Science.gov

Sample records for mouse mitochondrial voltage

  1. Structure and expression of mouse mitochondrial voltage dependent anion channel genes

    SciTech Connect

    Craigen, W.J.; Lovell, R.S.; Sampson, M.J.

    1994-09-01

    Voltage dependent anion channels (VDACs) are small abundant proteins of the outer mitochondrial membrane that interact with the adenine nucleotide translocater and bind glycerol kinase and hexokinase. Kinase binding is developmentally regulated, tissue specific, and increased in various tumor cell lines. VDACs are also components of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor and GABA{sub A} receptor. Two human VDAC cDNAs have previously been reported, and expression of these isoforms appears ubiquitous. Genomic Southern analysis suggests the presence of other as yet uncharacterised VDAC genes. To study VDAC function in a mammal more amenable to experimental manipulation, we have isolated three mouse VDAC genes by cDNA cloning from a mouse brain cDNA library. DNA sequencing of the cDNAs shows that they share 65-75% amino acid identity. Northern analysis indicates that MVDAC1 is expressed most highly in kidney, heart, and brain. Using an MVDAC3 3{prime} untranslated exon as a probe, three distinct transcripts can be detected. The gene structure for MVDAC3 and MVDAC2 has been completed and suggests that the VDAC isoforms did not arise by gene duplication and divergence. The intron/exon boundaries are not conserved between MVDAC1 and MVDAC3, and MVDAC2 appears to be encoded by a single intronless gene.

  2. Bezafibrate improves mitochondrial function in the CNS of a mouse model of mitochondrial encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Noe, Natalie; Dillon, Lloye; Lellek, Veronika; Diaz, Francisca; Hida, Aline; Moraes, Carlos T.; Wenz, Tina

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction frequently affects the central nervous system. Here, we investigated the effect of bezafibrate treatment on neuronal mitochondrial function and its impact on the progression of a mitochondrial encephalopathy. We used a murine model with a forebrain-specific cytochrome c oxidase deficiency caused by conditional deletion of the COX10 gene. In this mouse model, bezafibrate-administration improved the phenotype of the mice associated with an increase in mitochondrial proteins and mitochondrial ATP generating capacity. Bezafibrate-treatment also attenuated astrogliosis and decreased the level of inflammatory markers in the affected tissues. Overall, bezafibrate had a neuroprotective effect in this mouse model of mitochondrial encephalopathy. These findings imply that bezafibrate might be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:23261681

  3. Exercise increases mitochondrial glutamate oxidation in the mouse cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Eric A F; Holloway, Graham P

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigated the impact of acute exercise on stimulating mitochondrial respiratory function in mouse cerebral cortex. Where pyruvate-stimulated respiration was not affected by acute exercise, glutamate respiration was enhanced following the exercise bout. Additional assessment revealed that this affect was dependent on the presence of malate and did not occur when substituting glutamine for glutamate. As such, our results suggest that glutamate oxidation is enhanced with acute exercise through activation of the malate-aspartate shuttle.

  4. Regulation of mitochondrial function by voltage dependent anion channels in ethanol metabolism and the Warburg effect.

    PubMed

    Lemasters, John J; Holmuhamedov, Ekhson L; Czerny, Christoph; Zhong, Zhi; Maldonado, Eduardo N

    2012-06-01

    Voltage dependent anion channels (VDAC) are highly conserved proteins that are responsible for permeability of the mitochondrial outer membrane to hydrophilic metabolites like ATP, ADP and respiratory substrates. Although previously assumed to remain open, VDAC closure is emerging as an important mechanism for regulation of global mitochondrial metabolism in apoptotic cells and also in cells that are not dying. During hepatic ethanol oxidation to acetaldehyde, VDAC closure suppresses exchange of mitochondrial metabolites, resulting in inhibition of ureagenesis. In vivo, VDAC closure after ethanol occurs coordinately with mitochondrial uncoupling. Since acetaldehyde passes through membranes independently of channels and transporters, VDAC closure and uncoupling together foster selective and more rapid oxidative metabolism of toxic acetaldehyde to nontoxic acetate by mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase. In single reconstituted VDAC, tubulin decreases VDAC conductance, and in HepG2 hepatoma cells, free tubulin negatively modulates mitochondrial membrane potential, an effect enhanced by protein kinase A. Tubulin-dependent closure of VDAC in cancer cells contributes to suppression of mitochondrial metabolism and may underlie the Warburg phenomenon of aerobic glycolysis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: VDAC structure, function, and regulation of mitochondrial metabolism.

  5. Regulation of Mitochondrial Function by Voltage Dependent Anion Channels in Ethanol Metabolism and the Warburg Effect

    PubMed Central

    Lemasters, John J.; Holmuhamedov, Ekhson L.; Czerny, Christoph; Zhong, Zhi; Maldonado, Eduardo N.

    2012-01-01

    Voltage dependent anion channels (VDAC) are highly conserved proteins that are responsible for permeability of the mitochondrial outer membrane to hydrophilic metabolites like ATP, ADP and respiratory substrates. Although previously assumed to remain open, VDAC closure is emerging as an important mechanism for regulation of global mitochondrial metabolism in apoptotic cells and also in cells that are not dying. During hepatic ethanol oxidation to acetaldehyde, VDAC closure suppresses exchange of mitochondrial metabolites, resulting in inhibition of ureagenesis. In vivo, VDAC closure after ethanol occurs coordinately with mitochondrial uncoupling. Since acetaldehyde passes through membranes independently of channels and transporters, VDAC closure and uncoupling together foster selective and more rapid oxidative metabolism of toxic acetaldehyde to nontoxic acetate by mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase. In single reconstituted VDAC, tubulin decreases VDAC conductance, and in HepG2 hepatoma cells, free tubulin negatively modulates mitochondrial membrane potential, an effect enhanced by protein kinase A. Tubulin-dependent closure of VDAC in cancer cells contributes to suppression of mitochondrial metabolism and may underlie the Warburg phenomenon of aerobic glycolysis. PMID:22172804

  6. Alterations in voltage-sensing of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in ANT1-deficient cells

    PubMed Central

    Doczi, Judit; Torocsik, Beata; Echaniz-Laguna, Andoni; Mousson de Camaret, Bénédicte; Starkov, Anatoly; Starkova, Natalia; Gál, Aniko; Molnár, Mária J; Kawamata, Hibiki; Manfredi, Giovanni; Adam-Vizi, Vera; Chinopoulos, Christos

    2016-01-01

    The probability of mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) pore opening is inversely related to the magnitude of the proton electrochemical gradient. The module conferring sensitivity of the pore to this gradient has not been identified. We investigated mPT’s voltage-sensing properties elicited by calcimycin or H2O2 in human fibroblasts exhibiting partial or complete lack of ANT1 and in C2C12 myotubes with knocked-down ANT1 expression. mPT onset was assessed by measuring in situ mitochondrial volume using the ‘thinness ratio’ and the ‘cobalt-calcein’ technique. De-energization hastened calcimycin-induced swelling in control and partially-expressing ANT1 fibroblasts, but not in cells lacking ANT1, despite greater losses of mitochondrial membrane potential. Matrix Ca2+ levels measured by X-rhod-1 or mitochondrially-targeted ratiometric biosensor 4mtD3cpv, or ADP-ATP exchange rates did not differ among cell types. ANT1-null fibroblasts were also resistant to H2O2-induced mitochondrial swelling. Permeabilized C2C12 myotubes with knocked-down ANT1 exhibited higher calcium uptake capacity and voltage-thresholds of mPT opening inferred from cytochrome c release, but intact cells showed no differences in calcimycin-induced onset of mPT, irrespective of energization and ANT1 expression, albeit the number of cells undergoing mPT increased less significantly upon chemically-induced hypoxia than control cells. We conclude that ANT1 confers sensitivity of the pore to the electrochemical gradient. PMID:27221760

  7. Mitochondrial dynamics in the mouse liver infected by Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tina Tu-Wen; Wu, Lawrence Shih Hsin; Hsu, Paul Wei-Che; Pang, Cheng-Yoong; Lee, Kin-Mu; Cheng, Po-Ching; Peng, Shih-Yi

    2015-08-01

    Mitochondrial dynamics is crucial for regulation of cell homeostasis. Schistosoma mansoni is one of the most common parasites known to cause liver disease. Mice infected by S. mansoni show acute symptoms of schistosomiasis after 8 weeks. Hence, in this study, we attempted to assess the direct effects of S. mansoni infection on mice liver, and to explore the expression of mitochondrial morphology, dynamics, and function. Our recent findings show that S. mansoni infection changes mitochondrial morphology and affects mitochondrial functions, which attenuates mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP generation. S. mansoni-infected mice increases mitochondrial numbers by upregulating of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor c co-activator 1α (PGC1α) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam). This may promote mitochondria generation for accelerating the recovery of mitochondrial functions. Moreover, S. mansoni would disrupt mitochondrial dynamics including induced mitochondrial fission and promoted mitochondrial fragmentation in mice liver. More importantly, S. mansoni further stimulated upregulation both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathway in infected mice liver. The intrinsic pathway was triggered by cytochrome c release. Additionally, NFκB (nuclear factor-kappa B, p65) could play a protective role to inhibit apoptosis through reducing active caspase-3 expression. Therefore, our results confirmed the liver damage mechanism of experimental schistosomiasis in mice model.

  8. Tools for assessing mitochondrial dynamics in mouse tissues and neurodegenerative models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Anh H.

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that undergo membrane fusion and fission and transport. The dynamic properties of mitochondria are important for regulating mitochondrial function. Defects in mitochondrial dynamics are linked neurodegenerative diseases and affect the development of many tissues. To investigate the role of mitochondrial dynamics in diseases, versatile tools are needed to explore the physiology of these dynamic organelles in multiple tissues. Current tools for monitoring mitochondrial dynamics have been limited to studies in cell culture, which may be inadequate model systems for exploring the network of tissues. Here, we have generated mouse models for monitoring mitochondrial dynamics in a broad spectrum of tissues and cell types. The Photo-Activatable Mitochondrial (PhAM floxed) line enables Cre-inducible expression of a mitochondrial targeted photoconvertible protein, Dendra2 (mito-Dendra2). In the PhAMexcised line, mito-Dendra2 is ubiquitously expressed to facilitate broad analysis of mitochondria at various developmental processes. We have utilized these models to study mitochondrial dynamics in the nigrostriatal circuit of Parkinson's disease (PD) and in the development of skeletal muscles. Increasing evidences implicate aberrant regulation of mitochondrial fusion and fission in models of PD. To assess the function of mitochondrial dynamics in the nigrostriatal circuit, we utilized transgenic techniques to abrogate mitochondrial fusion. We show that deletion of the Mfn2 leads to the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and Parkinson's-like features in mice. To elucidate the dynamic properties of mitochondria during muscle development, we established a platform for examining mitochondrial compartmentalization in skeletal muscles. This model system may yield clues to the role of mitochondrial dynamics in mitochondrial myopathies.

  9. Chronic mild stress damages mitochondrial ultrastructure and function in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yu; Chai, Yi; Ding, Jian-Hua; Sun, Xiu-Lan; Hu, Gang

    2011-01-13

    Increasing evidence implicates mitochondrial failure as a crucial factor in the pathogenesis of mental disorders, such as depression. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of exposure to chronic mild stress (CMS), a paradigm developed in the late 1980s as an animal model of depression, on the mitochondrial function and mitochondrial ultrastructure in the mouse brain. The results showed that the CMS regime induced depressive-like symptoms in mice characterized by reduced sucrose preference and body weight. Moreover, CMS exposure was associated with a significant increase in immobility time in the tail suspension test. Exposure to the CMS paradigm inhibited mitochondrial respiration rates and dissipated mitochondrial membrane potential in hippocampus, cortex and hypothalamus of mice. In addition, we found a damaged mitochondrial ultrastructure in brains of mice exposed to CMS. These findings provide evidence for brain mitochondrial dysfunction and ultrastructural damage in a mouse model of depression. Moreover, these findings suggest that mitochondrial malfunction-induced oxidative injury could play a role in stress-related disorders such as depression.

  10. Mitochondrial fission and fusion factors reciprocally orchestrate mitophagic culling in mouse hearts and cultured fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Song, Moshi; Mihara, Katsuyoshi; Chen, Yun; Scorrano, Luca; Dorn, Gerald W

    2014-01-01

    Summary How mitochondrial dynamism (fission and fusion) affects mitochondrial quality control is unclear. We uncovered distinct effects on mitophagy of inhibiting Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission versus mitofusin-mediated mitochondrial fusion. Conditional cardiomyocyte-specific Drp1 ablation evoked mitochondrial enlargement, lethal dilated cardiomyopathy, and cardiomyocyte necrosis. Conditionally ablating cardiomyocyte mitofusins (Mfn) caused mitochondrial fragmentation with eccentric remodeling and no cardiomyocyte dropout. Parallel studies in cultured murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and in vivo mouse hearts revealed that Mfn1/Mfn2 deletion provoked accumulation of defective mitochondria exhibiting an unfolded protein response, without appropriately increasing mitophagy. Conversely, interrupting mitochondrial fission by Drp1 ablation increased mitophagy and caused a generalized loss of mitochondria. Mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening in Drp1 null mitochondria was associated with mitophagy in MEFs and contributed to cardiomyocyte necrosis and dilated cardiomyopathy in mice. Drp1, MPTP, and cardiomyocyte mitophagy are functionally integrated. Mitochondrial fission and fusion have opposing roles during in vivo cardiac mitochondrial quality control. PMID:25600785

  11. Mitochondrial organization and motility probed by two-photon microscopy in cultured mouse brainstem neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Michael . E-mail: mike@neuro-physiol.med.uni-goettingen.de; Mironov, Sergej L.; Ivannikov, Maxim V.; Schmidt, Joerg; Richter, Diethelm W.

    2005-02-01

    Two-photon microscopy of rhodamine 123-labeled mitochondria revealed that mitochondria of neurons cultured from mouse respiratory center form functionally coupled, dynamically organized aggregates such as chains and clusters, while single mitochondria were rarely seen. Mitochondrial chain structures predominate in dendrites, while irregularly shaped mitochondrial clusters are mostly found in the soma. Both types of mitochondrial structures showed chaotic Brownian motions and the mitochondrial chains also revealed well-directed movements. The latter dislocations were arrested upon mitochondrial depolarization or blockade of mitochondrial ATP synthesis. Depolymerization of microtubules by colchicine or nocodazole or inhibition of protein phosphatases by calyculin A disrupted mitochondrial chains and the mitochondria accumulated in the soma. Forskolin and IBMX reversibly blocked directed movements of mitochondria, but did not affect their overall spatial distribution. Thus, protein phosphorylation seems to control both mitochondrial transport and organization. Protein phosphorylation downstream of enhanced cytosolic cAMP levels apparently regulates the transition from motile to non-motile mitochondria, while phosphorylation resulting from inhibition of types 1 and 2A protein phosphatases massively disturbs mitochondrial organization. The complex phosphorylation processes seem to control the close interaction of mitochondria and cytoskeleton which may guarantee that mitochondria are immobilized at energetic hot spots and rearranged in response to changes in local energy demands.

  12. High-Resolution Respirometry for Mitochondrial Characterization of Ex Vivo Mouse Tissues.

    PubMed

    Cantó, Carles; Garcia-Roves, Pablo M

    2015-06-01

    This article describes methodologies to examine mitochondrial respiration in fresh preparations of mouse tissues, including skeletal muscle, heart, liver, white and brown adipose tissue, and brain. Reference values and tips to maximize experimental efficiencies are also provided. Finally, correction methods and complementary techniques to properly interpret the results are presented and contrasted.

  13. Establishment of a heteroplasmic mouse strain with interspecific mitochondrial DNA haplotypes and improvement of a PCR-RFLP-based measurement system for estimation of mitochondrial DNA heteroplasmy.

    PubMed

    Shitara, Hiroshi; Cao, Liqin; Yamaguchi, Midori; Yonekawa, Hiromichi; Taya, Choji

    2017-02-20

    Mitochondrial DNA segregation is one of the characteristic modes of mitochondrial inheritance in which the heteroplasmic state of mitochondrial DNA is transmitted to the next generation in variable proportions. To analyze mitochondrial DNA segregation, we produced a heteroplasmic mouse strain with interspecific mitochondrial DNA haplotypes, which contains two types of mitochondrial DNA derived from C57BL/6J and Mus spretus strains. The strain was produced on a C57BL/6J nuclear genomic background by microinjection of donor cytoplasm into fertilized eggs. The PCR-RFLP semi-quantitative analysis method, which was improved to reduce the effect of heteroduplex formation, was used to measure the proportion of heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA in tissues. Founder mice contained up to approximately 14% of exogenous Mus spretus mitochondrial DNA molecules in their tails, and the detected proportions differed among tissues of the same individual. Heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA is transmitted to the next generation in varying proportions under the maternal inheritance mode. This mitochondrial heteroplasmic mouse strain and the improved PCR-RFLP measurement system enable analysis of the transmission of heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA variants between tissues and generations.

  14. Complex I generated, mitochondrial matrix-directed superoxide is released from the mitochondria through voltage dependent anion channels.

    PubMed

    Lustgarten, Michael S; Bhattacharya, Arunabh; Muller, Florian L; Jang, Youngmok C; Shimizu, Takahiko; Shirasawa, Takuji; Richardson, Arlan; Van Remmen, Holly

    2012-06-08

    Mitochondrial complex I has previously been shown to release superoxide exclusively towards the mitochondrial matrix, whereas complex III releases superoxide to both the matrix and the cytosol. Superoxide produced at complex III has been shown to exit the mitochondria through voltage dependent anion channels (VDAC). To test whether complex I-derived, mitochondrial matrix-directed superoxide can be released to the cytosol, we measured superoxide generation in mitochondria isolated from wild type and from mice genetically altered to be deficient in MnSOD activity (TnIFastCreSod2(fl/fl)). Under experimental conditions that produce superoxide primarily by complex I (glutamate/malate plus rotenone, GM+R), MnSOD-deficient mitochondria release ∼4-fold more superoxide than mitochondria isolated from wild type mice. Exogenous CuZnSOD completely abolished the EPR-derived GM+R signal in mitochondria isolated from both genotypes, evidence that confirms mitochondrial superoxide release. Addition of the VDAC inhibitor DIDS significantly reduced mitochondrial superoxide release (∼75%) in mitochondria from either genotype respiring on GM+R. Conversely, inhibition of potential inner membrane sites of superoxide exit, including the matrix face of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore and the inner membrane anion channel did not reduce mitochondrial superoxide release in the presence of GM+R in mitochondria isolated from either genotype. These data support the concept that complex I-derived mitochondrial superoxide release does indeed occur and that the majority of this release occurs through VDACs.

  15. Turn up the power –pharmacological activation of mitochondrial biogenesis in mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Komen, J C; Thorburn, D R

    2014-01-01

    The oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system in mitochondria is responsible for the generation of the majority of cellular energy in the form of ATP. Patients with genetic OXPHOS disorders form the largest group of inborn errors of metabolism. Unfortunately, there is still a lack of efficient therapies for these disorders other than management of symptoms. Developing therapies has been complicated because, although the total group of OXPHOS patients is relatively large, there is enormous clinical and genetic heterogeneity within this patient population. Thus there has been a lot of interest in generating relevant mouse models for the different kinds of OXPHOS disorders. The most common treatment strategies tested in these mouse models have aimed to up-regulate mitochondrial biogenesis, in order to increase the residual OXPHOS activity present in affected animals and thereby to ameliorate the energy deficiency. Drugs such as bezafibrate, resveratrol and AICAR target the master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis PGC-1α either directly or indirectly to manipulate mitochondrial metabolism. This review will summarize the outcome of preclinical treatment trials with these drugs in mouse models of OXPHOS disorders and discuss similar treatments in a number of mouse models of common diseases in which pathology is closely linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. In the majority of these studies the pharmacological activation of the PGC-1α axis shows true potential as therapy; however, other effects besides mitochondrial biogenesis may be contributing to this as well. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed issue on Mitochondrial Pharmacology: Energy, Injury & Beyond. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-8 PMID:24102298

  16. Mitochondrial bioenergetics and drug-induced toxicity in a panel of mouse embryonic fibroblasts with mitochondrial DNA single nucleotide polymorphisms

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, Claudia V.; Oliveira, Paulo J.; Will, Yvonne; Nadanaciva, Sashi

    2012-10-15

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variations including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been proposed to be involved in idiosyncratic drug reactions. However, current in vitro and in vivo models lack the genetic diversity seen in the human population. Our hypothesis is that different cell strains with distinct mtDNA SNPs may have different mitochondrial bioenergetic profiles and may therefore vary in their response to drug-induced toxicity. Therefore, we used an in vitro system composed of four strains of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) with mtDNA polymorphisms. We sequenced mtDNA from embryonic fibroblasts isolated from four mouse strains, C57BL/6J, MOLF/EiJ, CZECHII/EiJ and PERA/EiJ, with the latter two being sequenced for the first time. The bioenergetic profile of the four strains of MEFs was investigated at both passages 3 and 10. Our results showed that there were clear differences among the four strains of MEFs at both passages, with CZECHII/EiJ having a lower mitochondrial robustness when compared to C57BL/6J, followed by MOLF/EiJ and PERA/EiJ. Seven drugs known to impair mitochondrial function were tested for their effect on the ATP content of the four strains of MEFs in both glucose- and galactose-containing media. Our results showed that there were strain-dependent differences in the response to some of the drugs. We propose that this model is a useful starting point to study compounds that may cause mitochondrial off-target toxicity in early stages of drug development, thus decreasing the number of experimental animals used. -- Highlights: ► mtDNA SNPs may be linked to individual predisposition to drug-induced toxicity. ► CZECHII/EiJ and PERA/EiJ mtDNA was sequenced for the first time in this study. ► Strain-dependent mitochondrial capacity differences were measured. ► Strain-dependent differences in response to mitochondrial toxicants were observed.

  17. Allotopic expression of ATP6 in the mouse as a transgenic model of mitochondrial disease.

    PubMed

    Dunn, David A; Pinkert, Carl A

    2015-01-01

    Progress in animal modeling of polymorphisms and mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is not as developed as nuclear transgenesis due to a host of cellular and physiological distinctions. mtDNA mutation modeling is of critical importance as mutations in the mitochondrial genome give rise to a variety of pathological conditions and play a contributing role in many others. Nuclear localization and transcription of mtDNA genes followed by cytoplasmic translation and transport into mitochondria (allotopic expression, AE) provide an opportunity to create in vivo modeling of a targeted mutation in mitochondrial genes and has been suggested as a strategy for gene replacement therapy in patients harboring mitochondrial DNA mutations. Here, we use our AE approach to transgenic mouse modeling of the pathogenic human T8993G mutation in mtATP6 as a case study for designing AE animal models.

  18. Synaptosomal Mitochondrial Dysfunction in 5xFAD Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Guo, Lan; Lu, Lin; Sun, Huili; Shao, Muming; Beck, Simon J; Li, Lin; Ramachandran, Janani; Du, Yifeng; Du, Heng

    2016-01-01

    Brain mitochondrial dysfunction is hallmark pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, the role of synaptosomal mitochondrial dysfunction in the development of synaptic injury in AD has received increasing attention. Synaptosomal mitochondria are a subgroup of neuronal mitochondria specifically locating at synapses. They play an essential role in fueling synaptic functions by providing energy on the site; and their defects may lead to synaptic failure, which is an early and pronounced pathology in AD. In our previous studies we have determined early synaptosomal mitochondrial dysfunction in an AD animal model (J20 line) overexpressing human Amyloid beta (Aβ), the key mediator of AD. In view of the limitations of J20 line mice in representing the full aspects of amyloidopathy in AD cases, we employed 5xFAD mice which are thought to be a desirable paradigm of amyloidopathy as seen in AD subjects. In addition, we have also examined the status of synaptosomal mitochondrial dynamics as well as Parkin-mediated mitophagy which have not been previously investigated in this mouse model. In comparison to nontransgenic (nonTg mice), 5xFAD mice demonstrated prominent synaptosomal mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, synaptosomal mitochondria from the AD mouse model displayed imbalanced mitochondrial dynamics towards fission along with activated Parkin and LC3BII recruitment correlating to spatial learning & memory impairments in 5xFAD mice in an age-dependent manner. These results suggest that synaptosomal mitochondrial deficits are primary pathology in Aβ-rich environments and further confirm the relevance of synaptosomal mitochondrial deficits to the development of AD.

  19. Voltage-dependent anion channels modulate mitochondrial metabolism in cancer cells: regulation by free tubulin and erastin.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Eduardo N; Sheldon, Kely L; DeHart, David N; Patnaik, Jyoti; Manevich, Yefim; Townsend, Danyelle M; Bezrukov, Sergey M; Rostovtseva, Tatiana K; Lemasters, John J

    2013-04-26

    Respiratory substrates and adenine nucleotides cross the mitochondrial outer membrane through the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), comprising three isoforms--VDAC1, 2, and 3. We characterized the role of individual isoforms in mitochondrial metabolism by HepG2 human hepatoma cells using siRNA. With VDAC3 to the greatest extent, all VDAC isoforms contributed to the maintenance of mitochondrial membrane potential, but only VDAC3 knockdown decreased ATP, ADP, NAD(P)H, and mitochondrial redox state. Cells expressing predominantly VDAC3 were least sensitive to depolarization induced by increased free tubulin. In planar lipid bilayers, free tubulin inhibited VDAC1 and VDAC2 but not VDAC3. Erastin, a compound that interacts with VDAC, blocked and reversed mitochondrial depolarization after microtubule destabilizers in intact cells and antagonized tubulin-induced VDAC blockage in planar bilayers. In conclusion, free tubulin inhibits VDAC1/2 and limits mitochondrial metabolism in HepG2 cells, contributing to the Warburg phenomenon. Reversal of tubulin-VDAC interaction by erastin antagonizes Warburg metabolism and restores oxidative mitochondrial metabolism.

  20. MITOCHONDRIAL DISEASES PART II: MOUSE MODELS OF OXPHOS DEFICIENCIES CAUSED BY DEFECTS IN REGULATORY FACTORS AND OTHER COMPONENTS REQUIRED FOR MITOCHONDRIAL FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Iommarini, Luisa; Peralta, Susana; Torraco, Alessandra; Diaz, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial disorders are defined as defects that affect the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS). They are characterized by a heterogeneous array of clinical presentations due in part to a wide variety of factors required for proper function of the components of the OXPHOS system. There is no cure for these disorders owing our poor knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms of disease. To understand the mechanisms of human disease numerous mouse models have been developed in recent years. Here we summarize the features of several mouse models of mitochondrial diseases directly related to those factors affecting mtDNA maintenance, replication, transcription, translation as well to other proteins that are involved in mitochondrial dynamics and quality control which affect mitochondrial OXPHOS function without been intrinsic components of the system. We discuss how these models have contributed to our understanding of mitochondrial diseases and their pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:25640959

  1. Preservation of mitochondrial functional integrity in mitochondria isolated from small cryopreserved mouse brain areas.

    PubMed

    Valenti, Daniela; de Bari, Lidia; De Filippis, Bianca; Ricceri, Laura; Vacca, Rosa Anna

    2014-01-01

    Studies of mitochondrial bioenergetics in brain pathophysiology are often precluded by the need to isolate mitochondria immediately after tissue dissection from a large number of brain biopsies for comparative studies. Here we present a procedure of cryopreservation of small brain areas from which mitochondrial enriched fractions (crude mitochondria) with high oxidative phosphorylation efficiency can be isolated. Small mouse brain areas were frozen and stored in a solution containing glycerol as cryoprotectant. Crude mitochondria were isolated by differential centrifugation from both cryopreserved and freshly explanted brain samples and were compared with respect to their ability to generate membrane potential and produce ATP. Intactness of outer and inner mitochondrial membranes was verified by polarographic ascorbate and cytochrome c tests and spectrophotometric assay of citrate synthase activity. Preservation of structural integrity and oxidative phosphorylation efficiency was successfully obtained in crude mitochondria isolated from different areas of cryopreserved mouse brain samples. Long-term cryopreservation of small brain areas from which intact and phosphorylating mitochondria can be isolated for the study of mitochondrial bioenergetics will significantly expand the study of mitochondrial defects in neurological pathologies, allowing large comparative studies and favoring interlaboratory and interdisciplinary analyses.

  2. Comparative analysis of mitochondrial N-termini from mouse, human, and yeast.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Sarah E; Julien, Olivier; Clauser, Karl R; Shen, Hongying; Kamer, Kimberli J; Wells, James A; Mootha, Vamsi K

    2017-01-25

    The majority of mitochondrial proteins are encoded in the nuclear genome, translated in the cytoplasm, and directed to the mitochondria by a N-terminal presequence that is cleaved upon import. Recently, N-proteome catalogs have been generated for mitochondria from yeast and from human U937 cells. Here we applied the subtiligase method to determine N-termini for 327 proteins in mitochondria isolated from mouse liver and kidney. Comparative analysis between mitochondrial N-termini from mouse, human, and yeast proteins shows that while presequences are poorly conserved at the sequence level, other presequence properties are extremely conserved including a length of ~20-60aa, a net charge between +3 to +6, and the presence of stabilizing amino acids at the N-termini of mature proteins that follows the N-end rule from bacteria. As in yeast, ~80% of mouse presequence cleavage sites match canonical motifs for three mitochondrial peptidases (MPP, Imp55, Oct1) while the remainder do not match any known peptidase motifs. We show that mature mitochondrial proteins often exist with a spectrum of N-termini, consistent with a model of multiple cleavage events by MPP and Imp55. In addition to analysis of canonical targeting presequences, our N-terminal dataset allows exploration of other cleavage events -- and provides support for polypeptide cleavage into two distinct enzymes (Hsd17b4), protein cleavages key for signaling (Oma1, Opa1, Htra2, Mavs, Bcs2l13), and in several cases suggests novel protein isoforms (Scp2, Acadm, Adck3, Hsdl2, Dlst, Ogdh). We present an integrated catalog of mammalian mitochondrial N-termini that can be used as a community resource to investigate individual proteins, to elucidate mechanisms of mammalian mitochondrial processing, and to allow researchers to engineer tags distal to presequence cleavage.

  3. Mitochondrial proteomic alterations caused by long-term low-dose copper exposure in mouse cortex.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xuemei; Wei, Gang; Huang, Zhijun; Qu, Zhongsen; Huang, Xinfeng; Xu, Hua; Liu, Jianjun; Zhuang, Zhixiong; Yang, Xifei

    2016-11-30

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in neurotoxicity caused by exposure of various chemicals such as copper. However, the effects of long-term low-dose copper exposure on mitochondrial proteome remain unclear. In this study, we found the treatment of copper (0.13ppm copper sulfate in drinking water) for 12 months caused abnormal expression of a total of 13 mitochondrial proteins (7 up-regulated and 6 down-regulated) as revealed by two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry in mouse cortex. Protein functional analysis revealed that these differentially expressed proteins mainly included apoptosis-associated proteins, axon guidance-associated proteins, axonogenesis-associated proteins and mitochondrial respiratory chain complex. Among these differentially expressed mitochondrial proteins, GRP75 (75kDa glucose-regulated protein) and GRP78 (78kDa glucose-regulated protein) were found to be significantly down-regulated as confirmed by Western-blot analysis. The down-regulation of GRP75 was shown to promote apoptosis. The down-regulation of GRP78/BiP could up-regulate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress mediators and thus cause apoptosis. Our study suggested that these differentially expressed mitochondrial proteins such as GRP75 and GRP78 could be involved in neurotoxicity caused by long-term low-dose copper exposure and serve as potential molecular targets for the treatment of copper neurotoxicity.

  4. Voltage-gated Ca2+ influx and mitochondrial Ca2+ initiate secretion from Aplysia neuroendocrine cells.

    PubMed

    Hickey, C M; Groten, C J; Sham, L; Carter, C J; Magoski, N S

    2013-10-10

    Neuroendocrine secretion often requires prolonged voltage-gated Ca(2+) entry; however, the ability of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores, such as endoplasmic reticulum or mitochondria, to elicit secretion is less clear. We examined this using the bag cell neurons, which trigger ovulation in Aplysia by releasing egg-laying hormone (ELH) peptide. Secretion from cultured bag cell neurons was observed as an increase in plasma membrane capacitance following Ca(2+) influx evoked by a 5-Hz, 1-min train of depolarizing steps under voltage-clamp. The response was similar for step durations of ≥ 50 ms, but fell off sharply with shorter stimuli. The capacitance change was attenuated by replacing external Ca(2+) with Ba(2+), blocking Ca(2+) channels, buffering intracellular Ca(2+) with EGTA, disrupting synaptic protein recycling, or genetic knock-down of ELH. Regarding intracellular stores, liberating mitochondrial Ca(2+) with the protonophore, carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-hydrazone (FCCP), brought about an EGTA-sensitive elevation of capacitance. Conversely, no change was observed to Ca(2+) released from the endoplasmic reticulum or acidic stores. Prior exposure to FCCP lessened the train-induced capacitance increase, suggesting overlap in the pool of releasable vesicles. Employing GTP-γ-S to interfere with endocytosis delayed recovery (presumed membrane retrieval) of the capacitance change following FCCP, but not the train. Finally, secretion was correlated with reproductive behavior, in that neurons isolated from animals engaged in egg-laying presented a greater train-induced capacitance elevation vs quiescent animals. The bag cell neuron capacitance increase is consistent with peptide secretion requiring high Ca(2+), either from influx or stores, and may reflect the all-or-none nature of reproduction.

  5. Measurement of mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates in mouse primary neurons and astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Sofia M; Giménez-Cassina, Alfredo; Danial, Nika N

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of microplate-based assays that measure extracellular fluxes in intact, living cells has revolutionized the field of cellular bioenergetics. Here, we describe a method for real time assessment of mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates in primary mouse cortical neurons and astrocytes. This method requires the Extracellular Flux Analyzer Instrument (XF24, Seahorse Biosciences), which uses fluorescent oxygen sensors in a microplate assay format.

  6. Impaired mitochondrial biogenesis, defective axonal transport of mitochondria, abnormal mitochondrial dynamics and synaptic degeneration in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Calkins, Marcus J; Manczak, Maria; Mao, Peizhong; Shirendeb, Ulziibat; Reddy, P Hemachandra

    2011-12-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) in synapses and synaptic mitochondria causes synaptic mitochondrial failure and synaptic degeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The purpose of this study was to better understand the effects of Aβ in mitochondrial activity and synaptic alterations in neurons from a mouse model of AD. Using primary neurons from a well-characterized Aβ precursor protein transgenic (AβPP) mouse model (Tg2576 mouse line), for the first time, we studied mitochondrial activity, including axonal transport of mitochondria, mitochondrial dynamics, morphology and function. Further, we also studied the nature of Aβ-induced synaptic alterations, and cell death in primary neurons from Tg2576 mice, and we sought to determine whether the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SS31 could mitigate the effects of oligomeric Aβ. We found significantly decreased anterograde mitochondrial movement, increased mitochondrial fission and decreased fusion, abnormal mitochondrial and synaptic proteins and defective mitochondrial function in primary neurons from AβPP mice compared with wild-type (WT) neurons. Transmission electron microscopy revealed a large number of small mitochondria and structurally damaged mitochondria, with broken cristae in AβPP primary neurons. We also found an increased accumulation of oligomeric Aβ and increased apoptotic neuronal death in the primary neurons from the AβPP mice relative to the WT neurons. Our results revealed an accumulation of intraneuronal oligomeric Aβ, leading to mitochondrial and synaptic deficiencies, and ultimately causing neurodegeneration in AβPP cultures. However, we found that the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SS31 restored mitochondrial transport and synaptic viability, and decreased the percentage of defective mitochondria, indicating that SS31 protects mitochondria and synapses from Aβ toxicity.

  7. Fractal analysis of a voltage-dependent potassium channel from cultured mouse hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Liebovitch, L S; Sullivan, J M

    1987-01-01

    The kinetics of ion channels have been widely modeled as a Markov process. In these models it is assumed that the channel protein has a small number of discrete conformational states and the kinetic rate constants connecting these states are constant. In the alternative fractal model the spontaneous fluctuations of the channel protein at many different time scales are represented by a kinetic rate constant k = At1-D, where A is the kinetic setpoint and D the fractal dimension. Single-channel currents were recorded at 146 mM external K+ from an inwardly rectifying, 120 pS, K+ selective, voltage-sensitive channel in cultured mouse hippocampal neurons. The kinetics of these channels were found to be statistically self-similar at different time scales as predicted by the fractal model. The fractal dimensions were approximately 2 for the closed times and approximately 1 for the open times and did not depend on voltage. For both the open and closed times the logarithm of the kinetic setpoint was found to be proportional to the applied voltage, which indicates that the gating of this channel involves the net inward movement of approximately one negative charge when this channel opens. Thus, the open and closed times and the voltage dependence of the gating of this channel are well described by the fractal model. PMID:2447974

  8. NAD(+)-dependent activation of Sirt1 corrects the phenotype in a mouse model of mitochondrial disease.

    PubMed

    Cerutti, Raffaele; Pirinen, Eija; Lamperti, Costanza; Marchet, Silvia; Sauve, Anthony A; Li, Wei; Leoni, Valerio; Schon, Eric A; Dantzer, Françoise; Auwerx, Johan; Viscomi, Carlo; Zeviani, Massimo

    2014-06-03

    Mitochondrial disorders are highly heterogeneous conditions characterized by defects of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Pharmacological activation of mitochondrial biogenesis has been proposed as an effective means to correct the biochemical defects and ameliorate the clinical phenotype in these severely disabling, often fatal, disorders. Pathways related to mitochondrial biogenesis are targets of Sirtuin1, a NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase. As NAD(+) boosts the activity of Sirtuin1 and other sirtuins, intracellular levels of NAD(+) play a key role in the homeostatic control of mitochondrial function by the metabolic status of the cell. We show here that supplementation with nicotinamide riboside, a natural NAD(+) precursor, or reduction of NAD(+) consumption by inhibiting the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases, leads to marked improvement of the respiratory chain defect and exercise intolerance of the Sco2 knockout/knockin mouse, a mitochondrial disease model characterized by impaired cytochrome c oxidase biogenesis. This strategy is potentially translatable into therapy of mitochondrial disorders in humans.

  9. Biochemical and structural characterization of mouse mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase, a newly identified kynurenine aminotransferase-IV

    PubMed Central

    Han, Qian; Robinson, Howard; Cai, Tao; Tagle, Danilo A.; Li, Jianyong

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Mammalian mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase (mAspAT) is recently reported to have kynurenine aminotransferase (KAT) activity and plays a role in the biosynthesis of kynurenic acid (KYNA) in rat, mouse and human brains. This study concerns the biochemical and structural characterization of mouse mAspAT. In this study, mouse mAspAT cDNA was amplified from mouse brain first stand cDNA and its recombinant protein was expressed in an Escherichia coli expression system. Sixteen keto acids were tested for the co-substrate specificity of mouse mAspAT and fourteen of them were shown to be capable of serving as co-substrates for the enzyme. Structural analysis of mAspAT by macromolecular crystallography revealed that the cofactor binding residues of mAspAT are similar to those of other KATs. The substrate binding residues of mAspAT are slightly different from those of other KATs. Our data provide a biochemical and structural basis towards understanding the overall physiological role of mAspAT in vivo and insight into controlling the levels of endogenous KYNA through modulation of the enzyme in the mouse brain. PMID:20977429

  10. Biochemical and structural characterization of mouse mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase, a newly identified kynurenine aminotransferase-IV.

    PubMed

    Han, Qian; Robinson, Howard; Cai, Tao; Tagle, Danilo A; Li, Jianyong

    2011-10-01

    Mammalian mAspAT (mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase) is recently reported to have KAT (kynurenine aminotransferase) activity and plays a role in the biosynthesis of KYNA (kynurenic acid) in rat, mouse and human brains. This study concerns the biochemical and structural characterization of mouse mAspAT. In this study, mouse mAspAT cDNA was amplified from mouse brain first stand cDNA and its recombinant protein was expressed in an Escherichia coli expression system. Sixteen oxo acids were tested for the co-substrate specificity of mouse mAspAT and 14 of them were shown to be capable of serving as co-substrates for the enzyme. Structural analysis of mAspAT by macromolecular crystallography revealed that the cofactor-binding residues of mAspAT are similar to those of other KATs. The substrate-binding residues of mAspAT are slightly different from those of other KATs. Our results provide a biochemical and structural basis towards understanding the overall physiological role of mAspAT in vivo and insight into controlling the levels of endogenous KYNA through modulation of the enzyme in the mouse brain.

  11. Biochemical and structural characterization of mouse mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase, a newly identified kynurenine aminotransferase-IV

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Q.; Robinson, H.; Cai, T.; Tagle, D. A.; Li, J.

    2011-10-01

    Mammalian mAspAT (mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase) is recently reported to have KAT (kynurenine aminotransferase) activity and plays a role in the biosynthesis of KYNA (kynurenic acid) in rat, mouse and human brains. This study concerns the biochemical and structural characterization of mouse mAspAT. In this study, mouse mAspAT cDNA was amplified from mouse brain first stand cDNA and its recombinant protein was expressed in an Escherichia coli expression system. Sixteen oxo acids were tested for the co-substrate specificity of mouse mAspAT and 14 of them were shown to be capable of serving as co-substrates for the enzyme. Structural analysis of mAspAT by macromolecular crystallography revealed that the cofactor-binding residues of mAspAT are similar to those of other KATs. The substrate-binding residues of mAspAT are slightly different from those of other KATs. Our results provide a biochemical and structural basis towards understanding the overall physiological role of mAspAT in vivo and insight into controlling the levels of endogenous KYNA through modulation of the enzyme in the mouse brain.

  12. Calcium Uptake via Mitochondrial Uniporter Contributes to Palmitic Acid-induced Apoptosis in Mouse Podocytes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zeting; Cao, Aili; Liu, Hua; Guo, Henjiang; Zang, Yingjun; Wang, Yi; Wang, Yunman; Wang, Hao; Yin, Peihao; Peng, Wen

    2017-02-09

    Podocytes are component cells of the glomerular filtration barrier, and their loss by apoptosis is the main cause of proteinuria that leads to diabetic nephropathy (DN). Therefore, insights into podocyte apoptosis mechanism would allow a better understanding of DN pathogenesis and thus help develop adequate therapeutic strategies. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism of palmitic acid-inhibited cell death in mouse podocytes, and found that palmitic acid increased cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Palmitic acid induces apoptosis in podocytes through up-regulation of cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca(2+) , mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), cytochrome c release and depletion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) , The intracellular calcium chelator, 1,2-bis (2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N, N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA-AM), partially prevented this up-regulation whereas 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), an inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (IP3R) inhibitor; dantrolene, a ryanodine receptor (RyR) inhibitor; and 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostibene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS), an anion exchange inhibitor, had no effect. Interestingly, ruthenium red and Ru360, both inhibitors of the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU), blocked palmitic acid-induced mitochondrial Ca(2+) elevation, cytochrome c release from mitochondria to cytosol, and apoptosis. siRNA to MCU markedly reduced curcumin-induced apoptosis. These data indicate that Ca(2+) uptake via mitochondrial uniporter contributes to palmitic acid-induced apoptosis in mouse podocytes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Chronically ischemic mouse skeletal muscle exhibits myopathy in association with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Pipinos, Iraklis I; Swanson, Stanley A; Zhu, Zhen; Nella, Aikaterini A; Weiss, Dustin J; Gutti, Tanuja L; McComb, Rodney D; Baxter, B Timothy; Lynch, Thomas G; Casale, George P

    2008-07-01

    A myopathy characterized by mitochondrial pathology and oxidative stress is present in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Patients with PAD differ in disease severity, mode of presentation, and presence of comorbid conditions. In this study, we used a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia to isolate and directly investigate the effects of chronic inflow arterial occlusion on skeletal muscle microanatomy, mitochondrial function and expression, and oxidative stress. Hindlimb ischemia was induced by staged ligation/division of the common femoral and iliac arteries in C57BL/6 mice, and muscles were harvested 12 wk later. Muscle microanatomy was examined by bright-field microscopy, and mitochondrial content was determined as citrate synthase activity in muscle homogenates and ATP synthase expression by fluorescence microscopy. Electron transport chain (ETC) complexes I through IV were analyzed individually by respirometry. Oxidative stress was assessed as total protein carbonyls and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) adducts and altered expression and activity of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). Ischemic muscle exhibited histological features of myopathy and increased mitochondrial content compared with control muscle. Complex-dependent respiration was significantly reduced for ETC complexes I, III, and IV in ischemic muscle. Protein carbonyls, HNE adducts, and MnSOD expression were significantly increased in ischemic muscle. MnSOD activity was not significantly changed, suggesting MnSOD inactivation. Using a mouse model, we have demonstrated for the first time that inflow arterial occlusion alone, i.e., in the absence of other comorbid conditions, causes myopathy with mitochondrial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress, recapitulating the muscle pathology of PAD patients.

  14. MITOCHONDRIAL DISEASES PART I: MOUSE MODELS OF OXPHOS DEFICIENCIES CAUSED BY DEFECTS ON RESPIRATORY COMPLEX SUBUNITS OR ASSEMBLY FACTORS

    PubMed Central

    Torraco, Alessandra; Peralta, Susana; Iommarini, Luisa; Diaz, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial disorders are the most common inborn errors of metabolism affecting the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS). Because the poor knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms, a cure for these disorders is still unavailable and all the treatments currently in use are supportive more than curative. Therefore, in the past decade a great variety of mouse models have been developed to assess the in vivo function of several mitochondrial proteins involved in human diseases. Due to the genetic and physiological similarity to humans, mice represent reliable models to study the pathogenic mechanisms of mitochondrial disorders and are precious to test new therapeutic approaches. Here we summarize the features of several mouse models of mitochondrial diseases directly related to defects in subunits of the OXPHOS complexes or in assembly factors. We discuss how these models recapitulate many human conditions and how they have contributed to the understanding of mitochondrial function in health and disease. PMID:25660179

  15. Dysregulation of the Axonal Trafficking of Nuclear-encoded Mitochondrial mRNA alters Neuronal Mitochondrial Activity and Mouse Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Amar N.; Sun, Ching-Yu; Reichard, Kathryn; Gervasi, Noreen M.; Pickel, James; Nakazawa, Kazu; Gioio, Anthony E.; Kaplan, Barry B.

    2014-01-01

    Local translation of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial mRNAs is essential for mitochondrial activity, yet there is little insight into the role that axonal trafficking of these transcripts play in neuronal function and behavior. Previously, we identified a 38 nucleotide stem-loop structure (zipcode) in the 3′ untranslated region of the Cytochrome C oxidase IV (COXIV) mRNA that directs the transport of a reporter mRNA to the axon of superior cervical ganglion neurons (SCG). Over-expression of a chimeric reporter mRNA with the COXIV zipcode competed with the axonal trafficking of endogenous COXIV mRNA, and led to attenuated axon growth in SCG neurons. Here, we show that exogenous expression of the COXIV zipcode in cultured SCG neurons also results in the reduction of local ATP levels and increases levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the axon. We took advantage of this “competition” phenotype to investigate the in vivo significance of axonal transport of COXIV mRNA. Towards this end, we generated transgenic mice expressing a fluorescent reporter fused to COXIV zipcode under a forebrain-specific promoter. Immunohistological analyses and RT-PCR analyses of RNA from the transgenic mouse brain showed expression of the reporter in the deep layer neurons in the pre-frontal and frontal cortex. Consistent with the in vitro studies, we observed increased ROS levels in neurons of these transgenic animals. A battery of behavioral tests on transgenic mice expressing the COXIV zipcode revealed an “anxiety-like” behavioral phenotype, suggesting an important role for axonal trafficking of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial mRNAs in neuronal physiology and animal behavior. PMID:24151253

  16. Embryonic Lethality of Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier 1 Deficient Mouse Can Be Rescued by a Ketogenic Diet

    PubMed Central

    Krznar, Petra; Hörl, Manuel; Ammar, Zeinab; Montessuit, Sylvie; Pierredon, Sandra; Zamboni, Nicola; Martinou, Jean-Claude

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial import of pyruvate by the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) is a central step which links cytosolic and mitochondrial intermediary metabolism. To investigate the role of the MPC in mammalian physiology and development, we generated a mouse strain with complete loss of MPC1 expression. This resulted in embryonic lethality at around E13.5. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from mutant mice displayed defective pyruvate-driven respiration as well as perturbed metabolic profiles, and both defects could be restored by reexpression of MPC1. Labeling experiments using 13C-labeled glucose and glutamine demonstrated that MPC deficiency causes increased glutaminolysis and reduced contribution of glucose-derived pyruvate to the TCA cycle. Morphological defects were observed in mutant embryonic brains, together with major alterations of their metabolome including lactic acidosis, diminished TCA cycle intermediates, energy deficit and a perturbed balance of neurotransmitters. Strikingly, these changes were reversed when the pregnant dams were fed a ketogenic diet, which provides acetyl-CoA directly to the TCA cycle and bypasses the need for a functional MPC. This allowed the normal gestation and development of MPC deficient pups, even though they all died within a few minutes post-delivery. This study establishes the MPC as a key player in regulating the metabolic state necessary for embryonic development, neurotransmitter balance and post-natal survival. PMID:27176894

  17. A mouse model of mitochondrial complex III dysfunction induced by myxothiazol

    SciTech Connect

    Davoudi, Mina; Kallijärvi, Jukka; Marjavaara, Sanna; Kotarsky, Heike; Hansson, Eva; Levéen, Per; Fellman, Vineta

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • Reversible chemical inhibition of complex III in wild type mouse. • Myxothiazol causes decreased complex III activity in mouse liver. • The model is useful for therapeutic trials to improve mitochondrial function. - Abstract: Myxothiazol is a respiratory chain complex III (CIII) inhibitor that binds to the ubiquinol oxidation site Qo of CIII. It blocks electron transfer from ubiquinol to cytochrome b and thus inhibits CIII activity. It has been utilized as a tool in studies of respiratory chain function in in vitro and cell culture models. We developed a mouse model of biochemically induced and reversible CIII inhibition using myxothiazol. We administered myxothiazol intraperitoneally at a dose of 0.56 mg/kg to C57Bl/J6 mice every 24 h and assessed CIII activity, histology, lipid content, supercomplex formation, and gene expression in the livers of the mice. A reversible CIII activity decrease to 50% of control value occurred at 2 h post-injection. At 74 h only minor histological changes in the liver were found, supercomplex formation was preserved and no significant changes in the expression of genes indicating hepatotoxicity or inflammation were found. Thus, myxothiazol-induced CIII inhibition can be induced in mice for four days in a row without overt hepatotoxicity or lethality. This model could be utilized in further studies of respiratory chain function and pharmacological approaches to mitochondrial hepatopathies.

  18. Identification of nonferritin mitochondrial iron deposits in a mouse model of Friedreich ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Whitnall, Megan; Rahmanto, Yohan Suryo; Huang, Michael L.-H.; Saletta, Federica; Lok, Hiu Chuen; Gutiérrez, Lucía; Lázaro, Francisco J.; Fleming, Adam J.; St. Pierre, Tim G.; Mikhael, Marc R.; Ponka, Prem; Richardson, Des R.

    2012-01-01

    There is no effective treatment for the cardiomyopathy of the most common autosomal recessive ataxia, Friedreich ataxia (FA). This disease is due to decreased expression of the mitochondrial protein, frataxin, which leads to alterations in mitochondrial iron (Fe) metabolism. The identification of potentially toxic mitochondrial Fe deposits in FA suggests Fe plays a role in its pathogenesis. Studies using the muscle creatine kinase (MCK) conditional frataxin knockout mouse that mirrors the disease have demonstrated frataxin deletion alters cardiac Fe metabolism. Indeed, there are pronounced changes in Fe trafficking away from the cytosol to the mitochondrion, leading to a cytosolic Fe deficiency. Considering Fe deficiency can induce apoptosis and cell death, we examined the effect of dietary Fe supplementation, which led to body Fe loading and limited the cardiac hypertrophy in MCK mutants. Furthermore, this study indicates a unique effect of heart and skeletal muscle-specific frataxin deletion on systemic Fe metabolism. Namely, frataxin deletion induces a signaling mechanism to increase systemic Fe levels and Fe loading in tissues where frataxin expression is intact (i.e., liver, kidney, and spleen). Examining the mutant heart, native size-exclusion chromatography, transmission electron microscopy, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and magnetic susceptibility measurements demonstrated that in the absence of frataxin, mitochondria contained biomineral Fe aggregates, which were distinctly different from isolated mammalian ferritin molecules. These mitochondrial aggregates of Fe, phosphorus, and sulfur, probably contribute to the oxidative stress and pathology observed in the absence of frataxin. PMID:23169664

  19. A mitochondrial therapeutic reverses visual decline in mouse models of diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Nazia M.; Mills, William C.; Wong, Aimee A.; Douglas, Robert M.; Szeto, Hazel H.; Prusky, Glen T.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Diabetic retinopathy is characterized by progressive vision loss and the advancement of retinal micoraneurysms, edema and angiogenesis. Unfortunately, managing glycemia or targeting vascular complications with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents has shown only limited efficacy in treating the deterioration of vision in diabetic retinopathy. In light of growing evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction is an independent pathophysiology of diabetes and diabetic retinopathy, we investigated whether selectively targeting and improving mitochondrial dysfunction is a viable treatment for visual decline in diabetes. Measures of spatial visual behavior, blood glucose, bodyweight and optical clarity were made in mouse models of diabetes. Treatment groups were administered MTP-131, a water-soluble tetrapeptide that selectively targets mitochondrial cardiolipin and promotes efficient electron transfer, either systemically or in eye drops. Progressive visual decline emerged in untreated animals before the overt symptoms of metabolic and ophthalmic abnormalities were manifest, but with time, visual dysfunction was accompanied by compromised glucose clearance, and elevated blood glucose and bodyweight. MTP-131 treatment reversed the visual decline without improving glycemic control or reducing bodyweight. These data provide evidence that visuomotor decline is an early complication of diabetes. They also indicate that selectively treating mitochondrial dysfunction with MTP-131 has the potential to remediate the visual dysfunction and to complement existing treatments for diabetic retinopathy. PMID:26035391

  20. Methoxychlor causes mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in the mouse ovary

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.K.; Schuh, R.A.; Fiskum, G.; Flaws, J.A. . E-mail: jflaws@epi.umaryland.edu

    2006-11-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide that reduces fertility in female rodents by causing ovarian atrophy, persistent estrous cyclicity, and antral follicle atresia (apoptotic cell death). Oxidative damage resulting from reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation has been demonstrated to lead to toxicant-induced cell death. Thus, this work tested the hypothesis that MXC causes oxidative damage to the mouse ovary and affects mitochondrial respiration in a manner that stimulates ROS production. For the in vitro experiments, mitochondria were collected from adult cycling mouse ovaries, treated with vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide; DMSO) or MXC, and subjected to polarographic measurements of respiration. For the in vivo experiments, adult cycling CD-1 mice were dosed with either vehicle (sesame oil) or MXC for 20 days. After treatment, ovarian mitochondria were isolated and subjected to measurements of respiration and fluorimetric measurements of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production. Some ovaries were also fixed and processed for immunohistochemistry using antibodies for ROS production markers: nitrotyrosine and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHG). Ovaries from in vivo experiments were also used to measure the mRNA expression and activity of antioxidants such as Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and catalase (CAT). The results indicate that MXC significantly impairs mitochondrial respiration, increases production of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, causes more staining for nitrotyrosine and 8-OHG in antral follicles, and decreases the expression and activity of SOD1, GPX, and CAT as compared to controls. Collectively, these data indicate that MXC inhibits mitochondrial respiration, causes ROS production, and decreases antioxidant expression and activity in the ovary, specifically in the antral follicles. Therefore, it is possible that MXC causes atresia of ovarian antral follicles by inducing oxidative stress through mitochondrial production of ROS.

  1. Local mitochondrial-endolysosomal microfusion cleaves voltage-dependent anion channel 1 to promote survival in hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Brahimi-Horn, M Christiane; Lacas-Gervais, Sandra; Adaixo, Ricardo; Ilc, Karine; Rouleau, Matthieu; Notte, Annick; Dieu, Marc; Michiels, Carine; Voeltzel, Thibault; Maguer-Satta, Véronique; Pelletier, Joffrey; Ilie, Marius; Hofman, Paul; Manoury, Bénédicte; Schmidt, Alexander; Hiller, Sebastian; Pouysségur, Jacques; Mazure, Nathalie M

    2015-05-01

    The oxygen-limiting (hypoxic) microenvironment of tumors induces metabolic reprogramming and cell survival, but the underlying mechanisms involving mitochondria remain poorly understood. We previously demonstrated that hypoxia-inducible factor 1 mediates the hyperfusion of mitochondria by inducing Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19-kDa interacting protein 3 and posttranslational truncation of the mitochondrial ATP transporter outer membrane voltage-dependent anion channel 1 in hypoxic cells. In addition, we showed that truncation is associated with increased resistance to drug-induced apoptosis and is indicative of increased patient chemoresistance. We now show that silencing of the tumor suppressor TP53 decreases truncation and increases drug-induced apoptosis. We also show that TP53 regulates truncation through induction of the mitochondrial protein Mieap. While we found that truncation was independent of mitophagy, we observed local microfusion between mitochondria and endolysosomes in hypoxic cells in culture and in patients' tumor tissues. Since we found that the endolysosomal asparagine endopeptidase was responsible for truncation, we propose that it is a readout of mitochondrial-endolysosomal microfusion in hypoxia. These novel findings provide the framework for a better understanding of hypoxic cell metabolism and cell survival through mitochondrial-endolysosomal microfusion regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 and TP53.

  2. Chronic haloperidol increases voltage-gated Na+ currents in mouse cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiqiang; Zhu, Fangfang; Guo, Jingfang; Sheng, Jiangtao; Li, Wenli; Zhao, Xiangfeng; Wang, Gefei; Li, Kangsheng

    2014-07-18

    Typical antipsychotics are characterized by extrapyramidal syndrome (EPS). Previous studies demonstrated that typical antipsychotics could inhibit neuronal voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC). However, EPS typically emerge only upon prolonged exposure. As a result, we examined effects of haloperidol, a prototype typical antipsychotic, on neuronal VGSC upon incubation for varying duration. Briefly, VGSC currents were activated and recorded using a whole-cell patch-clamp technique in primary culture of mouse cortical neurons. VGSC activity was inhibited by acute haloperidol exposure (for minutes), but enhanced in a time- and concentration-dependent manner by chronic haloperidol exposure (for hours). The effects of chronic haloperidol were associated with increased expression of VGSC subunits as well as corresponding electrophysiological channel properties. In summary, we found enhanced VGSC currents upon chronic haloperidol exposure in cortical neurons in contrast to inhibition by acute haloperidol exposure. Such a results may contribute to EPS of typical antipsychotics.

  3. Increased axonal mitochondrial activity as an adaptation to myelin deficiency in the Shiverer mouse.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Helen; White, Kathryn; Thomson, Christine; Edgar, Julia; Bates, David; Griffiths, Ian; Turnbull, Douglass; Nichols, Philip

    2006-06-01

    Axonal pathology in multiple sclerosis (MS) has been described for over a century, but new insights into axonal loss and disability have refocused interest in this area. There is evidence of oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA in chronic MS plaques, suggesting that mitochondrial failure may play a role in MS pathology. We propose that in the chronic absence of myelin the maintenance of conduction relies partially on an increase in mitochondria to provide energy. This increased energy requirement also promotes reactive oxygen species (ROS), because most intraaxonal ROS are generated by mitochondria. If antioxidant defenses are overwhelmed by an excess of ROS, this may result in damage to the axon. Our aim was to investigate whether a chronic lack of myelin results in adaptive changes involving mitochondria within the axon. We investigated this in the shiverer mouse. This myelin basic protein gene mutant provides a model of how adult central nervous system (CNS) axons cope with the chronic absence of a compact myelin sheath. Cytochrome c histochemistry demonstrated a twofold increase in mitochondrial activity in white matter tracts of shiverer, and electron microscopy confirmed a significantly higher number of mitochondria within the dysmyelinated axons. Our data demonstrate that there are adaptive changes involving mitochondria occurring within CNS axons in shiverer mice in response to a lack of myelin. This work contributes to our understanding of the adaptive changes occurring in response to a lack of myelin in a noninflammatory environment similar to the situation seen in chronically demyelinated MS plaques.

  4. Endomorphins and morphine limit anoxia-reoxygenation-induced brain mitochondrial dysfunction in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yun; Lu, Yingwei; Lin, Xin; Gao, Yanfeng; Zhao, Qianyu; Li, Wei; Wang, Rui

    2008-03-26

    The protection of brain mitochondria from oxidative stress is an important therapeutic strategy against ischemia-reperfusion injury and neurodegenerative disorders. Isolated brain mitochondria subjected to a 5 min period of anoxia followed by 5 min reoxygenation mirrored the effect of oxidative stress in the brain. The present study attempts to evaluate the protective effects of endomorphin 1 (EM1), endomorphin 2 (EM2), and morphine (Mor) in an in vitro mouse brain mitochondria anoxia-reoxygenation model. Endomorphins (EM1/2) and Mor were added to mitochondria prior to anoxia or reoxygenation. EM1/2 and Mor markedly improved mitochondrial respiratory activity with a decrease in state 4 and increases in state 3, respiratory control ratio (RCR) and the oxidative phosphorylation efficiency (ADP/O ratio), suggesting that they may play a protective role in mitochondria. These drugs inhibited alterations in mitochondrial membrane fluidity, lipoperoxidation, and cardiolipin (CL) release, which indicates protection of the mitochondrial membranes from oxidative damage. The protective effects of these drugs were concentration-dependent. Furthermore, these drugs blocked the enhanced release of cytochrome c (Cyt c), and consequently inhibited the cell apoptosis induced by the release of Cyt c. Our results suggest that EM1/2 and Mor effectively protect brain mitochondria against oxidative stresses induced by in vitro anoxia-reoxygenation and may play an important role in the prevention of deleterious effects during brain ischemia-reperfusion and neurodegenerative diseases.

  5. Mitochondrial dysfunction in a transgenic mouse model expressing human amyloid precursor protein (APP) with the Arctic mutation.

    PubMed

    Rönnbäck, Annica; Pavlov, Pavel F; Mansory, Mansorah; Gonze, Prisca; Marlière, Nicolas; Winblad, Bengt; Graff, Caroline; Behbahani, Homira

    2016-02-01

    Accumulation of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) in the brain is an important event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. We have used a transgenic mouse model expressing human amyloid precursor protein (APP) with the Arctic mutation to investigate whether Aβ deposition is correlated with mitochondrial functions in these animals. We found evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction (i.e., decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, increased production of reactive oxygen species and oxidative DNA damage) at 6 months of age, when the mice showed very mild Aβ deposition. More pronounced mitochondrial abnormalities were present in 24-month-old TgAPParc mice with more extensive Aβ pathology. This study demonstrates for the first time mitochondrial dysfunction in transgenic mice with a mutation within the Aβ peptide (the Arctic APP mutation), and confirms previous studies suggesting that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress is an early event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. This study demonstrates mitochondrial dysfunction in transgenic mice with a mutation within the amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide (the Arctic amyloid precursor protein (APP) mutation). We found evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction (i.e. decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative DNA damage) at 6 months of age, when very mild Aβ deposition is present in the mice. Also, the cytochrome c (COX) activity was significantly decreased in mitochondria from transgenic mice at 24 months of age.

  6. Neural stem cell transplantation enhances mitochondrial biogenesis in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease-like pathology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Gu, Guo-Jun; Shen, Xing; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Gang-Min; Wang, Pei-Jun

    2015-03-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction, especially a defect in mitochondrial biogenesis, is an early and prominent feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies demonstrated that the number of mitochondria is significantly reduced in susceptible hippocampal neurons from AD patients. Neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation in AD-like mice can compensate for the neuronal loss resulting from amyloid-beta protein deposition. The effects of NSC transplantation on mitochondrial biogenesis and cognitive function in AD-like mice, however, are poorly understood. In this study, we injected NSCs or vehicle into 12-month-old amyloid precursor protein (APP)/PS1 transgenic mice, a mouse model of AD-like pathology. The effects of NSC transplantation on cognitive function, the amount of mitochondrial DNA, the expression of mitochondrial biogenesis factors and mitochondria-related proteins, and mitochondrial morphology were investigated. Our results show that in NSC-injected APP/PS1 (Tg-NSC) mice, the cognitive function, number of mitochondria, and expression of mitochondria-related proteins, specifically the mitochondrial fission factors (dynamin-related protein 1 [Drp1] and fission 1 [Fis1]) and the mitochondrial fusion factor optic atrophy 1 (OPA1), were significantly increased compared with those in age-matched vehicle-injected APP/PS1 (Tg-Veh) mice, whereas the expression of mitochondrial fusion factors mitofusion 1 (Mfn1) and Mfn2 was significantly decreased. These data indicate that NSC transplantation may enhance mitochondria biogenesis and further rescue cognitive deficits in AD-like mice.

  7. Abnormal mitochondrial transport and morphology are common pathological denominators in SOD1 and TDP43 ALS mouse models.

    PubMed

    Magrané, Jordi; Cortez, Czrina; Gan, Wen-Biao; Manfredi, Giovanni

    2014-03-15

    Neuronal mitochondrial morphology abnormalities occur in models of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) associated with SOD1 and TDP43 mutations. These abnormalities have been linked to mitochondrial axonal transport defects, but the temporal and spatial relationship between mitochondrial morphology and transport alterations in these two distinct genetic forms of ALS has not been investigated in vivo. To address this question, we crossed SOD1 (wild-type SOD1(WT) and mutant SOD1(G93A)) or TDP43 (mutant TDP43(A315T)) transgenic mice with mice expressing the fluorescent protein Dendra targeted to mitochondria in neurons (mitoDendra). At different time points during the disease course, we studied mitochondrial transport in the intact sciatic nerve of living mice and analyzed axonal mitochondrial morphology at multiple sites, spanning from the spinal cord to the motor terminals. Defects of retrograde mitochondrial transport were detected at 45 days of age, before the onset of symptoms, in SOD1(G93A) and TDP43(A315T) mice, but not in SOD1(WT). At later disease stages, also anterograde mitochondrial transport was affected in both mutant mouse lines. In SOD1(G93A) mice, mitochondrial morphological abnormalities were apparent at 15 days of age, thus preceding transport abnormalities. Conversely, in TDP43(A315T) mice, morphological abnormalities appeared after the onset of transport defects. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that neuronal mitochondrial transport and morphology abnormalities occur in vivo and that they are common denominators of different genetic forms of the ALS. At the same time, differences in the temporal and spatial manifestation of mitochondrial abnormalities between the two mouse models of familial ALS imply that different molecular mechanisms may be involved.

  8. Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 1(VDAC1) Participates the Apoptosis of the Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Desminopathy

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Yanqing; Gong, Qi; Jiang, Aihua; Zhao, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Desminopathies caused by the mutation in the gene coding for desmin are genetically protein aggregation myopathies. Mitochondrial dysfunction is one of pathological changes in the desminopathies at the earliest stage. The molecular mechanisms of mitochondria dysfunction in desminopathies remain exclusive. VDAC1 regulates mitochondrial uptake across the outer membrane and mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP). Relationships between desminopathies and Voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) remain unclear. Here we successfully constructed the desminopathy rat model, evaluated with conventional stains, containing hematoxylin and eosin (HE), Gomori Trichrome (MGT), (PAS), red oil (ORO), NADH-TR, SDH staining and immunohistochemistry. Immunofluorescence results showed that VDAC1 was accumulated in the desmin highly stained area of muscle fibers of desminopathy patients or desminopathy rat model compared to the normal ones. Meanwhile apoptosis related proteins bax and ATF2 were involved in desminopathy patients and desminopathy rat model, but not bcl-2, bcl-xl or HK2.VDAC1 and desmin are closely relevant in the tissue splices of deminopathies patients and rats with desminopathy at protein lever. Moreover, apoptotic proteins are also involved in the desminopathies, like bax, ATF2, but not bcl-2, bcl-xl or HK2. This pathological analysis presents the correlation between VDAC1 and desmin, and apoptosis related proteins are correlated in the desminopathy. Furthermore, we provide a rat model of desminopathy for the investigation of desmin related myopathy. PMID:27941998

  9. Optimal voltage stimulation parameters for network-mediated responses in wild type and rd10 mouse retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Jalligampala, Archana; Sekhar, Sudarshan; Zrenner, Eberhart; Rathbun, Daniel L

    2017-04-01

    To further improve the quality of visual percepts elicited by microelectronic retinal prosthetics, substantial efforts have been made to understand how retinal neurons respond to electrical stimulation. It is generally assumed that a sufficiently strong stimulus will recruit most retinal neurons. However, recent evidence has shown that the responses of some retinal neurons decrease with excessively strong stimuli (a non-monotonic response function). Therefore, it is necessary to identify stimuli that can be used to activate the majority of retinal neurons even when such non-monotonic cells are part of the neuronal population. Taking these non-monotonic responses into consideration, we establish the optimal voltage stimulation parameters (amplitude, duration, and polarity) for epiretinal stimulation of network-mediated (indirect) ganglion cell responses. We recorded responses from 3958 mouse retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in both healthy (wild type, WT) and a degenerating (rd10) mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa-using flat-mounted retina on a microelectrode array. Rectangular monophasic voltage-controlled pulses were presented with varying voltage, duration, and polarity. We found that in 4-5 weeks old rd10 mice the RGC thresholds were comparable to those of WT. There was a marked response variability among mouse RGCs. To account for this variability, we interpolated the percentage of RGCs activated at each point in the voltage-polarity-duration stimulus space, thus identifying the optimal voltage-controlled pulse (-2.4 V, 0.88 ms). The identified optimal voltage pulse can activate at least 65% of potentially responsive RGCs in both mouse strains. Furthermore, this pulse is well within the range of stimuli demonstrated to be safe and effective for retinal implant patients. Such optimized stimuli and the underlying method used to identify them support a high yield of responsive RGCs and will serve as an effective guideline for future in vitro investigations of

  10. Optimal voltage stimulation parameters for network-mediated responses in wild type and rd10 mouse retinal ganglion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalligampala, Archana; Sekhar, Sudarshan; Zrenner, Eberhart; Rathbun, Daniel L.

    2017-04-01

    To further improve the quality of visual percepts elicited by microelectronic retinal prosthetics, substantial efforts have been made to understand how retinal neurons respond to electrical stimulation. It is generally assumed that a sufficiently strong stimulus will recruit most retinal neurons. However, recent evidence has shown that the responses of some retinal neurons decrease with excessively strong stimuli (a non-monotonic response function). Therefore, it is necessary to identify stimuli that can be used to activate the majority of retinal neurons even when such non-monotonic cells are part of the neuronal population. Taking these non-monotonic responses into consideration, we establish the optimal voltage stimulation parameters (amplitude, duration, and polarity) for epiretinal stimulation of network-mediated (indirect) ganglion cell responses. We recorded responses from 3958 mouse retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in both healthy (wild type, WT) and a degenerating (rd10) mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa—using flat-mounted retina on a microelectrode array. Rectangular monophasic voltage-controlled pulses were presented with varying voltage, duration, and polarity. We found that in 4–5 weeks old rd10 mice the RGC thresholds were comparable to those of WT. There was a marked response variability among mouse RGCs. To account for this variability, we interpolated the percentage of RGCs activated at each point in the voltage-polarity-duration stimulus space, thus identifying the optimal voltage-controlled pulse (‑2.4 V, 0.88 ms). The identified optimal voltage pulse can activate at least 65% of potentially responsive RGCs in both mouse strains. Furthermore, this pulse is well within the range of stimuli demonstrated to be safe and effective for retinal implant patients. Such optimized stimuli and the underlying method used to identify them support a high yield of responsive RGCs and will serve as an effective guideline for future in vitro investigations

  11. Methylene Blue Improves Brain Mitochondrial ABAD Functions and Decreases Aβ in a Neuroinflammatory Alzheimer's Disease Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Aya; Hamdi, Nabila; Abdel-Kader, Reham Mahmoud

    2016-03-01

    Methylene blue (MB) phase II clinical trials reported improvements in cognitive functions of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Regarding MB mechanism of action, its antioxidant and mitochondrial protective effects have been previously described. In relation to AD, it has been recently reported that MB reduced amyloid beta (Aβ) levels in AD models. The mitochondrial enzyme amyloid-binding alcohol dehydrogenase (ABAD) has been shown to bind Aβ inducing mitochondrial dysfunction, providing a direct relation between Aβ toxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction occurring in AD. Since it has been reported that inhibiting ABAD protects mitochondrial functions and prevents Aβ-induced toxicity, the aim of the current study was to investigate if the protective effects of MB could be associated with an effect on ABAD levels and functions. The current study shows that MB is able to enhance cell viability, reduce both reactive oxygen species levels and importantly Aβ oligomers in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mouse model. Interestingly, ABAD levels were increased in the brains of the LPS mouse model and MB treatment was able to reduce its levels. Given that regulation of the estradiol level is a well-established function of ABAD, brain estradiol level was compared in LPS mouse model and in MB-treated mice. The results of the current study show that MB treatment is able to improve significantly the LPS-induced decrease of estradiol levels in mice brains, indicating its ability to modulate both levels and function of ABAD. These results give a new insight to possible mechanisms of MB in AD.

  12. Dietary whey protein stimulates mitochondrial activity and decreases oxidative stress in mouse female brain.

    PubMed

    Shertzer, Howard G; Krishan, Mansi; Genter, Mary Beth

    2013-08-26

    In humans and experimental animals, protein-enriched diets are beneficial for weight management, muscle development, managing early stage insulin resistance and overall health. Previous studies have shown that in mice consuming a high fat diet, whey protein isolate (WPI) reduced hepatosteatosis and insulin resistance due in part to an increase in basal metabolic rate. In the current study, we examined the ability of WPI to increase energy metabolism in mouse brain. Female C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal AIN-93M diet for 12 weeks, with (WPI group) or without (Control group) 100g WPI/L drinking water. In WPI mice compared to controls, the oxidative stress biomarkers malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenals were 40% lower in brain homogenates, and the production of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide were 25-35% less in brain mitochondria. Brain mitochondria from WPI mice remained coupled, and exhibited higher rates of respiration with proportionately greater levels of cytochromes a+a3 and c+c1. These results suggested that WPI treatment increased the number or improved the function of brain mitochondria. qRT-PCR revealed that the gene encoding a master regulator of mitochondrial activity and biogenesis, Pgc-1alpha (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha) was elevated 2.2-fold, as were the PGC-1alpha downstream genes, Tfam (mitochondrial transcription factor A), Gabpa/Nrf-2a (GA-binding protein alpha/nuclear respiratory factor-2a), and Cox-6a1 (cytochrome oxidase-6a1). Each of these genes had twice the levels of transcript in brain tissue from WPI mice, relative to controls. There was no change in the expression of the housekeeping gene B2mg (beta-2 microglobulin). We conclude that dietary whey protein decreases oxidative stress and increases mitochondrial activity in mouse brain. Dietary supplementation with WPI may be a useful clinical intervention to treat conditions associated with oxidative stress or diminished mitochondrial activity in the

  13. Aspirin induces cell death by directly modulating mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC)

    PubMed Central

    Tewari, Debanjan; Majumdar, Dhriti; Vallabhaneni, Sirisha; Bera, Amal Kanti

    2017-01-01

    Aspirin induces apoptotic cell death in various cancer cell lines. Here we showed that silencing of VDAC1 protected HeLa cells from aspirin-induced cell death. Compared to the wild type cells, VDAC1 knocked down cells showed lesser change of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), upon aspirin treatment. Aspirin augmented ATP and ionomycin-induced mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake which was abolished in VDAC1 knocked down cells. Aspirin dissociated bound hexokinase II (HK-II) from mitochondria. Further, aspirin promoted the closure of recombinant human VDAC1, reconstituted in planar lipid bilayer. Taken together, these results imply that VDAC1 serves as a novel target for aspirin. Modulation of VDAC1 is possibly associated with the cell death and anticancer effects of aspirin. PMID:28327594

  14. Isoniazid-induced cell death is precipitated by underlying mitochondrial complex I dysfunction in mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang Kwang; Fujimoto, Kazunori; Zhang, Carmen; Schwall, Christine T; Alder, Nathan N; Pinkert, Carl A; Krueger, Winfried; Rasmussen, Theodore; Boelsterli, Urs A

    2013-12-01

    Isoniazid (INH) is an antituberculosis drug that has been associated with idiosyncratic liver injury in susceptible patients. The underlying mechanisms are still unclear, but there is growing evidence that INH and/or its major metabolite, hydrazine, may interfere with mitochondrial function. However, hepatic mitochondria have a large reserve capacity, and minor disruption of energy homeostasis does not necessarily induce cell death. We explored whether pharmacologic or genetic impairment of mitochondrial complex I may amplify mitochondrial dysfunction and precipitate INH-induced hepatocellular injury. We found that INH (≤ 3000 μM) did not induce cell injury in cultured mouse hepatocytes, although it decreased hepatocellular respiration and ATP levels in a concentration-dependent fashion. However, coexposure of hepatocytes to INH and nontoxic concentrations of the complex I inhibitors rotenone (3 μM) or piericidin A (30 nM) resulted in massive ATP depletion and cell death. Although both rotenone and piericidin A increased MitoSox-reactive fluorescence, Mito-TEMPO or N-acetylcysteine did not attenuate the extent of cytotoxicity. However, preincubation of cells with the acylamidase inhibitor bis-p-nitrophenol phosphate provided protection from hepatocyte injury induced by rotenone/INH (but not rotenone/hydrazine), suggesting that hydrazine was the cell-damaging species. Indeed, we found that hydrazine directly inhibited the activity of solubilized complex II. Hepatocytes isolated from mutant Ndufs4(+/-) mice, although featuring moderately lower protein expression levels of this complex I subunit in liver mitochondria, exhibited unchanged hepatic complex I activity and were therefore not sensitized to INH. These data indicate that underlying inhibition of complex I, which alone is not acutely toxic, can trigger INH-induced hepatocellular injury.

