mutations in the activated oncogene, as initially determined by the oligonucleotide hybridization technique.

  12. A Compendium of the Mouse Mammary Tumor Biologist: From the Initial Observations in the House Mouse to the Development of Genetically Engineered Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cardiff, Robert D.; Kenney, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    For over a century, mouse mammary tumor biology and the associated mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) have served as the foundation for experimental cancer research, in general, and, in particular, experimental breast cancer research. Spontaneous mouse mammary tumors were the basis for studies of the natural history of neoplasia, oncogenic viruses, host responses, endocrinology and neoplastic progression. However, lacking formal proof of a human mammary tumor virus, the preeminence of the mouse model faded in the 1980s. Since the late 1980s, genetically engineered mice (GEM) have proven extremely useful for studying breast cancer and have become the animal model for human breast cancer. Hundreds of mouse models of human breast cancer have been developed since the first demonstration in 1984. The GEM have attracted a new generation of molecular and cellular biologists eager to apply their skill sets to these surrogates of the human disease. Newcomers often enter the field without an appreciation of the origins of mouse mammary tumor biology and the basis for many of the prevailing concepts. Our purpose in writing this compendium is to extend an “olive branch” while simultaneously deepen the knowledge of the novice mouse mammary tumor biologist as they journey into a field rich in pathology and genetics spanning several centuries. PMID:20961975

  13. A compendium of the mouse mammary tumor biologist: from the initial observations in the house mouse to the development of genetically engineered mice.

    PubMed

    Cardiff, Robert D; Kenney, Nicholas

    2011-06-01

    For over a century, mouse mammary tumor biology and the associated mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) have served as the foundation for experimental cancer research, in general, and, in particular, experimental breast cancer research. Spontaneous mouse mammary tumors were the basis for studies of the natural history of neoplasia, oncogenic viruses, host responses, endocrinology and neoplastic progression. However, lacking formal proof of a human mammary tumor virus, the preeminence of the mouse model faded in the 1980s. Since the late 1980s, genetically engineered mice (GEM) have proven extremely useful for studying breast cancer and have become the animal model for human breast cancer. Hundreds of mouse models of human breast cancer have been developed since the first demonstration in 1984. The GEM have attracted a new generation of molecular and cellular biologists eager to apply their skill sets to these surrogates of the human disease. Newcomers often enter the field without an appreciation of the origins of mouse mammary tumor biology and the basis for many of the prevailing concepts. Our purpose in writing this compendium is to extend an "olive branch" while simultaneously deepen the knowledge of the novice mouse mammary tumor biologist as they journey into a field rich in pathology and genetics spanning several centuries.

  14. Developments in Burkitt’s lymphoma: novel cooperations in oncogenic MYC signaling

    PubMed Central

    Spender, Lindsay C; Inman, Gareth J

    2014-01-01

    Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive disorder associated with extremely high rates of cell proliferation tempered by high levels of apoptosis. Despite the high levels of cell death, the net effect is one of rapid tumor growth. The tumor arises within the germinal centers of secondary lymphoid tissues and is identifiable by translocation of the c-MYC gene into the immunoglobulin gene loci, resulting in deregulation of the proto-oncogene. Many of the major players involved in determining the development of BL have been characterized in human BL cell lines or in mouse models of MYC-driven lymphomagenesis. Both systems have been useful so far in characterizing the role of tumor suppressor genes (for example, p53), prosurvival signaling pathways, and members of the B-cell lymphoma-2 family of apoptosis regulators in determining the fate of c-MYC overexpressing B-cells, and ultimately in regulating lymphoma development. Signaling through phosphoinositide (PI)3-kinase stands out as being critical for BL cell survival. Recurrent mutations in ID3 or TCF3 (E2A) that promote signaling through PI3-kinase have recently been identified in human BL samples, and new therapeutic strategies based on coordinately targeting both the prosurvival factor, B-cell lymphoma-XL, and the PI3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway to synergistically induced BL apoptosis have been proposed. Now, engineering both constitutive c-MYC expression and PI3-kinase activity, specifically in murine B-cells undergoing the germinal center reaction, has revealed that there is synergistic cooperation between c-MYC and PI3-kinase during BL development. The resulting tumors phenocopy the human malignancy, and acquire tertiary mutations also present in human tumors. This model may, therefore, prove useful in further studies to identify functionally relevant mutational events necessary for BL pathogenesis. This review discusses these cooperating interactions, the possible

