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Sample records for mouse mitochondrial voltage

  1. Structure and expression of mouse mitochondrial voltage dependent anion channel genes

    SciTech Connect

    Craigen, W.J.; Lovell, R.S.; Sampson, M.J.

    1994-09-01

    Voltage dependent anion channels (VDACs) are small abundant proteins of the outer mitochondrial membrane that interact with the adenine nucleotide translocater and bind glycerol kinase and hexokinase. Kinase binding is developmentally regulated, tissue specific, and increased in various tumor cell lines. VDACs are also components of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor and GABA{sub A} receptor. Two human VDAC cDNAs have previously been reported, and expression of these isoforms appears ubiquitous. Genomic Southern analysis suggests the presence of other as yet uncharacterised VDAC genes. To study VDAC function in a mammal more amenable to experimental manipulation, we have isolated three mouse VDAC genes by cDNA cloning from a mouse brain cDNA library. DNA sequencing of the cDNAs shows that they share 65-75% amino acid identity. Northern analysis indicates that MVDAC1 is expressed most highly in kidney, heart, and brain. Using an MVDAC3 3{prime} untranslated exon as a probe, three distinct transcripts can be detected. The gene structure for MVDAC3 and MVDAC2 has been completed and suggests that the VDAC isoforms did not arise by gene duplication and divergence. The intron/exon boundaries are not conserved between MVDAC1 and MVDAC3, and MVDAC2 appears to be encoded by a single intronless gene.

  2. A novel mouse mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel gene localizes to chromosome 8

    SciTech Connect

    Sampson, M.J.; Lovell, R.S.; Craigen, W.J.; Davison, D.B.

    1996-08-15

    Voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs) are small pore-forming channels found in the outer membrane of mitochondria. VDACs translocate adenine nucleotides and are the binding sites for several cytosolic kinases important in intermediary metabolism. Recently two human VDAC cDNAs (HVDAC1 and EIVDAC2) were isolated, and possible orthologues of these genes have been isolated from mouse, bovine, and rat tissues. We report the isolation of a novel third VDAC cDNA from the mouse, designated MVDAC3. The deduced MVDAC3 protein is approximately 70% identical to the previously isolated NIVDAC1 and MVDAC2 proteins. The MVDAC3 gene was mapped by an interspecies backcross panel to mouse chromosome 8. A database search using the mouse VDACs identified a second yeast VDAC-like gene that retains about 20% amino acid sequence identity with the mouse VDAC genes and 50% identity with the previously isolated yeast VDAC gene. The phylogenetic relationship of the eukaryotic VDAC genes is presented. 27 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Chemical synthesis of the mouse mitochondrial genome.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Daniel G; Smith, Hamilton O; Hutchison, Clyde A; Venter, J Craig; Merryman, Chuck

    2010-11-01

    We describe a one-step, isothermal assembly method for synthesizing DNA molecules from overlapping oligonucleotides. The method cycles between in vitro recombination and amplification until the desired length is reached. As a demonstration of its simplicity and robustness, we synthesized the entire 16.3-kilobase mouse mitochondrial genome from 600 overlapping 60-mers.

  4. Bezafibrate improves mitochondrial function in the CNS of a mouse model of mitochondrial encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Noe, Natalie; Dillon, Lloye; Lellek, Veronika; Diaz, Francisca; Hida, Aline; Moraes, Carlos T.; Wenz, Tina

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction frequently affects the central nervous system. Here, we investigated the effect of bezafibrate treatment on neuronal mitochondrial function and its impact on the progression of a mitochondrial encephalopathy. We used a murine model with a forebrain-specific cytochrome c oxidase deficiency caused by conditional deletion of the COX10 gene. In this mouse model, bezafibrate-administration improved the phenotype of the mice associated with an increase in mitochondrial proteins and mitochondrial ATP generating capacity. Bezafibrate-treatment also attenuated astrogliosis and decreased the level of inflammatory markers in the affected tissues. Overall, bezafibrate had a neuroprotective effect in this mouse model of mitochondrial encephalopathy. These findings imply that bezafibrate might be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:23261681

  5. Absence of pathogenic mitochondrial DNA mutations in mouse brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kiebish, Michael A; Seyfried, Thomas N

    2005-01-01

    Background Somatic mutations in the mitochondrial genome occur in numerous tumor types including brain tumors. These mutations are generally found in the hypervariable regions I and II of the displacement loop and unlikely alter mitochondrial function. Two hypervariable regions of mononucleotide repeats occur in the mouse mitochondrial genome, i.e., the origin of replication of the light strand (OL) and the Arg tRNA. Methods In this study we examined the entire mitochondrial genome in a series of chemically induced brain tumors in the C57BL/6J strain and spontaneous brain tumors in the VM mouse strain. The tumor mtDNA was compared to that of mtDNA in brain mitochondrial populations from the corresponding syngeneic mouse host strain. Results Direct sequencing revealed a few homoplasmic base pair insertions, deletions, and substitutions in the tumor cells mainly in regions of mononucleotide repeats. A heteroplasmic mutation in the 16srRNA gene was detected in a spontaneous metastatic VM brain tumor. Conclusion None of the mutations were considered pathogenic, indicating that mtDNA somatic mutations do not likely contribute to the initiation or progression of these diverse mouse brain tumors. PMID:16105171

  6. Mouse models of age-related mitochondrial neurosensory hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Han, Chul; Someya, Shinichi

    2013-07-01

    Hearing loss is the most common sensory disorder in the elderly population. Overall, 10% of the population has a hearing loss in the US, and this age-related hearing disorder is projected to afflict more than 28 million Americans by 2030. Age-related hearing loss is associated with loss of sensory hair cells (sensory hearing loss) and/or spiral ganglion neurons (neuronal hearing loss) in the cochlea of the inner ear. Many lines of evidence indicate that oxidative stress and associated mitochondrial dysfunction play a central role in age-related neurodegenerative diseases and are a cause of age-related neurosensory hearing loss. Yet, the molecular mechanisms of how oxidative stress and/or mitochondrial dysfunction lead to hearing loss during aging remain unclear, and currently there is no treatment for this age-dependent disorder. Several mouse models of aging and age-related diseases have been linked to age-related mitochondrial neurosensory hearing loss. Evaluation of these animal models has offered basic knowledge of the mechanism underlying hearing loss associated with oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and aging. Here we review the evidence that specific mutations in the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that affect mitochondrial function result in increased oxidative damage and associated loss of sensory hair cells and/or spiral ganglion neurons in the cochlea during aging, thereby causing hearing loss in these mouse models. Future studies comparing these models will provide further insight into fundamental knowledge about the disordered process of hearing and treatments to improve the lives of individuals with communication disorders. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Mitochondrial function and dysfunction in neurodegeneration'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Exercise increases mitochondrial glutamate oxidation in the mouse cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Eric A F; Holloway, Graham P

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigated the impact of acute exercise on stimulating mitochondrial respiratory function in mouse cerebral cortex. Where pyruvate-stimulated respiration was not affected by acute exercise, glutamate respiration was enhanced following the exercise bout. Additional assessment revealed that this affect was dependent on the presence of malate and did not occur when substituting glutamine for glutamate. As such, our results suggest that glutamate oxidation is enhanced with acute exercise through activation of the malate-aspartate shuttle.

  8. Proteomic analysis of the mouse liver mitochondrial inner membrane.

    PubMed

    Da Cruz, Sandrine; Xenarios, Ioannis; Langridge, James; Vilbois, Francis; Parone, Phillipe A; Martinou, Jean-Claude

    2003-10-17

    Mitochondria play a crucial role in cellular homeostasis, which justifies the increasing interest in mapping the different components of these organelles. Here we have focused our study on the identification of proteins of the mitochondrial inner membrane (MIM). This membrane is of particular interest because, besides the well known components of the respiratory chain complexes, it contains several ion channels and many carrier proteins that certainly play a key role in mitochondrial function and, therefore, deserve to be identified at the molecular level. To achieve this goal we have used a novel approach combining the use of highly purified mouse liver mitochondrial inner membranes, extraction of membrane proteins with organic acid, and two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. This procedure allowed us to identify 182 proteins that are involved in several biochemical processes, such as the electron transport machinery, the protein import machinery, protein synthesis, lipid metabolism, and ion or substrate transport. The full range of isoelectric point (3.9-12.5), molecular mass (6-527 kDa), and hydrophobicity values (up to 16 transmembrane predicted domains) were represented. In addition, of the 182 proteins found, 20 were unknown or had never previously been associated with the MIM. Overexpression of some of these proteins in mammalian cells confirmed their mitochondrial localization and resulted in severe remodeling of the mitochondrial network. This study provides the first proteome of the MIM and provides a basis for a more detailed study of the newly characterized proteins of this membrane.

  9. Regulation of mitochondrial function by voltage dependent anion channels in ethanol metabolism and the Warburg effect.

    PubMed

    Lemasters, John J; Holmuhamedov, Ekhson L; Czerny, Christoph; Zhong, Zhi; Maldonado, Eduardo N

    2012-06-01

    Voltage dependent anion channels (VDAC) are highly conserved proteins that are responsible for permeability of the mitochondrial outer membrane to hydrophilic metabolites like ATP, ADP and respiratory substrates. Although previously assumed to remain open, VDAC closure is emerging as an important mechanism for regulation of global mitochondrial metabolism in apoptotic cells and also in cells that are not dying. During hepatic ethanol oxidation to acetaldehyde, VDAC closure suppresses exchange of mitochondrial metabolites, resulting in inhibition of ureagenesis. In vivo, VDAC closure after ethanol occurs coordinately with mitochondrial uncoupling. Since acetaldehyde passes through membranes independently of channels and transporters, VDAC closure and uncoupling together foster selective and more rapid oxidative metabolism of toxic acetaldehyde to nontoxic acetate by mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase. In single reconstituted VDAC, tubulin decreases VDAC conductance, and in HepG2 hepatoma cells, free tubulin negatively modulates mitochondrial membrane potential, an effect enhanced by protein kinase A. Tubulin-dependent closure of VDAC in cancer cells contributes to suppression of mitochondrial metabolism and may underlie the Warburg phenomenon of aerobic glycolysis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: VDAC structure, function, and regulation of mitochondrial metabolism.

  10. Regulation of Mitochondrial Function by Voltage Dependent Anion Channels in Ethanol Metabolism and the Warburg Effect

    PubMed Central

    Lemasters, John J.; Holmuhamedov, Ekhson L.; Czerny, Christoph; Zhong, Zhi; Maldonado, Eduardo N.

    2012-01-01

    Voltage dependent anion channels (VDAC) are highly conserved proteins that are responsible for permeability of the mitochondrial outer membrane to hydrophilic metabolites like ATP, ADP and respiratory substrates. Although previously assumed to remain open, VDAC closure is emerging as an important mechanism for regulation of global mitochondrial metabolism in apoptotic cells and also in cells that are not dying. During hepatic ethanol oxidation to acetaldehyde, VDAC closure suppresses exchange of mitochondrial metabolites, resulting in inhibition of ureagenesis. In vivo, VDAC closure after ethanol occurs coordinately with mitochondrial uncoupling. Since acetaldehyde passes through membranes independently of channels and transporters, VDAC closure and uncoupling together foster selective and more rapid oxidative metabolism of toxic acetaldehyde to nontoxic acetate by mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase. In single reconstituted VDAC, tubulin decreases VDAC conductance, and in HepG2 hepatoma cells, free tubulin negatively modulates mitochondrial membrane potential, an effect enhanced by protein kinase A. Tubulin-dependent closure of VDAC in cancer cells contributes to suppression of mitochondrial metabolism and may underlie the Warburg phenomenon of aerobic glycolysis. PMID:22172804

  11. Alterations in voltage-sensing of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in ANT1-deficient cells

    PubMed Central

    Doczi, Judit; Torocsik, Beata; Echaniz-Laguna, Andoni; Mousson de Camaret, Bénédicte; Starkov, Anatoly; Starkova, Natalia; Gál, Aniko; Molnár, Mária J; Kawamata, Hibiki; Manfredi, Giovanni; Adam-Vizi, Vera; Chinopoulos, Christos

    2016-01-01

    The probability of mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) pore opening is inversely related to the magnitude of the proton electrochemical gradient. The module conferring sensitivity of the pore to this gradient has not been identified. We investigated mPT’s voltage-sensing properties elicited by calcimycin or H2O2 in human fibroblasts exhibiting partial or complete lack of ANT1 and in C2C12 myotubes with knocked-down ANT1 expression. mPT onset was assessed by measuring in situ mitochondrial volume using the ‘thinness ratio’ and the ‘cobalt-calcein’ technique. De-energization hastened calcimycin-induced swelling in control and partially-expressing ANT1 fibroblasts, but not in cells lacking ANT1, despite greater losses of mitochondrial membrane potential. Matrix Ca2+ levels measured by X-rhod-1 or mitochondrially-targeted ratiometric biosensor 4mtD3cpv, or ADP-ATP exchange rates did not differ among cell types. ANT1-null fibroblasts were also resistant to H2O2-induced mitochondrial swelling. Permeabilized C2C12 myotubes with knocked-down ANT1 exhibited higher calcium uptake capacity and voltage-thresholds of mPT opening inferred from cytochrome c release, but intact cells showed no differences in calcimycin-induced onset of mPT, irrespective of energization and ANT1 expression, albeit the number of cells undergoing mPT increased less significantly upon chemically-induced hypoxia than control cells. We conclude that ANT1 confers sensitivity of the pore to the electrochemical gradient. PMID:27221760

  12. Alterations in voltage-sensing of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in ANT1-deficient cells.

    PubMed

    Doczi, Judit; Torocsik, Beata; Echaniz-Laguna, Andoni; Mousson de Camaret, Bénédicte; Starkov, Anatoly; Starkova, Natalia; Gál, Aniko; Molnár, Mária J; Kawamata, Hibiki; Manfredi, Giovanni; Adam-Vizi, Vera; Chinopoulos, Christos

    2016-05-25

    The probability of mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) pore opening is inversely related to the magnitude of the proton electrochemical gradient. The module conferring sensitivity of the pore to this gradient has not been identified. We investigated mPT's voltage-sensing properties elicited by calcimycin or H2O2 in human fibroblasts exhibiting partial or complete lack of ANT1 and in C2C12 myotubes with knocked-down ANT1 expression. mPT onset was assessed by measuring in situ mitochondrial volume using the 'thinness ratio' and the 'cobalt-calcein' technique. De-energization hastened calcimycin-induced swelling in control and partially-expressing ANT1 fibroblasts, but not in cells lacking ANT1, despite greater losses of mitochondrial membrane potential. Matrix Ca(2+) levels measured by X-rhod-1 or mitochondrially-targeted ratiometric biosensor 4mtD3cpv, or ADP-ATP exchange rates did not differ among cell types. ANT1-null fibroblasts were also resistant to H2O2-induced mitochondrial swelling. Permeabilized C2C12 myotubes with knocked-down ANT1 exhibited higher calcium uptake capacity and voltage-thresholds of mPT opening inferred from cytochrome c release, but intact cells showed no differences in calcimycin-induced onset of mPT, irrespective of energization and ANT1 expression, albeit the number of cells undergoing mPT increased less significantly upon chemically-induced hypoxia than control cells. We conclude that ANT1 confers sensitivity of the pore to the electrochemical gradient.

  13. Inhibiting mitochondrial respiration prevents cancer in a mouse model of Li-Fraumeni syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping-yuan; Li, Jie; Walcott, Farzana L.; Kang, Ju-Gyeong; Starost, Matthew F.; Talagala, S. Lalith; Zhuang, Jie; Park, Ji-Hoon; Huffstutler, Rebecca D.; Bryla, Christina M.; Mai, Phuong L.; Pollak, Michael; Annunziata, Christina M.; Savage, Sharon A.; Fojo, Antonio Tito; Hwang, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is a cancer predisposition disorder caused by germline mutations in TP53 that can lead to increased mitochondrial metabolism in patients. However, the implications of altered mitochondrial function for tumorigenesis in LFS are unclear. Here, we have reported that genetic or pharmacologic disruption of mitochondrial respiration improves cancer-free survival in a mouse model of LFS that expresses mutant p53. Mechanistically, inhibition of mitochondrial function increased autophagy and decreased the aberrant proliferation signaling caused by mutant p53. In a pilot study, LFS patients treated with metformin exhibited decreases in mitochondrial activity concomitant with activation of antiproliferation signaling, thus reproducing the effects of disrupting mitochondrial function observed in LFS mice. These observations indicate that a commonly prescribed diabetic medicine can restrain mitochondrial metabolism and tumorigenesis in an LFS model, supporting its further consideration for cancer prevention in LFS patients. PMID:27869650

  14. Mitochondrial dynamics in the mouse liver infected by Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tina Tu-Wen; Wu, Lawrence Shih Hsin; Hsu, Paul Wei-Che; Pang, Cheng-Yoong; Lee, Kin-Mu; Cheng, Po-Ching; Peng, Shih-Yi

    2015-08-01

    Mitochondrial dynamics is crucial for regulation of cell homeostasis. Schistosoma mansoni is one of the most common parasites known to cause liver disease. Mice infected by S. mansoni show acute symptoms of schistosomiasis after 8 weeks. Hence, in this study, we attempted to assess the direct effects of S. mansoni infection on mice liver, and to explore the expression of mitochondrial morphology, dynamics, and function. Our recent findings show that S. mansoni infection changes mitochondrial morphology and affects mitochondrial functions, which attenuates mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP generation. S. mansoni-infected mice increases mitochondrial numbers by upregulating of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor c co-activator 1α (PGC1α) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam). This may promote mitochondria generation for accelerating the recovery of mitochondrial functions. Moreover, S. mansoni would disrupt mitochondrial dynamics including induced mitochondrial fission and promoted mitochondrial fragmentation in mice liver. More importantly, S. mansoni further stimulated upregulation both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathway in infected mice liver. The intrinsic pathway was triggered by cytochrome c release. Additionally, NFκB (nuclear factor-kappa B, p65) could play a protective role to inhibit apoptosis through reducing active caspase-3 expression. Therefore, our results confirmed the liver damage mechanism of experimental schistosomiasis in mice model.

  15. Localization of transcription initiation sites on the mouse mitochondrial genome

    SciTech Connect

    Fluellen, C.F.; Bhat, K.S.; Avdalovic, N.; Avadhani, M.G.

    1987-05-01

    The authors have identified the primary transcription initiation sites on the H and L strands of mouse mitochondrial (mt) genome by mapping the 5' ends of in vitro capped mt RNA, and 5' end labelling of the nascent RNA synthesized in an in vitro mt system. RNA capped with TSP GTP resolve into 4 major (25 to 150 nucleotides) and one minor (0.75 kb) bands on denaturing gels. Only the 25 nucleotide long capped RNA hybridizes to the H strand of D-loop DNA and the rest hybridize to the L-strand DNA probes. S1 protection of capped RNA and DNA hybrids, and primer extention analysis using defined DNA primers show that all of the L-strand specific primary transcripts have a common 5' end mapping at about nucleotide 16,180 +/- 5 of the genome. The 3' ends of the small RNA species map near the start of conserved sequence boxes. The 3' end of the 0.75 Kb RNA maps to the start of gene coding for tRNA/sup Phe/. The 5' end of the capped RNA hybridizing to the H strand maps at about nucleotide 16,275 to 16,280 of the genome indicating a major H strand transcription initiation at this region. The authors have also used an in vitro transcription system which involves the use of mt extract from Ehrlich ascites cells to study transcription initiation. Nascent RNA 5' end labeled with elTSP ATP and GTP closely resemble the electrophoretic pattern and S1 protection pattern obtained with the capped RNA.

  16. Tubulin binding blocks mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel and regulates respiration

    PubMed Central

    Rostovtseva, Tatiana K.; Sheldon, Kely L.; Hassanzadeh, Elnaz; Monge, Claire; Saks, Valdur; Bezrukov, Sergey M.; Sackett, Dan L.

    2008-01-01

    Regulation of mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) permeability has dual importance: in normal metabolite and energy exchange between mitochondria and cytoplasm and thus in control of respiration, and in apoptosis by release of apoptogenic factors into the cytosol. However, the mechanism of this regulation, dependent on the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), the major channel of MOM, remains controversial. A long-standing puzzle is that in permeabilized cells, adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) is less accessible to cytosolic ADP than in isolated mitochondria. We solve this puzzle by finding a missing player in the regulation of MOM permeability: the cytoskeletal protein tubulin. We show that nanomolar concentrations of dimeric tubulin induce voltage-sensitive reversible closure of VDAC reconstituted into planar phospholipid membranes. Tubulin strikingly increases VDAC voltage sensitivity and at physiological salt conditions could induce VDAC closure at <10 mV transmembrane potentials. Experiments with isolated mitochondria confirm these findings. Tubulin added to isolated mitochondria decreases ADP availability to ANT, partially restoring the low MOM permeability (high apparent Km for ADP) found in permeabilized cells. Our findings suggest a previously unknown mechanism of regulation of mitochondrial energetics, governed by VDAC and tubulin at the mitochondria–cytosol interface. This tubulin–VDAC interaction requires tubulin anionic C-terminal tail (CTT) peptides. The significance of this interaction may be reflected in the evolutionary conservation of length and anionic charge in CTT throughout eukaryotes, despite wide changes in the exact sequence. Additionally, tubulins that have lost significant length or anionic character are only found in cells that do not have mitochondria. PMID:19033201

  17. Tubulin binding blocks mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel and regulates respiration.

    PubMed

    Rostovtseva, Tatiana K; Sheldon, Kely L; Hassanzadeh, Elnaz; Monge, Claire; Saks, Valdur; Bezrukov, Sergey M; Sackett, Dan L

    2008-12-02

    Regulation of mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) permeability has dual importance: in normal metabolite and energy exchange between mitochondria and cytoplasm and thus in control of respiration, and in apoptosis by release of apoptogenic factors into the cytosol. However, the mechanism of this regulation, dependent on the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), the major channel of MOM, remains controversial. A long-standing puzzle is that in permeabilized cells, adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) is less accessible to cytosolic ADP than in isolated mitochondria. We solve this puzzle by finding a missing player in the regulation of MOM permeability: the cytoskeletal protein tubulin. We show that nanomolar concentrations of dimeric tubulin induce voltage-sensitive reversible closure of VDAC reconstituted into planar phospholipid membranes. Tubulin strikingly increases VDAC voltage sensitivity and at physiological salt conditions could induce VDAC closure at <10 mV transmembrane potentials. Experiments with isolated mitochondria confirm these findings. Tubulin added to isolated mitochondria decreases ADP availability to ANT, partially restoring the low MOM permeability (high apparent K(m) for ADP) found in permeabilized cells. Our findings suggest a previously unknown mechanism of regulation of mitochondrial energetics, governed by VDAC and tubulin at the mitochondria-cytosol interface. This tubulin-VDAC interaction requires tubulin anionic C-terminal tail (CTT) peptides. The significance of this interaction may be reflected in the evolutionary conservation of length and anionic charge in CTT throughout eukaryotes, despite wide changes in the exact sequence. Additionally, tubulins that have lost significant length or anionic character are only found in cells that do not have mitochondria.

  18. Tools for assessing mitochondrial dynamics in mouse tissues and neurodegenerative models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Anh H.

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that undergo membrane fusion and fission and transport. The dynamic properties of mitochondria are important for regulating mitochondrial function. Defects in mitochondrial dynamics are linked neurodegenerative diseases and affect the development of many tissues. To investigate the role of mitochondrial dynamics in diseases, versatile tools are needed to explore the physiology of these dynamic organelles in multiple tissues. Current tools for monitoring mitochondrial dynamics have been limited to studies in cell culture, which may be inadequate model systems for exploring the network of tissues. Here, we have generated mouse models for monitoring mitochondrial dynamics in a broad spectrum of tissues and cell types. The Photo-Activatable Mitochondrial (PhAM floxed) line enables Cre-inducible expression of a mitochondrial targeted photoconvertible protein, Dendra2 (mito-Dendra2). In the PhAMexcised line, mito-Dendra2 is ubiquitously expressed to facilitate broad analysis of mitochondria at various developmental processes. We have utilized these models to study mitochondrial dynamics in the nigrostriatal circuit of Parkinson's disease (PD) and in the development of skeletal muscles. Increasing evidences implicate aberrant regulation of mitochondrial fusion and fission in models of PD. To assess the function of mitochondrial dynamics in the nigrostriatal circuit, we utilized transgenic techniques to abrogate mitochondrial fusion. We show that deletion of the Mfn2 leads to the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and Parkinson's-like features in mice. To elucidate the dynamic properties of mitochondria during muscle development, we established a platform for examining mitochondrial compartmentalization in skeletal muscles. This model system may yield clues to the role of mitochondrial dynamics in mitochondrial myopathies.