  15. Neuroinflammation, mitochondrial defects and neurodegeneration in mucopolysaccharidosis III type C mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Carla; Hůlková, Helena; Dridi, Larbi; Dormoy-Raclet, Virginie; Grigoryeva, Lubov; Choi, Yoo; Langford-Smith, Alexander; Wilkinson, Fiona L.; Ohmi, Kazuhiro; DiCristo, Graziella; Hamel, Edith; Ausseil, Jerôme; Cheillan, David; Moreau, Alain; Svobodová, Eva; Hájková, Zuzana; Tesařová, Markéta; Hansíková, Hana; Bigger, Brian W.; Hrebícek, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Severe progressive neurological paediatric disease mucopolysaccharidosis III type C is caused by mutations in the HGSNAT gene leading to deficiency of acetyl-CoA: α-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase involved in the lysosomal catabolism of heparan sulphate. To understand the pathophysiology of the disease we generated a mouse model of mucopolysaccharidosis III type C by germline inactivation of the Hgsnat gene. At 6–8 months mice showed hyperactivity, and reduced anxiety. Cognitive memory decline was detected at 10 months and at 12–13 months mice showed signs of unbalanced hesitant walk and urinary retention. Lysosomal accumulation of heparan sulphate was observed in hepatocytes, splenic sinus endothelium, cerebral microglia, liver Kupffer cells, fibroblasts and pericytes. Starting from 5 months, brain neurons showed enlarged, structurally abnormal mitochondria, impaired mitochondrial energy metabolism, and storage of densely packed autofluorescent material, gangliosides, lysozyme, phosphorylated tau, and amyloid-β. Taken together, our data demonstrate for the first time that deficiency of acetyl-CoA: α-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase causes lysosomal accumulation of heparan sulphate in microglial cells followed by their activation and cytokine release. They also show mitochondrial dysfunction in the neurons and neuronal loss explaining why mucopolysaccharidosis III type C manifests primarily as a neurodegenerative disease. PMID:25567323

  16. Mouse Stbd1 is N-myristoylated and affects ER-mitochondria association and mitochondrial morphology.

    PubMed

    Demetriadou, Anthi; Morales-Sanfrutos, Julia; Nearchou, Marianna; Baba, Otto; Kyriacou, Kyriacos; Tate, Edward W; Drousiotou, Anthi; Petrou, Petros P

    2017-03-01

    Starch binding domain-containing protein 1 (Stbd1) is a carbohydrate-binding protein that has been proposed to be a selective autophagy receptor for glycogen. Here, we show that mouse Stbd1 is a transmembrane endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident protein with the capacity to induce the formation of organized ER structures in HeLa cells. In addition to bulk ER, Stbd1 was found to localize to mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs), which represent regions of close apposition between the ER and mitochondria. We demonstrate that N-myristoylation and binding of Stbd1 to glycogen act as major determinants of its subcellular targeting. Moreover, overexpression of non-myristoylated Stbd1 enhanced the association between ER and mitochondria, and further induced prominent mitochondrial fragmentation and clustering. Conversely, shRNA-mediated Stbd1 silencing resulted in an increase in the spacing between ER and mitochondria, and an altered morphology of the mitochondrial network, suggesting elevated fusion and interconnectivity of mitochondria. Our data unravel the molecular mechanism underlying Stbd1 subcellular targeting, support and expand its proposed function as a selective autophagy receptor for glycogen and uncover a new role for the protein in the physical association between ER and mitochondria.

  17. Patrinia scabiosaefolia induces mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis in a mouse model of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liya; Shen, Aling; Chen, Youqin; Wei, Lihui; Lin, Jiumao; Sferra, Thomas J; Hong, Zhenfeng; Peng, Jun

    2013-08-01

    Disrupted apoptosis not only confers a survival advantage to cancer cells but also causes resistance to chemotherapies. Therefore, inducing cell apoptosis has become a promising strategy for anticancer treatment. Patrinia scabiosaefolia (PS) has long been used to clinically treat various types of malignancies including colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the precise mechanism of its tumoricidal activity remains largely unclear. Using a CRC mouse xenograft model and a human colon carcinoma cell line, HT-29, in the present study, we evaluated the antitumor activities of an ethanol extract of Patrinia scabiosaefolia (EEPS), and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that EEPS inhibited CRC growth both in vivo and in vitro, without apparent adverse side-effects. Moreover, EEPS treatment promoted apoptosis in CRC tumor tissues and in HT-29 cells, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of EEPS on tumor growth was due to its pro-apoptotic activity. Furthermore, EEPS treatment inhibited the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 but enhanced pro-apoptotic Bax expression at both transcriptional and translational levels. Finally, EEPS induced the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspase-9 and -3 in HT-29 cells. Taken together, data in this study suggest that induction of cancer cell apoptosis via the mitochondrial-dependent pathway may be one of the mechanisms whereby PS exerts anticancer activity.

  18. NMR Metabolomics Show Evidence for Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress in a Mouse Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Selen, Ebru Selin; Bolandnazar, Zeinab; Tonelli, Marco; Bütz, Daniel E; Haviland, Julia A; Porter, Warren P; Assadi-Porter, Fariba M

    2015-08-07

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with metabolic and endocrine disorders in women of reproductive age. The etiology of PCOS is still unknown. Mice prenatally treated with glucocorticoids exhibit metabolic disturbances that are similar to those seen in women with PCOS. We used an untargeted nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics approach to understand the metabolic changes occurring in the plasma and kidney over time in female glucocorticoid-treated (GC-treated) mice. There are significant changes in plasma amino acid levels (valine, tyrosine, and proline) and their intermediates (2-hydroxybutyrate, 4-aminobutyrate, and taurine), whereas in kidneys, the TCA cycle metabolism (citrate, fumarate, and succinate) and the pentose phosphate (PP) pathway products (inosine and uracil) are significantly altered (p < 0.05) from 8 to 16 weeks of age. Levels of NADH, NAD(+), NAD(+)/NADH, and NADH redox in kidneys indicate increased mitochondrial oxidative stress from 8 to 16 weeks in GC-treated mice. These results indicate that altered metabolic substrates in the plasma and kidneys of treated mice are associated with altered amino acid metabolism, increased cytoplasmic PP, and increased mitochondrial activity, leading to a more oxidized state. This study identifies biomarkers associated with metabolic dysfunction in kidney mitochondria of a prenatal gluococorticoid-treated mouse model of PCOS that may be used as early predictive biomarkers of oxidative stress in the PCOS metabolic disorder in women.

  19. Metabolomic Analysis of Exercise Effects in the POLG Mitochondrial DNA Mutator Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Clark-Matott, Joanne; Saleem, Ayesha; Dai, Ying; Shurubor, Yevgeniya; Ma, Xiaoxing; Safdar, Adeel; Beal, M. Flint; Tarnopolsky, Mark; Simon, David K.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutator mice express a mutated form of mtDNA polymerase gamma (PolgA) that results an accelerated accumulation of somatic mtDNA mutations in association with a premature aging phenotype. An exploratory metabolomic analysis of cortical metabolites in sedentary and exercised mtDNA mutator mice and wild-type (WT) littermate controls at 9–10 months of age was performed. Pathway analysis revealed deficits in the neurotransmitters acetylcholine, glutamate and aspartate that were ameliorated by exercise. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) depletion and evidence of increased Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1 (PARP-1) activity were apparent in sedentary mtDNA mutator mouse cortex, along with deficits in carnitine metabolites and an upregulated antioxidant response that largely normalized with exercise. These data highlight specific pathways that are altered in the brain in association with an accelerated age-related accumulation of somatic mtDNA mutations. These results may have relevance to age-related neurodegenerative diseases associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, and provide insights into potential mechanisms of beneficial effects of exercise on brain function. PMID:26294258

  20. Neuroinflammation, mitochondrial defects and neurodegeneration in mucopolysaccharidosis III type C mouse model.

    PubMed

    Martins, Carla; Hůlková, Helena; Dridi, Larbi; Dormoy-Raclet, Virginie; Grigoryeva, Lubov; Choi, Yoo; Langford-Smith, Alexander; Wilkinson, Fiona L; Ohmi, Kazuhiro; DiCristo, Graziella; Hamel, Edith; Ausseil, Jerôme; Cheillan, David; Moreau, Alain; Svobodová, Eva; Hájková, Zuzana; Tesařová, Markéta; Hansíková, Hana; Bigger, Brian W; Hrebícek, Martin; Pshezhetsky, Alexey V

    2015-02-01

    Severe progressive neurological paediatric disease mucopolysaccharidosis III type C is caused by mutations in the HGSNAT gene leading to deficiency of acetyl-CoA: α-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase involved in the lysosomal catabolism of heparan sulphate. To understand the pathophysiology of the disease we generated a mouse model of mucopolysaccharidosis III type C by germline inactivation of the Hgsnat gene. At 6-8 months mice showed hyperactivity, and reduced anxiety. Cognitive memory decline was detected at 10 months and at 12-13 months mice showed signs of unbalanced hesitant walk and urinary retention. Lysosomal accumulation of heparan sulphate was observed in hepatocytes, splenic sinus endothelium, cerebral microglia, liver Kupffer cells, fibroblasts and pericytes. Starting from 5 months, brain neurons showed enlarged, structurally abnormal mitochondria, impaired mitochondrial energy metabolism, and storage of densely packed autofluorescent material, gangliosides, lysozyme, phosphorylated tau, and amyloid-β. Taken together, our data demonstrate for the first time that deficiency of acetyl-CoA: α-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase causes lysosomal accumulation of heparan sulphate in microglial cells followed by their activation and cytokine release. They also show mitochondrial dysfunction in the neurons and neuronal loss explaining why mucopolysaccharidosis III type C manifests primarily as a neurodegenerative disease.

  1. Mouse testis cell sorting according to DNA and mitochondrial changes during spermatogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Petit, J.M.; Ratinaud, M.H.; Cordelli, E.; Spano, M.; Julien, R.

    1995-04-01

    Flow cytometry can measure variations in DNA content and chromatin structure as well as dramatic changes in the mitochondria of germ cells during maturation from spermatogonia to elongated spermatids. Using 10-N nonyl acridine orange (NAO), an inner mitochondrial membrane dye, it is easy to follow mitochondria rearrangements. Mouse testis cells stained with the DNA fluorescent probe propidium iodide (PI) and analyzed by flow cytometry can be discriminated on the basis of their ploidy levels into five main regions corresponding to elongated spermatids, round spermatids, diploid, S-phase, and tetraploid cells. The simultaneous use of PI and NAO demonstrated the presence of cells having low and high mitochondrial content in the haploid, diploid, and tetraploid compartments. Eleven sorting windows were selected from the bivariate analysis (PI/NAO) and the corresponding cells were identified by microscopic observation. Cells were also discriminated by two parameter analysis of DNA content vs. cell diameter. The definition of seven different regions allowed us to determine NAO or rhodamine 123 (Rh 123) uptakes in each compartment. We observed that the ratio (Rh 123/NAO) dramatically changed according to the progression of cell differentiation which occurs during spermatogenesis. 45 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Mouse Stbd1 is N-myristoylated and affects ER–mitochondria association and mitochondrial morphology

    PubMed Central

    Demetriadou, Anthi; Morales-Sanfrutos, Julia; Nearchou, Marianna; Baba, Otto; Kyriacou, Kyriacos; Tate, Edward W.; Drousiotou, Anthi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Starch binding domain-containing protein 1 (Stbd1) is a carbohydrate-binding protein that has been proposed to be a selective autophagy receptor for glycogen. Here, we show that mouse Stbd1 is a transmembrane endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident protein with the capacity to induce the formation of organized ER structures in HeLa cells. In addition to bulk ER, Stbd1 was found to localize to mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs), which represent regions of close apposition between the ER and mitochondria. We demonstrate that N-myristoylation and binding of Stbd1 to glycogen act as major determinants of its subcellular targeting. Moreover, overexpression of non-myristoylated Stbd1 enhanced the association between ER and mitochondria, and further induced prominent mitochondrial fragmentation and clustering. Conversely, shRNA-mediated Stbd1 silencing resulted in an increase in the spacing between ER and mitochondria, and an altered morphology of the mitochondrial network, suggesting elevated fusion and interconnectivity of mitochondria. Our data unravel the molecular mechanism underlying Stbd1 subcellular targeting, support and expand its proposed function as a selective autophagy receptor for glycogen and uncover a new role for the protein in the physical association between ER and mitochondria. PMID:28137759

  3. Voltage-Dependent Regulation of Complex II Energized Mitochondrial Oxygen Flux

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Fan; Fink, Brian D.; Yu, Liping; Sivitz, William I.

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen consumption by isolated mitochondria is generally measured during state 4 respiration (no ATP production) or state 3 (maximal ATP production at high ADP availability). However, mitochondria in vivo do not function at either extreme. Here we used ADP recycling methodology to assess muscle mitochondrial function over intermediate clamped ADP concentrations. In so doing, we uncovered a previously unrecognized biphasic respiratory pattern wherein O2 flux on the complex II substrate, succinate, initially increased and peaked over low clamped ADP concentrations then decreased markedly at higher clamped concentrations. Mechanistic studies revealed no evidence that the observed changes in O2 flux were due to altered opening or function of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore or to changes in reactive oxygen. Based on metabolite and functional metabolic data, we propose a multifactorial mechanism that consists of coordinate changes that follow from reduced membrane potential (as the ADP concentration in increased). These changes include altered directional electron flow, altered NADH/NAD+ redox cycling, metabolite exit, and OAA inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase. In summary, we report a previously unrecognized pattern for complex II energized O2 flux. Moreover, our findings suggest that the ADP recycling approach might be more widely adapted for mitochondrial studies. PMID:27153112

  4. Mouse Cytotoxic T Cell-derived Granzyme B Activates the Mitochondrial Cell Death Pathway in a Bim-dependent Fashion*

    PubMed Central

    Catalán, Elena; Jaime-Sánchez, Paula; Aguiló, Nacho; Simon, Markus M.; Froelich, Christopher J.; Pardo, Julián

    2015-01-01

    Cytotoxic T cells (Tc) use perforin and granzyme B (gzmB) to kill virus-infected cells and cancer cells. Recent evidence suggests that human gzmB primarily induces apoptosis via the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway by either cleaving Bid or activating Bim leading to the activation of Bak/Bax and subsequent generation of active caspase-3. In contrast, mouse gzmB is thought to predominantly induce apoptosis by directly processing pro-caspase-3. However, in certain mouse cell types gzmB-mediated apoptosis mainly occurs via the mitochondrial pathway. To investigate whether Bim is involved under the latter conditions, we have now employed ex vivo virus-immune mouse Tc that selectively kill by using perforin and gzmB (gzmB+Tc) as effector cells and wild type as well as Bim- or Bak/Bax-deficient spontaneously (3T9) or virus-(SV40) transformed mouse embryonic fibroblast cells as targets. We show that gzmB+Tc-mediated apoptosis (phosphatidylserine translocation, mitochondrial depolarization, cytochrome c release, and caspase-3 activation) was severely reduced in 3T9 cells lacking either Bim or both Bak and Bax. This outcome was related to the ability of Tc cells to induce the degradation of Mcl-1 and Bcl-XL, the anti-apoptotic counterparts of Bim. In contrast, gzmB+Tc-mediated apoptosis was not affected in SV40-transformed mouse embryonic fibroblast cells lacking Bak/Bax. The data provide evidence that Bim participates in mouse gzmB+Tc-mediated apoptosis of certain targets by activating the mitochondrial pathway and suggest that the mode of cell death depends on the target cell. Our results suggest that the various molecular events leading to transformation and/or immortalization of cells have an impact on their relative resistance to the multiple gzmB+Tc-induced death pathways. PMID:25605735

  5. Mouse cytotoxic T cell-derived granzyme B activates the mitochondrial cell death pathway in a Bim-dependent fashion.

    PubMed

    Catalán, Elena; Jaime-Sánchez, Paula; Aguiló, Nacho; Simon, Markus M; Froelich, Christopher J; Pardo, Julián

    2015-03-13

    Cytotoxic T cells (Tc) use perforin and granzyme B (gzmB) to kill virus-infected cells and cancer cells. Recent evidence suggests that human gzmB primarily induces apoptosis via the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway by either cleaving Bid or activating Bim leading to the activation of Bak/Bax and subsequent generation of active caspase-3. In contrast, mouse gzmB is thought to predominantly induce apoptosis by directly processing pro-caspase-3. However, in certain mouse cell types gzmB-mediated apoptosis mainly occurs via the mitochondrial pathway. To investigate whether Bim is involved under the latter conditions, we have now employed ex vivo virus-immune mouse Tc that selectively kill by using perforin and gzmB (gzmB(+)Tc) as effector cells and wild type as well as Bim- or Bak/Bax-deficient spontaneously (3T9) or virus-(SV40) transformed mouse embryonic fibroblast cells as targets. We show that gzmB(+)Tc-mediated apoptosis (phosphatidylserine translocation, mitochondrial depolarization, cytochrome c release, and caspase-3 activation) was severely reduced in 3T9 cells lacking either Bim or both Bak and Bax. This outcome was related to the ability of Tc cells to induce the degradation of Mcl-1 and Bcl-XL, the anti-apoptotic counterparts of Bim. In contrast, gzmB(+)Tc-mediated apoptosis was not affected in SV40-transformed mouse embryonic fibroblast cells lacking Bak/Bax. The data provide evidence that Bim participates in mouse gzmB(+)Tc-mediated apoptosis of certain targets by activating the mitochondrial pathway and suggest that the mode of cell death depends on the target cell. Our results suggest that the various molecular events leading to transformation and/or immortalization of cells have an impact on their relative resistance to the multiple gzmB(+)Tc-induced death pathways.

  6. Tissue Specific Impacts of a Ketogenic Diet on Mitochondrial Dynamics in the BTBRT+tf/j Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Newell, Christopher; Shutt, Timothy E.; Ahn, Younghee; Hittel, Dustin. S.; Khan, Aneal; Rho, Jong M.; Shearer, Jane

    2016-01-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) has been utilized as a dietary therapeutic for nearly a century. One experimental model particularly responsive to the KD is the BTBRT+tf/j (BTBR) mouse, which displays phenotypic characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and insulin resistance. Recently, the study of impaired mitochondrial function has become a focal point of research investigating the pathophysiology of ASD. As highly dynamic organelles, mitochondria undergo constant fluctuations in morphology, biogenesis, and quality control in order to maintain cellular homeostasis. An important modifier of mitochondrial dynamics is energy availability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the impact of a KD on mitochondrial dynamics in the liver and brain (prefrontal cortex) of the BTBR mouse model of ASD. Juvenile male C57Bl/6 (B6) and BTBR mice were age-matched to 5 weeks of age before being fed standard chow (CD, 13% kcal fat) or a KD (75% kcal fat) for 10–14 days. Analysis of brain tissue identified differences in mitochondrial gene expression but no correlation with protein levels. Unlike in the brain, KD led to decreased levels of mitochondrial proteins in the liver, despite increased gene expression. Consistent with decreased mitochondrial proteins, we also observed decreased mtDNA for all mice on the KD, demonstrating that the KD reduces the total amount of mitochondria in the liver. In order to explain the discrepancy between protein levels and gene expression, we investigated whether mitochondrial turnover via mitophagy was increased. To this end, we examined expression levels of the mitophagy regulator BNIP3 (BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kd-interacting protein 3). BNIP3 gene and protein expression were significantly elevated in liver of KD animals (p < 0.05), indicating the potential activation of mitophagy. Therefore, consumption of a KD exerts highly tissue-specific effects, ultimately increasing mitochondrial turnover in the liver, while gene and protein

  7. Tissue Specific Impacts of a Ketogenic Diet on Mitochondrial Dynamics in the BTBR(T+tf/j) Mouse.

    PubMed

    Newell, Christopher; Shutt, Timothy E; Ahn, Younghee; Hittel, Dustin S; Khan, Aneal; Rho, Jong M; Shearer, Jane

    2016-01-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) has been utilized as a dietary therapeutic for nearly a century. One experimental model particularly responsive to the KD is the BTBR(T+tf/j) (BTBR) mouse, which displays phenotypic characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and insulin resistance. Recently, the study of impaired mitochondrial function has become a focal point of research investigating the pathophysiology of ASD. As highly dynamic organelles, mitochondria undergo constant fluctuations in morphology, biogenesis, and quality control in order to maintain cellular homeostasis. An important modifier of mitochondrial dynamics is energy availability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the impact of a KD on mitochondrial dynamics in the liver and brain (prefrontal cortex) of the BTBR mouse model of ASD. Juvenile male C57Bl/6 (B6) and BTBR mice were age-matched to 5 weeks of age before being fed standard chow (CD, 13% kcal fat) or a KD (75% kcal fat) for 10-14 days. Analysis of brain tissue identified differences in mitochondrial gene expression but no correlation with protein levels. Unlike in the brain, KD led to decreased levels of mitochondrial proteins in the liver, despite increased gene expression. Consistent with decreased mitochondrial proteins, we also observed decreased mtDNA for all mice on the KD, demonstrating that the KD reduces the total amount of mitochondria in the liver. In order to explain the discrepancy between protein levels and gene expression, we investigated whether mitochondrial turnover via mitophagy was increased. To this end, we examined expression levels of the mitophagy regulator BNIP3 (BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kd-interacting protein 3). BNIP3 gene and protein expression were significantly elevated in liver of KD animals (p < 0.05), indicating the potential activation of mitophagy. Therefore, consumption of a KD exerts highly tissue-specific effects, ultimately increasing mitochondrial turnover in the liver, while gene and protein

  8. Mitochondrial fragmentation and superoxide anion production in coronary endothelial cells from a mouse model of type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Makino, A.; Scott, B. T.

    2010-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Mitochondria frequently change their shapes by fusion and fission and these morphological dynamics play important roles in mitochondrial function and development as well as programmed cell death. The goal of this study is to investigate whether: (1) mitochondria in mouse coronary endothelial cells (MCECs) isolated from diabetic mice exhibit increased fragmentation; and (2) chronic treatment with a superoxide anion (O2−) scavenger has a beneficial effect on mitochondrial fragmentation in MCECs. Methods MCECs were freshly isolated and lysed for protein measurement, or cultured to determine mitochondrial morphology and O2− production. For the ex vivo hyperglycaemia experiments, human coronary endothelial cells were used. Results Elongated mitochondrial tubules were observed in MCECs isolated from control mice, whereas mitochondria in MCECs from diabetic mice exhibited augmented fragmentation. The level of optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) protein, which leads to mitochondrial fusion, was significantly decreased, while dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1), which leads to mitochondrial fission, was significantly increased in MCECs from diabetic mice. Diabetic MCECs exhibited significantly higher O2− concentrations in cytosol and mitochondria than control MCECs. Administration of the O2− scavenger TEMPOL to diabetic mice for 4 weeks led to a significant decrease in mitochondrial fragmentation without altering the levels of OPA1 and DRP1 proteins in MCECs. High-glucose treatment for 24 h significantly induced mitochondrial fragmentation, which was restored by TEMPOL treatment. In addition, excess O2− production, either in cytosol or in mitochondria, significantly increased mitochondrial fragmentation. Conclusions/interpretation These data suggest that lowering the O2− concentration can restore the morphological change in mitochondria and may help improve mitochondrial function in diabetic MCECs. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this

  9. Mitochondrial calcium uptake capacity as a therapeutic target in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Giselle M.; Tallaksen-Greene, Sara; Kumar, Ashish; Heng, Mary Y.; Kneynsberg, Andrew; van Groen, Thomas; Detloff, Peter J.; Albin, Roger L.; Lesort, Mathieu

    2010-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an incurable autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder initiated by an abnormally expanded polyglutamine domain in the huntingtin protein. It is proposed that abnormal mitochondrial Ca2+ capacity results in an increased susceptibility to mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) induction that may contribute significantly to HD pathogenesis. The in vivo contribution of these hypothesized defects remains to be elucidated. In this proof-of-principle study, we examined whether increasing mitochondrial Ca2+ capacity could ameliorate the well-characterized phenotype of the R6/2 transgenic mouse model. Mouse models lacking cyclophilin D demonstrate convincingly that cyclophilin D is an essential component and a key regulator of MPT induction. Mitochondria of cyclophilin D knockout mice are particularly resistant to Ca2+ overload. We generated R6/2 mice with normal, reduced or absent cyclophilin D expression and examined the effect of increasing mitochondrial Ca2+ capacity on the behavioral and neuropathological features of the R6/2 model. A predicted outcome of this approach was the finding that cyclophilin D deletion enhanced the R6/2 brain mitochondria Ca2+ capacity significantly. Increased neuronal mitochondrial Ca2+ capacity failed to ameliorate either the behavioral and neuropathological features of R6/2 mice. We found no alterations in body weight changes, lifespan, RotaRod performances, grip strength, overall activity and no significant effect on the neuropathological features of R6/2 mice. The results of this study demonstrate that increasing neuronal mitochondrial Ca2+-buffering capacity is not beneficial in the R6/2 mouse model of HD. PMID:20558522

  10. Propagation in the transverse tubular system and voltage dependence of calcium release in normal and mdx mouse muscle fibres

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Christopher E; Novo, David; DiFranco, Marino; Capote, Joana; Vergara, Julio L

    2005-01-01

    Using a two-microelectrode voltage clamp technique, we investigated possible mechanisms underlying the impaired excitation–contraction coupling in skeletal muscle fibres of the mdx mouse, a model of the human disease Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We evaluated the role of the transverse tubular system (T-system) by using the potentiometric indicator di-8 ANEPPS, and that of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release by measuring Ca2+ transients with a low affinity indicator in the presence of high EGTA concentrations under voltage clamp conditions. We observed minimal differences in the T-system structure and the T-system electrical propagation was not different between normal and mdx mice. Whereas the maximum Ca2+ release elicited by voltage pulses was reduced by ∼67% in mdx fibres, in agreement with previous results obtained using AP stimulation, the voltage dependence of SR Ca2+ release was identical to that seen in normal fibres. Taken together, our data suggest that the intrinsic ability of the sarcoplasmic reticulum to release Ca2+ may be altered in the mdx mouse. PMID:16123111

  11. Kv3 voltage-gated potassium channels regulate neurotransmitter release from mouse motor nerve terminals.

    PubMed

    Brooke, Ruth E; Moores, Thomas S; Morris, Neil P; Parson, Simon H; Deuchars, Jim

    2004-12-01

    Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels are critical to regulation of neurotransmitter release throughout the nervous system but the roles and identity of the subtypes involved remain unclear. Here we show that Kv3 channels regulate transmitter release at the mouse neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Light- and electron-microscopic immunohistochemistry revealed Kv3.3 and Kv3.4 subunits within all motor nerve terminals of muscles examined [transversus abdominus, lumbrical and flexor digitorum brevis (FDB)]. To determine the roles of these Kv3 subunits, intracellular recordings were made of end-plate potentials (EPPs) in FDB muscle fibres evoked by electrical stimulation of tibial nerve. Tetraethylammonium (TEA) applied at low concentrations (0.05-0.5 mM), which blocks only a few known potassium channels including Kv3 channels, did not affect muscle fibre resting potential but significantly increased the amplitude of all EPPs tested. Significantly, this effect of TEA was still observed in the presence of the large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel blockers iberiotoxin (25-150 nM) and Penitrem A (100 nM), suggesting a selective action on Kv3 subunits. Consistent with this, 15-microM 4-aminopyridine, which blocks Kv3 but not large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels, enhanced evoked EPP amplitude. Unexpectedly, blood-depressing substance-I, a toxin selective for Kv3.4 subunits, had no effect at 0.05-1 microM. The combined presynaptic localization of Kv3 subunits and pharmacological enhancement of EPP amplitude indicate that Kv3 channels regulate neurotransmitter release from presynaptic terminals at the NMJ.

  12. Growth Factor erv1-like Modulates Drp1 to Preserve Mitochondrial Dynamics and Function in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Lance R.; Damin, Matthew N.; Gomathinayagam, Rohini; Horn, Sarah R.; Means, Anthony R.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship of mitochondrial dynamics and function to pluripotency are rather poorly understood aspects of stem cell biology. Here we show that growth factor erv1-like (Gfer) is involved in preserving mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) mitochondrial morphology and function. Knockdown (KD) of Gfer in ESCs leads to decreased pluripotency marker expression, embryoid body (EB) formation, cell survival, and loss of mitochondrial function. Mitochondria in Gfer-KD ESCs undergo excessive fragmentation and mitophagy, whereas those in ESCs overexpressing Gfer appear elongated. Levels of the mitochondrial fission GTPase dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) are highly elevated in Gfer-KD ESCs and decreased in Gfer-overexpressing cells. Treatment with a specific inhibitor of Drp1 rescues mitochondrial function and apoptosis, whereas expression of Drp1-dominant negative resulted in the restoration of pluripotency marker expression in Gfer-KD ESCs. Altogether, our data reveal a novel prosurvival role for Gfer in maintaining mitochondrial fission–fusion dynamics in pluripotent ESCs. PMID:20147447

  13. Growth factor erv1-like modulates Drp1 to preserve mitochondrial dynamics and function in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Todd, Lance R; Damin, Matthew N; Gomathinayagam, Rohini; Horn, Sarah R; Means, Anthony R; Sankar, Uma

    2010-04-01

    The relationship of mitochondrial dynamics and function to pluripotency are rather poorly understood aspects of stem cell biology. Here we show that growth factor erv1-like (Gfer) is involved in preserving mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) mitochondrial morphology and function. Knockdown (KD) of Gfer in ESCs leads to decreased pluripotency marker expression, embryoid body (EB) formation, cell survival, and loss of mitochondrial function. Mitochondria in Gfer-KD ESCs undergo excessive fragmentation and mitophagy, whereas those in ESCs overexpressing Gfer appear elongated. Levels of the mitochondrial fission GTPase dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) are highly elevated in Gfer-KD ESCs and decreased in Gfer-overexpressing cells. Treatment with a specific inhibitor of Drp1 rescues mitochondrial function and apoptosis, whereas expression of Drp1-dominant negative resulted in the restoration of pluripotency marker expression in Gfer-KD ESCs. Altogether, our data reveal a novel prosurvival role for Gfer in maintaining mitochondrial fission-fusion dynamics in pluripotent ESCs.

  14. Deficiency in the mouse mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator isoform 2 gene is associated with cardiac noncompaction.

    PubMed

    Kokoszka, Jason E; Waymire, Katrina G; Flierl, Adrian; Sweeney, Katelyn M; Angelin, Alessia; MacGregor, Grant R; Wallace, Douglas C

    2016-08-01

    The mouse fetal and adult hearts express two adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) isoform genes. The predominant isoform is the heart-muscle-brain ANT-isoform gene 1 (Ant1) while the other is the systemic Ant2 gene. Genetic inactivation of the Ant1 gene does not impair fetal development but results in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in postnatal mice. Using a knockin X-linked Ant2 allele in which exons 3 and 4 are flanked by loxP sites combined in males with a protamine 1 promoter driven Cre recombinase we created females heterozygous for a null Ant2 allele. Crossing the heterozygous females with the Ant2(fl), PrmCre(+) males resulted in male and female ANT2-null embryos. These fetuses proved to be embryonic lethal by day E14.5 in association with cardiac developmental failure, immature cardiomyocytes having swollen mitochondria, cardiomyocyte hyperproliferation, and cardiac failure due to hypertrabeculation/noncompaction. ANTs have two main functions, mitochondrial-cytosol ATP/ADP exchange and modulation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mtPTP). Previous studies imply that ANT2 biases the mtPTP toward closed while ANT1 biases the mtPTP toward open. It has been reported that immature cardiomyocytes have a constitutively opened mtPTP, the closure of which signals the maturation of cardiomyocytes. Therefore, we hypothesize that the developmental toxicity of the Ant2 null mutation may be the result of biasing the cardiomyocyte mtPTP to remain open thus impairing cardiomyocyte maturation and resulting in cardiomyocyte hyperproliferation and failure of trabecular maturation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy, July 2-6, 2016', edited by Prof. Paolo Bernardi.

  15. Mitochondrial phenotype of marsupial torpor: Fuel metabolic switch in the Chilean mouse-opossum Thylamys elegans.

    PubMed

    Cortés, Pablo Andres; Bacigalupe, Leonardo Daniel; Mondaca, Fredy; Desrosiers, Véronique; Blier, Pierre U

    2016-01-01

    Torpor is a phenotype characterized by a controlled decline of metabolic rate and body temperature. During arousal from torpor, organs undergo rapid metabolic reactivation and rewarming to near normal levels. As torpor progress, animals show a preference for fatty acids over glucose as primary source of energy. Here, we analyzed for first time the changes in the maximal activity of key enzymes related to fatty acid (Carnitine palmitoyltransferase and β-Hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase) and carbohydrate (Pyruvate kinase, Phosphofructokinase and Lactate dehydrogenase) catabolism, as well as mitochondrial oxidative capacity (Citrate synthase), in six organs of torpid, arousing and euthermic Chilean mouse-opossums (Thylamys elegans). Our results showed that activity of enzymes related to fatty acid and carbohydrate catabolism were different among torpor phases and the pattern of variation differs among tissues. In terms of lipid utilization, maximal enzymatic activities differ in tissues with high oxidative capacity such as heart, kidney, and liver. In terms of carbohydrate use, lower enzymatic activities were observed during torpor in brain and liver. Interestingly, citrate synthase activity did not differ thought torpor-arousal cycle in any tissues analyzed, suggesting no modulation of mitochondrial content in T. elegans. Overall results provide an indication that modulation of enzymes associated with carbohydrate and fatty-acid pathways is mainly oriented to limit energy expensive processes and sustain energy metabolism during transition from torpor to euthermy. Future studies are required to elucidate if physiological events observed for T. elegans are unique from other marsupials, or represents a general response in marsupials. J. Exp. Zool. 325A:41-51, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Mitochondrial DNMT3A and DNA methylation in skeletal muscle and CNS of transgenic mouse models of ALS

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Margaret; Gertz, Barry; Chestnut, Barry A.; Martin, Lee J.

    2013-01-01

    Cytosine methylation is an epigenetic modification of DNA catalyzed by DNA methyltransferases. Cytosine methylation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is believed to have relative underrepresentation; however, possible tissue and cell differences in mtDNA methylation and relationships to neurodegenerative disease have not been examined. We show by immunoblotting that DNA methyltransferase 3A (Dnmt3a) isoform is present in pure mitochondria of adult mouse CNS, skeletal muscle, and testes, and adult human cerebral cortex. Dnmt1 was not detected in adult mouse CNS or skeletal muscle mitochondria but appeared bound to the outer mitochondrial membrane. Immunofluorescence confirmed the mitochondrial localization of Dnmt3a and showed 5-methylcytosine (5mC) immunoreactivity in mitochondria of neurons and skeletal muscle myofibers. DNA pyrosequencing of two loci (D-loop and 16S rRNA gene) and twelve cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites in mtDNA directly showed a tissue differential presence of 5mC. Because mitochondria have been implicated in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but the disease mechanisms are uncertain, we evaluated mitochondrial Dnmt3a and 5mC levels in human superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) transgenic mouse models of ALS. Mitochondrial Dnmt3a protein levels were reduced significantly in skeletal muscle and spinal cord at presymptomatic or early disease. Immunofluorescence showed that 5mC immunoreactivity was present in mitochondria of neurons and skeletal myofibers, and 5mC immunoreactivity became aggregated in motor neurons of ALS mice. DNA pyrosequencing revealed significant abnormalities in 16S rRNA gene methylation in ALS mice. Immunofluorescence showed that 5mC immunoreactivity can be sequestered into autophagosomes and that mitophagy was increased and mitochondrial content was decreased in skeletal muscle in ALS mice. This study reveals a tissue-preferential mitochondrial localization of Dnmt3a and presence of cytosine methylation in mt

  17. The mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel 1 in tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Shoshan-Barmatz, Varda; Ben-Hail, Danya; Admoni, Lee; Krelin, Yakov; Tripathi, Shambhoo Sharan

    2015-10-01

    VDAC1 is found at the crossroads of metabolic and survival pathways. VDAC1 controls metabolic cross-talk between mitochondria and the rest of the cell by allowing the influx and efflux of metabolites, ions, nucleotides, Ca2+ and more. The location of VDAC1 at the outer mitochondrial membrane also enables its interaction with proteins that mediate and regulate the integration of mitochondrial functions with cellular activities. As a transporter of metabolites, VDAC1 contributes to the metabolic phenotype of cancer cells. Indeed, this protein is over-expressed in many cancer types, and silencing of VDAC1 expression induces an inhibition of tumor development. At the same time, along with regulating cellular energy production and metabolism, VDAC1 is involved in the process of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis by mediating the release of apoptotic proteins and interacting with anti-apoptotic proteins. The engagement of VDAC1 in the release of apoptotic proteins located in the inter-membranal space involves VDAC1 oligomerization that mediates the release of cytochrome c and AIF to the cytosol, subsequently leading to apoptotic cell death. Apoptosis can also be regulated by VDAC1, serving as an anchor point for mitochondria-interacting proteins, such as hexokinase (HK), Bcl2 and Bcl-xL, some of which are also highly expressed in many cancers. By binding to VDAC1, HK provides both a metabolic benefit and apoptosis-suppressive capacity that offer the cell a proliferative advantage and increase its resistance to chemotherapy. Thus, these and other functions point to VDAC1 as an excellent target for impairing the re-programed metabolism of cancer cells and their ability to evade apoptosis. Here, we review current evidence pointing to the function of VDAC1 in cell life and death, and highlight these functions in relation to both cancer development and therapy. In addressing the recently solved 3D structures of VDAC1, this review will point to structure-function relationships of

  18. UCP2 overexpression worsens mitochondrial dysfunction and accelerates disease progression in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Pablo M; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Sider, Brittany; Starkov, Anatoly; Horvath, Tamas L; Manfredi, Giovanni

    2013-11-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction leading to deficits in energy production, Ca(2+) uptake capacity, and free radical generation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) caused by mutations in Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). Numerous studies link UCP2, a member of the uncoupling protein family, to protection of neurons from mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in various mouse models of acute stress and neurodegeneration, including Parkinson's disease. Here, we tested the potential neuroprotective effects of UCP2 and its ability to modulate mitochondrial function, in the G93A mutant SOD1 mouse model of familial ALS. Disease phenotype, mitochondrial bioenergetics, and Ca(2+) uptake capacity were investigated in the central nervous system of double transgenic mice, expressing both human mutant G93A SOD1 and human UCP2 (hUCP2). Unexpectedly, hUCP2 expression accelerated the disease course of SOD1 mutant mice. In addition, we did not observe a classical uncoupling effect of hUCP2 in G93A brain mitochondria, although we did detect a decrease in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production from mitochondria challenged with the respiratory chain inhibitors rotenone and antimycin A. We also found that mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake capacity was decreased in the double transgenic mice, as compared to G93A mice. In summary, our results indicate that the neuroprotective role of UCP2 in neurodegeneration is disease-specific and that, while a mild uncoupling by UCP2 in brain mitochondria may protect against neurodegeneration in some injury paradigms, the mitochondrial damage and the disease caused by mutant SOD1 cannot be ameliorated by UCP2 overexpression.

  19. Oxidized and Original article degraded mitochondrial polynucleotides (DeMPs), especially RNA, are potent immunogenic regulators in primary mouse macrophages.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Abhinav R; Gao, Linda Y; Srivatsa, Shachi; Bobersky, Elizabeth Z; Periasamy, Sivakumar; Hunt, Danielle T; Altman, Kyle E; Crawford, Dana R

    2017-03-01

    Certain mitochondrial components can act as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) or danger signals, triggering a proinflammatory response in target (usually immune) cells. We previously reported the selective degradation of mitochondrial DNA and RNA in response to cellular oxidative stress, and the immunogenic effect of this DNA in primary mouse astrocytes. Here, we extend these studies to assess the immunogenic role of both mitochondrial DNA and RNA isolated from hydrogen peroxide (HP) treated HA1 cells (designated "DeMPs" for degraded mitochondrial polynucleotides) using mouse bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs), a conventional immune cell type. DeMPs and control mitochondrial DNA (cont mtDNA) and RNA (cont mtRNA) were transfected into BMDMs and cell-free media analyzed for the presence of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, MCP-1, and TNFα) and Type I interferon (IFN-α and IFN-β). Cont mtDNA induced IL-6 and MCP-1 production, and this effect was even greater with DeMP DNA. A similar response was observed for Type I interferons. An even stronger induction of proinflammatory cytokine and type 1 interferons was observed for cont mtRNA. However, contrary to DeMP DNA, DeMP RNA attenuated rather than potentiated the cont mtRNA cytokine inductions. This attenuation effect was not accompanied by an IL-10 or TGFβ anti-inflammatory response. All DeMP effects were observed at multiple oxidant concentrations. Finally, DeMP production and immunogenicity overlaps with cellular adaptive response and so may contribute to cellular oxidant protection. These results provide new insight into the immunogenicity of mitochondrial polynucleotides, and identify new roles and selective consequences of cellular oxidation.

  20. Increased Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Signal Correlates with Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress in an Alzheimer’s Disease Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Du; Zhang, Zhihua; Li, Hang; Yu, Qing; Douglas, Justin T.; Bratasz, Anna; Kuppusamy, Periannan; Yan, Shirley ShiDu

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized clinically by cognitive decline and memory loss. The pathological features are amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles. Many studies have suggested that oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an important mechanism for AD progression. Our recent study demonstrated that oxidative stress could further impair mitochondrial function. In the present study, we adopted a transgenic mouse model of AD (mAPP, overexpressing AβPP/Aβ in neurons) and performed redox measurements using in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) imaging with methoxycarbamyl-proxyl (MCP) as a redox-sensitive probe for studying oxidative stress in an early stage of pathology in a transgenic AD mouse model. Through assessing oxidative stress, mitochondrial function and cognitive behaviors of mAPP mice at the age of 8–9 months, we found that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction appeared in the early onset of AD. Increased ROS levels were associated with defects of mitochondrial and cognitive dysfunction. Notably, the in vivo EPR method offers a unique way of assessing tissue oxidative stress in living animals under noninvasive conditions, and thus holds a potential for early diagnosis and monitoring the progression of AD. PMID:26890765

  1. Retinal ganglion cell responses to voltage and current stimulation in wild-type and rd1 mouse retinas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goo, Yong Sook; Ye, Jang Hee; Lee, Seokyoung; Nam, Yoonkey; Ryu, Sang Baek; Kim, Kyung Hwan

    2011-06-01

    Retinal prostheses are being developed to restore vision for those with retinal diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa or age-related macular degeneration. Since neural prostheses depend upon electrical stimulation to control neural activity, optimal stimulation parameters for successful encoding of visual information are one of the most important requirements to enable visual perception. In this paper, we focused on retinal ganglion cell (RGC) responses to different stimulation parameters and compared threshold charge densities in wild-type and rd1 mice. For this purpose, we used in vitro retinal preparations of wild-type and rd1 mice. When the neural network was stimulated with voltage- and current-controlled pulses, RGCs from both wild-type and rd1 mice responded; however the temporal pattern of RGC response is very different. In wild-type RGCs, a single peak within 100 ms appears, while multiple peaks (approximately four peaks) with ~10 Hz rhythm within 400 ms appear in RGCs in the degenerated retina of rd1 mice. We find that an anodic phase-first biphasic voltage-controlled pulse is more efficient for stimulation than a biphasic current-controlled pulse based on lower threshold charge density. The threshold charge densities for activation of RGCs both with voltage- and current-controlled pulses are overall more elevated for the rd1 mouse than the wild-type mouse. Here, we propose the stimulus range for wild-type and rd1 retinas when the optimal modulation of a RGC response is possible.

  2. Widespread expression of the Supv3L1 mitochondrial RNA helicase in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Erin; Kielbasinski, Marissa; Sedivy, John M.; Murga-Zamalloa, Carlos; Khanna, Hemant; Klysik, Jan E.

    2009-01-01

    Supv3L1 is an evolutionarily conserved helicase that plays a critical role in the mitochondrial RNA surveillance and degradation machinery. Conditional ablation of Supv3L1 in adult mice leads to premature aging phenotypes including loss of muscle mass and adipose tissue and severe skin abnormalities. To get insights into the spatial and temporal expression of Supv3L1 in the mouse, we generated knock-in and transgenic strains in which an EGFP reporter was placed under control of the Supv3L1 native promoter. During development, expression of Supv3L1 begins at the blastocyst stage, becomes widespread and strong in all fetal tissues and cell types, and continues during postnatal growth. In mature animals reporter expression is only slightly diminished in most tissues and continues to be highly expressed in the brain, peripheral sensory organs, and testis. Together, these data confirm that Supv3L1 is an important developmentally regulated gene, which continues to be expressed in all mature tissues, particularly the rapidly proliferating cells of testes, but also in the brain and sensory organs. The transgenic mice and cell lines derived from them constitute a valuable tool for the examination of the spatial and temporal aspects of Supv3L1 promoter activity, and should facilitate future screens for small molecules that regulate Supv3L1 expression. PMID:19937380

  3. Extracellular Mitochondria and Mitochondrial Components Act as Damage-Associated Molecular Pattern Molecules in the Mouse Brain.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Heather M; Koppel, Scott J; Weidling, Ian W; Roy, Nairita; Ryan, Lauren N; Stanford, John A; Swerdlow, Russell H

    2016-12-01

    Mitochondria and mitochondrial debris are found in the brain's extracellular space, and extracellular mitochondrial components can act as damage associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecules. To characterize the effects of potential mitochondrial DAMP molecules on neuroinflammation, we injected either isolated mitochondria or mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) into hippocampi of C57BL/6 mice and seven days later measured markers of inflammation. Brains injected with whole mitochondria showed increased Tnfα and decreased Trem2 mRNA, increased GFAP protein, and increased NFκB phosphorylation. Some of these effects were also observed in brains injected with mtDNA (decreased Trem2 mRNA, increased GFAP protein, and increased NFκB phosphorylation), and mtDNA injection also caused several unique changes including increased CSF1R protein and AKT phosphorylation. To further establish the potential relevance of this response to Alzheimer's disease (AD), a brain disorder characterized by neurodegeneration, mitochondrial dysfunction, and neuroinflammation we also measured App mRNA, APP protein, and Aβ1-42 levels. We found mitochondria (but not mtDNA) injections increased these parameters. Our data show that in the mouse brain extracellular mitochondria and its components can induce neuroinflammation, extracellular mtDNA or mtDNA-associated proteins can contribute to this effect, and mitochondria derived-DAMP molecules can influence AD-associated biomarkers.

  4. Disrupted mitochondrial function in the Opa3L122P mouse model for Costeff Syndrome impairs skeletal integrity

    PubMed Central

    Navein, Alice E.; Cooke, Esther J.; Davies, Jennifer R.; Smith, Terence G.; Wells, Lois H. M.; Ohazama, Atsushi; Healy, Christopher; Sharpe, Paul T.; Evans, Sam L.; Evans, Bronwen A. J.; Votruba, Marcela; Wells, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction connects metabolic disturbance with numerous pathologies, but the significance of mitochondrial activity in bone remains unclear. We have, therefore, characterized the skeletal phenotype in the Opa3L122P mouse model for Costeff syndrome, in which a missense mutation of the mitochondrial membrane protein, Opa3, impairs mitochondrial activity resulting in visual and metabolic dysfunction. Although widely expressed in the developing normal mouse head, Opa3 expression was restricted after E14.5 to the retina, brain, teeth and mandibular bone. Opa3 was also expressed in adult tibiae, including at the trabecular surfaces and in cortical osteocytes, epiphyseal chondrocytes, marrow adipocytes and mesenchymal stem cell rosettes. Opa3L122P mice displayed craniofacial abnormalities, including undergrowth of the lower mandible, accompanied in some individuals by cranial asymmetry and incisor malocclusion. Opa3L122P mice showed an 8-fold elevation in tibial marrow adiposity, due largely to increased adipogenesis. In addition, femoral length and cortical diameter and wall thickness were reduced, the weakening of the calcified tissue and the geometric component of strength reducing overall cortical strength in Opa3L122P mice by 65%. In lumbar vertebrae reduced vertebral body area and wall thickness were accompanied by a proportionate reduction in marrow adiposity. Although the total biomechanical strength of lumbar vertebrae was reduced by 35%, the strength of the calcified tissue (σmax) was proportionate to a 38% increase in trabecular number. Thus, mitochondrial function is important for the development and maintenance of skeletal integrity, impaired bone growth and strength, particularly in limb bones, representing a significant new feature of the Costeff syndrome phenotype. PMID:27106103

  5. Striatal Dysfunctions Associated with Mitochondrial DNA Damage in Dopaminergic Neurons in a Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pickrell, Alicia M.; Pinto, Milena; Hida, Aline; Moraes, Carlos T.

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most common progressive neurodegenerative disorders, characterized by resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability. These symptoms are associated with massive loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) causing an estimated 70–80% depletion of dopamine (DA) in the striatum, where their projections are located. Although the etiology of PD is unknown, mitochondrial dysfunctions have been associated with the disease pathophysiology. We used a mouse model expressing a mitochondria-targeted restriction enzyme, PstI or mito-PstI, to damage mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in dopaminergic neurons. The expression of mito-PstI induces double-strand breaks in the mtDNA, leading to an oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, mostly due to mtDNA depletion. Taking advantage of a dopamine transporter (DAT) promoter-driven tetracycline transactivator protein (tTA), we expressed mito-PstI exclusively in dopaminergic neurons, creating a novel PD transgenic mouse model (PD-mito-PstI mouse). These mice recapitulate most of the major features of PD: they have a motor phenotype that is reversible with l-DOPA treatment, a progressive neurodegeneration of the SN dopaminergic population, and striatal DA depletion. Our results also showed that behavioral phenotypes in PD-mito-PstI mice were associated with striatal dysfunctions preceding SN loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons and that other neurotransmitter systems [noradrenaline (NE) and serotonin (5-HT)] were increased after the disruption of DA neurons, potentially as a compensatory mechanism. This transgenic mouse model provides a novel model to study the role of mitochondrial defects in the axonal projections of the striatum in the pathophysiology of PD. PMID:22131425

  6. Metabolic dysfunction and altered mitochondrial dynamics in the utrophin-dystrophin deficient mouse model of duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Pant, Meghna; Sopariwala, Danesh H; Bal, Naresh C; Lowe, Jeovanna; Delfín, Dawn A; Rafael-Fortney, Jill; Periasamy, Muthu

    2015-01-01

    The utrophin-dystrophin deficient (DKO) mouse model has been widely used to understand the progression of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). However, it is unclear as to what extent muscle pathology affects metabolism. Therefore, the present study was focused on understanding energy expenditure in the whole animal and in isolated extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle and to determine changes in metabolic enzymes. Our results show that the 8 week-old DKO mice consume higher oxygen relative to activity levels. Interestingly the EDL muscle from DKO mouse consumes higher oxygen per unit integral force, generates less force and performs better in the presence of pyruvate thus mimicking a slow twitch muscle. We also found that the expression of hexokinase 1 and pyruvate kinase M2 was upregulated several fold suggesting increased glycolytic flux. Additionally, there is a dramatic increase in dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp 1) and mitofusin 2 protein levels suggesting increased mitochondrial fission and fusion, a feature associated with increased energy demand and altered mitochondrial dynamics. Collectively our studies point out that the dystrophic disease has caused significant changes in muscle metabolism. To meet the increased energetic demand, upregulation of metabolic enzymes and regulators of mitochondrial fusion and fission is observed in the dystrophic muscle. A better understanding of the metabolic demands and the accompanied alterations in the dystrophic muscle can help us design improved intervention therapies along with existing drug treatments for the DMD patients.

  7. Fetal calcium regulates branching morphogenesis in the developing human and mouse lung: involvement of voltage-gated calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Sarah C; Finney, Brenda A; Lazarou, Maria; Rosser, Anne E; Scherf, Caroline; Adriaensen, Dirk; Kemp, Paul J; Riccardi, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Airway branching morphogenesis in utero is essential for optimal postnatal lung function. In the fetus, branching morphogenesis occurs during the pseudoglandular stage (weeks 9-17 of human gestation, embryonic days (E)11.5-16.5 in mouse) in a hypercalcaemic environment (~1.7 in the fetus vs. ~1.1-1.3 mM for an adult). Previously we have shown that fetal hypercalcemia exerts an inhibitory brake on branching morphogenesis via the calcium-sensing receptor. In addition, earlier studies have shown that nifedipine, a selective blocker of L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCC), inhibits fetal lung growth, suggesting a role for VGCC in lung development. The aim of this work was to investigate the expression of VGCC in the pseudoglandular human and mouse lung, and their role in branching morphogenesis. Expression of L-type (CaV1.2 and CaV1.3), P/Q type (CaV2.1), N-type (CaV2.2), R-type (CaV2.3), and T-type (CaV3.2 and CaV3.3) VGCC was investigated in paraffin sections from week 9 human fetal lungs and E12.5 mouse embryos. Here we show, for the first time, that Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 are expressed in both the smooth muscle and epithelium of the developing human and mouse lung. Additionally, Cav2.3 was expressed in the lung epithelium of both species. Incubating E12.5 mouse lung rudiments in the presence of nifedipine doubled the amount of branching, an effect which was partly mimicked by the Cav2.3 inhibitor, SNX-482. Direct measurements of changes in epithelial cell membrane potential, using the voltage-sensitive fluorescent dye DiSBAC2(3), demonstrated that cyclic depolarisations occur within the developing epithelium and coincide with rhythmic occlusions of the lumen, driven by the naturally occurring airway peristalsis. We conclude that VGCC are expressed and functional in the fetal human and mouse lung, where they play a role in branching morphogenesis. Furthermore, rhythmic epithelial depolarisations evoked by airway peristalsis would allow for branching to match

  8. Impaired mitochondrial functions contribute to 3-bromopyruvate toxicity in primary rat and mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Sobotka, Ondřej; Endlicher, René; Drahota, Zdeněk; Kučera, Otto; Rychtrmoc, David; Raad, Marjan; Hakeem, Khurum; Červinková, Zuzana

    2016-08-01

    A compound with promising anticancer properties, 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) is a synthetic derivative of a pyruvate molecule; however, its toxicity in non-malignant cells has not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, we elected to study the effects of 3-BP on primary hepatocytes in monolayer cultures, permeabilized hepatocytes and isolated mitochondria. After a 1-h treatment with 100 μM 3-BP cell viability of rat hepatocytes was decreased by 30 % as measured by the WST-1 test (p < 0.001); after 3-h exposure to ≥200 μM 3-BP lactate dehydrogenase leakage was increased (p < 0.001). Reactive oxygen species production was increased in the cell cultures after a 1-h treatment at concentrations ≥100 μmol/l (p < 0.01), and caspase 3 activity was increased after a 20-h incubation with 150 μM and 200 μM 3-BP (p < 0.001). This toxic effect of 3-BP was also proved using primary mouse hepatocytes. In isolated mitochondria, 3-BP induced a dose- and time-dependent decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential during a 10-min incubation both with Complex I substrates glutamate + malate or Complex II substrate succinate, although this decrease was more pronounced with the latter. We also measured the effect of 3-BP on respiration of isolated mitochondria. ADP-activated respiration was inhibited by 20 μM 3-BP within 10 min. Similar effects were also found in permeabilized hepatocytes of both species.

  9. Methionine sulfoxide reductase A affects β-amyloid solubility and mitochondrial function in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Du, Fang; Bowman, Connor F.; Yan, Shirley S.

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of oxidized proteins, and especially β-amyloid (Aβ), is thought to be one of the common causes of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The current studies determine the effect of an in vivo methionine sulfoxidation of Aβ through ablation of the methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA) in a mouse model of AD, a mouse that overexpresses amyloid precursor protein (APP) and Aβ in neurons. Lack of MsrA fosters the formation of methionine sulfoxide in proteins, and thus its ablation in the AD-mouse model will increase the formation of methionine sulfoxide in Aβ. Indeed, the novel MsrA-deficient APP mice (APP+/MsrAKO) exhibited higher levels of soluble Aβ in brain compared with APP+ mice. Furthermore, mitochondrial respiration and the activity of cytochrome c oxidase were compromised in the APP+/MsrAKO compared with control mice. These results suggest that lower MsrA activity modifies Aβ solubility properties and causes mitochondrial dysfunction, and augmenting its activity may be beneficial in delaying AD progression. PMID:26786779

  10. Mitochondrial calcium uniporter inhibition attenuates mouse bone marrow-derived mast cell degranulation induced by beta-1,3-glucan

    PubMed Central

    Cuong, Dang Van; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Marquez, Jubert; Kim, Nari; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo

    2016-01-01

    Mast cells are primary mediators of allergic inflammation. Beta-1,3-glucan (BG) protects against infection and shock by activating immune cells. Activation of the BG receptor induces an increase in intracellular Ca2+, which may induce exocytosis. However, little is known about the precise mechanisms underlying BG activation of immune cells and the possible role of mitochondria in this process. The present study examined whether BG induced mast cell degranulation, and evaluated the role of calcium transients during mast cell activation. Our investigation focused on the role of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) in BG-induced degranulation. Black mouse (C57) bone marrow-derived mast cells were stimulated with 0.5 µg/ml BG, 100 µg/ml peptidoglycan (PGN), or 10 µM A23187 (calcium ionophore), and dynamic changes in cytosolic and mitochondrial calcium and membrane potential were monitored. BG-induced mast cell degranulation occurred in a time-dependent manner, and was significantly reduced under calcium-free conditions. Ruthenium red, a mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter blocker, significantly reduced mast cell degranulation induced by BG, PGN, and A23187. These results suggest that the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter has an important regulatory role in BG-induced mast cell degranulation. PMID:26937218

  11. Application of capillary isotachophoresis-based multidimensional separations coupled with electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry for characterization of mouse brain mitochondrial proteome

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xueping; Wang, Weijie; Yang, Li; Chandrasekaran, Krish; Kristian, Tibor; Balgley, Brian M.; Lee, Cheng S.

    2017-01-01

    By employing a capillary ITP (CITP)/CZE-based proteomic technology, a total of 1795 distinct mouse Swiss-Prot protein entries (or 1705 nonredundant proteins) are identified from synaptic mitochondria isolated from mouse brain. The ultrahigh resolving power of CITP/CZE is evidenced by the large number of distinct peptide identifications measured from each CITP fraction together with the low peptide fraction overlapping among identified peptides. The degree of peptide overlapping among CITP fractions is even lower than that achieved using combined CIEF/nano-RP LC separations for the analysis of the same mitochondrial sample. When evaluating the protein sequence coverage by the number of distinct peptides mapping to each mitochondrial protein identification, CITP/CZE similarly achieves superior performance with 1041 proteins (58%) having 3 or more distinct peptides, 233 (13%) having 2 distinct peptides, and 521 (29%) having a single distinct peptide. The reproducibility of protein identifications is found to be around 86% by comparing proteins identified from repeated runs of the same mitochondrial sample. The analysis of the mouse mitochondrial proteome by two CITP/CZE runs results in the detection of 2095 distinct mouse Swiss-Prot protein entries (or 1992 nonredundant proteins), corresponding to 59% coverage of the updated Maestro mitochondrial reference set. The collective analysis from combined CITP/CZE and CIEF-based proteomic studies yields the identification of 2191 distinct mitochondrial protein entries (or 2082 nonredundant proteins), corresponding to 76% coverage of the MitoP2-database reference set. PMID:18425750

  12. Expression Profiling of Mitochondrial Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel-1 Associated Genes Predicts Recurrence-Free Survival in Human Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Inja; Zhou, Tong; Bang, Hyoweon

    2014-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs) play a key role in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Both in vivo and in vitro evidences indicate that VDACs are actively involved in tumor progression. Specifically, VDAC-1, one member of the VDAC family, was thought to be a potential anti-cancer therapeutic target. Our previous study demonstrated that the human gene VDAC1 (encoding the VDAC-1 isoform) was significantly up-regulated in lung tumor tissue compared with normal tissue. Also, we found a significant positive correlation between the gene expression of VDAC1 and histological grade in breast cancer. However, the prognostic power of VDAC1 and its associated genes in human cancers is largely unknown. Methods We systematically analyzed the expression pattern of VDAC1 and its interacting genes in breast, colon, liver, lung, pancreatic, and thyroid cancers. The genes differentially expressed between normal and tumor tissues in human carcinomas were identified. Results The expression level of VDAC1 was uniformly up-regulated in tumor tissue compared with normal tissue in breast, colon, liver, lung, pancreatic, and thyroid cancers. Forty-four VDAC1 interacting genes were identified as being commonly differentially expressed between normal and tumor tissues in human carcinomas. We designated VDAC1 and the 44 dysregulated interacting genes as the VDAC1 associated gene signature (VAG). We demonstrate that the VAG signature is a robust prognostic biomarker to predict recurrence-free survival in breast, colon, and lung cancers, and is independent of standard clinical and pathological prognostic factors. Conclusions VAG represents a promising prognostic biomarker in human cancers, which may enhance prediction accuracy in identifying patients at higher risk for recurrence. Future therapies aimed specifically at VDAC1 associated genes may lead to novel agents in the treatment of cancer. PMID:25333947

  13. Osthol is a use-dependent blocker of voltage-gated Na+ channels in mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells.

    PubMed

    Leung, Yuk-Man; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Chao, Chia-Chia; Tsou, Yi-Huan; Chou, Chun-Hsiao; Lin, Chia-Huei; Wong, Kar-Lok

    2010-01-01

    Osthol, a Chinese herbal compound, has been shown to possess vasorelaxant and neuroprotective properties. Not much is known about the effects of osthol on ionic channels, activities of which are implicated in vasorelaxation and neuroprotection. In this work we report that osthol could inhibit voltage-gated Na (+) currents with state-dependence in mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells (IC (50) = 12.3 microM and 31.5 microM at holding potentials of - 70 mV and - 100 mV, respectively). Current blockade was equally effective in both extracellular and intracellular application of osthol. Osthol (18 microM) did not significantly affect the kinetics and voltage-dependence of Na (+) channel activation, but left-shifted the steady-state inactivation curve (V (1/2) = - 60.5 mV and - 78.7 mV in the absence and presence of osthol, respectively). Osthol also mildly but significantly retarded channel recovery from inactivation (recovery time constant = 19.9 ms and 35.6 ms in the absence and presence of osthol, respectively). In addition, osthol blocked Na (+) currents in a frequency-dependent fashion: blockades of 17 %, 34 % and 49 % when currents were triggered at 0.33 Hz, 1 Hz and 3.33 Hz, respectively. Taken together, our results therefore suggest that osthol blocked voltage-gated Na (+) channels intracellularly with state- and frequency-dependence.

  14. IL-15Rα deficiency leads to mitochondrial and myofiber differences in fast mouse muscles.

    PubMed

    Pistilli, Emidio E; Guo, Ge; Stauber, William T

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine mitochondrial changes in fast muscles from interleukin-15 receptor alpha knockout (IL-15RαKO) mice. We tested the hypothesis that fast muscles from IL-15RαKO mice would have a greater mitochondrial density and altered internal structure compared to muscles from control mice. In fast muscles from IL-15RαKO mice, mitochondrial density was 48% greater with a corresponding increase in mitochondrial DNA content. Although there were no differences in the relative size of isolated mitochondria, internal complexity was lower in mitochondria from IL-15RαKO mice. These data support an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis and provide direct evidence for a greater density and altered internal structure of mitochondria in EDL muscles deficient in IL-15Rα.

  15. IL-15Rα deficiency leads to mitochondrial and myofiber differences in fast mouse muscles

    PubMed Central

    Pistilli, Emidio E.; Guo, Ge; Stauber, William T.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine mitochondrial changes in fast muscles from interleukin-15 receptor alpha knockout (IL-15RαKO) mice. We tested the hypothesis that fast muscles from IL-15RαKO mice would have a greater mitochondrial density and altered internal structure compared to muscles from control mice. In fast muscles from IL-15RαKO mice, mitochondrial density was 48% greater with a corresponding increase in mitochondrial DNA content. Although there were no differences in the relative size of isolated mitochondria, internal complexity was lower in mitochondria from IL-15RαKO mice. These data support an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis and provide direct evidence for a greater density and altered internal structure of mitochondria in EDL muscles deficient in IL-15Rα. PMID:23116661

  16. A unique role for Kv3 voltage-gated potassium channels in starburst amacrine cell signaling in mouse retina.

    PubMed

    Ozaita, Ander; Petit-Jacques, Jerome; Völgyi, Béla; Ho, Chi Shun; Joho, Rolf H; Bloomfield, Stewart A; Rudy, Bernardo

    2004-08-18

    Direction-selective retinal ganglion cells show an increased activity evoked by light stimuli moving in the preferred direction. This selectivity is governed by direction-selective inhibition from starburst amacrine cells occurring during stimulus movement in the opposite or null direction. To understand the intrinsic membrane properties of starburst cells responsible for direction-selective GABA release, we performed whole-cell recordings from starburst cells in mouse retina. Voltage-clamp recordings revealed prominent voltage-dependent K(+) currents. The currents were mostly blocked by 1 mm TEA, activated rapidly at voltages more positive than -20 mV, and deactivated quickly, properties reminiscent of the currents carried by the Kv3 subfamily of K+ channels. Immunoblots confirmed the presence of Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 proteins in retina and immunohistochemistry revealed their expression in starburst cell somata and dendrites. The Kv3-like current in starburst cells was absent in Kv3.1-Kv3.2 knock-out mice. Current-clamp recordings showed that the fast activation of the Kv3 channels provides a voltage-dependent shunt that limits depolarization of the soma to potentials more positive than -20 mV. This provides a mechanism likely to contribute to the electrical isolation of individual starburst cell dendrites, a property thought essential for direction selectivity. This function of Kv3 channels differs from that in other neurons where they facilitate high-frequency repetitive firing. Moreover, we found a gradient in the intensity of Kv3.1b immunolabeling favoring proximal regions of starburst cells. We hypothesize that this Kv3 channel gradient contributes to the preference for centrifugal signal flow in dendrites underlying direction-selective GABA release from starburst amacrine cells

  17. Mitochondrial dysfunction in an Opa1Q285STOP mouse model of dominant optic atrophy results from Opa1 haploinsufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kushnareva, Y; Seong, Y; Andreyev, A Y; Kuwana, T; Kiosses, W B; Votruba, M; Newmeyer, D D

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the opa1 (optic atrophy 1) gene lead to autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA), a hereditary eye disease. This gene encodes the Opa1 protein, a mitochondrial dynamin-related GTPase required for mitochondrial fusion and the maintenance of normal crista structure. The majority of opa1 mutations encode truncated forms of the protein, lacking a complete GTPase domain. It is unclear whether the phenotype results from haploinsufficiency or rather a deleterious effect of truncated Opa1 protein. We studied a heterozygous Opa1 mutant mouse carrying a defective allele with a stop codon in the beginning of the GTPase domain at residue 285, a mutation that mimics human pathological mutations. Using an antibody raised against an N-terminal portion of Opa1, we found that the level of wild-type protein was decreased in the mutant mice, as predicted. However, no truncated Opa1 protein was expressed. In embryonic fibroblasts isolated from the mutant mice, this partial loss of Opa1 caused mitochondrial respiratory deficiency and a selective loss of respiratory Complex IV subunits. Furthermore, partial Opa1 deficiency resulted in a substantial resistance to endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced death. On the other hand, the enforced expression of truncated Opa1 protein in cells containing normal levels of wild-type protein did not cause mitochondrial defects. Moreover, cells expressing the truncated Opa1 protein showed reduced Bax activation in response to apoptotic stimuli. Taken together, our results exclude deleterious dominant-negative or gain-of-function mechanisms for this type of Opa1 mutation and affirm haploinsufficiency as the mechanism underlying mitochondrial dysfunction in ADOA. PMID:27468686

  18. α-Synuclein Shows High Affinity Interaction with Voltage-dependent Anion Channel, Suggesting Mechanisms of Mitochondrial Regulation and Toxicity in Parkinson Disease.

    PubMed

    Rostovtseva, Tatiana K; Gurnev, Philip A; Protchenko, Olga; Hoogerheide, David P; Yap, Thai Leong; Philpott, Caroline C; Lee, Jennifer C; Bezrukov, Sergey M

    2015-07-24

    Participation of the small, intrinsically disordered protein α-synuclein (α-syn) in Parkinson disease (PD) pathogenesis has been well documented. Although recent research demonstrates the involvement of α-syn in mitochondrial dysfunction in neurodegeneration and suggests direct interaction of α-syn with mitochondria, the molecular mechanism(s) of α-syn toxicity and its effect on neuronal mitochondria remain vague. Here we report that at nanomolar concentrations, α-syn reversibly blocks the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), the major channel of the mitochondrial outer membrane that controls most of the metabolite fluxes in and out of the mitochondria. Detailed analysis of the blockage kinetics of VDAC reconstituted into planar lipid membranes suggests that α-syn is able to translocate through the channel and thus target complexes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Supporting our in vitro experiments, a yeast model of PD shows that α-syn toxicity in yeast depends on VDAC. The functional interactions between VDAC and α-syn, revealed by the present study, point toward the long sought after physiological and pathophysiological roles for monomeric α-syn in PD and in other α-synucleinopathies.

  19. Direct modulation of the outer mitochondrial membrane channel, voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) by cannabidiol: a novel mechanism for cannabinoid-induced cell death

    PubMed Central

    Rimmerman, N; Ben-Hail, D; Porat, Z; Juknat, A; Kozela, E; Daniels, M P; Connelly, P S; Leishman, E; Bradshaw, H B; Shoshan-Barmatz, V; Vogel, Z

    2013-01-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive plant cannabinoid that inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell death of cancer cells and activated immune cells. It is not an agonist of the classical CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptors and the mechanism by which it functions is unknown. Here, we studied the effects of CBD on various mitochondrial functions in BV-2 microglial cells. Our findings indicate that CBD treatment leads to a biphasic increase in intracellular calcium levels and to changes in mitochondrial function and morphology leading to cell death. Density gradient fractionation analysis by mass spectrometry and western blotting showed colocalization of CBD with protein markers of mitochondria. Single-channel recordings of the outer-mitochondrial membrane protein, the voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) functioning in cell energy, metabolic homeostasis and apoptosis revealed that CBD markedly decreases channel conductance. Finally, using microscale thermophoresis, we showed a direct interaction between purified fluorescently labeled VDAC1 and CBD. Thus, VDAC1 seems to serve as a novel mitochondrial target for CBD. The inhibition of VDAC1 by CBD may be responsible for the immunosuppressive and anticancer effects of CBD. PMID:24309936

  20. Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Decrease in Body Weight of a Transgenic Knock-in Mouse Model for TDP-43*

    PubMed Central

    Stribl, Carola; Samara, Aladin; Trümbach, Dietrich; Peis, Regina; Neumann, Manuela; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Rathkolb, Birgit; Wolf, Eckhard; Beckers, Johannes; Horsch, Marion; Neff, Frauke; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Koob, Sebastian; Reichert, Andreas S.; Hans, Wolfgang; Rozman, Jan; Klingenspor, Martin; Aichler, Michaela; Walch, Axel Karl; Becker, Lore; Klopstock, Thomas; Glasl, Lisa; Hölter, Sabine M.; Wurst, Wolfgang; Floss, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The majority of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases as well as many patients suffering from frontotemporal lobar dementia (FTLD) with ubiquitinated inclusion bodies show TDP-43 pathology, the protein encoded by the TAR DNA-binding protein (Tardbp) gene. We used recombinase-mediated cassette exchange to introduce an ALS patient cDNA into the mouse Tdp-43 locus. Expression levels of human A315T TDP-43 protein were 300% elevated in heterozygotes, whereas the endogenous mouse Tdp-43 was decreased to 20% of wild type levels as a result of disturbed feedback regulation. Heterozygous TDP-43A315TKi mutants lost 10% of their body weight and developed insoluble TDP-43 protein starting as early as 3 months after birth, a pathology that was exacerbated with age. We analyzed the splicing patterns of known Tdp-43 target genes as well as genome-wide gene expression levels in different tissues that indicated mitochondrial dysfunction. In heterozygous mutant animals, we observed a relative decrease in expression of Parkin (Park2) and the fatty acid transporter CD36 along with an increase in fatty acids, HDL cholesterol, and glucose in the blood. As seen in transmission electron microscopy, neuronal cells in motor cortices of TDP-43A315TKi animals had abnormal neuronal mitochondrial cristae formation. Motor neurons were reduced to 90%, but only slight motoric impairment was detected. The observed phenotype was interpreted as a predisease model, which might be valuable for the identification of further environmental or genetic triggers of neurodegeneration. PMID:24515116

  1. Mouse Tmem135 mutation reveals a mechanism involving mitochondrial dynamics that leads to age-dependent retinal pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wei-Hua; Higuchi, Hitoshi; Ikeda, Sakae; Macke, Erica L; Takimoto, Tetsuya; Pattnaik, Bikash R; Liu, Che; Chu, Li-Fang; Siepka, Sandra M; Krentz, Kathleen J; Rubinstein, C Dustin; Kalejta, Robert F; Thomson, James A; Mullins, Robert F; Takahashi, Joseph S; Pinto, Lawrence H; Ikeda, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    While the aging process is central to the pathogenesis of age-dependent diseases, it is poorly understood at the molecular level. We identified a mouse mutant with accelerated aging in the retina as well as pathologies observed in age-dependent retinal diseases, suggesting that the responsible gene regulates retinal aging, and its impairment results in age-dependent disease. We determined that a mutation in the transmembrane 135 (Tmem135) is responsible for these phenotypes. We observed localization of TMEM135 on mitochondria, and imbalance of mitochondrial fission and fusion in mutant Tmem135 as well as Tmem135 overexpressing cells, indicating that TMEM135 is involved in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics. Additionally, mutant retina showed higher sensitivity to oxidative stress. These results suggest that the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics through TMEM135 is critical for protection from environmental stress and controlling the progression of retinal aging. Our study identified TMEM135 as a critical link between aging and age-dependent diseases. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19264.001 PMID:27863209

  2. Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore Component Cyclophilin D Distinguishes Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic Death Paradigms in the MPTP Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Rebecca; Starkova, Natalia N.; Zhang, Steven F.; Calingasan, Noel Y.; Yang, Lichuan; Wille, Elizabeth; Lorenzo, Beverly J.; Ho, Daniel J.; Beal, M. Flint

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Mitochondrial damage due to Ca2+ overload-induced opening of permeability transition pores (PTP) is believed to play a role in selective degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Genetic ablation of mitochondrial matrix protein cyclophilin D (CYPD) has been shown to increase Ca2+ threshold of PTP in vitro and to prevent cell death in several in vivo disease models. We investigated the role of CYPD in a mouse model of MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine)-induced PD. Results: We demonstrate that in vitro, brain mitochondria isolated from CYPD knockout mice were less sensitive to MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium ion)-induced membrane depolarization, and free radical generation compared to wild-type mice. CYPD knockout mitochondria isolated from ventral midbrain of mice treated with MPTP in vivo exhibited less damage as judged from respiratory chain Complex I activity, State 3 respiration rate, and respiratory control index than wild-type mice, whereas assessment of apoptotic markers showed no differences between the two genotypes. However, CYPD knockout mice were significantly resistant only to an acute regimen of MPTP neurotoxicity in contrast to the subacute and chronic MPTP paradigms. Innovation: Inactivation of CYPD is beneficial in preserving mitochondrial functions only in an acute insult model of MPTP-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Conclusion: Our results suggest that CYPD deficiency distinguishes the modes of dopaminergic neurodegeneration in various regimens of MPTP-neurotoxicity. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 16, 855–868. PMID:21529244

  3. Voltage-activated Calcium Currents in Octopus Cells of the Mouse Cochlear Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Bal, Ramazan

    2007-01-01

    Octopus cells, neurons in the most posterior and dorsal part of the mammalian ventral cochlear nucleus, convey the timing of synchronous firing of auditory nerve fibers to targets in the contralateral superior paraolivary nucleus and ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus. The low input resistances and short time constants at rest that arise from the partial activation of a large, low-voltage-activated K+ conductance (gKL) and a large mixed-cation, hyperpolarization-activated conductance (gh) enable octopus cells to detect coincident firing of auditory nerve fibers with exceptional temporal precision. Octopus cells fire conventional, Na+ action potentials but a voltage-sensitive Ca2+ conductance was also detected. In this study, we explore the nature of that calcium conductance under voltage-clamp. Currents, carried by Ca2+ or Ba2+ and blocked by 0.4 mM Cd2+, were activated by depolarizations positive to −50 mV and peaked at −23 mV. At −23 mV they reached 1.1 ± 0.1 nA in the presence of 5 mM Ca2+ and 1.6 ± 0.1 nA in 5 mM Ba2+. Ten micromolar BAY K 8644, an agonist of high-voltage-activated L-type channels, enhanced IBa by 63 ± 11% (n = 8) and 150 μM nifedipine, an antagonist of L-type channels, reduced the IBa by 65 ± 5% (n = 5). Meanwhile, 0.5 μM ω-Agatoxin IVA, an antagonist of P/Q-type channels, or 1 μM ω-conotoxin GVIA, an antagonist of N-type channels, suppressed IBa by 15 ± 4% (n = 5) and 9 ± 4% (n = 5), respectively. On average 16% of the current remained in the presence of the cocktail of blockers, indicative of the presence of R-type channels. Together these experiments show that octopus cells have a depolarization-sensitive gCa that is largely formed from L-type Ca2+ channels and that P/Q-, N-, and R-type channels are expressed at lower levels in octopus cells. PMID:17710492

  4. Mitochondrial free radical overproduction due to respiratory chain impairment in the brain of a mouse model of Rett syndrome: protective effect of CNF1.