  15. The Colony Stimulating Factor 3 Receptor T640N mutation is oncogenic, sensitive to JAK inhibition, and mimics T618I

    PubMed Central

    Maxson, Julia E.; Luty, Samuel B.; MacManiman, Jason D.; Paik, Jason C.; Gotlib, Jason; Greenberg, Peter; Bahamadi, Swaleh; Savage, Samantha L.; Abel, Melissa L.; Eide, Christopher A.; Loriaux, Marc M.; Stevens, Emily A.; Tyner, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose CSF3R mutations have been identified in the majority of chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) and a smaller percentage of atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML) cases. Although CSF3R point mutations (e.g. T618I) are emerging as key players in CNL/aCML, the significance of rarer CSF3R mutations is unknown. In this study we assess the importance of the CSF3R T640N mutation as a marker of CNL/aCML and potential therapeutic target. Experimental Design Sanger sequencing of leukemia samples was performed to identify CSF3R mutations in CNL and aCML. The oncogenicity of the CSF3R T640N mutation relative to the T618I mutation was assessed by cytokine independent growth assays and by mouse bone marrow transplant. Receptor dimerization and O-glycosylation of the mutants was assessed by western blot, and JAK inhibitor sensitivity was assessed by colony assay. Results Here we identify a CSF3R T640N mutation in two patients with CNL/aCML, one of whom was originally diagnosed with MDS and acquired the T640N mutation upon evolution of disease to aCML. The T640N mutation is oncogenic in cellular transformation assays and an in vivo mouse bone marrow transplantation model. It exhibits many similar phenotypic features to T618I, including ligand independence and altered patterns of O-glycosylation – despite the transmembrane location of T640 preventing access by GalNAc transferase enzymes. Cells transformed by the T640N mutation are sensitive to JAK kinase inhibition to a similar degree as cells transformed by CSF3R T618I. Conclusions Due to its similarities to CSF3R T618I, the T640N mutation likely has diagnostic and therapeutic relevance in CNL/aCML. PMID:26475333

  16. Diversity of mutations in the RET proto-oncogene and its oncogenic mechanism in medullary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Hedayati, Mehdi; Zarif Yeganeh, Marjan; Sheikholeslami, Sara; Afsari, Farinaz

    2016-08-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and accounts for nearly 1% of all of human cancer. Thyroid cancer has four main histological types: papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic. Papillary, follicular, and anaplastic thyroid carcinomas are derived from follicular thyroid cells, whereas medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) originates from the neural crest parafollicular cells or C-cells of the thyroid gland. MTC represents a neuroendocrine tumor and differs considerably from differentiated thyroid carcinoma. MTC is one of the aggressive types of thyroid cancer, which represents 3-10% of all thyroid cancers. It occurs in hereditary (25%) and sporadic (75%) forms. The hereditary form of MTC has an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. According to the present classification, hereditary MTC is classified as a multiple endocrine neoplasi type 2 A & B (MEN2A & MEN2B) and familial MTC (FMTC). The RET proto-oncogene is located on chromosome 10q11.21. It is composed of 21 exons and encodes a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase. RET regulates a complex network of signal transduction pathways during development, survival, proliferation, differentiation, and migration of the enteric nervous system progenitor cells. Gain of function mutations in RET have been well demonstrated in MTC development. Variants of MTC result from different RET mutations, and they have a good genotype-phenotype correlation. Various MTC related mutations have been reported in different exons of the RET gene. We proposed that RET genetic mutations may be different in distinct populations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to find a geographical pattern of RET mutations in different populations.