  19. Mitochondrial fission and fusion factors reciprocally orchestrate mitophagic culling in mouse hearts and cultured fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Song, Moshi; Mihara, Katsuyoshi; Chen, Yun; Scorrano, Luca; Dorn, Gerald W

    2014-01-01

    Summary How mitochondrial dynamism (fission and fusion) affects mitochondrial quality control is unclear. We uncovered distinct effects on mitophagy of inhibiting Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission versus mitofusin-mediated mitochondrial fusion. Conditional cardiomyocyte-specific Drp1 ablation evoked mitochondrial enlargement, lethal dilated cardiomyopathy, and cardiomyocyte necrosis. Conditionally ablating cardiomyocyte mitofusins (Mfn) caused mitochondrial fragmentation with eccentric remodeling and no cardiomyocyte dropout. Parallel studies in cultured murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and in vivo mouse hearts revealed that Mfn1/Mfn2 deletion provoked accumulation of defective mitochondria exhibiting an unfolded protein response, without appropriately increasing mitophagy. Conversely, interrupting mitochondrial fission by Drp1 ablation increased mitophagy and caused a generalized loss of mitochondria. Mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening in Drp1 null mitochondria was associated with mitophagy in MEFs and contributed to cardiomyocyte necrosis and dilated cardiomyopathy in mice. Drp1, MPTP, and cardiomyocyte mitophagy are functionally integrated. Mitochondrial fission and fusion have opposing roles during in vivo cardiac mitochondrial quality control. PMID:25600785

  20. Chronic mild stress damages mitochondrial ultrastructure and function in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yu; Chai, Yi; Ding, Jian-Hua; Sun, Xiu-Lan; Hu, Gang

    2011-01-13

    Increasing evidence implicates mitochondrial failure as a crucial factor in the pathogenesis of mental disorders, such as depression. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of exposure to chronic mild stress (CMS), a paradigm developed in the late 1980s as an animal model of depression, on the mitochondrial function and mitochondrial ultrastructure in the mouse brain. The results showed that the CMS regime induced depressive-like symptoms in mice characterized by reduced sucrose preference and body weight. Moreover, CMS exposure was associated with a significant increase in immobility time in the tail suspension test. Exposure to the CMS paradigm inhibited mitochondrial respiration rates and dissipated mitochondrial membrane potential in hippocampus, cortex and hypothalamus of mice. In addition, we found a damaged mitochondrial ultrastructure in brains of mice exposed to CMS. These findings provide evidence for brain mitochondrial dysfunction and ultrastructural damage in a mouse model of depression. Moreover, these findings suggest that mitochondrial malfunction-induced oxidative injury could play a role in stress-related disorders such as depression.

  1. Mitochondrial organization and motility probed by two-photon microscopy in cultured mouse brainstem neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Michael . E-mail: mike@neuro-physiol.med.uni-goettingen.de; Mironov, Sergej L.; Ivannikov, Maxim V.; Schmidt, Joerg; Richter, Diethelm W.

    2005-02-01

    Two-photon microscopy of rhodamine 123-labeled mitochondria revealed that mitochondria of neurons cultured from mouse respiratory center form functionally coupled, dynamically organized aggregates such as chains and clusters, while single mitochondria were rarely seen. Mitochondrial chain structures predominate in dendrites, while irregularly shaped mitochondrial clusters are mostly found in the soma. Both types of mitochondrial structures showed chaotic Brownian motions and the mitochondrial chains also revealed well-directed movements. The latter dislocations were arrested upon mitochondrial depolarization or blockade of mitochondrial ATP synthesis. Depolymerization of microtubules by colchicine or nocodazole or inhibition of protein phosphatases by calyculin A disrupted mitochondrial chains and the mitochondria accumulated in the soma. Forskolin and IBMX reversibly blocked directed movements of mitochondria, but did not affect their overall spatial distribution. Thus, protein phosphorylation seems to control both mitochondrial transport and organization. Protein phosphorylation downstream of enhanced cytosolic cAMP levels apparently regulates the transition from motile to non-motile mitochondria, while phosphorylation resulting from inhibition of types 1 and 2A protein phosphatases massively disturbs mitochondrial organization. The complex phosphorylation processes seem to control the close interaction of mitochondria and cytoskeleton which may guarantee that mitochondria are immobilized at energetic hot spots and rearranged in response to changes in local energy demands.

  2. Voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs) recruit Parkin to defective mitochondria to promote mitochondrial autophagy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu; Vashisht, Ajay A; Tchieu, Jason; Wohlschlegel, James A; Dreier, Lars

    2012-11-23

    Parkin is recruited to defective mitochondria to promote degradation by an autophagy mechanism (mitophagy). VDACs specifically interact with Parkin on defective mitochondria and are required for efficient targeting of Parkin to mitochondria and subsequent mitophagy. VDACs recruit Parkin to defective mitochondria. A novel mechanistic aspect of Parkin-dependent mitophagy is proposed that may be relevant to Parkinson disease. Mutations in the ubiquitin ligase Parkin and the serine/threonine kinase PINK1 can cause Parkinson disease. Both proteins function in the elimination of defective mitochondria by autophagy. In this process, activation of PINK1 mediates translocation of Parkin from the cytosol to mitochondria by an unknown mechanism. To better understand how Parkin is targeted to defective mitochondria, we purified affinity-tagged Parkin from mitochondria and identified Parkin-associated proteins by mass spectrometry. The three most abundant interacting proteins were the voltage-dependent anion channels 1, 2, and 3 (VDACs 1, 2, and 3), pore-forming proteins in the outer mitochondrial membrane. We demonstrate that Parkin specifically interacts with VDACs when the function of mitochondria is disrupted by treating cells with the proton uncoupler carbonyl cyanide p-chlorophenylhydrazone. In the absence of all three VDACs, the recruitment of Parkin to defective mitochondria and subsequent mitophagy are impaired. Each VDAC is sufficient to support Parkin recruitment and mitophagy, suggesting that VDACs can function redundantly. We hypothesize that VDACs serve as mitochondrial docking sites to recruit Parkin from the cytosol to defective mitochondria.

  3. Complex I generated, mitochondrial matrix-directed superoxide is released from the mitochondria through voltage dependent anion channels.

    PubMed

    Lustgarten, Michael S; Bhattacharya, Arunabh; Muller, Florian L; Jang, Youngmok C; Shimizu, Takahiko; Shirasawa, Takuji; Richardson, Arlan; Van Remmen, Holly

    2012-06-08

    Mitochondrial complex I has previously been shown to release superoxide exclusively towards the mitochondrial matrix, whereas complex III releases superoxide to both the matrix and the cytosol. Superoxide produced at complex III has been shown to exit the mitochondria through voltage dependent anion channels (VDAC). To test whether complex I-derived, mitochondrial matrix-directed superoxide can be released to the cytosol, we measured superoxide generation in mitochondria isolated from wild type and from mice genetically altered to be deficient in MnSOD activity (TnIFastCreSod2(fl/fl)). Under experimental conditions that produce superoxide primarily by complex I (glutamate/malate plus rotenone, GM+R), MnSOD-deficient mitochondria release ∼4-fold more superoxide than mitochondria isolated from wild type mice. Exogenous CuZnSOD completely abolished the EPR-derived GM+R signal in mitochondria isolated from both genotypes, evidence that confirms mitochondrial superoxide release. Addition of the VDAC inhibitor DIDS significantly reduced mitochondrial superoxide release (∼75%) in mitochondria from either genotype respiring on GM+R. Conversely, inhibition of potential inner membrane sites of superoxide exit, including the matrix face of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore and the inner membrane anion channel did not reduce mitochondrial superoxide release in the presence of GM+R in mitochondria isolated from either genotype. These data support the concept that complex I-derived mitochondrial superoxide release does indeed occur and that the majority of this release occurs through VDACs.

  4. Cyclophilin D deficiency improves mitochondrial function and learning/memory in aging Alzheimer disease mouse model.

    PubMed

    Du, Heng; Guo, Lan; Zhang, Wensheng; Rydzewska, Monika; Yan, Shidu

    2011-03-01

    Mitochondrial stress is one of the early features of Alzheimer disease (AD). Mitochondrial Aβ has been linked to mitochondrial toxicity. Our recent study demonstrated that cyclophilin D (CypD) mediated mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) is an important mechanism for neuronal and synaptic stress induced by both Aβ and oxidative stress. In transgenic AD-type mice overexpressing mutant amyloid precursor protein (APP) and Aβ (mAPP), CypD deficiency improves mitochondrial and synaptic function and learning/memory up to 12 months old. Here we provide evidence of the protective effects of CypD deficiency in aged AD mice (22-24 months). Cyp D deficient mAPP mice demonstrate less calcium-induced mitochondrial swelling, increased mitochondrial calcium uptake capacity, preserved mitochondrial respiratory function and improved spatial learning/memory even in old age (known to be the age for late stage AD pathology and synaptic dysfunction). These data demonstrate that abrogation of CypD results in persistent life-long protection against Aβ toxicity in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model, thereby suggesting that blockade of CypD may be of benefit for Alzheimer disease treatment. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Translational Targeted Proteomics Profiling of Mitochondrial Energy Metabolic Pathways in Mouse and Human Samples.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Justina C; Ciapaite, Jolita; van Eunen, Karen; Niezen-Koning, Klary E; Matton, Alix; Porte, Robert J; Horvatovich, Peter; Bakker, Barbara M; Bischoff, Rainer; Permentier, Hjalmar P

    2016-09-02

    Absolute measurements of protein abundance are important in the understanding of biological processes and the precise computational modeling of biological pathways. We developed targeted LC-MS/MS assays in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode to quantify over 50 mitochondrial proteins in a single run. The targeted proteins cover the tricarboxylic acid cycle, fatty acid β-oxidation, oxidative phosphorylation, and the detoxification of reactive oxygen species. Assays used isotopically labeled concatemers as internal standards designed to target murine mitochondrial proteins and their human orthologues. Most assays were also suitable to quantify the corresponding protein orthologues in rats. After exclusion of peptides that did not pass the selection criteria, we arrived at SRM assays for 55 mouse, 52 human, and 51 rat proteins. These assays were optimized in isolated mitochondrial fractions from mouse and rat liver and cultured human fibroblasts and in total liver extracts from mouse, rat, and human. The developed proteomics approach is suitable for the quantification of proteins in the mitochondrial energy metabolic pathways in mice, rats, and humans as a basis for translational research. Initial data show that the assays have great potential for elucidating the adaptive response of human patients to mutations in mitochondrial proteins in a clinical setting.

  6. High-Resolution Respirometry for Mitochondrial Characterization of Ex Vivo Mouse Tissues.

    PubMed

    Cantó, Carles; Garcia-Roves, Pablo M

    2015-06-01

    This article describes methodologies to examine mitochondrial respiration in fresh preparations of mouse tissues, including skeletal muscle, heart, liver, white and brown adipose tissue, and brain. Reference values and tips to maximize experimental efficiencies are also provided. Finally, correction methods and complementary techniques to properly interpret the results are presented and contrasted.

  7. Establishment of a heteroplasmic mouse strain with interspecific mitochondrial DNA haplotypes and improvement of a PCR-RFLP-based measurement system for estimation of mitochondrial DNA heteroplasmy.

    PubMed

    Shitara, Hiroshi; Cao, Liqin; Yamaguchi, Midori; Yonekawa, Hiromichi; Taya, Choji

    2017-02-20

    Mitochondrial DNA segregation is one of the characteristic modes of mitochondrial inheritance in which the heteroplasmic state of mitochondrial DNA is transmitted to the next generation in variable proportions. To analyze mitochondrial DNA segregation, we produced a heteroplasmic mouse strain with interspecific mitochondrial DNA haplotypes, which contains two types of mitochondrial DNA derived from C57BL/6J and Mus spretus strains. The strain was produced on a C57BL/6J nuclear genomic background by microinjection of donor cytoplasm into fertilized eggs. The PCR-RFLP semi-quantitative analysis method, which was improved to reduce the effect of heteroduplex formation, was used to measure the proportion of heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA in tissues. Founder mice contained up to approximately 14% of exogenous Mus spretus mitochondrial DNA molecules in their tails, and the detected proportions differed among tissues of the same individual. Heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA is transmitted to the next generation in varying proportions under the maternal inheritance mode. This mitochondrial heteroplasmic mouse strain and the improved PCR-RFLP measurement system enable analysis of the transmission of heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA variants between tissues and generations.

  8. Mitochondrial dynamics controlled by mitofusins define organelle positioning and movement during mouse oocyte maturation.

    PubMed

    Wakai, Takuya; Harada, Yuichirou; Miyado, Kenji; Kono, Tomohiro

    2014-11-01

    Mitochondria are abundant in fully grown mammalian oocytes with a unique spherical morphology, but the mechanisms controlling mitochondria behavior are not well understood. Here we describe for the first time the control of mitochondrial behavior in mouse oocytes by a fusion/fission mechanism. Mitofusins (Mfn1 and Mfn2) and OPA1 proteins are required for outer and inner mitochondrial membrane fusion, respectively, whereas Drp1 is the key regulator of mitochondrial fission. We show that mouse oocytes express the Mfn1, Mfn2, Opa1 and Drp1 proteins, both in immature and mature oocytes at similar levels. Overexpression of Mfn1 or Mfn2 causes marked mitochondrial aggregation, particularly in the perinuclear region during meiotic progression. Tracking of mitochondria with chromosomes or endoplasmic reticulum (ER) throughout oocyte maturation demonstrates that Mfn1 and Mfn2-promoted mitochondrial aggregation disturbs the spatiotemporal dynamic of the chromosomes and ER, respectively. Our findings suggest that organelle dynamics are co-ordinately controlled during meiotic division, and an imbalance of mitochondrial fusion/fission leads to disorganization of the organelle compartments. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Turn up the power –pharmacological activation of mitochondrial biogenesis in mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Komen, J C; Thorburn, D R

    2014-01-01

    The oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system in mitochondria is responsible for the generation of the majority of cellular energy in the form of ATP. Patients with genetic OXPHOS disorders form the largest group of inborn errors of metabolism. Unfortunately, there is still a lack of efficient therapies for these disorders other than management of symptoms. Developing therapies has been complicated because, although the total group of OXPHOS patients is relatively large, there is enormous clinical and genetic heterogeneity within this patient population. Thus there has been a lot of interest in generating relevant mouse models for the different kinds of OXPHOS disorders. The most common treatment strategies tested in these mouse models have aimed to up-regulate mitochondrial biogenesis, in order to increase the residual OXPHOS activity present in affected animals and thereby to ameliorate the energy deficiency. Drugs such as bezafibrate, resveratrol and AICAR target the master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis PGC-1α either directly or indirectly to manipulate mitochondrial metabolism. This review will summarize the outcome of preclinical treatment trials with these drugs in mouse models of OXPHOS disorders and discuss similar treatments in a number of mouse models of common diseases in which pathology is closely linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. In the majority of these studies the pharmacological activation of the PGC-1α axis shows true potential as therapy; however, other effects besides mitochondrial biogenesis may be contributing to this as well. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed issue on Mitochondrial Pharmacology: Energy, Injury & Beyond. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-8 PMID:24102298

  10. Voltage-dependent anion channels modulate mitochondrial metabolism in cancer cells: regulation by free tubulin and erastin.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Eduardo N; Sheldon, Kely L; DeHart, David N; Patnaik, Jyoti; Manevich, Yefim; Townsend, Danyelle M; Bezrukov, Sergey M; Rostovtseva, Tatiana K; Lemasters, John J

    2013-04-26

    Respiratory substrates and adenine nucleotides cross the mitochondrial outer membrane through the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), comprising three isoforms--VDAC1, 2, and 3. We characterized the role of individual isoforms in mitochondrial metabolism by HepG2 human hepatoma cells using siRNA. With VDAC3 to the greatest extent, all VDAC isoforms contributed to the maintenance of mitochondrial membrane potential, but only VDAC3 knockdown decreased ATP, ADP, NAD(P)H, and mitochondrial redox state. Cells expressing predominantly VDAC3 were least sensitive to depolarization induced by increased free tubulin. In planar lipid bilayers, free tubulin inhibited VDAC1 and VDAC2 but not VDAC3. Erastin, a compound that interacts with VDAC, blocked and reversed mitochondrial depolarization after microtubule destabilizers in intact cells and antagonized tubulin-induced VDAC blockage in planar bilayers. In conclusion, free tubulin inhibits VDAC1/2 and limits mitochondrial metabolism in HepG2 cells, contributing to the Warburg phenomenon. Reversal of tubulin-VDAC interaction by erastin antagonizes Warburg metabolism and restores oxidative mitochondrial metabolism.

  11. Mitochondrial bioenergetics and drug-induced toxicity in a panel of mouse embryonic fibroblasts with mitochondrial DNA single nucleotide polymorphisms

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, Claudia V.; Oliveira, Paulo J.; Will, Yvonne; Nadanaciva, Sashi

    2012-10-15

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variations including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been proposed to be involved in idiosyncratic drug reactions. However, current in vitro and in vivo models lack the genetic diversity seen in the human population. Our hypothesis is that different cell strains with distinct mtDNA SNPs may have different mitochondrial bioenergetic profiles and may therefore vary in their response to drug-induced toxicity. Therefore, we used an in vitro system composed of four strains of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) with mtDNA polymorphisms. We sequenced mtDNA from embryonic fibroblasts isolated from four mouse strains, C57BL/6J, MOLF/EiJ, CZECHII/EiJ and PERA/EiJ, with the latter two being sequenced for the first time. The bioenergetic profile of the four strains of MEFs was investigated at both passages 3 and 10. Our results showed that there were clear differences among the four strains of MEFs at both passages, with CZECHII/EiJ having a lower mitochondrial robustness when compared to C57BL/6J, followed by MOLF/EiJ and PERA/EiJ. Seven drugs known to impair mitochondrial function were tested for their effect on the ATP content of the four strains of MEFs in both glucose- and galactose-containing media. Our results showed that there were strain-dependent differences in the response to some of the drugs. We propose that this model is a useful starting point to study compounds that may cause mitochondrial off-target toxicity in early stages of drug development, thus decreasing the number of experimental animals used. -- Highlights: ► mtDNA SNPs may be linked to individual predisposition to drug-induced toxicity. ► CZECHII/EiJ and PERA/EiJ mtDNA was sequenced for the first time in this study. ► Strain-dependent mitochondrial capacity differences were measured. ► Strain-dependent differences in response to mitochondrial toxicants were observed.

  12. Allotopic expression of ATP6 in the mouse as a transgenic model of mitochondrial disease.

    PubMed

    Dunn, David A; Pinkert, Carl A

    2015-01-01

    Progress in animal modeling of polymorphisms and mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is not as developed as nuclear transgenesis due to a host of cellular and physiological distinctions. mtDNA mutation modeling is of critical importance as mutations in the mitochondrial genome give rise to a variety of pathological conditions and play a contributing role in many others. Nuclear localization and transcription of mtDNA genes followed by cytoplasmic translation and transport into mitochondria (allotopic expression, AE) provide an opportunity to create in vivo modeling of a targeted mutation in mitochondrial genes and has been suggested as a strategy for gene replacement therapy in patients harboring mitochondrial DNA mutations. Here, we use our AE approach to transgenic mouse modeling of the pathogenic human T8993G mutation in mtATP6 as a case study for designing AE animal models.

  13. Deoxynucleoside stress exacerbates the phenotype of a mouse model of mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Diaz, Beatriz; Garone, Caterina; Barca, Emanuele; Mojahed, Hamed; Gutierrez, Purification; Pizzorno, Giuseppe; Tanji, Kurenai; Arias-Mendoza, Fernando; Quinzii, Caterina M; Hirano, Michio

    2014-05-01

    stress of exogenous pyrimidine nucleosides enhances the mitochondrial phenotype of our knockout mice. Our mouse studies provide insights into the pathogenic role of thymidine and deoxyuridine imbalance in mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy and an excellent model to study new therapeutic approaches.

  14. Synaptosomal Mitochondrial Dysfunction in 5xFAD Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Guo, Lan; Lu, Lin; Sun, Huili; Shao, Muming; Beck, Simon J; Li, Lin; Ramachandran, Janani; Du, Yifeng; Du, Heng

    2016-01-01

    Brain mitochondrial dysfunction is hallmark pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, the role of synaptosomal mitochondrial dysfunction in the development of synaptic injury in AD has received increasing attention. Synaptosomal mitochondria are a subgroup of neuronal mitochondria specifically locating at synapses. They play an essential role in fueling synaptic functions by providing energy on the site; and their defects may lead to synaptic failure, which is an early and pronounced pathology in AD. In our previous studies we have determined early synaptosomal mitochondrial dysfunction in an AD animal model (J20 line) overexpressing human Amyloid beta (Aβ), the key mediator of AD. In view of the limitations of J20 line mice in representing the full aspects of amyloidopathy in AD cases, we employed 5xFAD mice which are thought to be a desirable paradigm of amyloidopathy as seen in AD subjects. In addition, we have also examined the status of synaptosomal mitochondrial dynamics as well as Parkin-mediated mitophagy which have not been previously investigated in this mouse model. In comparison to nontransgenic (nonTg mice), 5xFAD mice demonstrated prominent synaptosomal mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, synaptosomal mitochondria from the AD mouse model displayed imbalanced mitochondrial dynamics towards fission along with activated Parkin and LC3BII recruitment correlating to spatial learning & memory impairments in 5xFAD mice in an age-dependent manner. These results suggest that synaptosomal mitochondrial deficits are primary pathology in Aβ-rich environments and further confirm the relevance of synaptosomal mitochondrial deficits to the development of AD.

  15. Synaptosomal Mitochondrial Dysfunction in 5xFAD Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Guo, Lan; Lu, Lin; Sun, Huili; Shao, Muming; Beck, Simon J.; Li, Lin; Ramachandran, Janani; Du, Yifeng; Du, Heng

    2016-01-01

    Brain mitochondrial dysfunction is hallmark pathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Recently, the role of synaptosomal mitochondrial dysfunction in the development of synaptic injury in AD has received increasing attention. Synaptosomal mitochondria are a subgroup of neuronal mitochondria specifically locating at synapses. They play an essential role in fueling synaptic functions by providing energy on the site; and their defects may lead to synaptic failure, which is an early and pronounced pathology in AD. In our previous studies we have determined early synaptosomal mitochondrial dysfunction in an AD animal model (J20 line) overexpressing human Amyloid beta (Aβ), the key mediator of AD. In view of the limitations of J20 line mice in representing the full aspects of amyloidopathy in AD cases, we employed 5xFAD mice which are thought to be a desirable paradigm of amyloidopathy as seen in AD subjects. In addition, we have also examined the status of synaptosomal mitochondrial dynamics as well as Parkin-mediated mitophagy which have not been previously investigated in this mouse model. In comparison to nontransgenic (nonTg mice), 5xFAD mice demonstrated prominent synaptosomal mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, synaptosomal mitochondria from the AD mouse model displayed imbalanced mitochondrial dynamics towards fission along with activated Parkin and LC3BII recruitment correlating to spatial learning & memory impairments in 5xFAD mice in an age-dependent manner. These results suggest that synaptosomal mitochondrial deficits are primary pathology in Aβ-rich environments and further confirm the relevance of synaptosomal mitochondrial deficits to the development of AD. PMID:26942905

  16. Honokiol protects against doxorubicin cardiotoxicity via improving mitochondrial function in mouse hearts.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lizhen; Zhang, Kailiang; Guo, Yingying; Huang, Fengyuan; Yang, Kevin; Chen, Long; Huang, Kai; Zhang, Fengxue; Long, Qinqiang; Yang, Qinglin

    2017-09-20

    Honokiol is a key component of a medicinal herb, Magnolia bark. Honokiol possesses potential pharmacological benefits for many disease conditions, especially cancer. Recent studies demonstrate that Honokiol exerts beneficial effects on cardiac hypertrophy and doxorubicin (Dox)-cardiotoxicity via deacetylation of mitochondrial proteins. However, the effects and mechanisms of Honokiol on cardiac mitochondrial respiration remain unclear. In the present study, we investigate the effect of Honokiol on cardiac mitochondrial respiration in mice subjected to Dox treatment. Oxygen consumption in freshly isolated mitochondria from mice treated with Honokiol showed enhanced mitochondrial respiration. The Dox-induced impairment of mitochondrial respiration was less pronounced in honokiol-treated than control mice. Furthermore, Luciferase reporter assay reveals that Honokiol modestly increased PPARγ transcriptional activities in cultured embryonic rat cardiomyocytes (H9c2). Honokiol upregulated the expression of PPARγ in the mouse heart. Honokiol repressed cardiac inflammatory responses and oxidative stress in mice subjected to Dox treatment. As a result, Honokiol alleviated Dox-cardiotoxicity with improved cardiac function and reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. We conclude that Honokiol protects the heart from Dox-cardiotoxicity via improving mitochondrial function by not only repressing mitochondrial protein acetylation but also enhancing PPARγ activity in the heart. This study further supports Honokiol as a promising therapy for cancer patients receiving Dox treatment.