    PubMed

    De Filippis, Bianca; Valenti, Daniela; de Bari, Lidia; De Rasmo, Domenico; Musto, Mattia; Fabbri, Alessia; Ricceri, Laura; Fiorentini, Carla; Laviola, Giovanni; Vacca, Rosa Anna

    2015-06-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder mainly caused by mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene associated with severe intellectual disability, movement disorders, and autistic-like behaviors. Its pathogenesis remains mostly not understood and no effective therapy is available. High circulating levels of oxidative stress markers in patients and the occurrence of oxidative brain damage in MeCP2-deficient mouse models suggest the involvement of oxidative stress in RTT pathogenesis. However, the molecular mechanism and the origin of the oxidative stress have not been elucidated. Here we demonstrate that a redox imbalance arises from aberrant mitochondrial functionality in the brain of MeCP2-308 heterozygous female mice, a condition that more closely recapitulates that of RTT patients. The marked increase in the rate of hydrogen peroxide generation in the brain of RTT mice seems mainly produced by the dysfunctional complex II of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. In addition, both membrane potential generation and mitochondrial ATP synthesis are decreased in RTT mouse brains when succinate, the complex II respiratory substrate, is used as an energy source. Respiratory chain impairment is brain area specific, owing to a decrease in either cAMP-dependent phosphorylation or protein levels of specific complex subunits. Further, we investigated whether the treatment of RTT mice with the bacterial protein CNF1, previously reported to ameliorate the neurobehavioral phenotype and brain bioenergetic markers in an RTT mouse model, exerts specific effects on brain mitochondrial function and consequently on hydrogen peroxide production. In RTT brains treated with CNF1, we observed the reactivation of respiratory chain complexes, the rescue of mitochondrial functionality, and the prevention of brain hydrogen peroxide overproduction. These results provide definitive evidence of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species overproduction in RTT mouse brain and

  5. Rosiglitazone causes cardiotoxicity via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-independent mitochondrial oxidative stress in mouse hearts.

    PubMed

    He, Huamei; Tao, Hai; Xiong, Hui; Duan, Sheng Zhong; McGowan, Francis X; Mortensen, Richard M; Balschi, James A

    2014-04-01

    This study aims to test the hypothesis that thiazolidinedione rosiglitazone (RSG), a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonist, causes cardiotoxicity independently of PPARγ. Energy metabolism and mitochondrial function were measured in perfused hearts isolated from C57BL/6, cardiomyocyte-specific PPARγ-deficient mice, and their littermates. Cardiac function and mitochondrial oxidative stress were measured in both in vitro and in vivo settings. Treatment of isolated hearts with RSG at the supratherapeutic concentrations of 10 and 30 μM caused myocardial energy deficiency as evidenced by the decreases in [PCr], [ATP], ATP/ADP ratio, energy charge with a concomitant cardiac dysfunction as indicated by the decreases in left ventricular systolic pressure, rates of tension development and relaxation, and by an increase in end-diastolic pressure. When incubated with tissue homogenate or isolated mitochondria at these same concentrations, RSG caused mitochondrial dysfunction as evidenced by the decreases in respiration rate, substrate oxidation rates, and activities of complexes I and IV. RSG also increased complexes I- and III-dependent O₂⁻ production, decreased glutathione content, inhibited superoxide dismutase, and increased the levels of malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine in mitochondria, consistent with oxidative stress. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) 20 mM prevented RSG-induced above toxicity at those in vitro settings. Cardiomyocyte-specific PPARγ deletion and PPARγ antagonist GW9662 did not prevent the observed cardiotoxicity. Intravenous injection of 10 mg/kg RSG also caused cardiac dysfunction and oxidative stress, 600 mg/kg NAC antagonized these adverse effects. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that RSG at supratherapeutic concentrations causes cardiotoxicity via a PPARγ-independent mechanism involving oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in mouse hearts.

  6. Oestrogen regulates mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme transcription in the mouse spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Johann, S; Dahm, M; Kipp, M; Beyer, C; Arnold, S

    2010-08-01

    The regulation of mitochondrial energy metabolism is not only important for normal functioning of neurones, but also appears to be essential during acute damage and neurodegeneration in the central nervous system. This makes mitochondria an interesting regulatory target for therapeutic approaches. Oestrogen is well-recognised as a protective hormone in the central nervous system under pathological threats. In the present study, we analysed the influence of oestrogen on the expression of mitochondria-encoded genes and mitochondrial activity in spinal cord cells both in vitro and vivo. Hormone application increased the transcription of mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes (MRCE). This effect was observed in cultured spinal cord neurones, where it was inhibited by a nuclear oestrogen receptor (ER) antagonist and mainly mediated by the activation of ERbeta. No effect of oestrogen was observed in cultured spinal cord astroglia. In addition, the mitochondrial transcription factor A and nuclear respiratory factor 1 were up-regulated by oestrogen in a similar way as MRCE in vitro, and ATP levels were elevated after the application of the specific ERbeta agonist 2,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile in cultured spinal cord nerve cells. The exposure of young male mice to oestrogen yielded increased levels of MRCE transcripts in the spinal cord. These data clearly show that systemic application of oestrogen stimulates MRCE expression in the spinal cord and predominantly in neurones. Further studies are required to demonstrate the potency of oestrogen to counteract pathological damage by stabilising mitochondrial performance.

  7. Mechanisms of stress resistance in Snell dwarf mouse fibroblasts: enhanced antioxidant and DNA base excision repair capacity, but no differences in mitochondrial metabolism.

    PubMed

    Page, Melissa M; Salmon, Adam B; Leiser, Scott F; Robb, Ellen L; Brown, Melanie F; Miller, Richard A; Stuart, Jeffrey A

    2009-04-15

    Dermal fibroblasts from long-lived Snell dwarf mice can withstand a variety of oxidative and non-oxidative stressors compared to normal littermate controls. Here, we report differences in the levels and activities of intracellular antioxidant and DNA repair enzymes between normal and Snell dwarf mice fibroblasts cultured under a variety of conditions, including: 3% and 20% ambient O(2); the presence and absence of serum; and the addition of an exogenous oxidative stress. The only significant difference between normal and dwarf cells cultured in complete medium, at 20% O(2), was an approximately 40% elevation of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in the mutant cells. Serum deprivation elicited increases in GPx in both genotypes, but these activities remained higher in dwarf mouse cells. Dwarf mouse cells deprived of serum and challenged with exposure to paraquat or hydrogen peroxide showed a generally greater upregulation of catalase and DNA base excision repair enzymes. As these toxins can interact with mitochondria to increase mitochondrial ROS production, we explored whether there were differences in mitochondrial metabolism between normal and dwarf mouse cells. However, neither mitochondrial content nor the apparent mitochondrial membrane potential differed between genotypes. Overall, the results suggest that superior hydrogen peroxide metabolism and a marginally greater DNA base excision repair capacity contribute to the stress resistance phenotype of Snell dwarf mouse fibroblasts.

  8. Screen for abnormal mitochondrial phenotypes in mouse embryonic stem cells identifies a model for succinyl-CoA ligase deficiency and mtDNA depletion

    PubMed Central

    Donti, Taraka R.; Stromberger, Carmen; Ge, Ming; Eldin, Karen W.; Craigen, William J.; Graham, Brett H.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mutations in subunits of succinyl-CoA synthetase/ligase (SCS), a component of the citric acid cycle, are associated with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, elevation of methylmalonic acid (MMA), and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion. A FACS-based retroviral-mediated gene trap mutagenesis screen in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells for abnormal mitochondrial phenotypes identified a gene trap allele of Sucla2 (Sucla2SAβgeo), which was used to generate transgenic mice. Sucla2 encodes the ADP-specific β-subunit isoform of SCS. Sucla2SAβgeo homozygotes exhibited recessive lethality, with most mutants dying late in gestation (e18.5). Mutant placenta and embryonic (e17.5) brain, heart and muscle showed varying degrees of mtDNA depletion (20–60%). However, there was no mtDNA depletion in mutant liver, where the gene is not normally expressed. Elevated levels of MMA were observed in embryonic brain. SCS-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) demonstrated a 50% reduction in mtDNA content compared with wild-type MEFs. The mtDNA depletion resulted in reduced steady state levels of mtDNA encoded proteins and multiple respiratory chain deficiencies. mtDNA content could be restored by reintroduction of Sucla2. This mouse model of SCS deficiency and mtDNA depletion promises to provide insights into the pathogenesis of mitochondrial diseases with mtDNA depletion and into the biology of mtDNA maintenance. In addition, this report demonstrates the power of a genetic screen that combines gene trap mutagenesis and FACS analysis in mouse ES cells to identify mitochondrial phenotypes and to develop animal models of mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:24271779

  9. Mitochondrial Toxicity of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lei-Lei; Wang, Jia-Dan; Xu, Ting-Ting; Zhao, Zhe; Zheng, Jia-Jie; Ge, Ren-Shan; Zhu, Dan-Yan

    2017-03-10

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent organic contaminant that may cause cardiotoxicity in animals and humans. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism by which it affects the organelle toxicity in cardiomyocytes during the cardiogenesis. Our previous proteomic study showed that differences of protein expression mainly existed in mitochondria of cardiomyocytes differentiated from embryonic stem (ES) cells after exposure to PFOS. Here, we focused on mitochondrial toxicity of PFOS in ES cell-derived cardiomyocytes. The cardiomyogenesis from ES cells in vitro was inhibited, and the expression of L-type Ca(2+) channel (LTCC) was decreased to interrupt [Ca(2+)]c transient amplitude in cardiomyocytes after PFOS treatment. Transmission electron microscope revealed that swollen mitochondrion with vacuole in PFOS-treated cells. Meanwhile, mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔYm) was declined and ATP production was lowered. These changes were related to the increased EGFR phosphorylation, activated Rictor signaling, then mediated HK2 binding to mitochondrial membrane. Furthermore, PFOS reduced the interaction of IP3R-Grp75-VDAC and accumulated intracellular fatty acids by activating Rictor, thereby attenuating PGC-1a and Mfn2 expressions, then destroying mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membrane (MAM), which resulted in the decrease of [Ca(2+)]mito transient amplitude triggered by ATP. In conclusion, mitochondrial structure damages and abnormal Ca(2+) shuttle were the important aspects in PFOS-induced cardiomyocytes toxicity from ES cells by activating Rictor signaling pathway.

  10. Analysis of tumor metabolism reveals mitochondrial glucose oxidation in genetically diverse, human glioblastomas in the mouse brain in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Marin-Valencia, Isaac; Yang, Chendong; Mashimo, Tomoyuki; Cho, Steve; Baek, Hyeonman; Yang, Xiao-Li; Rajagopalan, Kartik N.; Maddie, Melissa; Vemireddy, Vamsidhara; Zhao, Zhenze; Cai, Ling; Good, Levi; Tu, Benjamin P.; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J.; Mickey, Bruce E.; Matés, José M.; Pascual, Juan M.; Maher, Elizabeth A.; Malloy, Craig R.; DeBerardinis, Ralph J.; Bachoo, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Dysregulated metabolism is a hallmark of cancer cell lines, but little is known about the fate of glucose and other nutrients in tumors growing in their native microenvironment. To study tumor metabolism in vivo, we used an orthotopic mouse model of primary human glioblastoma (GBM). We infused 13C-labeled nutrients into mice bearing three independent GBM lines, each with a distinct set of mutations. All three lines displayed glycolysis, as expected for aggressive tumors. They also displayed unexpected metabolic complexity, oxidizing glucose via pyruvate dehydrogenase and the citric acid cycle, and using glucose to supply anaplerosis and other biosynthetic activities. Comparing the tumors to surrounding brain revealed obvious metabolic differences, notably the accumulation of a large glutamine pool within the tumors. Many of these same activities were conserved in cells cultured ex vivo from the tumors. Thus GBM cells utilize mitochondrial glucose oxidation during aggressive tumor growth in vivo. PMID:22682223

  11. Two deeply divergent mitochondrial clades in the wild mouse Mus macedonicus reveal multiple glacial refuges south of Caucasus.

    PubMed

    Orth, A; Auffray, J-C; Bonhomme, F

    2002-11-01

    A survey of 77 individuals covering the range of Mus macedonicus from Georgia in the East to Greece and Bulgaria in the West and Israel in the South has shown the existence of two deeply divergent mitochondrial clades. The southern clade was until now undetected and characterises mice from Israel. Nuclear genes also show some amount of regional differentiation tending to separate the southern M. macedonicus from the northern ones. These results point towards the fact that the eastern Mediterranean short-tailed mouse, which was seen as a fairly homogeneous monotypic species, has in fact a more complex phylogeographic history than has been suspected, and that it warrants the existence of two subspecies. The reasons for this non-uniformity probably ought to be looked for in the history of faunal movements linked to glacial periods, underlining the possible existence of at least two refugia south of the Caucasus.

  12. Acetylcholine induces voltage-independent increase of cytosolic calcium in mouse myotubes.

    PubMed Central

    Giovannelli, A; Grassi, F; Mattei, E; Mileo, A M; Eusebi, F; Giovanelli, A

    1991-01-01

    Electrophysiological, biochemical, and Ca2+ imaging studies of cultured mouse myotubes were used to investigate whether the neurotransmitter acetylcholine causes an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) through activation of a second messenger system. Bath applications of acetylcholine to myotubes (i) elicited a significant membrane current even in a Na(+)-free Ca2+ medium, when the current was carried mainly by calcium ions; (ii) caused a rapid and transient cytosolic accumulation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate; (iii) evoked a conspicuous alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive long-lasting [Ca2+]i enhancement even in the presence of Cd2+; and (iv) transiently increased [Ca2+]i when cells were equilibrated in a Ca(2+)-free atropine-containing medium. We propose that, in addition to opening ion channels, the nicotinic action of acetylcholine on the muscle cell membrane increases [Ca2+]i through activation of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate second messenger system and mobilization of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Images PMID:1946425

  13. Mitochondrial Abnormalities and Synaptic Loss Underlie Memory Deficits Seen in Mouse Models of Obesity and Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Isaura V.A.; Rivers-Auty, Jack; Allan, Stuart M.; Lawrence, Catherine B.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is associated with impaired memory in humans, and obesity induced by high-fat diets leads to cognitive deficits in rodents and in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, it remains unclear how high-fat diets contribute to memory impairment. Therefore, we tested the effect of a high-fat diet on memory in male and female control non-transgenic (Non-Tg) and triple-transgenic AD (3xTgAD) mice and determined if a high-fat diet caused similar ultrastructural abnormalities to those observed in AD. Behavior was assessed in mice on control or high-fat diet at 4, 8, or 14 months of age and ultrastructural analysis at 8 months of age. A high-fat diet increased body weight, fat weight, and insulin levels with some differences in these metabolic responses observed between Non-Tg and 3xTgAD mice. In both sexes, high-fat feeding caused memory impairments in Non-Tg mice and accelerated memory deficits in 3xTgAD mice. In 3xTgAD mice, changes in hippocampal mitochondrial morphology were observed in capillaries and brain neuropil that were accompanied by a reduction in synapse number. A high-fat diet also caused mitochondria abnormalities and a reduction in synapse number in Non-Tg mice, but did not exacerbate the changes seen in 3xTgAD mice. Our data demonstrate that a high-fat diet affected memory in Non-Tg mice and produced similar impairments in mitochondrial morphology and synapse number comparable to those seen in AD mice, suggesting that the detrimental effects of a high-fat diet on memory might be due to changes in mitochondrial morphology leading to a reduction in synaptic number. PMID:27802235

  14. Lysosomal iron mobilization and induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition in acetaminophen-induced toxicity to mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kon, Kazuyoshi; Kim, Jae-Sung; Uchiyama, Akira; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Lemasters, John J

    2010-09-01

    Acetaminophen induces the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) in hepatocytes. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) trigger the MPT and play an important role in AAP-induced hepatocellular injury. Because iron is a catalyst for ROS formation, our aim was to investigate the role of chelatable iron in MPT-dependent acetaminophen toxicity to mouse hepatocytes. Hepatocytes were isolated from fasted male C3Heb/FeJ mice. Necrotic cell killing was determined by propidium iodide fluorometry. Mitochondrial membrane potential was visualized by confocal microscopy of tetramethylrhodamine methylester. Chelatable ferrous ion was monitored by calcein quenching, and 70 kDa rhodamine-dextran was used to visualize lysosomes. Cell killing after acetaminophen (10mM) was delayed and decreased by more than half after 6 h by 1mM desferal or 1mM starch-desferal. In a cell-free system, ferrous but not ferric iron quenched calcein fluorescence, an effect reversed by dipyridyl, a membrane-permeable iron chelator. In hepatocytes loaded with calcein, intracellular calcein fluorescence decreased progressively beginning about 4 h after acetaminophen. Mitochondria then depolarized after about 6 h. Dipyridyl (20mM) dequenched calcein fluorescence. Desferal and starch-desferal conjugate prevented acetaminophen-induced calcein quenching and mitochondrial depolarization. As calcein fluorescence became quenched, lysosomes disappeared, consistent with release of iron from ruptured lysosomes. In conclusion, an increase of cytosolic chelatable ferrous iron occurs during acetaminophen hepatotoxicity, which triggers the MPT and cell killing. Disrupted lysosomes are the likely source of iron, and chelation of this iron decreases acetaminophen toxicity to hepatocytes.

  15. Effects of Oxidative Alcohol Metabolism on the Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore and Necrosis in a Mouse Model of Alcoholic Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    SHALBUEVA, NATALIA; MARENINOVA, OLGA A.; GERLOFF, ANDREAS; YUAN, JINGZHEN; WALDRON, RICHARD T.; PANDOL, STEPHEN J.; GUKOVSKAYA, ANNA S.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) causes loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and, ultimately, adenosine triphosphate depletion and necrosis. Cells deficient in cyclophilin D (CypD), a component of the MPTP, are resistant to MPTP opening, loss of ΔΨm, and necrosis. Alcohol abuse is a major risk factor for pancreatitis and is believed to sensitize the pancreas to stressors, by poorly understood mechanisms. We investigated the effects of ethanol on the pancreatic MPTP, the mechanisms of these effects, and their role in pancreatitis. METHODS We measured ΔΨm in mouse pancreatic acinar cells incubated with ethanol alone and in combination with physiologic and pathologic concentrations of cholecystokinin-8 (CCK). To examine the role of MPTP, we used ex vivo and in vivo models of pancreatitis, induced in wild-type and CypD−/− mice by a combination of ethanol and CCK. RESULTS Ethanol reduced basal ΔΨm and converted a transient depolarization, induced by physiologic concentrations of CCK, into a sustained decrease in ΔΨm, resulting in reduced cellular adenosine triphosphate and increased necrosis. The effects of ethanol and CCK were mediated by MPTP because they were not observed in CypD−/− acinar cells. Ethanol and CCK activated MPTP through different mechanisms— ethanol by reducing the ratio of oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide to reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, as a result of oxidative metabolism, and CCK by increasing cytosolic Ca2+. CypD−/− mice developed a less-severe form of pancreatitis after administration of ethanol and CCK. CONCLUSIONS Oxidative metabolism of ethanol sensitizes pancreatic mitochondria to activate MPTP, leading to mitochondrial failure; this makes the pancreas susceptible to necrotizing pancreatitis. PMID:23103769

  16. Transcranial laser therapy alters amyloid precursor protein processing and improves mitochondrial function in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Thomas; Yu, Jin; El-Amouri, Salim; Gattoni-Celli, Sebastiano; Richieri, Steve; De Taboada, Luis; Streeter, Jackson; Kindy, Mark S.

    2011-03-01

    Transcranial laser therapy (TLT) using a near-infrared energy laser system was tested in the 2x Tg amyloid precursor protein (APP) mouse model of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). TLT was administered 3 times/week at escalating doses, starting at 3 months of age, and was compared to a control group which received no laser treatment. Treatment sessions were continued for a total of six months. The brains were examined for amyloid plaque burden, Aβ peptides (Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 ), APP cleavage products (sAPPα, CTFβ) and mitochondrial activity. Administration of TLT was associated with a significant, dose-dependent reduction in amyloid load as indicated by the numbers of Aβ plaques. Levels of Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 levels were likewise reduced in a dose-dependent fashion. All TLT doses produced an increase in brain sAPPα and a decrease in CTFβ levels consistent with an increase in α-secretase activity and a decrease in β-secretase activity. In addition, TLT increased ATP levels and oxygen utilization in treated animals suggesting improved mitochondrial function. These studies suggest that TLT is a potential candidate for treatment of AD.

  17. Metabolic depression during warm torpor in the Golden spiny mouse (Acomys russatus) does not affect mitochondrial respiration and hydrogen peroxide release.

    PubMed

    Grimpo, Kirsten; Kutschke, Maria; Kastl, Anja; Meyer, Carola W; Heldmaier, Gerhard; Exner, Cornelia; Jastroch, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Small mammals actively decrease metabolism during daily torpor and hibernation to save energy. Recently, depression of mitochondrial substrate oxidation in isolated liver mitochondria was observed and associated to hypothermic/hypometabolic states in Djungarian hamsters, mice and hibernators. We aimed to clarify whether hypothermia or hypometabolism causes mitochondrial depression during torpor by studying the Golden spiny mouse (Acomys russatus), a desert rodent which performs daily torpor at high ambient temperatures of 32°C. Notably, metabolic rate but not body temperature is significantly decreased under these conditions. In isolated liver, heart, skeletal muscle or kidney mitochondria we found no depression of respiration. Moderate cold exposure lowered torpor body temperature but had minor effects on minimal metabolic rate in torpor. Neither decreased body temperature nor metabolic rate impacted mitochondrial respiration. Measurements of mitochondrial proton leak kinetics and determination of P/O ratio revealed no differences in mitochondrial efficiency. Hydrogen peroxide release from mitochondria was not affected. We conclude that interspecies differences of mitochondrial depression during torpor do not support a general relationship between mitochondrial respiration, body temperature and metabolic rate. In Golden spiny mice, reduction of metabolic rate at mild temperatures is not triggered by depression of substrate oxidation as found in liver mitochondria from other cold-exposed rodents.

  18. Mitochondrial alterations and oxidative stress in an acute transient mouse model of muscle degeneration: implications for muscular dystrophy and related muscle pathologies.

    PubMed

    Ramadasan-Nair, Renjini; Gayathri, Narayanappa; Mishra, Sudha; Sunitha, Balaraju; Mythri, Rajeswara Babu; Nalini, Atchayaram; Subbannayya, Yashwanth; Harsha, Hindalahalli Chandregowda; Kolthur-Seetharam, Ullas; Srinivas Bharath, Muchukunte Mukunda

    2014-01-03

    Muscular dystrophies (MDs) and inflammatory myopathies (IMs) are debilitating skeletal muscle disorders characterized by common pathological events including myodegeneration and inflammation. However, an experimental model representing both muscle pathologies and displaying most of the distinctive markers has not been characterized. We investigated the cardiotoxin (CTX)-mediated transient acute mouse model of muscle degeneration and compared the cardinal features with human MDs and IMs. The CTX model displayed degeneration, apoptosis, inflammation, loss of sarcolemmal complexes, sarcolemmal disruption, and ultrastructural changes characteristic of human MDs and IMs. Cell death caused by CTX involved calcium influx and mitochondrial damage both in murine C2C12 muscle cells and in mice. Mitochondrial proteomic analysis at the initial phase of degeneration in the model detected lowered expression of 80 mitochondrial proteins including subunits of respiratory complexes, ATP machinery, fatty acid metabolism, and Krebs cycle, which further decreased in expression during the peak degenerative phase. The mass spectrometry (MS) data were supported by enzyme assays, Western blot, and histochemistry. The CTX model also displayed markers of oxidative stress and a lowered glutathione reduced/oxidized ratio (GSH/GSSG) similar to MDs, human myopathies, and neurogenic atrophies. MS analysis identified 6 unique oxidized proteins from Duchenne muscular dystrophy samples (n = 6) (versus controls; n = 6), including two mitochondrial proteins. Interestingly, these mitochondrial proteins were down-regulated in the CTX model thereby linking oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. We conclude that mitochondrial alterations and oxidative damage significantly contribute to CTX-mediated muscle pathology with implications for human muscle diseases.

  19. Hypoxic increase in nitric oxide generation of rat sensory neurons requires activation of mitochondrial complex II and voltage-gated calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Henrich, M; Paddenberg, R; Haberberger, R V; Scholz, A; Gruss, M; Hempelmann, G; Kummer, W

    2004-01-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated that sensory neurons of rat lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG) respond to hypoxia with an activation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) resulting in enhanced NO production associated with mitochondria which contributes to resistance against hypoxia. Extracellular calcium is essential to this effect. In the present study on rat DRG slices, we set out to determine what types of calcium channels operate under hypoxia, and which upstream events contribute to their activation, thereby focusing upon mitochondrial complex II. Both the metallic ions Cd2+ and Ni2+, known to inhibit voltage-gated calcium channels and T-type channels, respectively, and verapamil and nifedipine, typical blocker of L-type calcium channels completely prevented the hypoxic neuronal NO generation. Inhibition of complex II by thenoyltrifluoroacetone at the ubiquinon binding site or by 3-nitropropionic acid at the substrate binding site largely diminished hypoxic-induced NO production while having an opposite effect under normoxia. An additional blockade of voltage-gated calcium channels entirely abolished the hypoxic response. The complex II inhibitor malonate inhibited both normoxic and hypoxic NO generation. These data show that complex II activity is required for increased hypoxic NO production. Since succinate dehydrogenase activity of complex II decreased at hypoxia, as measured by histochemistry and densitometry, we propose a hypoxia-induced functional switch of complex II from succinate dehydrogenase to fumarate reductase, which subsequently leads to activation of voltage-gated calcium channels resulting in increased NO production by eNOS.

  20. Novel remodeling of the mouse heart mitochondrial proteome in response to acute insulin stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Brian A; Yazdi, Puya G; Taylor, Jared F; Khattab, Omar S; Chen, Yu-Han; Chen, Yumay; Wang, Ping H

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the pathophysiology of diabetic cardiomyopathy. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute changes in the mitochondrial proteome in response to insulin stimulation. Cardiac mitochondria from C57BL/6 mice after insulin stimulation were analyzed using two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis. MALDI-TOF MS/MS was utilized to identify differences. Two enzymes involved in metabolism and four structural proteins were identified. Succinyl-CoA ligase [ADP forming] subunit beta was identified as one of the differentially regulated proteins. Upon insulin stimulation, a relatively more acidic isoform of this protein was increased by 53% and its functional activity was decreased by ∼32%. This proteomic remodeling in response to insulin stimulation may play an important role in the normal and diabetic heart. PMID:26610654

  1. Magnesium regulates neural stem cell proliferation in the mouse hippocampus by altering mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Jia, Shanshan; Mou, Chengzhi; Ma, Yihe; Han, Ruijie; Li, Xue

    2016-04-01

    In the adult brain, neural stem cells from the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the cortex progress through the following five developmental stages: radial glia-like cells, neural progenitor cells, neuroblasts, immature neurons, and mature neurons. These developmental stages are linked to both neuronal microenvironments and energy metabolism. Neurogenesis is restricted and has been demonstrated to arise from tissue microenvironments. We determined that magnesium, a key nutrient in cellular energy metabolism, affects neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation in cells derived from the embryonic hippocampus by influencing mitochondrial function. Densities of proliferating cells and NSCs both showed their highest values at 0.8 mM [Mg(2+) ]o , whereas lower proliferation rates were observed at 0.4 and 1.4 mM [Mg(2+) ]o . The numbers and sizes of the neurospheres reached the maximum at 0.8 mM [Mg(2+) ]o and were weaker under both low (0.4 mM) and high (1.4 mM) concentrations of magnesium. In vitro experimental evidence demonstrates that extracellular magnesium regulates the number of cultured hippocampal NSCs, affecting both magnesium homeostasis and mitochondrial function. Our findings indicate that the effect of [Mg(2+) ]o on NSC proliferation may lie downstream of alterations in mitochondrial function because mitochondrial membrane potential was highest in the NSCs in the moderate [Mg(2+) ]o (0.8 mM) group and lower in both the low (0.4 mM) and high (1.4 mM) [Mg(2+) ]o groups. Overall, these findings demonstrate a new function for magnesium in the brain in the regulation of hippocampal neural stem cells: affecting their cellular energy metabolism.

  2. Quantitative Proteomics of Sleep-Deprived Mouse Brains Reveals Global Changes in Mitochondrial Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tie-Mei; Zhang, Ju-en; Lin, Rui; Chen, She; Luo, Minmin; Dong, Meng-Qiu

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is a ubiquitous, tightly regulated, and evolutionarily conserved behavior observed in almost all animals. Prolonged sleep deprivation can be fatal, indicating that sleep is a physiological necessity. However, little is known about its core function. To gain insight into this mystery, we used advanced quantitative proteomics technology to survey the global changes in brain protein abundance. Aiming to gain a comprehensive profile, our proteomics workflow included filter-aided sample preparation (FASP), which increased the coverage of membrane proteins; tandem mass tag (TMT) labeling, for relative quantitation; and high resolution, high mass accuracy, high throughput mass spectrometry (MS). In total, we obtained the relative abundance ratios of 9888 proteins encoded by 6070 genes. Interestingly, we observed significant enrichment for mitochondrial proteins among the differentially expressed proteins. This finding suggests that sleep deprivation strongly affects signaling pathways that govern either energy metabolism or responses to mitochondrial stress. Additionally, the differentially-expressed proteins are enriched in pathways implicated in age-dependent neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s, Huntington’s, and Alzheimer’s, hinting at possible connections between sleep loss, mitochondrial stress, and neurodegeneration. PMID:27684481

  3. Lethal mitochondrial cardiomyopathy in a hypomorphic Med30 mouse mutant is ameliorated by ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Philippe; Fan, Weiwei; Chen, Yen-Hui; Tobita, Kimimasa; Downes, Michael R; Wood, Malcolm R; Sun, Lei; Li, Xiaohong; Xia, Yu; Ding, Ning; Spaeth, Jason M; Moresco, Eva Marie Y; Boyer, Thomas G; Lo, Cecilia Wen Ya; Yen, Jeffrey; Evans, Ronald M; Beutler, Bruce

    2011-12-06

    Deficiencies of subunits of the transcriptional regulatory complex Mediator generally result in embryonic lethality, precluding study of its physiological function. Here we describe a missense mutation in Med30 causing progressive cardiomyopathy in homozygous mice that, although viable during lactation, show precipitous lethality 2-3 wk after weaning. Expression profiling reveals pleiotropic changes in transcription of cardiac genes required for oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial integrity. Weaning mice to a ketogenic diet extends viability to 8.5 wk. Thus, we establish a mechanistic connection between Mediator and induction of a metabolic program for oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid oxidation, in which lethal cardiomyopathy is mitigated by dietary intervention.

  4. Membrane voltage, resistance, and channel switching in isolated mouse fibroblasts (L cells): a patch-electrode analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Hosoi, S; Slayman, C L

    1985-01-01

    The whole-cell patch-electrode technique of Fenwick, Marty & Neher (1982) has been applied to single suspension-cultured mouse fibroblasts. Seals in the range of 10-50 G omega were obtained without special cleaning of the cell membranes. Rupture of the membrane patch inside the electrode was accompanied by a shift of measured potential into the range -10 to -25 mV, but in most cases with little change in the recorded resistance. The latter fact implied that the absolute resistance of the cell membrane must be in the same range as the seal resistance and the recorded potential is a poor measure of actual cell membrane potential. Steady-state current-voltage curves (range -160 mV to +80 mV) were generated before and after rupture of the membrane patch, and the difference between these gave (zero-current) membrane potentials of -50 to -75 mV, which represents a leak-corrected estimate of the true cell-membrane potential. The associated slope conductivity of the cell membrane was 5-15 microS/cm2 (assumed smooth-sphere geometry, cells 13-15 microns in diameter) and was K+-dominated. With 0.1 mM (or more) free Ca2+ filling the patch electrode, membrane potentials in the range -60 to -85 mV were observed following patch rupture, with associated slope conductivities of 200-400 microS/cm2, also K+-dominated. Similar voltages and conductivities were observed at the peak of pulse-induced 'hyperpolarizing activation' (Nelson, Peacock, & Minna, 1972), and the two phenomena probably reflect the behaviour of Ca2+-activated K+ channels. Both the pulse-induced conductance and the Ca2+-activated conductance spontaneously decayed, the latter over periods of 5-15 min following patch rupture. Sr2+, Ba2+, and Co2+ could also activate the putative K+ channels, but only Sr2+ really mimicked Ca2+. Co2+ and Ba2+ activated with a delay of several minutes following patch rupture, and deactivated quickly with a small decrease of conductance and a large decrease of membrane potential. Evidently

  5. Arsenite Effects on Mitochondrial Bioenergetics in Human and Mouse Primary Hepatocytes Follow a Nonlinear Dose Response

    PubMed Central

    Christudoss, Pamela; Mickey, Kristen; Tessman, Robert; Ni, Hong-min; Swerdlow, Russell

    2017-01-01

    Arsenite is a known carcinogen and its exposure has been implicated in a variety of noncarcinogenic health concerns. Increased oxidative stress is thought to be the primary cause of arsenite toxicity and the toxic effect is thought to be linear with detrimental effects reported at all concentrations of arsenite. But the paradigm of linear dose response in arsenite toxicity is shifting. In the present study we demonstrate that arsenite effects on mitochondrial respiration in primary hepatocytes follow a nonlinear dose response. In vitro exposure of primary hepatocytes to an environmentally relevant, moderate level of arsenite results in increased oxidant production that appears to arise from changes in the expression and activity of respiratory Complex I of the mitochondrial proton circuit. In primary hepatocytes the excess oxidant production appears to elicit adaptive responses that promote resistance to oxidative stress and a propensity to increased proliferation. Taken together, these results suggest a nonlinear dose-response characteristic of arsenite with low-dose arsenite promoting adaptive responses in a process known as mitohormesis, with transient increase in ROS levels acting as transducers of arsenite-induced mitohormesis. PMID:28163822

  6. A somatic T15091C mutation in the Cytb gene of mouse mitochondrial DNA dominantly induces respiration defects.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Chisato; Takibuchi, Gaku; Shimizu, Akinori; Mito, Takayuki; Ishikawa, Kaori; Nakada, Kazuto; Hayashi, Jun-Ichi

    2015-08-07

    Our previous studies provided evidence that mammalian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations that cause mitochondrial respiration defects behave in a recessive manner, because the induction of respiration defects could be prevented with the help of a small proportion (10%-20%) of mtDNA without the mutations. However, subsequent studies found the induction of respiration defects by the accelerated accumulation of a small proportion of mtDNA with various somatic mutations, indicating the presence of mtDNA mutations that behave in a dominant manner. Here, to provide the evidence for the presence of dominant mutations in mtDNA, we used mouse lung carcinoma P29 cells and examined whether some mtDNA molecules possess somatic mutations that dominantly induce respiration defects. Cloning and sequence analysis of 40-48 mtDNA molecules from P29 cells was carried out to screen for somatic mutations in protein-coding genes, because mutations in these genes could dominantly regulate respiration defects by formation of abnormal polypeptides. We found 108 missense mutations existing in one or more of 40-48 mtDNA molecules. Of these missense mutations, a T15091C mutation in the Cytb gene was expected to be pathogenic due to the presence of its orthologous mutation in mtDNA from a patient with cardiomyopathy. After isolation of many subclones from parental P29 cells, we obtained subclones with various proportions of T15091C mtDNA, and showed that the respiration defects were induced in a subclone with only 49% T15091C mtDNA. Because the induction of respiration defects could not be prevented with the help of the remaining 51% mtDNA without the T15091C mutation, the results indicate that the T15091C mutation in mtDNA dominantly induced the respiration defects.

  7. Long title: Translational potential of long-term decreases in mitochondrial lipids in a mouse model of Gulf War Illness.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Laila; Evans, James E; Joshi, Utsav; Crynen, Gogce; Reed, John; Mouzon, Benoit; Baumann, Stephan; Montague, Hannah; Zakirova, Zuchra; Emmerich, Tanja; Bachmeier, Corbin; Klimas, Nancy; Sullivan, Kimberly; Mullan, Michael; Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Crawford, Fiona

    2016-10-29

    Gulf War Illness (GWI) affects 25% of veterans from the 1990-1991 Gulf War (GW) and is accompanied by damage to the brain regions involved in memory processing. After twenty-five years, the chronic pathobiology of GWI is still unexplained. To address this problem, we examined the long-term consequences of GW exposures in an established GWI mouse model to identify biological processes that are relevant to the chronic symptoms of GWI. Three-month old male C57BL6 mice were exposed for 10days to GW agents (pyridostigmine bromide and permethrin). Barnes Maze testing conducted at 15- and 16-months post-exposure revealed learning and memory impairment. Immunohistochemical analyses showed astroglia and microglia activation in the hippocampi of exposed mice. Proteomic studies identified perturbation of mitochondria function and metabolomics data showed decreases in the Krebs cycle compounds, lactate, β-hydroxybutyrate and glycerol-3 phosphate in the brains of exposed mice. Lipidomics data showed decreases in fatty acids, acylcarnitines and phospholipids, including cardiolipins in the brains of exposed mice. Pilot biomarker studies showed that plasma from exposed mice and veterans with GWI had increases in odd-chain, and decreases in long-chain, acylcarnitines compared to their respective controls. Very long-chain acylcarnitines were decreased in veterans with GWI compared to controls. These studies suggest that mitochondrial lipid disturbances might be associated with GWI and that further investigation is required to determine its role in the pathophysiology of this illness. Targeting mitochondrial function may provide effective therapies for GWI, and that lipid abnormalities could serve as biomarkers of GWI.

  8. Translational potential of long-term decreases in mitochondrial lipids in a mouse model of Gulf War Illness.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Laila; Evans, James E; Joshi, Utsav; Crynen, Gogce; Reed, Jon; Mouzon, Benoit; Baumann, Stephan; Montague, Hannah; Zakirova, Zuchra; Emmerich, Tanja; Bachmeier, Corbin; Klimas, Nancy; Sullivan, Kimberly; Mullan, Michael; Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Crawford, Fiona

    2016-11-30

    Gulf War Illness (GWI) affects 25% of veterans from the 1990-1991 Gulf War (GW) and is accompanied by damage to the brain regions involved in memory processing. After twenty-five years, the chronic pathobiology of GWI is still unexplained. To address this problem, we examined the long-term consequences of GW exposures in an established GWI mouse model to identify biological processes that are relevant to the chronic symptoms of GWI. Three-month old male C57BL6 mice were exposed for 10days to GW agents (pyridostigmine bromide and permethrin). Barnes Maze testing conducted at 15- and 16-months post-exposure revealed learning and memory impairment. Immunohistochemical analyses showed astroglia and microglia activation in the hippocampi of exposed mice. Proteomic studies identified perturbation of mitochondria function and metabolomics data showed decreases in the Krebs cycle compounds, lactate, β-hydroxybutyrate and glycerol-3 phosphate in the brains of exposed mice. Lipidomics data showed decreases in fatty acids, acylcarnitines and phospholipids, including cardiolipins in the brains of exposed mice. Pilot biomarker studies showed that plasma from exposed mice and veterans with GWI had increases in odd-chain, and decreases in long-chain, acylcarnitines compared to their respective controls. Very long-chain acylcarnitines were decreased in veterans with GWI compared to controls. These studies suggest that mitochondrial lipid disturbances might be associated with GWI and that further investigation is required to determine its role in the pathophysiology of this illness. Targeting mitochondrial function may provide effective therapies for GWI, and that lipid abnormalities could serve as biomarkers of GWI.

  9. A disulfide bond in the TIM23 complex is crucial for voltage gating and mitochondrial protein import

    PubMed Central

    Peleh, Valentina; Martinez-Caballero, Sonia; Sommer, Frederik; van der Laan, Martin; Schroda, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Tim17 is a central, membrane-embedded subunit of the mitochondrial protein import machinery. In this study, we show that Tim17 contains a pair of highly conserved cysteine residues that form a structural disulfide bond exposed to the intermembrane space (IMS). This disulfide bond is critical for efficient protein translocation through the TIM23 complex and for dynamic gating of its preprotein-conducting channel. The disulfide bond in Tim17 is formed during insertion of the protein into the inner membrane. Whereas the import of Tim17 depends on the binding to the IMS protein Mia40, the oxidoreductase activity of Mia40 is surprisingly dispensable for Tim17 oxidation. Our observations suggest that Tim17 can be directly oxidized by the sulfhydryl oxidase Erv1. Thus, import and oxidation of Tim17 are mediated by the mitochondrial disulfide relay, though the mechanism by which the disulfide bond in Tim17 is formed differs considerably from that of soluble IMS proteins. PMID:27502485

  10. A disulfide bond in the TIM23 complex is crucial for voltage gating and mitochondrial protein import.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Ajay; Peleh, Valentina; Martinez-Caballero, Sonia; Wollweber, Florian; Sommer, Frederik; van der Laan, Martin; Schroda, Michael; Alexander, R Todd; Campo, María Luisa; Herrmann, Johannes M

    2016-08-15

    Tim17 is a central, membrane-embedded subunit of the mitochondrial protein import machinery. In this study, we show that Tim17 contains a pair of highly conserved cysteine residues that form a structural disulfide bond exposed to the intermembrane space (IMS). This disulfide bond is critical for efficient protein translocation through the TIM23 complex and for dynamic gating of its preprotein-conducting channel. The disulfide bond in Tim17 is formed during insertion of the protein into the inner membrane. Whereas the import of Tim17 depends on the binding to the IMS protein Mia40, the oxidoreductase activity of Mia40 is surprisingly dispensable for Tim17 oxidation. Our observations suggest that Tim17 can be directly oxidized by the sulfhydryl oxidase Erv1. Thus, import and oxidation of Tim17 are mediated by the mitochondrial disulfide relay, though the mechanism by which the disulfide bond in Tim17 is formed differs considerably from that of soluble IMS proteins.

  11. Mitochondrial delivery of Coenzyme Q10 via systemic administration using a MITO-Porter prevents ischemia/reperfusion injury in the mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yuma; Nakamura, Kohei; Abe, Jiro; Hyodo, Mamoru; Haga, Sanae; Ozaki, Michitaka; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2015-09-10

    We herein report on a mitochondrial therapeutic effect based on the delivery of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), an anti-oxidant, to in vivo mitochondria using a MITO-Porter, a liposome-based mitochondrial delivery system that functions via membrane fusion. To evaluate the effects, we used a mouse liver ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R injury) model, in which mitochondrial reactive oxygen species are overexpressed. We packaged CoQ10 in the lipid phase of a MITO-Porter and optimized the mitochondrial fusogenic activities to produce the CoQ10-MITO-Porter. A histological observation of the carriers in the liver by confocal laser scanning microscopy was done and the accumulation of the carrier labeled with a radio isotope in the liver confirmed that the CoQ10-MITO-Porter was delivered to liver mitochondria via systemic injection. These analytical results permitted us to optimize the compositions of the CoQ10-MITO-Porter so as to permit it to efficiently accumulate in mouse liver mitochondria. Finally, we applied the optimized CoQ10-MITO-Porter to mice via tail vein injection, and hepatic I/R injury was then induced, followed by measuring serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, a marker of liver injury. We confirmed that the use of the CoQ10-MITO-Porter resulted in a significant decrease in serum ALT levels, indicating that in vivo mitochondrial delivery of the CoQ10 via MITO-Porter prevents I/R injury in mice livers. This provides a demonstration of the potential use of such a delivery system in mitochondrial therapies.

  12. The human and mouse SLC25A29 mitochondrial transporters rescue the deficient ornithine metabolism in fibroblasts of patients with the hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Camacho, José A; Rioseco-Camacho, Natalia

    2009-07-01

    The hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome is a disorder of the urea cycle (UCD) and ornithine degradation pathway caused by mutations in the mitochondrial ornithine transporter (ORNT1). Unlike other UCDs, HHH syndrome is characterized by a less severe and variable phenotype that we believe may, in part, be due to genes with redundant function to ORNT1, such as the previously characterized ORNT2 gene. We reasoned that SLC25A29, a member of the same subfamily of mitochondrial carrier proteins as ORNT1 and ORNT2, might also have overlapping function with ORNT1. Here, we report that both the human and mouse SLC25A29, previously identified as mitochondrial carnitine/acyl-carnitine transporter-like, when overexpressed transiently also rescues the impaired ornithine transport in cultured HHH fibroblasts. Moreover, we observed that, in the mouse, the Slc25a29 message is more significantly expressed in the CNS and cultured astrocytes when compared with the liver and kidney. These results suggest a potential physiologic role for the SLC25A29 transporter in the oxidation of fatty acids, ornithine degradation pathway, and possibly the urea cycle. Our results show that SLC25A29 is the third human mitochondrial ornithine transporter, designated as ORNT3, which may contribute to the milder and variable phenotype seen in patients with HHH syndrome.

  13. The TDH-GCN5L1-Fbxo15-KBP axis limits mitochondrial biogenesis in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Donato, Valerio; Bonora, Massimo; Simoneschi, Daniele; Sartini, Davide; Kudo, Yasusei; Saraf, Anita; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P; Stadtfeld, Matthias; Pinton, Paolo; Pagano, Michele

    2017-03-20

    Self-renewing naive mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) contain few mitochondria, which increase in number and volume at the onset of differentiation. KBP (encoded by Kif1bp) is an interactor of the mitochondrial-associated kinesin Kif1Bα. We found that TDH, responsible for mitochondrial production of acetyl-CoA in mESCs, and the acetyltransferase GCN5L1 cooperate to acetylate Lys501 in KBP, allowing its recognition by and degradation via Fbxo15, an F-box protein transcriptionally controlled by the pluripotency core factors and repressed following differentiation. Defects in KBP degradation in mESCs result in an unscheduled increase in mitochondrial biogenesis, enhanced respiration and ROS production, and inhibition of cell proliferation. Silencing of Kif1Bα reverts the aberrant increase in mitochondria induced by KBP stabilization. Notably, following differentiation, Kif1bp(-/-) mESCs display impaired expansion of the mitochondrial mass and form smaller embryoid bodies. Thus, KBP proteolysis limits the accumulation of mitochondria in mESCs to preserve their optimal fitness, whereas KBP accumulation promotes mitochondrial biogenesis in differentiating cells.

  14. Expression pattern of neuronal and skeletal muscle voltage-gated Na+ channels in the developing mouse heart

    PubMed Central

    Haufe, Volker; Camacho, Juan A; Dumaine, Robert; Günther, Bernd; Bollensdorff, Christian; von Banchet, Gisela Segond; Benndorf, Klaus; Zimmer, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In the mammalian heart, a variety of voltage-gated Na+ channel transcripts and proteins have been detected. However, little quantitative information is available on the abundance of each transcript during development, or the contribution of TTX-sensitive Na+ channels to the cardiac sodium current (INa). Using competitive and real-time RT-PCR we investigated the transcription of six Na+ channels (Nav1.1–Nav1.6) and the β1 subunit during mouse heart development. Nav1.5 was predominantly expressed in the adult heart, whereas the splice variant Nav1.5a was the major Na+ channel isoform in embryonic hearts. The TTX-resistant Na+ channel transcripts (Nav1.5 and Nav1.5a) increased 1.7-fold during postnatal development. Transcripts encoding TTX-sensitive Na+ channels (Nav1.1–Nav1.4) and the β1 subunit gradually increased up to fourfold from postnatal day (P)1 to P126, while the Nav1.6 transcript level remained low and constant over the same period. In adults, TTX-sensitive channel mRNA accounted for 30–40% of the channel pool in whole-heart preparations (Nav1.3 > Nav1.4 > Nav1.2 ≫ Nav1.1 ∼ Nav1.6), and 16% in mRNA from isolated cardiomyocytes (Nav1.4 > Nav1.3 > Nav1.2 > Nav1.1 > Nav1.6). Confocal immunofluorescence on ventricular myocytes suggested that Nav1.1 and Nav1.2 were localized at the intercalated disks and in the t tubules. Nav1.3 labelling predominantly produced a diffuse but strong intracellular signal. Nav1.6 fluorescence was detected only along the Z lines. Electrophysiological recordings showed that TTX-sensitive and TTX-resistant Na+ channels, respectively, accounted for 8% and 92% of the INa in adult ventricular cardiomyocytes. Our data suggest that neuronal and skeletal muscle Na+ channels contribute to the action potential of cardiomyocytes in the adult mammalian heart. PMID:15746173

  15. Estradiol and tamoxifen regulate NRF-1 and mitochondrial function in mouse mammary gland and uterus.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Margarita M; Radde, Brandie N; Son, Jieun; Mehta, Fabiola F; Chung, Sang-Hyuk; Klinge, Carolyn M

    2013-10-01

    Nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1) stimulates the transcription of nuclear-encoded genes that regulate mitochondrial (mt) genome transcription and biogenesis. We reported that estradiol (E2) and 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) stimulate NRF-1 transcription in an estrogen receptor α (ERα)- and ERβ-dependent manner in human breast cancer cells. The aim of this study was to determine whether E2 and 4-OHT increase NRF-1 in vivo. Here, we report that E2 and 4-OHT increase NRF-1 expression in mammary gland (MG) and uterus of ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice in a time-dependent manner. E2 increased NRF-1 protein in the uterus and MG; however, in MG, 4-OHT increased Nrf1 mRNA but not protein. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed increased in vivo recruitment of ERα to the Nrf1 promoter and intron 3 in MG and uterus 6 h after E2 and 4-OHT treatment, commensurate with increased NRF-1 expression. E2- and 4-OHT-induced increases in NRF-1 and its target genes Tfam, Tfb1m, and Tfb2m were coordinated in MG but not in uterus due to uterine-selective inhibition of the expression of the NRF-1 coactivators Ppargc1a and Ppargc1b by E2 and 4-OHT. E2 transiently increased NRF-1 and PGC-1α nuclear staining while reducing PGC-1α in uterus. E2, not 4-OHT, activates mt biogenesis in MG and uterus in a time-dependent manner. E2 increased mt outer membrane Tomm40 protein levels in MG and uterus whereas 4-OHT increased Tomm40 only in uterus. These data support the hypothesis of tissue-selective regulation of NRF-1 and its downstream targets by E2 and 4-OHT in vivo.

  16. Real-Time PCR Quantification of Heteroplasmy in a Mouse Model with Mitochondrial DNA of C57BL/6 and NZB/BINJ Strains.

    PubMed

    Machado, Thiago Simões; Macabelli, Carolina Habermann; Sangalli, Juliano Rodrigues; Rodrigues, Thiago Bittencourt; Smith, Lawrence Charles; Meirelles, Flávio Vieira; Chiaratti, Marcos Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Mouse models are widely employed to study mitochondrial inheritance, which have implications to several human diseases caused by mutations in the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA). These mouse models take advantage of polymorphisms between the mtDNA of the NZB/BINJ and the mtDNA of common inbred laboratory (i.e., C57BL/6) strains to generate mice with two mtDNA haplotypes (heteroplasmy). Based on PCR followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), these studies determine the level of heteroplasmy across generations and in different cell types aiming to understand the mechanisms underlying mitochondrial inheritance. However, PCR-RFLP is a time-consuming method of low sensitivity and accuracy that dependents on the use of restriction enzyme digestions. A more robust method to measure heteroplasmy has been provided by the use of real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) based on allelic refractory mutation detection system (ARMS-qPCR). Herein, we report an ARMS-qPCR assay for quantification of heteroplasmy using heteroplasmic mice with mtDNA of NZB/BINJ and C57BL/6 origin. Heteroplasmy and mtDNA copy number were estimated in germline and somatic tissues, providing evidence of the reliability of the approach. Furthermore, it enabled single-step quantification of heteroplasmy, with sensitivity to detect as low as 0.1% of either NZB/BINJ or C57BL/6 mtDNA. These findings are relevant as the ARMS-qPCR assay reported here is fully compatible with similar heteroplasmic mouse models used to study mitochondrial inheritance in mammals.

  17. Developmental expression, intracellular localization, and selenium content of the cysteine-rich protein associated with the mitochondrial capsules of mouse sperm.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, L; Baig, K; Oko, R; Mastrangelo, M A; Kleene, K C

    1996-11-01

    The outer membranes of mitochondria of mammalian sperm are encased in a keratinous structure known as the mitochondrial capsule. The experiments in the present study were designed to resolve a controversy surrounding the intracellular localization, developmental expression, and selenium-content of a cysteine-rich 17-20 kD protein that has been reported to constitute the major structural protein in the mitochondrial capsule of mammals. An antibody to a synthetic oligopeptide based on the predicted sequence of mouse cysteinerich protein recognizes a 24 kD protein in epididymal sperm tails of mice. The 24 kD protein does not appear to be a selenoprotein because: (1) it is not labeled with 75Se-selenite in seminiferous tubule culture; (2) cleavage with cyanogen bromide and translation of T7 RNA polymerase transcripts in vitro indicate that the translation start site is located downstream of potential UGA selenocysteine codons in the mouse cysteine-rich mRNA; (3) the reading frame encoding the cysteine-rich protein in rat lacks inphase UGA selenocysteine codons. Light and electron microscopy immunocytochemistry detects the cysteine-rich protein first during step 11 of spermiogenesis in the mouse demonstrating that the cysteine-rich protein mRNA is under temporal translational control. Electron microscope immunocytochemistry reveals that the cysteine-rich protein is evenly distributed in the cytoplasm in spermatids in steps 11 through early step 16 in mouse, and that it is associated with the outer mitochondrial membranes of spermatids in late step 16 and epididymal spermatozoa.

  18. Full-length PGC-1α salvages the phenotype of a mouse model of human neuropathy through mitochondrial proliferation.

    PubMed

    Rona-Voros, Krisztina; Eschbach, Judith; Vernay, Aurélia; Wiesner, Diana; Schwalenstocker, Birgit; Geniquet, Pauline; Mousson De Camaret, Bénédicte; Echaniz-Laguna, Andoni; Loeffler, Jean-Philippe; Ludolph, Albert C; Weydt, Patrick; Dupuis, Luc

    2013-12-20

    Increased mitochondrial mass, commonly termed mitochondrial proliferation, is frequently observed in many human diseases directly or indirectly involving mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial proliferation is thought to counterbalance a compromised energy metabolism, yet it might also be detrimental through alterations of mitochondrial regulatory functions such as apoptosis, calcium metabolism or oxidative stress. Here, we show that prominent mitochondrial proliferation occurs in Cramping mice, a model of hereditary neuropathy caused by a mutation in the dynein heavy chain gene Dync1h1. The mitochondrial proliferation correlates with post-prandial induction of full-length (FL) and N-terminal truncated (NT) isoforms of the transcriptional co-activator PGC-1α. The selective knock-out of FL-PGC-1α isoform, preserving expression and function of NT-PGC-1α, led to a complete reversal of mitochondrial proliferation. Moreover, FL-PGC-1α ablation potently exacerbated the mitochondrial dysfunction and led to severe weight loss. Finally, FL-PGC-1α ablation triggered pronounced locomotor dysfunction, tremors and inability to rear in Cramping mice. In summary, endogenous FL-PGC-1α activates mitochondrial proliferation and salvages neurological and metabolic health upon disease. NT-PGC-1α cannot fulfil this protective action. Activation of this endogenous salvage pathway might thus be a valuable therapeutic target for diseases involving mitochondrial dysfunction.

  19. The N-Terminal Peptides of the Three Human Isoforms of the Mitochondrial Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel Have Different Helical Propensities.

    PubMed

    Guardiani, Carlo; Scorciapino, Mariano Andrea; Amodeo, Giuseppe Federico; Grdadolnik, Joze; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; De Pinto, Vito; Ceccarelli, Matteo; Casu, Mariano

    2015-09-15

    The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) is the main mitochondrial porin allowing the exchange of ions and metabolites between the cytosol and the mitochondrion. In addition, VDAC was found to actively interact with proteins playing a fundamental role in the regulation of apoptosis and being of central interest in cancer research. VDAC is a large transmembrane β-barrel channel, whose N-terminal helical fragment adheres to the channel interior, partially closing the pore. This fragment is considered to play a key role in protein stability and function as well as in the interaction with apoptosis-related proteins. Three VDAC isoforms are differently expressed in higher eukaryotes, for which distinct and complementary roles are proposed. In this work, the folding propensity of their N-terminal fragments has been compared. By using multiple spectroscopic techniques, and complementing the experimental results with theoretical computer-assisted approaches, we have characterized their conformational equilibrium. Significant differences were found in the intrinsic helical propensity of the three peptides, decreasing in the following order: hVDAC2 > hVDAC3 > hVDAC1. In light of the models proposed in the literature to explain voltage gating, selectivity, and permeability, as well as interactions with functionally related proteins, our results suggest that the different chemicophysical properties of the N-terminal domain are possibly correlated to different functions for the three isoforms. The overall emerging picture is that a similar transmembrane water accessible conduit has been equipped with not identical domains, whose differences can modulate the functional roles of the three VDAC isoforms.

  20. High glucose-induced mitochondrial respiration and reactive oxygen species in mouse cerebral pericytes is reversed by pharmacological inhibition of mitochondrial carbonic anhydrases: Implications for cerebral microvascular disease in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Shah, Gul N; Morofuji, Yoichi; Banks, William A; Price, Tulin O

    2013-10-18

    Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress leads to diabetes-associated damage to the microvasculature of the brain. Pericytes in close proximity to endothelial cells in the brain microvessels are vital to the integrity of the blood-brain barrier and are especially susceptible to oxidative stress. According to our recently published results, streptozotocin-diabetic mouse brain exhibits oxidative stress and loose pericytes by twelve weeks of diabetes, and cerebral pericytes cultured in high glucose media suffer intracellular oxidative stress and apoptosis. Oxidative stress in diabetes is hypothesized to be caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced during hyperglycemia-induced enhanced oxidative metabolism of glucose (respiration). To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of high glucose on respiration rate and ROS production in mouse cerebral pericytes. Previously, we showed that pharmacological inhibition of mitochondrial carbonic anhydrases protects the brain from oxidative stress and pericyte loss. The high glucose-induced intracellular oxidative stress and apoptosis of pericytes in culture were also reversed by inhibition of mitochondrial carbonic anhydrases. Therefore, we extended our current study to determine the effect of these inhibitors on high glucose-induced increases in pericyte respiration and ROS. We now report that both the respiration and ROS are significantly increased in pericytes challenged with high glucose. Furthermore, inhibition of mitochondrial carbonic anhydrases significantly slowed down both the rate of respiration and ROS production. These data provide new evidence that pharmacological inhibitors of mitochondrial carbonic anhydrases, already in clinical use, may prove beneficial in protecting the brain from oxidative stress caused by ROS produced as a consequence of hyperglycemia-induced enhanced respiration.

  1. DRP1 inhibition rescues retinal ganglion cells and their axons by preserving mitochondrial integrity in a mouse model of glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, K-Y; Perkins, G A; Shim, M S; Bushong, E; Alcasid, N; Ju, S; Ellisman, M H; Weinreb, R N; Ju, W-K

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness and is characterized by slow and progressive degeneration of the optic nerve head axons and retinal ganglion cell (RGC), leading to loss of visual function. Although oxidative stress and/or alteration of mitochondrial (mt) dynamics induced by elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) are associated with this neurodegenerative disease, the mechanisms that regulate mt dysfunction-mediated glaucomatous neurodegeneration are poorly understood. Using a mouse model of glaucoma, DBA/2J (D2), which spontaneously develops elevated IOP, as well as an in vitro RGC culture system, we show here that oxidative stress, as evidenced by increasing superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and mt transcription factor A (Tfam) protein expression, triggers mt fission and loss by increasing dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) in the retina of glaucomatous D2 mice as well as in cultured RGCs exposed to elevated hydrostatic pressure in vitro. DRP1 inhibition by overexpressing DRP1 K38A mutant blocks mt fission and triggers a subsequent reduction of oxidative stress, as evidenced by decreasing SOD2 and Tfam protein expression. DRP1 inhibition promotes RGC survival by increasing phosphorylation of Bad at serine 112 in the retina and preserves RGC axons by maintaining mt integrity in the glial lamina of glaucomatous D2 mice. These findings demonstrate an important vicious cycle involved in glaucomatous neurodegeneration that starts with elevated IOP producing oxidative stress; the oxidative stress then leads to mt fission and a specific form of mt dysfunction that generates further oxidative stress, thus perpetuating the cycle. Our findings suggest that DRP1 is a potential therapeutic target for ameliorating oxidative stress-mediated mt fission and dysfunction in RGC and its axons during glaucomatous neurodegeneration. Thus, DRP1 inhibition may provide a new therapeutic strategy for protecting both RGCs and their axons in glaucoma and other optic

  2. Preservation of Cognitive Function by Lepidium meyenii (Maca) Is Associated with Improvement of Mitochondrial Activity and Upregulation of Autophagy-Related Proteins in Middle-Aged Mouse Cortex.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shan-Shan; Gao, Xiao-Fang; Gu, Yan-Rong; Wan, Zhong-Xiao; Lu, A-Ming; Qin, Zheng-Hong; Luo, Li

    2016-01-01

    Maca has been used as a foodstuff and a traditional medicine in the Andean region for over 2,000 years. Recently the neuroprotective effects of maca also arouse interest of researchers. Decrease in mitochondrial function and decline in autophagy signaling may participate in the process of age-related cognitive decline. This study aimed to investigate if maca could improve cognitive function of middle-aged mice and if this effect was associated with improvement of mitochondrial activity and modulation of autophagy signaling in mouse cortex. Fourteen-month-old male ICR mice received maca powder administered by gavage for five weeks. Maca improved cognitive function, motor coordination, and endurance capacity in middle-aged mice, accompanied by increased mitochondrial respiratory function and upregulation of autophagy-related proteins in cortex. Our findings suggest that maca is a newly defined nutritional plant which can improve mitochondrial function and upregulate autophagy-related proteins and may be an effective functional food for slowing down age-related cognitive decline.

  3. Behavioral stress causes mitochondrial dysfunction via ABAD up-regulation and aggravates plaque pathology in the brain of a mouse model of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Seo, Ji-Seon; Lee, Kang-Woo; Kim, Tae-Kyung; Baek, In-Sun; Im, Joo-Young; Han, Pyung-Lim

    2011-06-01

    Basic and clinical studies have reported that behavioral stress worsens the pathology of Alzheimer disease (AD), but the underlying mechanism has not been clearly understood. In this study, we determined the mechanism by which behavioral stress affects the pathogenesis of AD using Tg-APPswe/PS1dE9 mice, a murine model of AD. Tg-APPswe/PS1dE9 mice that were restrained for 2h daily for 16 consecutive days (2-h/16-day stress) from 6.5months of age had significantly increased Aβ(1-42) levels and plaque deposition in the brain. The 2-h/16-day stress increased oxidative stress and induced mitochondrial dysfunction in the brain. Treatment with glucocorticoid (corticosterone) and Aβ in SH-SY5Y cells increased the expression of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (ABAD), mitochondrial dysfunction, and levels of ROS, whereas blockade of ABAD expression by siRNA-ABAD in SH-SY5Y cells suppressed glucocorticoid-enhanced mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS accumulation. The 2-h/16-day stress up-regulated ABAD expression in mitochondria in the brain of Tg-APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. Moreover, all visible Aβ plaques were costained with anti-ABAD in the brains of Tg-APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. Together, these results suggest that behavioral stress aggravates plaque pathology and mitochondrial dysfunction via up-regulation of ABAD in the brain of a mouse model of AD.

  4. Direct regulation of complex I by mitochondrial MEF2D is disrupted in a mouse model of Parkinson disease and in human patients

    PubMed Central

    She, Hua; Yang, Qian; Shepherd, Kennie; Smith, Yoland; Miller, Gary; Testa, Claudia; Mao, Zixu

    2011-01-01

    The transcription factors in the myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) family play important roles in cell survival by regulating nuclear gene expression. Here, we report that MEF2D is present in rodent neuronal mitochondria, where it can regulate the expression of a gene encoded within mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Immunocytochemical, immunoelectron microscopic, and biochemical analyses of rodent neuronal cells showed that a portion of MEF2D was targeted to mitochondria via an N-terminal motif and the chaperone protein mitochondrial heat shock protein 70 (mtHsp70). MEF2D bound to a MEF2 consensus site in the region of the mtDNA that contained the gene NADH dehydrogenase 6 (ND6), which encodes an essential component of the complex I enzyme of the oxidative phosphorylation system; MEF2D binding induced ND6 transcription. Blocking MEF2D function specifically in mitochondria decreased complex I activity, increased cellular H2O2 level, reduced ATP production, and sensitized neurons to stress-induced death. Toxins known to affect complex I preferentially disrupted MEF2D function in a mouse model of Parkinson disease (PD). In addition, mitochondrial MEF2D and ND6 levels were decreased in postmortem brain samples of patients with PD compared with age-matched controls. Thus, direct regulation of complex I by mitochondrial MEF2D underlies its neuroprotective effects, and dysregulation of this pathway may contribute to PD. PMID:21393861

  5. Preservation of Cognitive Function by Lepidium meyenii (Maca) Is Associated with Improvement of Mitochondrial Activity and Upregulation of Autophagy-Related Proteins in Middle-Aged Mouse Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shan-Shan; Gao, Xiao-Fang; Gu, Yan-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Maca has been used as a foodstuff and a traditional medicine in the Andean region for over 2,000 years. Recently the neuroprotective effects of maca also arouse interest of researchers. Decrease in mitochondrial function and decline in autophagy signaling may participate in the process of age-related cognitive decline. This study aimed to investigate if maca could improve cognitive function of middle-aged mice and if this effect was associated with improvement of mitochondrial activity and modulation of autophagy signaling in mouse cortex. Fourteen-month-old male ICR mice received maca powder administered by gavage for five weeks. Maca improved cognitive function, motor coordination, and endurance capacity in middle-aged mice, accompanied by increased mitochondrial respiratory function and upregulation of autophagy-related proteins in cortex. Our findings suggest that maca is a newly defined nutritional plant which can improve mitochondrial function and upregulate autophagy-related proteins and may be an effective functional food for slowing down age-related cognitive decline. PMID:27648102

  6. Developmental regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and function in the mouse mammary gland during a prolonged lactation cycle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and function in the lactating mammary cell is poorly understood. The goal of this study was to use proteomics to relate temporal changes in mammary cell mitochondrial function during lactation to changes in the proteins that make up this organelle. The hypo...

  7. Mouse somatic mutation orthologous to MELAS A3302G mutation in the mitochondrial tRNA(Leu(UUR)) gene confers respiration defects.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Akinori; Enoki, Shunkei; Ishikawa, Kaori; Mito, Takayuki; Obata, Kanae; Nagashima, Ruriko; Yonekawa, Hiromichi; Nakada, Kazuto; Hayashi, Jun-Ichi

    2015-11-27

    We searched for mtDNA harboring somatic mutations in mouse B82 cells, and found an A2748G mutation orthologous to the A3302G mutation in tRNA(Leu(UUR)) gene reported in a patient with MELAS, the most prevalent mitochondrial disease. We isolated subclones of B82 cells until we obtained one subclone harboring >95% A2748G mtDNA. Cytoplasmic transfer of A2748G mtDNA resulted in cotransfer of A2748G mtDNA and respiration defects into mouse ES cells. Thus, A2748G mtDNA is responsible for respiration defects, and the ES cells harboring A2748G mtDNA may be useful for generation of transmitochondrial mice harboring A2748G mtDNA as potential disease models of MELAS.

  8. TGF-β1 stimulates mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and generation of reactive oxygen species in cultured mouse podocytes, mediated in part by the mTOR pathway.

    PubMed

    Abe, Yoshifusa; Sakairi, Toru; Beeson, Craig; Kopp, Jeffrey B

    2013-11-15

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β has been associated with podocyte injury; we have examined its effect on podocyte bioenergetics. We studied transformed mouse podocytes, exposed to TGF-β1, using a label-free assay system, Seahorse XF24, which measures oxygen consumption rates (OCR) and extracellular acidification rates (ECAR). Both basal OCR and ATP generation-coupled OCR were significantly higher in podocytes exposed to 0.3-10 ng/ml of TGF-β1 for 24, 48, and 72 h. TGF-β1 (3 ng/ml) increased oxidative capacity 75%, and 96% relative to control after 48 and 72 h, respectively. ATP content was increased 19% and 30% relative to control after a 48- and 72-h exposure, respectively. Under conditions of maximal mitochondrial function, TGF-β1 increased palmitate-driven OCR by 49%. Thus, TGF-β1 increases mitochondrial oxygen consumption and ATP generation in the presence of diverse energy substrates. TGF-β1 did not increase cell number or mitochondrial DNA copy number but did increase mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), which could explain the OCR increase. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased by 32% after TGF-β1 exposure for 48 h. TGF-β activated the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, and rapamycin reduced the TGF-β1-stimulated increases in OCR, ECAR, ATP generation, cellular metabolic activity, and protein generation. Our data suggest that TGF-β1, acting, in part, via mTOR, increases mitochondrial MMP and OCR, resulting in increased ROS generation and that this may contribute to podocyte injury.

  9. Decreased ovarian reserve, dysregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, and increased lipid peroxidation in female mouse offspring exposed to an obesogenic maternal diet.

    PubMed

    Aiken, Catherine E; Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Penfold, Naomi C; Dearden, Laura; Ozanne, Susan E

    2016-04-01

    Maternal diet during pregnancy influences the later life reproductive potential of female offspring. We investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the depletion of ovarian follicular reserve in young adult females following exposure to obesogenic diet in early life. Furthermore, we explore the interaction between adverse maternal diet and postweaning diet in generating reduced ovarian reserve. Female mice were exposed to either maternal obesogenic (high fat/high sugar) or maternal control dietin uteroand during lactation, then weaned onto either obesogenic or control diet. At 12 wk of age, the offspring ovarian reserve was depleted following exposure to maternal obesogenic diet (P< 0.05), but not postweaning obesogenic diet. Maternal obesogenic diet was associated with increased mitochondrial DNA biogenesis (copy numberP< 0.05; transcription factor A, mitochondrial expressionP< 0.05), increased mitochondrial antioxidant defenses [manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD)P< 0.05; copper/zinc superoxide dismutaseP< 0.05; glutathione peroxidase 4P< 0.01] and increased lipoxygenase expression (arachidonate 12-lipoxygenaseP< 0.05; arachidonate 15-lipoxygenaseP< 0.05) in the ovary. There was also significantly increased expression of the transcriptional regulator NF-κB (P< 0.05). There was no effect of postweaning diet on any measured ovarian parameters. Maternal diet thus plays a central role in determining follicular reserve in adult female offspring. Our observations suggest that lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis are the key intracellular pathways involved in programming of ovarian reserve.-Aiken, C. E., Tarry-Adkins, J. L., Penfold, N. C., Dearden, L., Ozanne, S. E. Decreased ovarian reserve, dysregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, and increased lipid peroxidation in female mouse offspring exposed to an obesogenic maternal diet.

  10. Lack of GDAP1 induces neuronal calcium and mitochondrial defects in a knockout mouse model of charcot-marie-tooth neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Barneo-Muñoz, Manuela; Juárez, Paula; Civera-Tregón, Azahara; Yndriago, Laura; Pla-Martin, David; Zenker, Jennifer; Cuevas-Martín, Carmen; Estela, Anna; Sánchez-Aragó, María; Forteza-Vila, Jerónimo; Cuezva, José M; Chrast, Roman; Palau, Francesc

    2015-04-01

    Mutations in GDAP1, which encodes protein located in the mitochondrial outer membrane, cause axonal recessive (AR-CMT2), axonal dominant (CMT2K) and demyelinating recessive (CMT4A) forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) neuropathy. Loss of function recessive mutations in GDAP1 are associated with decreased mitochondrial fission activity, while dominant mutations result in impairment of mitochondrial fusion with increased production of reactive oxygen species and susceptibility to apoptotic stimuli. GDAP1 silencing in vitro reduces Ca2+ inflow through store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) upon mobilization of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+, likely in association with an abnormal distribution of the mitochondrial network. To investigate the functional consequences of lack of GDAP1 in vivo, we generated a Gdap1 knockout mouse. The affected animals presented abnormal motor behavior starting at the age of 3 months. Electrophysiological and biochemical studies confirmed the axonal nature of the neuropathy whereas histopathological studies over time showed progressive loss of motor neurons (MNs) in the anterior horn of the spinal cord and defects in neuromuscular junctions. Analyses of cultured embryonic MNs and adult dorsal root ganglia neurons from affected animals demonstrated large and defective mitochondria, changes in the ER cisternae, reduced acetylation of cytoskeletal α-tubulin and increased autophagy vesicles. Importantly, MNs showed reduced cytosolic calcium and SOCE response. The development and characterization of the GDAP1 neuropathy mice model thus revealed that some of the pathophysiological changes present in axonal recessive form of the GDAP1-related CMT might be the consequence of changes in the mitochondrial network biology and mitochondria-endoplasmic reticulum interaction leading to abnormalities in calcium homeostasis.

  11. Hydrogen Sulfide Epigenetically Attenuates Homocysteine-Induced Mitochondrial Toxicity Mediated Through NMDA Receptor in Mouse Brain Endothelial (bEnd3) Cells.

    PubMed

    Kamat, Pradip K; Kalani, Anuradha; Tyagi, Suresh C; Tyagi, Neetu

    2015-02-01

    Previously we have shown that homocysteine (Hcy) caused oxidative stress and altered mitochondrial function. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has potent anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-apoptotic effects. Therefore, in the present study we examined whether H2S ameliorates Hcy-induced mitochondrial toxicity which led to endothelial dysfunction in part, by epigenetic alterations in mouse brain endothelial cells (bEnd3). The bEnd3 cells were exposed to 100 μM Hcy treatment in the presence or absence of 30 μM NaHS (donor of H2S) for 24 h. Hcy-activate NMDA receptor and induced mitochondrial toxicity by increased levels of Ca(2+), NADPH-oxidase-4 (NOX-4) expression, mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity and decreased the level of nitrate, superoxide dismutase (SOD-2) expression, mitochondria membrane potentials, ATP production. To confirm the role of epigenetic, 5'-azacitidine (an epigenetic modulator) treatment was given to the cells. Pretreatment with NaHS (30 μM) attenuated the Hcy-induced increased expression of DNMT1, DNMT3a, Ca(2+), and decreased expression of DNMT3b in bEND3 cells. Furthermore, NaHS treatment also mitigated mitochondrial oxidative stress (NOX4, ROS, and NO) and restored ATP that indicates its protective effects against mitochondrial toxicity. Additional, NaHS significantly alleviated Hcy-induced LC3-I/II, CSE, Atg3/7, and low p62 expression which confirm its effect on mitophagy. Likewise, NaHS also restored level of eNOS, CD31, VE-cadherin and ET-1 and maintains endothelial function in Hcy treated cells. Molecular inhibition of NMDA receptor by using small interfering RNA showed protective effect whereas inhibition of H2S production by propargylglycine (PG) (inhibitor of enzyme CSE) showed mitotoxic effect. Taken together, results demonstrate that, administration of H2S protected the cells from HHcy-induced mitochondrial toxicity and endothelial dysfunction.

  12. Hydrogen sulfide epigenetically attenuates homocysteine-induced mitochondrial toxicity mediated through NMDA receptor in mouse brain endothelial (bEnd3) cells†

    PubMed Central

    Kamat, Pradip K.; Kalani, Anuradha; Tyagi, Suresh C.; Tyagi, Neetu

    2014-01-01

    Previously we have showed that homocysteine (Hcy) caused oxidative stress and altered mitochondrial function. Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) has potent anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic effects. Therefore, in the present study we examined whether H2S ameliorates Hcy-induced mitochondrial toxicity which led to endothelial dysfunction in part, by epigenetic alterations in mouse brain endothelial cells (bEnd3). The bEnd3 cells were exposed to 100μM Hcy treatment in the presence or absence of 30μM NaHS (donor of H2S) for 24hrs. Hcy-activate NMDA receptor and induced mitochondrial toxicity by increased levels of Ca2+, NADPH-oxidase-4 (NOX-4) expression, mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity and decreased the level of nitrate, superoxide dismutase (SOD-2) expression, mitochondria membrane potentials, ATP production. To confirm the role of epigenetic, 5′-azacitidine (an epigenetic modulator) treatment was given to the cells. Pretreatment with NaHS (30μM) attenuated the Hcy-induced increased expression of DNMT1, DNMT3a, Ca2+ and decreased expression of DNMT3b in bEND3 cells. Furthermore, NaHS treatment also enhanced mitochondrial oxidative stress (NOX4, ROS, and NO) and restored ATP that indicates its protective effects against mitochondrial toxicity. Additional, NaHS significantly alleviated Hcy-induced LC3-I/II, CSE, Atg3/7 and low p62 expression which confirm its effect on mitophagy. Likewise, NaHS also restored level of eNOS, CD31, VE-Cadherin and ET-1 and maintains endothelial function in Hcy treated cells. Molecular inhibition of NMDA receptor by using small interfering RNA showed protective effect whereas inhibition of H2S production by propargylglycine (PG) (inhibitor of enzyme CSE) showed mitotoxic effect. Taken together, results demonstrate that, administration of H2S protected the cells from HHcy-induced mitochondrial toxicity and endothelial dysfunction. PMID:25056869

  13. Analysis of the mouse mutant Cloth-ears shows a role for the voltage-gated sodium channel Scn8a in peripheral neural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, F E; Parker, A; Parkinson, N J; Oliver, P L; Brooker, D; Underhill, P; Lukashkina, V A; Lukashkin, A N; Holmes, C; Brown, S D M

    2009-10-01

    Deafness is the most common sensory disorder in humans and the aetiology of genetic deafness is complex. Mouse mutants have been crucial in identifying genes involved in hearing. However, many deafness genes remain unidentified. Using N-ethyl N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis to generate new mouse models of deafness, we identified a novel semi-dominant mouse mutant, Cloth-ears (Clth). Cloth-ears mice show reduced acoustic startle response and mild hearing loss from approximately 30 days old. Auditory-evoked brainstem response (ABR) and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) analyses indicate that the peripheral neural auditory pathway is impaired in Cloth-ears mice, but that cochlear function is normal. In addition, both Clth/Clth and Clth/+ mice display paroxysmal tremor episodes with behavioural arrest. Clth/Clth mice also show a milder continuous tremor during movement and rest. Longitudinal phenotypic analysis showed that Clth/+ and Clth/Clth mice also have complex defects in behaviour, growth, neurological and motor function. Positional cloning of Cloth-ears identified a point mutation in the neuronal voltage-gated sodium channel alpha-subunit gene, Scn8a, causing an aspartic acid to valine (D981V) change six amino acids downstream of the sixth transmembrane segment of the second domain (D2S6). Complementation testing with a known Scn8a mouse mutant confirmed that this mutation is responsible for the Cloth-ears phenotype. Our findings suggest a novel role for Scn8a in peripheral neural hearing loss and paroxysmal motor dysfunction.

