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Sample records for mouse metallothionein gene

  1. Expression of mouse metallothionein genes in tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Maiti, I.B.; Yeargan, R.; Wagner, G.J.; Hunt, A.G. )

    1990-05-01

    We have expressed a mouse metallothionein (NT) gene in tobacco under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and a pea ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit (rbcS) gene promoter. Seedlings in which MT gene expression is driven by the 35S promoter are resistant to toxic levels of cadmium. Mature plants carrying the 35S-MT gene accumulate less Cd in their leaves when exposed to low levels of Cd in laboratory growth conditions. Plants with the rbcS-MT construction express this gene in a light-regulated and tissue-specific manner, as expected. Moreover, the MT levels in leaves in these plants are about 20% of those seen in 35S-MT plants. These plants are currently being tested for Cd resistance. In addition, a small field evaluation of 35S-MT lines for Cd levels is being evaluated. These experiments will address the possibility of using MTs to alter Cd levels in crop species.

  2. Inheritance of a functional mouse metallothionein gene in tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Maiti, I.B.; Wagner, G.J.; Yeargan, R.; Hunt, A.G. )

    1989-04-01

    Morphologically normal plants were obtained from progeny (Ro, R1 and R2) originating from tobacco leaf tissue transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens containing a chimeric gene for kanamycin resistance an the mouse metallothionein cDNA gene directed by the constitutive promote 35S from CaMV. Integration and expression in R1 progeny was demonstrated by Southern, Northern blot analysis and metallothionein assay. Kanamycin resistance analysis of R1 and R2 progeny showed inheritance to be as a dominant Mendelian trait. Seedlings obtained from self-fertilized transgenic tobacco are more tolerant to cadmium stress than nontransformed controls. Cadmium accumulation in leaves of transgenic seedlings exposed to a low, field-like Cd concentration was about 20% lower than that in nontransformed controls.

  3. Inheritance and expression of the mouse metallothionein gene in tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Maiti, I.B.; Wagner, G.J.; Yeargan, R.; Hunt, A.G. )

    1989-11-01

    Genetically engineered seedlings obtained from self-fertilized transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) contained and expressed the mouse metallothionein and kanamycin resistance marker genes and were more tolerant to cadmium stress than untransformed controls. Cadmium accumulation in leaves of transgenic seedlings exposed to a low, field-like Cd concentration (0.02 micromolar) was about 20% lower than that in untransformed controls. Genetic analysis of R1 and R2 progeny showed inheritance of the marker gene to be as a dominant Mendelian trait. These results suggest the possibility of developing transgenic plants with modified tolerance to heavy metal stress and food crops having lower Cd content.

  4. [Effects of the expression of mouse metallothionein-I gene in human HeLa cell line on drug resistance].

    PubMed

    Li, X; Lü, W; Yin, S; Li, L

    2000-07-01

    Metallothionein-I (MT-I) gene was inserted into EcoRI site by using pSV2-neo plasmid vector. Recombiant plasmid was transfected into HeLa cells by DNA-calcium phosphate precipitation technique. MT-I expression colones were growing in medium including G418. The amount of MT-I expression in transfected cells was found 2.6 times higher than that of non-transfected ones. In order to observe the relationship between the expression of MT-I gene in cells and drug resistance, cells were treated with different concentrations of cisplatin and adriamycin respectively. The results indicated that cisplatin (0.1 mumol/ml) inhibited the growth of both transfected and non-transfected cells. The inhibitory rates were 34% and 82% respectively(P < 0.05). IC50(50% inhibitory concentration for cell growing) was 0.144 mumol/ml and 0.061 mumol/ml and the ratio of them was 2.36: 1 after the treatment of cisplatin 72 h later. The cells were treated with adriamycin 72 h later, the inhibitory rates of transfected and non-transfected cells were 18% and 25% separately. The rates showed no significant difference (P > 0.05). The results indicated that MT was related to drug resistance of tumor cells.

  5. Drosophila melanogaster metallothionein genes: Selection for duplications

    SciTech Connect

    Lange, B.W.

    1989-01-01

    The metallothionein genes of Drosophila melanogaster, Mtn and Mto, may play an important role in heavy-metal detoxification. In order to investigate the possibility of increased selection for duplications of these genes in natural populations exposed to high levels of heavy metals, I compared the frequencies of such duplications among flies collected from metal-contaminated and non-contaminated orchards in Pennsylvania, Tennessee, and Georgia. Contaminated of collection sites and of local flies was confirmed by atomic absorption spectrosphotometry. Six-nucleotide-recognizing restriction enzyme analysis was used to screen 1666 wild third chromosomes for Mtn duplications. A subset (327) of these lines was screened for Mto duplications: none were found. Cadmium tolerance test performed on F{sub 2} progeny of wild females failed to detect a difference in tolerance levels between flies from contaminated orchards and flies from control orchards. Estimates of sequence diversity among a subsample (92) of the chromosomes used in the duplication survey, including all 27 Mtn duplication chromosomes, were obtained using four-nucleotide-recognizing restriction enzyme analysis.

  6. Isolation and characterization of Mytilus edulis metallothionein genes.

    PubMed

    Leignel, Vincent; Laulier, Marc

    2006-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are crucial proteins in all organisms for the regulation of essential metals and the detoxification of heavy metals. Many studies have estimated MT levels in mussel tissues to detect marine metal pollution. In this study, we investigated the MT gene structures of the forms present in Mytilus edulis (blue mussel). One MT-10 (2413 bp) gene and one MT-20 (1906 bp) gene were obtained. These MT genes contain three exons and two long introns. The splicing signals for MT-10 and MT-20 were GTA(T/A)GT-(C/T)AG. The structural organization (length of intron, splicing signals, AT content) of MT-10 and MT-20 is compared with other MT genes.

  7. Metallothionein genes in Drosophila melanogaster constitute a dual system.

    PubMed Central

    Mokdad, R; Debec, A; Wegnez, M

    1987-01-01

    We have selected a metallothionein (MT) cDNA clone from a cadmium-resistant Drosophila melanogaster cell line. This clone includes an open reading frame coding for a 43-amino acid protein whose characteristics are a high cysteine content (12 cysteines, 28% of all residues) and a lack of aromatic amino acids. This protein differs markedly from the Drosophila MT (Mtn gene) previously reported [Lastowski-Perry, D., Otto, E. & Maroni, G. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 1527-1530). The MT system of Drosophila thus consists of at least two distantly related genes, in sharp contrast with vertebrate MT systems, in which the different members of MT gene families display high similarity. The gene corresponding to our MT cDNA (Mto) is inducible in Drosophila cell lines and in both larval and adult flies. Images PMID:3106973

  8. Metallothionein gene activation in the earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus).

    PubMed

    Höckner, M; Dallinger, R; Stürzenbaum, S R

    2015-05-08

    In order to cope with changing environmental conditions, organisms require highly responsive stress mechanisms. Heavy metal stress is handled by metallothioneins (MTs), the regulation of which is evolutionary conserved in insects and vertebrates and involves the binding of metal transcription factor 1 (MTF-1) to metal responsive elements (MREs) positioned in the promoter of MT genes. However, in most invertebrate phyla, the transcriptional activation of MTs is different and the exact mechanism is still unknown. Interestingly, although MREs are typically present also in invertebrate MT gene promoters, MTF-1 is notably absent. Here we use Lumbricus rubellus, the red earthworm, to study the elusive mechanism of wMT-2 activation in control and Cd-exposed conditions. EMSA and DNase I footprinting approaches were used to pinpoint functional binding sites within the wMT-2 promoter region, which revealed that the cAMP responsive element (CRE) is a promising candidate which may act as a transcriptional activator of invertebrate MTs.

  9. The comparison of mouse full metallothionein-1 versus alpha and beta domains and metallothionein-1-to-3 mutation following traumatic brain injury reveals different biological motifs.

    PubMed

    Manso, Yasmina; Serra, Montserrat; Comes, Gemma; Giralt, Mercedes; Carrasco, Javier; Cols, Neus; Vasák, Milan; González-Duarte, Pilar; Hidalgo, Juan

    2010-06-01

    Traumatic injury to the brain is one of the leading causes of injury-related death or disability, but current therapies are limited. Previously it has been shown that the antioxidant proteins metallothioneins (MTs) are potent neuroprotective factors in animal models of brain injury. The exogenous administration of MTs causes effects consistent with the roles proposed from studies in knock-out mice. We herewith report the results comparing full mouse MT-1 with the independent alpha and beta domains, alone or together, in a cryoinjury model. The lesion of the cortex caused the mice to perform worse in the horizontal ladder beam and the rota-rod tests; all the proteins showed a modest effect in the former test, while only full MT-1 improved the performance of animals in the rota-rod, and the alpha domain showed a rather detrimental effect. Gene expression analysis by RNA protection assay demonstrated that all proteins may alter the expression of host-response genes such as GFAP, Mac1 and ICAM, in some cases being the beta domain more effective than the alpha domain or even the full MT-1. A MT-1-to-MT-3 mutation blunted some but not all the effects caused by the normal MT-1, and in some cases increased its potency. Thus, splitting the two MT-1 domains do not seem to eliminate all MT functions but certainly modifies them, and different motifs seem to be present in the protein underlying such functions.

  10. Metallothionein-mediated neuroprotection in genetically engineered mouse models of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Ebadi, Manuchair; Brown-Borg, Holly; Refaey, Hesham El; Singh, Brij B.; Garrett, Scott; Shavali, Shaik; Sharma, Sushil K.

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is characterized by a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra zona compacta, and in other sub-cortical nuclei associated with a widespread occurrence of Lewy bodies. The cause of cell death in Parkinson's disease is still poorly understood, but a defect in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and enhanced oxidative and nitrative stresses have been proposed. We have studied controlwt (C57B1/6), metallothionein transgenic (MTtrans), metallothionein double gene knock (MTdko), α-synuclein knock out (α-synko), α-synuclein–metallothionein triple knock out (α-syn–MTtko), weaver mutant (wv/wv) mice, and Ames dwarf mice to examine the role of peroxynitrite in the etiopathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and aging. Although MTdko mice were genetically susceptible to 1, methyl, 4-phenyl, 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) Parkinsonism, they did not exhibit any overt clinical symptoms of neurodegeneration and gross neuropathological changes as observed in wv/wv mice. Progressive neurodegenerative changes were associated with typical Parkinsonism in wv/wv mice. Neurodegenerative changes in wv/wv mice were observed primarily in the striatum, hippocampus and cerebellum. Various hallmarks of apoptosis including caspase-3, TNFα, NFκB, metallothioneins (MT-1, 2) and complex-1 nitration were increased; whereas glutathione, complex-1, ATP, and Ser(40)-phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase, and striatal 18F-DOPA uptake were reduced in wv/wv mice as compared to other experimental genotypes. Striatal neurons of wv/wv mice exhibited age-dependent increase in dense cored intra-neuronal inclusions, cellular aggregation, proto-oncogenes (c-fos, c-jun, caspase-3, and GAPDH) induction, inter-nucleosomal DNA fragmentation, and neuro-apoptosis. MTtrans and α-Synko mice were genetically resistant to MPTP-Parkinsonism and Ames dwarf mice possessed significantly higher concentrations of striatal coenzyme Q10 and metallothioneins (MT 1, 2

  11. Regulation of metallothionein gene expression and cellular zinc accumulation in a rat small intestinal cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J.M.; Cousins, R.J. )

    1991-03-15

    The effects of extracellular zinc concentration on metallothionein gene expression and cellular zinc accumulation were studied in IRD-98 cells. This is a non-transformed clonal line established by Negrel, et al. from fetal rat small intestine which possess characteristics of small bowel epithelial cells. Cells were maintained in DMEM and grown to confluent monolayers. The response to media zinc concentrations over the range of 5-150 {mu}mol/L was assessed. After 24 h in culture, cell zinc and metallothionein protein concentrations were significantly increased in cells provided higher levels of media zinc. Subsequent time course experiments showed that cells exposed to higher zinc levels had significant elevations in both metallothionein mRNA, peaking at 24 h, and metallothionein protein increasing through 48 h. Furthermore, cell zinc concentrations were significantly increased. At 48 h of culture, greater than 50% of the additional cellular zinc accumulated could be attributed to elevated metallothionein protein levels. These cells represent a zinc-responsive model to examine the mechanism of zinc uptake and transcellular transport by intestinal cells and the regulatory factors involved.

  12. Effects of metallothionein-3 and metallothionein-1E gene transfection on proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis of esophageal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, Z Q; Xu, Y Z; Zhang, Y F; Ma, G F; He, M; Wang, G-Y

    2013-10-17

    Metallothionein (MT)-3 has cell growth inhibitory activity, and is the only currently known MT subtype with unique physiological functions. The expression levels of MT-1E, a subtype of MT-1, were positively correlated with the degree of esophageal cancer malignancy. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of MT-3 and MT-1E gene transfection on the proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis of esophageal cancer cells. The cationic liposome method was used to transfect the esophageal cancer strains Eca-109 and TE13. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to detect target gene expression, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide reduction was applied to detect cell proliferation, and flow cytometry was used for cell cycle and apoptosis detection. Esophageal cancer cells with MT-3 and MT-1E gene transfection showed high expression of the foreign target gene and mRNA. Cells with MT-3 gene transfection showed markedly inhibited proliferation (P < 0.05), a significantly higher proportion of cells in the G0/G1 phase (P < 0.05), a significantly lower proportion of cells in the S phase (P < 0.05), and a significantly increased apoptosis rate (P < 0.05). Cells with MT-1E gene transfection did not show significant changes in proliferation, cell cycle, or apoptosis rate (P > 0.05). Therefore, the upregulation of MT-3 gene expression can inhibit esophageal cancer cell proliferation and induce apoptosis, which may be achieved by blocking the tumor cell growth cycle, whereas effects of the MT-1E gene on the proliferation of esophageal cancer cells were not evident.

  13. Expression of metallothionein mRNAs on mouse cerebellum microglia cells by thimerosal and its metabolites.

    PubMed

    Minami, Takeshi; Miyata, Eriko; Sakamoto, Yamato; Kohama, Azusa; Yamazaki, Hideo; Ichida, Seiji

    2009-06-30

    Effects of thimerosal and its metabolites, ethyl mercury and thiosalicylate, on the expression of metallothionein (MT) mRNAs in mouse cerebellum microglia cell line, C8-B4 cells, were studied. The level of MT-1 mRNA significantly decreased at early hours and recovered time-dependently 24h after thimerosal was added to the C8-B4 cells. However, MT-2 and MT-3 mRNA expressions did not change from the control group. In contrast, the expression of MT-1 mRNA increased in a mouse neuroblastoma cell line 6h after incubation with thimerosal. In addition, the level of MT-1 mRNA decreased in C8-B4 cells 6h after the addition of thiosalicylate, but ethyl mercury induced MT-1 mRNA expression. When cell viability was compared with thimerosal, thiosalicylate, and ethyl mercury, the viability of C8-B4 cells decreased dose-dependently 24h after either thimerosal or ethyl mercury was added; however, the viability increased dose-dependently until 15 microM thiosalicylate was added. From the present results, it is concluded that the expression of MT-1 mRNA may be mediated by different factors than the expression of MT-2 mRNA in C8-B4 cells. The reduction of MT-1 mRNA level by thiosalicylate may affect the proliferation of C8-B4 cells.

  14. Copper accumulation and compartmentalization in mouse fibroblast lacking metallothionein and copper chaperone, Atox1

    SciTech Connect

    Miyayama, Takamitsu; Suzuki, Kazuo T.; Ogra, Yasumitsu

    2009-06-01

    Copper (Cu) is the active center of some enzymes because of its redox-active property, although that property could have harmful effects. Because of this, cells have strict regulation/detoxification systems for this metal. In this study, multi-disciplinary approaches, such as speciation and elemental imaging of Cu, were applied to reveal the detoxification mechanisms for Cu in cells bearing a defect in Cu-regulating genes. Although Cu concentration in metallothionein (MT)-knockout cells was increased by the knockdown of the Cu chaperone, Atox1, the concentrations of the Cu influx pump, Ctr1, and another Cu chaperone, Ccs, were paradoxically increased; namely, the cells responded to the Cu deficiency despite the fact that cellular Cu concentration was actually increased. Cu imaging showed that the elevated Cu was compartmentalized in cytoplasmic vesicles. Together, the results point to the novel roles of MT and cytoplasmic vesicles in the detoxification of Cu in mammalian cells.

  15. Expression of the zinc transporters genes and metallothionein in obese women.

    PubMed

    dos Santos Rocha, Paula Beatriz Krebsky; de Castro Amorim, Amanda; de Sousa, Artemizia Francisca; do Monte, Semíramis Jamil Hadad; da Mata Sousa, Luiz Claudio Demes; do Nascimento Nogueira, Nadir; Neto, José Machado Moita; do Nascimento Marreiro, Dilina

    2011-11-01

    Research has investigated the participation of zinc transport proteins and metallothionein in the metabolism of this mineral. However, studies about the genetic expression of these proteins in obese patients are scarce. The study determined the expression of zinc transporter protein codifying genes (ZnT-1, Zip-1 and Zip-3) and of metallothionein in 55 obese women, aged between 20 and 56 years. The assessment of body composition was carried out using anthropometric measurements and bioelectrical impedance. Zinc intake was obtained by recording diet over a 3-day period, and the nutritional analysis was carried out using NutWin software version 1.5. The plasmatic and erythrocytary zinc were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (λ=213. 9 nm). The determination of mRNA expression of the zinc transporter proteins and metallothionein was carried out using blood, using the RT-PCR method. The mean values of body mass index were 37.9±5.5 kg/m2. The average intake of zinc was 9.4±2.3 mg/day. The analysis of the zinc plasma concentrations showed values of 58.4±10.9 μg/dL. The mean values of zinc in the erythroytes were 38.7±9.1 μg/g Hb. The metallothionein gene had a higher expression in the blood, when compared to zinc transporters ZnT-1, Zip-1, and Zip-3 (p=0.01). The study shows that there are alterations in the biochemical parameters of zinc in obese patients assessed, as well as higher expression of the codifying gene metallothionein, when compared to the investigated zinc transporters.

  16. Expression, purification of metallothionein genes from freshwater crab (Sinopotamon yangtsekiense) and development of an anti-metallothionein ELISA

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hao; Zhou, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Using the phoA-fusion technology, the recombinant metallothionein (MT) from freshwater crab (Sinopotamon yangtsekiense) has been successfully produced in Escherichia coli. MT purified from the bacterial suspension showed one polypeptide with a molecular weight of 7 kDa by tricine-sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Tricine-SDS-PAGE). Western-blotting confirmed the polypeptides had a specific reactivity with mouse polyclonal MT anti-serum. Based on the purified MT and MT anti-serum, the reaction parameters for an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were developed. The direct coating ELISA showed a higher linear relationship compared to antibody sandwich coating ELISA. The optimal dilution rates of purified MT anti-serum and coating period were shown to be 1:160,000 and 12 hours at 4°C. At 37°C, the appropriate reaction duration of the first antibody and the second antibody were 2 hours and 1 hour, respectively. According to these optimal parameters, the standard linear equation, y = 0.0032x + 0.1769 (R2 = 0.9779, x, y representing MT concentration and OD450 value), was established for the determination of MT concentration with a valid range of 3.9–500 ng/ml. In verification experiments, the mean coefficients of variation of the intra-assay and inter-assay were 3.260% and 3.736%, respectively. According to the result of MT recovery, ELISA with an approaching 100% MT recovery was more reliable and sensitive than the Cd saturation assay. In conclusion, the newly developed ELISA of this study was precise, stable and repeatable, and could be used as a biomarker tool to monitor pollution by heavy metals. PMID:28350826

  17. Tissue-specific metallothionein gene expression in liver and intestine by dexamethasone, interleukin-1. alpha. and elevated zinc status

    SciTech Connect

    Hempe, J.M.; Carlson, J.M.; Cousins, R.J. )

    1990-02-26

    Intestinal metallothionein has been implicated in the regulation of zinc absorption. Glucocorticoids and cytokines mediate hepatic metallothionein gene expression but the effects of these hormones in the small intestine are unclear. In this experiment, rats were injected ip with dexamethasone (DEX), recombinant human interleukin-1{alpha} (ILK-1), or ZnSO{sub 4}. Data collected 0. 3, 6,9, or 12 hour post-injection showed tissue specific regulation of metallothionein gene expression. Liver metallothionein mRNA (determined by hybridization analysis) were increased by DEX, IL-1 and ZnSO{sub 4}. In contrast, the intestine was completely refractory to IL-1. DEX did not affect intestinal metallothionein but did enhance mucosal accumulation of {sup 65}Zn by ligated duodenal loops. Absorption of {sup 65}Zn was not affected by IL-1 or DEX but was inversely related to elevated intestinal metallothionein protein induced in response to ZnSO. Plasma zinc was depressed by DEX and IL-1 and elevated in rats injected with ZnSO{sub 4} but was not related to {sup 54}Zn absorption. Tissue-specific induction of metallothionein may constitute a mechanism for independently regulating both tissue zinc distribution and zinc absorption.

  18. Induction by mercury compounds of metallothioneins in mouse tissues: inorganic mercury accumulation is not a dominant factor for metallothionein induction in the liver.

    PubMed

    Yasutake, Akira; Nakamura, Masaaki

    2011-06-01

    Among the naturally occurring three mercury species, metallic mercury (Hg(0)), inorganic mercury (Hg(II)) and methylmercury (MeHg), Hg(II) is well documented to induce metallothionein (MT) in tissues of injected animals. Although Hg(0) and MeHg are considered to be inert in terms of directly inducing MT, MT can be induced by them after in vivo conversion to Hg(II) in an animal body. In the present study we examined accumulations of inorganic mercury and MT inductions in mouse tissues (brain, liver and kidney) up to 72 hr after treatment by one of three mercury compounds of sub-lethal doses. Exposure to mercury compounds caused significant mercury accumulations in mouse tissues examined, except for the Hg(II)-treated mouse brain. Although MeHg caused the highest total mercury accumulation in all tissues among mercury compounds, the rates of inorganic mercury were less than 10% through the experimental period. MT inductions that depended on the inorganic mercury accumulation were observed in kidney and brain. However, MT induction in the liver could not be accounted for by the inorganic mercury accumulation, but by plasma IL6 levels, marked elevation of which was observed in Hg(II) or MeHg-treated mouse. The present study demonstrated that MT was induced in mouse tissues after each of three mercury compounds, Hg(0), Hg(II) and MeHg, but the induction processes were different among tissues. The induction would occur directly through accumulation of inorganic mercury in brain and kidney, whereas the hepatic MT might be induced secondarily through mercury-induced elevation in the plasma cytokines, rather than through mercury accumulation in the tissue.

  19. Induction of metallothionein in mouse cerebellum and cerebrum with low-dose thimerosal injection.

    PubMed

    Minami, Takeshi; Miyata, Eriko; Sakamoto, Yamato; Yamazaki, Hideo; Ichida, Seiji

    2010-04-01

    Thimerosal, an ethyl mercury compound, is used worldwide as a vaccine preservative. We previously observed that the mercury concentration in mouse brains did not increase with the clinical dose of thimerosal injection, but the concentration increased in the brain after the injection of thimerosal with lipopolysaccharide, even if a low dose of thimerosal was administered. Thimerosal may penetrate the brain, but is undetectable when a clinical dose of thimerosal is injected; therefore, the induction of metallothionein (MT) messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein was observed in the cerebellum and cerebrum of mice after thimerosal injection, as MT is an inducible protein. MT-1 mRNA was expressed at 6 and 9 h in both the cerebrum and cerebellum, but MT-1 mRNA expression in the cerebellum was three times higher than that in the cerebrum after the injection of 12 microg/kg thimerosal. MT-2 mRNA was not expressed until 24 h in both organs. MT-3 mRNA was expressed in the cerebellum from 6 to 15 h after the injection, but not in the cerebrum until 24 h. MT-1 and MT-3 mRNAs were expressed in the cerebellum in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, MT-1 protein was detected from 6 to 72 h in the cerebellum after 12 microg/kg of thimerosal was injected and peaked at 10 h. MT-2 was detected in the cerebellum only at 10 h. In the cerebrum, little MT-1 protein was detected at 10 and 24 h, and there were no peaks of MT-2 protein in the cerebrum. In conclusion, MT-1 and MT-3 mRNAs but not MT-2 mRNA are easily expressed in the cerebellum rather than in the cerebrum by the injection of low-dose thimerosal. It is thought that the cerebellum is a sensitive organ against thimerosal. As a result of the present findings, in combination with the brain pathology observed in patients diagnosed with autism, the present study helps to support the possible biological plausibility for how low-dose exposure to mercury from thimerosal-containing vaccines may be associated with autism.

  20. The metallothionein gene, TaMT3, from Tamarix androssowii confers Cd2+ tolerance in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Boru; Yao, Wenjing; Wang, Shengji; Wang, Xinwang; Jiang, Tingbo

    2014-06-10

    Cadmium (Cd) is a nonessential microelement and low concentration Cd2+ has strong toxicity to plant growth. Plant metallothioneins, a class of low molecular, cystein(Cys)-rich and heavy-metal binding proteins, play an important role in both metal chaperoning and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with their large number of cysteine residues and therefore, protect plants from oxidative damage. In this study, a metallothionein gene, TaMT3, isolated from Tamarix androssowii was transformed into tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum) through Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disc method, and correctly expressed under the control of 35S promoter. Under Cd2+ stress, the transgenic tobacco showed significant increases of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and chlorophyll concentration, but decreases of peroxidase (POD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation when compared to the non-transgenic tobacco. Vigorous growth of transgenic tobacco was observed at the early development stages, resulting in plant height and fresh weight were significantly larger than those of the non-transgenic tobacco under Cd2+ stress. These results demonstrated that the expression of the exogenous TaMT3 gene increased the ability of ROS cleaning-up, indicating a stronger tolerance to Cd2+ stress.

  1. Physiological, Diurnal and Stress-Related Variability of Cadmium-Metallothionein Gene Expression in Land Snails.

    PubMed

    Pedrini-Martha, Veronika; Niederwanger, Michael; Kopp, Renate; Schnegg, Raimund; Dallinger, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    The terrestrial Roman snail Helix pomatia has successfully adapted to strongly fluctuating conditions in its natural soil habitat. Part of the snail's stress defense strategy is its ability to express Metallothioneins (MTs). These are multifunctional, cysteine-rich proteins that bind and inactivate transition metal ions (Cd(2+), Zn(2+), Cu(+)) with high affinity. In Helix pomatia a Cadmium (Cd)-selective, inducible Metallothionein Isoform (CdMT) is mainly involved in detoxification of this harmful metal. In addition, the snail CdMT has been shown to also respond to certain physiological stressors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the physiological and diurnal variability of CdMT gene expression in snails exposed to Cd and non-metallic stressors such as desiccation and oxygen depletion. CdMT gene expression was upregulated by Cd exposure and desiccation, whereas no significant impact on the expression of CdMT was measured due to oxygen depletion. Overall, Cd was clearly more effective as an inducer of the CdMT gene expression compared to the applied non-metallic stressors. In unexposed snails, diurnal rhythmicity of CdMT gene expression was observed with higher mRNA concentrations at night compared to daytime. This rhythmicity was severely disrupted in Cd-exposed snails which exhibited highest CdMT gene transcription rates in the morning. Apart from diurnal rhythmicity, feeding activity also had a strong impact on CdMT gene expression. Although underlying mechanisms are not completely understood, it is clear that factors increasing MT expression variability have to be considered when using MT mRNA quantification as a biomarker for environmental stressors.

  2. Physiological, Diurnal and Stress-Related Variability of Cadmium-Metallothionein Gene Expression in Land Snails

    PubMed Central

    Pedrini-Martha, Veronika; Niederwanger, Michael; Kopp, Renate; Schnegg, Raimund; Dallinger, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    The terrestrial Roman snail Helix pomatia has successfully adapted to strongly fluctuating conditions in its natural soil habitat. Part of the snail’s stress defense strategy is its ability to express Metallothioneins (MTs). These are multifunctional, cysteine-rich proteins that bind and inactivate transition metal ions (Cd2+, Zn2+, Cu+) with high affinity. In Helix pomatia a Cadmium (Cd)-selective, inducible Metallothionein Isoform (CdMT) is mainly involved in detoxification of this harmful metal. In addition, the snail CdMT has been shown to also respond to certain physiological stressors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the physiological and diurnal variability of CdMT gene expression in snails exposed to Cd and non-metallic stressors such as desiccation and oxygen depletion. CdMT gene expression was upregulated by Cd exposure and desiccation, whereas no significant impact on the expression of CdMT was measured due to oxygen depletion. Overall, Cd was clearly more effective as an inducer of the CdMT gene expression compared to the applied non-metallic stressors. In unexposed snails, diurnal rhythmicity of CdMT gene expression was observed with higher mRNA concentrations at night compared to daytime. This rhythmicity was severely disrupted in Cd-exposed snails which exhibited highest CdMT gene transcription rates in the morning. Apart from diurnal rhythmicity, feeding activity also had a strong impact on CdMT gene expression. Although underlying mechanisms are not completely understood, it is clear that factors increasing MT expression variability have to be considered when using MT mRNA quantification as a biomarker for environmental stressors. PMID:26935042

  3. Effect of metallothionein 2A gene polymorphism on allele-specific gene expression and metal content in prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Krześlak, Anna; Forma, Ewa; Jóźwiak, Paweł; Szymczyk, Agnieszka; Bryś, Magdalena

    2013-05-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are highly conserved, small molecular weight, cysteine rich proteins. The major physiological functions of metallothioneins include homeostasis of essential metals Zn and Cu and protection against cytotoxicity of heavy metals. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between the − 5 A/G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs28366003) in core promoter region and expression of metallothionein 2A (MT2A) gene and metal concentration in prostate cancer tissues. MT2A polymorphism was determined by the polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism technique (PCR–RFLP) using 412 prostate cancer tissue samples. MT2A gene expression analysis was performed by real-time RT-PCR method. A significant association between rs28366003 genotype and MT2A expression level was found. The average mRNA level was found to be lower among minor allele carriers (the risk allele) than average expression among homozygotes for the major allele. Metal levels were analyzed by flamed atomic absorption spectrometer system. Highly statistically significant associations were detected between the SNP and Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb levels. The results of Spearman's rank correlation showed that the expressions of MT2A and Cu, Pb and Ni concentrations were negatively correlated. On the basis of the results obtained in this study, we suggest that SNP polymorphism may affect the MT2A gene expression in prostate and this is associated with some metal accumulation. - Highlights: • MT2A gene expression and metal content in prostate cancer tissues • Association between SNP (rs28366003) and expression of MT2A • Significant associations between the SNP and Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb levels • Negative correlation between MT2A gene expression and Cu, Pb and Ni levels.

  4. Functional characterization of four metallothionein genes in Daphnia pulex exposed to environmental stressors

    PubMed Central

    Asselman, J.; Glaholt, S.P.; Smith, Z.; Smagghe, G.; Janssen, C.R.; Colbourne, J.K.; Shaw, J.R.; De Schamphelaere, K.A.C.

    2014-01-01

    We characterized the metallothionein genes (Mt1, Mt2, Mt3, and Mt4) in Daphnia pulex on both molecular and ecotoxicological level. We therefore conducted a bioinformatical analysis of the gene location and predicted protein sequence, and screened the upstream flanking region for regulatory elements. The number of these elements and their positions relative to the start codon varied strongly among the four genes and even among two gene duplicates (Mt1A and Mt1B), suggesting different roles of the four proteins in the organisms’ response to stress. We subsequently conducted a chronic 16-day exposure of D. pulex to different environmental stressors (at sublethal levels causing approximately 50% reduction in reproduction). Based on prior knowledge, we exposed them to the metals Cd, Cu, and Ni, the moulting hormone hydroxyecdysone (20E), and the oxidative stressors cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa), and paraquat (Pq). We then compared mRNA expression levels of the four Mt genes under these stress conditions with control conditions in “The Chosen One” clone (TCO), for which the full genome was sequenced and annotated. All together, the mRNA expression results under the different stress regimes indicate that different Mt genes may play different and various roles in the response of D. pulex to stress and that some (but not all) of the differences among the four genes could be related to the pattern of regulatory elements in their upstream flanking region. PMID:22266576

  5. Gene response profiles for Daphnia pulex exposed to the environmental stressor cadmium reveals novel crustacean metallothioneins

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Joseph R; Colbourne, John K; Davey, Jennifer C; Glaholt, Stephen P; Hampton, Thomas H; Chen, Celia Y; Folt, Carol L; Hamilton, Joshua W

    2007-01-01

    Background Genomic research tools such as microarrays are proving to be important resources to study the complex regulation of genes that respond to environmental perturbations. A first generation cDNA microarray was developed for the environmental indicator species Daphnia pulex, to identify genes whose regulation is modulated following exposure to the metal stressor cadmium. Our experiments revealed interesting changes in gene transcription that suggest their biological roles and their potentially toxicological features in responding to this important environmental contaminant. Results Our microarray identified genes reported in the literature to be regulated in response to cadmium exposure, suggested functional attributes for genes that share no sequence similarity to proteins in the public databases, and pointed to genes that are likely members of expanded gene families in the Daphnia genome. Genes identified on the microarray also were associated with cadmium induced phenotypes and population-level outcomes that we experimentally determined. A subset of genes regulated in response to cadmium exposure was independently validated using quantitative-realtime (Q-RT)-PCR. These microarray studies led to the discovery of three genes coding for the metal detoxication protein metallothionein (MT). The gene structures and predicted translated sequences of D. pulex MTs clearly place them in this gene family. Yet, they share little homology with previously characterized MTs. Conclusion The genomic information obtained from this study represents an important first step in characterizing microarray patterns that may be diagnostic to specific environmental contaminants and give insights into their toxicological mechanisms, while also providing a practical tool for evolutionary, ecological, and toxicological functional gene discovery studies. Advances in Daphnia genomics will enable the further development of this species as a model organism for the environmental sciences

  6. METALLOTHIONEIN GENE TRANSCRIPTION AS AN INDICATOR OF METAL EXPOSURE IN FATHEAD MINNOWS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metallothionein is a cysteine rich, low molecular weight, metal binding protein. Basal levels of endogenous metallothioneins (MT) have been reported in all eucaryotes. MT has been shown to play an essential role in regulating physiological requirements of essential metals such a...

  7. Deleterious Effects of Minocycline after in vivo Target Deprivation of Thalamocortical Neurons in the Immature, Metallothionein-Deficient Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Emily G.; Cheng, Ying; Natale, JoAnne E.

    2015-01-01

    Compared to adults, immature metallothionein I & II knockout (MT−/−) mice incur greater neuronal loss and a more rapid rate of microglia accumulation following target deprivation-induced injury. Since minocycline has been proposed to inhibit microglial activation and associated production of neuroinflammatory factors, we investigated its ability to promote neuronal survival in the immature, metallothionein-deficient brain. Following ablation of the visual cortex, 10-day-old MT−/− mice were treated with minocycline or saline and sacrificed 24 or 48 hours after injury. Using stereological methods, the number of microglia and neurons were estimated in the ipsilateral dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) by an investigator blinded to the treatment. No effect on neuronal survival was observed at 24 hours, but 48 hours after injury an unanticipated but significant minocycline-mediated increase in neuronal loss was detected. Further, while failing to inhibit microglial accumulation, minocycline treatment increased the proportion of amoeboid microglia in the ipsilateral dLGN. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying this neurotoxic response, we identified minocycline-mediated changes in the expression of three potentially pro-apoptotic/ inflammatory genes: growth arrest- and DNA damage-inducible gene 45γ (GADD45γ); interferon-inducible protein 1 (IFI1) and cytokine induced growth factor (CTGF). We also observed increased mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 phosphorylation with minocycline treatment. Although minocycline inhibited calpain activity at 12 hours post-injury, this effect was not sustained at 24 hours. Together, these results help to explain how minocycline has a deleterious effect on neuronal survival in this injury model. PMID:19115404

  8. Cloning metallothionein gene in Zacco platypus and its potential as an exposure biomarker against cadmium.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangwoo; Kim, Cheolmin; Kim, Jungkon; Kim, Woo-Keun; Shin, Hyun Suk; Lim, Eun-Suk; Lee, Jin Wuk; Kim, Sunmi; Kim, Ki-Tae; Lee, Sung-Kyu; Choi, Cheol Young; Choi, Kyungho

    2015-07-01

    Zacco platypus, pale chub, is an indigenous freshwater fish of East Asia including Korea and has many useful characteristics as indicator species for water pollution. While utility of Z. platypus as an experimental species has been recognized, genetic-level information is very limited and warrants extensive research. Metallothionein (MT) is widely used and well-known biomarker for heavy metal exposure in many experimental species. In the present study, we cloned MT in Z. platypus and evaluated its utility as a biomarker for metal exposure. For this purpose, we sequenced complete complementary DNA (cDNA) of MT in Z. platypus and carried out phylogenetic analysis with its sequences. The transcription-level responses of MT gene following the exposure to CdCl2 were also assessed to validate the utility of this gene as an exposure biomarker. Analysis of cDNA sequence of MT gene demonstrated high conformity with those of other fish. MT messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and enzymatic MT content significantly increased following CdCl2 exposure in a concentration-dependent manner. The level of CdCl2 that resulted in significant MT changes in Z. platypus was within the range that was reported from other fish. The MT gene of Z. platypus sequenced in the present study can be used as a useful biomarker for heavy metal exposure in the aquatic environment of Korea and other countries where this freshwater fish species represents the ecosystem.

  9. Cell specificity and an effect of ras on human metallothionein gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, C J; Hamer, D H

    1986-01-01

    The expression of three human metallothionein (hMT) genes has been compared in various established cell lines and primary liver. The single gene for hMT isoform II is ubiquitously expressed in all cell types in response to cadmium. In contrast, two genes encoding hMT-I isoforms are expressed in a highly specific, reciprocal fashion that correlates with the embryonic germ layer origin of the cells. In one cell line that failed to express detectable amounts of hMT-IE, treatment with the demethylating agent 5-azacytidine led to cadmium-inducible expression of this subtype. The genes for both MT-I isoforms are coordinately inducible by heavy metals but differ in their response to glucocorticoids. Surprisingly, cells transformed with the Ha-ras oncogene contain elevated basal levels of both MT-I and MT-II RNA. The implications of these results for growth-related and developmental functions of MT are discussed. Images PMID:3517857

  10. A Plasmid Containing the Human Metallothionein II Gene Can Function as an Antibody-assisted Electrophoretic Biosensor for Heavy Metals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-16

    function as an antibody-assisted electrophoretic biosensor for heavy metals 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...biochemical systems can be laborious and unreliable. To generate a reliable easy-to-use biologically-based biosensor system, the entire human...ARTICLE A plasmid containing the human metallothionein II gene can function as an antibody-assisted electrophoretic biosensor for heavy metals Dennis C

  11. Molecular evolution and functional divergence of the metallothionein gene family in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Serén, Nina; Glaberman, Scott; Carretero, Miguel A; Chiari, Ylenia

    2014-04-01

    The metallothionein (MT) gene superfamily consists of metal-binding proteins involved in various metal detoxification and storage mechanisms. The evolution of this gene family in vertebrates has mostly been studied in mammals using sparse taxon or gene sampling. Genomic databases and available data on MT protein function and expression allow a better understanding of the evolution and functional divergence of the different MT types. We recovered 77 MT coding sequences from 20 representative vertebrates with annotated complete genomes. We found multiple MT genes, also in reptiles, which were thought to have only one MT type. Phylogenetic and synteny analyses indicate the existence of a eutherian MT1 and MT2, a tetrapod MT3, an amniote MT4, and fish MT. The optimal gene-tree/species-tree reconciliation analyses identified the best root in the fish clade. Functional analyses reveal variation in hydropathic index among protein domains, likely correlated with their distinct flexibility and metal affinity. Analyses of functional divergence identified amino acid sites correlated with functional divergence among MT types. Uncovering the number of genes and sites possibly correlated with functional divergence will help to design cost-effective MT functional and gene expression studies. This will permit further understanding of the distinct roles and specificity of these proteins and to properly target specific MT for different types of functional studies. Therefore, this work presents a critical background on the molecular evolution and functional divergence of vertebrate MTs to carry out further detailed studies on the relationship between heavy metal metabolism and tolerances among vertebrates.

  12. Stress to cadmium monitored by metallothionein gene induction in Paracentrotus lividus embryos

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Roberta; Bonaventura, Rosa; Zito, Francesca; Schröder, Heinz-C.; Müller, Isabel; Müller, Werner E. G.; Matranga, Valeria

    2003-01-01

    We used sea urchin embryos as bioindicators to study the effects of exposure to sublethal cadmium concentrations on the expression of the metallothionein (MT) gene stress marker. For this purpose, the complete complementary deoxyribonucleic acid of the species Paracentrotus lividus (Pl) was cloned and sequenced. Northern blot analysis showed that basal levels of Pl-MT messenger ribonucleic acid, having an apparent size of 700 bases, are expressed in all developmental stages analyzed, from early cleavage to pluteus. However, when embryos were continuously cultured in sublethal CdCl2 concentrations and harvested at cleavage, swimming blastula, late gastrula, and pluteus stages (6, 12, 24, and 48 hours after fertilization, respectively), a time- and dose-dependent increase in the transcription levels of the Pl-MT gene was observed. Interestingly, although microscopical inspection revealed the occurrence of abnormalities only after 24 hours of exposure to the pollutant, Northern blot and reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed significant increases in Pl-MT expression levels already after 12 and 6 hours of exposure, respectively. Therefore, this study confirms the validity of MT as marker of exposure and provides evidence that Pl-MT and sea urchin embryos can be a potentially valuable and sensitive model for testing in very short periods of time seawaters heavily contaminated with cadmium. PMID:14984056

  13. Transcription patterns of genes encoding four metallothionein homologs in Daphnia pulex exposed to copper and cadmium are time- and homolog- dependent

    PubMed Central

    Asselman, Jana; Shaw, Joseph R.; Glaholt, Stephen P.; Colbourne, John K.; De Schamphelaere, Karel AC.

    2013-01-01

    Metallothioneins are proteins that play an essential role in metal homeostasis and detoxification in nearly all organisms studied to date. Yet discrepancies between outcomes of chronic and acute exposure experiments hamper the understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of their isoforms following metal exposure. Here, we investigated transcriptional differences among four identified homologs (mt1–mt4) in Daphnia pulex exposed across time to copper and cadmium relative to a control. Transcriptional upregulation of mt1 and mt3 was detected on day four following exposure to cadmium, whereas that of mt2 and mt4 was detected on day two and day eight following exposure to copper. These results confirm temporal and metal-specific differences in the transcriptional induction of genes encoding metallothionein homologs upon metal exposure which should be considered in ecotoxicological monitoring programs of metal-contaminated water bodies. Indeed, the mRNA expression patterns observed here illustrate the complex regulatory system associated with metallothioneins, as these patterns are not only dependent on the metal, but also on exposure time and the homolog studied. Further phylogenetic analysis and analysis of regulatory elements in upstream promoter regions revealed a high degree of similarity between metallothionein genes of Daphnia pulex and Daphnia magna, a species belonging to the same genus. These findings, combined with a limited amount of available expression data for D. magna metallothionein genes, tentatively suggest a potential generalization of the metallothionein response system between these Daphnia species. PMID:24113165

  14. Transcription patterns of genes encoding four metallothionein homologs in Daphnia pulex exposed to copper and cadmium are time- and homolog-dependent.

    PubMed

    Asselman, Jana; Shaw, Joseph R; Glaholt, Stephen P; Colbourne, John K; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

    2013-10-15

    Metallothioneins are proteins that play an essential role in metal homeostasis and detoxification in nearly all organisms studied to date. Yet discrepancies between outcomes of chronic and acute exposure experiments hamper the understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of their isoforms following metal exposure. Here, we investigated transcriptional differences among four identified homologs (mt1-mt4) in Daphnia pulex exposed across time to copper and cadmium relative to a control. Transcriptional upregulation of mt1 and mt3 was detected on day four following exposure to cadmium, whereas that of mt2 and mt4 was detected on day two and day eight following exposure to copper. These results confirm temporal and metal-specific differences in the transcriptional induction of genes encoding metallothionein homologs upon metal exposure which should be considered in ecotoxicological monitoring programs of metal-contaminated water bodies. Indeed, the mRNA expression patterns observed here illustrate the complex regulatory system associated with metallothioneins, as these patterns are not only dependent on the metal, but also on exposure time and the homolog studied. Further phylogenetic analysis and analysis of regulatory elements in upstream promoter regions revealed a high degree of similarity between metallothionein genes of Daphnia pulex and Daphnia magna, a species belonging to the same genus. These findings, combined with a limited amount of available expression data for D. magna metallothionein genes, tentatively suggest a potential generalization of the metallothionein response system between these Daphnia species.

  15. Cloning, characterization, and expression of cadmium-induced metallothionein-2 gene from earthworm Pheretima aspergillum (E. Perrier).

    PubMed

    Gong, L; Li, W; Li, J; Li, W E; Wu, W R; Yu, L W

    2015-12-14

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are ubiquitous metal-binding, cysteine-rich proteins, associated with metal accumulation and thus providing protection against toxic heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd). To investigate the mechanisms of enrichment of Cd in the earthworm Pheretima aspergillum, we isolated and cloned metallothionein-2 (MT-2) cDNA (538 bp) from P. aspergillum, analyzed its sequence, and examined MT-2 transcription levels by relative quantitative real-time PCR under different concentrations of Cd. The sequence of P. aspergillum MT-2 cDNA and its putative amino acid sequence were highly similar to sequences from other earthworms. The induction with Cd increased the MT-2 gene transcription level in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, earthworm recombinant MT-2 exhibited high Cd bioaccumulation ability in vitro. These results suggested that MT-2 plays an important role in tolerance and accumulation of Cd in P. aspergillum.

  16. Occurrence of metallothionein gene smtA in synechococcus Tx-20 and other blue-green algae

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, N.J.; Gupta, A.; Huckle, J.W.; Jackson, P.; Whitton, B.A. )

    1990-06-01

    Blue-green algae are often abundant at Zn- and Cd-contaminated sites. In order to understand the mechanisms associated with Zn- and Cd-tolerance, we have isolated a metallothionein gene, designated smtA, in Synechococcus Tx-20 (- Pcc 6301 - Anacystis nidulans), a strain apparently obtained from an unpolluted site. The gene was cloned and sequenced, and its expression investigated in a range of heavy-metal-tolerant strains of the same organism obtained by stepwise adaptation. The polymerase chain reaction was used to probe for the possible presence of the homologous gene in a range of other strains (especially Synechococcus) isolated from sites without and with heavy metal contamination.

  17. Screening of Cd tolerant genotypes and isolation of metallothionein genes in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Song, Yu; Ma, Yanhua; Zhuo, Renying; Jin, Liang

    2011-12-01

    In order to evaluate Cd tolerance in wide-ranging sources of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and to identify Cd tolerant genotypes which may potentially be useful for restoring Cd-contaminated environments, thirty-six accessions of alfalfa were screened under hydroponic culture. Our results showed that the relative root growth rate varied from 0.48 to 1.0, which indicated that different alfalfa accessions had various responses to Cd stress. The candidate fragments derived from differentially expressed metallothionein (MT) genes were cloned from leaves of two Cd tolerant genotypes, YE and LZ. DNA sequence and the deduced protein sequence showed that MsMT2a and MsMT2b had high similarity to those in leguminous plants. DDRT-PCR analysis showed that MsMT2a expressed in both YE and LZ plants under control and Cd stress treatment, but MsMT2b only expressed under Cd stress treatment. This suggested that MsMT2a was universally expressed in leaves of alfalfa but expression of MsMT2b was Cadmium (Cd) inducible.

  18. Characterization of a novel rice metallothionein gene promoter: its tissue specificity and heavy metal responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chun-Juan; Wang, Yun; Yu, Shi-Shi; Liu, Jin-Yuan

    2010-10-01

    The rice (Oryza sativa L.) metallothionein gene OsMT-I-4b has previously been identified as a type I MT gene. To elucidate the regulatory mechanism involved in its tissue specificity and abiotic induction, we isolated a 1 730 bp fragment of the OsMT-I-4b promoter region. Histochemical β-glucuronidase (GUS) staining indicated a precise spacial and temporal expression pattern in transgenic Arabidopsis. Higher GUS activity was detected in the roots and the buds of flower stigmas, and relatively lower GUS staining in the shoots was restricted to the trichomes and hydathodes of leaves. No activity was observed in the stems and seeds. Additionally, in the root of transgenic plants, the promoter activity was highly upregulated by various environmental signals, such as abscisic acid, drought, dark, and heavy metals including Cu²(+) , Zn²(+) , Pb²(+) and Al³(+) . Slight induction was observed in transgenic seedlings under salinity stress, or when treated with Co²(+) and Cd²(+) . Promoter analysis of 5'-deletions revealed that the region -583/-1 was sufficient to drive strong GUS expression in the roots but not in the shoots. Furthermore, deletion analysis indicated important promoter regions containing different metal-responsive cis-elements that were responsible for responding to different heavy metals. Collectively, these findings provided important insight into the transcriptional regulation mechanisms of the OsMT-I-4b promoter, and the results also gave us some implications for the potential application of this promoter in plant genetic engineering.

  19. Yeast metallothionein function in metal ion detoxification.

    PubMed

    Ecker, D J; Butt, T R; Sternberg, E J; Neeper, M P; Debouck, C; Gorman, J A; Crooke, S T

    1986-12-25

    A genetic approach was taken to test the function of yeast metallothionein in metal ion detoxification. A yeast strain was constructed in which the metallothionein locus was deleted (cup1 delta). The cup1 delta strain was complemented with normal or mutant metallothionein genes under normal or constitutive regulatory control on high copy episomal plasmids. Metal resistance of the cup1 delta strain with and without the metallothionein-expressing vectors was analyzed. The normally regulated metallothionein gene conferred resistance only to copper (1000-fold); constitutively expressed metallothionein conferred resistance to both copper (500-fold) and cadmium (1000-fold), but not to mercury, zinc, silver, cobalt, nickel, gold, platinum, lanthanum, uranium, or tin. Two mutant versions of the metallothionein gene were constructed and tested for their ability to confer metal resistance in the cup1 delta background. The first had a deletion of a highly conserved amino acid sequence (Lys-Lys-Ser-Cys-Cys-Ser). The second was a hybrid gene consisting of the sequences coding for the first 20 amino acids of the yeast protein fused to the monkey metallothionein gene. Expression of these genes under the CUP1 promoter provided significant protection from copper, but none of the other metals tested. These results demonstrate that there is significant flexibility in the structural requirements for metallothionein to function in copper detoxification and that yeast metallothionein is also capable of detoxifying cadmium under conditions of constitutive expression.

  20. Cloning, characterization and gene expression of a metallothionein isoform in the edible cockle Cerastoderma edule after cadmium or mercury exposure.

    PubMed

    Paul-Pont, Ika; Gonzalez, Patrice; Montero, Natalia; de Montaudouin, Xavier; Baudrimont, Magalie

    2012-01-01

    Metallothionein (MT) genes encode crucial metal-binding proteins ubiquitously expressed in living organisms and which play important roles in homeostasis of essential metals and detoxification processes. Here, the molecular organization of the first metallothionein gene of the edible cockle Cerastoderma edule and its expression after cadmium (Cd) or mercury (Hg) exposures were determined. The resulting sequence (Cemt1) exhibits unusual features. The full length cDNA encodes a protein of 73 amino acids with nine classical Cys-X((1-3))-Cys motifs, but also one Cys-Cys not generally found in molluscan MT. Moreover, characterization of the molecular organization of the Cemt1 gene revealed two different alleles (A1 and A2) with length differences due to large deletion events in their intronic sequences involving direct Short Interspersed repeated Elements (SINE), while their exonic sequences were identical. To our knowledge, such large excision mechanisms have never before been reported in a bivalve gene sequence. After 10 days of Cd exposure at environmentally relevant doses, quantitative real-time PCR revealed a strong induction of Cemt1 in gills of C. edule. Surprisingly, neither induction of the Cemt1 gene nor of MT protein was shown after Hg exposure, despite the fact that this organism is able to bioaccumulate a high amount of this trace metal which is theoretically one of the most powerful inducers of MT biosynthesis.

  1. Characterization of calcineurin-dependent response element binding protein and its involvement in copper-metallothionein gene expression in Neurospora

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Kalari Satish; Ravi Kumar, B.; Siddavattam, Dayananda; Subramanyam, Chivukula . E-mail: csubramanyam@hotmail.com

    2006-07-07

    In continuation of our recent observations indicating the presence of a lone calcineurin-dependent response element (CDRE) in the -3730 bp upstream region of copper-induced metallothionein (CuMT) gene of Neurospora [K.S. Kumar, S. Dayananda, C. Subramanyam, Copper alone, but not oxidative stress, induces copper-metallothionein gene in Neurospora crassa, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 242 (2005) 45-50], we isolated and characterized the CDRE-binding protein. The cloned upstream region of CuMT gene was used as the template to specifically amplify CDRE element, which was immobilized on CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B for use as the affinity matrix to purify the CDRE binding protein from nuclear extracts obtained from Neurospora cultures grown in presence of copper. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of the affinity purified protein revealed the presence of a single 17 kDa protein, which was identified and characterized by MALDI-TOF. Peptide mass finger printing of tryptic digests and analysis of the 17 kDa protein matched with the regulatory {beta}-subunit of calcineurin (Ca{sup 2+}-calmodulin dependent protein phosphatase). Parallel identification of nuclear localization signals in this protein by in silico analysis suggests a putative role for calcineurin in the regulation of CuMT gene expression.

  2. Coordinated responses of phytochelatin synthase and metallothionein genes in black mangrove, Avicennia germinans, exposed to cadmium and copper.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Mendoza, Daniel; Moreno, Adriana Quiroz; Zapata-Perez, Omar

    2007-08-01

    To evaluate the role of phytochelatins and metallothioneins in heavy metal tolerance of black mangrove Avicennia germinans, 3-month-old seedlings were exposed to cadmium or copper for 30 h, under hydroponic conditions. Degenerate Mt2 and PCS primers were synthesized based on amino acid and nucleotide alignment sequences reported for Mt2 and PCS in other plant species found in GenBank. Total RNA was isolated from A. germinans leaves and two partial fragments of metallothionein and phytochelatin synthase genes were isolated. Gene expression was evaluated with reverse transcripatase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification technique. Temporal analysis showed that low Cd2+ and Cu2+ concentrations caused a slight (but not significant) increase in AvMt2 expression after a 16 h exposure time, while AvPCS expression showed a significant increase under the same conditions but only after 4h. Results strongly suggest that the rapid increase in AvPCS expression may contribute to Cd2+ and Cu2+ detoxification. Moreover, we found that A. germinans has the capacity to over-express both genes (AvMt2 and AvPCS), which may constitute a coordinated detoxification response mechanism targeting non-essential metals. Nonetheless, our results confirm that AvPCS was the most active gene involved in the regulation of essential metals (e.g., Cu2+) in A. germinans leaves.

  3. Two Metallothionein Genes in Oxya chinensis: Molecular Characteristics, Expression Patterns and Roles in Heavy Metal Stress

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yaoming; Wu, Haihua; Kou, Lihua; Liu, Xiaojian; Zhang, Jianzhen; Guo, Yaping; Ma, Enbo

    2014-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are small, cysteine-rich, heavy metal-binding proteins involved in metal homeostasis and detoxification in living organisms. In the present study, we cloned two MT genes (OcMT1 and OcMT2) from Oxya chinensis, analyzed the expression patterns of the OcMT transcripts in different tissues and at varying developmental stages using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), evaluated the functions of these two MTs using RNAi and recombinant proteins in an E. coli expression system. The full-length cDNAs of OcMT1 and OcMT2 encoded 40 and 64 amino acid residues, respectively. We found Cys-Cys, Cys-X-Cys and Cys-X-Y-Z-Cys motifs in OcMT1 and OcMT2. These motifs might serve as primary chelating sites, as in other organisms. These characteristics suggest that OcMT1 and OcMT2 may be involved in heavy metal detoxification by capturing the metals. Two OcMT were expressed at all developmental stages, and the highest levels were found in the eggs. Both transcripts were expressed in all eleven tissues examined, with the highest levels observed in the brain and optic lobes, followed by the fat body. The expression of OcMT2 was also relatively high in the ovaries. The functions of OcMT1 and OcMT2 were explored using RNA interference (RNAi) and different concentrations and treatment times for the three heavy metals. Our results indicated that mortality increased significantly from 8.5% to 16.7%, and this increase was both time- and dose-dependent. To evaluate the abilities of these two MT proteins to confer heavy metal tolerance to E. coli, the bacterial cells were transformed with pET-28a plasmids containing the OcMT genes. The optical densities of both the MT-expressing and control cells decreased with increasing concentrations of CdCl2. Nevertheless, the survival rates of the MT-overexpressing cells were higher than those of the controls. Our results suggest that these two genes play important roles in heavy metal detoxification in O. chinensis. PMID:25391131

  4. Intracellular sequestration of zinc, cadmium and silver in Hebeloma mesophaeum and characterization of its metallothionein genes.

    PubMed

    Sácký, Jan; Leonhardt, Tereza; Borovička, Jan; Gryndler, Milan; Briksí, Aleš; Kotrba, Pavel

    2014-06-01

    Sequestration of intracellular heavy metals in eukaryotes involves compartmentalization and binding with cytosolic, cysteine-rich metallothionein (MT) peptides. We examined the roles of these processes in handling of zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and silver (Ag) in sporocarps and a metal-exposed extraradical mycelium of Hebeloma mesophaeum, the Zn-accumulating ectomycorrhizal (EM) species frequently associated with metal disturbed sites. Size exclusion chromatography revealed that the majority of Zn and Cd in the sporocarps and mycelium was contained in a low molecular mass fraction attributable to compartmentalized metal. The staining of hyphal cells with the Zn-specific Zinquin and Cd-specific Leadmium fluorescent tracers labeled Zn and Cd in small, punctuated vesicles and vacuoles, respectively. By contrast, the sporocarp and mycelium Ag was associated with cysteine-rich, 5-kDa peptides. The peptides of the same size were also identified in minor Zn and Cd complexes from the metal-exposed mycelium. We have further isolated and characterized HmMT1, HmMT2 and HmMT3 genes coding for different 5-kDa MTs of H. mesophaeum collected at a lead smelter site. Heterologous complementation assays in metal-sensitive yeast mutants indicated that HmMTs encode functional, metal-specific peptides: only HmMT1 was able to complement sensitivity to Zn; HmMT1 conferred higher tolerance to Cd and Cu than HmMT2 or HmMT3; and both HmMT2 and HmMT3, but not HmMT1, conferred increased tolerance to Ag. The presence of HmMT1 and HmMT3, but not HmMT2, was also confirmed in a H. mesophaeum isolate from an unpolluted site. Gene expression analysis in the extraradical mycelium of this isolate revealed that the transcription of HmMT1 was preferentially induced in the presence of Zn and Cd, while Ag was a stronger inducer of HmMT3. Altogether, these results improve our understanding of the handling of intracellular Zn, Cd and Ag in Hebeloma and represent the first evidence suggesting involvement of MTs

  5. Cadmium induces alpha(1)collagen (I) and metallothionein II gene and alters the antioxidant system in rat hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    del Carmen, Escobar Ma; Souza, Verónica; Bucio, Leticia; Hernández, Elizabeth; Damián-Matsumura, Pablo; Zaga, Verónica; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, Ma Concepción

    2002-01-15

    The mechanism of cadmium-mediated hepatotoxicity has been the subject of numerous investigations, principally in hepatocytes. Although, some uncertainties persist, sufficient evidence has emerged to provide a reasonable account of the toxic process in parenchymal cells. However, there is no information about the effect of cadmium in other hepatic cell types, such as stellate cells (fat storing cells, Ito cells, perisinusoidal cells, parasinusoidal cells, lipocytes). Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) express a quiescent phenotype in a healthy liver and acquire an activated phenotype in liver injury. These cells play an important role in the fibrogenic process. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a 24 h treatment of low Cd concentrations in glutathione content, lipid peroxidation damage, cytosolic free Ca, antioxidant enzyme activities: glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase along with the capacity of this heavy metal to induce metallothionein II and alpha(1)collagen (I) in an hepatic stellate cell line (CFSC-2G). Cd-treated cells increased lipid peroxidation and the content of cytosolic free calcium, decreased glutathione content and superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity. Cd was able to induce the expression of the metallothionein II and alpha(1)collagen (I) gene, that was not described in this cell type. Cadmium may act as a pro-fibrogenic agent in the liver probably by inducing oxidative damage by enhancing lipid peroxidation and altering the antioxidant system of the cells. Although, the exact role metallothionein induction plays in this process is unknown, it probably, provides a cytosolic pool of potential binding sites to sequester ionic Cd, thereby decreasing its toxicity.

  6. The Fungus Tremella mesenterica Encodes the Longest Metallothionein Currently Known: Gene, Protein and Metal Binding Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Weiyu; Calatayud, Sara; Palacios, Òscar; Capdevila, Mercè; Atrian, Sílvia

    2016-01-01

    Fungal Cu-thioneins, and among them, the paradigmatic Neurospora crassa metallothionein (MT) (26 residues), were once considered as the shortest MTs -the ubiquitous, versatile metal-binding proteins- among all organisms, and thus representatives of their primeval forms. Nowadays, fungal MTs of diverse lengths and sequence features are known, following the huge heterogeneity of the Kingdom of Fungi. At the opposite end of N. crassa MT, the recently reported Cryptococcus neoformans CnMT1 and CnMT2 (122 and 186 aa) constitute the longest reported fungal MTs, having been identified as virulence factors of this pathogen. CnMTs are high-capacity Cu-thioneins that appear to be built by tandem amplification of a basic unit, a 7-Cys segment homologous to N. crassa MT. Here, we report the in silico, in vivo and in vitro study of a still longer fungal MT, belonging to Tremella mesenterica (TmMT), a saprophytic ascomycete. The TmMT gene has 10 exons, and it yields a 779-bp mature transcript that encodes a 257 residue-long protein. This MT is also built by repeated fragments, but of variable number of Cys: six units of the 7-Cys building blocks-CXCX3CSCPPGXCXCAXCP-, two fragments of six Cys, plus three Cys at the N-terminus. TmMT metal binding abilities have been analyzed through the spectrophotometric and spectrometric characterization of its recombinant Zn-, Cd- and Cu-complexes. Results allow it to be unambiguous classified as a Cu-thionein, also of extraordinary coordinating capacity. According to this feature, when the TmMT cDNA is expressed in MT-devoid yeast cells, it is capable of restoring a high Cu tolerance level. Since it is not obvious that T. mesenterica shares the same physiological needs for a high capacity Cu-binding protein with C. neoformans, the existence of this peculiar MT might be better explained on the basis of a possible role in Cu-handling for the Cu-enzymes responsible in lignin degradation pathways. PMID:26882011

  7. The Fungus Tremella mesenterica Encodes the Longest Metallothionein Currently Known: Gene, Protein and Metal Binding Characterization.

    PubMed

    Iturbe-Espinoza, Paul; Gil-Moreno, Selene; Lin, Weiyu; Calatayud, Sara; Palacios, Òscar; Capdevila, Mercè; Atrian, Sílvia

    2016-01-01

    Fungal Cu-thioneins, and among them, the paradigmatic Neurospora crassa metallothionein (MT) (26 residues), were once considered as the shortest MTs--the ubiquitous, versatile metal-binding proteins--among all organisms, and thus representatives of their primeval forms. Nowadays, fungal MTs of diverse lengths and sequence features are known, following the huge heterogeneity of the Kingdom of Fungi. At the opposite end of N. crassa MT, the recently reported Cryptococcus neoformans CnMT1 and CnMT2 (122 and 186 aa) constitute the longest reported fungal MTs, having been identified as virulence factors of this pathogen. CnMTs are high-capacity Cu-thioneins that appear to be built by tandem amplification of a basic unit, a 7-Cys segment homologous to N. crassa MT. Here, we report the in silico, in vivo and in vitro study of a still longer fungal MT, belonging to Tremella mesenterica (TmMT), a saprophytic ascomycete. The TmMT gene has 10 exons, and it yields a 779-bp mature transcript that encodes a 257 residue-long protein. This MT is also built by repeated fragments, but of variable number of Cys: six units of the 7-Cys building blocks--CXCX3CSCPPGXCXCAXCP-, two fragments of six Cys, plus three Cys at the N-terminus. TmMT metal binding abilities have been analyzed through the spectrophotometric and spectrometric characterization of its recombinant Zn-, Cd- and Cu-complexes. Results allow it to be unambiguous classified as a Cu-thionein, also of extraordinary coordinating capacity. According to this feature, when the TmMT cDNA is expressed in MT-devoid yeast cells, it is capable of restoring a high Cu tolerance level. Since it is not obvious that T. mesenterica shares the same physiological needs for a high capacity Cu-binding protein with C. neoformans, the existence of this peculiar MT might be better explained on the basis of a possible role in Cu-handling for the Cu-enzymes responsible in lignin degradation pathways.

  8. Enhanced metallothionein gene expression is associated with protection from cadmium-induced genotoxity in cultured rat liver cells

    SciTech Connect

    Coogan, T.P.; Bare, R.M.; Bjornson, E.J.; Waalkes, M.P. )

    1994-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are low-molecular-weight, cysteine-rich proteins that appear to play an important role in the cellular defense system against cadmium toxicity. Although substantial evidence exists demonstrating a reduction in cadmium toxicity concomitant with MT induction, little is known about the possible effects of stimulation of MT synthesis on cadmium-induced genotoxicity. Thus, the alkaline elution technique was used to assess single-strand DNA damage (SSD) in TRL-1215 cells, a liver-derived cell line shown to have inducible MT Gene expression. The SSD accumulated over a 2-h time period in a time-dependent manner following exposure to 500 [mu]M CdCl[sub 2]. Low concentration cadmium pretreatment (10 [mu]M CdCl[sub 2], 24 h) provided protection against the genotoxicity of high-concentration cadmium (500 [mu]M CdCl[sub 2], 2 h). A 2-h exposure to 500 [mu]M CdCl[sub 2], had no effect on viability, as assessed using a tetrazolium-dye based assay, in cells from either the pretreated or nonpretreated group. Metallothionein was induced in a time-dependent manner by low-concentration cadmium pretreatment: Exposure for 24 and 48 h resulted in 3.3- and 6.4-fold increases, respectively. In addition, a 24-h exposure to low-concentration cadmium resulted in an increase in MT-I gene expression. Cadmium accumulation was 2.6-fold greater in low-concentration cadmium-pretreated cells as compared to non-pretreated cells. These data demonstrate that low-concentration cadmium pretreatment provides protection against cadmium-induced single-strand DNA damage and support the hypothesis that this protection is due to stimulation of MT gene expression. 38 refs., 6 figs.

  9. A cadmium metallothionein gene of ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda (Holthuis, 1950) and its expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiquan; Wang, Jing; Xiang, Jianhai

    2013-11-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are a group of low molecular weight cysteine-rich proteins capable of binding heavy metal ions. A cadmium metallothionein ( EcMT — Cd) cDNA with a 189 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encoded a 62 amino acid protein was obtained from Exopalaemon carinicauda. Seventeen cysteines were in the deduced amino acid sequence, and the cysteine (Cys)-rich characteristic was revealed in different metallothioneins in other species. In addition, the deduced amino acid sequence did not contain any aromatic amino acid residues, such as tyrosine (Tyr), tryptophan (Trp), and phenylalanine (Phe). EcMT—Cd mRNA was expressed in all tested tissues (the ovary, muscle, stomach, and hepatopancreas), and its expression profiles in the hepatopancreas were very different when shrimps were exposed to seawater containing either 50 μmol/L CuSO4 or 2.5 μmol/L CdCl 2. The expression of EcMT-Cd was significantly up-regulated in shrimp exposed to CuSO4 for 12 h and down-regulated in shrimps exposed to CdCl2 for 12 h. After 24 h exposure to both metals, its expression was down-regulated. By contrast, at 48 h the EcMT-Cd was up-regulated in test shrimps exposed to CdCl2. The transcript of EcMT-Cd was very low or even absent before the zoea stage, and the expression of EcMT-Cd was detected from mysis larvae-I, then its expression began to rise. In conclusion, a cadmium MT exists in E. carinicauda that is expressed in different tissues and during different developmental stages, and responds to the challenge with heavy metal ions, which provides a clue to understanding the function of cadmium MT.

  10. Expression and function analysis of the metallothionein-like (MT-like) gene from Festuca rubra in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast.

    PubMed

    Han, SiHai; Hu, ZhangLi; Lei, AnPing

    2008-12-01

    The cDNA of the metallothionein-like (MT-like) gene from Festuca rubra cv. Merlin was optimized with bias codon of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast genome. The optimized MT-like gene was delivered into C. reinhardtii chloroplast and the transgenic strains expressing MT-like gene was obtained. PCR-Southern blot and RT-PCR-Southern blot analysis demonstrated that the MT-like gene was integrated into chloroplast genome of C. reinhardtii and expressed at the transcriptional level. The cadmium binding capacity of the transgenic C. reinhardtii was determined by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) and the binding properties were analyzed. Results showed that the transgenic C. reinhardtii expressing the MT-like gene exhibited remarkably higher Cd(2+) binding capacity and grew to higher densities at toxic Cd(2+) concentrations (40-100 micromol/L) than the wild type strain, and that the IC(50) of Cd(2+) (3-d treating) to algal cell growth of transgenic strain was 55.43% higher than that of the wild type strain, indicating that the Cd(2+) binding capacity and Cd(2+) tolerance of C. reinhardtii was enhanced through the expression of the foreign MT-like gene in chloroplast.

  11. Effects of pergolide mesilate on metallothionein mRNAs expression in a mouse model for Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Ono, Shin-ichi; Hirai, Kohji; Tokuda, Ei-ichi

    2009-10-01

    Dopamine agonists have neuroprotective properties in addition to their original pharmacologic function. We examined the effects of pergolide mesilate (PM) on the levels of metallothionein mRNA expression and lipid peroxidation in the corpus striata of 1-methyl 4-phenyl 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced Parkinsonian mice. Mice were administered normal saline (vehicle as a control), PM, or MPTP. A consecutive 7-d administration of MPTP via a gastric tube at a dose of 30 mg/kg significantly decreased metallothionein (MT)-I mRNA expression but did not influence MT-III mRNA expression. Lipid peroxidation, measured as the production of malondialdehyde reactive substances, did not increase after MPTP treatment. Although PM administration alone did not effect MT-I expression, an additional consecutive 7-d administration of PM (30 mug/kg) following MPTP treatment recovered the decreased MT-I level and increased MT-III expression. Lipid peroxidation was significantly suppressed. These results suggest that PM exerts an antioxidative property through the induction of MT-I and MT-III mRNAs simultaneously in response to cellular and/or tissue injury.

  12. Monoclonal antibodies against metallothioneins and metalloproteins.

    PubMed

    Talbot, B G; Bilodeau, G; Thirion, J P

    1986-10-01

    Monoclonal antibodies against rabbit metallothioneins (MT) were prepared by in vitro immunization of mouse lymphocytes with a mixture of the two forms of metallothionein MT1 and MT2. Six IgM antibodies (TN1,3,4,5,6,7) which bind to metallothionein were characterized. Antibody TN3 is specific for rabbit MT1 and does not react with any other MT's tested. TN5 is specific for both rabbit MT1 and MT2. TN7 is specific for rabbit MT2 but not MT1 and cross-reacts also with Chinese hamster, mouse and rat metallothioneins. The antibodies TN1, TN4 and TN6 bind not only to rabbit MT1 and MT2 but also to other metal binding proteins like alcohol dehydrogenase and carbonic anhydrase.

  13. Partial Gene Sequencing of CYP1A, Vitellogenin, and Metallothionein in Mosquitofish Gambusia yucatana and Gambusia sexradiata.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Euán, Roberto; Escalante-Herrera, Karla S; Rodríguez-Fuentes, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Ground characteristics in the Yucatan Peninsula make recovery and treatment of wastewater very expensive. This situation has contributed to an increase of pollutants in the aquifer. Unfortunately, studies related to the effects of those pollutants in native organisms are scarce. The aim of this work was to obtain partial sequences of widely known genes used as biomarkers of pollutant effect in Gambusia yucatana and Gambusia sexradiata. The studied genes were: cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A); vitellogenin (VTG); metallothionein (MT), and two housekeeping genes, 18S and β-actin. From reported sequences of Gambusia affinis, primers were designed and amplification was done in the local Gambusia species exposed for 48 h to gasoline (100 µL/L, stirred for 24 h pre-exposure). Preliminary results revealed partial sequences of all genes with an approximate average length of 200 bp. BLAST analysis of found sequences indicated a minimum of 97% identity with reported sequences for G. affinis or Gambusia holbrooki showing great similarity.

  14. Localization of genes encoding metallothionein-like protein (mt2 and smtb) in the brain of zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Seong Lin; Ogawa, Satoshi; Parhar, Ishwar S

    2015-12-01

    Metallothionein (MT) is a small cysteine-rich heavy metal-binding protein involved in metal homeostasis, detoxification and free radical-scavenging. MT is ubiquitously expressed in several tissues, but its role in the central nervous system is not well understood. In this study, we identified two MT homologous genes (mt2 and smtb) in the zebrafish. Digoxigenin-in situ hybridization showed the expression of mt2 and smtb genes in the ventricular layers in the telencephalon, diencephalon, mesencephalon and rhombencephalon, most of which are cell proliferating regions in the brain of zebrafish. Cellular characteristics of MT genes expressing cells were examined by double-labelling with markers for neurons (HuC/D) and astrocytes (glial fibrillary acidic protein, GFAP and S100 protein) and cell proliferation marker (PCNA). mt2 and smtb mRNAs are expressed in neurons and not in astrocytes, and they were co-localized with PCNA. These results suggest that mt2 and smtb may play an important role in neurogenesis and neuroprotection.