  17. Effects of siRNA on RET/PTC3 Junction Oncogene in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: From Molecular and Cellular Studies to Preclinical Investigations

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Hafiz Muhammad; Urbinati, Giorgia; Chapuis, Hubert; DesmaEle, Didier; Bertrand, Jean-Rémi; Couvreur, Patrick; Massaad-Massade, Liliane

    2014-01-01

    RET/PTC3 junction oncogene is typical of radiation-induced childhood papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with a short latency period. Since, RET/PTC3 is only present in the tumour cells, thus represents an interesting target for specific therapy by small interfering RNA (siRNA). Our aim is to demonstrate in vitro and in vivo molecular and cellular effects of siRNA on RET/PTC3 knockdown for therapeutic application.First, we established a novel cell line stably expressing RET/PTC3 junction oncogene, named RP3 which was found tumorigenic in nude mice compared to NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblasts. Among four siRNAs and five concentrations tested against RET/PTC3, an efficient siRNA RET/PTC3 and an appropriate dose (50 nM) were selected which showed significant inhibition (p<0.001) of gene (RT-qPCR) and protein (Western blot) expressions. This siRNA was found efficient in RP3 cells (harbouring RET/PTC3) but non-efficient in BHP10-3 SCmice cell line (harbouring RET/PTC1) showing that a specific siRNA against fusion sequence is required to target the junction oncogene. In vitro siRNA RET/PTC3 showed significant (p<0.001) inhibitory effects on RP3 cell viability (MTT assay) and on invasion/migration (IncuCyte scratch test) with blockage of cell cycle at G0/G1 phase (flow cytometry) and induced apoptosis by caspase-3 and PARP1 cleavage (WB). After intravenous injection in nude mice, respective squalene (SQ) nanoparticles (NPs) of siRNA RET/PTC3 significantly (p<0.001) reduced RP3 tumour growth, oncogene and oncoprotein expressions, induced apoptosis and partially restored differentiation (decrease in Ki67). Hence, our findings highly support the use of siRNA RET/PTC3-SQ NPs as a new promising treatment for patients affected by PTC expressing RET/PTC3. PMID:24759995

  18. The roles of oncogenic miRNAs and their therapeutic importance in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    O'Bryan, Samia; Dong, Shengli; Mathis, J Michael; Alahari, Suresh K

    2017-02-01

    Since the discovery of tumour suppressive miRNA in 2002, the dysregulation of miRNAs was implicated in many cancers, exhibiting both tumour suppressive and oncogenic roles. Dysregulation of miRNAs was found to be involved in the initiation of oncogenesis, as well as the progression, invasion and metastasis of cancers. While normal miRNA inhibitory functions help regulate gene expression in the cell, oncogenic miRNA, when dysregulated can lead to suppression of critical pathways that control apoptosis, cell cycle progression, growth and proliferation. This suppression allows for the upregulation of pro-oncogenic factors that drive cell survival, growth and proliferation. Due to emerging discoveries, oncogenic miRNAs are proving to be a critical component in cancers, such as breast cancer, and may provide novel avenues for cancer treatment. In this article, we discuss the roles of the most studied oncogenic miRNAs in breast cancer including clusters and families involved as well as the less studied and recently discovered oncogenic miRNAs. These miRNAs provide valuable information into the complexity of regulatory elements affected by their overexpression and the overall impact in the progression of breast cancer. Also, identifying miRNAs causing or leading to resistance or sensitivity to current anti-cancer drugs prior to treatment may lead to an improvement in treatment selection and overall patient response. This review summarizes known and recently discovered miRNAs in literature found to have oncogenic roles in breast cancer initiation and the progression, invasion and metastasis of the disease.

  19. Targeting the function of the HER2 oncogene in human cancer therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Moasser, Mark M.

    2011-01-01

    The year 2007 marks exactly two decades since HER2 was functionally implicated in the pathogenesis of human breast cancer (Slamon et al. 1987). This finding established the HER2 oncogene hypothesis for the development of some human cancers. An abundance of experimental evidence compiled over the past two decades now solidly supports the HER2 oncogene hypothesis. A direct consequence of this hypothesis was the promise that inhibitors of oncogenic HER2 would be highly effective treatments for HER2-driven cancers. This treatment hypothesis has led to the development and widespread use of anti-HER2 antibodies (trastuzumab) in clinical management resulting in significantly improved clinical anti-tumor efficacies that have transformed the clinical practice of oncology. In the shadows of this irrefutable clinical success, scientific studies have not yet been able to mechanistically validate that trastuzumab inhibits oncogenic HER2 function and it remains possible that the current clinical advances are a consequence of the oncogene hypothesis but not a translation of it. These looming scientific uncertainties suggest that the full promise of the treatment hypothesis may not yet have been realized. The coming decade will see a second generation of HER2 targeting agents brought into clinical testing and a renewed attempt to treat HER2-driven cancers through the inactivation HER2. Here I review the development of treatments that target HER2 in the context of the HER2 oncogene hypothesis, and where we stand with regards to the clinical translation of the HER2 oncogene hypothesis. PMID:17486079