  14. Diallyl disulfide attenuated carbon ion irradiation-induced apoptosis in mouse testis through changing the ratio of Tap73/ΔNp73 via mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Di, Cui-xia; Han, Lu; Zhang, Hong; Xu, Shuai; Mao, Ai-hong; Sun, Chao; Liu, Yang; Si, Jing; Li, Hong-yan; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Bing; Miao, Guo-ying

    2015-11-03

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS), a major organosulfur compound derived from garlic, has various biological properties, including anti-cancer effects. However, the protective mechanism of DADS against radiation-induced mouse testis cell apoptosis has not been elucidated. In this study, the magnitude of radiation effects evoked by carbon ion irradiation was marked by morphology changes, significant rise in apoptotic cells, activation expression of p53, up regulation the ratio of pro-apoptotic Tap73/anti-apoptotic ΔNp73, as well as alterations of crucial mediator of the mitochondrial pathway. Interestingly, pretreatment with DADS attenuated carbon ion irradiation-induced morphology damages and apoptotic cells. Additionally, DADS elevated radiation-induced p53 and p21 expression, suggesting that p53 might be involved in the inhibition of cell cycle progression through up regulation of p21. Furthermore, administration with DADS prevented radiation-induced Tap73/ΔNp73 expression and consequently down regulated Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 expression, indicating that the balance between Tap73 and ΔNp73 had potential to activate p53 responsive genes. Thus, our results showed that radio protection effect of DADS on mouse testis is mediated by blocking apoptosis through changing the ratio of Tap73/ΔNp73 via mitochondrial pathway, suggesting that DADS could be used as a potential radio protection agent for the testis against heavy-ion radiation.

  15. Diallyl disulfide attenuated carbon ion irradiation-induced apoptosis in mouse testis through changing the ratio of Tap73/ΔNp73 via mitochondrial pathway

    PubMed Central

    Di, Cui-xia; Han, Lu; Zhang, Hong; Xu, Shuai; Mao, Ai-hong; Sun, Chao; Liu, Yang; Si, Jing; Li, Hong-yan; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Bing; Miao, Guo-ying

    2015-01-01

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS), a major organosulfur compound derived from garlic, has various biological properties, including anti-cancer effects. However, the protective mechanism of DADS against radiation-induced mouse testis cell apoptosis has not been elucidated. In this study, the magnitude of radiation effects evoked by carbon ion irradiation was marked by morphology changes, significant rise in apoptotic cells, activation expression of p53, up regulation the ratio of pro-apoptotic Tap73/anti-apoptotic ΔNp73, as well as alterations of crucial mediator of the mitochondrial pathway. Interestingly, pretreatment with DADS attenuated carbon ion irradiation-induced morphology damages and apoptotic cells. Additionally, DADS elevated radiation-induced p53 and p21 expression, suggesting that p53 might be involved in the inhibition of cell cycle progression through up regulation of p21. Furthermore, administration with DADS prevented radiation-induced Tap73/ΔNp73 expression and consequently down regulated Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 expression, indicating that the balance between Tap73 and ΔNp73 had potential to activate p53 responsive genes. Thus, our results showed that radio protection effect of DADS on mouse testis is mediated by blocking apoptosis through changing the ratio of Tap73/ΔNp73 via mitochondrial pathway, suggesting that DADS could be used as a potential radio protection agent for the testis against heavy-ion radiation. PMID:26526304

  16. Pretreatment with Bacopa monnieri extract offsets 3-nitropropionic acid induced mitochondrial oxidative stress and dysfunctions in the striatum of prepubertal mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Shinomol, George K; Bharath, M M Srinivas; Muralidhara

    2012-05-01

    The present investigation was designed to determine the efficacy of Bacopa monnieri (Brahmi; BM) to offset 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NPA) induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in dopaminergic (N27) cells and prepubertal mouse brain. Pretreatment of N27 cells with BM ethanolic extract (BME) significantly attenuated 3-NPA-induced cytotoxicity. Further, we determined the degree of oxidative stress induction, redox status, enzymic antioxidants, and protein oxidation in the striatal mitochondria of mice given BME prophylaxis followed by 3-NPA challenge. While 3-NPA-induced marked oxidative stress in the mitochondria of the striatum, BME prophylaxis markedly prevented 3-NPA-induced oxidative dysfunctions and depletion of reduced glutathione and thiol levels. The activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, thioredoxin reductase), Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, and citric acid cycle enzymes in the striatum discernible among 3-NPA mice were significantly restored with BME prophylaxis. Interestingly, BME offered protection against 3-NPA-induced mitochondrial dysfunctions as evidenced by the restoration of the activities of ETC enzymes (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, NADH:cytochrome c reductase, succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase, and cytochrome c oxidase) and mitochondrial viability. We hypothesize that the neuroprotective effects of BME may be wholly or in part related to its propensity to scavenge free radicals, maintain redox status, and upregulate antioxidant machinery in striatal mitochondria.

  17. Differential Gene Expression Reveals Mitochondrial Dysfunction in an Imprinting Center Deletion Mouse Model of Prader-Willi Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Weiwei; Coskun, Pinar E.; Nalbandian, Angèle; Knoblach, Susan; Resnick, James L.; Hoffman, Eric; Wallace, Douglas C.; Kimonis, Virginia E.

    2013-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder caused by deficiency of imprinted gene expression from the paternal chromosome 15q11-15q13 and clinically characterized by neonatal hypotonia, short stature, cognitive impairment, hypogonadism, hyperphagia, morbid obesity and diabetes. Previous clinical studies suggest that a defect in energy metabolism may be involved in the pathogenesis of PWS. We focused our attention on the genes associated with energy metabolism and found that there were 95 and 66 mitochondrial genes differentially expressed in PWS muscle and brain, respectively. Assessment of enzyme activities of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes in the brain, heart, liver and muscle were assessed. We found the enzyme activities of the cardiac mitochondrial complexes II+III were upregulated in the imprinting center deletion (PWS-IC) mice compared to the wild type littermates. These studies suggest that differential gene expression, especially of the mitochondrial genes may contribute to the pathophysiology of PWS. PMID:24127921

  18. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Protective Effects of Quercetin Against Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Progressive Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration in Cell Culture and MitoPark Transgenic Mouse Models of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Ay, Muhammet; Luo, Jie; Langley, Monica; Jin, Huajun; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G

    2017-04-04

    Quercetin, one of the major flavonoids in plants, has been recently reported to have neuroprotective effects against neurodegenerative processes. However, since the molecular signaling mechanisms governing these effects are not well clarified, we evaluated quercetin's effect on the neuroprotective signaling events in dopaminergic neuronal models and further tested its efficacy in the MitoPark transgenic mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Western blotting analysis revealed that quercetin significantly induced the activation of two major cell survival kinases, protein kinase D1 (PKD1) and Akt in MN9D dopaminergic neuronal cells. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition or siRNA knockdown of PKD1 blocked the activation of Akt, suggesting that PKD1 acts as an upstream regulator of Akt in quercetin-mediated neuroprotective signaling. Quercetin also enhanced CREB phosphorylation and expression of the CREB target gene BDNF. Results from qRT-PCR, Western blot analysis, mtDNA content analysis, and MitoTracker assay experiments revealed that quercetin augmented mitochondrial biogenesis. Quercetin also increased mitochondrial bioenergetics capacity and protected MN9D cells against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity. To further evaluate the neuroprotective efficacy of quercetin against the mitochondrial dysfunction underlying PD, we used the progressive dopaminergic neurodegenerative MitoPark transgenic mouse model of PD. Oral administration of quercetin significantly reversed behavioral deficits, striatal dopamine depletion, and TH neuronal cell loss in MitoPark mice. Together, our findings demonstrate that quercetin activates PKD1-Akt cell survival signaling axis and suggest that further exploration of quercetin as a promising neuroprotective agent for treating PD may offer clinical benefits. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Dynamic Regulation of Genes Involved in Mitochondrial DNA Replication and Transcription during Mouse Brown Fat Cell Differentiation and Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Murholm, Maria; Dixen, Karen; Qvortrup, Klaus; Hansen, Lillian H. L.; Amri, Ez-Zoubir; Madsen, Lise; Barbatelli, Giorgio; Quistorff, Bjørn; Hansen, Jacob B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Brown adipocytes are specialised in dissipating energy through adaptive thermogenesis, whereas white adipocytes are specialised in energy storage. These essentially opposite functions are possible for two reasons relating to mitochondria, namely expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and a remarkably higher mitochondrial abundance in brown adipocytes. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report a comprehensive characterisation of gene expression linked to mitochondrial DNA replication, transcription and function during white and brown fat cell differentiation in vitro as well as in white and brown fat, brown adipose tissue fractions and in selected adipose tissues during cold exposure. We find a massive induction of the majority of such genes during brown adipocyte differentiation and recruitment, e.g. of the mitochondrial transcription factors A (Tfam) and B2 (Tfb2m), whereas only a subset of the same genes were induced during white adipose conversion. In addition, PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16) was found to be expressed at substantially higher levels in brown compared to white pre-adipocytes and adipocytes. We demonstrate that forced expression of Tfam but not Tfb2m in brown adipocyte precursor cells promotes mitochondrial DNA replication, and that silencing of PRDM16 expression during brown fat cell differentiation blunts mitochondrial biogenesis and expression of brown fat cell markers. Conclusions/Significance Using both in vitro and in vivo model systems of white and brown fat cell differentiation, we report a detailed characterisation of gene expression linked to mitochondrial biogenesis and function. We find significant differences in differentiating white and brown adipocytes, which might explain the notable increase in mitochondrial content observed during brown adipose conversion. In addition, our data support a key role of PRDM16 in triggering brown adipocyte differentiation, including mitochondrial biogenesis and expression of UCP1

  20. Postexercise whole body heat stress additively enhances endurance training-induced mitochondrial adaptations in mouse skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Yuki; Matsunaga, Yutaka; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Yumiko; Takahashi, Yuki; Terada, Shin; Hoshino, Daisuke; Hatta, Hideo

    2014-10-01

    A recent study demonstrated that heat stress induces mitochondrial biogenesis in C2C12 myotubes, thereby implying that heat stress may be an effective treatment to enhance endurance training-induced mitochondrial adaptations in skeletal muscle. However, whether heat stress actually induces mitochondrial adaptations in skeletal muscle in vivo is unclear. In the present study, we report the novel findings that 1) whole body heat stress produced by exposure of ICR mice to a hot environment (40°C, 30 min/day, 5 days/wk, 3 wk) induced mitochondrial adaptations such as increased mitochondrial enzyme activity (citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase) and respiratory chain protein content (complexes I-V) in skeletal muscle in vivo and 2) postexercise whole body heat stress additively enhanced endurance training-induced mitochondrial adaptations (treadmill running, 25 m/min, 30 min/day, 5 days/wk, 3 wk). Moreover, to determine the candidate mechanisms underlying mitochondrial adaptations, we investigated the acute effects of postexercise whole body heat stress on the phosphorylation status of cellular signaling cascades that subsequently induce mitochondrial gene transcription. We found that whole body heat stress boosted the endurance exercise-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, increased the phosphorylation status of p70S6K, a biomarker of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 activity, and unexpectedly dephosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase and its downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase in skeletal muscle. Our present observations suggest that heat stress can act as an effective postexercise treatment. Heat stress treatment appeared to be clinically beneficial for people who have difficulty participating in sufficient exercise training, such as the elderly, injured athletes, and patients.

  1. Mössbauer Spectra of Mouse Hearts reveal age-dependent changes in mitochondrial and ferritin iron levels.

    PubMed

    Wofford, Joshua D; Chakrabarti, Mrinmoy; Lindahl, Paul Alan

    2017-02-15

    Cardiac function requires continuous high levels of energy, and so iron, a critical player in mitochondrial respiration, is an important component of the heart. Hearts from (57)Fe-enriched mice were evaluated by Mossbauer spectroscopy. Spectra consisted of a sextet and two quadrupole doublets. One doublet was due to residual blood while the other was due to [Fe4S4](2+) clusters and Fe(II) hemes, most of which were associated with mitochondrial respiration. The sextet was due to ferritin; there was no evidence of hemosiderin, a ferritin decomposition product. Iron from ferritin was nearly absent in young hearts, but increased steadily with age. EPR spectra exhibited signals similar to those of brain, liver, and human cells. No age-dependent EPR trends were apparent. Hearts from HFE(-/-) mice with hemochromatosis contained slightly more iron overall than controls, including more ferritin and less mitochondrial iron; these differences typify slightly older hearts, perhaps reflecting the burden due to this disease. HFE(-/-) livers were overloaded with ferritin but had low mitochondrial iron levels. IRP2(-/-) hearts contained less ferritin than controls but normal levels of mitochondrial iron. Hearts of young mice born to an iron-deficient mother contained normal levels of mitochondrial iron and no ferritin; the mothers heart contained low ferritin and normal levels of mitochondrial iron. High-spin Fe(II) ions were nearly undetectable in heart samples; these were evident in brains, livers, and human cells. Previous Mossbauer spectra of unenriched diseased human hearts lacked mitochondrial and blood doublets, and included hemosiderin features. This suggests degradation of iron-containing species during sample preparation.

  2. SOD1 targeted to the mitochondrial intermembrane space prevents motor neuropathy in the Sod1 knockout mouse.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Lindsey R; Igoudjil, Anissa; Magrané, Jordi; Li, Yingjie; Hansen, Jason M; Manfredi, Giovanni; Glass, Jonathan D

    2011-01-01

    Motor axon degeneration is a critical but poorly understood event leading to weakness and muscle atrophy in motor neuron diseases. Here, we investigated oxidative stress-mediated axonal degeneration in mice lacking the antioxidant enzyme, Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). We demonstrate a progressive motor axonopathy in these mice and show that Sod1(-/-) primary motor neurons extend short axons in vitro with reduced mitochondrial density. Sod1(-/-) neurons also show oxidation of mitochondrial--but not cytosolic--thioredoxin, suggesting that loss of SOD1 causes preferential oxidative stress in mitochondria, a primary source of superoxide in cells. SOD1 is widely regarded as the cytosolic isoform of superoxide dismutase, but is also found in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. The functional significance of SOD1 in the intermembrane space is unknown. We used a transgenic approach to express SOD1 exclusively in the intermembrane space and found that mitochondrial SOD1 is sufficient to prevent biochemical and morphological defects in the Sod1(-/-) model, and to rescue the motor phenotype of these mice when followed to 12 months of age. These results suggest that SOD1 in the mitochondrial intermembrane space is fundamental for motor axon maintenance, and implicate oxidative damage initiated at mitochondrial sites in the pathogenesis of motor axon degeneration.

  3. Of mice and the 'Age of Discovery': the complex history of colonization of the Azorean archipelago by the house mouse (Mus musculus) as revealed by mitochondrial DNA variation.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, S I; Mathias, M L; Searle, J B

    2015-01-01

    Humans have introduced many species onto remote oceanic islands. The house mouse (Mus musculus) is a human commensal and has consequently been transported to oceanic islands around the globe as an accidental stowaway. The history of these introductions can tell us not only about the mice themselves but also about the people that transported them. Following a phylogeographic approach, we used mitochondrial D-loop sequence variation (within an 849- to 864-bp fragment) to study house mouse colonization of the Azores. A total of 239 sequences were obtained from all nine islands, and interpretation was helped by previously published Iberian sequences and 66 newly generated Spanish sequences. A Bayesian analysis revealed presence in the Azores of most of the D-loop clades previously described in the domesticus subspecies of the house mouse, suggesting a complex colonization history of the archipelago as a whole from multiple geographical origins, but much less heterogeneity (often single colonization?) within islands. The expected historical link with mainland Portugal was reflected in the pattern of D-loop variation of some of the islands but not all. A more unexpected association with a distant North European source area was also detected in three islands, possibly reflecting human contact with the Azores prior to the 15th century discovery by Portuguese mariners. Widening the scope to colonization of the Macaronesian islands as a whole, human linkages between the Azores, Madeira, the Canaries, Portugal and Spain were revealed through the sharing of mouse sequences between these areas. From these and other data, we suggest mouse studies may help resolve historical uncertainties relating to the 'Age of Discovery'.

  4. Administration of CoQ10 analogue ameliorates dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain in a mouse model of Angelman syndrome.

    PubMed

    Llewellyn, Katrina J; Nalbandian, Angèle; Gomez, Arianna; Wei, Don; Walker, Naomi; Kimonis, Virginia E

    2015-04-01

    Genetic defects in the UBE3A gene, which encodes for the imprinted E6-AP ubiquitin E3 ligase (UBE3A), is responsible for the occurrence of Angelman syndrome (AS), a neurodegenerative disorder which arises in 1 out of every 12,000-20,000 births. Classical symptoms of AS include delayed development, impaired speech, and epileptic seizures with characteristic electroencephalography (EEG) readings. We have previously reported impaired mitochondrial structure and reduced complex III in the hippocampus and cerebellum in the Ube3a(m-/p+) mice. CoQ10 supplementation restores the electron flow to the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) to ultimately increase mitochondrial antioxidant capacity. A number of recent studies with CoQ10 analogues seem promising in providing therapeutic benefit to patients with a variety of disorders. CoQ10 therapy has been reported to be safe and relatively well-tolerated at doses as high as 3000mg/day in patients with disorders of CoQ10 biosynthesis and MRC disorders. Herein, we report administration of idebenone, a potent CoQ10 analogue, to the Ube3a(m-/p+) mouse model corrects motor coordination and anxiety levels, and also improves the expression of complexes III and IV in hippocampus CA1 and CA2 neurons and cerebellum in these Ube3a(m-/p+) mice. However, treatment with idebenone illustrated no beneficial effects in the reduction of oxidative stress. To our knowledge, this is the first study to suggest an improvement in mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction via bioenergetics modulation with a CoQ10 analogue. These findings may further elucidate possible cellular and molecular mechanism(s) and ultimately a clinical therapeutic approach/benefit for patients with Angelman syndrome.

  5. Underlying mitochondrial dysfunction triggers flutamide-induced oxidative liver injury in a mouse model of idiosyncratic drug toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Kashimshetty, Rohini; Desai, Varsha G.; Kale, Vijay M.; Lee, Taewon; Moland, Carrie L.; Branham, William S.; New, Lee S.; Chan, Eric C.Y.; Younis, Husam; Boelsterli, Urs A.

    2009-07-15

    Flutamide, a widely used nonsteroidal anti-androgen, but not its bioisostere bicalutamide, has been associated with idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury. Although the susceptibility factors are unknown, mitochondrial injury has emerged as a putative hazard of flutamide. To explore the role of mitochondrial sensitization in flutamide hepatotoxicity, we determined the effects of superimposed drug stress in a murine model of underlying mitochondrial abnormalities. Male wild-type or heterozygous Sod2{sup +/-} mice were injected intraperitoneously with flutamide (0, 30 or 100 mg/kg/day) for 28 days. A kinetic pilot study revealed that flutamide (100 mg/kg/day) caused approximately 10-fold greater exposure than the reported therapeutic mean plasma levels. Mutant (5/10), but not wild-type, mice in the high-dose group exhibited small foci of hepatocellular necrosis and an increased number of apoptotic hepatocytes. Hepatic GSSG/GSH, protein carbonyl levels, and serum lactate levels were significantly increased, suggesting oxidant stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Measurement of mitochondrial superoxide in cultured hepatocytes demonstrated that mitochondria were a significant source of flutamide-enhanced oxidant stress. Indeed, mitochondria isolated from flutamide-treated Sod2{sup +/-} mice exhibited decreased aconitase activity as compared to vehicle controls. A transcriptomics analysis using MitoChips revealed that flutamide-treated Sod2{sup +/-} mice exhibited a selective decrease in the expression of all complexes I and III subunits encoded by mitochondrial DNA. In contrast, Sod2{sup +/-} mice receiving bicalutamide (50 mg/kg/day) did not reveal any hepatic changes. These results are compatible with our concept that flutamide targets hepatic mitochondria and exerts oxidant stress that can lead to overt hepatic injury in the presence of an underlying mitochondrial abnormality.

  6. Effect of angiotensin II-induced arterial hypertension on the voltage-dependent contractions of mouse arteries.

    PubMed

    Fransen, Paul; Van Hove, Cor E; Leloup, Arthur J A; Schrijvers, Dorien M; De Meyer, Guido R Y; De Keulenaer, Gilles W

    2016-02-01

    Arterial hypertension (AHT) affects the voltage dependency of L-type Ca(2+) channels in cardiomyocytes. We analyzed the effect of angiotensin II (AngII)-induced AHT on L-type Ca(2+) channel-mediated isometric contractions in conduit arteries. AHT was induced in C57Bl6 mice with AngII-filled osmotic mini-pumps (4 weeks). Normotensive mice treated with saline-filled osmotic mini-pumps were used for comparison. Voltage-dependent contractions mediated by L-type Ca(2+) channels were studied in vaso-reactive studies in vitro in isolated aortic and femoral arteries by using extracellular K(+) concentration-response (KDR) experiments. In aortic segments, AngII-induced AHT significantly sensitized isometric contractions induced by elevated extracellular K(+) and depolarization. This sensitization was partly prevented by normalizing blood pressure with hydralazine, suggesting that it was caused by AHT rather than by direct AngII effects on aortic smooth muscle cells. The EC50 for extracellular K(+) obtained in vitro correlated significantly with the rise in arterial blood pressure induced by AngII in vivo. The AHT-induced sensitization persisted when aortic segments were exposed to levcromakalim or to inhibitors of basal nitric oxide release. Consistent with these observations, AngII-treatment also sensitized the vaso-relaxing effects of the L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker diltiazem during K(+)-induced contractions. Unlike aorta, AngII-treatment desensitized the isometric contractions to depolarization in femoral arteries pointing to vascular bed specific responses of arteries to hypertension. AHT affects the voltage-dependent L-type Ca(2+) channel-mediated contraction of conduit arteries. This effect may contribute to the decreased vascular compliance in AHT and explain the efficacy of Ca(2+) channel blockers to reduce vascular stiffness and central blood pressure in AHT.

  7. Molecular mechanisms of regulation of fast-inactivating voltage-dependent transient outward K+ current in mouse heart by cell volume changes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guan-Lei; Wang, Ge-Xin; Yamamoto, Shintaro; Ye, Linda; Baxter, Heather; Hume, Joseph R; Duan, Dayue

    2005-01-01

    The Kv4.2/4.3 channels are the primary subunits that contribute to the fast-inactivating, voltage-dependent transient outward K+ current (Ito,fast) in the heart. Ito,fast is the critical determinant of the early repolarization of the cardiac action potential and plays an important role in the adaptive remodelling of cardiac myocytes, which usually causes cell volume changes, during myocardial ischaemia, hypertrophy and heart failure. It is not known, however, whether Ito,fast is regulated by cell volume changes. In this study we investigated the molecular mechanism for cell volume regulation of Ito,fast in native mouse left ventricular myocytes. Hyposmotic cell swelling caused a marked increase in densities of the peak Ito,fast and a significant shortening in phase 1 repolarization of the action potential duration. The voltage-dependent gating properties of Ito,fast were, however, not altered by changes in cell volume. In the presence of either protein kinase C (PKC) activator (12,13-dibutyrate) or phosphatase inhibitors (calyculin A and okadaic acid), hyposmotic cell swelling failed to further up-regulate Ito,fast. When expressed in NIH/3T3 cells, both Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 channels were also strongly regulated by cell volume in the same voltage-independent but PKC- and phosphatase-dependent manner as seen in Ito,fast in the native cardiac myocytes. We conclude that Kv4.2/4.3 channels in the heart are regulated by cell volume through a phosphorylation/dephosphorylation pathway mediated by PKC and serine/threonine phosphatase(s). These findings suggest a novel role of Kv4.2/4.3 channels in the adaptive electrical and structural remodelling of cardiac myocytes in response to myocardial hypertrophy, ischaemia and reperfusion. PMID:16081489

  8. Unchanged mitochondrial organization and compartmentation of high-energy phosphates in creatine-deficient GAMT−/− mouse hearts

    PubMed Central

    Branovets, Jelena; Sepp, Mervi; Kotlyarova, Svetlana; Jepihhina, Natalja; Sokolova, Niina; Aksentijevic, Dunja; Lygate, Craig A.; Neubauer, Stefan; Birkedal, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    Disruption of the creatine kinase (CK) system in hearts of CK-deficient mice leads to changes in the ultrastructure and regulation of mitochondrial respiration. We expected to see similar changes in creatine-deficient mice, which lack the enzyme guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) to produce creatine. The aim of this study was to characterize the changes in cardiomyocyte mitochondrial organization, regulation of respiration, and intracellular compartmentation associated with GAMT deficiency. Three-dimensional mitochondrial organization was assessed by confocal microscopy. On populations of permeabilized cardiomyocytes, we recorded ADP and ATP kinetics of respiration, competition between mitochondria and pyruvate kinase for ADP produced by ATPases, ADP kinetics of endogenous pyruvate kinase, and ATP kinetics of ATPases. These data were analyzed by mathematical models to estimate intracellular compartmentation. Quantitative analysis of morphological and kinetic data as well as derived model fits showed no difference between GAMT-deficient and wild-type mice. We conclude that inactivation of the CK system by GAMT deficiency does not alter mitochondrial organization and intracellular compartmentation in relaxed cardiomyocytes. Thus, our results suggest that the healthy heart is able to preserve cardiac function at a basal level in the absence of CK-facilitated energy transfer without compromising intracellular organization and the regulation of mitochondrial energy homeostasis. This raises questions on the importance of the CK system as a spatial energy buffer in unstressed cardiomyocytes. PMID:23792673

  9. Unchanged mitochondrial organization and compartmentation of high-energy phosphates in creatine-deficient GAMT-/- mouse hearts.

    PubMed

    Branovets, Jelena; Sepp, Mervi; Kotlyarova, Svetlana; Jepihhina, Natalja; Sokolova, Niina; Aksentijevic, Dunja; Lygate, Craig A; Neubauer, Stefan; Vendelin, Marko; Birkedal, Rikke

    2013-08-15

    Disruption of the creatine kinase (CK) system in hearts of CK-deficient mice leads to changes in the ultrastructure and regulation of mitochondrial respiration. We expected to see similar changes in creatine-deficient mice, which lack the enzyme guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) to produce creatine. The aim of this study was to characterize the changes in cardiomyocyte mitochondrial organization, regulation of respiration, and intracellular compartmentation associated with GAMT deficiency. Three-dimensional mitochondrial organization was assessed by confocal microscopy. On populations of permeabilized cardiomyocytes, we recorded ADP and ATP kinetics of respiration, competition between mitochondria and pyruvate kinase for ADP produced by ATPases, ADP kinetics of endogenous pyruvate kinase, and ATP kinetics of ATPases. These data were analyzed by mathematical models to estimate intracellular compartmentation. Quantitative analysis of morphological and kinetic data as well as derived model fits showed no difference between GAMT-deficient and wild-type mice. We conclude that inactivation of the CK system by GAMT deficiency does not alter mitochondrial organization and intracellular compartmentation in relaxed cardiomyocytes. Thus, our results suggest that the healthy heart is able to preserve cardiac function at a basal level in the absence of CK-facilitated energy transfer without compromising intracellular organization and the regulation of mitochondrial energy homeostasis. This raises questions on the importance of the CK system as a spatial energy buffer in unstressed cardiomyocytes.

  10. The voltage-dependent Cl− channel ClC-5 and plasma membrane Cl− conductances of mouse renal collecting duct cells (mIMCD-3)

    PubMed Central

    Sayer, J A; Stewart, G S; Boese, S H; Gray, M A; Pearce, S H S; Goodship, T H J; Simmons, N L

    2001-01-01

    We have tested the hypothesis that the voltage-dependent Cl− channel, ClC-5 functions as a plasma membrane Cl− conductance in renal inner medullary collecting duct cells. Full-length mouse kidney ClC-5 (mClC-5) was cloned and transiently expressed in CHO-K1 cells. Fast whole-cell patch-clamp recordings confirmed that mClC-5 expression produces a voltage-dependent, strongly outwardly rectifying Cl− conductance that was unaffected by external DIDS. Slow whole-cell recordings, using nystatin-perforated patches from transfected CHO-K1 cells, also produced voltage-dependent Cl− currents consistent with ClC-5 expression. However, under this recording configuration an endogenous DIDS-sensitive Ca2+-activated Cl− conductance was also evident, which appeared to be activated by green fluorescent protein (GFP) transfection. A mClC-5-GFP fusion protein was transiently expressed in CHO-K1 cells; confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) showed localization at the plasma membrane, consistent with patch-clamp experiments. Endogenous expression of mClC-5 was demonstrated in mouse renal collecting duct cells (mIMCD-3) by RT-PCR and by immunocytochemistry. Using slow whole-cell current recordings, mIMCD-3 cells displayed three biophysically distinct Cl−-selective currents, which were all inhibited by DIDS. However, no cells exhibited whole-cell currents that had mClC-5 characteristics. Transient transfection of mIMCD-3 cells with antisense mClC-5 had no effect on the endogenous Cl− conductances. Transient transfection with sense mClC-5 failed to induce the Cl− conductance seen in CHO-K1 cells but stimulated levels of the endogenous Ca2+-activated Cl− conductance 24 h post-transfection. Confocal laser scanning microscopy of mIMCD-3 cells transfected with mClC-5-GFP showed that the protein was absent from the plasma membrane and was instead localized to acidic endosomal compartments. These data discount a major role for ClC-5 as a plasma membrane Cl− conductance in

  11. G7731A mutation in mouse mitochondrial tRNALys regulates late-onset disorders in transmitochondrial mice.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Akinori; Mito, Takayuki; Hashizume, Osamu; Yonekawa, Hiromichi; Ishikawa, Kaori; Nakada, Kazuto; Hayashi, Jun-Ichi

    2015-03-27

    We previously generated mito-mice-tRNA(Lys7731) as a model for primary prevention of mitochondrial diseases. These mice harbour a G7731A mtDNA mutation in the tRNA(Lys) gene, but express only muscle weakness and short body length by four months. Here, we examined the effects of their aging on metabolic and histologic features. Unlike young mito-mice-tRNA(Lys7731), aged mito-mice-tRNA(Lys7731) developed muscle atrophy, renal failures, and various metabolic abnormalities, such as lactic acidosis and anemia, characteristic of patients with mitochondrial diseases. These observations provide convincing evidence that the respiration defects induced by high G7731A mtDNA levels cause these late-onset disorders that are relevant to mitochondrial diseases.

  12. Effects of decreased lactate accumulation after dichloroacetate administration on exercise training–induced mitochondrial adaptations in mouse skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Hoshino, Daisuke; Tamura, Yuki; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Matsunaga, Yutaka; Hatta, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggested that lactate accumulation can be a signal for mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. We investigated whether reductions in lactate concentrations in response to dichloroacetate (DCA), an activator of pyruvate dehydrogenase, attenuate mitochondrial adaptations after exercise training in mice. We first confirmed that DCA administration (200 mg/kg BW by i.p. injection) 10 min before exercise decreased muscle and blood lactate concentrations after high-intensity interval exercise (10 bouts of 1 min treadmill running at 40 m/min with a 1 min rest). At the same time, exercise-induced signal cascades did not change by pre-exercise DCA administration. These results suggested that DCA administration affected only lactate concentrations after exercise. We next examined the effects of acute DCA administration on mRNA expressions involved with mitochondrial biogenesis after same high-intensity interval exercise and the effects of chronic DCA administration on mitochondrial adaptations after high-intensity interval training (increasing intensity from 38 to 43 m/min by the end of training period). Acute DCA administration did not change most of the exercise-induced mRNA upregulation. These data suggest that lactate reductions by DCA administration did not affect transcriptional activation after high-intensity interval exercise. However, chronic DCA administration attenuated, in part, mitochondrial adaptations such as training-induced increasing rates of citrate synthase (P = 0.06), β-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase activity (P < 0.05), cytochrome c oxidase IV (P < 0.05) and a fatty acid transporter, fatty acid translocase/CD36 (P < 0.05), proteins after exercise training. These results suggest that lactate accumulation during high-intensity interval exercise may be associated with mitochondrial adaptations after chronic exercise training. PMID:26416973

  13. HMJ-53A accelerates slow inactivation gating of voltage-gated K+ channels in mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells.

    PubMed

    Chao, Chia-Chia; Shieh, Jeffrey; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Wu, Bor-Tsang; Hour, Mann-Jen; Leung, Yuk-Man

    2008-06-01

    Voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels are important in repolarization of excitable cells such as neurons and endocrine cells. Kv channel gating exhibits slow inactivation (slow current decay) during continuous depolarization. The molecular mechanism involved in such slow inactivation is not completely understood, but evidence has suggested that it involves a restriction of the outer channel pore surrounding the selectivity filter. Pharmacological tools probing this slow inactivation process are scarce. In this work we reported that bath application of HMJ-53A (30 microM), a novel compound, could drastically speed up the slow decay (decay tau=1677+/-120 ms and 85.6+/-7.7 ms, respectively, in the absence and presence of HMJ-53A) of Kv currents in neuroblastoma N2A cells. HMJ-53A also significantly left-shifted the steady-state inactivation curve by 12 mV. HMJ-53A, however, did not affect voltage-dependence of activation and the kinetics of channel activation. Intracellular application of this drug through patch pipette dialysis was ineffective at all in accelerating the slow current decay, suggesting that HMJ-53A acted extracellularly. Blockade of currents by HMJ-53A did not require an open state of channels. In addition, the inactivation time constants and percentage block of Kv currents in the presence of HMJ-53A were independent of the (i) degree of depolarization and (ii) intracellular K(+) concentration. Therefore, this drug did not appear to directly occlude the outer channel pore during stimulation (depolarization). Taken together, our results suggest that HMJ-53A selectively affected (accelerated) the slow inactivation gating process of Kv channels, and could thus be a selective and novel probe for the inactivation gate.

  14. Dietary fat and fiber interactively modulate apoptosis and mitochondrial bioenergetic profiles in mouse colon in a site-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yang-Yi; Vaz, Frederic M; Chapkin, Robert S

    2016-05-10

    We have demonstrated that the combination of bioactive components generated by fish oil (containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) and fermentable fiber (leading to butyrate production) act coordinately to protect against colon cancer. This is, in part, the result of an enhancement of apoptosis at the base of the crypt across all stages (initiation, promotion, and progression) of colon tumorigenesis. As mitochondria are key organelles capable of regulating the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and mediating programmed cell death, we investigated the effects of diet on mitochondrial function by measuring mucosal cardiolipin composition, mitochondrial respiratory parameters, and apoptosis in isolated crypts from the proximal and distal colon. C57BL/6 mice (n=15/treatment) were fed one of two dietary fats (corn oil and fish oil) and two fibers (pectin and cellulose) for 4 weeks in a 2×2 factorial design. In general, diet modulated apoptosis and the mucosal bioenergetic profiles in a site-specific manner. The fish/pectin diet promoted a more proapoptotic phenotype - for example, increased proton leak (Pinteraction=0.002) - compared with corn/cellulose (control) only in the proximal colon. With respect to the composition of cardiolipin, a unique phospholipid localized to the mitochondrial inner membrane where it mediates energy metabolism, fish oil feeding indirectly influenced its molecular species with a combined carbon number of C68 or greater, suggesting compensatory regulation. These data indicate that dietary fat and fiber can interactively modulate the mitochondrial metabolic profile and thereby potentially modulate apoptosis and subsequent colon cancer risk.

  15. Phylogenetic relationships of intraspecific forms of the house mouse Mus musculus: Analysis of variability of the control region (D-loop) of mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Maltsev, A N; Stakheev, V V; Bogdanov, A S; Fomina, E S; Kotenkova, E V

    2015-11-01

    Analysis of the control region of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or D-loop of 96 house mice (Mus musculus) from Russia, Moldova, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan has been used to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships and phylogeographic patterns of intraspecific forms. New data on the phylogenetic structure of the house mouse are presented. Three phylogroups can be reliably distinguished in the eastern part of the M. musculus species range, the first one mainly comprising the haplotypes of mice from Transcaucasia (Armenia); the second one, the haplotypes of mice from Kazakhstan; and the third one, the haplotypes of mice from Siberia and some other regions. The morphological subspecies M. m. wagneri and M. m. gansuensis have proved to be genetically heterogeneous and did not form discrete phylogroups in the phylogenetic tree.

  16. N-Acetylcysteine improves mitochondrial function and ameliorates behavioral deficits in the R6/1 mouse model of Huntington's disease

    PubMed Central

    Wright, D J; Renoir, T; Smith, Z M; Frazier, A E; Francis, P S; Thorburn, D R; McGee, S L; Hannan, A J; Gray, L J

    2015-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, involving psychiatric, cognitive and motor symptoms, caused by a CAG-repeat expansion encoding an extended polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin protein. Oxidative stress and excitotoxicity have previously been implicated in the pathogenesis of HD. We hypothesized that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may reduce both excitotoxicity and oxidative stress through its actions on glutamate reuptake and antioxidant capacity. The R6/1 transgenic mouse model of HD was used to investigate the effects of NAC on HD pathology. It was found that chronic NAC administration delayed the onset and progression of motor deficits in R6/1 mice, while having an antidepressant-like effect on both R6/1 and wild-type mice. A deficit in the astrocytic glutamate transporter protein, GLT-1, was found in R6/1 mice. However, this deficit was not ameliorated by NAC, implying that the therapeutic effect of NAC is not due to rescue of the GLT-1 deficit and associated glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. Assessment of mitochondrial function in the striatum and cortex revealed that R6/1 mice show reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity specific to the striatum. This deficit was rescued by chronic treatment with NAC. There was a selective increase in markers of oxidative damage in mitochondria, which was rescued by NAC. In conclusion, NAC is able to delay the onset of motor deficits in the R6/1 model of Huntington's disease and it may do so by ameliorating mitochondrial dysfunction. Thus, NAC shows promise as a potential therapeutic agent in HD. Furthermore, our data suggest that NAC may also have broader antidepressant efficacy. PMID:25562842

  17. Opa3, a novel regulator of mitochondrial function, controls thermogenesis and abdominal fat mass in a mouse model for Costeff syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wells, Timothy; Davies, Jennifer R; Guschina, Irina A; Ball, Daniel J; Davies, Jeffrey S; Davies, Vanessa J; Evans, Bronwen A J; Votruba, Marcela

    2012-11-15

    The interrelationship between brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT) is emerging as an important factor in obesity, but the effect of impairing non-shivering thermogenesis in BAT on lipid storage in WAT remains unclear. To address this, we have characterized the metabolic phenotype of a mouse model for Costeff syndrome, in which a point mutation in the mitochondrial membrane protein Opa3 impairs mitochondrial activity. Opa3(L122P) mice displayed an 80% reduction in insulin-like growth factor 1, postnatal growth retardation and hepatic steatosis. A 90% reduction in uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in interscapular BAT was accompanied by a marked reduction in surface body temperature, with a 2.5-fold elevation in interscapular BAT mass and lipid storage. The sequestration of circulating lipid into BAT resulted in profound reductions in epididymal and retroperitoneal WAT mass, without affecting subcutaneous WAT. The histological appearance and intense mitochondrial staining in intra-abdominal WAT suggest significant 'browning', but with UCP1 expression in WAT of Opa3(L122P) mice only 62% of that in wild-type littermates, any precursor differentiation does not appear to result in thermogenically active beige adipocytes. Thus, we have identified Opa3 as a novel regulator of lipid metabolism, coupling lipid uptake with lipid processing in liver and with thermogenesis in BAT. These findings indicate that skeletal and metabolic impairment in Costeff syndrome may be more significant than previously thought and that uncoupling lipid uptake from lipid metabolism in BAT may represent a novel approach to controlling WAT mass in obesity.

  18. P2Y1R-initiated, IP3R-dependent stimulation of astrocyte mitochondrial metabolism reduces and partially reverses ischemic neuronal damage in mouse

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wei; Talley Watts, Lora; Holstein, Deborah M; Wewer, Jimmy; Lechleiter, James D

    2013-01-01

    Glia-based neuroprotection strategies are emerging as promising new avenues to treat brain damage. We previously reported that activation of the glial-specific purinergic receptor, P2Y1R, reduces both astrocyte swelling and brain infarcts in a photothrombotic mouse model of stroke. These restorative effects were dependent on astrocyte mitochondrial metabolism. Here, we extend these findings and report that P2Y1R stimulation with the purinergic ligand 2-methylthioladenosine 5′ diphosphate (2MeSADP) reduces and partially reverses neuronal damage induced by photothrombosis. In vivo neuronal morphology was confocally imaged in transgenic mice expressing yellow fluorescent protein under the control of the Thy1 promoter. Astrocyte mitochondrial membrane potentials, monitored with the potential sensitive dye tetra-methyl rhodamine methyl ester, were depolarized after photothrombosis and subsequently repolarized when P2Y1Rs were stimulated. Mice deficient in the astrocyte-specific type 2 inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate (IP3) receptor exhibited aggravated ischemic dendritic damage after photothrombosis. Treatment of these mice with 2MeSADP did not invoke an intracellular Ca2+ response, did not repolarize astrocyte mitochondria, and did not reduce or partially reverse neuronal lesions induced by photothrombotic stroke. These results demonstrate that IP3-Ca2+ signaling in astrocytes is not only critical for P2Y1R-enhanced protection, but suggest that IP3-Ca2+ signaling is also a key component of endogenous neuroprotection. PMID:23321785

  19. Reduction of apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway by the administration of acetyl-L-carnitine to mouse fibroblasts in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Pillich, Rudolf Tito; Scarsella, Gianfranco; Risuleo, Gianfranco . E-mail: gianfranco.risuleo@uniroma1.it

    2005-05-15

    It is shown in literature that stress, such as deprivation of trophic factors and hypoxia, induces apoptosis in cultured cells and in tissues. In light of these results, we explored the possibility of protecting cells from programmed death by improving the metabolism of the mitochondrion. To this end, acetyl-L-carnitine was administered at various concentrations under conditions of serum deprivation. The choice of this drug was based on the accepted notion that acetyl-L-carnitine is able to stabilize mitochondrial membranes and to increase the supply of energy to the organelle. The results presented here indicate that the drug protects cells from apoptotic death: this is demonstrated by a lower positivity to the TUNEL reaction and by a strong reduction of the apoptotic DNA ladder in serum-deprived cells. The involvement of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway was assessed by cytochrome C release and immunoreactivity to caspase 3. Moreover, acetyl-L-carnitine stimulates cell proliferation.

  20. Radiation–Induced Signaling Results in Mitochondrial Impairment in Mouse Heart at 4 Weeks after Exposure to X-Rays

    PubMed Central

    Barjaktarovic, Zarko; Schmaltz, Dominik; Shyla, Alena; Azimzadeh, Omid; Schulz, Sabine; Haagen, Julia; Dörr, Wolfgang; Sarioglu, Hakan; Schäfer, Alexander; Atkinson, Michael J.; Zischka, Hans; Tapio, Soile

    2011-01-01

    Backround Radiation therapy treatment of breast cancer, Hodgkin's disease or childhood cancers expose the heart to high local radiation doses, causing an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in the survivors decades after the treatment. The mechanisms that underlie the radiation damage remain poorly understood so far. Previous data show that impairment of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism is directly linked to the development of cardiovascular disease. Methodology/Principal findings In this study, the radiation-induced in vivo effects on cardiac mitochondrial proteome and function were investigated. C57BL/6N mice were exposed to local irradiation of the heart with doses of 0.2 Gy or 2 Gy (X-ray, 200 kV) at the age of eight weeks, the control mice were sham-irradiated. After four weeks the cardiac mitochondria were isolated and tested for proteomic and functional alterations. Two complementary proteomics approaches using both peptide and protein quantification strategies showed radiation-induced deregulation of 25 proteins in total. Three main biological categories were affected: the oxidative phophorylation, the pyruvate metabolism, and the cytoskeletal structure. The mitochondria exposed to high-dose irradiation showed functional impairment reflected as partial deactivation of Complex I (32%) and Complex III (11%), decreased succinate-driven respiratory capacity (13%), increased level of reactive oxygen species and enhanced oxidation of mitochondrial proteins. The changes in the pyruvate metabolism and structural proteins were seen with both low and high radiation doses. Conclusion/Significance This is the first study showing the biological alterations in the murine heart mitochondria several weeks after the exposure to low- and high-dose of ionizing radiation. Our results show that doses, equivalent to a single dose in radiotherapy, cause long-lasting changes in mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and mitochondria-associated cytoskeleton. This prompts us to

  1. Pyrroloquinoline quinone nutritional status alters lysine metabolism and modulates mitochondrial DNA content in the mouse and rat.

    PubMed

    Bauerly, K A; Storms, D H; Harris, C B; Hajizadeh, S; Sun, M Y; Cheung, C P; Satre, M A; Fascetti, A J; Tchaparian, E; Rucker, R B

    2006-11-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) added to purified diets devoid of PQQ improves indices of perinatal development in rats and mice. Herein, PQQ nutritional status and lysine metabolism are described, prompted by a report that PQQ functions as a vitamin-like enzymatic cofactor important in lysine metabolism (Nature 422 [2003] 832). Alternatively, we propose that PQQ influences lysine metabolism, but by mechanisms that more likely involve changes in mitochondrial content. PQQ deprivation in both rats and mice resulted in a decrease in mitochondrial content. In rats, alpha-aminoadipic acid (alphaAA), which is derived from alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde (alphaAAS) and made from lysine in mitochondria, and the plasma levels of amino acids known to be oxidized in mitochondria (e.g., Thr, Ser, and Gly) were correlated with changes in the liver mitochondrial content of PQQ-deprived rats, but not PQQ-supplemented rats. In contrast, the levels of NAD dependent alpha-aminoadipate-delta-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (AASDH), a cytosolic enzyme important to alphaAA production from alphaAAS, was not influenced by PQQ dietary status. Moreover, the levels of U26 mRNA were not significantly changed even when diets differed markedly in PQQ and dietary lysine content. U26 mRNA levels were measured, because of U26's proposed, albeit questionable role as a PQQ-dependent enzyme involved in alphaAA formation.

  2. Schisandrin B protects against carbon tetrachloride toxicity by enhancing the mitochondrial glutathione redox status in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Ip, S P; Poon, M K; Che, C T; Ng, K H; Kong, Y C; Ko, K M

    1996-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have demonstrated the effect of Schisandrin B (Sch B),an active ingredient of the fruit of Schisandra chinensis, on enhancing the hepatic glutathione antioxidant system in mice, as evidenced by the hepatoprotection against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) toxicity. In the present study, the mechanism involved in the hepatoprotection afforded by Sch B treatment was investigated. Treating female Balb/c mice with 1, 3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea, an inhibitor of glutathione reductase (GRD), at a dose of 2 mmol/kg (i.p.) did not abrogate the hepatoprotective action of Sch B in CCl4-treated mice. The result indicates that the increased activity of hepatic GRD is not ascribable to the hepatoprotective action of Sch B. In control mice, the same Sch B treatment regimen caused an enhancement in hepatic mitochondrial glutathione redox status, as indicated by the significant increase and decrease in reduced and oxidized glutathione levels, respectively. While the CCl4 intoxication greatly impaired mitochondrial glutathione redox status, the beneficial effect of Sch B treatment became more evident after CCl4 challenge. Our results strongly suggest that the mechanism of hepatoprotection afforded by Sch B treatment may involve the enhancement of mitochondrial glutathione redox status.

  3. Galangin prevents aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity by decreasing mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species in mouse cochlear cultures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ye-Ri; Kim, Min-A; Cho, Hyun-Ju; Oh, Se-Kyung; Lee, In-Kyu; Kim, Un-Kyung; Lee, Kyu-Yup

    2016-03-14

    Amikacin is a semi-synthetic aminoglycoside widely used to treat infections caused by gentamicin-resistant gram-negative organisms and nontuberculous mycobacteria. However, the use of this agent often results in ototoxicity due to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Galangin, a natural flavonoid, has been shown to play a protective role against mitochondrial dysfunction by reducing mitochondrial ROS production. In this study, the effect of galangin on amikacin-induced ototoxicity was examined using cultures of cochlear explants. Immunofluorescent staining showed that treatment of inner hair cells (IHCs) and outer hair cells (OHCs) with galangin significantly decreased damage induced by amikacin. Moreover, pretreatment with galangin resulted in decreased amikacin-provoked increase in ROS production in both types of hair cells by MitoSOX-red staining. Attenuation of apoptotic cell death was assessed immunohistochemically using active caspase-3 antibody and with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, compared to explants exposed to amikacin alone (P<0.05). These results indicate that galangin protects hair cells in the organ of Corti from amikacin-induced toxicity by reducing the production of mitochondrial ROS. The results of this study suggest that galangin can potentially be used as an antioxidant and antiapoptotic agent to prevent hearing loss caused by aminoglycoside induced-oxidative stress.

  4. How mitochondrial dynamism orchestrates mitophagy

    PubMed Central

    Shirihai, Orian; Song, Moshi; Dorn, Gerald W

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are highly dynamic, except in adult cardiomyocytes. Yet, the fission and fusion-promoting proteins that mediate mitochondrial dynamism are highly expressed in, and essential to the normal functioning of, hearts. Here, we review accumulating evidence supporting important roles for mitochondrial fission and fusion in cardiac mitochondrial quality control, focusing on the PINK1-Parkin mitophagy pathway.Based in part on recent findings from in vivo mouse models in which mitofusin-mediated mitochondrial fusion or Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission were conditionally interrupted in cardiac myocytes, we propose several new concepts that may provide insight into the cardiac mitochondrial dynamism-mitophagy interactome. PMID:25999423

  5. Pioglitazone alleviates the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and mito-oxidative damage in the d-galactose-induced mouse model.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Atish; Kumar, Anil

    2013-09-01

    Chronic injection of d-galactose can cause gradual deterioration in learning and memory capacity, and activates oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptotic cell death in the brain of mice. Thus, it serves as an animal model of ageing. Recent evidence has shown that mild cognitive impairment in humans might be alleviated by treatment with piogliatzone (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists). To continue exploring the effects of piogliatzone in this model, we focused on behavioural alteration, oxidative damage, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in d-galactose-induced mice. The ageing model was established by administration of d-galactose (100 mg/kg) for 6 weeks. Pioglitazone (10 and 30 mg/kg) and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (15 mg/kg) were given daily to d-galactose-induced senescent mice. The cognitive behaviour of mice was monitored using the Morris water maze. The anti-oxidant status and apoptotic activity in the ageing mice was measured by determining mito-oxidative parameters and caspase-3 activity in brain tissue. Systemic administration of d-galactose significantly increased behavioural alterations, biochemical parameters, mitochondrial enzymes, and activations of caspase-3 and acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity as compared with the control group. Piogliatzone treatment significantly improved behavioural abnormalities, biochemical, cellular alterations, and attenuated the caspase-3 and acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity as compared with the control. Furthermore, pretreatment of BADGE (PPARγ antagonist) with pioglitazone reversed the protective effect of pioglitazone in d-galactose-induced mice. The present study highlights the protective effects of pioglitzone against d-galactose-induced memory dysfunction, mito-oxidative damage and apoptosis through activation of PPARγ receptors. These findings suggest that pioglitazone might be helpful for the prevention or alleviation of ageing.

  6. (−)-EPICATECHIN IMPROVES MITOCHONDRIAL RELATED PROTEIN LEVELS AND AMELIORATES OXIDATIVE STRESS IN DYSTROPHIC DELTA SARCOGLYCAN NULL MOUSE STRIATED MUSCLE

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Sanchez, Israel; De los Santos, Sergio; Gonzalez-Basurto, Silvia; Canto, Patricia; Mendoza-Lorenzo, Patricia; Palma-Flores, Carlos; Ceballos-Reyes, Guillermo; Villarreal, Francisco; Zentella-Dehesa, Alejandro; Coral-Vazquez, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Muscular dystrophies (MD) are a group of heterogeneous genetic disorders characterized by progressive striated muscle wasting and degeneration. Although the genetic basis for many of these disorders has been identified, the exact mechanism for disease pathogenesis remains unclear. The presence of oxidative stress (OS) is known to contribute to the pathophysiology and severity of the MD. Mitochondrial dysfunction is observed in MD and likely represents an important determinant of increased OS. Experimental antioxidant therapies have been implemented with the aim of protecting against disease progression, but results from clinical trials have been disappointing. In this study, we explored the capacity of the cacao flavonoid (−)-epicatechin (Epi) to mitigate OS by acting as a positive regulator of mitochondrial structure/function endpoints and redox balance control systems in skeletal and cardiac muscles of dystrophic, δ-sarcoglycan (δ-SG) null mice. Wild type or δ-SG null 2.5 month old male mice were treated via oral gavage with either water (control animals) or Epi (1 mg/kg, twice/day) for 2 weeks. Results evidence a significant normalization of total protein carbonylation, recovery of reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG ratio) and enhanced superoxide dismutase 2, catalase and citrate synthase activities with Epi treatment. These effects were accompanied by increases in protein levels for thiolredoxin, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase 2, catalase and mitochondrial endpoints. Furthermore, we evidence decreases in heart and skeletal muscle fibrosis, accompanied with an improvement in skeletal muscle function with treatment. These results warrant the further investigation of Epi as a potential therapeutic agent to mitigate MD associated muscle degeneration. PMID:25284161

  7. Coenzyme Q10 Inhibits Glutamate Excitotoxicity and Oxidative Stress–Mediated Mitochondrial Alteration in a Mouse Model of Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dongwook; Shim, Myoung Sup; Kim, Keun-Young; Noh, You Hyun; Kim, Heemin; Kim, Sang Yeop; Weinreb, Robert N.; Ju, Won-Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To test whether a diet supplemented with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) ameliorates glutamate excitotoxicity and oxidative stress–mediated retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration by preventing mitochondrial alterations in the retina of glaucomatous DBA/2J mice. Methods. Preglaucomatous DBA/2J and age-matched control DBA/2J-Gpnmb+ mice were fed with CoQ10 (1%) or a control diet daily for 6 months. The RGC survival and axon preservation were measured by Brn3a and neurofilament immunohistochemistry and by conventional transmission electron microscopy. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), superoxide dismutase-2 (SOD2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO1), N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NR) 1 and 2A, and Bax and phosphorylated Bad (pBad) protein expression was measured by Western blot analysis. Apoptotic cell death was assessed by TUNEL staining. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam)/oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complex IV protein expression were measured by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. Results. Coenzyme Q10 promoted RGC survival by approximately 29% and preserved the axons in the optic nerve head (ONH), as well as inhibited astroglial activation by decreasing GFAP expression in the retina and ONH of glaucomatous DBA/2J mice. Intriguingly, CoQ10 significantly blocked the upregulation of NR1 and NR2A, as well as of SOD2 and HO1 protein expression in the retina of glaucomatous DBA/2J mice. In addition, CoQ10 significantly prevented apoptotic cell death by decreasing Bax protein expression or by increasing pBad protein expression. More importantly, CoQ10 preserved mtDNA content and Tfam/OXPHOS complex IV protein expression in the retina of glaucomatous DBA/2J mice. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that CoQ10 may be a promising therapeutic strategy for ameliorating glutamate excitotoxicity and oxidative stress in glaucomatous neurodegeneration. PMID:24458150

  8. Apolipoprotein A1 regulates coenzyme Q10 absorption, mitochondrial function, and infarct size in a mouse model of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Dadabayev, Alisher R; Yin, Guotian; Latchoumycandane, Calivarathan; McIntyre, Thomas M; Lesnefsky, Edward J; Penn, Marc S

    2014-07-01

    HDL and apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) concentrations inversely correlate with risk of death from ischemic heart disease; however, the role of apoA1 in the myocardial response to ischemia has not been well defined. To test whether apoA1, the primary HDL apolipoprotein, has an acute anti-inflammatory role in ischemic heart disease, we induced myocardial infarction via direct left anterior descending coronary artery ligation in apoA1 null (apoA1(-/-)) and apoA1 heterozygous (apoA1(+/-)) mice. We observed that apoA1(+/-) and apoA1(-/-) mice had a 52% and 125% increase in infarct size as a percentage of area at risk, respectively, compared with wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice. Mitochondrial oxidation contributes to tissue damage in ischemia-reperfusion injury. A substantial defect was present at baseline in the electron transport chain of cardiac myocytes from apoA1(-/-) mice localized to the coenzyme Q (CoQ) pool with impaired electron transfer (67% decrease) from complex II to complex III. Administration of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) to apoA1 null mice normalized the cardiac mitochondrial CoQ pool and reduced infarct size to that observed in WT mice. CoQ10 administration did not significantly alter infarct size in WT mice. These data identify CoQ pool content leading to impaired mitochondrial function as major contributors to infarct size in the setting of low HDL/apoA1. These data suggest a previously unappreciated mechanism for myocardial stunning, cardiac dysfunction, and muscle pain associated with low HDL and low apoA1 concentrations that can be corrected by CoQ10 supplementation and suggest populations of patients that may benefit particularly from CoQ10 supplementation.

  9. Age-associated oxidative modifications of mitochondrial α-subunit of F1 ATP synthase from mouse skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Das, N; Jana, C K

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the pattern of age-associated oxidative post-translational modifications in the skeletal muscles of a mammalian species and to address whether the modifications result in the loss of function of the oxidatively modified protein(s). Accordingly, proteins in the mitochondrial matrix of the hind limb of C57BL/6Nnia mice were examined for modifications by carbonylation--an established marker of oxidative post-translational modifications--by Western blotting using anti-2,4-dinitrophenyl antibodies and tritiated sodium borohydride methods. An age-associated increase in carbonylation of mitochondrial matrix proteins was observed, but not all proteins were equally susceptible. A 55 kDa protein, identified as the α-subunit of the F1 complex of ATP synthase (ATP phosphohydrolase [H(+)-transporting]), had approximately 17% and 27% higher levels of protein carbonyls in adult and old animals, respectively, in comparison to the young controls as estimated using tritiated sodium borohydride. In addition, an age-associated decline in its activity was observed, with approximately 9% and 28% decrease in the activity in the adult and old animals, respectively, in comparison to young controls. It may be concluded that such oxidative post-translational modifications and the resultant attenuation of the protein activity may contribute to the age-related energy loss and muscular degeneracy.

  10. Chronic alcohol exposure affects pancreatic acinar mitochondrial thiamin pyrophosphate uptake: studies with mouse 266-6 cell line and primary cells

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Padmanabhan; Nabokina, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Thiamin is essential for normal metabolic activity of all mammalian cells, including those of the pancreas. Cells obtain thiamin from their surroundings and enzymatically convert it into thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) in the cytoplasm; TPP is then taken up by mitochondria via a specific carrier the mitochondrial TPP transporter (MTPPT; product of the SLC25A19 gene). Chronic alcohol exposure negatively impacts the health of pancreatic acinar cells (PAC), but its effect on physiological/molecular parameters of MTPPT is not known. We addressed this issue using mouse pancreatic acinar tumor cell line 266-6 and primary PAC of wild-type and transgenic mice carrying the SLC25A19 promoter that were fed alcohol chronically. Chronic alcohol exposure of 266-6 cells (but not to its nonoxidative metabolites ethyl palmitate and ethyl oleate) led to a significant inhibition in mitochondrial TPP uptake, which was associated with a decreased expression of MTPPT protein, mRNA, and activity of the SLC25A19 promoter. Similarly, chronic alcohol feeding of mice led to a significant inhibition in expression of MTPPT protein, mRNA, heterogeneous nuclear RNA, as well as in activity of SLC25A19 promoter in PAC. While chronic alcohol exposure did not affect DNA methylation of the Slc25a19 promoter, a significant decrease in histone H3 euchromatin markers and an increase in H3 heterochromatin marker were observed. These findings show, for the first time, that chronic alcohol exposure negatively impacts pancreatic MTPPT, and that this effect is exerted, at least in part, at the level of Slc25a19 transcription and appears to involve epigenetic mechanism(s). PMID:26316591

  11. Reduced availability of voltage-gated sodium channels by depolarization or blockade by tetrodotoxin boosts burst firing and catecholamine release in mouse chromaffin cells

    PubMed Central

    Vandael, David H F; Ottaviani, Matteo M; Legros, Christian; Lefort, Claudie; Guérineau, Nathalie C; Allio, Arianna; Carabelli, Valentina; Carbone, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Action potential (AP) firing in mouse chromaffin cells (MCCs) is mainly sustained by Cav1.3 L-type channels that drive BK and SK currents and regulate the pacemaking cycle. As secretory units, CCs optimally recruit Ca2+ channels when stimulated, a process potentially dependent on the modulation of the AP waveform. Our previous work has shown that a critical determinant of AP shape is voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav) channel availability. Here, we studied the contribution of Nav channels to firing patterns and AP shapes at rest (−50 mV) and upon stimulation (−40 mV). Using quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting, we show that MCCs mainly express tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive, fast-inactivating Nav1.3 and Nav1.7 channels that carry little or no Na+ current during slow ramp depolarizations. Time constants and the percentage of recovery from fast inactivation and slow entry into closed-state inactivation are similar to that of brain Nav1.3 and Nav1.7 channels. The fraction of available Nav channels is reduced by half after 10 mV depolarization from −50 to −40 mV. This leads to low amplitude spikes and a reduction in repolarizing K+ currents inverting the net current from outward to inward during the after-hyperpolarization. When Nav channel availability is reduced by up to 20% of total, either by TTX block or steady depolarization, a switch from tonic to burst firing is observed. The spontaneous occurrence of high frequency bursts is rare under control conditions (14% of cells) but leads to major Ca2+-entry and increased catecholamine release. Thus, Nav1.3/Nav1.7 channel availability sets the AP shape, burst-firing initiation and regulates catecholamine secretion in MCCs. Nav channel inactivation becomes important during periods of high activity, mimicking stress responses. PMID:25620605

  12. In Vivo Voltage-Sensitive Dye Study of Lateral Spreading of Cortical Activity in Mouse Primary Visual Cortex Induced by a Current Impulse

    PubMed Central

    Fehérvári, Tamás Dávid; Sawai, Hajime; Yagi, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    In the mammalian primary visual cortex (V1), lateral spreading of excitatory potentials is believed to be involved in spatial integrative functions, but the underlying cortical mechanism is not well understood. Visually-evoked population-level responses have been shown to propagate beyond the V1 initial activation site in mouse, similar to higher mammals. Visually-evoked responses are, however, affected by neuronal circuits prior to V1 (retina, LGN), making the separate analysis of V1 difficult. Intracortical stimulation eliminates these initial processing steps. We used in vivo RH1691 voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) imaging and intracortical microstimulation in adult C57BL/6 mice to elucidate the spatiotemporal properties of population-level signal spreading in V1 cortical circuits. The evoked response was qualitatively similar to that measured in single-cell electrophysiological experiments in rodents: a fast transient fluorescence peak followed by a fast and a slow decrease or hyperpolarization, similar to EPSP and fast and slow IPSPs in single cells. The early cortical response expanded at speeds commensurate with long horizontal projections (at 5% of the peak maximum, 0.08–0.15 m/s) however, the bulk of the VSD signal propagated slowly (at half-peak maximum, 0.05–0.08 m/s) suggesting an important role of regenerative multisynaptic transmission through short horizontal connections in V1 spatial integrative functions. We also found a tendency for a widespread and fast cortical response suppression in V1, which was eliminated by GABAA-antagonists gabazine and bicuculline methiodide. Our results help understand the neuronal circuitry involved in lateral spreading in V1. PMID:26230520

  13. N- and L-Type Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels Mediate Fast Calcium Transients in Axonal Shafts of Mouse Peripheral Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Barzan, Ruxandra; Pfeiffer, Friederike; Kukley, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In the peripheral nervous system (PNS) a vast number of axons are accommodated within fiber bundles that constitute peripheral nerves. A major function of peripheral axons is to propagate action potentials along their length, and hence they are equipped with Na+ and K+ channels, which ensure successful generation, conduction and termination of each action potential. However little is known about Ca2+ ion channels expressed along peripheral axons and their possible functional significance. The goal of the present study was to test whether voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs) are present along peripheral nerve axons in situ and mediate rapid activity-dependent Ca2+ elevations under physiological circumstances. To address this question we used mouse sciatic nerve slices, Ca2+ indicator Oregon Green BAPTA-1, and 2-photon Ca2+ imaging in fast line scan mode (500 Hz). We report that transient increases in intra-axonal Ca2+ concentration take place along peripheral nerve axons in situ when axons are stimulated electrically with single pulses. Furthermore, we show for the first time that Ca2+ transients in peripheral nerves are fast, i.e., occur in a millisecond time-domain. Combining Ca2+ imaging and pharmacology with specific blockers of different VGCCs subtypes we demonstrate that Ca2+ transients in peripheral nerves are mediated mainly by N-type and L-type VGCCs. Discovery of fast Ca2+ entry into the axonal shafts through VGCCs in peripheral nerves suggests that Ca2+ may be involved in regulation of action potential propagation and/or properties in this system, or mediate neurotransmitter release along peripheral axons as it occurs in the optic nerve and white matter of the central nervous system (CNS). PMID:27313508

  14. Mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and apoptosis revealed by proteomic and transcriptomic analyses of the striata in two mouse models of Parkinson’s disease

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, Mark H.; Qian, Weijun; Wang, Haixing; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Sforza, Daniel M.; Lacan, Goran; Liu, Dahai; Khan, Arshad H.; Cantor, Rita M.; Bigelow, Diana J.; Melega, William P.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Smith, Desmond J.

    2008-02-10

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the changes in the nigrostriatal pathway in Parkinson disease (PD) are not completely understood. Here we use mass spectrometry and microarrays to study the proteomic and transcriptomic changes in the striatum of two mouse models of PD, induced by the distinct neurotoxins 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and methamphetamine (METH). Proteomic analyses resulted in the identification and relative quantification of 912 proteins with two or more unique peptides and 85 proteins with significant abundance changes following neurotoxin treatment. Similarly, microarray analyses revealed 181 genes with significant changes in mRNA following neurotoxin treatment. The combined protein and gene list provides a clearer picture of the potential mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration observed in PD. Functional analysis of this combined list revealed a number of significant categories, including mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress response and apoptosis. Additionally, codon usage and miRNAs may play an important role in translational control in the striatum. These results constitute one of the largest datasets integrating protein and transcript changes for these neurotoxin models with many similar endpoint phenotypes but distinct mechanisms.

  15. Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress, and Apoptosis Revealed by Proteomic and Transcriptomic Analyses of the Striata in Two Mouse Models of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Mark H.; Qian, Wei-Jun; Wang, Haixing; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Sforza, Daniel M.; Laćan, Goran; Liu, Dahai; Khan, Arshad H.; Cantor, Rita M.; Bigelow, Diana J.; Melega, William P.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Smith, Desmond J.

    2012-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the changes in the nigrostriatal pathway in Parkinson’s disease (PD) are not completely understood. Here, we use mass spectrometry and microarrays to study the proteomic and transcriptomic changes in the striatum of two mouse models of PD, induced by the distinct neurotoxins 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and methamphetamine (METH). Proteomic analyses resulted in the identification and relative quantification of 912 proteins with two or more unique peptides and 86 proteins with significant abundance changes following neurotoxin treatment. Similarly, microarray analyses revealed 181 genes with significant changes in mRNA, following neurotoxin treatment. The combined protein and gene list provides a clearer picture of the potential mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration observed in PD. Functional analysis of this combined list revealed a number of significant categories, including mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress response, and apoptosis. These results constitute one of the largest descriptive data sets integrating protein and transcript changes for these neurotoxin models with many similar end point phenotypes but distinct mechanisms. PMID:18173235

  16. Mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and apoptosis revealed by proteomic and transcriptomic analyses of the striata in two mouse models of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Chin, Mark H; Qian, Wei-Jun; Wang, Haixing; Petyuk, Vladislav A; Bloom, Joshua S; Sforza, Daniel M; Laćan, Goran; Liu, Dahai; Khan, Arshad H; Cantor, Rita M; Bigelow, Diana J; Melega, William P; Camp, David G; Smith, Richard D; Smith, Desmond J

    2008-02-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the changes in the nigrostriatal pathway in Parkinson's disease (PD) are not completely understood. Here, we use mass spectrometry and microarrays to study the proteomic and transcriptomic changes in the striatum of two mouse models of PD, induced by the distinct neurotoxins 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and methamphetamine (METH). Proteomic analyses resulted in the identification and relative quantification of 912 proteins with two or more unique peptides and 86 proteins with significant abundance changes following neurotoxin treatment. Similarly, microarray analyses revealed 181 genes with significant changes in mRNA, following neurotoxin treatment. The combined protein and gene list provides a clearer picture of the potential mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration observed in PD. Functional analysis of this combined list revealed a number of significant categories, including mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress response, and apoptosis. These results constitute one of the largest descriptive data sets integrating protein and transcript changes for these neurotoxin models with many similar end point phenotypes but distinct mechanisms.

  17. Near Infrared (NIr) Light Increases Expression of a Marker of Mitochondrial Function in the Mouse Vestibular Sensory Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lucy; Tung, Victoria W. K.; Mathews, Miranda; Camp, Aaron J.

    2015-01-01

    Strategies for attenuating decline in balance function with increasing age are predominantly focused on physical therapies including balance tasks and exercise. However, these approaches do not address the underlying causes of balance decline. Using mice, the impact of near infrared light (NIr) on the metabolism of cells in the vestibular sensory epithelium was assessed. Data collected shows that this simple and safe intervention may protect these vulnerable cells from the deleterious effects of natural aging. mRNA was extracted from the isolated peripheral vestibular sensory epithelium (crista ampullaris and utricular macula) and subsequently transcribed into a cDNA library. This library was then probed for the expression of ubiquitous antioxidant (SOD-1). Antioxidant gene expression was then used to quantify cellular metabolism. Using transcranial delivery of NIr in young (4 weeks) and older (8 - 9 months) mice, and a brief treatment regime (90 sec/day for 5 days), this work suggests NIr alone may be sufficient to improve mitochondrial function in the vestibular sensory epithelium. Since there are currently no available, affordable, non-invasive methods of therapy to improve vestibular hair cell function, the application of external NIr radiation provides a potential strategy to counteract the impact of aging on cellular metabolism inthe vestibular sensory epithelium. PMID:25868009

  18. Near infrared (NIr) light increases expression of a marker of mitochondrial function in the mouse vestibular sensory epithelium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lucy; Tung, Victoria W K; Mathews, Miranda; Camp, Aaron J

    2015-03-14

    Strategies for attenuating decline in balance function with increasing age are predominantly focused on physical therapies including balance tasks and exercise. However, these approaches do not address the underlying causes of balance decline. Using mice, the impact of near infrared light (NIr) on the metabolism of cells in the vestibular sensory epithelium was assessed. Data collected shows that this simple and safe intervention may protect these vulnerable cells from the deleterious effects of natural aging. mRNA was extracted from the isolated peripheral vestibular sensory epithelium (crista ampullaris and utricular macula) and subsequently transcribed into a cDNA library. This library was then probed for the expression of ubiquitous antioxidant (SOD-1). Antioxidant gene expression was then used to quantify cellular metabolism. Using transcranial delivery of NIr in young (4 weeks) and older (8-9 months) mice, and a brief treatment regime (90 sec/day for 5 days), this work suggests NIr alone may be sufficient to improve mitochondrial function in the vestibular sensory epithelium. Since there are currently no available, affordable, non-invasive methods of therapy to improve vestibular hair cell function, the application of external NIr radiation provides a potential strategy to counteract the impact of aging on cellular metabolism inthe vestibular sensory epithelium.

  19. Demethyleneberberine, a natural mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, inhibits mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and steatosis in alcoholic liver disease mouse model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengcheng; Qiang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Miao; Ma, Dongshen; Zhao, Zheng; Zhou, Cuisong; Liu, Xie; Li, Ruiyan; Chen, Huan; Zhang, Yubin

    2015-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption induces oxidative stress and lipid accumulation in the liver. Mitochondria have long been recognized as the key target for alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Recently, the artificial mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ has been used to treat ALD effectively in mice. Here, we introduce the natural mitochondria-targeted antioxidant demethyleneberberine (DMB), which has been found in Chinese herb Cortex Phellodendri chinensis. The protective effect of DMB on ALD was evaluated with HepG2 cells and acutely/chronically ethanol-fed mice, mimicking two common patterns of drinking in human. The results showed that DMB, which is composed of a potential antioxidant structure, could penetrate the membrane of mitochondria and accumulate in mitochondria either in vitro or in vivo. Consequently, the acute drinking-caused oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction were significantly ameliorated by DMB. Moreover, we also found that DMB suppressed CYP2E1, hypoxia inducible factor α, and inducible nitric oxide synthase, which contributed to oxidative stress and restored sirtuin 1/AMP-activated protein kinase/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α pathway-associated fatty acid oxidation in chronic ethanol-fed mice, which in turn ameliorated lipid peroxidation and macrosteatosis in the liver. Taking these findings together, DMB could serve as a novel and potential therapy for ALD in human beings.

  20. Autoradiographic localization of voltage-dependent sodium channels on the mouse neuromuscular junction using /sup 125/I-alpha scorpion toxin. I. Preferential labeling of glial cells on the presynaptic side

    SciTech Connect

    Boudier, J.L.; Jover, E.; Cau, P.

    1988-05-01

    Alpha-scorpion toxins bind specifically to the voltage-sensitive sodium channel in excitable membranes, and binding is potential-dependent. The radioiodinated toxin II from the scorpion Androctonus australis Hector (alpha ScTx) was used to localize voltage-sensitive sodium channels on the presynaptic side of mouse neuromuscular junctions (NMJ) by autoradiography using both light and electron microscopy. Silver grain localization was analyzed by the cross-fire method. At the light-microscopic level, grain density over NMJ appeared 6-8x higher than over nonjunctional muscle membrane. The specificity of labeling was verified by competition/displacement with an excess of native alpha ScTx. Labeling was also inhibited by incubation in depolarizing conditions, showing its potential-dependence. At the electron-microscopic level, analysis showed that voltage-sensitive sodium channels labeled with alpha ScTx were almost exclusively localized on membranes, as expected. Due to washout after incubation, appreciable numbers of binding sites were not found on the postsynaptic membranes. However, on the presynaptic side, alpha ScTx-labeled voltage-sensitive sodium channels were localized on the membrane of non-myelin-forming Schwann cells covering NMJ. The axonal presynaptic membrane was not labeled. These results show that voltage-sensitive sodium channels are present on glial cells in vivo, as already demonstrated in vitro. It is proposed that these glial channels could be indirectly involved in the ionic homeostasis of the axonal environment.

  1. Novel Role of Mitochondrial Manganese Superoxide Dismutase in STAT3 Dependent Pluripotency of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sheshadri, Preethi; Ashwini, Ashwathnarayan; Jahnavi, Sowmya; Bhonde, Ramesh; Prasanna, Jyothi; Kumar, Anujith

    2015-01-01

    Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF)/Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway maintains the stemness and pluripotency of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Detailed knowledge on key intermediates in this pathway as well as any parallel pathways is largely missing. We initiated our study by investigating the effect of small molecule Curcumin on various signalling pathways essential for self-renewal. Curcumin sustained the LIF independent self-renewal of mESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (miPSCs) in a STAT3 activity dependent manner. Gene expression analysis showed LIF/STAT3 and redox signaling components to be majorly modulated. Amongst ROS genes, expression of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase (MnSOD) specifically relied on STAT3 signaling as evidenced by STAT3 inhibition and reporter assay. The silencing of MnSOD, but not Cu-ZnSOD expression, resulted in the loss of mESC pluripotency in presence of LIF, and the overexpression of MnSOD is sufficient for maintaining the expression of pluripotent genes in the absence of STAT3 signaling. Finally, we demonstrate MnSOD to stabilize the turnover of pluripotent proteins at the post-translational level by modulating proteasomal activity. In conclusion, our findings unravel a novel role of STAT3 mediated MnSOD in the self-renewal of mESCs. PMID:25822711

  2. Alterations in Cytosolic and Mitochondrial [U-13C]Glucose Metabolism in a Chronic Epilepsy Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco-Pozo, Catalina

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Temporal lobe epilepsy is a common form of adult epilepsy and shows high resistance to treatment. Increasing evidence has suggested that metabolic dysfunction contributes to the development of seizures, with previous studies indicating impairments in brain glucose metabolism. Here we aim to elucidate which pathways involved in glucose metabolism are impaired, by tracing the hippocampal metabolism of injected [U-13C]glucose (i.p.) during the chronic stage of the pilocarpine-status epilepticus mouse model of epilepsy. The enrichment of 13C in the intermediates of glycolysis and the TCA cycle were quantified in hippocampal extracts using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectroscopy, along with the measurement of the activities of enzymes in each pathway. We show that there is reduced incorporation of 13C in the intermediates of glycolysis, with the percentage enrichment of all downstream intermediates being highly correlated with those of glucose 6-phosphate. Furthermore, the activities of all enzymes in this pathway including hexokinase and phosphofructokinase were unaltered, suggesting that glucose uptake is reduced in this model without further impairments in glycolysis itself. The key findings were 33% and 55% losses in the activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, respectively, along with reduced 13C enrichment in TCA cycle intermediates. This lower 13C enrichment is best explained in part by the reduced enrichment in glycolytic intermediates, whereas the reduction of key TCA cycle enzyme activity indicates that TCA cycling is also impaired in the hippocampal formation. Together, these data suggest that multitarget approaches may be necessary to restore metabolism in the epileptic brain. PMID:28303258

  3. Alterations in Cytosolic and Mitochondrial [U-(13)C]Glucose Metabolism in a Chronic Epilepsy Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Tanya S; Carrasco-Pozo, Catalina; Hodson, Mark P; Borges, Karin

    2017-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is a common form of adult epilepsy and shows high resistance to treatment. Increasing evidence has suggested that metabolic dysfunction contributes to the development of seizures, with previous studies indicating impairments in brain glucose metabolism. Here we aim to elucidate which pathways involved in glucose metabolism are impaired, by tracing the hippocampal metabolism of injected [U-(13)C]glucose (i.p.) during the chronic stage of the pilocarpine-status epilepticus mouse model of epilepsy. The enrichment of (13)C in the intermediates of glycolysis and the TCA cycle were quantified in hippocampal extracts using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy, along with the measurement of the activities of enzymes in each pathway. We show that there is reduced incorporation of (13)C in the intermediates of glycolysis, with the percentage enrichment of all downstream intermediates being highly correlated with those of glucose 6-phosphate. Furthermore, the activities of all enzymes in this pathway including hexokinase and phosphofructokinase were unaltered, suggesting that glucose uptake is reduced in this model without further impairments in glycolysis itself. The key findings were 33% and 55% losses in the activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, respectively, along with reduced (13)C enrichment in TCA cycle intermediates. This lower (13)C enrichment is best explained in part by the reduced enrichment in glycolytic intermediates, whereas the reduction of key TCA cycle enzyme activity indicates that TCA cycling is also impaired in the hippocampal formation. Together, these data suggest that multitarget approaches may be necessary to restore metabolism in the epileptic brain.