  15. Cloning and characterization of metallothionein gene (HcMT) from Halostachys caspica and its expression in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhongyuan; Meng, Hongen; Abdulla, Hasiyatihan; Zhang, Fuchun; Mao, Xinfang

    2016-07-10

    Halostachys caspica is a short shrub distributed in the semi-arid and saline-alkali area, which evolved various mechanisms for modulating salt and metal level. In the present study, a Type 2 metallothionein (HcMT) gene was cloned from the salt induced suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library of H.caspica. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that HcMT gene was up-regulated under the stress of Cu(2+), Zn(2+) and Cd(2+), and the tolerance of E. coli strain harboring with the recombinant HcMT (pET-32a-HcMT) to Cu(2+), Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) was enhanced compared to strain with control vector (pET-32a). Moreover, the purified TrxA-HcMT fusion protein from E. coli cells grown in the presence of 0.3mM CuSO4, 0.3mM ZnSO4, or 0.1mM CdCl2 could bind more metal ions than TrxA alone. The predicted 3D structure showed that HcMT could form a single metal-thiolate cluster, which confers the ability to bind five divalent metal ions through fourteen cysteine residues. These data indicate that HcMT may be involved in processes of metal tolerance in H. caspica and could be employed as a potential candidate for heavy metal phytoremediation.

  16. Arbuscular mycorrhiza affects nickel translocation and expression of ABC transporter and metallothionein genes in Festuca arundinacea.

    PubMed

    Shabani, Leila; Sabzalian, Mohammad R; Mostafavi pour, Sodabeh

    2016-01-01

    Mycorrhizal fungi are key microorganisms for enhancing phytoremediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals. In this study, the effects of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Funneliformis mosseae (=Glomus mosseae) on physiological and molecular mechanisms involved in the nickel (Ni) tolerance of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea = Schedonorus arundinaceus) were investigated. Nickel addition had a pronounced negative effect on tall fescue growth and photosynthetic pigment contents, as well as on AMF colonization. Phosphorus content increased markedly in mycorrhizal plants (M) compared to non-inoculated (NM) ones. However, no significant difference was observed in root carbohydrate content between AMF-inoculated and non-inoculated plants. For both M and NM plants, Ni concentrations in shoots and roots increased according to the addition of the metal into soil, but inoculation with F. mosseae led to significantly lower Ni translocation from roots to the aboveground parts compared to non-inoculated plants. ABC transporter and metallothionein transcripts accumulated to considerably higher levels in tall fescue plants colonized by F. mosseae than in the corresponding non-mycorrhizal plants. These results highlight the importance of mycorrhizal colonization in alleviating Ni-induced stress by reducing Ni transport from roots to shoots of tall fescue plants.

  17. Regulation of Intracellular Copper by Induction of Endogenous Metallothioneins Improves the Disease Course in a Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Eiichi; Watanabe, Shunsuke; Okawa, Eriko; Ono, Shin-ichi

    2015-04-01

    Mutations in SOD1 cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), an incurable motor neuron disease. The pathogenesis of the disease is poorly understood, but intracellular copper dyshomeostasis has been implicated as a key process in the disease. We recently observed that metallothioneins (MTs) are an excellent target for the modification of copper dyshomeostasis in a mouse model of ALS (SOD1(G93A)). Here, we offer a therapeutic strategy designed to increase the level of endogenous MTs. The upregulation of endogenous MTs by dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid, significantly improved the disease course and rescued motor neurons in SOD1(G93A) mice, even if the induction was initiated when peak body weight had decreased by 10%. Neuroprotection was associated with the normalization of copper dyshomeostasis, as well as with decreased levels of SOD1(G93A) aggregates. Importantly, these benefits were clearly mediated in a MT-dependent manner, as dexamethasone did not provide any protection when endogenous MTs were abolished from SOD1(G93A) mice. In conclusion, the upregulation of endogenous MTs represents a promising strategy for the treatment of ALS linked to mutant SOD1.

  18. Influence of Transgenic Metallothionein-1 on Gliosis, CA1 Neuronal Loss, and Brain Metal Levels of the Tg2576 Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Comes, Gemma; Manso, Yasmina; Escrig, Anna; Fernandez-Gayol, Olaya; Sanchis, Paula; Molinero, Amalia; Giralt, Mercedes; Carrasco, Javier; Hidalgo, Juan

    2017-01-01

    The mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Tg2576 mice (APP), has provided valuable information, such as the role of the metallothionein (MT) family in their behavioral and amyloidosis phenotypes. In this study, we further characterize the role of MT-1 by crossing Mt1-overexpressing mice with Tg2576 mice (APPTgMT). In 14-month-old mice, MT-1(/2) protein levels were dramatically increased by Mt1 overexpression throughout the cortex (Cx), which showed a prominent caudal-rostral gradient, and the hippocampus (HC). There was a trend for MT-1(/2) immunostaining to be increased in the areas surrounding the amyloid plaques in control male mice but not in Mt1-overexpressing mice. Gliosis was elicited by the amyloid plaques, but the effects of Mt1 overexpression were modest. However, in hippocampal western blots the microglial marker Iba-1 was increased in old male APPTgMT mice compared to APP-wild type (APPWT) mice, and the opposite was observed in young mice. Hippocampal CA1 neuronal loss was observed in Tg2576 mice, but was unaffected by Mt1 overexpression. Aging increased Zn and Cu levels differently depending on brain area, sex, and genotype. Thus, the effects of Mt1 overexpression on the phenotype of Tg2576 mice here studied are modest. PMID:28134760

  19. Characterisation and genetic polymorphism of metallothionein gene CgMT4 in experimental families of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas displaying summer mortality.

    PubMed

    David, Elise; Tanguy, Arnaud; Moraga, Dario

    2012-02-01

    Summer mortality events have been observed in Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas for several decades. This paper examines the selective pressure exerted by summer mortality on the polymorphism of a newly identified oyster metallothionein gene. CgMT4 cDNA and genomic sequences were obtained. CgMT4 was studied in two generations of oysters reared in three sites on the French Atlantic coast, using single strand conformation polymorphism analysis. Four alleles were detected. Individuals carrying genotype MT4-CD seem to have higher susceptibility to summer risk conditions. The MT4 gene could be a potential new genetic marker for susceptibility; further validation studies are recommended.

  20. Alterations in metal toxicity and metal-induced metallothionein gene expression elicited by growth medium calcium concentration.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajendra K; Albrecht, Amy L; Somji, Seema; Sens, Mary Ann; Sens, Donald A; Garrett, Scott H

    2008-06-01

    The calcium content of the growth medium has been shown to influence the growth and differentiation of primary epithelial cells in culture. The goal of the present study was to determine if growth medium calcium concentration could influence the susceptibility to metal toxicity and metallothionein gene expression of an immortalized human prostate-derived epithelial cell line (RWPE-1). The RWPE-1 cell line was grown in medium containing either 0.1 or 1.4 mM calcium. Confluent cells were exposed to either Zn(+2) (50, 100, or 150 microM) or Cd(+2) (3, 6, or 12 microM) for 13 days, and cell toxicity and MT gene expression were determined along the time course of exposure. It was demonstrated that the calcium content of the growth medium had a marked influence on Zn(+2) toxicity and a lesser but significant effect on Cd(+2) toxicity to the RWPE-1 cells. Calcium concentration of the growth medium was also shown to alter the accumulation of MT-1/2 protein and MT-1E, MT-1X, and MT-2A mRNAs. It was shown that MT-1/2 protein was markedly increased for metal-exposed cells grown in medium containing 0.1 mM calcium; however, the increased expression did not cause an increase in the resistance of the cells to Zn(+2) or Cd(+2) exposure. These observations show that growth medium calcium concentration can influence metal toxicity and the pattern of expression of the MT mRNAs and protein for RWPE-1 cells. The results suggest that caution should be exercised when comparing toxicological responses between cell lines that may be grown in growth formulations differing in calcium concentration.

  1. Ultraviolet irradiation increases the sensitivity of cultured human skin cells to cadmium probably through the inhibition of metallothionein gene expression.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hirotomo; Murata, Mie; Suzuki, Kaoru; Koizumi, Shinji

    2004-11-01

    We previously developed an apparatus that can irradiate cultured cells with monochromatic ultraviolet (UV) rays to exactly assess the biological effects of UV components on mammalian cells. Using this device, we studied the effects of UV in and near the UVB region on the general as well as specific protein synthesis of the human skin-derived NB1RGB cells. We found that Cd-induced synthesis of metallothioneins (MTs), which are the proteins involved in the protection against heavy metals and oxidative stress, is inhibited by UV at 280 nm more extensively than total protein synthesis. Such an inhibition was observed when MTs were induced by different inducers such as Cd, Zn, and dexamethasone in three human cell lines, indicating that it is not an event specific to a certain inducer or a certain cell type. By contrast, UV at 300 or 320 nm showed only a marginal effect. UV at 280 nm was likely to block MT gene transcription because Cd-induced increase of MT mRNA was strongly inhibited by irradiation. Cd induction of 70-kDa heat shock protein mRNA was also inhibited by UV irradiation, suggesting that the expression of inducible genes are commonly sensitive to UV. Furthermore, we observed that the irradiation of UV at 280 nm renders NB1RGB cells extremely susceptible to Cd, probably due to the reduced MT synthesis. These observations strongly suggest that UV at 280 nm severely damages cellular inducible protective functions, warning us of a new risk of UV exposure.

  2. Metallothioneins: potential therapeutic aids for wound healing in the skin.

    PubMed

    Lansdown, Alan B G

    2002-01-01

    Metallothioneins are a family of low molecular weight proteins containing approximately 30 % cysteine. Expression of the metallothionein gene is up-regulated in the skin following topical application of zinc and copper, and in wound margins particularly in regions of high mitotic activity. This induction of metallothionein in the wound margin may reflect its role in promoting cell proliferation and reepithelialiation. The action of metallothioneins in these processes may result from the large number of Zinc-dependent and copper-dependent enzymes required for cell proliferation and matrix remodeling. In addition, selected growth factors may modulate metallothionein gene expression and hence the ability of cells to proliferate. Recent studies suggest that metallothioneins may be an attractive target for development as vulnerary agents.

  3. A plasmid containing the human metallothionein II gene can function as an antibody-assisted electrophoretic biosensor for heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Wooten, Dennis C; Starr, Clarise R; Lyon, Wanda J

    2016-01-01

    Different forms of heavy metals affect biochemical systems in characteristic ways that cannot be detected with typical metal analysis methods like atomic absorption spectrometry. Further, using living systems to analyze interaction of heavy metals with biochemical systems can be laborious and unreliable. To generate a reliable easy-to-use biologically-based biosensor system, the entire human metallothionein-II (MT-II) gene was incorporated into a plasmid (pUC57-MT) easily replicated in Escherichia coli. In this system, a commercial polyclonal antibody raised against human metal-responsive transcription factor-1 protein (MTF-1 protein) could modify the electrophoretic migration patterns (i.e. cause specific decreases in agarose gel electrophoretic mobility) of the plasmid in the presence or absence of heavy metals other than zinc (Zn). In the study here, heavy metals, MTF-1 protein, and polyclonal anti-MTF-1 antibody were used to assess pUC57-MT plasmid antibody-assisted electrophoretic mobility. Anti-MTF-1 antibody bound both MTF-1 protein and pUC57-MT plasmid in a non-competitive fashion such that it could be used to differentiate specific heavy metal binding. The results showed that antibody-inhibited plasmid migration was heavy metal level-dependent. Zinc caused a unique mobility shift pattern opposite to that of other metals tested, i.e. Zn blocked the antibody ability to inhibit plasmid migration, despite a greatly increased affinity for DNA by the antibody when Zn was present. The Zn effect was reversed/modified by adding MTF-1 protein. Additionally, antibody inhibition of plasmid mobility was resistant to heat pre-treatment and trypsinization, indicating absence of residual DNA extraction-resistant bacterial DNA binding proteins. DNA binding by anti-DNA antibodies may be commonly enhanced by xenobiotic heavy metals and elevated levels of Zn, thus making them potentially effective tools for assessment of heavy metal bioavailability in aqueous solutions and

  4. A PU.1 suppressive target gene, metallothionein 1G, inhibits retinoic acid-induced NB4 cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Hirako, Naomi; Nakano, Hiroko; Takahashi, Shinichiro

    2014-01-01

    We recently revealed that myeloid master regulator SPI1/PU.1 directly represses metallothionein (MT) 1G through its epigenetic activity of PU.1, but the functions of MT1G in myeloid differentiation remain unknown. To clarify this, we established MT1G-overexpressing acute promyelocytic leukemia NB4 (NB4MTOE) cells, and investigated whether MT1G functionally contributes to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-induced NB4 cell differentiation. Real-time PCR analyses demonstrated that the inductions of CD11b and CD11c and reductions in myeloperoxidase and c-myc by ATRA were significantly attenuated in NB4MTOE cells. Morphological examination revealed that the percentages of differentiated cells induced by ATRA were reduced in NB4MTOE cells. Since G1 arrest is a hallmark of ATRA-induced NB4 cell differentiation, we observed a decrease in G1 accumulation, as well as decreases in p21WAF1/CIP1 and cyclin D1 inductions, by ATRA in NB4MTOE cells. Nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction assays revealed that the proportions of NBT-positive cells were decreased in NB4MTOE cells in the presence of ATRA. Microarray analyses showed that the changes in expression of several myeloid differentiation-related genes (GATA2, azurocidin 1, pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1, matrix metallopeptidase -8, S100 calcium-binding protein A12, neutrophil cytosolic factor 2 and oncostatin M) induced by ATRA were disturbed in NB4MTOE cells. Collectively, overexpression of MT1G inhibits the proper differentiation of myeloid cells.

  5. Arsenic binding to Fucus vesiculosus metallothionein.

    PubMed

    Merrifield, Maureen E; Ngu, Thanh; Stillman, Martin J

    2004-11-05

    The seaweed Fucus vesiculosus is a member of the brown algae family. Kille and co-workers [Biochem. J. 338 (1999) 553] reported that this species contains the gene for metallothionein. Metallothionein is a metalloprotein having low molecular weight, and high cysteine content, which binds a range of metals. F. vesiculosus bioaccumulates arsenic from the aquatic environment [Mar. Chem. 18 (1986) 321]. In this paper we describe arsenic binding to F. vesiculosus metallothionein, characterized by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Five arsenic-MT species were detected with increasing As to protein ratios. These results provide important information about the metal-chelation behaviour of this novel algal metallothionein which is a putative model for arsenic binding to F. vesiculosus in vivo.

  6. Effects of heavy metals on the expression of a zinc-inducible metallothionein-III gene and antioxidant enzyme activities in Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Cong, Ming; Wu, Huifeng; Liu, Xiaoli; Zhao, Jianmin; Wang, Xuan; Lv, Jiasen; Hou, Lin

    2012-10-01

    Sequestration by metallothioneins and antioxidant defense are two kinds of important defense mechanisms employed by mollusks to minimize adverse effects caused by heavy metal contaminants in marine environment. In the present study, a novel metallothionein gene, CgMT-III, was cloned from Crassostrea gigas, consisting of eighteen conserved cysteine residues and encoding a MT III-like protein with two tandem β domains. The expression level of CgMT-III transcript induced by zinc was much higher than that induced by cadmium exposure. It suggested that CgMT-III was perhaps mainly involved in homeostatic control of zinc metabolism, which was distinct from previously identified MTs in C. gigas. Among the tested antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), SOD and GPx showed varying up-regulations in a tissue-specific manner, while CAT activities were inhibited in both gill and hepatopancreas from C. gigas exposed to heavy metals. It can be inferred that CgMT-III was mainly involved in zinc homeostasis, and CgMT-III gene together with CAT enzyme could be potential biomarkers to indicate heavy metal, especially zinc pollution in marine organisms.

  7. Tissue expression analysis of FeMT3, a drought and oxidative stress related metallothionein gene from buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum).

    PubMed

    Samardzić, Jelena T; Nikolić, Dragana B; Timotijević, Gordana S; Jovanović, Zivko S; Milisavljević, Mira Đ; Maksimović, Vesna R

    2010-11-01

    Metallothionein type 3 (MT3) expression has previously been detected in leaves, fruits, and developing somatic embryos in different plant species. However, specific tissular and cellular localization of MT3 transcripts have remained unidentified. In this study, in situ RNA-RNA analysis revealed buckwheat metallothionein type 3 (FeMT3) transcript localization in vascular elements, mesophyll and guard cells of leaves, vascular tissue of roots and throughout the whole embryo. Changes in FeMT3 mRNA levels in response to drought and oxidative stress, as well as ROS scavenging abilities of the FeMT3 protein in yeast were also detected, indicating possible involvement of FeMT3 in stress defense and ROS related cellular processes.

  8. Structure of the mouse IL-10 gene and chromosomal localization of the mouse and human genes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.M.; Khan, T.A.; Moore, K.W. ); Brannan, C.I.; Copeland, N.G.; Jenkins, N.A. )

    1992-06-01

    The nucleotide sequence of a 7.2-kb segment containing the mouse IL-10 (mIL-10) gene was determined. Comparison to the mIL-10 cDNA sequence revealed the presence of five exons that span [approximately]5.1 kb of genomic DNA. The noncoding regions of the mIL-10 gene contain sequences that have been associated with transcriptional regulation of several cytokine genes. The mIL-10 gene was mapped to mouse chromosome 1 and the human IL-10 gene was also mapped to human chromosome 1. 35 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. The immune responses and expression of metallothionein (MT) gene and heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) in juvenile rockfish, Sebastes schlegelii, exposed to waterborne arsenic (As(3+)).

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Hwan; Kang, Ju-Chan

    2016-10-01

    Juvenile rockfish, Sebastes schlegelii (mean length 16.4±1.9cm, and mean weight 71.6±6.4g) were exposed for 20days with the different levels of waterborne arsenic concentration (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400μg/L). The plasma cortisol of S. schlegelii was significantly increased by the waterborne arsenit exposure. In the immune responses, the immunoglobulin M (Ig M) and lysozyme activity of S. schlegelii were significantly increased by the waterborne arsenic exposure. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of S. schlegelii was inhibited by the waterborne arsenic exposure. The substantial increases in the gene expression such as metallothionein (MT) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) were observed by the waterborne arsenic exposure. The results demonstrated that waterborne arsenic exposure can induce the significant alterations in the immune responses and specific gene expression of S. schlegelii.

  10. cDNA sequence encoding metallothionein protein from Aegiceras corniculatum and its gene expression induced by Pb²⁺ and Cd²⁺ stresses.

    PubMed

    Yuhong, Li; Atagana, Harrison I; Jingchun, Liu; Wenlin, Wu; Shijun, Wu

    2013-12-01

    Constructing various green wetland examples for mangrove wetland systems is a useful way to use natural power to remediate the polluted wetlands at intertidal zones. Metallothioneins (MT) are involved in heavy metal tolerance, homeostasis, and detoxification of intracellular metal ions in plants. In order to understand the mechanism of heavy metal uptake in Aegiceras corniculatum, we isolated its metallothionein gene and studied the MT gene expression in response to heavy metals contamination. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of MT2 genes from young stem tissues of A. corniculatum growing in the cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) polluted wetlands of Quanzhou Bay, southeast of China. The obtained cDNA sequence of MT is 512 bp in length, and it has an open reading frame encoding 79 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 7.92 kDa and the theoretical isoelectric point of 4.55. The amino acids include 14 cysteine residues and 14 glycine residues. It is a non-transmembrane hydrophilic protein. Sequence and homology analysis showed the MT protein sequence shared more than 60% homology with other plant type 2 MT-like protein genes. The results suggested that the expression level of MT gene of A. corniculatum young stems induced by a certain range concentration of Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) stresses (0.2 mmol L(-1) Pb(2+), 1 mmol L(-1) Pb(2+), 0.2 mmol L(-1) Pb(2+), and 40 μmmol L(-1) Cd(2+); 1 mmol L(-1) Pb(2+) and 40 μmol L(-1) Cd(2+)) compared with control might show an adaptive protection. The expression levels of MT gene at 20 h stress treatment were higher than those at 480 h stress treatment. The expression levels of MT gene with 0.2 mmol L(-1) Pb(2+) stress treatment were higher than those with 0.2 mmol L(-1) Pb(2+) and 40 μmol L(-1) Cd(2+) stress treatment, and the MT gene expression levels with 1 mmol L(-1) Pb(2+) treatment were higher than those with 1 mmol L(-1) Pb(2+) and 40 μmol L(-1) Cd(2+) treatment. There exists an antagonistic action between

  11. Production of a bifunctional hybrid molecule B72.3/metallothionein-1 by protein engineering.

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, J; Koropatnick, J; Qi, Y; Luo, X; Moyana, T; Li, K; Chen, Y

    1993-01-01

    A hybrid anti-tumour B72.3 antibody/metallothionein protein B72.3MT-1 was produced by the construction of the expression vector mpSV2neo-EP1-B72.3MT-1. This vector contained the neo gene as a selection marker, the murine immunoglobulin promoter and enhancer, and the hybrid B72.3 heavy chain gene fragment with mouse metallothionein-1 cDNA gene ligated into its CH2 domain. The expression vector was transfected to the heavy chain loss mutant B72.3Mut(K) cell line. The hybrid protein B72.3MT-1 was purified from transfectant supernates using a Protein G column. We showed that the hybrid protein retained the binding reactivity for the TAG72 antigen as the original B72.3 antibody, and the metal-binding capacity of the native metallothionein molecule. Therefore, the bifunctional hybrid protein B72.3MT-1 may be very useful in cancer imaging when labelled with radionuclides such as 99mTc. Images Figure 3 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8495976

  12. Cloning and characterization of HbMT2a, a metallothionein gene from Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg differently responds to abiotic stress and heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yan; Chen, Yue Yi; Yang, Shu Guang; Tian, Wei Min

    2015-05-22

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are of low molecular mass, cysteine-rich proteins. They play an important role in the detoxification of heavy metals and homeostasis of intracellular metal ions, and protecting against intracellular oxidative damages. In this study a full-length cDNA of type 2 plant metallothioneins, HbMT2a, was isolated from 25 mM Polyethyleneglycol (PEG) stressed leaves of Hevea brasiliensis by RACE. The HbMT2a was 372 bp in length and had a 237 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding for a protein of 78 amino acid residues with molecular mass of 7.772 kDa. The expression of HbMT2a in the detached leaves of rubber tree clone RY7-33-97 was up-regulated by Me-JA, ABA, PEG, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, Cu{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+}, but down-regulated by water. The role of HbMT2a protein in protecting against metal toxicity was demonstrated in vitro. PET-28a-HbMT2-beared Escherichia coli. Differential expression of HbMT2a upon treatment with 10 °C was observed in the detached leaves of rubber tree clone 93-114 which is cold-resistant and Reken501 which is cold-sensitive. The expression patterns of HbMT2a in the two rubber tree clones may be ascribed to a change in the level of endogenous H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Cloning an HbMT2a gene from rubber tree. • Analyzing expression patterns of HbMT2a upon abiotic stress and heavy metal stress. • Finding different expression patterns of HbMT2a among two Hevea germplasm. • The expressed protein of HbMT2a enhances copper and zinc tolerance in Escherichia coli.

  13. ScMT2-1-3, a metallothionein gene of sugarcane, plays an important role in the regulation of heavy metal tolerance/accumulation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jinlong; Xu, Liping; Su, Yachun; Wang, Hengbo; Gao, Shiwu; Xu, Jingsheng; Que, Youxiong

    2013-01-01

    Plant metallothioneins (MTs), which are cysteine-rich, low-molecular-weight, and metal-binding proteins, play important roles in detoxification, metal ion homeostasis, and metal transport adjustment. In this study, a novel metallothionein gene, designated as ScMT2-1-3 (GenBank Accession number JQ627644), was identified from sugarcane. ScMT2-1-3 was 700 bp long, including a 240 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 79 amino acid residues. A His-tagged ScMT2-1-3 protein was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli system which had increased the host cell's tolerance to Cd(2+), Cu(2+), PEG, and NaCl. The expression of ScMT2-1-3 was upregulated under Cu(2+) stress but downregulated under Cd(2+) stress. Real-time qPCR demonstrated that the expression levels of ScMT2-1-3 in bud and root were over 14 times higher than those in stem and leaf, respectively. Thus, both the E. coli assay and sugarcane plantlets assay suggested that ScMT2-1-3 is significantly involved in the copper detoxification and storage in the cell, but its functional mechanism in cadmium detoxification and storage in sugarcane cells needs more testification though its expressed protein could obviously increase the host E. coli cell's tolerance to Cd(2+). ScMT2-1-3 constitutes thus a new interesting candidate for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of MTs-implied plant heavy metal tolerance/accumulation and for developing sugarcane phytoremediator varieties.

  14. Expression of the rgMT gene, encoding for a rice metallothionein-like protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Jin, Shumei; Sun, Dan; Wang, Ji; Li, Ying; Wang, Xinwang; Liu, Shenkui

    2014-12-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are cysteine-rich proteins of low molecular weight with many attributed functions, such as providing protection against metal toxicity, being involved in regulation of metal ions uptake that can impact plant physiology and providing protection against oxidative stress. However, the precise function of the metallothionein-like proteins such as the one coded for rgMT gene isolated from rice (Oryza sativa L.) is not completely understood. The whole genome analysis of rice (O. sativa) showed that the rgMT gene is homologue to the Os11g47809 on chromosome 11 of O. sativa sp. japonica genome. This study used the rgMT coding sequence to create transgenic lines to investigate the subcellular localization of the protein, as well as the impact of gene expression in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and Arabidopsis thaliana under heavy metal ion, salt and oxidative stresses. The results indicate that the rgMT gene was expressed in the cytoplasm of transgenic cells. Yeast cells transgenic for rgMT showed vigorous growth compared to the nontransgenic controls when exposed to 7 mM CuCl2, 10 mM FeCl2, 1 M NaCl, 24 mM NaHCO3 and 3.2 mM H2O2, but there was no significant difference for other stresses tested. Similarly, Arabidopsis transgenic for rgMT displayed significantly improved seed germination rates over that of the control when the seeds were stressed with 100 μM CuCl2 or 1 mM H2O2. Increased biomass was observed in the presence of 100 μM CuCl2, 220 μM FeCl2, 3 mM Na2CO3, 5 mM NaHCO3 or 1 mM H2O2. These results indicate that the expression of the rice rgMT gene in transgenic yeast and Arabidopsis is implicated in improving their tolerance for certain salt and peroxide stressors.

  15. Effects of cadmium exposure on sea urchin development assessed by SSH and RT-qPCR: metallothionein genes and their differential induction.

    PubMed

    Ragusa, Maria Antonietta; Costa, Salvatore; Gianguzza, Marco; Roccheri, Maria Carmela; Gianguzza, Fabrizio

    2013-03-01

    In order to study the defense strategies activated by Paracentrotus lividus embryos in response to sub-lethal doses of CdCl2, we compared the induced transcripts to that of control embryos by suppression subtractive hybridization technique. We isolated five metallothionein (MT) cDNAs and other genes related to detoxification, to signaling pathway components, to oxidative, reductive and conjugative biotransformation, to RNA maturation and protein synthesis. RT-qPCR analysis revealed that two of the five P. lividus MT (PlMT7 and PlMT8) genes appeared to be constitutively expressed and upregulated following cadmium treatment, whereas the other three genes (PlMT4, PlMT5, PlMT6) are specifically switched-on in response to cadmium treatment. Moreover, we found that this transcriptional induction is concentration dependent and that the cadmium concentration threshold for the gene activation is distinct for every gene. RT-qPCR experiments showed in fact that, among induced genes, PlMT5 gene is activated at a very low cadmium concentration (0.1 μM) whereas PlMT4 and PlMT6 are activated at intermediate doses (1-10 μM). Differently, PlMT7 and PlMT8 genes increase significantly their expression only in embryos treated with the highest dose (100 μM CdCl2). We found also that, in response to a lethal dose of cadmium (1 μM), only PlMT5 and PlMT6 mRNA levels increased further. These data suggest a hierarchical and orchestrated response of the P. lividus embryo to overcome differential environmental stressors that could interfere with a normal development.

  16. Genome-wide identification of rice class I metallothionein gene: tissue expression patterns and induction in response to heavy metal stress.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Neelam; Verma, Pankaj Kumar; Verma, Shikha; Tripathi, Rudra Deo; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Adhikari, Bijan; Chakrabarty, Debasis

    2012-11-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are members of a family of cysteine-rich low molecular weight polypeptides which play an important role in heavy metal detoxification and homeostasis of intracellular metal ions in plant. Though MT genes from some selected plants have been characterized with respect to their protein sequences, kinetic properties and tissue-specific localization, no detailed study has been carried out in rice. Here, we present genome-wide identification, structural and expression analyses of rice MT gene family. Our analysis suggests presence of 11 class I MT genes in rice genome (Release 7 of the MSU Rice Genome Annotation Project) which are differentially expressed during growth and development, in various tissues and during biotic and abiotic stresses. Our analyses suggest that class I MT proteins in rice differ in tissue localization as well as in heavy metal coordination chemistry. We also suggest that some MTs have a predominant role in detoxification of As (V) in arsenic-tolerant rice cultivars. Our analysis suggests that apart from transcriptional regulation, post-transcriptional alternative splicing in some members of this family takes place during growth and development, in various tissues and during biotic and abiotic stresses.

  17. The biology of novel animal genes: Mouse APEX gene knockout

    SciTech Connect

    MacInnes, M.; Altherr, M.R.; Ludwig, D.; Pedersen, R.; Mold, C.

    1997-07-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The controlled breeding of novel genes into mice, including the gene knockout (KO), or conversely by adding back transgenes provide powerful genetic technologies that together suffice to determine in large part the biological role(s) of novel genes. Inbred mouse remains the best understood and most useful mammalian experimental system available for tackling the biology of novel genes. The major mammalian apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease (APE), is involved in a key step in the repair of spontaneous and induced AP sites in DNA. Efficient repair of these lesions is imperative to prevent the stable incorporation of mutations into the cellular genome which may lead to cell death or transformation. Loss or modulation of base excison repair activity in vivo may elevate the spontaneous mutation rate in cells, and may lead to a substantial increase in the incidence of cancer. Despite extensive biochemical analysis, however, the significance of these individual APE functions in vivo has not been elucidated. Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells heterozygous for a deletion mutation in APE have been generated and whole animals containing the APE mutation have been derived from these ES cells. Animals homozygous for the APE null mutation die early in gestation, underscoring the biological significance of this DNA repair gene.

  18. Metallothionein expression in chloroplasts enhances mercury accumulation and phytoremediation capability.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Oscar N; Alvarez, Derry; Torres, Cesar; Roman, Laura; Daniell, Henry

    2011-06-01

    Genetic engineering to enhance mercury phytoremediation has been accomplished by expression of the merAB genes that protects the cell by converting Hg[II] into Hg[0] which volatilizes from the cell. A drawback of this approach is that toxic Hg is released back into the environment. A better phytoremediation strategy would be to accumulate mercury inside plants for subsequent retrieval. We report here the development of a transplastomic approach to express the mouse metallothionein gene (mt1) and accumulate mercury in high concentrations within plant cells. Real-time PCR analysis showed that up to 1284 copies of the mt1 gene were found per cell when compared with 1326 copies of the 16S rrn gene, thereby attaining homoplasmy. Past studies in chloroplast transformation used qualitative Southern blots to evaluate indirectly transgene copy number, whereas we used real-time PCR for the first time to establish homoplasmy and estimate transgene copy number and transcript levels. The mt1 transcript levels were very high with 183,000 copies per ng of RNA or 41% the abundance of the 16S rrn transcripts. The transplastomic lines were resistant up to 20 μm mercury and maintained high chlorophyll content and biomass. Although the transgenic plants accumulated high concentrations of mercury in all tissues, leaves accumulated up to 106 ng, indicating active phytoremediation and translocation of mercury. Such accumulation of mercury in plant tissues facilitates proper disposal or recycling. This study reports, for the first time, the use of metallothioneins in plants for mercury phytoremediation. Chloroplast genetic engineering approach is useful to express metal-scavenging proteins for phytoremediation.

  19. Gene expression profile analysis of type 2 diabetic mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Xu, Xiang; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Ben; He, Zhishui; Zhai, Qiwei

    2013-01-01

    Liver plays a key role in glucose metabolism and homeostasis, and impaired hepatic glucose metabolism contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes. However, the precise gene expression profile of diabetic liver and its association with diabetes and related diseases are yet to be further elucidated. In this study, we detected the gene expression profile by high-throughput sequencing in 9-week-old normal and type 2 diabetic db/db mouse liver. Totally 12132 genes were detected, and 2627 genes were significantly changed in diabetic mouse liver. Biological process analysis showed that the upregulated genes in diabetic mouse liver were mainly enriched in metabolic processes. Surprisingly, the downregulated genes in diabetic mouse liver were mainly enriched in immune-related processes, although all the altered genes were still mainly enriched in metabolic processes. Similarly, KEGG pathway analysis showed that metabolic pathways were the major pathways altered in diabetic mouse liver, and downregulated genes were enriched in immune and cancer pathways. Analysis of the key enzyme genes in fatty acid and glucose metabolism showed that some key enzyme genes were significantly increased and none of the detected key enzyme genes were decreased. In addition, FunDo analysis showed that liver cancer and hepatitis were most likely to be associated with diabetes. Taken together, this study provides the digital gene expression profile of diabetic mouse liver, and demonstrates the main diabetes-associated hepatic biological processes, pathways, key enzyme genes in fatty acid and glucose metabolism and potential hepatic diseases.

  20. Analysis of hepatic gene expression profile in a spontaneous mouse model of type 2 diabetes under a high sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Nojima, Koji; Sugimoto, Ken; Ueda, Hironori; Babaya, Naru; Ikegami, Hiroshi; Rakugi, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    Both genetic factors and diabetogenic environmental factors, such as a high-sucrose diet (HSD), are involved in the development of type 2 diabetes. In this study, the Nagoya-Shibata-Yasuda (NSY) mouse, an animal model of type 2 diabetes and C3H mice used as controls, were fed a HSD, a high-fat diet (HFD) or a regular diet (RD) from weaning. In C3H mice, HFD significantly increased body weight gain, but maintained glucose tolerance. In contrast, in NSY mice, HSD resulted in increased body weight gain and liver steatosis and increased glucose intolerance to a greater extent than HFD. Furthermore, we performed DNA microarray analysis to detect differences in hepatic gene expression levels in both strains under HSD. We then performed RT-PCR analysis on selected genes to evaluate basal expression level under RD and changes under HSD conditions. HSD-fed NSY, but not C3H mice, exhibited increased hepatic expression levels of Pparg2, an isoform of Pparg as well as G0s2, a target of Pparg, which are known to be adipocyte-specific genes. Compared to RD-fed C3H mice, hepatic expression levels of Kat2b (transcriptional regulation), Hsd3b5 (steroid hormone metabolism) and Cyp7b1 (bile acid metabolism) were initially lower in RD-fed NSY mice, and were further decreased in HSD-fed NSY mice. Expression of Metallothionein (Mt1) and Metallothionein 2 (Mt2) was significantly lower in NSY mice compared to C3H mice, irrespective of dietary condition. These data suggest that elucidation of this heterogeneity in response to HSD might contribute to further understanding of the gene-environment interactions leading to diabetes in humans.

  1. Neurobehavioral changes and alteration of gene expression in the brains of metallothionein-I/II null mice exposed to low levels of mercury vapor during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Minoru; Honda, Masako; Watanabe, Chiho; Satoh, Masahiko; Yasutake, Akira

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the neurobehavioral changes and alteration in gene expression in the brains of metallothionein (MT)-I/II null mice exposed to low-levels of mercury vapor (Hg(0)) during postnatal development. MT-I/II null and wild-type mice were repeatedly exposed to Hg(0) at 0.030 mg/m(3) (range: 0.023-0.043 mg/m(3)), which was similar to the current threshold value (TLV), for 6 hr per day until the 20th day postpartum. The behavioral effects were evaluated with locomotor activity in the open field (OPF), learning ability in the passive avoidance response (PA) and spatial learning ability in the Morris water maze (MM) at 12 weeks of age. Hg(0)-exposed MT-I/II null mice showed a significant decrease in total locomotor activity in females, though learning ability and spatial learning ability were not affected. Immediately after Hg(0) exposure, mercury concentrations in the brain did not exceed 0.5 µg/g in any animals. Hg(0) exposure resulted in significant alterations in gene expression in the brains of both strains using DNA microarray analysis. The number of altered genes in MT-I/II null mice was higher than that in wild-type mice and calcium-calmodulin kinase II (Camk2a) involved in learning and memory in down-regulated genes was detected. These results provide useful information to elucidate the development of behavioral toxicity following low-level exposure to Hg(0).

  2. Basal and copper-induced expression of metallothionein isoform 1,2 and 3 genes in epithelial cancer cells: The role of tumor suppressor p53.

    PubMed

    Ostrakhovitch, E A; Song, Y P; Cherian, M G

    2016-05-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are a ubiquitous low-molecular weight, cysteine rich proteins with a high affinity for metal ions. The expression and induction of MTs have been associated with protection against DNA damage, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Our past research had shown that p53 is an important factor in metal regulation of MTs. The present study was undertaken to explore further the interrelationship between p53 and MTs. We investigated whether silencing of p53 could affect expression pattern of basal and copper induced metallothioneins. The silencing of wild-type p53 (wt-p53) in epithelial breast cancer MCF7 cells affected the basal level of MT-2A RNA, whereas the levels of MT-1A and MT-1X RNA remained largely unchanged. The expression of MT-3 was undetectable in MCF7 with either functional or silenced p53. MCF7 cells with silenced wt-p53 failed to upregulate MT-2A in response to copper and showed a reduced sensitivity toward copper induced cell apoptotic death. Similarly in MCF7-E6 and MDA-MB-231 cells, the presence of inactive/mutated p53 halted MT-1A and MT-2A gene expression in response to copper. Constitutive expression of MT-3 RNA was detectable in the presence of mutated p53 (mtp53). Transient transfection of MDA-MB-231 cells with wt-p53 enabled copper induced upregulation of both MT-1A and MT-2A but not basal level of MT-2A, MT-1E, MT-1X and MT-3. Inactivation of p53 in HepG2 cells amplified the basal expression of studied MT isoforms, including MT-3, as well as copper-induced mRNA expression of MTs except MT-1H and MT-3. Presented data demonstrate a direct relation between p53 and MT-1A and MT-2A and they also indicate that wt-p53 might be a negative regulator of MT-3 in epithelial cancer cells.

  3. Changes in nucleosome repeat lengths precede replication in the early replicating metallothionein II gene region of cells synchronized in early S phase

    SciTech Connect

    D'Anna, J.A.; Tobey, R.A. )

    1989-04-04

    Previous investigations showed that inhibition of DNA synthesis by hydroxyurea, aphidicolin, or 5-fluorodeoxyuridine produced large changes in the composition and nucleosome repeat lengths of bulk chromatin. There the authors report results of investigations to determine whether the changes in nucleosome repeat lengths might be localized in the initiated replicons, as postulated. In most experiments, Chinese hamster (line CHO) cells were synchronized in G1, or they were synchronized in early S phase by allowing G1 cells to enter S phase in medium containing 1 mM hydroxyurea or 5 {mu}g mL{sup {minus}1} aphidicolin, a procedure believed to produce an accumulation of initiated replicons that arise from normally early replicating DNA. Measurements of nucleosome repeat lengths of bulk chromatin, the early replicating unexpressed metallothionein II (MTII) gene region, and a later replicating repeated sequence indicate that the changes in repeat lengths occur preferentially in the early replicating MTII gene region as G1 cells enter and become synchronized in early S phase. During that time, the MTII gene region is not replicated nor is there any evidence for induction of MTII messenger RNA. Thus, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that changes in chromatin structure occur preferentially in the early replicating (presumably initiated) replicons at initiation or that changes in chromatin structure can precede replication during inhibition of DNA synthesis. The shortened repeat lengths that precede MTII replication are, potentially, reversible, because they become elongated when the synchronized early S-phase cells are released to resume cell cycle progression.

  4. Random cloning of genes from mouse chromosome 17.

    PubMed Central

    Kasahara, M; Figueroa, F; Klein, J

    1987-01-01

    We describe a method for isolating cosmid clones randomly from mouse chromosome 17. A cosmid library was constructed from the mouse-Chinese hamster cell line R4 4-1 that contains a limited amount of mouse DNA (chromosomes 17 and 18 and some other unidentified material) on a Chinese hamster background. The library was screened with the murine repetitive sequence probe pMBA14, which selectively hybridizes with mouse DNA. The mouse-derived cosmid clones thus identified were individually hybridized with DNA from the mouse-Syrian hamster cell line JS17 containing all mouse chromosomes except chromosome 17 on a Syrian hamster background. We deduced that the cosmid clones that contained sequences absent in JS17 were derived from mouse chromosome 17. One of the chromosome 17-derived cosmid clones, 3-4-1 (located proximal to the T122/T66C segment) was found to be highly polymorphic among European wild-mouse populations and may be a useful probe to elucidate the evolution and migration of Mus species. The randomly isolated mouse-derived cosmid clones can also be screened for the presence of functional genes. Using testicular cDNA as a probe, a testis-specific gene was cloned from mouse chromosome 17. Images PMID:3472212

  5. Chromosomal localization of the human and mouse hyaluronan synthase genes

    SciTech Connect

    Spicer, A.P.; McDonald, J.A.; Seldin, M.F.

    1997-05-01

    We have recently identified a new vertebrate gene family encoding putative hyaluronan (HA) synthases. Three highly conserved related genes have been identified, designated HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3 in humans and Has1, Has2, and Has3 in the mouse. All three genes encode predicted plasma membrane proteins with multiple transmembrane domains and approximately 25% amino acid sequence identity to the Streptococcus pyogenes HA synthase, HasA. Furthermore, expression of any one HAS gene in transfected mammalian cells leads to high levels of HA biosynthesis. We now report the chromosomal localization of the three HAS genes in human and in mouse. The genes localized to three different positions within both the human and the mouse genomes. HAS1 was localized to the human chromosome 19q13.3-q13.4 boundary and Has1 to mouse Chr 17. HAS2 was localized to human chromosome 8q24.12 and Has2 to mouse Chr 15. HAS3 was localized to human chromosome 16q22.1 and Has3 to mouse Chr 8. The map position for HAS1 reinforces the recently reported relationship between a small region of human chromosome 19q and proximal mouse chromosome 17. HAS2 mapped outside the predicted critical region delineated for the Langer-Giedion syndrome and can thus be excluded as a candidate gene for this genetic syndrome. 33 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Tissue- and cell-specific expression of metallothionein genes in cadmium- and copper-exposed mussels analyzed by in situ hybridization and RT-PCR

    SciTech Connect

    Zorita, I.; Bilbao, E.; Schad, A.; Cancio, I.; Soto, M.; Cajaraville, M.P. . E-mail: mirenp.cajaraville@ehu.es

    2007-04-15

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are metal-inducible proteins that can be used as biomarkers of metal exposure. In mussels two families of MT isoforms (MT10 and MT20) have been characterized. In this study, mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were exposed to 200 ppb Cd and 40 ppb Cu for 2 and 9 days to characterize the tissue and isoform specificity of metal-induced MT expression. Non-radioactive in situ hybridization demonstrated that both MT isoforms were mainly transcribed in digestive tubule epithelial cells, especially in basophilic cells. Weaker MT expression was detected in non-ciliated duct cells, stomach and gill epithelial cells, haemocytes, adipogranular cells, spermatic follicles and oocytes. RT-PCR resulted in cloning of a novel M. galloprovincialis isoform homologous to recently cloned Mytilus edulis intron-less MT10B isoform. In gills, Cd only affected MT10 gene expression after 2 days of exposure while increases in MT protein levels occurred at day 9. In the digestive gland, a marked increase of both isoforms, but especially of MT20, was accompanied by increased levels of MT proteins and basophilic cell volume density (Vv{sub BAS}) after 2 and 9 days and of intralysosomal metal accumulation in digestive cells after 9 days. Conversely, although metal was accumulated in digestive cells lysosomes and the Vv{sub BAS} increased in Cu-exposed mussels, Cu exposure did not produce an increase of MT gene expression or MT protein levels. These data suggest that MTs are expressed in a tissue-, cell- and isoform-specific way in response to different metals.

  7. Metallothionein isoform 1 and 2 gene expression in a human urothelial cell line (UROtsa) exposed to CdCl2 and NaAsO2.

    PubMed

    Sens, Donald; Rossi, Michael; Park, Seongmi; Gurel, Volkan; Nath, Joginder; Garrett, Scott; Sens, Mary Ann; Somji, Seema

    2003-11-14

    Studies have shown that metallothionein (MT) is overexpressed in some human bladder cancers and that overexpression can predict treatment response to neoadjuvant cisplatin, methotrexate, and vinblastine chemotherapy. In the present study the UROtsa cell line, a model of normal human urothelium, was used to determine the expression of the human MT-1 and MT-2 genes and MT protein following exposure to CdCl(2) or NaAsO(2) at lethal and sublethal levels. Acute exposure was modeled by treating confluent cultures with 100 microM NaAsO(2) or 53.4 microM CdCl(2) for 4 h followed by a 48-h recovery period. Extended exposure was modeled by treating confluent cells with 1, 4, and 8 microM As(3+) or 1, 5, and 9 microM Cd(2+) for 16 d, with the highest concentrations producing cell lethality. The expression of MT mRNAs and protein were determined by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunoblot analysis. Cell viability was determined by the MTT assay. It was shown that acute exposure to either As(3+) or Cd(2+) increased the levels of mRNAs for the MT-1E, MT-1X, and MT-2A genes, whereas extended exposure only increased these mRNAs following exposure to Cd(2+). It was shown that both acute and extended exposure to either As(3+) or Cd(2+) increased the levels of MT protein, reaching a maximal value of 8 ng MT protein/microg total protein for acute exposure to Cd(2+). This is in contrast to previous studies using cultured human proximal tubule cells, where similar extended treatment with Cd(2+) resulted in over 20-fold higher MT protein levels. These studies demonstrate that human urothelial cells accumulate only modest amounts of MT protein when exposed to either Cd(2+) or As(2+) for a 16-d time period.

  8. Comprehensive comparative homeobox gene annotation in human and mouse.

    PubMed

    Wilming, Laurens G; Boychenko, Veronika; Harrow, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Homeobox genes are a group of genes coding for transcription factors with a DNA-binding helix-turn-helix structure called a homeodomain and which play a crucial role in pattern formation during embryogenesis. Many homeobox genes are located in clusters and some of these, most notably the HOX genes, are known to have antisense or opposite strand long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) genes that play a regulatory role. Because automated annotation of both gene clusters and non-coding genes is fraught with difficulty (over-prediction, under-prediction, inaccurate transcript structures), we set out to manually annotate all homeobox genes in the mouse and human genomes. This includes all supported splice variants, pseudogenes and both antisense and flanking lncRNAs. One of the areas where manual annotation has a significant advantage is the annotation of duplicated gene clusters. After comprehensive annotation of all homeobox genes and their antisense genes in human and in mouse, we found some discrepancies with the current gene set in RefSeq regarding exact gene structures and coding versus pseudogene locus biotype. We also identified previously un-annotated pseudogenes in the DUX, Rhox and Obox gene clusters, which helped us re-evaluate and update the gene nomenclature in these regions. We found that human homeobox genes are enriched in antisense lncRNA loci, some of which are known to play a role in gene or gene cluster regulation, compared to their mouse orthologues. Of the annotated set of 241 human protein-coding homeobox genes, 98 have an antisense locus (41%) while of the 277 orthologous mouse genes, only 62 protein coding gene have an antisense locus (22%), based on publicly available transcriptional evidence.

  9. Comprehensive comparative homeobox gene annotation in human and mouse

    PubMed Central

    Wilming, Laurens G.; Boychenko, Veronika; Harrow, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Homeobox genes are a group of genes coding for transcription factors with a DNA-binding helix-turn-helix structure called a homeodomain and which play a crucial role in pattern formation during embryogenesis. Many homeobox genes are located in clusters and some of these, most notably the HOX genes, are known to have antisense or opposite strand long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) genes that play a regulatory role. Because automated annotation of both gene clusters and non-coding genes is fraught with difficulty (over-prediction, under-prediction, inaccurate transcript structures), we set out to manually annotate all homeobox genes in the mouse and human genomes. This includes all supported splice variants, pseudogenes and both antisense and flanking lncRNAs. One of the areas where manual annotation has a significant advantage is the annotation of duplicated gene clusters. After comprehensive annotation of all homeobox genes and their antisense genes in human and in mouse, we found some discrepancies with the current gene set in RefSeq regarding exact gene structures and coding versus pseudogene locus biotype. We also identified previously un-annotated pseudogenes in the DUX, Rhox and Obox gene clusters, which helped us re-evaluate and update the gene nomenclature in these regions. We found that human homeobox genes are enriched in antisense lncRNA loci, some of which are known to play a role in gene or gene cluster regulation, compared to their mouse orthologues. Of the annotated set of 241 human protein-coding homeobox genes, 98 have an antisense locus (41%) while of the 277 orthologous mouse genes, only 62 protein coding gene have an antisense locus (22%), based on publicly available transcriptional evidence. PMID:26412852

  10. Complexity, polymorphism, and connectivity of mouse Vk gene families.

    PubMed

    Kofler, R; Duchosal, M A; Dixon, F J

    1989-01-01

    To define the polymorphism and extent of the mouse immunoglobulin kappa (Igk) gene complex, we have analyzed restriction-enzyme digested genomic DNA from 33 inbred strains of mice with labeled DNA probes corresponding to 16 Vk protein groups (1 of them previously undescribed) and the Jk/Ck region (V, variable; J, joining; C, constant). These probes detected between 1 and 25 distinct restriction enzyme fragments (REF) that appeared in up to eight polymorphic patterns, thus defining eight mouse Igk haplotypes. The investigated portion of the Vk repertoire was estimated to encompass between 60 and 120 discernable Vk gene-containing REFs. In contrast to mouse VH gene families, several Vk gene families defined by these probes appeared to overlap. This observation has implications for Vk gene analyses by nucleic acid hybridization and raises the possibility that the Vk gene complex is a continuum of related sequences.

  11. Dermal exposure of Eisenia andrei earthworms: Effects of heavy metals on metallothionein and phytochelatin synthase gene expressions in coelomocytes.

    PubMed

    Homa, Joanna; Rorat, Agnieszka; Kruk, Jerzy; Cocquerelle, Claude; Plytycz, Barbara; Vandenbulcke, Franck

    2015-06-01

    Parameters such as total number of coelomocytes, riboflavin content in coelomocytes, expression of genes implied in metal homeostasis, and detoxification mechanisms can be used as biomarkers to assess the impact of metals on annelids. Defense biomarkers (detoxification gene expressions and coelomocyte parameters) were investigated in the ecotoxicologically important species Eisenia andrei following in vivo exposure to 5 different metals (zinc, copper, nickel, lead, and cadmium) at known concentrations. Coelomocyte numbers and riboflavin content were not affected by metallic exposure, but metal-specific gene expression variations were evidenced.

  12. Mouse T-cell receptor variable gene segment families

    SciTech Connect

    Arden, B.; Kabelitz, D.; Clark, S.P.; Mak, T.W.

    1995-10-01

    All mouse T-cell receptor {alpha}/{delta}, {beta}, and {gamma} variable (Tcra/d-, b-, and g-V) gene segments were aligned to compare the sequences with one another, to group them into subfamilies, and to derive a name which complies with the standard nomenclature. it was necessary to change the names of some V gene segments because they conflicted with those of other segments. The traditional classification into subfamilies was re-evaluated using a much larger pool of sequences. In the mouse, most V gene segments can be grouped into subfamilies of closely related genes with significantly less similarity between different subfamilies. 118 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Recommended nomenclature for five mammalian carboxylesterase gene families: human, mouse, and rat genes and proteins.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Roger S; Wright, Matthew W; Laulederkind, Stanley J F; Cox, Laura A; Hosokawa, Masakiyo; Imai, Teruko; Ishibashi, Shun; Lehner, Richard; Miyazaki, Masao; Perkins, Everett J; Potter, Phillip M; Redinbo, Matthew R; Robert, Jacques; Satoh, Tetsuo; Yamashita, Tetsuro; Yan, Bingfan; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi; Zechner, Rudolf; Maltais, Lois J

    2010-10-01

    Mammalian carboxylesterase (CES or Ces) genes encode enzymes that participate in xenobiotic, drug, and lipid metabolism in the body and are members of at least five gene families. Tandem duplications have added more genes for some families, particularly for mouse and rat genomes, which has caused confusion in naming rodent Ces genes. This article describes a new nomenclature system for human, mouse, and rat carboxylesterase genes that identifies homolog gene families and allocates a unique name for each gene. The guidelines of human, mouse, and rat gene nomenclature committees were followed and "CES" (human) and "Ces" (mouse and rat) root symbols were used followed by the family number (e.g., human CES1). Where multiple genes were identified for a family or where a clash occurred with an existing gene name, a letter was added (e.g., human CES4A; mouse and rat Ces1a) that reflected gene relatedness among rodent species (e.g., mouse and rat Ces1a). Pseudogenes were named by adding "P" and a number to the human gene name (e.g., human CES1P1) or by using a new letter followed by ps for mouse and rat Ces pseudogenes (e.g., Ces2d-ps). Gene transcript isoforms were named by adding the GenBank accession ID to the gene symbol (e.g., human CES1_AB119995 or mouse Ces1e_BC019208). This nomenclature improves our understanding of human, mouse, and rat CES/Ces gene families and facilitates research into the structure, function, and evolution of these gene families. It also serves as a model for naming CES genes from other mammalian species.

  14. Characteristics of the mouse genomic histamine H1 receptor gene

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Isao; Taniuchi, Ichiro; Kitamura, Daisuke

    1996-08-15

    We report here the molecular cloning of a mouse histamine H1 receptor gene. The protein deduced from the nucleotide sequence is composed of 488 amino acid residues with characteristic properties of GTP binding protein-coupled receptors. Our results suggest that the mouse histamine H1 receptor gene is a single locus, and no related sequences were detected. Interspecific backcross analysis indicated that the mouse histamine H1 receptor gene (Hrh1) is located in the central region of mouse Chromosome 6 linked to microphthalmia (Mitfmi), ras-related fibrosarcoma oncogene 1 (Raf1), and ret proto-oncogene (Ret) in a region of homology with human chromosome 3p. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Immunologic applications of conditional gene modification technology in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Suveena; Zhu, Jinfang

    2014-04-02

    Since the success of homologous recombination in altering mouse genome and the discovery of Cre-loxP system, the combination of these two breakthroughs has created important applications for studying the immune system in the mouse. Here, we briefly summarize the general principles of this technology and its applications in studying immune cell development and responses; such implications include conditional gene knockout and inducible and/or tissue-specific gene over-expression, as well as lineage fate mapping. We then discuss the pros and cons of a few commonly used Cre-expressing mouse lines for studying lymphocyte development and functions. We also raise several general issues, such as efficiency of gene deletion, leaky activity of Cre, and Cre toxicity, all of which may have profound impacts on data interpretation. Finally, we selectively list some useful links to the Web sites as valuable mouse resources.

  16. Immunologic Applications of Conditional Gene Modification Technology in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Suveena; Zhu, Jinfang

    2014-01-01

    Since the success of homologous recombination in altering mouse genome and the discovery of Cre-loxP system, the combination of these two breakthroughs has created important applications for studying the immune system in the mouse. Here, we briefly summarize the general principles of this technology and its applications in studying immune cell development and responses; such implications include conditional gene knockout and inducible and/or tissue-specific gene over-expression, as well as lineage fate mapping. We then discuss the pros and cons of a few commonly used Cre-expressing mouse lines for studying lymphocyte development and functions. We also raise several general issues, such as efficiency of gene deletion, leaky activity of Cre, and Cre toxicity, all of which may have profound impacts on data interpretation. Finally, we selectively list some useful links to the Web sites as valuable mouse resources. PMID:24700321

  17. ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF ALFALFA (MEDICAGO VARIA L.) GENETICLALY ENGINEERED TO EXPRESS A HUMAN METALLOTHIONEIN (HMT) GENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of these studies were two-fold: (1) to determine efficacy of low and high expression hMT gene constructs by assessing accumulation of Cu in shoots of parental and transgenic plants of alfalfa (Medicago varia L.) exposed to different concentrations of CuSO4 by addit...

  18. Translation-state analysis of gene expression in mouse brain after focal ischemia.

    PubMed

    MacManus, John P; Graber, Tyson; Luebbert, Christian; Preston, Edward; Rasquinha, Ingrid; Smith, Brandon; Webster, Jacqueline

    2004-06-01

    Confounding any genome-scale analysis of gene expression after cerebral ischemia is massive suppression of protein synthesis. This inefficient translation questions the utility of examining profiles of total transcripts. Our approach to such postischemic gene profiling in the mouse by microarray analysis was to concentrate on those mRNAs bound to polyribosomes. In our proof-of-principle study, polysomally bound and unbound mRNAs were subjected to microarray analysis: of the 1,161 transcripts that we found to increase after ischemia, only 36% were bound to polyribosomes. In addition to the expected increases in heat-shock proteins and metallothioneins, increases in several other bound transcripts involved in the promotion of cell survival or antiinflammatory behavior were noted, such as CD63 (Lamp3), Lcn2 (lipocalin-2), Msn (moesin), and UCP2 (uncoupling protein 2), all of which showed increases in cognate protein by Western blotting. The list of heretofore nonfunctionally annotated transcripts (RIKEN clones/ESTs) that increased appeared to be novel. How some transcripts are selected in ischemic brain for translation into protein, while others are rejected, is not clear. The length of the 5'-UTR in the ischemically induced transcripts that occur in the NCBI RefSeq database did not indicate any general tendency to be more than 200 nt, nor to be longer than the 5'-UTRs of the unbound transcripts. Thus, the presence of a complex 5'-UTR region with internal ribosome entry sites (IRES) or polypyrimidine tracts (TOP) does not appear to be the basis of selection for translation in ischemic brain.

  19. Cloning, characterization and targeting of the mouse HEXA gene

    SciTech Connect

    Wakamatsu, N.; Trasler, J.M.; Gravel, R.A.

    1994-09-01

    The HEXA gene, encoding the {alpha} subunit of {beta}-hexosaminidase A, is essential for the metabolism of ganglioside G{sub M2}, and defects in this gene cause Tay-Sachs disease in humans. To elucidate the role of the gene in the nervous system of the mouse and to establish a mouse model of Tay-Sachs disease, we have cloned and characterized the HEXA gene and targeted a disruption of the gene in mouse ES cells. The mouse HEXA gene spans {approximately}26 kb and consists of 14 exons, similar to the human gene. A heterogeneous transcription initiation site was identified 21-42 bp 5{prime} of the initiator ATG, with two of the sites fitting the consensus CTCA (A = start) as seen for some weak initiator systems. Promoter analysis showed that the first 150 bp 5{prime} of the ATG contained 85% of promoter activity observed in constructs containing up to 1050 bp of 5{prime} sequence. The active region contained a sequence matching that of the adenovirus major late promoter upstream element factor. A survey of mouse tissues showed that the highest mRNA levels were in (max to min): testis (5.5 x brain cortex), adrenal, epididymis, heart, brain, lung, kidney, and liver (0.3 x brain cortex). A 12 kb BstI/SalI fragment containing nine exons was disrupted with the insertion of the bacterial neo{sup r} gene in exon 11 and was targeted into 129/Sv ES cells by homologous recombination. Nine of 153 G418 resistant clones were correctly targeted as confirmed by Southern blotting. The heterozygous ES cells were microinjected into mouse blastocysts and implanted into pseudo-pregnant mice. Nine male chimeric mice, showing that 40-95% chimerism for the 129/Sv agouti coat color marker, are being bred in an effort to generate germline transmission of the disrupted HEXA gene.

  20. Mouse Vk gene classification by nucleic acid sequence similarity.

    PubMed

    Strohal, R; Helmberg, A; Kroemer, G; Kofler, R

    1989-01-01

    Analyses of immunoglobulin (Ig) variable (V) region gene usage in the immune response, estimates of V gene germline complexity, and other nucleic acid hybridization-based studies depend on the extent to which such genes are related (i.e., sequence similarity) and their organization in gene families. While mouse Igh heavy chain V region (VH) gene families are relatively well-established, a corresponding systematic classification of Igk light chain V region (Vk) genes has not been reported. The present analysis, in the course of which we reviewed the known extent of the Vk germline gene repertoire and Vk gene usage in a variety of responses to foreign and self antigens, provides a classification of mouse Vk genes in gene families composed of members with greater than 80% overall nucleic acid sequence similarity. This classification differed in several aspects from that of VH genes: only some Vk gene families were as clearly separated (by greater than 25% sequence dissimilarity) as typical VH gene families; most Vk gene families were closely related and, in several instances, members from different families were very similar (greater than 80%) over large sequence portions; frequently, classification by nucleic acid sequence similarity diverged from existing classifications based on amino-terminal protein sequence similarity. Our data have implications for Vk gene analyses by nucleic acid hybridization and describe potentially important differences in sequence organization between VH and Vk genes.

  1. Overexpression of metallothionein-I, a copper-regulating protein, attenuates intracellular copper dyshomeostasis and extends lifespan in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis caused by mutant superoxide dismutase-1.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Eiichi; Okawa, Eriko; Watanabe, Shunsuke; Ono, Shin-Ichi

    2014-03-01

    Over 170 mutations in superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) cause familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a lethal motor neuron disease. Although the molecular properties of SOD1 mutants differ considerably, we have recently shown that intracellular copper dyshomeostasis is a common pathogenic feature of different SOD1 mutants. Thus, the potentiation of endogenous copper regulation could be a therapeutic strategy. In this study, we investigated the effects of the overexpression of metallothionein-I (MT-I), a major copper-regulating protein, on the disease course of a mouse model of ALS (SOD1(G93A)). Using double transgenic techniques, we found that the overexpression of MT-I in SOD1(G93A) mice significantly extended the lifespan and slowed disease progression, but the effects on disease onset were modest. Genetically induced MT-I normalized copper dyshomeostasis in the spinal cord without influencing SOD1 enzymatic activity. The overexpression of MT-I in SOD1(G93A) mice markedly attenuated the pathological features of the mice, including the death of motor neurons, the degeneration of ventral root axons, the atrophy of skeletal muscles, and the activation of glial cells. Double transgenic mice also showed a decreased level of SOD1 aggregates within the glial cells of the spinal cord. Furthermore, the overexpression of MT-I in SOD1(G93A) mice reduced the number of spheroid-shaped astrocytes cleaved by active caspase-3. We concluded that therapeutic strategies aimed at the potentiation of copper regulation by MT-I could be of benefit in cases of ALS caused by SOD1 mutations.

  2. Characterization of the mouse lymphotoxin-beta gene.

    PubMed

    Lawton, P; Nelson, J; Tizard, R; Browning, J L

    1995-01-01

    Lymphotoxin-beta (LT-beta) is a member of the TNF family of ligands which when expressed with lymphotoxin-alpha (LT-alpha, i.e., the original LT or TNF-beta) forms a heteromeric complex with LT-alpha on the cell surface. The mouse gene structure was determined by both cDNA cloning and analysis of a genomic DNA fragment encompassing the TNF/LT locus in the H-2 region of chromosome 17. The mouse and human genomic structures were found to be similar in terms of location in the class III region of the MHC; however, the mouse gene lacks one intron found in most members of the family. Both the cDNA and the genomic sequences revealed an altered splice donor in the conventional intron 2 position, rendering it nonfunctional. The altered gene retains an open reading frame such that an additional 66 amino acids are inserted into the stalk region connecting the transmembrane domain with the receptor binding domain encoded by exon 4 in this type II membrane protein. Northern analysis showed that this gene is expressed predominantly in lymphoid organs. The outlining of the complete mouse TNF locus will further studies of the relationship between these genes and immune function.

  3. A Provisional Gene Regulatory Atlas for Mouse Heart Development

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hailin; VanBuren, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) is one of the most common birth defects. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying normal cardiac development is an important step towards early identification of abnormalities during the developmental program and towards the creation of early intervention strategies. We developed a novel computational strategy for leveraging high-content data sets, including a large selection of microarray data associated with mouse cardiac development, mouse genome sequence, ChIP-seq data of selected mouse transcription factors and Y2H data of mouse protein-protein interactions, to infer the active transcriptional regulatory network of mouse cardiac development. We identified phase-specific expression activity for 765 overlapping gene co-expression modules that were defined for obtained cardiac lineage microarray data. For each co-expression module, we identified the phase of cardiac development where gene expression for that module was higher than other phases. Co-expression modules were found to be consistent with biological pathway knowledge in Wikipathways, and met expectations for enrichment of pathways involved in heart lineage development. Over 359,000 transcription factor-target relationships were inferred by analyzing the promoter sequences within each gene module for overrepresentation against the JASPAR database of Transcription Factor Binding Site (TFBS) motifs. The provisional regulatory network will provide a framework of studying the genetic basis of CHD. PMID:24421884

  4. Differential extra-renal expression of the mouse renin genes.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, C C; Carter, A T; Brooks, J I; Lovell-Badge, R H; Brammar, W J

    1989-01-01

    We have used RNase-protection analyses to study renin gene expression in one- and two-gene mouse strains. The RNase-protection assay is capable of discriminating between the transcripts from the different renin genes. In a two-gene strain containing Ren-1D and Ren-2, we demonstrate transcriptional activity from Ren-1D in kidney, submandibular gland (SMG), testes, liver, brain and heart. Ren-2 is clearly expressed in kidney, SMG and testes. Similar analyses of one gene strains (containing Ren-1C only) show expression in kidney, SMG, testes, brain and heart. We cannot detect renin mRNA in the liver of these mice. Ren-1C and Ren-1D thus display quite different tissue-specificities. In order to determine whether the different tissue-specificities of the highly homologous Ren-1C and Ren-1D genes are due to different trans-acting factors in the different mouse strains or to different cis-acting DNA elements inherent to the genes, we introduced a Ren-1D transgene (Ren-1*) into a background strain containing only the Ren-1C gene. The transgene exhibits the same tissue-specificity as the Ren-1D gene of two-gene strains suggesting the presence of different cis-acting DNA elements in Ren-1C and Ren-1D. Images PMID:2657654

  5. Use of the metallothionein promoter-human growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) mouse to identify regulatory pathways that suppress pituitary somatotrope hyperplasia and adenoma formation due to GHRH-receptor hyperactivation.

    PubMed

    Luque, Raul M; Soares, Beatriz S; Peng, Xiao-ding; Krishnan, Sonia; Cordoba-Chacon, Jose; Frohman, Lawrence A; Kineman, Rhonda D

    2009-07-01

    Hyperactivation of the GHRH receptor or downstream signaling components is associated with hyperplasia of the pituitary somatotrope population, in which adenomas form relatively late in life, with less than 100% penetrance. Hyperplastic and adenomatous pituitaries of metallothionein promoter-human GHRH transgenic (Tg) mice (4 and > 10 months, respectively) were used to identify mechanisms that may prevent or delay adenoma formation in the presence of excess GHRH. In hyperplastic pituitaries, expression of the late G(1)/G(2) marker Ki67 increased, whereas the proportion of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-labeled cells (S phase marker) did not differ from age-matched controls. These results indicate cell cycle progression is blocked, with further evidence suggesting that enhanced p27 activity may contribute to this process. For adenomas, formation was associated with loss of p27 activity (nuclear localization and mRNA). Increased endogenous somatostatin (SST) tone may also slow the conversion from hyperplastic to adenomatous state because mRNA levels for SST receptors, sst2 and sst5, were elevated in hyperplastic pituitaries, whereas adenomas were associated with a decline in sst1 and sst5 mRNA. Also, SST-knockout Tg pituitaries were larger and adenomas formed earlier compared with those of SST-intact Tg mice. Unexpectedly, these changes were independent of changes in proliferation rate within the hyperplastic tissue, suggesting that endogenous SST controls GHRH-induced adenoma formation primarily via modulation of apoptotic and/or cellular senescence pathways, consistent with the predicted function of some of the most differentially expressed genes (Casp1, MAP2K1, TNFR2) identified by membrane arrays and confirmed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR.

  6. A unified gene catalog for the laboratory mouse reference genome.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y; Richardson, J E; Hale, P; Baldarelli, R M; Reed, D J; Recla, J M; Sinclair, R; Reddy, T B K; Bult, C J

    2015-08-01

    We report here a semi-automated process by which mouse genome feature predictions and curated annotations (i.e., genes, pseudogenes, functional RNAs, etc.) from Ensembl, NCBI and Vertebrate Genome Annotation database (Vega) are reconciled with the genome features in the Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) database (http://www.informatics.jax.org) into a comprehensive and non-redundant catalog. Our gene unification method employs an algorithm (fjoin--feature join) for efficient detection of genome coordinate overlaps among features represented in two annotation data sets. Following the analysis with fjoin, genome features are binned into six possible categories (1:1, 1:0, 0:1, 1:n, n:1, n:m) based on coordinate overlaps. These categories are subsequently prioritized for assessment of annotation equivalencies and differences. The version of the unified catalog reported here contains more than 59,000 entries, including 22,599 protein-coding coding genes, 12,455 pseudogenes, and 24,007 other feature types (e.g., microRNAs, lincRNAs, etc.). More than 23,000 of the entries in the MGI gene catalog have equivalent gene models in the annotation files obtained from NCBI, Vega, and Ensembl. 12,719 of the features are unique to NCBI relative to Ensembl/Vega; 11,957 are unique to Ensembl/Vega relative to NCBI, and 3095 are unique to MGI. More than 4000 genome features fall into categories that require manual inspection to resolve structural differences in the gene models from different annotation sources. Using the MGI unified gene catalog, researchers can easily generate a comprehensive report of mouse genome features from a single source and compare the details of gene and transcript structure using MGI's mouse genome browser.

  7. Cellular functions of genetically imprinted genes in human and mouse as annotated in the gene ontology.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Mohamed; Ismael, Siba; Paulsen, Martina; Helms, Volkhard

    2012-01-01

    By analyzing the cellular functions of genetically imprinted genes as annotated in the Gene Ontology for human and mouse, we found that imprinted genes are often involved in developmental, transport and regulatory processes. In the human, paternally expressed genes are enriched in GO terms related to the development of organs and of anatomical structures. In the mouse, maternally expressed genes regulate cation transport as well as G-protein signaling processes. Furthermore, we investigated if imprinted genes are regulated by common transcription factors. We identified 25 TF families that showed an enrichment of binding sites in the set of imprinted genes in human and 40 TF families in mouse. In general, maternally and paternally expressed genes are not regulated by different transcription factors. The genes Nnat, Klf14, Blcap, Gnas and Ube3a contribute most to the enrichment of TF families. In the mouse, genes that are maternally expressed in placenta are enriched for AP1 binding sites. In the human, we found that these genes possessed binding sites for both, AP1 and SP1.

  8. Overlapping gene expression profiles of cell migration and tumor invasion in human bladder cancer identify metallothionein E1 and nicotinamide N-methyltransferase as novel regulators of cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Y.; Siadaty, M. S.; Berens, M.E.; Hampton, G. M.

    2017-01-01

    Cell migration is essential to cancer invasion and metastasis and is spatially and temporally integrated through transcriptionally dependent and independent mechanisms. Since cell migration is studied in vitro, it is important to identify genes that both drive cell migration and are biologically relevant in promoting invasion and metastasis in patients with cancer. Here, gene expression profiling and a high throughput cell migration system answers this question in human bladder cancer. In vitro migration rates of 40 microarray profiled human bladder cancer cell lines were measured by radial migration assay (RMA). Genes whose expression was either directly or inversely associated with cell migration rate were identified and subsequently evaluated for their association with cancer stage in 61 patients. This analysis identified genes known to be associated with cell invasion such as versican, and novel ones, including metallothionein E1 (MTE1) and nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT), whose expression correlated positively with cancer cell migration and tumor stage. Using loss of function analysis, we show that MTE1 and NNMT are necessary for cancer cell migration. These studies provide a general approach to identify the clinically relevant genes in cancer cell migration and mechanistically implicate two novel genes in this process in human bladder cancer. PMID:18724390

  9. Differences in gene expression between mouse and human for dynamically regulated genes in early embryo.

    PubMed

    Madissoon, Elo; Töhönen, Virpi; Vesterlund, Liselotte; Katayama, Shintaro; Unneberg, Per; Inzunza, Jose; Hovatta, Outi; Kere, Juha

    2014-01-01

    Infertility is a worldwide concern that can be treated with in vitro fertilization (IVF). Improvements in IVF and infertility treatment depend largely on better understanding of the molecular mechanisms for human preimplantation development. Several large-scale studies have been conducted to identify gene expression patterns for the first five days of human development, and many functional studies utilize mouse as a model system. We have identified genes of possible importance for this time period by analyzing human microarray data and available data from online databases. We selected 70 candidate genes for human preimplantation development and investigated their expression in the early mouse development from oocyte to the 8-cell stage. Maternally loaded genes expectedly decreased in expression during development both in human and mouse. We discovered that 25 significantly upregulated genes after fertilization in human included 13 genes whose orthologs in mouse behaved differently and mimicked the expression profile of maternally expressed genes. Our findings highlight many significant differences in gene expression patterns during mouse and human preimplantation development. We also describe four cancer-testis antigen families that are also highly expressed in human embryos: PRAME, SSX, GAGE and MAGEA.

  10. EMAGE mouse embryo spatial gene expression database: 2014 update

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Lorna; Venkataraman, Shanmugasundaram; Stevenson, Peter; Yang, Yiya; Moss, Julie; Graham, Liz; Burton, Nicholas; Hill, Bill; Rao, Jianguo; Baldock, Richard A.; Armit, Chris

    2014-01-01

    EMAGE (http://www.emouseatlas.org/emage/) is a freely available database of in situ gene expression patterns that allows users to perform online queries of mouse developmental gene expression. EMAGE is unique in providing both text-based descriptions of gene expression plus spatial maps of gene expression patterns. This mapping allows spatial queries to be accomplished alongside more traditional text-based queries. Here, we describe our recent progress in spatial mapping and data integration. EMAGE has developed a method of spatially mapping 3D embryo images captured using optical projection tomography, and through the use of an IIP3D viewer allows users to view arbitrary sections of raw and mapped 3D image data in the context of a web browser. EMAGE now includes enhancer data, and we have spatially mapped images from a comprehensive screen of transgenic reporter mice that detail the expression of mouse non-coding genomic DNA fragments with enhancer activity. We have integrated the eMouseAtlas anatomical atlas and the EMAGE database so that a user of the atlas can query the EMAGE database easily. In addition, we have extended the atlas framework to enable EMAGE to spatially cross-index EMBRYS whole mount in situ hybridization data. We additionally report on recent developments to the EMAGE web interface, including new query and analysis capabilities. PMID:24265223

  11. Comparing the evolutionary conservation between human essential genes, human orthologs of mouse essential genes and human housekeeping genes.