  20. Mutational landscape of EGFR-, MYC-, and Kras-driven genetically engineered mouse models of lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, David G.; Politi, Katerina; Bhutkar, Arjun; Chen, Frances K.; Song, Xiaoling; Pirun, Mono; Santiago, Philip M.; Kim-Kiselak, Caroline; Platt, James T.; Lee, Emily; Hodges, Emily; Rosebrock, Adam P.; Bronson, Roderick T.; Socci, Nicholas D.; Hannon, Gregory J.; Jacks, Tyler; Varmus, Harold

    2016-01-01

    Genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of cancer are increasingly being used to assess putative driver mutations identified by large-scale sequencing of human cancer genomes. To accurately interpret experiments that introduce additional mutations, an understanding of the somatic genetic profile and evolution of GEMM tumors is necessary. Here, we performed whole-exome sequencing of tumors from three GEMMs of lung adenocarcinoma driven by mutant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mutant Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (Kras), or overexpression of MYC proto-oncogene. Tumors from EGFR- and Kras-driven models exhibited, respectively, 0.02 and 0.07 nonsynonymous mutations per megabase, a dramatically lower average mutational frequency than observed in human lung adenocarcinomas. Tumors from models driven by strong cancer drivers (mutant EGFR and Kras) harbored few mutations in known cancer genes, whereas tumors driven by MYC, a weaker initiating oncogene in the murine lung, acquired recurrent clonal oncogenic Kras mutations. In addition, although EGFR- and Kras-driven models both exhibited recurrent whole-chromosome DNA copy number alterations, the specific chromosomes altered by gain or loss were different in each model. These data demonstrate that GEMM tumors exhibit relatively simple somatic genotypes compared with human cancers of a similar type, making these autochthonous model systems useful for additive engineering approaches to assess the potential of novel mutations on tumorigenesis, cancer progression, and drug sensitivity. PMID:27702896

  1. The oncogenic action of ionizing radiation on rat skin

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, F.J.; Garte, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    The multistage theory of carcinogenesis specifies that cells progress to cancer through a series of discrete, irreversible genetic alterations, but data on radiation-induced cancer incidence in rat skin suggests that an intermediate repairable alteration may occur. Data are presented on cancer induction in rat skin exposed to an electron beam (LET=0.34 keV/[mu]), a neon ion beam (LET=45) or an argon ion beam (LET=125). The rats were observed for tumors at least 78 weeks with squamous and basal cell carcinomas observed. The total cancer yield was fitted by the quadratic equation, and the equation parameters were estimated by linear regression for each type of radiation. Analysis of the DNA from the electron-induced carcinomas indicated that K-ras and/or c-myc oncogenes were activated. In situ hybridization indicated that the cancers contain subpopulations of cells with differing amounts of c-myc and H-ras amplification. The results are consistent with the idea that ionizing radiation produces stable, carcinogenically relevant lesions via 2 repairable events at low LET and via a non-repairable linked event pathway at high LET; either pathway may advance the cell by 1 stage. The proliferative response of rat epidermis following exposure to ionizing radiation was quantified by injection of [sup 14]C-thymidine. The return of these cells to S-phase a second time was detected by a second label ([sup 3]H). When the labeled cells were in G1-phase, the dorsal skin was irradiated with X-rays. All labeling indices were determined. The [sup 14]C labeling index was constant and unaffected by the radiation. The proportion of all cells entering S-phase averaged 3.5% at 18 hr and increased after 44, 52 and 75 hr to average levels of 11.8%, 5. 3%, and 6.6% at 0, 10 and 25 Gy respectively. The proportion of S-phase cells labeled with [sup 14]C increased after 42 hr and remained relatively constant thereafter.