  4. Bioregion heterogeneity correlates with extensive mitochondrial DNA diversity in the Namaqua rock mouse, Micaelamys namaquensis (Rodentia: Muridae) from southern Africa - evidence for a species complex

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Intraspecific variation within the diverse southern African murine rodents has not been extensively investigated, yet cryptic diversity is evident in several taxa studied to date. The Namaqua rock mouse, Micaelamys namaquensis Smith, 1834 is a widespread endemic murine rodent from the subregion. Currently, a single species with four subspecies is recognised, but in the past up to 16 subspecies were described. Thus, this species is a good candidate for the investigation of patterns and processes of diversification in a diverse but under-studied mammalian subfamily and geographic region. Here, we report genetic differentiation based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b (cyt b) sequences among samples collected over an extensive coverage of the species' range. Results Cytochrome b sequences of 360 widely sampled individuals identified 137 unique maternal alleles. Gene tree and phylogeographic analyses of these alleles suggest the presence of at least eight lineages or haplogroups (A-H), with varying degrees of intra-lineage diversity. This differentiation is in contrast with the most recent taxonomic treatment based on cranial morphometrics which only recognised four subspecies. The mtDNA diversity strongly supports earlier views that this taxon may represent a species complex. We further show statistical support for the association of several of these lineages with particular vegetation biomes of southern Africa. The time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) dates to the Pliocene (~5 Mya) whereas coalescent-based divergence time estimates between lineages vary between 813 Kya [0.22 - 1.36] and 4.06 Mya [1.21 - 4.47]. The major diversification within lineages occurred during the Pleistocene. The identification of several regions of sympatry of distinct lineages offers future opportunities for the elucidation of the underlying speciation processes in the suggested species complex. Conclusions Similar to other African murine rodents, M. namaquensis

  5. A Conditional Mouse Mutant in the Tumor Suppressor SdhD Gene Unveils a Link between p21WAF1/Cip1 Induction and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Millán-Uclés, África; Díaz-Castro, Blanca; García-Flores, Paula; Báez, Alicia; Pérez-Simón, José Antonio; López-Barneo, José; Piruat, José I.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in mitochondrial complex II (MCII; succinate dehydrogenase, Sdh) genes cause familiar pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma tumors. Several mechanisms have been proposed to account for Sdh-mutation-induced tumorigenesis, the most accepted of which is based on the constitutive expression of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (Hif1α) at normal oxygen tension, a theory referred to as “pseudo-hypoxic drive”. Other molecular processes, such as oxidative stress, apoptosis, or chromatin remodeling have been also proposed to play a causative role. Nevertheless, the actual contribution of each of these mechanisms has not been definitively established. Moreover, the biological factors that determine the tissue-specificity of these tumors have not been identified. In this work, we made use of the inducible SDHD-ESR mouse, a conditional mutant in the SdhD gene, which encodes the small subunit of MCII, and that acts as a tumor suppressor gene in humans. The analysis of the Hif1α pathway in SDHD-ESR tissues and in two newly derived cell lines after complete SdhD loss -a requirement for hereditary paraganglioma type-1 tumor formation in humans- partially recapitulated the “pseudo-hypoxic” response and rendered inconsistent results. Therefore, we performed microarray analysis of adrenal medulla and kidney in order to identify other early gene expression changes elicited by SdhD deletion. Our results revealed that each mutant tissue displayed different variations in their gene expression profiles affecting to different biological processes. However, we found that the Cdkn1a gene was up-regulated in both tissues. This gene encodes the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1/Cip1, a factor implicated in cell cycle, senescence, and cancer. The two SDHD-ESR cell lines also showed accumulation of this protein. This new and unprecedented evidence for a link between SdhD dysfunction and p21WAF1/Cip1 will open new avenues for the study of the mechanisms that cause tumors in

  6. Stimulation-induced mitochondrial [Ca2+] elevations in mouse motor terminals: comparison of wild-type with SOD1-G93A.

    PubMed

    Vila, Lizette; Barrett, Ellen F; Barrett, John N

    2003-06-15

    Changes in mitochondrial matrix [Ca2+] evoked by trains of action potentials were studied in levator auris longus motor terminals using Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent indicator dyes (rhod-2, rhod-5F). During a 2500 impulse 50 Hz train, mitochondrial [Ca2+] in most wild-type terminals increased within 5-10 s to a plateau level that was sustained until stimulation ended. This plateau was not due to dye saturation, but rather reflects a powerful buffering system within the mitochondrial matrix. The amplitude of this plateau was similar for stimulation frequencies in the range 15-100 Hz. Plateau amplitude was sensitive to temperature, with no detectable stimulation-induced increase in fluorescence at temperatures below 17 degrees C, and increasing magnitudes as temperature was increased to near-physiological levels (38 degrees C). When stimulation ended, mitochondrial [Ca2+] decayed slowly back to prestimulation levels over a time course of hundreds of seconds. Similar measurements were also made in motor terminals of mice expressing the G93A mutation of human superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1-G93A). In mice > 100 days old, all of whom exhibited hindlimb paralysis, some terminals continued to show wild-type mitochondrial [Ca2+] responses, but in other terminals mitochondrial [Ca2+] did not plateau, but rather continued to increase throughout most of the stimulus train. Thus mechanism(s) that limit stimulation-induced increases in mitochondrial [Ca2+] may be compromised in some SOD1-G93A terminals.

  7. Reduction of Mitochondrial Function by FCCP During Mouse Cleavage Stage Embryo Culture Reduces Birth Weight and Impairs the Metabolic Health of Offspring.

    PubMed

    Zander-Fox, Deirdre L; Fullston, Tod; McPherson, Nicole O; Sandeman, Lauren; Kang, Wan Xian; Good, Suzanne B; Spillane, Marni; Lane, Michelle

    2015-05-01

    The periconceptual environment represents a critical window for programming fetal growth trajectories and susceptibility to disease; however, the underlying mechanism responsible for programming remains elusive. This study demonstrates a causal link between reduction of precompaction embryonic mitochondrial function and perturbed offspring growth trajectories and subsequent metabolic dysfunction. Incubation of embryos with carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone (FCCP), which uncouples mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, significantly reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production in 8-cell embryos and the number of inner cell mass cells within blastocysts; however, blastocyst development was unchanged. This perturbed embryonic mitochondrial function was concomitant with reduced birth weight in female offspring following embryo transfer, which persisted until weaning. FCCP-treated females also exhibited increased adiposity at 4 wk, increased adiposity gain between 4 and 14 wk, glucose intolerance at 8 wk, and insulin resistance at 14 wk. Although FCCP-treated males also exhibited reduced glucose tolerance, but their insulin sensitivity and adiposity gain between 4 and 14 wk was unchanged. To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies to demonstrate that reducing mitochondrial function and, thus, decreasing ATP output in the precompacting embryo can influence offspring phenotype. This is of great significance as a large proportion of patients requiring assisted reproductive technologies are of advanced maternal age or have a high body mass index, both of which have been independently linked with perturbed early embryonic mitochondrial function.

  8. VOLTAGE REGULATOR

    DOEpatents

    Von Eschen, R.L.; Scheele, P.F.

    1962-04-24

    A transistorized voltage regulator which provides very close voitage regulation up to about 180 deg F is described. A diode in the positive line provides a constant voltage drop from the input to a regulating transistor emitter. An amplifier is coupled to the positive line through a resistor and is connected between a difference circuit and the regulating transistor base which is negative due to the difference in voltage drop across thc diode and the resistor so that a change in the regulator output causes the amplifier to increase or decrease the base voltage and current and incrcase or decrease the transistor impedance to return the regulator output to normal. (AEC)

  9. Mitochondrial dynamics changes with age in an APPsw/PS1dE9 mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lin-Lin; Shen, Yang; Wang, Xiao; Wei, Li-Fei; Wang, Ping; Yang, Hui; Wang, Cun-Fu; Xie, Zhao-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Increasing research suggests that mitochondrial defects play a major role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis. We aimed to better understand changes in mitochondria with the development and progression of AD. We compared APPsw/PS1dE9 transgenic mice at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months old as an animal model of AD and age-matched C57BL/6 mice as controls. The learning ability and spatial memory ability of APPsw/PS1dE9 mice showed significant differences compared with controls until 9 and 12 months. Mitochondrial morphology was altered in hippocampus tissue of APPsw/PS1dE9 mice beginning from the third month. ‘Medullary corpuscle’, which is formed by the accumulation of a large amount of degenerative and fragmented mitochondria in neuropils, may be the characteristic change observed on electron microscopy at a late stage of AD. Moreover, levels of mitochondrial fusion proteins (optic atrophy 1 and mitofusin 2) and fission proteins (dynamin-related protein 1 and fission 1) were altered in transgenic mice compared with controls with progression of AD. We found increased levels of fission and fusion proteins in APP/PS1 mice at 3 months, indicating that the presence of abnormal mitochondrial dynamics may be events in early AD progression. Changes in mitochondrial preceded the onset of memory decline as measured by the modified Morris water maze test. Abnormal mitochondrial dynamics could be a marker for early diagnosis of AD and monitoring disease progression. Further research is needed to study the signaling pathways that govern mitochondrial fission/fusion in AD. PMID:28118288

  10. Acetyl-L-carnitine and lipoic acid improve mitochondrial abnormalities and serum levels of liver enzymes in a mouse model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Kathirvel, Elango; Morgan, Kengathevy; French, Samuel W; Morgan, Timothy R

    2013-11-01

    Mitochondrial abnormalities are suggested to be associated with the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver. Liver mitochondrial content and function have been shown to improve in oral feeding of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) to rodents. Carnitine is involved in the transport of acyl-coenzyme A across the mitochondrial membrane to be used in mitochondrial β-oxidation. We hypothesized that oral administration ALC with the antioxidant lipoic acid (ALC + LA) would benefit nonalcoholic fatty liver. To test our hypothesis, we fed Balb/C mice a standard diet (SF) or SF with ALC + LA or high-fat diet (HF) or HF with ALC + LA for 6 months. Acetyl-L-carnitine and LA were dissolved at 0.2:0.1% (wt/vol) in drinking water, and mice were allowed free access to food and water. Along with physical parameters, insulin resistance (blood glucose, insulin, glucose tolerance), liver function (alanine transaminase [ALT], aspartate transaminase [AST]), liver histology (hematoxylin and eosin), oxidative stress (malondialdehyde), and mitochondrial abnormalities (carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 and electron microscopy) were done. Compared with SF, HF had higher body, liver, liver-to-body weight ratio, white adipose tissue, ALT, AST, liver fat, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance. Coadministration of ALC + LA to HF animals significantly improved the mitochondrial marker carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 and the size of the mitochondria in liver. Alanine transaminase and AST levels were decreased. In a nonalcoholic fatty liver mice model, ALC + LA combination improved liver mitochondrial content, size, serum ALT, and AST without significant changes in oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and liver fat accumulation.

  11. D-galactose induces a mitochondrial complex I deficiency in mouse skeletal muscle: potential benefits of nutrient combination in ameliorating muscle impairment.

    PubMed

    Chang, Liao; Liu, Xin; Liu, Jing; Li, Hua; Yang, Yanshen; Liu, Jia; Guo, Zihao; Xiao, Ke; Zhang, Chen; Liu, Jiankang; Zhao-Wilson, Xi; Long, Jiangang

    2014-03-01

    Accumulating research has shown that chronic D-galactose (D-gal) exposure induces symptoms similar to natural aging in animals. Therefore, rodents chronically exposed to D-gal are increasingly used as a model for aging and delay-of-aging pharmacological research. Mitochondrial dysfunction is thought to play a vital role in aging and age-related diseases; however, whether mitochondrial dysfunction plays a significant role in mice exposed to D-gal remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated cognitive dysfunction, locomotor activity, and mitochondrial dysfunction involved in D-gal exposure in mice. We found that D-gal exposure (125 mg/kg/day, 8 weeks) resulted in a serious impairment in grip strength in mice, whereas spatial memory and locomotor coordination remained intact. Interestingly, muscular mitochondrial complex I deficiency occurred in the skeletal muscle of mice exposed to D-gal. Mitochondrial ultrastructure abnormality was implicated as a contributing factor in D-gal-induced muscular impairment. Moreover, three combinations (A, B, and C) of nutrients applied in this study effectively reversed D-gal-induced muscular impairment. Nutrient formulas B and C were especially effective in reversing complex I dysfunction in both skeletal muscle and heart muscle. These findings suggest the following: (1) chronic exposure to D-gal first results in specific muscular impairment in mice, rather than causing general, premature aging; (2) poor skeletal muscle strength induced by D-gal might be due to the mitochondrial dysfunction caused by complex I deficiency; and (3) the nutrient complexes applied in the study attenuated the skeletal muscle impairment, most likely by improving mitochondrial function.

  12. NLRP3 Deficiency Attenuates Renal Fibrosis and Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunction in a Mouse Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction Model of Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Honglei; Bi, Xiao; Zhou, Ping; Zhu, Shijian

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims. The nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing PYD-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, its exact role in glomerular injury and tubulointerstitial fibrosis is still undefined. The present study was performed to identify the function of NLRP3 in modulating renal injury and fibrosis and the potential involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in the murine unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model of CKD. Methods. Employing wild-type (WT) and NLRP3−/− mice with or without UUO, we evaluated renal structure, tissue injury, and mitochondrial ultrastructure, as well as expression of some vital molecules involved in the progression of fibrosis, apoptosis, inflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Results. The severe glomerular injury and tubulointerstitial fibrosis induced in WT mice by UUO was markedly attenuated in NLRP3−/− mice as evidenced by blockade of extracellular matrix deposition, decreased cell apoptosis, and phenotypic alterations. Moreover, NLRP3 deletion reversed UUO-induced impairment of mitochondrial morphology and function. Conclusions. NLRP3 deletion ameliorates mitochondrial dysfunction and alleviates renal fibrosis in a murine UUO model of CKD. PMID:28348462

  13. Co-localization of L-type voltage dependent calcium channel alpha 1D subunit (Ca(v)1.3) and calbindin (CB) in the mouse central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie Hua; Yang, Zhen Bang; Wang, Hui; Tang, Feng-Ru

    2014-02-21

    Previous study has shown that the co-localization of calbindin (CB) with L-type voltage dependent Ca(2+) channel (VDCC) alpha 1C subunit (Ca(v)1.2) in the rat insulinoma 1046-38 (RIN) beta cells may play an important regulatory role in Ca(2+) influx and exocytosis of insulin granules. In the present study, L-type voltage dependent Ca(2+) channel (VDCC) and calbindin (CB) were demonstrated in different regions of the mouse central nervous system (CNS). Double labeling immunofluorescence staining showed a co-localization of Ca(v)1.3 and CB. The co-localization of Ca(v)1.3 and CB in certain brain regions such as the hippocampus suggests their important roles in neuroplasticity. The relative high percentages of co-localization of Ca(v)1.3 with CB in the laminae II of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord indicate that the regulation mechanism of nociceptive transmission may be related with both VDCC and Ca(2+) binding protein.

  14. Mitochondrial division inhibitor 1 (Mdivi-1) offers neuroprotection through diminishing cell death and improving functional outcome in a mouse model of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiong; Xia, Shui-Xiu; Li, Qian-Qian; Gao, Yuan; Shen, Xi; Ma, Lu; Zhang, Ming-Yang; Wang, Tao; Li, Yong-Sheng; Wang, Zu-Feng; Luo, Cheng-Liang; Tao, Lu-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria dysfunction, an enormous potential crisis, has attracted increasing attention. Disturbed regulation of mitochondrial dynamics, the balance of mitochondrial fusion and fission, has been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson׳s disease and cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. However the role of mitochondrial dynamics in traumatic brain injury (TBI) has not been illuminated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of Mdivi-1, a small molecule inhibitor of a key mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), in TBI-induced cell death and functional outcome deficits. Protein expression of Drp1 was first investigated. Outcome parameters consist of motor test, Morris water maze, brain edema and lesion volume. Cell death was detected by propidium iodide (PI) labeling, and mitochondrial morphology was assessed using transmission electron microscopy. In addition, the expression of apoptosis-related proteins cytochrome c (cyt-c) and caspase-3 was investigated. Our findings showed that up-regulation of Drp1 expression started at 1h post-TBI and peaked at 24 h, but inhibition of Drp1 by Mdivi-1 significantly alleviated TBI-induced behavioral deficits and brain edema, reduced morphological change of mitochondria, and decreased TBI-induced cell death together with lesion volume. Moreover, treatment with Mdivi-1 remarkably inhibited TBI-induced the release of cyt-c from mitochondria to cytoplasm, and activation of caspase-3 at 24 h after TBI. Taken together, these data imply that inhibition of Drp1 may help attenuate TBI-induced functional outcome and cell death through maintaining normal mitochondrial morphology and inhibiting activation of apoptosis.

  15. Acute blockage of voltage-gated K⁺ currents by 17β-estradiol in mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoqing; Hao, Xuran; Cheng, Bo; Li, Xiantao

    2014-05-28

    In this study, whole-cell recording was carried out to explore the effects of 17β-estradiol on voltage-gated K⁺ (Kv) currents in N2A cells. The acute exposure to 17β-estradiol, in a concentration-dependent manner, significantly inhibited the peak and steady-state currents through Kv channels, showing IC50 values of 3.6 and 3.8 μM, respectively. The reduction in both the amplitude and the decay rate of Kv currents, with an increase in depolarization, suggested that it was a voltage-dependent block. The activation and inactivation experiments were conducted to determine the exact causes of the inhibitory effects. The half-maximum activation potential (V₁/₂) was +8.1 mV in control and remained stable after exposure to 10 μM 17β-estradiol. For steady-state inactivation, the half-maximum inactivation potential (V₁/₂) was -45.0 mV and shifted right to -39.7 mV without a statistical difference, and the time constants of recovery from inactivation were not altered by 17β-estradiol, suggesting that the depression was not correlated with the inactivation gate.

  16. Voltage-gated K+ channels play a role in cAMP-stimulated neuritogenesis in mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells.

    PubMed

    Leung, Yuk-Man; Huang, Chien-Fang; Chao, Chia-Chia; Lu, Dah-Yuu; Kuo, Chang-Shin; Cheng, Tzu-Hurng; Chang, Li-Yun; Chou, Chun-Hsiao

    2011-04-01

    Neuritogenesis is essential in establishing the neuronal circuitry. An important intracellular signal causing neuritogenesis is cAMP. In this report, we showed that an increase in intracellular cAMP stimulated neuritogenesis in neuroblastoma N2A cells via a PKA-dependent pathway. Two voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channel blockers, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and tetraethylammonium (TEA), inhibited cAMP-stimulated neuritogenesis in N2A cells in a concentration-dependent manner that remarkably matched their ability to inhibit Kv currents in these cells. Consistently, siRNA knock down of Kv1.1, Kv1.4, and Kv2.1 expression reduced Kv currents and inhibited cAMP-stimulated neuritogenesis. Kv1.1, Kv1.4, and Kv2.1 channels were expressed in the cell bodies and neurites as shown by immunohistochemistry. Microfluorimetric imaging of intracellular [K(+)] demonstrated that [K(+)] in neurites was lower than that in the cell body. We also showed that cAMP-stimulated neuritogenesis may not involve voltage-gated Ca(2+) or Na(+) channels. Taken together, the results suggest a role of Kv channels and enhanced K(+) efflux in cAMP/PKA-stimulated neuritogenesis in N2A cells.

  17. Cholesterol contributes to dopamine-neuronal loss in MPTP mouse model of Parkinson’s disease: Involvement of mitochondrial dysfunctions and oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Giri, Anirudha; Sandhir, Rajat

    2017-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a known contributor to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease while its role in the occurrence of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is only conjecture and far from conclusive. Altered antioxidant homeostasis and mitochondrial functions are the key mechanisms in loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) region of the midbrain in PD. Hypercholesterolemia is reported to cause oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunctions in the cortex and hippocampus regions of the brain in rodents. However, the impact of hypercholesterolemia on the midbrain dopaminergic neurons in animal models of PD remains elusive. We tested the hypothesis that hypercholesterolemia in MPTP model of PD would potentiate dopaminergic neuron loss in SN by disrupting mitochondrial functions and antioxidant homeostasis. It is evident from the present study that hypercholesterolemia in naïve animals caused dopamine neuronal loss in SN with subsequent reduction in striatal dopamine levels producing motor impairment. Moreover, in the MPTP model of PD, hypercholesterolemia exacerbated MPTP-induced reduction of striatal dopamine as well as dopaminergic neurons in SN with motor behavioral depreciation. Activity of mitochondrial complexes, mainly complex-I and III, was impaired severely in the nigrostriatal pathway of hypercholesterolemic animals treated with MPTP. Hypercholesterolemia caused oxidative stress in the nigrostriatal pathway with increased generation of hydroxyl radicals and enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes, which were further aggravated in the hypercholesterolemic mice with Parkinsonism. In conclusion, our findings provide evidence of increased vulnerability of the midbrain dopaminergic neurons in PD with hypercholesterolemia. PMID:28170429

  18. Blockade by ifenprodil of high voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat and mouse cultured hippocampal pyramidal neurones: comparison with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist actions.

    PubMed Central

    Church, J; Fletcher, E J; Baxter, K; MacDonald, J F

    1994-01-01

    1. The block by ifenprodil of voltage-activated Ca2+ channels was investigated in intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) evoked by 50 mM K+ (high-[K+]o) in Fura-2-loaded rat hippocampal pyramidal neurones in culture and on currents carried by Ba2+ ions (IBa) through Ca2+ channels in mouse cultured hippocampal neurones under whole-cell voltage-clamp. The effects of ifenprodil on voltage-activated Ca2+ channels were compared with its antagonist actions on N-methyl-D-aspartate- (NMDA) evoked responses in the same neuronal preparations. 2. Rises in [Ca2+]i evoked by transient exposure to high-[K+]o in our preparation of rat cultured hippocampal pyramidal neurones are mediated predominantly by Ca2+ flux through nifedipine-sensitive Ca2+ channels, with smaller contributions from nifedipine-resistant, omega-conotoxin GVIA-sensitive Ca2+ channels and Ca2+ channels sensitive to crude funnel-web spider venom (Church et al., 1994). Ifenprodil (0.1-200 microM) reversibly attenuated high-[K+]o-evoked rises in [Ca2+]i with an IC50 value of 17 +/- 3 microM, compared with an IC50 value of 0.7 +/- 0.1 microM for the reduction of rises in [Ca2+]i evoked by 20 microM NMDA. Tested in the presence of nifedipine 10 microM, ifenprodil (1-50 microM) produced a concentration-dependent reduction of the dihydropyridine-resistant high-[K+]o-evoked rise in [Ca2+]i with an IC50 value of 13 +/- 4 microM. The results suggest that ifenprodil blocks Ca2+ flux through multiple subtypes of high voltage-activated Ca2+ channels. 3. Application of the polyamine, spermine (0.25-5 mM), produced a concentration-dependent reduction of rises in [Ca2+]i evoked by high-[K+]o.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7834201

  19. Mitochondrial Cardiomyopathies.

    PubMed

    El-Hattab, Ayman W; Scaglia, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are found in all nucleated human cells and perform various essential functions, including the generation of cellular energy. Mitochondria are under dual genome control. Only a small fraction of their proteins are encoded by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), whereas more than 99% of them are encoded by nuclear DNA (nDNA). Mutations in mtDNA or mitochondria-related nDNA genes result in mitochondrial dysfunction leading to insufficient energy production required to meet the needs for various organs, particularly those with high energy requirements, including the central nervous system, skeletal and cardiac muscles, kidneys, liver, and endocrine system. Because cardiac muscles are one of the high energy demanding tissues, cardiac involvement occurs in mitochondrial diseases with cardiomyopathies being one of the most frequent cardiac manifestations found in these disorders. Cardiomyopathy is estimated to occur in 20-40% of children with mitochondrial diseases. Mitochondrial cardiomyopathies can vary in severity from asymptomatic status to severe manifestations including heart failure, arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most common type; however, mitochondrial cardiomyopathies might also present as dilated, restrictive, left ventricular non-compaction, and histiocytoid cardiomyopathies. Cardiomyopathies are frequent manifestations of mitochondrial diseases associated with defects in electron transport chain complexes subunits and their assembly factors, mitochondrial transfer RNAs, ribosomal RNAs, ribosomal proteins, translation factors, mtDNA maintenance, and coenzyme Q10 synthesis. Other mitochondrial diseases with cardiomyopathies include Barth syndrome, Sengers syndrome, TMEM70-related mitochondrial complex V deficiency, and Friedreich ataxia.

  20. Mitochondrial Cardiomyopathies

    PubMed Central

    El-Hattab, Ayman W.; Scaglia, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are found in all nucleated human cells and perform various essential functions, including the generation of cellular energy. Mitochondria are under dual genome control. Only a small fraction of their proteins are encoded by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), whereas more than 99% of them are encoded by nuclear DNA (nDNA). Mutations in mtDNA or mitochondria-related nDNA genes result in mitochondrial dysfunction leading to insufficient energy production required to meet the needs for various organs, particularly those with high energy requirements, including the central nervous system, skeletal and cardiac muscles, kidneys, liver, and endocrine system. Because cardiac muscles are one of the high energy demanding tissues, cardiac involvement occurs in mitochondrial diseases with cardiomyopathies being one of the most frequent cardiac manifestations found in these disorders. Cardiomyopathy is estimated to occur in 20–40% of children with mitochondrial diseases. Mitochondrial cardiomyopathies can vary in severity from asymptomatic status to severe manifestations including heart failure, arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most common type; however, mitochondrial cardiomyopathies might also present as dilated, restrictive, left ventricular non-compaction, and histiocytoid cardiomyopathies. Cardiomyopathies are frequent manifestations of mitochondrial diseases associated with defects in electron transport chain complexes subunits and their assembly factors, mitochondrial transfer RNAs, ribosomal RNAs, ribosomal proteins, translation factors, mtDNA maintenance, and coenzyme Q10 synthesis. Other mitochondrial diseases with cardiomyopathies include Barth syndrome, Sengers syndrome, TMEM70-related mitochondrial complex V deficiency, and Friedreich ataxia. PMID:27504452

  1. Mitochondrial vasculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Zarrouk-Mahjoub, Sinda

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) are usually multisystem disorders (mitochondrial multiorgan disorder syndrome) either on from onset or starting at a point during the disease course. Most frequently affected tissues are those with a high oxygen demand such as the central nervous system, the muscle, endocrine glands, or the myocardium. Recently, it has been shown that rarely also the arteries may be affected (mitochondrial arteriopathy). This review focuses on the type, diagnosis, and treatment of mitochondrial vasculopathy in MID patients. A literature search using appropriate search terms was carried out. Mitochondrial vasculopathy manifests as either microangiopathy or macroangiopathy. Clinical manifestations of mitochondrial microangiopathy include leukoencephalopathy, migraine-like headache, stroke-like episodes, or peripheral retinopathy. Mitochondrial macroangiopathy manifests as atherosclerosis, ectasia of arteries, aneurysm formation, dissection, or spontaneous rupture of arteries. The diagnosis relies on the documentation and confirmation of the mitochondrial metabolic defect or the genetic cause after exclusion of non-MID causes. Treatment is not at variance compared to treatment of vasculopathy due to non-MID causes. Mitochondrial vasculopathy exists and manifests as micro- or macroangiopathy. Diagnosing mitochondrial vasculopathy is crucial since appropriate treatment may prevent from severe complications. PMID:27231520

  2. Apaf-1-deficient fog mouse cell apoptosis involves hypo-polarization of the mitochondrial inner membrane, ATP depletion and citrate accumulation.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Iyoko; Sato, Shingo; Fukunishi, Nahoko; Yoshida, Hiroki; Imai, Takasuke; Kurata, Shun-Ichi

    2008-12-01

    To explore how the intrinsic apoptosis pathway is controlled in the spontaneous fog (forebrain overgrowth) mutant mice with an Apaf1 splicing deficiency, we examined spleen and bone marrow cells from Apaf1(+/+) (+/+) and Apaf1(fog/fog) (fog/fog) mice for initiator caspase-9 activation by cellular stresses. When the mitochondrial inner membrane potential (Deltapsim) was disrupted by staurosporine, +/+ cells but not fog/fog cells activated caspase-9 to cause apoptosis, indicating the lack of apoptosome (apoptosis protease activating factor 1 (Apaf-1)/cytochrome c/(d)ATP/procaspase-9) function in fog/fog cells. However, when a marginal ( approximately 20%) decrease in Deltapsim was caused by hydrogen peroxide (0.1 mM), peroxynitritedonor 3-morpholinosydnonimine (0.1 mM) and UV-C irradiation (20 J/m(2)), both +/+ and fog/fog cells triggered procaspase-9 auto-processing and its downstream cascade activation. Supporting our previous results, procaspase-9 pre-existing in the mitochondria induced its auto-processing before the cytosolic caspase activation regardless of the genotypes. Cellular ATP concentration significantly decreased under the hypoactive Deltapsim condition. Furthermore, we detected accumulation of citrate, a kosmotrope known to facilitate procaspase-9 dimerization, probably due to a feedback control of the Krebs cycle by the electron transfer system. Thus, mitochondrial in situ caspase-9 activation may be caused by the major metabolic reactions in response to physiological stresses, which may represent a mode of Apaf-1-independent apoptosis hypothesized from recent genetic studies.

  3. Decreasing mitochondrial fission prevents cholestatic liver injury.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tianzheng; Wang, Li; Lee, Hakjoo; O'Brien, Dawn K; Bronk, Steven F; Gores, Gregory J; Yoon, Yisang

    2014-12-05

    Mitochondria frequently change their shape through fission and fusion in response to physiological stimuli as well as pathological insults. Disrupted mitochondrial morphology has been observed in cholestatic liver disease. However, the role of mitochondrial shape change in cholestasis is not defined. In this study, using in vitro and in vivo models of bile acid-induced liver injury, we investigated the contribution of mitochondrial morphology to the pathogenesis of cholestatic liver disease. We found that the toxic bile salt glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC) rapidly fragmented mitochondria, both in primary mouse hepatocytes and in the bile transporter-expressing hepatic cell line McNtcp.24, leading to a significant increase in cell death. GCDC-induced mitochondrial fragmentation was associated with an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. We found that preventing mitochondrial fragmentation in GCDC by inhibiting mitochondrial fission significantly decreased not only ROS levels but also cell death. We also induced cholestasis in mouse livers via common bile duct ligation. Using a transgenic mouse model inducibly expressing a dominant-negative fission mutant specifically in the liver, we demonstrated that decreasing mitochondrial fission substantially diminished ROS levels, liver injury, and fibrosis under cholestatic conditions. Taken together, our results provide new evidence that controlling mitochondrial fission is an effective strategy for ameliorating cholestatic liver injury.

  4. Mitochondrial biogenesis: pharmacological approaches.

    PubMed

    Valero, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    neurodevelopmental disorders. In the context of neural differentiation, Martine Uittenbogaard and Anne Chiaramello (Department of Anatomy and Regenerative Biology, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, USA) [7] thoroughly describe the implication of mitochondrial biogenesis on neuronal differentiation, its timing, its regulation by specific signaling pathways and new potential therapeutic strategies. The maintenance of mitochondrial homeostasis is crucial for neuronal development. A mitochondrial dynamic balance is necessary between mitochondrial fusion, fission and quality control systems and mitochondrial biogenesis. Concerning the signaling pathways leading to mitochondrial biogenesis this review highlights the implication of different regulators such as AMPK, SIRT1, PGC-1α, NRF1, NRF2, Tfam, etc. on the specific case of neuronal development, providing examples of diseases in which these pathways are altered and transgenic mouse models lacking these regulators. A common hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases (Huntington´s Disease, Alzheimer´s Disease and Parkinson´s Disease) is the impaired function or expression of PGC-1α, the master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis. Among the promising strategies to ameliorate mitochondrial-based diseases these authors highlight the induction of PGC-1α via activation of PPAR receptors (rosiglitazone, bezafibrate) or modulating its activity by AMPK (AICAR, metformin, resveratrol) or SIRT1 (SRT1720 and several isoflavone-derived compounds). This article also presents a review of the current animal and cellular models useful to study mitochondriogenesis. Although it is known that many neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental diseases are originated in mitochondria, the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis has never been extensively studied. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)

  5. Glucocorticoid Modulation of Mitochondrial Function in Hepatoma Cells Requires the Mitochondrial Fission Protein Drp1

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Alvarez, María Isabel; Paz, José C.; Sebastián, David; Muñoz, Juan Pablo; Liesa, Marc; Segalés, Jessica; Palacín, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Glucocorticoids, such as dexamethasone, enhance hepatic energy metabolism and gluconeogenesis partly through changes in mitochondrial function. Mitochondrial function is influenced by the balance between mitochondrial fusion and fission events. However, whether glucocorticoids modulate mitochondrial function through the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics is currently unknown. Results: Here, we report that the effects of dexamethasone on mitochondrial function and gluconeogenesis in hepatoma cells are dependent on the mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1). Dexamethasone increased routine oxygen consumption, maximal respiratory capacity, superoxide anion, proton leak, and gluconeogenesis in hepatoma cells. Under these conditions, dexamethasone altered mitochondrial morphology, which was paralleled by a large increase in Drp1 expression, and reduced mitofusin 1 (Mfn1) and Mfn2. In vivo dexamethasone treatment also enhanced Drp1 expression in mouse liver. On the basis of these observations, we analyzed the dependence on the Drp1 function of dexamethasone effects on mitochondrial respiration and gluconeogenesis. We show that the increase in mitochondrial respiration and gluconeogenesis induced by dexamethasone are hampered by the inhibition of Drp1 function. Innovation: Our findings provide the first evidence that the effects of glucocorticoids on hepatic metabolism require the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1. Conclusion: In summary, we demonstrate that the mitochondrial effects of dexamethasone both on mitochondrial respiration and on the gluconeogenic pathway depend on Drp1. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 366–378. PMID:22703557

  6. The ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase gene maps to a conserved region on human chromosome 15q15 and mouse chromosome 2 bands F1-F3

    SciTech Connect

    Steeghs, K.; Wieringa, B.; Merkx, G.

    1994-11-01

    Members of the creatine kinase isoenzyme family (CKs; EC 2.7.3.2) are found in mitochondria and specialized subregions of the cytoplasm and catalyze the reversible exchange of high-energy phosphoryl between ATP and phosphocreatine. At least four functionally active genes, which encode the distinct CK subunits CKB, CKM, CKMT1 (ubiquitous), and CKMT2 (sarcomeric), and a variable number of CKB pseudogenes have been identified. Here, we report the use of a CKMT1 containing phage to map the CKMT1 gene by in situ hybridization on both human and mouse chromosomes.

  7. The ins and outs of mitochondrial calcium.

    PubMed

    Finkel, Toren; Menazza, Sara; Holmström, Kira M; Parks, Randi J; Liu, Julia; Sun, Junhui; Liu, Jie; Pan, Xin; Murphy, Elizabeth

    2015-05-22

    Calcium is thought to play an important role in regulating mitochondrial function. Evidence suggests that an increase in mitochondrial calcium can augment ATP production by altering the activity of calcium-sensitive mitochondrial matrix enzymes. In contrast, the entry of large amounts of mitochondrial calcium in the setting of ischemia-reperfusion injury is thought to be a critical event in triggering cellular necrosis. For many decades, the details of how calcium entered the mitochondria remained a biological mystery. In the past few years, significant progress has been made in identifying the molecular components of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter complex. Here, we review how calcium enters and leaves the mitochondria, the growing insight into the topology, stoichiometry and function of the uniporter complex, and the early lessons learned from some initial mouse models that genetically perturb mitochondrial calcium homeostasis.

  8. Effects of Isolation by Continental Islands in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan, on Genetic Diversity of the Large Japanese Field Mouse, Apodemus speciosus (Rodentia: Muridae), Inferred from the Mitochondrial Dloop Region.

    PubMed

    Sato, Jun J; Tasaka, Yurina; Tasaka, Ryoya; Gunji, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Yuya; Takada, Yasushi; Uematsu, Yasushi; Sakai, Eiichi; Tateishi, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Yasunori

    2017-04-01

    To study the effects of post-glacial isolation by islands on population genetic diversity and differentiation of the large Japanese field mouse, Apodemus speciosus, we examined partial nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial Dloop region (ca. 300 bp) in 231 individuals collected from islands in the Seto Inland Sea and adjacent regions on Honshu and Shikoku Islands in the western part of the Japanese archipelago. Molecular phylogenetic and network analyses showed that haplotypes in each island tended to form monophyletic groups, while those in Honshu and Shikoku (the major Japanese islands) showed scattered relationships and were connected with island haplotypes. These observations suggest that a set of Honshu and Shikoku haplotypes became the ancestral lineages of the island population. No gene flow was detected among island populations, indicating that independent evolution occurred on each island, without the influence of human activities, since the establishment of the islands in the Holocene. Population genetic diversities on each island were lower than those on Honshu and Shikoku. Comparison between genetic diversity and island area size showed positive correlations and supported the suggestion that genetic drift is a major factor that shaped the current haplotype constitution of the islands in the Seto Inland Sea.

  9. Photoacoustic imaging of voltage signals (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Bin; Zhang, Ruiying; Wang, Lihong V.

    2016-03-01

    Optical imaging of brain voltage signals is significantly limited in depth due to optical scattering and the absorptive property of brain tissue. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging promises to break this hard limit by utilizing both ballistic and diffused photons. To demonstrate the feasibility of PA, we used an in vivo mouse model. The brain cortex tissue was stained with dipicrylamine dye, electrically stimulated, and imaged with a customized dual-isosbestic-wavelength PA microscope (DIW-PAM). DIW-PAM separates voltage-induced PA signals from blood-induced PA signals and thereby allows recording the voltage response of mouse cortex tissue without interference from hemoglobin responses. The resting state PA voltage response signal exhibited a noise-like signal in the frequency domain. Upon 3 Hz electrical stimulation, the PA voltage response signal showed frequency peaks of 3.2 Hz and 6.3 Hz (Fig. 1). Although dipicrylamine dye is not fast enough for recording neuron action potentials, it served well for the purpose of this feasibility study. In conclusion, we successfully demonstrated in vivo photoacoustic imaging of mouse brain voltage signals for the first time. If a fast voltage-sensitive dye is available, using photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) instead of PA microscopy could allow acquiring full-field PA action potential images at a speed limited only by the laser pulse repetition rate.

  10. Mitochondrial DNA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Russell G.; Bottino, Paul J.

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information for teachers on mitochondrial DNA, pointing out that it may have once been a free-living organism. Includes a ready-to-duplicate exercise titled "Using Microchondrial DNA to Measure Evolutionary Distance." (JN)

  11. CIBZ, a Novel BTB Domain-Containing Protein, Is Involved in Mouse Spinal Cord Injury via Mitochondrial Pathway Independent of p53 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shiyong; Li, Ping; Zhang, Xuan; Liu, Honglin

    2012-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) induces both primary uncontrollable mechanical injury and secondary controllable degeneration, which further results in the activation of cell death cascades that mediate delayed tissue damage. To alleviate its impairments and seek for an effective remedy, mRNA differential display was used to investigate gene mRNA expression profiling in mice following SCI. A specific Zinc finger and BTB domain-containing protein, CIBZ, was discovered to implicate in the SCI process for the first time. Further researches indicated that CIBZ was extensively distributed in various tissues, and the expression level was highest in muscle, followed by spinal cord, large intestine, kidney, spleen, thymus, lung, cerebrum, stomach, ovary and heart, respectively. After injury, the CIBZ expression decreased dramatically and reached the lowest level at 8 h, but it gradually increased to the maximal level at 7 d. Caspase-3 and C-terminal-binding protein (CtBP), two CIBZ-related proteins, showed similar tendency. Interestingly, p53 expression remained constant in all groups. Via flow cytometry (FCM) analysis, it was found that the cell death rate in SCI group markedly increased and reached the highest value 1 d after surgery and the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) at 1 d was the lowest in all groups. Taken together, it is suggested that: (i) in the presence of CtBP, CIBZ gene is involved in secondary injury process and trigger the activation of apoptotic caspase-3 and bax genes independent of p53; (ii) abrupt down-regulation of CtBP at 8 h is a sign of mitochondria dysfunction and the onset of cell death; (iii) it could be used as an inhibitor or target drug of caspase-3 gene to improve spinal cord function. PMID:22427977

  12. Mitochondrial genetics

    PubMed Central

    Chinnery, Patrick Francis; Hudson, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In the last 10 years the field of mitochondrial genetics has widened, shifting the focus from rare sporadic, metabolic disease to the effects of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in a growing spectrum of human disease. The aim of this review is to guide the reader through some key concepts regarding mitochondria before introducing both classic and emerging mitochondrial disorders. Sources of data In this article, a review of the current mitochondrial genetics literature was conducted using PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/). In addition, this review makes use of a growing number of publically available databases including MITOMAP, a human mitochondrial genome database (www.mitomap.org), the Human DNA polymerase Gamma Mutation Database (http://tools.niehs.nih.gov/polg/) and PhyloTree.org (www.phylotree.org), a repository of global mtDNA variation. Areas of agreement The disruption in cellular energy, resulting from defects in mtDNA or defects in the nuclear-encoded genes responsible for mitochondrial maintenance, manifests in a growing number of human diseases. Areas of controversy The exact mechanisms which govern the inheritance of mtDNA are hotly debated. Growing points Although still in the early stages, the development of in vitro genetic manipulation could see an end to the inheritance of the most severe mtDNA disease. PMID:23704099

  13. Increased mitochondrial ATP production capacity in brain of healthy mice and a mouse model of isolated complex I deficiency after isoflurane anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Manjeri, Ganesh R; Rodenburg, Richard J; Blanchet, Lionel; Roelofs, Suzanne; Nijtmans, Leo G; Smeitink, Jan A; Driessen, Jacques J; Koopman, Werner J H; Willems, Peter H

    2016-01-01

    We reported before that the minimal alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane is decreased in complex I-deficient mice lacking the NDUFS4 subunit of the respiratory chain (RC) (1.55 and 0.81% at postnatal (PN) 22-25 days and 1.68 and 0.65% at PN 31-34 days for wildtype (WT) and CI-deficient KO, respectively). A more severe respiratory depression was caused by 1.0 MAC isoflurane in KO mice (respiratory rate values of 86 and 45 at PN 22-25 days and 69 and 29 at PN 31-34 days for anesthetized WT and KO, respectively). Here, we address the idea that isoflurane anesthesia causes a much larger decrease in brain mitochondrial ATP production in KO mice thus explaining their increased sensitivity to this anesthetic. Brains from WT and KO mice of the above study were removed immediately after MAC determination at PN 31-34 days and a mitochondria-enriched fraction was prepared. Aliquots were used for measurement of maximal ATP production in the presence of pyruvate, malate, ADP and creatine and, after freeze-thawing, the maximal activity of the individual RC complexes in the presence of complex-specific substrates. CI activity was dramatically decreased in KO, whereas ATP production was decreased by only 26% (p < 0.05). The activities of CII, CIII, and CIV were the same for WT and KO. Isoflurane anesthesia decreased the activity of CI by 30% (p < 0.001) in WT. In sharp contrast, it increased the activity of CII by 37% (p < 0.001) and 50% (p < 0.001) and that of CIII by 37% (p < 0.001) and 40% (p < 0.001) in WT and KO, respectively, whereas it tended to increase that of CIV in both WT and KO. Isoflurane anesthesia increased ATP production by 52 and 69% in WT (p < 0.05) and KO (p < 0.01), respectively. Together these findings indicate that isoflurane anesthesia interferes positively rather than negatively with the ability of CI-deficient mice brain mitochondria to convert their main substrate pyruvate into ATP.

  14. Nicotinamide riboside restores cognition through an upregulation of proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α regulated β-secretase 1 degradation and mitochondrial gene expression in Alzheimer's mouse models.

    PubMed

    Gong, Bing; Pan, Yong; Vempati, Prashant; Zhao, Wei; Knable, Lindsay; Ho, Lap; Wang, Jun; Sastre, Magdalena; Ono, Kenjiro; Sauve, Anthony A; Pasinetti, Giulio M

    2013-06-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)(+), a coenzyme involved in redox activities in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, has been identified as a key regulator of the lifespan-extending effects, and the activation of NAD(+) expression has been linked with a decrease in beta-amyloid (Aβ) toxicity in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nicotinamide riboside (NR) is a NAD(+) precursor, it promotes peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1 (PGC)-1α expression in the brain. Evidence has shown that PGC-1α is a crucial regulator of Aβ generation because it affects β-secretase (BACE1) degradation. In this study we tested the hypothesis that NR treatment in an AD mouse model could attenuate Aβ toxicity through the activation of PGC-1α-mediated BACE1 degradation. Using the Tg2576 AD mouse model, using in vivo behavioral analyses, biochemistry assays, small hairpin RNA (shRNA) gene silencing and electrophysiological recording, we found (1) dietary treatment of Tg2576 mice with 250 mg/kg/day of NR for 3 months significantly attenuates cognitive deterioration in Tg2576 mice and coincides with an increase in the steady-state levels of NAD(+) in the cerebral cortex; (2) application of NR to hippocampal slices (10 μM) for 4 hours abolishes the deficits in long-term potentiation recorded in the CA1 region of Tg2576 mice; (3) NR treatment promotes PGC-1α expression in the brain coinciding with enhanced degradation of BACE1 and the reduction of Aβ production in Tg2576 mice. Further in vitro studies confirmed that BACE1 protein content is decreased by NR treatment in primary neuronal cultures derived from Tg2576 embryos, in which BACE1 degradation was prevented by PGC-1α-shRNA gene silencing; and (4) NR treatment and PGC-1α overexpression enhance BACE1 ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Our studies suggest that dietary treatment with NR might benefit AD cognitive function and synaptic plasticity, in part by promoting PGC-1α-mediated BACE1

  15. Protective effects of 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside in the MPTP-induced mouse model of Parkinson's disease: Involvement of reactive oxygen species-mediated JNK, P38 and mitochondrial pathways.

    PubMed

    He, Hong; Wang, Songhai; Tian, Jiyu; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Junjie; Tang, Haifeng; Zhang, Xiaojun; Chen, Jianzong

    2015-11-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the selective death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Oxidative stress-induced neuron loss is thought to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of PD. Previous work from our group suggests that 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG), an active component extracted from a traditional Chinese herb, Polygonum multiflorum thunb, can attenuate 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyridium-induced apoptosis in the neuronal cell line PC12, by inhibiting reactive oxygen species generation and modulating c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) activation. Here, we investigated the protective effects of TSG against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropypridine (MPTP)-induced loss of tyrosine hydroxylase positive cells in mice and the underlying mechanisms. The results showed that MPTP-induced loss of tyrosine hydroxylase positive cells and reactive oxygen species generation were prevented by TSG in a dose-dependent manner. The reactive oxygen species scavenger N-acetylcysteine could also mitigate reactive oxygen species generation. Moreover, JNK and P38 were activated by MPTP, but extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases phosphorylation did not change after MPTP treatment. TSG at different doses blocked the activation of JNK and P38. The protective effect of TSG was also associated with downregulation of the bax/bcl-2 ratio, reversed the release of cytochrome c and smac, and inhibited the activation of caspase-3, -6, and -9 induced by MPTP. In conclusion, our studies demonstrated that the protective effects of TSG in the MPTP-induced mouse model of PD are involved, at least in part, in controlling reactive oxygen species-mediated JNK, P38, and mitochondrial pathways.

  16. [The antioxidant enzyme activity in mouse liver mitochondria after nanosecond pulsed periodic X-ray exposure].

    PubMed

    Kniazeva, I R; Ivanov, V V; Bol'shakov, M A; Zharkova, L P; Kereia, A V; Kutenkov, O P; Rostov, V V

    2013-01-01

    The effect of repetitive pulsed X-ray (4 ns pulse duration, 300 kV accelerating voltage; 2.5 kA electron beam current) on the antioxidant enzyme activity in mouse liver mitochondria has been investigated. The mitochondrial suspension was exposed to single 4000 pulse X-ray radiation with repetition rates ranging between 10 and 22 pps (pulsed dose was 0.3-1.8 x 10(-6) Gy/pulse, the total absorbed dose following a single exposure was 7.2 x 10(-3) Gy). It was shown that a short-time exposure to X-ray radiation changes the antioxidant enzyme activity in mouse liver mitochondria. The greatest effect was observed in the changes of the activity of the metal-containing enzymes: superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. The effect depends on the pulse repetition frequency and radiation dose.

  17. Characterization of mitochondrial ferritin in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Missirlis, Fanis; Holmberg, Sara; Georgieva, Teodora; Dunkov, Boris C.; Rouault, Tracey A.; Law, John H.

    2006-01-01

    Mitochondrial function depends on iron-containing enzymes and proteins, whose maturation requires available iron for biosynthesis of iron–sulfur clusters and heme. Little is known about how mitochondrial iron homeostasis is maintained, although the recent discovery of a mitochondrial ferritin in mammals and plants has uncovered a potential key player in the process. Here, we show that Drosophila melanogaster expresses mitochondrial ferritin from an intron-containing gene. It has high similarity to the mouse and human mitochondrial ferritin sequences and, as in mammals, is expressed mainly in testis. This ferritin contains a putative mitochondrial targeting sequence and an epitope-tagged version localizes to mitochondria in transfected cells. Overexpression of mitochondrial ferritin fails to alter both total-body iron levels and iron that is bound to secretory ferritins. However, the viability of iron-deficient flies is compromised by overexpression of mitochondrial ferritin, suggesting that it may sequester iron at the expense of other important cellular functions. The conservation of mitochondrial ferritin in an insect species underscores the importance of this iron-storage molecule. PMID:16571656

  18. Mitochondrial and Nuclear Genes of Mitochondrial Components in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kirches, E

    2009-01-01

    Although the observation of aerobic glycolysis of tumor cells by Otto v. Warburg had demonstrated abnormalities of mitochondrial energy metabolism in cancer decades ago, there was no clear evidence for a functional role of mutant mitochondrial proteins in cancer development until the early years of the 21st century. In the year 2000, a major breakthrough was achieved by the observation, that several genes coding for subunits of the respiratory chain (ETC) complex II, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) are tumor suppressor genes in heritable paragangliomas, fulfilling Knudson’s classical two-hit hypothesis. A functional inactivation of both alleles by germline mutations and chromosomal losses in the tumor tissue was found in the patients. Later, SDH mutations were also identified in sporadic paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas. Genes of the mitochondrial ATP-synthase and of mitochondrial iron homeostasis have been implicated in cancer development at the level of cell culture and mouse experiments. In contrast to the well established role of some nuclear SDH genes, a functional impact of the mitochondrial genome itself (mtDNA) in cancer development remains unclear. Nevertheless, the extremely high frequency of mtDNA mutations in solid tumors raises the question, whether this small circular genome might be applicable to early cancer detection. This is a meaningful approach, especially in cancers, which tend to spread tumor cells early into bodily fluids or faeces, which can be screened by non-invasive methods. PMID:19949549

  19. Mitochondrial Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... are defective, the cells do not have enough energy. The unused oxygen and fuel molecules build up in the cells and cause damage. The symptoms of mitochondrial disease can vary. It depends on how ... high energy needs, so muscular and neurological problems are common. ...

  20. Effects of supplementation on food intake, body weight and hepatic metabolites in the citrin/mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase double-knockout mouse model of human citrin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Saheki, Takeyori; Inoue, Kanako; Ono, Hiromi; Katsura, Natsumi; Yokogawa, Mana; Yoshidumi, Yukari; Furuie, Sumie; Kuroda, Eishi; Ushikai, Miharu; Asakawa, Akihiro; Inui, Akio; Eto, Kazuhiro; Kadowaki, Takashi; Sinasac, David S; Yamamura, Ken-Ichi; Kobayashi, Keiko

    2012-11-01

    The C57BL/6:Slc23a13(-/-);Gpd2(-/-) double-knockout (a.k.a., citrin/mitochondrial glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase double knockout or Ctrn/mGPD-KO) mouse displays phenotypic attributes of both neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis (NICCD) and adult-onset type II citrullinemia (CTLN2), making it a suitable model of human citrin deficiency. In the present study, we show that when mature Ctrn/mGPD-KO mice are switched from a standard chow diet (CE-2) to a purified maintenance diet (AIN-93M), this resulted in a significant loss of body weight as a result of reduced food intake compared to littermate mGPD-KO mice. However, supplementation of the purified maintenance diet with additional protein (from 14% to 22%; and concomitant reduction or corn starch), or with specific supplementation with alanine, sodium glutamate, sodium pyruvate or medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), led to increased food intake and body weight gain near or back to that on chow diet. No such effect was observed when supplementing the diet with other sources of fat that contain long-chain fatty acids. Furthermore, when these supplements were added to a sucrose solution administered enterally to the mice, which has been shown previously to lead to elevated blood ammonia as well as altered hepatic metabolite levels in Ctrn/mGPP-KO mice, this led to metabolic correction. The elevated hepatic glycerol 3-phosphate and citrulline levels after sucrose administration were suppressed by the administration of sodium pyruvate, alanine, sodium glutamate and MCT, although the effect of MCT was relatively small. Low hepatic citrate and increased lysine levels were only found to be corrected by sodium pyruvate, while alanine and sodium glutamate both corrected hepatic glutamate and aspartate levels. Overall, these results suggest that dietary factors including increased protein content, supplementation of specific amino acids like alanine and sodium glutamate, as well as sodium pyruvate and MCT all show beneficial

  1. Metformin restores the mitochondrial network and reverses mitochondrial dysfunction in Down syndrome cells.

    PubMed

    Izzo, Antonella; Nitti, Maria; Mollo, Nunzia; Paladino, Simona; Procaccini, Claudio; Faicchia, Deriggio; Calì, Gaetano; Genesio, Rita; Bonfiglio, Ferdinando; Cicatiello, Rita; Polishchuk, Elena; Polishchuk, Roman; Pinton, Paolo; Matarese, Giuseppe; Conti, Anna; Nitsch, Lucio

    2017-01-13

    Alterations in mitochondrial activity and morphology have been demonstrated in human cells and tissues from individuals with Down syndrome (DS), as well as in DS mouse models. An impaired activity of the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α/PPARGC1Adue to the overexpression of chromosome 21 genes, such as NRIP1/RIP140, has emerged as an underlying cause of mitochondrial dysfunction in DS. We tested the hypothesis that the activation of the PGC-1α pathway might indeed reverse this mitochondrial dysfunction.

  2. High-Voltage Pulse Voltage Generator,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-21

    the invention: I. I. Kalyatskiy, V. I. Kurets, and V. I. Safronov Well-known are pulse voltage generators which employ the Arkad’yev- Marx principle of...P2, and hereafter the device operates like an ordinary GIN [pulse volt- age generator] according to the Arkad’yev- Marx principle. The Object of the...Invention The high-voltage pulse voltage generator, assembled according to the Arkad’yev- Marx arrangement, each stage of which incorporates reactive

  3. Salvaging hope: Is increasing NAD(+) a key to treating mitochondrial myopathy?

    PubMed

    Lightowlers, Robert N; Chrzanowska-Lightowlers, Zofia M A

    2014-06-01

    Mitochondrial diseases can arise from mutations either in mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear DNA encoding mitochondrially destined proteins. Currently, there is no cure for these diseases although treatments to ameliorate a subset of the symptoms are being developed. In this issue of EMBO Molecular Medicine, Khan et al (2014) use a mouse model to test the efficacy of a simple dietary supplement of nicotinamide riboside to treat and prevent mitochondrial myopathies.

  4. Mitochondrial Disease: Possible Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Instagram Email Menu Understanding Mitochondrial Disease What is Mito? What is Mitochondrial Disease? Types of Mitochondrial Disease ... Program Frequently Asked Questions Newly Diagnosed Treatments & Therapies Mito 101 MitoFIRST Handbook Current Clinical Trials & Studies Community ...

  5. What Is Mitochondrial DNA?

    MedlinePlus

    ... DNA What is mitochondrial DNA? What is mitochondrial DNA? Although most DNA is packaged in chromosomes within ... proteins. For more information about mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA: Molecular Expressions, a web site from the Florida ...

  6. Comparison of mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal ribonucleic acid from different species.

    PubMed

    Mitra, R S; Bartoov, B; Monahan, J; Freeman, K B

    1972-08-01

    Mitochondrial ribosomal RNA species from mouse L cells, rat liver, rat hepatoma, hamster BHK-21 cells and human KB cells were examined by electrophoresis on polyacrylamide-agarose gels and sedimentation in sucrose density gradients. The S(E) (electrophoretic mobility) and S values of mitochondrial rRNA of all species were highly dependent on temperature and ionic strength of the medium; the S(E) values increased and the S values decreased with an increase in temperature at a low ionic strength. At an ionic strength of 0.3 at 23-25 degrees C or an ionic strength of 0.01 at 3-4 degrees C the S and S(E) values were almost the same being about 16.2-18.0 and 12.3-13.6 for human and mouse mitochondrial rRNA. The molecular weights under these conditions were calculated to be 3.8x10(5)-4.3x10(5) and 5.9x10(5)-6.8x10(5), depending on the technique used. At 25 degrees C in buffers of low ionic strength mouse mitochondrial rRNA species had a lower electrophoretic mobility than those of human and hamster. Under these conditions the smaller mitochondrial rRNA species of hamster had a lower electrophoretic mobility than that of human but the larger component had an identical mobility. Mouse and rat mitochondrial rRNA species had identical electrophoretic mobilities. Complex differences between human and mouse mitochondrial rRNA species were observed on sedimentation in sucrose density gradients under various conditions of temperature and ionic strength. Mouse L-cell mitochondrial rRNA was eluted after cytoplasmic rRNA on a column of methylated albumin-kieselguhr.

  7. Hypoxia as a Therapy for Mitochondrial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Isha H.; Zazzeron, Luca; Goli, Rahul; Alexa, Kristen; Schatzman-Bone, Stephanie; Dhillon, Harveen; Goldberger, Olga; Peng, Jun; Shalem, Ophir; Sanjana, Neville E.; Zhang, Feng; Goessling, Wolfram; Zapol, Warren M.; Mootha, Vamsi K.

    2016-01-01

    Defects in the mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) underlie a spectrum of human conditions, ranging from devastating inborn errors of metabolism to aging. We performed a genome-wide, Cas9-mediated screen to identify factors that are protective during RC inhibition. Our results highlight the hypoxia response, an endogenous program evolved to adapt to limiting oxygen availability. Genetic or small molecule activation of the hypoxia response is protective against mitochondrial toxicity in cultured cells and zebrafish models. Chronic hypoxia leads to a marked improvement in survival, body weight, body temperature, behavior, neuropathology and disease biomarkers in a genetic mouse model of Leigh syndrome, the most common pediatric manifestation of mitochondrial disease. Further preclinical studies are required to assess whether hypoxic exposure can be developed into a safe and effective treatment for human diseases associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:26917594

  8. MLN64 induces mitochondrial dysfunction associated with increased mitochondrial cholesterol content.

    PubMed

    Balboa, Elisa; Castro, Juan; Pinochet, María-José; Cancino, Gonzalo I; Matías, Nuria; José Sáez, Pablo; Martínez, Alexis; Álvarez, Alejandra R; Garcia-Ruiz, Carmen; Fernandez-Checa, José C; Zanlungo, Silvana

    2017-03-02

    MLN64 is a late endosomal cholesterol-binding membrane protein that has been implicated in cholesterol transport from endosomal membranes to the plasma membrane and/or mitochondria, in toxin-induced resistance, and in mitochondrial dysfunction. Down-regulation of MLN64 in Niemann-Pick C1 deficient cells decreased mitochondrial cholesterol content, suggesting that MLN64 functions independently of NPC1. However, the role of MLN64 in the maintenance of endosomal cholesterol flow and intracellular cholesterol homeostasis remains unclear. We have previously described that hepatic MLN64 overexpression increases liver cholesterol content and induces liver damage. Here, we studied the function of MLN64 in normal and NPC1-deficient cells and we evaluated whether MLN64 overexpressing cells exhibit alterations in mitochondrial function. We used recombinant-adenovirus-mediated MLN64 gene transfer to overexpress MLN64 in mouse liver and hepatic cells; and RNA interference to down-regulate MLN64 in NPC1-deficient cells. In MLN64-overexpressing cells, we found increased mitochondrial cholesterol content and decreased glutathione (GSH) levels and ATPase activity. Furthermore, we found decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial fragmentation and increased mitochondrial superoxide levels in MLN64-overexpressing cells and in NPC1-deficient cells. Consequently, MLN64 expression was increased in NPC1-deficient cells and reduction of its expression restore mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial superoxide levels. Our findings suggest that MLN64 overexpression induces an increase in mitochondrial cholesterol content and consequently a decrease in mitochondrial GSH content leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, we demonstrate that MLN64 expression is increased in NPC cells and plays a key role in cholesterol transport into the mitochondria.

  9. Batteries: Widening voltage windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-10-01

    The energy output of aqueous batteries is largely limited by the narrow voltage window of their electrolytes. Now, a hydrate melt consisting of lithium salts is shown to expand such voltage windows, leading to a high-energy aqueous battery.

  10. Mitochondrial translocation and interaction of cofilin and Drp1 are required for erucin-induced mitochondrial fission and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Guobing; Zhou, Jing; Budhraja, Amit; Hu, Xiaoye; Chen, Yibiao; Cheng, Qi; Liu, Lei; Zhou, Ting; Li, Ping; Liu, Ehu; Gao, Ning

    2015-01-30

    Cofilin is a member of the actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF) family protein, which plays an essential role in regulation of the mitochondrial apoptosis. It remains unclear how cofilin regulates the mitochondrial apoptosis. Here, we report for the first time that natural compound 4-methylthiobutyl isothiocyanate (erucin) found in consumable cruciferous vegetables induces mitochondrial fission and apoptosis in human breast cancer cells through the mitochondrial translocation of cofilin. Importantly, cofilin regulates erucin-induced mitochondrial fission by interacting with dynamin-related protein (Drp1). Knockdown of cofilin or Drp1 markedly reduced erucin-mediated mitochondrial translocation and interaction of cofilin and Drp1, mitochondrial fission, and apoptosis. Only dephosphorylated cofilin (Ser 3) and Drp1 (Ser 637) are translocated to the mitochondria. Cofilin S3E and Drp1 S637D mutants, which mimick the phosphorylated forms, suppressed mitochondrial translocation, fission, and apoptosis. Moreover, both dephosphorylation and mitochondrial translocation of cofilin and Drp1 are dependent on ROCK1 activation. In vivo findings confirmed that erucin-mediated inhibition of tumor growth in a breast cancer cell xenograft mouse model is associated with the mitochondrial translocation of cofilin and Drp1, fission and apoptosis. Our study reveals a novel role of cofilin in regulation of mitochondrial fission and suggests erucin as a potential drug for treatment of breast cancer.

  11. Automatic voltage imbalance detector

    DOEpatents

    Bobbett, Ronald E.; McCormick, J. Byron; Kerwin, William J.

    1984-01-01

    A device for indicating and preventing damage to voltage cells such as galvanic cells and fuel cells connected in series by detecting sequential voltages and comparing these voltages to adjacent voltage cells. The device is implemented by using operational amplifiers and switching circuitry is provided by transistors. The device can be utilized in battery powered electric vehicles to prevent galvanic cell damage and also in series connected fuel cells to prevent fuel cell damage.

  12. Mitochondrial respiration controls lysosomal function during inflammatory T cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Baixauli, Francesc; Acín-Pérez, Rebeca; Villarroya-Beltrí, Carolina; Mazzeo, Carla; Nuñez-Andrade, Norman; Gabandé-Rodriguez, Enrique; Dolores Ledesma, Maria; Blázquez, Alberto; Martin, Miguel Angel; Falcón-Pérez, Juan Manuel; Redondo, Juan Miguel; Enríquez, Jose Antonio; Mittelbrunn, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Summary The endolysosomal system is critical for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. However, how endolysosomal compartment is regulated by mitochondrial function is largely unknown. We have generated a mouse model with defective mitochondrial function in CD4+ T lymphocytes by genetic deletion of the mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam). Mitochondrial respiration-deficiency impairs lysosome function, promotes p62 and sphingomyelin accumulation and disrupts endolysosomal trafficking pathways and autophagy, thus linking a primary mitochondrial dysfunction to a lysosomal storage disorder. The impaired lysosome function in Tfam-deficient cells subverts T cell differentiation toward pro-inflammatory subsets and exacerbates the in vivo inflammatory response. Restoration of NAD+ levels improves lysosome function and corrects the inflammatory defects in Tfam-deficient T cells. Our results uncover a mechanism by which mitochondria regulate lysosome function to preserve T cell differentiation and effector functions, and identify novel strategies for intervention in mitochondrial-related diseases. PMID:26299452

  13. Mitochondrial Respiration Controls Lysosomal Function during Inflammatory T Cell Responses.

    PubMed

    Baixauli, Francesc; Acín-Pérez, Rebeca; Villarroya-Beltrí, Carolina; Mazzeo, Carla; Nuñez-Andrade, Norman; Gabandé-Rodriguez, Enrique; Ledesma, Maria Dolores; Blázquez, Alberto; Martin, Miguel Angel; Falcón-Pérez, Juan Manuel; Redondo, Juan Miguel; Enríquez, Jose Antonio; Mittelbrunn, Maria

    2015-09-01

    The endolysosomal system is critical for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. However, how endolysosomal compartment is regulated by mitochondrial function is largely unknown. We have generated a mouse model with defective mitochondrial function in CD4(+) T lymphocytes by genetic deletion of the mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam). Mitochondrial respiration deficiency impairs lysosome function, promotes p62 and sphingomyelin accumulation, and disrupts endolysosomal trafficking pathways and autophagy, thus linking a primary mitochondrial dysfunction to a lysosomal storage disorder. The impaired lysosome function in Tfam-deficient cells subverts T cell differentiation toward proinflammatory subsets and exacerbates the in vivo inflammatory response. Restoration of NAD(+) levels improves lysosome function and corrects the inflammatory defects in Tfam-deficient T cells. Our results uncover a mechanism by which mitochondria regulate lysosome function to preserve T cell differentiation and effector functions, and identify strategies for intervention in mitochondrial-related diseases.

  14. Mixed voltage VLSI design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panwar, Ramesh; Rennels, David; Alkalaj, Leon

    1993-01-01

    A technique for minimizing the power dissipated in a Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) chip by lowering the operating voltage without any significant penalty in the chip throughput even though low voltage operation results in slower circuits. Since the overall throughput of a VLSI chip depends on the speed of the critical path(s) in the chip, it may be possible to sustain the throughput rates attained at higher voltages by operating the circuits in the critical path(s) with a high voltage while operating the other circuits with a lower voltage to minimize the power dissipation. The interface between the gates which operate at different voltages is crucial for low power dissipation since the interface may possibly have high static current dissipation thus negating the gains of the low voltage operation. The design of a voltage level translator which does the interface between the low voltage and high voltage circuits without any significant static dissipation is presented. Then, the results of the mixed voltage design using a greedy algorithm on three chips for various operating voltages are presented.

  15. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism in mitochondrial myopathy.

    PubMed

    Holt, I J; Harding, A E; Morgan-Hughes, J A

    1988-05-01

    In order to test the hypothesis that mitochondrial myopathy may be caused by mutation of the mitochondrial (mt) genome, restriction fragment length polymorphism in leucocyte mt DNA has been studied in 38 patients with mitochondrial myopathy, 44 of their unaffected matrilineal relatives, and 35 normal control subjects. Previously unreported mt DNA polymorphisms were identified in both patients and controls. No differences in restriction fragment patterns were observed between affected and unaffected individuals in the same maternal line, and there was no evidence of major deletion of mt DNA in patients. This study provides no positive evidence of mitochondrial inheritance in mitochondrial myopathy, but this has not been excluded.

  16. Mitochondrial calcium uptake regulates rapid calcium transients in skeletal muscle during excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jianxun; Ma, Changling; Li, Yan; Weisleder, Noah; Ríos, Eduardo; Ma, Jianjie; Zhou, Jingsong

    2011-09-16

    Defective coupling between sarcoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria during control of intracellular Ca(2+) signaling has been implicated in the progression of neuromuscular diseases. Our previous study showed that skeletal muscles derived from an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mouse model displayed segmental loss of mitochondrial function that was coupled with elevated and uncontrolled sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release activity. The localized mitochondrial defect in the ALS muscle allows for examination of the mitochondrial contribution to Ca(2+) removal during excitation-contraction coupling by comparing Ca(2+) transients in regions with normal and defective mitochondria in the same muscle fiber. Here we show that Ca(2+) transients elicited by membrane depolarization in fiber segments with defective mitochondria display an ~10% increased amplitude. These regional differences in Ca(2+) transients were abolished by the application of 1,2-bis(O-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, a fast Ca(2+) chelator that reduces mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake. Using a mitochondria-targeted Ca(2+) biosensor (mt11-YC3.6) expressed in ALS muscle fibers, we monitored the dynamic change of mitochondrial Ca(2+) levels during voltage-induced Ca(2+) release and detected a reduced Ca(2+) uptake by mitochondria in the fiber segment with defective mitochondria, which mirrored the elevated Ca(2+) transients in the cytosol. Our study constitutes a direct demonstration of the importance of mitochondria in shaping the cytosolic Ca(2+) signaling in skeletal muscle during excitation-contraction coupling and establishes that malfunction of this mechanism may contribute to neuromuscular degeneration in ALS.

  17. Mitochondrial respiration without ubiquinone biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Hekimi, Siegfried

    2013-01-01

    Ubiquinone (UQ), a.k.a. coenzyme Q, is a redox-active lipid that participates in several cellular processes, in particular mitochondrial electron transport. Primary UQ deficiency is a rare but severely debilitating condition. Mclk1 (a.k.a. Coq7) encodes a conserved mitochondrial enzyme that is necessary for UQ biosynthesis. We engineered conditional Mclk1 knockout models to study pathogenic effects of UQ deficiency and to assess potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of UQ deficiencies. We found that Mclk1 knockout cells are viable in the total absence of UQ. The UQ biosynthetic precursor DMQ9 accumulates in these cells and can sustain mitochondrial respiration, albeit inefficiently. We demonstrated that efficient rescue of the respiratory deficiency in UQ-deficient cells by UQ analogues is side chain length dependent, and that classical UQ analogues with alkyl side chains such as idebenone and decylUQ are inefficient in comparison with analogues with isoprenoid side chains. Furthermore, Vitamin K2, which has an isoprenoid side chain, and has been proposed to be a mitochondrial electron carrier, had no efficacy on UQ-deficient mouse cells. In our model with liver-specific loss of Mclk1, a large depletion of UQ in hepatocytes caused only a mild impairment of respiratory chain function and no gross abnormalities. In conjunction with previous findings, this surprisingly small effect of UQ depletion indicates a nonlinear dependence of mitochondrial respiratory capacity on UQ content. With this model, we also showed that diet-derived UQ10 is able to functionally rescue the electron transport deficit due to severe endogenous UQ deficiency in the liver, an organ capable of absorbing exogenous UQ. PMID:23847050

  18. High Voltage SPT Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzella, David; Jacobson, David; Jankovsky, Robert

    2001-01-01

    A 2.3 kW stationary plasma thruster designed to operate at high voltage was tested at discharge voltages between 300 and 1250 V. Discharge specific impulses between 1600 and 3700 sec were demonstrated with thrust between 40 and 145 mN. Test data indicated that discharge voltage can be optimized for maximum discharge efficiency. The optimum discharge voltage was between 500 and 700 V for the various anode mass flow rates considered. The effect of operating voltage on optimal magnet field strength was investigated. The effect of cathode flow rate on thruster efficiency was considered for an 800 V discharge.

  19. RECQL4 LOCALIZES TO MITOCHONDRIA AND PRESERVES MITOCHONDRIAL DNA INTEGRITY

    PubMed Central

    Croteau, Deborah L.; Rossi, Marie L.; Canugovi, Chandrika; Tian, Jane; Sykora, Peter; Ramamoorthy, Mahesh; Wang, ZhengMing; Singh, Dharmendra Kumar; Akbari, Mansour; Kasiviswanathan, Rajesh; Copeland, William C.; Bohr, Vilhelm A.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY RECQL4 is associated with Rothmund-Thomson Syndrome (RTS), a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by premature aging, genomic instability and cancer predisposition. RECQL4 is a member of the RecQ-helicase family, and has many similarities to WRN protein, which is also implicated in premature aging. There is no information about whether any of the RecQ helicases play roles in mitochondrial biogenesis, which is strongly implicated in the aging process. Here, we used microscopy to visualize RECQL4 in mitochondria. Fractionation of human and mouse cells also showed that RECQL4 was present in mitochondria. Q-PCR amplification of mitochondrial DNA demonstrated that mtDNA damage accumulated in RECQL4-deficient cells. Microarray analysis suggested that mitochondrial bioenergetic pathways might be affected in RTS. Measurements of mitochondrial bioenergetics showed a reduction in the mitochondrial reserve capacity after lentiviral knockdown of RECQL4 in two different primary cell lines. Additionally, biochemical assays with RECQL4, mitochondrial transcription factor A and mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ showed that the polymerase inhibited RECQL4’s helicase activity. RECQL4 is the first 3′ to 5′ RecQ helicase to be found in both human and mouse mitochondria and the loss of RECQL4 alters mitochondrial integrity. PMID:22296597

  20. Alterations in Mitochondrial Quality Control in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Qian; Tammineni, Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the earliest and most prominent features in the brains of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients. Recent studies suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of AD. Neurons are metabolically active cells, causing them to be particularly dependent on mitochondrial function for survival and maintenance. As highly dynamic organelles, mitochondria are characterized by a balance of fusion and fission, transport, and mitophagy, all of which are essential for maintaining mitochondrial integrity and function. Mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy can therefore be identified as key pathways in mitochondrial quality control. Tremendous progress has been made in studying changes in these key aspects of mitochondrial biology in the vulnerable neurons of AD brains and mouse models, and the potential underlying mechanisms of such changes. This review highlights recent findings on alterations in the mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy in AD and discusses how these abnormalities impact mitochondrial quality control and thus contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction in AD. PMID:26903809

  1. Tumor cytotoxicity by endothelial cells. Impairment of the mitochondrial system for glutathione uptake in mouse B16 melanoma cells that survive after in vitro interaction with the hepatic sinusoidal endothelium.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Angel L; Carretero, Julian; Obrador, Elena; Gambini, Juan; Asensi, Miguel; Rodilla, Vicente; Estrela, José M

    2003-04-18

    High GSH content associates with high metastatic activity in B16-F10 melanoma cells cultured to low density (LD B16M). GSH homeostasis was investigated in LD B16M cells that survive after adhesion to the hepatic sinusoidal endothelium (HSE). Invasive B16M (iB16M) cells were isolated using anti-Met-72 monoclonal antibodies and flow cytometry-coupled cell sorting. HSE-derived NO and H(2)O(2) caused GSH depletion and a decrease in gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase activity in iB16M cells. Overexpression of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase heavy and light subunits led to a rapid recovery of cytosolic GSH, whereas mitochondrial GSH (mtGSH) further decreased during the first 18 h of culture. NO and H(2)O(2) damaged the mitochondrial system for GSH uptake (rates in iB16M were approximately 75% lower than in LD B16M cells). iB16M cells also showed a decreased activity of mitochondrial complexes II, III, and IV, less O(2) consumption, lower ATP levels, higher O(2) and H(2)O(2) production, and lower mitochondrial membrane potential. In vitro growing iB16M cells maintained high viability (>98%) and repaired HSE-induced mitochondrial damages within 48 h. However, iB16M cells with low mtGSH levels were highly susceptible to TNF-alpha-induced oxidative stress and death. Therefore depletion of mtGSH levels may represent a critical target to challenge survival of invasive cancer cells.