    PubMed

    Lv, Wenhua; Zheng, Jiajia; Luan, Meiwei; Shi, Miao; Zhu, Hongjie; Zhang, Mingming; Lv, Hongchao; Shang, Zhenwei; Duan, Lian; Zhang, Ruijie; Jiang, Yongshuai

    2015-11-01

    Human housekeeping genes are often confused with essential human genes, and several studies regard both types of genes as having the same level of evolutionary conservation. However, this is not necessarily the case. To clarify this, we compared the differences between human housekeeping genes and essential human genes with respect to four aspects: the evolutionary rate (dN/dS), protein sequence identity, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) density and level of linkage disequilibrium (LD). The results showed that housekeeping genes had lower evolutionary rates, higher sequence identities, lower SNP densities and higher levels of LD compared with essential genes. Together, these findings indicate that housekeeping and essential genes are two distinct types of genes, and that housekeeping genes have a higher level of evolutionary conservation. Therefore, we suggest that researchers should pay careful attention to the distinctions between housekeeping genes and essential genes. Moreover, it is still controversial whether we should substitute human orthologs of mouse essential genes for human essential genes. Therefore, we compared the evolutionary features between human orthologs of mouse essential genes and human housekeeping genes and we got inconsistent results in long-term and short-term evolutionary characteristics implying the irrationality of simply replacing human essential genes with human orthologs of mouse essential genes.

  12. Comparison of gene coverage of mouse oligonucleotide microarray platforms

    PubMed Central

    Verdugo, Ricardo A; Medrano, Juan F

    2006-01-01

    Background The increasing use of DNA microarrays for genetical genomics studies generates a need for platforms with complete coverage of the genome. We have compared the effective gene coverage in the mouse genome of different commercial and noncommercial oligonucleotide microarray platforms by performing an in-house gene annotation of probes. We only used information about probes that is available from vendors and followed a process that any researcher may take to find the gene targeted by a given probe. In order to make consistent comparisons between platforms, probes in each microarray were annotated with an Entrez Gene id and the chromosomal position for each gene was obtained from the UCSC Genome Browser Database. Gene coverage was estimated as the percentage of Entrez Genes with a unique position in the UCSC Genome database that is tested by a given microarray platform. Results A MySQL relational database was created to store the mapping information for 25,416 mouse genes and for the probes in five microarray platforms (gene coverage level in parenthesis): Affymetrix430 2.0 (75.6%), ABI Genome Survey (81.24%), Agilent (79.33%), Codelink (78.09%), Sentrix (90.47%); and four array-ready oligosets: Sigma (47.95%), Operon v.3 (69.89%), Operon v.4 (84.03%), and MEEBO (84.03%). The differences in coverage between platforms were highly conserved across chromosomes. Differences in the number of redundant and unspecific probes were also found among arrays. The database can be queried to compare specific genomic regions using a web interface. The software used to create, update and query the database is freely available as a toolbox named ArrayGene. Conclusion The software developed here allows researchers to create updated custom databases by using public or proprietary information on genes for any organisms. ArrayGene allows easy comparisons of gene coverage between microarray platforms for any region of the genome. The comparison presented here reveals that the

  13. Expression of cloned immunoglobulin genes introduced into mouse L cells.

    PubMed Central

    Gilles, S D; Tonegawa, S

    1983-01-01

    Functionally rearranged immunoglobulin heavy-chain (gamma 2b) and light-chain (lambda 1 and kappa) genes were introduced into mouse L tk- cells by co-transformation with the Herpes virus tk gene. Cloned cell lines were selected in HAT medium and tested for the presence of transfected immunoglobulin gene sequences by Southern blotting analysis. It was found that the gamma 2b gene was accurately transcribed at a low level in transfected mouse L cells and cytoplasmic gamma 2b, heavy-chain protein was detected by immunoprecipitation of cell extracts. Light-chain genes, on the other hand, were not accurately transcribed. Instead, lambda 1 or kappa RNA species were detected which were approximately 200 to 300 bases longer than the authentic mRNAs. These results suggest that the expression of rearranged heavy-chain and light-chain genes are controlled differently and that these differences can be seen in transfected, non-lymphoid cells. Images PMID:6316279

  14. A new spontaneous mouse mutation in the Kcne1 gene.

    PubMed

    Letts, V A; Valenzuela, A; Dunbar, C; Zheng, Q Y; Johnson, K R; Frankel, W N

    2000-10-01

    A new mouse mutant, punk rocker (allele symbol Kcne1(pkr)), arose spontaneously on a C57BL/10J inbred strain background and is characterized by a distinctive head-tossing, circling, and ataxic phenotype. It is also profoundly and bilaterally deaf. The mutation resides in the Kcne1 gene on Chromosome (Chr) 16 and has been identified as a single base change within the coding region of the third exon. The C to T nucleotide substitution causes an arginine to be altered to a termination codon at amino acid position 67, and predictably this will result in a significantly truncated protein product. The Kcne1(pkr) mutant represents the first spontaneous mouse model for the human disorder, Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome, associated with mutations in the homologous KCNE1 gene on human Chr 21.

  15. Cloning and characterization of HbMT2a, a metallothionein gene from Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg differently responds to abiotic stress and heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Chen, Yue Yi; Yang, Shu Guang; Tian, Wei Min

    2015-05-22

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are of low molecular mass, cysteine-rich proteins. They play an important role in the detoxification of heavy metals and homeostasis of intracellular metal ions, and protecting against intracellular oxidative damages. In this study a full-length cDNA of type 2 plant metallothioneins, HbMT2a, was isolated from 25 mM Polyethyleneglycol (PEG) stressed leaves of Hevea brasiliensis by RACE. The HbMT2a was 372bp in length and had a 237bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding for a protein of 78 amino acid residues with molecular mass of 7.772 kDa. The expression of HbMT2a in the detached leaves of rubber tree clone RY7-33-97 was up-regulated by Me-JA, ABA, PEG, H2O2, Cu(2+) and Zn(2+), but down-regulated by water. The role of HbMT2a protein in protecting against metal toxicity was demonstrated in vitro. PET-28a-HbMT2-beared Escherichia coli. Differential expression of HbMT2a upon treatment with 10 °C was observed in the detached leaves of rubber tree clone 93-114 which is cold-resistant and Reken501 which is cold-sensitive. The expression patterns of HbMT2a in the two rubber tree clones may be ascribed to a change in the level of endogenous H2O2.

  16. The mouse Gene Expression Database (GXD): 2017 update

    PubMed Central

    Finger, Jacqueline H.; Smith, Constance M.; Hayamizu, Terry F.; McCright, Ingeborg J.; Xu, Jingxia; Law, Meiyee; Shaw, David R.; Baldarelli, Richard M.; Beal, Jon S.; Blodgett, Olin; Campbell, Jeff W.; Corbani, Lori E.; Lewis, Jill R.; Forthofer, Kim L.; Frost, Pete J.; Giannatto, Sharon C.; Hutchins, Lucie N.; Miers, Dave B.; Motenko, Howie; Stone, Kevin R.; Eppig, Janan T.; Kadin, James A.; Richardson, Joel E.; Ringwald, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The Gene Expression Database (GXD; www.informatics.jax.org/expression.shtml) is an extensive and well-curated community resource of mouse developmental expression information. Through curation of the scientific literature and by collaborations with large-scale expression projects, GXD collects and integrates data from RNA in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, northern blot and western blot experiments. Expression data from both wild-type and mutant mice are included. The expression data are combined with genetic and phenotypic data in Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) and made readily accessible to many types of database searches. At present, GXD includes over 1.5 million expression results and more than 300 000 images, all annotated with detailed and standardized metadata. Since our last report in 2014, we have added a large amount of data, we have enhanced data and database infrastructure, and we have implemented many new search and display features. Interface enhancements include: a new Mouse Developmental Anatomy Browser; interactive tissue-by-developmental stage and tissue-by-gene matrix views; capabilities to filter and sort expression data summaries; a batch search utility; gene-based expression overviews; and links to expression data from other species. PMID:27899677

  17. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF MUTATIONS INDUCED BY MUTAGENS IN THE TK GENE OF MOUSE LYMPHOMA CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF MUTATIONS INDUCED BY BROMATE AND N- ETHYL-N-NITROSOUREA IN THE TK GENE OF MOUSE L YMPHOMA CELLS

    The mouse lymphoma assay is widely used to identify chemical mutagens The Tk +1- gene located on an autosome in mouse lymphoma cells may recover a wide ra...

  18. Gene expression profiling of mouse embryos with microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Sharov, Alexei A.; Piao, Yulan; Ko, Minoru S. H.

    2011-01-01

    Global expression profiling by DNA microarrays provides a snapshot of cell and tissue status and becomes an essential tool in biological and medical sciences. Typical questions that can be addressed by microarray analysis in developmental biology include: (1) to find a set of genes expressed in a specific cell type; (2) to identify genes expressed commonly in multiple cell types; (3) to follow the time-course changes of gene expression patterns; (4) to demonstrate cell’s identity by showing similarities or differences among two or multiple cell types; (5) to find regulatory pathways and/or networks affected by gene manipulations, such as overexpression or repression of gene expression; (6) to find downstream target genes of transcription factors; (7) to find downstream target genes of cell signaling; (8) to examine the effects of environmental manipulation of cells on gene expression patterns; and (9) to find the effects of genetic manipulation in embryos and adults. Here we describe strategies for executing these experiments and monitoring changes of cell state with gene expression microarrays in application to mouse embryology. Both statistical assessment and interpretation of data are discussed. We also present a protocol for performing microarray analysis on a small amount of embryonic materials. PMID:20699157

  19. Sex-specific gene expression in the BXD mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Gatti, Daniel M; Zhao, Ni; Chesler, Elissa J; Bradford, Blair U; Shabalin, Andrey A; Yordanova, Roumyana; Lu, Lu; Rusyn, Ivan

    2010-08-01

    Differences in clinical phenotypes between the sexes are well documented and have their roots in differential gene expression. While sex has a major effect on gene expression, transcription is also influenced by complex interactions between individual genetic variation and environmental stimuli. In this study, we sought to understand how genetic variation affects sex-related differences in liver gene expression by performing genetic mapping of genomewide liver mRNA expression data in a genetically defined population of naive male and female mice from C57BL/6J, DBA/2J, B6D2F1, and 37 C57BL/6J x DBA/2J (BXD) recombinant inbred strains. As expected, we found that many genes important to xenobiotic metabolism and other important pathways exhibit sexually dimorphic expression. We also performed gene expression quantitative trait locus mapping in this panel and report that the most significant loci that appear to regulate a larger number of genes than expected by chance are largely sex independent. Importantly, we found that the degree of correlation within gene expression networks differs substantially between the sexes. Finally, we compare our results to a recently released human liver gene expression data set and report on important similarities in sexually dimorphic liver gene expression between mouse and human. This study enhances our understanding of sex differences at the genome level and between species, as well as increasing our knowledge of the molecular underpinnings of sex differences in responses to xenobiotics.

  20. Developmental expression profiles of Celsr (Flamingo) genes in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Tissir, F; De-Backer, O; Goffinet, A M; Lambert de Rouvroit, C

    2002-03-01

    Celsr, also called Flamingo (Fmi) genes encode proteins of the cadherin superfamily. Celsr cadherins are seven-pass transmembrane proteins with nine cadherin repeats in the extracellular domain, and an anonymous intracellular C-terminus. The Drosophila Fmi gene regulates epithelial planar cell polarity and dendritic field deployment. The three Flamingo gene orthologs in man and rodents are named, respectively, CELSR1-3 and Celsr1-3. Celsr1 and 2 are expressed during early development, in the brain and epithelia. In this report, we characterized further Celsr genes in the mouse, and examined their developmental pattern of expression. Each Celsr is expressed prominently in the developing brain following a specific pattern, suggesting that they serve distinct functions.

  1. Mouse ornithine decarboxylase gene: cloning, structure, and expression.

    PubMed Central

    Brabant, M; McConlogue, L; van Daalen Wetters, T; Coffino, P

    1988-01-01

    We used molecular cloning to isolate a functional gene for mouse ornithine decarboxylase (OrnDCase; L-ornithine carboxy-lyase, EC 4.1.1.17) from a cell line in which that gene had been selectively amplified. The position of the 5' terminus of the mRNA was identified, and the coding sequence was shown to be preceded by a 312- or 313-nucleotide (nt) untranslated leader. The latter is highly G + C rich, particularly in its 5'-most portion. The leader can be anticipated to have extensive and stable secondary structure. The transcription unit of the gene is of relatively small size, approximately equal to 6.2 kilobases (kb) from the start site to the proximal site of polyadenylylation. Sequence analysis of DNA near the transcription start position demonstrated the presence of a "TATA" box, but no "CAAT" box. Functional properties of the cloned gene were tested by transfecting it into cultured cells. Expression of the putative full-length gene efficiently conferred ornithine decarboxylase activity on recipient mutant cells deficient in that activity. To assess the function and strength of the OrnDCase promoter region and to delimit its boundaries, we used a transient expression assay. Upstream of a bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene was placed a portion of the OrnDCase gene, including the presumed promoter region, spanning a region from approximately equal to 3.0 kb 5' of the site of transcription initiation to the first 250 nt of the transcript. When expressed in mouse NIH 3T3 cells, this OrnDCase genomic element was comparable in strength to the Rous sarcoma virus long terminal repeat promoter. A similar construct, truncated so as to retain only 264 base pairs of the OrnDCase gene 5' to the site of transcription start, yielded undiminished levels of expression. Images PMID:3353375

  2. The magnetism responsive gene Ntan1 in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Goto, Yasuaki; Taniura, Hideo; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Hirai, Takao; Sanada, Noriko; Nakamichi, Noritaka; Yoneda, Yukio

    2006-09-01

    We have previously identified Ntan1 as a magnetism response gene by differential display screening in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Ntan1 mRNA was ubiquitously expressed in all the mouse tissues examined but relatively abundant in brain, retina and testis. Ntan1 mRNA expression was detectable in the embryonic 12-day mouse brain and gradually increased with ageing. In situ hybridization analysis showed high localization of Ntan1 mRNA in pyramidal cell layer of CA region and granular cell layer of dentate gyrus in the hippocampus, and Purkinje and granular cell layers in the cerebellum, respectively. Ntan1 mRNA expression was significantly increased about two-fold 12 h after brief exposure for 15 min to magnetism at 100 mT with a gradual decrease thereafter in cultured mouse hippocampal neurons. When embryonic 12-day-old or newborn mice were successively exposed to magnetic fields at 100 mT for 2 h, four times per day until the postnatal seventh day, Ntan1 mRNA was significantly increased about 1.5-2-fold in the hippocampus in vivo. The mice exposed to magnetic fields under the same condition showed significantly decreased locomotor activity. These results suggest that magnetic exposure affects higher order neural functions through modulation of genes expression.

  3. Gene Expression by Mouse Inner Ear Hair Cells during Development

    PubMed Central

    Scheffer, Déborah I.; Shen, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Hair cells of the inner ear are essential for hearing and balance. As a consequence, pathogenic variants in genes specifically expressed in hair cells often cause hereditary deafness. Hair cells are few in number and not easily isolated from the adjacent supporting cells, so the biochemistry and molecular biology of hair cells can be difficult to study. To study gene expression in hair cells, we developed a protocol for hair cell isolation by FACS. With nearly pure hair cells and surrounding cells, from cochlea and utricle and from E16 to P7, we performed a comprehensive cell type-specific RNA-Seq study of gene expression during mouse inner ear development. Expression profiling revealed new hair cell genes with distinct expression patterns: some are specific for vestibular hair cells, others for cochlear hair cells, and some are expressed just before or after maturation of mechanosensitivity. We found that many of the known hereditary deafness genes are much more highly expressed in hair cells than surrounding cells, suggesting that genes preferentially expressed in hair cells are good candidates for unknown deafness genes. PMID:25904789

  4. EMAGE mouse embryo spatial gene expression database: 2010 update

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Lorna; Venkataraman, Shanmugasundaram; Stevenson, Peter; Yang, Yiya; Burton, Nicholas; Rao, Jianguo; Fisher, Malcolm; Baldock, Richard A.; Davidson, Duncan R.; Christiansen, Jeffrey H.

    2010-01-01

    EMAGE (http://www.emouseatlas.org/emage) is a freely available online database of in situ gene expression patterns in the developing mouse embryo. Gene expression domains from raw images are extracted and integrated spatially into a set of standard 3D virtual mouse embryos at different stages of development, which allows data interrogation by spatial methods. An anatomy ontology is also used to describe sites of expression, which allows data to be queried using text-based methods. Here, we describe recent enhancements to EMAGE including: the release of a completely re-designed website, which offers integration of many different search functions in HTML web pages, improved user feedback and the ability to find similar expression patterns at the click of a button; back-end refactoring from an object oriented to relational architecture, allowing associated SQL access; and the provision of further access by standard formatted URLs and a Java API. We have also increased data coverage by sourcing from a greater selection of journals and developed automated methods for spatial data annotation that are being applied to spatially incorporate the genome-wide (∼19 000 gene) ‘EURExpress’ dataset into EMAGE. PMID:19767607

  5. Gene expression and dental enamel structure in developing mouse incisor.

    PubMed

    Sehic, Amer; Risnes, Steinar; Khan, Qalb-E-Saleem; Khuu, Cuong; Osmundsen, Harald

    2010-04-01

    At the mouse incisor tip the initially differentiated ameloblasts produce a thin, prism-free enamel, while further apically, in the immediate adjacent segment, the enamel thickness increases and the four-layered enamel of mouse incisor is formed. Comparative gene-expression profiling was carried out on RNA isolated from these two segments of incisor tooth germs at embryonic day (E)17.5 and at postnatal days (P)0, 1, 2, and 10 using microarrays to measure messenger RNA (mRNA) and microRNA (miRNA) species present in the segments. Validation of expression data was achieved using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting. Bioinformatic data suggested enhanced cellular apoptosis in the incisal tip segment, which, together with diminished expression of the Amelx and Enam genes, may contribute to the production of the thin enamel seen in this tooth segment. For genes exhibiting higher levels of expression in the adjacent segment where complex enamel is being formed, bioinformatic analysis suggested significant associations with cellular functions involving the actin cytoskeleton, cellular development, morphology, and movement. This is suggested to reflect that ameloblasts with Tomes' process are being organized in transverse rows, facilitating the transverse movement that results in prism decussation in the inner enamel of the adjacent segment. Bioinformatic analysis of miRNA expression data lends support to these suggestions.

  6. The mouse Gene Expression Database (GXD): 2014 update.

    PubMed

    Smith, Constance M; Finger, Jacqueline H; Hayamizu, Terry F; McCright, Ingeborg J; Xu, Jingxia; Berghout, Joanne; Campbell, Jeff; Corbani, Lori E; Forthofer, Kim L; Frost, Pete J; Miers, Dave; Shaw, David R; Stone, Kevin R; Eppig, Janan T; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E; Ringwald, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The Gene Expression Database (GXD; http://www.informatics.jax.org/expression.shtml) is an extensive and well-curated community resource of mouse developmental expression information. GXD collects different types of expression data from studies of wild-type and mutant mice, covering all developmental stages and including data from RNA in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, northern blot and western blot experiments. The data are acquired from the scientific literature and from researchers, including groups doing large-scale expression studies. Integration with the other data in Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) and interconnections with other databases places GXD's gene expression information in the larger biological and biomedical context. Since the last report, the utility of GXD has been greatly enhanced by the addition of new data and by the implementation of more powerful and versatile search and display features. Web interface enhancements include the capability to search for expression data for genes associated with specific phenotypes and/or human diseases; new, more interactive data summaries; easy downloading of data; direct searches of expression images via associated metadata; and new displays that combine image data and their associated annotations. At present, GXD includes >1.4 million expression results and 250,000 images that are accessible to our search tools.

  7. Mouse Genetic Nomenclature: Standardization of Strain, Gene, and Protein Symbols

    PubMed Central

    Sundberg, John P.; Schofield, Paul N

    2011-01-01

    The use of standard nomenclatures for describing the strains, genes, and proteins of species is vital for the interpretation, archiving, analysis, and recovery of experimental data on the laboratory mouse. At a time when sharing of data and meta- analysis of experimental results is becoming a dominant mode of scientific investigation, failure to respect formal nomenclatures can cause confusion, errors, and in some cases contribute to poor science. Here we present the basic nomenclature rules for laboratory mice and explain how these rules should be applied to complex genetic manipulations and crosses. PMID:20685919

  8. Altered gene expression profiles in mouse tetraploid blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi-Ryung; Hwang, Kyu-Chan; Bui, Hong-Thuy; Cho, Ssang-Goo; Park, Chankyu; Song, Hyuk; Oh, Jae-Wook; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2012-01-01

    In this study, it was demonstrated that tetraploid-derived blastocyst embryos had very few Oct4-positive cells at the mid-blastocyst stage and that the inner cell mass at biomarkers Oct4, Sox2 and Klf4 was expressed at less than 10% of the level observed in diploid blastocysts. In contrast, trophectoderm-related gene transcripts showed an approximately 10 to 40% increase. Of 32,996 individual mouse genes evaluated by microarray, 50 genes were differentially expressed between tetraploid or diploid and parthenote embryos at the blastocyst stage (P<0.05). Of these 50 genes, 28 were more highly expressed in tetraploid-derived blastocysts, whereas 22 were more highly downregulated. However, some genes involved in receptor activity, cell adhesion molecule, calcium ion binding, protein biosynthesis, redox processes, transport, and transcription showed a significant decrease or increase in gene expression in the tetraploid-derived blastocyst embryos. Thus, microarray analysis can be used as a tool to screen for underlying defects responsible for the development of tetraploid-derived embryos.

  9. In vitro transcription of a cloned mouse ribosomal RNA gene.

    PubMed Central

    Mishima, Y; Yamamoto, O; Kominami, R; Muramatsu, M

    1981-01-01

    An in vitro transcription system which utilizes cloned mouse ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) fragments and a mouse cell extract has been developed. RNA polymerases I is apparently responsible for this transcription as evidenced by the complete resistance to a high concentration (200 micrograms/ml) of alpha-amanitin. Run-off products obtained with three different truncated rDNA fragments indicated that RNA was transcribed from a unique site of rDNA. The S1 nuclease protection mapping of the in vitro product and of in vivo 45S RNA confirmed this site, indicating that, in this in vitro system, transcription of rDNA started from the same site as in vivo. This site is located at several hundred nucleotides upstream from the putative initiation site reported by us (1) and by others (2). Some sequence homology surrounding this region was noted among mouse, Xenopus laevis and Drosophila melanogaster. The data also suggest that some processing of the primary transcript occurs in this in vitro system. Images PMID:6278446

  10. Characterization of the p16 gene in the mouse: Evidence for a large gene family

    SciTech Connect

    Fountain, J.W.; Giendening, J.M.; Flores, J.F.

    1994-09-01

    The p16 gene product is an inhibitor of the cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4)/cyclin D complex. When uninhibited, the CDK4/cyclin D complex participates in the phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma (RB) protein and renders it inactive. Upon inactivation of the RB protein, transition from the G{sub 1} to the S phase of mitosis occurs and results in cellular proliferation. Thus, p16 is presumed to act as a negative regulator of cell growth by preventing the phosphorylation, and thereby subsequent inactivation, of RB by CDK4/cyclin D. Recently, the p16 gene (also known as the multiple tumor suppressor 1 (MTS1) gene) has been mapped to chromosome 9p21 and found to be deleted or mutated in a number of tumor cell lines. These findings support the role of p16 as a growth inhibitor or tumor suppressor gene and suggest that the mutation of this gene may have global implications in carcinogenesis. We have chosen to test the functional significance of p16 mutations in vivo through the generation of a mouse mutant for p16. In preparation for this undertaking, eight apparently independent (as judged by restriction enzyme digestion and differential hybridization) mouse genomic embryonic stem cell clones have been identified using exon 2 from the human p16 gene as a probe. The identification of these multiple nonoverlapping clones was not entirely surprising since the reduced stringency hybridization of a zoo blot with the same probe also revealed 10-15 positive EcoRI fragments in all species tested, including human, monkey, cow, dog, cat, rabbit, hamster, mouse, chicken and D. melanogaster. Taken together, these findings suggest that the p16 gene is a member of a large gene family. The location of these genomic clones, as well as their potential expression in the mouse, is currently under investigation.

  11. 3D confocal reconstruction of gene expression in mouse.

    PubMed

    Hecksher-Sørensen, J; Sharpe, J

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional computer reconstructions of gene expression data will become a valuable tool in biomedical research in the near future. However, at present the process of converting in situ expression data into 3D models is a highly specialized and time-consuming procedure. Here we present a method which allows rapid reconstruction of whole-mount in situ data from mouse embryos. Mid-gestation embryos were stained with the alkaline phosphotase substrate Fast Red, which can be detected using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and cut into 70 microm sections. Each section was then scanned and digitally reconstructed. Using this method it took two days to section, digitize and reconstruct the full expression pattern of Shh in an E9.5 embryo (a 3D model of this embryo can be seen at genex.hgu.mrc.ac.uk). Additionally we demonstrate that this technique allows gene expression to be studied at the single cell level in intact tissue.

  12. Mouse models for the discovery of colorectal cancer driver genes

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Christopher R; Starr, Timothy K

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) constitutes a major public health problem as the third most commonly diagnosed and third most lethal malignancy worldwide. The prevalence and the physical accessibility to colorectal tumors have made CRC an ideal model for the study of tumor genetics. Early research efforts using patient derived CRC samples led to the discovery of several highly penetrant mutations (e.g., APC, KRAS, MMR genes) in both hereditary and sporadic CRC tumors. This knowledge has enabled researchers to develop genetically engineered and chemically induced tumor models of CRC, both of which have had a substantial impact on our understanding of the molecular basis of CRC. Despite these advances, the morbidity and mortality of CRC remains a cause for concern and highlight the need to uncover novel genetic drivers of CRC. This review focuses on mouse models of CRC with particular emphasis on a newly developed cancer gene discovery tool, the Sleeping Beauty transposon-based mutagenesis model of CRC. PMID:26811627

  13. Mouse models for the discovery of colorectal cancer driver genes.

    PubMed

    Clark, Christopher R; Starr, Timothy K

    2016-01-14

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) constitutes a major public health problem as the third most commonly diagnosed and third most lethal malignancy worldwide. The prevalence and the physical accessibility to colorectal tumors have made CRC an ideal model for the study of tumor genetics. Early research efforts using patient derived CRC samples led to the discovery of several highly penetrant mutations (e.g., APC, KRAS, MMR genes) in both hereditary and sporadic CRC tumors. This knowledge has enabled researchers to develop genetically engineered and chemically induced tumor models of CRC, both of which have had a substantial impact on our understanding of the molecular basis of CRC. Despite these advances, the morbidity and mortality of CRC remains a cause for concern and highlight the need to uncover novel genetic drivers of CRC. This review focuses on mouse models of CRC with particular emphasis on a newly developed cancer gene discovery tool, the Sleeping Beauty transposon-based mutagenesis model of CRC.

  14. A gene expression fingerprint of mouse stomach ECL cells.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Niklas; Skrtic, Sofia Movérare; Håkanson, Rolf; Ohlsson, Claes

    2005-07-01

    Many of the endocrine cells in the stomach are poorly characterized with respect to physiological significance. In some cases, the anticipated hormone has not yet been identified. Global gene expression analysis of mouse stomach was performed in an attempt to identify the ECL-cell peptide/protein. Specific functional activation (omeprazole-induced hypergastrinaemia) was used as a tool to generate a gene expression fingerprint of the ECL cells. The proposed fingerprint includes 14 genes, among them six are known to be expressed by ECL cells (=positive controls), and some novel ones, which are likely to be ECL-cell-related. The known ECL-cell-related genes are those encoding histidine decarboxylase, chromogranin A and B, vesicular monoamine transporter 2, synaptophysin, and the cholecystokinin-B receptor. In addition, the fingerprint included five genes, which might be involved in the process of secretion and three ESTs with unknown function. Interestingly, parathyroid hormone-like hormone (Pthlh) was identified as a candidate ECL-cell peptide hormone.

  15. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi restore normal growth in a white poplar clone grown on heavy metal-contaminated soil, and this is associated with upregulation of foliar metallothionein and polyamine biosynthetic gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Cicatelli, Angela; Lingua, Guido; Todeschini, Valeria; Biondi, Stefania; Torrigiani, Patrizia; Castiglione, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims It is increasingly evident that plant tolerance to stress is improved by mycorrhiza. Thus, suitable plant–fungus combinations may also contribute to the success of phytoremediation of heavy metal (HM)-polluted soil. Metallothioneins (MTs) and polyamines (PAs) are implicated in the response to HM stress in several plant species, but whether the response is modulated by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) remains to be clarified. The aim of the present study was to check whether colonization by AMF could modify growth, metal uptake/translocation, and MT and PA gene expression levels in white poplar cuttings grown on HM-contaminated soil, and to compare this with plants grown on non-contaminated soil. Methods In this greenhouse study, plants of a Populus alba clone were pre-inoculated, or not, with either Glomus mosseae or G. intraradices and then grown in pots containing either soil collected from a multimetal- (Cu and Zn) polluted site or non-polluted soil. The expression of MT and PA biosynthetic genes was analysed in leaves using quantitative reverse transcription–PCR. Free and conjugated foliar PA concentrations were determined in parallel. Results On polluted soil, AMF restored plant biomass despite higher Cu and Zn accumulation in plant organs, especially roots. Inoculation with the AMF caused an overall induction of PaMT1, PaMT2, PaMT3, PaSPDS1, PaSPDS2 and PaADC gene expression, together with increased free and conjugated PA levels, in plants grown on polluted soil, but not in those grown on non-polluted soil. Conclusions Mycorrhizal plants of P. alba clone AL35 exhibit increased capacity for stabilization of soil HMs, together with improved growth. Their enhanced stress tolerance may derive from the transcriptional upregulation of several stress-related genes, and the protective role of PAs. PMID:20810743

  16. Basal and metal-induced expression of metallothionein isoform 1 and 2 genes in the RWPE-1 human prostate epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Amy L; Singh, Rajendra K; Somji, Seema; Sens, Mary Ann; Sens, Donald A; Garrett, Scott H

    2008-04-01

    The human prostate gland has low basal expression of the metallothionein-1 and -2 proteins. In prostate cancer, MT-1/2 protein expression is variable and correlates directly with the increasing Gleason score of the tumor. The goal of the present study was to determine if the RWPE-1 cell line is a good model to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the alterations in MT-1/2 expression that occur during the development of prostate cancer. It was shown that the RWPE-1 cell line and in situ prostate tissue have identical expression profiles of MT-1 and MT-2 isoform-specific mRNAs (MT-1E, MT-1X and MT-2A) and similar levels of MT-1/2 protein. It was also shown that the RWPE-1 cells respond to Zn(+2) and Cd(+2) exposure by induction of the basally expressed MT mRNAs and the accumulation of high levels MT-1/2 protein (in excess of 10% of total protein). It was also shown that additional MT-1 mRNAs were expressed when the cells were exposed to either metal; MT-1A, MT-1F, MT-G and MT-1H for Cd(+2)-exposed cells; and, MT-1F, MT-G and MT-1H for Zn(+2)-exposed cells. The results suggest that RWPE-1 cells may be a valuable system to define the interplay between Zn(+2) concentration, Cd(+2) exposure and MT in normal and malignant prostate epithelial cells.

  17. Zinc treatment prevents type 1 diabetes-induced hepatic oxidative damage, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and cell death, and even prevents possible steatohepatitis in the OVE26 mouse model: Important role of metallothionein.

    PubMed

    Liang, Tingting; Zhang, Quan; Sun, Weixia; Xin, Ying; Zhang, Zhiguo; Tan, Yi; Zhou, Shanshan; Zhang, Chi; Cai, Lu; Lu, Xuemian; Cheng, Mingliang

    2015-03-04

    Whether zinc is able to improve diabetes-induced liver injury remains unknown. Transgenic type 1 diabetic (OVE26) mice develop hyperglycemia at 3 weeks old; therefore therapeutic effect of zinc on diabetes-induced liver injury was investigated in OVE26 mice. Three-month old OVE26 and age-matched wild-type mice were treated by gavage with saline or zinc at 5mg/kg body-weight every other day for 3 months. Hepatic injury was examined by serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level with liver histopathological and biochemical changes. OVE26 mice at 6 months old showed significant increases in serum ALT level and hepatic oxidative damage, endoplasmic reticulum stress and associated cell death, mild inflammation, and fibrosis. However, all these hepatic morphological and functional changes were significantly prevented in 3-month zinc-treated OVE26 mice. Mechanistically, zinc treatment significantly increased hepatic metallothionein, a protein with known antioxidant activity, in both wild-type and OVE26 mice. These results suggest that there were significantly functional, structural and biochemical abnormalities in the liver of OVE26 diabetic mice at 6 months old; however, all these changes could be prevented with zinc treatment, which was associated with the upregulation of hepatic metallothionein expression.

  18. Characterization of the gene encoding mouse serum amyloid P component. Comparison with genes encoding other pentraxins.

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, A S; Rits, M

    1989-01-01

    A CBA/J-strain mouse serum amyloid P component (SAP) genomic clone was isolated and analysed. The clone contains the entire SAP gene and specifies a primary transcript of 1065 nucleotide residues. This comprises a first exon of 206 nucleotide residues containing the mRNA 5'-untranslated region and sequence encoding the pre-SAP leader peptide and the first two amino acid residues of mature SAP separated by a single 110-base intron from a 749-nucleotide-residue second exon containing sequence encoding the bulk of the mature SAP and specifying the mRNA 3'-untranslated region. The overall organization is similar to that of the human SAP gene, and the coding region and intron sequences are highly conserved. The SAP RNA cap site was defined by primer extension analysis of polyadenylated acute-phase liver RNA. The 5'-region of the mouse SAP gene contains modified CAAT and TATA promoter elements preceded by a putative hepatocyte-nuclear-factor-1-recognition site; these structures are in a region that is highly homologous to the corresponding region of the human SAP gene. Comparisons of the mouse SAP gene structure and derived amino acid sequence with those of other mammalian pentraxins were made. Images Fig. 3. PMID:2481440

  19. Sleeping Beauty Mouse Models Identify Candidate Genes Involved in Gliomagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Vyazunova, Irina; Maklakova, Vilena I.; Berman, Samuel; De, Ishani; Steffen, Megan D.; Hong, Won; Lincoln, Hayley; Morrissy, A. Sorana; Taylor, Michael D.; Akagi, Keiko; Brennan, Cameron W.; Rodriguez, Fausto J.; Collier, Lara S.

    2014-01-01

    Genomic studies of human high-grade gliomas have discovered known and candidate tumor drivers. Studies in both cell culture and mouse models have complemented these approaches and have identified additional genes and processes important for gliomagenesis. Previously, we found that mobilization of Sleeping Beauty transposons in mice ubiquitously throughout the body from the Rosa26 locus led to gliomagenesis with low penetrance. Here we report the characterization of mice in which transposons are mobilized in the Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) compartment. Glioma formation in these mice did not occur on an otherwise wild-type genetic background, but rare gliomas were observed when mobilization occurred in a p19Arf heterozygous background. Through cloning insertions from additional gliomas generated by transposon mobilization in the Rosa26 compartment, several candidate glioma genes were identified. Comparisons to genetic, epigenetic and mRNA expression data from human gliomas implicates several of these genes as tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes in human glioblastoma. PMID:25423036

  20. A Metastatic Mouse Model Identifies Genes That Regulate Neuroblastoma Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Seong, Bo Kyung A; Fathers, Kelly E; Hallett, Robin; Yung, Christina K; Stein, Lincoln D; Mouaaz, Samar; Kee, Lynn; Hawkins, Cynthia E; Irwin, Meredith S; Kaplan, David R

    2017-02-01

    Metastatic relapse is the major cause of death in pediatric neuroblastoma, where there remains a lack of therapies to target this stage of disease. To understand the molecular mechanisms mediating neuroblastoma metastasis, we developed a mouse model using intracardiac injection and in vivo selection to isolate malignant cell subpopulations with a higher propensity for metastasis to bone and the central nervous system. Gene expression profiling revealed primary and metastatic cells as two distinct cell populations defined by differential expression of 412 genes and of multiple pathways, including CADM1, SPHK1, and YAP/TAZ, whose expression independently predicted survival. In the metastatic subpopulations, a gene signature was defined (MET-75) that predicted survival of neuroblastoma patients with metastatic disease. Mechanistic investigations demonstrated causal roles for CADM1, SPHK1, and YAP/TAZ in mediating metastatic phenotypes in vitro and in vivo Notably, pharmacologic targeting of SPHK1 or YAP/TAZ was sufficient to inhibit neuroblastoma metastasis in vivo Overall, we identify gene expression signatures and candidate therapeutics that could improve the treatment of metastatic neuroblastoma. Cancer Res; 77(3); 696-706. ©2017 AACR.

  1. Diversity and Complexity of the Mouse Saa1 and Saa2 genes

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Masayuki; Tian, Geng; Ishikawa, Akira; Higuchi, Keiichi

    2014-01-01

    Mouse strains show polymorphisms in the amino acid sequences of serum amyloid A 1 (SAA1) and serum amyloid A 2 (SAA2). Major laboratory mouse strains are classified based on the sequence as carrying the A haplotype (e.g., BALB/c) or B haplotype (e.g., SJL/J) of the Saa1 and Saa2 gene unit. We attempted to elucidate the diversity of the mouse Saa1 and Saa2 family genes at the nucleotide sequence level by a systematic survey of 6 inbred mouse strains from 4 Mus subspecies, including Mus musculus domesticus, Mus musculus musculus, Mus musculus castaneus, and Mus spretus. Saa1 and Saa2 genes were obtained from the mouse genome by PCR amplification, and each full-length nucleotide sequence was determined. We found that Mus musculus castaneus mice uniquely possess 2 divergent Saa1 genes linked on chromosome 7. Overall, the mouse strains had distinct composite patterns of amino acid substitutions at 9 positions in SAA1 and SAA2 isoforms. The mouse strains also had distinct composite patterns of 2 polymorphic upstream regulatory elements that influenced gene transcription in in vitro reporter assays. B haplotype mice were revealed to possess an LTR insertion in the downstream region of Saa1. Collectively, these results indicate that the mouse Saa genes hold broader diversity and greater complexity than previously known, and these characteristics were likely attained through gene duplication and repeated gene conversion events in the Mus lineage. PMID:24521869

  2. Investigating different duplication pattern of essential genes in mouse and human.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Debarun; Mukherjee, Dola; Podder, Soumita; Ghosh, Tapash C

    2015-01-01

    Gene duplication is one of the major driving forces shaping genome and organism evolution and thought to be itself regulated by some intrinsic properties of the gene. Comparing the essential genes among mouse and human, we observed that the essential genes avoid duplication in mouse while prefer to remain duplicated in humans. In this study, we wanted to explore the reasons behind such differences in gene essentiality by cross-species comparison of human and mouse. Moreover, we examined essential genes that are duplicated in humans are functionally more redundant than that in mouse. The proportion of paralog pseudogenization of essential genes is higher in mouse than that of humans. These duplicates of essential genes are under stringent dosage regulation in human than in mouse. We also observed slower evolutionary rate in the paralogs of human essential genes than the mouse counterpart. Together, these results clearly indicate that human essential genes are retained as duplicates to serve as backed up copies that may shield themselves from harmful mutations.

  3. Targeted disruption of the mouse Lipoma Preferred Partner gene

    SciTech Connect

    Vervenne, Hilke B.V.K.; Crombez, Koen R.M.O.; Delvaux, Els L.; Janssens, Veerle; Ven, Wim J.M. van de Petit, Marleen M.R.

    2009-02-06

    LPP (Lipoma Preferred Partner) is a zyxin-related cell adhesion protein that is involved in the regulation of cell migration. We generated mice with a targeted disruption of the Lpp gene and analysed the importance of Lpp for embryonic development and adult functions. Aberrant Mendelian inheritance in heterozygous crosses suggested partial embryonic lethality of Lpp{sup -/-} females. Fertility of Lpp{sup -/-} males was proven to be normal, however, females from Lpp{sup -/-} x Lpp{sup -/-} crosses produced a strongly reduced number of offspring, probably due to a combination of female embryonic lethality and aberrant pregnancies. Apart from these developmental and reproductive abnormalities, Lpp{sup -/-} mice that were born reached adulthood without displaying any additional macroscopic defects. On the other hand, Lpp{sup -/-} mouse embryonic fibroblasts exhibited reduced migration capacity, reduced viability, and reduced expression of some Lpp interaction partners. Finally, we discovered a short nuclear form of Lpp, expressed mainly in testis via an alternative promoter.

  4. Gene Therapy in Mouse Models of Huntington Disease

    PubMed Central

    Southwell, Amber L.; Patterson, Paul H.

    2011-01-01

    Huntingtin, the protein that when mutated causes Huntington disease (HD), has many known interactors and participates in diverse cellular functions. Mutant Htt (mHtt) engages in a variety of aberrant interactions that lead to pathological gain of toxic functions as well as loss of normal functions. The broad symptomatology of HD, including diminished voluntary motor control, cognitive decline, and psychiatric disturbances, reflects the multifaceted neuropathology. Although currently available therapies for HD focus on symptom management, the autosomal dominant cause and the adult onset make this disease an ideal candidate for genetic intervention. A variety of gene therapy approaches have been tested in mouse models of HD, ranging from those aimed at ameliorating downstream pathology or replacing lost neuronal populations to more upstream strategies to reduce mHtt levels. Here the authors review the results of these preclinical trials. PMID:21489966

  5. HFE gene knockout produces mouse model of hereditary hemochromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiao Yan; Tomatsu, Shunji; Fleming, Robert E.; Parkkila, Seppo; Waheed, Abdul; Jiang, Jinxing; Fei, Ying; Brunt, Elizabeth M.; Ruddy, David A.; Prass, Cynthia E.; Schatzman, Randall C.; O’Neill, Rosemary; Britton, Robert S.; Bacon, Bruce R.; Sly, William S.

    1998-01-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is a common autosomal recessive disease characterized by increased iron absorption and progressive iron storage that results in damage to major organs in the body. Recently, a candidate gene for HH called HFE encoding a major histocompatibility complex class I-like protein was identified by positional cloning. Nearly 90% of Caucasian HH patients have been found to be homozygous for the same mutation (C282Y) in the HFE gene. To test the hypothesis that the HFE gene is involved in regulation of iron homeostasis, we studied the effects of a targeted disruption of the murine homologue of the HFE gene. The HFE-deficient mice showed profound differences in parameters of iron homeostasis. Even on a standard diet, by 10 weeks of age, fasting transferrin saturation was significantly elevated compared with normal littermates (96 ± 5% vs. 77 ± 3%, P < 0.007), and hepatic iron concentration was 8-fold higher than that of wild-type littermates (2,071 ± 450 vs. 255 ± 23 μg/g dry wt, P < 0.002). Stainable hepatic iron in the HFE mutant mice was predominantly in hepatocytes in a periportal distribution. Iron concentrations in spleen, heart, and kidney were not significantly different. Erythroid parameters were normal, indicating that the anemia did not contribute to the increased iron storage. This study shows that the HFE protein is involved in the regulation of iron homeostasis and that mutations in this gene are responsible for HH. The knockout mouse model of HH will facilitate investigation into the pathogenesis of increased iron accumulation in HH and provide opportunities to evaluate therapeutic strategies for prevention or correction of iron overload. PMID:9482913

  6. Identification of a set of genes showing regionally enriched expression in the mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, Cletus A; Chopra, Vikramjit; Varhol, Richard; Xie, Yuan-Yun; Bohacec, Slavita; Zhao, Yongjun; Lee, Lisa LC; Bilenky, Mikhail; Portales-Casamar, Elodie; He, An; Wasserman, Wyeth W; Goldowitz, Daniel; Marra, Marco A; Holt, Robert A; Simpson, Elizabeth M; Jones, Steven JM

    2008-01-01

    Background The Pleiades Promoter Project aims to improve gene therapy by designing human mini-promoters (< 4 kb) that drive gene expression in specific brain regions or cell-types of therapeutic interest. Our goal was to first identify genes displaying regionally enriched expression in the mouse brain so that promoters designed from orthologous human genes can then be tested to drive reporter expression in a similar pattern in the mouse brain. Results We have utilized LongSAGE to identify regionally enriched transcripts in the adult mouse brain. As supplemental strategies, we also performed a meta-analysis of published literature and inspected the Allen Brain Atlas in situ hybridization data. From a set of approximately 30,000 mouse genes, 237 were identified as showing specific or enriched expression in 30 target regions of the mouse brain. GO term over-representation among these genes revealed co-involvement in various aspects of central nervous system development and physiology. Conclusion Using a multi-faceted expression validation approach, we have identified mouse genes whose human orthologs are good candidates for design of mini-promoters. These mouse genes represent molecular markers in several discrete brain regions/cell-types, which could potentially provide a mechanistic explanation of unique functions performed by each region. This set of markers may also serve as a resource for further studies of gene regulatory elements influencing brain expression. PMID:18625066

  7. Voltammetric Methods in Metallothionein Research

    PubMed Central

    Navrátil, Tomáš

    2005-01-01

    The application of voltammetric methods using different rates of polarisation on HMDE reveal inert or labile behaviour of Cd- or Zn- complexes in the presence of excessive cadmium or zinc ions in solution. This phenomenon was demonstrated first on the simplest phytochelatin – complex of peptide (γ-Glu-Cys)2 Gly with cadmium, later on rabbit liver metallothioneins – Cd7 MT in the presence of cadmium and Cd5 Zn2 MT in the presence of zinc. Voltammetric methods can distinguish between labile and inert complexes present simultaneously and therefore could elucidate their role in reactions of metal ion transfer. Another method using different rates of polarisation – elimination voltammetry with linear scan – proved that S-tetracoordinated complexes of Cd(II) or Zn(II) in the above-mentioned metallothioneins on HMDE are reduced in the adsorbed state. This implies the possibility of increasing the sensitivity of identification or determination of the above complexes. On carbon composite electrode, similar behaviour of Cd-complexes as on HMDE was observed using differential pulse voltammetry. PMID:18365088

  8. Genomic cloning of mouse MIF (macrophage inhibitory factor) and genetic mapping of the human and mouse expressed gene and nine mouse pseudogenes

    SciTech Connect

    Kozak, C.A.; Adamson, M.C.; Buckler, C.E.

    1995-06-10

    The single functional mouse gene for MIF (macrophage migration inhibitory factor) has been cloned from a P1 library, and its exon/intron structure determined and shown to resemble that of the human gene. The gene was mapped to chromosome 10 using two multilocus crosses between laboratory strains and either Mus musculus or Mus spretus. Nine additional loci containing related sequences, apparently all processed pseudogenes, were also mapped to chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 12, 17, and 19. While most of these pseudogenes were also found in inbred mice and M. spretus, some are species specific. This suggests that there have been active phases of pseudogene formation in Mus both before and after the separation of musculus and spretus. The human gene contains no pseudogene; we assigned the human gene to chromosome 19, consistent with the location of mouse and human functional genes for MIF in a region of conserved linkage. 43 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. TRP channel gene expression in the mouse retina.

    PubMed

    Gilliam, Jared C; Wensel, Theodore G

    2011-12-08

    In order to identify candidate cation channels important for retinal physiology, 28 TRP channel genes were surveyed for expression in the mouse retina. Transcripts for all TRP channels were detected by RT-PCR and sequencing. Northern blotting revealed that mRNAs for 12 TRP channel genes are enriched in the retina. The strongest signals were observed for TRPC1, TRPC3, TRPM1, TRPM3, and TRPML1, and clear signals were obtained for TRPC4, TRPM7, TRPP2, TRPV2, and TRPV4. In situ hybridization and immunofluorescence revealed widespread expression throughout multiple retinal layers for TRPC1, TRPC3, TRPC4, TRPML1, PKD1, and TRPP2. Striking localization of enhanced mRNA expression was observed for TRPC1 in the photoreceptor inner segment layer, for TRPM1 in the inner nuclear layer (INL), for TRPM3 in the INL, and for TRPML1 in the outer plexiform and nuclear layers. Strong immunofluorescence signal in cone outer segments was observed for TRPM7 and TRPP2. TRPC5 immunostaining was largely confined to INL cells immediately adjacent to the inner plexiform layer. TRPV2 antibodies stained photoreceptor axons in the outer plexiform layer. Expression of TRPM1 splice variants was strong in the ciliary body, whereas TRPM3 was strongly expressed in the retinal pigmented epithelium.

  10. The mouse homologue of the polycystic kidney disease gene (Pkd1) is a single-copy gene

    SciTech Connect

    Olsson, P.G.; Loehning, C.; Frischauf, A.M.

    1996-06-01

    The mouse homologue of the polycystic kidney disease 1 gene (PKD1) was mapped to chromosome 17 using somatic cell hybrid, BXD recombinant inbred strains, and FISH. The gene is located within a previously defined conserved synteny group that includes the mouse homologue of tuberous sclerosis 2 (TSC2) and is linked to the {alpha} globin pseudogene Hba-ps4. Although the human genome contains multiple copies of genes related to PKD1, there is no evidence for more than one copy in the mouse genome. Like their human counterparts, the mouse Tsc2 and Pkd1 genes are arranged in a tail-to-tail orientation with a distance of only 63 bp between the polyadenylation signals of the two genes. 17 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Single and Multiple Gene Manipulations in Mouse Models of Human Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Heather L; Stairs, Douglas B

    2015-01-01

    Mouse models of human cancer play a critical role in understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms of tumorigenesis. Advances continue to be made in modeling human disease in a mouse, though the relevance of a mouse model often relies on how closely it is able to mimic the histologic, molecular, and physiologic characteristics of the respective human cancer. A classic use of a genetically engineered mouse in studying cancer is through the overexpression or deletion of a gene. However, the manipulation of a single gene often falls short of mimicking all the characteristics of the carcinoma in humans; thus a multiple gene approach is needed. Here we review genetic mouse models of cancers and their abilities to recapitulate human carcinoma with single versus combinatorial approaches with genes commonly involved in cancer. PMID:26380553

  12. The NEUROD gene maps to human chromosome 2q32 and mouse chromosome 2

    SciTech Connect

    Tamimi, R.; Dyer-Montgomery, K.; Hernandez, R.; Tapscott, S.J.

    1996-06-15

    The Neurod gene is a basic-helix-loop-helix gene that regulates neurogenesis and is identical to the hamster beta2 gene that was cloned as a regulator of insulin transcription. Here we report the cloning of human NEUROD and mapping of the gene to human chromosome 2q32 and to mouse chromosome 2. 12 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Copper-induced overexpression of genes encoding antioxidant system enzymes and metallothioneins involve the activation of CaMs, CDPKs and MEK1/2 in the marine alga Ulva compressa.

    PubMed

    Laporte, Daniel; Valdés, Natalia; González, Alberto; Sáez, Claudio A; Zúñiga, Antonio; Navarrete, Axel; Meneses, Claudio; Moenne, Alejandra

    2016-08-01

    Transcriptomic analyses were performed in the green macroalga Ulva compressa cultivated with 10μM copper for 24h. Nucleotide sequences encoding antioxidant enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase (ap), dehydroascorbate reductase (dhar) and glutathione reductase (gr), enzymes involved in ascorbate (ASC) synthesis l-galactose dehydrogenase (l-gdh) and l-galactono lactone dehydrogenase (l-gldh), in glutathione (GSH) synthesis, γ-glutamate-cysteine ligase (γ-gcl) and glutathione synthase (gs), and metal-chelating proteins metallothioneins (mt) were identified. Amino acid sequences encoded by transcripts identified in U. compressa corresponding to antioxidant system enzymes showed homology mainly to plant and green alga enzymes but those corresponding to MTs displayed homology to animal and plant MTs. Level of transcripts encoding the latter proteins were quantified in the alga cultivated with 10μM copper for 0-12 days. Transcripts encoding enzymes of the antioxidant system increased with maximal levels at day 7, 9 or 12, and for MTs at day 3, 7 or 12. In addition, the involvement of calmodulins (CaMs), calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs), and the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK1/2) in the increase of the level of the latter transcripts was analyzed using inhibitors. Transcript levels decreased with inhibitors of CaMs, CDPKs and MEK1/2. Thus, copper induces overexpression of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes, enzymes involved in ASC and GSH syntheses and MTs. The increase in transcript levels may involve the activation of CaMs, CDPKs and MEK1/2 in U. compressa.

  14. Expression profile and transcription factor binding site exploration of imprinted genes in human and mouse

    PubMed Central

    Steinhoff, Christine; Paulsen, Martina; Kielbasa, Szymon; Walter, Jörn; Vingron, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Background In mammals, imprinted genes are regulated by an epigenetic mechanism that results in parental origin-specific expression. Though allele-specific regulation of imprinted genes has been studied for several individual genes in detail, little is known about their overall tissue-specific expression patterns and interspecies conservation of expression. Results We performed a computational analysis of microarray expression data of imprinted genes in human and mouse placentae and in a variety of adult tissues. For mouse, early embryonic stages were also included. The analysis reveals that imprinted genes are expressed in a broad spectrum of tissues for both species. Overall, the relative tissue-specific expression levels of orthologous imprinted genes in human and mouse are not highly correlated. However, in both species distinctive expression profiles are found in tissues of the endocrine pathways such as adrenal gland, pituitary, pancreas as well as placenta. In mouse, the placental and embryonic expression patterns of imprinted genes are highly similar. Transcription factor binding site (TFBS) prediction reveals correlation of tissue-specific expression patterns and the presence of distinct TFBS signatures in the upstream region of human imprinted genes. Conclusion Imprinted genes are broadly expressed pre- and postnatally and do not exhibit a distinct overall expression pattern when compared to non-imprinted genes. The relative expression of most orthologous gene pairs varies significantly between human and mouse suggesting rapid species-specific changes in gene regulation. Distinct expression profiles of imprinted genes are confined to certain human and mouse hormone producing tissues, and placentae. In contrast to the overall variability, distinct expression profiles and enriched TFBS signatures are found in human and mouse endocrine tissues and placentae. This points towards an important role played by imprinted gene regulation in these tissues. PMID

  15. Metallothionein function and genetic regulation in yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Ecker, D.J.; Butt, T.R.; Crooke, S.T.

    1986-05-01

    Copper resistance in yeast is mediated by the CUP1 locus which codes for yeast metallothionein (MT). A genetic approach was taken to study yeast MT gene regulation and to test the function of MT in the detoxification of metal ions other than copper. A yeast strain was constructed (cup1/sup ..delta../) in which the MT structural and regulatory sequences were deleted. The deleted gene was then replaced with the following genetically modified forms of MT on high copy episomal plasmid (YE/sup p/ 13): 1) the intact yeast gene with normal structural and regulatory sequences; 2) a constitutively expressed yeast promoter (TDH) running the yeast MT structural gene. Metal resistance in the cup1/sup ..delta../ strain and the cup1/sup ..delta../ strain transformed with the MT plasmid constructions was compared on metal-supplemented agar plates. Both of the high copy MT plasmids conferred in excess of 500-fold greater copper resistance to the cup1/sup ..delta../ strain. Increased cadmium resistance was not observed in any of the strains that had MT under normal regulatory control. However, the strain with constitutively expressed MT was in excess of 1000-fold more resistant to cadmium. Neither of the MT constructions conferred resistance to Hg,Zn,Co,Ni,Ag,Au,Pt,La,U or Sn. MT gene induction measured by the analysis of MT mRNA on northern blots showed that the yeast MT promoter is not induced by Cd, Zn, Au, Hg, Ag, superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, steroid hormones or heat shock.

  16. Sense-antisense gene pairs: sequence, transcription, and structure are not conserved between human and mouse

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Emily J.; Chin-Inmanu, Kwanrutai; Jia, Hui; Lipovich, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    Previous efforts to characterize conservation between the human and mouse genomes focused largely on sequence comparisons. These studies are inherently limited because they don't account for gene structure differences, which may exist despite genomic sequence conservation. Recent high-throughput transcriptome studies have revealed widespread and extensive overlaps between genes, and transcripts, encoded on both strands of the genomic sequence. This overlapping gene organization, which produces sense-antisense (SAS) gene pairs, is capable of effecting regulatory cascades through established mechanisms. We present an evolutionary conservation assessment of SAS pairs, on three levels: genomic, transcriptomic, and structural. From a genome-wide dataset of human SAS pairs, we first identified orthologous loci in the mouse genome, then assessed their transcription in the mouse, and finally compared the genomic structures of SAS pairs expressed in both species. We found that approximately half of human SAS loci have single orthologous locations in the mouse genome; however, only half of those orthologous locations have SAS transcriptional activity in the mouse. This suggests that high human-mouse gene conservation overlooks widespread distinctions in SAS pair incidence and expression. We compared gene structures at orthologous SAS loci, finding frequent differences in gene structure between human and orthologous mouse SAS pair members. Our categorization of human SAS pairs with respect to mouse conservation of expression as well as structure points to limitations of mouse models. Gene structure differences, including at SAS loci, may account for some of the phenotypic distinctions between primates and rodents. Genes in non-conserved SAS pairs may contribute to evolutionary lineage-specific regulatory outcomes. PMID:24133500

  17. Comparative Analysis of Gene Regulation by the Transcription Factor PPARα between Mouse and Human

    PubMed Central

    Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; Hooiveld, Guido; Müller, Michael; Kersten, Sander

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies in mice have shown that PPARα is an important regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism and the acute phase response. However, little information is available on the role of PPARα in human liver. Here we set out to compare the function of PPARα in mouse and human hepatocytes via analysis of target gene regulation. Methodology/Principal Findings Primary hepatocytes from 6 human and 6 mouse donors were treated with PPARα agonist Wy14643 and gene expression profiling was performed using Affymetrix GeneChips followed by a systems biology analysis. Baseline PPARα expression was similar in human and mouse hepatocytes. Depending on species and time of exposure, Wy14643 significantly induced the expression of 362–672 genes. Surprisingly minor overlap was observed between the Wy14643-regulated genes from mouse and human, although more substantial overlap was observed at the pathway level. Xenobiotics metabolism and apolipoprotein synthesis were specifically regulated by PPARα in human hepatocytes, whereas glycolysis-gluconeogenesis was regulated specifically in mouse hepatocytes. Most of the genes commonly regulated in mouse and human were involved in lipid metabolism and many represented known PPARα targets, including CPT1A, HMGCS2, FABP1, ACSL1, and ADFP. Several genes were identified that were specifically induced by PPARα in human (MBL2, ALAS1, CYP1A1, TSKU) or mouse (Fbp2, lgals4, Cd36, Ucp2, Pxmp4). Furthermore, several putative novel PPARα targets were identified that were commonly regulated in both species, including CREB3L3, KLF10, KLF11 and MAP3K8. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that PPARα activation has a major impact on gene regulation in human hepatocytes. Importantly, the role of PPARα as master regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism is generally well-conserved between mouse and human. Overall, however, PPARα regulates a mostly divergent set of genes in mouse and human hepatocytes. PMID:19710929

  18. Transcriptome analysis of genes and gene networks involved in aggressive behavior in mouse and zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Malki, Karim; Du Rietz, Ebba; Crusio, Wim E; Pain, Oliver; Paya-Cano, Jose; Karadaghi, Rezhaw L; Sluyter, Frans; de Boer, Sietse F; Sandnabba, Kenneth; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Asherson, Philip; Tosto, Maria Grazia

    2016-09-01

    Despite moderate heritability estimates, the molecular architecture of aggressive behavior remains poorly characterized. This study compared gene expression profiles from a genetic mouse model of aggression with zebrafish, an animal model traditionally used to study aggression. A meta-analytic, cross-species approach was used to identify genomic variants associated with aggressive behavior. The Rankprod algorithm was used to evaluated mRNA differences from prefrontal cortex tissues of three sets of mouse lines (N = 18) selectively bred for low and high aggressive behavior (SAL/LAL, TA/TNA, and NC900/NC100). The same approach was used to evaluate mRNA differences in zebrafish (N = 12) exposed to aggressive or non-aggressive social encounters. Results were compared to uncover genes consistently implicated in aggression across both studies. Seventy-six genes were differentially expressed (PFP < 0.05) in aggressive compared to non-aggressive mice. Seventy genes were differentially expressed in zebrafish exposed to a fight encounter compared to isolated zebrafish. Seven genes (Fos, Dusp1, Hdac4, Ier2, Bdnf, Btg2, and Nr4a1) were differentially expressed across both species 5 of which belonging to a gene-network centred on the c-Fos gene hub. Network analysis revealed an association with the MAPK signaling cascade. In human studies HDAC4 haploinsufficiency is a key genetic mechanism associated with brachydactyly mental retardation syndrome (BDMR), which is associated with aggressive behaviors. Moreover, the HDAC4 receptor is a drug target for valproic acid, which is being employed as an effective pharmacological treatment for aggressive behavior in geriatric, psychiatric, and brain-injury patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Yeast and Mammalian Metallothioneins Functionally Substitute for Yeast Copper-Zinc Superoxide Dismutase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamai, Katherine T.; Gralla, Edith B.; Ellerby, Lisa M.; Valentine, Joan S.; Thiele, Dennis J.

    1993-09-01

    Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase catalyzes the disproportionation of superoxide anion to hydrogen peroxide and dioxygen and is thought to play an important role in protecting cells from oxygen toxicity. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains lacking copper-zinc superoxide dismutase, which is encoded by the SOD1 gene, are sensitive to oxidative stress and exhibit a variety of growth defects including hypersensitivity to dioxygen and to superoxide-generating drugs such as paraquat. We have found that in addition to these known phenotypes, SOD1-deletion strains fail to grow on agar containing the respiratory carbon source lactate. We demonstrate here that expression of the yeast or monkey metallothionein proteins in the presence of copper suppresses the lactate growth defect and some other phenotypes associated with SOD1-deletion strains, indicating that copper metallothioneins substitute for copper-zinc superoxide dismutase in vivo to protect cells from oxygen toxicity. Consistent with these results, we show that yeast metallothionein mRNA levels are dramatically elevated under conditions of oxidative stress. Furthermore, in vitro assays demonstrate that yeast metallothionein, purified or from whole-cell extracts, exhibits copper-dependent antioxidant activity. Taken together, these data suggest that both yeast and mammalian metallothioneins may play a direct role in the cellular defense against oxidative stress by functioning as antioxidants.

  20. Effects of Methylmercury Contained in a Diet Mimicking the Wayana Amerindians Contamination through Fish Consumption: Mercury Accumulation, Metallothionein Induction, Gene Expression Variations, and Role of the Chemokine CCL2

    PubMed Central

    Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Laclau, Muriel; Maury-Brachet, Régine; Gonzalez, Patrice; Baudrimont, Magalie; Mesmer-Dudons, Nathalie; Fujimura, Masatake; Marighetto, Aline; Godefroy, David; Rostène, William; Brèthes, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxin, and human beings are mainly exposed to this pollutant through fish consumption. We addressed the question of whether a diet mimicking the fish consumption of Wayanas Amerindians from French Guiana could result in observable adverse effects in mice. Wayanas adult men are subjected to a mean mercurial dose of 7 g Hg/week/kg of body weight. We decided to supplement a vegetarian-based mice diet with 0.1% of lyophilized Hoplias aimara fish, which Wayanas are fond of and equivalent to the same dose as that afflicting the Wayanas Amerindians. Total mercury contents were 1.4 ± 0.2 and 5.4 ± 0.5 ng Hg/g of food pellets for the control and aimara diets, respectively. After 14 months of exposure, the body parts and tissues displaying the highest mercury concentration on a dry weight (dw) basis were hair (733 ng/g) and kidney (511 ng/g), followed by the liver (77 ng/g). Surprisingly, despite the fact that MeHg is a neurotoxic compound, the brain accumulated low levels of mercury (35 ng/g in the cortex). The metallothionein (MT) protein concentration only increased in those tissues (kidney, muscles) in which MeHg demethylation had occurred. This can be taken as a molecular sign of divalent mercurial contamination since only Hg2+ has been reported yet to induce MT accumulation in contaminated tissues. The suppression of the synthesis of the chemokine CCL2 in the corresponding knockout (KO) mice resulted in important changes in gene expression patterns in the liver and brain. After three months of exposure to an aimara-containing diet, eight of 10 genes selected (Sdhb, Cytb, Cox1, Sod1, Sod2, Mt2, Mdr1a and Bax) were repressed in wild-type mice liver whereas none presented a differential expression in KO Ccl2−/− mice. In the wild-type mice brain, six of 12 genes selected (Cytb, Cox1, Sod1, Sod2, Mdr1a and Bax) presented a stimulated expression, whereas all remained at the basal level of expression in KO Ccl2−/− mice. In the

  1. Effects of methylmercury contained in a diet mimicking the Wayana Amerindians contamination through fish consumption: mercury accumulation, metallothionein induction, gene expression variations, and role of the chemokine CCL2.

    PubMed

    Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Laclau, Muriel; Maury-Brachet, Régine; Gonzalez, Patrice; Baudrimont, Magalie; Mesmer-Dudons, Nathalie; Fujimura, Masatake; Marighetto, Aline; Godefroy, David; Rostène, William; Brèthes, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxin, and human beings are mainly exposed to this pollutant through fish consumption. We addressed the question of whether a diet mimicking the fish consumption of Wayanas Amerindians from French Guiana could result in observable adverse effects in mice. Wayanas adult men are subjected to a mean mercurial dose of 7 g Hg/week/kg of body weight. We decided to supplement a vegetarian-based mice diet with 0.1% of lyophilized Hoplias aimara fish, which Wayanas are fond of and equivalent to the same dose as that afflicting the Wayanas Amerindians. Total mercury contents were 1.4 ± 0.2 and 5.4 ± 0.5 ng Hg/g of food pellets for the control and aimara diets, respectively. After 14 months of exposure, the body parts and tissues displaying the highest mercury concentration on a dry weight (dw) basis were hair (733 ng/g) and kidney (511 ng/g), followed by the liver (77 ng/g). Surprisingly, despite the fact that MeHg is a neurotoxic compound, the brain accumulated low levels of mercury (35 ng/g in the cortex). The metallothionein (MT) protein concentration only increased in those tissues (kidney, muscles) in which MeHg demethylation had occurred. This can be taken as a molecular sign of divalent mercurial contamination since only Hg(2+) has been reported yet to induce MT accumulation in contaminated tissues. The suppression of the synthesis of the chemokine CCL2 in the corresponding knockout (KO) mice resulted in important changes in gene expression patterns in the liver and brain. After three months of exposure to an aimara-containing diet, eight of 10 genes selected (Sdhb, Cytb, Cox1, Sod1, Sod2, Mt2, Mdr1a and Bax) were repressed in wild-type mice liver whereas none presented a differential expression in KO Ccl2(-/-) mice. In the wild-type mice brain, six of 12 genes selected (Cytb, Cox1, Sod1, Sod2, Mdr1a and Bax) presented a stimulated expression, whereas all remained at the basal level of expression in KO Ccl2(-/-) mice. In the

  2. The top skin-associated genes: a comparative analysis of human and mouse skin transcriptomes.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Peter Arne; Buhren, Bettina Alexandra; Schrumpf, Holger; Homey, Bernhard; Zlotnik, Albert; Hevezi, Peter

    2014-06-01

    The mouse represents a key model system for the study of the physiology and biochemistry of skin. Comparison of skin between mouse and human is critical for interpretation and application of data from mouse experiments to human disease. Here, we review the current knowledge on structure and immunology of mouse and human skin. Moreover, we present a systematic comparison of human and mouse skin transcriptomes. To this end, we have recently used a genome-wide database of human gene expression to identify genes highly expressed in skin, with no, or limited expression elsewhere - human skin-associated genes (hSAGs). Analysis of our set of hSAGs allowed us to generate a comprehensive molecular characterization of healthy human skin. Here, we used a similar database to generate a list of mouse skin-associated genes (mSAGs). A comparative analysis between the top human (n=666) and mouse (n=873) skin-associated genes (SAGs) revealed a total of only 30.2% identity between the two lists. The majority of shared genes encode proteins that participate in structural and barrier functions. Analysis of the top functional annotation terms revealed an overlap for morphogenesis, cell adhesion, structure, and signal transduction. The results of this analysis, discussed in the context of published data, illustrate the diversity between the molecular make up of skin of both species and grants a probable explanation, why results generated in murine in vivo models often fail to translate into the human.

  3. An analysis of the human and mouse CXCR5 gene introns.

    PubMed

    Panaro, Maria Antonietta; Calvello, Rosa; Mitolo, Carlo Ivan; Sisto, Margherita; Saccia, Matteo; Cianciulli, Antonia

    2011-06-01

    Both mouse and human chemokine receptor CXC motif 5 (CXCR5) genes exhibit one single intron interrupting the coding sequence. The mouse intron is 12053 nucleotides (nt) long; the human intron is 9603 nt long. Sections of the mouse intron significantly align plus/plus with sections of the human intron; the aligned segments are in the same order in mouse as in man and overall cover 13% of the mouse sequence and 17% of the human sequence. The human CXCR5 intron harbors sequences derived from retroviruses (human endogenous retroviruses). The mouse intron comprises very similar sequences. About 70% of the mouse intron sequence is 'specific' to this gene, while sequences in the rest of the intron are shared with many other genes located on different chromosomes. In the human the coverage by specific sequences is about 87%. Thus, the contribution of transposable elements is significantly higher in mouse (30%) than in man (13%). Intra-intronic plus/minus alignments exist in mouse (10 couples) and man (two couples): these may form stem and loop structures determining the secondary structure of the corresponding pre-mRNAs.

  4. Gene expression profiling of the developing mouse kidney and embryo.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Lisa; Johnson, Penny A; Kimber, Susan J

    2010-02-01

    The metanephros is formed from the reciprocal inductive interaction of two precursor tissues, the metanephric mesenchyme (MM) and the ureteric bud (UB). The UB induces MM to condense and differentiate forming the glomerulus and renal tubules, whilst the MM induces the UB to differentiate into the collecting tubules of the mature nephron. Uninduced MM is considered the progenitor cell population of the developing metanephros because of its potential to differentiate into more renal cell types than the UB. Previous studies have identified the phenotype of renal precursor cells; however, expression of candidate marker genes have not been analysed in other tissues of the murine embryo. We have assayed up to 19 candidate genes in eight embryonic tissues at five gestation stages of the mouse embryo to identify markers definitively expressed by renal cells during metanephric induction and markers developmentally regulated during kidney maturation. We then analysed their expression in other developing tissues. Results show Dcn, Hoxc9, Mest, Wt1 and Ywhaq were expressed at moderate to high levels during the window of metanephric specification and early differentiation (E10.5-E12.5 dpc), and Hoxc9, Ren1 and Wt1 expression was characteristic of mature renal cells. We demonstrated Cd24a, Cdh11, Mest, Scd2 and Sim2 were regulated during brain development, and Scd2, Cd24a and Sip1 expression was enriched in developing liver. These markers may be useful negative markers of kidney development. Use of a combination of highly expressed and negative markers may aid in the identification and removal of non-renal cells from heterogeneous populations of differentiating stem cells.

  5. Cloning the mouse homologue of the human lysosomal acid {alpha}-glucosidase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, J.H.; Yang, B.Z.; Liu, H.M.

    1994-09-01

    Pompe disease (GSD II) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of lysosomal acid {alpha}-glucosidase (GAA). In an attempt to create a mouse model for Pompe disease, we isolated and characterized the gene encoding the mouse homologue of the human GAA. Twenty clones that extend from exon 2 to the poly(A) tail were isolated from a mouse liver cDNA library, but the remainder of the mRNA proved difficult to obtain by conventional cDNA library screening. Sequences spanning exons 1-2 were cloned by RACE from mouse liver RNA. The full-length liver GAA cDNA contains 3365 nucleotides with a coding region of 2859 nucleotides and a 394 base pair 3{prime}-nontranslated region. The deduced amino acid sequence of the mouse GAA shows 84% identity to the human GAA. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that the mouse GAA was encoded by a single copy gene. Then six bacteriophages containing DNA from the GAA gene were isolated by screening 10{sup 6} phage plaques of a mouse 129 genomic library using a mouse GAA cDNA as a probe. From one of these bacteriophages, an 11-kilobase EcoRI fragment containing exons 3 to 15 was subcloned and sequenced. Work is in progress using this genomic clone to disrupt the GAA gene in murine embryonic stem cells in order to create GSD II mice.

  6. Structure of the chromosomal gene for granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor: comparison of the mouse and human genes.

    PubMed Central

    Miyatake, S; Otsuka, T; Yokota, T; Lee, F; Arai, K

    1985-01-01

    A cDNA clone that expresses granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) activity in COS-7 cells has been isolated from a pcD library prepared from mRNA derived from concanavalin A-activated mouse helper T cell clones. Based on homology with the mouse GM-CSF cDNA sequence, the mouse GM-CSF gene was isolated. The human GM-CSF gene was also isolated based on homology with the human GM-CSF cDNA sequence. The nucleotide sequences determined for the genes and their flanking regions revealed that both the mouse and human GM-CSF genes are composed of three introns and four exons. The organization of the mouse and human GM-CSF genes are highly homologous and strong sequence homology between the two genes is found both in the coding and non-coding regions. A 'TATA'-like sequence was found 20-25 bp upstream from the transcription initiation site. In the 5'-flanking region, there is a highly homologous region extending 330 bp upstream of the putative TATA box. This sequence may play a role in regulation of expression of the GM-CSF gene. These structures are compared with those of different lymphokine genes and their regulatory regions. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 6. PMID:3876930

  7. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor and glucocorticoid receptor interact to activate human metallothionein 2A

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Shoko; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Tomita, Shuhei; Tohkin, Masahiro; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Komai, Michio

    2013-11-15

    Although the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) play essential roles in mammalian development, stress responses, and other physiological events, crosstalk between these receptors has been the subject of much debate. Metallothioneins are classic glucocorticoid-inducible genes that were reported to increase upon treatment with AHR agonists in rodent tissues and cultured human cells. In this study, the mechanism of human metallothionein 2A (MT2A) gene transcription activation by AHR was investigated. Cotreatment with 3-methylcholanthrene and dexamethasone, agonists of AHR and GR respectively, synergistically increased MT2A mRNA levels in HepG2 cells. MT2A induction was suppressed by RNA interference against AHR or GR. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed a physical interaction between AHR and GR proteins. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that AHR was recruited to the glucocorticoid response element in the MT2A promoter. Thus, we provide a novel mechanism whereby AHR modulates expression of human MT2A via the glucocorticoid response element and protein–protein interactions with GR. - Highlights: • Aryl hydrocarbon receptor forms a complex with glucocorticoid receptor in cells. • Human metallothionein gene is regulated by the AHR and GR interaction. • AHR–GR complex binds to glucocorticoid response element in metallothionein gene. • We demonstrated a novel transcriptional mechanism via AHR and GR interaction.