  17. Voltage-gated Ca2+ influx and mitochondrial Ca2+ initiate secretion from Aplysia neuroendocrine cells.

    PubMed

    Hickey, C M; Groten, C J; Sham, L; Carter, C J; Magoski, N S

    2013-10-10

    Neuroendocrine secretion often requires prolonged voltage-gated Ca(2+) entry; however, the ability of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores, such as endoplasmic reticulum or mitochondria, to elicit secretion is less clear. We examined this using the bag cell neurons, which trigger ovulation in Aplysia by releasing egg-laying hormone (ELH) peptide. Secretion from cultured bag cell neurons was observed as an increase in plasma membrane capacitance following Ca(2+) influx evoked by a 5-Hz, 1-min train of depolarizing steps under voltage-clamp. The response was similar for step durations of ≥ 50 ms, but fell off sharply with shorter stimuli. The capacitance change was attenuated by replacing external Ca(2+) with Ba(2+), blocking Ca(2+) channels, buffering intracellular Ca(2+) with EGTA, disrupting synaptic protein recycling, or genetic knock-down of ELH. Regarding intracellular stores, liberating mitochondrial Ca(2+) with the protonophore, carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-hydrazone (FCCP), brought about an EGTA-sensitive elevation of capacitance. Conversely, no change was observed to Ca(2+) released from the endoplasmic reticulum or acidic stores. Prior exposure to FCCP lessened the train-induced capacitance increase, suggesting overlap in the pool of releasable vesicles. Employing GTP-γ-S to interfere with endocytosis delayed recovery (presumed membrane retrieval) of the capacitance change following FCCP, but not the train. Finally, secretion was correlated with reproductive behavior, in that neurons isolated from animals engaged in egg-laying presented a greater train-induced capacitance elevation vs quiescent animals. The bag cell neuron capacitance increase is consistent with peptide secretion requiring high Ca(2+), either from influx or stores, and may reflect the all-or-none nature of reproduction.

  18. Permeabilization of brain tissue in situ enables multiregion analysis of mitochondrial function in a single mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Herbst, Eric AF; Holloway, Graham P

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mitochondria function as the core energy providers in the brain and symptoms of neurodegenerative diseases are often attributed to their dysregulation. Assessing mitochondrial function is classically performed in isolated mitochondria; however, this process requires significant isolation time, demand for abundant tissue and disruption of the cooperative mitochondrial reticulum, all of which reduce reliability when attempting to assess in vivo mitochondrial bioenergetics. Here we introduce a method that advances the assessment of mitochondrial respiration in the brain by permeabilizing existing brain tissue to grant direct access to the mitochondrial reticulum in situ. The permeabilized brain preparation allows for instant analysis of mitochondrial function with unaltered mitochondrial morphology using significantly small sample sizes (∼2 mg), which permits the analysis of mitochondrial function in multiple subregions within a single mouse brain. Here this technique was applied to assess regional variation in brain mitochondrial function with acute ischaemia–reperfusion injuries and to determine the role of reactive oxygen species in exacerbating dysfunction through the application of a transgenic mouse model overexpressing catalase within mitochondria. Through creating accessibility to small regions for the investigation of mitochondrial function, the permeabilized brain preparation enhances the capacity for examining regional differences in mitochondrial regulation within the brain, as the majority of genetic models used for unique approaches exist in the mouse model. PMID:25529987

  19. Preservation of mitochondrial functional integrity in mitochondria isolated from small cryopreserved mouse brain areas.

    PubMed

    Valenti, Daniela; de Bari, Lidia; De Filippis, Bianca; Ricceri, Laura; Vacca, Rosa Anna

    2014-01-01

    Studies of mitochondrial bioenergetics in brain pathophysiology are often precluded by the need to isolate mitochondria immediately after tissue dissection from a large number of brain biopsies for comparative studies. Here we present a procedure of cryopreservation of small brain areas from which mitochondrial enriched fractions (crude mitochondria) with high oxidative phosphorylation efficiency can be isolated. Small mouse brain areas were frozen and stored in a solution containing glycerol as cryoprotectant. Crude mitochondria were isolated by differential centrifugation from both cryopreserved and freshly explanted brain samples and were compared with respect to their ability to generate membrane potential and produce ATP. Intactness of outer and inner mitochondrial membranes was verified by polarographic ascorbate and cytochrome c tests and spectrophotometric assay of citrate synthase activity. Preservation of structural integrity and oxidative phosphorylation efficiency was successfully obtained in crude mitochondria isolated from different areas of cryopreserved mouse brain samples. Long-term cryopreservation of small brain areas from which intact and phosphorylating mitochondria can be isolated for the study of mitochondrial bioenergetics will significantly expand the study of mitochondrial defects in neurological pathologies, allowing large comparative studies and favoring interlaboratory and interdisciplinary analyses.

  20. MITOCHONDRIAL DISEASES PART II: MOUSE MODELS OF OXPHOS DEFICIENCIES CAUSED BY DEFECTS IN REGULATORY FACTORS AND OTHER COMPONENTS REQUIRED FOR MITOCHONDRIAL FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Iommarini, Luisa; Peralta, Susana; Torraco, Alessandra; Diaz, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial disorders are defined as defects that affect the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS). They are characterized by a heterogeneous array of clinical presentations due in part to a wide variety of factors required for proper function of the components of the OXPHOS system. There is no cure for these disorders owing our poor knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms of disease. To understand the mechanisms of human disease numerous mouse models have been developed in recent years. Here we summarize the features of several mouse models of mitochondrial diseases directly related to those factors affecting mtDNA maintenance, replication, transcription, translation as well to other proteins that are involved in mitochondrial dynamics and quality control which affect mitochondrial OXPHOS function without been intrinsic components of the system. We discuss how these models have contributed to our understanding of mitochondrial diseases and their pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:25640959

  1. Comparative analysis of mitochondrial N-termini from mouse, human, and yeast.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Sarah E; Julien, Olivier; Clauser, Karl R; Shen, Hongying; Kamer, Kimberli J; Wells, James A; Mootha, Vamsi K

    2017-01-25

    The majority of mitochondrial proteins are encoded in the nuclear genome, translated in the cytoplasm, and directed to the mitochondria by a N-terminal presequence that is cleaved upon import. Recently, N-proteome catalogs have been generated for mitochondria from yeast and from human U937 cells. Here we applied the subtiligase method to determine N-termini for 327 proteins in mitochondria isolated from mouse liver and kidney. Comparative analysis between mitochondrial N-termini from mouse, human, and yeast proteins shows that while presequences are poorly conserved at the sequence level, other presequence properties are extremely conserved including a length of ~20-60aa, a net charge between +3 to +6, and the presence of stabilizing amino acids at the N-termini of mature proteins that follows the N-end rule from bacteria. As in yeast, ~80% of mouse presequence cleavage sites match canonical motifs for three mitochondrial peptidases (MPP, Imp55, Oct1) while the remainder do not match any known peptidase motifs. We show that mature mitochondrial proteins often exist with a spectrum of N-termini, consistent with a model of multiple cleavage events by MPP and Imp55. In addition to analysis of canonical targeting presequences, our N-terminal dataset allows exploration of other cleavage events -- and provides support for polypeptide cleavage into two distinct enzymes (Hsd17b4), protein cleavages key for signaling (Oma1, Opa1, Htra2, Mavs, Bcs2l13), and in several cases suggests novel protein isoforms (Scp2, Acadm, Adck3, Hsdl2, Dlst, Ogdh). We present an integrated catalog of mammalian mitochondrial N-termini that can be used as a community resource to investigate individual proteins, to elucidate mechanisms of mammalian mitochondrial processing, and to allow researchers to engineer tags distal to presequence cleavage.

  2. Bioluminescence imaging of mitochondrial Ca2+ dynamics in soma and neurites of individual adult mouse sympathetic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Núñez, Lucía; Senovilla, Laura; Sanz-Blasco, Sara; Chamero, Pablo; Alonso, María T; Villalobos, Carlos; García-Sancho, Javier

    2007-01-01

    Changes in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c) are essential for triggering neurotransmitter release from presynaptic nerve terminals. Calcium-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) may amplify the [Ca2+]c signals and facilitate neurotransmitter release in sympathetic neurons. In adrenal chromaffin cells, functional triads are formed by voltage-operated Ca2+ channels (VOCCs), CICR sites and mitochondria. In fact, mitochondria take up most of the Ca2+ load entering the cells and are essential for shaping [Ca2+]c signals and exocytosis. Here we have investigated the existence of such functional triads in sympathetic neurons. The mitochondrial Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]m) in soma and neurites of individual mouse superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons was monitored by bioluminescence imaging of targeted aequorins. In soma, Ca2+ entry through VOCCs evoked rapid, near millimolar [Ca2+]m increases in a subpopulation of mitochondria containing about 40% of the aequorin. Caffeine evoked a similar [Ca2+]m increase in a mitochondrial pool containing about 30% of the aequorin and overlapping with the VOCC-sensitive pool. These observations suggest the existence of functional triads similar to the ones described in chromaffin cells. In neurites, mitochondria were able to buffer [Ca2+]c increases resulting from activation of VOCCs but not those mediated by caffeine-induced Ca2+ release from the ER. The weaker Ca2+ buffering by mitochondria in neurites could contribute to facilitate Ca2+-induced exocytosis at the presynaptic sites. PMID:17234693

  3. Permeabilization of brain tissue in situ enables multiregion analysis of mitochondrial function in a single mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Eric A F; Holloway, Graham P

    2015-02-15

    Mitochondrial function in the brain is traditionally assessed through analysing respiration in isolated mitochondria, a technique that possesses significant tissue and time requirements while also disrupting the cooperative mitochondrial reticulum. We permeabilized brain tissue in situ to permit analysis of mitochondrial respiration with the native mitochondrial morphology intact, removing the need for isolation time and minimizing tissue requirements to ∼2 mg wet weight. The permeabilized brain technique was validated against the traditional method of isolated mitochondria and was then further applied to assess regional variation in the mouse brain with ischaemia-reperfusion injuries. A transgenic mouse model overexpressing catalase within mitochondria was applied to show the contribution of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species to ischaemia-reperfusion injuries in different brain regions. This technique enhances the accessibility of addressing physiological questions in small brain regions and in applying transgenic mouse models to assess mechanisms regulating mitochondrial function in health and disease. Mitochondria function as the core energy providers in the brain and symptoms of neurodegenerative diseases are often attributed to their dysregulation. Assessing mitochondrial function is classically performed in isolated mitochondria; however, this process requires significant isolation time, demand for abundant tissue and disruption of the cooperative mitochondrial reticulum, all of which reduce reliability when attempting to assess in vivo mitochondrial bioenergetics. Here we introduce a method that advances the assessment of mitochondrial respiration in the brain by permeabilizing existing brain tissue to grant direct access to the mitochondrial reticulum in situ. The permeabilized brain preparation allows for instant analysis of mitochondrial function with unaltered mitochondrial morphology using significantly small sample sizes (∼2 mg), which permits

  4. Fractal analysis of a voltage-dependent potassium channel from cultured mouse hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Liebovitch, L S; Sullivan, J M

    1987-01-01

    The kinetics of ion channels have been widely modeled as a Markov process. In these models it is assumed that the channel protein has a small number of discrete conformational states and the kinetic rate constants connecting these states are constant. In the alternative fractal model the spontaneous fluctuations of the channel protein at many different time scales are represented by a kinetic rate constant k = At1-D, where A is the kinetic setpoint and D the fractal dimension. Single-channel currents were recorded at 146 mM external K+ from an inwardly rectifying, 120 pS, K+ selective, voltage-sensitive channel in cultured mouse hippocampal neurons. The kinetics of these channels were found to be statistically self-similar at different time scales as predicted by the fractal model. The fractal dimensions were approximately 2 for the closed times and approximately 1 for the open times and did not depend on voltage. For both the open and closed times the logarithm of the kinetic setpoint was found to be proportional to the applied voltage, which indicates that the gating of this channel involves the net inward movement of approximately one negative charge when this channel opens. Thus, the open and closed times and the voltage dependence of the gating of this channel are well described by the fractal model. PMID:2447974

  5. Iron-Mediated Inhibition of Mitochondrial Manganese Uptake Mediates Mitochondrial Dysfunction in a Mouse Model of Hemochromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Jouihan, Hani A; Cobine, Paul A; Cooksey, Robert C; Hoagland, Emily A; Boudina, Sihem; Abel, E Dale; Winge, Dennis R; McClain, Donald A

    2008-01-01

    Previous phenotyping of glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion in a mouse model of hereditary hemochromatosis (Hfe−/−) and iron overload suggested mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondria from Hfe−/− mouse liver exhibited decreased respiratory capacity and increased lipid peroxidation. Although the cytosol contained excess iron, Hfe−/− mitochondria contained normal iron but decreased copper, manganese, and zinc, associated with reduced activities of copper-dependent cytochrome c oxidase and manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). The attenuation in MnSOD activity was due to substantial levels of unmetallated apoprotein. The oxidative damage in Hfe−/− mitochondria is due to diminished MnSOD activity, as manganese supplementation of Hfe−/− mice led to enhancement of MnSOD activity and suppressed lipid peroxidation. Manganese supplementation also resulted in improved insulin secretion and glucose tolerance associated with increased MnSOD activity and decreased lipid peroxidation in islets. These data suggest a novel mechanism of iron-induced cellular dysfunction, namely altered mitochondrial uptake of other metal ions. PMID:18317567

  6. Mitochondrial proteomic alterations caused by long-term low-dose copper exposure in mouse cortex.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xuemei; Wei, Gang; Huang, Zhijun; Qu, Zhongsen; Huang, Xinfeng; Xu, Hua; Liu, Jianjun; Zhuang, Zhixiong; Yang, Xifei

    2016-11-30

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in neurotoxicity caused by exposure of various chemicals such as copper. However, the effects of long-term low-dose copper exposure on mitochondrial proteome remain unclear. In this study, we found the treatment of copper (0.13ppm copper sulfate in drinking water) for 12 months caused abnormal expression of a total of 13 mitochondrial proteins (7 up-regulated and 6 down-regulated) as revealed by two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry in mouse cortex. Protein functional analysis revealed that these differentially expressed proteins mainly included apoptosis-associated proteins, axon guidance-associated proteins, axonogenesis-associated proteins and mitochondrial respiratory chain complex. Among these differentially expressed mitochondrial proteins, GRP75 (75kDa glucose-regulated protein) and GRP78 (78kDa glucose-regulated protein) were found to be significantly down-regulated as confirmed by Western-blot analysis. The down-regulation of GRP75 was shown to promote apoptosis. The down-regulation of GRP78/BiP could up-regulate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress mediators and thus cause apoptosis. Our study suggested that these differentially expressed mitochondrial proteins such as GRP75 and GRP78 could be involved in neurotoxicity caused by long-term low-dose copper exposure and serve as potential molecular targets for the treatment of copper neurotoxicity.

  7. Maternal obesity, infertility and mitochondrial dysfunction: potential mechanisms emerging from mouse model systems

    PubMed Central

    Grindler, Natalia M.; Moley, Kelle H.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is associated with ovulatory disorders, decreased rates of conception, infertility, early pregnancy loss and congenital abnormalities. Poor oocyte quality and reduced IVF success have also been reported in obese women. Recent attempts to understand the mechanism by which these defects occur have focused on mitochondria, essential organelles that are critical for oocyte maturation and subsequent embryo development. The oocyte relies on maternally supplied mitochondria until the resumption of mitochondrial replication in the peri-implantation period. Here we review current literature addressing the roles of mitochondria in oocyte function and how mitochondrial dysfunction can lead to fertility problems. The relationship between mitochondrial dysfunction and oocyte function is evaluated by examining the following examples of environmental exposures: tobacco smoke, aging, caloric restriction and hyperglycemia. Finally, we present new data from a mouse model of obesity that has demonstrated that oocyte mitochondria play a key role in obesity-associated reproductive disorders. PMID:23612738

  8. Glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration in mouse LDHC-null sperm.

    PubMed

    Odet, Fanny; Gabel, Scott; London, Robert E; Goldberg, Erwin; Eddy, Edward M

    2013-04-01

    We demonstrated previously that a knockout (KO) of the lactate dehydrogenase type C (Ldhc) gene disrupted male fertility and caused a considerable reduction in sperm glucose consumption, ATP production, and motility. While that study used mice with a mixed genetic background, the present study used C57BL/6 (B6) and 129S6 (129) Ldhc KO mice. We found that B6 KO males were subfertile and 129 KO males were infertile. Sperm from 129 wild-type (WT) mice have a lower glycolytic rate than sperm from B6 WT mice, resulting in a greater reduction in ATP production in 129 KO sperm than in B6 KO sperm. The lower glycolytic rate in 129 sperm offered a novel opportunity to examine the role of mitochondrial respiration in sperm ATP production and motility. We observed that in media containing a mitochondrial substrate (pyruvate or lactate) as the sole energy source, ATP levels and progressive motility in 129 KO sperm were similar to those in 129 WT sperm. However, when glucose was added, lactate was unable to maintain ATP levels or progressive motility in 129 KO sperm. The rate of respiration (ZO2) was high when 129 KO or WT sperm were incubated with lactate alone, but addition of glucose caused a reduction in ZO2. These results indicate that in the absence of glucose, 129 sperm can produce ATP via oxidative phosphorylation, but in the presence of glucose, oxidative phosphorylation is suppressed and the sperm utilize aerobic glycolysis, a phenomenon known as the Crabtree effect.

  9. Measurement of mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates in mouse primary neurons and astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Sofia M; Giménez-Cassina, Alfredo; Danial, Nika N

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of microplate-based assays that measure extracellular fluxes in intact, living cells has revolutionized the field of cellular bioenergetics. Here, we describe a method for real time assessment of mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates in primary mouse cortical neurons and astrocytes. This method requires the Extracellular Flux Analyzer Instrument (XF24, Seahorse Biosciences), which uses fluorescent oxygen sensors in a microplate assay format.

  10. Displacing hexokinase from mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel impairs GLT-1-mediated glutamate uptake but does not disrupt interactions between GLT-1 and mitochondrial proteins.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Joshua G; O'Donnell, John C; Krizman, Elizabeth; Robinson, Michael B

    2015-07-01

    The glutamate transporter GLT-1 is the major route for the clearance of extracellular glutamate in the forebrain, and most GLT-1 protein is found in astrocytes. This protein is coupled to the Na(+) electrochemical gradient, supporting the active intracellular accumulation of glutamate. We recently used a proteomic approach to identify proteins that may interact with GLT-1 in rat cortex, including the Na(+)/K(+) -ATPase, most glycolytic enzymes, and several mitochondrial proteins. We also showed that most GLT-1 puncta (∼ 70%) are overlapped by mitochondria in astroglial processes in organotypic slices. From this analysis, we proposed that the glycolytic enzyme hexokinase (HK)-1 might physically form a scaffold to link GLT-1 and mitochondria because HK1 is known to interact with the outer mitochondrial membrane protein voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC). The current study validates the interactions among HK-1, VDAC, and GLT-1 by using forward and reverse immunoprecipitations and provides evidence that a subfraction of HK1 colocalizes with GLT-1 in vivo. A peptide known to disrupt the interaction between HK and VDAC did not disrupt interactions between GLT-1 and several mitochondrial proteins. In parallel experiments, displacement of HK from VDAC reduced GLT-1-mediated glutamate uptake. These results suggest that, although HK1 forms coimmunoprecipitatable complexes with both VDAC and GLT-1, it does not physically link GLT-1 to mitochondrial proteins. However, the interaction of HK1 with VDAC supports GLT-1-mediated transport activity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Impaired mitochondrial biogenesis, defective axonal transport of mitochondria, abnormal mitochondrial dynamics and synaptic degeneration in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Calkins, Marcus J; Manczak, Maria; Mao, Peizhong; Shirendeb, Ulziibat; Reddy, P Hemachandra

    2011-12-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) in synapses and synaptic mitochondria causes synaptic mitochondrial failure and synaptic degeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The purpose of this study was to better understand the effects of Aβ in mitochondrial activity and synaptic alterations in neurons from a mouse model of AD. Using primary neurons from a well-characterized Aβ precursor protein transgenic (AβPP) mouse model (Tg2576 mouse line), for the first time, we studied mitochondrial activity, including axonal transport of mitochondria, mitochondrial dynamics, morphology and function. Further, we also studied the nature of Aβ-induced synaptic alterations, and cell death in primary neurons from Tg2576 mice, and we sought to determine whether the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SS31 could mitigate the effects of oligomeric Aβ. We found significantly decreased anterograde mitochondrial movement, increased mitochondrial fission and decreased fusion, abnormal mitochondrial and synaptic proteins and defective mitochondrial function in primary neurons from AβPP mice compared with wild-type (WT) neurons. Transmission electron microscopy revealed a large number of small mitochondria and structurally damaged mitochondria, with broken cristae in AβPP primary neurons. We also found an increased accumulation of oligomeric Aβ and increased apoptotic neuronal death in the primary neurons from the AβPP mice relative to the WT neurons. Our results revealed an accumulation of intraneuronal oligomeric Aβ, leading to mitochondrial and synaptic deficiencies, and ultimately causing neurodegeneration in AβPP cultures. However, we found that the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SS31 restored mitochondrial transport and synaptic viability, and decreased the percentage of defective mitochondria, indicating that SS31 protects mitochondria and synapses from Aβ toxicity.

  12. Upregulation of mitochondrial Nox4 mediates TGF-β-induced apoptosis in cultured mouse podocytes.

    PubMed

    Das, Ranjan; Xu, Shanhua; Quan, Xianglan; Nguyen, Tuyet Thi; Kong, In Deok; Chung, Choon Hee; Lee, Eun Young; Cha, Seung-Kuy; Park, Kyu-Sang

    2014-01-01

    Injury to podocytes leads to the onset of chronic renal diseases characterized by proteinuria. Elevated transforming growth factor (TGF)-β in kidney tissue is associated with podocyte damage that ultimately results in apoptosis and detachment. We investigated the proapoptotic mechanism of TGF-β in immortalized mouse podocytes. Exogenous TGF-β1-induced podocyte apoptosis through caspase-3 activation, which was related to elevated ROS levels generated by selective upregulation of NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4). In mouse podocytes, Nox4 was predominantly localized to mitochondria, and Nox4 upregulation by TGF-β1 markedly depolarized mitochondrial membrane potential. TGF-β1-induced ROS production and caspase activation were mitigated by an antioxidant, the Nox inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium, or small interfering RNA for Nox4. A TGF-β receptor I blocker, SB-431542, completely reversed the changes triggered by TGF-β1. Knockdown of either Smad2 or Smad3 prevented the increase of Nox4 expression, ROS generation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and caspase-3 activation by TGF-β1. These results suggest that TGF-β1-induced mitochondrial Nox4 upregulation via the TGF-β receptor-Smad2/3 pathway is responsible for ROS production, mitochondrial dysfunction, and apoptosis, which may at least in part contribute to the development and progression of proteinuric glomerular diseases such as diabetic nephropathy.

  13. NAD(+)-dependent activation of Sirt1 corrects the phenotype in a mouse model of mitochondrial disease.

    PubMed

    Cerutti, Raffaele; Pirinen, Eija; Lamperti, Costanza; Marchet, Silvia; Sauve, Anthony A; Li, Wei; Leoni, Valerio; Schon, Eric A; Dantzer, Françoise; Auwerx, Johan; Viscomi, Carlo; Zeviani, Massimo

    2014-06-03

    Mitochondrial disorders are highly heterogeneous conditions characterized by defects of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Pharmacological activation of mitochondrial biogenesis has been proposed as an effective means to correct the biochemical defects and ameliorate the clinical phenotype in these severely disabling, often fatal, disorders. Pathways related to mitochondrial biogenesis are targets of Sirtuin1, a NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase. As NAD(+) boosts the activity of Sirtuin1 and other sirtuins, intracellular levels of NAD(+) play a key role in the homeostatic control of mitochondrial function by the metabolic status of the cell. We show here that supplementation with nicotinamide riboside, a natural NAD(+) precursor, or reduction of NAD(+) consumption by inhibiting the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases, leads to marked improvement of the respiratory chain defect and exercise intolerance of the Sco2 knockout/knockin mouse, a mitochondrial disease model characterized by impaired cytochrome c oxidase biogenesis. This strategy is potentially translatable into therapy of mitochondrial disorders in humans.

  14. Quantitative and qualitative 2D electrophoretic analysis of differentially expressed mitochondrial proteins from five mouse organs.