  2. Urinary mitochondrial DNA is a biomarker of mitochondrial disruption and renal dysfunction in acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Ryan M.; Stallons, L. Jay; Kneff, Joshua E.; Alge, Joseph L.; Harmon, Jennifer L.; Rahn, Jennifer J.; Arthur, John M.; Beeson, Craig C.; Chan, Sherine L.; Schnellmann, Rick G.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies show the importance of mitochondrial dysfunction in the initiation and progression of acute kidney injury (AKI). However, no biomarkers exist linking renal injury to mitochondrial function and integrity. To this end, we evaluated urinary mitochondrial DNA (UmtDNA) as a biomarker of renal injury and function in humans with AKI following cardiac surgery. mtDNA was isolated from the urine of patients following cardiac surgery and quantified by qPCR. Patients were stratified into no AKI, stable AKI and progressive AKI groups based on Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) staging. UmtDNA was elevated in progressive AKI patients, and was associated with progression of patients with AKI at collection to higher AKIN stages. To evaluate the relationship of UmtDNA to measures of renal mitochondrial integrity in AKI, mice were subjected to sham surgery or varying degrees of ischemia followed by 24 hours of reperfusion. UmtDNA increased in mice after 10-15 minutes of ischemia and positively correlated with ischemia time. Furthermore, UmtDNA was predictive of AKI in the mouse model. Finally, UmtDNA levels were negatively correlated with renal cortical mtDNA and mitochondrial gene expression. These translational studies demonstrate that UmtDNA is associated with recovery from AKI following cardiac surgery by serving as an indicator of mitochondrial integrity. Thus, UmtDNA may serve as valuable biomarker for the development of mitochondrial targeted therapies in AKI. PMID:26287315

  3. Mitochondrial inheritance in a mitochondrially mediated disease.

    PubMed

    Egger, J; Wilson, J

    1983-07-21

    Mendelian inheritance involves the transmission to successive generations of DNA contained in genes in the nucleus, but DNA is also contained in mitochondria, where it is believed to be responsible for the encoding of certain mitochondrial enzymes. Since nearly all mitochondrial DNA is maternally transmitted, one might expect a nonmendelian pattern of inheritance in mitochondrial cytopathy, a syndrome in which there are abnormalities in mitochondrial structure and deficiencies in a variety of mitochondrial enzymes. We studied the pedigrees of 6 affected families whose members we had examined personally and of 24 families described in the literature. In 27 families, exclusively maternal transmission occurred; in 3 there was also paternal transmission in one generation. Altogether, 51 mothers but only 3 fathers had transmitted the condition. These results are consistent with mitochondrial transmission of mitochondrial cytopathy; the inheritance and enzyme defects of mitochondrial cytopathy can be considered in the light of recent evidence that subunits of respiratory-enzyme complexes are encoded solely by mitochondrial DNA. The occasional paternal transmission may be explained if certain enzyme subunits that are encoded by nuclear DNA are affected.

  4. Voltage-sensitive rhodol with enhanced two-photon brightness.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Rishikesh U; Kramer, Daniel J; Pourmandi, Narges; Karbasi, Kaveh; Bateup, Helen S; Miller, Evan W

    2017-03-14

    We have designed, synthesized, and applied a rhodol-based chromophore to a molecular wire-based platform for voltage sensing to achieve fast, sensitive, and bright voltage sensing using two-photon (2P) illumination. Rhodol VoltageFluor-5 (RVF5) is a voltage-sensitive dye with improved 2P cross-section for use in thick tissue or brain samples. RVF5 features a dichlororhodol core with pyrrolidyl substitution at the nitrogen center. In mammalian cells under one-photon (1P) illumination, RVF5 demonstrates high voltage sensitivity (28% ΔF/F per 100 mV) and improved photostability relative to first-generation voltage sensors. This photostability enables multisite optical recordings from neurons lacking tuberous sclerosis complex 1, Tsc1, in a mouse model of genetic epilepsy. Using RVF5, we show that Tsc1 KO neurons exhibit increased activity relative to wild-type neurons and additionally show that the proportion of active neurons in the network increases with the loss of Tsc1. The high photostability and voltage sensitivity of RVF5 is recapitulated under 2P illumination. Finally, the ability to chemically tune the 2P absorption profile through the use of rhodol scaffolds affords the unique opportunity to image neuronal voltage changes in acutely prepared mouse brain slices using 2P illumination. Stimulation of the mouse hippocampus evoked spiking activity that was readily discerned with bath-applied RVF5, demonstrating the utility of RVF5 and molecular wire-based voltage sensors with 2P-optimized fluorophores for imaging voltage in intact brain tissue.

  5. Piracetam improves mitochondrial dysfunction following oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Keil, Uta; Scherping, Isabel; Hauptmann, Susanne; Schuessel, Katin; Eckert, Anne; Müller, Walter E

    2006-01-01

    1.--Mitochondrial dysfunction including decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential and reduced ATP production represents a common final pathway of many conditions associated with oxidative stress, for example, hypoxia, hypoglycemia, and aging. 2.--Since the cognition-improving effects of the standard nootropic piracetam are usually more pronounced under such pathological conditions and young healthy animals usually benefit little by piracetam, the effect of piracetam on mitochondrial dysfunction following oxidative stress was investigated using PC12 cells and dissociated brain cells of animals treated with piracetam. 3.--Piracetam treatment at concentrations between 100 and 1000 microM improved mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production of PC12 cells following oxidative stress induced by sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and serum deprivation. Under conditions of mild serum deprivation, piracetam (500 microM) induced a nearly complete recovery of mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels. Piracetam also reduced caspase 9 activity after SNP treatment. 4.--Piracetam treatment (100-500 mg kg(-1) daily) of mice was also associated with improved mitochondrial function in dissociated brain cells. Significant improvement was mainly seen in aged animals and only less in young animals. Moreover, the same treatment reduced antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) in aged mouse brain only, which are elevated as an adaptive response to the increased oxidative stress with aging. 5.--In conclusion, therapeutically relevant in vitro and in vivo concentrations of piracetam are able to improve mitochondrial dysfunction associated with oxidative stress and/or aging. Mitochondrial stabilization and protection might be an important mechanism to explain many of piracetam's beneficial effects in elderly patients.

  6. Isolation of Mitochondrial Ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Adam J

    2017-01-01

    Translation of mitochondrial encoded mRNAs by mitochondrial ribosomes is thought to play a major role in regulating the expression of mitochondrial proteins. However, the structure and function of plant mitochondrial ribosomes remains poorly understood. To study mitochondrial ribosomes, it is necessary to separate them from plastidic and cytosolic ribosomes that are generally present at much higher concentrations. Here, a straight forward protocol for the preparation of fractions highly enriched in mitochondrial ribosomes from plant cells is described. The method begins with purification of mitochondria followed by mitochondrial lysis and ultracentrifugation of released ribosomes through sucrose cushions and gradients. Dark-grown Arabidopsis cells were used in this example because of the ease with which good yields of pure mitochondria can be obtained from them. However, the steps for isolation of ribosomes from mitochondria could be applied to mitochondria obtained from other sources. Proteomic analyses of resulting fractions have confirmed strong enrichment of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins.

  7. Mitochondrial biogenesis and turnover.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Francisca; Moraes, Carlos T

    2008-07-01

    Mitochondrial biogenesis is a complex process involving the coordinated expression of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, the import of the products of the latter into the organelle and turnover. The mechanisms associated with these events have been intensively studied in the last 20 years and our understanding of their details is much improved. Mitochondrial biogenesis requires the participation of calcium signaling that activates a series of calcium-dependent protein kinases that in turn activate transcription factors and coactivators such as PGC-1alpha that regulates the expression of genes coding for mitochondrial components. In addition, mitochondrial biogenesis involves the balance of mitochondrial fission-fusion. Mitochondrial malfunction or defects in any of the many pathways involved in mitochondrial biogenesis can lead to degenerative diseases and possibly play an important part in aging.

  8. Identification of the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Hildyard, John C W; Halestrap, Andrew P

    2003-01-01

    Mitochondrial pyruvate transport is fundamental for metabolism and mediated by a specific inhibitable carrier. We have identified the yeast mitochondrial pyruvate carrier by measuring inhibitor-sensitive pyruvate uptake into mitochondria from 18 different Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants, each lacking an unattributed member of the mitochondrial carrier family (MCF). Only mitochondria from the YIL006w deletion mutant exhibited no inhibitor-sensitive pyruvate transport, but otherwise behaved normally. YIL006w encodes a 41.9 kDa MCF member with homologous proteins present in both the human and mouse genomes. PMID:12887330

  9. Immunohistological demonstration of CaV3.2 T-type voltage-gated calcium channel expression in soma of dorsal root ganglion neurons and peripheral axons of rat and mouse

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Kirstin E.; Lunardi, Nadia; Boscolo, Annalisa; Dong, Xinzhong; Erisir, Alev; Jevtovic-Todorovic, Vesna; Todorovic, Slobodan M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous behavioural studies have revealed that CaV3.2 T-type calcium channels support peripheral nociceptive transmission and electrophysiological studies have established the presence of T-currents in putative nociceptive sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglion (DRG). To date, however, the localization pattern of this key nociceptive channel in the soma and peripheral axons of these cells has not been demonstrated due to lack of isoform-selective anti-CaV3.2 antibodies. In the present study a new polyclonal CaV3.2 antibody is used to localize CaV3.2 expression in rodent DRG neurons using different staining techniques including confocal and electron microscopy. Confocal microscopy of both acutely dissociated cells and short-term cultures demonstrated strong immunofluorescence of anti-CaV3.2 antibody that was largely confined to smaller diameter DRG neurons where it co-localized with established immuno-markers of unmyelinated nociceptors, such as, CGRP, IB4 and peripherin. In contrast, a smaller proportion of these CaV3.2-labeled DRG cells also co-expressed NF-200, a marker of myelinated sensory neurons. In the rat sciatic nerve preparation, confocal microscopy demonstrated anti-CaV3.2 immunofluorescence which was co-localized with both peripherin and NF-200. Further, electron microscopy revealed immuno-gold labelling of CaV3.2 preferentially in association with un-myelinated sensory fibres from mouse sciatic nerve. Finally, we demonstrated the expression of CaV3.2 channels in peripheral nerve endings of mouse hindpaw skin as shown by co-localisation with Mrgpd-GFP-positive fibres. The CaV3.2 expression within the soma and peripheral axons of nociceptive sensory neurons further demonstrates the importance of this channel in peripheral pain transmission. PMID:23867767

  10. Voltage correction power flow

    SciTech Connect

    Rajicic, D.; Ackovski, R.; Taleski, R. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1994-04-01

    A method for power flow solution of weakly meshed distribution and transmission networks is presented. It is based on oriented ordering of network elements. That allows an efficient construction of the loop impedance matrix and rational organization of the processes such as: power summation (backward sweep), current summation (backward sweep) and node voltage calculation (forward sweep). The first step of the algorithm is calculation of node voltages on the radial part of the network. The second step is calculation of the breakpoint currents. Then, the procedure continues with the first step, which is preceded by voltage correction. It is illustrated that using voltage correction approach, the iterative process of weakly meshed network voltage calculation is faster and more reliable.

  11. Voltage verification unit

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Edward J.

    2008-01-15

    A voltage verification unit and method for determining the absence of potentially dangerous potentials within a power supply enclosure without Mode 2 work is disclosed. With this device and method, a qualified worker, following a relatively simple protocol that involves a function test (hot, cold, hot) of the voltage verification unit before Lock Out/Tag Out and, and once the Lock Out/Tag Out is completed, testing or "trying" by simply reading a display on the voltage verification unit can be accomplished without exposure of the operator to the interior of the voltage supply enclosure. According to a preferred embodiment, the voltage verification unit includes test leads to allow diagnostics with other meters, without the necessity of accessing potentially dangerous bus bars or the like.

  12. Mitochondrial biogenesis in the pulmonary vasculature during inhalation lung injury and fibrosis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cell survival and injury repair is facilitated by mitochondrial biogenesis; however, the role of this process in lung repair is unknown. We evaluated mitochondrial biogenesis in the mouse lung in two injuries that cause acute inflammation and in two that cause chronic inflammatio...

  13. The Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore in Motor Neurons: Involvement in the Pathobiology of ALS Mice

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Lee J.; Gertz, Barry; Pan, Yan; Price, Ann C.; Molkentin, Jeffery D.; Chang, Qing

    2009-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease of motor neurons (MNs) that causes paralysis. Some forms of ALS are inherited, caused by mutations in the superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) gene. The mechanisms of human mutant SOD1 (mSOD1) toxicity to MNs are unresolved. Mitochondria in MNs might be key sites for ALS pathogenesis, but cause-effect relationships between mSOD1 and mitochrondiopathy need further study. We used transgenic mSOD1 mice to test the hypothesis that the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) is involved in the MN degeneration of ALS. Components of the multi-protein mPTP are expressed highly in mouse MNs, including the voltage-dependent anion channel, adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), and cyclophilin D (CyPD), and are present in mitochondria marked by manganese SOD. MNs in pre-symptomatic mSOD1-G93A mice form swollen megamitochondria with CyPD immunoreactivity. Early disease is associated with mitochondrial cristae remodeling and matrix vesiculation in ventral horn neuron dendrites. MN cell bodies accumulate mitochondria derived from the distal axons projecting to skeletal muscle. Incipient disease in spinal cord is associated with increased oxidative and nitrative stress, indicated by protein carbonyls and nitration of CyPD and ANT. Reducing the levels of CyPD by genetic ablation significantly delays disease onset and extends the lifespan of G93A-mSOD1 mice expressing high and low levels of mutant protein in a gender-dependent pattern. These results demonstrate that mitochondria have causal roles in the disease mechanisms in MNs in ALS mice. This work defines a new mitochondrial mechanism for MN degeneration in ALS. PMID:19272377

  14. Human Mitochondrial Protein Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 131 Human Mitochondrial Protein Database (Web, free access)   The Human Mitochondrial Protein Database (HMPDb) provides comprehensive data on mitochondrial and human nuclear encoded proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and function. This database consolidates information from SwissProt, LocusLink, Protein Data Bank (PDB), GenBank, Genome Database (GDB), Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), Human Mitochondrial Genome Database (mtDB), MITOMAP, Neuromuscular Disease Center and Human 2-D PAGE Databases. This database is intended as a tool not only to aid in studying the mitochondrion but in studying the associated diseases.

  15. Voltage balanced multilevel voltage source converter system

    DOEpatents

    Peng, F.Z.; Lai, J.S.

    1997-07-01

    Disclosed is a voltage balanced multilevel converter for high power AC applications such as adjustable speed motor drives and back-to-back DC intertie of adjacent power systems. This converter provides a multilevel rectifier, a multilevel inverter, and a DC link between the rectifier and the inverter allowing voltage balancing between each of the voltage levels within the multilevel converter. The rectifier is equipped with at least one phase leg and a source input node for each of the phases. The rectifier is further equipped with a plurality of rectifier DC output nodes. The inverter is equipped with at least one phase leg and a load output node for each of the phases. The inverter is further equipped with a plurality of inverter DC input nodes. The DC link is equipped with a plurality of rectifier charging means and a plurality of inverter discharging means. The plurality of rectifier charging means are connected in series with one of the rectifier charging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of rectifier DC output nodes. The plurality of inverter discharging means are connected in series with one of the inverter discharging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of inverter DC input nodes. Each of said rectifier DC output nodes are individually electrically connected to the respective inverter DC input nodes. By this means, each of the rectifier DC output nodes and each of the inverter DC input nodes are voltage balanced by the respective charging and discharging of the rectifier charging means and the inverter discharging means. 15 figs.

  16. Voltage balanced multilevel voltage source converter system

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng

    1997-01-01

    A voltage balanced multilevel converter for high power AC applications such as adjustable speed motor drives and back-to-back DC intertie of adjacent power systems. This converter provides a multilevel rectifier, a multilevel inverter, and a DC link between the rectifier and the inverter allowing voltage balancing between each of the voltage levels within the multilevel converter. The rectifier is equipped with at least one phase leg and a source input node for each of the phases. The rectifier is further equipped with a plurality of rectifier DC output nodes. The inverter is equipped with at least one phase leg and a load output node for each of the phases. The inverter is further equipped with a plurality of inverter DC input nodes. The DC link is equipped with a plurality of rectifier charging means and a plurality of inverter discharging means. The plurality of rectifier charging means are connected in series with one of the rectifier charging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of rectifier DC output nodes. The plurality of inverter discharging means are connected in series with one of the inverter discharging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of inverter DC input nodes. Each of said rectifier DC output nodes are individually electrically connected to the respective inverter DC input nodes. By this means, each of the rectifier DC output nodes and each of the inverter DC input nodes are voltage balanced by the respective charging and discharging of the rectifier charging means and the inverter discharging means.

  17. Low voltage to high voltage level shifter and related methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mentze, Erik J. (Inventor); Hess, Herbert L. (Inventor); Buck, Kevin M. (Inventor); Cox, David F. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A shifter circuit comprises a high and low voltage buffer stages and an output buffer stage. The high voltage buffer stage comprises multiple transistors arranged in a transistor stack having a plurality of intermediate nodes connecting individual transistors along the stack. The transistor stack is connected between a voltage level being shifted to and an input voltage. An inverter of this stage comprises multiple inputs and an output. Inverter inputs are connected to a respective intermediate node of the transistor stack. The low voltage buffer stage has an input connected to the input voltage and an output, and is operably connected to the high voltage buffer stage. The low voltage buffer stage is connected between a voltage level being shifted away from and a lower voltage. The output buffer stage is driven by the outputs of the high voltage buffer stage inverter and the low voltage buffer stage.

  18. Single Event Transients in Low Voltage Dropout (LVDO) Voltage Regulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, K.; Karsh, J.; Pursley, S.; Kleyner, I.; Katz, R.; Poivey, C.; Kim, H.; Seidleck, C.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of Low Voltage Dropout (LVDO) Voltage Regulators in environments where heavy ion induced Single Event Transients are a concern to the designers.Included in the presentation are results of tests of voltage regulators.

  19. TMEM16A is associated with voltage-gated calcium channels in mouse retina and its function is disrupted upon mutation of the auxiliary α2δ4 subunit

    PubMed Central

    Caputo, Antonella; Piano, Ilaria; Demontis, Gian Carlo; Bacchi, Niccolò; Casarosa, Simona; Santina, Luca Della; Gargini, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Photoreceptors rely upon highly specialized synapses to efficiently transmit signals to multiple postsynaptic targets. Calcium influx in the presynaptic terminal is mediated by voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC). This event triggers neurotransmitter release, but also gates calcium-activated chloride channels (TMEM), which in turn regulate VGCC activity. In order to investigate the relationship between VGCC and TMEM channels, we analyzed the retina of wild type (WT) and Cacna2d4 mutant mice, in which the VGCC auxiliary α2δ4 subunit carries a nonsense mutation, disrupting the normal channel function. Synaptic terminals of mutant photoreceptors are disarranged and synaptic proteins as well as TMEM16A channels lose their characteristic localization. In parallel, calcium-activated chloride currents are impaired in rods, despite unaltered TMEM16A protein levels. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed the interaction between VGCC and TMEM16A channels in the retina. Heterologous expression of these channels in tsA-201 cells showed that TMEM16A associates with the CaV1.4 subunit, and the association persists upon expression of the mutant α2δ4 subunit. Collectively, our experiments show association between TMEM16A and the α1 subunit of VGCC. Close proximity of these channels allows optimal function of the photoreceptor synaptic terminal under physiological conditions, but also makes TMEM16A channels susceptible to changes occurring to calcium channels. PMID:26557056

  20. Mitochondrial Diseases and Cardiomyopathies.

    PubMed

    Brunel-Guitton, Catherine; Levtova, Alina; Sasarman, Florin

    2015-11-01

    Mitochondrial cardiomyopathies are clinically and genetically heterogeneous. An integrative approach encompassing clinical, biochemical, and molecular investigations is required to reach a specific diagnosis. In this review we summarize the clinical and genetic aspects of mitochondrial disorders associated with cardiomyopathy, including disorders of oxidative phosphorylation. It also describes groups of disorders that, although not usually classified as mitochondrial disorders, stem from defects in mitochondrial function (eg, disorders of β-oxidation and the carnitine cycle), are associated with secondary mitochondrial impairment (eg, organic acidurias), and are important diagnostically because they are treatable. Current biochemical and molecular techniques for the diagnosis of mitochondrial cardiomyopathies are described, and a diagnostic algorithm is proposed, to help clinicians in their approach to cardiomyopathies in the context of mitochondrial diseases.

  1. High voltage DC power supply

    DOEpatents

    Droege, T.F.

    1989-12-19

    A high voltage DC power supply having a first series resistor at the output for limiting current in the event of a short-circuited output, a second series resistor for sensing the magnitude of output current, and a voltage divider circuit for providing a source of feedback voltage for use in voltage regulation is disclosed. The voltage divider circuit is coupled to the second series resistor so as to compensate the feedback voltage for a voltage drop across the first series resistor. The power supply also includes a pulse-width modulated control circuit, having dual clock signals, which is responsive to both the feedback voltage and a command voltage, and also includes voltage and current measuring circuits responsive to the feedback voltage and the voltage developed across the second series resistor respectively. 7 figs.

  2. High voltage DC power supply

    DOEpatents

    Droege, Thomas F.

    1989-01-01

    A high voltage DC power supply having a first series resistor at the output for limiting current in the event of a short-circuited output, a second series resistor for sensing the magnitude of output current, and a voltage divider circuit for providing a source of feedback voltage for use in voltage regulation is disclosed. The voltage divider circuit is coupled to the second series resistor so as to compensate the feedback voltage for a voltage drop across the first series resistor. The power supply also includes a pulse-width modulated control circuit, having dual clock signals, which is responsive to both the feedback voltage and a command voltage, and also includes voltage and current measuring circuits responsive to the feedback voltage and the voltage developed across the second series resistor respectively.

  3. High voltage power supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruitberg, A. P.; Young, K. M. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A high voltage power supply is formed by three discrete circuits energized by a battery to provide a plurality of concurrent output signals floating at a high output voltage on the order of several tens of kilovolts. In the first two circuits, the regulator stages are pulse width modulated and include adjustable ressistances for varying the duty cycles of pulse trains provided to corresponding oscillator stages while the third regulator stage includes an adjustable resistance for varying the amplitude of a steady signal provided to a third oscillator stage. In the first circuit, the oscillator, formed by a constant current drive network and a tuned resonant network included a step up transformer, is coupled to a second step up transformer which, in turn, supplies an amplified sinusoidal signal to a parallel pair of complementary poled rectifying, voltage multiplier stages to generate the high output voltage.

  4. High Voltage Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norbeck, Edwin; Miller, Michael; Onel, Yasar

    2010-11-01

    For detector arrays that require 5 to 10 kV at a few microamps each for hundreds of detectors, using hundreds of HV power supplies is unreasonable. Bundles of hundreds of HV cables take up space that should be filled with detectors. A typical HV module can supply 1 ma, enough current for hundreds of detectors. It is better to use a single HV module and distribute the current as needed. We show a circuit that, for each detector, measures the current, cuts off the voltage if the current exceeds a set maximum, and allows the HV to be turned on or off from a control computer. The entire array requires a single HV cable and 2 or 3 control lines. This design provides the same voltage to all of the detectors, the voltage set by the single HV module. Some additional circuitry would allow a computer controlled voltage drop between the HV and each individual detector.

  5. High-voltage distributors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcchesney, J. F., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Two distributors reduce high-voltage breakdowns and corona discharges. Both distributors are constructed to prevent air traps and facilitate servicing without soldering. Occurrence of coronas is also minimized due to smooth surfaces of device.

  6. Calibration of Voltage Transformers and High- Voltage Capacitors at NIST

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, William E.

    1989-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) calibration service for voltage transformers and high-voltage capacitors is described. The service for voltage transformers provides measurements of ratio correction factors and phase angles at primary voltages up to 170 kV and secondary voltages as low as 10 V at 60 Hz. Calibrations at frequencies from 50–400 Hz are available over a more limited voltage range. The service for high-voltage capacitors provides measurements of capacitance and dissipation factor at applied voltages ranging from 100 V to 170 kV at 60 Hz depending on the nominal capacitance. Calibrations over a reduced voltage range at other frequencies are also available. As in the case with voltage transformers, these voltage constraints are determined by the facilities at NIST. PMID:28053409

  7. Alternative translation initiation augments the human mitochondrial proteome

    PubMed Central

    Kazak, Lawrence; Reyes, Aurelio; Duncan, Anna L.; Rorbach, Joanna; Wood, Stuart R.; Brea-Calvo, Gloria; Gammage, Payam A.; Robinson, Alan J.; Minczuk, Michal; Holt, Ian J.

    2013-01-01

    Alternative translation initiation (ATI) is a mechanism of producing multiple proteins from a single transcript, which in some cases regulates trafficking of proteins to different cellular compartments, including mitochondria. Application of a genome-wide computational screen predicts a cryptic mitochondrial targeting signal for 126 proteins in mouse and man that is revealed when an AUG codon located downstream from the canonical initiator methionine codon is used as a translation start site, which we term downstream ATI (dATI). Experimental evidence in support of dATI is provided by immunoblotting of endogenous truncated proteins enriched in mitochondrial cell fractions or of co-localization with mitochondria using immunocytochemistry. More detailed cellular localization studies establish mitochondrial targeting of a member of the cytosolic poly(A) binding protein family, PABPC5, and of the RNA/DNA helicase PIF1α. The mitochondrial isoform of PABPC5 co-immunoprecipitates with the mitochondrial poly(A) polymerase, and is markedly reduced in abundance when mitochondrial DNA and RNA are depleted, suggesting it plays a role in RNA metabolism in the organelle. Like PABPC5 and PIF1α, most of the candidates identified by the screen are not currently annotated as mitochondrial proteins, and so dATI expands the human mitochondrial proteome. PMID:23275553

  8. Mitochondrial division ensures the survival of postmitotic neurons by suppressing oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Kageyama, Yusuke; Zhang, Zhongyan; Roda, Ricardo; Fukaya, Masahiro; Wakabayashi, Junko; Wakabayashi, Nobunao; Kensler, Thomas W; Reddy, P Hemachandra; Iijima, Miho; Sesaki, Hiromi

    2012-05-14

    Mitochondria divide and fuse continuously, and the balance between these two processes regulates mitochondrial shape. Alterations in mitochondrial dynamics are associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Here we investigate the physiological and cellular functions of mitochondrial division in postmitotic neurons using in vivo and in vitro gene knockout for the mitochondrial division protein Drp1. When mouse Drp1 was deleted in postmitotic Purkinje cells in the cerebellum, mitochondrial tubules elongated due to excess fusion, became large spheres due to oxidative damage, accumulated ubiquitin and mitophagy markers, and lost respiratory function, leading to neurodegeneration. Ubiquitination of mitochondria was independent of the E3 ubiquitin ligase parkin in Purkinje cells lacking Drp1. Treatment with antioxidants rescued mitochondrial swelling and cell death in Drp1KO Purkinje cells. Moreover, hydrogen peroxide converted elongated tubules into large spheres in Drp1KO fibroblasts. Our findings suggest that mitochondrial division serves as a quality control mechanism to suppress oxidative damage and thus promote neuronal survival.

  9. Mitochondrial helicases and mitochondrial genome maintenance

    PubMed Central

    de Souza-Pinto, Nadja C.; Aamann, Maria D.; Kulikowicz, Tomasz; Stevnsner, Tinna V.; Bohr, Vilhelm A.

    2010-01-01

    Helicases are essential enzymes that utilize the energy of nucleotide hydrolysis to drive unwinding of nucleic acid duplexes. Helicases play roles in all aspects of DNA metabolism including DNA repair, DNA replication and transcription. The subcellular locations and functions of several helicases have been studied in detail; however, the roles of specific helicases in mitochondrial biology remain poorly characterized. This review presents important recent advances in identifying and characterizing mitochondrial helicases, some of which also operate in the nucleus. PMID:20576512

  10. Device for monitoring cell voltage

    DOEpatents

    Doepke, Matthias [Garbsen, DE; Eisermann, Henning [Edermissen, DE

    2012-08-21

    A device for monitoring a rechargeable battery having a number of electrically connected cells includes at least one current interruption switch for interrupting current flowing through at least one associated cell and a plurality of monitoring units for detecting cell voltage. Each monitoring unit is associated with a single cell and includes a reference voltage unit for producing a defined reference threshold voltage and a voltage comparison unit for comparing the reference threshold voltage with a partial cell voltage of the associated cell. The reference voltage unit is electrically supplied from the cell voltage of the associated cell. The voltage comparison unit is coupled to the at least one current interruption switch for interrupting the current of at least the current flowing through the associated cell, with a defined minimum difference between the reference threshold voltage and the partial cell voltage.

  11. High voltage pulse generator

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.

    1977-03-08

    An improved high-voltage pulse generator has been provided which is especially useful in ultrasonic testing of rock core samples. An N number of capacitors are charged in parallel to V volts and at the proper instance are coupled in series to produce a high-voltage pulse of N times V volts. Rapid switching of the capacitors from the paralleled charging configuration to the series discharging configuration is accomplished by using silicon-controlled rectifiers which are chain self-triggered following the initial triggering of a first one of the rectifiers connected between the first and second of the plurality of charging capacitors. A timing and triggering circuit is provided to properly synchronize triggering pulses to the first SCR at a time when the charging voltage is not being applied to the parallel-connected charging capacitors. Alternate circuits are provided for controlling the application of the charging voltage from a charging circuit to be applied to the parallel capacitors which provides a selection of at least two different intervals in which the charging voltage is turned "off" to allow the SCR's connecting the capacitors in series to turn "off" before recharging begins. The high-voltage pulse-generating circuit including the N capacitors and corresponding SCR's which connect the capacitors in series when triggered "on" further includes diodes and series-connected inductors between the parallel-connected charging capacitors which allow sufficiently fast charging of the capacitors for a high pulse repetition rate and yet allow considerable control of the decay time of the high-voltage pulses from the pulse-generating circuit.

  12. Inner Voltage Clamping

    PubMed Central

    Feldberg, Stephen W.; Delgado, Alicia B.

    1978-01-01

    Ketterer, et al. (1971) have suggested that a combination of electrostatic and chemical interactions may cause hydrophobic ions absorbed within a bilayer lipid membrane to reside in two potential wells, each close to a membrane surface. The resulting two planes of charges would define three regions of membrane dielectric: two identical outer regions each between a plane of absorbed charges and the plane of closest approach of ions in the aqueous phase; and the inner region between the two planes of adsorbed charges. The theory describing charge translocation across the inner region is based on a simple three-capacitor model. A significant theoretical conclusion is that the difference between the voltage across the inner region, Vi, and the voltage across the entire membrane, Vm, is directly proportional to the amount of charge that has flowed in a voltage clamp experiment. We demonstrate that we can construct an “inner voltage clamp” that can maintain, with positive feedback, a constant inner voltage, Vi. The manifestation of proper feedback is that the clamp current (after a voltage step) will exhibit pure (i.e., single time-constant) exponential decay, because the voltage dependent rate constants governing translocation will be independent of time. The “pureness” of the exponential is maximized when the standard deviation of the least-square fit of the appropriate exponential equation to the experimental data is minimized. The concomitant feedback is directly related to the capacitances of the inner and outer membrane regions, Ci and Co. Experimental results with tetraphenylborate ion adsorbed in bacterial phosphatidylethanolamine/n-decane bilayers indicate Ci ∼ 5 · 10-7F/cm2 and Co ≈ 5 · 10-5F/cm2. PMID:620078

  13. Trypanosomal TAC40 constitutes a novel subclass of mitochondrial β-barrel proteins specialized in mitochondrial genome inheritance.

    PubMed

    Schnarwiler, Felix; Niemann, Moritz; Doiron, Nicholas; Harsman, Anke; Käser, Sandro; Mani, Jan; Chanfon, Astrid; Dewar, Caroline E; Oeljeklaus, Silke; Jackson, Christopher B; Pusnik, Mascha; Schmidt, Oliver; Meisinger, Chris; Hiller, Sebastian; Warscheid, Bettina; Schnaufer, Achim C; Ochsenreiter, Torsten; Schneider, André

    2014-05-27

    Mitochondria cannot form de novo but require mechanisms allowing their inheritance to daughter cells. In contrast to most other eukaryotes Trypanosoma brucei has a single mitochondrion whose single-unit genome is physically connected to the flagellum. Here we identify a β-barrel mitochondrial outer membrane protein, termed tripartite attachment complex 40 (TAC40), that localizes to this connection. TAC40 is essential for mitochondrial DNA inheritance and belongs to the mitochondrial porin protein family. However, it is not specifically related to any of the three subclasses of mitochondrial porins represented by the metabolite transporter voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), the protein translocator of the outer membrane 40 (TOM40), or the fungi-specific MDM10, a component of the endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria encounter structure (ERMES). MDM10 and TAC40 mediate cellular architecture and participate in transmembrane complexes that are essential for mitochondrial DNA inheritance. In yeast MDM10, in the context of the ERMES, is postulated to connect the mitochondrial genomes to actin filaments, whereas in trypanosomes TAC40 mediates the linkage of the mitochondrial DNA to the basal body of the flagellum. However, TAC40 does not colocalize with trypanosomal orthologs of ERMES components and, unlike MDM10, it regulates neither mitochondrial morphology nor the assembly of the protein translocase. TAC40 therefore defines a novel subclass of mitochondrial porins that is distinct from VDAC, TOM40, and MDM10. However, whereas the architecture of the TAC40-containing complex in trypanosomes and the MDM10-containing ERMES in yeast is very different, both are organized around a β-barrel protein of the mitochondrial porin family that mediates a DNA-cytoskeleton linkage that is essential for mitochondrial DNA inheritance.

  14. Trypanosomal TAC40 constitutes a novel subclass of mitochondrial β-barrel proteins specialized in mitochondrial genome inheritance

    PubMed Central

    Schnarwiler, Felix; Niemann, Moritz; Doiron, Nicholas; Harsman, Anke; Käser, Sandro; Mani, Jan; Chanfon, Astrid; Dewar, Caroline E.; Oeljeklaus, Silke; Jackson, Christopher B.; Pusnik, Mascha; Schmidt, Oliver; Meisinger, Chris; Hiller, Sebastian; Warscheid, Bettina; Schnaufer, Achim C.; Ochsenreiter, Torsten; Schneider, André

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria cannot form de novo but require mechanisms allowing their inheritance to daughter cells. In contrast to most other eukaryotes Trypanosoma brucei has a single mitochondrion whose single-unit genome is physically connected to the flagellum. Here we identify a β-barrel mitochondrial outer membrane protein, termed tripartite attachment complex 40 (TAC40), that localizes to this connection. TAC40 is essential for mitochondrial DNA inheritance and belongs to the mitochondrial porin protein family. However, it is not specifically related to any of the three subclasses of mitochondrial porins represented by the metabolite transporter voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), the protein translocator of the outer membrane 40 (TOM40), or the fungi-specific MDM10, a component of the endoplasmic reticulum–mitochondria encounter structure (ERMES). MDM10 and TAC40 mediate cellular architecture and participate in transmembrane complexes that are essential for mitochondrial DNA inheritance. In yeast MDM10, in the context of the ERMES, is postulated to connect the mitochondrial genomes to actin filaments, whereas in trypanosomes TAC40 mediates the linkage of the mitochondrial DNA to the basal body of the flagellum. However, TAC40 does not colocalize with trypanosomal orthologs of ERMES components and, unlike MDM10, it regulates neither mitochondrial morphology nor the assembly of the protein translocase. TAC40 therefore defines a novel subclass of mitochondrial porins that is distinct from VDAC, TOM40, and MDM10. However, whereas the architecture of the TAC40-containing complex in trypanosomes and the MDM10-containing ERMES in yeast is very different, both are organized around a β-barrel protein of the mitochondrial porin family that mediates a DNA–cytoskeleton linkage that is essential for mitochondrial DNA inheritance. PMID:24821793

  15. Mitochondrial lipids in neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Aufschnaiter, Andreas; Kohler, Verena; Diessl, Jutta; Peselj, Carlotta; Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Keller, Walter; Büttner, Sabrina

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a common feature of many neurodegenerative diseases, including proteinopathies such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease, which are characterized by the deposition of aggregated proteins in the form of insoluble fibrils or plaques. The distinct molecular processes that eventually result in mitochondrial dysfunction during neurodegeneration are well studied but still not fully understood. However, defects in mitochondrial fission and fusion, mitophagy, oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial bioenergetics have been linked to cellular demise. These processes are influenced by the lipid environment within mitochondrial membranes as, besides membrane structure and curvature, recruitment and activity of different proteins also largely depend on the respective lipid composition. Hence, the interaction of neurotoxic proteins with certain lipids and the modification of lipid composition in different cell compartments, in particular mitochondria, decisively impact cell death associated with neurodegeneration. Here, we discuss the relevance of mitochondrial lipids in the pathological alterations that result in neuronal demise, focussing on proteinopathies.

  16. Succination is Increased on Select Proteins in the Brainstem of the NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 4 (Ndufs4) Knockout Mouse, a Model of Leigh Syndrome*

    PubMed Central

    Piroli, Gerardo G.; Manuel, Allison M.; Clapper, Anna C.; Walla, Michael D.; Baatz, John E.; Palmiter, Richard D.; Quintana, Albert; Frizzell, Norma

    2016-01-01

    Elevated fumarate concentrations as a result of Krebs cycle inhibition lead to increases in protein succination, an irreversible post-translational modification that occurs when fumarate reacts with cysteine residues to generate S-(2-succino)cysteine (2SC). Metabolic events that reduce NADH re-oxidation can block Krebs cycle activity; therefore we hypothesized that oxidative phosphorylation deficiencies, such as those observed in some mitochondrial diseases, would also lead to increased protein succination. Using the Ndufs4 knockout (Ndufs4 KO) mouse, a model of Leigh syndrome, we demonstrate for the first time that protein succination is increased in the brainstem (BS), particularly in the vestibular nucleus. Importantly, the brainstem is the most affected region exhibiting neurodegeneration and astrocyte and microglial proliferation, and these mice typically die of respiratory failure attributed to vestibular nucleus pathology. In contrast, no increases in protein succination were observed in the skeletal muscle, corresponding with the lack of muscle pathology observed in this model. 2D SDS-PAGE followed by immunoblotting for succinated proteins and MS/MS analysis of BS proteins allowed us to identify the voltage-dependent anion channels 1 and 2 as specific targets of succination in the Ndufs4 knockout. Using targeted mass spectrometry, Cys77 and Cys48 were identified as endogenous sites of succination in voltage-dependent anion channels 2. Given the important role of voltage-dependent anion channels isoforms in the exchange of ADP/ATP between the cytosol and the mitochondria, and the already decreased capacity for ATP synthesis in the Ndufs4 KO mice, we propose that the increased protein succination observed in the BS of these animals would further decrease the already compromised mitochondrial function. These data suggest that fumarate is a novel biochemical link that may contribute to the progression of the neuropathology in this mitochondrial disease model

  17. [Mitochondrial and oocyte development].

    PubMed

    Deng, Wei-Ping; Ren, Zhao-Rui

    2007-12-01

    Oocyte development and maturation is a complicated process. The nuclear maturation and cytoplasmic maturation must synchronize which can ensure normal oocyte fertilization and following development. Mitochondrial is the most important cellular organell in cytoplasm, and the variation of its distribution during oocyte maturation, the capacity of OXPHOS generating ATP as well as the content or copy number or transcription level of mitochondrial DNA play an important role in oocyte development and maturation. Therefore, the studies on the variation of mitochondrial distribution, function and mitochondrial DNA could enhance our understanding of the physiology of reproduction and provide new insight to solve the difficulties of assisted reproduction as well as cloning embryo technology.

  18. Progress in mitochondrial epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Manev, Hari; Dzitoyeva, Svetlana

    2013-08-01

    Mitochondria, intracellular organelles with their own genome, have been shown capable of interacting with epigenetic mechanisms in at least four different ways. First, epigenetic mechanisms that regulate the expression of nuclear genome influence mitochondria by modulating the expression of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes. Second, a cell-specific mitochondrial DNA content (copy number) and mitochondrial activity determine the methylation pattern of nuclear genes. Third, mitochondrial DNA variants influence the nuclear gene expression patterns and the nuclear DNA (ncDNA) methylation levels. Fourth and most recent line of evidence indicates that mitochondrial DNA similar to ncDNA also is subject to epigenetic modifications, particularly by the 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine marks. The latter interaction of mitochondria with epigenetics has been termed 'mitochondrial epigenetics'. Here we summarize recent developments in this particular area of epigenetic research. Furthermore, we propose the term 'mitoepigenetics' to include all four above-noted types of interactions between mitochondria and epigenetics, and we suggest a more restricted usage of the term 'mitochondrial epigenetics' for molecular events dealing solely with the intra-mitochondrial epigenetics and the modifications of mitochondrial genome.

  19. Mitochondrial threshold effects.

    PubMed Central

    Rossignol, Rodrigue; Faustin, Benjamin; Rocher, Christophe; Malgat, Monique; Mazat, Jean-Pierre; Letellier, Thierry

    2003-01-01

    The study of mitochondrial diseases has revealed dramatic variability in the phenotypic presentation of mitochondrial genetic defects. To attempt to understand this variability, different authors have studied energy metabolism in transmitochondrial cell lines carrying different proportions of various pathogenic mutations in their mitochondrial DNA. The same kinds of experiments have been performed on isolated mitochondria and on tissue biopsies taken from patients with mitochondrial diseases. The results have shown that, in most cases, phenotypic manifestation of the genetic defect occurs only when a threshold level is exceeded, and this phenomenon has been named the 'phenotypic threshold effect'. Subsequently, several authors showed that it was possible to inhibit considerably the activity of a respiratory chain complex, up to a critical value, without affecting the rate of mitochondrial respiration or ATP synthesis. This phenomenon was called the 'biochemical threshold effect'. More recently, quantitative analysis of the effects of various mutations in mitochondrial DNA on the rate of mitochondrial protein synthesis has revealed the existence of a 'translational threshold effect'. In this review these different mitochondrial threshold effects are discussed, along with their molecular bases and the roles that they play in the presentation of mitochondrial diseases. PMID:12467494

  20. The mitochondrial permeability transition pore regulates Parkinson’s disease development in mutant α-synuclein transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Lee J.; Semenkow, Samantha; Hanaford, Allison; Wong, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a movement disorder caused by neurodegeneration in neocortex, substantia nigra (SN) and brainstem and synucleinopathy. Some inherited PD is caused by mutations in α-synuclein (αSyn), and inherited and idiopathic PD are associated with mitochondrial perturbations. However, the mechanisms of pathogenesis are unresolved. We characterized a human αSyn transgenic mouse model and tested the hypothesis that the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) is involved in the disease mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice expressing human A53T-mutant αSyn driven by a Thy1 promoter develop a severe, age-related, fatal movement disorder involving ataxia, rigidity, and postural instability. These mice develop synucleinopathy and neocortical, SN, and cerebello-rubro-thalamic degeneration involving mitochondriopathy and apoptotic and non-apoptotic neurodegeneration. Interneurons undergo apoptotic degeneration in young mice. Mutant αSyn associated with dysmorphic neuronal mitochondria and bound voltage-dependent anion channels. Genetic ablation of cyclophilin D, an mPTP modulator, delayed disease onset and extended lifespans of mutant αSyn mice. Thus, mutant αSyn transgenic mice on a C57BL/6 background develop PD-like phenotypes, and the mPTP is involved in their disease mechanisms. PMID:24325796

  1. High voltage variable diameter insulator

    DOEpatents

    Vanacek, D.L.; Pike, C.D.

    1982-07-13

    A high voltage feedthrough assembly having a tubular insulator extending between the ground plane ring and the high voltage ring. The insulator is made of Pyrex and decreases in diameter from the ground plane ring to the high voltage ring, producing equipotential lines almost perpendicular to the wall of the insulator to optimize the voltage-holding capability of the feedthrough assembly.

  2. Voltage controlled current source

    DOEpatents

    Casne, Gregory M.

    1992-01-01

    A seven decade, voltage controlled current source is described for use in testing intermediate range nuclear instruments that covers the entire test current range of from 10 picoamperes to 100 microamperes. High accuracy is obtained throughout the entire seven decades of output current with circuitry that includes a coordinated switching scheme responsive to the input signal from a hybrid computer to control the input voltage to an antilog amplifier, and to selectively connect a resistance to the antilog amplifier output to provide a continuous output current source as a function of a preset range of input voltage. An operator controlled switch provides current adjustment for operation in either a real-time simulation test mode or a time response test mode.

  3. Electron launching voltage monitor

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, Clifford W.; Savage, Mark E.

    1992-01-01

    An electron launching voltage monitor measures MITL voltage using a relationship between anode electric field and electron current launched from a cathode-mounted perturbation. An electron launching probe extends through and is spaced from the edge of an opening in a first MITL conductor, one end of the launching probe being in the gap between the MITL conductor, the other end being adjacent a first side of the first conductor away from the second conductor. A housing surrounds the launching probe and electrically connects the first side of the first conductor to the other end of the launching probe. A detector detects the current passing through the housing to the launching probe, the detected current being representative of the voltage between the conductors.

  4. Electron launching voltage monitor

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, C.W.; Savage, M.E.

    1992-03-17

    An electron launching voltage monitor measures MITL voltage using a relationship between anode electric field and electron current launched from a cathode-mounted perturbation. An electron launching probe extends through and is spaced from the edge of an opening in a first MITL conductor, one end of the launching probe being in the gap between the MITL conductor, the other end being adjacent a first side of the first conductor away from the second conductor. A housing surrounds the launching probe and electrically connects the first side of the first conductor to the other end of the launching probe. A detector detects the current passing through the housing to the launching probe, the detected current being representative of the voltage between the conductors. 5 figs.

  5. High voltage coaxial switch

    DOEpatents

    Rink, John P.

    1983-07-19

    A coaxial high voltage, high current switch having a solid cylindrical cold cathode coaxially surrounded by a thin hollow cylindrical inner electrode and a larger hollow cylindrical outer electrode. A high voltage trigger between the cathode and the inner electrode causes electrons to be emitted from the cathode and flow to the inner electrode preferably through a vacuum. Some of the electrons penetrate the inner electrode and cause a volumetric discharge in the gas (which may be merely air) between the inner and outer electrodes. The discharge provides a low impedance path between a high voltage charge placed on the outer electrode and a load (which may be a high power laser) coupled to the inner electrode. For high repetition rate the gas between the inner and outer electrodes may be continuously exchanged or refreshed under pressure.

  6. High voltage coaxial switch

    DOEpatents

    Rink, J.P.

    1983-07-19

    A coaxial high voltage, high current switch having a solid cylindrical cold cathode coaxially surrounded by a thin hollow cylindrical inner electrode and a larger hollow cylindrical outer electrode. A high voltage trigger between the cathode and the inner electrode causes electrons to be emitted from the cathode and flow to the inner electrode preferably through a vacuum. Some of the electrons penetrate the inner electrode and cause a volumetric discharge in the gas (which may be merely air) between the inner and outer electrodes. The discharge provides a low impedance path between a high voltage charge placed on the outer electrode and a load (which may be a high power laser) coupled to the inner electrode. For high repetition rate the gas between the inner and outer electrodes may be continuously exchanged or refreshed under pressure. 3 figs.

  7. Voltage Regulators for Photovoltaic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delombard, R.

    1986-01-01

    Two simple circuits developed to provide voltage regulation for highvoltage (i.e., is greater than 75 volts) and low-voltage (i.e., is less than 36 volts) photovoltaic/battery power systems. Use of these circuits results in voltage regulator small, low-cost, and reliable, with very low power dissipation. Simple oscillator circuit controls photovoltaic-array current to regulate system voltage and control battery charging. Circuit senses battery (and system) voltage and adjusts array current to keep battery voltage from exceeding maximum voltage.

  8. Geomagnetism and induced voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Razzaq, W.; Biller, R. D.

    2010-07-01

    Introductory physics laboratories have seen an influx of conceptual integrated science over time in their classrooms with elements of other sciences such as chemistry, biology, Earth science, and astronomy. We describe a laboratory to introduce this development, as it attracts attention to the voltage induced in the human brain as it is initiated by the change in the magnetic flux due to the Earth's magnetic field and movement. This simple and enjoyable experiment will demonstrate how basic concepts in physics and geology can help us think about possible health effects due to the induced voltage.

  9. Production of mitochondrial DNA transgenic mice using zygotes.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kimiko; Ogura, Atsuo; Hayashi, Jun-Ichi

    2002-04-01

    Several animal models of human disease, which have been developed by random or targeted modifications of genomic DNA sequences, have furthered our understanding of pathogenesis and the development of therapeutics. However, these models have not facilitated studies on mitochondrial diseases, since modifications to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences are not possible using current recombination techniques. Consequently, information on human mitochondrial diseases is relatively sparse, and issues related to mitochondrial pathogenesis and inheritance remain unresolved. Recently, we reported the development of a new technique to generate mice carrying mutant mtDNA from a mouse cell line. In this report, we describe our techniques in detail, with emphasis on the preparation of donor cytoplasts and the micromanipulative procedures for electrofusion of cytoplasts and recipient zygotes. These steps are critically important for the successful introduction of exogenous mtDNA into embryos, and thereby into animals, so that the mutant mtDNA is efficiently propagated in subsequent generations.

  10. Mitochondrial protein hyperacetylation in the failing heart

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Julie L.; Martin, Ola J.; Lai, Ling; Richards, Alicia L.; Vega, Rick B.; Leone, Teresa C.; Pagliarini, David J.; Muoio, Deborah M.; Bedi, Kenneth C.; Coon, Joshua J.

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial fuel and energy metabolic derangements contribute to the pathogenesis of heart failure. Recent evidence implicates posttranslational mechanisms in the energy metabolic disturbances that contribute to the pathogenesis of heart failure. We hypothesized that accumulation of metabolite intermediates of fuel oxidation pathways drives posttranslational modifications of mitochondrial proteins during the development of heart failure. Myocardial acetylproteomics demonstrated extensive mitochondrial protein lysine hyperacetylation in the early stages of heart failure in well-defined mouse models and the in end-stage failing human heart. To determine the functional impact of increased mitochondrial protein acetylation, we focused on succinate dehydrogenase A (SDHA), a critical component of both the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and respiratory complex II. An acetyl-mimetic mutation targeting an SDHA lysine residue shown to be hyperacetylated in the failing human heart reduced catalytic function and reduced complex II–driven respiration. These results identify alterations in mitochondrial acetyl-CoA homeostasis as a potential driver of the development of energy metabolic derangements that contribute to heart failure. PMID:26998524

  11. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Depression

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Yashika; Kuhad, Anurag

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Background Depression is the most debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder with significant impact on socio-occupational and well being of individual. The exact pathophysiology of depression is still enigmatic though various theories have been put forwarded. There are evidences showing that mitochondrial dysfunction in various brain regions is associated with depression. Recent findings have sparked renewed appreciation for the role of mitochondria in many intracellular processes coupled to synaptic plasticity and cellular resilience. New insights in depression pathophysiology are revolving around the impairment of neuroplasticity. Mitochondria have potential role in ATP production, intracellular Ca2+ signalling to establish membrane stability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) balance and to execute the complex processes of neurotransmission and plasticity. So understanding the various concepts of mitochondrial dysfunction in pathogenesis of depression indubitably helps to generate novel and more targeted therapeutic approaches for depression treatment. Objective The review was aimed to give a comprehensive insight on role of mitochondrial dysfunction in depression. Result Targeting mitochondrial dysfunction and enhancing the mitochondrial functions might act as potential target for the treatment of depression. Conclusion Literature cited in this review highly supports the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in depression. As impairment in the mitochondrial functions lead to the generation of various insults that exaggerate the pathogenesis of depression. So, it is useful to study mitochondrial dysfunction in relation to mood disorders, synaptic plasticity, neurogenesis and enhancing the functions of mitochondria might show promiscuous effects in the treatment of depressed patients. PMID:26923778

  12. Clinical mitochondrial genetics

    PubMed Central

    Chinnery, P.; Howell, N.; Andrews, R.; Turnbull, D.

    1999-01-01

    The last decade has been an age of enlightenment as far as mitochondrial pathology is concerned. Well established nuclear genetic diseases, such as Friedreich's ataxia,12 Wilson disease,3 and autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia,4 have been shown to have a mitochondrial basis, and we are just starting to unravel the complex nuclear genetic disorders which directly cause mitochondrial dysfunction (table 1). However, in addition to the 3 billion base pair nuclear genome, each human cell typically contains thousands of copies of a small, 16.5 kb circular molecule of double stranded DNA (fig 1). Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) accounts for only 1% of the total cellular nucleic acid content. It encodes for 13 polypeptides which are essential for aerobic metabolism and defects of the mitochondrial genome are an important cause of human disease.9293 Since the characterisation of the first pathogenic mtDNA defects in 1988,513 over 50 point mutations and well over 100 rearrangements of the mitochondrial genome have been associated with human disease9495 (http://www.gen.emory.edu/mitomap.html). These disorders form the focus of this article.


Keywords: mitochondrial DNA; mitochondrial disease; heteroplasmy; genetic counselling PMID:10874629

  13. Geomagnetism and Induced Voltage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Razzaq, W.; Biller, R. D.

    2010-01-01

    Introductory physics laboratories have seen an influx of "conceptual integrated science" over time in their classrooms with elements of other sciences such as chemistry, biology, Earth science, and astronomy. We describe a laboratory to introduce this development, as it attracts attention to the voltage induced in the human brain as it…

  14. Measuring Breakdown Voltage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auer, Herbert J.

    1978-01-01

    The article discusses an aspect of conductivity, one of the electrical properties subdivisions, and describes a tester that can be shop-built. Breakdown voltage of an insulation material is specifically examined. Test procedures, parts lists, diagrams, and test data form are included. (MF)

  15. High Voltage Insulation Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherb, V.; Rogalla, K.; Gollor, M.

    2008-09-01

    In preparation of new Electronic Power Conditioners (EPC's) for Travelling Wave Tub Amplifiers (TWTA's) on telecom satellites a study for the development of new high voltage insulation technology is performed. The initiative is mandatory to allow compact designs and to enable higher operating voltages. In a first task a market analysis was performed, comparing different materials with respect to their properties and processes. A hierarchy of selection criteria was established and finally five material candidates (4 Epoxy resins and 1 Polyurethane resin) were selected to be further investigated in the test program. Samples for the test program were designed to represent core elements of an EPC, the high voltage transformer and Printed Circuit Boards of the high voltage section. All five materials were assessed in the practical work flow of the potting process and electrical, mechanical, thermal and lifetime testing was performed. Although the lifetime tests results were overlayed by a larges scatter, finally two candidates have been identified for use in a subsequent qualification program. This activity forms part of element 5 of the ESA ARTES Programme.

  16. Voltage-Controlled Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Integrated Component Systems, Inc. incorporated information from a NASA Tech Briefs article into a voltage-controlled oscillator it designed for a customer. The company then applied the technology to its series of phase-locked loop synthesizers, which offer superior phase noise performance.

  17. IDH2 deficiency promotes mitochondrial dysfunction and dopaminergic neurotoxicity: implications for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunjin; Kim, Sung Hwan; Cha, Hanvit; Kim, Sang Ryong; Lee, Jin Hyup; Park, Jeen-Woo

    2016-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and its pathogenesis is under intense investigation. Substantial evidence indicates that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress play central roles in the pathophysiology of PD, through activation of mitochondria-dependent apoptotic molecular pathways. Several mitochondrial internal regulating factors act to maintain mitochondrial function. However, the mechanism by which these internal regulating factors contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction in PD remains elusive. One of these factors, mitochondrial NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH2), has been implicated in the regulation of mitochondrial redox balance and reduction of oxidative stress-induced cell injury. Here we report that IDH2 regulates mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in MPP(+)/MPTP-induced DA neuronal cells, and in a mouse model of PD. Down-regulation of IDH2 increased DA neuron sensitivity to MPP(+); lowered IDH2 levels facilitated induction of apoptotic cell death due to elevated mitochondrial oxidative stress. Deficient IDH2 also promoted loss of DA SNpc neurons in an MPTP mouse model of PD. Interestingly, Mito-TEMPO, a mitochondrial ROS-specific scavenger, protected degeneration of SNpc DA neurons in the MPTP model of PD. These findings demonstrate that IDH2 contributes to degeneration of the DA neuron in the neurotoxin model of PD and establish IDH2 as a molecular target of potential therapeutic significance for this disabling neurological illness.

  18. Mitochondrial and Cell Death Mechanisms in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Lee J.

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are the most common human adult-onset neurodegenerative diseases. They are characterized by prominent age-related neurodegeneration in selectively vulnerable neural systems. Some forms of AD, PD, and ALS are inherited, and genes causing these diseases have been identified. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of the neuronal cell death are unresolved. Morphological, biochemical, genetic, as well as cell and animal model studies reveal that mitochondria could have roles in this neurodegeneration. The functions and properties of mitochondria might render subsets of selectively vulnerable neurons intrinsically susceptible to cellular aging and stress and overlying genetic variations, triggering neurodegeneration according to a cell death matrix theory. In AD, alterations in enzymes involved in oxidative phosphorylation, oxidative damage, and mitochondrial binding of Aβ and amyloid precursor protein have been reported. In PD, mutations in putative mitochondrial proteins have been identified and mitochondrial DNA mutations have been found in neurons in the substantia nigra. In ALS, changes occur in mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes and mitochondrial cell death proteins. Transgenic mouse models of human neurodegenerative disease are beginning to reveal possible principles governing the biology of selective neuronal vulnerability that implicate mitochondria and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. This review summarizes how mitochondrial pathobiology might contribute to neuronal death in AD, PD, and ALS and could serve as a target for drug therapy. PMID:21258649

  19. Resveratrol stimulates mitochondrial fusion by a mechanism requiring mitofusin-2.

    PubMed

    Robb, Ellen L; Moradi, Fereshteh; Maddalena, Lucas A; Valente, Andrew J F; Fonseca, Joao; Stuart, Jeffrey A

    2017-04-01

    Resveratrol (RES) is a plant-derived stilbene associated with a wide range of health benefits. Mitochondria are a key downstream target of RES, and in some cell types RES promotes mitochondrial biogenesis, altered cellular redox status, and a shift toward oxidative metabolism. Mitochondria exist as a dynamic network that continually remodels via fusion and fission processes, and the extent of fusion is related to cellular redox status and metabolism. We investigated RES's effects on mitochondrial network morphology in several cell lines using a quantitative approach to measure the extent of network fusion. 48 h continuous treatment with 10-20 μM RES stimulated mitochondrial fusion in C2C12 myoblasts, PC3 cancer cells, and mouse embryonic fibroblasts stimulated significant increases in fusion in all instances, resulting in larger and more highly branched mitochondrial networks. Mitofusin-2 (Mfn2) is a key protein facilitating mitochondrial fusion, and its expression was also stimulated by RES. Using Mfn2-null cells we demonstrated that RES's effects on mitochondrial fusion, cellular respiration rates, and cell growth are all dependent upon the presence of Mfn2. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Mfn2 and mitochondrial fusion are affected by RES in ways that appear to relate to RES's known effects on cellular metabolism and growth.

  20. Mitochondrial shaping cuts.

    PubMed

    Escobar-Henriques, Mafalda; Langer, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    A broad range of cellular processes are regulated by proteolytic events. Proteolysis has now also been established to control mitochondrial morphology which results from the balanced action of fusion and fission. Two out of three known core components of the mitochondrial fusion machinery are under proteolytic control. The GTPase Fzo1 in the outer membrane of mitochondria is degraded along two independent proteolytic pathways. One controls mitochondrial fusion in vegetatively growing cells, the other one acts upon mating factor-induced cell cycle arrest. Fusion also depends on proteolytic processing of the GTPase Mgm1 by the rhomboid protease Pcp1 in the inner membrane of mitochondria. Functional links of AAA proteases or other proteolytic components to mitochondrial dynamics are just emerging. This review summarises the current understanding of regulatory roles of proteolytic processes for mitochondrial plasticity.

  1. Mitochondrial inheritance in yeast.

    PubMed

    Westermann, Benedikt

    2014-07-01

    Mitochondria are the site of oxidative phosphorylation, play a key role in cellular energy metabolism, and are critical for cell survival and proliferation. The propagation of mitochondria during cell division depends on replication and partitioning of mitochondrial DNA, cytoskeleton-dependent mitochondrial transport, intracellular positioning of the organelle, and activities coordinating these processes. Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven to be a valuable model organism to study the mechanisms that drive segregation of the mitochondrial genome and determine mitochondrial partitioning and behavior in an asymmetrically dividing cell. Here, I review past and recent advances that identified key components and cellular pathways contributing to mitochondrial inheritance in yeast. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 18th European Bioenergetic Conference. Guest Editors: Manuela Pereira and Miguel Teixeira.

  2. Bioenergetic characterization of mouse podocytes.

    PubMed

    Abe, Yoshifusa; Sakairi, Toru; Kajiyama, Hiroshi; Shrivastav, Shashi; Beeson, Craig; Kopp, Jeffrey B

    2010-08-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to podocyte injury, but normal podocyte bioenergetics have not been characterized. We measured oxygen consumption rates (OCR) and extracellular acidification rates (ECAR), using a transformed mouse podocyte cell line and the Seahorse Bioscience XF24 Extracellular Flux Analyzer. Basal OCR and ECAR were 55.2 +/- 9.9 pmol/min and 3.1 +/- 1.9 milli-pH units/min, respectively. The complex V inhibitor oligomycin reduced OCR to approximately 45% of baseline rates, indicating that approximately 55% of cellular oxygen consumption was coupled to ATP synthesis. Rotenone, a complex I inhibitor, reduced OCR to approximately 25% of the baseline rates, suggesting that mitochondrial respiration accounted for approximately 75% of the total cellular respiration. Thus approximately 75% of mitochondrial respiration was coupled to ATP synthesis and approximately 25% was accounted for by proton leak. Carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP), which uncouples electron transport from ATP generation, increased OCR and ECAR to approximately 360% and 840% of control levels. FCCP plus rotenone reduced ATP content by 60%, the glycolysis inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose reduced ATP by 35%, and 2-deoxyglucose in combination with FCCP or rotenone reduced ATP by >85%. The lactate dehydrogenase inhibitor oxamate and 2-deoxyglucose did not reduce ECAR, and 2-deoxyglucose had no effect on OCR, although 2-deoxyglucose reduced ATP content by 25%. Mitochondrial uncoupling induced by FCCP was associated with increased OCR with certain substrates, including lactate, glucose, pyruvate, and palmitate. Replication of these experiments in primary mouse podocytes yielded similar data. We conclude that mitochondria play the primary role in maintaining podocyte energy homeostasis, while glycolysis makes a lesser contribution.

  3. Cardioprotection by modulation of mitochondrial respiration during ischemia–reperfusion: Role of apoptosis-inducing factor

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Aijun; Szczepanek, Karol; Hu, Ying; Lesnefsky, Edward J.; Chen, Qun

    2013-06-14

    Highlights: •Blockade of electron transport prevents the loss of AIF from mitochondria during IR. •Blockade of electron transport decreases caspase-independent cell death during IR. •Mitochondrial AIF content is down-regulated in Harlequin mice. •Blockade of electron transport protects Harlequin mouse hearts during IR. •Amobarbital protection is partially dependent on mitochondrial AIF content. -- Abstract: The transient, reversible blockade of electron transport (BET) during ischemia or at the onset of reperfusion protects mitochondria and decreases cardiac injury. Apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) is located within the mitochondrial intermembrane space. A release of AIF from mitochondria into cytosol and nucleus triggers caspase-independent cell death. We asked if BET prevents the loss of AIF from mitochondria as a mechanism of protection in the buffer perfused heart. BET during ischemia with amobarbital, a rapidly reversible inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I, attenuated a release of AIF from mitochondria into cytosol, in turn decreasing the formation of cleaved and activated PARP-1. These results suggest that BET-mediated protection may occur through prevention of the loss of AIF from mitochondria during ischemia–reperfusion. In order to further clarify the role of mitochondrial AIF in BET-mediated protection, Harlequin (Hq) mice, a genetic model with mitochondrial AIF deficiency, were used to test whether BET could still decrease cell injury in Hq mouse hearts during reperfusion. BET during ischemia protected Hq mouse hearts against ischemia–reperfusion injury and improved mitochondrial function in these hearts during reperfusion. Thus, cardiac injury can still be decreased in the presence of down-regulated mitochondrial AIF content. Taken together, BET during ischemia protects both hearts with normal mitochondrial AIF content and hearts with mitochondrial AIF deficiency. Although preservation of mitochondrial AIF content plays a key role in

  4. Mitochondrial NADP(+)-Dependent Isocitrate Dehydrogenase Deficiency Exacerbates Mitochondrial and Cell Damage after Kidney Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Jun; Jang, Hee-Seong; Noh, Mi Ra; Kim, Jinu; Kong, Min Jung; Kim, Jee In; Park, Jeen-Woo; Park, Kwon Moo

    2017-04-01

    Mitochondrial NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH2) catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate, synthesizing NADPH, which is essential for mitochondrial redox balance. Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is one of most common causes of AKI. I/R disrupts the mitochondrial redox balance, resulting in oxidative damage to mitochondria and cells. Here, we investigated the role of IDH2 in I/R-induced AKI. I/R injury in mice led to the inactivation of IDH2 in kidney tubule cells. Idh2 gene deletion exacerbated the I/R-induced increase in plasma creatinine and BUN levels and the histologic evidence of tubule injury, and augmented the reduction of NADPH levels and the increase in oxidative stress observed in the kidney after I/R. Furthermore, Idh2 gene deletion exacerbated I/R-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and morphologic fragmentation, resulting in severe apoptosis in kidney tubule cells. In cultured mouse kidney proximal tubule cells, Idh2 gene downregulation enhanced the mitochondrial damage and apoptosis induced by treatment with hydrogen peroxide. This study demonstrates that Idh2 gene deletion exacerbates mitochondrial damage and tubular cell death via increased oxidative stress, suggesting that IDH2 is an important mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme that protects cells from I/R insult.

  5. Conductance hysteresis in the voltage-dependent anion channel.

    PubMed

    Rappaport, Shay M; Teijido, Oscar; Hoogerheide, David P; Rostovtseva, Tatiana K; Berezhkovskii, Alexander M; Bezrukov, Sergey M

    2015-09-01

    Hysteresis in the conductance of voltage-sensitive ion channels is observed when the transmembrane voltage is periodically varied with time. Although this phenomenon has been used in studies of gating of the voltage-dependent anion channel, VDAC, from the outer mitochondrial membrane for nearly four decades, full hysteresis curves have never been reported, because the focus was solely on the channel opening branches of the hysteresis loops. We studied the hysteretic response of a multichannel VDAC system to a triangular voltage ramp the frequency of which was varied over three orders of magnitude, from 0.5 mHz to 0.2 Hz. We found that in this wide frequency range the area encircled by the hysteresis curves changes by less than a factor of three, suggesting broad distribution of the characteristic times and strongly non-equilibrium behavior. At the same time, quasi-equilibrium two-state behavior is observed for hysteresis branches corresponding to VDAC opening. This enables calculation of the usual equilibrium gating parameters, gating charge and voltage of equipartitioning, which were found to be almost insensitive to the ramp frequency. To rationalize this peculiarity, we hypothesize that during voltage-induced closure and opening the system explores different regions of the complex free energy landscape, and, in the opening branch, follows quasi-equilibrium paths.

  6. Primer retention owing to the absence of RNase H1 is catastrophic for mitochondrial DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Holmes, J Bradley; Akman, Gokhan; Wood, Stuart R; Sakhuja, Kiran; Cerritelli, Susana M; Moss, Chloe; Bowmaker, Mark R; Jacobs, Howard T; Crouch, Robert J; Holt, Ian J

    2015-07-28

    Encoding ribonuclease H1 (RNase H1) degrades RNA hybridized to DNA, and its function is essential for mitochondrial DNA maintenance in the developing mouse. Here we define the role of RNase H1 in mitochondrial DNA replication. Analysis of replicating mitochondrial DNA in embryonic fibroblasts lacking RNase H1 reveals retention of three primers in the major noncoding region (NCR) and one at the prominent lagging-strand initiation site termed Ori-L. Primer retention does not lead immediately to depletion, as the persistent RNA is fully incorporated in mitochondrial DNA. However, the retained primers present an obstacle to the mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ in subsequent rounds of replication and lead to the catastrophic generation of a double-strand break at the origin when the resulting gapped molecules are copied. Hence, the essential role of RNase H1 in mitochondrial DNA replication is the removal of primers at the origin of replication.

  7. Mitochondrial myopathy induces a starvation-like response.

    PubMed

    Tyynismaa, Henna; Carroll, Christopher J; Raimundo, Nuno; Ahola-Erkkilä, Sofia; Wenz, Tina; Ruhanen, Heini; Guse, Kilian; Hemminki, Akseli; Peltola-Mjøsund, Katja E; Tulkki, Valtteri; Oresic, Matej; Moraes, Carlos T; Pietiläinen, Kirsi; Hovatta, Iiris; Suomalainen, Anu

    2010-10-15

    Mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) deficiency is among the most common causes of inherited metabolic disease, but its physiological consequences are poorly characterized. We studied the skeletal muscle gene expression profiles of mice with late-onset mitochondrial myopathy. These animals express a dominant patient mutation in the mitochondrial replicative helicase Twinkle, leading to accumulation of multiple mtDNA deletions and progressive subtle RC deficiency in the skeletal muscle. The global gene expression pattern of the mouse skeletal muscle showed induction of pathways involved in amino acid starvation response and activation of Akt signaling. Furthermore, the muscle showed induction of a fasting-related hormone, fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21). This secreted regulator of lipid metabolism was also elevated in the mouse serum, and the animals showed widespread changes in their lipid metabolism: small adipocyte size, low fat content in the liver and resistance to high-fat diet. We propose that RC deficiency induces a mitochondrial stress response, with local and global changes mimicking starvation, in a normal nutritional state. These results may have important implications for understanding the metabolic consequences of mitochondrial myopathies.

  8. High Voltage Seismic Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogacz, Adrian; Pala, Damian; Knafel, Marcin

    2015-04-01

    This contribution describes the preliminary result of annual cooperation of three student research groups from AGH UST in Krakow, Poland. The aim of this cooperation was to develop and construct a high voltage seismic wave generator. Constructed device uses a high-energy electrical discharge to generate seismic wave in ground. This type of device can be applied in several different methods of seismic measurement, but because of its limited power it is mainly dedicated for engineering geophysics. The source operates on a basic physical principles. The energy is stored in capacitor bank, which is charged by two stage low to high voltage converter. Stored energy is then released in very short time through high voltage thyristor in spark gap. The whole appliance is powered from li-ion battery and controlled by ATmega microcontroller. It is possible to construct larger and more powerful device. In this contribution the structure of device with technical specifications is resented. As a part of the investigation the prototype was built and series of experiments conducted. System parameter was measured, on this basis specification of elements for the final device were chosen. First stage of the project was successful. It was possible to efficiently generate seismic waves with constructed device. Then the field test was conducted. Spark gap wasplaced in shallowborehole(0.5 m) filled with salt water. Geophones were placed on the ground in straight line. The comparison of signal registered with hammer source and sparker source was made. The results of the test measurements are presented and discussed. Analysis of the collected data shows that characteristic of generated seismic signal is very promising, thus confirms possibility of practical application of the new high voltage generator. The biggest advantage of presented device after signal characteristics is its size which is 0.5 x 0.25 x 0.2 m and weight approximately 7 kg. This features with small li-ion battery makes

  9. Increased voltage photovoltaic cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, B.; Bickler, D. B.; Gallagher, B. D. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell, such as a solar cell, is provided which has a higher output voltage than prior cells. The improved cell includes a substrate of doped silicon, a first layer of silicon disposed on the substrate and having opposite doping, and a second layer of silicon carbide disposed on the first layer. The silicon carbide preferably has the same type of doping as the first layer.

  10. Insulators for high voltages

    SciTech Connect

    Looms, J.S.T.

    1987-01-01

    This book describes electrical insulators for high voltage applications. Topics considered include the insulating materials, the manufacture of wet process porcelain, the manufacture of tempered glass, the glass-fibre core, the polymeric housing, the common problem - terminating an insulator, mechanical constraints, the physics of pollution flashover, the physics of contamination, testing of insulators, conclusions from testing, remedies for flashover, insulators for special cases, interference and noise, and the insulator of the future.

  11. High voltage generator

    DOEpatents

    Schwemin, A. J.

    1959-03-17

    A generator for producing relatively large currents at high voltages is described. In general, the invention comprises a plurality of capacitors connected in series by a plurality of switches alternately disposed with the capacitors. The above-noted circuit is mounted for movement with respect to contact members and switch closure means so that a load device and power supply are connected across successive numbers of capacitors, while the other capacitors are successively charged with the same power supply.

  12. High voltage pulse conditioning

    DOEpatents

    Springfield, Ray M.; Wheat, Jr., Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for conditioning high voltage pulses from particle accelerators in order to shorten the rise times of the pulses. Flashover switches in the cathode stalk of the transmission line hold off conduction for a determinable period of time, reflecting the early portion of the pulses. Diodes upstream of the switches divert energy into the magnetic and electrostatic storage of the capacitance and inductance inherent to the transmission line until the switches close.

  13. HIGH VOLTAGE GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Schwemin, A.J.

    1959-03-17

    A generator is presented for producing relatively large currents at high voltages. In general, the invention comprises a plurality of capacitors connected in series by a plurality of switches alternately disposed with the capacitors. The circuit is mounted for movement with respect to contact members and switch closure means so that a load device and power supply are connected across successive numbers of capacitors, while the other capacitors are successively charged with the same power supply.

  14. HIGH VOLTAGE ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Luce, J.S.

    1960-04-19

    A device is described for providing a source of molecular ions having a large output current and with an accelerated energy of the order of 600 kv. Ions are produced in an ion source which is provided with a water-cooled source grid of metal to effect maximum recombination of atomic ions to molecular ions. A very high accelerating voltage is applied to withdraw and accelerate the molecular ions from the source, and means are provided for dumping the excess electrons at the lowest possible potentials. An accelerating grid is placed adjacent to the source grid and a slotted, grounded accelerating electrode is placed adjacent to the accelerating grid. A potential of about 35 kv is maintained between the source grid and accelerating grid, and a potential of about 600 kv is maintained between the accelerating grid and accelerating electrode. In order to keep at a minimum the large number of oscillating electrons which are created when such high voltages are employed in the vicinity of a strong magnetic field, a plurality of high voltage cascaded shields are employed with a conventional electron dumping system being employed between each shield so as to dump the electrons at the lowest possible potential rather than at 600 kv.

  15. Mitochondrial ion circuits.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, David G

    2010-01-01

    Proton circuits across the inner mitochondrial membrane link the primary energy generators, namely the complexes of the electron transport chain, to multiple energy utilizing processes, including the ATP synthase, inherent proton leak pathways, metabolite transport and linked circuits of sodium and calcium. These mitochondrial circuits can be monitored in both isolated preparations and intact cells and, for the primary proton circuit techniques, exist to follow both the proton current and proton electrochemical potential components of the circuit in parallel experiments, providing a quantitative means of assessing mitochondrial function and, equally importantly, dysfunction.

  16. APPARATUS FOR REGULATING HIGH VOLTAGE

    DOEpatents

    Morrison, K.G.

    1951-03-20

    This patent describes a high-voltage regulator of the r-f type wherein the modulation of the r-f voltage is accomplished at a high level, resulting in good stabilization over a large range of load conditions.

  17. High voltage variable diameter insulator

    DOEpatents

    Vanecek, David L.; Pike, Chester D.

    1984-01-01

    A high voltage feedthrough assembly (10) having a tubular insulator (15) extending between the ground plane ring (16) and the high voltage ring (30). The insulator (15) is made of Pyrex and decreases in diameter from the ground plane ring (16) to the high voltage ring (30), producing equipotential lines almost perpendicular to the wall (27) of the insulator (15) to optimize the voltage-holding capability of the feedthrough assembly (10).

  18. Resveratrol Protects SAMP8 Brain Under Metabolic Stress: Focus on Mitochondrial Function and Wnt Pathway.

    PubMed

    Palomera-Avalos, V; Griñán-Ferré, C; Puigoriol-Ilamola, D; Camins, A; Sanfeliu, C; Canudas, A M; Pallàs, M

    2017-04-01

    Metabolic stress induced by high-fat (HF) diet leads to cognitive dysfunction and aging, but the physiological mechanisms are not fully understood. Senescence-accelerated prone mouse (SAMP8) models were conducted under metabolic stress conditions by feeding HF for 15 weeks, and the preventive effect of resveratrol was studied. This dietary strategy demonstrates cognitive impairment in SAMP8-HF and significant preventive effect by resveratrol-treated animals. Hippocampal changes in the proteins involved in mitochondrial dynamics optic atrophy-1 protein (OPA1) and mitofusin 2 (MFN2) comprised a differential feature found in SAMP8-HF that was prevented by resveratrol. Electronic microscopy showed a larger mitochondria in SAMP8-HF + resveratrol (SAMP8-HF + RV) than in SAMP8-HF, indicating increases in fusion processes in resveratrol-treated mice. According to the mitochondrial morphology, significant increases in the I-NDUFB8, II-SDNB, III-UQCRC2, and V-ATPase complexes, in addition to that of voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1)/porin, were found in resveratrol-treated animals with regard to SAMP8-HF, reaching control-animal levels. Moreover, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL-6) were increased after HF, and resveratrol prevents its increase. Moreover, we found that the HF diet affected the Wnt pathway, as demonstrated by β-catenin inactivation and modification in the expression of several components of this pathway. Resveratrol induced strong activation of β-catenin. The metabolic stress rendered in the cognitive and cellular pathways altered in SAMP8 focus on different targets in order to act on preventing cognitive impairment in neurodegeneration, and resveratrol can offer therapeutic possibilities for preventive strategies in aging or neurodegenerative conditions.