  8. Identification and Applications of Repetitive Probes for Gene Mapping in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Siracusa, L. D.; Jenkins, N. A.; Copeland, N. G.

    1991-01-01

    Interspecific mouse hybrids that are viable and fertile provide a wealth of genetic variation that is useful for gene mapping. We are using this genetic variation to develop multilocus linkage maps of the mouse genome. As an outgrowth of this work, we have identified three repetitive probes that collectively identify 28 loci dispersed on 16 of the 19 mouse autosomes and the X chromosome. These loci establish a skeleton linkage map that can be used to detect linkage over much of the mouse genome. The molecular probes are derived from the mouse mammary tumor virus envelope gene, the ornithine decarboxylase gene, and the triose phosphate isomerase gene. The ability to scan the mouse genome quickly and efficiently in an interspecific cross using these three repetitive probes makes this system a powerful tool for identifying the chromosomal location of mutations that have yet to be cloned, mapping multigenic traits, and identifying recessive protooncogene loci associated with murine neoplastic disease. Ultimately, interspecific hybrids in conjunction with repetitive and single-copy probes will provide a rapid means to access virtually any gene of interest in the mouse genome at the molecular level. PMID:1673105

  9. Persistent gene expression in mouse nasal epithelia following feline immunodeficiency virus-based vector gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Sinn, Patrick L; Burnight, Erin R; Hickey, Melissa A; Blissard, Gary W; McCray, Paul B

    2005-10-01

    Gene transfer development for treatment or prevention of cystic fibrosis lung disease has been limited by the inability of vectors to efficiently and persistently transduce airway epithelia. Influenza A is an enveloped virus with natural lung tropism; however, pseudotyping feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-based lentiviral vector with the hemagglutinin envelope protein proved unsuccessful. Conversely, pseudotyping FIV with the envelope protein from influenza D (Thogoto virus GP75) resulted in titers of 10(6) transducing units (TU)/ml and conferred apical entry into well-differentiated human airway epithelial cells. Baculovirus GP64 envelope glycoproteins share sequence identity with influenza D GP75 envelope glycoproteins. Pseudotyping FIV with GP64 from three species of baculovirus resulted in titers of 10(7) to 10(9) TU/ml. Of note, GP64 from Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus resulted in high-titer FIV preparations (approximately 10(9) TU/ml) and conferred apical entry into polarized primary cultures of human airway epithelia. Using a luciferase reporter gene and bioluminescence imaging, we observed persistent gene expression from in vivo gene transfer in the mouse nose with A. californica GP64-pseudotyped FIV (AcGP64-FIV). Longitudinal bioluminescence analysis documented persistent expression in nasal epithelia for approximately 1 year without significant decline. According to histological analysis using a LacZ reporter gene, olfactory and respiratory epithelial cells were transduced. In addition, methylcellulose-formulated AcGP64-FIV transduced mouse nasal epithelia with much greater efficiency than similarly formulated vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein-pseudotyped FIV. These data suggest that AcGP64-FIV efficiently transduces and persistently expresses a transgene in nasal epithelia in the absence of agents that disrupt the cellular tight junction integrity.

  10. Determination of reference genes for circadian studies in different tissues and mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Circadian rhythms have a profound effect on human health. Their disruption can lead to serious pathologies, such as cancer and obesity. Gene expression studies in these pathologies are often studied in different mouse strains by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Selection of reference genes is a crucial step of qPCR experiments. Recent studies show that reference gene stability can vary between species and tissues, but none has taken circadian experiments into consideration. Results In the present study the expression of ten candidate reference genes (Actb, Eif2a, Gapdh, Hmbs, Hprt1, Ppib, Rn18s, Rplp0, Tbcc and Utp6c) was measured in 131 liver and 97 adrenal gland samples taken from three mouse strains (C57BL/6JOlaHsd, 129Pas plus C57BL/6J and Crem KO on 129Pas plus C57BL/6J background) every 4 h in a 24 h period. Expression stability was evaluated by geNorm and NormFinder programs. Differences in ranking of the most stable reference genes were observed both between individual mouse strains as well as between tissues within each mouse strain. We show that selection of reference gene (Actb) that is often used for analyses in individual mouse strains leads to errors if used for normalization when different mouse strains are compared. We identified alternative reference genes that are stable in these comparisons. Conclusions Genetic background and circadian time influence the expression stability of reference genes. Differences between mouse strains and tissues should be taken into consideration to avoid false interpretations. We show that the use of a single reference gene can lead to false biological conclusions. This manuscript provides a useful reference point for researchers that search for stable reference genes in the field of circadian biology. PMID:20712867

  11. Arsenic Induction of Metallothionein and Metallothionein Induction Against Arsenic Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Tariqur; De Ley, Marc

    Human exposure to arsenic (As) can lead to oxidative stress that can become evident in organs such as the skin, liver, kidneys and lungs. Several intracellular antioxidant defense mechanisms including glutathione (GSH) and metallothionein (MT) have been shown to minimize As cytotoxicity. The current review summarizes the involvement of MT as an intracellular defense mechanism against As cytotoxicity, mostly in blood. Zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se) supplements are also proposed as a possible remediation of As cytotoxicity. In vivo and in vitro studies on As toxicity were reviewed to summarize cytotoxic mechanisms of As. Intracellular antioxidant defense mechanisms of MT are linked in relation to As cytotoxicity. Arsenic uses a different route, compared to major metal MT inducers such as Zn, to enter/exit blood cells. A number of in vivo and in vitro studies showed that upregulated MT biosynthesis in blood components are related to toxic levels of As. Despite the cysteine residues in MT that aid to bind As, MT is not the preferred binding protein for As. Nonetheless, intracellular oxidative stress due to As toxicity can be minimized, if not eliminated, by MT. Thus MT induction by essential metals such as Zn and Se supplementation could be beneficial to fight against As toxicity.

  12. Cloning, analysis, and chromosomal localization of myoxin (MYH12), the human homologue to the mouse dilute gene

    SciTech Connect

    Engle, L.J.; Kennett, R.H. )

    1994-02-01

    The mouse dilute gene encodes a novel type of non-muscle myosin that structurally combines elements from both nonmuscle myosin type I and nonmuscle myosin type II. Phenotypically, mutations in the mouse dilute gene result not only in the lightening of coat color, but also in the onset of severe neurological defects shortly after birth. This may indicate that the mouse dilute gene is important in maintaining the normal neuronal function in the mouse. The authors report the isolation and sequencing of [open quotes]myoxin[close quotes] (MYH12), the human homologue of the mouse dilute gene, and its assignment to human chromosome 15. 35 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Aup1, a novel gene on mouse Chromosome 6 and human Chromosome 2p13

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Wonhee; Weber, J.S.; Meisler, M.H.

    1996-09-01

    We have cloned a novel mouse cDNA, Aup1, encoding a predicted protein of 410 amino acid residues. The 1.5-kb Aup1 transcript is ubiquitously expressed in mouse tissues. An evolutionary relationship to the Caenorhabditis elegans predicted protein F44b9.5 is indicated by the 35% identity and 53% conservation of the amino acid sequences. Nineteen related human ESTs spanning 80% of the protein have also been identified, with a predicted amino acid sequence identity of 86% between the human and the mouse proteins. The gene has been mapped to a conserved linkage group on human chromosome 2p13 and mouse Chromosome 6. Aup1 was eliminated as a candidate gene for two closely linked disorders, human LGMD2B and mouse mnd2. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Chromosomal localization of the gene encoding the human DNA helicase RECQL and its mouse homologue

    SciTech Connect

    Puranam, K.L.; Kennington, E.; Blackshear, P.J.

    1995-04-10

    We have determined the chromosomal location of the human and mouse genes encoding the RECQL protein, a putative DNA helicase homologous to the bacterial DNA helicase, RecQ. RECQL was localized to human chromosome 12 by analysis of human-rodent somatic cell hybrid DNA, fine mapping of RECQL by fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed its chromosomal location to be 12p11-p12. The corresponding mouse gene, Recql, was mapped to the telomeric end of mouse chromosome 6 by analysis of DNA from an interspecific cross. 19 refs., 2 figs.

  15. c-Rel Regulates Inscuteable Gene Expression during Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation*

    PubMed Central

    Ishibashi, Riki; Kozuki, Satoshi; Kamakura, Sachiko; Sumimoto, Hideki; Toyoshima, Fumiko

    2016-01-01

    Inscuteable (Insc) regulates cell fate decisions in several types of stem cells. Although it is recognized that the expression levels of mouse INSC govern the balance between symmetric and asymmetric stem cell division, regulation of mouse Insc gene expression remains poorly understood. Here, we showed that mouse Insc expression transiently increases at an early stage of differentiation, when mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells differentiate into bipotent mesendoderm capable of producing both endoderm and mesoderm in defined culture conditions. We identified the minimum transcriptional regulatory element (354 bases) that drives mouse Insc transcription in mES cells within a region >5 kb upstream of the mouse Insc transcription start site. We found that the transcription factor reticuloendotheliosis oncogene (c-Rel) bound to the minimum element and promoted mouse Insc expression in mES cells. In addition, short interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of either mouse INSC or c-Rel protein decreased mesodermal cell populations without affecting differentiation into the mesendoderm or endoderm. Furthermore, overexpression of mouse INSC rescued the mesoderm-reduced phenotype induced by knockdown of c-Rel. We propose that regulation of mouse Insc expression by c-Rel modulates cell fate decisions during mES cell differentiation. PMID:26694615

  16. c-Rel Regulates Inscuteable Gene Expression during Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Riki; Kozuki, Satoshi; Kamakura, Sachiko; Sumimoto, Hideki; Toyoshima, Fumiko

    2016-02-12

    Inscuteable (Insc) regulates cell fate decisions in several types of stem cells. Although it is recognized that the expression levels of mouse INSC govern the balance between symmetric and asymmetric stem cell division, regulation of mouse Insc gene expression remains poorly understood. Here, we showed that mouse Insc expression transiently increases at an early stage of differentiation, when mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells differentiate into bipotent mesendoderm capable of producing both endoderm and mesoderm in defined culture conditions. We identified the minimum transcriptional regulatory element (354 bases) that drives mouse Insc transcription in mES cells within a region >5 kb upstream of the mouse Insc transcription start site. We found that the transcription factor reticuloendotheliosis oncogene (c-Rel) bound to the minimum element and promoted mouse Insc expression in mES cells. In addition, short interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of either mouse INSC or c-Rel protein decreased mesodermal cell populations without affecting differentiation into the mesendoderm or endoderm. Furthermore, overexpression of mouse INSC rescued the mesoderm-reduced phenotype induced by knockdown of c-Rel. We propose that regulation of mouse Insc expression by c-Rel modulates cell fate decisions during mES cell differentiation.

  17. Accumulation of copper in the kidney of pigs fed high dietary zinc is due to metallothionein expression with minor effects on genes involved in copper metabolism.

    PubMed

    Zetzsche, A; Schunter, N; Zentek, J; Pieper, R

    2016-05-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of high dietary zinc (Zn) oxide on trace element accumulation in various organs with special emphasis on the kidney. A total of 40 weaned piglets were allocated into two groups with 16 and 24 piglets each receiving a diet containing normal (NZn; 100mg Zn/kg) or high (HZn; 2,100mg Zn/kg) Zn concentration, respectively. After two weeks, eight piglets from each treatment were killed and organ samples were taken. Eight piglets from the remaining 16 pigs fed HZn diets were changed to NZn diets (CZn). All remaining piglets were killed after another two weeks for organ sampling. Trace element concentration was determined in the jejunum, liver, kidney, pancreas, bone (metacarpal IV), spleen, lung, thymus, tonsils and lymph nodes of jejunum, ileum and colon. Kidney mRNA expression of Zn transporter ZnT1 and ZIP4, genes involved in Cu metabolism (Ctr1, Atox1, SOD1, ATP7A, CCS, CP) and divalent metal ion transport (DMT1) and binding (MT-1a, MT-2b, MT-3) were determined. The Zn concentration in jejunum, liver, pancreas tissue and metacarpal IV was higher (P<0.05) in HZn group compared with NZn and CZn groups. Trace element concentration in organs of CZn pigs was similar to those fed NZn diets. Zn concentration in muscle, lung and lymphatic organs as thymus, tonsils, spleen and lymph nodes of jejunum, ileum and colon did not differ between the groups. Zn and Cu were positively correlated (R=0.67; P<0.05) in the kidney. No significant differences for Cu chaperones, Cu transporters and Cu-dependent factors were determined despite decreased expression of Atox1 after two weeks and increased Ctr1 expression over time in the HZn group. Expression of MT-1a, MT-2b and MT-3 were significantly higher in HZn fed pigs with most pronounced effects for MT-1a > MT-2b > MT-3. Gene expression of MTs in pigs fed CZn diets did not differ from pigs fed NZn diets. The data suggest that high dietary Zn feeding in pigs leads to Cu co-accumulation in the

  18. Comparison of human and mouse T-cell receptor variable gene segment subfamilies

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, S.P.; Arden, B.; Kabelitz, D.; Mak, T.W.

    1995-10-01

    Like the immunoglobulin Igh-V and Igk-V gene families, the human or mouse TCRV gene families may be grouped into subfamilies displaying {ge} 75% nucleic acid sequence similarity among their members. Systematic interspecies sequence comparisons reveal that most mouse Tcr-V subfamilies exhibit clear homology to human TCRV subfamilies ({ge}60% amino acid sequence similarity). Homologous paris of TCRV genes in mice and humans show higher sequence similarity than TCRV genes from different subfamilies within either species, indicating trans-species evolution of TCRV genes. Mouse and human homologues show conservation of their relative map order, particularly in the 3{prime} region and a similar sequential and developmentally programmed expression. When the V regions from both species were analyzed together, local length differences and conserved residues in the loop regions were revealed, characteristic of each of the four TCRV families. 31 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Efficient Gene Knockdown in Mouse Oocytes through Peptide Nanoparticle-Mediated SiRNA Transfection

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Zhen; Li, Ruichao; Zhou, Chunxiang; Shi, Liya; Zhang, Xiaolan; Yang, Zhixia; Zhang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    The use of mouse oocytes as a model for studying female meiosis is very important in reproductive medicine. Gene knockdown by specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) is usually the first step in the study of the function of a target gene in mouse oocytes during in vitro maturation. Traditionally, the only way to introduce siRNA into mouse oocytes is through microinjection, which is certainly less efficient and strenuous than siRNA transfection in somatic cells. Recently, in research using somatic cells, peptide nanoparticle-mediated siRNA transfection has been gaining popularity over liposome nanoparticle-mediated methods because of its high efficiency, low toxicity, good stability, and strong serum compatibility. However, no researchers have yet tried transfecting siRNA into mouse oocytes because of the existence of the protective zona pellucida surrounding the oocyte membrane (vitelline membrane). We therefore tested whether peptide nanoparticles can introduce siRNA into mouse oocytes. In the present study, we showed for the first time that our optimized program can efficiently knock down a target gene with high specificity. Furthermore, we achieved the expected meiotic phenotypes after we knocked down a test unknown target gene TRIM75. We propose that peptide nanoparticles may be superior for preliminary functional studies of unknown genes in mouse oocytes. PMID:26974323

  20. Efficient Gene Knockdown in Mouse Oocytes through Peptide Nanoparticle-Mediated SiRNA Transfection.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhen; Li, Ruichao; Zhou, Chunxiang; Shi, Liya; Zhang, Xiaolan; Yang, Zhixia; Zhang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    The use of mouse oocytes as a model for studying female meiosis is very important in reproductive medicine. Gene knockdown by specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) is usually the first step in the study of the function of a target gene in mouse oocytes during in vitro maturation. Traditionally, the only way to introduce siRNA into mouse oocytes is through microinjection, which is certainly less efficient and strenuous than siRNA transfection in somatic cells. Recently, in research using somatic cells, peptide nanoparticle-mediated siRNA transfection has been gaining popularity over liposome nanoparticle-mediated methods because of its high efficiency, low toxicity, good stability, and strong serum compatibility. However, no researchers have yet tried transfecting siRNA into mouse oocytes because of the existence of the protective zona pellucida surrounding the oocyte membrane (vitelline membrane). We therefore tested whether peptide nanoparticles can introduce siRNA into mouse oocytes. In the present study, we showed for the first time that our optimized program can efficiently knock down a target gene with high specificity. Furthermore, we achieved the expected meiotic phenotypes after we knocked down a test unknown target gene TRIM75. We propose that peptide nanoparticles may be superior for preliminary functional studies of unknown genes in mouse oocytes.

  1. Precise and in situ genetic humanization of 6 Mb of mouse immunoglobulin genes.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Lynn E; Karow, Margaret; Stevens, Sean; Auerbach, Wojtek; Poueymirou, William T; Yasenchak, Jason; Frendewey, David; Valenzuela, David M; Giallourakis, Cosmas C; Alt, Frederick W; Yancopoulos, George D; Murphy, Andrew J

    2014-04-08

    Genetic humanization, which involves replacing mouse genes with their human counterparts, can create powerful animal models for the study of human genes and diseases. One important example of genetic humanization involves mice humanized for their Ig genes, allowing for human antibody responses within a mouse background (HumAb mice) and also providing a valuable platform for the generation of fully human antibodies as therapeutics. However, existing HumAb mice do not have fully functional immune systems, perhaps because of the manner in which they were genetically humanized. Heretofore, most genetic humanizations have involved disruption of the endogenous mouse gene with simultaneous introduction of a human transgene at a new and random location (so-called KO-plus-transgenic humanization). More recent efforts have attempted to replace mouse genes with their human counterparts at the same genetic location (in situ humanization), but such efforts involved laborious procedures and were limited in size and precision. We describe a general and efficient method for very large, in situ, and precise genetic humanization using large compound bacterial artificial chromosome-based targeting vectors introduced into mouse ES cells. We applied this method to genetically humanize 3-Mb segments of both the mouse heavy and κ light chain Ig loci, by far the largest genetic humanizations ever described. This paper provides a detailed description of our genetic humanization approach, and the companion paper reports that the humoral immune systems of mice bearing these genetically humanized loci function as efficiently as those of WT mice.

  2. Duplications in ADHD patients harbour neurobehavioural genes that are co‐expressed with genes associated with hyperactivity in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Avigail; Steinberg, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood onset disorder, prevalent in 5.3% of children and 1–4% of adults. ADHD is highly heritable, with a burden of large (>500 Kb) copy number variants (CNVs) identified among individuals with ADHD. However, how such CNVs exert their effects is poorly understood. We examined the genes affected by 71 large, rare, and predominantly inherited CNVs identified among 902 individuals with ADHD. We applied both mouse‐knockout functional enrichment analyses, exploiting behavioral phenotypes arising from the determined disruption of 1:1 mouse orthologues, and human brain‐specific spatio‐temporal expression data to uncover molecular pathways common among genes contributing to enriched phenotypes. Twenty‐two percent of genes duplicated in individuals with ADHD that had mouse phenotypic information were associated with abnormal learning/memory/conditioning (“l/m/c”) phenotypes. Although not observed in a second ADHD‐cohort, we identified a similar enrichment among genes duplicated by eight de novo CNVs present in eight individuals with Hyperactivity and/or Short attention span (“Hyperactivity/SAS”, the ontologically‐derived phenotypic components of ADHD). In the brain, genes duplicated in patients with ADHD and Hyperactivity/SAS and whose orthologues’ disruption yields l/m/c phenotypes in mouse (“candidate‐genes”), were co‐expressed with one another and with genes whose orthologues’ mouse models exhibit hyperactivity. Moreover, genes associated with hyperactivity in the mouse were significantly more co‐expressed with ADHD candidate‐genes than with similarly identified genes from individuals with intellectual disability. Our findings support an etiology for ADHD distinct from intellectual disability, and mechanistically related to genes associated with hyperactivity phenotypes in other mammalian species. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B

  3. Analysis of the effects of overexpression of metallothionein-I in transgenic mice on the reproductive toxicology of cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, T.; Kai Fu; Andrews, G.K.; Enders, G.C.; Palmiter, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    Exposure to low levels of cadmium reduces fertility. In male mice spermatogensis is highly sensitive to cadmium, whereas in females the peri-implantation period of pregnancy is sensitive. To examine the potential roles of the cadmium-binding protein, metallothionein (MT), in the reproductive toxicology of cadmium, we examined a transgenic mouse strain that overexpresses metallothionein-I (MT-I). These mice had dramatically increased steady-state levels of MT-I mRNA and MT in the testes and in the female reproductive tract during the peri-implantation period of pregnancy, and this overexpression occurred in a cell-specific and temporally regulated manner similar to that of the endogenous MT-I gene. Transgenic and control males were injected with cadmium, and the histology of the testes was examined. An injection of 7.5 {mu}mol Cd/Kg had no effect on histology of the testes in either transgenic or control mice. In contrast, an injection of 10 {mu}mol Cd/kg caused rapid changes in the histology of the testes and resulted in pronounced testicular necrosis in both control and transgenic mice. Female transgenic and control mice were mated and then injected with cadmium (30-45 {mu}mol Cd/kg) on the day of blastocyst implantation (day 4). In both of these groups, injection of cadmium reduced pregnancy rate, and no dramatic protection was afforded by maternal and/or embryonic overexpression of MT. Thus, overexpression of MT-I does not significantly protect against either of these cadmium-induced effects on fertility. 65 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Mapping of the Tuple1 gene to mouse chromosome 16A-B1

    SciTech Connect

    Mattei, M.G.; Halford, S.; Scambler, P.J.

    1994-10-01

    The human TUPLE1 gene encodes a putative transcriptional regulator and maps to chromosome 22, and therefore may play a role in Di-George syndrome (DGS), relo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS), or a related pathology. The murine TUPLE1 gene has also been cloned and shows strong sequence similarity to TUPLE1. Comparative mapping is useful in the study of chromosome evolution and is sometimes able to indicate possible mouse mutations that are potential models of human genetic disorders. As TIPLE1 is a candidate gene for the haploinsufficient phenotype in DGS, we mapped TUPLE1 to mouse chromosome 16A-B1. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  5. The Core Mouse Response to Infection by Neospora Caninum Defined by Gene Set Enrichment Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, John; Goodswen, Stephen; Kennedy, Paul J; Bush, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the BALB/c and Qs mouse responses to infection by the parasite Neospora caninum were investigated in order to identify host response mechanisms. Investigation was done using gene set (enrichment) analyses of microarray data. GSEA, MANOVA, Romer, subGSE and SAM-GS were used to study the contrasts Neospora strain type, Mouse type (BALB/c and Qs) and time post infection (6 hours post infection and 10 days post infection). The analyses show that the major signal in the core mouse response to infection is from time post infection and can be defined by gene ontology terms Protein Kinase Activity, Cell Proliferation and Transcription Initiation. Several terms linked to signaling, morphogenesis, response and fat metabolism were also identified. At 10 days post infection, genes associated with fatty acid metabolism were identified as up regulated in expression. The value of gene set (enrichment) analyses in the analysis of microarray data is discussed. PMID:23012496

  6. Inactivation of the Rps4 gene on the mouse X chromosome.

    PubMed

    Zinn, A R; Bressler, S L; Beer-Romero, P; Adler, D A; Chapman, V M; Page, D C; Disteche, C M

    1991-12-01

    The human RPS4X and RPS4Y genes, located on the X and Y chromosomes, appear to encode isoforms of ribosomal protein S4. Haploinsufficiency of these genes may contribute to the human phenotype known as Turner syndrome. Although RPS4X maps near the X-inactivation center, the gene is expressed on inactive human X chromosomes. We cloned Rps4, the mouse homolog of RPS4X. Exploiting allelic variation in Rps4, we examined transcription of the gene from active and inactive mouse X chromosomes in vivo, in female mice carrying an X-autosome translocation. We report that mouse Rps4, unlike human RPS4X, is subject to X inactivation. This finding may explain, at least in part, why the phenotypic consequences of X monosomy are less severe in mice than in humans.

  7. Inducible Cre transgenic mouse strain for skeletal muscle-specific gene targeting

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of the Cre/loxP system for gene targeting has been proven to be a powerful tool for understanding gene function. The purpose of this study was to create and characterize an inducible, skeletal muscle-specific Cre transgenic mouse strain. Methods To achieve skeletal muscle-specific expression, the human α-skeletal actin promoter was used to drive expression of a chimeric Cre recombinase containing two mutated estrogen receptor ligand-binding domains. Results Western blot analysis, PCR and β-galactosidase staining confirmed that Cre-mediated recombination was restricted to limb and craniofacial skeletal muscles only after tamoxifen administration. Conclusions A transgenic mouse was created that allows inducible, gene targeting of floxed genes in adult skeletal muscle of different developmental origins. This new mouse will be of great utility to the skeletal muscle community. PMID:22564549

  8. The mouse X chromosome is enriched for multicopy testis genes showing postmeiotic expression.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Jacob L; Mahadevaiah, Shantha K; Park, Peter J; Warburton, Peter E; Page, David C; Turner, James M A

    2008-06-01

    According to the prevailing view, mammalian X chromosomes are enriched in spermatogenesis genes expressed before meiosis and deficient in spermatogenesis genes expressed after meiosis. The paucity of postmeiotic genes on the X chromosome has been interpreted as a consequence of meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI)--the complete silencing of genes on the XY bivalent at meiotic prophase. Recent studies have concluded that MSCI-initiated silencing persists beyond meiosis and that most genes on the X chromosome remain repressed in round spermatids. Here, we report that 33 multicopy gene families, representing approximately 273 mouse X-linked genes, are expressed in the testis and that this expression is predominantly in postmeiotic cells. RNA FISH and microarray analysis show that the maintenance of X chromosome postmeiotic repression is incomplete. Furthermore, X-linked multicopy genes exhibit a similar degree of expression as autosomal genes. Thus, not only is the mouse X chromosome enriched for spermatogenesis genes functioning before meiosis, but in addition, approximately 18% of mouse X-linked genes are expressed in postmeiotic cells.

  9. Metallothionein protection of cadmium toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Klaassen, Curtis D. Liu, Jie; Diwan, Bhalchandra A.

    2009-08-01

    The discovery of the cadmium (Cd)-binding protein from horse kidney in 1957 marked the birth of research on this low-molecular weight, cysteine-rich protein called metallothionein (MT) in Cd toxicology. MT plays minimal roles in the gastrointestinal absorption of Cd, but MT plays important roles in Cd retention in tissues and dramatically decreases biliary excretion of Cd. Cd-bound to MT is responsible for Cd accumulation in tissues and the long biological half-life of Cd in the body. Induction of MT protects against acute Cd-induced lethality, as well as acute toxicity to the liver and lung. Intracellular MT also plays important roles in ameliorating Cd toxicity following prolonged exposures, particularly chronic Cd-induced nephrotoxicity, osteotoxicity, and toxicity to the lung, liver, and immune system. There is an association between human and rodent Cd exposure and prostate cancers, especially in the portions where MT is poorly expressed. MT expression in Cd-induced tumors varies depending on the type and the stage of tumor development. For instance, high levels of MT are detected in Cd-induced sarcomas at the injection site, whereas the sarcoma metastases are devoid of MT. The use of MT-transgenic and MT-null mice has greatly helped define the role of MT in Cd toxicology, with the MT-null mice being hypersensitive and MT-transgenic mice resistant to Cd toxicity. Thus, MT is critical for protecting human health from Cd toxicity. There are large individual variations in MT expression, which might in turn predispose some people to Cd toxicity.

  10. Phylogenetic conservation of immunoglobulin heavy chains: direct comparison of hamster and mouse Cmu genes.

    PubMed

    McGuire, K L; Duncan, W R; Tucker, P W

    1985-08-12

    We have analyzed the JH-Cmu locus of the Syrian hamster by DNA cloning and sequencing. The single Cmu gene is highly homologous to that of the mouse. The hamster equivalents of the JH and switch (S) recombination regions are arranged as in the mouse, but surprisingly are not highly conserved. Also unlike its close murine relative, the Smu regions among inbred hamster strains are not polymorphic. The complete nucleotide sequence of hamster and mouse Cmu genes have been compared to partial Cmu sequences of other species. Conservation within a portion of the 3' untranslated region may signify functional requirements for 3' end processing. Mutational frequencies within exons and introns of hamster and mouse do not support the theory that the rate of DNA transitions to transversions decreases with evolutionary distance.

  11. Sequence divergence and chromosomal rearrangements during the evolution of human pseudoautosomal genes and their mouse homologs

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, J.; Li, X.; Francke, U.

    1994-09-01

    The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) is an area of sequence identity between the X and Y chromosomes and is important for mediating X-Y pairing during male meiosis. Of the seven genes assigned to the human PAR, none of the mouse homologs have been isolated by a cross-hybridization strategy. Two of these homologs, Csfgmra and II3ra, have been isolated using a functional assay for the gene products. These genes are quite different in sequence from their human homologs, showing only 60-70% sequence similarity. The Csfgmra gene has been found to further differ from its human homolog in being isolated not on the sex chromosomes, but on a mouse autosome (chromosome 19). Using a mouse-hamster somatic cell hybrid mapping panel, we have mapped the II3ra gene to yet another mouse autosome, chromosome 14. Attempts to clone the mouse homolog of the ANT3 locus resulted in the isolation of two related genes, Ant1 and Ant2, but failed to yield the Ant3 gene. Southern blot analysis of the ANT/Ant genes showed the Ant1 and Ant2 sequences to be well-conserved among all of a dozen mammals tested. In contrast, the ANT3 gene only showed hybridization to non-rodent mammals, suggesting it is either greatly divergent or has been deleted in the rodent lineage. Similar experiments with other human pseudoautosomal probes likewise showed a lack of hybridization to rodent sequences. The results show a definite trend of extensive divergence of pseudoautosomal sequences in addition to chromosomal rearrangements involving X;autosome translocations and perhaps gene deletions. Such observations have interesting implications regarding the evolution of this important region of the sex chromosomes.

  12. Sequencing the mouse Y chromosome reveals convergent gene acquisition and amplification on both sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Soh, Y Q Shirleen; Alföldi, Jessica; Pyntikova, Tatyana; Brown, Laura G; Graves, Tina; Minx, Patrick J; Fulton, Robert S; Kremitzki, Colin; Koutseva, Natalia; Mueller, Jacob L; Rozen, Steve; Hughes, Jennifer F; Owens, Elaine; Womack, James E; Murphy, William J; Cao, Qing; de Jong, Pieter; Warren, Wesley C; Wilson, Richard K; Skaletsky, Helen; Page, David C

    2014-11-06

    We sequenced the MSY (male-specific region of the Y chromosome) of the C57BL/6J strain of the laboratory mouse Mus musculus. In contrast to theories that Y chromosomes are heterochromatic and gene poor, the mouse MSY is 99.9% euchromatic and contains about 700 protein-coding genes. Only 2% of the MSY derives from the ancestral autosomes that gave rise to the mammalian sex chromosomes. Instead, all but 45 of the MSY's genes belong to three acquired, massively amplified gene families that have no homologs on primate MSYs but do have acquired, amplified homologs on the mouse X chromosome. The complete mouse MSY sequence brings to light dramatic forces in sex chromosome evolution: lineage-specific convergent acquisition and amplification of X-Y gene families, possibly fueled by antagonism between acquired X-Y homologs. The mouse MSY sequence presents opportunities for experimental studies of a sex-specific chromosome in its entirety, in a genetically tractable model organism.

  13. The neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor {alpha}7 subunit gene: Cloning, mapping, structure, and targeting in mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Orr-Urtreger, A.; Baldini, A.; Beaudet, A.L.

    1994-09-01

    The neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor {alpha}7 subunit is a member of a family of ligand-gated ion channels, and is the only subunit know to bind {alpha}-bungarotoxin in mammalian brain. {alpha}-Bungarotoxin binding sites are known to be more abundant in the hippocampus of mouse strains that are particularly sensitive to nicotine-induced seizures. The {alpha}7 receptor is highly permeable to calcium, which could suggest a role in synaptic plasticity in the nervous system. Auditory gating deficiency, an abnormal response to a second auditory stimulus, is characteristic of schizophrenia. Mouse strains that exhibit a similar gating deficit have reduced hippocampal expression of the {alpha}7 subunit. We have cloned and sequenced the full length cDNA for the mouse {alpha}7 gene (Acra-7) and characterized its gene structure. The murine {alpha}7 shares amino acid identity of 99% and 93% with the rat and human {alpha}7 subunits, respectively. Using an interspecies backcross panel, the murine gene was mapped to chromosome 7 near the p locus, a region syntenic with human chromosome 15; the human gene (CHRNA7) was confirmed to map to 15q13-q14 by FISH. To generate a mouse {alpha}7 mutant by homologous recombination, we have constructed a replacement vector which will delete transmembrane domains II-IV and the cytoplasmic domain from the gene product. Recombinant embryonic stem (ES) cell clones were selected and used to develop mouse chimeras that are currently being bred to obtain germline transmission.

  14. Aberrant gene expression profile in a mouse model of endometriosis mirrors that observed in women

    PubMed Central

    Pelch, Katherine E.; Schroder, Amy L.; Kimball, Paul A.; Sharpe-Timms, Kathy L.; Davis, J. W.; Nagel, Susan C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To define the altered gene expression profile of endometriotic lesions in a mouse model of surgically-induced endometriosis Design Autologous experimental mouse model. Setting Medical school department. Animals Adult C57Bl6 mice. Intervention(s) Endometriosis was surgically-induced by auto-transplantation of uterine tissue to the intestinal mesentery. Endometriotic lesions and eutopic uteri were recovered at 3 or 29 days post-induction. Main Outcome Measure(s) Altered gene expression was measured in the endometriotic lesion relative to the eutopic uterus by genome wide cDNA microarray analysis and was confirmed by real time RT-PCR for six genes. Relevant categories of altered genes were identified using gene ontology analysis to determine groups of genes enriched for altered expression. Result(s) The expression of 479 and 114 genes was altered in the endometriotic lesion compared to the eutopic uterus at 3 or 29 days post-induction, respectively. Gene ontology enrichment analysis revealed that genes associated with the extracellular matrix, cell adhesions, immune function, cell growth, and angiogenesis were altered in the endometriotic lesion compared to the eutopic uterus. Conclusion(s) Based on gene expression analysis, the mouse model of surgically-induced endometriosis appears to be a good model for studying the pathophysiology and treatment of endometriosis. PMID:19473656

  15. Chromosomal localization of genes encoding guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunits in mouse and human

    SciTech Connect

    Blatt, C.; Eversole-Cire, P.; Cohn, V.H.; Zollman, S.; Fournier, R.E.K.; Mohandas, L.T.; Nesbitt, M.; Lugo, T.; Jones, D.T.; Reed, R.R.; Weiner, L.P.; Sparkes, R.S.; Simon, M.I. )

    1988-10-01

    A variety of genes have been identified that specify the synthesis of the components of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins). Eight different guanine nucleotide-binding {alpha}-subunit proteins, two different {beta} subunits, and one {gamma} subunit have been described. Hybridization of cDNA clones with DNA from human-mouse somatic cell hybrids was used to assign many of these genes to human chromosomes. The retinal-specific transducin subunit genes GNAT1 and GNAT2 were on chromosomes 3 and 1; GNAI1, GNAI2, and GNAI3 were assigned to chromosomes 7, 3, and 1, respectively; GNAZ and GNAS were found on chromosomes 22 and 20. The {beta} subunits were also assigned-GNB1 to chromosome 1 and GNB2 to chromosome 7. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms were used to map the homologues of some of these genes in the mouse. GNAT1 and GNAI2 were found to map adjacent to each other on mouse chromosome 9 and GNAT2 was mapped on chromosome 17. The mouse GNB1 gene was assigned to chromosome 19. These mapping assignments will be useful in defining the extend of the G{alpha} gene family and may help in attempts to correlate specific genetic diseases and with genes corresponding to G proteins.

  16. Generation and gene expression profiling of 48 transcription-factor-inducible mouse embryonic stem cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Yamamizu, Kohei; Sharov, Alexei A.; Piao, Yulan; Amano, Misa; Yu, Hong; Nishiyama, Akira; Dudekula, Dawood B.; Schlessinger, David; Ko, Minoru S. H.

    2016-01-01

    Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can differentiate into a wide range – and possibly all cell types in vitro, and thus provide an ideal platform to study systematically the action of transcription factors (TFs) in cell differentiation. Previously, we have generated and analyzed 137 TF-inducible mouse ESC lines. As an extension of this “NIA Mouse ESC Bank,” we generated and characterized 48 additional mouse ESC lines, in which single TFs in each line could be induced in a doxycycline-controllable manner. Together, with the previous ESC lines, the bank now comprises 185 TF-manipulable ESC lines (>10% of all mouse TFs). Global gene expression (transcriptome) profiling revealed that the induction of individual TFs in mouse ESCs for 48 hours shifts their transcriptomes toward specific differentiation fates (e.g., neural lineages by Myt1 Isl1, and St18; mesodermal lineages by Pitx1, Pitx2, Barhl2, and Lmx1a; white blood cells by Myb, Etv2, and Tbx6, and ovary by Pitx1, Pitx2, and Dmrtc2). These data also provide and lists of inferred target genes of each TF and possible functions of these TFs. The results demonstrate the utility of mouse ESC lines and their transcriptome data for understanding the mechanism of cell differentiation and the function of TFs. PMID:27150017

  17. Digital Gene Expression Tag Profiling Analysis of the Gene Expression Patterns Regulating the Early Stage of Mouse Spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Lijun; Liu, Meiling; Zhao, Lina; Hu, Fen; Ding, Cunbao; Wang, Yang; He, Baoling; Pan, Yuxin; Fang, Wei; Chen, Jing; Hu, Songnian; Jia, Mengchun

    2013-01-01

    Detailed characterization of the gene expression patterns in spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes is critical to understand the processes which occur prior to meiosis during normal spermatogenesis. The genome-wide expression profiles of mouse type B spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes were investigated using the Solexa/Illumina digital gene expression (DGE) system, a tag based high-throughput transcriptome sequencing method, and the developmental processes which occur during early spermatogenesis were systematically analyzed. Gene expression patterns vary significantly between mouse type B spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes. The functional analysis revealed that genes related to junction assembly, regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and pluripotency were most significantly differently expressed. Pathway analysis indicated that the Wnt non-canonical signaling pathway played a central role and interacted with the actin filament organization pathway during the development of spermatogonia. This study provides a foundation for further analysis of the gene expression patterns and signaling pathways which regulate the molecular mechanisms of early spermatogenesis. PMID:23554914

  18. Comparative analysis of genome maintenance genes in naked mole rat, mouse, and human.

    PubMed

    MacRae, Sheila L; Zhang, Quanwei; Lemetre, Christophe; Seim, Inge; Calder, Robert B; Hoeijmakers, Jan; Suh, Yousin; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera; Vijg, Jan; Zhang, Zhengdong D

    2015-04-01

    Genome maintenance (GM) is an essential defense system against aging and cancer, as both are characterized by increased genome instability. Here, we compared the copy number variation and mutation rate of 518 GM-associated genes in the naked mole rat (NMR), mouse, and human genomes. GM genes appeared to be strongly conserved, with copy number variation in only four genes. Interestingly, we found NMR to have a higher copy number of CEBPG, a regulator of DNA repair, and TINF2, a protector of telomere integrity. NMR, as well as human, was also found to have a lower rate of germline nucleotide substitution than the mouse. Together, the data suggest that the long-lived NMR, as well as human, has more robust GM than mouse and identifies new targets for the analysis of the exceptional longevity of the NMR.

  19. Pex gene deletions in Gy and Hyp mice provide mouse models for X-linked hypophosphatemia.

    PubMed

    Strom, T M; Francis, F; Lorenz, B; Böddrich, A; Econs, M J; Lehrach, H; Meitinger, T

    1997-02-01

    X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets in humans is caused by mutations in the PEX gene which codes for a protein homologous to neutral endopeptidases. Hyp and Gy mice both have X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets, although genetic data and the different phenotypic spectra observed have previously suggested that two different genes are mutated. In addition to the metabolic disorder observed in Hyp mice, male Gy mice are sterile and show circling behavior and reduced viability. We now report the cloning of the mouse homolog of PEX which is highly conserved between man and mouse. The 3' end of this gene is deleted in Hyp mice. In Gy mice, the first three exons and the promotor region are deleted. Thus, Hyp and Gy are allelic mutations and both provide mouse models for X-linked hypophosphatemia.

  20. Characterization of three novel imprinted snoRNAs from mouse Irm gene.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yu; Zhou, Hui; Qu, Liang-Hu

    2006-02-24

    Most, if not all, of snoRNAs in mammals are intron-encoded, implying the expressional and functional relativeness between the snoRNA and their hosts. By computational analysis of an intron database extracted from 65 known mouse imprinted genes, three novel orphan box C/D snoRNAs were identified from Irm gene which is maternally expressed and related to human disorders. The snoRNAs were positively detected and found to express in all the mouse tissues except kidney. The imprinted snoRNAs exhibit stringent structures, but quite variable in locations at their host introns, suggesting their maturation probably through a splicing independent manner. We characterized Irm as a new kind of snoRNA host gene which has no protein-coding capacity and no 5'TOP structure in its mRNA. The newly identified snoRNAs appear mouse-specific, however, their function remains to be elucidated.

  1. Sheep have an unusual variant of the brain-specific metallothionein, metallothionein-III.

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Roger S; Holloway, Adele F; Eckhardt, Bedrich L; Harris, Julie A; Vickers, James C; Chuah, Meng Inn; West, Adrian K

    2002-01-01

    Sheep metallothionein-III (MT-III) cDNA was isolated from a brain cDNA library and characterized. In contrast with MT-III from other species, sheep MT-III cDNA is predicted to encode a protein with significantly different metal-binding properties, owing to the loss of three of its cysteine residues. RT-PCR from other sheep confirmed that this aberrant structure is ubiquitous in this species. MT-III was successfully isolated from sheep brain, demonstrating that the cDNA does give rise to a protein product of the predicted structure. Sheep MT-III is similar to other mammalian MT-IIIs in that it retains the Cys-Pro-Cys-Pro motif which is thought to encode growth-inhibitory activity, and we show that it is likewise able to inhibit neuron survival in vitro. This is the first naturally occurring variant of MT-III (or any other major mammalian MT gene) which gives rise to a protein product. These findings are discussed in light of proposed roles of MT in the mammalian brain. PMID:11931634

  2. Isolation and characterization of a gene from the DiGeorge chromosomal region homologous to the mouse Tbx1 gene.

    PubMed

    Chieffo, C; Garvey, N; Gong, W; Roe, B; Zhang, G; Silver, L; Emanuel, B S; Budarf, M L

    1997-08-01

    DiGeorge syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome, conotruncal anomaly face syndrome, and isolated and familial forms of conotruncal cardiac defects have been associated with deletions of chromosomal region 22q11.2. This report describes the identification, cloning, and characterization of the human TBX1 gene, which maps to the center of the DiGeorge chromosomal region. Further, we have extended the mouse cDNA sequence to permit comparisons between human and mouse Tbx1. TBX1 is a member of a phylogenetically conserved family of genes that share a common DNA-binding domain, the T-box. T-box genes are transcription factors involved in the regulation of developmental processes. There is 98% amino acid identity between human and mouse TBX1 proteins overall, and within the T-box domain, the proteins are identical except for two amino acids. Expression of human TBX1 in adult and fetal tissues, as determined by Northern blot analysis, is similar to that found in the mouse. Additionally, using 3 'RACE, we obtained a differentially spliced message in adult skeletal muscle. Mouse Tbx1 has been previously shown to be expressed during early embryogenesis in the pharyngeal arches, pouches, and otic vesicle. Later in development, expression is seen in the vertebral column and tooth bud. Thus, human TBX1 is a candidate for some of the features seen in the 22q11 deletion syndrome.

  3. Construction of a mouse model of factor VIII deficiency by gene targeting

    SciTech Connect

    Bi, L.; Lawler, A.; Gearhart, J.

    1994-09-01

    To develop a small animal model of hemophilia A for gene therapy experiments, we set out to construct a mouse model for factor VIII deficiency by gene targeting. First, we screened a mouse liver cDNA library using a human FVIII cDNA probe. We cloned a 2.6 Kb partial mouse factor VIII cDNA which extends from 800 base pairs of the 3{prime} end of exon 14 to the 5{prime} end of exon 26. A mouse genomic library made from strain 129 was then screened to obtain genomic fragments covering the exons desired for homologous recombination. Two genomic clones were obtained, and one covering exon 15 through 22 was used for gene targeting. To make gene targeting constructs, a 5.8 Kb genomic DNA fragment covering exons 15 to 19 of the mouse FVIII gene was subcloned, and the neo expression cassette was inserted into exons 16 and 17 separately by different strategies. These two constructs were named MFVIIIC-16 and MFVIIIC-17. The constructs were linearized and transfected into strain 129 mouse ES cells by electroporation. Factor VIII gene-knockout ES cell lines were selected by G-418 and screened by genomic Southern blots. Eight exon 16 targeted cell lines and five exon 17 targeted cell lines were obtained. Three cell lines from each construct were injected into blastocysts and surgically transferred into foster mothers. Multiple chimeric mice with 70-90% hair color derived from the ES-cell genotype were seen with both constructs. Germ line transmission of the ES-cell genotype has been obtained for the MFVIIIC-16 construct, and multiple hemophilia A carrier females have been identified. Factor VIII-deficient males will be conceived soon.

  4. Structure and expression of the mouse beta-hexosaminidase genes, Hexa and Hexb.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, S; Johnson, O N; Norflus, F; Boles, D J; Proia, R L

    1994-06-01

    Two genes, HEXA and HEXB, encode the alpha- and beta-subunits, respectively, of human beta-hexosaminidase. In the mouse, the corresponding genes are termed Hexa and Hexb. The subunits dimerize to yield three isozymes, beta-hexosaminidase A (alpha beta), B (beta beta), and S (alpha alpha), that have the capacity to degrade a variety of substrates containing beta-linked N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine residues. Mutations in the HEXA or HEXB gene resulting in a beta-hexosaminidase deficiency cause Tay-Sachs or Sandhoff disease, respectively. As a prelude to the creation of mouse models of these lysosomal storage diseases, we have characterized the molecular biology of the mouse beta-hexosaminidase system. Protein sequences derived from the cloned Hexa and Hexb cDNAs were 55% identical to each other and were also very similar to the cognate human sequences: 84% sequence identity with human HEXA and 75% with HEXB. The mouse hexosaminidase subunits, when expressed in HeLa cells from the cDNAs, displayed specificity toward synthetic substrates similar to the human subunits. The Hexa and Hexb genes were 25 and 22 kb in length, respectively. Each gene was divided into 14 exons, with the positions of introns precisely matching those of the corresponding human genes. The 5' flanking regions of the mouse genes demonstrated promoter activity as ascertained by their ability to drive chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene expression in transfected NIH 3T3 cells. The sequences of these regulatory regions were G+C-rich in the 200 bp upstream of the respective initiator ATGs. Several putative promoter elements were present, including Sp1, AP2, CAAT, and TATA motifs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Gene editing in mouse zygotes using the CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    PubMed

    Wefers, Benedikt; Bashir, Sanum; Rossius, Jana; Wurst, Wolfgang; Kühn, Ralf

    2017-03-02

    The generation of targeted mouse mutants is a key technology for biomedical research. Using the CRISPR/Cas9 system for induction of targeted double-strand breaks, gene editing can be performed in a single step directly in mouse zygotes. This article covers the design of knockout and knockin alleles, preparation of reagents, microinjection or electroporation of zygotes and the genotyping of pups derived from gene editing projects. In addition we include a section for the control of experimental settings by targeting the Rosa26 locus and PCR based genotyping of blastocysts.

  6. Molecular cloning and expression of the mouse ornithine decarboxylase gene.

    PubMed Central

    McConlogue, L; Gupta, M; Wu, L; Coffino, P

    1984-01-01

    We used mRNA from a mutant S49 mouse lymphoma cell line that produces ornithine decarboxylase (OrnDCase) as its major protein product to synthesize and clone cDNA. Plasmids containing OrnDCase cDNA were identified by hybrid selection of OrnDCase mRNA and in vitro translation. The two of these with the largest inserts together span 2.05 kilobases of cDNA. Southern blot analysis of DNA from wild-type or mutant S49 cells, cleaved with EcoRI or with BamHI, revealed multiple bands homologous to OrnD-Case cDNA, only one of which was amplified in the mutant cells. RNA transfer blot analysis showed that the major OrnD-Case mRNA in the mouse lymphoma cells is 2.0 kilobases long. A similar size mRNA was found in mouse kidney and was more abundant in the kidneys of mice treated with testosterone, an inducer of OrnDCase activity in that tissue. Images PMID:6582509

  7. Regional Expression of MTG Genes in the Developing Mouse Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Alishahi, Amin; Koyano-Nakagawa, Naoko; Nakagawa, Yasushi

    2009-01-01

    Myeloid translocation gene (MTG) proteins are transcriptional repressors that are highly conserved across species. We studied the expression of three members of this gene family, MTGR1, MTG8, and MTG16 in developing mouse central nervous system by in situ hybridization. All of these genes are detected as early as embryonic day 11.5. Because these genes are known to be induced by proneural genes during neurogenesis, we analyzed the expression of MTG genes in relation to two proneural genes, Neurog2 (also known as Ngn2 or Neurogenin 2) and Ascl1 (also known as Mash1). While MTGR1 are generally expressed in regions that also express Neurog2, MTG8 and MTG16 expression is associated more tightly with that of Ascl1-expressing neural progenitor cells. These results suggest the possibility that expression of MTG genes is differentially controlled by specific proneural genes during neurogenesis. PMID:19618476

  8. Forced Running Endurance Is Influenced by Gene(s) on Mouse Chromosome 10

    PubMed Central

    Kvedaras, Mindaugas; Minderis, Petras; Fokin, Andrej; Ratkevicius, Aivaras; Venckunas, Tomas; Lionikas, Arimantas

    2017-01-01

    Phenotypic diversity between laboratory mouse strains provides a model for studying the underlying genetic mechanisms. The A/J strain performs poorly in various endurance exercise models. The aim of the study was to test if endurance capacity and contractility of the fast- and slow-twitch muscles are affected by the genes on mouse chromosome 10. The C57BL/6J (B6) strain and C57BL/6J-Chr 10A/J/NaJ (B6.A10) consomic strain which carries the A/J chromosome 10 on a B6 strain background were compared. The B6.A10 mice compared to B6 were larger in body weight (p < 0.02): 27.2 ± 1.9 vs. 23.8 ± 2.7 and 23.4 ± 1.9 vs. 22.9 ± 2.3 g, for males and females, respectively, and in male soleus weight (p < 0.02): 9.7 ± 0.4 vs. 8.6 ± 0.9 mg. In the forced running test the B6.A10 mice completed only 64% of the B6 covered distance (p < 0.0001). However, there was no difference in voluntary wheel running (p = 0.6) or in fatigability of isolated soleus (p = 0.24) or extensor digitorum longus (EDL, p = 0.7) muscles. We conclude that chromosome 10 of the A/J strain contributes to reduced endurance performance. We also discuss physiological mechanisms and methodological aspects relevant to interpretation of these findings. PMID:28167917

  9. A cross-species genetic analysis identifies candidate genes for mouse anxiety and human bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ashbrook, David G.; Williams, Robert W.; Lu, Lu; Hager, Reinmar

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a significant neuropsychiatric disorder with a lifetime prevalence of ~1%. To identify genetic variants underlying BD genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been carried out. While many variants of small effect associated with BD have been identified few have yet been confirmed, partly because of the low power of GWAS due to multiple comparisons being made. Complementary mapping studies using murine models have identified genetic variants for behavioral traits linked to BD, often with high power, but these identified regions often contain too many genes for clear identification of candidate genes. In the current study we have aligned human BD GWAS results and mouse linkage studies to help define and evaluate candidate genes linked to BD, seeking to use the power of the mouse mapping with the precision of GWAS. We use quantitative trait mapping for open field test and elevated zero maze data in the largest mammalian model system, the BXD recombinant inbred mouse population, to identify genomic regions associated with these BD-like phenotypes. We then investigate these regions in whole genome data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium's bipolar disorder GWAS to identify candidate genes associated with BD. Finally we establish the biological relevance and pathways of these genes in a comprehensive systems genetics analysis. We identify four genes associated with both mouse anxiety and human BD. While TNR is a novel candidate for BD, we can confirm previously suggested associations with CMYA5, MCTP1, and RXRG. A cross-species, systems genetics analysis shows that MCTP1, RXRG, and TNR coexpress with genes linked to psychiatric disorders and identify the striatum as a potential site of action. CMYA5, MCTP1, RXRG, and TNR are associated with mouse anxiety and human BD. We hypothesize that MCTP1, RXRG, and TNR influence intercellular signaling in the striatum. PMID:26190982

  10. Manual Gene Ontology annotation workflow at the Mouse Genome Informatics Database.

    PubMed

    Drabkin, Harold J; Blake, Judith A

    2012-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database, the Gene Expression Database and the Mouse Tumor Biology database are integrated components of the Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) resource (http://www.informatics.jax.org). The MGI system presents both a consensus view and an experimental view of the knowledge concerning the genetics and genomics of the laboratory mouse. From genotype to phenotype, this information resource integrates information about genes, sequences, maps, expression analyses, alleles, strains and mutant phenotypes. Comparative mammalian data are also presented particularly in regards to the use of the mouse as a model for the investigation of molecular and genetic components of human diseases. These data are collected from literature curation as well as downloads of large datasets (SwissProt, LocusLink, etc.). MGI is one of the founding members of the Gene Ontology (GO) and uses the GO for functional annotation of genes. Here, we discuss the workflow associated with manual GO annotation at MGI, from literature collection to display of the annotations. Peer-reviewed literature is collected mostly from a set of journals available electronically. Selected articles are entered into a master bibliography and indexed to one of eight areas of interest such as 'GO' or 'homology' or 'phenotype'. Each article is then either indexed to a gene already contained in the database or funneled through a separate nomenclature database to add genes. The master bibliography and associated indexing provide information for various curator-reports such as 'papers selected for GO that refer to genes with NO GO annotation'. Once indexed, curators who have expertise in appropriate disciplines enter pertinent information. MGI makes use of several controlled vocabularies that ensure uniform data encoding, enable robust analysis and support the construction of complex queries. These vocabularies range from pick-lists to structured vocabularies such as the GO. All data associations are supported

  11. Integrative analysis of the connectivity and gene expression atlases in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Ji, Shuiwang; Fakhry, Ahmed; Deng, Houtao

    2014-01-01

    Brain function is the result of interneuron signal transmission controlled by the fundamental biochemistry of each neuron. The biochemical content of a neuron is in turn determined by spatiotemporal gene expression and regulation encoded into the genomic regulatory networks. It is thus of particular interest to elucidate the relationship between gene expression patterns and connectivity in the brain. However, systematic studies of this relationship in a single mammalian brain are lacking to date. Here, we investigate this relationship in the mouse brain using the Allen Brain Atlas data. We employ computational models for predicting brain connectivity from gene expression data. In addition to giving competitive predictive performance, these models can rank the genes according to their predictive power. We show that gene expression is predictive of connectivity in the mouse brain when the connectivity signals are discretized. When the expression patterns of 4084 genes are used, we obtain a predictive accuracy of 93%. Our results also show that a small number of genes can almost give the full predictive power of using thousands of genes. We can achieve a prediction accuracy of 91% by using only 25 genes. Gene ontology analysis of the highly ranked genes shows that they are enriched for connectivity related processes.

  12. Determination of the Cd/S cluster stoichiometry in Fucus vesiculosus metallothionein.

    PubMed

    Merrifield, Maureen E; Chaseley, Jennifer; Kille, Peter; Stillman, Martin J

    2006-03-01

    The seaweed Fucus vesiculosus is unusual when compared with other algal species, in that it can survive in toxic-metal-contaminated aquatic environments. The metallothionein gene has been identified in F. vesiculosus by Kille and co-workers (Morris, C. A., Nicolaus, B., Sampson, V., Harwood, J. L., and Kille, P. (1999) Biochem. J. 338, 553), which suggests a possible protective mechanism against toxic metals for this species. We report the first detailed study of the metal binding properties of F. vesiculosus metallothionein using UV absorption, circular dichroism (CD), and electrospray mass spectral techniques. The overall metal-to-sulfur ratios of this novel algal protein when bound to divalent cadmium and zinc were determined to be Cd(6)S(16) and Zn(6)S(16), respectively. Mixed Cd/Zn species were also formed when Cd(2+) was added to the Zn-containing Fucus metallothionein. Only one conformation was identified at low pH for the native protein. Analysis of the UV absorption, CD, and ESI-MS spectral data recorded during stepwise, acid-induced demetalation supports a two-domain structure for the protein, with two 3-metal binding sites. The data suggest that one of the domains is significantly less stable than the other, and we tentatively propose from the arrangement of cysteines in the sequence that the two domains are M(3)S(7) and M(3)S(9) (where M = Cd(2+) or Zn(2+)). While the M(3)S(9) cluster is known in the beta clusters of crab, lobster, and mammalian metallothioneins, the M(3)S(7) is a hitherto unknown cluster structure. Metallothionein in F. vesiculosus is thought to act as a protective mechanism against incoming toxic metals. The metal binding studies reported are a putative model for metal binding in vivo.

  13. Regulatory Features for Odorant Receptor Genes in the Mouse Genome

    PubMed Central

    Degl’Innocenti, Andrea; D’Errico, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The odorant receptor genes, seven transmembrane receptor genes constituting the vastest mammalian gene multifamily, are expressed monogenically and monoallelicaly in each sensory neuron in the olfactory epithelium. This characteristic, often referred to as the one neuron–one receptor rule, is driven by mostly uncharacterized molecular dynamics, generally named odorant receptor gene choice. Much attention has been paid by the scientific community to the identification of sequences regulating the expression of odorant receptor genes within their loci, where related genes are usually arranged in genomic clusters. A number of studies identified transcription factor binding sites on odorant receptor promoter sequences. Similar binding sites were also found on a number of enhancers that regulate in cis their transcription, but have been proposed to form interchromosomal networks. Odorant receptor gene choice seems to occur via the local removal of strongly repressive epigenetic markings, put in place during the maturation of the sensory neuron on each odorant receptor locus. Here we review the fast-changing state of art for the study of regulatory features for odorant receptor genes. PMID:28270833

  14. Regulatory Features for Odorant Receptor Genes in the Mouse Genome.

    PubMed

    Degl'Innocenti, Andrea; D'Errico, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The odorant receptor genes, seven transmembrane receptor genes constituting the vastest mammalian gene multifamily, are expressed monogenically and monoallelicaly in each sensory neuron in the olfactory epithelium. This characteristic, often referred to as the one neuron-one receptor rule, is driven by mostly uncharacterized molecular dynamics, generally named odorant receptor gene choice. Much attention has been paid by the scientific community to the identification of sequences regulating the expression of odorant receptor genes within their loci, where related genes are usually arranged in genomic clusters. A number of studies identified transcription factor binding sites on odorant receptor promoter sequences. Similar binding sites were also found on a number of enhancers that regulate in cis their transcription, but have been proposed to form interchromosomal networks. Odorant receptor gene choice seems to occur via the local removal of strongly repressive epigenetic markings, put in place during the maturation of the sensory neuron on each odorant receptor locus. Here we review the fast-changing state of art for the study of regulatory features for odorant receptor genes.

  15. Creating reference gene annotation for the mouse C57BL6/J genome assembly.

    PubMed

    Mudge, Jonathan M; Harrow, Jennifer

    2015-10-01

    Annotation on the reference genome of the C57BL6/J mouse has been an ongoing project ever since the draft genome was first published. Initially, the principle focus was on the identification of all protein-coding genes, although today the importance of describing long non-coding RNAs, small RNAs, and pseudogenes is recognized. Here, we describe the progress of the GENCODE mouse annotation project, which combines manual annotation from the HAVANA group with Ensembl computational annotation, alongside experimental and in silico validation pipelines from other members of the consortium. We discuss the more recent incorporation of next-generation sequencing datasets into this workflow, including the usage of mass-spectrometry data to potentially identify novel protein-coding genes. Finally, we will outline how the C57BL6/J genebuild can be used to gain insights into the variant sites that distinguish different mouse strains and species.

  16. Distinct Defects in Spine Formation or Pruning in Two Gene Duplication Mouse Models of Autism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Miao; Li, Huiping; Takumi, Toru; Qiu, Zilong; Xu, Xiu; Yu, Xiang; Bian, Wen-Jie

    2017-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) encompasses a complex set of developmental neurological disorders, characterized by deficits in social communication and excessive repetitive behaviors. In recent years, ASD is increasingly being considered as a disease of the synapse. One main type of genetic aberration leading to ASD is gene duplication, and several mouse models have been generated mimicking these mutations. Here, we studied the effects of MECP2 duplication and human chromosome 15q11-13 duplication on synaptic development and neural circuit wiring in the mouse sensory cortices. We showed that mice carrying MECP2 duplication had specific defects in spine pruning, while the 15q11-13 duplication mouse model had impaired spine formation. Our results demonstrate that spine pathology varies significantly between autism models and that distinct aspects of neural circuit development may be targeted in different ASD mutations. Our results further underscore the importance of gene dosage in normal development and function of the brain.

  17. Analysis of mammalian gene function through broad based phenotypic screens across a consortium of mouse clinics

    PubMed Central

    Adams, David J; Adams, Niels C; Adler, Thure; Aguilar-Pimentel, Antonio; Ali-Hadji, Dalila; Amann, Gregory; André, Philippe; Atkins, Sarah; Auburtin, Aurelie; Ayadi, Abdel; Becker, Julien; Becker, Lore; Bedu, Elodie; Bekeredjian, Raffi; Birling, Marie-Christine; Blake, Andrew; Bottomley, Joanna; Bowl, Mike; Brault, Véronique; Busch, Dirk H; Bussell, James N; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Cater, Heather; Champy, Marie-France; Charles, Philippe; Chevalier, Claire; Chiani, Francesco; Codner, Gemma F; Combe, Roy; Cox, Roger; Dalloneau, Emilie; Dierich, André; Di Fenza, Armida; Doe, Brendan; Duchon, Arnaud; Eickelberg, Oliver; Esapa, Chris T; El Fertak, Lahcen; Feigel, Tanja; Emelyanova, Irina; Estabel, Jeanne; Favor, Jack; Flenniken, Ann; Gambadoro, Alessia; Garrett, Lilian; Gates, Hilary; Gerdin, Anna-Karin; Gkoutos, George; Greenaway, Simon; Glasl, Lisa; Goetz, Patrice; Da Cruz, Isabelle Goncalves; Götz, Alexander; Graw, Jochen; Guimond, Alain; Hans, Wolfgang; Hicks, Geoff; Hölter, Sabine M; Höfler, Heinz; Hancock, John M; Hoehndorf, Robert; Hough, Tertius; Houghton, Richard; Hurt, Anja; Ivandic, Boris; Jacobs, Hughes; Jacquot, Sylvie; Jones, Nora; Karp, Natasha A; Katus, Hugo A; Kitchen, Sharon; Klein-Rodewald, Tanja; Klingenspor, Martin; Klopstock, Thomas; Lalanne, Valerie; Leblanc, Sophie; Lengger, Christoph; le Marchand, Elise; Ludwig, Tonia; Lux, Aline; McKerlie, Colin; Maier, Holger; Mandel, Jean-Louis; Marschall, Susan; Mark, Manuel; Melvin, David G; Meziane, Hamid; Micklich, Kateryna; Mittelhauser, Christophe; Monassier, Laurent; Moulaert, David; Muller, Stéphanie; Naton, Beatrix; Neff, Frauke; Nolan, Patrick M; Nutter, Lauryl MJ; Ollert, Markus; Pavlovic, Guillaume; Pellegata, Natalia S; Peter, Emilie; Petit-Demoulière, Benoit; Pickard, Amanda; Podrini, Christine; Potter, Paul; Pouilly, Laurent; Puk, Oliver; Richardson, David; Rousseau, Stephane; Quintanilla-Fend, Leticia; Quwailid, Mohamed M; Racz, Ildiko; Rathkolb, Birgit; Riet, Fabrice; Rossant, Janet; Roux, Michel; Rozman, Jan; Ryder, Ed; Salisbury, Jennifer; Santos, Luis; Schäble, Karl-Heinz; Schiller, Evelyn; Schrewe, Anja; Schulz, Holger; Steinkamp, Ralf; Simon, Michelle; Stewart, Michelle; Stöger, Claudia; Stöger, Tobias; Sun, Minxuan; Sunter, David; Teboul, Lydia; Tilly, Isabelle; Tocchini-Valentini, Glauco P; Tost, Monica; Treise, Irina; Vasseur, Laurent; Velot, Emilie; Vogt-Weisenhorn, Daniela; Wagner, Christelle; Walling, Alison; Weber, Bruno; Wendling, Olivia; Westerberg, Henrik; Willershäuser, Monja; Wolf, Eckhard; Wolter, Anne; Wood, Joe; Wurst, Wolfgang; Yildirim, Ali Önder; Zeh, Ramona; Zimmer, Andreas; Zimprich, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    The function of the majority of genes in the mouse and human genomes remains unknown. The mouse ES cell knockout resource provides a basis for characterisation of relationships between gene and phenotype. The EUMODIC consortium developed and validated robust methodologies for broad-based phenotyping of knockouts through a pipeline comprising 20 disease-orientated platforms. We developed novel statistical methods for pipeline design and data analysis aimed at detecting reproducible phenotypes with high power. We acquired phenotype data from 449 mutant alleles, representing 320 unique genes, of which half had no prior functional annotation. We captured data from over 27,000 mice finding that 83% of the mutant lines are phenodeviant, with 65% demonstrating pleiotropy. Surprisingly, we found significant differences in phenotype annotation according to zygosity. Novel phenotypes were uncovered for many genes with unknown function providing a powerful basis for hypothesis generation and further investigation in diverse systems. PMID:26214591

  18. A novel non-mouse mammary tumor virus activation of the Int-3 gene in a spontaneous mouse mammary tumor.

    PubMed Central

    Kordon, E C; Smith, G H; Callahan, R; Gallahan, D

    1995-01-01

    In a mouse mammary tumor model system in which carcinogenic progression can be investigated, we have found a unique mutation of Int-3 associated with progression from premalignant lobular hyperplasia to tumor. Sequence analysis of the rearranged fragment revealed an insertion of an intracisternal type A particle (IAP) within the Int-3 gene. Int-3 is mutated frequently in mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-induced mammary tumors by insertion of MMTV proviral DNA into this intragenic region. In these mutations, the insertion produces a chimeric Int-3 transcript encoding the cytoplasmic portion of the Int-3 protein driven by the MMTV long terminal repeat promoter. In this case, the IAP DNA was inserted in the opposite transcriptional orientation relative to Int-3; nevertheless, a similar chimeric RNA transcript driven by a cryptic promoter in the oppositely oriented 5' IAP long terminal repeat was generated. This is the first demonstration that an insertional mutation unrelated to MMTV activates an Int gene commonly associated with mammary tumorigenesis. PMID:7494323

  19. Age-related changes of metallothionein 1/2 and metallothionein 3 expression in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Scudiero, Rosaria; Cigliano, Luisa; Verderame, Mariailaria

    2017-01-01

    Neurodegeneration is one of the main physiological consequences of aging on brain. Metallothioneins (MTs), low molecular weight, cysteine-rich proteins that bind heavy-metal ions and oxygen-free radicals, are commonly expressed in various tissues of mammals. MTs are involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and protection, and may be engaged in aging. Expression of the ubiquitous MTs (1 and 2) and the brain specific MT3 have been studied in many neurodegenerative disorders. The research results indicate that MTs may play important, although not yet fully known, roles in brain diseases; in addition, data lack the ability to identify the MT isoforms functionally involved. The aim of this study was to analyse the level of gene expression of selected MT isoforms during brain aging. By using real-time PCR analysis, we determined the MT1/2 and MT3 expression profiles in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of adolescent (2months), adult (4 and 8months), and middle-aged (16months) rats. We show that the relative abundance of all types of MT transcripts changes during aging in both hippocampus and cortex; the first effect is a generalized decrease in the content of MTs transcripts from 2- to 8-months-old rats. After passing middle age, at 16months, we observe a huge increase in MT3 transcripts in both cortical and hippocampal areas, while the MT1/2 mRNA content increases slightly, returning to the levels measured in adolescent rats. These findings demonstrate an age-related expression of the MT3 gene. A possible link between the increasing amount of MT3 in brain aging and its different metal-binding behaviour is discussed.

  20. EMAGE: a spatial database of gene expression patterns during mouse embryo development

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Jeffrey H.; Yang, Yiya; Venkataraman, Shanmugasundaram; Richardson, Lorna; Stevenson, Peter; Burton, Nicholas; Baldock, Richard A.; Davidson, Duncan R.

    2006-01-01

    EMAGE () is a freely available, curated database of gene expression patterns generated by in situ techniques in the developing mouse embryo. It is unique in that it contains standardized spatial representations of the sites of gene expression for each gene, denoted against a set of virtual reference embryo models. As such, the data can be interrogated in a novel and abstract manner by using space to define a query. Accompanying the spatial representations of gene expression patterns are text descriptions of the sites of expression, which also allows searching of the data by more conventional text-based methods. PMID:16381949

  1. EMAGE: a spatial database of gene expression patterns during mouse embryo development.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Jeffrey H; Yang, Yiya; Venkataraman, Shanmugasundaram; Richardson, Lorna; Stevenson, Peter; Burton, Nicholas; Baldock, Richard A; Davidson, Duncan R

    2006-01-01

    EMAGE (http://genex.hgu.mrc.ac.uk/Emage/database) is a freely available, curated database of gene expression patterns generated by in situ techniques in the developing mouse embryo. It is unique in that it contains standardized spatial representations of the sites of gene expression for each gene, denoted against a set of virtual reference embryo models. As such, the data can be interrogated in a novel and abstract manner by using space to define a query. Accompanying the spatial representations of gene expression patterns are text descriptions of the sites of expression, which also allows searching of the data by more conventional text-based methods.

  2. Expression Profiling of the Solute Carrier Gene Family in the Mouse BrainS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Dahlin, Amber; Royall, Josh; Hohmann, John G.; Wang, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    The solute carrier (Slc) superfamily is a major group of membrane transport proteins present in mammalian cells. Although Slc transporters play essential and diverse roles in the central nervous system, the localization and function of the vast majority of Slc genes in the mammalian brain are largely unknown. Using high-throughput in situ hybridization data generated by the Allen Brain Atlas, we systematically and quantitatively analyzed the spatial and cellular distribution of 307 Slc genes, which represent nearly 90% of presently known mouse Slc genes, in the adult C57BL/6J mouse brain. Our analysis showed that 252 (82%) of the 307 Slc genes are present in the brain, and a large proportion of these genes were detected at low to moderate expression levels. Evaluation of 20 anatomical brain subdivisions demonstrated a comparable level of Slc gene complexity but significant difference in transcript enrichment. The distribution of the expressed Slc genes was diverse, ranging from near-ubiquitous to highly localized. Functional annotation in 20 brain regions, including the blood-brain and blood-cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) barriers, suggests major roles of Slc transporters in supporting brain energy utilization, neurotransmission, nutrient supply, and CSF production. Furthermore, hierarchical cluster analysis revealed intricate Slc expression patterns associated with neuroanatomical organization. Our studies also revealed Slc genes present within defined brain microstructures and described the putative cell types expressing individual Slc genes. These results provide a useful resource for investigators to explore the roles of Slc genes in neurophysiological and pathological processes. PMID:19179540

  3. The regulated expression of beta-globin genes introduced into mouse erythroleukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Chao, M V; Mellon, P; Charnay, P; Maniatis, T; Axel, R

    1983-02-01

    We have introduced a hybrid mouse-human beta-globin gene as well as the intact human beta-globin gene into murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells and have demonstrated that these genes are appropriately regulated during differentiation of the MEL cell in culture. The addition of chemical inducers to cotransformed cells results in a 5 to 50 fold increase in the level of mRNA transcribed from the exogenous globin gene. S1 nuclease and primer extension analyses demonstrate that these mRNAs initiate and terminate correctly. Nuclear transcription experiments indicate that induction of hybrid mRNA results at least in part from the increase in the rate of globin gene transcription. Furthermore, the induction appears to be specific for globin genes within an erythroid cell. These results permit the study of expression of the globin gene during erythroid differentiation and suggest that the specific induction of the globin gene is an inherent property of DNA sequences within or flanking the beta-globin genes. Moreover, the fact that the human and hybrid globin genes are both inducible in MEL cells suggests that these regulatory sequences are conserved between mouse and human cells.

  4. Cotransformation and gene targeting in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed Central

    Reid, L H; Shesely, E G; Kim, H S; Smithies, O

    1991-01-01

    We have investigated cotransformation in mammalian cells and its potential for identifying cells that have been modified by gene targeting. Selectable genes on separate DNA fragments were simultaneously introduced into cells by coelectroporation. When the introduced fragments were scored for random integration, 75% of the transformed cells integrated both fragments within the genome of the same cell. When one of the cointroduced fragments was scored for integration at a specific locus by gene targeting, only 4% of the targeted cells cointegrated the second fragment. Apparently, cells that have been modified by gene targeting with one DNA fragment rarely incorporate a second DNA fragment. Despite this limitation, we were able to use the cotransformation protocol to identify targeted cells by screening populations of colonies that had been transformed with a cointroduced selectable gene. When hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (hprt) targeting DNA was coelectroporated with a selectable neomycin phosphotransferase (neo) gene into embryonic stem (ES) cells, hprt-targeted colonies were isolated from the population of neo transformants at a frequency of 1 per 70 G418-resistant colonies. In parallel experiments with the same targeting construct, hprt-targeted cells were found at a frequency of 1 per 5,500 nonselected colonies. Thus, an 80-fold enrichment for targeted cells was observed within the population of colonies transformed with the cointroduced DNA compared with the population of nonselected colonies. This enrichment for targeted cells after cotransformation should be useful in the isolation of colonies that contain targeted but nonselectable gene alterations. Images PMID:1850104

  5. Characterization of the genomic structure of the mouse APLP1 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Sue; Wu, Kuo; Black, I.B.; Schaar, D.G.