  2. Activation of c-myc and c-K-ras oncogenes in primary rat tumors induced by ionizing radiation.

    PubMed Central

    Sawey, M J; Hood, A T; Burns, F J; Garte, S J

    1987-01-01

    An activated K-ras oncogene was detected by transfection in NIH 3T3 cells and by Southern blot analysis in 6 of 12 rat skin tumors induced by ionizing radiation. The DNA from 10 of the 12 tumors also showed c-myc gene amplification and restriction polymorphisms. Evidence for tissue specificity was observed in patterns of oncogene activation, with each of three clear cell carcinomas exhibiting activation of both c-myc and K-ras oncogenes. Images PMID:3547086

  3. Establishing the colitis-associated cancer progression mouse models.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Haiming; Lu, Zhanjun; Wang, Ruhua; Chen, Niwei; Zheng, Ping

    2016-12-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been reported as an important inducer of colorectal cancer (CRC). The most malignant IBD-associated CRC type has been highlighted as colitis-associated cancer (CAC). However, lack of CAC cases and difficulties of the long follow-up research have challenged researchers in molecular mechanism probing. Here, we established pre-CAC mouse models (dextran sulfate sodium [DSS] group and azoxymethane [AOM] group) and CAC mouse model (DSS/AOM group) to mimic human CAC development through singly or combinational treatment with DSS and AOM followed by disease activity index analysis. We found that these CAC mice showed much more severe disease phenotype, including serious diarrhea, body weight loss, rectal prolapse and bleeding, bloody stool, tumor burden, and bad survival. By detecting expression patterns of several therapeutic targets-Apc, p53, Kras, and TNF-α-in these mouse models through western blot, histology analysis, qRT-PCR, and ELISA methods, we found that the oncogene Kras expression remained unchanged, while the tumor suppressors-Apc and p53 expression were both significantly downregulated with malignancy progression from pre-CAC to CAC, and TNF-α level was elevated the most in CAC mice blood which is of potential clinical use. These data indicated the successful establishment of CAC development mouse models, which mimics human CAC well both in disease phenotype and molecular level, and highlighted the promoting role of inflammation in CAC progression. This useful tool will facilitate the further study in CAC molecular mechanism.

  4. Limited Role of Murine ATM in Oncogene-Induced Senescence and p53-Dependent Tumor Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Pastor, Barbara; Ortega-Molina, Ana; Soria, Rebeca; Collado, Manuel; Fernandez-Capetillo, Oscar; Serrano, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies in human fibroblasts have provided a new general paradigm of tumor suppression according to which oncogenic signaling produces DNA damage and this, in turn, results in ATM/p53-dependent cellular senescence. Here, we have tested this model in a variety of murine experimental systems. Overexpression of oncogenic Ras in murine fibroblasts efficiently induced senescence but this occurred in the absence of detectable DNA damage signaling, thus suggesting a fundamental difference between human and murine cells. Moreover, lung adenomas initiated by endogenous levels of oncogenic K-Ras presented abundant senescent cells, but undetectable DNA damage signaling. Accordingly, K-Ras-driven adenomas were also senescent in Atm-null mice, and the tumorigenic progression of these lesions was only modestly accelerated by Atm-deficiency. Finally, we have examined chemically-induced fibrosarcomas, which possess a persistently activated DNA damage response and are highly sensitive to the activity of p53. We found that the absence of Atm favored genomic instability in the resulting tumors, but did not affect the persistent DNA damage response and did not impair p53-dependent tumor suppression. All together, we conclude that oncogene-induced senescence in mice may occur in the absence of a detectable DNA damage response. Regarding murine Atm, our data suggest that it plays a minor role in oncogene-induced senescence or in p53-dependent tumor suppression, being its tumor suppressive activity probably limited to the maintenance of genomic stability. PMID:19421407

  5. LEO1 is regulated by PRL-3 and mediates its oncogenic properties in acute myelogenous leukemia.

    PubMed

    Chong, Phyllis S Y; Zhou, Jianbiao; Cheong, Lip-Lee; Liu, Shaw-Cheng; Qian, Jingru; Guo, Tiannan; Sze, Siu Kwan; Zeng, Qi; Chng, Wee Joo