  19. Both the H2S biosynthesis inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid and the mitochondrially targeted H2S donor AP39 exert protective effects in a mouse model of burn injury.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Akbar; Szabo, Csaba

    2016-11-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) exerts beneficial as well as deleterious effects in various models of critical illness. Here we tested the effect of two different pharmacological interventions: (a) inhibition of H2S biosynthesis using the cystathionine-beta-synthase (CBS)/cystathionine-gamma-lyase (CSE) inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA) and the mitochondrially targeted H2S donor [10-oxo-10-[4-(3-thioxo-3H-1,2-dithiol-5-yl)phenoxy]decyl]triphenyl-phosphonium (AP39). A 30% body surface area burn injury was induced in anesthetized mice; animals were treated with vehicle, AOAA (10mg/kg i.p. once or once a day for 6days), or AP39 (0.3mg/kg/day once or once a day for 6days). In two separate groups, animals were sacrificed, at 24h post-burn or on Day 7 post-burn, blood and lungs were collected and the following parameters were evaluated: myeloperoxidase (MPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in lung homogenates, plasma cytokines (Luminex analysis) and circulating indicators of organ dysfunction (Vetscan analysis). Lung MPO levels (an index of neutrophil infiltration) and MDA levels (an index of oxidative stress) were significantly increased in response to burn injury both at 24h and at 7days; both AOAA and AP39 attenuated these increases. From a panel of inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, MCP-1, MIP-2, VEGF and IFNγ) in the plasma, IL-6 and IL-10 levels were markedly elevated at 24h and VEGF was slightly elevated. IL-6 remained highly elevated at 7days post-burn while IL-10 levels decreased, but remained slightly elevated over baseline 7days post-burn. The changes in cytokine levels were attenuated both by AP39 and AOAA at both time points studied. The burn-induced increases in the organ injury markers ALP and ALT, amylase and creatinine were reduced by both AOAA and AP39. We conclude that both H2S biosynthesis inhibition (using AOAA) and H2S donation (using AP39) suppresses inflammatory mediator production and reduces multi-organ injury in a murine model of burn

  20. Charge-pump voltage converter

    DOEpatents

    Brainard, John P.; Christenson, Todd R.

    2009-11-03

    A charge-pump voltage converter for converting a low voltage provided by a low-voltage source to a higher voltage. Charge is inductively generated on a transfer rotor electrode during its transit past an inductor stator electrode and subsequently transferred by the rotating rotor to a collector stator electrode for storage or use. Repetition of the charge transfer process leads to a build-up of voltage on a charge-receiving device. Connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in series can generate higher voltages, and connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in parallel can generate higher currents. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) embodiments of this invention provide a small and compact high-voltage (several hundred V) voltage source starting with a few-V initial voltage source. The microscale size of many embodiments of this invention make it ideally suited for MEMS- and other micro-applications where integration of the voltage or charge source in a small package is highly desirable.

  1. Localization and regulation of mouse pantothenate kinase 2.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Roberta; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Lykidis, Athanasios; Rock, Charles O; Jackowski, Suzanne

    2007-10-02

    Coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis is initiated by pantothenate kinase (PanK) and CoA levels are controlled through differential expression and feedback regulation of PanK isoforms. PanK2 is a mitochondrial protein in humans, but comparative genomics revealed that acquisition of a mitochondrial targeting signal was limited to primates. Human and mouse PanK2 possessed similar biochemical properties, with inhibition by acetyl-CoA and activation by palmitoylcarnitine. Mouse PanK2 localized in the cytosol, and the expression of PanK2 was higher in human brain compared to mouse brain. Differences in expression and subcellular localization should be considered in developing a mouse model for human PanK2 deficiency.

  2. FGF21 is a biomarker for mitochondrial translation and mtDNA maintenance disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lehtonen, Jenni M.; Forsström, Saara; Bottani, Emanuela; Viscomi, Carlo; Baris, Olivier R.; Isoniemi, Helena; Höckerstedt, Krister; Österlund, Pia; Hurme, Mikko; Jylhävä, Juulia; Leppä, Sirpa; Markkula, Ritva; Heliö, Tiina; Mombelli, Giuliana; Uusimaa, Johanna; Laaksonen, Reijo; Laaksovirta, Hannu; Auranen, Mari; Zeviani, Massimo; Smeitink, Jan; Wiesner, Rudolf J.; Nakada, Kazuto; Isohanni, Pirjo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To validate new mitochondrial myopathy serum biomarkers for diagnostic use. Methods: We analyzed serum FGF21 (S-FGF21) and GDF15 from patients with (1) mitochondrial diseases and (2) nonmitochondrial disorders partially overlapping with mitochondrial disorder phenotypes. We (3) did a meta-analysis of S-FGF21 in mitochondrial disease and (4) analyzed S-Fgf21 and skeletal muscle Fgf21 expression in 6 mouse models with different muscle-manifesting mitochondrial dysfunctions. Results: We report that S-FGF21 consistently increases in primary mitochondrial myopathy, especially in patients with mitochondrial translation defects or mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions (675 and 347 pg/mL, respectively; controls: 66 pg/mL, p < 0.0001 for both). This is corroborated in mice (mtDNA deletions 1,163 vs 379 pg/mL, p < 0.0001). However, patients and mice with structural respiratory chain subunit or assembly factor defects showed low induction (human 335 pg/mL, p < 0.05; mice 335 pg/mL, not significant). Overall specificities of FGF21 and GDF15 to find patients with mitochondrial myopathy were 89.3% vs 86.4%, and sensitivities 67.3% and 76.0%, respectively. However, GDF15 was increased also in a wide range of nonmitochondrial conditions. Conclusions: S-FGF21 is a specific biomarker for muscle-manifesting defects of mitochondrial translation, including mitochondrial transfer-RNA mutations and primary and secondary mtDNA deletions, the most common causes of mitochondrial disease. However, normal S-FGF21 does not exclude structural respiratory chain complex or assembly factor defects, important to acknowledge in diagnostics. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that elevated S-FGF21 accurately distinguishes patients with mitochondrial myopathies from patients with other conditions, and FGF21 and GDF15 mitochondrial myopathy from other myopathies. PMID:27794108

  3. Mitochondrial protection by resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Ungvari, Zoltan; Sonntag, William E; de Cabo, Rafael; Baur, Joseph A; Csiszar, Anna

    2011-07-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are thought to play important roles in mammalian aging. Resveratrol is a plant-derived polyphenol that exerts diverse antiaging activities, mimicking some of the molecular and functional effects of dietary restriction. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms underlying the mitochondrial protective effects of resveratrol, which could be exploited for the prevention or amelioration of age-related diseases in the elderly.

  4. AMPK dysregulation promotes diabetes-related reduction of superoxide and mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Dugan, Laura L; You, Young-Hyun; Ali, Sameh S; Diamond-Stanic, Maggie; Miyamoto, Satoshi; DeCleves, Anne-Emilie; Andreyev, Aleksander; Quach, Tammy; Ly, San; Shekhtman, Grigory; Nguyen, William; Chepetan, Andre; Le, Thuy P; Wang, Lin; Xu, Ming; Paik, Kacie P; Fogo, Agnes; Viollet, Benoit; Murphy, Anne; Brosius, Frank; Naviaux, Robert K; Sharma, Kumar

    2013-11-01

    Diabetic microvascular complications have been considered to be mediated by a glucose-driven increase in mitochondrial superoxide anion production. Here, we report that superoxide production was reduced in the kidneys of a steptozotocin-induced mouse model of type 1 diabetes, as assessed by in vivo real-time transcutaneous fluorescence, confocal microscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance analysis. Reduction of mitochondrial biogenesis and phosphorylation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) were observed in kidneys from diabetic mice. These observations were consistent with an overall reduction of mitochondrial glucose oxidation. Activity of AMPK, the major energy-sensing enzyme, was reduced in kidneys from both diabetic mice and humans. Mitochondrial biogenesis, PDH activity, and mitochondrial complex activity were rescued by treatment with the AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR). AICAR treatment induced superoxide production and was linked with glomerular matrix and albuminuria reduction in the diabetic kidney. Furthermore, diabetic heterozygous superoxide dismutase 2 (Sod2(+/-)) mice had no evidence of increased renal disease, and Ampka2(-/-) mice had increased albuminuria that was not reduced with AICAR treatment. Reduction of mitochondrial superoxide production with rotenone was sufficient to reduce AMPK phosphorylation in mouse kidneys. Taken together, these results demonstrate that diabetic kidneys have reduced superoxide and mitochondrial biogenesis and activation of AMPK enhances superoxide production and mitochondrial function while reducing disease activity.

  5. Fast kinase domain-containing protein 3 is a mitochondrial protein essential for cellular respiration

    SciTech Connect

    Simarro, Maria; Gimenez-Cassina, Alfredo; Kedersha, Nancy; Lazaro, Jean-Bernard; Adelmant, Guillaume O.; Marto, Jarrod A.; Rhee, Kirsten; Tisdale, Sarah; Danial, Nika; Benarafa, Charaf; Orduna, Anonio; Anderson, Paul

    2010-10-22

    Research highlights: {yields} Five members of the FAST kinase domain-containing proteins are localized to mitochondria in mammalian cells. {yields} The FASTKD3 interactome includes proteins involved in various aspects of mitochondrial metabolism. {yields} Targeted knockdown of FASTKD3 significantly reduces basal and maximal mitochondrial oxygen consumption. -- Abstract: Fas-activated serine/threonine phosphoprotein (FAST) is the founding member of the FAST kinase domain-containing protein (FASTKD) family that includes FASTKD1-5. FAST is a sensor of mitochondrial stress that modulates protein translation to promote the survival of cells exposed to adverse conditions. Mutations in FASTKD2 have been linked to a mitochondrial encephalomyopathy that is associated with reduced cytochrome c oxidase activity, an essential component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. We have confirmed the mitochondrial localization of FASTKD2 and shown that all FASTKD family members are found in mitochondria. Although human and mouse FASTKD1-5 genes are expressed ubiquitously, some of them are most abundantly expressed in mitochondria-enriched tissues. We have found that RNA interference-mediated knockdown of FASTKD3 severely blunts basal and stress-induced mitochondrial oxygen consumption without disrupting the assembly of respiratory chain complexes. Tandem affinity purification reveals that FASTKD3 interacts with components of mitochondrial respiratory and translation machineries. Our results introduce FASTKD3 as an essential component of mitochondrial respiration that may modulate energy balance in cells exposed to adverse conditions by functionally coupling mitochondrial protein synthesis to respiration.

  6. SDF-1/CXCL12 modulates mitochondrial respiration of immature blood cells in a bi-phasic manner.

    PubMed

    Messina-Graham, Steven; Broxmeyer, Hal

    2016-05-01

    SDF-1/CXCL12 is a potent chemokine required for the homing and engraftment of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Previous data from our group has shown that in an SDF-1/CXCL12 transgenic mouse model, lineage(-) Sca-1(+) c-Kit(+) (LSK) bone marrow cells have reduced mitochondrial membrane potential versus wild-type. These results suggested that SDF-1/CXCL12 may function to keep mitochondrial respiration low in immature blood cells in the bone marrow. Low mitochondrial metabolism helps to maintain low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can influence differentiation. To test whether SDF-1/CXCL12 regulates mitochondrial metabolism, we employed the human leukemia cell line HL-60, that expresses high levels of the SDF-1/CXCL12 receptor, CXCR4, as a model of hematopoietic progenitor cells in vitro. We treated HL-60 cells with SDF-1/CXCL12 for 2 and 24h. Oxygen consumption rates (OCR), mitochondrial-associated ATP production, mitochondrial mass, and mitochondrial membrane potential of HL-60 cells were significantly reduced at 2h and increased at 24h as compared to untreated control cells. These biphasic effects of SDF-1/CXCL12 were reproduced with lineage negative primary mouse bone marrow cells, suggesting a novel function of SDF-1/CXCL12 in modulating mitochondrial respiration by regulating mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, ATP production and mitochondrial content.

  7. The antileishmanial activity of xanthohumol is mediated by mitochondrial inhibition.

    PubMed

    Monzote, Lianet; Lackova, Alexandra; Staniek, Katrin; Steinbauer, Silvia; Pichler, Gerald; Jäger, Walter; Gille, Lars

    2016-12-12

    Xanthohumol (Xan) is a natural constituent of human nutrition. Little is known about its actions on leishmanial parasites and their mitochondria as putative target. Therefore, we determined the antileishmanial activity of Xan and resveratrol (Res, as alternative compound with antileishmanial activity) with respect to mitochondria in Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes/amastigotes (LaP/LaA) in comparison with their activity in peritoneal macrophages from mouse (PMM) and macrophage cell line J774A.1 (J774). Mechanistic studies were conducted in Leishmania tarentolae promastigotes (LtP) and mitochondrial fractions isolated from LtP. Xan and Res demonstrated antileishmanial activity in LaA [half inhibitory concentration (IC50): Xan 7 µ m, Res 14 µ m]; while they had less influence on the viability of PMM (IC50: Xan 70 µ m, Res >438 µ m). In contrast to Res, Xan strongly inhibited oxygen consumption in Leishmania (LtP) but not in J774 cells. This was based on the inhibition of the mitochondrial electron transfer complex II/III by Xan, which was less pronounced with Res. Neither Xan nor Res increased mitochondrial superoxide release in LtP, while both decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential in LtP. Bioenergetic studies showed that LtP mitochondria have no spare respiratory capacity in contrast to mitochondria in J774 cells and can therefore much less adapt to stress by mitochondrial inhibitors, such as Xan. These data show that Xan may have antileishmanial activity, which is mediated by mitochondrial inhibition.

  8. Snf1-related kinase improves cardiac mitochondrial efficiency and decreases mitochondrial uncoupling

    PubMed Central

    Rines, Amy K.; Chang, Hsiang-Chun; Wu, Rongxue; Sato, Tatsuya; Khechaduri, Arineh; Kouzu, Hidemichi; Shapiro, Jason; Shang, Meng; Burke, Michael A.; Jiang, Xinghang; Chen, Chunlei; Rawlings, Tenley A.; Lopaschuk, Gary D.; Schumacker, Paul T.; Abel, E. Dale; Ardehali, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Ischaemic heart disease limits oxygen and metabolic substrate availability to the heart, resulting in tissue death. Here, we demonstrate that the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-related protein Snf1-related kinase (SNRK) decreases cardiac metabolic substrate usage and mitochondrial uncoupling, and protects against ischaemia/reperfusion. Hearts from transgenic mice overexpressing SNRK have decreased glucose and palmitate metabolism and oxygen consumption, but maintained power and function. They also exhibit decreased uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) and mitochondrial uncoupling. Conversely, Snrk knockout mouse hearts have increased glucose and palmitate oxidation and UCP3. SNRK knockdown in cardiac cells decreases mitochondrial efficiency, which is abolished with UCP3 knockdown. We show that Tribbles homologue 3 (Trib3) binds to SNRK, and downregulates UCP3 through PPARα. Finally, SNRK is increased in cardiomyopathy patients, and SNRK reduces infarct size after ischaemia/reperfusion. SNRK also decreases cardiac cell death in a UCP3-dependent manner. Our results suggest that SNRK improves cardiac mitochondrial efficiency and ischaemic protection. PMID:28117339

  9. Mitochondrial morphology, topology, and membrane interactions in skeletal muscle: a quantitative three-dimensional electron microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Picard, Martin; White, Kathryn; Turnbull, Douglass M

    2013-01-15

    Dynamic remodeling of mitochondrial morphology through membrane dynamics are linked to changes in mitochondrial and cellular function. Although mitochondrial membrane fusion/fission events are frequent in cell culture models, whether mitochondrial membranes dynamically interact in postmitotic muscle fibers in vivo remains unclear. Furthermore, a quantitative assessment of mitochondrial morphology in intact muscle is lacking. Here, using electron microscopy (EM), we provide evidence of interacting membranes from adjacent mitochondria in intact mouse skeletal muscle. Electron-dense mitochondrial contact sites consistent with events of outer mitochondrial membrane tethering are also described. These data suggest that mitochondrial membranes interact in vivo among mitochondria, possibly to induce morphology transitions, for kiss-and-run behavior, or other processes involving contact between mitochondrial membranes. Furthermore, a combination of freeze-fracture scanning EM and transmission EM in orthogonal planes was used to characterize and quantify mitochondrial morphology. Two subpopulations of mitochondria were studied: subsarcolemmal (SS) and intermyofibrillar (IMF), which exhibited significant differences in morphological descriptors, including form factor (means ± SD for SS: 1.41 ± 0.45 vs. IMF: 2.89 ± 1.76, P < 0.01) and aspect ratio (1.97 ± 0.83 vs. 3.63 ± 2.13, P < 0.01) and circularity (0.75 ± 0.16 vs. 0.45 ± 0.22, P < 0.01) but not size (0.28 ± 0.31 vs. 0.27 ± 0.20 μm(2)). Frequency distributions for mitochondrial size and morphological parameters were highly skewed, suggesting the presence of mechanisms to influence mitochondrial size and shape. In addition, physical continuities between SS and IMF mitochondria indicated mixing of both subpopulations. These data provide evidence that mitochondrial membranes interact in vivo in mouse skeletal muscle and that factors may be involved in regulating skeletal muscle mitochondrial morphology.

  10. Peripheral neuropathy in mitochondrial disorders.

    PubMed

    Pareyson, Davide; Piscosquito, Giuseppe; Moroni, Isabella; Salsano, Ettore; Zeviani, Massimo

    2013-10-01

    Why is peripheral neuropathy common but mild in many mitochondrial disorders, and why is it, in some cases, the predominant or only manifestation? Although this question remains largely unanswered, recent advances in cellular and molecular biology have begun to clarify the importance of mitochondrial functioning and distribution in the peripheral nerve. Mutations in proteins involved in mitochondrial dynamics (ie, fusion and fission) frequently result in a Charcot-Marie-Tooth phenotype. Peripheral neuropathies with different phenotypic presentations occur in mitochondrial diseases associated with abnormalities in mitochondrial DNA replication and maintenance, or associated with defects in mitochondrial respiratory chain complex V. Our knowledge of mitochondrial disorders is rapidly growing as new nuclear genes are identified and new phenotypes described. Early diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders, essential to provide appropriate genetic counselling, has become crucial in a few treatable conditions. Recognising and diagnosing an underlying mitochondrial defect in patients presenting with peripheral neuropathy is therefore of paramount importance.

  11. Photodynamic action of chlorin e6 on thymocyte plasmatic and mitochondrial membrane potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyulkhandanyan, Grigor V.

    2005-08-01

    Transmembrane potentials appear to be cell state sensitive characteristics and can give information about cell damage initial stage. Photodynamic action of the photosensitizer chlorin e6 on plasmatic and mitochondrial membrane potentials of the rat thymus lymphocytes was studied using voltage-sensitive dye rhodamine 6G. It has been revealed that mitochondrial membrane potential is more sensitive characteristic of membrane disfunction than plasmatic one at the cell photodamage.

  12. Nickel inhibits mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Uppala, Radha; McKinney, Richard W; Brant, Kelly A; Fabisiak, James P; Goetzman, Eric S

    2015-08-07

    Nickel exposure is associated with changes in cellular energy metabolism which may contribute to its carcinogenic properties. Here, we demonstrate that nickel strongly represses mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation-the pathway by which fatty acids are catabolized for energy-in both primary human lung fibroblasts and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. At the concentrations used, nickel suppresses fatty acid oxidation without globally suppressing mitochondrial function as evidenced by increased glucose oxidation to CO2. Pre-treatment with l-carnitine, previously shown to prevent nickel-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in neuroblastoma cells, did not prevent the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. The effect of nickel on fatty acid oxidation occurred only with prolonged exposure (>5 h), suggesting that direct inhibition of the active sites of metabolic enzymes is not the mechanism of action. Nickel is a known hypoxia-mimetic that activates hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF1α). Nickel-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was blunted in HIF1α knockout fibroblasts, implicating HIF1α as one contributor to the mechanism. Additionally, nickel down-regulated the protein levels of the key fatty acid oxidation enzyme very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by nickel, concurrent with increased glucose metabolism, represents a form of metabolic reprogramming that may contribute to nickel-induced carcinogenesis.

  13. Nickel Inhibits Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Uppala, Radha; McKinney, Richard W.; Brant, Kelly A.; Fabisiak, James P.; Goetzman, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Nickel exposure is associated with changes in cellular energy metabolism which may contribute to its carcinogenic properties. Here, we demonstrate that nickel strongly represses mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation—the pathway by which fatty acids are catabolized for energy—in both primary human lung fibroblasts and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. At the concentrations used, nickel suppresses fatty acid oxidation without globally suppressing mitochondrial function as evidenced by increased glucose oxidation to CO2. Pre-treatment with L-carnitine, previously shown to prevent nickel-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in neuroblastoma cells, did not prevent the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. The effect of nickel on fatty acid oxidation occurred only with prolonged exposure (>5 hr), suggesting that direct inhibition of the active sites of metabolic enzymes is not the mechanism of action. Nickel is a known hypoxia-mimetic that activates hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF1α). Nickel-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was blunted in HIF1α knockout fibroblasts, implicating HIF1α as one contributor to the mechanism. Additionally, nickel down-regulated the protein levels of the key fatty acid oxidation enzyme very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by nickel, concurrent with increased glucose metabolism, represents a form of metabolic reprogramming that may contribute to nickel-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:26051273

  14. Mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptors regulate steroid biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhin, A.G.; Papadopoulos, V.; Costa, E.; Krueger, K.E. )

    1989-12-01

    Recent observations on the steroid synthetic capability within the brain open the possibility that benzodiazepines may influence steroid synthesis in nervous tissue through interactions with peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites, which are highly expressed in steroidogenic cells and associated with the outer mitochondrial membrane. To examine this possibility nine molecules that exhibit a greater than 10,000-fold difference in their affinities for peripheral-type benzodiazepine binding sites were tested for their effects on a well-established steroidogenic model system, the Y-1 mouse adrenal tumor cell line. 4{prime}-Chlorodiazepam, PK 11195, and PK 14067 stimulated steroid production by 2-fold in Y-1 cells, whereas diazepam, flunitrazepam, zolpidem, and PK 14068 displayed a lower (1.2- to 1.5-fold) maximal stimulation. In contrast, clonazepam and flumazenil did not stimulate steroid synthesis. The potencies of these compounds to inhibit {sup 3}H-labeled PK 11195 binding to peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites correlated with their potencies to stimulate steroid production. Similar findings were observed in bovine and rat adrenocortical cell preparations. These results suggest that ligands of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition site acting on this mitochondrial receptor can enhance steroid production. This action may contribute specificity to the pharmacological profile of drugs preferentially acting on the benzodiazepine recognition site associated with the outer membrane of certain mitochondrial populations.

  15. An Outer Mitochondrial Translocase, Tom22, Is Crucial for Inner Mitochondrial Steroidogenic Regulation in Adrenal and Gonadal Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Rajapaksha, Maheshinie; Kaur, Jasmeet; Prasad, Manoj; Pawlak, Kevin J.; Marshall, Brendan; Perry, Elizabeth W.; Whittal, Randy M.

    2016-01-01

    After cholesterol is transported into the mitochondria of steroidogenic tissues, the first steroid, pregnenolone, is synthesized in adrenal and gonadal tissues to initiate steroid synthesis by catalyzing the conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone, which is mediated by the inner mitochondrial enzyme 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (3βHSD2). We report that the mitochondrial translocase Tom22 is essential for metabolic conversion, as its knockdown by small interfering RNA (siRNA) completely ablated progesterone conversion in both steroidogenic mouse Leydig MA-10 and human adrenal NCI cells. Tom22 forms a 500-kDa complex with mitochondrial proteins associated with 3βHSD2. Although the absence of Tom22 did not inhibit mitochondrial import of cytochrome P450scc (cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme) and aldosterone synthase, it did inhibit 3βHSD2 expression. Electron microscopy showed that Tom22 is localized at the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM), while 3βHSD2 is localized at the inner mitochondrial space (IMS), where it interacts through a specific region with Tom22 with its C-terminal amino acids and a small amino acid segment of Tom22 exposed to the IMS. Therefore, Tom22 is a critical regulator of steroidogenesis, and thus, it is essential for mammalian survival. PMID:26787839

  16. A mitochondrial location for haemoglobins--dynamic distribution in ageing and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Shephard, Freya; Greville-Heygate, Oliver; Marsh, Oliver; Anderson, Susan; Chakrabarti, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Haemoglobins are iron-containing proteins that transport oxygen in the blood of most vertebrates. The mitochondrion is the cellular organelle which consumes oxygen in order to synthesise ATP. Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in neurodegeneration and ageing. We find that α and β haemoglobin (Hba and Hbb) proteins are altered in their distribution in mitochondrial fractions from degenerating brain. We demonstrate that both Hba and Hbb are co-localised with the mitochondrion in mammalian brain. The precise localisation of the Hbs is within the inner membrane space and associated with inner mitochondrial membrane. Relative mitochondrial to cytoplasmic ratios of Hba and Hbb show changing distributions of these proteins during the process of neurodegeneration in the pcd(5j) mouse brain. A significant difference in mitochondrial Hba and Hbb content in the mitochondrial fraction is seen at 31 days after birth, this corresponds to a stage when dynamic neuronal loss is measured to be greatest in the Purkinje Cell Degeneration mouse. We also report changes in mitochondrial Hba and Hbb levels in ageing brain and muscle. Significant differences in mitochondrial Hba and Hbb can be seen when comparing aged brain to muscle, suggesting tissue specific functions of these proteins in the mitochondrion. In muscle there are significant differences between Hba levels in old and young mitochondria. To understand whether the changes detected in mitochondrial Hbs are of clinical significance, we examined Parkinson's disease brain, immunohistochemistry studies suggest that cell bodies in the substantia nigra accumulate mitochondrial Hb. However, western blotting of mitochondrial fractions from PD and control brains indicates significantly less Hb in PD brain mitochondria. One explanation could be a specific loss of cells containing mitochondria loaded with Hb proteins. Our study opens the door to an examination of the role of Hb function, within the context of the mitochondrion

  17. Mitochondrial diseases: therapeutic approaches.

    PubMed

    DiMauro, Salvatore; Mancuso, Michelangelo

    2007-06-01

    Therapy of mitochondrial encephalomyopathies (defined restrictively as defects of the mitochondrial respiratory chain) is woefully inadequate, despite great progress in our understanding of the molecular bases of these disorders. In this review, we consider sequentially several different therapeutic approaches. Palliative therapy is dictated by good medical practice and includes anticonvulsant medication, control of endocrine dysfunction, and surgical procedures. Removal of noxious metabolites is centered on combating lactic acidosis, but extends to other metabolites. Attempts to bypass blocks in the respiratory chain by administration of electron acceptors have not been successful, but this may be amenable to genetic engineering. Administration of metabolites and cofactors is the mainstay of real-life therapy and is especially important in disorders due to primary deficiencies of specific compounds, such as carnitine or coenzyme Q10. There is increasing interest in the administration of reactive oxygen species scavengers both in primary mitochondrial diseases and in neurodegenerative diseases directly or indirectly related to mitochondrial dysfunction. Aerobic exercise and physical therapy prevent or correct deconditioning and improve exercise tolerance in patients with mitochondrial myopathies due to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. Gene therapy is a challenge because of polyplasmy and heteroplasmy, but interesting experimental approaches are being pursued and include, for example, decreasing the ratio of mutant to wild-type mitochondrial genomes (gene shifting), converting mutated mtDNA genes into normal nuclear DNA genes (allotopic expression), importing cognate genes from other species, or correcting mtDNA mutations with specific restriction endonucleases. Germline therapy raises ethical problems but is being considered for prevention of maternal transmission of mtDNA mutations. Preventive therapy through genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis is

  18. Transistor voltage comparator performs own sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliff, R. A.

    1965-01-01

    Detection of the highest voltage input among a group of varying voltage inputs is accomplished by a transistorized voltage comparison circuit. The collector circuits of the transistors perform the sensing function. Input voltage levels are governed by the transistors.

  19. The Spectrum of Mitochondrial Ultrastructural Defects in Mitochondrial Myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Amy E.; Ng, Yi Shiau; White, Kathryn; Davey, Tracey; Mannella, Carmen; Falkous, Gavin; Feeney, Catherine; Schaefer, Andrew M.; McFarland, Robert; Gorman, Grainne S.; Taylor, Robert W.; Turnbull, Doug M.; Picard, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial functions are intrinsically linked to their morphology and membrane ultrastructure. Characterizing abnormal mitochondrial structural features may thus provide insight into the underlying pathogenesis of inherited and acquired mitochondrial diseases. Following a systematic literature review on ultrastructural defects in mitochondrial myopathy, we investigated skeletal muscle biopsies from seven subjects with genetically defined mtDNA mutations. Mitochondrial ultrastructure and morphology were characterized using two complimentary approaches: transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and serial block face scanning EM (SBF-SEM) with 3D reconstruction. Six ultrastructural abnormalities were identified including i) paracrystalline inclusions, ii) linearization of cristae and abnormal angular features, iii) concentric layering of cristae membranes, iv) matrix compartmentalization, v) nanotunelling, and vi) donut-shaped mitochondria. In light of recent molecular advances in mitochondrial biology, these findings reveal novel aspects of mitochondrial ultrastructure and morphology in human tissues with implications for understanding the mechanisms linking mitochondrial dysfunction to disease. PMID:27506553

  20. Ketogenic diet slows down mitochondrial myopathy progression in mice.

    PubMed

    Ahola-Erkkilä, Sofia; Carroll, Christopher J; Peltola-Mjösund, Katja; Tulkki, Valtteri; Mattila, Ismo; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Oresic, Matej; Tyynismaa, Henna; Suomalainen, Anu

    2010-05-15

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a major cause of neurodegenerative and neuromuscular diseases of adult age and of multisystem disorders of childhood. However, no effective treatment exists for these progressive disorders. Cell culture studies suggested that ketogenic diet (KD), with low glucose and high fat content, could select against cells or mitochondria with mutant mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), but proper patient trials are still lacking. We studied here the transgenic Deletor mouse, a disease model for progressive late-onset mitochondrial myopathy, accumulating mtDNA deletions during aging and manifesting subtle progressive respiratory chain (RC) deficiency. We found that these mice have widespread lipidomic and metabolite changes, including abnormal plasma phospholipid and free amino acid levels and ketone body production. We treated these mice with pre-symptomatic long-term and post-symptomatic shorter term KD. The effects of the diet for disease progression were followed by morphological, metabolomic and lipidomic tools. We show here that the diet decreased the amount of cytochrome c oxidase negative muscle fibers, a key feature in mitochondrial RC deficiencies, and prevented completely the formation of the mitochondrial ultrastructural abnormalities in the muscle. Furthermore, most of the metabolic and lipidomic changes were cured by the diet to wild-type levels. The diet did not, however, significantly affect the mtDNA quality or quantity, but rather induced mitochondrial biogenesis and restored liver lipid levels. Our results show that mitochondrial myopathy induces widespread metabolic changes, and that KD can slow down progression of the disease in mice. These results suggest that KD may be useful for mitochondrial late-onset myopathies.

  1. Calcineurin transgenic mice have mitochondrial dysfunction and elevated superoxide production.

    PubMed

    Sayen, M R; Gustafsson, Asa B; Sussman, Mark A; Molkentin, Jeffery D; Gottlieb, Roberta A

    2003-02-01

    Introduction of the constitutively active calcineurin gene into neonatal rat cardiomyocytes by adenovirus resulted in decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (P < 0.05). Infection of H9c2 cells with calcineurin adenovirus resulted in increased superoxide production (P < 0.001). Transgenic mice with cardiac-specific expression of a constitutively active calcineurin cDNA (CalTG mice) exhibit a two- to threefold increase in heart size that progresses to heart failure. We prepared mitochondria enriched for the subsarcolemmal population from the hearts of CalTG mice and transgene negative littermates (control). Intact, well-coupled mitochondria prepared from one to two mouse hearts at a time yielded sufficient material for functional studies. Mitochondrial oxygen consumption was measured with a Clark-type oxygen electrode with substrates for mitochondrial complex II (succinate) and complex IV [tetramethylpentadecane (TMPD)/ascorbate]. CalTG mice exhibited a maximal rate of electron transfer in heart mitochondria that was reduced by approximately 50% (P < 0.002) without a loss of respiratory control. Mitochondrial respiration was unaffected in tropomodulin-overexpressing transgenic mice, another model of cardiomyopathy. Western blotting for mitochondrial electron transfer subunits from mitochondria of CalTG mice revealed a 20-30% reduction in subunit 3 of complex I (ND3) and subunits I and IV of cytochrome oxidase (CO-I, CO-IV) when normalized to total mitochondrial protein or to the adenine nucleotide transporter (ANT) and compared with littermate controls (P < 0.002). Impaired mitochondrial electron transport was associated with high levels of superoxide production in the CalTG mice. Taken together, these data indicate that calcineurin signaling affects mitochondrial energetics and superoxide production. The excessive production of superoxide may contribute to the development of cardiac failure.

  2. mito-QC illuminates mitophagy and mitochondrial architecture in vivo.

    PubMed

    McWilliams, Thomas G; Prescott, Alan R; Allen, George F G; Tamjar, Jevgenia; Munson, Michael J; Thomson, Calum; Muqit, Miratul M K; Ganley, Ian G

    2016-08-01

    Autophagic turnover of mitochondria, termed mitophagy, is proposed to be an essential quality-control (QC) mechanism of pathophysiological relevance in mammals. However, if and how mitophagy proceeds within specific cellular subtypes in vivo remains unclear, largely because of a lack of tractable tools and models. To address this, we have developed "mito-QC," a transgenic mouse with a pH-sensitive fluorescent mitochondrial signal. This allows the assessment of mitophagy and mitochondrial architecture in vivo. Using confocal microscopy, we demonstrate that mito-QC is compatible with classical and contemporary techniques in histochemistry and allows unambiguous in vivo detection of mitophagy and mitochondrial morphology at single-cell resolution within multiple organ systems. Strikingly, our model uncovers highly enriched and differential zones of mitophagy in the developing heart and within specific cells of the adult kidney. mito-QC is an experimentally advantageous tool of broad relevance to cell biology researchers within both discovery-based and translational research communities.

  3. Transcription of mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Tabak, H F; Grivell, L A; Borst, P

    1983-01-01

    While mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the simplest DNA in nature, coding for rRNAs and tRNAs, results of DNA sequence, and transcript analysis have demonstrated that both the synthesis and processing of mitochondrial RNAs involve remarkably intricate events. At one extreme, genes in animal mtDNAs are tightly packed, both DNA strands are completely transcribed (symmetric transcription), and the appearance of specific mRNAs is entirely dependent on processing at sites signalled by the sequences of the tRNAs, which abut virtually every gene. At the other extreme, gene organization in yeast (Saccharomyces) is anything but compact, with long stretches of AT-rich DNA interspaced between coding sequences and no obvious logic to the order of genes. Transcription is asymmetric and several RNAs are initiated de novo. Nevertheless, extensive RNA processing occurs due largely to the presence of split genes. RNA splicing is complex, is controlled by both mitochondrial and nuclear genes, and in some cases is accompanied by the formation of RNAs that behave as covalently closed circles. The present article reviews current knowledge of mitochondrial transcription and RNA processing in relation to possible mechanisms for the regulation of mitochondrial gene expression.

  4. Neurotrophin Therapy of Neurodegenerative Disorders with Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    in two models of mitochondrial dysfunction. 1)hippocampal neurons from the trisomy 16 mouse, which undergo increased apoptosis and have a...SUBJECT TERMS mitochondria, neurotrophin, BDNF, trkB, trisomy 16, oxidative stress, rotenone, Parkinsons 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18 . NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON USAMRMC a. REPORT U b. ABSTRACT U c. THIS PAGE U UU 10 19b

  5. What is the mitochondrial permeability transition pore?

    PubMed

    Halestrap, Andrew P

    2009-06-01

    Under conditions of mitochondrial calcium overload, especially when accompanied by oxidative stress, elevated phosphate concentrations and adenine nucleotide depletion, a non-specific pore, the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP), opens in the inner mitochondrial membrane. MPTP opening enables free passage into the mitochondria of molecules of <1.5 kDa including protons. The resulting uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation leads to ATP depletion and necrotic cell death and it is now widely recognised that MPTP opening is a major cause of reperfusion injury and an effective target for cardioprotection. The properties of the MPTP are well defined, but despite extensive research in many laboratories, its exact molecular identity remains uncertain. Knockout studies have confirmed a role for cyclophilin-D (CyP-D), probably mediated by its peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity facilitating a conformational change of an inner membrane protein. However, the identity of the membrane component(s) remains controversial. Knockout studies have eliminated an essential role for either the voltage dependent anion channel (VDAC) or the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT), although a regulatory role for the ANT was confirmed. Our own studies implicate the mitochondrial phosphate carrier (PiC) in MPTP formation and are consistent with a calcium-triggered conformational change of the PiC, facilitated by CyP-D, inducing pore opening. We propose that this is enhanced by an association of the PiC with the "c" conformation of the ANT. Agents that modulate pore opening may act on either or both the PiC and the ANT. However, knockdown and reconstitution studies are awaited to confirm or refute this model.

  6. High voltage feedthrough bushing

    DOEpatents

    Brucker, John P.

    1993-01-01

    A feedthrough bushing for a high voltage diode provides for using compression sealing for all sealing surfaces. A diode assembly includes a central conductor extending through the bushing and a grading ring assembly circumferentially surrounding and coaxial with the central conductor. A flexible conductive plate extends between and compressively seals against the central conductor and the grading ring assembly, wherein the flexibility of the plate allows inner and outer portions of the plate to axially translate for compression sealing against the central conductor and the grading ring assembly, respectively. The inner portion of the plate is bolted to the central conductor for affecting sealing. A compression beam is also bolted to the central conductor and engages the outer portion of the plate to urge the outer portion toward the grading ring assembly to obtain compression sealing therebetween.

  7. High voltage isolation transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clatterbuck, C. H.; Ruitberg, A. P. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A high voltage isolation transformer is provided with primary and secondary coils separated by discrete electrostatic shields from the surfaces of insulating spools on which the coils are wound. The electrostatic shields are formed by coatings of a compound with a low electrical conductivity which completely encase the coils and adhere to the surfaces of the insulating spools adjacent to the coils. Coatings of the compound also line axial bores of the spools, thereby forming electrostatic shields separating the spools from legs of a ferromagnetic core extending through the bores. The transformer is able to isolate a high constant potential applied to one of its coils, without the occurrence of sparking or corona, by coupling the coatings, lining the axial bores to the ferromagnetic core and by coupling one terminal of each coil to the respective coating encasing the coil.

  8. Mitochondrial fusion and inheritance of the mitochondrial genome.

    PubMed

    Takano, Hiroyoshi; Onoue, Kenta; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2010-03-01

    Although maternal or uniparental inheritance of mitochondrial genomes is a general rule, biparental inheritance is sometimes observed in protists and fungi,including yeasts. In yeast, recombination occurs between the mitochondrial genomes inherited from both parents.Mitochondrial fusion observed in yeast zygotes is thought to set up a space for DNA recombination. In the last decade,a universal mitochondrial fusion mechanism has been uncovered, using yeast as a model. On the other hand, an alternative mitochondrial fusion mechanism has been identified in the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum.A specific mitochondrial plasmid, mF, has been detected as the genetic material that causes mitochondrial fusion in P. polycephalum. Without mF, fusion of the mitochondria is not observed throughout the life cycle, suggesting that Physarum has no constitutive mitochondrial fusion mechanism.Conversely, mitochondria fuse in zygotes and during sporulation with mF. The complete mF sequence suggests that one gene, ORF640, encodes a fusogen for Physarum mitochondria. Although in general, mitochondria are inherited uniparentally, biparental inheritance occurs with specific sexual crossing in P. polycephalum.An analysis of the transmission of mitochondrial genomes has shown that recombinations between two parental mitochondrial genomes require mitochondrial fusion,mediated by mF. Physarum is a unique organism for studying mitochondrial fusion.

  9. Comparative High Voltage Impulse Measurement

    PubMed Central

    FitzPatrick, Gerald J.; Kelley, Edward F.

    1996-01-01

    A facility has been developed for the determination of the ratio of pulse high voltage dividers over the range from 10 kV to 300 kV using comparative techniques with Kerr electro-optic voltage measurement systems and reference resistive voltage dividers. Pulse voltage ratios of test dividers can be determined with relative expanded uncertainties of 0.4 % (coverage factor k = 2 and thus a two standard deviation estimate) or less using the complementary resistive divider/Kerr cell reference systems. This paper describes the facility and specialized procedures used at NIST for the determination of test voltage divider ratios through comparative techniques. The error sources and special considerations in the construction and use of reference voltage dividers to minimize errors are discussed, and estimates of the measurement uncertainties are presented. PMID:27805083

  10. Mitochondrial Genetics Regulate Breast Cancer Tumorigenicity and Metastatic Potential.

    PubMed

    Feeley, Kyle P; Bray, Alexander W; Westbrook, David G; Johnson, Larry W; Kesterson, Robert A; Ballinger, Scott W; Welch, Danny R

    2015-10-15

    Current paradigms of carcinogenic risk suggest that genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors influence an individual's predilection for developing metastatic breast cancer. Investigations of tumor latency and metastasis in mice have illustrated differences between inbred strains, but the possibility that mitochondrial genetic inheritance may contribute to such differences in vivo has not been directly tested. In this study, we tested this hypothesis in mitochondrial-nuclear exchange mice we generated, where cohorts shared identical nuclear backgrounds but different mtDNA genomes on the background of the PyMT transgenic mouse model of spontaneous mammary carcinoma. In this setting, we found that primary tumor latency and metastasis segregated with mtDNA, suggesting that mtDNA influences disease progression to a far greater extent than previously appreciated. Our findings prompt further investigation into metabolic differences controlled by mitochondrial process as a basis for understanding tumor development and metastasis in individual subjects. Importantly, differences in mitochondrial DNA are sufficient to fundamentally alter disease course in the PyMT mouse mammary tumor model, suggesting that functional metabolic differences direct early tumor growth and metastatic efficiency.

  11. Dynamics of enhanced mitochondrial respiration in female compared with male rat cerebral arteries.

    PubMed

    Rutkai, Ibolya; Dutta, Somhrita; Katakam, Prasad V; Busija, David W

    2015-11-01

    Mitochondrial respiration has never been directly examined in intact cerebral arteries. We tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial energetics of large cerebral arteries ex vivo are sex dependent. The Seahorse XFe24 analyzer was used to examine mitochondrial respiration in isolated cerebral arteries from adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. We examined the role of nitric oxide (NO) on mitochondrial respiration under basal conditions, using N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, and following pharmacological challenge using diazoxide (DZ), and also determined levels of mitochondrial and nonmitochondrial proteins using Western blot, and vascular diameter responses to DZ. The components of mitochondrial respiration including basal respiration, ATP production, proton leak, maximal respiration, and spare respiratory capacity were elevated in females compared with males, but increased in both male and female arteries in the presence of the NOS inhibitor. Although acute DZ treatment had little effect on mitochondrial respiration of male arteries, it decreased the respiration in female arteries. Levels of mitochondrial proteins in Complexes I-V and the voltage-dependent anion channel protein were elevated in female compared with male cerebral arteries. The DZ-induced vasodilation was greater in females than in males. Our findings show that substantial sex differences in mitochondrial respiratory dynamics exist in large cerebral arteries and may provide the mechanistic basis for observations that the female cerebral vasculature is more adaptable after injury.

  12. Patterns of mitochondrial sorting in yeast zygotes.

    PubMed Central

    Azpiroz, R; Butow, R A

    1993-01-01

    Inheritance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is usually biparental. Pedigree studies of zygotic first buds indicate limited mixing of wild-type (p+) parental mtDNAs: end buds are frequently homoplasmic for one parental mtDNA, while heteroplasmic and recombinant progeny usually arise from medial buds. In crosses involving certain petites, however, mitochondrial inheritance can be uniparental. In this study we show that mitochondrial sorting can be influenced by the parental mtDNAs and have identified intermediates in the process. In crosses where mtDNA mixing is limited and one parent is prelabeled with the matrix enzyme citrate synthase 1 (CS1), the protein freely equilibrates throughout the zygote before the first bud has matured. Furthermore, if one parent is p0 (lacking mtDNA), mtDNA from the p+ parent can also equilibrate; intracellular movement of mtDNA is unhindered in this case. Surprisingly, in zygotes from a p0 CS1+ x p+ CS1- cross, CS1 is quantitatively translocated to the p+ end of the zygote before mtDNA movement; subsequently, both components equilibrate throughout the cell. This initial vectorial transfer does not require respiratory function in the p+ parent, although it does not occur if that parent is p-. Mouse dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) present in the mitochondrial matrix can also be vectorially translocated, indicating that the process is general. Our data suggest that in zygotes mtDNA movement may be separately controlled from the movement of bulk matrix constituents. Images PMID:8443407

  13. Mitochondrial tRNA mutations and disease.

    PubMed

    Yarham, John W; Elson, Joanna L; Blakely, Emma L; McFarland, Robert; Taylor, Robert W

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial (mt-) tRNA (MTT) gene mutations are an important cause of human morbidity and are associated with a wide range of pathology, from isolated organ-specific diseases such as myopathy or hearing loss, through to multisystem disorders with encephalopathy, gastrointestinal dysmotility, and life-threatening cardiomyopathy. Our understanding of how MTT mutations cause disease remains poor and progress has been hampered by the complex interaction of genotype with phenotype that can result in patients who harbor the same mutation exhibiting starkly contrasting phenotypes, whereas other (genetically heterogeneous) patients manifest clinically identical syndromes. A further complexity is the highly polymorphic nature of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which must temper any reflex assumptions of pathogenicity for novel MTT substitutions. Nevertheless significant progress is being made and we shall review the methods employed to identify and characterize MTT mutations as pathogenic. Also important is our understanding of the molecular processes involved and we shall discuss the data available on two of the most studied MTT mutations (m.8344A > G and m.3243A > G) as well as other potential pathogenic mechanisms. Knowledge of factors influencing the inheritance of MTT mutations, and therefore the likelihood of disease transmission, is of particular importance to female patients. At present, the factors determining transmission remain elusive, but we shall examine several possible mechanisms and discuss the evidence for each. Finally, a number of different yeast and mouse models are currently used to investigate mitochondrial disease and we will assess the importance of and difficulties associated with each model as well as the future of possible therapies for patients with mitochondrial disease.

  14. Adult-onset mitochondrial myopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Sola, J.; Casademont, J.; Grau, J. M.; Graus, F.; Cardellach, F.; Pedrol, E.; Urbano-Marquez, A.

    1992-01-01

    Mitochondrial diseases are polymorphic entities which may affect many organs and systems. Skeletal muscle involvement is frequent in the context of systemic mitochondrial disease, but adult-onset pure mitochondrial myopathy appears to be rare. We report 3 patients with progressive skeletal mitochondrial myopathy starting in adult age. In all cases, the proximal myopathy was the only clinical feature. Mitochondrial pathology was confirmed by evidence of ragged-red fibres in muscle histochemistry, an abnormal mitochondrial morphology in electron microscopy and by exclusion of other underlying diseases. No deletions of mitochondrial DNA were found. We emphasize the need to look for a mitochondrial disorder in some non-specific myopathies starting in adult life. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1589382

  15. Mitochondrial inheritance in fungi.

    PubMed

    Basse, Christoph W

    2010-12-01

    Faithful inheritance of mitochondria is essential for growth and development. Uniparental inheritance of mitochondria is a common phenomenon in sexual eukaryotes and has been reported for numerous fungal species. Uniparental inheritance is a genetically regulated process, aimed to gain a homoplasmic state within cells, and this is often associated with selective elimination of one parental mitochondria population. This review will focus on recent developments in our understanding of common and specified regulatory circuits of selective mitochondrial inheritance during sexual development. It further refers to the influence of mitochondrial fusion on generation of recombinant mitochondrial DNA molecules. The latter aspect appears rather exciting in the context of intron homing and could bring a new twist to the debate on the significance of uniparental inheritance. The emergence of genome-wide studies offers new perspectives to address potential relationships between uniparental inheritance, vegetative inheritance and last but not least cellular scavenging systems to dispose of disintegrated organelles.

  16. Direct Substrate Delivery into Mitochondrial-Fission Deficient Pancreatic Islets Rescues Insulin Secretion.

    PubMed

    Kabra, Uma D; Pfuhlmann, Katrin; Migliorini, Adriana; Keipert, Susanne; Lamp, Daniel; Korsgren, Olle; Gegg, Moritz; Woods, Stephen C; Pfluger, Paul T; Lickert, Heiko; Affourtit, Charles; Tschöp, Matthias H; Jastroch, Martin

    2017-02-07

    In pancreatic beta cells, mitochondrial bioenergetics control glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Mitochondrial dynamics are generally associated with quality control, maintaining the functionality of bioenergetics. By acute pharmacological inhibition of mitochondrial fission protein Drp1, we here demonstrate that mitochondrial fission is necessary for GSIS in mouse and human islets. We confirm that genetic silencing of Drp1 increases mitochondrial proton leak in MIN6 cells. However, our comprehensive analysis of pancreatic islet bioenergetics reveals that Drp1 does not control insulin secretion via its effect on proton leak but instead via modulation of glucose-fuelled respiration. Notably, pyruvate fully rescues the impaired insulin secretion of fission-deficient beta cells, demonstrating that defective mitochondrial dynamics solely impact substrate supply upstream of oxidative phosphorylation. The present findings provide novel insights in how mitochondrial dysfunction may cause pancreatic beta cell failure. In addition, the results will stimulate new thinking in the intersecting fields of mitochondrial dynamics and bioenergetics, as treatment of defective dynamics in mitochondrial diseases appears to be possible by improving metabolism upstream of mitochondria.

  17. Autofluorescence microscopy: a non-destructive tool to monitor mitochondrial toxicity.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Robim M; Macko, Peter; Palosaari, Taina; Whelan, Maurice P

    2011-10-30

    Visualization of NADH by fluorescence microscopy makes it possible to distinguish mitochondria inside living cells, allowing structure analysis of these organelles in a non-invasive way. Mitochondrial morphology is determined by the occurrence of mitochondrial fission and fusion. During normal cell function mitochondria appear as elongated tubular structures. However, cellular malfunction induces mitochondria to fragment into punctiform, vesicular structures. This change in morphology is associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and early apoptosis. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that autofluorescence imaging of mitochondria in living eukaryotic cells provides structural and morphological information that can be used to assess mitochondrial health. We firstly established the illumination conditions that do not affect mitochondrial structure and calculated the maximum safe light dose to which the cells can be exposed. Subsequently, sequential recording of mitochondrial fluorescence was performed and changes in mitochondrial morphology were monitored in a continuous non-destructive way. This approach was then used to assess mitochondrial toxicity induced by potential toxicants exposed to mammalian cells. Both mouse and human cells were used to evaluate mitochondrial toxicity of different compounds with different toxicities. This technique constitutes a novel and promising approach to explore chemical induced toxicity because of its reliability to monitor mitochondrial morphology changes and corresponding toxicity in a non-invasive way.

  18. MKK3 regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy in sepsis-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Mannam, Praveen; Shinn, Amanda S; Srivastava, Anup; Neamu, Radu F; Walker, Wendy E; Bohanon, Michael; Merkel, Jane; Kang, Min-Jong; Dela Cruz, Charles S; Ahasic, Amy M; Pisani, Margaret A; Trentalange, Mark; West, A Phillip; Shadel, Gerald S; Elias, Jack A; Lee, Patty J

    2014-04-01

    Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response to infection and a major cause of death worldwide. Because specific therapies to treat sepsis are limited, and underlying pathogenesis is unclear, current medical care remains purely supportive. Therefore targeted therapies to treat sepsis need to be developed. Although an important mediator of sepsis is thought to be mitochondrial dysfunction, the underlying molecular mechanism is unclear. Modulation of mitochondrial processes may be an effective therapeutic strategy in sepsis. Here, we investigated the role of the kinase MKK3 in regulation of mitochondrial function in sepsis. Using clinically relevant animal models, we examined mitochondrial function in primary mouse lung endothelial cells exposed to LPS. MKK3 deficiency reduces lethality of sepsis in mice and by lowering levels of lung and mitochondrial injury as well as reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, MKK3 deficiency appeared to simultaneously increase mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy through the actions of Sirt1, Pink1, and Parkin. This led to a more robust mitochondrial network, which we propose provides protection against sepsis. We also detected higher MKK3 activation in isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from septic patients compared with nonseptic controls. Our findings demonstrate a critical role for mitochondria in the pathogenesis of sepsis that involves a previously unrecognized function of MKK3 in mitochondrial quality control. This mitochondrial pathway may help reveal new diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets against sepsis.

  19. Modulation of Plant Mitochondrial VDAC by Phytosterols

    PubMed Central

    Mlayeh, Lamia; Chatkaew, Sunita; Léonetti, Marc; Homblé, Fabrice

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of cholesterol and two abundant phytosterols (sitosterol and stigmasterol) on the voltage-dependent anion-selective channel (VDAC) purified from mitochondria of bean seeds (Phaseolus coccineus). These sterols differ by the degree of freedom of their lateral chain. We show that VDAC displays sensitivity to the lipid-sterol ratio and to the type of sterol found in the membrane. The main findings of this study are: 1), cholesterol and phytosterols modulate the selectivity but only stigmasterol alters the voltage-dependence of the plant VDAC in the range of sterol fraction found in the plant mitochondrial membrane; 2), VDAC unitary conductance is not affected by the addition of sterols; 3), the effect of sterols on the VDAC is reversible upon sterol depletion with 10 μM methyl-β-cyclodextrins; and 4), phytosterols are essential for the channel gating at salt concentration prevailing in vivo. A quantitative analysis of the voltage-dependence indicates that stigmasterol inhibits the transition of the VDAC in the lowest subconductance states. PMID:20923643

  20. Mitochondrial DNA with a large-scale deletion causes two distinct mitochondrial disease phenotypes in mice.

    PubMed

    Katada, Shun; Mito, Takayuki; Ogasawara, Emi; Hayashi, Jun-Ichi; Nakada, Kazuto

    2013-09-04

    Studies in patients have suggested that the clinical phenotypes of some mitochondrial diseases might transit from one disease to another (e.g., Pearson syndrome [PS] to Kearns-Sayre syndrome) in single individuals carrying mitochondrial (mt) DNA with a common deletion (ΔmtDNA), but there is no direct experimental evidence for this. To determine whether ΔmtDNA has the pathologic potential to induce multiple mitochondrial disease phenotypes, we used trans-mitochondrial mice with a heteroplasmic state of wild-type mtDNA and ΔmtDNA (mito-miceΔ). Late-stage embryos carrying ≥50% ΔmtDNA showed abnormal hematopoiesis and iron metabolism in livers that were partly similar to PS (PS-like phenotypes), although they did not express sideroblastic anemia that is a typical symptom of PS. More than half of the neonates with PS-like phenotypes died by 1 month after birth, whereas the rest showed a decrease of ΔmtDNA load in the affected tissues, peripheral blood and liver, and they recovered from PS-like phenotypes. The proportion of ΔmtDNA in various tissues of the surviving mito-miceΔ increased with time, and Kearns-Sayre syndrome-like phenotypes were expressed when the proportion of mtDNA in various tissues reached >70-80%. Our model mouse study clearly showed that a single ΔmtDNA was responsible for at least two distinct disease phenotypes at different ages and suggested that the level and dynamics of mtDNA load in affected tissues would be important for the onset and transition of mitochondrial disease phenotypes in mice.

  1. Mitochondrial DNA with a Large-Scale Deletion Causes Two Distinct Mitochondrial Disease Phenotypes in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Katada, Shun; Mito, Takayuki; Ogasawara, Emi; Hayashi, Jun-Ichi; Nakada, Kazuto

    2013-01-01

    Studies in patients have suggested that the clinical phenotypes of some mitochondrial diseases might transit from one disease to another (e.g., Pearson syndrome [PS] to Kearns-Sayre syndrome) in single individuals carrying mitochondrial (mt) DNA with a common deletion (∆mtDNA), but there is no direct experimental evidence for this. To determine whether ∆mtDNA has the pathologic potential to induce multiple mitochondrial disease phenotypes, we used trans-mitochondrial mice with a heteroplasmic state of wild-type mtDNA and ∆mtDNA (mito-mice∆). Late-stage embryos carrying ≥50% ∆mtDNA showed abnormal hematopoiesis and iron metabolism in livers that were partly similar to PS (PS-like phenotypes), although they did not express sideroblastic anemia that is a typical symptom of PS. More than half of the neonates with PS-like phenotypes died by 1 month after birth, whereas the rest showed a decrease of ∆mtDNA load in the affected tissues, peripheral blood and liver, and they recovered from PS-like phenotypes. The proportion of ∆mtDNA in various tissues of the surviving mito-mice∆ increased with time, and Kearns-Sayre syndrome−like phenotypes were expressed when the proportion of ∆mtDNA in various tissues reached >70–80%. Our model mouse study clearly showed that a single ∆mtDNA was responsible for at least two distinct disease phenotypes at different ages and suggested that the level and dynamics of ∆mtDNA load in affected tissues would be important for the onset and transition of mitochondrial disease phenotypes in mice. PMID:23853091

  2. Late Mitochondrial Acquisition, Really?

    PubMed Central

    Degli Esposti, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a timely critique of a recent Nature paper by Pittis and Gabaldón that has suggested a late origin of mitochondria in eukaryote evolution. It shows that the inferred ancestry of many mitochondrial proteins has been incorrectly assigned by Pittis and Gabaldón to bacteria other than the aerobic proteobacteria from which the ancestor of mitochondria originates, thereby questioning the validity of their suggestion that mitochondrial acquisition may be a late event in eukaryote evolution. The analysis and approach presented here may guide future studies to resolve the true ancestry of mitochondria. PMID:27289097

  3. Impaired mitochondrial respiration and decreased fatigue resistance followed by severe muscle weakness in skeletal muscle of mitochondrial DNA mutator mice.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Takashi; Ivarsson, Niklas; Hernández, Andrés; Fahlström, Andreas; Cheng, Arthur J; Zhang, Shi-Jin; Bruton, Joseph D; Ulfhake, Brun; Westerblad, Håkan

    2012-12-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction can drastically impair muscle function, with weakness and exercise intolerance as key symptoms. Here we examine the time course of development of muscle dysfunction in a mouse model of premature ageing induced by defective proofreading function of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymerase (mtDNA mutator mouse). Isolated fast-twitch muscles and single muscle fibres from young (3-5 months) and end-stage (11 months) mtDNA mutator mice were compared to age-matched control mice. Force and free myoplasmic [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)](i)) were measured under resting conditions and during fatigue induced by repeated tetani. Muscles of young mtDNA mutator mice displayed no weakness in the rested state, but had lower force and [Ca(2+)](i) than control mice during induction of fatigue. Muscles of young mtDNA mutator mice showed decreased activities of citrate synthase and β-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, reduced expression of cytochrome c oxidase, and decreased expression of triggers of mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1α, PPARα, AMPK). Muscles from end-stage mtDNA mutator mice showed weakness under resting conditions with markedly decreased tetanic [Ca(2+)](i), force per cross-sectional area and protein expression of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump (SERCA1). In conclusion, fast-twitch muscles of prematurely ageing mtDNA mutator mice display a sequence of deleterious mitochondrial-to-nucleus signalling with an initial decrease in oxidative capacity, which was not counteracted by activation of signalling to increase mitochondrial biogenesis. This was followed by severe muscle weakness in the end stage. These results have implication for normal ageing and suggest that decreased mitochondrial oxidative capacity due to a sedentary lifestyle may predispose towards muscle weakness developing later in life.

  4. Sideroflexin 3 is an α-synuclein-dependent mitochondrial protein that regulates synaptic morphology

    PubMed Central

    Amorim, Inês S.; Graham, Laura C.; Carter, Roderick N.; Morton, Nicholas M.; Hammachi, Fella; Kunath, Tilo; Pennetta, Giuseppa; Carpanini, Sarah M.; Manson, Jean C.; Lamont, Douglas J.; Wishart, Thomas M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT α-Synuclein plays a central role in Parkinson's disease, where it contributes to the vulnerability of synapses to degeneration. However, the downstream mechanisms through which α-synuclein controls synaptic stability and degeneration are not fully understood. Here, comparative proteomics on synapses isolated from α-synuclein−/− mouse brain identified mitochondrial proteins as primary targets of α-synuclein, revealing 37 mitochondrial proteins not previously linked to α-synuclein or neurodegeneration pathways. Of these, sideroflexin 3 (SFXN3) was found to be a mitochondrial protein localized to the inner mitochondrial membrane. Loss of SFXN3 did not disturb mitochondrial electron transport chain function in mouse synapses, suggesting that its function in mitochondria is likely to be independent of canonical bioenergetic pathways. In contrast, experimental manipulation of SFXN3 levels disrupted synaptic morphology at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. These results provide novel insights into α-synuclein-dependent pathways, highlighting an important influence on mitochondrial proteins at the synapse, including SFXN3. We also identify SFXN3 as a new mitochondrial protein capable of regulating synaptic morphology in vivo. PMID:28049716

  5. Mitochondrial CaMKII inhibition in airway epithelium protects against allergic asthma

    PubMed Central

    Sebag, Sara C.; Koval, Olha M.; Paschke, John D.; Winters, Christopher J.; Jaffer, Omar A.; Dworski, Ryszard; Sutterwala, Fayyaz S.; Anderson, Mark E.; Grumbach, Isabella M.

    2017-01-01

    Excessive ROS promote allergic asthma, a condition characterized by airway inflammation, eosinophilic inflammation, and increased airway hyperreactivity (AHR). The mechanisms by which airway ROS are increased and the relationship between increased airway ROS and disease phenotypes are incompletely defined. Mitochondria are an important source of cellular ROS production, and our group discovered that Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is present in mitochondria and activated by oxidation. Furthermore, mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant therapy reduced the severity of allergic asthma in a mouse model. Based on these findings, we developed a mouse model of CaMKII inhibition targeted to mitochondria in airway epithelium. We challenged these mice with OVA or Aspergillus fumigatus. Mitochondrial CaMKII inhibition abrogated AHR, inflammation, and eosinophilia following OVA and A. fumigatus challenge. Mitochondrial ROS were decreased after agonist stimulation in the presence of mitochondrial CaMKII inhibition. This correlated with blunted induction of NF-κB, the NLRP3 inflammasome, and eosinophilia in transgenic mice. These findings demonstrate a pivotal role for mitochondrial CaMKII in airway epithelium in mitochondrial ROS generation, eosinophilic inflammation, and AHR, providing insights into how mitochondrial ROS mediate features of allergic asthma. PMID:28194433

  6. Mitochondrial swinger replication: DNA replication systematically exchanging nucleotides and short 16S ribosomal DNA swinger inserts.

    PubMed

    Seligmann, Hervé

    2014-11-01

    Assuming systematic exchanges between nucleotides (swinger RNAs) resolves genomic 'parenthood' of some orphan mitochondrial transcripts. Twenty-three different systematic nucleotide exchanges (bijective transformations) exist. Similarities between transcription and replication suggest occurrence of swinger DNA. GenBank searches for swinger DNA matching the 23 swinger versions of human and mouse mitogenomes detect only vertebrate mitochondrial swinger DNA for swinger type AT+CG (from five different studies, 149 sequences) matching three human and mouse mitochondrial genes: 12S and 16S ribosomal RNAs, and cytochrome oxidase subunit I. Exchange A<->T+C<->G conserves self-hybridization properties, putatively explaining swinger biases for rDNA, against protein coding genes. Twenty percent of the regular human mitochondrial 16S rDNA consists of short swinger repeats (from 13 exchanges). Swinger repeats could originate from recombinations between regular and swinger DNA: duplicated mitochondrial genes of the parthenogenetic gecko Heteronotia binoei include fewer short A<->T+C<->G swinger repeats than non-duplicated mitochondrial genomes of that species. Presumably, rare recombinations between female and male mitochondrial genes (and in parthenogenetic situations between duplicated genes), favors reverse-mutations of swinger repeat insertions, probably because most inserts affect negatively ribosomal function. Results show that swinger DNA exists, and indicate that swinger polymerization contributes to the genesis of genetic material and polymorphism.

  7. Parkin loss leads to PARIS-dependent declines in mitochondrial mass and respiration

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Daniel A.; Lee, Yunjong; Kang, Ho Chul; Lee, Byoung Dae; Lee, Yun-Il; Bower, Aaron; Jiang, Haisong; Kang, Sung-Ung; Andrabi, Shaida A.; Dawson, Valina L.; Shin, Joo-Ho; Dawson, Ted M.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in parkin lead to early-onset autosomal recessive Parkinson’s disease (PD) and inactivation of parkin is thought to contribute to sporadic PD. Adult knockout of parkin in the ventral midbrain of mice leads to an age-dependent loss of dopamine neurons that is dependent on the accumulation of parkin interacting substrate (PARIS), zinc finger protein 746 (ZNF746), and its transcriptional repression of PGC-1α. Here we show that adult knockout of parkin in mouse ventral midbrain leads to decreases in mitochondrial size, number, and protein markers consistent with a defect in mitochondrial biogenesis. This decrease in mitochondrial mass is prevented by short hairpin RNA knockdown of PARIS. PARIS overexpression in mouse ventral midbrain leads to decreases in mitochondrial number and protein markers and PGC-1α–dependent deficits in mitochondrial respiration. Taken together, these results suggest that parkin loss impairs mitochondrial biogenesis, leading to declining function of the mitochondrial pool and cell death. PMID:26324925

  8. Pharmacologic Effects on Mitochondrial Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Bruce H.

    2010-01-01

    The vast majority of energy necessary for cellular function is produced in mitochondria. Free-radical production and apoptosis are other critical mitochondrial functions. The complex structure, electrochemical properties of the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM), and genetic control from both mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA (nDNA) are…

  9. Implications of mitochondrial DNA mutations and mitochondrial dysfunction in tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jianxin; Sharma, Lokendra Kumar; Bai, Yidong

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in oxidative phosphorylation resulting from mitochondrial dysfunction have long been hypothesized to be involved in tumorigenesis. Mitochondria have recently been shown to play an important role in regulating both programmed cell death and cell proliferation. Furthermore, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations have been found in various cancer cells. However, the role of these mtDNA mutations in tumorigenesis remains largely unknown. This review focuses on basic mitochondrial genetics, mtDNA mutations and consequential mitochondrial dysfunction associated with cancer. The potential molecular mechanisms, mediating the pathogenesis from mtDNA mutations and mitochondrial dysfunction to tumorigenesis are also discussed. PMID:19532122

  10. Mitochondrial Dynamics: Coupling Mitochondrial Fitness with Healthy Aging.

    PubMed

    Sebastián, David; Palacín, Manuel; Zorzano, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    Aging is associated with a decline in mitochondrial function and the accumulation of abnormal mitochondria. However, the precise mechanisms by which aging promotes these mitochondrial alterations and the role of the latter in aging are still not fully understood. Mitochondrial dynamics is a key process regulating mitochondrial function and quality. Altered expression of some mitochondrial dynamics proteins has been recently associated with aging and with age-related alterations in yeast, Caenorhabditis elegans, mice, and humans. Here, we review the link between alterations in mitochondrial dynamics, aging, and age-related impairment. We propose that the dysregulation of mitochondrial dynamics leads to age-induced accumulation of unhealthy mitochondria and contributes to alterations linked to aging, such as diabetes and neurodegeneration.

  11. ENERGETICS, EPIGENETICS, MITOCHONDRIAL GENETICS

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Douglas C.; Fan, Weiwei

    2011-01-01

    The epigenome has been hypothesized to provide the interface between the environment and the nuclear DNA (nDNA) genes. Key factors in the environment are the availability of calories and demands on the organism’s energetic capacity. Energy is funneled through glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), the cellular bioenergetic systems. Since there are thousands of bioenergetic genes dispersed across the chromosomes and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), both cis and trans regulation of the nDNA genes is required. The bioenergetic systems convert environmental calories into ATP, acetyl-Coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM), and reduced NAD+. When calories are abundant, ATP and acetyl-CoA phosphorylate and acetylate chromatin, opening the nDNA for transcription and replication. When calories are limiting, chromatin phosphorylation and acetylation are lost and gene expression is suppressed. DNA methylaton via SAM can also be modulated by mitochondrial function. Phosphorylation and acetylation are also pivotal to regulating cellular signal transduction pathways. Therefore, bioenergetics provides the interface between the environment and the epigenome. Consistent with this conclusion, the clinical phenotypes of bioenergetic diseases are strikingly similar to those observed in epigenetic diseases (Angelman, Rett, Fragile X Syndromes, the laminopathies, cancer, etc.), and an increasing number of epigenetic diseases are being associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. This bioenergetic-epigenomic hypothesis has broad implications for the etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of a wide range of common diseases. PMID:19796712

  12. Mitochondrial Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    O’Rourke, Brian

    2009-01-01

    In work spanning more than a century, mitochondria have been recognized for their multifunctional roles in metabolism, energy transduction, ion transport, inheritance, signaling, and cell death. Foremost among these tasks is the continuous production of ATP through oxidative phosphorylation, which requires a large electrochemical driving force for protons across the mitochondrial inner membrane. This process requires a membrane with relatively low permeability to ions to minimize energy dissipation. However, a wealth of evidence now indicates that both selective and nonselective ion channels are present in the mitochondrial inner membrane, along with several known channels on the outer membrane. Some of these channels are active under physiological conditions, and others may be activated under pathophysiological conditions to act as the major determinants of cell life and death. This review summarizes research on mitochondrial ion channels and efforts to identify their molecular correlates. Except in a few cases, our understanding of the structure of mitochondrial ion channels is limited, indicating the need for focused discovery in this area. PMID:17059356

  13. Melatonin mitigates mitochondrial malfunction.

    PubMed

    León, Josefa; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío; Escames, Germane; Tan, Dun-Xian; Reiter, Russel J

    2005-01-01

    Melatonin, or N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, is a compound derived from tryptophan that is found in all organisms from unicells to vertebrates. This indoleamine may act as a protective agent in disease conditions such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, aging, sepsis and other disorders including ischemia/reperfusion. In addition, melatonin has been proposed as a drug for the treatment of cancer. These disorders have in common a dysfunction of the apoptotic program. Thus, while defects which reduce apoptotic processes can exaggerate cancer, neurodegenerative disorders and ischemic conditions are made worse by enhanced apoptosis. The mechanism by which melatonin controls cell death is not entirely known. Recently, mitochondria, which are implicated in the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis, have been identified as a target for melatonin actions. It is known that melatonin scavenges oxygen and nitrogen-based reactants generated in mitochondria. This limits the loss of the intramitochondrial glutathione and lowers mitochondrial protein damage, improving electron transport chain (ETC) activity and reducing mtDNA damage. Melatonin also increases the activity of the complex I and complex IV of the ETC, thereby improving mitochondrial respiration and increasing ATP synthesis under normal and stressful conditions. These effects reflect the ability of melatonin to reduce the harmful reduction in the mitochondrial membrane potential that may trigger mitochondrial transition pore (MTP) opening and the apoptotic cascade. In addition, a reported direct action of melatonin in the control of currents through the MTP opens a new perspective in the understanding of the regulation of apoptotic cell death by the indoleamine.

  14. Protons Trigger Mitochondrial Flashes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianhua; Zhang, Xing; Huang, Zhanglong; Wu, Di; Liu, Beibei; Zhang, Rufeng; Yin, Rongkang; Hou, Tingting; Jian, Chongshu; Xu, Jiejia; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Yanru; Gao, Feng; Cheng, Heping

    2016-07-26

    Emerging evidence indicates that mitochondrial flashes (mitoflashes) are highly conserved elemental mitochondrial signaling events. However, which signal controls their ignition and how they are integrated with other mitochondrial signals and functions remain elusive. In this study, we aimed to further delineate the signal components of the mitoflash and determine the mitoflash trigger mechanism. Using multiple biosensors and chemical probes as well as label-free autofluorescence, we found that the mitoflash reflects chemical and electrical excitation at the single-organelle level, comprising bursting superoxide production, oxidative redox shift, and matrix alkalinization as well as transient membrane depolarization. Both electroneutral H(+)/K(+) or H(+)/Na(+) antiport and matrix proton uncaging elicited immediate and robust mitoflash responses over a broad dynamic range in cardiomyocytes and HeLa cells. However, charge-uncompensated proton transport, which depolarizes mitochondria, caused the opposite effect, and steady matrix acidification mildly inhibited mitoflashes. Based on a numerical simulation, we estimated a mean proton lifetime of 1.42 ns and diffusion distance of 2.06 nm in the matrix. We conclude that nanodomain protons act as a novel, to our knowledge, trigger of mitoflashes in energized mitochondria. This finding suggests that mitoflash genesis is functionally and mechanistically integrated with mitochondrial energy metabolism.

  15. Voltage sensor and dielectric material

    DOEpatents

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Yakymyshyn, Pamela Jane; Brubaker, Michael Allen

    2006-10-17

    A voltage sensor is described that consists of an arrangement of impedance elements. The sensor is optimized to provide an output ratio that is substantially immune to changes in voltage, temperature variations or aging. Also disclosed is a material with a large and stable dielectric constant. The dielectric constant can be tailored to vary with position or direction in the material.

  16. Smaller insulators handle higher voltage

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, G.

    1997-10-01

    Researcher at Lawrence Livermore have designed the Ultra High Gradient Insulator, a device that can reliably withstand electrical voltages four times greater than before. The Ultra-HGI is designed with alternating layers which divide voltages so finely that the chances of failure are small, and when they do occur, they are confined to a very small portion of the insulator.

  17. Multi-focal control of mitochondrial gene expression by oncogenic MYC provides potential therapeutic targets in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Oran, Amanda R.; Adams, Clare M.; Zhang, Xiao-yong; Gennaro, Victoria J.; Pfeiffer, Harla K.; Mellert, Hestia S.; Seidel, Hans E.; Mascioli, Kirsten; Kaplan, Jordan; Gaballa, Mahmoud R.; Shen, Chen; Rigoutsos, Isidore; King, Michael P.; Cotney, Justin L.; Arnold, Jamie J.; Sharma, Suresh D.; Martinez, Ubaldo E.; Vakoc, Christopher R.; Chodosh, Lewis A.; Thompson, James E.; Bradner, James E.; Cameron, Craig E.; Shadel, Gerald S.; Eischen, Christine M.; McMahon, Steven B.

    2016-01-01

    Despite ubiquitous activation in human cancer, essential downstream effector pathways of the MYC transcription factor have been difficult to define and target. Using a structure/function-based approach, we identified the mitochondrial RNA polymerase (POLRMT) locus as a critical downstream target of MYC. The multifunctional POLRMT enzyme controls mitochondrial gene expression, a process required both for mitochondrial function and mitochondrial biogenesis. We further demonstrate that inhibition of this newly defined MYC effector pathway causes robust and selective tumor cell apoptosis, via an acute, checkpoint-like mechanism linked to aberrant electron transport chain complex assembly and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Fortuitously, MYC-dependent tumor cell death can be induced by inhibiting the mitochondrial gene expression pathway using a variety of strategies, including treatment with FDA-approved antibiotics. In vivo studies using a mouse model of Burkitt's Lymphoma provide pre-clinical evidence that these antibiotics can successfully block progression of MYC-dependent tumors. PMID:27590350

  18. 'Mitochondrial energy imbalance and lipid peroxidation cause cell death in Friedreich's ataxia'

    PubMed Central

    Abeti, R; Parkinson, M H; Hargreaves, I P; Angelova, P R; Sandi, C; Pook, M A; Giunti, P; Abramov, A Y

    2016-01-01

    Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease. The mutation consists of a GAA repeat expansion within the FXN gene, which downregulates frataxin, leading to abnormal mitochondrial iron accumulation, which may in turn cause changes in mitochondrial function. Although, many studies of FRDA patients and mouse models have been conducted in the past two decades, the role of frataxin in mitochondrial pathophysiology remains elusive. Are the mitochondrial abnormalities only a side effect of the increased accumulation of reactive iron, generating oxidative stress? Or does the progressive lack of iron-sulphur clusters (ISCs), induced by reduced frataxin, cause an inhibition of the electron transport chain complexes (CI, II and III) leading to reactive oxygen species escaping from oxidative phosphorylation reactions? To answer these crucial questions, we have characterised the mitochondrial pathophysiology of a group of disease-relevant and readily accessible neurons, cerebellar granule cells, from a validated FRDA mouse model. By using live cell imaging and biochemical techniques we were able to demonstrate that mitochondria are deregulated in neurons from the YG8R FRDA mouse model, causing a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (▵Ψm) due to an inhibition of Complex I, which is partially compensated by an overactivation of Complex II. This complex activity imbalance leads to ROS generation in both mitochondrial matrix and cytosol, which results in glutathione depletion and increased lipid peroxidation. Preventing this increase in lipid peroxidation, in neurons, protects against in cell death. This work describes the pathophysiological properties of the mitochondria in neurons from a FRDA mouse model and shows that lipid peroxidation could be an important target for novel therapeutic strategies in FRDA, which still lacks a cure. PMID:27228352

  19. Altered brain energetics induces mitochondrial fission arrest in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Trushin, Sergey; Christensen, Trace A; Bachmeier, Benjamin V; Gateno, Benjamin; Schroeder, Andreas; Yao, Jia; Itoh, Kie; Sesaki, Hiromi; Poon, Wayne W; Gylys, Karen H; Patterson, Emily R; Parisi, Joseph E; Diaz Brinton, Roberta; Salisbury, Jeffrey L; Trushina, Eugenia

    2016-01-05

    Altered brain metabolism is associated with progression of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Mitochondria respond to bioenergetic changes by continuous fission and fusion. To account for three dimensional architecture of the brain tissue and organelles, we applied 3-dimensional electron microscopy (3D EM) reconstruction to visualize mitochondrial structure in the brain tissue from patients and mouse models of AD. We identified a previously unknown mitochondrial fission arrest phenotype that results in elongated interconnected organelles, "mitochondria-on-a-string" (MOAS). Our data suggest that MOAS formation may occur at the final stages of fission process and was not associated with altered translocation of activated dynamin related protein 1 (Drp1) to mitochondria but with reduced GTPase activity. Since MOAS formation was also observed in the brain tissue of wild-type mice in response to hypoxia or during chronological aging, fission arrest may represent fundamental compensatory adaptation to bioenergetic stress providing protection against mitophagy that may preserve residual mitochondrial function. The discovery of novel mitochondrial phenotype that occurs in the brain tissue in response to energetic stress accurately detected only using 3D EM reconstruction argues for a major role of mitochondrial dynamics in regulating neuronal survival.