    1996-02-15

    This article reports on the organization of the mouse APLP1 gene, an evolutionarily conserved amyloid precursor-like protein. The amyloid beta protein, important in Alzheimer diseases, is derived from these precursor proteins. By investigating the expression and structure of this murine gene, it is hoped that more will be learned about the function and regulation of the human homologue. 27 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Gene expression profiling of mouse p53-deficient epidermal carcinoma defines molecular determinants of human cancer malignancy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The epidermal specific ablation of Trp53 gene leads to the spontaneous development of aggressive tumors in mice through a process that is accelerated by the simultaneous ablation of Rb gene. Since alterations of p53-dependent pathway are common hallmarks of aggressive, poor prognostic human cancers, these mouse models can recapitulate the molecular features of some of these human malignancies. Results To evaluate this possibility, gene expression microarray analysis was performed in mouse samples. The mouse tumors display increased expression of cell cycle and chromosomal instability associated genes. Remarkably, they are also enriched in human embryonic stem cell gene signatures, a characteristic feature of human aggressive tumors. Using cross-species comparison and meta-analytical approaches, we also observed that spontaneous mouse tumors display robust similarities with gene expression profiles of human tumors bearing mutated TP53, or displaying poor prognostic outcome, from multiple body tissues. We have obtained a 20-gene signature whose genes are overexpressed in mouse tumors and can identify human tumors with poor outcome from breast cancer, astrocytoma and multiple myeloma. This signature was consistently overexpressed in additional mouse tumors using microarray analysis. Two of the genes of this signature, AURKA and UBE2C, were validated in human breast and cervical cancer as potential biomarkers of malignancy. Conclusions Our analyses demonstrate that these mouse models are promising preclinical tools aimed to search for malignancy biomarkers and to test targeted therapies of prospective use in human aggressive tumors and/or with p53 mutation or inactivation. PMID:20630075

  7. Identification of a Copper-Binding Metallothionein in Pathogenic Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Ben; Deng, Haiteng; Bryk, Ruslana; Vargas, Diana; Eliezer, David; Roberts, Julia; Jiang, Xiuju; Nathan, Carl

    2009-01-01

    A screen of a genomic library from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) identified a small, unannotated open reading frame (MT0196) that encodes a 4.9-kDa, cysteine-rich protein. Despite extensive nucleotide divergence, the amino acid sequence is highly conserved among mycobacteria that are pathogenic in vertebrate hosts. We synthesized the protein and found that it preferentially bound up to 6 Cu(I) ions in a solvent-shielded core. Copper, cadmium and compounds that generate nitric oxide or superoxide induced the gene’s expression in Mtb up to a thousand-fold. The native protein bound copper within Mtb and partially protected Mtb from copper toxicity. We propose that the product of the MT0196 gene be named mycobacterial metallothionien (MymT). To our knowledge, MymT is the first metallothionein of a Gram-positive bacterium with a demonstrated function. PMID:18724363

  8. Locations of human and mouse genes encoding the RFX1 and RFX2 transcription factor proteins.

    PubMed

    Doyle, J; Hoffman, S; Ucla, C; Reith, W; Mach, B; Stubbs, L

    1996-07-01

    RFX transcription factors constitute a highly conserved family of site-specific DNA binding proteins involved in the expression of a variety of cellular and viral genes, including major histocompatibility complex class II genes and genes in human hepatitis B virus. Five members of the RFX gene family have been isolated from human and mouse, and all share a highly characteristic DNA binding domain that is distinct from other known DNA binding motifs. The human RFX1 and RFX2 genes have been assigned by in situ hybridization to chromosome 19p13.1 and 19p13.3, respectively. In this paper, we present data that localize RFX1 and RFX2 precisely within the detailed physical map of human chromosome 19 and genetic data that assign Rfx1 and Rfx2 to homologous regions of mouse chromosomes 8 and 17, respectively. These data define the established relationships between these homologous mouse and human regions in further detail and provide new tools for linking cloned genes to phenotypes in both species.

  9. Chromosome localizations of genes for five cAMP-specific phosphodiesterases in man and mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Milatovich, A.; Francke, U. ); Bolger, G.; Michaeli, T. )

    1994-03-01

    Cyclic nucleotides are important second messengers that mediate a number of cellular responses to external signals. Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases play a role in signal transduction by regulating the cellular concentrations of these messengers. Here, the authors have applied Southern analyses of somatic cell hybrid lines and of recombinant inbred (RI) mouse strains as well as fluorescence chromosomal in situ hybridization (FISH) to chromosomally localize five cAMP-specific nucleotide phosphodiesterase genes in human and mouse. Genes DPDE1, DPDE2, DPDE3, and DPDE4 that share sequence homology with the Drosophila dunce gene were assigned to human chromosomes 19 (DPDE1 and DPDE2), ga12 (DPDE3), and 1p31 (DPDE4) and to mouse chromosomes 8, 9, 13, and 4, respectively. The high-affinity cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase gene (HCP1) was mapped to human chromosome 8q13-q22. Since these genes are potential candidates for involvement in psychiatric or behavioral disorders, knowledge of their chromosomal localizations will facilitate the discovery of their association with disease genes as they are being mapped by linkage studies.

  10. Assignment of genes to regions of mouse chromosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Eicher, E M; Washburn, L L

    1978-01-01

    A genetic mapping procedure, called the duplication-deficiency method, is described. This method permits the genetic location of a translocation to be determined within a linkage group without the use of recombination. By utilizing the duplication-deficiency method to define the genetic breakpoints for a series of translocations involving a given chromosome and integrating this information with their cytological breakpoints, obtained by Giemsa banding, a genetic map of the chromosomes is constructed whereby groups of loci are assigned to banded regions. Duplication-deficiency mapping and Giemsa banding analysis of the T(X;7)1Ct and T(7;19)145H translocations together with information from the c25H deletion have permitted mouse chromosome 7 to be divided into six and chromosome 19 into two definable genetic regions. Images PMID:273256

  11. Methylation of the mouse hprt gene differs on the active and inactive X chromosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Lock, L F; Melton, D W; Caskey, C T; Martin, G R

    1986-01-01

    It has been proposed that DNA methylation is involved in the mechanism of X inactivation, the process by which equivalence of levels of X-linked gene products is achieved in female (XX) and male (XY) mammals. In this study, Southern blots of female and male DNA digested with methylation-sensitive restriction endonucleases and hybridized to various portions of the cloned mouse hprt gene were compared, and sites within the mouse hprt gene were identified that are differentially methylated in female and male cells. The extent to which these sites are methylated when carried on the active and inactive X chromosomes was directly determined in a similar analysis of DNA from clonal cell lines established from a female embryo derived from a mating of two species of mouse, Mus musculus and Mus caroli. The results revealed two regions of differential methylation in the mouse hprt gene. One region, in the first intron of the gene, includes four sites that are completely unmethylated when carried on the active X and extensively methylated when carried on the inactive X. These same sites are extensively demethylated in hprt genes reactivated either spontaneously or after 5-azacytidine treatment. The second region includes several sites in the 3' 20kilobases of the gene extending from exon 3 to exon 9 that show the converse pattern; i.e., they are completely methylated when carried on the active X and completely unmethylated when carried on the inactive X. At least one of these sites does not become methylated after reactivation of the gene. The results of this study, together with the results of previous studies by others of the human hprt gene, indicate that these regions of differential methylation on the active and inactive X are conserved between mammalian species. Furthermore, the data described here are consistent with the idea that at least the sites in the 5' region of the gene play a role in the X inactivation phenomenon and regulation of expression of the mouse hprt

  12. Patterned expression of ion channel genes in mouse dorsal raphe nucleus determined with the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas

    PubMed Central

    Templin, J. Scott; Bang, Sun Jung; Soiza-Reilly, Mariano; Berde, Charles B.; Commons, Kathryn G.

    2012-01-01

    The dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) is the major source of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in the forebrain and dysfunction of this midbrain structure is implicated in affective disorders. The DR is composed of several types of 5-HT and non-5-HT neurons and their excitable-membrane properties are heterogeneous and overlapping. In order to understand how these properties may be generated, we examined the mRNA expression patterns of voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels in the DR using the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas. Since DR cytoarchitecture is organized with respect to the midline, we sought to identify genes that were expressed in a pattern with respect to the midline, either enriched or depleted, rather than those that were homogenously expressed throughout the DR. Less than 10% of the screened genes for voltage-gated ion channels showed patterned expression within the DR. Identified genes included voltage-gated sodium channel beta subunits, potassium channels, P/Q-, N-type calcium channels, as well as the alpha2/delta-1 calcium channel. Several voltage-gated chloride channels were also identified, although these may function within intracellular compartments. Of the ligand-gated ion channels examined, 20% showed patterned expression. These consisted primarily of glutamate and GABA-A receptor subunits. The identified genes likely contribute to unique excitable properties of different groups of neurons in the DR and may include novel pharmacologic targets for affective disorders. PMID:22534482

  13. Time course of gene expression during mouse skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Chaillou, Thomas; Lee, Jonah D; England, Jonathan H; Esser, Karyn A; McCarthy, John J

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a comprehensive transcriptome analysis during skeletal muscle hypertrophy to identify signaling pathways that are operative throughout the hypertrophic response. Global gene expression patterns were determined from microarray results on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 during plantaris muscle hypertrophy induced by synergist ablation in adult mice. Principal component analysis and the number of differentially expressed genes (cutoffs ≥2-fold increase or ≥50% decrease compared with control muscle) revealed three gene expression patterns during overload-induced hypertrophy: early (1 day), intermediate (3, 5, and 7 days), and late (10 and 14 days) patterns. Based on the robust changes in total RNA content and in the number of differentially expressed genes, we focused our attention on the intermediate gene expression pattern. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed a downregulation of genes encoding components of the branched-chain amino acid degradation pathway during hypertrophy. Among these genes, five were predicted by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis or previously shown to be regulated by the transcription factor Kruppel-like factor-15, which was also downregulated during hypertrophy. Moreover, the integrin-linked kinase signaling pathway was activated during hypertrophy, and the downregulation of muscle-specific micro-RNA-1 correlated with the upregulation of five predicted targets associated with the integrin-linked kinase pathway. In conclusion, we identified two novel pathways that may be involved in muscle hypertrophy, as well as two upstream regulators (Kruppel-like factor-15 and micro-RNA-1) that provide targets for future studies investigating the importance of these pathways in muscle hypertrophy.

  14. Apoptosis-related genes change their expression with age and hearing loss in the mouse cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Tadros, Sherif F.; D’Souza, Mary; Zhu, Xiaoxia

    2010-01-01

    To understand possible causative roles of apoptosis gene regulation in age-related hearing loss (presbycusis), apoptotic gene expression patterns in the CBA mouse cochlea of four different age and hearing loss groups were compared, using GeneChip and real-time (qPCR) microarrays. GeneChip transcriptional expression patterns of 318 apoptosis-related genes were analyzed. Thirty eight probes (35 genes) showed significant differences in expression. The significant gene families include Caspases, B-cell leukemia/lymphoma2 family, P53, Cal-pains, Mitogen activated protein kinase family, Jun oncogene, Nuclear factor of kappa light chain gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor-related and tumor necrosis factor-related genes. The GeneChip results of 31 genes were validated using the new TaqMan® Low Density Array (TLDA). Eight genes showed highly correlated results with the GeneChip data. These genes are: activating transcription factor3, B-cell leukemia/lymphoma2, Bcl2-like1, caspase4 apoptosis-related cysteine protease 4, Calpain2, dual specificity phosphatase9, tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member12a, and Tumor necrosis factor superfamily member13b, suggesting they may play critical roles in inner ear aging. PMID:18839313

  15. Structural characterization and chromosomal location of the mouse macrophage migration inhibitory factor gene and pseudogenes

    SciTech Connect

    Bozza, M.; Gerard, C.; Kolakowski, L.F. Jr.

    1995-06-10

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor, MIF, is a cytokine released by T-lymphocytes, macrophages, and the pituitary gland that serves to integrate peripheral and central inflammatory responses. Ubiquitous expression and developmental regulation suggest that MIF may have additional roles outside of the immune system. Here we report the structure and chromosomal location of the mouse Mif gene and the partial characterization of five Mif pseudogenes. The mouse Mif gene spans less than 0.7 kb of chromosomal DNA and is composed of three exons. A comparison between the mouse and the human genes shows a similar gene structure and common regulatory elements in both promoter regions. The mouse Mif gene maps to the middle region of chromosome 10, between Bcr and S100b, which have been mapped to human chromosomes 22q11 and 21q22.3, respectively. The entire sequence of two pseudogenes demonstrates the absence of introns, the presence of the 5{prime} untranslated region of the cDNA, a 3{prime} poly(A) tail, and the lack of sequence similarity with untranscribed regions of the gene. The five pseudogenes are highly homologous to the cDNA, but contain a variable number of mutations that would produce mutated or truncated MIF-like proteins. Phylogenetic analyses of MIF genes and pseudogenes indicate several independent genetic events that can account for multiple genomic integrations. Three of the Mif pseudogenes were also mapped by interspecific backcross to chromosomes 1, 9, and 17. These results suggest that Mif pseudogenes originated by retrotransposition. 46 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. The mouse and human genes encoding the recognition component of the N-end rule pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Yong Tae; Reiss, Yuval; Fried, Victor A.; Hershko, Avram; Yoon, Jeong Kyo; Gonda, David K.; Sangan, Pitchai; Copeland, Neal G.; Jenkins, Nancy A.; Varshavsky, Alexander

    1998-01-01

    The N-end rule relates the in vivo half-life of a protein to the identity of its N-terminal residue. The N-end rule pathway is one proteolytic pathway of the ubiquitin system. The recognition component of this pathway, called N-recognin or E3, binds to a destabilizing N-terminal residue of a substrate protein and participates in the formation of a substrate-linked multiubiquitin chain. We report the cloning of the mouse and human Ubr1 cDNAs and genes that encode a mammalian N-recognin called E3α. Mouse UBR1p (E3α) is a 1,757-residue (200-kDa) protein that contains regions of sequence similarity to the 225-kDa Ubr1p of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mouse and human UBR1p have apparent homologs in other eukaryotes as well, thus defining a distinct family of proteins, the UBR family. The residues essential for substrate recognition by the yeast Ubr1p are conserved in the mouse UBR1p. The regions of similarity among the UBR family members include a putative zinc finger and RING-H2 finger, another zinc-binding domain. Ubr1 is located in the middle of mouse chromosome 2 and in the syntenic 15q15-q21.1 region of human chromosome 15. Mouse Ubr1 spans ≈120 kilobases of genomic DNA and contains ≈50 exons. Ubr1 is ubiquitously expressed in adults, with skeletal muscle and heart being the sites of highest expression. In mouse embryos, the Ubr1 expression is highest in the branchial arches and in the tail and limb buds. The cloning of Ubr1 makes possible the construction of Ubr1-lacking mouse strains, a prerequisite for the functional understanding of the mammalian N-end rule pathway. PMID:9653112

  17. Effect of microgravity on gene expression in mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Iacobas, Dumitru A.; Iacobas, Sanda; Nicchia, Grazia Paola; Desaphy, Jean Francois; Camerino, Diana Conte; Svelto, Maria; Spray, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Changes in gravitational force such as that experienced by astronauts during space flight induce a redistribution of fluids from the caudad to the cephalad portion of the body together with an elimination of normal head-to-foot hydrostatic pressure gradients. To assess brain gene profile changes associated with microgravity and fluid shift, a large-scale analysis of mRNA expression levels was performed in the brains of 2-week control and hindlimb-unloaded (HU) mice using cDNA microarrays. Although to different extents, all functional categories displayed significantly regulated genes indicating that considerable transcriptomic alterations are induced by HU. Interestingly, the TIC class (transport of small molecules and ions into the cells) had the highest percentage of up-regulated genes, while the most down-regulated genes were those of the JAE class (cell junction, adhesion, extracellular matrix). TIC genes comprised 16% of those whose expression was altered, including sodium channel, nonvoltage-gated 1 beta (Scnn1b), glutamate receptor (Grin1), voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (Vdac1), calcium channel beta 3 subunit (Cacnb3) and others. The analysis performed by Gene-MAPP revealed several altered protein classes and functional pathways such as blood coagulation and immune response, learning and memory, ion channels and cell junction. In particular, data indicate that HU causes an alteration in hemostasis which resolves in a shift toward a more hyper-coagulative state with an increased risk of venous thrombosis. Furthermore, HU treatment seems to impact on key steps of synaptic plasticity and learning processes. PMID:18704384

  18. Effect of microgravity on gene expression in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Frigeri, Antonio; Iacobas, Dumitru A; Iacobas, Sanda; Nicchia, Grazia Paola; Desaphy, Jean Francois; Camerino, Diana Conte; Svelto, Maria; Spray, David C

    2008-11-01

    Changes in gravitational force such as that experienced by astronauts during space flight induce a redistribution of fluids from the caudad to the cephalad portion of the body together with an elimination of normal head-to-foot hydrostatic pressure gradients. To assess brain gene profile changes associated with microgravity and fluid shift, a large-scale analysis of mRNA expression levels was performed in the brains of 2-week control and hindlimb-unloaded (HU) mice using cDNA microarrays. Although to different extents, all functional categories displayed significantly regulated genes indicating that considerable transcriptomic alterations are induced by HU. Interestingly, the TIC class (transport of small molecules and ions into the cells) had the highest percentage of up-regulated genes, while the most down-regulated genes were those of the JAE class (cell junction, adhesion, extracellular matrix). TIC genes comprised 16% of those whose expression was altered, including sodium channel, nonvoltage-gated 1 beta (Scnn1b), glutamate receptor (Grin1), voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (Vdac1), calcium channel beta 3 subunit (Cacnb3) and others. The analysis performed by GeneMAPP revealed several altered protein classes and functional pathways such as blood coagulation and immune response, learning and memory, ion channels and cell junction. In particular, data indicate that HU causes an alteration in hemostasis which resolves in a shift toward a more hyper-coagulative state with an increased risk of venous thrombosis. Furthermore, HU treatment seems to impact on key steps of synaptic plasticity and learning processes.

  19. The mouse Enhancer trap locus 1 (Etl-1): a novel mammalian gene related to Drosophila and yeast transcriptional regulator genes.

    PubMed

    Soininen, R; Schoor, M; Henseling, U; Tepe, C; Kisters-Woike, B; Rossant, J; Gossler, A

    1992-11-01

    A novel mouse gene, Enhancer trap locus 1 (Etl-1), was identified in close proximity to a lacZ enhancer trap integration in the mouse genome showing a specific beta-galactosidase staining pattern during development. In situ analysis revealed a widespread but not ubiquitous expression of Etl-1 throughout development with particularly high levels in the central nervous system and epithelial cells. The amino acid sequence of the Etl-1 protein deduced from the cDNA shows strong similarity, over a stretch of 500 amino acids, to the Drosophila brahma protein involved in the regulation of homeotic genes and to the yeast transcriptional activator protein SNF2/SWI2 as well as to the RAD54 protein and the recently described helicase-related yeast proteins STH1 and MOT1. Etl-1 is the first mammalian member of this group of proteins that are implicated in gene regulation and/or influencing chromatin structure. The homology to the regulatory proteins SNF2/SWI2 and brahma and the expression pattern during embryogenesis suggest that Etl-1 protein might be involved in gene regulating pathways during mouse development.

  20. In vivo analysis of mouse gastrin gene regulation in enhanced GFP-BAC transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Takaishi, Shigeo; Shibata, Wataru; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Jin, Guangchun; Yang, Xiangdong; Ericksen, Russell; Dubeykovskaya, Zinaida; Asfaha, Samuel; Quante, Michael; Betz, Kelly S.; Shulkes, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    Gastrin is secreted from a subset of neuroendocrine cells residing in the gastric antrum known as G cells, but low levels are also expressed in fetal pancreas and intestine and in many solid malignancies. Although past studies have suggested that antral gastrin is transcriptionally regulated by inflammation, gastric pH, somatostatin, and neoplastic transformation, the transcriptional regulation of gastrin has not previously been demonstrated in vivo. Here, we describe the creation of an enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter (mGAS-EGFP) mouse using a bacterial artificial chromosome that contains the entire mouse gastrin gene. Three founder lines expressed GFP signals in the gastric antrum and the transitional zone to the corpus. In addition, GFP(+) cells could be detected in the fetal pancreatic islets and small intestinal villi, but not in these organs of the adult mice. The administration of acid-suppressive reagents such as proton pump inhibitor omeprazole and gastrin/CCK-2 receptor antagonist YF476 significantly increased GFP signal intensity and GFP(+) cell numbers in the antrum, whereas these parameters were decreased by overnight fasting, octreotide (long-lasting somatostatin ortholog) infusion, and Helicobacter felis infection. GFP(+) cells were also detected in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and importantly in the colonic tumor cells induced by administration with azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium salt. This transgenic mouse provides a useful tool to study the regulation of mouse gastrin gene in vivo, thus contributing to our understanding of the mechanisms involved in transcriptional control of the gastrin gene. PMID:21051525

  1. Editing of mouse and human immunoglobulin genes by CRISPR-Cas9 system

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Taek-Chin; Compagno, Mara; Chiarle, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Applications of the CRISPR-Cas9 system to edit the genome have widely expanded to include DNA gene knock-out, deletions, chromosomal rearrangements, RNA editing and genome-wide screenings. Here we show the application of CRISPR-Cas9 technology to edit the mouse and human immunoglobulin (Ig) genes. By delivering Cas9 and guide-RNA (gRNA) with retro- or lenti-virus to IgM+ mouse B cells and hybridomas, we induce class-switch recombination (CSR) of the IgH chain to the desired subclass. Similarly, we induce CSR in all human B cell lines tested with high efficiency to targeted IgH subclass. Finally, we engineer mouse hybridomas to secrete Fab′ fragments instead of the whole Ig. Our results indicate that Ig genes in mouse and human cells can be edited to obtain any desired IgH switching helpful to study the biology of normal and lymphoma B cells. We also propose applications that could transform the technology of antibody production. PMID:26956543

  2. In vivo analysis of mouse gastrin gene regulation in enhanced GFP-BAC transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Takaishi, Shigeo; Shibata, Wataru; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Jin, Guangchun; Yang, Xiangdong; Ericksen, Russell; Dubeykovskaya, Zinaida; Asfaha, Samuel; Quante, Michael; Betz, Kelly S; Shulkes, Arthur; Wang, Timothy C

    2011-02-01

    Gastrin is secreted from a subset of neuroendocrine cells residing in the gastric antrum known as G cells, but low levels are also expressed in fetal pancreas and intestine and in many solid malignancies. Although past studies have suggested that antral gastrin is transcriptionally regulated by inflammation, gastric pH, somatostatin, and neoplastic transformation, the transcriptional regulation of gastrin has not previously been demonstrated in vivo. Here, we describe the creation of an enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter (mGAS-EGFP) mouse using a bacterial artificial chromosome that contains the entire mouse gastrin gene. Three founder lines expressed GFP signals in the gastric antrum and the transitional zone to the corpus. In addition, GFP(+) cells could be detected in the fetal pancreatic islets and small intestinal villi, but not in these organs of the adult mice. The administration of acid-suppressive reagents such as proton pump inhibitor omeprazole and gastrin/CCK-2 receptor antagonist YF476 significantly increased GFP signal intensity and GFP(+) cell numbers in the antrum, whereas these parameters were decreased by overnight fasting, octreotide (long-lasting somatostatin ortholog) infusion, and Helicobacter felis infection. GFP(+) cells were also detected in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and importantly in the colonic tumor cells induced by administration with azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium salt. This transgenic mouse provides a useful tool to study the regulation of mouse gastrin gene in vivo, thus contributing to our understanding of the mechanisms involved in transcriptional control of the gastrin gene.

  3. An ENU mutagenesis screen identifies novel and known genes involved in epigenetic processes in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We have used a sensitized ENU mutagenesis screen to produce mouse lines that carry mutations in genes required for epigenetic regulation. We call these lines Modifiers of murine metastable epialleles (Mommes). Results We report a basic molecular and phenotypic characterization for twenty of the Momme mouse lines, and in each case we also identify the causative mutation. Three of the lines carry a mutation in a novel epigenetic modifier, Rearranged L-myc fusion (Rlf), and one gene, Rap-interacting factor 1 (Rif1), has not previously been reported to be involved in transcriptional regulation in mammals. Many of the other lines are novel alleles of known epigenetic regulators. For two genes, Rlf and Widely-interspaced zinc finger (Wiz), we describe the first mouse mutants. All of the Momme mutants show some degree of homozygous embryonic lethality, emphasizing the importance of epigenetic processes. The penetrance of lethality is incomplete in a number of cases. Similarly, abnormalities in phenotype seen in the heterozygous individuals of some lines occur with incomplete penetrance. Conclusions Recent advances in sequencing enhance the power of sensitized mutagenesis screens to identify the function of previously uncharacterized factors and to discover additional functions for previously characterized proteins. The observation of incomplete penetrance of phenotypes in these inbred mutant mice, at various stages of development, is of interest. Overall, the Momme collection of mouse mutants provides a valuable resource for researchers across many disciplines. PMID:24025402

  4. Mapping of the ARIX homeodomain gene to mouse chromosome 7 and human chromosome 11q13

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.R.; Smith, L.; Rhodes, J.

    1996-05-01

    The recently described homeodomain protein ARIX is expressed specifically in noradreneric cell types of the sympathetic nervous system, brain, and adrenal medulla. ARIX interacts with regulatory elements of the genes encoding the noradrenergic biosynthetic enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine {beta}-hydroxylase, suggesting a role for ARIX in expression of the noradrenergic phenotype. In the study described here, the mouse and human ARIX genes are mapped. Using segregation analysis of two panels of mouse backcross DNA, mouse Arix was positioned approximately 50 cM distal to the centromere of chromosome 7, near Hbb. Human ARIX was positioned through analysis of somatic cell hybrids and fluorescence in situ hybridization of human metaphase chromosomes to chromosome 7, near Hbb. Human ARIX was positioned through analysis of somatic cell hybrids and fluorescence in situ hybridization of human metaphase chromosomes to chromosome 11q13.3-q13.4. These map locations extend and further define regions of conserved synteny between mouse and human genomes and identify a new candidate gene for inherited developmental disorders linked to human 11q13.

  5. High-efficiency and heritable gene targeting in mouse by transcription activator-like effector nucleases.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhongwei; Liu, Meizhen; Chen, Zhaohua; Shao, Yanjiao; Pan, Hongjie; Wei, Gaigai; Yu, Chao; Zhang, Long; Li, Xia; Wang, Ping; Fan, Heng-Yu; Du, Bing; Liu, Bin; Liu, Mingyao; Li, Dali

    2013-06-01

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) are a powerful new approach for targeted gene disruption in various animal models, but little is known about their activities in Mus musculus, the widely used mammalian model organism. Here, we report that direct injection of in vitro transcribed messenger RNA of TALEN pairs into mouse zygotes induced somatic mutations, which were stably passed to the next generation through germ-line transmission. With one TALEN pair constructed for each of 10 target genes, mutant F0 mice for each gene were obtained with the mutation rate ranged from 13 to 67% and an average of ∼40% of total healthy newborns with no significant differences between C57BL/6 and FVB/N genetic background. One TALEN pair with single mismatch to their intended target sequence in each side failed to yield any mutation. Furthermore, highly efficient germ-line transmission was obtained, as all the F0 founders tested transmitted the mutations to F1 mice. In addition, we also observed that one bi-allele mutant founder of Lepr gene, encoding Leptin receptor, had similar diabetic phenotype as db/db mouse. Together, our results suggest that TALENs are an effective genetic tool for rapid gene disruption with high efficiency and heritability in mouse with distinct genetic background.

  6. High-efficiency and heritable gene targeting in mouse by transcription activator-like effector nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Zhongwei; Liu, Meizhen; Chen, Zhaohua; Shao, Yanjiao; Pan, Hongjie; Wei, Gaigai; Yu, Chao; Zhang, Long; Li, Xia; Wang, Ping; Fan, Heng-Yu; Du, Bing; Liu, Bin; Liu, Mingyao; Li, Dali

    2013-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) are a powerful new approach for targeted gene disruption in various animal models, but little is known about their activities in Mus musculus, the widely used mammalian model organism. Here, we report that direct injection of in vitro transcribed messenger RNA of TALEN pairs into mouse zygotes induced somatic mutations, which were stably passed to the next generation through germ-line transmission. With one TALEN pair constructed for each of 10 target genes, mutant F0 mice for each gene were obtained with the mutation rate ranged from 13 to 67% and an average of ∼40% of total healthy newborns with no significant differences between C57BL/6 and FVB/N genetic background. One TALEN pair with single mismatch to their intended target sequence in each side failed to yield any mutation. Furthermore, highly efficient germ-line transmission was obtained, as all the F0 founders tested transmitted the mutations to F1 mice. In addition, we also observed that one bi-allele mutant founder of Lepr gene, encoding Leptin receptor, had similar diabetic phenotype as db/db mouse. Together, our results suggest that TALENs are an effective genetic tool for rapid gene disruption with high efficiency and heritability in mouse with distinct genetic background. PMID:23630316

  7. A high-resolution spatiotemporal atlas of gene expression of the developing mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Carol L; Ng, Lydia; Menon, Vilas; Martinez, Salvador; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Glattfelder, Katie; Sunkin, Susan M; Henry, Alex; Lau, Christopher; Dang, Chinh; Garcia-Lopez, Raquel; Martinez-Ferre, Almudena; Pombero, Ana; Rubenstein, John L R; Wakeman, Wayne B; Hohmann, John; Dee, Nick; Sodt, Andrew J; Young, Rob; Smith, Kimberly; Nguyen, Thuc-Nghi; Kidney, Jolene; Kuan, Leonard; Jeromin, Andreas; Kaykas, Ajamete; Miller, Jeremy; Page, Damon; Orta, Geri; Bernard, Amy; Riley, Zackery; Smith, Simon; Wohnoutka, Paul; Hawrylycz, Michael J; Puelles, Luis; Jones, Allan R

    2014-07-16

    To provide a temporal framework for the genoarchitecture of brain development, we generated in situ hybridization data for embryonic and postnatal mouse brain at seven developmental stages for ∼2,100 genes, which were processed with an automated informatics pipeline and manually annotated. This resource comprises 434,946 images, seven reference atlases, an ontogenetic ontology, and tools to explore coexpression of genes across neurodevelopment. Gene sets coinciding with developmental phenomena were identified. A temporal shift in the principles governing the molecular organization of the brain was detected, with transient neuromeric, plate-based organization of the brain present at E11.5 and E13.5. Finally, these data provided a transcription factor code that discriminates brain structures and identifies the developmental age of a tissue, providing a foundation for eventual genetic manipulation or tracking of specific brain structures over development. The resource is available as the Allen Developing Mouse Brain Atlas (http://developingmouse.brain-map.org).

  8. Common Fragile Site Tumor Suppressor Genes and Corresponding Mouse Models of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Drusco, Alessandra; Pekarsky, Yuri; Costinean, Stefan; Antenucci, Anna; Conti, Laura; Volinia, Stefano; Aqeilan, Rami I.; Huebner, Kay; Zanesi, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Chromosomal common fragile sites (CFSs) are specific mammalian genomic regions that show an increased frequency of gaps and breaks when cells are exposed to replication stress in vitro. CFSs are also consistently involved in chromosomal abnormalities in vivo related to cancer. Interestingly, several CFSs contain one or more tumor suppressor genes whose structure and function are often affected by chromosomal fragility. The two most active fragile sites in the human genome are FRA3B and FRA16D where the tumor suppressor genes FHIT and WWOX are located, respectively. The best approach to study tumorigenic effects of altered tumor suppressors located at CFSs in vivo is to generate mouse models in which these genes are inactivated. This paper summarizes our present knowledge on mouse models of cancer generated by knocking out tumor suppressors of CFS. PMID:21318118

  9. Common fragile site tumor suppressor genes and corresponding mouse models of cancer.

    PubMed

    Drusco, Alessandra; Pekarsky, Yuri; Costinean, Stefan; Antenucci, Anna; Conti, Laura; Volinia, Stefano; Aqeilan, Rami I; Huebner, Kay; Zanesi, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Chromosomal common fragile sites (CFSs) are specific mammalian genomic regions that show an increased frequency of gaps and breaks when cells are exposed to replication stress in vitro. CFSs are also consistently involved in chromosomal abnormalities in vivo related to cancer. Interestingly, several CFSs contain one or more tumor suppressor genes whose structure and function are often affected by chromosomal fragility. The two most active fragile sites in the human genome are FRA3B and FRA16D where the tumor suppressor genes FHIT and WWOX are located, respectively. The best approach to study tumorigenic effects of altered tumor suppressors located at CFSs in vivo is to generate mouse models in which these genes are inactivated. This paper summarizes our present knowledge on mouse models of cancer generated by knocking out tumor suppressors of CFS.

  10. Chromosomal localization of a new mouse lens opacity gene (lop18)

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Bo; Hawes, N.L.; Smith, R.S.

    1996-08-15

    Examination of mouse strains with a slit lamp and indirect ophthalmoscopy revealed that strain CBA/CaGnLe has a white cataract obvious at weaning age. It soon progresses to a large white nuclear cataract with mild cortical changes. Crosses with C57BL/GJ showed that this is inherited as a single recessive fully penetrant gene, which we have designated lop18 (lens opacity 18). Linkage analysis using visible marker T (brachyury), histocompatibility marker H2, and microsatellite markers D17MU21, D17MU28, D17MU38, and D17MU46 shows that the 1op18 gene is located, {approximately}16 cM from the centromere on mouse Chromosome 17. It is a likely candidate mutation for the {alpha}-crystallin (Cryal) gene. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. Acidic duodenal pH alters gene expression in the cystic fibrosis mouse pancreas.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Simran; Norkina, Oxana; Ziemer, Donna; Samuelson, Linda C; De Lisle, Robert C

    2004-08-01

    The duodenum is abnormally acidic in cystic fibrosis (CF) due to decreased bicarbonate ion secretion that is dependent on the CF gene product CFTR. In the CFTR null mouse, the acidic duodenum results in increased signaling from the intestine to the exocrine pancreas in an attempt to stimulate pancreatic bicarbonate ion secretion. Excess stimulation is proposed to add to the stress/inflammation of the pancreas in CF. DNA microarray analysis of the CF mouse revealed altered pancreatic gene expression characteristic of stress/inflammation. When the duodenal pH was corrected genetically (crossing CFTR null with gastrin null mice) or pharmacologically (use of the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole), expression levels of genes measured by quantitative RT-PCR were significantly normalized. It is concluded that the acidic duodenal pH in CF contributes to the stress on the exocrine pancreas and that normalizing duodenal pH reduces this stress.

  12. Perinatal Gjb2 gene transfer rescues hearing in a mouse model of hereditary deafness.

    PubMed

    Iizuka, Takashi; Kamiya, Kazusaku; Gotoh, Satoru; Sugitani, Yoshinobu; Suzuki, Masaaki; Noda, Tetsuo; Minowa, Osamu; Ikeda, Katsuhisa

    2015-07-01

    Hearing loss is the most widespread sensory disorder, with an incidence of congenital genetic deafness of 1 in 1600 children. For many ethnic populations, the most prevalent form of genetic deafness is caused by recessive mutations in the gene gap junction protein, beta 2, 26 kDa (GJB2), which is also known as connexin 26 (Cx26). Despite this knowledge, existing treatment strategies do not completely recover speech perception. Here we used a gene delivery system to rescue hearing in a mouse model of Gjb2 deletion. Mice lacking Cx26 are characterized by profound deafness from birth and improper development of cochlear cells. Cochlear delivery of Gjb2 using an adeno-associated virus significantly improved the auditory responses and development of the cochlear structure. Using gene replacement to restore hearing in a new mouse model of Gjb2-related deafness may lead to the development of therapies for human hereditary deafness.

  13. Gene activation properties of a mouse DNA sequence isolated by expression selection.

    PubMed Central

    von Hoyningen-Huene, V; Norbury, C; Griffiths, M; Fried, M

    1986-01-01

    The MES-1 element was previously isolated from restricted total mouse cellular DNA by "expression selection"--the ability to reactivate expression of a test gene devoid of its 5' enhancer sequences. Mes-1 has been tested in long-term transformation and short-term CAT expression assays. In both assays MES-1 is active independent of orientation and at a distance when placed 5' to the test gene. The element is active with heterologous promoters and functions efficiently in both rat and mouse cells. MES-1 activates expression by increasing transcription from the test gene's own start (cap) site. Thus the expression selection technique can be used for the isolation of DNA sequences with enhancer-like properties from total cellular DNA. Images PMID:3016657

  14. Gene repressive mechanisms in the mouse brain involved in memory formation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Nam-Kyung; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2016-04-01

    Gene regulation in the brain is essential for long-term plasticity and memory formation. Despite this established notion, the quantitative translational map in the brain during memory formation has not been reported. To systematically probe the changes in protein synthesis during memory formation, our recent study exploited ribosome profiling using the mouse hippocampal tissues at multiple time points after a learning event. Analysis of the resulting database revealed novel types of gene regulation after learning. First, the translation of a group of genes was rapidly suppressed without change in mRNA levels. At later time points, the expression of another group of genes was downregulated through reduction in mRNA levels. This reduction was predicted to be downstream of inhibition of ESR1 (Estrogen Receptor 1) signaling. Overexpressing Nrsn1, one of the genes whose translation was suppressed, or activating ESR1 by injecting an agonist interfered with memory formation, suggesting the functional importance of these findings. Moreover, the translation of genes encoding the translational machineries was found to be suppressed, among other genes in the mouse hippocampus. Together, this unbiased approach has revealed previously unidentified characteristics of gene regulation in the brain and highlighted the importance of repressive controls. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(4): 199-200].

  15. Characteristic and Expression Analysis of a Metallothionein Gene, OsMT2b, Down-Regulated by Cytokinin Suggests Functions in Root Development and Seed Embryo Germination of Rice1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jing; Chen, Dan; Ren, Yujun; Zhang, Xuelian; Zhao, Jie

    2008-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are low molecular mass and cysteine-rich metal-binding proteins known to be mainly involved in maintaining metal homeostasis and stress responses. But, their functions in higher plant development are scarcely studied. Here, we characterized rice (Oryza sativa) METALLOTHIONEIN2b (OsMT2b) molecularly and found that its expression was down-regulated by cytokinins. OsMT2b was preferentially expressed in rice immature panicles, scutellum of germinating embryos, and primordium of lateral roots. In contrast with wild-type plants, OsMT2b-RNA interference (RNAi) transgenic plants had serious handicap in plant growth and root formation, whereas OsMT2b-overexpressing transformants were dwarfed and presented more adventitious roots and big lateral roots. The increased cytokinin levels in RNAi plants and decreased cytokinin levels in overexpressing plants were confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography quantitative analysis in the roots of wild-type and transgenic plants. In RNAi plants, localization of isopentenyladenosine, a kind of endogenous cytokinin, in roots and germinating embryos expanded to the whole tissues, whereas in overexpressing plants, the isopentenyladenosine signals were very faint in the vascular tissues of roots and scutellum cells of germinating embryos. In vitro culture of embryos could largely resume the reduced germination frequency in RNAi plants but had no obvious change in overexpressing plants. Taken together, these results indicate a possible feedback regulation mechanism of OsMT2b to the level of endogenous cytokinins that is involved in root development and seed embryo germination of rice. PMID:18258694

  16. Extraordinary Sequence Divergence at Tsga8, an X-linked Gene Involved in Mouse Spermiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Good, Jeffrey M.; Vanderpool, Dan; Smith, Kimberly L.; Nachman, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    The X chromosome plays an important role in both adaptive evolution and speciation. We used a molecular evolutionary screen of X-linked genes potentially involved in reproductive isolation in mice to identify putative targets of recurrent positive selection. We then sequenced five very rapidly evolving genes within and between several closely related species of mice in the genus Mus. All five genes were involved in male reproduction and four of the genes showed evidence of recurrent positive selection. The most remarkable evolutionary patterns were found at Testis-specific gene a8 (Tsga8), a spermatogenesis-specific gene expressed during postmeiotic chromatin condensation and nuclear transformation. Tsga8 was characterized by extremely high levels of insertion–deletion variation of an alanine-rich repetitive motif in natural populations of Mus domesticus and M. musculus, differing in length from the reference mouse genome by up to 89 amino acids (27% of the total protein length). This population-level variation was coupled with striking divergence in protein sequence and length between closely related mouse species. Although no clear orthologs had previously been described for Tsga8 in other mammalian species, we have identified a highly divergent hypothetical gene on the rat X chromosome that shares clear orthology with the 5′ and 3′ ends of Tsga8. Further inspection of this ortholog verified that it is expressed in rat testis and shares remarkable similarity with mouse Tsga8 across several general features of the protein sequence despite no conservation of nucleotide sequence across over 60% of the rat-coding domain. Overall, Tsga8 appears to be one of the most rapidly evolving genes to have been described in rodents. We discuss the potential evolutionary causes and functional implications of this extraordinary divergence and the possible contribution of Tsga8 and the other four genes we examined to reproductive isolation in mice. PMID:21186189

  17. Identification of the Gene for Scleroderma in the Tsk/2 Mouse Strain: Implicationsfor Human Scleroderma Pathogenesis and Subset Distinctions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    11-1-0524 TITLE: Identification of the Gene for Scleroderma in the Tsk/2 Mouse Strain: Implications for Human Scleroderma Pathogenesis and...Z39.18 Identification of the Gene for Scleroderma in the Tsk/2 Mouse Strain: Implications for Human Scleroderma Pathogenesis and Subset...clinical model. In this report, we show a clear time dependence on the gene expression in the skin of the Tsk2/+ mice. We have proven that Col3a1 is

  18. Praja1, a novel gene encoding a RING-H2 motif in mouse development.

    PubMed

    Mishra, L; Tully, R E; Monga, S P; Yu, P; Cai, T; Makalowski, W; Mezey, E; Pavan, W J; Mishra, B

    1997-11-06

    As part of a cloning strategy to identify genes involved in early mouse liver development we have isolated Praja1, a gene with similar sequences to the Drosophila melanogaster gene goliath (gl) which is involved in the fate of mesodermal cells ultimately forming gut musculatures, fat body, and the heart. Praja1 is a 2.1 kb gene encoding a putative 396 amino acid ORF and includes a COOH-terminal RING-H2 domain. Using the Jackson Laboratory BSS panel, we have localized Praja1 on chromosome X at 36 cM, which may be a candidate gene for mouse sla (sex linked sideroblastic anemia), near the X inactivation center gene, Xist. Northern blot analysis demonstrated three transcripts (3.1, 2.6 and 2.1 kb) in mRNA from adult mouse tissues brain, liver, and kidney as well as in mRNA from developing mouse embryos (days 7, 11, 15 and 17 post coitus, p.c.). In vitro transcription/translation yielded a product with an Mr of 59 kD. Immunohistochemical staining of in vitro liver explant cultures using a heterologous antibody against praja1 demonstrated cytoplasmic staining of cuboidal cells that have hepatocyte morphology and organization. The presence of the RING-H2 domain, a proline-rich region at the COOH-end, and regions rich in acidic amino acids, leads to the hypothesis that the Praja1 product is possibly involved in mediating protein-protein interactions, possibly as part of a protein sorting or transport pathway. This is strengthened by the similarity of Praja1 to rat Neurodap1, whose product has been shown to localize to the endoplasmic reticulum and golgi in brain.

  19. Inhibitory effect of beta-thujaplicin on ultraviolet B-induced apoptosis in mouse keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Baba, T; Nakano, H; Tamai, K; Sawamura, D; Hanada, K; Hashimoto, I; Arima, Y

    1998-01-01

    Sunburn cells are thought to represent ultraviolet B-induced apoptotic keratinocytes. It has been demonstrated that enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants effectively suppress sunburn cell formation, indicating that reactive oxygen species may play a role in the progression of ultraviolet B-induced apoptosis. Metallothionein, a cytosol protein, has antioxidant activity, and overexpression of metallothionein has been reported to reduce the number of sunburn cells in mouse skin. We have also demonstrated that overexpression of metallothionein inhibits ultraviolet B-induced DNA ladder formation in mouse keratinocytes. These findings support the hypothesis that cellular metallothionein may play an important role in the inhibition of ultraviolet B-induced apoptosis in keratinocytes through its antioxidant activity. In the present study, we investigated the effects of beta-thujaplicin, an extract from the woods of Thuja plicata D. Don. and Chamaecyparis obtuse, Sieb. et Zucc., on ultraviolet B-induced apoptosis in keratinocytes and on metallothionein induction. Topical application of beta-thujaplicin decreased the number of ultraviolet B-mediated sunburn cells and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling-positive cells in mouse ear skin. Incubation with beta-thujaplicin suppressed ultraviolet B-induced DNA ladder formation in cultured mouse keratinocytes. Histochemical analysis showed that topical application of beta-thujaplicin induced metallothionein protein in mouse skin. Northern analysis and western blotting revealed significant induction of metallothionein mRNA and metallothionein protein, respectively, in beta-thujaplicin-treated cultured mouse keratinocytes. These findings indicate that beta-thujaplicin inhibits ultraviolet B-induced apoptosis in keratinocytes and strongly suggest that the inhibitory mechanism is due to the antioxidant activity of metallothionein induced by the agent.

  20. Lethal graft-versus-host disease in mouse models of T cell receptor gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Bendle, Gavin M; Linnemann, Carsten; Hooijkaas, Anna I; Bies, Laura; de Witte, Moniek A; Jorritsma, Annelies; Kaiser, Andrew D M; Pouw, Nadine; Debets, Reno; Kieback, Elisa; Uckert, Wolfgang; Song, Ji-Ying; Haanen, John B A G; Schumacher, Ton N M

    2010-05-01

    The transfer of T cell receptor (TCR) genes can be used to induce immune reactivity toward defined antigens to which endogenous T cells are insufficiently reactive. This approach, which is called TCR gene therapy, is being developed to target tumors and pathogens, and its clinical testing has commenced in patients with cancer. In this study we show that lethal cytokine-driven autoimmune pathology can occur in mouse models of TCR gene therapy under conditions that closely mimic the clinical setting. We show that the pairing of introduced and endogenous TCR chains in TCR gene-modified T cells leads to the formation of self-reactive TCRs that are responsible for the observed autoimmunity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that adjustments in the design of gene therapy vectors and target T cell populations can be used to reduce the risk of TCR gene therapy-induced autoimmune pathology.

  1. A mouse speciation gene encodes a meiotic histone H3 methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Mihola, Ondrej; Trachtulec, Zdenek; Vlcek, Cestmir; Schimenti, John C; Forejt, Jiri

    2009-01-16

    Speciation genes restrict gene flow between the incipient species and related taxa. Three decades ago, we mapped a mammalian speciation gene, hybrid sterility 1 (Hst1), in the intersubspecific hybrids of house mouse. Here, we identify this gene as Prdm9, encoding a histone H3 lysine 4 trimethyltransferase. We rescued infertility in male hybrids with bacterial artificial chromosomes carrying Prdm9 from a strain with the "fertility" Hst1(f) allele. Sterile hybrids display down-regulated microrchidia 2B (Morc2b) and fail to compartmentalize gammaH2AX into the pachynema sex (XY) body. These defects, seen also in Prdm9-null mutants, are rescued by the Prdm9 transgene. Identification of a vertebrate hybrid sterility gene reveals a role for epigenetics in speciation and opens a window to a hybrid sterility gene network.

  2. Highly and moderately aggressive mouse ovarian cancer cell lines exhibit differential gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wensheng; Kale, Shubha P.; McFerrin, Harris; Davenport, Ian; Wang, Guangdi; Skripnikova, Elena; Li, Xiao-Lin; Bowen, Nathan J.; McDaniels, Leticia B; Meng, Yuan-Xiang; Polk, Paula; Liu, Yong-Yu; Zhang, Qian-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer often experience disease recurrence after standard therapies, a critical factor in determining their five-year survival rate. Recent reports indicated that long-term or short-term survival is associated with varied gene expression of cancer cells. Thus, identification of novel prognostic biomarkers should be considered. Since the mouse genome is similar to the human genome, we explored potential prognostic biomarkers using two groups of mouse ovarian cancer cell lines (group 1: IG-10, IG-10pw, and IG-10pw/agar; group 2: IG-10 clones 2, 3, and 11) which display highly and moderately aggressive phenotypes in vivo. Mice injected with these cell lines have different survival time and rates, capacities of tumor, and ascites formations, reflecting different prognostic potentials. Using an Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430 2.0 Array, a total of 181 genes were differentially expressed (P<0.01) by at least twofold between two groups of the cell lines. Of the 181 genes, 109 and 72 genes were overexpressed in highly and moderately aggressive cell lines, respectively. Analysis of the 109 and 72 genes using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) tool revealed two cancer-related gene networks. One was associated with the highly aggressive cell lines and affiliated with MYC gene, and another was associated with the moderately aggressive cell lines and affiliated with the androgen receptor (AR). Finally, the gene enrichment analysis indicated that the overexpressed 89 genes (out of 109 genes) in highly aggressive cell lines had a function annotation in the David database. The cancer-relevant significant gene ontology (GO) terms included Cell cycle, DNA metabolic process, and Programmed cell death. None of the genes from a set of the 72 genes overexpressed in the moderately aggressive cell lines had a function annotation in the David database. Our results suggested that the overexpressed MYC and 109 gene set represented highly aggressive ovarian

  3. The mouse dead-end gene isoform α is necessary for germ cell and embryonic viability

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Chitralekha; Aggarwal, Sita; Zhu, Rui; Kumar, Madhu; Zhao, Ming; Meistrich, Marvin L.; Matin, Angabin

    2007-01-01

    Inactivation of the dead-end (Dnd1) gene in the Ter mouse strain results in depletion of primordial germ cells (PGCs) so that mice become sterile. However, on the 129 mouse strain background, loss of Dnd1 also increases testicular germ cell tumor incidence in parallel to PGC depletion. We report that inactivation of Dnd1 also affects embryonic viability in the 129 strain. Mouse Dnd1 encodes two protein isoforms, DND1-isoform α (DND1- α) and DND1-isoform β (DND1-β). Using isoform specific antibodies, we determined DND1-α is expressed in embryos and embryonic gonads whereas DND1-β expression is restricted to germ cells of the adult testis. Our data implicates DND1-α isoform to be necessary for germ cell viability and therefore its loss in Ter mice results in PGC depletion, germ cell tumor development and partial embryonic lethality in the 129 strain. PMID:17291453

  4. A gene expression resource generated by genome-wide lacZ profiling in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Tuck, Elizabeth; Estabel, Jeanne; Oellrich, Anika; Maguire, Anna Karin; Adissu, Hibret A.; Souter, Luke; Siragher, Emma; Lillistone, Charlotte; Green, Angela L.; Wardle-Jones, Hannah; Carragher, Damian M.; Karp, Natasha A.; Smedley, Damian; Adams, Niels C.; Bussell, James N.; Adams, David J.; Ramírez-Solis, Ramiro; Steel, Karen P.; Galli, Antonella; White, Jacqueline K.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Knowledge of the expression profile of a gene is a critical piece of information required to build an understanding of the normal and essential functions of that gene and any role it may play in the development or progression of disease. High-throughput, large-scale efforts are on-going internationally to characterise reporter-tagged knockout mouse lines. As part of that effort, we report an open access adult mouse expression resource, in which the expression profile of 424 genes has been assessed in up to 47 different organs, tissues and sub-structures using a lacZ reporter gene. Many specific and informative expression patterns were noted. Expression was most commonly observed in the testis and brain and was most restricted in white adipose tissue and mammary gland. Over half of the assessed genes presented with an absent or localised expression pattern (categorised as 0-10 positive structures). A link between complexity of expression profile and viability of homozygous null animals was observed; inactivation of genes expressed in ≥21 structures was more likely to result in reduced viability by postnatal day 14 compared with more restricted expression profiles. For validation purposes, this mouse expression resource was compared with Bgee, a federated composite of RNA-based expression data sets. Strong agreement was observed, indicating a high degree of specificity in our data. Furthermore, there were 1207 observations of expression of a particular gene in an anatomical structure where Bgee had no data, indicating a large amount of novelty in our data set. Examples of expression data corroborating and extending genotype-phenotype associations and supporting disease gene candidacy are presented to demonstrate the potential of this powerful resource. PMID:26398943

  5. Mouse in utero electroporation: controlled spatiotemporal gene transfection.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Asuka; Yoshida, Aya C; Kubota, Mayumi; Ogawa, Masaharu; Shimogori, Tomomi

    2011-08-15

    In order to understand the function of genes expressed in specific region of the developing brain, including signaling molecules and axon guidance molecules, local gene transfer or knock- out is required. Gene targeting knock-in or knock-out into local regions is possible to perform with combination with a specific CRE line, which is laborious, costly, and time consuming. Therefore, a simple transfection method, an in utero electroporation technique, which can be performed with short time, will be handy to test the possible function of candidate genes prior to the generation of transgenic animals. In addition to this, in utero electroporation targets areas of the brain where no specific CRE line exists, and will limit embryonic lethality. Here, we present a method of in utero electroporation combining two different types of electrodes for simple and convenient gene transfer into target areas of the developing brain. First, a unique holding method of embryos using an optic fiber optic light cable will make small embryos (from E9.5) visible for targeted DNA solution injection into ventricles and needle type electrodes insertion to the targeted brain area. The patterning of the brain such as cortical area occur at early embryonic stage, therefore, these early electroporation from E9.5 make a big contribution to understand entire area patterning event. Second, the precise shape of a capillary prevents uterine damage by making holes by insertion of the capillary. Furthermore, the precise shape of the needle electrodes are created with tungsten and platinum wire and sharpened using sand paper and insulated with nail polish, a method which is described in great detail in this protocol. This unique technique allows transfection of plasmid DNA into restricted areas of the brain and will enable small embryos to be electroporated. This will help to, open a new window for many scientists who are working on cell differentiation, cell migration, axon guidance in very early

  6. Effect of light on global gene expression in the neuroglobin-deficient mouse retina

    PubMed Central

    ILMJÄRV, STEN; REIMETS, RIIN; HUNDAHL, CHRISTIAN ANSGAR; LUUK, HENDRIK

    2014-01-01

    Several previous studies have raised controversy over the functional role of neuroglobin (Ngb) in the retina. Certain studies indicate a significant impact of Ngb on retinal physiology, whereas others are conflicting. The present is an observational study that tested the effect of Ngb deficiency on gene expression in dark- and light-adapted mouse retinas. Large-scale gene expression profiling was performed using GeneChip® Mouse Exon 1.0 ST arrays and the results were compared to publicly available data sets. The lack of Ngb was found to have a minor effect on the light-induced retinal gene expression response. In addition, there was no increase in the expression of marker genes associated with hypoxia, endoplasmic reticulum-stress and oxidative stress in the Ngb-deficient retina. By contrast, several genes were identified that appeared to be differentially expressed between the genotypes when the effect of light was ignored. The present study indicates that Ngb deficiency does not lead to major alternations in light-dependent gene expression response, but leads to subtle systemic differences of a currently unknown functional significance. PMID:25279145

  7. Reporter Gene Silencing in Targeted Mouse Mutants Is Associated with Promoter CpG Island Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Kirov, Julia V.; Adkisson, Michael; Nava, A. J.; Cipollone, Andreana; Willis, Brandon; Engelhard, Eric K.; Lloyd, K. C. Kent; de Jong, Pieter; West, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Targeted mutations in mouse disrupt local chromatin structure and may lead to unanticipated local effects. We evaluated targeted gene promoter silencing in a group of six mutants carrying the tm1a Knockout Mouse Project allele containing both a LacZ reporter gene driven by the native promoter and a neo selection cassette. Messenger RNA levels of the reporter gene and targeted gene were assessed by qRT-PCR, and methylation of the promoter CpG islands and LacZ coding sequence were evaluated by sequencing of bisulfite-treated DNA. Mutants were stratified by LacZ staining into presumed Silenced and Expressed reporter genes. Silenced mutants had reduced relative quantities LacZ mRNA and greater CpG Island methylation compared with the Expressed mutant group. Within the silenced group, LacZ coding sequence methylation was significantly and positively correlated with CpG Island methylation, while promoter CpG methylation was only weakly correlated with LacZ gene mRNA. The results support the conclusion that there is promoter silencing in a subset of mutants carrying the tm1a allele. The features of targeted genes which promote local silencing when targeted remain unknown. PMID:26275310

  8. Analysis of spatial-temporal gene expression patterns reveals dynamics and regionalization in developing mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Chou, Shen-Ju; Wang, Chindi; Sintupisut, Nardnisa; Niou, Zhen-Xian; Lin, Chih-Hsu; Li, Ker-Chau; Yeang, Chen-Hsiang

    2016-01-20

    Allen Brain Atlas (ABA) provides a valuable resource of spatial/temporal gene expressions in mammalian brains. Despite rich information extracted from this database, current analyses suffer from several limitations. First, most studies are either gene-centric or region-centric, thus are inadequate to capture the superposition of multiple spatial-temporal patterns. Second, standard tools of expression analysis such as matrix factorization can capture those patterns but do not explicitly incorporate spatial dependency. To overcome those limitations, we proposed a computational method to detect recurrent patterns in the spatial-temporal gene expression data of developing mouse brains. We demonstrated that regional distinction in brain development could be revealed by localized gene expression patterns. The patterns expressed in the forebrain, medullary and pontomedullary, and basal ganglia are enriched with genes involved in forebrain development, locomotory behavior, and dopamine metabolism respectively. In addition, the timing of global gene expression patterns reflects the general trends of molecular events in mouse brain development. Furthermore, we validated functional implications of the inferred patterns by showing genes sharing similar spatial-temporal expression patterns with Lhx2 exhibited differential expression in the embryonic forebrains of Lhx2 mutant mice. These analysis outcomes confirm the utility of recurrent expression patterns in studying brain development.

  9. Gene expression profiles in liver of mouse after chronic exposure to drinking water.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bing; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Dayong; Zhang, Xuxiang; Kong, Zhiming; Cheng, Shupei

    2009-10-01

    cDNA micorarray approach was applied to hepatic transcriptional profile analysis in male mouse (Mus musculus, ICR) to assess the potential health effects of drinking water in Nanjing, China. Mice were treated with continuous exposure to drinking water for 90 days. Hepatic gene expression was analyzed with Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430A 2.0 arrays, and pathway analysis was carried out by Molecule Annotation System 2.0 and KEGG pathway database. A total of 836 genes were found to be significantly altered (1.5-fold, P < or = 0.05), including 294 up-regulated genes and 542 down-regulated genes. According to biological pathway analysis, drinking water exposure resulted in aberration of gene expression and biological pathways linked to xenobiotic metabolism, signal transduction, cell cycle and oxidative stress response. Further, deregulation of several genes associated with carcinogenesis or tumor progression including Ccnd1, Egfr, Map2k3, Mcm2, Orc2l and Smad2 was observed. Although transcription changes in identified genes are unlikely to be used as a sole indicator of adverse health effects, the results of this study could enhance our understanding of early toxic effects of drinking water exposure and support future studies on drinking water safety.

  10. Regulation of X-linked gene expression during early mouse development by Rlim

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Shin, JongDae; Shea, Jeremy M; Yu, Jun; Bošković, Ana; Byron, Meg; Zhu, Xiaochun; Shalek, Alex K; Regev, Aviv; Lawrence, Jeanne B; Torres, Eduardo M; Zhu, Lihua J; Rando, Oliver J; Bach, Ingolf

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian X-linked gene expression is highly regulated as female cells contain two and male one X chromosome (X). To adjust the X gene dosage between genders, female mouse preimplantation embryos undergo an imprinted form of X chromosome inactivation (iXCI) that requires both Rlim (also known as Rnf12) and the long non-coding RNA Xist. Moreover, it is thought that gene expression from the single active X is upregulated to correct for bi-allelic autosomal (A) gene expression. We have combined mouse genetics with RNA-seq on single mouse embryos to investigate functions of Rlim on the temporal regulation of iXCI and Xist. Our results reveal crucial roles of Rlim for the maintenance of high Xist RNA levels, Xist clouds and X-silencing in female embryos at blastocyst stages, while initial Xist expression appears Rlim-independent. We find further that X/A upregulation is initiated in early male and female preimplantation embryos. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19127.001 PMID:27642011

  11. Regulation of X-linked gene expression during early mouse development by Rlim.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Shin, JongDae; Shea, Jeremy M; Yu, Jun; Bošković, Ana; Byron, Meg; Zhu, Xiaochun; Shalek, Alex K; Regev, Aviv; Lawrence, Jeanne B; Torres, Eduardo M; Zhu, Lihua J; Rando, Oliver J; Bach, Ingolf

    2016-09-19

    Mammalian X-linked gene expression is highly regulated as female cells contain two and male one X chromosome (X). To adjust the X gene dosage between genders, female mouse preimplantation embryos undergo an imprinted form of X chromosome inactivation (iXCI) that requires both Rlim (also known as Rnf12) and the long non-coding RNA Xist. Moreover, it is thought that gene expression from the single active X is upregulated to correct for bi-allelic autosomal (A) gene expression. We have combined mouse genetics with RNA-seq on single mouse embryos to investigate functions of Rlim on the temporal regulation of iXCI and Xist. Our results reveal crucial roles of Rlim for the maintenance of high Xist RNA levels, Xist clouds and X-silencing in female embryos at blastocyst stages, while initial Xist expression appears Rlim-independent. We find further that X/A upregulation is initiated in early male and female preimplantation embryos.

  12. Mouse model of inducible nephrogenic diabetes insipidus produced by floxed aquaporin-2 gene deletion.

    PubMed

    Yang, Baoxue; Zhao, Dan; Qian, Liman; Verkman, A S

    2006-08-01

    Transgenic mouse models of defective urinary concentrating ability produced by deletion of various membrane transport or receptor proteins, including aquaporin-2 (AQP2), are associated with neonatal mortality from polyuria. Here, we report an inducible mouse model of AQP2 gene deletion with severe polyuria in adult mice. LoxP sequences were inserted into introns 1 and 2 in the mouse AQP2 gene by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. Mating of germ-line AQP2-loxP mice with tamoxifen-inducible Cre-expressing mice produced offspring with inducible homozygous Cre-AQP2-loxP, which had a normal phenotype. Tamoxifen injections over 10 days resulted in AQP2 gene excision, with undetectable full-length AQP2 transcript in kidney and a >95% reduction in immunoreactive AQP2 protein. Urine osmolality decreased from approximately 2,000 to <500 mosmol/kgH(2)O after 4-5 days, with urine output increasing from 2 to 25 ml/day. Urine osmolality did not increase after water deprivation. Interestingly, AQP3 protein expression in the collecting duct was increased by about fivefold after AQP2 gene excision. Mild renal damage was seen after 6 wk of polyuria, with collecting duct dilatation, yet normal creatinine clearance and serum chemistries. These results establish the first adult model of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) caused by AQP2 deficiency, with daily urine output comparable to body weight, although remarkable preservation of renal function compared with non-inducible NDI models.

  13. Distinct patterns of expression of the RB gene family in mouse and human retina.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Clarellen; Pajovic, Sanja; Devlin, Hollie; Dinh, Quynh-Dao; Corson, Timothy W; Gallie, Brenda L

    2005-06-01

    Although RB1 function is disrupted in the majority of human cancers, an undefined cell of developing human retina is uniquely sensitive to cancer induction when the RB1 tumor suppressor gene is lost. Murine retinoblastoma is initiated only when two of the RB family of genes, RB1 and p107 or p130, are inactivated. Although whole embryonic retina shows RB family gene expression by several techniques, when E14 developing retina was depleted of the earliest differentiating cells, ganglion cells, the remaining proliferating murine embryonic retinal progenitor cells clearly did not express RB1 or p130, while the longer splice form of p107 was expressed. Each retinal cell type expressed some member of the RB family at some stage of differentiation. Rod photoreceptors stained for the RB1 protein product, pRB, and p107 in only a brief window of postnatal murine development, with no detectable staining for any of the RB family proteins in adult human and mouse rod photoreceptors. Adult mouse and human Muller glia, ganglion and rare horizontal cells, and adult human, but not adult mouse, cone photoreceptors stained for pRB. The RB gene family is dynamically and variably expressed through retinal development in specific retinal cells.

  14. Mapping of the Sca1 and pcd genes on mouse chromosome 13 provides evidence that they are different genes

    SciTech Connect

    Servadio, A.; McCall, A.; Zoghbi, H.; Eicher, E.M.

    1995-10-10

    It is well established that large chromosomal segments have remained intact during the evolution of different mammalian species. Thus, mapping information for a gene in mammalian species facilitates mapping the same gene in another mammalian species. In addition, phenotypically similar diseases that map to linkage conserved regions in two species may be caused by mutations in the same gene. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is a dominantly inherited human disorder characterized by progressive ataxia, dysarthria, and dysmetria. SCA1 maps to the short arm of human chromosome (Chr) 6 in the 6p23-p22 region. SCA1 is caused by the expansion of an unstable CAG repeat located within the coding region of a novel protein, ataxin-1, Purkinje cell degeneration (pcd) is a recessively inherited mouse disorder characterized by a moderate ataxia, usually noted by 3-4 weeks of age. Progressive degeneration of Purkinje cells is the underlying pathogenesis in this disorder. The pcd gene was assigned to mouse Chr 13 because it showed linkage to extra toes (Xt) and pearl (pe). Some doubt about this assignment existed, however, because the calculated genetic distance between pcd and Xt was 32 cM and that between pcd and pe was 18 cM. If pcd is located in Chr 13, its placement relative to Xt and pe suggests that it would be located in the region that shares linkage homology with the region that shares linkage homology with the region of human Chr 6 that contains SCA1. Here, we present data that confirm the assignment of pcd to Chr 13, map the mouse Sca1 gene to Chr 13, and eliminate Sca1 as a candidate gene for pcd. 11 refs., 1 tab.

  15. Thalidomide induced early gene expression perturbations indicative of human embryopathy in mouse embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Xiugong Sprando, Robert L.; Yourick, Jeffrey J.

    2015-08-15

    Developmental toxicity testing has traditionally relied on animal models which are costly, time consuming, and require the sacrifice of large numbers of animals. In addition, there are significant disparities between human beings and animals in their responses to chemicals. Thalidomide is a species-specific developmental toxicant that causes severe limb malformations in humans but not in mice. Here, we used microarrays to study transcriptomic changes induced by thalidomide in an in vitro model based on differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). C57BL/6 mESCs were allowed to differentiate spontaneously and RNA was collected at 24, 48, and 72 h after exposure to 0.25 mM thalidomide. Global gene expression analysis using microarrays revealed hundreds of differentially expressed genes upon thalidomide exposure that were enriched in gene ontology (GO) terms and canonical pathways associated with embryonic development and differentiation. In addition, many genes were found to be involved in small GTPases-mediated signal transduction, heart development, and inflammatory responses, which coincide with clinical evidences and may represent critical embryotoxicities of thalidomide. These results demonstrate that transcriptomics in combination with mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation is a promising alternative model for developmental toxicity assessment. - Highlights: • Studied genomic changes in mouse embryonic stem cells upon thalidomide exposure • Identified gene expression changes that may represent thalidomide embryotoxicity • The toxicogenomic changes coincide well with known thalidomide clinical outcomes. • The mouse embryonic stem cell model is suitable for developmental toxicity testing. • The model has the potential for high-throughput screening of a multitude of compounds.

  16. Linkage analysis of the whirler deafness gene on mouse chromosome 4

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, J.; Rogers, M.J.C.; Steel, K.P. ); Brown, S.D.M. )

    1994-05-01

    The whirler mouse harbors an autosomal recessive mutation on mouse chromosome 4 that causes deafness and vestibular dysfunction in the adult that is manifested as head-bobbing and circling behavior. Although there is no obvious human homologue for this mutation as yet, whirler is a potential mouse model for human autosomal recessive deafness. Many genetic markers for this region of mouse chromosome 4 are now available, and the authors have used these to construct genetic linkage maps in both inter- and intraspecific backcrosses as the first step toward the cloning of the whirler gene. A total of 19 loci were analyzed in these crosses, giving the following gene orders: Interspecific cross, centromere-(D4Mit5, D4Mit38)-D4Mit6-(Lv,Tzn,D4Mit44)-wi-Hxb-(D4Mit25, D4Nds9)-(D4Mit7, D4Ler2)-b-D4Mit45-(D4Wsm1, D4Mit27b)-(D4Rck65, D4Mit15), and intraspecific cross, centromere-(Mup-1, wi, Hxb)-b-D4Wsm1. This analysis has positioned the wi locus in the interval between the genes for [delta]-aminolevulinate dehydratase (Lv) and hexabrachion (Hxb). The human homologues of these genes, ALAD and HXB, both lie on human chromosome 9q32-q34. They therefore predict that a human homologue of the wi gene, involved in autosomal recessive deafness, lies in this region of conserved homology on 9q32-q34. 36 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Comparison of mouse and human genomes followed by experimental verification yields an estimated 1,019 additional genes.

    PubMed

    Guigo, Roderic; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Agarwal, Pankaj; Ponting, Chris P; Parra, Genis; Reymond, Alexandre; Abril, Josep F; Keibler, Evan; Lyle, Robert; Ucla, Catherine; Antonarakis, Stylianos E; Brent, Michael R

    2003-02-04

    A primary motivation for sequencing the mouse genome was to accelerate the discovery of mammalian genes by using sequence conservation between mouse and human to identify coding exons. Achieving this goal proved challenging because of the large proportion of the mouse and human genomes that is apparently conserved but apparently does not code for protein. We developed a two-stage procedure that exploits the mouse and human genome sequences to produce a set of genes with a much higher rate of experimental verification than previously reported prediction methods. RT-PCR amplification and direct sequencing applied to an initial sample of mouse predictions that do not overlap previously known genes verified the regions flanking one intron in 139 predictions, with verification rates reaching 76%. On average, the confirmed predictions show more restricted expression patterns than the mouse orthologs of known human genes, and two-thirds lack homologs in fish genomes, demonstrating the sensitivity of this dual-genome approach to hard-to-find genes. We verified 112 previously unknown homologs of known proteins, including two homeobox proteins relevant to developmental biology, an aquaporin, and a homolog of dystrophin. We estimate that transcription and splicing can be verified for >1,000 gene predictions identified by this method that do not overlap known genes. This is likely to constitute a significant fraction of the previously unknown, multiexon mammalian genes.

  18. Transcript Annotation in FANTOM3: Mouse Gene Catalog Based on Physical cDNAs

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Norihiro; Kasukawa, Takeya; Oyama, Rieko; Gough, Julian; Frith, Martin; Engström, Pär G; Lenhard, Boris; Aturaliya, Rajith N; Batalov, Serge; Beisel, Kirk W; Bult, Carol J; Fletcher, Colin F; Forrest, Alistair R. R; Furuno, Masaaki; Hill, David; Itoh, Masayoshi; Kanamori-Katayama, Mutsumi; Katayama, Shintaro; Katoh, Masaru; Kawashima, Tsugumi; Quackenbush, John; Ravasi, Timothy; Ring, Brian Z; Shibata, Kazuhiro; Sugiura, Koji; Takenaka, Yoichi; Teasdale, Rohan D; Wells, Christine A; Zhu, Yunxia; Kai, Chikatoshi; Kawai, Jun; Hume, David A; Carninci, Piero; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

    2006-01-01

    The international FANTOM consortium aims to produce a comprehensive picture of the mammalian transcriptome, based upon an extensive cDNA collection and functional annotation of full-length enriched cDNAs. The previous dataset, FANTOM2, comprised 60,770 full-length enriched cDNAs. Functional annotation revealed that this cDNA dataset contained only about half of the estimated number of mouse protein-coding genes, indicating that a number of cDNAs still remained to be collected and identified. To pursue the complete gene catalog that covers all predicted mouse genes, cloning and sequencing of full-length enriched cDNAs has been continued since FANTOM2. In FANTOM3, 42,031 newly isolated cDNAs were subjected to functional annotation, and the annotation of 4,347 FANTOM2 cDNAs was updated. To accomplish accurate functional annotation, we improved our automated annotation pipeline by introducing new coding sequence prediction programs and developed a Web-based annotation interface for simplifying the annotation procedures to reduce manual annotation errors. Automated coding sequence and function prediction was followed with manual curation and review by expert curators. A total of 102,801 full-length enriched mouse cDNAs were annotated. Out of 102,801 transcripts, 56,722 were functionally annotated as protein coding (including partial or truncated transcripts), providing to our knowledge the greatest current coverage of the mouse proteome by full-length cDNAs. The total number of distinct non-protein-coding transcripts increased to 34,030. The FANTOM3 annotation system, consisting of automated computational prediction, manual curation, and final expert curation, facilitated the comprehensive characterization of the mouse transcriptome, and could be applied to the transcriptomes of other species. PMID:16683036

  19. A novel missense mutation in the mouse growth hormone gene causes semidominant dwarfism, hyperghrelinemia, and obesity.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Carola W E; Korthaus, Dirk; Jagla, Wolfgang; Cornali, Emmanuelle; Grosse, Johannes; Fuchs, Helmut; Klingenspor, Martin; Roemheld, Stephanie; Tschöp, Matthias; Heldmaier, Gerhard; De Angelis, Martin Hrabé; Nehls, Michael

    2004-05-01

    The SMA1-mouse is a novel ethyl-nitroso-urea (ENU)-induced mouse mutant that carries an a-->g missense mutation in exon 5 of the GH gene, which translates to a D167G amino acid exchange in the mature protein. Mice carrying the mutation are characterized by dwarfism, predominantly due to the reduction (sma1/+) or absence (sma1/sma1) of the GH-mediated peripubertal growth spurt, with sma1/+ mice displaying a less pronounced phenotype. All genotypes are viable and fertile, and the mode of inheritance is in accordance with a semidominant Mendelian trait. Adult SMA1 mice accumulate excessive amounts of sc and visceral fat in the presence of elevated plasma ghrelin levels, possibly reflecting altered energy partitioning. Our results suggest impaired storage and/or secretion of pituitary GH in mutants, resulting in reduced pituitary GH and reduced GH-stimulated IGF-1 expression. Generation and identification of the SMA1 mouse exemplifies the power of the combination of random mouse mutagenesis with a highly detailed phenotype-analysis as a successful strategy for the detection and analysis of novel gene-function relationships.