    PubMed

    Techritz, Sandra; Lützkendorf, Susanne; Bazant, Esther; Becker, Silke; Klose, Joachim; Schuelke, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria fulfill many tissue-specific functions in cell metabolism. We set out to identify differences in the protein composition of mitochondria from five tissues frequently affected by mitochondrial disorders. The proteome of highly purified mitochondria from five mouse organs was separated by high-resolution 2DE. Tissue-specific spots were identified through nano-LC/ESI-MS/MS and quantified by densitometry in ten biological replicates. We identified 87 consistently deviating spots representing 48 proteins. The percentage of variant spots ranged between 4.2% and 6.0%; 21 proteins having tissue-specific isospots. Consistent tissue-specific processing/regulation was seen for carbamoyl-phosphate-synthase, aldehyde-dehydrogenase 2, ATP-synthase α-chain, and isocitrate-dehydrogenase α-subunit. Thirty tissue-specific proteins were associated with mitochondrial disorders in humans. We further identified alcohol-dehydrogenase, catalase, quinone-oxidoreductase, cyclophilin-A, and Upf0317, a potential biotin-carboxyl-carrier protein, which had not been annotated as "mitochondrial" in Gene Ontology or MitoCarta databases. Their targeting to the mitochondria was verified by transfection of full-length GFP-tagged plasmids. Given the high evolutionary conservation of mitochondrial metabolic pathways, these data further annotate the mitochondrial proteome and advance our understanding of the pathophysiology and tissue-specificity of symptoms seen in patients with mitochondrial disorders. The generation of 2D electrophoretic maps of the mitochondrial proteome using tissue specimens in the milligram range facilitates this technique for clinical applications and biomarker research. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Tamoxifen inhibits topoisomerases, depletes mitochondrial DNA, and triggers steatosis in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Larosche, Isabelle; Lettéron, Philippe; Fromenty, Bernard; Vadrot, Nathalie; Abbey-Toby, Adjé; Feldmann, Gérard; Pessayre, Dominique; Mansouri, Abdellah

    2007-05-01

    Although tamoxifen can trigger steatohepatitis, the mechanism of steatosis is unclear. We hypothesized that this DNA-intercalating, cationic amphiphilic drug could accumulate within mitochondria to impair fatty acid oxidation, respiration, and mitochondrial DNA relaxation and synthesis. We studied the in vitro effects of tamoxifen on topoisomerases and mouse liver mitochondria and its in vivo hepatic effects in mice treated for 1 to 28 days with a daily dose of tamoxifen reproducing the plasma concentrations observed in humans. In vitro, tamoxifen inhibited topoisomerase-mediated plasmid DNA relaxation. It accumulated 40-fold inside mitochondria and inhibited both respiration and fatty acid oxidation. In vivo, a single dose of tamoxifen inhibited palmitic acid oxidation and hepatic lipoprotein secretion. Tamoxifen administration also decreased mitochondrial DNA synthesis and progressively depleted hepatic mitochondrial DNA, down to 40% of control values at 28 days. The decrease in mitochondrial DNA-encoded respiratory complexes sensitized mitochondria to the inhibitory effects of tamoxifen on mitochondrial respiration. Hepatic steatosis was absent at 5 days, mild at 12 days, and moderate at 28 days. The fatty acid synthase protein was normally expressed at 12 days but was decreased by 52% at 28 days. In conclusion, tamoxifen decreases hepatic triglyceride secretion, and it accumulates electrophoretically in mitochondria, where it impairs beta-oxidation and respiration. Tamoxifen also inhibits topoisomerases and mitochondrial DNA synthesis and progressively depletes hepatic mitochondrial DNA in vivo. These combined effects could decrease fat removal from the liver, thus causing hepatic steatosis despite a secondary down-regulation of hepatic fatty acid synthase expression.

  16. Biochemical and structural characterization of mouse mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase, a newly identified kynurenine aminotransferase-IV

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Q.; Robinson, H.; Cai, T.; Tagle, D. A.; Li, J.

    2011-10-01

    Mammalian mAspAT (mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase) is recently reported to have KAT (kynurenine aminotransferase) activity and plays a role in the biosynthesis of KYNA (kynurenic acid) in rat, mouse and human brains. This study concerns the biochemical and structural characterization of mouse mAspAT. In this study, mouse mAspAT cDNA was amplified from mouse brain first stand cDNA and its recombinant protein was expressed in an Escherichia coli expression system. Sixteen oxo acids were tested for the co-substrate specificity of mouse mAspAT and 14 of them were shown to be capable of serving as co-substrates for the enzyme. Structural analysis of mAspAT by macromolecular crystallography revealed that the cofactor-binding residues of mAspAT are similar to those of other KATs. The substrate-binding residues of mAspAT are slightly different from those of other KATs. Our results provide a biochemical and structural basis towards understanding the overall physiological role of mAspAT in vivo and insight into controlling the levels of endogenous KYNA through modulation of the enzyme in the mouse brain.

  17. Subcellular Distribution of Mitochondrial Ribosomal RNA in the Mouse Oocyte and Zygote

    PubMed Central

    Ninomiya, Youichirou; Ichinose, Shizuko

    2007-01-01

    Mitochondrial ribosomal RNAs (mtrRNAs) have been reported to translocate extra-mitochondrially and localize to the germ cell determinant of oocytes and zygotes in some metazoa except mammals. To address whether the mtrRNAs also localize in the mammals, expression and distribution of mitochondrion-encoded RNAs in the mouse oocytes and zygotes was examined by whole-mount in situ hybridization (ISH). Both 12S and 16S rRNAs were predominantly distributed in the animal hemisphere of the mature oocyte. This distribution pattern was rearranged toward the second polar body in zygotes after fertilization. The amount of mtrRNAs decreased around first cleavage, remained low during second cleavage and increased after third cleavage. Staining intensity of the 12S rRNA was weaker than that of the 16S rRNA throughout the examined stages. Similar distribution dynamics of the 16S rRNA was observed in strontium-activated haploid parthenotes, suggesting the distribution rearrangement does not require a component from sperm. The distribution of 16S rRNAs did not coincide with that of mitochondrion-specific heat shock protein 70, suggesting that the mtrRNA is translocated from mitochondria. The ISH-scanning electron microscopy confirms the extra-mitochondrial mtrRNA in the mouse oocyte. Chloramphenicol (CP) treatment of late pronuclear stage zygotes perturbed first cleavage as judged by the greater than normal disparity in size of blastomeres of 2-cell conceptuses. Two-third of the CP-treated zygotes arrested at either 2-cell or 3-cell stage even after the CP was washed out. These findings indicate that the extra-mitochondrial mtrRNAs are localized in the mouse oocyte and implicated in correct cytoplasmic segregation into blastomeres through cleavages of the zygote. PMID:18043748

  18. Calcium Uptake via Mitochondrial Uniporter Contributes to Palmitic Acid-induced Apoptosis in Mouse Podocytes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zeting; Cao, Aili; Liu, Hua; Guo, Henjiang; Zang, Yingjun; Wang, Yi; Wang, Yunman; Wang, Hao; Yin, Peihao; Peng, Wen

    2017-02-09

    Podocytes are component cells of the glomerular filtration barrier, and their loss by apoptosis is the main cause of proteinuria that leads to diabetic nephropathy (DN). Therefore, insights into podocyte apoptosis mechanism would allow a better understanding of DN pathogenesis and thus help develop adequate therapeutic strategies. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism of palmitic acid-inhibited cell death in mouse podocytes, and found that palmitic acid increased cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Palmitic acid induces apoptosis in podocytes through up-regulation of cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca(2+) , mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), cytochrome c release and depletion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) , The intracellular calcium chelator, 1,2-bis (2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N, N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA-AM), partially prevented this up-regulation whereas 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), an inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (IP3R) inhibitor; dantrolene, a ryanodine receptor (RyR) inhibitor; and 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostibene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS), an anion exchange inhibitor, had no effect. Interestingly, ruthenium red and Ru360, both inhibitors of the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU), blocked palmitic acid-induced mitochondrial Ca(2+) elevation, cytochrome c release from mitochondria to cytosol, and apoptosis. siRNA to MCU markedly reduced curcumin-induced apoptosis. These data indicate that Ca(2+) uptake via mitochondrial uniporter contributes to palmitic acid-induced apoptosis in mouse podocytes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Chronically ischemic mouse skeletal muscle exhibits myopathy in association with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Pipinos, Iraklis I; Swanson, Stanley A; Zhu, Zhen; Nella, Aikaterini A; Weiss, Dustin J; Gutti, Tanuja L; McComb, Rodney D; Baxter, B Timothy; Lynch, Thomas G; Casale, George P

    2008-07-01

    A myopathy characterized by mitochondrial pathology and oxidative stress is present in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Patients with PAD differ in disease severity, mode of presentation, and presence of comorbid conditions. In this study, we used a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia to isolate and directly investigate the effects of chronic inflow arterial occlusion on skeletal muscle microanatomy, mitochondrial function and expression, and oxidative stress. Hindlimb ischemia was induced by staged ligation/division of the common femoral and iliac arteries in C57BL/6 mice, and muscles were harvested 12 wk later. Muscle microanatomy was examined by bright-field microscopy, and mitochondrial content was determined as citrate synthase activity in muscle homogenates and ATP synthase expression by fluorescence microscopy. Electron transport chain (ETC) complexes I through IV were analyzed individually by respirometry. Oxidative stress was assessed as total protein carbonyls and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) adducts and altered expression and activity of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). Ischemic muscle exhibited histological features of myopathy and increased mitochondrial content compared with control muscle. Complex-dependent respiration was significantly reduced for ETC complexes I, III, and IV in ischemic muscle. Protein carbonyls, HNE adducts, and MnSOD expression were significantly increased in ischemic muscle. MnSOD activity was not significantly changed, suggesting MnSOD inactivation. Using a mouse model, we have demonstrated for the first time that inflow arterial occlusion alone, i.e., in the absence of other comorbid conditions, causes myopathy with mitochondrial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress, recapitulating the muscle pathology of PAD patients.

  20. MITOCHONDRIAL DISEASES PART I: MOUSE MODELS OF OXPHOS DEFICIENCIES CAUSED BY DEFECTS ON RESPIRATORY COMPLEX SUBUNITS OR ASSEMBLY FACTORS

    PubMed Central

    Torraco, Alessandra; Peralta, Susana; Iommarini, Luisa; Diaz, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial disorders are the most common inborn errors of metabolism affecting the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS). Because the poor knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms, a cure for these disorders is still unavailable and all the treatments currently in use are supportive more than curative. Therefore, in the past decade a great variety of mouse models have been developed to assess the in vivo function of several mitochondrial proteins involved in human diseases. Due to the genetic and physiological similarity to humans, mice represent reliable models to study the pathogenic mechanisms of mitochondrial disorders and are precious to test new therapeutic approaches. Here we summarize the features of several mouse models of mitochondrial diseases directly related to defects in subunits of the OXPHOS complexes or in assembly factors. We discuss how these models recapitulate many human conditions and how they have contributed to the understanding of mitochondrial function in health and disease. PMID:25660179

  1. Dysregulation of the Axonal Trafficking of Nuclear-encoded Mitochondrial mRNA alters Neuronal Mitochondrial Activity and Mouse Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Amar N.; Sun, Ching-Yu; Reichard, Kathryn; Gervasi, Noreen M.; Pickel, James; Nakazawa, Kazu; Gioio, Anthony E.; Kaplan, Barry B.

    2014-01-01

    Local translation of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial mRNAs is essential for mitochondrial activity, yet there is little insight into the role that axonal trafficking of these transcripts play in neuronal function and behavior. Previously, we identified a 38 nucleotide stem-loop structure (zipcode) in the 3′ untranslated region of the Cytochrome C oxidase IV (COXIV) mRNA that directs the transport of a reporter mRNA to the axon of superior cervical ganglion neurons (SCG). Over-expression of a chimeric reporter mRNA with the COXIV zipcode competed with the axonal trafficking of endogenous COXIV mRNA, and led to attenuated axon growth in SCG neurons. Here, we show that exogenous expression of the COXIV zipcode in cultured SCG neurons also results in the reduction of local ATP levels and increases levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the axon. We took advantage of this “competition” phenotype to investigate the in vivo significance of axonal transport of COXIV mRNA. Towards this end, we generated transgenic mice expressing a fluorescent reporter fused to COXIV zipcode under a forebrain-specific promoter. Immunohistological analyses and RT-PCR analyses of RNA from the transgenic mouse brain showed expression of the reporter in the deep layer neurons in the pre-frontal and frontal cortex. Consistent with the in vitro studies, we observed increased ROS levels in neurons of these transgenic animals. A battery of behavioral tests on transgenic mice expressing the COXIV zipcode revealed an “anxiety-like” behavioral phenotype, suggesting an important role for axonal trafficking of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial mRNAs in neuronal physiology and animal behavior. PMID:24151253

  2. Local mitochondrial-endolysosomal microfusion cleaves voltage-dependent anion channel 1 to promote survival in hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Brahimi-Horn, M Christiane; Lacas-Gervais, Sandra; Adaixo, Ricardo; Ilc, Karine; Rouleau, Matthieu; Notte, Annick; Dieu, Marc; Michiels, Carine; Voeltzel, Thibault; Maguer-Satta, Véronique; Pelletier, Joffrey; Ilie, Marius; Hofman, Paul; Manoury, Bénédicte; Schmidt, Alexander; Hiller, Sebastian; Pouysségur, Jacques; Mazure, Nathalie M

    2015-05-01

    The oxygen-limiting (hypoxic) microenvironment of tumors induces metabolic reprogramming and cell survival, but the underlying mechanisms involving mitochondria remain poorly understood. We previously demonstrated that hypoxia-inducible factor 1 mediates the hyperfusion of mitochondria by inducing Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19-kDa interacting protein 3 and posttranslational truncation of the mitochondrial ATP transporter outer membrane voltage-dependent anion channel 1 in hypoxic cells. In addition, we showed that truncation is associated with increased resistance to drug-induced apoptosis and is indicative of increased patient chemoresistance. We now show that silencing of the tumor suppressor TP53 decreases truncation and increases drug-induced apoptosis. We also show that TP53 regulates truncation through induction of the mitochondrial protein Mieap. While we found that truncation was independent of mitophagy, we observed local microfusion between mitochondria and endolysosomes in hypoxic cells in culture and in patients' tumor tissues. Since we found that the endolysosomal asparagine endopeptidase was responsible for truncation, we propose that it is a readout of mitochondrial-endolysosomal microfusion in hypoxia. These novel findings provide the framework for a better understanding of hypoxic cell metabolism and cell survival through mitochondrial-endolysosomal microfusion regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 and TP53.

  3. Synthetic Ubiquinones Specifically Bind to Mitochondrial Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 1 (VDAC1) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Murai, Masatoshi; Okuda, Ayaka; Yamamoto, Takenori; Shinohara, Yasuo; Miyoshi, Hideto

    2017-01-31

    The role of the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) as a metabolic gate of the mitochondrial outer membrane has been firmly established; however, its involvement in the regulation of mitochondrial permeability transition (PT) remains extremely controversial. Although some low-molecular-weight chemicals have been proposed to modulate the regulatory role of VDAC in the induction of PT, direct binding between these chemicals and VDAC has not yet been demonstrated. In the present study, we investigated whether the ubiquinone molecule directly binds to VDAC in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria through a photoaffinity labeling technique using two photoreactive ubiquinones (PUQ-1 and PUQ-2). The results of the labeling experiments demonstrated that PUQ-1 and PUQ-2 specifically bind to VDAC1 and that the labeled position is located in the C-terminal region Phe221-Lys234, connecting the 15th and 16th β-strand sheets. Mutations introduced in this region (R224A, Y225A, D228A, and Y225A/D228A) hardly affected the binding affinity of PUQ-1. PUQ-1 and PUQ-2 both significantly suppressed the Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial PT (monitored by mitochondrial swelling) at the one digit μM level. Thus, the results of the present study provided, for the first time to our knowledge, direct evidence indicating that the ubiquinone molecule specifically binds to VDAC1 through its quinone-head ring.

  4. Embryonic Lethality of Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier 1 Deficient Mouse Can Be Rescued by a Ketogenic Diet

    PubMed Central

    Krznar, Petra; Hörl, Manuel; Ammar, Zeinab; Montessuit, Sylvie; Pierredon, Sandra; Zamboni, Nicola; Martinou, Jean-Claude

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial import of pyruvate by the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) is a central step which links cytosolic and mitochondrial intermediary metabolism. To investigate the role of the MPC in mammalian physiology and development, we generated a mouse strain with complete loss of MPC1 expression. This resulted in embryonic lethality at around E13.5. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from mutant mice displayed defective pyruvate-driven respiration as well as perturbed metabolic profiles, and both defects could be restored by reexpression of MPC1. Labeling experiments using 13C-labeled glucose and glutamine demonstrated that MPC deficiency causes increased glutaminolysis and reduced contribution of glucose-derived pyruvate to the TCA cycle. Morphological defects were observed in mutant embryonic brains, together with major alterations of their metabolome including lactic acidosis, diminished TCA cycle intermediates, energy deficit and a perturbed balance of neurotransmitters. Strikingly, these changes were reversed when the pregnant dams were fed a ketogenic diet, which provides acetyl-CoA directly to the TCA cycle and bypasses the need for a functional MPC. This allowed the normal gestation and development of MPC deficient pups, even though they all died within a few minutes post-delivery. This study establishes the MPC as a key player in regulating the metabolic state necessary for embryonic development, neurotransmitter balance and post-natal survival. PMID:27176894

  5. Crosstalk between Mitochondrial Fission and Oxidative Stress in Paraquat-Induced Apoptosis in Mouse Alveolar Type II Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guangju; Cao, Kaiqiang; Xu, Changqin; Sun, Aifang; Lu, Wang; Zheng, Yi; Li, Haixiao; Hong, Guangliang; Wu, Bing; Qiu, Qiaomeng; Lu, Zhongqiu

    2017-01-01

    Paraquat (PQ), as a highly effective and nonselective herbicide, induces cell apoptosis through generation of superoxide anions which forms reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mitochondria, as regulators for cellular redox signaling, have been proved to play an important role in PQ-induced cell apoptosis. This study aimed to evaluate whether and how mitochondrial fission interacts with oxidative stress in PQ-induced apoptosis in mouse alveolar type II (AT-II) cells. Firstly, we demonstrated that PQ promoted apoptosis and release of cytochrome-c (Cyt-c). Furthermore, we showed that PQ broke down mitochondrial network, enhanced the expression of fission-related proteins, increased Drp1 mitochondrial translocation while decreased the expression of fusion-related proteins in AT-II cells. Besides, inhibiting mitochondrial fission using mdivi-1, a selective inhibitor of Drp1, markedly attenuated PQ-induced apoptosis, release of Cyt-c and the generation of ROS. These results indicate that mitochondrial fission involves in PQ-induced apoptosis. Further study demonstrated that antioxidant ascorbic acid inhibited Drp1 mitochondrial translocation, mitochondrial fission and attenuated PQ-induced apoptosis. Overall, our findings suggest that mitochondrial fission interplays with ROS in PQ-induced apoptosis in mouse AT-II cells and mitochondrial fission could serve as a potential therapeutic target in PQ poisoning.

  6. Chronic haloperidol increases voltage-gated Na+ currents in mouse cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiqiang; Zhu, Fangfang; Guo, Jingfang; Sheng, Jiangtao; Li, Wenli; Zhao, Xiangfeng; Wang, Gefei; Li, Kangsheng

    2014-07-18

    Typical antipsychotics are characterized by extrapyramidal syndrome (EPS). Previous studies demonstrated that typical antipsychotics could inhibit neuronal voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC). However, EPS typically emerge only upon prolonged exposure. As a result, we examined effects of haloperidol, a prototype typical antipsychotic, on neuronal VGSC upon incubation for varying duration. Briefly, VGSC currents were activated and recorded using a whole-cell patch-clamp technique in primary culture of mouse cortical neurons. VGSC activity was inhibited by acute haloperidol exposure (for minutes), but enhanced in a time- and concentration-dependent manner by chronic haloperidol exposure (for hours). The effects of chronic haloperidol were associated with increased expression of VGSC subunits as well as corresponding electrophysiological channel properties. In summary, we found enhanced VGSC currents upon chronic haloperidol exposure in cortical neurons in contrast to inhibition by acute haloperidol exposure. Such a results may contribute to EPS of typical antipsychotics.

  7. Properties and molecular basis of the mouse urinary bladder voltage-gated K+ current

    PubMed Central

    Thorneloe, Kevin S; Nelson, Mark T

    2003-01-01

    Potassium channels play an important role in controlling the excitability of urinary bladder smooth muscle (UBSM). Here we describe the biophysical, pharmacological and molecular properties of the mouse UBSM voltage-gated K+ current (IK(V)). The IK(V) activated, deactivated and inactivated slowly with time constants of 29.9 ms at +30 mV, 131 ms at −40 mV and 3.4 s at +20 mV. The midpoints of steady-state activation and inactivation curves were 1.1 mV and −61.4 mV, respectively. These properties suggest that IK(V) plays a role in regulating the resting membrane potential and contributes to the repolarization and after-hyperpolarization phases of action potentials. The IK(V) was blocked by tetraethylammonium ions with an IC50 of 5.2 mm and was unaffected by 1 mm 4-aminopyridine. RT-PCR for voltage-gated K+ channel (KV) subunits revealed the expression of Kv2.1, Kv5.1, Kv6.1, Kv6.2 and Kv6.3 in isolated UBSM myocytes. A comparison of the biophysical properties of UBSM IK(V) with those reported for Kv2.1 and Kv5.1 and/or Kv6 heteromultimeric channels demonstrated a marked similarity. We propose that heteromultimeric channel complexes composed of Kv2.1 and Kv5.1 and/or Kv6 subunits form the molecular basis of the mouse UBSM IK(V). PMID:12679374

  8. A mouse model of mitochondrial complex III dysfunction induced by myxothiazol

    SciTech Connect

    Davoudi, Mina; Kallijärvi, Jukka; Marjavaara, Sanna; Kotarsky, Heike; Hansson, Eva; Levéen, Per; Fellman, Vineta

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • Reversible chemical inhibition of complex III in wild type mouse. • Myxothiazol causes decreased complex III activity in mouse liver. • The model is useful for therapeutic trials to improve mitochondrial function. - Abstract: Myxothiazol is a respiratory chain complex III (CIII) inhibitor that binds to the ubiquinol oxidation site Qo of CIII. It blocks electron transfer from ubiquinol to cytochrome b and thus inhibits CIII activity. It has been utilized as a tool in studies of respiratory chain function in in vitro and cell culture models. We developed a mouse model of biochemically induced and reversible CIII inhibition using myxothiazol. We administered myxothiazol intraperitoneally at a dose of 0.56 mg/kg to C57Bl/J6 mice every 24 h and assessed CIII activity, histology, lipid content, supercomplex formation, and gene expression in the livers of the mice. A reversible CIII activity decrease to 50% of control value occurred at 2 h post-injection. At 74 h only minor histological changes in the liver were found, supercomplex formation was preserved and no significant changes in the expression of genes indicating hepatotoxicity or inflammation were found. Thus, myxothiazol-induced CIII inhibition can be induced in mice for four days in a row without overt hepatotoxicity or lethality. This model could be utilized in further studies of respiratory chain function and pharmacological approaches to mitochondrial hepatopathies.

  9. Suppression of oxidative metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis by the transcriptional corepressor RIP140 in mouse adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Powelka, Aimee M.; Seth, Asha; Virbasius, Joseph V.; Kiskinis, Evangelos; Nicoloro, Sarah M.; Guilherme, Adilson; Tang, Xiaoqing; Straubhaar, Juerg; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Parker, Malcolm G.; Czech, Michael P.