    2014-06-01

    PRL-3, an oncogenic dual-specificity phosphatase, is overexpressed in 50% of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and associated with poor survival. We found that stable expression of PRL-3 confers cytokine independence and growth advantage of AML cells. However, how PRL-3 mediates these functions in AML is not known. To comprehensively screen for PRL3-regulated proteins in AML, we performed SILAC-based quantitative proteomics analysis and discovered 398 significantly perturbed proteins after PRL-3 overexpression. We show that Leo1, a component of RNA polymerase II-associated factor (PAF) complex, is a novel and important mediator of PRL-3 oncogenic activities in AML. We described a novel mechanism where elevated PRL-3 protein increases JMJD2C histone demethylase occupancy on Leo1 promoter, thereby reducing the H3K9me3 repressive signals and promoting Leo1 gene expression. Furthermore, PRL-3 and Leo1 levels were positively associated in AML patient samples (N=24; P<0.01). On the other hand, inhibition of Leo1 reverses PRL-3 oncogenic phenotypes in AML. Loss of Leo1 leads to destabilization of the PAF complex and downregulation of SOX2 and SOX4, potent oncogenes in myeloid transformation. In conclusion, we identify an important and novel mechanism by which PRL-3 mediates its oncogenic function in AML.

  6. Sec5 and Exo84 foster Oncogenic Ras-mediated Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Issaq, Sameer H.; Lim, Kian-Huat; Counter, Christopher M.

    2009-01-01

    The genes encoding the Ras family of small GTPases are mutated to yield constitutively active GTP-bound oncogenic proteins in one-third of all human cancers. Oncogenic Ras binds to and activates a number of proteins that promote tumorigenic phenotypes, including the family of Ral guanine nucleotide exchange factors, or RalGEFs. Activated RalGEFs convert the Ral family of small GTPases, comprised of RalA and RalB, from an inactive GDP-bound state to an active GTP-bound state. As both RalA and RalB have been implicated in a variety of tumorigenic phenotypes, we sought to determine which proteins downstream of Rals promote transformation and tumorigenesis. Here we report that shRNA-mediated knockdown of the Ral effector proteins Sec5 and Exo84, but less so in the case of RalBP1, reduced oncogenic RalGEF-mediated transformation and oncogenic Ras-driven tumorigenic growth of human cells. These results suggest that Rals promote oncogenic Ras-mediated tumorigenesis through, at least in part, Sec5 and Exo84. PMID:20145037

  7. Modulating the Strength and Threshold of NOTCH Oncogenic Signals by mir-181a-1/b-1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Song; Schaffert, Steven; Gong, Xue; Yue, Sibiao; Luong, Richard; Min, Hyeyoung; Yashiro-Ohtani, Yumi; Davis, Mark; Pear, Warren; Chen, Chang-Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Oncogenes, which are essential for tumor initiation, development, and maintenance, are valuable targets for cancer therapy. However, it remains a challenge to effectively inhibit oncogene activity by targeting their downstream pathways without causing significant toxicity to normal tissues. Here we show that deletion of mir-181a-1/b-1 expression inhibits the development of Notch1 oncogene-induced T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). mir-181a-1/b-1 controls the strength and threshold of Notch activity in tumorigenesis in part by dampening multiple negative feedback regulators downstream of NOTCH and pre-T cell receptor (TCR) signaling pathways. Importantly, although Notch oncogenes utilize normal thymic progenitor cell genetic programs for tumor transformation, comparative analyses of mir-181a-1/b-1 function in normal thymocyte and tumor development demonstrate that mir-181a-1/b-1 can be specifically targeted to inhibit tumor development with little toxicity to normal development. Finally, we demonstrate that mir-181a-1/b-1, but not mir-181a-2b-2 and mir-181-c/d, controls the development of normal thymic T cells and leukemia cells. Together, these results illustrate that NOTCH oncogene activity in tumor development can be selectively inhibited by targeting the molecular networks controlled by mir-181a-1/b-1. PMID:22916024