  20. Comparative mapping of the DiGeorge syndrome region in mouse shows inconsistent gene order and differential degree of gene conservation.

    PubMed

    Botta, A; Lindsay, E A; Jurecic, V; Baldini, A

    1997-12-01

    We have constructed a comparative map in mouse of the critical region of human 22q11 deleted in DiGeorge (DGS) and Velocardiofacial (VCFS) syndromes. The map includes 11 genes potentially haploinsufficient in these deletion syndromes. We have localized all the conserved genes to mouse Chromosome (Chr) 16, bands B1-B3. The determination of gene order shows the presence of two regions (distal and proximal), containing two groups of conserved genes. The gene order in the two regions is not completely conserved; only in the proximal group is the gene order identical to human. In the distal group the gene order is inverted. These two regions are separated by a DNA segment containing at least one gene which, in the human DGS region, is the most proximal of the known deleted genes. In addition, the gene order within the distal group of genes is inverted relative to the human gene order. Furthermore, a clathrin heavy chain-like gene was not found in the mouse genome by DNA hybridization, indicating that there is an inconsistent level of gene conservation in the region. These and other independent data obtained in our laboratory clearly show a complex evolutionary history of the DGS-VCFS region. Our data provide a framework for the development of a mouse model for the 22q11 deletion with chromosome engineering technologies.

  1. Genetics and polymorphism of the mouse prion gene complex: control of scrapie incubation time.

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, G A; Goodman, P A; Lovett, M; Taylor, B A; Marshall, S T; Peterson-Torchia, M; Westaway, D; Prusiner, S B

    1988-01-01

    The mouse prion protein (PrP) gene (Prn-p), which encodes the only macromolecule that has been identified in scrapie prions, is tightly linked or identical to a gene (Prn-i) that controls the duration of the scrapie incubation period in mice. Constellations of restriction fragment length polymorphisms distinguish haplotypes a to f of Prn-p. The Prn-pb allele encodes a PrP that differs in sequence from those encoded by the other haplotypes and, in inbred mouse strains, correlates with long scrapie incubation time (Westaway et al., Cell 51: 651-662, 1987). In segregating crosses of mice, we identified rare individuals with a divergent scrapie incubation time phenotype and Prn-p genotype, but progeny testing to demonstrate meiotic recombination was not possible because scrapie is a lethal disease. Crosses involving the a, d, and e haplotypes demonstrated that genes unlinked to Prn-p could modulate scrapie incubation time and that there were only two alleles of Prn-i among the mouse strains tested. All inbred strains of mice that had the Prnb haplotype were probably direct descendants of the I/LnJ progenitors. We established the linkage relationship between the prion gene complex (Prn) and other chromosome 2 genes; the gene order, proximal to distal, is B2m-II-1a-Prn-Itp-A. Recombination suppression in the B2m-Prn-p interval occurred during the crosses involved in transferring the I/LnJ Prnb complex into a C57BL/6J background. Transmission ratio distortion by Prna/Prnb heterozygous males was also observed in the same crosses. These phenomena, together with the founder effect, would favor apparent linkage disequilibrium between Prn-p and Prn-i. Therefore, transmission genetics may underestimate the number of genes in Prn. Images PMID:3149717

  2. The mouse collagen X gene: complete nucleotide sequence, exon structure and expression pattern.

    PubMed Central

    Elima, K; Eerola, I; Rosati, R; Metsäranta, M; Garofalo, S; Perälä, M; De Crombrugghe, B; Vuorio, E

    1993-01-01

    Overlapping genomic clones covering the 7.2 kb mouse alpha 1(X) collagen gene, 0.86 kb of promoter and 1.25 kb of 3'-flanking sequences were isolated from two genomic libraries and characterized by nucleotide sequencing. Typical features of the gene include a unique three-exon structure, similar to that in the chick gene, with the entire triple-helical domain of 463 amino acids coded by a single large exon. The highest degree of amino acid and nucleotide sequence conservation was seen in the coding region for the collagenous and C-terminal non-collagenous domains between the mouse and known chick, bovine and human collagen type X sequences. More divergence between the sequences occurred in the N-terminal non-collagenous domain. Similarity between the mammalian collagen X sequences extended into the 3'-untranslated sequence, particularly near the polyadenylation site. The promoter of the mouse collagen X gene was found to contain two TATAA boxes 159 bp apart; primer extension analyses of the transcription start site revealed that both were functional. The promoter has an unusual structure with a very low G + C content of 28% between positions -220 and -1 of the upstream transcription start site. Northern and in situ hybridization analyses confirmed that the expression of the alpha 1(X) collagen gene is restricted to hypertrophic chondrocytes in tissues undergoing endochondral calcification. The detailed sequence information of the gene is useful for studies on the promoter activity of the gene and for generation of transgenic mice. Images Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8424763

  3. DNA sequence analysis of a mouse pro alpha 1 (I) procollagen gene: evidence for a mouse B1 element within the gene.

    PubMed Central

    Monson, J M; Friedman, J; McCarthy, B J

    1982-01-01

    In a 3.8-kilobase mouse DNA sequence encoding amino acid sequences for the pro alpha 1(I) chain of type I procollagen, 14 coding sequences were identified which specify a sequence 95% homologous to amino acid residues 568 to 963 of the bovine alpha 1(I) chain. All of these coding sequences were flanked by appropriate splice junctions following the GT/AG rule. These observations suggest, but do not prove, that this pro alpha 1(I) gene is transcriptionally active. Of the 14 coding sequences, 7 were 54 base pairs in length, whereas the remainder were higher multiples of 54 base pairs. Nonrandom utilization of codons pertained throughout all of the coding sequences showing a preference (56%) for U in the wobble position. Two of the intervening sequences encoded imperfect vestiges of coding sequences which exhibited a codon preference different from that of the pro alpha 1(I) gene proper and were not flanked by splice junctions. One intervening sequence encoded a member of the mouse B1 family of middle repetitive sequences. It was flanked by 8-base-pair direct repeats and had a truncated A-rich region, suggesting that it may be a mobile element. Within this element were sequences which could function as a RNA polymerase III split promoter. Images PMID:6298597

  4. The mouse Mcmd gene for DNA replication protein P1MCM3 maps to bands A3-A5 on chromosome 1 by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Ikuya; Kimura, Hiroshi; Takagi, Nobuo

    1996-03-05

    This report describes the localization of the mouse Mcmd gene for DNA replication to mouse chromosome 1, bands A3-A5 using fluorescence in situ hybridization. This finding supports the recent mapping of the human MCM3 gene to human chromosome 6p12, which shows synteny with mouse chromosome 1. The mouse Mcmd gene encodes the protein P1MCM3 which is essential for DNA replication. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Mouse model systems to study sex chromosome genes and behavior: relevance to humans

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Kimberly H.; Bonthuis, Paul J.; Rissman, Emilie F.

    2014-01-01

    Sex chromosome genes directly influence sex differences in behavior. The discovery of the Sry gene on the Y chromosome (Gubbay et al., 1990; Koopman et al., 1990) substantiated the sex chromosome mechanistic link to sex differences. Moreover, the pronounced connection between X chromosome gene mutations and mental illness produces a strong sex bias in these diseases. Yet, the dominant explanation for sex differences continues to be the gonadal hormones. Here we review progress made on behavioral differences in mouse models that uncouple sex chromosome complement from gonadal sex. We conclude that many social and cognitive behaviors are modified by sex chromosome complement, and discuss the implications for human research. Future directions need to include identification of the genes involved and interactions with these genes and gonadal hormones. PMID:24388960

  6. Mouse model systems to study sex chromosome genes and behavior: relevance to humans.

    PubMed

    Cox, Kimberly H; Bonthuis, Paul J; Rissman, Emilie F

    2014-10-01

    Sex chromosome genes directly influence sex differences in behavior. The discovery of the Sry gene on the Y chromosome (Gubbay et al., 1990; Koopman et al., 1990) substantiated the sex chromosome mechanistic link to sex differences. Moreover, the pronounced connection between X chromosome gene mutations and mental illness produces a strong sex bias in these diseases. Yet, the dominant explanation for sex differences continues to be the gonadal hormones. Here we review progress made on behavioral differences in mouse models that uncouple sex chromosome complement from gonadal sex. We conclude that many social and cognitive behaviors are modified by sex chromosome complement, and discuss the implications for human research. Future directions need to include identification of the genes involved and interactions with these genes and gonadal hormones.

  7. Dynamic changes in stanniocalcin gene expression in the mouse uterus during early implantation.

    PubMed

    Stasko, S E; DiMattia, G E; Wagner, G F

    2001-03-28

    Blastocyst implantation is accompanied by dramatic changes in gene expression to facilitate decidualization and remodelling of uterine architecture. Stanniocalcin (STC) is a new mammalian polypeptide hormone with roles in ion transport, reproduction and development. Here we report dynamic changes in STC mRNA and protein distributions in the early post-implantation mouse uterus. In the non-pregnant state, STC gene expression was confined to the uterine lumenal epithelium. Following implantation STC gene expression shifted to mesometrial stromal cells bordering the uterine lumen. Between E6.5-E8.5 expression shifted once more to cells of the mesometrial lateral sinusoids, and then declined thereafter. Intriguingly immunoreactive STC did not entirely co-localize with areas of high STC gene activity and instead appeared to accumulate in presumptive targets of the hormone (uterine epithelium, stromal and decidual cells, trophoblastic giant cells). STC is only the fourth gene identified as being expressed mesometrially in the uterus following implantation.

  8. The mouse formin (Fmn) gene: Genomic structure, novel exons, and genetic mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.C.; Chan, D.C.; Leder, P.

    1997-02-01

    Mutations in the mouse formin (Fmn) gene, formerly known as the limb deformity (ld) gene, give rise to recessively inherited limb deformities and renal malformations or aplasia. The Fmn gene encodes many differentially processed transcripts that are expressed in both adult and embryonic tissues. To study the genomic organization of the Fmn locus, we have used Fmn probes to isolate and characterize genomic clones spanning 500 kb. Our analysis of these clones shows that the Fmn gene is composed of at least 24 exons and spans 400 kb. We have identified two novel exons that are expressed in the developing embryonic limb bud as well as adult tissues such as brain and kidney. We have also used a microsatellite polymorphism from within the Fmn gene to map it genetically to a 2.2-cM interval between D2Mit58 and D2Mit103. 36 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  9. A synthetic small molecule for rapid induction of multiple pluripotency genes in mouse embryonic fibroblasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandian, Ganesh N.; Nakano, Yusuke; Sato, Shinsuke; Morinaga, Hironobu; Bando, Toshikazu; Nagase, Hiroki; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2012-07-01

    Cellular reprogramming involves profound alterations in genome-wide gene expression that is precisely controlled by a hypothetical epigenetic code. Small molecules have been shown to artificially induce epigenetic modifications in a sequence independent manner. Recently, we showed that specific DNA binding hairpin pyrrole-imidazole polyamides (PIPs) could be conjugated with chromatin modifying histone deacetylase inhibitors like SAHA to epigenetically activate certain pluripotent genes in mouse fibroblasts. In our steadfast progress to improve the efficiency of SAHA-PIPs, we identified a novel compound termed, δ that could dramatically induce the endogenous expression of Oct-3/4 and Nanog. Genome-wide gene analysis suggests that in just 24 h and at nM concentration, δ induced multiple pluripotency-associated genes including Rex1 and Cdh1 by more than ten-fold. δ treated MEFs also rapidly overcame the rate-limiting step of epithelial transition in cellular reprogramming by switching ``'' the complex transcriptional gene network.

  10. Rapid and efficient gene delivery into the adult mouse brain via focal electroporation

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Tadashi; Nishimura, Yusuke; Gotoh, Hitoshi; Ono, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    In vivo gene delivery is required for studying the cellular and molecular mechanisms of various biological events. Virus-mediated gene transfer or generation of transgenic animals is widely used; however, these methods are time-consuming and expensive. Here we show an improved electroporation technique for acute gene delivery into the adult mouse brain. Using a syringe-based microelectrode, local DNA injection and the application of electric current can be performed simultaneously; this allows rapid and efficient gene transduction of adult non-neuronal cells. Combining this technique with various expression vectors that carry specific promoters resulted in targeted gene expression in astrocytic cells. Our results constitute a powerful strategy for the genetic manipulation of adult brains in a spatio-temporally controlled manner. PMID:27430903

  11. Positions of pluripotency genes and hepatocyte-specific genes in the nucleus before and after mouse ES cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Udagawa, K; Ohyama, T

    2014-03-24

    Spatial positioning of genes in the cell nucleus plays an important role in the regulation of genomic functions. Evidence for changes in gene positioning associated with transcriptional activity has been reported. However, our understanding of this phenomenon is still quite limited. We examined how pluripotency genes and hepatocyte-specific genes behave during the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells into hepatocytes, by targeting the loci of the Klf4, Nanog, Oct4, Sox2, Cyp7α1, Pck1, Tat, and Tdo2 genes, and using three-dimensional fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses. We found that each gene has a distinctly inherent localization profile in the ES cell nucleus. During differentiation, the Klf4, Nanog, Oct4, Cyp7α1, Pck1, and Tat loci shifted toward the nuclear center, while the Sox2 and Tdo2 loci shifted toward the periphery. The Klf4, Nanog, Oct4, and Tdo2 seem to prefer the outer regions, rather than the inner regions, when they are active. We also found that the radial positioning of the focused genes in the hepatocyte cell nucleus was highly correlated with the local GC content and the gene density of the surrounding region, but not with gene activity.

  12. Double replacement gene targeting for the production of a series of mouse strains with different prion protein gene alterations

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.C.; Redhead, N.J.; Selfridge, J.

    1995-09-01

    We have developed a double replacement gene targeting strategy which enables the production of a series of mouse strains bearing different subtle alterations to endogenous genes. This is a two-step process in which a region of the gene of interest is first replaced with a selectable marker to produce an inactivated allele, which is then re-targeted with a second vector to reconstruct the inactivated allele, concomitantly introducing an engineered mutation. Five independent embryonic stem cell lines have been produced bearing different targeted alterations to the prion protein gene, including one which raises the level of expression. We have constructed mice bearing the codon 101 proline to leucine substitution linked to the human familial prion disease, Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome. We anticipate that this procedure will have applications to the study of human inherited diseases and the development of therapies. 43 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Significant gene content variation characterizes the genomes of inbred mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Gene; Marshall, Lisa A.; Chin, Ni; Baribault, Helene; Kassner, Paul D.

    2007-01-01

    The contribution to genetic diversity of genomic segmental copy number variations (CNVs) is less well understood than that of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). While less frequent than SNPs, CNVs have greater potential to affect phenotype. In this study, we have performed the most comprehensive survey to date of CNVs in mice, analyzing the genomes of 42 Mouse Phenome Consortium priority strains. This microarray comparative genomic hybridization (CGH)-based analysis has identified 2094 putative CNVs, with an average of 10 Mb of DNA in 51 CNVs when individual mouse strains were compared to the reference strain C57BL/6J. This amount of variation results in gene content that can differ by hundreds of genes between strains. These genes include members of large families such as the major histocompatibility and pheromone receptor genes, but there are also many singleton genes including genes with expected phenotypic consequences from their deletion or amplification. Using a whole-genome association analysis, we demonstrate that complex multigenic phenotypes, such as food intake, can be associated with specific copy number changes. PMID:17989247

  14. Expression Profile of DNA Damage Signaling Genes in Proton Exposed Mouse Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, Govindarajan; Wu, Honglu

    Exposure of living systems to radiation results in a wide assortment of lesions, the most signif-icant of is damage to genomic DNA which induce several cellular functions such as cell cycle arrest, repair, apoptosis etc. The radiation induced DNA damage investigation is one of the im-portant area in biology, but still the information available regarding the effects of proton is very limited. In this report, we investigated the differential gene expression pattern of DNA damage signaling genes particularly, damaged DNA binding, repair, cell cycle arrest, checkpoints and apoptosis using quantitative real-time RT-PCR array in proton exposed mouse brain tissues. The expression profiles showed significant changes in DNA damage related genes in 2Gy proton exposed mouse brain tissues as compared with control brain tissues. Furthermore, we also show that significantly increased levels of apoptotic related genes, caspase-3 and 8 activities in these cells, suggesting that in addition to differential expression of DNA damage genes, the alteration of apoptosis related genes may also contribute to the radiation induced DNA damage followed by programmed cell death. In summary, our findings suggest that proton exposed brain tissue undergo severe DNA damage which in turn destabilize the chromatin stability.

  15. HEX: a novel homeobox gene expressed during haematopoiesis and conserved between mouse and human.

    PubMed Central

    Bedford, F K; Ashworth, A; Enver, T; Wiedemann, L M

    1993-01-01

    We describe the cloning of a novel homeodomain-containing gene, which is highly conserved between mouse and human. The human cDNA was initially isolated from human haematopoietic tissue and denoted HEX (haematopoietically expressed homeobox). Sequence analysis of the coding sequences from mouse and the partial cDNA from human shows that the homeodomain is most closely related to those of the HIx and HOX11 proteins. The HEX gene is present as a single copy in the human genome. Analysis of murine genomic DNA shows, in addition to an intron-containing gene homologous to HEX, the presence of a processed copy of the gene which has arisen within the last few million years. Analysis of human and murine haematopoietic cells and cell lines, revealed expression of the HEX gene in multipotential progenitors, as well as cells of the B-lymphocyte and myeloid lineages. However HEX was not expressed in T-lymphocytes or erythroid cells. This pattern of HEX gene expression suggests that it may play a role in haematopoietic differentiation. Images PMID:8096636

  16. A brain-specific gene cluster isolated from the region of the mouse obesity locus is expressed in the adult hypothalamus and during mouse development

    SciTech Connect

    Laig-Webster, M.; Lim, M.E.; Chehab, F.F.

    1994-09-01

    The molecular defect underlying an autosomal recessive form of genetic obesity in a classical mouse model C57 BL/6J-ob/ob has not yet been elucidated. Whereas metabolic and physiological disturbances such as diabetes and hypertension are associated with obesity, the site of expression and the nature of the primary lesion responsible for this cascade of events remains elusive. Our efforts aimed at the positional cloning of the ob gene by YAC contig mapping and gene identification have resulted in the cloning of a brain-specific gene cluster from the ob critical region. The expression of this gene cluster is remarkably complex owing to the multitude of brain-specific mRNA transcripts detected on Northern blots. cDNA cloning of these transcripts suggests that they are expressed from different genes as well as by alternate splicing mechanisms. Furthermore, the genomic organization of the cluster appears to consist of at least two identical promoters displaying CpG islands characteristic of housekeeping genes, yet clearly involving tissue-specific expression. Sense and anti-sense synthetic RNA probes were derived from a common DNA sequence on 3 cDNA clones and hybridized to 8-16 days mouse embryonic stages and mouse adult brain sections. Expression in development was noticeable as of the 11th day of gestation and confined to the central nervous system mainly in the telencephalon and spinal cord. Coronal and sagittal sections of the adult mouse brain showed expression only in 3 different regions of the brain stem. In situ hybridization to mouse hypothalamus sections revealed the presence of a localized and specialized group of cells expressing high levels of mRNA, suggesting that this gene cluster may also be involved in the regulation of hypothalamic activities. The hypothalamus has long been hypothesized as a primary candidate tissue for the expression of the obesity gene mainly because of its well-established role in the regulation of energy metabolism and food intake.

  17. Analyses of Allele-Specific Gene Expression in Highly Divergent Mouse Crosses Identifies Pervasive Allelic Imbalance

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, James J; Zhabotynsky, Vasyl; Sun, Wei; Huang, Shunping; Pakatci, Isa Kemal; Kim, Yunjung; Wang, Jeremy R; Morgan, Andrew P; Calaway, John D; Aylor, David L; Yun, Zaining; Bell, Timothy A; Buus, Ryan J; Calaway, Mark E; Didion, John P; Gooch, Terry J; Hansen, Stephanie D; Robinson, Nashiya N; Shaw, Ginger D; Spence, Jason S; Quackenbush, Corey R; Barrick, Cordelia J; Nonneman, Randal J.; Kim, Kyungsu; Xenakis, James; Xie, Yuying; Valdar, William; Lenarcic, Alan B; Wang, Wei; Welsh, Catherine E; Fu, Chen-Ping; Zhang, Zhaojun; Holt, James; Guo, Zhishan; Threadgill, David W; Tarantino, Lisa M; Miller, Darla R; Zou, Fei; McMillan, Leonard; Sullivan, Patrick F; de Villena, Fernando Pardo-Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Complex human traits are influenced by variation in regulatory DNA through mechanisms that are not fully understood. Since regulatory elements are conserved between humans and mice, a thorough annotation of cis regulatory variants in mice could aid in this process. Here we provide a detailed portrait of mouse gene expression across multiple tissues in a three-way diallel. Greater than 80% of mouse genes have cis regulatory variation. These effects influence complex traits and usually extend to the human ortholog. Further, we estimate that at least one in every thousand SNPs creates a cis regulatory effect. We also observe two types of parent-of-origin effects, including classical imprinting and a novel, global allelic imbalance in favor of the paternal allele. We conclude that, as with humans, pervasive regulatory variation influences complex genetic traits in mice and provide a new resource toward understanding the genetic control of transcription in mammals. PMID:25730764

  18. Linking susceptibility genes and pathogenesis mechanisms using mouse models of systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Crampton, Steve P.; Morawski, Peter A.; Bolland, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) represents a challenging autoimmune disease from a clinical perspective because of its varied forms of presentation. Although broad-spectrum steroids remain the standard treatment for SLE, they have many side effects and only provide temporary relief from the symptoms of the disease. Thus, gaining a deeper understanding of the genetic traits and biological pathways that confer susceptibility to SLE will help in the design of more targeted and effective therapeutics. Both human genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and investigations using a variety of mouse models of SLE have been valuable for the identification of the genes and pathways involved in pathogenesis. In this Review, we link human susceptibility genes for SLE with biological pathways characterized in mouse models of lupus, and discuss how the mechanistic insights gained could advance drug discovery for the disease. PMID:25147296

  19. Identification of a minimal promoter element of the mouse epidermal growth factor gene.

    PubMed Central

    Pascall, J C; Brown, K D

    1997-01-01

    We have previously generated a transgenic mouse line (EGF/Tag) in which simian virus 40 (SV40) T-antigen expression is directed by the mouse epidermal growth factor (EGF) gene promoter. In these mice, cellular hyperproliferation is observed in the submaxillary gland associated with SV40 T-antigen expression. In addition, SV40 T-antigen-expressing tumours of prostatic origin are seen. We have now derived immortalized cell lines from these tissues and have used the cells to perform a functional analysis of the EGF gene promoter. Cells were transfected with EGF promoter/reporter constructs, and an element located between 51 and 35 bases upstream of the EGF mRNA start site required for basal activity of the promoter was identified. Electrophoretic mobility-shift analysis suggests that three proteins bind to this region, one of which is either Sp1 or a closely related protein. PMID:9210411

  20. Cloning and determination of the transcription termination site of ribosomal RNA gene of the mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Kominami, R; Mishima, Y; Urano, Y; Sakai, M; Muramatsu, M

    1982-01-01

    A Eco RI 6.6 kb DNA fragment containing the 3'-end of 28S ribosomal RNA gene of the mouse was detected by Southern blot hybridization, and cloned in a lambda-phage vector. The site of transcription termination and the processed 3'-end of 28S RNA were determined on the cloned fragment and the surrounding nucleotide sequence determined. The 3'-terminal nucleotides of mouse 28S RNA are similar to those of yeast, Drosophila and Xenopus although the homology was lost drastically beyond the 3'-end of 28S RNA. 45S precursor RNA terminated at 30 nucleotides downstream from the 3'-end of 28S RNA gene. A structure of a dyad symmetry with a loop was found immediately prior to the termination site of 45S RNA. The rDNA termination site thus shares some common features with termination sites recognized by other RNA polymerases. Images PMID:6281727

  1. In vivo gene editing in dystrophic mouse muscle and muscle stem cells.

    PubMed

    Tabebordbar, Mohammadsharif; Zhu, Kexian; Cheng, Jason K W; Chew, Wei Leong; Widrick, Jeffrey J; Yan, Winston X; Maesner, Claire; Wu, Elizabeth Y; Xiao, Ru; Ran, F Ann; Cong, Le; Zhang, Feng; Vandenberghe, Luk H; Church, George M; Wagers, Amy J

    2016-01-22

    Frame-disrupting mutations in the DMD gene, encoding dystrophin, compromise myofiber integrity and drive muscle deterioration in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Removing one or more exons from the mutated transcript can produce an in-frame mRNA and a truncated, but still functional, protein. In this study, we developed and tested a direct gene-editing approach to induce exon deletion and recover dystrophin expression in the mdx mouse model of DMD. Delivery by adeno-associated virus (AAV) of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 endonucleases coupled with paired guide RNAs flanking the mutated Dmd exon23 resulted in excision of intervening DNA and restored the Dmd reading frame in myofibers, cardiomyocytes, and muscle stem cells after local or systemic delivery. AAV-Dmd CRISPR treatment partially recovered muscle functional deficiencies and generated a pool of endogenously corrected myogenic precursors in mdx mouse muscle.

  2. Vitamin D Pathway Status and the Identification of Target Genes in the Mouse Mammary Gland

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    significant increase in cancer incidence in women who are vitamin D deficient (1;2). It was also shown that there is a correlation between breast cancer...the correlation between vitamin D deficiency and an increase in breast cancer incidence. 18 References 1 Abbas S et al. Dietary...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0152 TITLE: Vitamin D Pathway Status and the Identification of Target Genes in the Mouse Mammary

  3. Gene expression profiles of Spo11-/- mouse testes with spermatocytes arrested in meiotic prophase I.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Natalya A; Romanienko, Peter J; Khil, Pavel P; Camerini-Otero, R Daniel

    2006-07-01

    Spo11, a meiosis-specific protein, introduces double-strand breaks on chromosomal DNA and initiates meiotic recombination in a wide variety of organisms. Mouse null Spo11 spermatocytes fail to synapse chromosomes and progress beyond the zygotene stage of meiosis. We analyzed gene expression profiles in Spo11(-/ -)adult and juvenile wild-type testis to describe genes expressed before and after the meiotic arrest resulting from the knocking out of Spo11. These genes were characterized using the Gene Ontology data base. To focus on genes involved in meiosis, we performed comparative gene expression analysis of Spo11(-/ -)and wild-type testes from 15-day mice, when spermatocytes have just entered pachytene. We found that the knockout of Spo11 causes dramatic changes in the level of expression of genes that participate in meiotic recombination (Hop2, Brca2, Mnd1, FancG) and in the meiotic checkpoint (cyclin B2, Cks2), but does not affect genes encoding protein components of the synaptonemal complex. Finally, we discovered unknown genes that are affected by the disruption of the Spo11 gene and therefore may be specifically involved in meiosis and spermatogenesis.

  4. Passenger mutations and aberrant gene expression in congenic tissue plasminogen activator-deficient mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, R.; Samson, A. L.; Lawrence, D. A.; Medcalf, R. L.; Bugge, T. H.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background The ability to generate defined null mutations in mice revolutionized the analysis of gene function in mammals. However, gene-deficient mice generated by using 129-derived embryonic stem cells may carry large segments of 129 DNA, even when extensively backcrossed to reference strains, such as C57BL/6J, and this may confound interpretation of experiments performed in these mice. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), encoded by the PLAT gene, is a fibrinolytic serine protease that is widely expressed in the brain. A number of neurological abnormalities have been reported in tPA-deficient mice. Objectives To study genetic contamination of tPA-deficient mice. Materials and methods Whole genome expression array analysis, RNAseq expression profiling, low- and high-density SNP analysis, bioinformatics, and genome editing was used to analyze gene expression in tPA-deficient mouse brains. Results and conclusions Genes differentially expressed in the brain of Plat−/− mice from two independent colonies highly backcrossed onto the C57BL/6J strain clustered near Plat on chromosome 8. SNP analysis attributed this anomaly to about 20 Mbp of DNA flanking Plat being of 129 origin in both strains. Bioinformatic analysis of these 129-derived chromosomal segments identified a significant number of mutations in genes co-segregating with the targeted Plat allele, including several potential null mutations. Using zinc finger nuclease technology, we generated novel “passenger mutation”-free isogenic C57BL/6J-Plat−/− and FVB/NJ-Plat−/− mouse strains by introducing an 11 bp deletion in the exon encoding the signal peptide. These novel mouse strains will be a useful community resource for further exploration of tPA function in physiological and pathological processes. PMID:27079292

  5. Structure and function of ribosomal protein S4 genes on the human and mouse sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Zinn, A R; Alagappan, R K; Brown, L G; Wool, I; Page, D C

    1994-04-01

    The human sex-linked genes RPS4X and RPS4Y encode distinct isoforms of ribosomal protein S4. Insufficient expression of S4 may play a role in the development of Turner syndrome, the complex human phenotype associated with monosomy X. In mice, the S4 protein is encoded by an X-linked gene, Rps4, and is identical to human S4X; there is no mouse Y homolog. We report here the organization of the human RPS4X and RPS4Y and mouse Rps4 genes. Each gene comprises seven exons; the positions of introns are conserved. The 5' flanking sequences of human RPS4X and mouse Rps4 are very similar, while RPS4Y diverges shortly upstream of the transcription start site. In chickens, S4 is encoded by a single gene that is not sex linked. The chicken protein differs from human S4X by four amino acid substitutions, all within a region encoded by a single exon. Three of the four substitutions are also present in human S4Y, suggesting that the chicken S4 gene may have arisen by recombination between S4X- and S4Y-like sequences. Using isoform-specific antisera, we determined that human S4X and S4Y are both present in translationally active ribosomes. S4Y is about 10 to 15% as abundant as S4X in ribosomes from normal male placental tissue and 46,XY cultured cells. In 49,XYYYY cells, S4Y is about half as abundant as S4X. In 49,XXXXY cells, S4Y is barely detectable. These results bear on the hypothesized role of S4 deficiency in Turner syndrome.

  6. Efficient gene targeting in mouse zygotes mediated by CRISPR/Cas9-protein.

    PubMed

    Jung, Chris J; Zhang, Junli; Trenchard, Elizabeth; Lloyd, Kent C; West, David B; Rosen, Barry; de Jong, Pieter J

    2017-04-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system has rapidly advanced targeted genome editing technologies. However, its efficiency in targeting with constructs in mouse zygotes via homology directed repair (HDR) remains low. Here, we systematically explored optimal parameters for targeting constructs in mouse zygotes via HDR using mouse embryonic stem cells as a model system. We characterized several parameters, including single guide RNA cleavage activity and the length and symmetry of homology arms in the construct, and we compared the targeting efficiency between Cas9, Cas9nickase, and dCas9-FokI. We then applied the optimized conditions to zygotes, delivering Cas9 as either mRNA or protein. We found that Cas9 nucleo-protein complex promotes highly efficient, multiplexed targeting of circular constructs containing reporter genes and floxed exons. This approach allows for a one-step zygote injection procedure targeting multiple genes to generate conditional alleles via homologous recombination, and simultaneous knockout of corresponding genes in non-targeted alleles via non-homologous end joining.

  7. Cloning and characterization of the gene for mouse macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, R.; Bacher, M.; Bernhagen, J.

    1995-04-15

    An emerging body of data indicates that the protein mediator described originally as macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) exerts a central and wide ranging role in host inflammatory responses. MIF is a major constituent of corticotrophic cells within the anterior pituitary gland and is secreted into the circulation in a hormone-like fashion. MIF also exists preformed in monocytes/macrophages and is a pivotal mediator in the host response to endotoxic shock. To gain further insight into the biologic expression of this protein that encompasses components of both the immune and the endocrine systems, we have cloned the mouse MIF gene and identified potential regulatory sequences present within the 5{prime}-proximal promoter region. The gene for mouse MIF is located on chromosome 10, spans approximately 1 kb, and shares a high degree of structural homology with its human counterpart. Of note, the consensus enhancer/promoter motifs identified include both inflammatory/growth factor-related elements and sites associated with the genes for certain peptide hormones. We also report the structures of two MIF pseudogenes that account for early observations suggesting that mouse MIF is encoded by a highly homologous multigene family. 38 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. The Construction of Transgenic and Gene Knockout/Knockin Mouse Models of Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Alfred; McGarry, Michael P.; Lee, Nancy A.; Lee, James J.

    2012-01-01

    The genetic and physiological similarities between mice and humans have focused considerable attention on rodents as potential models of human health and disease. Together with the wealth of resources, knowledge, and technologies surrounding the mouse as a model system, these similarities have propelled this species to the forefront of biomedical research. The advent of genomic manipulation has quickly led to the creation and use of genetically engineered mice as powerful tools for cutting edge studies of human disease research, including the discovery, refinement, and utility of many currently available therapeutic regimes. In particular, the creation of genetically modified mice as models of human disease has remarkably changed our ability to understand the molecular mechanisms and cellular pathways underlying disease states. Moreover, the mouse models resulting from gene transfer technologies have been important components correlating an individual’s gene expression profile to the development of disease pathologies. The objective of this review is to provide physician-scientists with an expansive historical and logistical overview of the creation of mouse models of human disease through gene transfer technologies. Our expectation is that this will facilitate on-going disease research studies and may initiate new areas of translational research leading to enhanced patient care. PMID:21800101

  9. Imaging gene delivery in a mouse model of congenital neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis.

    PubMed

    Pike, L S; Tannous, B A; Deliolanis, N C; Hsich, G; Morse, D; Tung, C-H; Sena-Esteves, M; Breakefield, X O

    2011-12-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene replacement for lysosomal disorders have been spurred by the ability of some serotypes to efficiently transduce neurons in the brain and by the ability of lysosomal enzymes to cross-correct among cells. Here, we explored enzyme replacement therapy in a knock-out mouse model of congenital neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), the most severe of the NCLs in humans. The missing protease in this disorder, cathepsin D (CathD) has high levels in the central nervous system. This enzyme has the potential advantage for assessing experimental therapy in that it can be imaged using a near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) probe activated by CathD. Injections of an AAV2/rh8 vector-encoding mouse CathD (mCathD) into both cerebral ventricles and peritoneum of newborn knock-out mice resulted in a significant increase in lifespan. Successful delivery of active CathD by the AAV2/rh8-mCathD vector was verified by NIRF imaging of mouse embryonic fibroblasts from knock-out mice in culture, as well as by ex vivo NIRF imaging of the brain and liver after gene transfer. These studies support the potential effectiveness and imaging evaluation of enzyme replacement therapy to the brain and other organs in CathD null mice via AAV-mediated gene delivery in neonatal animals.

  10. Sequence analysis of the ERCC2 gene regions in human, mouse, and hamster reveals three linked genes

    SciTech Connect

    Lamerdin, J.E.; Stilwagen, S.A.; Ramirez, M.H.

    1996-06-15

    The ERCC2 (excision repair cross-complementing rodent repair group 2) gene product is involved in transcription-coupled repair as an integral member of the basal transcription factor BTF2/TFIIH complex. Defects in this gene can result in three distinct human disorders, namely the cancer-prone syndrome xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group D, trichothiodystrophy, and Cockayne syndrome. We report the comparative analysis of 91.6 kb of new sequence including 54.3 kb encompassing the human ERCC2 locus, the syntenic region in the mouse (32.6 kb), and a further 4.7 kb of sequence 3{prime} of the previously reported ERCC2 region in the hamster. In addition to ERCC2, our analysis revealed the presence of two previously undescribed genes in all three species. The first is centromeric (in the human) to ERCC2 and is most similar to the kinesin light chain gene in sea urchin. The second gene is telomeric (in the human) to ERCC2 and contains a motif found in ankyrins, some cell proteins, and transcription factors. Multiple EST matches to this putative new gene indicate that it is expressed in several human tissues, including breast. The identification and description of two new genes provides potential candidate genes for disorders mapping to this region of 19q13.2. 42 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Sequence analysis of the ERCC2 gene regions in human, mouse, and hamster reveals three linked genes.

    PubMed

    Lamerdin, J E; Stilwagen, S A; Ramirez, M H; Stubbs, L; Carrano, A V

    1996-06-15

    The ERCC2 (excision repair cross-complementing rodent repair group 2) gene product is involved in transcription-coupled repair as an integral member of the basal transcription factor BTF2/TFIIH complex. Defects in this gene can result in three distinct human disorders, namely the cancer-prone syndrome xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group D, trichothiodystrophy, and Cockayne syndrome. We report the comparative analysis of 91.6 kb of new sequence including 54.3 kb encompassing the human ERCC2 locus, the syntenic region in the mouse (32.6 kb), and a further 4.7 kb of sequence 3' of the previously reported ERCC2 region in the hamster. In addition to ERCC2, our analysis revealed the presence of two previously undescribed genes in all three species. The first is centromeric (in the human) to ERCC2 and is most similar to the kinesin light chain gene in sea urchin. The second gene is telomeric (in the human) to ERCC2 and contains a motif found in ankyrins, some cell cycle proteins, and transcription factors. Multiple EST matches to this putative new gene indicate that it is expressed in several human tissues, including breast. The identification and description of two new genes provides potential candidate genes for disorders mapping to this region of 19q13.2.

  12. Isolation of novel human and mouse genes of the recA/RAD51 recombination-repair gene family.

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, R; Dunn, A M; Simpson, P J; Tambini, C E; Thacker, J

    1998-01-01

    Genes from the recA/RAD51 family play essential roles in homologous recombination in all organisms. Using sequence homologies from eukaryotic members of this family we have identified fragments of two additional mammalian genes with homology to RAD51. Cloning the full-length cDNAs for both human and mouse genes showed that the sequences are highly conserved, and that the predicted proteins have characteristic features of this gene family. One of the novel genes (R51H2) occurs in two forms in human cDNA, differing extensively at the 3' end, probably due to an unusual form of alternative splicing. The new genes (R51H2 and R51H3) were mapped to human chromosomes 14q23-24 and 17q1.2, respectively. Expression studies showed that R51H2 is expressed at lower levels than R51H3 , but that expression of both genes occurs at elevated levels in the testis compared with other tissues. The combination of gene structure conservation and the transcript expression patterns suggests that these new members of the recA/RAD51 family may also function in homologous recombination-repair pathways. PMID:9512535

  13. The Immunoglobulin-like Gene spe-45 Acts during Fertilization in Caenorhabditis elegans like the Mouse Izumo1 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Hitoshi; Tajima, Tatsuya; Comstra, Heather Skye; Gleason, Elizabeth J.; L'Hernault, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The Caenorhabditis elegans spe-9 class genes, which show specific or predominant expression in the male germline, are indispensable for fertilization [1, 2]. However, due to the rapid evolution of genes involved in reproduction, we do not currently know if there are spe-9 class genes in mammals that play similar roles during fertilization to those found in C. elegans. In mice, the Izumo1 gene encodes a sperm-specific transmembrane (TM) protein with a single immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain that is absolutely required for gamete fusion [3, 4]. In this study, we hypothesized that C. elegans has a new member of the spe-9 class genes coding for an IZUMO1-like protein. We screened C. elegans microarray data [5, 6] to identify male germline-enriched genes that encode membrane proteins with Ig-like domains. A deletion (tm3715) in one such gene (F28D1.8) caused hermaphrodites to show a male germline-dependent self-sterility, so we have named it spe-45. Mutant spe-45 worms seemed to normally undergo spermatogenesis (spermatid production by meiosis) and spermiogenesis (spermatid activation into actively motile spermatozoa). spe-45 mutant spermatozoa, however, could not complete gamete fusion, which is a characteristic of all spe-9 class mutants [1, 2]. Moreover, spe-45 self-sterile worms were rescued by a transgene expressing chimeric SPE-45 protein where its Ig-like domain was replaced by the Ig-like domain from mouse IZUMO1. Hence, C. elegans SPE-45 and mouse IZUMO1 appear to have retained a common function(s) that is required during fertilization. PMID:26671669

  14. Retroviral-mediated gene transfer and expression of human phenylalanine hydroxylase in primary mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Peng, H; Armentano, D; MacKenzie-Graham, L; Shen, R F; Darlington, G; Ledley, F D; Woo, S L

    1988-01-01

    Genetic therapy for phenylketonuria (severe phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency) may require introduction of a normal phenylalanine hydroxylase gene into hepatic cells of patients. We report development of a recombinant retrovirus based on the N2 vector for gene transfer and expression of human phenylalanine hydroxylase cDNA in primary mouse hepatocytes. This construct contains an internal promoter of the human alpha 1-antitrypsin gene driving transcription of the phenylalanine hydroxylase cDNA. Primary mouse hepatocytes were isolated from newborn mice, infected with the recombinant virus, and selected for expression of the neomycin-resistance gene. Hepatocytes transformed with the recombinant virus contained high levels of human phenylalanine hydroxylase mRNA transcripts originating form the retroviral and internal promoters. These results demonstrate that the transcriptional regulatory elements of the alpha 1-antitrypsin gene retain their tissue-specific function in the recombinant provirus and establish a method for efficient transfer and high-level expression of human phenylalanine hydroxylase in primary hepatocytes. Images PMID:3186716

  15. A novel replication-independent histone H2a gene in mouse

    PubMed Central

    Nishida, Hiromi; Suzuki, Takahiro; Tomaru, Yasuhiro; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

    2005-01-01

    Background An uncharacterized histone H2a-coding transcript (E130307C13) has been cloned from a mouse full-length cDNA library. This transcript is encoded on chromosome 6, approximately 4 kb upstream of a histone H4 gene, Hist4h4. The proteins encoded by this transcript and the human H2afj mRNA isoform-2 have the highest amino acid similarity. In this paper, we characterize it from the expression pattern given by quantitative RT-PCR. Results Quantitative RT-PCR indicated that the gene that encodes E130307C13 (E130307C13) is regulated in a replication-independent manner, and therefore it is H2afj. Certainly, H2afj transcript lacks a stem-loop structure at the 3'-UTR but contains a poly (A) signal. In addition, its promoter region has a different structure from those of the replication-dependent histone H2a genes. Conclusion The bioinformatics imply that E130307C13 is a replication-independent H2a gene. In addition, quantitative RT-PCR analysis shows that it is replication-independent. Thus, it is H2afj, a novel replication-independent H2a gene in mouse. PMID:15720718

  16. Structure and expression of mouse mitochondrial voltage dependent anion channel genes

    SciTech Connect

    Craigen, W.J.; Lovell, R.S.; Sampson, M.J.

    1994-09-01

    Voltage dependent anion channels (VDACs) are small abundant proteins of the outer mitochondrial membrane that interact with the adenine nucleotide translocater and bind glycerol kinase and hexokinase. Kinase binding is developmentally regulated, tissue specific, and increased in various tumor cell lines. VDACs are also components of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor and GABA{sub A} receptor. Two human VDAC cDNAs have previously been reported, and expression of these isoforms appears ubiquitous. Genomic Southern analysis suggests the presence of other as yet uncharacterised VDAC genes. To study VDAC function in a mammal more amenable to experimental manipulation, we have isolated three mouse VDAC genes by cDNA cloning from a mouse brain cDNA library. DNA sequencing of the cDNAs shows that they share 65-75% amino acid identity. Northern analysis indicates that MVDAC1 is expressed most highly in kidney, heart, and brain. Using an MVDAC3 3{prime} untranslated exon as a probe, three distinct transcripts can be detected. The gene structure for MVDAC3 and MVDAC2 has been completed and suggests that the VDAC isoforms did not arise by gene duplication and divergence. The intron/exon boundaries are not conserved between MVDAC1 and MVDAC3, and MVDAC2 appears to be encoded by a single intronless gene.

  17. Proteomics and bioinformatics analysis of mouse hypothalamic neurogenesis with or without EPHX2 gene deletion

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Lijun; Zhou, Juntuo; Wang, Dawei; Zou, Xiajuan; Lou, Yaxin; Liu, Dan; Yang, Bin; Zhu, Yi; Li, Xiaoxia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify differently expressed proteins in the presence and absence of EPHX2 gene in mouse hypothalamus using proteomics profiling and bioinformatics analysis. This study was performed on 3 wild type (WT) and 3 EPHX2 gene global knockout (KO) mice (EPHX2 -/-). Using the nano- electrospray ionization (ESI)-LC-MS/MS detector, we identified 31 over-expressed proteins in WT mouse hypothalamus compared to the KO counterparts. Gene Ontology (GO) annotation in terms of the protein-protein interaction network indicated that cellular metabolic process, protein metabolic process, signaling transduction and protein post-translation biological processes involved in EPHX2 -/- regulatory network. In addition, signaling pathway enrichment analysis also highlighted chronic neurodegenerative diseases and some other signaling pathways, such as TGF-beta signaling pathway, T cell receptor signaling pathway, ErbB signaling pathway, Neurotrophin signaling pathway and MAPK signaling pathway, were strongly coupled with EPHX2 gene knockout. Further studies into the molecular functions of EPHX2 gene in hypothalamus will help to provide new perspective in neurogenesis. PMID:26722453

  18. Influence of metallothionein-1 localization on its function.

    PubMed Central

    Levadoux-Martin, M; Hesketh, J E; Beattie, J H; Wallace, H M

    2001-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) have a major role to play in metal metabolism, and may also protect DNA against oxidative damage. MT protein has been found localized in the nucleus during S-phase. The mRNA encoding the MT-1 isoform has a perinuclear localization, and is associated with the cytoskeleton; this targeting, due to signals within the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR), facilitates nuclear localization of MT-1 during S-phase [Levadoux, Mahon, Beattie, Wallace and Hesketh (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 34961-34966]. Using cells transfected with MT gene constructs differing in their 3'-UTRs, the role of MT protein in the nucleus has been studied. Chinese hamster ovary cells were transfected with either the full MT gene (MTMT cells) or with the MT 5'-UTR and coding region linked to the 3'-UTR of glutathione peroxidase (MTGSH cells). Cell survival following exposure to oxidative stress and chemical agents was higher in cells expressing the native MT gene than in cells where MT localization was disrupted, or in untransfected cells. Also, MTMT cells showed less DNA damage than MTGSH cells in response to either hydrogen peroxide or mutagen. After exposure to UV light or mutagen, MTMT cells showed less apoptosis than MTGSH cells, as assessed by DNA fragmentation and flow cytometry. The data indicate that the perinuclear localization of MT mRNA is important for the function of MT in a protective role against DNA damage and apoptosis induced by external stress. PMID:11284736

  19. High-throughput screening of mouse gene knockouts identifies established and novel skeletal phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Brommage, Robert; Liu, Jeff; Hansen, Gwenn M; Kirkpatrick, Laura L; Potter, David G; Sands, Arthur T; Zambrowicz, Brian; Powell, David R; Vogel, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Screening gene function in vivo is a powerful approach to discover novel drug targets. We present high-throughput screening (HTS) data for 3 762 distinct global gene knockout (KO) mouse lines with viable adult homozygous mice generated using either gene-trap or homologous recombination technologies. Bone mass was determined from DEXA scans of male and female mice at 14 weeks of age and by microCT analyses of bones from male mice at 16 weeks of age. Wild-type (WT) cagemates/littermates were examined for each gene KO. Lethality was observed in an additional 850 KO lines. Since primary HTS are susceptible to false positive findings, additional cohorts of mice from KO lines with intriguing HTS bone data were examined. Aging, ovariectomy, histomorphometry and bone strength studies were performed and possible non-skeletal phenotypes were explored. Together, these screens identified multiple genes affecting bone mass: 23 previously reported genes (Calcr, Cebpb, Crtap, Dcstamp, Dkk1, Duoxa2, Enpp1, Fgf23, Kiss1/Kiss1r, Kl (Klotho), Lrp5, Mstn, Neo1, Npr2, Ostm1, Postn, Sfrp4, Slc30a5, Slc39a13, Sost, Sumf1, Src, Wnt10b), five novel genes extensively characterized (Cldn18, Fam20c, Lrrk1, Sgpl1, Wnt16), five novel genes with preliminary characterization (Agpat2, Rassf5, Slc10a7, Slc26a7, Slc30a10) and three novel undisclosed genes coding for potential osteoporosis drug targets. PMID:26273529

  20. Comparison of Mouse and Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium Gene Expression Profiles: Potential Implications for Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bennis, Anna; Gorgels, Theo G. M. F.; ten Brink, Jacoline B.; van der Spek, Peter J.; Bossers, Koen; Heine, Vivi M.; Bergen, Arthur A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of age related macular degeneration (AMD). AMD is the leading cause of blindness worldwide. There is currently no effective treatment available. Preclinical studies in AMD mouse models are essential to develop new therapeutics. This requires further in-depth knowledge of the similarities and differences between mouse and human RPE. Methods We performed a microarray study to identify and functionally annotate RPE specific gene expression in mouse and human RPE. We used a meticulous method to determine C57BL/6J mouse RPE signature genes, correcting for possible RNA contamination from its adjacent layers: the choroid and the photoreceptors. We compared the signature genes, gene expression profiles and functional annotations of the mouse and human RPE. Results We defined sets of mouse (64), human (171) and mouse–human interspecies (22) RPE signature genes. Not unexpectedly, our gene expression analysis and comparative functional annotation suggested that, in general, the mouse and human RPE are very similar. For example, we found similarities for general features, like “organ development” and “disorders related to neurological tissue”. However, detailed analysis of the molecular pathways and networks associated with RPE functions, suggested also multiple species-specific differences, some of which may be relevant for the development of AMD. For example, CFHR1, most likely the main complement regulator in AMD pathogenesis was highly expressed in human RPE, but almost absent in mouse RPE. Furthermore, functions assigned to mouse and human RPE expression profiles indicate (patho-) biological differences related to AMD, such as oxidative stress, Bruch’s membrane, immune-regulation and outer blood retina barrier. Conclusion These differences may be important for the development of new therapeutic strategies and translational studies in age-related macular

  1. Inherited somatic mosaicism caused by an intracisternal A particle insertion in the mouse tyrosinase gene.

    PubMed

    Wu, M; Rinchik, E M; Wilkinson, E; Johnson, D K

    1997-02-04

    A recessive, fully penetrant mutation (c(m1OR)) at the mouse albino locus that results in coat-color mottling has been characterized at the molecular level. Restriction mapping and DNA sequencing analyses provide evidence that mutants carry a 5.4-kb intracisternal A particle (IAP) element insertion upstream of the tyrosinase (Tyr) promoter. Northern blot analysis and reverse transcription-PCR results show that the tyrosinase gene is expressed at much lower levels in mutant than in wild-type mice. The mutant Tyr gene still retains the tissue-specific expression pattern, and the Tyr transcript is not initiated from the IAP long terminal repeat promoter. We propose that the IAP insertion isolates the promoter of the tyrosinase gene from upstream cis-acting regulatory elements, leading to a substantially decreased level of Tyr gene expression in mutants.

  2. Computational promoter analysis of mouse, rat and human antimicrobial peptide-coding genes

    PubMed Central

    Brahmachary, Manisha; Schönbach, Christian; Yang, Liang; Huang, Enli; Tan, Sin Lam; Chowdhary, Rajesh; Krishnan, SPT; Lin, Chin-Yo; Hume, David A; Kai, Chikatoshi; Kawai, Jun; Carninci, Piero; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Bajic, Vladimir B

    2006-01-01

    Background Mammalian antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are effectors of the innate immune response. A multitude of signals coming from pathways of mammalian pathogen/pattern recognition receptors and other proteins affect the expression of AMP-coding genes (AMPcgs). For many AMPcgs the promoter elements and transcription factors that control their tissue cell-specific expression have yet to be fully identified and characterized. Results Based upon the RIKEN full-length cDNA and public sequence data derived from human, mouse and rat, we identified 178 candidate AMP transcripts derived from 61 genes belonging to 29 AMP families. However, only for 31 mouse genes belonging to 22 AMP families we were able to determine true orthologous relationships with 30 human and 15 rat sequences. We screened the promoter regions of AMPcgs in the three species for motifs by an ab initio motif finding method and analyzed the derived promoter characteristics. Promoter models were developed for alpha-defensins, penk and zap AMP families. The results suggest a core set of transcription factors (TFs) that regulate the transcription of AMPcg families in mouse, rat and human. The three most frequent core TFs groups include liver-, nervous system-specific and nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs). Out of 440 motifs analyzed, we found that three represent potentially novel TF-binding motifs enriched in promoters of AMPcgs, while the other four motifs appear to be species-specific. Conclusion Our large-scale computational analysis of promoters of 22 families of AMPcgs across three mammalian species suggests that their key transcriptional regulators are likely to be TFs of the liver-, nervous system-specific and NHR groups. The computationally inferred promoter elements and potential TF binding motifs provide a rich resource for targeted experimental validation of TF binding and signaling studies that aim at the regulation of mouse, rat or human AMPcgs. PMID:17254313

  3. Genetic‐Genomic Replication to Identify Candidate Mouse Atherosclerosis Modifier Genes

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Jeffrey; Smith, Jonathan D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Genetics plays a large role in atherosclerosis susceptibility in humans and mice. We attempted to confirm previously determined mouse atherosclerosis‐associated loci and use bioinformatics and transcriptomics to create a catalog of candidate atherosclerosis modifier genes at these loci. Methods and Results A strain intercross was performed between AKR and DBA/2 mice on the apoE−/− background generating 166 F2 progeny. Using the phenotype log10 of the aortic root lesion area, we identified 3 suggestive atherosclerosis quantitative trait loci (Ath QTLs). When combined with our prior strain intercross, we confirmed 3 significant Ath QTLs on chromosomes 2, 15, and 17, with combined logarithm of odds scores of 5.9, 5.3, and 5.6, respectively, which each met the genome‐wide 5% false discovery rate threshold. We identified all of the protein coding differences between these 2 mouse strains within the Ath QTL intervals. Microarray gene expression profiling was performed on macrophages and endothelial cells from this intercross to identify expression QTLs (eQTLs), the loci that are associated with variation in the expression levels of specific transcripts. Cross tissue eQTLs and macrophage eQTLs that replicated from a prior strain intercross were identified. These bioinformatic and eQTL analyses produced a comprehensive list of candidate genes that may be responsible for the Ath QTLs. Conclusions Replication studies for clinical traits as well as gene expression traits are worthwhile in identifying true versus false genetic associations. We have replicated 3 loci on mouse chromosomes 2, 15, and 17 that are associated with atherosclerosis. We have also identified protein coding differences and multiple replicated eQTLs, which may be useful in the identification of atherosclerosis modifier genes. PMID:23525445

  4. Selection-independent generation of gene knockout mouse embryonic stem cells using zinc-finger nucleases.

    PubMed

    Osiak, Anna; Radecke, Frank; Guhl, Eva; Radecke, Sarah; Dannemann, Nadine; Lütge, Fabienne; Glage, Silke; Rudolph, Cornelia; Cantz, Tobias; Schwarz, Klaus; Heilbronn, Regine; Cathomen, Toni

    2011-01-01

    Gene knockout in murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) has been an invaluable tool to study gene function in vitro or to generate animal models with altered phenotypes. Gene targeting using standard techniques, however, is rather inefficient and typically does not exceed frequencies of 10(-6). In consequence, the usage of complex positive/negative selection strategies to isolate targeted clones has been necessary. Here, we present a rapid single-step approach to generate a gene knockout in mouse ESCs using engineered zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs). Upon transient expression of ZFNs, the target gene is cleaved by the designer nucleases and then repaired by non-homologous end-joining, an error-prone DNA repair process that introduces insertions/deletions at the break site and therefore leads to functional null mutations. To explore and quantify the potential of ZFNs to generate a gene knockout in pluripotent stem cells, we generated a mouse ESC line containing an X-chromosomally integrated EGFP marker gene. Applying optimized conditions, the EGFP locus was disrupted in up to 8% of ESCs after transfection of the ZFN expression vectors, thus obviating the need of selection markers to identify targeted cells, which may impede or complicate downstream applications. Both activity and ZFN-associated cytotoxicity was dependent on vector dose and the architecture of the nuclease domain. Importantly, teratoma formation assays of selected ESC clones confirmed that ZFN-treated ESCs maintained pluripotency. In conclusion, the described ZFN-based approach represents a fast strategy for generating gene knockouts in ESCs in a selection-independent fashion that should be easily transferrable to other pluripotent stem cells.

  5. Gene expression profile of mouse fibroblasts exposed to a biodegradable iron alloy for stents.

    PubMed

    Purnama, Agung; Hermawan, Hendra; Champetier, Serge; Mantovani, Diego; Couet, Jacques

    2013-11-01

    Iron-based materials could constitute an interesting option for cardiovascular biodegradable stent applications due to their superior ductility compared to their counterparts - magnesium alloys. Since the predicted degradation rate of pure iron is considered slow, manganese (35% w/w), an alloying element for iron, was explored to counteract this problem through the powder metallurgy process (Fe-35 Mn). However, manganese presents a high cytotoxic potential; thus its effect on cells must first be established. Here, we established the gene expression profile of mouse 3T3 fibroblasts exposed to Fe-35 Mn degradation products in order to better understand cell response to potentially cytotoxic degradable metallic material (DMM). Mouse 3T3 cells were exposed to degradation products eluting through tissue culture insert filter (3 μm pore size) containing cytostatic amounts of 3.25 mg ml(-1) of Fe-35 Mn powder, 0.25 mg ml(-1) of pure Mn powder or 5 mg ml(-1) of pure iron powder for 24 h. We then conducted a gene expression profiling study from these cells. Exposure of 3T3 cells to Fe-35 Mn was associated with the up-regulation of 75 genes and down-regulation of 59 genes, while 126 were up-regulated and 76 down-regulated genes in the presence of manganese. No genes were found regulated for the iron powder. When comparing the GEP of 3T3 fibroblasts in the presence of Fe-35 Mn and Mn, 68 up-regulated and 54 down-regulated genes were common. These results were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR for a subset of these genes. This GEP study could provide clues about the mechanism behind degradation products effects on cells of the Fe-35 Mn alloy and may help in the appraisal of its potential for DMM applications.

  6. Selection-Independent Generation of Gene Knockout Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells Using Zinc-Finger Nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Osiak, Anna; Radecke, Frank; Guhl, Eva; Radecke, Sarah; Dannemann, Nadine; Lütge, Fabienne; Glage, Silke; Rudolph, Cornelia; Cantz, Tobias; Schwarz, Klaus; Heilbronn, Regine; Cathomen, Toni

    2011-01-01

    Gene knockout in murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) has been an invaluable tool to study gene function in vitro or to generate animal models with altered phenotypes. Gene targeting using standard techniques, however, is rather inefficient and typically does not exceed frequencies of 10−6. In consequence, the usage of complex positive/negative selection strategies to isolate targeted clones has been necessary. Here, we present a rapid single-step approach to generate a gene knockout in mouse ESCs using engineered zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs). Upon transient expression of ZFNs, the target gene is cleaved by the designer nucleases and then repaired by non-homologous end-joining, an error-prone DNA repair process that introduces insertions/deletions at the break site and therefore leads to functional null mutations. To explore and quantify the potential of ZFNs to generate a gene knockout in pluripotent stem cells, we generated a mouse ESC line containing an X-chromosomally integrated EGFP marker gene. Applying optimized conditions, the EGFP locus was disrupted in up to 8% of ESCs after transfection of the ZFN expression vectors, thus obviating the need of selection markers to identify targeted cells, which may impede or complicate downstream applications. Both activity and ZFN-associated cytotoxicity was dependent on vector dose and the architecture of the nuclease domain. Importantly, teratoma formation assays of selected ESC clones confirmed that ZFN-treated ESCs maintained pluripotency. In conclusion, the described ZFN-based approach represents a fast strategy for generating gene knockouts in ESCs in a selection-independent fashion that should be easily transferrable to other pluripotent stem cells. PMID:22194948

  7. The Ah receptor nuclear translocator gene (ARNT) is located on q21 of human chromosome 1 and on mouse chromosome 3 near Cf-3

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B.; Brooks, B.A.; Heinzmann, C. ); Mohandas, T. )

    1993-09-01

    The authors have mapped the Ah (aryl hydrocarbon) receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) gene to a conserved linkage group located on mouse chromosome 3 and human chromosome 1. EcoRi-digested DNA from a panel of 17 human x mouse somatic cell hybrids was probed with a cDNA fragment of the human ARNT gene. Six of the 17 independent mouse x human hybrids were positive for human bands. Human chromosome 1 showed complete cosegregation with the gene, whereas discordant segregation was observed for all other human chromosomes. The human gene was localized to 1q21 by using DNA from mouse x human hybrid clones that retain translocations involving human chromosome 1, by segregation analysis in nine informative CEPH families, and by in situ hybridization. The mouse homologue was mapped to mouse chromosome 3 using a panel of 16 hamster x mouse somatic cell hybrids. Six of 16 mouse x hamster hybrids were positive for mouse bands, showing complete concordance with mouse chromosome 3. The mouse Arnt gene was regionally mapped on chromosome 3, using linkage analysis in an interspecific backcross. The results indicate that the mouse gene resides about 40 cM from the centromere and about 10 cM proximal to Cf-3, the gene for tissue factor. 41 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Inactivation of the retinoblastoma gene yields a mouse model of malignant colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Parisi, T; Bronson, R T; Lees, J A

    2015-11-26

    The retinoblastoma gene (Rb) is mutated at significant frequency in various human epithelial tumors, including colorectal cancer, and is strongly associated with metastatic disease. However, sole inactivation of Rb in the mouse has so far failed to yield epithelial cancers. Here, we specifically inactivate Rb and/or p53 in the urogenital epithelium and the intestine. We find that the loss of both tumor suppressors is unable to yield tumors in the transitional epithelium lining the bladder, kidneys and ureters. Instead, these mice develop highly metastatic tumors of neuroendocrine, not epithelial, origin within the urogenital tract to give prostate cancer in the males and vaginal tumors in the females. Additionally, we discovered that the sole inactivation of Rb in the intestine was sufficient to induce formation of metastatic colorectal adenocarcinomas. These tumors closely mirror the human disease in regard to the age of onset, histological appearance, invasiveness and metastatic potential. Like most human colorectal carcinomas, our murine Rb-deficient tumors demonstrate genomic instability and they show activation of β-catenin. Deregulation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is specific to the intestinal tumors, as genomic instability but not activation of β-catenin was observed in the neuroendocrine tumors. To date, attempts to generate genetically engineered mouse models of colorectal cancer tumors have yielded mostly cancer of the small intestine, which rarely occurs in humans. Our system provides the opportunity to accurately model and study colorectal cancer in the mouse via a single gene mutation.

  9. Acat1 knockdown gene therapy decreases amyloid-β in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Stephanie R; Chang, Catherine Cy; Dogbevia, Godwin; Bryleva, Elena Y; Bowen, Zachary; Hasan, Mazahir T; Chang, Ta-Yuan

    2013-08-01

    Both genetic inactivation and pharmacological inhibition of the cholesteryl ester synthetic enzyme acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 1 (ACAT1) have shown benefit in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we aimed to test the potential therapeutic applications of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated Acat1 gene knockdown in AD mice. We constructed recombinant AAVs expressing artificial microRNA (miRNA) sequences, which targeted Acat1 for knockdown. We demonstrated that our AAVs could infect cultured mouse neurons and glia and effectively knockdown ACAT activity in vitro. We next delivered the AAVs to mouse brains neurosurgically, and demonstrated that Acat1-targeting AAVs could express viral proteins and effectively diminish ACAT activity in vivo, without inducing appreciable inflammation. We delivered the AAVs to the brains of 10-month-old AD mice and analyzed the effects on the AD phenotype at 12 months of age. Acat1-targeting AAV delivered to the brains of AD mice decreased the levels of brain amyloid-β and full-length human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP), to levels similar to complete genetic ablation of Acat1. This study provides support for the potential therapeutic use of Acat1 knockdown gene therapy in AD.

  10. Using mouse models of autism spectrum disorders to study the neurotoxicology of gene-environment interactions

    PubMed Central

    Schwartzer, Jared J.; Koenig, Claire M.; Berman, Robert F

    2012-01-01

    To better study the role of genetics in autism, mouse models have been developed which mimic the genetics of specific autism spectrum and related disorders. These models have facilitated research on the role genetic susceptibility factors in the pathogenesis of autism in the absence of environmental factors. Inbred mouse strains have been similarly studied to assess the role of environmental agents on neurodevelopment, typically without the complications of genetic heterogeneity of the human population. What has not been as actively pursued, however, is the methodical study of the interaction between these factors (e.g., gene and environmental interactions in neurodevelopment). This review suggests that a genetic predisposition paired with exposure to environmental toxicants play an important role in the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders including autism, and may contribute to the largely unexplained rise in the number of children diagnosed with autism worldwide. Specifically, descriptions of the major mouse models of autism and toxic mechanisms of prevalent environmental chemicals are provided followed by a discussion of current and future research strategies to evaluate the role of gene and environment interactions in neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:23010509

  11. Expression of dog microdystrophin in mouse and dog muscles by gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Pichavant, Christophe; Chapdelaine, Pierre; Cerri, Daniel G; Dominique, Jean-Christophe; Quenneville, Simon P; Skuk, Daniel; Kornegay, Joe N; Bizario, João Cs; Xiao, Xiao; Tremblay, Jacques P

    2010-05-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by the absence of dystrophin. Several previous studies demonstrated the feasibility of delivering microdystrophin complementary DNA (cDNA) into mouse and normal nonhuman primate muscles by ex vivo gene therapy. However, these animal models do not reproduce completely the human DMD phenotype, while the dystrophic dog model does. To progress toward the use of the best animal model of DMD, a dog microdystrophin was transduced into human and dystrophic dog muscle precursor cells (MPCs) with a lentivirus before their transplantation into mouse muscles. One month following MPC transplantation, myofibers expressing the dog microdystrophin were observed. We also used another approach to introduce this transgene into myofibers, i.e., the electrotransfer of a plasmid coding for the dog microdystrophin. The plasmid was injected into mouse and dog muscles, and brief electric pulses were applied in the region of injection. Two weeks later, the transgene was detected in both animals. Therefore, ex vivo gene therapy and electrotransfer are two possible methods to introduce a truncated version of dystrophin into myofibers of animal models and eventually into myofibers of DMD patients.

  12. Shaping mechanisms of metal specificity in a family of metazoan metallothioneins: evolutionary differentiation of mollusc metallothioneins

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The degree of metal binding specificity in metalloproteins such as metallothioneins (MTs) can be crucial for their functional accuracy. Unlike most other animal species, pulmonate molluscs possess homometallic MT isoforms loaded with Cu+ or Cd2+. They have, so far, been obtained as native metal-MT complexes from snail tissues, where they are involved in the metabolism of the metal ion species bound to the respective isoform. However, it has not as yet been discerned if their specific metal occupation is the result of a rigid control of metal availability, or isoform expression programming in the hosting tissues or of structural differences of the respective peptides determining the coordinative options for the different metal ions. In this study, the Roman snail (Helix pomatia) Cu-loaded and Cd-loaded isoforms (HpCuMT and HpCdMT) were used as model molecules in order to elucidate the biochemical and evolutionary mechanisms permitting pulmonate MTs to achieve specificity for their cognate metal ion. Results HpCuMT and HpCdMT were recombinantly synthesized in the presence of Cd2+, Zn2+ or Cu2+ and corresponding metal complexes analysed by electrospray mass spectrometry and circular dichroism (CD) and ultra violet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry. Both MT isoforms were only able to form unique, homometallic and stable complexes (Cd6-HpCdMT and Cu12-HpCuMT) with their cognate metal ions. Yeast complementation assays demonstrated that the two isoforms assumed metal-specific functions, in agreement with their binding preferences, in heterologous eukaryotic environments. In the snail organism, the functional metal specificity of HpCdMT and HpCuMT was contributed by metal-specific transcription programming and cell-specific expression. Sequence elucidation and phylogenetic analysis of MT isoforms from a number of snail species revealed that they possess an unspecific and two metal-specific MT isoforms, whose metal specificity was achieved exclusively by

  13. Integrative Gene Regulatory Network Analysis Reveals Light-Induced Regional Gene Expression Phase Shift Programs in the Mouse Suprachiasmatic Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Haisun; Vadigepalli, Rajanikanth; Rafferty, Rachel; Gonye, Gregory E.; Weaver, David R.; Schwaber, James S.

    2012-01-01

    We use the multigenic pattern of gene expression across suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) regions and time to understand the dynamics within the SCN in response to a circadian phase-resetting light pulse. Global gene expression studies of the SCN indicate that circadian functions like phase resetting are complex multigenic processes. While the molecular dynamics of phase resetting are not well understood, it is clear they involve a “functional gene expression program”, e.g., the coordinated behavior of functionally related genes in space and time. In the present study we selected a set of 89 of these functionally related genes in order to further understand this multigenic program. By use of high-throughput qPCR we studied 52 small samples taken by anatomically precise laser capture from within the core and shell SCN regions, and taken at time points with and without phase resetting light exposure. The results show striking regional differences in light response to be present in the mouse SCN. By using network-based analyses, we are able to establish a highly specific multigenic correlation between genes expressed in response to light at night and genes normally activated during the day. The light pulse triggers a complex and highly coordinated network of gene regulation. The largest differences marking neuroanatomical location are in transmitter receptors, and the largest time-dependent differences occur in clock-related genes. Nighttime phase resetting appears to recruit transcriptional regulatory processes normally active in the day. This program, or mechanism, causes the pattern of core region gene expression to transiently shift to become more like that of the shell region. PMID:22662235

  14. Identification of a conserved set of upregulated genes in mouse skeletal muscle hypertrophy and regrowth.

    PubMed

    Chaillou, Thomas; Jackson, Janna R; England, Jonathan H; Kirby, Tyler J; Richards-White, Jena; Esser, Karyn A; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E; McCarthy, John J

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the gene expression profile of mouse skeletal muscle undergoing two forms of growth (hypertrophy and regrowth) with the goal of identifying a conserved set of differentially expressed genes. Expression profiling by microarray was performed on the plantaris muscle subjected to 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 days of hypertrophy or regrowth following 2 wk of hind-limb suspension. We identified 97 differentially expressed genes (≥2-fold increase or ≥50% decrease compared with control muscle) that were conserved during the two forms of muscle growth. The vast majority (∼90%) of the differentially expressed genes was upregulated and occurred at a single time point (64 out of 86 genes), which most often was on the first day of the time course. Microarray analysis from the conserved upregulated genes showed a set of genes related to contractile apparatus and stress response at day 1, including three genes involved in mechanotransduction and four genes encoding heat shock proteins. Our analysis further identified three cell cycle-related genes at day and several genes associated with extracellular matrix (ECM) at both days 3 and 10. In conclusion, we have identified a core set of genes commonly upregulated in two forms of muscle growth that could play a role in the maintenance of sarcomere stability, ECM remodeling, cell proliferation, fast-to-slow fiber type transition, and the regulation of skeletal muscle growth. These findings suggest conserved regulatory mechanisms involved in the adaptation of skeletal muscle to increased mechanical loading.

  15. A short upstream promoter region mediates transcriptional regulation of the mouse doublecortin gene in differentiating neurons

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Doublecortin (Dcx), a MAP (Microtubule-Associated Protein), is transiently expressed in migrating and differentiating neurons and thereby characterizes neuronal precursors and neurogenesis in developing and adult neurogenesis. In addition, reduced Dcx expression during development has been related to appearance of brain pathologies. Here, we attempt to unveil the molecular mechanisms controlling Dcx gene expression by studying its transcriptional regulation during neuronal differentiation. Results To determine and analyze important regulatory sequences of the Dcx promoter, we studied a putative regulatory region upstream from the mouse Dcx coding region (pdcx2kb) and several deletions thereof. These different fragments were used in vitro and in vivo to drive reporter gene expression. We demonstrated, using transient expression experiments, that pdcx2kb is sufficient to control specific reporter gene expression in cerebellar cells and in the developing brain (E14.5). We determined the temporal profile of Dcx promoter activity during neuronal differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) and found that transcriptional activation of the Dcx gene varies along with neuronal differentiation of mESC. Deletion experiments and sequence comparison of Dcx promoters across rodents, human and chicken revealed the importance of a highly conserved sequence in the proximal region of the promoter required for specific and strong expression in neuronal precursors and young neuronal cells. Further analyses revealed the presence in this short sequence of several conserved, putative transcription factor binding sites: LEF/TCF (Lymphoid Enhancer Factor/T-Cell Factor) which are effectors of the canonical Wnt pathway; HNF6/OC2 (Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor-6/Oncecut-2) members of the ONECUT family and NF-Y/CAAT (Nuclear Factor-Y). Conclusions Studies of Dcx gene regulatory sequences using native, deleted and mutated constructs suggest that fragments located upstream of the

  16. PCR detection of retinoblastoma gene deletions in radiation-induced mouse lung adenocarcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Churchill, M.E.; Gemmell, M.A.; Woloschak, G.E.

    1994-05-01

    From 1971--1986, Argonne National Laboratory conducted a series of large-scale studies of tumor incidence in 40,000 BCF{sub 1} mice irradiated with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays or JANUS fission-spectrum neutrons. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used to detect deletions in the mouse retinoblastoma (mRb) gene. Six mRb gene exon fragments were amplified in a 40-cycle, 3-temperature PCR protocol. Absence of any of these fragments on a Southern blot indicated a deletion of that portion of the mRb gene. Tumors chosen for analysis were lung adenocarcinomas that were judged to be the cause of death in post-mortem analyses. Spontaneous tumors as well as those from irradiated mice were analyzed for mRb deletions. In all normal mouse tissues studies all six mRb exon fragments were present on Southern blots. Tumors in six neutron-irradiated mice also had no mRb deletions. However, 1 of 6 tumors from {gamma}-irradiated mice and 6 of 18 spontaneous tumors from unirradiated mice showed a deletion in one or both mRb alleles. All deletions detected were in the 5{prime} region of the mRb gene.