    2005-01-01

    Using an siRNA-based screen, we identified the transcriptional corepressor RIP140 as a negative regulator of insulin-responsive hexose uptake and oxidative metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Affymetrix GeneChip profiling revealed that RIP140 depletion upregulates the expression of clusters of genes in the pathways of glucose uptake, glycolysis, TCA cycle, fatty acid oxidation, mitochondrial biogenesis, and oxidative phosphorylation in these cells. Conversely, we show that reexpression of RIP140 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from RIP140-null mice downregulates expression of many of these same genes. Consistent with these microarray data, RIP140 gene silencing in cultured adipocytes increased both conversion of [14C]glucose to CO2 and mitochondrial oxygen consumption. RIP140-null mice, previously reported to resist weight gain on a high-fat diet, are shown here to display enhanced glucose tolerance and enhanced responsiveness to insulin compared with matched wild-type mice upon high-fat feeding. Mechanistically, RIP140 was found to require the nuclear receptor ERRα to regulate hexose uptake and mitochondrial proteins SDHB and CoxVb, although it likely acts through other nuclear receptors as well. We conclude that RIP140 is a major suppressor of adipocyte oxidative metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis, as well as a negative regulator of whole-body glucose tolerance and energy expenditure in mice. PMID:16374519

  10. Reducing Mitochondrial ROS Improves Disease-related Pathology in a Mouse Model of Ataxia-telangiectasia

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, Anthony D; Parish, Ian A; Krause, Diane S; Kaech, Susan M; Shadel, Gerald S

    2013-01-01

    The disease ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) has no cure and few treatment options. It is caused by mutations in the ATM kinase, which functions in the DNA-damage response and redox sensing. In addition to severe cerebellar degeneration, A-T pathology includes cancer predisposition, sterility, immune system dysfunction, and bone marrow abnormalities. These latter phenotypes are recapitulated in the ATM null (ATM−/−) mouse model of the disease. Since oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are implicated in A-T, we determined whether reducing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) via overexpression of catalase targeted to mitochondria (mCAT) alleviates A-T–related pathology in ATM−/− mice. We found that mCAT has many beneficial effects in this context, including reduced propensity to develop thymic lymphoma, improved bone marrow hematopoiesis and macrophage differentiation in vitro, and partial rescue of memory T-cell developmental defects. Our results suggest that positive effects observed on cancer development may be linked to mCAT reducing mitochondrial ROS, lactate production, and TORC1 signaling in transforming double-positive cells, whereas beneficial effects in memory T cells appear to be TORC1-independent. Altogether, this study provides proof-of-principle that reducing mitochondrial ROS production per se may be therapeutic for the disease, which may have advantages compared with more general antioxidant strategies. PMID:23011031

  11. Identification of nonferritin mitochondrial iron deposits in a mouse model of Friedreich ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Whitnall, Megan; Rahmanto, Yohan Suryo; Huang, Michael L.-H.; Saletta, Federica; Lok, Hiu Chuen; Gutiérrez, Lucía; Lázaro, Francisco J.; Fleming, Adam J.; St. Pierre, Tim G.; Mikhael, Marc R.; Ponka, Prem; Richardson, Des R.

    2012-01-01

    There is no effective treatment for the cardiomyopathy of the most common autosomal recessive ataxia, Friedreich ataxia (FA). This disease is due to decreased expression of the mitochondrial protein, frataxin, which leads to alterations in mitochondrial iron (Fe) metabolism. The identification of potentially toxic mitochondrial Fe deposits in FA suggests Fe plays a role in its pathogenesis. Studies using the muscle creatine kinase (MCK) conditional frataxin knockout mouse that mirrors the disease have demonstrated frataxin deletion alters cardiac Fe metabolism. Indeed, there are pronounced changes in Fe trafficking away from the cytosol to the mitochondrion, leading to a cytosolic Fe deficiency. Considering Fe deficiency can induce apoptosis and cell death, we examined the effect of dietary Fe supplementation, which led to body Fe loading and limited the cardiac hypertrophy in MCK mutants. Furthermore, this study indicates a unique effect of heart and skeletal muscle-specific frataxin deletion on systemic Fe metabolism. Namely, frataxin deletion induces a signaling mechanism to increase systemic Fe levels and Fe loading in tissues where frataxin expression is intact (i.e., liver, kidney, and spleen). Examining the mutant heart, native size-exclusion chromatography, transmission electron microscopy, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and magnetic susceptibility measurements demonstrated that in the absence of frataxin, mitochondria contained biomineral Fe aggregates, which were distinctly different from isolated mammalian ferritin molecules. These mitochondrial aggregates of Fe, phosphorus, and sulfur, probably contribute to the oxidative stress and pathology observed in the absence of frataxin. PMID:23169664

  12. A mitochondrial therapeutic reverses visual decline in mouse models of diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Nazia M.; Mills, William C.; Wong, Aimee A.; Douglas, Robert M.; Szeto, Hazel H.; Prusky, Glen T.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Diabetic retinopathy is characterized by progressive vision loss and the advancement of retinal micoraneurysms, edema and angiogenesis. Unfortunately, managing glycemia or targeting vascular complications with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents has shown only limited efficacy in treating the deterioration of vision in diabetic retinopathy. In light of growing evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction is an independent pathophysiology of diabetes and diabetic retinopathy, we investigated whether selectively targeting and improving mitochondrial dysfunction is a viable treatment for visual decline in diabetes. Measures of spatial visual behavior, blood glucose, bodyweight and optical clarity were made in mouse models of diabetes. Treatment groups were administered MTP-131, a water-soluble tetrapeptide that selectively targets mitochondrial cardiolipin and promotes efficient electron transfer, either systemically or in eye drops. Progressive visual decline emerged in untreated animals before the overt symptoms of metabolic and ophthalmic abnormalities were manifest, but with time, visual dysfunction was accompanied by compromised glucose clearance, and elevated blood glucose and bodyweight. MTP-131 treatment reversed the visual decline without improving glycemic control or reducing bodyweight. These data provide evidence that visuomotor decline is an early complication of diabetes. They also indicate that selectively treating mitochondrial dysfunction with MTP-131 has the potential to remediate the visual dysfunction and to complement existing treatments for diabetic retinopathy. PMID:26035391

  13. Maternal diet-induced obesity alters mitochondrial activity and redox status in mouse oocytes and zygotes.

    PubMed

    Igosheva, Natalia; Abramov, Andrey Y; Poston, Lucilla; Eckert, Judith J; Fleming, Tom P; Duchen, Michael R; McConnell, Josie

    2010-04-09

    The negative impact of obesity on reproductive success is well documented but the stages at which development of the conceptus is compromised and the mechanisms responsible for the developmental failure still remain unclear. Recent findings suggest that mitochondria may be a contributing factor. However to date no studies have directly addressed the consequences of maternal obesity on mitochondria in early embryogenesis.Using an established murine model of maternal diet induced obesity and a live cell dynamic fluorescence imaging techniques coupled with molecular biology we have investigated the underlying mechanisms of obesity-induced reduced fertility. Our study is the first to show that maternal obesity prior to conception is associated with altered mitochondria in mouse oocytes and zygotes. Specifically, maternal diet-induced obesity in mice led to an increase in mitochondrial potential, mitochondrial DNA content and biogenesis. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was raised while glutathione was depleted and the redox state became more oxidised, suggestive of oxidative stress. These altered mitochondrial properties were associated with significant developmental impairment as shown by the increased number of obese mothers who failed to support blastocyst formation compared to lean dams. We propose that compromised oocyte and early embryo mitochondrial metabolism, resulting from excessive nutrient exposure prior to and during conception, may underlie poor reproductive outcomes frequently reported in obese women.

  14. Displacing hexokinase from mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) impairs GLT-1-mediated glutamate uptake but does not disrupt interactions between GLT-1 and mitochondrial proteins

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Joshua G.; O’Donnell, John C.; Krizman, Elizabeth; Robinson, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    The glutamate transporter GLT-1 is the major route for the clearance of extracellular glutamate in the forebrain, and most GLT-1 protein is found in astrocytes. This protein is coupled to the Na+-electrochemical gradient, supporting the active intracellular accumulation of glutamate. We recently used a proteomic approach to identify proteins that may interact with GLT-1 in rat cortex, including the Na+/K+-ATPase, most glycolytic enzymes, and several mitochondrial proteins. We also showed that most GLT-1 puncta (~70%) are overlapped by mitochondria in astroglial processes in organotypic slices. Based on this analysis, we proposed that the glycolytic enzyme hexokinase 1 (HK1) might physically form a scaffold to link GLT-1 and mitochondria because HK1 is known to interact with the outer mitochondrial membrane protein, voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC). In the present study, we first validated the interactions between HK-1, VDAC and GLT-1 using forward and reverse immunoprecipitations. We also provided evidence that a subfraction of HK1 co-localizes with GLT-1 in vivo. We found that a peptide, known to disrupt the interaction between HK and VDAC, did not disrupt interactions between GLT-1 and several mitochondrial proteins. In parallel experiments, we found that displacement of HK from VDAC reduced GLT-1-mediated glutamate uptake. These results suggest that although HK1 forms co-immunoprecipitatable complexes with both VDAC and GLT-1, it does not physically link GLT-1 to mitochondrial proteins. However, the interaction of HK1 with VDAC supports GLT-1-mediated transport activity. PMID:25546576

  15. Methoxychlor causes mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in the mouse ovary

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.K.; Schuh, R.A.; Fiskum, G.; Flaws, J.A. . E-mail: jflaws@epi.umaryland.edu

    2006-11-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide that reduces fertility in female rodents by causing ovarian atrophy, persistent estrous cyclicity, and antral follicle atresia (apoptotic cell death). Oxidative damage resulting from reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation has been demonstrated to lead to toxicant-induced cell death. Thus, this work tested the hypothesis that MXC causes oxidative damage to the mouse ovary and affects mitochondrial respiration in a manner that stimulates ROS production. For the in vitro experiments, mitochondria were collected from adult cycling mouse ovaries, treated with vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide; DMSO) or MXC, and subjected to polarographic measurements of respiration. For the in vivo experiments, adult cycling CD-1 mice were dosed with either vehicle (sesame oil) or MXC for 20 days. After treatment, ovarian mitochondria were isolated and subjected to measurements of respiration and fluorimetric measurements of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production. Some ovaries were also fixed and processed for immunohistochemistry using antibodies for ROS production markers: nitrotyrosine and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHG). Ovaries from in vivo experiments were also used to measure the mRNA expression and activity of antioxidants such as Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and catalase (CAT). The results indicate that MXC significantly impairs mitochondrial respiration, increases production of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, causes more staining for nitrotyrosine and 8-OHG in antral follicles, and decreases the expression and activity of SOD1, GPX, and CAT as compared to controls. Collectively, these data indicate that MXC inhibits mitochondrial respiration, causes ROS production, and decreases antioxidant expression and activity in the ovary, specifically in the antral follicles. Therefore, it is possible that MXC causes atresia of ovarian antral follicles by inducing oxidative stress through mitochondrial production of ROS.

  16. Validation of optical voltage reporting by the genetically encoded voltage indicator VSFP-Butterfly from cortical layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in mouse brain slices.

    PubMed

    Empson, Ruth M; Goulton, Chelsea; Scholtz, David; Gallero-Salas, Yasir; Zeng, Hongkui; Knöpfel, Thomas

    2015-07-29

    Understanding how behavior emerges from brain electrical activity is one of the ultimate goals of neuroscience. To achieve this goal we require methods for large-scale recording of the electrical activity of specific neuronal circuits. A very promising approach is to use optical reporting of membrane voltage transients, particularly if the voltage reporter is genetically targeted to specific neuronal populations. Targeting in this way allows population signals to be recorded and interpreted without blindness to neuronal diversity. Here, we evaluated the voltage-sensitive fluorescent protein, VSFP Butterfly 2.1, a genetically encoded voltage indicator (GEVI), for monitoring electrical activity of layer 2/3 cortical pyramidal neurons in mouse brain slices. Standard widefield fluorescence and two-photon imaging revealed robust, high signal-to-noise ratio read-outs of membrane voltage transients that are predominantly synaptic in nature and can be resolved as discrete areas of synaptically connected layer 2/3 neurons. We find that targeted expression of this GEVI in the cortex provides a flexible and promising tool for the analysis of L2/3 cortical network function. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  17. Expression of deoxynucleoside kinases and 5'-nucleotidases in mouse tissues: implications for mitochondrial toxicity.

    PubMed

    Rylova, Svetlana N; Mirzaee, Saeedeh; Albertioni, Freidoun; Eriksson, Staffan

    2007-06-30

    Anti-HIV nucleoside therapy can result in mitochondrial toxicity affecting muscles, peripheral nerves, pancreas and adipose tissue. The cytosolic deoxycytidine kinase (dCK; EC 2.7.1.74) and thymidine kinase (TK1; EC 2.7.1.21), the mitochondrial thymidine kinase (TK2) and deoxyguanosine kinase (dGK; EC 2.7.1.113) as well as 5'-deoxynucleotidases (5'-dNT; EC 3.1.3.5) are enzymes that control rate-limiting steps in formation of intracellular and intra-mitochondrial nucleotides. The mRNA levels and activities of these enzymes were determined in mouse tissues, using real-time PCR and selective enzyme assays. The expression of mRNA for all these enzymes and the mitochondrial deoxynucleotide carrier was detected in all tissues with a 5-10-fold variation. TK1 activities were only clearly detected in spleen and testis, while TK2, dGK and dCK activities were found in all tissues. dGK activities were higher than any other dNK in all tissues, except spleen and testis. In skeletal muscle dGK activity was 5-fold lower, TK2 and dCK levels were 10-fold lower as compared with other tissues. The variation in 5'-dNT activities was about eight-fold with the highest levels in brain and lowest in brown fat. Thus, the salvage of deoxynucleosides in muscles is 5-10-fold lower as compared to other non-proliferating tissues and 100-fold lower compared to spleen. These results may help to explain tissue specific toxicity observed with nucleoside analogs used in HIV treatment as well as symptoms in inherited mitochondrial TK2 deficiencies.

  18. Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 1(VDAC1) Participates the Apoptosis of the Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Desminopathy

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Yanqing; Gong, Qi; Jiang, Aihua; Zhao, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Desminopathies caused by the mutation in the gene coding for desmin are genetically protein aggregation myopathies. Mitochondrial dysfunction is one of pathological changes in the desminopathies at the earliest stage. The molecular mechanisms of mitochondria dysfunction in desminopathies remain exclusive. VDAC1 regulates mitochondrial uptake across the outer membrane and mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP). Relationships between desminopathies and Voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) remain unclear. Here we successfully constructed the desminopathy rat model, evaluated with conventional stains, containing hematoxylin and eosin (HE), Gomori Trichrome (MGT), (PAS), red oil (ORO), NADH-TR, SDH staining and immunohistochemistry. Immunofluorescence results showed that VDAC1 was accumulated in the desmin highly stained area of muscle fibers of desminopathy patients or desminopathy rat model compared to the normal ones. Meanwhile apoptosis related proteins bax and ATF2 were involved in desminopathy patients and desminopathy rat model, but not bcl-2, bcl-xl or HK2.VDAC1 and desmin are closely relevant in the tissue splices of deminopathies patients and rats with desminopathy at protein lever. Moreover, apoptotic proteins are also involved in the desminopathies, like bax, ATF2, but not bcl-2, bcl-xl or HK2. This pathological analysis presents the correlation between VDAC1 and desmin, and apoptosis related proteins are correlated in the desminopathy. Furthermore, we provide a rat model of desminopathy for the investigation of desmin related myopathy. PMID:27941998

  19. Optimal voltage stimulation parameters for network-mediated responses in wild type and rd10 mouse retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Jalligampala, Archana; Sekhar, Sudarshan; Zrenner, Eberhart; Rathbun, Daniel L

    2017-04-01

    To further improve the quality of visual percepts elicited by microelectronic retinal prosthetics, substantial efforts have been made to understand how retinal neurons respond to electrical stimulation. It is generally assumed that a sufficiently strong stimulus will recruit most retinal neurons. However, recent evidence has shown that the responses of some retinal neurons decrease with excessively strong stimuli (a non-monotonic response function). Therefore, it is necessary to identify stimuli that can be used to activate the majority of retinal neurons even when such non-monotonic cells are part of the neuronal population. Taking these non-monotonic responses into consideration, we establish the optimal voltage stimulation parameters (amplitude, duration, and polarity) for epiretinal stimulation of network-mediated (indirect) ganglion cell responses. We recorded responses from 3958 mouse retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in both healthy (wild type, WT) and a degenerating (rd10) mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa-using flat-mounted retina on a microelectrode array. Rectangular monophasic voltage-controlled pulses were presented with varying voltage, duration, and polarity. We found that in 4-5 weeks old rd10 mice the RGC thresholds were comparable to those of WT. There was a marked response variability among mouse RGCs. To account for this variability, we interpolated the percentage of RGCs activated at each point in the voltage-polarity-duration stimulus space, thus identifying the optimal voltage-controlled pulse (-2.4 V, 0.88 ms). The identified optimal voltage pulse can activate at least 65% of potentially responsive RGCs in both mouse strains. Furthermore, this pulse is well within the range of stimuli demonstrated to be safe and effective for retinal implant patients. Such optimized stimuli and the underlying method used to identify them support a high yield of responsive RGCs and will serve as an effective guideline for future in vitro investigations of

  20. Optimal voltage stimulation parameters for network-mediated responses in wild type and rd10 mouse retinal ganglion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalligampala, Archana; Sekhar, Sudarshan; Zrenner, Eberhart; Rathbun, Daniel L.

    2017-04-01

    To further improve the quality of visual percepts elicited by microelectronic retinal prosthetics, substantial efforts have been made to understand how retinal neurons respond to electrical stimulation. It is generally assumed that a sufficiently strong stimulus will recruit most retinal neurons. However, recent evidence has shown that the responses of some retinal neurons decrease with excessively strong stimuli (a non-monotonic response function). Therefore, it is necessary to identify stimuli that can be used to activate the majority of retinal neurons even when such non-monotonic cells are part of the neuronal population. Taking these non-monotonic responses into consideration, we establish the optimal voltage stimulation parameters (amplitude, duration, and polarity) for epiretinal stimulation of network-mediated (indirect) ganglion cell responses. We recorded responses from 3958 mouse retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in both healthy (wild type, WT) and a degenerating (rd10) mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa—using flat-mounted retina on a microelectrode array. Rectangular monophasic voltage-controlled pulses were presented with varying voltage, duration, and polarity. We found that in 4–5 weeks old rd10 mice the RGC thresholds were comparable to those of WT. There was a marked response variability among mouse RGCs. To account for this variability, we interpolated the percentage of RGCs activated at each point in the voltage-polarity-duration stimulus space, thus identifying the optimal voltage-controlled pulse (‑2.4 V, 0.88 ms). The identified optimal voltage pulse can activate at least 65% of potentially responsive RGCs in both mouse strains. Furthermore, this pulse is well within the range of stimuli demonstrated to be safe and effective for retinal implant patients. Such optimized stimuli and the underlying method used to identify them support a high yield of responsive RGCs and will serve as an effective guideline for future in vitro investigations

  1. Defects in Mitochondrial Dynamics and Metabolomic Signatures of Evolving Energetic Stress in Mouse Models of Familial Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Trushina, Eugenia; Nemutlu, Emirhan; Zhang, Song; Christensen, Trace; Camp, Jon; Mesa, Janny; Siddiqui, Ammar; Tamura, Yasushi; Sesaki, Hiromi; Wengenack, Thomas M.; Dzeja, Petras P.; Poduslo, Joseph F.

    2012-01-01

    Background The identification of early mechanisms underlying Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and associated biomarkers could advance development of new therapies and improve monitoring and predicting of AD progression. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been suggested to underlie AD pathophysiology, however, no comprehensive study exists that evaluates the effect of different familial AD (FAD) mutations on mitochondrial function, dynamics, and brain energetics. Methods and Findings We characterized early mitochondrial dysfunction and metabolomic signatures of energetic stress in three commonly used transgenic mouse models of FAD. Assessment of mitochondrial motility, distribution, dynamics, morphology, and metabolomic profiling revealed the specific effect of each FAD mutation on the development of mitochondrial stress and dysfunction. Inhibition of mitochondrial trafficking was characteristic for embryonic neurons from mice expressing mutant human presenilin 1, PS1(M146L) and the double mutation of human amyloid precursor protein APP(Tg2576) and PS1(M146L) contributing to the increased susceptibility of neurons to excitotoxic cell death. Significant changes in mitochondrial morphology were detected in APP and APP/PS1 mice. All three FAD models demonstrated a loss of the integrity of synaptic mitochondria and energy production. Metabolomic profiling revealed mutation-specific changes in the levels of metabolites reflecting altered energy metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction in brains of FAD mice. Metabolic biomarkers adequately reflected gender differences similar to that reported for AD patients and correlated well with the biomarkers currently used for diagnosis in humans. Conclusions Mutation-specific alterations in mitochondrial dynamics, morphology and function in FAD mice occurred prior to the onset of memory and neurological phenotype and before the formation of amyloid deposits. Metabolomic signatures of mitochondrial stress and altered energy metabolism indicated

  2. Increased axonal mitochondrial activity as an adaptation to myelin deficiency in the Shiverer mouse.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Helen; White, Kathryn; Thomson, Christine; Edgar, Julia; Bates, David; Griffiths, Ian; Turnbull, Douglass; Nichols, Philip

    2006-06-01

    Axonal pathology in multiple sclerosis (MS) has been described for over a century, but new insights into axonal loss and disability have refocused interest in this area. There is evidence of oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA in chronic MS plaques, suggesting that mitochondrial failure may play a role in MS pathology. We propose that in the chronic absence of myelin the maintenance of conduction relies partially on an increase in mitochondria to provide energy. This increased energy requirement also promotes reactive oxygen species (ROS), because most intraaxonal ROS are generated by mitochondria. If antioxidant defenses are overwhelmed by an excess of ROS, this may result in damage to the axon. Our aim was to investigate whether a chronic lack of myelin results in adaptive changes involving mitochondria within the axon. We investigated this in the shiverer mouse. This myelin basic protein gene mutant provides a model of how adult central nervous system (CNS) axons cope with the chronic absence of a compact myelin sheath. Cytochrome c histochemistry demonstrated a twofold increase in mitochondrial activity in white matter tracts of shiverer, and electron microscopy confirmed a significantly higher number of mitochondria within the dysmyelinated axons. Our data demonstrate that there are adaptive changes involving mitochondria occurring within CNS axons in shiverer mice in response to a lack of myelin. This work contributes to our understanding of the adaptive changes occurring in response to a lack of myelin in a noninflammatory environment similar to the situation seen in chronically demyelinated MS plaques.

  3. IRS2 increases mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in a mouse model of Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Sadagurski, Marianna; Cheng, Zhiyong; Rozzo, Aldo; Palazzolo, Isabella; Kelley, Gregory R; Dong, Xiaocheng; Krainc, Dimitri; White, Morris F

    2011-10-01

    Aging is a major risk factor for the progression of neurodegenerative diseases, including Huntington disease (HD). Reduced neuronal IGF1 or Irs2 signaling have been shown to extend life span in mice. To determine whether Irs2 signaling modulates neurodegeneration in HD, we genetically modulated Irs2 concentrations in the R6/2 mouse model of HD. Increasing Irs2 levels in the brains of R6/2 mice significantly reduced life span and increased neuronal oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. In contrast, reducing Irs2 levels throughout the body (except in β cells, where Irs2 expression is needed to prevent diabetes onset; R6/2•Irs2+/-•Irs2βtg mice) improved motor performance and extended life span. The slower progression of HD-like symptoms was associated with increased nuclear localization of the transcription factor FoxO1 and increased expression of FoxO1-dependent genes that promote autophagy, mitochondrial function, and resistance to oxidative stress. Mitochondrial function improved and the number of autophagosomes increased in R6/2•Irs2+/-•Irs2βtg mice, whereas aggregate formation and oxidative stress decreased. Thus, our study suggests that Irs2 signaling can modulate HD progression. Since we found the expression of Irs2 to be normal in grade II HD patients, our results suggest that decreasing IRS2 signaling could be part of a therapeutic approach to slow the progression of HD.

  4. Endomorphins and morphine limit anoxia-reoxygenation-induced brain mitochondrial dysfunction in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yun; Lu, Yingwei; Lin, Xin; Gao, Yanfeng; Zhao, Qianyu; Li, Wei; Wang, Rui

    2008-03-26

    The protection of brain mitochondria from oxidative stress is an important therapeutic strategy against ischemia-reperfusion injury and neurodegenerative disorders. Isolated brain mitochondria subjected to a 5 min period of anoxia followed by 5 min reoxygenation mirrored the effect of oxidative stress in the brain. The present study attempts to evaluate the protective effects of endomorphin 1 (EM1), endomorphin 2 (EM2), and morphine (Mor) in an in vitro mouse brain mitochondria anoxia-reoxygenation model. Endomorphins (EM1/2) and Mor were added to mitochondria prior to anoxia or reoxygenation. EM1/2 and Mor markedly improved mitochondrial respiratory activity with a decrease in state 4 and increases in state 3, respiratory control ratio (RCR) and the oxidative phosphorylation efficiency (ADP/O ratio), suggesting that they may play a protective role in mitochondria. These drugs inhibited alterations in mitochondrial membrane fluidity, lipoperoxidation, and cardiolipin (CL) release, which indicates protection of the mitochondrial membranes from oxidative damage. The protective effects of these drugs were concentration-dependent. Furthermore, these drugs blocked the enhanced release of cytochrome c (Cyt c), and consequently inhibited the cell apoptosis induced by the release of Cyt c. Our results suggest that EM1/2 and Mor effectively protect brain mitochondria against oxidative stresses induced by in vitro anoxia-reoxygenation and may play an important role in the prevention of deleterious effects during brain ischemia-reperfusion and neurodegenerative diseases.