  20. Elastocapillary Instability in Mitochondrial Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, David; Sart, Sébastien; Babataheri, Avin; Tareste, David; Barakat, Abdul I.; Clanet, Christophe; Husson, Julien

    2015-08-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic cell organelles that constantly undergo fission and fusion events. These dynamical processes, which tightly regulate mitochondrial morphology, are essential for cell physiology. Here we propose an elastocapillary mechanical instability as a mechanism for mitochondrial fission. We experimentally induce mitochondrial fission by rupturing the cell's plasma membrane. We present a stability analysis that successfully explains the observed fission wavelength and the role of mitochondrial morphology in the occurrence of fission events. Our results show that the laws of fluid mechanics can describe mitochondrial morphology and dynamics.

  1. Transient voltage oscillations in coils

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhuri, P.

    1985-01-01

    Magnet coils may be excited into internal voltage oscillations by transient voltages. Such oscillations may electrically stress the magnet's dielectric components to many times its normal stress. This may precipitate a dielectric failure, and the attendant prolonged loss of service and costly repair work. Therefore, it is important to know the natural frequencies of oscillations of a magnet during the design stage, and to determine whether the expected switching transient voltages can excite the magnet into high-voltage internal oscillations. The series capacitance of a winding significantly affects its natural frequencies. However, the series capacitance is difficult to calculate, because it may comprise complex capacitance network, consisting of intra- and inter-coil turn-to-turn capacitances of the coil sections. A method of calculating the series capacitance of a winding is proposed. This method is rigorous but simple to execute. The time-varying transient voltages along the winding are also calculated.

  2. Bax oligomerization in mitochondrial membranes requires tBid (caspase-8-cleaved Bid) and a mitochondrial protein.

    PubMed Central

    Roucou, Xavier; Montessuit, Sylvie; Antonsson, Bruno; Martinou, Jean-Claude

    2002-01-01

    In response to various apoptotic stimuli, Bax, a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, is oligomerized and permeabilizes the mitochondrial outer membrane to apoptogenic factors, including cytochrome c. Bax oligomerization can also be induced by incubating isolated mitochondria containing endogenous Bax with recombinant tBid (caspase-8-cleaved Bid) in vitro. The mechanism by which Bax oligomerizes under these conditions is still unknown. To address this question, recombinant human full-length Bax was purified as a monomeric protein. Bax failed to oligomerize spontaneously in isolated mitochondria or in liposomes composed of either cardiolipin or lipids extracted from mitochondria. However, in the presence of tBid, the protein formed large complexes in mitochondrial membranes and induced the release of cytochrome c. tBid also induced Bax oligomerization in isolated mitochondrial outer membranes, but not in other membranes, such as plasma membranes or microsomes. Moreover, tBid-induced Bax oligomerization was inhibited when mitochondria were pretreated with protease K. The presence of the voltage-dependent anion channel was not required either for Bax oligomerization or for Bax-induced cytochrome c release. Finally, Bax oligomerization was reconstituted in proteoliposomes made from mitochondrial membrane proteins. These findings imply that tBid is necessary but not sufficient for Bax oligomerization; a mitochondrial protein is also required. PMID:12193163

  3. Mitochondrial Atpif1 regulates heme synthesis in developing erythroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Dhvanit I.; Takahashi-Makise, Naoko; Cooney, Jeffrey D.; Li, Liangtao; Schultz, Iman J.; Pierce, Eric L.; Narla, Anupama; Seguin, Alexandra; Hattangadi, Shilpa M.; Medlock, Amy E.; Langer, Nathaniel B.; Dailey, Tamara A.; Hurst, Slater N.; Faccenda, Danilo; Wiwczar, Jessica M.; Heggers, Spencer K.; Vogin, Guillaume; Chen, Wen; Chen, Caiyong; Campagna, Dean R.; Brugnara, Carlo; Zhou, Yi; Ebert, Benjamin L.; Danial, Nika N.; Fleming, Mark D.; Ward, Diane M.; Campanella, Michelangelo; Dailey, Harry A.; Kaplan, Jerry; Paw, Barry H.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Defects in the availability of heme substrates or the catalytic activity of the terminal enzyme in heme biosynthesis, ferrochelatase (Fech), impair heme synthesis, and thus cause human congenital anemias1,2. The inter-dependent functions of regulators of mitochondrial homeostasis and enzymes responsible for heme synthesis are largely unknown. To uncover this unmet need, we utilized zebrafish genetic screens and cloned mitochondrial ATPase inhibitory factor 1 (atpif1) from a zebrafish mutant with profound anemia, pinotage (pnt tq209). We now report a direct mechanism establishing that Atpif1 regulates the catalytic efficiency of vertebrate Fech to synthesize heme. The loss of Atpif1 impairs hemoglobin synthesis in zebrafish, mouse, and human hematopoietic models as a consequence of diminished Fech activity, and elevated mitochondrial pH. To understand the relationship among mitochondrial pH, redox potential, [2Fe-2S] clusters, and Fech activity, we used (1) genetic complementation studies of Fech constructs with or without [2Fe-2S] clusters in pnt, and (2) pharmacological agents modulating mitochondrial pH and redox potential. The presence of [2Fe-2S] cluster renders vertebrate Fech vulnerable to Atpif1-regulated mitochondrial pH and redox potential perturbations. Therefore, Atpif1 deficiency reduces the efficiency of vertebrate Fech to synthesize heme, resulting in anemia. The novel mechanism of Atpif1 as a regulator of heme synthesis advances the understanding of mitochondrial heme homeostasis and red blood cell development. A deficiency of Atpif1 may contribute to important human diseases, such as congenital sideroblastic anemias and mitochondriopathies. PMID:23135403

  4. Selective propagation of functional mitochondrial DNA during oogenesis restricts the transmission of a deleterious mitochondrial variant.

    PubMed

    Hill, Jahda H; Chen, Zhe; Xu, Hong

    2014-04-01

    Although mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is prone to mutation and few mtDNA repair mechanisms exist, crippling mitochondrial mutations are exceedingly rare. Recent studies have demonstrated strong purifying selection in the mouse female germline. However, the mechanisms underlying positive selection of healthy mitochondria remain to be elucidated. We visualized mtDNA replication during Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis, finding that mtDNA replication commenced before oocyte determination during the late germarium stage and was dependent on mitochondrial fitness. We isolated a temperature-sensitive lethal mtDNA allele, mt:CoI(T300I), which resulted in reduced mtDNA replication in the germarium at the restrictive temperature. Additionally, the frequency of the mt:CoI(T300I) allele in heteroplasmic flies was decreased, both during oogenesis and over multiple generations, at the restrictive temperature. Furthermore, we determined that selection against mt:CoI(T300I) overlaps with the timing of selective replication of mtDNA in the germarium. These findings establish a previously uncharacterized developmental mechanism for the selective amplification of wild-type mtDNA, which may be evolutionarily conserved to limit the transmission of deleterious mutations.

  5. Mitochondrial ferritin limits oxidative damage regulating mitochondrial iron availability: hypothesis for a protective role in Friedreich ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Campanella, Alessandro; Rovelli, Elisabetta; Santambrogio, Paolo; Cozzi, Anna; Taroni, Franco; Levi, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondrial ferritin (FtMt) is a nuclear-encoded iron-sequestering protein that specifically localizes in mitochondria. In mice it is highly expressed in cells characterized by high-energy consumption, while is undetectable in iron storage tissues like liver and spleen. FtMt expression in mammalian cells was shown to cause a shift of iron from cytosol to mitochondria, and in yeast it rescued the defects associated with frataxin deficiency. To study the role of FtMt in oxidative damage, we analyzed the effect of its expression in HeLa cells after incubation with H2O2 and Antimycin A, and after a long-term growth in glucose-free media that enhances mitochondrial respiratory activity. FtMt reduced the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), increased the level of adenosine 5'triphosphate and the activity of mitochondrial Fe-S enzymes, and had a positive effect on cell viability. Furthermore, FtMt expression reduces the size of cytosolic and mitochondrial labile iron pools. In cells grown in glucose-free media, FtMt level was reduced owing to faster degradation rate, however it still protected the activity of mitochondrial Fe-S enzymes without affecting the cytosolic iron status. In addition, FtMt expression in fibroblasts from Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) patients prevented the formation of ROS and partially rescued the impaired activity of mitochondrial Fe-S enzymes, caused by frataxin deficiency. These results indicate that the primary function of FtMt involves the control of ROS formation through the regulation of mitochondrial iron availability. They are consistent with the expression pattern of FtMt observed in mouse tissues, suggesting a FtMt protective role in cells characterized by defective iron homeostasis and respiration, such as in FRDA. PMID:18815198

  6. Improved Programmable High-Voltage Power Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castell, Karen; Rutberg, Arthur

    1994-01-01

    Improved dc-to-dc converter functions as programmable high-voltage power supply with low-power-dissipation voltage regulator on high-voltage side. Design of power supply overcomes deficiencies of older designs. Voltage regulation with low power dissipation provided on high-voltage side.

  7. Mitochondrial calcium ion and membrane potential transients follow the pattern of epileptiform discharges in hippocampal slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Richard; Kardos, Julianna; Heinemann, Uwe; Kann, Oliver

    2005-04-27

    Emerging evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the pathophysiology of epilepsy. Recurrent mitochondrial Ca2+ ion load during seizures might act on mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsim) and proton motive force. By using electrophysiology and confocal laser-scanning microscopy, we investigated the effects of epileptiform activity, as induced by low-Mg2+ ion perfusion in hippocampal slice cultures, on changes in DeltaPsim and in mitochondrial Ca2+ ion concentration ([Ca2+]m). The mitochondrial compartment was identified by monitoring DeltaPsim in the soma and dendrites of patched CA3 pyramidal cells using the mitochondria-specific voltage-sensitive dye rhodamine-123 (Rh-123). Interictal activity was accompanied by localized mitochondrial depolarization that was restricted to a few mitochondria in small dendrites. In contrast, robust Rh-123 release into the cytosol was observed during seizure-like events (SLEs), indicating simultaneous depolarization of mitochondria. This was critically dependent on Ca2+ ion uptake and extrusion, because inhibition of the mitochondrial Ca2+ ion uniporter by Ru360 and the mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ ion exchanger by 7-chloro-5-(2-chlorophenyl)-1,5-dihydro-4,1-benzothiazepin-2(3H)-one but not the inhibitor of mitochondrial permeability transition pore, cyclosporin A, decreased the SLE-associated mitochondrial depolarization. The Ca2+ ion dependence of simultaneous mitochondrial depolarization suggested enhanced Ca2+ ion cycling across mitochondrial membranes during epileptiform activity. Indeed, [Ca2+]m fluctuated during interictal activity in single dendrites, and these fluctuations spread over the entire mitochondrial compartment during SLEs, as revealed using mitochondria-specific dyes (rhod-2 and rhod-ff) and spatial frequency-based image analysis. These findings strengthen the hypothesis that epileptic activity results in Ca2+ ion-dependent changes in mitochondrial function that might contribute to the

  8. Mitochondrial transcription factor A regulation of mitochondrial degeneration in experimental diabetic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, Krish; Anjaneyulu, Muragundla; Inoue, Tatsuya; Choi, Joungil; Sagi, Avinash Rao; Chen, Chen; Ide, Tamomi

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage in peripheral neurons is considered to be important in the development of diabetic neuropathy. Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) wraps mtDNA and promotes mtDNA replication and transcription. We studied whether overexpression of TFAM reverses experimental peripheral diabetic neuropathy using TFAM transgenic mice (TFAM Tg) that express human TFAM (hTFAM). Levels of mouse mtDNA and the total TFAM (mouse TFAM + hTFAM) in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) increased by approximately twofold in the TFAM Tg mice compared with control (WT) mice. WT and TFAM Tg mice were made diabetic by the administration of streptozotocin. Neuropathy end points were motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities, mechanical allodynia, thermal nociception, and intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD). In the DRG neurons, mtDNA copy number and damage to mtDNA were quantified by qPCR, and TFAM levels were measured by Western blot. Mice with 16-wk duration of diabetes developed motor and sensory nerve conduction deficits, behavioral deficits, and intraepidermal nerve fiber loss. All of these changes were mostly prevented in diabetic TFAM Tg mice and were independent of changes in blood parameters. Mice with 16 wk of diabetes had a 40% decrease in mtDNA copy number compared with nondiabetic mice (P < 0.01). Importantly, the mtDNA copy number in diabetic TFAM Tg mice reached the same level as that of WT nondiabetic mice. In comparison, there was upregulation of mtDNA and TFAM in 6-wk diabetic mice, suggesting that TFAM activation could be a therapeutic strategy to treat peripheral neuropathy. PMID:25944881

  9. Mitochondrial transcription factor A regulation of mitochondrial degeneration in experimental diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Krish; Anjaneyulu, Muragundla; Inoue, Tatsuya; Choi, Joungil; Sagi, Avinash Rao; Chen, Chen; Ide, Tamomi; Russell, James W

    2015-07-15

    Oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage in peripheral neurons is considered to be important in the development of diabetic neuropathy. Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) wraps mtDNA and promotes mtDNA replication and transcription. We studied whether overexpression of TFAM reverses experimental peripheral diabetic neuropathy using TFAM transgenic mice (TFAM Tg) that express human TFAM (hTFAM). Levels of mouse mtDNA and the total TFAM (mouse TFAM + hTFAM) in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) increased by approximately twofold in the TFAM Tg mice compared with control (WT) mice. WT and TFAM Tg mice were made diabetic by the administration of streptozotocin. Neuropathy end points were motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities, mechanical allodynia, thermal nociception, and intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD). In the DRG neurons, mtDNA copy number and damage to mtDNA were quantified by qPCR, and TFAM levels were measured by Western blot. Mice with 16-wk duration of diabetes developed motor and sensory nerve conduction deficits, behavioral deficits, and intraepidermal nerve fiber loss. All of these changes were mostly prevented in diabetic TFAM Tg mice and were independent of changes in blood parameters. Mice with 16 wk of diabetes had a 40% decrease in mtDNA copy number compared with nondiabetic mice (P < 0.01). Importantly, the mtDNA copy number in diabetic TFAM Tg mice reached the same level as that of WT nondiabetic mice. In comparison, there was upregulation of mtDNA and TFAM in 6-wk diabetic mice, suggesting that TFAM activation could be a therapeutic strategy to treat peripheral neuropathy.

  10. Modulation of mitochondrial function and morphology by interaction of Omi/HtrA2 with the mitochondrial fusion factor OPA1

    SciTech Connect

    Kieper, Nicole; Holmstroem, Kira M.; Ciceri, Dalila; Fiesel, Fabienne C.; Wolburg, Hartwig; Ziviani, Elena; Whitworth, Alexander J.; Martins, L. Miguel; Kahle, Philipp J.; Krueger, Rejko

    2010-04-15

    Loss of Omi/HtrA2 function leads to nerve cell loss in mouse models and has been linked to neurodegeneration in Parkinson's and Huntington's disease. Omi/HtrA2 is a serine protease released as a pro-apoptotic factor from the mitochondrial intermembrane space into the cytosol. Under physiological conditions, Omi/HtrA2 is thought to be involved in protection against cellular stress, but the cytological and molecular mechanisms are not clear. Omi/HtrA2 deficiency caused an accumulation of reactive oxygen species and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. In Omi/HtrA2 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts, as well as in Omi/HtrA2 silenced human HeLa cells and Drosophila S2R+ cells, we found elongated mitochondria by live cell imaging. Electron microscopy confirmed the mitochondrial morphology alterations and showed abnormal cristae structure. Examining the levels of proteins involved in mitochondrial fusion, we found a selective up-regulation of more soluble OPA1 protein. Complementation of knockout cells with wild-type Omi/HtrA2 but not with the protease mutant [S306A]Omi/HtrA2 reversed the mitochondrial elongation phenotype and OPA1 alterations. Finally, co-immunoprecipitation showed direct interaction of Omi/HtrA2 with endogenous OPA1. Thus, we show for the first time a direct effect of loss of Omi/HtrA2 on mitochondrial morphology and demonstrate a novel role of this mitochondrial serine protease in the modulation of OPA1. Our results underscore a critical role of impaired mitochondrial dynamics in neurodegenerative disorders.

  11. Targeting lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial imbalance in Friedreich's ataxia.

    PubMed

    Abeti, Rosella; Uzun, Ebru; Renganathan, Indhushri; Honda, Tadashi; Pook, Mark A; Giunti, Paola

    2015-09-01

    Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive disorder, caused by reduced levels of the protein frataxin. This protein is located in the mitochondria, where it functions in the biogenesis of iron-sulphur clusters (ISCs), which are important for the function of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes. Moreover, disruption in iron biogenesis may lead to oxidative stress. Oxidative stress can be the cause and/or the consequence of mitochondrial energy imbalance, leading to cell death. Fibroblasts from two FRDA mouse models, YG8R and KIKO, were used to analyse two different categories of protective compounds: deuterised poly-unsaturated fatty acids (dPUFAs) and Nrf2-inducers. The former have been shown to protect the cell from damage induced by lipid peroxidation and the latter trigger the well-known Nrf2 antioxidant pathway. Our results show that the sensitivity to oxidative stress of YG8R and KIKO mouse fibroblasts, resulting in cell death and lipid peroxidation, can be prevented by d4-PUFA and Nrf2-inducers (SFN and TBE-31). The mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) of YG8R and KIKO fibroblasts revealed a difference in their mitochondrial pathophysiology, which may be due to the different genetic basis of the two models. This suggests that variable levels of reduced frataxin may act differently on mitochondrial pathophysiology and that these two cell models could be useful in recapitulating the observed differences in the FRDA phenotype. This may reflect a different modulatory effect towards cell death that will need to be investigated further.

  12. Low voltage nonprimary explosive detonator

    DOEpatents

    Dinegar, Robert H.; Kirkham, John

    1982-01-01

    A low voltage, electrically actuated, nonprimary explosive detonator is disclosed wherein said detonation is achieved by means of an explosive train in which a deflagration-to-detonation transition is made to occur. The explosive train is confined within a cylindrical body and positioned adjacent to low voltage ignition means have electrical leads extending outwardly from the cylindrical confining body. Application of a low voltage current to the electrical leads ignites a self-sustained deflagration in a donor portion of the explosive train which then is made to undergo a transition to detonation further down the train.

  13. Voltage Sensors Monitor Harmful Static

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    A tiny sensor, small enough to be worn on clothing, now monitors voltage changes near sensitive instruments after being created to alert Agency workers to dangerous static buildup near fuel operations and avionics. San Diego s Quasar Federal Systems received a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract from Kennedy Space Center to develop its remote voltage sensor (RVS), a dime-sized electrometer designed to measure triboelectric changes in the environment. One of the unique qualities of the RVS is that it can detect static at greater distances than previous devices, measuring voltage changes from a few centimeters to a few meters away, due to its much-improved sensitivity.

  14. Power-MOSFET Voltage Regulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W. N.; Gray, O. E.

    1982-01-01

    Ninety-six parallel MOSFET devices with two-stage feedback circuit form a high-current dc voltage regulator that also acts as fully-on solid-state switch when fuel-cell out-put falls below regulated voltage. Ripple voltage is less than 20 mV, transient recovery time is less than 50 ms. Parallel MOSFET's act as high-current dc regulator and switch. Regulator can be used wherever large direct currents must be controlled. Can be applied to inverters, industrial furnaces photovoltaic solar generators, dc motors, and electric autos.

  15. Hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction is a feature of Glycogen Storage Disease Type Ia (GSDIa).

    PubMed

    Farah, Benjamin L; Sinha, Rohit A; Wu, Yajun; Singh, Brijesh K; Lim, Andrea; Hirayama, Masahiro; Landau, Dustin J; Bay, Boon Huat; Koeberl, Dwight D; Yen, Paul M

    2017-03-20

    Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSDIa, von Gierke disease) is the most common glycogen storage disorder. It is caused by the deficiency of glucose-6-phosphatase, an enzyme which catalyses the final step of gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis. Clinically, GSDIa is characterized by fasting hypoglycaemia and hepatic glycogen and triglyceride overaccumulation. The latter leads to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and the formation of hepatic adenomas and carcinomas. Currently, little is known about the function of various organelles and their impact on metabolism in GSDIa. Accordingly, we investigated mitochondrial function in cell culture and mouse models of GSDIa. We found impairments in oxidative phosphorylation and changes in TCA cycle metabolites, as well as decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and deranged mitochondrial ultra-structure in these model systems. Mitochondrial content also was decreased, likely secondary to decreased mitochondrial biogenesis. These deleterious effects culminated in the activation of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Taken together, our results demonstrate a role for mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of GSDIa, and identify a new potential target for the treatment of this disease. They also provide new insight into the role of carbohydrate overload on mitochondrial function in other hepatic diseases, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  16. Hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction is a feature of Glycogen Storage Disease Type Ia (GSDIa)

    PubMed Central

    Farah, Benjamin L.; Sinha, Rohit A.; Wu, Yajun; Singh, Brijesh K.; Lim, Andrea; Hirayama, Masahiro; Landau, Dustin J.; Bay, Boon Huat; Koeberl, Dwight D.; Yen, Paul M.

    2017-01-01

    Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSDIa, von Gierke disease) is the most common glycogen storage disorder. It is caused by the deficiency of glucose-6-phosphatase, an enzyme which catalyses the final step of gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis. Clinically, GSDIa is characterized by fasting hypoglycaemia and hepatic glycogen and triglyceride overaccumulation. The latter leads to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and the formation of hepatic adenomas and carcinomas. Currently, little is known about the function of various organelles and their impact on metabolism in GSDIa. Accordingly, we investigated mitochondrial function in cell culture and mouse models of GSDIa. We found impairments in oxidative phosphorylation and changes in TCA cycle metabolites, as well as decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and deranged mitochondrial ultra-structure in these model systems. Mitochondrial content also was decreased, likely secondary to decreased mitochondrial biogenesis. These deleterious effects culminated in the activation of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Taken together, our results demonstrate a role for mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of GSDIa, and identify a new potential target for the treatment of this disease. They also provide new insight into the role of carbohydrate overload on mitochondrial function in other hepatic diseases, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:28317891

  17. Dynein mutations associated with hereditary motor neuropathies impair mitochondrial morphology and function with age.

    PubMed

    Eschbach, Judith; Sinniger, Jérôme; Bouitbir, Jamal; Fergani, Anissa; Schlagowski, Anna-Isabel; Zoll, Joffrey; Geny, Bernard; René, Frédérique; Larmet, Yves; Marion, Vincent; Baloh, Robert H; Harms, Matthew B; Shy, Michael E; Messadeq, Nadia; Weydt, Patrick; Loeffler, Jean-Philippe; Ludolph, Albert C; Dupuis, Luc

    2013-10-01

    Mutations in the DYNC1H1 gene encoding for dynein heavy chain cause two closely related human motor neuropathies, dominant spinal muscular atrophy with lower extremity predominance (SMA-LED) and axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, and lead to sensory neuropathy and striatal atrophy in mutant mice. Dynein is the molecular motor carrying mitochondria retrogradely on microtubules, yet the consequences of dynein mutations on mitochondrial physiology have not been explored. Here, we show that mouse fibroblasts bearing heterozygous or homozygous point mutation in Dync1h1, similar to human mutations, show profoundly abnormal mitochondrial morphology associated with the loss of mitofusin 1. Furthermore, heterozygous Dync1h1 mutant mice display progressive mitochondrial dysfunction in muscle and mitochondria progressively increase in size and invade sarcomeres. As a likely consequence of systemic mitochondrial dysfunction, Dync1h1 mutant mice develop hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia and progress to glucose intolerance with age. Similar defects in mitochondrial morphology and mitofusin levels are observed in fibroblasts from patients with SMA-LED. Last, we show that Dync1h1 mutant fibroblasts show impaired perinuclear clustering of mitochondria in response to mitochondrial uncoupling. Our results show that dynein function is required for the maintenance of mitochondrial morphology and function with aging and suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to dynein-dependent neurological diseases, such as SMA-LED.

  18. Oxidants and not alkylating agents induce rapid mtDNA loss and mitochondrial dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Furda, Amy M.; Marrangoni, Adele M.; Lokshin, Anna; Van Houten, Bennett

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is essential for proper mitochondrial function and encodes 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs and 13 polypeptides that make up subunits of complex I, III, IV, in the electron transport chain and complex V, the ATP synthase. Although mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in processes such as premature aging, neurodegeneration, and cancer, it has not been shown whether persistent mtDNA damage causes a loss of oxidative phosphorylation. We addressed this question by treating mouse embryonic fibroblasts with either hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and measuring several endpoints, including mtDNA damage and repair rates using QPCR, levels of mitochondrial- and nuclear-encoded proteins using antibody analysis, and a pharmacologic profile of mitochondria using the Seahorse Extracellular Flux Analyzer. We show that a 60 min treatment with H2O2 causes persistent mtDNA lesions, mtDNA loss, decreased levels of a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial subunit, a loss of ATP-linked oxidative phosphorylation and a loss of total reserve capacity. Conversely, a 60 min treatment with 2 mM MMS causes persistent mtDNA lesions but no mtDNA loss, no decrease in levels of a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial subunit, and no mitochondrial dysfunction. These results suggest that persistent mtDNA damage is not sufficient to cause mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:22766155

  19. Repositioning of antibiotic levofloxacin as a mitochondrial biogenesis inhibitor to target breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Min; Li, Ruishu; Zhang, Juan

    2016-03-18

    Targeting mitochondrial biogenesis has become a potential therapeutic strategy in cancer due to their unique metabolic dependencies. In this study, we show that levofloxacin, a FDA-approved antibiotic, is an attractive candidate for breast cancer treatment. This is achieved by the inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in a panel of breast cancer cell lines while sparing normal breast cells. It also acts synergistically with conventional chemo drug in two independent in vivo breast xenograft mouse models. Importantly, levofloxacin inhibits mitochondrial biogenesis as shown by the decreased level of mitochondrial respiration, membrane potential and ATP. In addition, the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of levofloxacin are reversed by acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALCAR, a mitochondrial fuel), confirming that levofloxacin's action in breast cancer cells is through inhibition of mitochondrial biogenesis. A consequence of mitochondrial biogenesis inhibition by levofloxacin in breast cancer cells is the deactivation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK/ERK pathways. We further demonstrate that breast cancer cells have increased mitochondrial biogenesis than normal breast cells, and this explains their different sensitivity to levofloxacin. Our work suggest that levofloxacin is a useful addition to breast cancer treatment. Our work also establish the essential role of mitochondrial biogenesis on the activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK/ERK pathways in breast cancer cells.

  20. Mitochondrial nucleoid interacting proteins support mitochondrial protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    He, J; Cooper, H M; Reyes, A; Di Re, M; Sembongi, H; Litwin, T R; Gao, J; Neuman, K C; Fearnley, I M; Spinazzola, A; Walker, J E; Holt, I J

    2012-07-01

    Mitochondrial ribosomes and translation factors co-purify with mitochondrial nucleoids of human cells, based on affinity protein purification of tagged mitochondrial DNA binding proteins. Among the most frequently identified proteins were ATAD3 and prohibitin, which have been identified previously as nucleoid components, using a variety of methods. Both proteins are demonstrated to be required for mitochondrial protein synthesis in human cultured cells, and the major binding partner of ATAD3 is the mitochondrial ribosome. Altered ATAD3 expression also perturbs mtDNA maintenance and replication. These findings suggest an intimate association between nucleoids and the machinery of protein synthesis in mitochondria. ATAD3 and prohibitin are tightly associated with the mitochondrial membranes and so we propose that they support nucleic acid complexes at the inner membrane of the mitochondrion.

  1. Elevated Cytosolic Na+ Increases Mitochondrial Formation of Reactive Oxygen Species in Failing Cardiac Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kohlhaas, Michael; Liu, Ting; Knopp, Andreas; Zeller, Tanja; Ong, Mei Fang; Böhm, Michael; O'Rourke, Brian; Maack, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Background —Oxidative stress is causally linked to the progression of heart failure, and mitochondria are critical sources of reactive oxygen species in failing myocardium. We previously observed that in heart failure, elevated cytosolic Na+ ([Na+]i) reduces mitochondrial Ca2+ ([Ca2+]m) by accelerating Ca2+ efflux via the mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. Because the regeneration of antioxidative enzymes requires NADPH, which is indirectly regenerated by the Krebs cycle, and Krebs cycle dehydrogenases are activated by [Ca2+]m, we speculated that in failing myocytes, elevated [Na+]i promotes oxidative stress. Methods and Results —We used a patch-clamp–based approach to simultaneously monitor cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca2+ and, alternatively, mitochondrial H2O2 together with NAD(P)H in guinea pig cardiac myocytes. Cells were depolarized in a voltage-clamp mode (3 Hz), and a transition of workload was induced by β-adrenergic stimulation. During this transition, NAD(P)H initially oxidized but recovered when [Ca2+]m increased. The transient oxidation of NAD(P)H was closely associated with an increase in mitochondrial H2O2 formation. This reactive oxygen species formation was potentiated when mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake was blocked (by Ru360) or Ca2+ efflux was accelerated (by elevation of [Na+]i). In failing myocytes, H2O2 formation was increased, which was prevented by reducing mitochondrial Ca2+ efflux via the mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. Conclusions —Besides matching energy supply and demand, mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake critically regulates mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production. In heart failure, elevated [Na+]i promotes reactive oxygen species formation by reducing mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. This novel mechanism, by which defects in ion homeostasis induce oxidative stress, represents a potential drug target to reduce reactive oxygen species production in the failing heart. PMID:20351235

  2. Platyzoan mitochondrial genomes.

    PubMed

    Wey-Fabrizius, Alexandra R; Podsiadlowski, Lars; Herlyn, Holger; Hankeln, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Platyzoa is a putative lophotrochozoan (spiralian) subtaxon within the protostome clade of Metazoa, comprising a range of biologically diverse, mostly small worm-shaped animals. The monophyly of Platyzoa, the relationships between the putative subgroups Platyhelminthes, Gastrotricha and Gnathifera (the latter comprising at least Gnathostomulida, "Rotifera" and Acanthocephala) as well as some aspects of the internal phylogenies of these subgroups are highly debated. Here we review how complete mitochondrial (mt) genome data contribute to these debates. We highlight special features of the mt genomes and discuss problems in mtDNA phylogenies of the clade. Mitochondrial genome data seem to be insufficient to resolve the position of the platyzoan clade within the Spiralia but can help to address internal phylogenetic questions. The present review includes a tabular survey of all published platyzoan mt genomes.

  3. Mitochondrial Function in Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Arulkumaran, Nishkantha; Deutschman, Clifford S.; Pinsky, Michael R.; Zuckerbraun, Brian; Schumacker, Paul T.; Gomez, Hernando; Gomez, Alonso; Murray, Patrick; Kellum, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are an essential part of the cellular infrastructure, being the primary site for high energy adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production through oxidative phosphorylation. Clearly, in severe systemic inflammatory states, like sepsis, cellular metabolism is usually altered and end organ dysfunction not only common but predictive of long term morbidity and mortality. Clearly, interest is mitochondrial function both as a target for intracellular injury and response to extrinsic stress have been a major focus of basic science and clinical research into the pathophysiology of acute illness. However, mitochondria have multiple metabolic and signaling functions that may be central in both the expression of sepsis and its ultimate outcome. In this review, the authors address five primary questions centered on the role of mitochondria in sepsis. This review should be used as both a summary source in placing mitochondrial physiology within the context of acute illness and as a focal point for addressing new research into diagnostic and treatment opportunities these insights provide. PMID:26871665

  4. Release of targeted p53 from the mitochondrion as an early signal during mitochondrial dysfunction

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased accumulation of p53 tumor suppressor protein is an early response to low-level stressors. To investigate the fate of mitochondrial-sequestered p53, mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (MEFs) on a p53-deficient genetic background were transfected with p53-EGFP fusion protei...

  5. Mitochondrial cholesterol: mechanisms of import and effects on mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Martin, Laura A; Kennedy, Barry E; Karten, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Mitochondria require cholesterol for biogenesis and membrane maintenance, and for the synthesis of steroids, oxysterols and hepatic bile acids. Multiple pathways mediate the transport of cholesterol from different subcellular pools to mitochondria. In steroidogenic cells, the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) interacts with a mitochondrial protein complex to mediate cholesterol delivery to the inner mitochondrial membrane for conversion to pregnenolone. In non-steroidogenic cells, several members of a protein family defined by the presence of a StAR-related lipid transfer (START) domain play key roles in the delivery of cholesterol to mitochondrial membranes. Subdomains of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), termed mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAM), form membrane contact sites with mitochondria and may contribute to the transport of ER cholesterol to mitochondria, either independently or in conjunction with lipid-transfer proteins. Model systems of mitochondria enriched with cholesterol in vitro and mitochondria isolated from cells with (patho)physiological mitochondrial cholesterol accumulation clearly demonstrate that mitochondrial cholesterol levels affect mitochondrial function. Increased mitochondrial cholesterol levels have been observed in several diseases, including cancer, ischemia, steatohepatitis and neurodegenerative diseases, and influence disease pathology. Hence, a deeper understanding of the mechanisms maintaining mitochondrial cholesterol homeostasis may reveal additional targets for therapeutic intervention. Here we give a brief overview of mitochondrial cholesterol import in steroidogenic cells, and then focus on cholesterol trafficking pathways that deliver cholesterol to mitochondrial membranes in non-steroidogenic cells. We also briefly discuss the consequences of increased mitochondrial cholesterol levels on mitochondrial function and their potential role in disease pathology.

  6. Endosymbionts and mitochondrial origins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woese, C. R.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility is put forth that the mitochondrion did not originate from an endosymbiosis 1-2 billion years ago involving an aerobic bacterium. Rather, it arose by endosymbiosis in a much earlier anaerobic period and was initially a photosynthetic organelle analogous to the modern chloroplast. This suggestion arises from a reconsideration of the nature of endosymbiosis. It explains the remarkable diversity in mitochondrial information storage and processing systems.

  7. Mitochondrial inheritance and disease.

    PubMed

    Fine, P E

    1978-09-23

    Spontaneously occurring variants of the D.N.A. content of mitochondria may be responsible for human disease. Among the prime candidates for such a mitochondrial aetiology are certain drug-induced blood dyscrasias, particularly that due to chloramphenicol. Because mitochondria are generally inherited from the female parent, such disorders should be clustered among matroclinally related individuals. The clinical manifestations of such diseases are a function of the manner in which mitochondria are allocated to somatic cells and tissues during development.

  8. Pharmacological NAD-Boosting Strategies Improve Mitochondrial Homeostasis in Human Complex I-Mutant Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Felici, Roberta; Lapucci, Andrea; Cavone, Leonardo; Pratesi, Sara; Berlinguer-Palmini, Rolando; Chiarugi, Alberto

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondrial disorders are devastating genetic diseases for which efficacious therapies are still an unmet need. Recent studies report that increased availability of intracellular NAD obtained by inhibition of the NAD-consuming enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 or supplementation with the NAD-precursor nicotinamide riboside (NR) ameliorates energetic derangement and symptoms in mouse models of mitochondrial disorders. Whether these pharmacological approaches also improve bioenergetics of human cells harboring mitochondrial defects is unknown. It is also unclear whether the same signaling cascade is prompted by PARP-1 inhibitors and NR supplementation to improve mitochondrial homeostasis. Here, we show that human fibroblasts mutant for the NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 1 (NDUFS1) subunit of respiratory complex I have similar ATP, NAD, and mitochondrial content compared with control cells, but show reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. Interestingly, mutant cells also show increased transcript levels of mitochondrial DNA but not nuclear DNA respiratory complex subunits, suggesting activation of a compensatory response. At variance with prior work in mice, however, NR supplementation, but not PARP-1 inhibition, increased intracellular NAD content in NDUFS1 mutant human fibroblasts. Conversely, PARP-1 inhibitors, but not NR supplementation, increased transcription of mitochondrial transcription factor A and mitochondrial DNA-encoded respiratory complexes constitutively induced in mutant cells. Still, both NR and PARP-1 inhibitors restored mitochondrial membrane potential and increased organelle content as well as oxidative activity of NDUFS1-deficient fibroblasts. Overall, data provide the first evidence that in human cells harboring a mitochondrial respiratory defect exposure to NR or PARP-1, inhibitors activate different signaling pathways that are not invariantly prompted by NAD increases, but equally able to improve energetic

  9. Standardized bioenergetic profiling of adult mouse cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Readnower, Ryan D; Brainard, Robert E; Hill, Bradford G; Jones, Steven P

    2012-12-18

    Mitochondria are at the crux of life and death and as such have become ideal targets of intervention in cardiovascular disease. Generally, current methods to measure mitochondrial dysfunction rely on working with the isolated organelle and fail to incorporate mitochondrial function in a cellular context. Extracellular flux methodology has been particularly advantageous in this respect; however, certain primary cell types, such as adult cardiac myocytes, have been difficult to standardize with this technology. Here, we describe methods for using extracellular flux (XF) analysis to measure mitochondrial bioenergetics in isolated, intact, adult mouse cardiomyocytes (ACMs). Following isolation, ACMs were seeded overnight onto laminin-coated (20 μg/ml) microplates, which resulted in high attachment efficiency. After establishing seeding density, we found that a commonly used assay medium (containing a supraphysiological concentration of pyruvate at 1 mmol/l) produced a maximal bioenergetic response. After performing a pyruvate dose-response, we determined that pyruvate titrated to 0.1 mmol/l was optimal for examining alternative substrate oxidation. Methods for measuring fatty acid oxidation were established. These methods lay the framework using XF analysis to profile metabolism of ACMs and will likely augment our ability to understand mitochondrial dysfunction in heart failure and acute myocardial ischemia. This platform could easily be extended to models of diabetes or other metabolic defects.

  10. Human Mitochondrial DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Ian J.; Reyes, Aurelio

    2012-01-01

    Elucidation of the process of DNA replication in mitochondria is in its infancy. For many years, maintenance of the mitochondrial genome was regarded as greatly simplified compared to the nucleus. Mammalian mitochondria were reported to lack all DNA repair systems, to eschew DNA recombination, and to possess but a single DNA polymerase, polymerase γ. Polγ was said to replicate mitochondrial DNA exclusively via one mechanism, involving only two priming events and a handful of proteins. In this “strand-displacement model,” leading strand DNA synthesis begins at a specific site and advances approximately two-thirds of the way around the molecule before DNA synthesis is initiated on the “lagging” strand. Although the displaced strand was long-held to be coated with protein, RNA has more recently been proposed in its place. Furthermore, mitochondrial DNA molecules with all the features of products of conventional bidirectional replication have been documented, suggesting that the process and regulation of replication in mitochondria is complex, as befits a genome that is a core factor in human health and longevity. PMID:23143808

  11. Mitochondrial ABC transporters.

    PubMed

    Lill, R; Kispal, G

    2001-01-01

    In contrast to bacteria, mitochondria contain only a few ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters in their inner membrane. The known mitochondrial ABC proteins fall into two major classes that, in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are represented by the half-transporter Atm1p and the two closely homologous proteins Mdl1p and Mdl2p. In humans two Atm1p orthologues (ABC7 and MTABC3) and two proteins homologous to Mdll/2p have been localized to mitochondria. The Atm1p-like proteins perform an important function in mitochondrial iron homeostasis and in the maturation of Fe/S proteins in the cytosol. Mutations in ABC7 are causative of hereditary X-linked sideroblastic anemia and cerebellar ataxia (XLSA/A). MTABC3 may be a candidate gene for the lethal neonatal syndrome. The function of the mitochondrial Mdl1/2p-like proteins is not clear at present with the notable exception of murine ABC-me that may transport intermediates of heme biosynthesis from the matrix to the cytosol in erythroid tissues.

  12. Reductive stress impairs myoblasts mitochondrial function and triggers mitochondrial hormesis.

    PubMed

    Singh, François; Charles, Anne-Laure; Schlagowski, Anna-Isabel; Bouitbir, Jamal; Bonifacio, Annalisa; Piquard, François; Krähenbühl, Stephan; Geny, Bernard; Zoll, Joffrey

    2015-07-01

    Even though oxidative stress damage from excessive production of ROS is a well known phenomenon, the impact of reductive stress remains poorly understood. This study tested the hypothesis that cellular reductive stress could lead to mitochondrial malfunction, triggering a mitochondrial hormesis (mitohormesis) phenomenon able to protect mitochondria from the deleterious effects of statins. We performed several in vitro experiments on L6 myoblasts and studied the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) at different exposure times. Direct NAC exposure (1mM) led to reductive stress, impairing mitochondrial function by decreasing maximal mitochondrial respiration and increasing H₂O₂production. After 24h of incubation, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was increased. The resulting mitochondrial oxidation activated mitochondrial biogenesis pathways at the mRNA level. After one week of exposure, mitochondria were well-adapted as shown by the decrease of cellular ROS, the increase of mitochondrial content, as well as of the antioxidant capacities. Atorvastatin (ATO) exposure (100μM) for 24h increased ROS levels, reduced the percentage of live cells, and increased the total percentage of apoptotic cells. NAC exposure during 3days failed to protect cells from the deleterious effects of statins. On the other hand, NAC pretreatment during one week triggered mitochondrial hormesis and reduced the deleterious effect of statins. These results contribute to a better understanding of the redox-dependant pathways linked to mitochondria, showing that reductive stress could trigger mitochondrial hormesis phenomenon.

  13. High voltage solar array experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennerud, K. L.

    1974-01-01

    The interaction between the components of a high voltage solar array and a simulated space plasma is studied to obtain data for the design of a high voltage solar array capable of 15kW at 2 to 16kV. Testing was conducted in a vacuum chamber 1.5-m long by 1.5-m diameter having a plasma source which simulated the plasma conditions existing in earth orbit between 400 nautical miles and synchronous altitude. Test samples included solar array segments pinholes in insulation covering high voltage electrodes, and plain dielectric samples. Quantitative data are presented in the areas of plasma power losses, plasma and high voltage induced damage, and dielectric properties. Limitations of the investigation are described.

  14. Mitochondrial dysfunction is an important cause of neurological deficits in an inflammatory model of multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghian, Mona; Mastrolia, Vincenzo; Rezaei Haddad, Ali; Mosley, Angelina; Mullali, Gizem; Schiza, Dimitra; Sajic, Marija; Hargreaves, Iain; Heales, Simon; Duchen, Michael R.; Smith, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroinflammation can cause major neurological dysfunction, without demyelination, in both multiple sclerosis (MS) and a mouse model of the disease (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis; EAE), but the mechanisms remain obscure. Confocal in vivo imaging of the mouse EAE spinal cord reveals that impaired neurological function correlates with the depolarisation of both the axonal mitochondria and the axons themselves. Indeed, the depolarisation parallels the expression of neurological deficit at the onset of disease, and during relapse, improving during remission in conjunction with the deficit. Mitochondrial dysfunction, fragmentation and impaired trafficking were most severe in regions of extravasated perivascular inflammatory cells. The dysfunction at disease onset was accompanied by increased expression of the rate-limiting glycolytic enzyme phosphofructokinase-2 in activated astrocytes, and by selective reduction in spinal mitochondrial complex I activity. The metabolic changes preceded any demyelination or axonal degeneration. We conclude that mitochondrial dysfunction is a major cause of reversible neurological deficits in neuroinflammatory disease, such as MS. PMID:27624721

  15. Genetic deletion of the mitochondrial phosphate carrier desensitizes the mitochondrial permeability transition pore and causes cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Kwong, J Q; Davis, J; Baines, C P; Sargent, M A; Karch, J; Wang, X; Huang, T; Molkentin, J D

    2014-08-01

    The mitochondrial phosphate carrier (PiC) is critical for ATP synthesis by serving as the primary means for mitochondrial phosphate import across the inner membrane. In addition to its role in energy production, PiC is hypothesized to have a role in cell death as either a component or a regulator of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) complex. Here, we have generated a mouse model with inducible and cardiac-specific deletion of the Slc25a3 gene (PiC protein). Loss of PiC protein did not prevent MPTP opening, suggesting it is not a direct pore-forming component of this complex. However, Slc25a3 deletion in the heart blunted MPTP opening in response to Ca(2+) challenge and led to a greater Ca(2+) uptake capacity. This desensitization of MPTP opening due to loss or reduction in PiC protein attenuated cardiac ischemic-reperfusion injury, as well as partially protected cells in culture from Ca(2+) overload induced death. Intriguingly, deletion of the Slc25a3 gene from the heart long-term resulted in profound hypertrophy with ventricular dilation and depressed cardiac function, all features that reflect the cardiomyopathy observed in humans with mutations in SLC25A3. Together, these results demonstrate that although the PiC is not a direct component of the MPTP, it can regulate its activity, suggesting a novel therapeutic target for reducing necrotic cell death. In addition, mice lacking Slc25a3 in the heart serve as a novel model of metabolic, mitochondrial-driven cardiomyopathy.

  16. High voltage power transistor development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hower, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    Design considerations, fabrication procedures, and methods of evaluation for high-voltage power-transistor development are discussed. Technique improvements such as controlling the electric field at the surface and perserving lifetimes in the collector region which have advanced the state of the art in high-voltage transistors are discussed. These improvements can be applied directly to the development of 1200 volt, 200 ampere transistors.

  17. Switched-Capacitor Voltage Multiplier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridharan, Govind

    1991-01-01

    Dc-to-dc power converter multiplies input supply potential by factor of nearly 40. Design does not make use of transformers or inductors but effects voltage boost-up by capacitive energy transfer. Circuit primarily made up of banks of capacitors, connected by network of integrated-circuit relays. Converter functionally linear voltage amplifier with fixed gain figure. Bipolar in operation. Output fully floating, and excellent dc isolation between input and output terminals.

  18. Thyratron Marx High Voltage Generator.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This invention relates to a high voltage pulse generator of the Marx type, in which capacitors are charged in parallel and discharged in series...Amongst the many techniques for producing high voltage pulses, the Marx generator is probably the best known and most widely used. For the combination of...short risetime and low output impendance (i.e. high power), large energy, high efficiency and waveform flexibility -- the Marx principle is peerless

  19. Mitochondrial diseases of the brain.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Rajnish K; Flint Beal, M

    2013-10-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders are debilitating diseases of the brain, characterized by behavioral, motor and cognitive impairments. Ample evidence underpins mitochondrial dysfunction as a central causal factor in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Friedreich's ataxia and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. In this review, we discuss the role of mitochondrial dysfunction such as bioenergetics defects, mitochondrial DNA mutations, gene mutations, altered mitochondrial dynamics (mitochondrial fusion/fission, morphology, size, transport/trafficking, and movement), impaired transcription and the association of mutated proteins with mitochondria in these diseases. We highlight the therapeutic role of mitochondrial bioenergetic agents in toxin and in cellular and genetic animal models of neurodegenerative disorders. We also discuss clinical trials of bioenergetics agents in neurodegenerative disorders. Lastly, we shed light on PGC-1α, TORC-1, AMP kinase, Nrf2-ARE, and Sirtuins as novel therapeutic targets for neurodegenerative disorders.

  20. Voltage-Boosting Driver For Switching Regulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trump, Ronald C.

    1990-01-01

    Driver circuit assures availability of 10- to 15-V gate-to-source voltage needed to turn on n-channel metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) acting as switch in switching voltage regulator. Includes voltage-boosting circuit efficiently providing gate voltage 10 to 15 V above supply voltage. Contains no exotic parts and does not require additional power supply. Consists of NAND gate and dual voltage booster operating in conjunction with pulse-width modulator part of regulator.

  1. A Matter of Quantum Voltages

    SciTech Connect

    Sellner, Bernhard; Kathmann, Shawn M.

    2014-11-14

    Voltages inside matter are relevant to crystallization, materials science, biology, catalysis, and aqueous chemistry. Electron holography is able to measure the variation of voltages in matter and modern supercomputers allow the calculation of quantum voltages with practically unlimited spatial and temporal resolution of bulk systems. Of particular interest is the Mean Inner Potential (Vo) - the spatial average of these voltages. Voltages are very sensitive to the distribution of electrons and provide metrics to understand interactions in condensed phases. In the present study, we find excellent agreement with measurements of Vo for vitrified water and salt crystals and demonstrate the impact of covalent and ionic bonding as well as intermolecular/atomic interactions. Furthermore, we predict Vo as well as the fluctuations of these voltages in aqueous NaCl electrolytes and characterize the changes in their behavior as the resolution increases below the size of atoms. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. This research used resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, which is supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  2. A matter of quantum voltages

    SciTech Connect

    Sellner, Bernhard; Kathmann, Shawn M.

    2014-11-14

    Voltages inside matter are relevant to crystallization, materials science, biology, catalysis, and aqueous chemistry. The variation of voltages in matter can be measured by experiment, however, modern supercomputers allow the calculation of accurate quantum voltages with spatial resolutions of bulk systems well beyond what can currently be measured provided a sufficient level of theory is employed. Of particular interest is the Mean Inner Potential (V{sub o}) – the spatial average of these quantum voltages referenced to the vacuum. Here we establish a protocol to reliably evaluate V{sub o} from quantum calculations. Voltages are very sensitive to the distribution of electrons and provide metrics to understand interactions in condensed phases. In the present study, we find excellent agreement with measurements of V{sub o} for vitrified water and salt crystals and demonstrate the impact of covalent and ionic bonding as well as intermolecular/atomic interactions. Certain aspects in this regard are highlighted making use of simple model systems/approximations. Furthermore, we predict V{sub o} as well as the fluctuations of these voltages in aqueous NaCl electrolytes and characterize the changes in their behavior as the resolution increases below the size of atoms.

  3. A matter of quantum voltages.

    PubMed

    Sellner, Bernhard; Kathmann, Shawn M

    2014-11-14

    Voltages inside matter are relevant to crystallization, materials science, biology, catalysis, and aqueous chemistry. The variation of voltages in matter can be measured by experiment, however, modern supercomputers allow the calculation of accurate quantum voltages with spatial resolutions of bulk systems well beyond what can currently be measured provided a sufficient level of theory is employed. Of particular interest is the Mean Inner Potential (V(o))--the spatial average of these quantum voltages referenced to the vacuum. Here we establish a protocol to reliably evaluate V(o) from quantum calculations. Voltages are very sensitive to the distribution of electrons and provide metrics to understand interactions in condensed phases. In the present study, we find excellent agreement with measurements of V(o) for vitrified water and salt crystals and demonstrate the impact of covalent and ionic bonding as well as intermolecular/atomic interactions. Certain aspects in this regard are highlighted making use of simple model systems/approximations. Furthermore, we predict V(o) as well as the fluctuations of these voltages in aqueous NaCl electrolytes and characterize the changes in their behavior as the resolution increases below the size of atoms.

  4. Mitochondrial Hormesis and Diabetic Complications

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The concept that excess superoxide production from mitochondria is the driving, initial cellular response underlying diabetes complications has been held for the past decade. However, results of antioxidant-based trials have been largely negative. In the present review, the data supporting mitochondrial superoxide as a driving force for diabetic kidney, nerve, heart, and retinal complications are reexamined, and a new concept for diabetes complications—mitochondrial hormesis—is presented. In this view, production of mitochondrial superoxide can be an indicator of healthy mitochondria and physiologic oxidative phosphorylation. Recent data suggest that in response to excess glucose exposure or nutrient stress, there is a reduction of mitochondrial superoxide, oxidative phosphorylation, and mitochondrial ATP generation in several target tissues of diabetes complications. Persistent reduction of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation complex activity is associated with the release of oxidants from nonmitochondrial sources and release of proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines, and a manifestation of organ dysfunction. Restoration of mitochondrial function and superoxide production via activation of AMPK has now been associated with improvement in markers of renal, cardiovascular, and neuronal dysfunction with diabetes. With this Perspective, approaches that stimulate AMPK and PGC1α via exercise, caloric restriction, and medications result in stimulation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation activity, restore physiologic mitochondrial superoxide production, and promote organ healing. PMID:25713188

  5. Mitochondrial Dynamics in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Galloway, Chad A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Cardiac function is energetically demanding, reliant on efficient well-coupled mitochondria to generate adenosine triphosphate and fulfill the cardiac demand. Predictably then, mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with cardiac pathologies, often related to metabolic disease, most commonly diabetes. Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), characterized by decreased left ventricular function, arises independently of coronary artery disease and atherosclerosis. Dysregulation of Ca2+ handling, metabolic changes, and oxidative stress are observed in DCM, abnormalities reflected in alterations in mitochondrial energetics. Cardiac tissue from DCM patients also presents with altered mitochondrial morphology, suggesting a possible role of mitochondrial dynamics in its pathological progression. Recent Advances: Abnormal mitochondrial morphology is associated with pathologies across diverse tissues, suggesting that this highly regulated process is essential for proper cell maintenance and physiological homeostasis. Highly structured cardiac myofibers were hypothesized to limit alterations in mitochondrial morphology; however, recent work has identified morphological changes in cardiac tissue, specifically in DCM. Critical Issues: Mitochondrial dysfunction has been reported independently from observations of altered mitochondrial morphology in DCM. The temporal relationship and causative nature between functional and morphological changes of mitochondria in the establishment/progression of DCM is unclear. Future Directions: Altered mitochondrial energetics and morphology are not only causal for but also consequential to reactive oxygen species production, hence exacerbating oxidative damage through reciprocal amplification, which is integral to the progression of DCM. Therefore, targeting mitochondria for DCM will require better mechanistic characterization of morphological distortion and bioenergetic dysfunction. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 1545–1562. PMID

  6. Mitochondrial protein adducts formation and mitochondrial dysfunction during N-acetyl-m-aminophenol (AMAP)-induced hepatotoxicity in primary human hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yuchao; McGill, Mitchell R.; Du, Kuo; Dorko, Kenneth; Kumer, Sean C.; Schmitt, Timothy M.; Ding, Wen-Xing; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    3′-Hydroxyacetanilide or N-acetyl-meta-aminophenol (AMAP) is generally regarded as a non-hepatotoxic analog of acetaminophen (APAP). Previous studies demonstrated absence of toxicity after AMAP in mice, hamsters, primary mouse hepatocytes and several cell lines. In contrast, experiments with liver slices suggested that it may be toxic to human hepatocytes; however, the mechanism of toxicity is unclear. To explore this, we treated primary human hepatocytes (PHH) with AMAP or APAP for up to 48 h and measured several parameters to assess metabolism and injury. Although less toxic than APAP, AMAP dose-dependently triggered cell death in PHH as indicated by alanine aminotransferase (ALT) release and propidium iodide (PI) staining. Similar to APAP, AMAP also significantly depleted glutathione (GSH) in PHH and caused mitochondrial damage as indicated by glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) release and the JC-1 assay. However, unlike APAP, AMAP treatment did not cause relevant c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation in the cytosol or phospho-JNK translocation to mitochondria. To compare, AMAP toxicity was assessed in primary mouse hepatocytes (PMH). No cytotoxicity was observed as indicated by the lack of lactate dehydrogenase release and no PI staining. Furthermore, there was no GSH depletion or mitochondrial dysfunction after AMAP treatment in PMH. Immunoblotting for arylated proteins suggested that AMAP treatment caused extensive mitochondrial protein adducts formation in PHH but not in PMH. In conclusion, AMAP is hepatotoxic in PHH and the mechanism involves formation of mitochondrial protein adducts and mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:26431796

  7. Evolution meets disease: penetrance and functional epistasis of mitochondrial tRNA mutations.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Loshuertos, Raquel; Ferrín, Gustavo; Acín-Pérez, Rebeca; Gallardo, M Esther; Viscomi, Carlo; Pérez-Martos, Acisclo; Zeviani, Massimo; Fernández-Silva, Patricio; Enríquez, José Antonio

    2011-04-01

    About half of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations causing diseases in humans occur in tRNA genes. Particularly intriguing are those pathogenic tRNA mutations than can reach homoplasmy and yet show very different penetrance among patients. These mutations are scarce and, in addition to their obvious interest for understanding human pathology, they can be excellent experimental examples to model evolution and fixation of mitochondrial tRNA mutations. To date, the only source of this type of mutations is human patients. We report here the generation and characterization of the first mitochondrial tRNA pathological mutation in mouse cells, an m.3739G>A transition in the mitochondrial mt-Ti gene. This mutation recapitulates the molecular hallmarks of a disease-causing mutation described in humans, an m.4290T>C transition affecting also the human mt-Ti gene. We could determine that the pathogenic molecular mechanism, induced by both the mouse and the human mutations, is a high frequency of abnormal folding of the tRNA(Ile) that cannot be charged with isoleucine. We demonstrate that the cells harboring the mouse or human mutant tRNA have exacerbated mitochondrial biogenesis triggered by an increase in mitochondrial ROS production as a compensatory response. We propose that both the nature of the pathogenic mechanism combined with the existence of a compensatory mechanism can explain the penetrance pattern of this mutation. This particular behavior can allow a scenario for the evolution of mitochondrial tRNAs in which the fixation of two alleles that are individually deleterious can proceed in two steps and not require the simultaneous mutation of both.

  8. Mechanisms of mitochondrial damage in keratinocytes by pemphigus vulgaris antibodies.

    PubMed

    Kalantari-Dehaghi, Mina; Chen, Yumay; Deng, Wu; Chernyavsky, Alex; Marchenko, Steve; Wang, Ping H; Grando, Sergei A

    2013-06-07

    The development of nonhormonal treatment of pemphigus vulgaris (PV) has been hampered by a lack of clear understanding of the mechanisms leading to keratinocyte (KC) detachment and death in pemphigus. In this study, we sought to identify changes in the vital mitochondrial functions in KCs treated with the sera from PV patients and healthy donors. PV sera significantly increased proton leakage from KCs, suggesting that PV IgGs increase production of reactive oxygen species. Indeed, measurement of intracellular reactive oxygen species production showed a drastic increase of cell staining in response to treatment by PV sera, which was confirmed by FACS analysis. Exposure of KCs to PV sera also caused dramatic changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential detected with the JC-1 dye. These changes can trigger the mitochondria-mediated intrinsic apoptosis. Although sera from different PV patients elicited unique patterns of mitochondrial damage, the mitochondria-protecting drugs nicotinamide (also called niacinamide), minocycline, and cyclosporine A exhibited a uniform protective effect. Their therapeutic activity was validated in the passive transfer model of PV in neonatal BALB/c mice. The highest efficacy of mitochondrial protection of the combination of these drugs found in mitochondrial assay was consistent with the ability of the same drug combination to abolish acantholysis in mouse skin. These findings provide a theoretical background for clinical reports of the efficacy of mitochondria-protecting drugs in PV patients. Pharmacological protection of mitochondria and/or compensation of an altered mitochondrial function may therefore become a novel approach to development of personalized nonhormonal therapies of patients with this potentially lethal autoimmune blistering disease.

  9. Mechanisms of Mitochondrial Damage in Keratinocytes by Pemphigus Vulgaris Antibodies*

    PubMed Central

    Kalantari-Dehaghi, Mina; Chen, Yumay; Deng, Wu; Chernyavsky, Alex; Marchenko, Steve; Wang, Ping H.; Grando, Sergei A.

    2013-01-01

    The development of nonhormonal treatment of pemphigus vulgaris (PV) has been hampered by a lack of clear understanding of the mechanisms leading to keratinocyte (KC) detachment and death in pemphigus. In this study, we sought to identify changes in the vital mitochondrial functions in KCs treated with the sera from PV patients and healthy donors. PV sera significantly increased proton leakage from KCs, suggesting that PV IgGs increase production of reactive oxygen species. Indeed, measurement of intracellular reactive oxygen species production showed a drastic increase of cell staining in response to treatment by PV sera, which was confirmed by FACS analysis. Exposure of KCs to PV sera also caused dramatic changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential detected with the JC-1 dye. These changes can trigger the mitochondria-mediated intrinsic apoptosis. Although sera from different PV patients elicited unique patterns of mitochondrial damage, the mitochondria-protecting drugs nicotinamide (also called niacinamide), minocycline, and cyclosporine A exhibited a uniform protective effect. Their therapeutic activity was validated in the passive transfer model of PV in neonatal BALB/c mice. The highest efficacy of mitochondrial protection of the combination of these drugs found in mitochondrial assay was consistent with the ability of the same drug combination to abolish acantholysis in mouse skin. These findings provide a theoretical background for clinical reports of the efficacy of mitochondria-protecting drugs in PV patients. Pharmacological protection of mitochondria and/or compensation of an altered mitochondrial function may therefore become a novel approach to development of personalized nonhormonal therapies of patients with this potentially lethal autoimmune blistering disease. PMID:23599429

  10. Cadmium exposure affects mitochondrial bioenergetics and gene expression of key mitochondrial proteins in the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica Gmelin (Bivalvia: Ostreidae).

    PubMed

    Sokolova, Inna M; Sokolov, Eugene P; Ponnappa, Kavita M

    2005-07-01

    Cadmium is a ubiquitous and extremely toxic metal, which strongly affects mitochondrial function of aquatic organisms in vitro; however, nothing is known about the in vivo effects of sublethal concentrations of this metal on mitochondrial bioenergetics. We have studied the effects of exposure to 0 (control) or 25 microg L-1 (Cd-exposed) Cd2+ on mitochondrial function and gene expression of key mitochondrial proteins in the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica. Cadmium exposure in vivo resulted in considerable accumulation of cadmium in oyster mitochondria and in a significant decrease of ADP-stimulated respiration (state 3) by 30% indicating impaired capacity for ATP production. The decrease in state 3 respiration was similar to the level of inhibition expected from the direct effects of cadmium accumulated in oyster mitochondria. On the other hand, while no effect on proton leak was expected based on the mitochondrial accumulation of cadmium, Cd-exposed oysters in fact showed a significant decline of the proton leak rate (state 4+respiration) by 40%. This suggested a downregulation of proton leak, which correlated with a decrease in mRNA expression of a mitochondrial uncoupling protein UCP6 and two other potential uncouplers, mitochondrial substrate carriers MSC-1 and MSC-2. Expression of other key mitochondrial proteins including cytochrome c oxidase, adenine nucleotide transporter and voltage dependent anion channel was not affected by cadmium exposure. Adenylate energy charge (AEC) was significantly lower in Cd-exposed oysters; however, this was due to higher steady state ADP levels and not to the decrease in tissue ATP levels. Our data show that adjustment of the proton leak in cadmium-exposed oysters may be a compensatory mechanism, which allows them to maintain normal mitochondrial coupling and ATP levels despite the cadmium-induced inhibition of capacity for ATP production.

  11. MITO-Porter for Mitochondrial Delivery and Mitochondrial Functional Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yuma; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2016-11-10

    Mitochondria are attractive organelles that have the potential to contribute greatly to medical therapy, the maintenance of beauty and health, and the development of the life sciences. Therefore, it would be expected that the further development of mitochondrial drug delivery systems (DDSs) would exert a significant impact on the medical and life sciences. To achieve such an innovative objective, it will be necessary to deliver various cargoes to mitochondria in living cells. However, only a limited number of approaches are available for accomplishing this. We recently proposed a new concept for mitochondrial delivery, a MITO-Porter, a liposome-based carrier that introduces macromolecular cargoes into mitochondria via membrane fusion. To date, we have demonstrated the utility of mitochondrial therapeutic strategy by MITO-Porter using animal models of diseases. We also showed that the mitochondrial delivery of antisense oligo-RNA by the MITO-Porter results in mitochondrial RNA knockdown and has a functional impact on mitochondria. Here, we summarize the current state of mitochondrial DDS focusing on our research and show some examples of mitochondrial functional regulations using mitochondrial DDS.

  12. Alzheimer's Disease: From Mitochondrial Perturbations to Mitochondrial Medicine.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Susana; Carvalho, Cristina; Correia, Sónia C; Seiça, Raquel M; Moreira, Paula I

    2016-09-01

    Age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) are distressing conditions causing countless levels of suffering for which treatment is often insufficient or inexistent. Considered to be the most common cause of dementia and an incurable, progressive neurodegenerative disorder, the intricate pathogenic mechanisms of AD continue to be revealed and, consequently, an effective treatment needs to be developed. Among the diverse hypothesis that have been proposed to explain AD pathogenesis, the one concerning mitochondrial dysfunction has raised as one of the most discussed with an actual acceptance in the field. It posits that manipulating mitochondrial function and understanding the deficits that result in mitochondrial injury may help to control and/or limit the development of AD. To achieve such goal, the concept of mitochondrial medicine places itself as a promising gathering of strategies to directly manage the major insidious disturbances of mitochondrial homeostasis as well as attempts to directly or indirectly manage its consequences in the context of AD. The aim of this review is to summarize the evolution that occurred from the establishment of mitochondrial homeostasis perturbation as masterpieces in AD pathogenesis up until the development of mitochondrial medicine. Following a brief glimpse in the past and current hypothesis regarding the triad of aging, mitochondria and AD, this manuscript will address the major mechanisms currently believed to participate in above mentioned events. Both pharmacological and lifestyle interventions will also be reviewed as AD-related mitochondrial therapeutics.

  13. Metal interactions with voltage- and receptor-activated ion channels.

    PubMed Central

    Vijverberg, H P; Oortgiesen, M; Leinders, T; van Kleef, R G

    1994-01-01

    Effects of Pb and several other metal ions on various distinct types of voltage-, receptor- and Ca-activated ion channels have been investigated in cultured N1E-115 mouse neuroblastoma cells. Experiments were performed using the whole-cell voltage clamp and single-channel patch clamp techniques. External superfusion of nanomolar to submillimolar concentrations of Pb causes multiple effects on ion channels. Barium current through voltage-activated Ca channels is blocked by micromolar concentrations of Pb, whereas voltage-activated Na current appears insensitive. Neuronal type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-activated ion current is blocked by nanomolar concentrations of Pb and this block is reversed at micromolar concentrations. Serotonin 5-HT3 receptor-activated ion current is much less sensitive to Pb. In addition, external superfusion with micromolar concentrations of Pb as well as of Cd and aluminum induces inward current, associated with the direct activation of nonselective cation channels by these metal ions. In excised inside-out membrane patches of neuroblastoma cells, micromolar concentrations of Ca activate small (SK) and big (BK) Ca-activated K channels. Internally applied Pb activates SK and BK channels more potently than Ca, whereas Cd is approximately equipotent to Pb with respect to SK channel activation, but fails to activate BK channels. The results show that metal ions cause distinct, selective effects on the various types of ion channels and that metal ion interaction sites of ion channels may be highly selective for particular metal ions. PMID:7531139

  14. Regulation and pharmacology of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore

    PubMed Central

    Zorov, Dmitry B.; Juhaszova, Magdalena; Yaniv, Yael; Nuss, H. Bradley; Wang, Su; Sollott, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    The ‘mitochondrial permeability transition', characterized by a sudden induced change of the inner mitochondrial membrane permeability for water as well as for small substances (≤1.5 kDa), has been known for three decades. Research interest in the entity responsible for this phenomenon, the ‘mitochondrial permeability transition pore’ (mPTP), has dramatically increased after demonstration that it plays a key role in the life and death decision in cells. Therefore, a better understanding of this phenomenon and its regulation by environmental stresses, kinase signalling, and pharmacological intervention is vital. The characterization of the molecular identity of the mPTP will allow identification of possible pharmacological targets and assist in drug design for its precise regulation. However, despite extensive research efforts, at this point the pore-forming core component(s) of the mPTP remain unidentified. Pivotal new genetic evidence has shown that components once believed to be core elements of the mPTP (namely mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator and cyclophilin D) are instead only mPTP regulators (or in the case of voltage-dependent anion channels, probably entirely dispensable). This review provides an update on the current state of knowledge regarding the regulation of the mPTP. PMID:19447775

  15. Identification of a novel PP2C-type mitochondrial phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Mandar; Jeoung, Nam Ho; Popov, Kirill M; Harris, Robert A

    2007-04-27

    A novel phosphatase has been cloned and partially characterized. It has a mitochondrial leader sequence and its amino acid sequence places it in the PP2C family like two known mitochondrial phosphatases. Western blot analysis of subcellular fractions and confocal microscopy of 3T3L1 preadipocytes expressing the GFP-tagged protein confirm its mitochondrial localization. Western blot analysis indicates that the protein is expressed in several mouse tissues, with highest expression in brain, heart, liver, and kidney. The recombinant protein exhibits Mn(2+)-dependent phosphoserine phosphatase activity against the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex, suggesting the enzyme may play a role in regulation of branched chain amino acid catabolism. Whether there are other mitochondrial substrates for the enzyme is not known.

  16. Electrode voltage fall and total voltage of a transient arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valensi, F.; Ratovoson, L.; Razafinimanana, M.; Masquère, M.; Freton, P.; Gleizes, A.

    2016-06-01

    This paper deals with an experimental study of the components of a transient arc total voltage with duration of a few tens of ms and a current peak close to 1000 A. The cathode tip is made of graphite whereas the flat anode is made either of copper or of graphite; the electrodes gap is a few mm. The analysis of the electrical parameters is supported and validated by fast imaging and by two models: the first one is a 2D physical model of the arc allowing to calculate both the plasma temperature field and the arc voltage; the second model is able to estimate the transient heating of the graphite electrode. The main aim of the study was to detect the possible change of the cathode voltage fall (CVF) during the first instants of the arc. Indeed it is expected that during the first ms the graphite cathode is rather cool and the main mechanism of the electron emission should be the field effect emission, whereas after several tens of ms the cathode is strongly heated and thermionic emission should be predominant. We have observed some change in the apparent CVF but we have shown that this apparent change can be attributed to the variation of the solid cathode resistance. On the other hand, the possible change of CVF corresponding to the transition between a ‘cold’ and a ‘hot’ cathode should be weak and could not be characterized considering our measurement uncertainty of about 2 V. The arc column voltage (ACV) was estimated by subtracting the electrode voltage fall from the total arc voltage. The experimental transient evolution of the ACV is in very good agreement with the theoretical variation predicted by the model, showing the good ability of the model to study this kind of transient arc.

  17. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in parkin-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Palacino, James J; Sagi, Dijana; Goldberg, Matthew S; Krauss, Stefan; Motz, Claudia; Wacker, Maik; Klose, Joachim; Shen, Jie

    2004-04-30

    Loss-of-function mutations in parkin are the predominant cause of familial Parkinson's disease. We previously reported that parkin-/- mice exhibit nigrostriatal deficits in the absence of nigral degeneration. Parkin has been shown to function as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Loss of parkin function, therefore, has been hypothesized to cause nigral degeneration via an aberrant accumulation of its substrates. Here we employed a proteomic approach to determine whether loss of parkin function results in alterations in abundance and/or modification of proteins in the ventral midbrain of parkin-/- mice. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry revealed decreased abundance of a number of proteins involved in mitochondrial function or oxidative stress. Consistent with reductions in several subunits of complexes I and IV, functional assays showed reductions in respiratory capacity of striatal mitochondria isolated from parkin-/- mice. Electron microscopic analysis revealed no gross morphological abnormalities in striatal mitochondria of parkin-/- mice. In addition, parkin-/- mice showed a delayed rate of weight gain, suggesting broader metabolic abnormalities. Accompanying these deficits in mitochondrial function, parkin-/- mice also exhibited decreased levels of proteins involved in protection from oxidative stress. Consistent with these findings, parkin-/- mice showed decreased serum antioxidant capacity and increased protein and lipid peroxidation. The combination of proteomic, genetic, and physiological analyses reveal an essential role for parkin in the regulation of mitochondrial function and provide the first direct evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in the absence of nigral degeneration in a genetic mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

  18. Mitochondrial function controls intestinal epithelial stemness and proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Emanuel; Rath, Eva; Yuan, Detian; Waldschmitt, Nadine; Khaloian, Sevana; Allgäuer, Michael; Staszewski, Ori; Lobner, Elena M.; Schöttl, Theresa; Giesbertz, Pieter; Coleman, Olivia I.; Prinz, Marco; Weber, Achim; Gerhard, Markus; Klingenspor, Martin; Janssen, Klaus-Peter; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Haller, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Control of intestinal epithelial stemness is crucial for tissue homeostasis. Disturbances in epithelial function are implicated in inflammatory and neoplastic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Here we report that mitochondrial function plays a critical role in maintaining intestinal stemness and homeostasis. Using intestinal epithelial cell (IEC)-specific mouse models, we show that loss of HSP60, a mitochondrial chaperone, activates the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (MT-UPR) and results in mitochondrial dysfunction. HSP60-deficient crypts display loss of stemness and cell proliferation, accompanied by epithelial release of WNT10A and RSPO1. Sporadic failure of Cre-mediated Hsp60 deletion gives rise to hyperproliferative crypt foci originating from OLFM4+ stem cells. These effects are independent of the MT-UPR-associated transcription factor CHOP. In conclusion, compensatory hyperproliferation of HSP60+ escaper stem cells suggests paracrine release of WNT-related factors from HSP60-deficient, functionally impaired IEC to be pivotal in the control of the proliferative capacity of the stem cell niche. PMID:27786175

  19. Respiratory Substrates Regulate S-Nitrosylation of Mitochondrial Proteins through a Thiol-Dependent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    S-Nitrosylation is a reversible post-translational modification on cysteinyl thiols that can modulate the function of redox-sensitive proteins. The S-nitrosylation of mitochondrial proteins has been shown to regulate various mitochondrial activities involved in energy-transducing systems and mitochondrion-driven apoptosis. In isolated rat brain mitochondria, we demonstrate that mitochondrial protein S-nitrosylation is regulated by respiratory substrates (glutamate/malate) through a thiol-dependent pathway. Mitochondrial proteins become susceptible to S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO)-induced S-nitrosylation in mitochondria with an oxidized environment (low glutathione (GSH), NADH, and NADPH, and high GSSG, NAD+, and NADP+) caused by isolation of mitochondria using a discontinuous Percoll gradient. Activation of mitochondrial respiration by respiratory substrates leads to increased NAD(P)H and GSH levels, which in turn reduces mitochondrial S-nitrosylated proteins. 1-Chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), which depletes mitochondrial GSH and inhibits the thioredoxin–thioredoxin reductase system, prevented the denitrosylation of mitochondrial proteins caused by respiratory substrate treatment. Using biotin-switch coupled with LC-MS/MS, several mitochondrial proteins were identified as targets of S-nitrosylation including adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) and voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), important components of the mitochondria permeability transition pore (MPTP), as well as ATP synthase. The S-nitrosylation of ATP synthase by GSNO was found to inhibit its activity. These findings emphasize the importance of respiratory substrates in regulating S-nitrosylation through a thiol-dependent (GSH and/or thioredoxin) pathway, with implications for mitochondrial bioenergetics and mitochondrion-driven apoptosis. PMID:24716714

  20. Neuronal and astrocyte dysfunction diverges from embryonic fibroblasts in the Ndufs4fky/fky mouse

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Matthew J.; Wijeyeratne, Xiaonan W.; Komen, Jasper C.; Laskowski, Adrienne; Ryan, Michael T.; Thorburn, David R.; Frazier, Ann E.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction causes a range of early-onset neurological diseases and contributes to neurodegenerative conditions. The mechanisms of neurological damage however are poorly understood, as accessing relevant tissue from patients is difficult, and appropriate models are limited. Hence, we assessed mitochondrial function in neurologically relevant primary cell lines from a CI (complex I) deficient Ndufs4 KO (knockout) mouse (Ndufs4fky/fky) modelling aspects of the mitochondrial disease LS (Leigh syndrome), as well as MEFs (mouse embryonic fibroblasts). Although CI structure and function were compromised in all Ndufs4fky/fky cell types, the mitochondrial membrane potential was selectively impaired in the MEFs, correlating with decreased CI-dependent ATP synthesis. In addition, increased ROS (reactive oxygen species) generation and altered sensitivity to cell death were only observed in Ndufs4fky/fky primary MEFs. In contrast, Ndufs4fky/fky primary isocortical neurons and primary isocortical astrocytes displayed only impaired ATP generation without mitochondrial membrane potential changes. Therefore the neurological dysfunction in the Ndufs4fky/fky mouse may partly originate from a more severe ATP depletion in neurons and astrocytes, even at the expense of maintaining the mitochondrial membrane potential. This may provide protection from cell death, but would ultimately compromise cell functionality in neurons and astrocytes. Furthermore, RET (reverse electron transfer) from complex II to CI appears more prominent in neurons than MEFs or astrocytes, and is attenuated in Ndufs4fky/fky cells. PMID:25312000

  1. Frontal cortical mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondria-related β-amyloid accumulation by chronic sleep restriction in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongyi; Wu, Huijuan; He, Jialin; Zhuang, Jianhua; Liu, Zhenyu; Yang, Yang; Huang, Liuqing; Zhao, Zhongxin

    2016-08-17

    Mitochondrial dysfunction induced by mitochondria-related β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation is increasingly being considered a novel risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology. The close relationship between chronic sleep restriction (CSR) and cortical Aβ elevation was confirmed recently. By assessing frontal cortical mitochondrial function (electron microscopy manifestation, cytochrome C oxidase concentration, ATP level, and