  17. Microarray and KOG analysis of Acanthamoeba healyi genes up-regulated by mouse-brain passage.

    PubMed

    Moon, Eun-Kyung; Xuan, Ying-Hua; Kong, Hyun-Hee

    2014-08-01

    Long-term cultivation in a laboratory could reduce the virulence of Acanthamoeba. To identify virulence factors of Acanthamoeba, the authors compared the transcription profiles of long-term cultivated Acanthamoeba healyi (OLD) and three times mouse-brain passaged A. healyi (MBP) using microarray analysis and eukaryotic orthologous group (KOG) assignments. Microarray analysis revealed that 601 genes were up-regulated by mouse-brain passage. The results of real-time PCR of 8 randomly selected genes up-regulated in the MBP strain confirmed microarray analysis findings. KOG assignments showed relatively higher percentages of the MBP strain up-regulated genes in T article (signal transduction mechanism), O article (posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones), C article (energy production and conversion), and J article (translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis). In particular, the MBP strain showed higher expressions of cysteine protease and metalloprotease. A comparison of KOG assignments by microarray analysis and previous EST (expressed sequence tags) analysis showed similar populations of up-regulated genes. These results provide important information regarding the identification of virulence factors of pathogenic Acanthamoeba.

  18. Genomic analysis of sexual dimorphism of gene expression in the mouse adrenal gland.

    PubMed

    El Wakil, A; Mari, B; Barhanin, J; Lalli, E

    2013-11-01

    A relevant gender difference exists in adrenal physiology and propensity to disease. In mice, a remarkable sexual dimorphism is present in several components of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, with females displaying higher adrenal weight, plasma ACTH, corticosterone, and aldosterone levels than males. The molecular bases of this sexual dimorphism are little known. We have compared global gene expression profiles in males vs. female mouse adrenal glands and also studied the effect that testosterone treatment and castration have on adrenal gene expression in female vs. male mice, respectively. Our study evidenced a set of 71 genes that are coordinately modulated according to sex and hormonal treatments and represent the core sexually dimorphic expression program in the mouse adrenal gland. Moreover, we show that some genes involved in steroid metabolism have a remarkable sexual dimorphic expression and identify new potential markers for the adrenal X-zone, a transitory cellular layer in the inner adrenal cortex, which spontaneously regresses at puberty in males and during the first pregnancy in females and has an uncertain physiological role. Finally, sexually dimorphic expression of the transcriptional regulators Nr5a1 and Nr0b1 may explain at least in part the differences in adrenal steroidogenesis between sexes.

  19. Restricted development of mouse triploid fetuses with disorganized expression of imprinted genes.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Wataru; Takahashi, Masashi; Kawahara, Manabu

    2015-12-01

    Eukaryotic species commonly contain a diploid complement of chromosomes. The diploid state appears to be advantageous for mammals because it enables sexual reproduction and facilitates genetic recombination. Nonetheless, the effects of DNA ploidy on mammalian ontogeny have yet to be understood. The present study shows phenotypic features and expression patterns of imprinted genes in tripronucleate diandric and digynic triploid (DAT and DGT) mouse fetuses on embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5). Measurement of crown-rump length revealed that the length of DGT fetuses (1.87 ± 0.13 mm; mean ± standard error of the mean) was much smaller than that of diploid fetuses (4.81 ± 0.05 mm). However, no significant difference was observed in the crown-rump length between diploid and DAT fetuses (3.86 ± 0.43 mm). In DGT fetuses, the expression level of paternally expressed genes, Igf2, Dlk1, Ndn, and Peg3, remained significantly reduced and that of maternally expressed genes, Igf2r and Grb10, increased. Additionally, in DAT fetuses, the Igf2 mRNA expression level was approximately twice that in diploid fetuses, as expected. These results provide the first demonstration that imprinted genes in mouse triploid fetuses show distinctive expression patterns independent of the number of parental-origin haploid sets. These data suggest that both DNA ploidy and asymmetrical functions of parental genomes separately influence mammalian ontogeny.

  20. Survival benefit and phenotypic improvement by hamartin gene therapy in a tuberous sclerosis mouse brain model.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, Shilpa; Zhang, Xuan; Goto, June; Han, Sangyeul; Lai, Charles; Bronson, Roderick; Sena-Esteves, Miguel; Ramesh, Vijaya; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat; Kwiatkowski, David J; Breakefield, Xandra O

    2015-10-01

    We examined the potential benefit of gene therapy in a mouse model of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) in which there is embryonic loss of Tsc1 (hamartin) in brain neurons. An adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector (serotype rh8) expressing a tagged form of hamartin was injected into the cerebral ventricles of newborn pups with the genotype Tsc1(cc) (homozygous for a conditional floxed Tsc1 allele) SynI-cre(+), in which Tsc1 is lost selectively in neurons starting at embryonic day 12. Vector-treated Tsc1(cc)SynIcre(+) mice showed a marked improvement in survival from a mean of 22 days in non-injected mice to 52 days in AAV hamartin vector-injected mice, with improved weight gain and motor behavior in the latter. Pathologic studies showed normalization of neuron size and a decrease in markers of mTOR activation in treated as compared to untreated mutant littermates. Hence, we show that gene replacement in the brain is an effective therapeutic approach in this mouse model of TSC1. Our strategy for gene therapy has the advantages that therapy can be achieved from a single application, as compared to repeated treatment with drugs, and that AAV vectors have been found to have minimal to no toxicity in clinical trials for other neurologic conditions. Although there are many additional issues to be addressed, our studies support gene therapy as a useful approach in TSC patients.

  1. Structure and expression of a mouse major histocompatibility antigen gene, H-2Ld.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, G A; Margulies, D H; Camerini-Otero, R D; Ozato, K; Seidman, J G

    1982-01-01

    A genomic clone encoding H-2Ld, a mouse major transplantation antigen, has been identified and the structure of the H-2Ld gene has been partially determined. We isolated 35 genomic clones from a BALB/c (H-2d) genomic library by hybridization to mouse or human probes. One of these clones encodes H-2Ld as determined by two criteria. First, the gene encodes a protein that is identical at the 76 known amino acid positions for H-2Ld. Second, when introduced into L cells by DNA-mediated gene transfer, a new H-2 antigen is expressed that is recognized by anti-H-2Ld monoclonal antibodies. The sequence of the H-2Ld protein predicted by the DNA sequences shows more than 80% homology to known H-2 antigens. H-2L-like sequences are found in mutant H-2Kb molecules, suggesting that gene conversion or reciprocal recombination may play a role in the development of H-2 polymorphism. PMID:6952248

  2. Thalidomide induced early gene expression perturbations indicative of human embryopathy in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiugong; Sprando, Robert L; Yourick, Jeffrey J

    2015-08-15

    Developmental toxicity testing has traditionally relied on animal models which are costly, time consuming, and require the sacrifice of large numbers of animals. In addition, there are significant disparities between human beings and animals in their responses to chemicals. Thalidomide is a species-specific developmental toxicant that causes severe limb malformations in humans but not in mice. Here, we used microarrays to study transcriptomic changes induced by thalidomide in an in vitro model based on differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). C57BL/6 mESCs were allowed to differentiate spontaneously and RNA was collected at 24, 48, and 72h after exposure to 0.25mM thalidomide. Global gene expression analysis using microarrays revealed hundreds of differentially expressed genes upon thalidomide exposure that were enriched in gene ontology (GO) terms and canonical pathways associated with embryonic development and differentiation. In addition, many genes were found to be involved in small GTPases-mediated signal transduction, heart development, and inflammatory responses, which coincide with clinical evidences and may represent critical embryotoxicities of thalidomide. These results demonstrate that transcriptomics in combination with mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation is a promising alternative model for developmental toxicity assessment.

  3. A kidney injury molecule‐1 (Kim‐1) gene reporter in a mouse artificial chromosome: the responsiveness to cisplatin toxicity in immortalized mouse kidney S3 cells

    PubMed Central

    Kokura, Kenji; Kuromi, Yasushi; Endo, Takeshi; Anzai, Naohiko; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Oshimura, Mitsuo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Kidney injury molecule‐1 (Kim‐1) has been validated as a urinary biomarker for acute and chronic renal damage. The expression of Kim‐1 mRNA is also activated by acute kidney injury induced by cisplatin in rodents and humans. To date, the measurement of Kim‐1 expression has not fully allowed the detection of in vitro cisplatin nephrotoxicity in immortalized culture cells, such as human kidney‐2 cells and immortalized proximal tubular epithelial cells. Methods We measured the augmentation of Kim‐1 mRNA expression after the addition of cisplatin using immortalized S3 cells established from the kidneys of transgenic mice harboring temperature‐sensitive large T antigen from Simian virus 40. Results A mouse Kim‐1 gene luciferase reporter in conjunction with an Hprt gene reporter detected cisplatin‐induced nephrotoxicity in S3 cells. These two reporter genes were contained in a mouse artificial chromosome, and two luciferases that emitted different wavelengths were used to monitor the respective gene expression. However, the Kim‐1 reporter gene failed to respond to cisplatin in A9 fibroblast cells that contained the same reporter mouse artificial chromosome, suggesting cell type‐specificity for activation of the reporter. Conclusions We report the feasibility of measuring in vitro cisplatin nephrotoxicity using a Kim‐1 reporter gene in S3 cells. PMID:27591740

  4. The human and mouse receptors of hyaluronan-mediated motility, RHAMM, genes (HMMR) map to human chromosome 5q33.2-qter and mouse chromosome 11

    SciTech Connect

    Spicer, A.P.; McDonald, J.A.; Roller, M.L.; Camper, S.A.

    1995-11-01

    The gene for the receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility, RHAAM (designated hyaluronan-mediated motility receptor, HMMR (human) and Hmmr (mouse), for mapping purposes), was localized to human chromosome 5q33.2-qter by somatic cell and radiation hybrid analyses. Investigation of two interspecific back-crosses localized the mouse RHAMM (Hmmr) locus 18 cM from the centromere of mouse chromosome 11 within a region of synteny homology with human chromosome 5q23-q35 genes. The map position of the human RHAMM gene places it in a region comparatively rich in disease-associated genes, including those for low-frequency hearing loss, dominant limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, diastrophic dysplasia, Treacher Collins syndrome, and myeloid disorders associated with the 5q-syndrome. The RHAMM gene location and its ability to transform cells when overexpressed implicate RHAMM as a possible candidate gene in the pathogenesis of the recently described t(5;14)(q33-q34;q11) acute lymphoblastic leukemias. 18 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Activation of an imprinted Igf 2 gene in mouse somatic cell cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Eversole-Cire, P; Ferguson-Smith, A C; Sasaki, H; Brown, K D; Cattanach, B M; Gonzales, F A; Surani, M A; Jones, P A

    1993-01-01

    The mouse insulin-like growth factor II gene (Igf 2), located on distal chromosome 7, is parentally imprinted such that the paternal allele is expressed while the maternal allele is transcriptionally silent. We derived a cell line from a mouse embryo maternally disomic and paternally deficient for distal chromosome 7 (MatDi7) to determine the stability of gene repression in culture. MatDi7 cells maintained Igf2 in a repressed state even after immortalization, except for one randomly picked clone which spontaneously expressed the gene. Igf 2 was expressed in a cell culture derived from a normal littermate; this expression was growth regulated, with Igf 2 mRNA levels increasing in the stationary phase of growth. Analysis of the methylation status of 28 sites distributed over 10 kb of the gene did not show consistent differences associated with expression level in the normal and MatDi7 cell lines, and the CpG island in the Igf 2 promoter remained unmethylated in all of the cell lines. Only with an oncogenically transformed cell line did the promoter become extensively methylated. We attempted to derepress the imprinted gene in MatDi7 cells by treatments known to alter gene expression. Expression of the Igf 2 allele in MatDi7 cells was increased in a dose-dependent manner by treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine or bromodeoxyuridine, agents known to change DNA methylation patterns or chromatin conformation. Treatment of the cells with 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine, 2'-deoxycytidine, calcium ionophore, heat shock, cold shock, or sodium butyrate did not result in increases in the levels of Igf 2 expression. It seems likely that the mechanism of the Igf 2 imprint involves subtle changes in the methylation or chromatin conformation of the gene which are affected by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and bromodeoxyuridine. Images PMID:8336727

  6. Embryos aggregation improves development and imprinting gene expression in mouse parthenogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bai, Guang-Yu; Song, Si-Hang; Wang, Zhen-Dong; Shan, Zhi-Yan; Sun, Rui-Zhen; Liu, Chun-Jia; Wu, Yan-Shuang; Li, Tong; Lei, Lei

    2016-04-01

    Mouse parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells (PgESCs) could be applied to study imprinting genes and are used in cell therapy. Our previous study found that stem cells established by aggregation of two parthenogenetic embryos at 8-cell stage (named as a2 PgESCs) had a higher efficiency than that of PgESCs, and the paternal expressed imprinting genes were observably upregulated. Therefore, we propose that increasing the number of parthenogenetic embryos in aggregation may improve the development of parthenogenetic mouse and imprinting gene expression of PgESCs. To verify this hypothesis, we aggregated four embryos together at the 4-cell stage and cultured to the blastocyst stage (named as 4aPgB). qPCR detection showed that the expression of imprinting genes Igf2, Mest, Snrpn, Igf2r, H19, Gtl2 in 4aPgB were more similar to that of fertilized blastocyst (named as fB) compared to 2aPgB (derived from two 4-cell stage parthenogenetic embryos aggregation) or PgB (single parthenogenetic blastocyst). Post-implantation development of 4aPgB extended to 11 days of gestation. The establishment efficiency of GFP-a4 PgESCs which derived from GFP-4aPgB is 62.5%. Moreover, expression of imprinting genes Igf2, Mest, Snrpn, notably downregulated and approached the level of that in fertilized embryonic stem cells (fESCs). In addition, we acquired a 13.5-day fetus totally derived from GFP-a4 PgESCs with germline contribution by 8-cell under zona pellucida (ZP) injection. In conclusion, four embryos aggregation improves parthenogenetic development, and compensates imprinting genes expression in PgESCs. It implied that a4 PgESCs could serve as a better scientific model applied in translational medicine and imprinting gene study.

  7. Quantitative PCR for glucose transporter and tristetraprolin family gene expression in cultured mouse adipocytes and macrophages.

    PubMed

    Cao, Heping; Cao, Fangping; Roussel, Anne-Marie; Anderson, Richard A

    2013-12-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) such as TaqMan and SYBR Green qPCR are widely used for gene expression analysis. The drawbacks of SYBR Green assay are that the dye binds to any double-stranded DNA which can generate false-positive signals and that the length of the amplicon affects the intensity of the amplification. Previous results demonstrate that TaqMan assay is more sensitive but generates lower calculated expression levels than SYBR Green assay in quantifying seven mRNAs in tung tree tissues. The objective of this study is to expand the analysis using animal cells. We compared both qPCR assays for quantifying 24 mRNAs including those coding for glucose transporter (Glut) and mRNA-binding protein tristetraprolin (TTP) in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW264.7 macrophages. The results showed that SYBR Green and TaqMan qPCR were reliable for quantitative gene expression in animal cells. This result was supported by validation analysis of Glut and TTP family gene expression. However, SYBR Green qPCR overestimated the expression levels in most of the genes tested. Finally, both qPCR instruments (Bio-Rad's CFX96 real-time system and Applied Biosystems' Prism 7700 real-time PCR instrument) generated similar gene expression profiles in the mouse cells. These results support the conclusion that both qPCR assays (TaqMan and SYBR Green qPCR) and both qPCR instruments (Bio-Rad's CFX96 real-time system and Applied Biosystems' Prism 7700 real-time PCR instrument) are reliable for quantitative gene expression analyses in animal cells but SYBR Green qPCR generally overestimates gene expression levels than TaqMan qPCR.

  8. PCR detection of retinoblastoma gene deletions in radiation-induced mouse lung adenocarcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Churchill, M.E.; Gemmell, M.A.; Woloschak, G.E.

    1993-04-01

    From 1971 to 1986, Argonne National Laboratory conducted a series of large-scale studies of tumor incidence in 40,000 BCF{sub 1} mice irradiated with {sup 60}Co {gamma} rays or JANUS fission-spectrum neutrons; normal and tumor tissues from mice in these studies were preserved in paraffin blocks. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique has been developed to detect deletions in the mouse retinoblastoma (mRb) gene in the paraffin-embedded tissues. Microtomed sections were used as the DNA source in PCR reaction mixtures. Six mRb gene exon fragments were amplified in a 40-cycle, 3-temperature PCR protocol. The absence of any of these fragments (relative to control PCR products) on a Southern blot indicated a deletion of that portion of the mRb gene. The tumors chosen for analysis were lung adenocarcinomas that were judged to be the cause of death in post-mortem analyses. Spontaneous tumors as well as those from irradiated mice (569 cGy of {sup 60}Co {gamma} rays or 60 cGy of JANUS neutrons, doses that have been found to have approximately equal biological effectiveness in the BCF, mouse) were analyzed for mRb deletions. In all normal mouse tissues studies, all six mRb exon fragments were present on Southem blots. Tumors in six neutron-irradiated mice also had no mRb deletions. However, I of 6 tumors from {gamma}-irradiated mice and 6 of 18 spontaneous tumors from unirradiated mice had a deletion in one or both mRb alleles. All deletions detected were in the 5{prime} region of the mRb gene.

  9. PCR detection of retinoblastoma gene deletions in radiation-induced mouse lung adenocarcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Churchill, M.E.; Gemmell, M.A.; Woloschak, G.E.

    1993-01-01

    From 1971 to 1986, Argonne National Laboratory conducted a series of large-scale studies of tumor incidence in 40,000 BCF[sub 1] mice irradiated with [sup 60]Co [gamma] rays or JANUS fission-spectrum neutrons; normal and tumor tissues from mice in these studies were preserved in paraffin blocks. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique has been developed to detect deletions in the mouse retinoblastoma (mRb) gene in the paraffin-embedded tissues. Microtomed sections were used as the DNA source in PCR reaction mixtures. Six mRb gene exon fragments were amplified in a 40-cycle, 3-temperature PCR protocol. The absence of any of these fragments (relative to control PCR products) on a Southern blot indicated a deletion of that portion of the mRb gene. The tumors chosen for analysis were lung adenocarcinomas that were judged to be the cause of death in post-mortem analyses. Spontaneous tumors as well as those from irradiated mice (569 cGy of [sup 60]Co [gamma] rays or 60 cGy of JANUS neutrons, doses that have been found to have approximately equal biological effectiveness in the BCF, mouse) were analyzed for mRb deletions. In all normal mouse tissues studies, all six mRb exon fragments were present on Southem blots. Tumors in six neutron-irradiated mice also had no mRb deletions. However, I of 6 tumors from [gamma]-irradiated mice and 6 of 18 spontaneous tumors from unirradiated mice had a deletion in one or both mRb alleles. All deletions detected were in the 5[prime] region of the mRb gene.

  10. Cardiac gene expression data and in silico analysis provide novel insights into human and mouse taste receptor gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Foster, Simon R; Porrello, Enzo R; Stefani, Maurizio; Smith, Nicola J; Molenaar, Peter; dos Remedios, Cristobal G; Thomas, Walter G; Ramialison, Mirana

    2015-10-01

    G protein-coupled receptors are the principal mediators of the sweet, umami, bitter, and fat taste qualities in mammals. Intriguingly, the taste receptors are also expressed outside of the oral cavity, including in the gut, airways, brain, and heart, where they have additional functions and contribute to disease. However, there is little known about the mechanisms governing the transcriptional regulation of taste receptor genes. Following our recent delineation of taste receptors in the heart, we investigated the genomic loci encoding for taste receptors to gain insight into the regulatory mechanisms that drive their expression in the heart. Gene expression analyses of healthy and diseased human and mouse hearts showed coordinated expression for a subset of chromosomally clustered taste receptors. This chromosomal clustering mirrored the cardiac expression profile, suggesting that a common gene regulatory block may control the taste receptor locus. We identified unique domains with strong regulatory potential in the vicinity of taste receptor genes. We also performed de novo motif enrichment in the proximal promoter regions and found several overrepresented DNA motifs in cardiac taste receptor gene promoters corresponding to ubiquitous and cardiac-specific transcription factor binding sites. Thus, combining cardiac gene expression data with bioinformatic analyses, this study has provided insights into the noncoding regulatory landscape for taste GPCRs. These findings also have broader relevance for the study of taste GPCRs outside of the classical gustatory system, where understanding the mechanisms controlling the expression of these receptors may have implications for future therapeutic development.

  11. Arsenic metalation of seaweed Fucus vesiculosus metallothionein: the importance of the interdomain linker in metallothionein.

    PubMed

    Ngu, Thanh T; Lee, Janice A; Rushton, Moira K; Stillman, Martin J

    2009-09-22

    The presence of metallothionein in seaweed Fucus vesiculosus has been suggested as the protecting agent against toxic metals in the contaminated waters it can grow in. We report the first kinetic pathway data for A3+ binding to an algal metallothionein, F. vesiculosus metallothionein (rfMT). The time and temperature dependence of the relative concentrations of apo-rfMT and the five As-containing species have been determined following mixing of As3+ and apo-rfMT using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI MS). Kinetic analysis of the detailed time-resolved mass spectral data for As3+ metalation allows the simulation of the metalation reactions showing the consumption of apo-rfMT, the formation and consumption of As1- to As4-rfMT, and subsequent, final formation of As5-rfMT. The kinetic model proposed here provides a stepwise analysis of the metalation reaction showing time-resolved occupancy of the Cys7 and the Cys9 domain. The rate constants (M(-1) s(-1)) calculated from the fits for the 7-cysteine gamma domain are k1gamma, 19.8, and k2gamma, 1.4, and for the 9-cysteine beta domain are k1beta, 16.3, k2beta, 9.1, and k3beta, 2.2. The activation energies and Arrhenius factors for each of the reaction steps are also reported. rfMT has a long 14 residue linker, which as we show from analysis of the ESI MS data, allows each of its two domains to bind As3+ independently of each other. The analysis provides for the first time an explanation of the differing metal-binding properties of two-domain MTs with linkers of varying lengths, suggesting further comparison between plant (with long linkers) and mammalian (with short linkers) metallothioneins will shed light on the role of the interdomain linker.

  12. Expression of Slit and Robo genes in the developing mouse heart.

    PubMed

    Medioni, Caroline; Bertrand, Nicolas; Mesbah, Karim; Hudry, Bruno; Dupays, Laurent; Wolstein, Orit; Washkowitz, Andrew J; Papaioannou, Virginia E; Mohun, Timothy J; Harvey, Richard P; Zaffran, Stéphane

    2010-12-01

    Development of the mammalian heart is mediated by complex interactions between myocardial, endocardial, and neural crest-derived cells. Studies in Drosophila have shown that the Slit-Robo signaling pathway controls cardiac cell shape changes and lumen formation of the heart tube. Here, we demonstrate by in situ hybridization that multiple Slit ligands and Robo receptors are expressed in the developing mouse heart. Slit3 is the predominant ligand transcribed in the early mouse heart and is expressed in the ventral wall of the linear heart tube and subsequently in chamber but not in atrioventricular canal myocardium. Furthermore, we identify that the homeobox gene Nkx2-5 is required for early ventral restriction of Slit3 and that the T-box transcription factor Tbx2 mediates repression of Slit3 in nonchamber myocardium. Our results suggest that patterned Slit-Robo signaling may contribute to the control of oriented cell growth during chamber morphogenesis of the mammalian heart.

  13. Mapping TNNC1, the gene that encodes cardiac troponin I in the human and the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Bermingham, N.; Hernandez, D.; Fisher, E.M.C.

    1995-12-10

    We have mapped the TNNC1 gene, whose protein product is the cardiac TnI protein. TnI is one of the proteins that makes up the troponin complex, which mediates the response of muscle to calcium ions. The human TNNC1 locus had been assigned to a large region of chromosome 19, and we have refined the mapping position to the distal end of the chromosome by amplification of DNAs from a chromosome 19 mapping panel. We have also mapped the mouse Tnnc1 locus, by following the segregation of an intron sequence through DNAs from the European Interspecific Backcross. Tnnc1 maps close to the centromere on mouse chromosome 7. 18 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Androgen regulated expression of a spermine binding protein gene in mouse ventral prostate.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, J S; Needham, M; Parker, M G

    1987-01-01

    A full length cDNA (MP25) encoding the major mouse prostatic secretory glycoprotein (p25), whose expression is androgen dependent, has been cloned and characterised. Steady-state levels of mRNA are decreased approximately 100-fold after 3 days castration but are restored progressively over 4 days with testosterone treatment. The secreted glycoprotein appears to be a spermine binding protein since the nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequence of MP25 shares extensive homology with a spermine binding protein (SBP) found in rat ventral prostate. Genomic clones indicate that there is a single gene for SBP which consists of 4 exons, the first of which is only 11bp in length. The second exon encodes the signal peptide, the third contains a portion of the spermine binding protein unique to the mouse and the largest exon encodes the bulk of the secreted protein. Images PMID:3502715

  15. The Invalidation of HspB1 Gene in Mouse Alters the Ultrastructural Phenotype of Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Kammoun, Malek; Picard, Brigitte; Astruc, Thierry; Gagaoua, Mohammed; Aubert, Denise; Bonnet, Muriel; Blanquet, Véronique; Cassar-Malek, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Even though abundance of Hsp27 is the highest in skeletal muscle, the relationships between the expression of HspB1 (encoding Hsp27) and muscle characteristics are not fully understood. In this study, we have analysed the effect of Hsp27 inactivation on mouse development and phenotype. We generated a mouse strain devoid of Hsp27 protein by homologous recombination of the HspB1 gene. The HspB1-/- mouse was viable and fertile, showing neither apparent morphological nor anatomical alterations. We detected a gender dimorphism with marked effects in males, a lower body weight (P < 0.05) with no obvious changes in the growth rate, and a lower plasma lipids profile (cholesterol, HDL and triglycerides, 0.001 < P< 0.05). The muscle structure of the animals was examined by optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Not any differences in the characteristics of muscle fibres (contractile and metabolic type, shape, perimeter, cross-sectional area) were detected except a trend for a higher proportion of small fibres. Different myosin heavy chains electrophoretic profiles were observed in the HspB1-/- mouse especially the presence of an additional isoform. Electron microscopy revealed ultrastructural abnormalities in the myofibrillar structure of the HspB1-/- mouse mutant mice (e.g. destructured myofibrils and higher gaps between myofibrils) especially in the m. Soleus. Combined with our previous data, these findings suggest that Hsp27 could directly impact the organization of muscle cytoskeleton at the molecular and ultrastructural levels. PMID:27512988

  16. Transcriptome Analysis of Targeted Mouse Mutations Reveals the Topography of Local Changes in Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Adkisson, Michael; Nava, A. J.; Kirov, Julia V.; Cipollone, Andreanna; Willis, Brandon; Rapp, Jared; de Jong, Pieter J.; Lloyd, Kent C.

    2016-01-01

    The unintended consequences of gene targeting in mouse models have not been thoroughly studied and a more systematic analysis is needed to understand the frequency and characteristics of off-target effects. Using RNA-seq, we evaluated targeted and neighboring gene expression in tissues from 44 homozygous mutants compared with C57BL/6N control mice. Two allele types were evaluated: 15 targeted trap mutations (TRAP); and 29 deletion alleles (DEL), usually a deletion between the translational start and the 3’ UTR. Both targeting strategies insert a bacterial beta-galactosidase reporter (LacZ) and a neomycin resistance selection cassette. Evaluating transcription of genes in +/- 500 kb of flanking DNA around the targeted gene, we found up-regulated genes more frequently around DEL compared with TRAP alleles, however the frequency of alleles with local down-regulated genes flanking DEL and TRAP targets was similar. Down-regulated genes around both DEL and TRAP targets were found at a higher frequency than expected from a genome-wide survey. However, only around DEL targets were up-regulated genes found with a significantly higher frequency compared with genome-wide sampling. Transcriptome analysis confirms targeting in 97% of DEL alleles, but in only 47% of TRAP alleles probably due to non-functional splice variants, and some splicing around the gene trap. Local effects on gene expression are likely due to a number of factors including compensatory regulation, loss or disruption of intragenic regulatory elements, the exogenous promoter in the neo selection cassette, removal of insulating DNA in the DEL mutants, and local silencing due to disruption of normal chromatin organization or presence of exogenous DNA. An understanding of local position effects is important for understanding and interpreting any phenotype attributed to targeted gene mutations, or to spontaneous indels. PMID:26839965

  17. Quantitative Evaluation and Selection of Reference Genes for Quantitative RT-PCR in Mouse Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhaoping; Gao, Jinhang; Lv, Xiuhe; Yang, Wenjuan; Wen, Shilei; Tong, Huan; Tang, Chengwei

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of differences in gene expression is dependent on normalization using reference genes. However, the expression of many of these reference genes, as evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR, is upregulated in acute pancreatitis, so they cannot be used as the standard for gene expression in this condition. For this reason, we sought to identify a stable reference gene, or a suitable combination, for expression analysis in acute pancreatitis. The expression stability of 10 reference genes (ACTB, GAPDH, 18sRNA, TUBB, B2M, HPRT1, UBC, YWHAZ, EF-1α, and RPL-13A) was analyzed using geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper software and evaluated according to variations in the raw Ct values. These reference genes were evaluated using a comprehensive method, which ranked the expression stability of these genes as follows (from most stable to least stable): RPL-13A, YWHAZ > HPRT1 > GAPDH > UBC > EF-1α > 18sRNA > B2M > TUBB > ACTB. RPL-13A was the most suitable reference gene, and the combination of RPL-13A and YWHAZ was the most stable group of reference genes in our experiments. The expression levels of ACTB, TUBB, and B2M were found to be significantly upregulated during acute pancreatitis, whereas the expression level of 18sRNA was downregulated. Thus, we recommend the use of RPL-13A or a combination of RPL-13A and YWHAZ for normalization in qRT-PCR analyses of gene expression in mouse models of acute pancreatitis. PMID:27069927

  18. The human and mouse sex-determining SRY genes repress the Rspol/beta-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Lau, Yun-Fai Chris; Li, Yunmin

    2009-04-01

    The sex-determining region Y (SRY) is the gene on the Y chromosome responsible for switching on male sex determination during mammalian embryogenesis. In its absence, ovaries develop in the embryo. Hence, ovarian determination and differentiation is considered to be a default, or passive, developmental pathway. Recently this classical paradigm of sex determination has been challenged with the discovery of the R-spondin 1 (RSPO1) as an active ovarian determinant. Mutations of RSPO1 cause a female-to-male sex reversal. RSPO1 synergizes with WNT4 in activating an ovarian development in the bipotential gonad via the canonical Wnt signaling. Early studies showed that SRY represses such Wnt signaling, but also generated discrepancies on whether only mouse Sry is capable of inhibiting such Wnt signaling and whether both human and mouse SRY proteins are able to interact with beta-catenin, the intracellular messenger responsible for executing the Wnt signals. Our studies show that both human SRY and mouse Sry are capable of repressing the Rspo1/Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. However, the repression activities vary among different SRY/Sry proteins and paradoxically related to the presence and/or size of an acidic/glutamine-rich domain. The HMG box of human SRY could bind directly to beta-catenin while the mouse Sry binds to beta-catenin via its HMG box and glutamine-rich domain. The results clarify some of the initial discrepancies, and raise the possibility that SRY interacts with beta-catenin in the nucleus and represses the transcriptional activation of the Rspo1/Wnt target genes involved in ovarian determination, thereby switching on testis determination.

  19. Profiles of gene expression changes in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells treated with methyl methanesulfonate and sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Shawn D; Sparrow, Barney R; Kan, H Lynn; Stott, William T; Schisler, Melissa R; Linscombe, V Ann; Gollapudi, B Bhaskar

    2004-05-01

    Treatment of cells with genotoxic chemicals is expected to set into motion a series of events including gene expression changes to cope with the damage. We have investigated gene expression changes in L5178Y TK(+/-) mouse lymphoma cells in culture following treatment with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), a direct acting genotoxin, and sodium chloride (NaCl), which induces mutations in these cells through indirect mechanisms at high concentrations. The mouse lymphoma cells were treated for 4 or 24 h and the cells were harvested for RNA isolation at the end of the treatment. Analysis of the transcriptome was performed using Clontech Mouse 1.2K cDNA microarrays (1185 genes) and hybridized using 32P-labeled cDNA. The microwell methodology was used to quantify the mutagenic response. Of the genes examined, MMS altered the expression (1.5-fold or more) of only five (four at 4 h and one after 24 h treatment). NaCl altered two genes after 4 h treatment, but after 24 h it altered 19 genes (13 down- and six up-regulated). Both compounds altered the expression of several genes associated with apoptosis and NaCl altered genes involved in DNA damage/response and GTP-related proteins. This, along with other data, indicates that the widely used L5178Y TK(+/-) mouse lymphoma cells in culture are relatively recalcitrant in terms of modulating gene expression to deal with genotoxic insult.

  20. The mouse Fau gene: genomic structure, chromosomal localization, and characterization of two retropseudogenes.

    PubMed

    Casteels, D; Poirier, C; Guénet, J L; Merregaert, J

    1995-01-01

    The Fau gene is the cellular homolog of the fox sequence of the Finkel-Biskis-Reilly murine sarcoma virus (FBR-MuSV). FBR-MuSV acquired the Fau gene by transduction in a transcriptional orientation opposite to that of the genomic Fau gene. The genomic structure of the mouse Fau gene (MMFAU) and its upstream elements have been determined and are similar to those of the human FAU gene. The gene consists of five exons and is located on chromosome 19. The first exon is not translated. The promoter region has no well-defined TATA box but contains the polypyrimidine initiator flanked by regions of high GC content (65%) and shows all of the characteristics of a housekeeping gene. The 5' end of the mRNA transcript was determined by 5' RACE analysis and is located, as expected, in the polypyrimidine initiator site. Furthermore, the sequences of two retropseudogenes (Fau-ps1 and Fau-ps2) are reported. Both pseudogenes are approximately 75% identical to the Fau cDNA, but both are shorter due to a deletion at the 5' end and do not encode a functional protein. Fau-prs is interrupted by an AG-rich region of about 350 bp within the S30 region of the Fau cDNA. Fau-ps1 was localized on chromosome 1 and Fau-ps2 on chromosome 7.

  1. DNA context represents transcription regulation of the gene in mouse embryonic stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Misook; Hong, Soondo

    2016-04-01

    Understanding gene regulatory information in DNA remains a significant challenge in biomedical research. This study presents a computational approach to infer gene regulatory programs from primary DNA sequences. Using DNA around transcription start sites as attributes, our model predicts gene regulation in the gene. We find that H3K27ac around TSS is an informative descriptor of the transcription program in mouse embryonic stem cells. We build a computational model inferring the cell-type-specific H3K27ac signatures in the DNA around TSS. A comparison of embryonic stem cell and liver cell-specific H3K27ac signatures in DNA shows that the H3K27ac signatures in DNA around TSS efficiently distinguish the cell-type specific H3K27ac peaks and the gene regulation. The arrangement of the H3K27ac signatures inferred from the DNA represents the transcription regulation of the gene in mESC. We show that the DNA around transcription start sites is associated with the gene regulatory program by specific interaction with H3K27ac.

  2. DNA context represents transcription regulation of the gene in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ha, Misook; Hong, Soondo

    2016-04-14

    Understanding gene regulatory information in DNA remains a significant challenge in biomedical research. This study presents a computational approach to infer gene regulatory programs from primary DNA sequences. Using DNA around transcription start sites as attributes, our model predicts gene regulation in the gene. We find that H3K27ac around TSS is an informative descriptor of the transcription program in mouse embryonic stem cells. We build a computational model inferring the cell-type-specific H3K27ac signatures in the DNA around TSS. A comparison of embryonic stem cell and liver cell-specific H3K27ac signatures in DNA shows that the H3K27ac signatures in DNA around TSS efficiently distinguish the cell-type specific H3K27ac peaks and the gene regulation. The arrangement of the H3K27ac signatures inferred from the DNA represents the transcription regulation of the gene in mESC. We show that the DNA around transcription start sites is associated with the gene regulatory program by specific interaction with H3K27ac.

  3. Evolutionarily Diverged Regulation of X-chromosomal Genes as a Primal Event in Mouse Reproductive Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Oka, Ayako; Takada, Toyoyuki; Fujisawa, Hironori; Shiroishi, Toshihiko

    2014-01-01

    Improper gene regulation is implicated in reproductive isolation, but its genetic and molecular bases are unknown. We previously reported that a mouse inter-subspecific X chromosome substitution strain shows reproductive isolation characterized by male-specific sterility due to disruption of meiotic entry in spermatogenesis. Here, we conducted comprehensive transcriptional profiling of the testicular cells of this strain by microarray. The results clearly revealed gross misregulation of gene expression in the substituted donor X chromosome. Such misregulation occurred prior to detectable spermatogenetic impairment, suggesting that it is a primal event in reproductive isolation. The misregulation of X-linked genes showed asymmetry; more genes were disproportionally downregulated rather than upregulated. Furthermore, this misregulation subsequently resulted in perturbation of global transcriptional regulation of autosomal genes, probably by cascading deleterious effects. Remarkably, this transcriptional misregulation was substantially restored by introduction of chromosome 1 from the same donor strain as the X chromosome. This finding implies that one of regulatory genes acting in trans for X-linked target genes is located on chromosome 1. This study collectively suggests that regulatory incompatibility is a major cause of reproductive isolation in the X chromosome substitution strain. PMID:24743563

  4. Effect of chronic valproic Acid treatment on hepatic gene expression profile in wfs1 knockout mouse.

    PubMed

    Punapart, Marite; Eltermaa, Mall; Oflijan, Julia; Sütt, Silva; Must, Anne; Kõks, Sulev; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Fernandes, Catherine; Vasar, Eero; Soomets, Ursel; Terasmaa, Anton

    2014-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is a widely used anticonvulsant and mood-stabilizing drug whose use is often associated with drug-induced weight gain. Treatment with VPA has been shown to upregulate Wfs1 expression in vitro. Aim of the present study was to compare the effect of chronic VPA treatment in wild type (WT) and Wfs1 knockout (KO) mice on hepatic gene expression profile. Wild type, Wfs1 heterozygous, and homozygous mice were treated with VPA for three months (300 mg/kg i.p. daily) and gene expression profiles in liver were evaluated using Affymetrix Mouse GeneChip 1.0 ST array. We identified 42 genes affected by Wfs1 genotype, 10 genes regulated by VPA treatment, and 9 genes whose regulation by VPA was dependent on genotype. Among the genes that were regulated differentially by VPA depending on genotype was peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (Ppard), whose expression was upregulated in response to VPA treatment in WT, but not in Wfs1 KO mice. Thus, regulation of Ppard by VPA is dependent on Wfs1 genotype.

  5. Identification of genes escaping X inactivation by allelic expression analysis in a novel hybrid mouse model.

    PubMed

    Berletch, Joel B; Ma, Wenxiu; Yang, Fan; Shendure, Jay; Noble, William S; Disteche, Christine M; Deng, Xinxian

    2015-12-01

    X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is a female-specific mechanism that serves to balance gene dosage between the sexes whereby one X chromosome in females is inactivated during early development. Despite this silencing, a small portion of genes escape inactivation and remain expressed from the inactive X (Xi). Little is known about the distribution of escape from XCI in different tissues in vivo and about the mechanisms that control tissue-specific differences. Using a new binomial model in conjunction with a mouse model with identifiable alleles and skewed X inactivation we are able to survey genes that escape XCI in vivo. We show that escape from X inactivation can be a common feature of some genes, whereas others escape in a tissue specific manner. Furthermore, we characterize the chromatin environment of escape genes and show that expression from the Xi correlates with factors associated with open chromatin and that CTCF co-localizes with escape genes. Here, we provide a detailed description of the experimental design and data analysis pipeline we used to assay allele-specific expression and epigenetic characteristics of genes escaping X inactivation. The data is publicly available through the GEO database under ascension numbers GSM1014171, GSE44255, and GSE59779. Interpretation and discussion of these data are included in a previously published study (Berletch et al., 2015) [1].

  6. Evolutionarily diverged regulation of X-chromosomal genes as a primal event in mouse reproductive isolation.

    PubMed

    Oka, Ayako; Takada, Toyoyuki; Fujisawa, Hironori; Shiroishi, Toshihiko

    2014-04-01

    Improper gene regulation is implicated in reproductive isolation, but its genetic and molecular bases are unknown. We previously reported that a mouse inter-subspecific X chromosome substitution strain shows reproductive isolation characterized by male-specific sterility due to disruption of meiotic entry in spermatogenesis. Here, we conducted comprehensive transcriptional profiling of the testicular cells of this strain by microarray. The results clearly revealed gross misregulation of gene expression in the substituted donor X chromosome. Such misregulation occurred prior to detectable spermatogenetic impairment, suggesting that it is a primal event in reproductive isolation. The misregulation of X-linked genes showed asymmetry; more genes were disproportionally downregulated rather than upregulated. Furthermore, this misregulation subsequently resulted in perturbation of global transcriptional regulation of autosomal genes, probably by cascading deleterious effects. Remarkably, this transcriptional misregulation was substantially restored by introduction of chromosome 1 from the same donor strain as the X chromosome. This finding implies that one of regulatory genes acting in trans for X-linked target genes is located on chromosome 1. This study collectively suggests that regulatory incompatibility is a major cause of reproductive isolation in the X chromosome substitution strain.

  7. Differential gene expression in mouse liver associated with the hepatoprotective effect of clofibrate

    SciTech Connect

    Moffit, Jeffrey S.; Koza-Taylor, Petra H.; Holland, Ricky D.; Thibodeau, Michael S.; Beger, Richard D.; Lawton, Michael P.; Manautou, Jose E. . E-mail: jose.manautou@uconn.edu

    2007-07-15

    Pretreatment of mice with the peroxisome proliferator clofibrate (CFB) protects against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity. Previous studies have shown that activation of the nuclear peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-alpha (PPAR{alpha}) is required for this effect. The present study utilizes gene expression profile analysis to identify potential pathways contributing to PPAR{alpha}-mediated hepatoprotection. Gene expression profiles were compared between wild type and PPAR{alpha}-null mice pretreated with vehicle or CFB (500 mg/kg, i.p., daily for 10 days) and then challenged with APAP (400 mg/kg, p.o.). Total hepatic RNA was isolated 4 h after APAP treatment and hybridized to Affymetrix Mouse Genome MGU74 v2.0 GeneChips. Gene expression analysis was performed utilizing GeneSpring (registered) software. Our analysis identified 53 genes of interest including vanin-1, cell cycle regulators, lipid-metabolizing enzymes, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, an acetaminophen binding protein. Vanin-1 could be important for CFB-mediated hepatoprotection because this protein is involved in the synthesis of cysteamine and cystamine. These are potent antioxidants capable of ameliorating APAP toxicity in rodents and humans. HPLC-ESI/MS/MS analysis of liver extracts indicates that enhanced vanin-1 gene expression results in elevated cystamine levels, which could be mechanistically associated with CFB-mediated hepatoprotection.

  8. In vitro culture of mouse embryos reduces differential gene expression between inner cell mass and trophectoderm.

    PubMed

    Giritharan, G; Delle Piane, L; Donjacour, A; Esteban, F J; Horcajadas, J A; Maltepe, E; Rinaudo, P

    2012-03-01

    Differences in gene expression and imprinting have been reported, comparing in vivo versus in vitro generated preimplantation embryos. Furthermore, mouse studies have shown that placenta development is altered following in vitro culture. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these findings are unknown. We therefore isolated trophectoderm (TE) and inner cell mass (ICM) cells from in vivo and in vitro fertilization (IVF) embryos and evaluated their transcriptome using microarrays. We found that the transcriptomes of in vitro produced ICM and TE cells showed remarkably few differences compared to ICM and TE cells of in vivo generated embryos. In vitro fertilization embryos showed a reduced number of TE cells compared to in vivo embryos. In addition, TE of IVF embryos showed significant downregulation of solute transporter genes and of genes involved in placenta formation (Eomesodermin, Socs3) or implantation (Hbegf). In summary, IVF and embryo culture significantly affects the transcriptome of ICM and TE cells.

  9. In Vitro Culture of Mouse Embryos Reduces Differential Gene Expression Between Inner Cell Mass and Trophectoderm

    PubMed Central

    Giritharan, G.; Piane, L. Delle; Donjacour, A.; Esteban, F. J.; Horcajadas, J. A.; Maltepe, E.; Rinaudo, P.

    2012-01-01

    Differences in gene expression and imprinting have been reported, comparing in vivo versus in vitro generated preimplantation embryos. Furthermore, mouse studies have shown that placenta development is altered following in vitro culture. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these findings are unknown. We therefore isolated trophectoderm (TE) and inner cell mass (ICM) cells from in vivo and in vitro fertilization (IVF) embryos and evaluated their transcriptome using microarrays. We found that the transcriptomes of in vitro produced ICM and TE cells showed remarkably few differences compared to ICM and TE cells of in vivo generated embryos. In vitro fertilization embryos showed a reduced number of TE cells compared to in vivo embryos. In addition, TE of IVF embryos showed significant downregulation of solute transporter genes and of genes involved in placenta formation (Eomesodermin, Socs3) or implantation (Hbegf). In summary, IVF and embryo culture significantly affects the transcriptome of ICM and TE cells. PMID:22383776

  10. Gene expression analysis of mouse embryonic stem cells following levitation in an ultrasound standing wave trap.

    PubMed

    Bazou, Despina; Kearney, Roisin; Mansergh, Fiona; Bourdon, Celine; Farrar, Jane; Wride, Michael

    2011-02-01

    In the present paper, gene expression analysis of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells levitated in a novel ultrasound standing wave trap (USWT) (Bazou et al. 2005a) at variable acoustic pressures (0.08-0.85 MPa) and times (5-60 min) was performed. Our results showed that levitation of ES cells at the highest employed acoustic pressure for 60 min does not modify gene expression and cells maintain their pluripotency. Embryoid bodies (EBs) also expressed the early and late neural differentiation markers, which were also unaffected by the acoustic field. Our results suggest that the ultrasound trap microenvironment is minimally invasive as the biologic consequences of ES cell replication and EB differentiation proceed without significantly affecting gene expression. The technique holds great promise in safe cell manipulation techniques for a variety of applications including tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  11. Stereotaxic injection of a viral vector for conditional gene manipulation in the mouse spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Inquimbert, Perrine; Moll, Martin; Kohno, Tatsuro; Scholz, Joachim

    2013-03-18

    Intraparenchymal injection of a viral vector enables conditional gene manipulation in distinct populations of neurons or particular regions of the central nervous system. We demonstrate a stereotaxic injection technique that allows targeted gene expression or silencing in the dorsal horn of the mouse spinal cord. The surgical procedure is brief. It requires laminectomy of a single vertebra, providing for quick recovery of the animal and unimpaired motility of the spine. Controlled injection of a small vector suspension volume at low speed and use of a microsyringe with beveled glass cannula minimize the tissue lesion. The local immune response to the vector depends on the intrinsic properties of the virus employed; in our experience, it is minor and short-lived when a recombinant adeno-associated virus is used. A reporter gene such as enhanced green fluorescent protein facilitates monitoring spatial distribution of the vector, and the efficacy and cellular specificity of the transfection.

  12. Isolation and characterization of a hepatic metallothionein from mice.

    PubMed

    Nordberg, M; Nordberg, G F; Piscator, M

    1975-01-01

    Mice were given cadmium chloride orally for 18 weeks, after which they were given two subcutaneous injections of cadmium chloride. Cadmium-and zinc-containing proteins were obtained from livers by ultracentrifugation, Sephadex chromatography and isoelectric focusing. Metallothionein with apI of 4.2 at 8 degrees C was separated from other proteins (possibly including other forms of metallothionein) by the isoelectric procedure. The metallothionein with pI = 4.2 had a high E250, reflecting abundant Cd-SH bonds, in accord with amino acid analysis, which gave a cysteine content of 34.6 residues % and showed an absence of aromatic amino acids. These results indicated a very high purity of the form of metallothionein isolated after isoelectric focusing.

  13. Identification of novel SHOX target genes in the developing limb using a transgenic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Beiser, Katja U; Glaser, Anne; Kleinschmidt, Kerstin; Scholl, Isabell; Röth, Ralph; Li, Li; Gretz, Norbert; Mechtersheimer, Gunhild; Karperien, Marcel; Marchini, Antonio; Richter, Wiltrud; Rappold, Gudrun A

    2014-01-01

    Deficiency of the human short stature homeobox-containing gene (SHOX) has been identified in several disorders characterized by reduced height and skeletal anomalies such as Turner syndrome, Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis and Langer mesomelic dysplasia as well as isolated short stature. SHOX acts as a transcription factor during limb development and is expressed in chondrocytes of the growth plates. Although highly conserved in vertebrates, rodents lack a SHOX orthologue. This offers the unique opportunity to analyze the effects of human SHOX expression in transgenic mice. We have generated a mouse expressing the human SHOXa cDNA under the control of a murine Col2a1 promoter and enhancer (Tg(Col2a1-SHOX)). SHOX and marker gene expression as well as skeletal phenotypes were characterized in two transgenic lines. No significant skeletal anomalies were found in transgenic compared to wildtype mice. Quantitative and in situ hybridization analyses revealed that Tg(Col2a1-SHOX), however, affected extracellular matrix gene expression during early limb development, suggesting a role for SHOX in growth plate assembly and extracellular matrix composition during long bone development. For instance, we could show that the connective tissue growth factor gene Ctgf, a gene involved in chondrogenic and angiogenic differentiation, is transcriptionally regulated by SHOX in transgenic mice. This finding was confirmed in human NHDF and U2OS cells and chicken micromass culture, demonstrating the value of the SHOX-transgenic mouse for the characterization of SHOX-dependent genes and pathways in early limb development.

  14. Effects of Subretinal Gene Transfer at Different Time Points in a Mouse Model of Retinal Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xufeng; Zhang, Hua; Han, Juanjuan; He, Ying; Zhang, Yangyang; Qi, Yan; Pang, Ji-jing

    2016-01-01

    Lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1 (LPCAT1) is necessary for photoreceptors to generate an important lipid component of their membranes. The absence of LPCAT1 results in early and rapid rod and cone degeneration. Retinal degeneration 11 (rd11) mice carry a mutation in the Lpcat1 gene, and are an excellent model of early-onset rapid retinal degeneration (RD). To date, no reports have documented gene therapy administration in the rd11 mouse model at different ages. In this study, the AAV8 (Y733F)-smCBA-Lpcat1 vector was subretinally injected at postnatal day (P) 10, 14, 18, or 22. Four months after injection, immunohistochemistry and analysis of retinal morphology showed that treatment at P10 rescued about 82% of the wild-type retinal thickness. However, the diffusion of the vector and the resulting rescue were limited to an area around the injection site that was only 31% of the total retinal area. Injection at P14 resulted in vector diffusion that covered approximately 84% of the retina, and we found that gene therapy was more effective against RD when exposure to light was limited before and after treatment. We observed long-term preservation of electroretinogram (ERG) responses, and preservation of retinal structure, indicating that early treatment followed by limited light exposure can improve gene therapy effectiveness for the eyes of rd11 mice. Importantly, delayed treatment still partially preserved M-cones, but not S-cones, and M-cones in the rd11 retina appeared to have a longer window of opportunity for effective preservation with gene therapy. These results provide important information regarding the effects of subretinal gene therapy in the mouse model of LPCAT1-deficiency. PMID:27228218

  15. Detection of differentially expressed genes in the early developmental stage of the mouse mandible.

    PubMed

    Yamaza, H; Matsuo, K; Kiyoshima, T; Shigemura, N; Kobayashi, I; Wada, H; Akamime, A; Sakai, H

    2001-06-01

    We previously examined the development of the mouse mandible, and demonstrated that odontogenesis occurs between embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5) and E12. Based on the histological findings, we performed cDNA subtraction between the E10.5 and E12 mandibles to detect any differentially expressed genes which might be involved in the initiation of odontogenesis. By sequencing, homology search and semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), we thus found Pgk-1, Ccte, Hsp86, Nucleolin, Hsc73, Frg1, N-ras, Set alpha and Hsj2 from the E10.5 mandible, and E25, ATPase6, Mum2, Thymosin beta4 and L21 from the E12 mandible to be differentially expressed genes. These genes are functionally related to protein transport, signal transduction, transcription, translation and molecular chaperon activity. In situ hybridization analyses of Set alpha and E25 showed that Set alpha was detected in the tooth germ at E12 and E14.5, thus indicating a close relationship of this gene to odontogenesis. Meanwhile, the in situ signal of E25 was found in the muscular layer of the tongue, thus suggesting E25 to be related to the differentiation of muscular tissue. In conclusion, we found 15 differentially expressed genes in the course of the early developmental stage of the mouse mandible using a combination of the cDNA subtraction and semi-quantitative RT-PCR methods, while in addition, two genes were demonstrated to be related to the initiation and the development of both tooth germ and the tongue according to the in situ hybridization technique.

  16. Structure and promoter analysis of the mouse membrane-bound transferrin-like protein (MTf) gene.

    PubMed

    Nakamasu, K; Kawamoto, T; Yoshida, E; Noshiro, M; Matsuda, Y; Kato, Y

    2001-03-01

    Recently, we purified membrane-bound transferrin-like protein (MTf) from the plasma membrane of rabbit chondrocytes and showed that the expression levels of MTf protein and mRNA were much higher in cartilage than in other tissues [Kawamoto T, Pan, H., Yan, W., Ishida, H., Usui, E., Oda, R., Nakamasu, K., Noshiro, M., Kawashima-Ohya, Y., Fujii, M., Shintani, H., Okada, Y. & Kato, Y. (1998) Eur. J. Biochem. 256, 503--509]. In this study, we isolated the MTf gene from a constructed mouse genomic library. The mouse MTf gene was encoded by a single-copy gene spanning approximately 26 kb and consisting of 16 exons. The transcription-initiation site was located 157 bp upstream from the translation-start codon, and a TATA box was not found in the 5' flanking region. The mouse MTf gene was mapped on the B3 band of chromosome 16 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Using primary chondrocytes, SK-MEL-28 (melanoma cell line), ATDC5 (chondrogenic cell line) and NIH3T3 (fibroblast cell line) cells, we carried out transient expression studies on various lengths of the 5' flanking region of the MTf gene fused to the luciferase reporter gene. Luciferase activity in SK-MEL-28 cells was higher than in primary chondrocytes. Although no luciferase activity was detectable in NIH3T3 cells, it was higher in chondrocytes than in ATDC5 chondrogenic cells. These findings were consistent with the levels of expression of MTf mRNA in these cells cultured under similar conditions. The patterns of increase and decrease in the luciferase activity in chondrocytes transfected with various 5' deleted constructs of the MTf promoter were similar to that in ATDC5 cells, but differed from that in SK-MEL-28 cells. The findings obtained with primary chondrocytes suggest that the regions between -693 and -444 and between -1635 and -1213 contain positive and negative cis-acting elements, respectively. The chondrocyte-specific expression of the MTf gene could be regulated via these regulatory elements in

  17. Expression profiles for macrophage alternative activation genes in AD and in mouse models of AD

    PubMed Central

    Colton, Carol A; Mott, Ryan T; Sharpe, Hayley; Xu, Qing; Van Nostrand, William E; Vitek, Michael P

    2006-01-01

    Background Microglia are associated with neuritic plaques in Alzheimer disease (AD) and serve as a primary component of the innate immune response in the brain. Neuritic plaques are fibrous deposits composed of the amyloid beta-peptide fragments (Abeta) of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Numerous studies have shown that the immune cells in the vicinity of amyloid deposits in AD express mRNA and proteins for pro-inflammatory cytokines, leading to the hypothesis that microglia demonstrate classical (Th-1) immune activation in AD. Nonetheless, the complex role of microglial activation has yet to be fully explored since recent studies show that peripheral macrophages enter an "alternative" activation state. Methods To study alternative activation of microglia, we used quantitative RT-PCR to identify genes associated with alternative activation in microglia, including arginase I (AGI), mannose receptor (MRC1), found in inflammatory zone 1 (FIZZ1), and chitinase 3-like 3 (YM1). Results Our findings confirmed that treatment of microglia with anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-13 induces a gene profile typical of alternative activation similar to that previously observed in peripheral macrophages. We then used this gene expression profile to examine two mouse models of AD, the APPsw (Tg-2576) and Tg-SwDI, models for amyloid deposition and for cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) respectively. AGI, MRC1 and YM1 mRNA levels were significantly increased in the Tg-2576 mouse brains compared to age-matched controls while TNFα and NOS2 mRNA levels, genes commonly associated with classical activation, increased or did not change, respectively. Only TNFα mRNA increased in the Tg-SwDI mouse brain. Alternative activation genes were also identified in brain samples from individuals with AD and were compared to age-matched control individuals. In AD brain, mRNAs for TNFα, AGI, MRC1 and the chitinase-3 like 1 and 2 genes (CHI3L1; CHI3L2) were significantly increased

  18. Sequences homologous to retrovirus-like genes of the mouse are present in multiple copies in the Syrian hamster genome.

    PubMed Central

    Lueders, K K; Kuff, E L

    1981-01-01

    The genome of M. musculus contains many copies of DNA sequences homologous to the 35S RNA of intracisternal type-A particles (IAP) (1,2). A major class of IAP genes has been identified and isolated from a mouse library in Charon 4A (3). Cloned mouse IAP genes were used as probes to study homologous sequences in the DNA of other species. Sequences related to mouse IAP genes were detected in the DNAs from a variety of animal cells. DNAs from rat, gerbil, and hamster cells all gave strong reactions which could be localized to discrete restriction fragments on genomic blots. The reaction of Syrian hamster DNA was particularly strong. Fragments derived from different parts of the IAP gene all reacted with Syrian hamster DNA, and the reactive restriction fragments in the Syrian hamster DNA could be ordered with reference to the known restriction map of the IAP genes. The data suggest that sequences related to mouse IAP genes make up a 7 Kb unit in the Syrian hamster genome. Since the majority of the hamster sequences are quite divergent from those in the mouse, the ease with which they are detected suggests that they must be reiterated in the hamster genome. Images PMID:7198224

  19. Chromosomal assignment of the genes for proprotein convertases PC4, PC5, and PACE 4 in mouse and human.

    PubMed

    Mbikay, M; Seidah, N G; Chrétien, M; Simpson, E M

    1995-03-01

    The genes for three subtilisin/kexin-like proprotein convertases, PC4, PC5, and PACE4, were mapped in the mouse by RFLP analysis of a DNA panel from a (C57BL/6JEi x SPRET/Ei)F1 x SPRET/Ei backcross. The chromosomal locations of the human homologs were determined by Southern blot analysis of a DNA panel from human-rodent somatic cell hybrids, most of which contained a single human chromosome each. The gene for PC4 (Pcsk4 locus) mapped to mouse chromosome 10, close to the Adn (adipsin, a serine protease) locus and near the Amh (anti-müllerian hormone) locus; in human, the gene was localized to chromosome 19. The gene for PC5 (Pcsk5 locus) mapped to mouse chromosome 19 close to the Lpc1 (lipocortin-1) locus and, in human, was localized to chromosome 9. The gene for PACE4 (Pcsk6 locus) mapped to mouse chromosome 7, at a distance of 13 cM from the Pcsk3 locus, which specifies furin, another member of this family of enzymes previously mapped to this chromosome. This is in concordance with the known close proximity of these two loci in the homologous region on human chromosome 15q25-qter. Pcsk3 and Pcsk6 mapped to a region of mouse chromosome 7 that has been associated cytogenetically with postnatal lethality in maternal disomy, suggesting that these genes might be candidates for imprinting.

  20. Comparative analysis of expression of histone H2a genes in mouse

    PubMed Central

    Nishida, Hiromi; Suzuki, Takahiro; Ookawa, Hiroki; Tomaru, Yasuhiro; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

    2005-01-01

    Background At least 18 replication-dependent histone H2a genes are distributed in 3 Hist gene clusters on different chromosomes of the mouse genome. In this analysis we designed specific PCR primers for each histone H2a transcript and studied the expression levels and patterns using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). In addition, we compared histone H3 K9 acetylation levels in the promoter regions of H2a genes by ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation) – quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis. Results RT-PCR analysis indicated that all 20 histone H2a genes assessed in this study are expressed. The replication-dependent histone H2a genes have different expression levels but similar expression patterns. Among the 20 histone H2a genes, the expression-level of H2afz, a replication-independent gene, was highest, and that of Hist1h2aa, a replication-dependent gene, was lowest. Among 18 replication-dependent H2a genes, the expression level of Hist3h2a was highest. The ChIP-qPCR analysis showed that histone H3 K9 acetylation levels in promoter regions of both H2afz and Hist3h2a are clearly higher than that in the promoter region of Hist1h2aa. The H3 K9 acetylation level in the promoter of Hist1h2aa is similar to that in the γ-satellite region. Conclusion These results strongly suggest that histone H3 K9 acetylation plays a role in the expression of histone genes. PMID:16098230

  1. Knockout of Lysosomal Enzyme-Targeting Gene Causes Abnormalities in Mouse Pup Isolation Calls

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Terra D.; Holy, Timothy E.

    2017-01-01

    Humans lacking a working copy of the GNPTAB gene suffer from the metabolic disease Mucolipidosis type II (MLII). MLII symptoms include mental retardation, skeletal deformities and cartilage defects as well as a speech delay with most subjects unable to utter single words (Otomo et al., 2009; Cathey et al., 2010; Leroy et al., 2012). Here we asked whether mice lacking a copy of Gnptab gene exhibited vocal abnormities. We recorded ultrasonic vocalizations from 5 to 8 day old mice separated from their mother and littermates. Although Gnptab−/− pups emitted a similar number of calls, several features of the calls were different from their wild type littermates. Gnptab−/− mice showed a decrease in the length of calls, an increase in the intra-bout pause duration, significantly fewer pitch jumps with smaller mean size, and an increase in the number of isolated calls. In addition, Gnptab−/− mice vocalizations had less power, particularly in the higher frequencies. Gnptab+/− mouse vocalizations did not appear to be affected. We then attempted to classify these recordings using these features to determine the genotype of the animal. We were able to correctly identify 87% of the recordings as either Gnptab−/− or Gnptab+/+ pup, significantly better than chance, demonstrating that genotype is a strong predictor of vocalization phenotype. These data show that deletion of genes in the lysosomal enzyme targeting pathway affect mouse pup isolation calls. PMID:28101008

  2. The mouse muscle creatine kinase promoter faithfully drives reporter gene expression in transgenic Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wayland; Neff, Eric S; Furlow, J David

    2004-06-17

    Developing Xenopus laevis experience two periods of muscle differentiation, once during embryogenesis and again at metamorphosis. During metamorphosis, thyroid hormone induces both muscle growth in the limbs and muscle death in the tail. In mammals, the muscle creatine kinase (MCK) gene is activated during the differentiation from myoblasts to myocytes and has served as both a marker for muscle development and to drive transgene expression in transgenic mice. Transcriptional control elements are generally highly conserved throughout evolution, potentially allowing mouse promoter use in transgenic X. laevis. This paper compares endogenous X. laevis MCK gene expression and the mouse MCK (mMCK) promoter driving a green fluorescent protein reporter in transgenic X. laevis. The mMCK promoter demonstrated strong skeletal muscle-specific transgene expression in both the juvenile tadpole and adult frog. Therefore, our results clearly demonstrate the functional conservation of regulatory sequences in vertebrate muscle gene promoters and illustrate the utility of using X. laevis transgenesis for detailed comparative study of mammalian promoter activity in vivo.

  3. Gene expression based mouse brain parcellation using Markov random field regularized non-negative matrix factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Sayan D.; Haynor, David R.; Thompson, Carol L.; Lein, Ed; Hawrylycz, Michael

    2009-02-01

    Understanding the geography of genetic expression in the mouse brain has opened previously unexplored avenues in neuroinformatics. The Allen Brain Atlas (www.brain-map.org) (ABA) provides genome-wide colorimetric in situ hybridization (ISH) gene expression images at high spatial resolution, all mapped to a common three-dimensional 200μm3 spatial framework defined by the Allen Reference Atlas (ARA) and is a unique data set for studying expression based structural and functional organization of the brain. The goal of this study was to facilitate an unbiased data-driven structural partitioning of the major structures in the mouse brain. We have developed an algorithm that uses nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) to perform parts based analysis of ISH gene expression images. The standard NMF approach and its variants are limited in their ability to flexibly integrate prior knowledge, in the context of spatial data. In this paper, we introduce spatial connectivity as an additional regularization in NMF decomposition via the use of Markov Random Fields (mNMF). The mNMF algorithm alternates neighborhood updates with iterations of the standard NMF algorithm to exploit spatial correlations in the data. We present the algorithm and show the sub-divisions of hippocampus and somatosensory-cortex obtained via this approach. The results are compared with established neuroanatomic knowledge. We also highlight novel gene expression based sub divisions of the hippocampus identified by using the mNMF algorithm.

  4. Electric Pulse Stimulation of Cultured Murine Muscle Cells Reproduces Gene Expression Changes of Trained Mouse Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Burch, Nathalie; Arnold, Anne-Sophie; Item, Flurin; Summermatter, Serge; Brochmann Santana Santos, Gesa; Christe, Martine; Boutellier, Urs; Toigo, Marco; Handschin, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Adequate levels of physical activity are at the center of a healthy lifestyle. However, the molecular mechanisms that mediate the beneficial effects of exercise remain enigmatic. This gap in knowledge is caused by the lack of an amenable experimental model system. Therefore, we optimized electric pulse stimulation of muscle cells to closely recapitulate the plastic changes in gene expression observed in a trained skeletal muscle. The exact experimental conditions were established using the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) as a marker for an endurance-trained muscle fiber. We subsequently compared the changes in the relative expression of metabolic and myofibrillar genes in the muscle cell system with those observed in mouse muscle in vivo following either an acute or repeated bouts of treadmill exercise. Importantly, in electrically stimulated C2C12 mouse muscle cells, the qualitative transcriptional adaptations were almost identical to those in trained muscle, but differ from the acute effects of exercise on muscle gene expression. In addition, significant alterations in the expression of myofibrillar proteins indicate that this stimulation could be used to modulate the fiber-type of muscle cells in culture. Our data thus describe an experimental cell culture model for the study of at least some of the transcriptional aspects of skeletal muscle adaptation to physical activity. This system will be useful for the study of the molecular mechanisms that regulate exercise adaptation in muscle. PMID:20532042

  5. DNA methylation map of mouse and human brain identifies target genes in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Mut, Jose V.; Aso, Ester; Panayotis, Nicolas; Lott, Ira; Dierssen, Mara; Rabano, Alberto; Urdinguio, Rocio G.; Fernandez, Agustin F.; Astudillo, Aurora; Martin-Subero, Jose I.; Balint, Balazs; Fraga, Mario F.; Gomez, Antonio; Gurnot, Cecile; Roux, Jean-Christophe; Avila, Jesus; Hensch, Takao K.; Ferrer, Isidre

    2013-01-01

    The central nervous system has a pattern of gene expression that is closely regulated with respect to functional and anatomical regions. DNA methylation is a major regulator of transcriptional activity, and aberrations in the distribution of this epigenetic mark may be involved in many neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease. Herein, we have analysed 12 distinct mouse brain regions according to their CpG 5’-end gene methylation patterns and observed their unique epigenetic landscapes. The DNA methylomes obtained from the cerebral cortex were used to identify aberrant DNA methylation changes that occurred in two mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease. We were able to translate these findings to patients with Alzheimer’s disease, identifying DNA methylation-associated silencing of three targets genes: thromboxane A2 receptor (TBXA2R), sorbin and SH3 domain containing 3 (SORBS3) and spectrin beta 4 (SPTBN4). These hypermethylation targets indicate that the cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) activation pathway and the axon initial segment could contribute to the disease. PMID:24030951

  6. Remarkable intron and exon sequence conservation in human and mouse homeobox Hox 1. 3 genes

    SciTech Connect

    Tournier-Lasserve, E.; Odenwald, W.F.; Garbern, J.; Trojanowski, J.; Lazzarini, R.A.

    1989-05-01

    A high degree of conservation exists between the Hox 1.3 homeobox genes of mice and humans. The two genes occupy the same relative positions in their respective Hox 1 gene clusters, they show extensive sequence similarities in their coding and noncoding portions, and both are transcribed into multiple transcripts of similar sizes. The predicted human Hox 1.3 protein differs from its murine counterpart in only 7 of 270 amino acids. The sequence similarity in the 250 base pairs upstream of the initiation codon is 98%, the similarity between the two introns, both 960 base pairs long, is 72%, and the similarity in the 3' noncoding region from termination codon to polyadenylation signal is 90%. Both mouse and human Hox 1.3 introns contain a sequence with homology to a mating-type-controlled cis element of the yeast Ty1 transposon. DNA-binding studies with a recombinant mouse Hox 1.3 protein identified two binding sites in the intron, both of which were within the region of shared homology with this Ty1 cis element.

  7. DNA methylation map of mouse and human brain identifies target genes in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Mut, Jose V; Aso, Ester; Panayotis, Nicolas; Lott, Ira; Dierssen, Mara; Rabano, Alberto; Urdinguio, Rocio G; Fernandez, Agustin F; Astudillo, Aurora; Martin-Subero, Jose I; Balint, Balazs; Fraga, Mario F; Gomez, Antonio; Gurnot, Cecile; Roux, Jean-Christophe; Avila, Jesus; Hensch, Takao K; Ferrer, Isidre; Esteller, Manel

    2013-10-01

    The central nervous system has a pattern of gene expression that is closely regulated with respect to functional and anatomical regions. DNA methylation is a major regulator of transcriptional activity, and aberrations in the distribution of this epigenetic mark may be involved in many neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease. Herein, we have analysed 12 distinct mouse brain regions according to their CpG 5'-end gene methylation patterns and observed their unique epigenetic landscapes. The DNA methylomes obtained from the cerebral cortex were used to identify aberrant DNA methylation changes that occurred in two mouse models of Alzheimer's disease. We were able to translate these findings to patients with Alzheimer's disease, identifying DNA methylation-associated silencing of three targets genes: thromboxane A2 receptor (TBXA2R), sorbin and SH3 domain containing 3 (SORBS3) and spectrin beta 4 (SPTBN4). These hypermethylation targets indicate that the cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) activation pathway and the axon initial segment could contribute to the disease.

  8. Expression of the Lingo/LERN gene family during mouse embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Haines, Bryan P; Rigby, Peter W J

    2008-01-01

    We have analysed the expression during mouse development of the four member Lingo/LERN gene family which encodes type 1 transmembrane proteins containing 12 extracellular leucine rich repeats, an immunoglobulin C2 domain and a short intracellular tail. Each family member has a distinct pattern of expression in the mouse embryo as is the case for the related NLRR, FLRT and LRRTM gene families. Lingo1/LERN1 is expressed in the developing trigeminal, facio-acoustic and dorsal root ganglia. An interesting expression pattern is also observed in the somites with expression localising to the inner surface of the dermomyotome in the ventro-caudal lip. Further expression is seen in lateral cells of the hindbrain and midbrain, lateral cells in the motor horn of the neural tube, the otic vesicle epithelium and epithelium associated with the developing gut. Lingo3/LERN2 is expressed in a broad but specific pattern in many tissues across the embryo. Lingo2/LERN3 is seen in a population of cells lying adjacent to the epithelial lining of the olfactory pit while Lingo4/LERN4 is expressed in the neural tube in a subset of progenitors adjacent to the motor neurons. Expression of all Lingo/LERN genes increases as the embryo develops but is low in the adult with only Lingo1/LERN1 and Lingo2/LERN3 being detectable in adult brain.

  9. Transfer of nonselectable genes into mouse teratocarcinoma cells and transcription of the transferred human. beta. -globin gene

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, E.F.; Mintz, B.

    1982-02-01

    Teratocarcinoma (TCC) stem cells can function as vehicles for the introduction of specific recombinant genes into mice. Because most genes do not code for a selectable marker, the authors investigated the transformation efficiency of vectors with a linked selectable gene. In one series, TCC cells first selected for thymidine kinase deficiency were treated with DNA from the plasmid vector PtkH..beta..1 containing the human genomic ..beta..-globin gene and the thymidine kinase gene of herpes simplex virus. A high transformation frequency was obtained after selection in hypoxanthine-aminopterin-thymidine medium. Hybridization tests revealed that the majority of transformants had intact copies of the human gene among three to six total copies per cell. These were associated with cellular DNA sequences as judged from the presence of additional new restriction fragments and from stability of the sequences in tumors produced by injecting the cells subcutaneously. Total polyadenylate-containing RNA from cell cultures of two out of four transformants examined showed hybridization to the human gene probe: one RNA species resembled mature human ..beta..-globin mRNA transcripts; the others were of larger size. In differentiating tumors, various tissues, including hematopoietic cells of TCC provenance could be found. In a second model set of experiments, wild-type TCC cells were used to test a dominant-selection scheme with pSV-gpt vectors. Numerous transformants were isolated, and their transfected DNA was apparently stably integrated. Thus, any gene of choice can be transferred into TCC stem cells even without mutagenesis of the cells, and selected cell clones can be characterized. Cells of interest may then be introduced into early embryos to produce new mouse strains with predetermined genetic changes.