  5. Neural stem cell transplantation enhances mitochondrial biogenesis in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease-like pathology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Gu, Guo-Jun; Shen, Xing; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Gang-Min; Wang, Pei-Jun

    2015-03-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction, especially a defect in mitochondrial biogenesis, is an early and prominent feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies demonstrated that the number of mitochondria is significantly reduced in susceptible hippocampal neurons from AD patients. Neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation in AD-like mice can compensate for the neuronal loss resulting from amyloid-beta protein deposition. The effects of NSC transplantation on mitochondrial biogenesis and cognitive function in AD-like mice, however, are poorly understood. In this study, we injected NSCs or vehicle into 12-month-old amyloid precursor protein (APP)/PS1 transgenic mice, a mouse model of AD-like pathology. The effects of NSC transplantation on cognitive function, the amount of mitochondrial DNA, the expression of mitochondrial biogenesis factors and mitochondria-related proteins, and mitochondrial morphology were investigated. Our results show that in NSC-injected APP/PS1 (Tg-NSC) mice, the cognitive function, number of mitochondria, and expression of mitochondria-related proteins, specifically the mitochondrial fission factors (dynamin-related protein 1 [Drp1] and fission 1 [Fis1]) and the mitochondrial fusion factor optic atrophy 1 (OPA1), were significantly increased compared with those in age-matched vehicle-injected APP/PS1 (Tg-Veh) mice, whereas the expression of mitochondrial fusion factors mitofusion 1 (Mfn1) and Mfn2 was significantly decreased. These data indicate that NSC transplantation may enhance mitochondria biogenesis and further rescue cognitive deficits in AD-like mice.

  6. Mitochondrial dysfunction in a transgenic mouse model expressing human amyloid precursor protein (APP) with the Arctic mutation.

    PubMed

    Rönnbäck, Annica; Pavlov, Pavel F; Mansory, Mansorah; Gonze, Prisca; Marlière, Nicolas; Winblad, Bengt; Graff, Caroline; Behbahani, Homira

    2016-02-01

    Accumulation of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) in the brain is an important event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. We have used a transgenic mouse model expressing human amyloid precursor protein (APP) with the Arctic mutation to investigate whether Aβ deposition is correlated with mitochondrial functions in these animals. We found evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction (i.e., decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, increased production of reactive oxygen species and oxidative DNA damage) at 6 months of age, when the mice showed very mild Aβ deposition. More pronounced mitochondrial abnormalities were present in 24-month-old TgAPParc mice with more extensive Aβ pathology. This study demonstrates for the first time mitochondrial dysfunction in transgenic mice with a mutation within the Aβ peptide (the Arctic APP mutation), and confirms previous studies suggesting that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress is an early event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. This study demonstrates mitochondrial dysfunction in transgenic mice with a mutation within the amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide (the Arctic amyloid precursor protein (APP) mutation). We found evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction (i.e. decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative DNA damage) at 6 months of age, when very mild Aβ deposition is present in the mice. Also, the cytochrome c (COX) activity was significantly decreased in mitochondria from transgenic mice at 24 months of age.

  7. Mitoguardin-1 and -2 promote maturation and the developmental potential of mouse oocytes by maintaining mitochondrial dynamics and functions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao-Man; Zhang, Yong-Ping; Ji, Shu-Yan; Li, Bo-Tai; Tian, Xuejun; Li, Dali; Tong, Chao; Fan, Heng-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dynamics change mitochondrial morphological features and numbers as a part of adaptive cellular metabolism, which is vital for most eukaryotic cells and organisms. A disease or even death of an animal can occur if these dynamics are disrupted. Using large-scale genetic screening in fruit flies, we previously found the gene mitoguardin (Miga), which encodes a mitochondrial outer-membrane protein and promotes mitochondrial fusion. Knockout mouse strains were generated for the mammalian Miga homologs Miga1 and Miga2. Miga1/2−/− females show greatly reduced quality of oocytes and early embryos and are subfertile. Mitochondria became clustered in the cytoplasm of oocytes from the germinal-vesicle stage to meiosis II; production of reactive oxygen species increased in mitochondria and caused damage to mitochondrial ultrastructures. Additionally, reduced ATP production, a decreased mitochondrial-DNA copy number, and lower mitochondrial membrane potential were detected in Miga1/2−/− oocytes during meiotic maturation. These changes resulted in low rates of polar-body extrusion during oocyte maturation, reduced developmental potential of the resulting early embryos, and consequently female subfertility. We provide direct evidence that MIGA1/2-regulated mitochondrial dynamics is crucial for mitochondrial functions, ensure oocyte maturation, and maintain the developmental potential. PMID:26716412

  8. Effect of garlic-derived organosulfur compounds on mitochondrial function and integrity in isolated mouse liver mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Caro, Andres A.; Adlong, Luke W.; Crocker, Samuel J.; Gardner, Michael W.; Luikart, Emily F.; Gron, Liz U.

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to evaluate the direct effects of diallysulfide (DAS) and diallyldisulfide (DADS), two major organosulfur compounds of garlic oil, on mitochondrial function and integrity, by using isolated mouse liver mitochondria in a cell-free system. DADS produced concentration-dependent mitochondrial swelling over the range 125–1000 μM, while DAS was ineffective. Swelling experiments performed with de-energized or energized mitochondria showed similar maximal swelling amplitudes. Cyclosporin A (1 μM), or ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid (EGTA, 1 mM) were ineffective in inhibiting DADS-induced mitochondrial swelling. DADS produced a minor (12%) decrease in mitochondrial membrane protein thiols, but did not induce clustering of mitochondrial membrane proteins. Incubation of mitochondria with DADS (but not DAS) produced an increase in the oxidation rate of 2′,7′ dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA), together with depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) and increased lipid peroxidation. DADS (but not DAS) produced a concentration-dependent dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential, but did not induce cytochrome c release. DADS-dependent effects, including mitochondrial swelling, DCFH-DA oxidation, lipid peroxidation and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, were inhibited by antioxidants and iron chelators. These results suggest that DADS causes direct impairment of mitochondrial function as the result of oxidation of the membrane lipid phase initiated by the GSH- and iron-dependent generation of oxidants. PMID:22960305

  9. Abnormal mitochondrial transport and morphology are common pathological denominators in SOD1 and TDP43 ALS mouse models.

    PubMed

    Magrané, Jordi; Cortez, Czrina; Gan, Wen-Biao; Manfredi, Giovanni

    2014-03-15

    Neuronal mitochondrial morphology abnormalities occur in models of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) associated with SOD1 and TDP43 mutations. These abnormalities have been linked to mitochondrial axonal transport defects, but the temporal and spatial relationship between mitochondrial morphology and transport alterations in these two distinct genetic forms of ALS has not been investigated in vivo. To address this question, we crossed SOD1 (wild-type SOD1(WT) and mutant SOD1(G93A)) or TDP43 (mutant TDP43(A315T)) transgenic mice with mice expressing the fluorescent protein Dendra targeted to mitochondria in neurons (mitoDendra). At different time points during the disease course, we studied mitochondrial transport in the intact sciatic nerve of living mice and analyzed axonal mitochondrial morphology at multiple sites, spanning from the spinal cord to the motor terminals. Defects of retrograde mitochondrial transport were detected at 45 days of age, before the onset of symptoms, in SOD1(G93A) and TDP43(A315T) mice, but not in SOD1(WT). At later disease stages, also anterograde mitochondrial transport was affected in both mutant mouse lines. In SOD1(G93A) mice, mitochondrial morphological abnormalities were apparent at 15 days of age, thus preceding transport abnormalities. Conversely, in TDP43(A315T) mice, morphological abnormalities appeared after the onset of transport defects. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that neuronal mitochondrial transport and morphology abnormalities occur in vivo and that they are common denominators of different genetic forms of the ALS. At the same time, differences in the temporal and spatial manifestation of mitochondrial abnormalities between the two mouse models of familial ALS imply that different molecular mechanisms may be involved.

  10. The role of voltage-gated potassium channels in the regulation of mouse uterine contractility.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ryan C; McClure, Marisa C; Smith, Margaret A; Abel, Peter W; Bradley, Michael E

    2007-11-02

    Uterine smooth muscle cells exhibit ionic currents that appear to be important in the control of uterine contractility, but how these currents might produce the changes in contractile activity seen in pregnant myometrium has not been established. There are conflicting reports concerning the role of voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels and large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels in the regulation of uterine contractility. In this study we provide molecular and functional evidence for a role for Kv channels in the regulation of spontaneous contractile activity in mouse myometrium, and also demonstrate a change in Kv channel regulation of contractility in pregnant mouse myometrium. Functional assays which evaluated the effects of channel blockers and various contractile agonists were accomplished by quantifying contractility of isolated uterine smooth muscle obtained from nonpregnant mice as well as mice at various stages of pregnancy. Expression of Kv channel proteins in isolated uterine smooth muscle was evaluated by Western blots. The Kv channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) caused contractions in nonpregnant mouse myometrium (EC50 = 54 micromolar, maximal effect at 300 micromolar) but this effect disappeared in pregnant mice; similarly, the Kv4.2/Kv4.3 blocker phrixotoxin-2 caused contractions in nonpregnant, but not pregnant, myometrium. Contractile responses to 4-AP were not dependent upon nerves, as neither tetrodotoxin nor storage of tissues at room temperature significantly altered these responses, nor were responses dependent upon the presence of the endometrium. Spontaneous contractions and contractions in response to 4-AP did not appear to be mediated by BK, as the BK channel-selective blockers iberiotoxin, verruculogen, or tetraethylammonium failed to affect either spontaneous contractions or 4-AP-elicited responses. A number of different Kv channel alpha subunit proteins were found in isolated myometrium from both nonpregnant and

  11. The role of voltage-gated potassium channels in the regulation of mouse uterine contractility

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ryan C; McClure, Marisa C; Smith, Margaret A; Abel, Peter W; Bradley, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    Background Uterine smooth muscle cells exhibit ionic currents that appear to be important in the control of uterine contractility, but how these currents might produce the changes in contractile activity seen in pregnant myometrium has not been established. There are conflicting reports concerning the role of voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels and large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels in the regulation of uterine contractility. In this study we provide molecular and functional evidence for a role for Kv channels in the regulation of spontaneous contractile activity in mouse myometrium, and also demonstrate a change in Kv channel regulation of contractility in pregnant mouse myometrium. Methods Functional assays which evaluated the effects of channel blockers and various contractile agonists were accomplished by quantifying contractility of isolated uterine smooth muscle obtained from nonpregnant mice as well as mice at various stages of pregnancy. Expression of Kv channel proteins in isolated uterine smooth muscle was evaluated by Western blots. Results The Kv channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) caused contractions in nonpregnant mouse myometrium (EC50 = 54 micromolar, maximal effect at 300 micromolar) but this effect disappeared in pregnant mice; similarly, the Kv4.2/Kv4.3 blocker phrixotoxin-2 caused contractions in nonpregnant, but not pregnant, myometrium. Contractile responses to 4-AP were not dependent upon nerves, as neither tetrodotoxin nor storage of tissues at room temperature significantly altered these responses, nor were responses dependent upon the presence of the endometrium. Spontaneous contractions and contractions in response to 4-AP did not appear to be mediated by BK, as the BK channel-selective blockers iberiotoxin, verruculogen, or tetraethylammonium failed to affect either spontaneous contractions or 4-AP-elicited responses. A number of different Kv channel alpha subunit proteins were found in isolated myometrium

  12. Aspirin induces cell death by directly modulating mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC)

    PubMed Central

    Tewari, Debanjan; Majumdar, Dhriti; Vallabhaneni, Sirisha; Bera, Amal Kanti

    2017-01-01

    Aspirin induces apoptotic cell death in various cancer cell lines. Here we showed that silencing of VDAC1 protected HeLa cells from aspirin-induced cell death. Compared to the wild type cells, VDAC1 knocked down cells showed lesser change of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), upon aspirin treatment. Aspirin augmented ATP and ionomycin-induced mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake which was abolished in VDAC1 knocked down cells. Aspirin dissociated bound hexokinase II (HK-II) from mitochondria. Further, aspirin promoted the closure of recombinant human VDAC1, reconstituted in planar lipid bilayer. Taken together, these results imply that VDAC1 serves as a novel target for aspirin. Modulation of VDAC1 is possibly associated with the cell death and anticancer effects of aspirin. PMID:28327594

  13. Voltage-Dependent Regulation of Complex II Energized Mitochondrial Oxygen Flux

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Fan; Fink, Brian D.; Yu, Liping; Sivitz, William I.

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen consumption by isolated mitochondria is generally measured during state 4 respiration (no ATP production) or state 3 (maximal ATP production at high ADP availability). However, mitochondria in vivo do not function at either extreme. Here we used ADP recycling methodology to assess muscle mitochondrial function over intermediate clamped ADP concentrations. In so doing, we uncovered a previously unrecognized biphasic respiratory pattern wherein O2 flux on the complex II substrate, succinate, initially increased and peaked over low clamped ADP concentrations then decreased markedly at higher clamped concentrations. Mechanistic studies revealed no evidence that the observed changes in O2 flux were due to altered opening or function of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore or to changes in reactive oxygen. Based on metabolite and functional metabolic data, we propose a multifactorial mechanism that consists of coordinate changes that follow from reduced membrane potential (as the ADP concentration in increased). These changes include altered directional electron flow, altered NADH/NAD+ redox cycling, metabolite exit, and OAA inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase. In summary, we report a previously unrecognized pattern for complex II energized O2 flux. Moreover, our findings suggest that the ADP recycling approach might be more widely adapted for mitochondrial studies. PMID:27153112

  14. Methylene Blue Improves Brain Mitochondrial ABAD Functions and Decreases Aβ in a Neuroinflammatory Alzheimer's Disease Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Aya; Hamdi, Nabila; Abdel-Kader, Reham Mahmoud

    2016-03-01

    Methylene blue (MB) phase II clinical trials reported improvements in cognitive functions of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Regarding MB mechanism of action, its antioxidant and mitochondrial protective effects have been previously described. In relation to AD, it has been recently reported that MB reduced amyloid beta (Aβ) levels in AD models. The mitochondrial enzyme amyloid-binding alcohol dehydrogenase (ABAD) has been shown to bind Aβ inducing mitochondrial dysfunction, providing a direct relation between Aβ toxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction occurring in AD. Since it has been reported that inhibiting ABAD protects mitochondrial functions and prevents Aβ-induced toxicity, the aim of the current study was to investigate if the protective effects of MB could be associated with an effect on ABAD levels and functions. The current study shows that MB is able to enhance cell viability, reduce both reactive oxygen species levels and importantly Aβ oligomers in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mouse model. Interestingly, ABAD levels were increased in the brains of the LPS mouse model and MB treatment was able to reduce its levels. Given that regulation of the estradiol level is a well-established function of ABAD, brain estradiol level was compared in LPS mouse model and in MB-treated mice. The results of the current study show that MB treatment is able to improve significantly the LPS-induced decrease of estradiol levels in mice brains, indicating its ability to modulate both levels and function of ABAD. These results give a new insight to possible mechanisms of MB in AD.

  15. Dietary whey protein stimulates mitochondrial activity and decreases oxidative stress in mouse female brain.

    PubMed

    Shertzer, Howard G; Krishan, Mansi; Genter, Mary Beth

    2013-08-26

    In humans and experimental animals, protein-enriched diets are beneficial for weight management, muscle development, managing early stage insulin resistance and overall health. Previous studies have shown that in mice consuming a high fat diet, whey protein isolate (WPI) reduced hepatosteatosis and insulin resistance due in part to an increase in basal metabolic rate. In the current study, we examined the ability of WPI to increase energy metabolism in mouse brain. Female C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal AIN-93M diet for 12 weeks, with (WPI group) or without (Control group) 100g WPI/L drinking water. In WPI mice compared to controls, the oxidative stress biomarkers malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenals were 40% lower in brain homogenates, and the production of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide were 25-35% less in brain mitochondria. Brain mitochondria from WPI mice remained coupled, and exhibited higher rates of respiration with proportionately greater levels of cytochromes a+a3 and c+c1. These results suggested that WPI treatment increased the number or improved the function of brain mitochondria. qRT-PCR revealed that the gene encoding a master regulator of mitochondrial activity and biogenesis, Pgc-1alpha (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha) was elevated 2.2-fold, as were the PGC-1alpha downstream genes, Tfam (mitochondrial transcription factor A), Gabpa/Nrf-2a (GA-binding protein alpha/nuclear respiratory factor-2a), and Cox-6a1 (cytochrome oxidase-6a1). Each of these genes had twice the levels of transcript in brain tissue from WPI mice, relative to controls. There was no change in the expression of the housekeeping gene B2mg (beta-2 microglobulin). We conclude that dietary whey protein decreases oxidative stress and increases mitochondrial activity in mouse brain. Dietary supplementation with WPI may be a useful clinical intervention to treat conditions associated with oxidative stress or diminished mitochondrial activity in the

  16. A systematic analysis of the suitability of preimplantation genetic diagnosis for mitochondrial diseases in a heteroplasmic mitochondrial mouse model.

    PubMed

    Neupane, Jitesh; Vandewoestyne, Mado; Heindryckx, Björn; Ghimire, Sabitri; Lu, Yuechao; Qian, Chen; Lierman, Sylvie; Van Coster, Rudy; Gerris, Jan; Deroo, Tom; Deforce, Dieter; De Sutter, Petra

    2014-04-01

    What is the reliability of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) based on polar body (PB), blastomere or trophectoderm (TE) analysis in a heteroplasmic mitochondrial mouse model? The reliability of PGD to determine the level of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) heteroplasmy is questionable based on either the first or second PB analysis; however, PGD based on blastomere or TE analysis seems more reliable. PGD has been suggested as a technique to determine the level of mtDNA heteroplasmy in oocytes and embryos to avoid the transmission of heritable mtDNA disorders. A strong correlation between first PBs and oocytes and between second PBs and zygotes was reported in mice but is controversial in humans. So far, the levels of mtDNA heteroplasmy in first PBs, second PBs and their corresponding oocytes, zygotes and blastomeres, TE and blastocysts have not been analysed within the same embryo. We explored the suitability of PGD by comparing the level of mtDNA heteroplasmy between first PBs and metaphase II (MII) oocytes (n = 33), between first PBs, second PBs and zygotes (n = 30), and between first PBs, second PBs and their corresponding blastomeres of 2- (n = 10), 4- (n = 10) and 8-cell embryos (n = 11). Levels of mtDNA heteroplasmy in second PBs (n = 20), single blastomeres from 8-cell embryos (n = 20), TE (n = 20) and blastocysts (n = 20) were also compared. Heteroplasmic mice (BALB/cOlaHsd), containing mtDNA mixtures of BALB/cByJ and NZB/OlaHsd, were used in this study. The first PBs were biopsied from in vivo matured MII oocytes. The ooplasm was then subjected to ICSI. After fertilization, second PBs were biopsied and zygotes were cultured to recover individual blastomeres from 2-, 4- and 8-cell embryos. Similarly, second PBs were biopsied from in vivo fertilized zygotes and single blastomeres were biopsied from 8-cell stage embryos. The remaining embryo was cultured until the blastocyst stage to isolate TE cells. Polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment

  17. All eight unassigned reading frames of mouse mitochondrial DNA are expressed.

    PubMed Central

    Michael, N L; Rothbard, J B; Shiurba, R A; Linke, H K; Schoolnik, G K; Clayton, D A

    1984-01-01

    Animal mitochondrial DNA contains genes for 13 potential polypeptides of significant size. Five of these genes have been assigned to distinct proteins and eight remained unassigned reading frames (URFs). Short peptides corresponding to URF protein sequences were synthesized chemically. Antibodies raised to these synthetic peptides were used to establish the existence of all eight URF proteins in mouse tissues and cells by the complementary techniques of immunoperoxidase staining, protein blotting and immunoprecipitation. Immunoperoxidase staining of thin-sectioned, freeze-substituted tissue may prove generally useful for the identification of gene products for which no formal genetic data exist. Furthermore, the ability to determine the cellular and tissue distribution of such proteins may provide the first insight into their function. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:6241149

  18. Assessing Mitochondrial Bioenergetics in Isolated Mitochondria from Various Mouse Tissues Using Seahorse XF96 Analyzer.

    PubMed

    Iuso, Arcangela; Repp, Birgit; Biagosch, Caroline; Terrile, Caterina; Prokisch, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Working with isolated mitochondria is the gold standard approach to investigate the function of the electron transport chain in tissues, free from the influence of other cellular factors. In this chapter, we outline a detailed protocol to measure the rate of oxygen consumption (OCR) with the high-throughput analyzer Seahorse XF96. More importantly, this protocol wants to provide practical tips for handling many different samples at once, and take a real advantage of using a high-throughput system. As a proof of concept, we have isolated mitochondria from brain, heart, liver, muscle, kidney, and lung of a wild-type mouse, and measured basal respiration (State II), ADP-stimulated respiration (State III), non-ADP-stimulated respiration (State IVo), and FCCP-stimulated respiration (State IIIu) using respiratory substrates specific to the respiratory chain complex I (RCCI) and complex II (RCCII). Mitochondrial purification and Seahorse runs were performed in less than eight working hours.

  19. Propagation in the transverse tubular system and voltage dependence of calcium release in normal and mdx mouse muscle fibres

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Christopher E; Novo, David; DiFranco, Marino; Capote, Joana; Vergara, Julio L

    2005-01-01

    Using a two-microelectrode voltage clamp technique, we investigated possible mechanisms underlying the impaired excitation–contraction coupling in skeletal muscle fibres of the mdx mouse, a model of the human disease Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We evaluated the role of the transverse tubular system (T-system) by using the potentiometric indicator di-8 ANEPPS, and that of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release by measuring Ca2+ transients with a low affinity indicator in the presence of high EGTA concentrations under voltage clamp conditions. We observed minimal differences in the T-system structure and the T-system electrical propagation was not different between normal and mdx mice. Whereas the maximum Ca2+ release elicited by voltage pulses was reduced by ∼67% in mdx fibres, in agreement with previous results obtained using AP stimulation, the voltage dependence of SR Ca2+ release was identical to that seen in normal fibres. Taken together, our data suggest that the intrinsic ability of the sarcoplasmic reticulum to release Ca2+ may be altered in the mdx mouse. PMID:16123111

  20. Isoniazid-induced cell death is precipitated by underlying mitochondrial complex I dysfunction in mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang Kwang; Fujimoto, Kazunori; Zhang, Carmen; Schwall, Christine T; Alder, Nathan N; Pinkert, Carl A; Krueger, Winfried; Rasmussen, Theodore; Boelsterli, Urs A

    2013-12-01

    Isoniazid (INH) is an antituberculosis drug that has been associated with idiosyncratic liver injury in susceptible patients. The underlying mechanisms are still unclear, but there is growing evidence that INH and/or its major metabolite, hydrazine, may interfere with mitochondrial function. However, hepatic mitochondria have a large reserve capacity, and minor disruption of energy homeostasis does not necessarily induce cell death. We explored whether pharmacologic or genetic impairment of mitochondrial complex I may amplify mitochondrial dysfunction and precipitate INH-induced hepatocellular injury. We found that INH (≤ 3000 μM) did not induce cell injury in cultured mouse hepatocytes, although it decreased hepatocellular respiration and ATP levels in a concentration-dependent fashion. However, coexposure of hepatocytes to INH and nontoxic concentrations of the complex I inhibitors rotenone (3 μM) or piericidin A (30 nM) resulted in massive ATP depletion and cell death. Although both rotenone and piericidin A increased MitoSox-reactive fluorescence, Mito-TEMPO or N-acetylcysteine did not attenuate the extent of cytotoxicity. However, preincubation of cells with the acylamidase inhibitor bis-p-nitrophenol phosphate provided protection from hepatocyte injury induced by rotenone/INH (but not rotenone/hydrazine), suggesting that hydrazine was the cell-damaging species. Indeed, we found that hydrazine directly inhibited the activity of solubilized complex II. Hepatocytes isolated from mutant Ndufs4(+/-) mice, although featuring moderately lower protein expression levels of this complex I subunit in liver mitochondria, exhibited unchanged hepatic complex I activity and were therefore not sensitized to INH. These data indicate that underlying inhibition of complex I, which alone is not acutely toxic, can trigger INH-induced hepatocellular injury.