  8. Oncofuse: a computational framework for the prediction of the oncogenic potential of gene fusions.

    PubMed

    Shugay, Mikhail; Ortiz de Mendíbil, Iñigo; Vizmanos, José L; Novo, Francisco J

    2013-10-15

    Gene fusions resulting from chromosomal aberrations are an important cause of cancer. The complexity of genomic changes in certain cancer types has hampered the identification of gene fusions by molecular cytogenetic methods, especially in carcinomas. This is changing with the advent of next-generation sequencing, which is detecting a substantial number of new fusion transcripts in individual cancer genomes. However, this poses the challenge of identifying those fusions with greater oncogenic potential amid a background of 'passenger' fusion sequences. In the present work, we have used some recently identified genomic hallmarks of oncogenic fusion genes to develop a pipeline for the classification of fusion sequences, namely, Oncofuse. The pipeline predicts the oncogenic potential of novel fusion genes, calculating the probability that a fusion sequence behaves as 'driver' of the oncogenic process based on features present in known oncogenic fusions. Cross-validation and extensive validation tests on independent datasets suggest a robust behavior with good precision and recall rates. We believe that Oncofuse could become a useful tool to guide experimental validation studies of novel fusion sequences found during next-generation sequencing analysis of cancer transcriptomes. Oncofuse is a naive Bayes Network Classifier trained and tested using Weka machine learning package. The pipeline is executed by running a Java/Groovy script, available for download at www.unav.es/genetica/oncofuse.html.

  9. Tracking MET de-addiction in lung cancer: A road towards the oncogenic target.

    PubMed

    Pilotto, S; Carbognin, L; Karachaliou, N; Ma, P C; Rosell, R; Tortora, G; Bria, E

    2017-08-20

    The discovery of druggable oncogenic drivers (i.e. EGFR and ALK), along with the introduction of comprehensive tumor genotyping techniques into the daily clinical practice define non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) asa group of heterogeneous diseases, requiring a context-personalized clinico-therapeutical approach. Among the most investigated biomarkers, the MET proto-oncogene has been extensively demonstrated to play a crucial role throughout the lung oncogenesis, unbalancing the proliferation/apoptosis signaling and influencing the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and the invasive phenotype. Nevertheless, although different mechanisms eliciting the aberrant MET-associated oncogenic stimulus have been detected in lung cancer (such as gene amplification, increased gene copy number, mutations and MET/HGF overexpression), to date no clinically impactful results have been achieved with anti-MET tyrosine kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies in the context of an unselected or MET enriched population. Recently, MET exon 14 splicing abnormalities have been identified asa potential oncogenic target in lung cancer, able to drive the activity of MET inhibitors in molecularly selected patients. In this paper, the major advancement and drawbacks of MET history in lung cancer are reviewed, underlying the renewed scientific euphoria related to the recent identification of MET exon 14 splicing variants asan actionable oncogenic target. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Viral Oncogenes, Noncoding RNAs, and RNA Splicing in Human Tumor Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhi-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Viral oncogenes are responsible for oncogenesis resulting from persistent virus infection. Although different human tumor viruses express different viral oncogenes and induce different tumors, their oncoproteins often target similar sets of cellular tumor suppressors or signal pathways to immortalize and/or transform infected cells. Expression of the viral E6 and E7 oncogenes in papillomavirus, E1A and E1B oncogenes in adenovirus, large T and small t antigen in polyomavirus, and Tax oncogene in HTLV-1 are regulated by alternative RNA splicing. However, this regulation is only partially understood. DNA tumor viruses also encode noncoding RNAs, including viral microRNAs, that disturb normal cell functions. Among the determined viral microRNA precursors, EBV encodes 25 from two major clusters (BART and BHRF1), KSHV encodes 12 from a latent region, human polyomavirus MCV produce only one microRNA from the late region antisense to early transcripts, but HPVs appears to produce no viral microRNAs. PMID:21152115

  11. Oncogenic mutations produce similar phenotypes in Drosophila tissues of diverse origins

    PubMed Central

    Stickel, Stefanie; Su, Tin Tin

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT An emerging interest in oncology is to tailor treatment to particular cancer genotypes, i.e. oncogenic mutations present in the tumor, and not the tissue of cancer incidence. Integral to such a practice is the idea that the same oncogenic mutation(s) produces similar outcomes in different tissues. To test this idea experimentally, we studied tumors driven by a combination of RasV12 and scrib1 mutations in Drosophila larvae. We found that tumors induced in tissues of neural ectodermal and mesodermal origins behav