  10. Gene-environment interactions in a mutant mouse kindred with native airway constrictor hyperresponsiveness.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Lawrence H; Eaton, Emily; Chen, Bohao; Fleisher, Jonah; Shuster, Dmitry; McCauley, Joel; Kedainis, Dalius; Siepka, Sandra M; Shimomura, Kazuhiro; Song, Eun-Joo; Husain, Aliya; Lakser, Oren J; Mitchell, Richard W; Dowell, Maria L; Brown, Melanie; Camoretti-Mercado, Blanca; Naclerio, Robert; Sperling, Anne I; Levin, Stephen I; Turek, Fred W; Solway, Julian

    2008-01-01

    We mutagenized male BTBR mice with N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea and screened 1315 of their G3 offspring for airway hyperresponsiveness. A phenovariant G3 mouse with exaggerated methacholine bronchoconstrictor response was identified and his progeny bred in a nonspecific-pathogen-free (SPF) facility where sentinels tested positive for minute virus of mice and mouse parvovirus and where softwood bedding was used. The mutant phenotype was inherited through G11 as a single autosomal semidominant mutation with marked gender restriction, with males exhibiting almost full penetrance and very few females phenotypically abnormal. Between G11 and G12, facility infection eradication was undertaken and bedding was changed to hardwood. We could no longer detect airway hyperresponsiveness in more than 37 G12 offspring of 26 hyperresponsive G11 males. Also, we could not identify the mutant phenotype among offspring of hyperresponsive G8-G10 sires rederived into an SPF facility despite 21 attempts. These two observations suggest that both genetic and environmental factors were needed for phenotype expression. We suspect that rederivation into an SPF facility or altered exposure to pathogens or other unidentified substances modified environmental interactions with the mutant allele, and so resulted in disappearance of the hyperresponsive phenotype. Our experience suggests that future searches for genes that confer susceptibility for airway hyperresponsiveness might not be able to identify some genes that confer susceptibility if the searches are performed in SPF facilities. Experimenters are advised to arrange for multigeneration constancy of mouse care in order to clone mutant genes. Indeed, we were not able to map the mutation before losing the phenotype.

  11. Gene therapy with IL-12 induced enhanced anti-tumor activity in fibrosarcoma mouse model.

    PubMed

    Razi Soofiyani, Saiedeh; Kazemi, Tohid; Lotfipour, Farzaneh; Mohammad Hosseini, Akbar; Shanehbandi, Dariush; Hallaj-Nezhadi, Somayeh; Baradaran, Behzad

    2016-12-01

    Context Immunotherapy is among the most promising modalities for treatment of cancer. Recently, interleukin 12 (IL-12) has been used as an immunotherapeutic agent in cancer gene therapy. IL-12 can activate dendritic cells (DCs) and boost anti-tumor immune responses. Objective In the current study, we have investigated if IL-12 gene therapy can lead to the regression of tumor mass in a mouse model of fibrosarcoma. Material and methods To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of IL-12, WEHI-164 tumor cells were transfected with murine-IL12 plasmids using Lipofectamine. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to confirm IL-12 expression in transfected cells. The fibrosarcoma mouse model was established by subcutaneous injection of transfected cells to Balb/C mice. Mice were sacrificed and the tumors were extracted. Tumor sizes were measured by caliper. The expression of IL-12 and IFN-γ was studied with real-time PCR and western blotting. The expression of Ki-67(a tumor proliferation marker) in tumor mass was studied by immunohistochemistry staining. Results and discussion The group treated with IL-12 showed a significant decrease in tumor mass volume (P: 0.000). The results of real-time PCR and western blotting showed that IL-12 and IFN-γ expression increased in the group treated with IL-12 (relative expression of IL-12: 1.9 and relative expression of IFN-γ: 1.766). Immunohistochemistry staining showed that Ki-67 expression was reduced in the group treated with IL-12. Conclusion IL-12 gene therapy successfully led to regress of tumor mass in the fibrosarcoma mouse model. This may serve as a candidate therapeutic approach for treatment of cancer.

  12. Cadium pathways during gestation and lactation in control vs. metallothionein 1,2-knockout mice.

    SciTech Connect

    Brako, E. E.; Wilson, A. K.; Jonah, M. M.; Blum, C. A.; Cerny, E. A.; Williams, K. L.; Bhattacharyya, M. H.; Winona State Univ.; Benedictine Univ.; Dominican Univ.

    2003-01-01

    Effects of metallothionein (MT) on cadmium absorption and transfer pathways during gestation and lactation in mice were investigated. Female 129/SvJ metallothionein-knockout (MT1,2KO) and metallothionein-normal (MTN) mice received drinking water containing trace amounts of {sup 109}CdCl{sub 2} (0.15 ng Cd/ml; 0.074 {mu}Ci {sup 109}Cd/ml). {sup 109}Cd and MT in maternal, fetal, and pup tissues were measured on gestation days 7, 14, and 17 and lactation day 11. In dams, MT influenced both the amount of {sup 109}Cd transferred from intestine into body (two- to three-fold higher in MT1,2KO than MTN dams) and tissue-specific {sup 109}Cd distribution (higher liver/kidney ratio in MT1,2KO dams). Placental {sup 109}Cd concentrations in MT1,2KO dams were three- and seven-fold higher on gestation days 14 and 17, respectively, than in MTN dams. Fetal {sup 109}Cd levels were low in both mouse types, but at least 10-fold lower in MTN fetuses. MT had no effect on the amount of {sup 109}Cd transferred to pups via milk; furthermore, 85--90% of total pup {sup 109}Cd was recovered in gastrointestinal tracts of both types, despite high duodenal MT only in MTN pups. A relatively large percentage of milk-derived intestinal {sup 109}Cd was transferred to other pup tissues in both MT1,2KO and MTN pups (14 and 10%, respectively). These results demonstrate that specific sequestration of cadmium by both maternal and neonatal intestinal tract does not require MT. Although MT decreased oral cadmium transfer from intestine to body tissues at low cadmium exposure levels, MT did not play a major role in restricting transfer of cadmium from dam to fetus via placenta and to neonate via milk.

  13. Mammalian Metallothionein-2A and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Xue-Bin; Wei, Hong-Wei; Wang, Jun; Kong, Yue-Qiong; Wu, Yu-You; Guo, Jun-Li; Li, Tian-Fa; Li, Ji-Ke

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian metallothionein-2A (MT2A) has received considerable attention in recent years due to its crucial pathophysiological role in anti-oxidant, anti-apoptosis, detoxification and anti-inflammation. For many years, most studies evaluating the effects of MT2A have focused on reactive oxygen species (ROS), as second messengers that lead to oxidative stress injury of cells and tissues. Recent studies have highlighted that oxidative stress could activate mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and MT2A, as a mediator of MAPKs, to regulate the pathogenesis of various diseases. However, the molecule mechanism of MT2A remains elusive. A deeper understanding of the functional, biochemical and molecular characteristics of MT2A would be identified, in order to bring new opportunities for oxidative stress therapy. PMID:27608012

  14. Dominant Cone-Rod Dystrophy: A Mouse Model Generated by Gene Targeting of the GCAP1/Guca1a Gene

    PubMed Central

    Buch, Prateek K.; Mihelec, Marija; Cottrill, Phillippa; Wilkie, Susan E.; Pearson, Rachael A.; Duran, Yanai; West, Emma L.; Michaelides, Michel; Ali, Robin R.; Hunt, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Cone dystrophy 3 (COD3) is a severe dominantly inherited retinal degeneration caused by missense mutations in GUCA1A, the gene encoding Guanylate Cyclase Activating Protein 1 (GCAP1). The role of GCAP1 in controlling cyclic nucleotide levels in photoreceptors has largely been elucidated using knock-out mice, but the disease pathology in these mice cannot be extrapolated directly to COD3 as this involves altered, rather than loss of, GCAP1 function. Therefore, in order to evaluate the pathology of this dominant disorder, we have introduced a point mutation into the murine Guca1a gene that causes an E155G amino acid substitution; this is one of the disease-causing mutations found in COD3 patients. Disease progression in this novel mouse model of cone dystrophy was determined by a variety of techniques including electroretinography (ERG), retinal histology, immunohistochemistry and measurement of cGMP levels. It was established that although retinal development was normal up to 3 months of age, there was a subsequent progressive decline in retinal function, with a far greater alteration in cone than rod responses, associated with a corresponding loss of photoreceptors. In addition, we have demonstrated that accumulation of cyclic GMP precedes the observed retinal degeneration and is likely to contribute to the disease mechanism. Importantly, this knock-in mutant mouse has many features in common with the human disease, thereby making it an excellent model to further probe disease pathogenesis and investigate therapeutic interventions. PMID:21464903

  15. Radiation Dose-Rate Effects on Gene Expression in a Mouse Biodosimetry Model

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Sunirmal; Smilenov, Lubomir B.; Elliston, Carl D.; Amundson, Sally A.

    2015-01-01

    In the event of a nuclear accident or radiological terrorist attack, there will be a pressing need for biodosimetry to triage a large, potentially exposed population and to assign individuals to appropriate treatment. Exposures from fallout are likely, resulting in protracted dose delivery that would, in turn, impact the extent of injury. Biodosimetry approaches that can distinguish such low-dose-rate (LDR) exposures from acute exposures have not yet been developed. In this study, we used the C57BL/6 mouse model in an initial investigation of the impact of low-dose-rate delivery on the transcriptomic response in blood. While a large number of the same genes responded to LDR and acute radiation exposures, for many genes the magnitude of response was lower after LDR exposures. Some genes, however, were differentially expressed (P < 0.001, false discovery rate < 5%) in mice exposed to LDR compared with mice exposed to acute radiation. We identified a set of 164 genes that correctly classified 97% of the samples in this experiment as exposed to acute or LDR radiation using a support vector machine algorithm. Gene expression is a promising approach to radiation biodosimetry, enhanced greatly by this first demonstration of its potential for distinguishing between acute and LDR exposures. Further development of this aspect of radiation biodosimetry, either as part of a complete gene expression biodosimetry test or as an adjunct to other methods, could provide vital triage information in a mass radiological casualty event. PMID:26114327

  16. Tissue-Specific Evolution of Protein Coding Genes in Human and Mouse.

    PubMed

    Kryuchkova-Mostacci, Nadezda; Robinson-Rechavi, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Protein-coding genes evolve at different rates, and the influence of different parameters, from gene size to expression level, has been extensively studied. While in yeast gene expression level is the major causal factor of gene evolutionary rate, the situation is more complex in animals. Here we investigate these relations further, especially taking in account gene expression in different organs as well as indirect correlations between parameters. We used RNA-seq data from two large datasets, covering 22 mouse tissues and 27 human tissues. Over all tissues, evolutionary rate only correlates weakly with levels and breadth of expression. The strongest explanatory factors of purifying selection are GC content, expression in many developmental stages, and expression in brain tissues. While the main component of evolutionary rate is purifying selection, we also find tissue-specific patterns for sites under neutral evolution and for positive selection. We observe fast evolution of genes expressed in testis, but also in other tissues, notably liver, which are explained by weak purifying selection rather than by positive selection.

  17. Characterization of two genes, Impa1 and Impa2 encoding mouse myo-inositol monophosphatases.

    PubMed

    Shamir, A; Sjøholt, G; Ebstein, R P; Agam, G; Steen, V M

    2001-06-27

    The enzyme myo-inositol monophosphatase (Impa) catalyzes the synthesis of free myo-inositol from various myo-inositol monophosphates in the phosphatidylinositol signaling system. Impa is a lithium-blockable enzyme that has been hypothesized to be the biological target for lithium-salts used as mood-stabilizing drugs in the treatment of manic-depressive (bipolar) illness. As an initial step to explore the functional consequences of reduced or absent Impa activity in an animal model we here report the isolation of two Impa-encoding mouse genes, Impa1 and Impa2. Impa1 spans approximately 17.5 kb and contains nine exons of 46--1354 bp encoding a protein of 277 amino acids. Impa2 spans at least 19.5 kb and contains eight exons of 46--444 bp size encoding a protein of 290 amino acids. The genomic structure including the positions of the exon-intron splice sites seems to be conserved among myo-inositol monophosphatase genes in mammalian species. One or more Impa-like genes do also exist in evolutionary more distant species like invertebrates, plants and bacteria. The proteins encoded by the non-vertebrate genes seem to be equally related to Impa1 and Impa2. We therefore suggest that the Impa1 and Impa2 genes duplicated from a common ancestral gene after the evolutionary divergence of vertebrates.

  18. Metallothionein blocks oxidative DNA damage induced by acute inorganic arsenic exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Wei Waalkes, Michael P.

    2015-02-01

    We studied how protein metallothionein (MT) impacts arsenic-induced oxidative DNA damage (ODD) using cells that poorly express MT (MT-I/II double knockout embryonic cells; called MT-null cells) and wild-type (WT) MT competent cells. Arsenic (as NaAsO{sub 2}) was less cytolethal over 24 h in WT cells (LC{sub 50} = 11.0 ± 1.3 μM; mean ± SEM) than in MT-null cells (LC{sub 50} = 5.6 ± 1.2 μM). ODD was measured by the immuno-spin trapping method. Arsenic (1 or 5 μM; 24 h) induced much less ODD in WT cells (121% and 141% of control, respectively) than in MT-null cells (202% and 260%). In WT cells arsenic caused concentration-dependent increases in MT expression (transcript and protein), and in the metal-responsive transcription factor-1 (MTF-1), which is required to induce the MT gene. In contrast, basal MT levels were not detectable in MT-null cells and unaltered by arsenic exposure. Transfection of MT-I gene into the MT-null cells markedly reduced arsenic-induced ODD levels. The transport genes, Abcc1 and Abcc2 were increased by arsenic in WT cells but either showed no or very limited increases in MT-null cells. Arsenic caused increases in oxidant stress defense genes HO-1 and GSTα2 in both WT and MT-null cells, but to much higher levels in WT cells. WT cells appear more adept at activating metal transport systems and oxidant response genes, although the role of MT in these responses is unclear. Overall, MT protects against arsenic-induced ODD in MT competent cells by potential sequestration of scavenging oxidant radicals and/or arsenic. - Highlights: • Metallothionein blocks arsenic toxicity. • Metallothionein reduces arsenic-induced DNA damage. • Metallothionein may bind arsenic or radicals produced by arsenic.

  19. Chronic ultraviolet exposure-induced p53 gene alterations in sencar mouse skin carcinogenesis model

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, Ying; Smith, M.A.; Tucker, S.B.

    1997-06-27

    Alterations of the tumor suppressor gene p53 have been found in ultraviolet radiation (UVR) related human skin cancers and in UVR-induced murine skin tumors. However, links between p53 gene alterations and the stages of carcinogenesis induced by UVR have not been clearly defined. We established a chronic UVR exposure-induced Sencar mouse skin carcinogenesis model to determine the frequency of p53 gene alterations in different stages of carcinogenesis, including UV-exposed skin, papillomas, squamous-cell carcinomas (SCCs), and malignant spindle-cell tumors (SCTs). A high incidence of SCCs and SCTs were found in this model. Positive p53 nuclear staining was found in 10137 (27%) of SCCs and 12124 (50%) of SCTs, but was not detected in normal skin or papillomas. DNA was isolated from 40 paraffin-embedded normal skin, UV-exposed skin, and tumor sections. The p53 gene (exons 5 and 6) was amplified from the sections by using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Subsequent single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) assay and sequencing analysis revealed one point mutation in exon 6 (coden 193, C {r_arrow} A transition) from a UV-exposed skin sample, and seven point mutations in exon 5 (codens 146, 158, 150, 165, and 161, three C {r_arrow} T, two C {r_arrow} A, one C {r_arrow} G, and one A {r_arrow} T transition, respectively) from four SCTs, two SCCs and one UV-exposed skin sample. These experimental results demonstrate that alterations in the p53 gene are frequent events in chronic UV exposure-induced SCCs and later stage SCTs in Sencar mouse skin. 40 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Enhanced levels of scrapie responsive gene mRNA in BSE-infected mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Dandoy-Dron, F; Benboudjema, L; Guillo, F; Jaegly, A; Jasmin, C; Dormont, D; Tovey, M G; Dron, M

    2000-03-10

    The expression of the mRNA of nine scrapie responsive genes was analyzed in the brains of FVB/N mice infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). The RNA transcripts of eight genes were overexpressed to a comparable extent in both BSE-infected and scrapie-infected mice, indicating a common series of pathogenic events in the two transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). In contrast, the serine proteinase inhibitor spi 2, an analogue of the human alpha-1 antichymotrypsin gene, was overexpressed to a greater extent in the brains of scrapie-infected animals than in animals infected with BSE, reflecting either an agent specific or a mouse strain specific response. The levels of spi 2 mRNA were increased during the course of scrapie prior to the onset of clinical signs of the disease and the increase reached 11 to 45 fold relative to uninfected controls in terminally ill mice. Spi 2, in common with four of the other scrapie responsive genes studied, is known to be associated with pro-inflammatory processes. These observations underline the importance of cell reactivity in TSE. In addition, scrg2 mRNA the level of which is enhanced in TSE-infected mouse brain, was identified as a previously unrecognized long transcript of the murine aldolase C gene. However, the level of the principal aldolase C mRNA is unaffected in TSE. The increased representation of the longer transcript in the late stage of the disease may reflect changes in mRNA processing and/or stability in reactive astrocytes or in damaged Purkinje cells.

  1. Identification of pax6-dependent gene regulatory networks in the mouse lens.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Louise V; Yang, Ying; Wang, Jinhua; Xie, Qing; Braunger, Barbara; Tamm, Ernst R; Zavadil, Jiri; Cvekl, Ales

    2009-01-01

    Lineage-specific DNA-binding transcription factors regulate development by activating and repressing particular set of genes required for the acquisition of a specific cell type. Pax6 is a paired domain and homeodomain-containing transcription factor essential for development of central nervous, olfactory and visual systems, as well as endocrine pancreas. Haploinsufficiency of Pax6 results in perturbed lens development and homeostasis. Loss-of-function of Pax6 is incompatible with lens lineage formation and results in abnormal telencephalic development. Using DNA microarrays, we have identified 559 genes expressed differentially between 1-day old mouse Pax6 heterozygous and wild type lenses. Of these, 178 (31.8%) were similarly increased and decreased in Pax6 homozygous embryonic telencephalon [Holm PC, Mader MT, Haubst N, Wizenmann A, Sigvardsson M, Götz M (2007) Loss- and gain-of-function analyses reveals targets of Pax6 in the developing mouse telencephalon. Mol Cell Neurosci 34: 99-119]. In contrast, 381 (68.2%) genes were differently regulated between the lens and embryonic telencephalon. Differential expression of nine genes implicated in lens development and homeostasis: Cspg2, Igfbp5, Mab21l2, Nrf2f, Olfm3, Spag5, Spock1, Spon1 and Tgfb2, was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR, with five of these genes: Cspg2, Mab21l2, Olfm3, Spag5 and Tgfb2, identified as candidate direct Pax6 target genes by quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation (qChIP). In Mab21l2 and Tgfb2 promoter regions, twelve putative individual Pax6-binding sites were tested by electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) with recombinant Pax6 proteins. This led to the identification of two and three sites in the respective Mab21l2 and Tgfb2 promoter regions identified by qChIPs. Collectively, the present studies represent an integrative genome-wide approach to identify downstream networks controlled by Pax6 that control mouse lens and forebrain development.

  2. The mouse and human excitatory amino acid transporter gene (EAAT1) maps to mouse chromosome 15 and a region of syntenic homology on human chromosome 5

    SciTech Connect

    Kirschner, M.A.; Arriza, J.L.; Amara, S.G.

    1994-08-01

    The gene for human excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT1) was localized to the distal region of human chromosome 5p13 by in situ hybridization of metaphase chromosome spreads. Interspecific backcross analysis identified the mouse Eaat1 locus in a region of 5p13 homology on mouse chromosome 15. Markers that are linked with EAAT1 on both human and mouse chromosomes include the receptors for leukemia inhibitory factor, interleukin-7, and prolactin. The Eaat1 locus appears not be linked to the epilepsy mutant stg locus, which is also on chromosome 15. The EAAT1 locus is located in a region of 5p deletions that have been associated with mental retardation and microcephaly. 22 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Hepatocellular carcinoma mouse models: Hepatitis B virus-associated hepatocarcinogenesis and haploinsufficient tumor suppressor genes

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Yuan-Chi; Shen, Zhao-Qing; Kao, Cheng-Heng; Tsai, Ting-Fen

    2016-01-01

    The multifactorial and multistage pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has fascinated a wide spectrum of scientists for decades. While a number of major risk factors have been identified, their mechanistic roles in hepatocarcinogenesis still need to be elucidated. Many tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) have been identified as being involved in HCC. These TSGs can be classified into two groups depending on the situation with respect to allelic mutation/loss in the tumors: the recessive TSGs with two required mutated alleles and the haploinsufficient TSGs with one required mutated allele. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the most important risk factors associated with HCC. Although mice cannot be infected with HBV due to the narrow host range of HBV and the lack of a proper receptor, one advantage of mouse models for HBV/HCC research is the numerous and powerful genetic tools that help investigate the phenotypic effects of viral proteins and allow the dissection of the dose-dependent action of TSGs. Here, we mainly focus on the application of mouse models in relation to HBV-associated HCC and on TSGs that act either in a recessive or in a haploinsufficient manner. Discoveries obtained using mouse models will have a great impact on HCC translational medicine. PMID:26755878

  4. Joint mouse-human phenome-wide association to test gene function and disease risk.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xusheng; Pandey, Ashutosh K; Mulligan, Megan K; Williams, Evan G; Mozhui, Khyobeni; Li, Zhengsheng; Jovaisaite, Virginija; Quarles, L Darryl; Xiao, Zhousheng; Huang, Jinsong; Capra, John A; Chen, Zugen; Taylor, William L; Bastarache, Lisa; Niu, Xinnan; Pollard, Katherine S; Ciobanu, Daniel C; Reznik, Alexander O; Tishkov, Artem V; Zhulin, Igor B; Peng, Junmin; Nelson, Stanley F; Denny, Joshua C; Auwerx, Johan; Lu, Lu; Williams, Robert W

    2016-02-02

    Phenome-wide association is a novel reverse genetic strategy to analyze genome-to-phenome relations in human clinical cohorts. Here we test this approach using a large murine population segregating for ∼5 million sequence variants, and we compare our results to those extracted from a matched analysis of gene variants in a large human cohort. For the mouse cohort, we amassed a deep and broad open-access phenome consisting of ∼4,500 metabolic, physiological, pharmacological and behavioural traits, and more than 90 independent expression quantitative trait locus (QTL), transcriptome, proteome, metagenome and metabolome data sets--by far the largest coherent phenome for any experimental cohort (www.genenetwork.org). We tested downstream effects of subsets of variants and discovered several novel associations, including a missense mutation in fumarate hydratase that controls variation in the mitochondrial unfolded protein response in both mouse and Caenorhabditis elegans, and missense mutations in Col6a5 that underlies variation in bone mineral density in both mouse and human.

  5. Determination of the promoter region of mouse ribosomal RNA gene by an in vitro transcription system.

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, O; Takakusa, N; Mishima, Y; Kominami, R; Muramatsu, M

    1984-01-01

    Sequences required for a faithful and efficient transcription of a cloned mouse ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) are determined by testing a series of deletion mutants in an in vitro transcription system utilizing two kinds of mouse cellular extract. Deletion of sequences upstream of -40 or downstream of +52 causes only slight reduction in promoter activity as compared with the "wild-type" template. For upstream deletion mutants, the removal of a sequence between -40 and -35 causes a significant decrease in the capacity to direct efficient initiation. This decrease becomes more pronounced when the deletion reaches -32 and the sequence A-T-C-T-T-T, conserved among mouse, rat, and human rDNAs, is lost. Residual template activity is further reduced as more upstream sequence is deleted and finally becomes undetectable when the deletion is extended from -22 down to -17, corresponding to the loss of the conserved sequence T-A-T-T-G. As for downstream deletion mutants, the removal of the sequence downstream of +23 causes some (and further deletions up to +11 cause a more) serious decrease in template activity in vitro. These deletions involve other conserved sequences downstream of the transcription start site. However, the removal of the original transcription start site does not abolish the transcription initiation completely, provided that the whole upstream sequence is intact. Images PMID:6320178

  6. Spatial and temporal analysis of gene expression during growth and fusion of the mouse facial prominences.

    PubMed

    Feng, Weiguo; Leach, Sonia M; Tipney, Hannah; Phang, Tzulip; Geraci, Mark; Spritz, Richard A; Hunter, Lawrence E; Williams, Trevor

    2009-12-16

    Orofacial malformations resulting from genetic and/or environmental causes are frequent human birth defects yet their etiology is often unclear because of insufficient information concerning the molecular, cellular and morphogenetic processes responsible for normal facial development. We have, therefore, derived a comprehensive expression dataset for mouse orofacial development, interrogating three distinct regions - the mandibular, maxillary and frontonasal prominences. To capture the dynamic changes in the transcriptome during face formation, we sampled five time points between E10.5-E12.5, spanning the developmental period from establishment of the prominences to their fusion to form the mature facial platform. Seven independent biological replicates were used for each sample ensuring robustness and quality of the dataset. Here, we provide a general overview of the dataset, characterizing aspects of gene expression changes at both the spatial and temporal level. Considerable coordinate regulation occurs across the three prominences during this period of facial growth and morphogenesis, with a switch from expression of genes involved in cell proliferation to those associated with differentiation. An accompanying shift in the expression of polycomb and trithorax genes presumably maintains appropriate patterns of gene expression in precursor or differentiated cells, respectively. Superimposed on the many coordinated changes are prominence-specific differences in the expression of genes encoding transcription factors, extracellular matrix components, and signaling molecules. Thus, the elaboration of each prominence will be driven by particular combinations of transcription factors coupled with specific cell:cell and cell:matrix interactions. The dataset also reveals several prominence-specific genes not previously associated with orofacial development, a subset of which we externally validate. Several of these latter genes are components of bidirectional

  7. Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Gene Expression during Growth and Fusion of the Mouse Facial Prominences

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Weiguo; Leach, Sonia M.; Tipney, Hannah; Phang, Tzulip; Geraci, Mark; Spritz, Richard A.; Hunter, Lawrence E.; Williams, Trevor

    2009-01-01

    Orofacial malformations resulting from genetic and/or environmental causes are frequent human birth defects yet their etiology is often unclear because of insufficient information concerning the molecular, cellular and morphogenetic processes responsible for normal facial development. We have, therefore, derived a comprehensive expression dataset for mouse orofacial development, interrogating three distinct regions – the mandibular, maxillary and frontonasal prominences. To capture the dynamic changes in the transcriptome during face formation, we sampled five time points between E10.5–E12.5, spanning the developmental period from establishment of the prominences to their fusion to form the mature facial platform. Seven independent biological replicates were used for each sample ensuring robustness and quality of the dataset. Here, we provide a general overview of the dataset, characterizing aspects of gene expression changes at both the spatial and temporal level. Considerable coordinate regulation occurs across the three prominences during this period of facial growth and morphogenesis, with a switch from expression of genes involved in cell proliferation to those associated with differentiation. An accompanying shift in the expression of polycomb and trithorax genes presumably maintains appropriate patterns of gene expression in precursor or differentiated cells, respectively. Superimposed on the many coordinated changes are prominence-specific differences in the expression of genes encoding transcription factors, extracellular matrix components, and signaling molecules. Thus, the elaboration of each prominence will be driven by particular combinations of transcription factors coupled with specific cell:cell and cell:matrix interactions. The dataset also reveals several prominence-specific genes not previously associated with orofacial development, a subset of which we externally validate. Several of these latter genes are components of bidirectional

  8. The human homolog of a mouse-imprinted gene, Peg3, maps to a zinc finger gene-rich region of human chromosome 19q13.4.

    PubMed

    Kim, J; Ashworth, L; Branscomb, E; Stubbs, L

    1997-05-01

    Peg3 (paternally expressed gene 3) is the first imprinted gene detected in the proximal region of mouse chromosome 7. Because imprinting is a trait that is generally conserved among mammals, and imprinted domains generally encompass several adjacent genes, expression patterns and chromosomal environment of the human counterpart of Peg3 are of special interest. In this study we have localized human PEG3 approximately 2 Mb proximal of the telomere of chromosome 19q, within a region known to carry large numbers of tandemly clustered Krüppel-type zinc finger-containing (ZNF) genes. Peg3 also encodes a Krüppel-type ZNF protein but one that is distinguished from other ZNF gene products by the fact that it carries two novel proline-rich motifs. Comparison between mouse Peg3 and partial human PEG3 gene sequences revealed a high level of conservation between the two species, despite the fact that one of the two proline-rich repeats is absent from the human gene. Our data demonstrate that the human gene is expressed at highest levels in ovary and placenta; mouse Peg3, by contrast, is transcribed at highest levels in the adult brain. These comparative mapping, sequencing, and expression data provide the first clues to the potential activities of PEG3, and generate new tools to aid in the analysis of structure and function of a potentially new imprinted domain located in human chromosome 19q13.4 and mouse chromosome 7.

  9. Mapping of the NEP receptor tyrosine kinase gene to human chromosome 6p21.3 and mouse chromosome 17C

    SciTech Connect

    Edelhoff, S.; Disteche, C.M.; Sweetser, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    The mouse receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) NEP, also called Ptk-3, is widely expressed, with high levels in proliferating neuroepithelia of mouse embryos. The recently described human discoidin domain receptor (DDR) has a predicted amino acid sequence 93% identical to that of murine NEP and may be its human homologue. We have mapped the gene encoding NEP in human and mouse by fluorescence in situ hybridization using a mouse cDNA probe. The NEP/Nep gene maps to human chromosome 6p21.3 and mouse chromosome 17C, respectively. This places the NEP/Nep gene at, or near, the major histocompatibility (MHC) locus-HLA in human and H2 in mouse, respectively. Based on its pattern of expression during development, NEP and Nep represent candidate genes for several MHC-linked developmental abnormalities in human and mouse. 19 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Dynamic expression of combinatorial replication-dependent histone variant genes during mouse spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Rongfang; Qi, Huayu

    2014-01-01

    Nucleosomes are basic chromatin structural units that are formed by DNA sequences wrapping around histones. Global chromatin states in different cell types are specified by combinatorial effects of post-translational modifications of histones and the expression of histone variants. During mouse spermatogenesis, spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) self-renew while undergo differentiation, events that occur in the company of constant re-modeling of chromatin structures. Previous studies have shown that testes contain highly expressed or specific histone variants to facilitate these epigenetic modifications. However, mechanisms of regulating the epigenetic changes and the specific histone compositions of spermatogenic cells are not fully understood. Using real time quantitative RT-PCR, we examined the dynamic expression of replication-dependent histone genes in post-natal mouse testes. It was found that distinct sets of histone genes are expressed in various spermatogenic cells at different stages during spermatogenesis. While gonocyte-enriched testes from mice at 2-dpp (days post partum) express pre-dominantly thirteen histone variant genes, SSC-stage testes at 9-dpp highly express a different set of eight histone genes. During differentiation stage when testes are occupied mostly by spermatocytes and spermatids, another twenty-two histone genes are expressed much higher than the rest, including previously known testis-specific hist1h1t, hist1h2ba and hist1h4c. In addition, histone genes that are pre-dominantly expressed in gonocytes and SSCs are also highly expressed in embryonic stem cells. Several of them were changed when embryoid bodies were formed from ES cells, suggesting their roles in regulating pluripotency of the cells. Further more, differentially expressed histone genes are specifically localized in either SSCs or spermatocytes and spermatids, as demonstrated by in situ hybridization using gene specific probes. Taken together, results presented here

  11. Analyzing the miRNA-Gene Networks to Mine the Important miRNAs under Skin of Human and Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Husile

    2016-01-01

    Genetic networks provide new mechanistic insights into the diversity of species morphology. In this study, we have integrated the MGI, GEO, and miRNA database to analyze the genetic regulatory networks under morphology difference of integument of humans and mice. We found that the gene expression network in the skin is highly divergent between human and mouse. The GO term of secretion was highly enriched, and this category was specific in human compared to mouse. These secretion genes might be involved in eccrine system evolution in human. In addition, total 62,637 miRNA binding target sites were predicted in human integument genes (IGs), while 26,280 miRNA binding target sites were predicted in mouse IGs. The interactions between miRNAs and IGs in human are more complex than those in mouse. Furthermore, hsa-miR-548, mmu-miR-466, and mmu-miR-467 have an enormous number of targets on IGs, which both have the role of inhibition of host immunity response. The pattern of distribution on the chromosome of these three miRNAs families is very different. The interaction of miRNA/IGs has added the new dimension in traditional gene regulation networks of skin. Our results are generating new insights into the gene networks basis of skin difference between human and mouse. PMID:27689084

  12. The mouse salivary androgen-binding protein (ABP) gene cluster on chromosomes 7: characterization and evolutionary relationships.

    PubMed

    Laukaitis, Christina M; Dlouhy, Stephen R; Karn, Robert C

    2003-10-01

    Mouse salivary androgen-binding protein (ABP) is a pair of dimers, composed of an alpha subunit disulfide bridged to either a beta or a gamma subunit. It has been proposed that each subunit is encoded by a distinct gene: Abpa, Abpb, and Abpg for the alpha, beta, and gamma subunits, respectively. We report here the structures and sequences of the genes that encode these three subunits. Each gene has three exons separated by two introns. Mouse salivary ABP is a member of the secretoglobin family, and we compare the structure of the three ABP subunit genes to those of 18 other mammalian secretoglobins. We map the three genes as a gene cluster located 10 cM from the centromere of Chromosome (Chr) 7 and show that Abpa is the closest of the three to the gene for glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) and that Abpg is the closest to the centromere, with Abpb mapping between them. Abpa is oriented in the opposite direction to Abpb and Abpg, with its 5' end directed toward their 5' ends. We compare the location of these genes with other secretoglobin genes in the mouse genome and with the known locations of secretoglobin genes in the human genome and present evidence that strong positive selection has driven the divergence of the coding regions of Abpb and Abpg since the putative duplication event that created them.

  13. High-Throughput Analysis of Dynamic Gene Expression Associated with Sleep Deprivation and Recovery Sleep in the Mouse Brain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    Gene Expression Associated with Sleep Deprivation and Recovery Sleep in the Mouse Brain PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ed Lein, Ph.D...CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Allen Institute for Brain Science Seattle, WA 98103 REPORT DATE...Recovery Sleep in the Mouse Brain 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-06-1-0131 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Ed Lein, Ph.D

  14. Identification and expression of an atypical isoform of metallothionein in the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Scudiero, Rosaria; Tussellino, Margherita; Carotenuto, Rosa

    2015-05-01

    Exploiting the annotation of the western clawed frog Silurana tropicalis genome, we identified a new metallothionein (MT) gene, exhibiting all the features to be considered an active gene, but with an atypical coding region, showing only 17 cysteine residues instead of the canonical 20 cysteines of vertebrate metallothioneins and two anomalous cysteine triplets. However, the presence of a gene in the genome does not ensure its effective expression. By using conventional and Real-Time PCR analyses, we demonstrated that this atypical MT is constitutively expressed throughout the life cycle of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis; moreover, this gene is highly expressed in the adult liver, the major site of MT expression and synthesis in vertebrates. To our knowledge, the X. laevis MT described in this paper is the first sequence of a vertebrate MT showing only 17 cysteine residues, arranged in two Cys-Cys-Cys motifs. Phylogenetic analyses also demonstrated that the atypical X. laevis MT merges in the anuran clade, but is the most derived sequence among tetrapods MTs. Finally, Tajima's Relative Rate Test suggested a different evolutionary rate between the canonical X. laevis MT and this novel isoform.

  15. Prognostic significance of metallothionein expression in renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mitropoulos, Dionisios; Kyroudi-Voulgari, Aspasia; Theocharis, Stamatis; Serafetinides, Efraim; Moraitis, Epaminondas; Zervas, Anastasios; Kittas, Christos

    2005-01-01

    Background Metallothionein (MT) protein expression deficiency has been implicated in carcinogenesis while MT over expression in tumors is indicative of tumor resistance to anti-cancer treatment. The purpose of the study was to examine the expression of MT expression in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and to correlate MT positivity, the pattern and extent of MT expression with tumor histologic cell type and nuclear grade, pathologic stage and patients' survival. Patients and methods The immunohistochemical expression of MT was determined in 43 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded RCC specimens, using a mouse monoclonal antibody that reacts with both human MT-I and MT-II. Correlation was sought between immunohistochemical (MT positivity, intensity and extension of staining) and clinico-pathological data (histological cell type, tumor nuclear grade, pathologic stage and patients' survival). Results Positive MT staining was present in 21 cases (49%), being mild/moderate and intense in 8 and 13 cases, respectively. The pattern was cytoplasmic in 7 cases and was both cytoplasmic and nuclear in 14 cases. MT expression in a percentage of up to 25% of tumor cells (negative MT staining included) was observed in 31 cases, in a percentage 25–50% of tumor cells in 7 cases, and in a percentage of 50–75% of tumor cells in 5 cases. There was no significant correlation of MT intensity of staining to histological type, stage and patients' survival, while it was inversely correlated to higher tumor nuclear grade. MT extent of staining did not correlate with histological type, nuclear grade, and pathologic stage while a statistically significant association was found with patients' survival. Conclusions The inverse correlation between MT staining intensity and tumor nuclear grade in RCC suggests a role of MT in tumor differentiation process. Since extent of MT expression is inversely correlated with survival it may be possibly used as a clinical prognostic parameter. PMID

  16. Role of Metallothionein in Post-Burn Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Xie, Yongjun; Liu, Weihua; Xu, Xuefeng; Chen, Xuelian; Liu, Hairong; Liu, Yueming

    2016-04-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are a family of low molecular-weight and cysteine-rich metalloproteins that regulate metal metabolism and protect cells from oxygen free radicals. Recent studies suggested that MTs have some anti-inflammatory effects. However, the role of MTs in post-burn inflammation remains unclear. This study is designed to investigate the role of MTs in post-burn inflammation in a mouse burn model. MT-I/II null (-/-) and C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice were randomly divided into sham burn, burn, Zn treated, and Zn-MT-2 treated groups. The inflammatory cytokines levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was determined by spectrophotometry. In in vitro study, exogenous MT-2 was added to macrophages that were stimulated with burn serum in the presence or absence of a p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. The IL-6 and TNF-α messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The levels of p38 expression were determined by Western blot. Burn induced increased inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factors-α, and macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 production in burn wound and serum. The MPO activities in the lung and heart were also increased after burn. These effects were significantly more prominent in MT (-/-) mice than in WT mice. Furthermore, these effects were inhibited by administration of exogenous MT-2 to both WT and MT (-/-) mice. Exogenous MT-2 inhibited the p38 expression and abrogated the increase of IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expression from macrophages that were stimulated with burn serum. The effect of MT-2 was not further strengthened in the presence of SB203580. MTs may have a protective role against post-burn inflammation and inflammatory organ damage, at least partly through inhibiting the p38 MAPK signaling.

  17. Efficient gene targeting of the Rosa26 locus in mouse zygotes using TALE nucleases.

    PubMed

    Kasparek, Petr; Krausova, Michaela; Haneckova, Radka; Kriz, Vitezslav; Zbodakova, Olga; Korinek, Vladimir; Sedlacek, Radislav

    2014-11-03

    Gene targeting in mice mainly employs homologous recombination (HR) in embryonic stem (ES) cells. Although it is a standard way for production of genetically modified mice, the procedure is laborious and time-consuming. This study describes targeting of the mouse Rosa26 locus by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs). We employed TALEN-assisted HR in zygotes to introduce constructs encoding TurboRFP and TagBFP fluorescent proteins into the first intron of the Rosa26 gene, and in this way generated two transgenic mice. We also demonstrated that these Rosa26-specific TALENs exhibit high targeting efficiency superior to that of zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) specific for the same targeting sequence. Moreover, we devised a reporter assay to assess TALENs activity and specificity to improve the quality of TALEN-assisted targeting.

  18. The growth hormone receptor gene-disrupted mouse fails to respond to an intermittent fasting diet.

    PubMed

    Arum, Oge; Bonkowski, Michael S; Rocha, Juliana S; Bartke, Andrzej

    2009-12-01

    The interaction of longevity-conferring genes with longevity-conferring diets is poorly understood. The growth hormone receptor gene-disrupted (GHR-KO) mouse is long lived; and this longevity is not responsive to 30% caloric restriction, in contrast to wild-type animals from the same strain. To determine whether this may have been limited to a particular level of dietary restriction, we subjected GHR-KO mice to a different dietary restriction regimen, an intermittent fasting diet. The intermittent fasting diet increased the survivorship and improved insulin sensitivity of normal males, but failed to affect either parameter in GHR-KO mice. From the results of two paradigms of dietary restriction, we postulate that GHR-KO mice would be resistant to any manner of dietary restriction; potentially due to their inability to further enhance insulin sensitivity. Insulin sensitivity may be a mechanism and/or a marker of the lifespan extending potential of an intervention.

  19. Deletion of Cmu genes in mouse B lymphocytes upon stimulation with LPS.

    PubMed

    Radbruch, A; Sablitzky, F

    1983-01-01

    Mouse B lymphocytes can be activated polyclonally by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to differentiate into plasmablasts. Within several days many cells perform immunoglobulin (Ig) class switching in vitro. We have purified LPS blasts expressing IgM or only IgG3 on the cell surface and analysed the DNA of these cells by Southern hybridisation blotting to detect rearrangement or deletion of CH genes. Quantitative evaluation of the Southern blots suggests that populations of surface IgG3+ (sIgG3+) cells from 6-day and sIgM+ cells from 8-day-old cultures contain only about half as many Cmu genes as spleen cells. Cmu deletion is nearly complete in populations of sIgG3+ cells from 9-day-old cultures. Therefore, upon stimulation with LPS, within a few days Cmu is deleted in most sIgG3+ cells from both chromosomes.

  20. Mesp2: a novel mouse gene expressed in the presegmented mesoderm and essential for segmentation initiation.

    PubMed

    Saga, Y; Hata, N; Koseki, H; Taketo, M M

    1997-07-15

    We isolated a novel bHLH protein gene Mesp2 (for mesoderm posterior 2) that cross-hybridizes with Mesp1 expressed in the early mouse mesoderm. Mesp2 is expressed in the rostral presomitic mesoderm, but down-regulated immediately after the formation of the segmented somites. To determine the function of MesP2 protein (MesP2) in somitogenesis, we generated Mesp2-deficient mice by gene targeting. The homozygous Mesp2 (-/-) mice died shortly after birth and had fused vertebral columns and dorsal root ganglia, with impaired sclerotomal polarity. The earliest defect in the homozygous embryos was a lack of segmented somites. Their disruption of the metameric features, altered expression of Mox-1, Pax-1, and Dll1, and lack of expression of Notch1, Notch2, and FGFR1 suggested that MesP2 controls sclerotomal polarity by regulating the signaling systems mediated by notch-delta and FGF, which are essential for segmentation.

  1. Dopaminergic function in relation to genes associated with risk for schizophrenia: translational mutant mouse models.

    PubMed

    Moran, Paula M; O'Tuathaigh, Colm M P; Papaleo, Francesco; Waddington, John L

    2014-01-01

    Mutant mice play an increasingly important role in understanding disease processes at multiple levels. In particular, they illuminate the impact of risk genes for disease on such processes. This article reviews recent advances in the application of mutant mice to study the intricacies of dopaminergic (DAergic) function in relation to the putative pathophysiology of psychotic illness, particularly schizophrenia, and antipsychotic drug action. It considers models for understanding the role(s) of risk genes, with a particular focus on DTNBP1 and NRG1, their interactions with environmental factors, and with each other (epistasis). In overview, it considers new schemas for understanding psychotic illness that integrate DAergic pathophysiology with developmental, social, and cognitive processes, and how mutant mouse models can reflect and inform on such schemas.

  2. Expression in L cells of transfected class I genes from the mouse major histocompatibility complex.

    PubMed Central

    Schepart, B S; Woodward, J G; Palmer, M J; Macchi, M J; Basta, P; McLaughlin-Taylor, E; Frelinger, J A

    1985-01-01

    One of the major surprises of the molecular analysis of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes is the large number of class I (K/D)-related sequences in the genome. Both restriction fragment length polymorphisms and cosmid cloning experiments showed them all to be closely linked to the MHC. Until now little information was available concerning either their expression or recognition by the immune system. Here we report that these non-K/D genes can provoke antibody responses and be recognized by cytolytic T cells. Immunization of C3H mice with L cells transfected with class I genomic clones resulted in antisera that reacted preferentially with cells from strain B10.P (the gene donor). Thus, these genes can be expressed by L cells. These products were recognized by cytolytic T cells produced by mixed lymphocyte culture with B10.P stimulators. One gene, represented in clone lambda 3a, was chosen for further analysis. A restriction fragment length polymorphism, detected between B10.P (KpDp) and B10.F(14R) (KbDp) and between B10 (KbDb) and B10.F(13R) (KpDb), has enabled us to map the lambda 3a sequence to the D or Tla region. Restriction endonuclease mapping of the lambda 3a clone shows that the gene is intact and that, although many restriction sites are conserved, the gene in lambda 3a differs from other class I genes. When the lambda 3a clone was transfected into mouse L cells, a new product was expressed. Cells expressing this product (designated L3a cells) were killed by primary D-end-reactive, allospecific cytolytic T lymphocytes. The L3a cells were unreactive with monoclonal antibodies specific for the Kp,Dp,Qa-2, Tla.3, and Tla.5 molecules. Images PMID:2991930

  3. Identification of gene expression changes from colitis to CRC in the mouse CAC model.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Gao, Yuyan; Yang, Ming; Zhao, Qi; Wang, Guangyu; Yang, Yan Mei; Yang, Yue; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Yanqiao

    2014-01-01

    A connection between colorectal carcinogenesis and inflammation is well known, but the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been elucidated. Chemically induced colitis-associated cancer (CAC) is an outstanding mouse model for studying the link between inflammation and cancer. Additionally, the CAC model is used for examining novel diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive markers for use in clinical practice. Here, a CAC model was established in less than 100 days using azoxymethane (AOM) with dextran sulfate sodium salt (DSS) in BALB/c mice. We examined the mRNA expression profiles of three groups: control untreated mice (K), DSS-induced chronic colitis mice (D), and AOM/DSS-induced CAC (AD) mice. We identified 6301 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) among the three groups, including 93 persistently upregulated genes and 139 persistently downregulated genes. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses revealed that the most persistent DEGs were significantly enriched in metabolic or inflammatory components in the tumor microenvironment. Furthermore, several associated DEGs were identified as potential DEGs by protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis. We selected 14 key genes from the DEGs and potential DEGs for further quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) verification. Six persistently upregulated, 3 persistently downregulated DEGs, and the other 3 genes showed results consistent with the microarray data. We demonstrated the regulation of 12 key genes specifically involved in Wnt signaling, cytokine and cytokine receptor interactions, homeostasis, and tumor-associated metabolism during colitis-associated CRC. Our results suggest that a close relationship between metabolic and inflammatory mediators of the tumor microenvironment is present in CAC.

  4. Epigenetic Modifications Unlock the Milk Protein Gene Loci during Mouse Mammary Gland Development and Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Rijnkels, Monique; Freeman-Zadrowski, Courtneay; Hernandez, Joseph; Potluri, Vani; Wang, Liguo; Li, Wei; Lemay, Danielle G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Unlike other tissues, development and differentiation of the mammary gland occur mostly after birth. The roles of systemic hormones and local growth factors important for this development and functional differentiation are well-studied. In other tissues, it has been shown that chromatin organization plays a key role in transcriptional regulation and underlies epigenetic regulation during development and differentiation. However, the role of chromatin organization in mammary gland development and differentiation is less well-defined. Here, we have studied the changes in chromatin organization at the milk protein gene loci (casein, whey acidic protein, and others) in the mouse mammary gland before and after functional differentiation. Methodology/Principal Findings Distal regulatory elements within the casein gene cluster and whey acidic protein gene region have an open chromatin organization after pubertal development, while proximal promoters only gain open-chromatin marks during pregnancy in conjunction with the major induction of their expression. In contrast, other milk protein genes, such as alpha-lactalbumin, already have an open chromatin organization in the mature virgin gland. Changes in chromatin organization in the casein gene cluster region that are present after puberty persisted after lactation has ceased, while the changes which occurred during pregnancy at the gene promoters were not maintained. In general, mammary gland expressed genes and their regulatory elements exhibit developmental stage- and tissue-specific chromatin organization. Conclusions/Significance A progressive gain of epigenetic marks indicative of open/active chromatin on genes marking functional differentiation accompanies the development of the mammary gland. These results support a model in which a chromatin organization is established during pubertal development that is then poised to respond to the systemic hormonal signals of pregnancy and lactation to achieve the

  5. Correlating behaviour and gene expression endpoints in the dopaminergic system after modafinil administration in mouse.

    PubMed

    De Ron, P; Dremier, S; Winlow, P; Jenkins, A; Hanon, E; Nogueira da Costa, A

    2016-04-01

    The mechanisms of action of modafinil continue to be poorly characterised and its potential for abuse in preclinical models remains controverted. The aim of this study was to further elucidate the mechanism of action of modafinil, through a potential behavioural and molecular association in the mouse. A conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm was implemented to investigate the rewarding properties of modafinil. Whole genome expression and qRT-PCR analysis were performed on the ventral tegmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens (NAC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) of modafinil-treated and control animals. Modafinil administration (65 mg/kg) induced an increase in locomotor activity, an increase in the change of preference for the drug paired side after a conditioning period as well as changes to gene expression profiles in the VTA (120 genes), NAC (23 genes) and PFC (19 genes). A molecular signature consisting of twelve up-regulated genes was identified as common to the three brain regions. Multiple linear correlation analysis showed a strong correlation (R(2)>0.70) between the behavioural and molecular endpoints in the three brain regions. We show that modafinil had a concomitant effect on CPP, locomotor activity, and up-regulation of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) regulated genes (Gbp2, Gbp3, Gbp10, Cd274, Igtp), while correlating the latter set of genes with behaviour changes evaluated through the CPP. A potential association can be proposed based on the dysregulation of p47 family genes and Gbp family of IFN-γ induced GTPases. In conclusion, these findings suggest a link between the behavioural and molecular events in the context of modafinil administration.

  6. Onset of cell-specific gene expression in the developing mouse pancreas.

    PubMed Central

    Gittes, G K; Rutter, W J

    1992-01-01

    A central question in developmental biology has been the initiation of cell-specific gene expression and its temporal relationship to morphogenesis. We have coupled embryo microdissection with the exquisite sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction to define the onset of cell-specific gene expression during pancreatic organogenesis. Using the precise assignment of gestational age by the number of somites in each embryo, we determined the onset of transcription of major genes of the endocrine and exocrine pancreas during mouse development to within 2-3 hr. Somatostatin mRNA was detected at the 10-somite stage throughout the foregut, consistent with the presence of somatostatin-producing cells throughout the adult gut. Mature mRNA for insulin and glucagon first appears surprisingly early, at the 20-somite stage in the wall of the embryonic foregut and is restricted to only the area of the duodenum from which the pancreas will arise 10-12 hr later. In contrast, exocrine gene transcription begins 24 hr after formation of the pancreatic diverticulum. Thus cell-specific gene expression in the endocrine pancreas begins in a "pre-morphogenetic phase." This early expression of insulin and glucagon could reflect the initiation of an endocrine cell lineage. Images PMID:1371010

  7. Effects of atherogenic diet on hepatic gene expression across mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    Witmer, David; Burgess-Herbert, Sarah L.; Paigen, Beverly; Churchill, Gary A.

    2009-01-01

    Diets high in fat and cholesterol are associated with increased obesity and metabolic disease in mice and humans. To study the molecular basis of the metabolic response to dietary fat, 10 inbred strains of mice were fed atherogenic high-fat and control low-fat diets. Liver gene expression and whole animal phenotypes were measured and analyzed in both sexes. The effects of diet, strain, and sex on gene expression were determined irrespective of complex processes, such as feedback mechanisms, that could have mediated the genomic responses. Global gene expression analyses demonstrated that animals of the same strain and sex have similar transcriptional profiles on a low-fat diet, but strains may show considerable variability in response to high-fat diet. Functional profiling indicated that high-fat feeding induced genes in the immune response, indicating liver damage, and repressed cholesterol biosynthesis. The physiological significance of the transcriptional changes was confirmed by a correlation analysis of transcript levels with whole animal phenotypes. The results found here were used to confirm a previously identified quantitative trait locus on chromosome 17 identified in males fed a high-fat diet in two crosses, PERA × DBA/2 and PERA × I/Ln. The gene expression data and phenotype data have been made publicly available as an online tool for exploring the effects of atherogenic diet in inbred mouse strains (http://cgd-array.jax.org/DietStrainSurvey). PMID:19671657

  8. Specificity and Heterogeneity of Terahertz Radiation Effect on Gene Expression in Mouse Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    DOE PAGES

    Alexandrov, Boian S.; Phipps, M. Lisa; Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; ...

    2013-01-31

    In this paper, we report that terahertz (THz) irradiation of mouse mesenchymal stem cells (mMSCs) with a single-frequency (SF) 2.52 THz laser or pulsed broadband (centered at 10 THz) source results in irradiation specific heterogenic changes in gene expression. The THz effect depends on irradiation parameters such as the duration and type of THz source, and on the degree of stem cell differentiation. Our microarray survey and RT-PCR experiments demonstrate that prolonged broadband THz irradiation drives mMSCs toward differentiation, while 2-hour irradiation (regardless of THz sources) affects genes transcriptionally active in pluripotent stem cells. The strictly controlled experimental environment indicatesmore » minimal temperature changes and the absence of any discernable response to heat shock and cellular stress genes imply a non-thermal response. Computer simulations of the core promoters of two pluripotency markers reveal association between gene upregulation and propensity for DNA breathing. Finally, we propose that THz radiation has potential for non-contact control of cellular gene expression.« less

  9. Antisense oligonucleotides delivered to the amniotic cavity in utero modulate gene expression in the postnatal mouse

    PubMed Central

    Depreux, Frederic F.; Wang, Lingyan; Jiang, Han; Jodelka, Francine M.; Rosencrans, Robert F.; Rigo, Frank; Lentz, Jennifer J.; Brigande, John V.; Hastings, Michelle L.

    2016-01-01

    Congenital diseases account for a large portion of pediatric illness. Prenatal screening and diagnosis permit early detection of many genetic diseases. Fetal therapeutic strategies to manage disease processes in utero represent a powerful new approach for clinical care. A safe and effective fetal pharmacotherapy designed to modulate gene expression ideally would avoid direct mechanical engagement of the fetus and present an external reservoir of drug. The amniotic cavity surrounding the fetus could serve as an ideal drug reservoir. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are an established tool for the therapeutic modulation of gene expression. We hypothesize that ASOs administered to the amniotic cavity will gain entry to the fetus and modulate gene expression. Here, we show that an ASO targeting MALAT1 RNA, delivered by transuterine microinjection into the mouse amniotic cavity at embryonic day 13-13.5, reduces target RNA expression for up to 4 weeks after birth. A similarly delivered ASO targeting a causal splice site mutation for Usher syndrome corrects gene expression in the inner ear, a therapeutically relevant target tissue. We conclude that intra-amniotic delivery of ASOs is well tolerated and produces a sustained effect on postnatal gene expression. Transuterine delivery of ASOs is an innovative platform for developing fetal therapeutics to efficaciously treat congenital disease. PMID:27683224

  10. Specificity and Heterogeneity of Terahertz Radiation Effect on Gene Expression in Mouse Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Alexandrov, Boian S.; Phipps, M. Lisa; Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Booshehri, Layla G.; Erat, Anna; Zabolotny, Janice; Mielke, Charles H.; Chen, Hou-Tong; Rodriguez, George; Rasmussen, Kim Ø.; Martinez, Jennifer S.; Bishop, Alan R.; Usheva, Anny

    2013-01-01

    We report that terahertz (THz) irradiation of mouse mesenchymal stem cells (mMSCs) with a single-frequency (SF) 2.52 THz laser or pulsed broadband (centered at 10 THz) source results in irradiation specific heterogenic changes in gene expression. The THz effect depends on irradiation parameters such as the duration and type of THz source, and on the degree of stem cell differentiation. Our microarray survey and RT-PCR experiments demonstrate that prolonged broadband THz irradiation drives mMSCs toward differentiation, while 2-hour irradiation (regardless of THz sources) affects genes transcriptionally active in pluripotent stem cells. The strictly controlled experimental environment indicates minimal temperature changes and the absence of any discernable response to heat shock and cellular stress genes imply a non-thermal response. Computer simulations of the core promoters of two pluripotency markers reveal association between gene upregulation and propensity for DNA breathing. We propose that THz radiation has potential for non-contact control of cellular gene expression. PMID:23378916

  11. ROCK signalling induced gene expression changes in mouse pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Nicola; Kalna, Gabriela; Clark, William; Olson, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    The RhoA and RhoC GTPases act via the ROCK1 and ROCK2 kinases to promote actomyosin contraction, resulting in directly induced changes in cytoskeleton structures and altered gene transcription via several possible indirect routes. Elevated activation of the Rho/ROCK pathway has been reported in several diseases and pathological conditions, including disorders of the central nervous system, cardiovascular dysfunctions and cancer. To determine how increased ROCK signalling affected gene expression in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells, we transduced mouse PDAC cell lines with retroviral constructs encoding fusion proteins that enable conditional activation of ROCK1 or ROCK2, and subsequently performed RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) using the Illumina NextSeq 500 platform. We describe how gene expression datasets were generated and validated by comparing data obtained by RNA-Seq with RT-qPCR results. Activation of ROCK1 or ROCK2 signalling induced significant changes in gene expression that could be used to determine how actomyosin contractility influences gene transcription in pancreatic cancer. PMID:27824338

  12. Specificity and Heterogeneity of Terahertz Radiation Effect on Gene Expression in Mouse Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandrov, Boian S.; Phipps, M. Lisa; Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Booshehri, Layla G.; Erat, Anna; Zabolotny, Janice; Mielke, Charles H.; Chen, Hou-Tong; Rodriguez, George; Rasmussen, Kim O.; Martinez, Jennifer S.; Bishop, Alan R.; Usheva, Anny

    2013-01-31

    In this paper, we report that terahertz (THz) irradiation of mouse mesenchymal stem cells (mMSCs) with a single-frequency (SF) 2.52 THz laser or pulsed broadband (centered at 10 THz) source results in irradiation specific heterogenic changes in gene expression. The THz effect depends on irradiation parameters such as the duration and type of THz source, and on the degree of stem cell differentiation. Our microarray survey and RT-PCR experiments demonstrate that prolonged broadband THz irradiation drives mMSCs toward differentiation, while 2-hour irradiation (regardless of THz sources) affects genes transcriptionally active in pluripotent stem cells. The strictly controlled experimental environment indicates minimal temperature changes and the absence of any discernable response to heat shock and cellular stress genes imply a non-thermal response. Computer simulations of the core promoters of two pluripotency markers reveal association between gene upregulation and propensity for DNA breathing. Finally, we propose that THz radiation has potential for non-contact control of cellular gene expression.

  13. Expression of simple epithelial cytokeratins in mouse epidermal keratinocytes harboring Harvey ras gene alterations.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Guerra, M; Haddow, S; Bauluz, C; Jorcano, J L; Cano, A; Balmain, A; Quintanilla, M

    1992-02-01

    Activation of a Harvey ras (H-ras) protooncogene is a frequent event associated with mouse epidermal carcinogenesis. We report that the transfection of a human H-ras oncogene into an immortalized mouse epidermal cell line (MCA3D) induces the anomalous expression of cytokeratins (CKs) 8 and 18 characteristic of simple epithelia. The comparison of various transfectant cell clones indicated a direct correlation between the levels of CK8 expression and the mutated H-ras p21s. The expression of simple epithelial CKs is also described in cell lines derived from mouse skin carcinomas (HaCa4, CarC) and in keratinocytes transformed in vitro by a chemical carcinogen (PDV, PDVC57), all of which contain altered H-ras genes. The induction of CK8 and CK18 occurs at the mRNA level and, although both CK8 and CK18 mRNAs are expressed, CK18 protein does not accumulate whereas CK8 is incorporated into intermediate filaments. Immunofluorescence studies show that the pattern of CK8 protein expression is heterogeneous; some cells express very low amounts of CK8, whereas others synthesize relatively high levels of this protein. However, selection of strongly CK8-positive cells was found in one case where a more malignant population of cells (PDVC57) was derived by tumor transplantation of PDV. Our results suggest that activation of a H-ras gene can alter the normal differentiation program of epidermal cells and that the ability to synthesize CK8 and CK18 could be related to tumor progression.

  14. The Etl-1 gene encodes a nuclear protein differentially expressed during early mouse development.

    PubMed

    Schoor, M; Schuster-Gossler, K; Gossler, A

    1993-07-01

    Recently, we isolated a novel mouse gene, Etl-1 (Enhancer-trap-locus-1), whose deduced amino acid sequence shows in its C-terminal portion striking homology to the brahma protein (BRM), a transcriptional regulator of homeotic genes in Drosophila, and to SNF2/SWI2, a transcriptional regulator of various genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we report the generation of antibodies against the Etl-1 gene product (ETL-1) and describe the subcellular localization as well as the expression and distribution of the ETL-1 protein during mouse pre- and early post-implantation development. ETL-1 is a nuclear protein and is expressed in a biphasic manner during early embryogenesis. Moderate levels of ETL-1 were detected in unfertilized and fertilized eggs but in the latter the protein was not concentrated in the pronuclei and seemed evenly distributed throughout the cytoplasm. In two-cell embryos nuclear ETL-1 protein accumulated transiently and levels decreased during subsequent cleavage development. After the morula stage, ETL-1 levels increased again; in blastocysts high levels of ETL-1 were present in inner cell mass cells whereas trophectoderm cells contained little or no ETL-1. During subsequent development essentially all cell types except parietal endoderm and trophoblast cells contained high levels of ETL-1. Our results imply that nuclear ETL-1 is dispensable for the progression to the two cell stage, and suggest that during cleavage ETL-1 might be needed at the onset of embryonic transcription. In blastocysts ETL-1 function might be specifically required in cells of the inner cell mass and later in most cells of the embryo proper and extraembryonic ectoderm lineage.

  15. Isolation and characterization of alternatively spliced variants of the mouse sigma1 receptor gene, Sigmar1

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Ling; Pasternak, David A.; Xu, Jin; Xu, Mingming; Lu, Zhigang; Pasternak, Gavril W.

    2017-01-01

    The sigma1 receptor acts as a chaperone at the endoplasmic reticulum, associates with multiple proteins in various cellular systems, and involves in a number of diseases, such as addiction, pain, cancer and psychiatric disorders. The sigma1 receptor is encoded by the single copy SIGMAR1 gene. The current study identifies five alternatively spliced variants of the mouse sigma1 receptor gene using a polymerase chain reaction cloning approach. All the splice variants are generated by exon skipping or alternative 3’ or 5’ splicing, producing the truncated sigma1 receptor. Similar alternative splicing has been observed in the human SIGMAR1 gene based on the molecular cloning or genome sequence prediction, suggesting conservation of alternative splicing of SIGMAR1 gene. Using quantitative polymerase chain reactions, we demonstrate differential expression of several splice variants in mouse tissues and brain regions. When expressed in HEK293 cells, all the splice variants fail to bind sigma ligands, implicating that each truncated region in these splice variants is important for ligand binding. However, co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) study in HEK293 cells co-transfected with tagged constructs reveals that all the splice variants maintain their ability to physically associate with a mu opioid receptor (mMOR-1), providing useful information to correlate the motifs/sequences necessary for their physical association. Furthermore, a competition Co-IP study showed that all the variants can disrupt in a dose-dependent manner the dimerization of the original sigma1 receptor with mMOR-1, suggesting a potential dominant negative function and providing significant insights into their function. PMID:28350844

  16. Differential gene expression in mouse spermatogonial stem cells and embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yinshan; Feng, Meiying; Liu, Shanshan; Wei, Hengxi; Li, Li; Zhang, Xianwei; Shen, Chao; Zhang, Shouquan; Ma, Ningfang

    2016-01-01

    Mouse spermatogonial stem cells (mSSCs) may be reprogrammed to become pluripotent stem cells under in vitro culture conditions, due to epigenetic modifications, which are closely associated with the expression of transcription factors and epigenetic factors. Thus, this study was conducted to compare the gene expression of transcription factors and epigenetic factors in mSSCs and mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Firstly, the freshly isolated mSSCs [mSSCs (f)] were enriched by magnetic-activated cell sorting with Thy1.2 (CD90.2) microbeads, and the typical morphological characteristics were maintained under in vitro culture conditions for over 5 months to form long-term propagated mSSCs [mSSCs (l)]. These mSSCs (l) expressed pluripotency-associated genes and were induced to differentiate into sperm. Our findings indicated that the mSSCs (l) expressed high levels of the transcription factors, Lin28 and Prmt5, and the epigenetic factors, Tet3, Parp1, Max, Tert and Trf1, in comparison with the mESCs, with the levels of Prmt5, Tet3, Parp1 and Tert significantly higher than those in the mESCs. There was no significant difference in Kdm2b expression between mSSCs (l) and mESCs. Furthermore, the gene expression of N-Myc, Dppa2, Tbx3, Nr5a2, Prmt5, Tet3, Parp1, Max, Tert and Trf1 in the mSSCs (l) was markedly higher in comparison to that in the mSSCs (f). Collectively, our results suggest that the mSSCs and the mESCs displayed differential gene expression profiles, and the mSSCs possessed the potential to acquire pluripotency based on the high expression of transcription factors and epigenetic factors. These data may provide novel insights into the reprogramming mechanism of mSSCs. PMID:27353491

  17. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a mouse gene upregulated by lipopolysaccharide treatment reveals alternative splicing

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Kejun; Chen, Yaoming; Dai, Zongming; Bi, Yuan; Cai, Tongjian; Hou, Lichao; Chai, Yubo; Song, Qinghe; Chen, Sumin; Luo, Wenjing; Chen, Jingyuan

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of mouse cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) potently initiates an inflammatory response, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We therefore sought to characterize cDNA sequences of a new mouse LPS-responsive gene, and to evaluate the effects of MLrg. Full-length cDNAs were obtained from LPS-treated NIH3T3 cells. We report that the MLrg gene produces two alternative splice products (GenBank Accession Nos. (DQ316984) and (DQ320011)), respectively, encoding MLrgW and MLrgS polypeptides. Both proteins contain zinc finger and leucine zipper domains and are thus potential regulators of transcription. Expression of MLrgW and MLrgS were robustly upregulated following LPS treatment, and the proteins were localized predominantly in the nuclear membrane and cytoplasm. In stable transfectants over-expressing MLrgW the proportion of cells in G1 phase was significantly reduced, while in cells over-expressing MLrgS the proportion of cells in G2 was significantly increased; both proteins are thus potential regulators of cell cycle progression. Upregulation of MLrgW and MLrgS may be an important component of the LPS inflammatory pathway and of the host response to infection with GNB.

  18. Sequence analysis, chromosomal location, and developmental expression of the mouse preproendothelin-1 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Maemura, Koji; Kurihara, Hiroki; Kurihara, Yukiko

    1996-01-15

    Recent studies have designated endothelins (ETs) as morphogenetic factors in embryonic development. In the present study, we cloned and characterized the mouse preproendothelin-1 (preproET-1) gene (Edn1) and examined its expression in reference to development. Edn1 comprises five exons, and the open reading frame encodes the 202-amino-acid preproET-1. The sequences and structural organization of Edn1 are highly homologous to those of other species, especially in the terminal 200-bp sequence of the 3{prime}-noncoding region. Interspecific backcross mapping located Edn1 in the central region of chromosomal 13, where a mouse mutation, congenital hydrocephalus (ch), is also mapped. The highest expression of Edn1 mRNA is detected in the lung in adult mice, whereas Edn1 is predominantly expressed in the epithelium and mesenchyme of the pharyngeal arches and in the endothelium of the large arteries. Edn1 expression and ET-1 peptide levels in the lung progressively increase during the perinatal stage, whereas the expression of Edn3, a gene encoding ET-3, reciprocally decreases. These results suggest that Edn1 expression is developmentally regulated in different tissues and organs in mice in a spatial- and temporal-specific manner. 36 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Expression of the ankyrin repeat domain 6 gene (Ankrd6) during mouse brain development.

    PubMed

    Tissir, F; Bar, I; Goffinet, A M; Lambert De Rouvroit, C

    2002-08-01

    The structure and developmental expression pattern of the ankyrin repeat domain 6 (Ankrd6) gene, initially named Diversin, were studied in the mouse. Ankrd6 is transcribed as a 5.8-kb mRNA composed of 15 exons that encodes a 712 amino acid protein with 6 ankyrin repeats. Ankrd6 is expressed prominently in the developing brain from E12 to maturity, suggesting a role during brain development. In embryos, expression is maximal in ventricular zones of neuronal proliferation and intermediate zones of neuronal migration and extends to postmigratory neuronal fields during the postnatal period. In the mature brain, the Ankrd6-related signal is highest in cortical layer II, granule cells of the dentate gyrus, olfactory granules and a subset of Purkinje cells in the vestibulocerebellum. Ankrd6 is related to the Drosophila gene Diego, which interacts with Flamingo in the regulation of planar cell polarity (Feiguin et al., 2001). However, the canvas of Ankrd6 expression does not match closely that of the three mouse Flamingo homologs, Celsr1-3 (Tissir et al., 2002). These data suggest that Ankrd6 may be involved in brain development in interaction with Celsr/Flamingo but also other signaling pathways.

  20. Dynamic expression of a glutamate decarboxylase gene in multiple non-neural tissues during mouse development

    PubMed Central

    Maddox, Dennis M; Condie, Brian G

    2001-01-01

    Background Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) is the biosynthetic enzyme for the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Mouse embryos lacking the 67-kDa isoform of GAD (encoded by the Gad1 gene) develop a complete cleft of the secondary palate. This phenotype suggests that this gene may be involved in the normal development of tissues outside of the CNS. Although Gad1 expression in adult non-CNS tissues has been noted previously, no systematic analysis of its embryonic expression outside of the nervous system has been performed. The objective of this study was to define additional structures outside of the central nervous system that express Gad1, indicating those structures that may require its function for normal development. Results Our analysis detected the localized expression of Gad1 transcripts in several developing tissues in the mouse embryo from E9.0-E14.5. Tissues expressing Gad1 included the tail bud mesenchyme, the pharyngeal pouches and arches, the ectodermal placodes of the developing vibrissae, and the apical ectodermal ridge (AER), mesenchyme and ectoderm of the limb buds. Conclusions Some of the sites of Gad1 expression are tissues that emit signals required for patterning and differentiation (AER, vibrissal placodes). Other sites correspond to proliferating stem cell populations that give rise to multiple differentiated tissues (tail bud mesenchyme, pharyngeal endoderm and mesenchyme). The dynamic expression of Gad1 in such tissues suggests a wider role for GABA signaling in development than was previously appreciated. PMID:11178105

  1. Comparative Analysis of Noncoding Regions of 77 Orthologous Mouse and Human Gene Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Jareborg, Niclas; Birney, Ewan; Durbin, Richard

    1999-01-01

    A data set of 77 genomic mouse/human gene pairs has been compiled from the EMBL nucleotide database, and their corresponding features determined. This set was used to analyze the degree of conservation of noncoding sequences between mouse and human. A new alignment algorithm was developed to cope with the fact that large parts of noncoding sequences are not alignable in a meaningful way because of genetic drift. This new algorithm, DNA Block Aligner (DBA), finds colinear-conserved blocks that are flanked by nonconserved sequences of varying lengths. The noncoding regions of the data set were aligned with DBA. The proportion of the noncoding regions covered by blocks >60% identical was 36% for upstream regions, 50% for 5′ UTRs, 23% for introns, and 56% for 3′ UTRs. These blocks of high identity were more or less evenly distributed across the length of the features, except for upstream regions in which the first 100 bp upstream of the transcription start site was covered in up to 70% of the gene pairs. This data set complements earlier sets on the basis of cDNA sequences and will be useful for further comparative studies. [This paper contains supplementary data that can be found at http://www.genome.com.] PMID:10508839

  2. Gene to mouse atlas registration using a landmark-based nonlinear elasticity smoother

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tungyou; Le Guyader, Carole; Lee, Erh-Fang; Dinov, Ivo D.; Thompson, Paul M.; Toga, Arthur W.; Vese, Luminita A.

    2009-02-01

    We propose a unified variational approach for registration of gene expression data to neuroanatomical mouse atlas in two dimensions. The proposed energy (minimized in the unknown displacement u) is composed of three terms: a standard data fidelity term based on L2 similarity measure, a regularizing term based on nonlinear elasticity (allowing larger smooth deformations), and a geometric penalty constraint for landmark matching. We overcome the difficulty of minimizing the nonlinear elasticity functional by introducing an auxiliary variable v that approximates ∇u, the Jacobian of the unknown displacement u. We therefore minimize now the functional with respect to the unknowns u (a vector-valued function of two dimensions) and v (a two-by-two matrix-valued function). An additional quadratic term is added, to insure good agreement between v and ∇u. In this way, the nonlinearity in the derivatives of the unknown u no longer exists in the obtained Euler-Lagrange equations, producing simpler implementations. Several satisfactory experimental results show that gene expression data are mapped to a mouse atlas with good landmark matching and smooth deformation. We also present comparisons with the biharmonic regularization. An advantage of the proposed nonlinear elasticity model is that usually no numerical correction such as regridding is necessary to keep the deformation smooth, while unifying the data fidelity term, regularization term, and landmark constraints in a single minimization approach.

  3. Four out of eight genes in a mouse chromosome 7 congenic donor region are candidate obesity genes.

    PubMed

    Sarahan, Kari A; Fisler, Janis S; Warden, Craig H

    2011-09-22

    We previously identified a region of mouse chromosome 7 that influences body fat mass in F2 littermates of congenic × background intercrosses. Current analyses revealed that alleles in the donor region of the subcongenic B6.C-D7Mit318 (318) promoted a twofold increase in adiposity in homozygous lines of 318 compared with background C57BL/6ByJ (B6By) mice. Parent-of-origin effects were discounted through cross-fostering studies and an F1 reciprocal cross. Mapping of the donor region revealed that it has a maximal size of 2.8 Mb (minimum 1.8 Mb) and contains a maximum of eight protein coding genes. Quantitative PCR in whole brain, liver, and gonadal white adipose tissue (GWAT) revealed differential expression between genotypes for three genes in females and two genes in males. Alpha-2,8-sialyltransferase 8B (St8sia2) showed reduced 318 mRNA levels in brain for females and males and in GWAT for females only. Both sexes of 318 mice had reduced Repulsive guidance molecule-a (Rgma) expression in GWAT. In brain, Family with sequence similarity 174 member b (Fam174b) had increased expression in 318 females, whereas Chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 2 (Chd2-2) had reduced expression in 318 males. No donor region genes were differentially expressed in liver. Sequence analysis of coding exons for all genes in the 318 donor region revealed only one single nucleotid