  1. Mouse Stbd1 is N-myristoylated and affects ER–mitochondria association and mitochondrial morphology

    PubMed Central

    Demetriadou, Anthi; Morales-Sanfrutos, Julia; Nearchou, Marianna; Baba, Otto; Kyriacou, Kyriacos; Tate, Edward W.; Drousiotou, Anthi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Starch binding domain-containing protein 1 (Stbd1) is a carbohydrate-binding protein that has been proposed to be a selective autophagy receptor for glycogen. Here, we show that mouse Stbd1 is a transmembrane endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident protein with the capacity to induce the formation of organized ER structures in HeLa cells. In addition to bulk ER, Stbd1 was found to localize to mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs), which represent regions of close apposition between the ER and mitochondria. We demonstrate that N-myristoylation and binding of Stbd1 to glycogen act as major determinants of its subcellular targeting. Moreover, overexpression of non-myristoylated Stbd1 enhanced the association between ER and mitochondria, and further induced prominent mitochondrial fragmentation and clustering. Conversely, shRNA-mediated Stbd1 silencing resulted in an increase in the spacing between ER and mitochondria, and an altered morphology of the mitochondrial network, suggesting elevated fusion and interconnectivity of mitochondria. Our data unravel the molecular mechanism underlying Stbd1 subcellular targeting, support and expand its proposed function as a selective autophagy receptor for glycogen and uncover a new role for the protein in the physical association between ER and mitochondria. PMID:28137759

  2. NMR Metabolomics Show Evidence for Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress in a Mouse Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Selen, Ebru Selin; Bolandnazar, Zeinab; Tonelli, Marco; Bütz, Daniel E; Haviland, Julia A; Porter, Warren P; Assadi-Porter, Fariba M

    2015-08-07

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with metabolic and endocrine disorders in women of reproductive age. The etiology of PCOS is still unknown. Mice prenatally treated with glucocorticoids exhibit metabolic disturbances that are similar to those seen in women with PCOS. We used an untargeted nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics approach to understand the metabolic changes occurring in the plasma and kidney over time in female glucocorticoid-treated (GC-treated) mice. There are significant changes in plasma amino acid levels (valine, tyrosine, and proline) and their intermediates (2-hydroxybutyrate, 4-aminobutyrate, and taurine), whereas in kidneys, the TCA cycle metabolism (citrate, fumarate, and succinate) and the pentose phosphate (PP) pathway products (inosine and uracil) are significantly altered (p < 0.05) from 8 to 16 weeks of age. Levels of NADH, NAD(+), NAD(+)/NADH, and NADH redox in kidneys indicate increased mitochondrial oxidative stress from 8 to 16 weeks in GC-treated mice. These results indicate that altered metabolic substrates in the plasma and kidneys of treated mice are associated with altered amino acid metabolism, increased cytoplasmic PP, and increased mitochondrial activity, leading to a more oxidized state. This study identifies biomarkers associated with metabolic dysfunction in kidney mitochondria of a prenatal gluococorticoid-treated mouse model of PCOS that may be used as early predictive biomarkers of oxidative stress in the PCOS metabolic disorder in women.

  3. Mouse testis cell sorting according to DNA and mitochondrial changes during spermatogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Petit, J.M.; Ratinaud, M.H.; Cordelli, E.; Spano, M.; Julien, R.

    1995-04-01

    Flow cytometry can measure variations in DNA content and chromatin structure as well as dramatic changes in the mitochondria of germ cells during maturation from spermatogonia to elongated spermatids. Using 10-N nonyl acridine orange (NAO), an inner mitochondrial membrane dye, it is easy to follow mitochondria rearrangements. Mouse testis cells stained with the DNA fluorescent probe propidium iodide (PI) and analyzed by flow cytometry can be discriminated on the basis of their ploidy levels into five main regions corresponding to elongated spermatids, round spermatids, diploid, S-phase, and tetraploid cells. The simultaneous use of PI and NAO demonstrated the presence of cells having low and high mitochondrial content in the haploid, diploid, and tetraploid compartments. Eleven sorting windows were selected from the bivariate analysis (PI/NAO) and the corresponding cells were identified by microscopic observation. Cells were also discriminated by two parameter analysis of DNA content vs. cell diameter. The definition of seven different regions allowed us to determine NAO or rhodamine 123 (Rh 123) uptakes in each compartment. We observed that the ratio (Rh 123/NAO) dramatically changed according to the progression of cell differentiation which occurs during spermatogenesis. 45 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Neuroinflammation, mitochondrial defects and neurodegeneration in mucopolysaccharidosis III type C mouse model.

    PubMed

    Martins, Carla; Hůlková, Helena; Dridi, Larbi; Dormoy-Raclet, Virginie; Grigoryeva, Lubov; Choi, Yoo; Langford-Smith, Alexander; Wilkinson, Fiona L; Ohmi, Kazuhiro; DiCristo, Graziella; Hamel, Edith; Ausseil, Jerôme; Cheillan, David; Moreau, Alain; Svobodová, Eva; Hájková, Zuzana; Tesařová, Markéta; Hansíková, Hana; Bigger, Brian W; Hrebícek, Martin; Pshezhetsky, Alexey V

    2015-02-01

    Severe progressive neurological paediatric disease mucopolysaccharidosis III type C is caused by mutations in the HGSNAT gene leading to deficiency of acetyl-CoA: α-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase involved in the lysosomal catabolism of heparan sulphate. To understand the pathophysiology of the disease we generated a mouse model of mucopolysaccharidosis III type C by germline inactivation of the Hgsnat gene. At 6-8 months mice showed hyperactivity, and reduced anxiety. Cognitive memory decline was detected at 10 months and at 12-13 months mice showed signs of unbalanced hesitant walk and urinary retention. Lysosomal accumulation of heparan sulphate was observed in hepatocytes, splenic sinus endothelium, cerebral microglia, liver Kupffer cells, fibroblasts and pericytes. Starting from 5 months, brain neurons showed enlarged, structurally abnormal mitochondria, impaired mitochondrial energy metabolism, and storage of densely packed autofluorescent material, gangliosides, lysozyme, phosphorylated tau, and amyloid-β. Taken together, our data demonstrate for the first time that deficiency of acetyl-CoA: α-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase causes lysosomal accumulation of heparan sulphate in microglial cells followed by their activation and cytokine release. They also show mitochondrial dysfunction in the neurons and neuronal loss explaining why mucopolysaccharidosis III type C manifests primarily as a neurodegenerative disease.

  5. Mouse Stbd1 is N-myristoylated and affects ER-mitochondria association and mitochondrial morphology.

    PubMed

    Demetriadou, Anthi; Morales-Sanfrutos, Julia; Nearchou, Marianna; Baba, Otto; Kyriacou, Kyriacos; Tate, Edward W; Drousiotou, Anthi; Petrou, Petros P

    2017-03-01

    Starch binding domain-containing protein 1 (Stbd1) is a carbohydrate-binding protein that has been proposed to be a selective autophagy receptor for glycogen. Here, we show that mouse Stbd1 is a transmembrane endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident protein with the capacity to induce the formation of organized ER structures in HeLa cells. In addition to bulk ER, Stbd1 was found to localize to mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs), which represent regions of close apposition between the ER and mitochondria. We demonstrate that N-myristoylation and binding of Stbd1 to glycogen act as major determinants of its subcellular targeting. Moreover, overexpression of non-myristoylated Stbd1 enhanced the association between ER and mitochondria, and further induced prominent mitochondrial fragmentation and clustering. Conversely, shRNA-mediated Stbd1 silencing resulted in an increase in the spacing between ER and mitochondria, and an altered morphology of the mitochondrial network, suggesting elevated fusion and interconnectivity of mitochondria. Our data unravel the molecular mechanism underlying Stbd1 subcellular targeting, support and expand its proposed function as a selective autophagy receptor for glycogen and uncover a new role for the protein in the physical association between ER and mitochondria. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Patrinia scabiosaefolia induces mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis in a mouse model of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liya; Shen, Aling; Chen, Youqin; Wei, Lihui; Lin, Jiumao; Sferra, Thomas J; Hong, Zhenfeng; Peng, Jun

    2013-08-01

    Disrupted apoptosis not only confers a survival advantage to cancer cells but also causes resistance to chemotherapies. Therefore, inducing cell apoptosis has become a promising strategy for anticancer treatment. Patrinia scabiosaefolia (PS) has long been used to clinically treat various types of malignancies including colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the precise mechanism of its tumoricidal activity remains largely unclear. Using a CRC mouse xenograft model and a human colon carcinoma cell line, HT-29, in the present study, we evaluated the antitumor activities of an ethanol extract of Patrinia scabiosaefolia (EEPS), and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that EEPS inhibited CRC growth both in vivo and in vitro, without apparent adverse side-effects. Moreover, EEPS treatment promoted apoptosis in CRC tumor tissues and in HT-29 cells, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of EEPS on tumor growth was due to its pro-apoptotic activity. Furthermore, EEPS treatment inhibited the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 but enhanced pro-apoptotic Bax expression at both transcriptional and translational levels. Finally, EEPS induced the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspase-9 and -3 in HT-29 cells. Taken together, data in this study suggest that induction of cancer cell apoptosis via the mitochondrial-dependent pathway may be one of the mechanisms whereby PS exerts anticancer activity.

  7. Neuroinflammation, mitochondrial defects and neurodegeneration in mucopolysaccharidosis III type C mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Carla; Hůlková, Helena; Dridi, Larbi; Dormoy-Raclet, Virginie; Grigoryeva, Lubov; Choi, Yoo; Langford-Smith, Alexander; Wilkinson, Fiona L.; Ohmi, Kazuhiro; DiCristo, Graziella; Hamel, Edith; Ausseil, Jerôme; Cheillan, David; Moreau, Alain; Svobodová, Eva; Hájková, Zuzana; Tesařová, Markéta; Hansíková, Hana; Bigger, Brian W.; Hrebícek, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Severe progressive neurological paediatric disease mucopolysaccharidosis III type C is caused by mutations in the HGSNAT gene leading to deficiency of acetyl-CoA: α-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase involved in the lysosomal catabolism of heparan sulphate. To understand the pathophysiology of the disease we generated a mouse model of mucopolysaccharidosis III type C by germline inactivation of the Hgsnat gene. At 6–8 months mice showed hyperactivity, and reduced anxiety. Cognitive memory decline was detected at 10 months and at 12–13 months mice showed signs of unbalanced hesitant walk and urinary retention. Lysosomal accumulation of heparan sulphate was observed in hepatocytes, splenic sinus endothelium, cerebral microglia, liver Kupffer cells, fibroblasts and pericytes. Starting from 5 months, brain neurons showed enlarged, structurally abnormal mitochondria, impaired mitochondrial energy metabolism, and storage of densely packed autofluorescent material, gangliosides, lysozyme, phosphorylated tau, and amyloid-β. Taken together, our data demonstrate for the first time that deficiency of acetyl-CoA: α-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase causes lysosomal accumulation of heparan sulphate in microglial cells followed by their activation and cytokine release. They also show mitochondrial dysfunction in the neurons and neuronal loss explaining why mucopolysaccharidosis III type C manifests primarily as a neurodegenerative disease. PMID:25567323

  8. Metabolomic Analysis of Exercise Effects in the POLG Mitochondrial DNA Mutator Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Clark-Matott, Joanne; Saleem, Ayesha; Dai, Ying; Shurubor, Yevgeniya; Ma, Xiaoxing; Safdar, Adeel; Beal, M. Flint; Tarnopolsky, Mark; Simon, David K.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutator mice express a mutated form of mtDNA polymerase gamma (PolgA) that results an accelerated accumulation of somatic mtDNA mutations in association with a premature aging phenotype. An exploratory metabolomic analysis of cortical metabolites in sedentary and exercised mtDNA mutator mice and wild-type (WT) littermate controls at 9–10 months of age was performed. Pathway analysis revealed deficits in the neurotransmitters acetylcholine, glutamate and aspartate that were ameliorated by exercise. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) depletion and evidence of increased Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1 (PARP-1) activity were apparent in sedentary mtDNA mutator mouse cortex, along with deficits in carnitine metabolites and an upregulated antioxidant response that largely normalized with exercise. These data highlight specific pathways that are altered in the brain in association with an accelerated age-related accumulation of somatic mtDNA mutations. These results may have relevance to age-related neurodegenerative diseases associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, and provide insights into potential mechanisms of beneficial effects of exercise on brain function. PMID:26294258

  9. Kv3 voltage-gated potassium channels regulate neurotransmitter release from mouse motor nerve terminals.

    PubMed

    Brooke, Ruth E; Moores, Thomas S; Morris, Neil P; Parson, Simon H; Deuchars, Jim

    2004-12-01

    Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels are critical to regulation of neurotransmitter release throughout the nervous system but the roles and identity of the subtypes involved remain unclear. Here we show that Kv3 channels regulate transmitter release at the mouse neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Light- and electron-microscopic immunohistochemistry revealed Kv3.3 and Kv3.4 subunits within all motor nerve terminals of muscles examined [transversus abdominus, lumbrical and flexor digitorum brevis (FDB)]. To determine the roles of these Kv3 subunits, intracellular recordings were made of end-plate potentials (EPPs) in FDB muscle fibres evoked by electrical stimulation of tibial nerve. Tetraethylammonium (TEA) applied at low concentrations (0.05-0.5 mM), which blocks only a few known potassium channels including Kv3 channels, did not affect muscle fibre resting potential but significantly increased the amplitude of all EPPs tested. Significantly, this effect of TEA was still observed in the presence of the large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel blockers iberiotoxin (25-150 nM) and Penitrem A (100 nM), suggesting a selective action on Kv3 subunits. Consistent with this, 15-microM 4-aminopyridine, which blocks Kv3 but not large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels, enhanced evoked EPP amplitude. Unexpectedly, blood-depressing substance-I, a toxin selective for Kv3.4 subunits, had no effect at 0.05-1 microM. The combined presynaptic localization of Kv3 subunits and pharmacological enhancement of EPP amplitude indicate that Kv3 channels regulate neurotransmitter release from presynaptic terminals at the NMJ.

  10. Mouse cytotoxic T cell-derived granzyme B activates the mitochondrial cell death pathway in a Bim-dependent fashion.

    PubMed

    Catalán, Elena; Jaime-Sánchez, Paula; Aguiló, Nacho; Simon, Markus M; Froelich, Christopher J; Pardo, Julián

    2015-03-13

    Cytotoxic T cells (Tc) use perforin and granzyme B (gzmB) to kill virus-infected cells and cancer cells. Recent evidence suggests that human gzmB primarily induces apoptosis via the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway by either cleaving Bid or activating Bim leading to the activation of Bak/Bax and subsequent generation of active caspase-3. In contrast, mouse gzmB is thought to predominantly induce apoptosis by directly processing pro-caspase-3. However, in certain mouse cell types gzmB-mediated apoptosis mainly occurs via the mitochondrial pathway. To investigate whether Bim is involved under the latter conditions, we have now employed ex vivo virus-immune mouse Tc that selectively kill by using perforin and gzmB (gzmB(+)Tc) as effector cells and wild type as well as Bim- or Bak/Bax-deficient spontaneously (3T9) or virus-(SV40) transformed mouse embryonic fibroblast cells as targets. We show that gzmB(+)Tc-mediated apoptosis (phosphatidylserine translocation, mitochondrial depolarization, cytochrome c release, and caspase-3 activation) was severely reduced in 3T9 cells lacking either Bim or both Bak and Bax. This outcome was related to the ability of Tc cells to induce the degradation of Mcl-1 and Bcl-XL, the anti-apoptotic counterparts of Bim. In contrast, gzmB(+)Tc-mediated apoptosis was not affected in SV40-transformed mouse embryonic fibroblast cells lacking Bak/Bax. The data provide evidence that Bim participates in mouse gzmB(+)Tc-mediated apoptosis of certain targets by activating the mitochondrial pathway and suggest that the mode of cell death depends on the target cell. Our results suggest that the various molecular events leading to transformation and/or immortalization of cells have an impact on their relative resistance to the multiple gzmB(+)Tc-induced death pathways.

  11. Mouse Cytotoxic T Cell-derived Granzyme B Activates the Mitochondrial Cell Death Pathway in a Bim-dependent Fashion*

    PubMed Central

    Catalán, Elena; Jaime-Sánchez, Paula; Aguiló, Nacho; Simon, Markus M.; Froelich, Christopher J.; Pardo, Julián

    2015-01-01

    Cytotoxic T cells (Tc) use perforin and granzyme B (gzmB) to kill virus-infected cells and cancer cells. Recent evidence suggests that human gzmB primarily induces apoptosis via the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway by either cleaving Bid or activating Bim leading to the activation of Bak/Bax and subsequent generation of active caspase-3. In contrast, mouse gzmB is thought to predominantly induce apoptosis by directly processing pro-caspase-3. However, in certain mouse cell types gzmB-mediated apoptosis mainly occurs via the mitochondrial pathway. To investigate whether Bim is involved under the latter conditions, we have now employed ex vivo virus-immune mouse Tc that selectively kill by using perforin and gzmB (gzmB+Tc) as effector cells and wild type as well as Bim- or Bak/Bax-deficient spontaneously (3T9) or virus-(SV40) transformed mouse embryonic fibroblast cells as targets. We show that gzmB+Tc-mediated apoptosis (phosphatidylserine translocation, mitochondrial depolarization, cytochrome c release, and caspase-3 activation) was severely reduced in 3T9 cells lacking either Bim or both Bak and Bax. This outcome was related to the ability of Tc cells to induce the degradation of Mcl-1 and Bcl-XL, the anti-apoptotic counterparts of Bim. In contrast, gzmB+Tc-mediated apoptosis was not affected in SV40-transformed mouse embryonic fibroblast cells lacking Bak/Bax. The data provide evidence that Bim participates in mouse gzmB+Tc-mediated apoptosis of certain targets by activating the mitochondrial pathway and suggest that the mode of cell death depends on the target cell. Our results suggest that the various molecular events leading to transformation and/or immortalization of cells have an impact on their relative resistance to the multiple gzmB+Tc-induced death pathways. PMID:25605735

  12. Mitochondrial fragmentation and superoxide anion production in coronary endothelial cells from a mouse model of type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Makino, A.; Scott, B. T.

    2010-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Mitochondria frequently change their shapes by fusion and fission and these morphological dynamics play important roles in mitochondrial function and development as well as programmed cell death. The goal of this study is to investigate whether: (1) mitochondria in mouse coronary endothelial cells (MCECs) isolated from diabetic mice exhibit increased fragmentation; and (2) chronic treatment with a superoxide anion (O2−) scavenger has a beneficial effect on mitochondrial fragmentation in MCECs. Methods MCECs were freshly isolated and lysed for protein measurement, or cultured to determine mitochondrial morphology and O2− production. For the ex vivo hyperglycaemia experiments, human coronary endothelial cells were used. Results Elongated mitochondrial tubules were observed in MCECs isolated from control mice, whereas mitochondria in MCECs from diabetic mice exhibited augmented fragmentation. The level of optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) protein, which leads to mitochondrial fusion, was significantly decreased, while dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1), which leads to mitochondrial fission, was significantly increased in MCECs from diabetic mice. Diabetic MCECs exhibited significantly higher O2− concentrations in cytosol and mitochondria than control MCECs. Administration of the O2− scavenger TEMPOL to diabetic mice for 4 weeks led to a significant decrease in mitochondrial fragmentation without altering the levels of OPA1 and DRP1 proteins in MCECs. High-glucose treatment for 24 h significantly induced mitochondrial fragmentation, which was restored by TEMPOL treatment. In addition, excess O2− production, either in cytosol or in mitochondria, significantly increased mitochondrial fragmentation. Conclusions/interpretation These data suggest that lowering the O2− concentration can restore the morphological change in mitochondria and may help improve mitochondrial function in diabetic MCECs. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this

  13. Tissue Specific Impacts of a Ketogenic Diet on Mitochondrial Dynamics in the BTBR(T+tf/j) Mouse.

    PubMed

    Newell, Christopher; Shutt, Timothy E; Ahn, Younghee; Hittel, Dustin S; Khan, Aneal; Rho, Jong M; Shearer, Jane

    2016-01-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) has been utilized as a dietary therapeutic for nearly a century. One experimental model particularly responsive to the KD is the BTBR(T+tf/j) (BTBR) mouse, which displays phenotypic characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and insulin resistance. Recently, the study of impaired mitochondrial function has become a focal point of research investigating the pathophysiology of ASD. As highly dynamic organelles, mitochondria undergo constant fluctuations in morphology, biogenesis, and quality control in order to maintain cellular homeostasis. An important modifier of mitochondrial dynamics is energy availability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the impact of a KD on mitochondrial dynamics in the liver and brain (prefrontal cortex) of the BTBR mouse model of ASD. Juvenile male C57Bl/6 (B6) and BTBR mice were age-matched to 5 weeks of age before being fed standard chow (CD, 13% kcal fat) or a KD (75% kcal fat) for 10-14 days. Analysis of brain tissue identified differences in mitochondrial gene expression but no correlation with protein levels. Unlike in the brain, KD led to decreased levels of mitochondrial proteins in the liver, despite increased gene expression. Consistent with decreased mitochondrial proteins, we also observed decreased mtDNA for all mice on the KD, demonstrating that the KD reduces the total amount of mitochondria in the liver. In order to explain the discrepancy between protein levels and gene expression, we investigated whether mitochondrial turnover via mitophagy was increased. To this end, we examined expression levels of the mitophagy regulator BNIP3 (BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kd-interacting protein 3). BNIP3 gene and protein expression were significantly elevated in liver of KD animals (p < 0.05), indicating the potential activation of mitophagy. Therefore, consumption of a KD exerts highly tissue-specific effects, ultimately increasing mitochondrial turnover in the liver, while gene and protein

  14. Tissue Specific Impacts of a Ketogenic Diet on Mitochondrial Dynamics in the BTBRT+tf/j Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Newell, Christopher; Shutt, Timothy E.; Ahn, Younghee; Hittel, Dustin. S.; Khan, Aneal; Rho, Jong M.; Shearer, Jane

    2016-01-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) has been utilized as a dietary therapeutic for nearly a century. One experimental model particularly responsive to the KD is the BTBRT+tf/j (BTBR) mouse, which displays phenotypic characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and insulin resistance. Recently, the study of impaired mitochondrial function has become a focal point of research investigating the pathophysiology of ASD. As highly dynamic organelles, mitochondria undergo constant fluctuations in morphology, biogenesis, and quality control in order to maintain cellular homeostasis. An important modifier of mitochondrial dynamics is energy availability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the impact of a KD on mitochondrial dynamics in the liver and brain (prefrontal cortex) of the BTBR mouse model of ASD. Juvenile male C57Bl/6 (B6) and BTBR mice were age-matched to 5 weeks of age before being fed standard chow (CD, 13% kcal fat) or a KD (75% kcal fat) for 10–14 days. Analysis of brain tissue identified differences in mitochondrial gene expression but no correlation with protein levels. Unlike in the brain, KD led to decreased levels of mitochondrial proteins in the liver, despite increased gene expression. Consistent with decreased mitochondrial proteins, we also observed decreased mtDNA for all mice on the KD, demonstrating that the KD reduces the total amount of mitochondria in the liver. In order to explain the discrepancy between protein levels and gene expression, we investigated whether mitochondrial turnover via mitophagy was increased. To this end, we examined expression levels of the mitophagy regulator BNIP3 (BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kd-interacting protein 3). BNIP3 gene and protein expression were significantly elevated in liver of KD animals (p < 0.05), indicating the potential activation of mitophagy. Therefore, consumption of a KD exerts highly tissue-specific effects, ultimately increasing mitochondrial turnover in the liver, while gene and protein

  15. Mitochondrial calcium uptake capacity as a therapeutic target in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Giselle M.; Tallaksen-Greene, Sara; Kumar, Ashish; Heng, Mary Y.; Kneynsberg, Andrew; van Groen, Thomas; Detloff, Peter J.; Albin, Roger L.; Lesort, Mathieu

    2010-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an incurable autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder initiated by an abnormally expanded polyglutamine domain in the huntingtin protein. It is proposed that abnormal mitochondrial Ca2+ capacity results in an increased susceptibility to mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) induction that may contribute significantly to HD pathogenesis. The in vivo contribution of these hypothesized defects remains to be elucidated. In this proof-of-principle study, we examined whether increasing mitochondrial Ca2+ capacity could ameliorate the well-characterized phenotype of the R6/2 transgenic mouse model. Mouse models lacking cyclophilin D demonstrate convincingly that cyclophilin D is an essential component and a key regulator of MPT induction. Mitochondria of cyclophilin D knockout mice are particularly resistant to Ca2+ overload. We generated R6/2 mice with normal, reduced or absent cyclophilin D expression and examined the effect of increasing mitochondrial Ca2+ capacity on the behavioral and neuropathological features of the R6/2 model. A predicted outcome of this approach was the finding that cyclophilin D deletion enhanced the R6/2 brain mitochondria Ca2+ capacity significantly. Increased neuronal mitochondrial Ca2+ capacity failed to ameliorate either the behavioral and neuropathological features of R6/2 mice. We found no alterations in body weight changes, lifespan, RotaRod performances, grip strength, overall activity and no significant effect on the neuropathological features of R6/2 mice. The results of this study demonstrate that increasing neuronal mitochondrial Ca2+-buffering capacity is not beneficial in the R6/2 mouse model of HD. PMID:20558522

  16. Gating behaviour of sodium currents in adult mouse muscle recorded with an improved two-electrode voltage clamp

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yu; Struyk, Arie; Markin, Vladislav; Cannon, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    The availability of knock-in mutant mouse models for channelopathies of skeletal muscle has generated the need for improved methods to record ionic currents under voltage clamp in fully differentiated adult muscle fibres. A two-electrode voltage clamp has been optimized for recording Na+ currents in small fibres dissociated from the footpad. Clamp speed and spatial homogeneity were achieved by using short fibres (<600 μm) that were detubulated with hyperosmolar glycerol. Series resistance errors were reduced by limiting current amplitude with low [Na+]. The quality of the voltage clamp was explored with computer simulations of a finite cable model with active conductances. Simulations quantitatively defined the range of conditions for which clamp control can be maintained, and provided estimates for the errors in the determination of gating parameters from standard pulse protocols. Sodium currents recorded from short fast-twitch muscles revealed a hyperpolarized shift in the voltage dependence of activation (V1/2−52 mV) and fast inactivation (V1/2−88 mV) compared to expression studies of NaV1.4 in mammalian cell lines. Slow inactivation occurred at depolarized potentials (V1/2−69 mV) relative to fast inactivation. These data reveal a marked divergence in the voltage dependence of fast and slow inactivation and provide normative values of Na+ channel behaviour for mouse skeletal muscle that will serve as a reference for the investigation of muscle ion channelopathies using genetically engineered mice or computer simulation. PMID:21135045

  17. The mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel 1 in tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Shoshan-Barmatz, Varda; Ben-Hail, Danya; Admoni, Lee; Krelin, Yakov; Tripathi, Shambhoo Sharan

    2015-10-01

    VDAC1 is found at the crossroads of metabolic and survival pathways. VDAC1 controls metabolic cross-talk between mitochondria and the rest of the cell by allowing the influx and efflux of metabolites, ions, nucleotides, Ca2+ and more. The location of VDAC1 at the outer mitochondrial membrane also enables its interaction with proteins that mediate and regulate the integration of mitochondrial functions with cellular activities. As a transporter of metabolites, VDAC1 contributes to the metabolic phenotype of cancer cells. Indeed, this protein is over-expressed in many cancer types, and silencing of VDAC1 expression induces an inhibition of tumor development. At the same time, along with regulating cellular energy production and metabolism, VDAC1 is involved in the process of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis by mediating the release of apoptotic proteins and interacting with anti-apoptotic proteins. The engagement of VDAC1 in the release of apoptotic proteins located in the inter-membranal space involves VDAC1 oligomerization that mediates the release of cytochrome c and AIF to the cytosol, subsequently leading to apoptotic cell death. Apoptosis can also be regulated by VDAC1, serving as an anchor point for mitochondria-interacting proteins, such as hexokinase (HK), Bcl2 and Bcl-xL, some of which are also highly expressed in many cancers. By binding to VDAC1, HK provides both a metabolic benefit and apoptosis-suppressive capacity that offer the cell a proliferative advantage and increase its resistance to chemotherapy. Thus, these and other functions point to VDAC1 as an excellent target for impairing the re-programed metabolism of cancer cells and their ability to evade apoptosis. Here, we review current evidence pointing to the function of VDAC1 in cell life and death, and highlight these functions in relation to both cancer development and therapy. In addressing the recently solved 3D structures of VDAC1, this review will point to structure-function relationships of

  18. Modulation of the mitochondrial voltage dependent anion channel (VDAC) by curcumin.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Debanjan; Ahmed, Tofayel; Chirasani, Venkat R; Singh, Pradeep K; Maji, Samir K; Senapati, Sanjib; Bera, Amal Kanti

    2015-01-01

    Voltage dependent anion channel (VDAC) of mitochondria plays a crucial role in apoptosis. Human VDAC-1, reconstituted in planar lipid bilayer showed reduced conductance when treated with curcumin. Curcumin interacts with residues in the α helical N-terminus of VDAC and in the channel wall, as revealed by molecular docking, followed by mutational analysis. N-terminus mimicking peptide showed conformational changes in circular dichroism, upon curcumin treatment. We propose that the interaction of curcumin with amino acids in N-terminus and in channel wall fixes the α helix in closed conformation. This restricts its movement which is required for the opening of the channel. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular design of the voltage-dependent, anion-selective channel in the mitochondrial outer membrane.

    PubMed

    Guo, X W; Smith, P R; Cognon, B; D'Arcangelis, D; Dolginova, E; Mannella, C A

    1995-01-01

    The mitochondrial outer membrane contains numerous copies of a channel protein, VDAC, that is thought to be the main permeability pathway through this membrane for polar molecules and ions. Low-dose electron microscopy has been used to obtain images of two-dimensional crystals of this channel (produced by treating outer membranes from fungal mitochondria with phospholipase A2) embedded in vitreous ice or aurothioglucose. The angular orientation of the channels in the unit cell of one type of array has been determined by rotational correlation analysis. The location of the amino-terminal segment of the protein (which, according to circular dichroism, forms an alpha-helix in nonpolar solvents and detergent solutions) has been determined by labeling arrays with Fab prepared from antibodies directed against residues 1-20. The three-dimensional structure of the channel has been obtained by applying Fourier reconstruction methods to projections of tilted crystals embedded in aurothioglucose, followed by averaging of the three non-symmetry-related channels in the unit cell. The results of this study indicate that the wall of VDAC's lumen has several irregular features (uneven height, grooves) and that the aminoterminal segment extends away from the lumen in this crystalline state.

  20. Retinal ganglion cell responses to voltage and current stimulation in wild-type and rd1 mouse retinas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goo, Yong Sook; Ye, Jang Hee; Lee, Seokyoung; Nam, Yoonkey; Ryu, Sang Baek; Kim, Kyung Hwan

    2011-06-01

    Retinal prostheses are being developed to restore vision for those with retinal diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa or age-related macular degeneration. Since neural prostheses depend upon electrical stimulation to control neural activity, optimal stimulation parameters for successful encoding of visual information are one of the most important requirements to enable visual perception. In this paper, we focused on retinal ganglion cell (RGC) responses to different stimulation parameters and compared threshold charge densities in wild-type and rd1 mice. For this purpose, we used in vitro retinal preparations of wild-type and rd1 mice. When the neural network was stimulated with voltage- and current-controlled pulses, RGCs from both wild-type and rd1 mice responded; however the temporal pattern of RGC response is very different. In wild-type RGCs, a single peak within 100 ms appears, while multiple peaks (approximately four peaks) with ~10 Hz rhythm within 400 ms appear in RGCs in the degenerated retina of rd1 mice. We find that an anodic phase-first biphasic voltage-controlled pulse is more efficient for stimulation than a biphasic current-controlled pulse based on lower threshold charge density. The threshold charge densities for activation of RGCs both with voltage- and current-controlled pulses are overall more elevated for the rd1 mouse than the wild-type mouse. Here, we propose the stimulus range for wild-type and rd1 retinas when the optimal modulation of a RGC response is possible.

  1. Growth Factor erv1-like Modulates Drp1 to Preserve Mitochondrial Dynamics and Function in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Lance R.; Damin, Matthew N.; Gomathinayagam, Rohini; Horn, Sarah R.; Means, Anthony R.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship of mitochondrial dynamics and function to pluripotency are rather poorly understood aspects of stem cell biology. Here we show that growth factor erv1-like (Gfer) is involved in preserving mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) mitochondrial morphology and function. Knockdown (KD) of Gfer in ESCs leads to decreased pluripotency marker expression, embryoid body (EB) formation, cell survival, and loss of mitochondrial function. Mitochondria in Gfer-KD ESCs undergo excessive fragmentation and mitophagy, whereas those in ESCs overexpressing Gfer appear elongated. Levels of the mitochondrial fission GTPase dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) are highly elevated in Gfer-KD ESCs and decreased in Gfer-overexpressing cells. Treatment with a specific inhibitor of Drp1 rescues mitochondrial function and apoptosis, whereas expression of Drp1-dominant negative resulted in the restoration of pluripotency marker expression in Gfer-KD ESCs. Altogether, our data reveal a novel prosurvival role for Gfer in maintaining mitochondrial fission–fusion dynamics in pluripotent ESCs. PMID:20147447

  2. DIVERSE AND TISSUE-SPECIFIC MITOCHONDRIAL RESPIRATORY RESPONSE IN A MOUSE MODEL OF SEPSIS-INDUCED MULTIPLE ORGAN FAILURE.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Michael; Hara, Naomi; Morata, Saori; Sjövall, Fredrik; Kilbaugh, Todd; Hansson, Magnus J; Uchino, Hiroyoki; Elmér, Eskil

    2016-04-01

    Mitochondrial function is thought to play a role in sepsis-induced multiple organ failure. However, the temporal and organ-specific alterations in mitochondrial function have yet to be fully elucidated. Many studies show reduced phosphorylating capacity, while others have indicated that mitochondrial respiration is enhanced. The objective of this study was to evaluate the temporal dynamics of brain and liver mitochondrial function in a mouse model of sepsis.Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture. Controls were sham operated. Using high-resolution respirometry, brain and liver homogenates from 31 C57BL/6 mice were analyzed at either 6 or 24 h. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was simultaneously measured in brain samples using fluorometry.Septic brain tissue exhibited an early increased uncoupling of respiration. Temporal changes between the two time points were diminutive and no difference in ROS production was detected.Liver homogenate from the septic mice displayed a significant increase in the respiratory control ratio at 6 h. In the 24-h group, the rate of maximal oxidative phosphorylation, as well as LEAK respiration, was significantly increased compared with controls and the resultant respiratory control ratio was also significantly increased. Maximal protonophore-induced respiratory (uncoupled) capacity was similar between the two treatment groups.The present study suggests a diverse and tissue-specific mitochondrial respiratory response to sepsis. The brain displayed an early impaired mitochondrial respiratory efficiency. In the liver the primary finding was a substantial activation of the maximal phosphorylating capacity.

  3. Growth factor erv1-like modulates Drp1 to preserve mitochondrial dynamics and function in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Todd, Lance R; Damin, Matthew N; Gomathinayagam, Rohini; Horn, Sarah R; Means, Anthony R; Sankar, Uma

    2010-04-01

    The relationship of mitochondrial dynamics and function to pluripotency are rather poorly understood aspects of stem cell biology. Here we show that growth factor erv1-like (Gfer) is involved in preserving mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) mitochondrial morphology and function. Knockdown (KD) of Gfer in ESCs leads to decreased pluripotency marker expression, embryoid body (EB) formation, cell survival, and loss of mitochondrial function. Mitochondria in Gfer-KD ESCs undergo excessive fragmentation and mitophagy, whereas those in ESCs overexpressing Gfer appear elongated. Levels of the mitochondrial fission GTPase dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) are highly elevated in Gfer-KD ESCs and decreased in Gfer-overexpressing cells. Treatment with a specific inhibitor of Drp1 rescues mitochondrial function and apoptosis, whereas expression of Drp1-dominant negative resulted in the restoration of pluripotency marker expression in Gfer-KD ESCs. Altogether, our data reveal a novel prosurvival role for Gfer in maintaining mitochondrial fission-fusion dynamics in pluripotent ESCs.

  4. Triacylglycerol-induced impairment in mitochondrial biogenesis and function in J774.2 and mouse peritoneal macrophage foam cells.

    PubMed

    Aronis, Anna; Aharoni-Simon, Michal; Madar, Zecharia; Tirosh, Oren

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to detect mitochondrial alterations in J774.2 macrophages and mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPM) foam cells. J774.2 and MPM cells were exposed to triacylglycerol (TG) emulsion (1 mg/ml) for induction of fat accumulation. Impairment of mitochondrial function was reflected by reduced cellular ATP production and decreased expression of subunits of mitochondrial complexes I and III. The expression of subunit IV of complex IV remained unchanged, however, the content of its precursor in cells increased. Inhibitors of mitochondrial complexes, rotenone (0.1 microM) and myxothiazol (25 nM), protected the viability in TG-loaded macrophages. The exposure to TG caused downregulation of PPARgamma coactivator (PGC)-1alpha and nuclear respiratory factor (NRF)-1. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors attenuated reactive oxygen species production in the foam cells. Treatment with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) prevented lipid-mediated mitochondrial and cellular damage. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the important role of mitochondrial biogenesis dysfunction in TG-induced lipotoxicity in macrophages.

  5. Deficiency in the mouse mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator isoform 2 gene is associated with cardiac noncompaction.

    PubMed

    Kokoszka, Jason E; Waymire, Katrina G; Flierl, Adrian; Sweeney, Katelyn M; Angelin, Alessia; MacGregor, Grant R; Wallace, Douglas C

    2016-08-01

    The mouse fetal and adult hearts express two adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) isoform genes. The predominant isoform is the heart-muscle-brain ANT-isoform gene 1 (Ant1) while the other is the systemic Ant2 gene. Genetic inactivation of the Ant1 gene does not impair fetal development but results in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in postnatal mice. Using a knockin X-linked Ant2 allele in which exons 3 and 4 are flanked by loxP sites combined in males with a protamine 1 promoter driven Cre recombinase we created females heterozygous for a null Ant2 allele. Crossing the heterozygous females with the Ant2(fl), PrmCre(+) males resulted in male and female ANT2-null embryos. These fetuses proved to be embryonic lethal by day E14.5 in association with cardiac developmental failure, immature cardiomyocytes having swollen mitochondria, cardiomyocyte hyperproliferation, and cardiac failure due to hypertrabeculation/noncompaction. ANTs have two main functions, mitochondrial-cytosol ATP/ADP exchange and modulation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mtPTP). Previous studies imply that ANT2 biases the mtPTP toward closed while ANT1 biases the mtPTP toward open. It has been reported that immature cardiomyocytes have a constitutively opened mtPTP, the closure of which signals the maturation of cardiomyocytes. Therefore, we hypothesize that the developmental toxicity of the Ant2 null mutation may be the result of biasing the cardiomyocyte mtPTP to remain open thus impairing cardiomyocyte maturation and resulting in cardiomyocyte hyperproliferation and failure of trabecular maturation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy, July 2-6, 2016', edited by Prof. Paolo Bernardi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Mitochondrial phenotype of marsupial torpor: Fuel metabolic switch in the Chilean mouse-opossum Thylamys elegans.

    PubMed

    Cortés, Pablo Andres; Bacigalupe, Leonardo Daniel; Mondaca, Fredy; Desrosiers, Véronique; Blier, Pierre U

    2016-01-01

    Torpor is a phenotype characterized by a controlled decline of metabolic rate and body temperature. During arousal from torpor, organs undergo rapid metabolic reactivation and rewarming to near normal levels. As torpor progress, animals show a preference for fatty acids over glucose as primary source of energy. Here, we analyzed for first time the changes in the maximal activity of key enzymes related to fatty acid (Carnitine palmitoyltransferase and β-Hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase) and carbohydrate (Pyruvate kinase, Phosphofructokinase and Lactate dehydrogenase) catabolism, as well as mitochondrial oxidative capacity (Citrate synthase), in six organs of torpid, arousing and euthermic Chilean mouse-opossums (Thylamys elegans). Our results showed that activity of enzymes related to fatty acid and carbohydrate catabolism were different among torpor phases and the pattern of variation differs among tissues. In terms of lipid utilization, maximal enzymatic activities differ in tissues with high oxidative capacity such as heart, kidney, and liver. In terms of carbohydrate use, lower enzymatic activities were observed during torpor in brain and liver. Interestingly, citrate synthase activity did not differ thought torpor-arousal cycle in any tissues analyzed, suggesting no modulation of mitochondrial content in T. elegans. Overall results provide an indication that modulation of enzymes associated with carbohydrate and fatty-acid pathways is mainly oriented to limit energy expensive processes and sustain energy metabolism during transition from torpor to euthermy. Future studies are required to elucidate if physiological events observed for T. elegans are unique from other marsupials, or represents a general response in marsupials. J. Exp. Zool. 325A:41-51, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Mitochondrial DNMT3A and DNA methylation in skeletal muscle and CNS of transgenic mouse models of ALS

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Margaret; Gertz, Barry; Chestnut, Barry A.; Martin, Lee J.

    2013-01-01

    Cytosine methylation is an epigenetic modification of DNA catalyzed by DNA methyltransferases. Cytosine methylation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is believed to have relative underrepresentation; however, possible tissue and cell differences in mtDNA methylation and relationships to neurodegenerative disease have not been examined. We show by immunoblotting that DNA methyltransferase 3A (Dnmt3a) isoform is present in pure mitochondria of adult mouse CNS, skeletal muscle, and testes, and adult human cerebral cortex. Dnmt1 was not detected in adult mouse CNS or skeletal muscle mitochondria but appeared bound to the outer mitochondrial membrane. Immunofluorescence confirmed the mitochondrial localization of Dnmt3a and showed 5-methylcytosine (5mC) immunoreactivity in mitochondria of neurons and skeletal muscle myofibers. DNA pyrosequencing of two loci (D-loop and 16S rRNA gene) and twelve cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites in mtDNA directly showed a tissue differential presence of 5mC. Because mitochondria have been implicated in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but the disease mechanisms are uncertain, we evaluated mitochondrial Dnmt3a and 5mC levels in human superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) transgenic mouse models of ALS. Mitochondrial Dnmt3a protein levels were reduced significantly in skeletal muscle and spinal cord at presymptomatic or early disease. Immunofluorescence showed that 5mC immunoreactivity was present in mitochondria of neurons and skeletal myofibers, and 5mC immunoreactivity became aggregated in motor neurons of ALS mice. DNA pyrosequencing revealed significant abnormalities in 16S rRNA gene methylation in ALS mice. Immunofluorescence showed that 5mC immunoreactivity can be sequestered into autophagosomes and that mitophagy was increased and mitochondrial content was decreased in skeletal muscle in ALS mice. This study reveals a tissue-preferential mitochondrial localization of Dnmt3a and presence of cytosine methylation in mt

  8. UCP2 overexpression worsens mitochondrial dysfunction and accelerates disease progression in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Pablo M; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Sider, Brittany; Starkov, Anatoly; Horvath, Tamas L; Manfredi, Giovanni

    2013-11-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction leading to deficits in energy production, Ca(2+) uptake capacity, and free radical generation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) caused by mutations in Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). Numerous studies link UCP2, a member of the uncoupling protein family, to protection of neurons from mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in various mouse models of acute stress and neurodegeneration, including Parkinson's disease. Here, we tested the potential neuroprotective effects of UCP2 and its ability to modulate mitochondrial function, in the G93A mutant SOD1 mouse model of familial ALS. Disease phenotype, mitochondrial bioenergetics, and Ca(2+) uptake capacity were investigated in the central nervous system of double transgenic mice, expressing both human mutant G93A SOD1 and human UCP2 (hUCP2). Unexpectedly, hUCP2 expression accelerated the disease course of SOD1 mutant mice. In addition, we did not observe a classical uncoupling effect of hUCP2 in G93A brain mitochondria, although we did detect a decrease in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production from mitochondria challenged with the respiratory chain inhibitors rotenone and antimycin A. We also found that mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake capacity was decreased in the double transgenic mice, as compared to G93A mice. In summary, our results indicate that the neuroprotective role of UCP2 in neurodegeneration is disease-specific and that, while a mild uncoupling by UCP2 in brain mitochondria may protect against neurodegeneration in some injury paradigms, the mitochondrial damage and the disease caused by mutant SOD1 cannot be ameliorated by UCP2 overexpression.

  9. UCP2 overexpression worsens mitochondrial dysfunction and accelerates disease progression in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Peixoto, Pablo M; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Sider, Brittany; Starkov, Anatoly; Horvath, Tamas L; Manfredi, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction leading to deficits in energy production, Ca2+ uptake capacity, and free radical generation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) caused by mutations in Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). Numerous studies link UCP2, a member of the uncoupling protein family, to protection of neurons from mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in various mouse models of acute stress and neurodegeneration, including Parkinson’s disease. Here, we tested the potential neuroprotective effects of UCP2 and its ability to modulate mitochondrial function, in the G93A mutant SOD1 mouse model of familial ALS. Disease phenotype, mitochondrial bioenergetics, and Ca2+ uptake capacity were investigated in the central nervous system of double transgenic mice, expressing both human mutant G93A SOD1 and human UCP2 (hUCP2). Unexpectedly, hUCP2 expression accelerated the disease course of SOD1 mutant mice. In addition, we did not observe a classical uncoupling effect of hUCP2 in G93A brain mitochondria, although we did detect a decrease in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production from mitochondria challenged with the respiratory chain inhibitors rotenone and antimycin A. We also found that mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake capacity was decreased in the double transgenic mice, as compared to G93A mice. Taken together our results indicate that the neuroprotective role of UCP2 in neurodegeneration is disease-specific and that, while a mild uncoupling by UCP2 in brain mitochondria may protect against neurodegeneration in some injury paradigms, the mitochondrial damage and the disease caused by mutant SOD1 cannot be ameliorated by UCP2 overexpression. PMID:24141050

  10. Oxidized and Original article degraded mitochondrial polynucleotides (DeMPs), especially RNA, are potent immunogenic regulators in primary mouse macrophages.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Abhinav R; Gao, Linda Y; Srivatsa, Shachi; Bobersky, Elizabeth Z; Periasamy, Sivakumar; Hunt, Danielle T; Altman, Kyle E; Crawford, Dana R

    2017-03-01

    Certain mitochondrial components can act as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) or danger signals, triggering a proinflammatory response in target (usually immune) cells. We previously reported the selective degradation of mitochondrial DNA and RNA in response to cellular oxidative stress, and the immunogenic effect of this DNA in primary mouse astrocytes. Here, we extend these studies to assess the immunogenic role of both mitochondrial DNA and RNA isolated from hydrogen peroxide (HP) treated HA1 cells (designated "DeMPs" for degraded mitochondrial polynucleotides) using mouse bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs), a conventional immune cell type. DeMPs and control mitochondrial DNA (cont mtDNA) and RNA (cont mtRNA) were transfected into BMDMs and cell-free media analyzed for the presence of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, MCP-1, and TNFα) and Type I interferon (IFN-α and IFN-β). Cont mtDNA induced IL-6 and MCP-1 production, and this effect was even greater with DeMP DNA. A similar response was observed for Type I interferons. An even stronger induction of proinflammatory cytokine and type 1 interferons was observed for cont mtRNA. However, contrary to DeMP DNA, DeMP RNA attenuated rather than potentiated the cont mtRNA cytokine inductions. This attenuation effect was not accompanied by an IL-10 or TGFβ anti-inflammatory response. All DeMP effects were observed at multiple oxidant concentrations. Finally, DeMP production and immunogenicity overlaps with cellular adaptive response and so may contribute to cellular oxidant protection. These results provide new insight into the immunogenicity of mitochondrial polynucleotides, and identify new roles and selective consequences of cellular oxidation.

  11. Increased Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Signal Correlates with Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress in an Alzheimer’s Disease Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Du; Zhang, Zhihua; Li, Hang; Yu, Qing; Douglas, Justin T.; Bratasz, Anna; Kuppusamy, Periannan; Yan, Shirley ShiDu

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized clinically by cognitive decline and memory loss. The pathological features are amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles. Many studies have suggested that oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an important mechanism for AD progression. Our recent study demonstrated that oxidative stress could further impair mitochondrial function. In the present study, we adopted a transgenic mouse model of AD (mAPP, overexpressing AβPP/Aβ in neurons) and performed redox measurements using in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) imaging with methoxycarbamyl-proxyl (MCP) as a redox-sensitive probe for studying oxidative stress in an early stage of pathology in a transgenic AD mouse model. Through assessing oxidative stress, mitochondrial function and cognitive behaviors of mAPP mice at the age of 8–9 months, we found that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction appeared in the early onset of AD. Increased ROS levels were associated with defects of mitochondrial and cognitive dysfunction. Notably, the in vivo EPR method offers a unique way of assessing tissue oxidative stress in living animals under noninvasive conditions, and thus holds a potential for early diagnosis and monitoring the progression of AD. PMID:26890765

  12. Mitochondrial calcium buffering contributes to the maintenance of Basal calcium levels in mouse taste cells.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Kyle; Medler, Kathryn F

    2008-10-01

    Taste stimuli are detected by taste receptor cells present in the oral cavity using diverse signaling pathways. Some taste stimuli are detected by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that cause calcium release from intracellular stores, whereas other stimuli depolarize taste cells to cause calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs). Although taste cells use two distinct mechanisms to transmit taste signals, increases in cytosolic calcium are critical for normal responses in both pathways. This creates a need to tightly control intracellular calcium levels in all transducing taste cells. To date, however, the mechanisms used by taste cells to regulate cytosolic calcium levels have not been identified. Studies in other cell types have shown that mitochondria can be important calcium buffers, even during small changes in calcium loads. In this study, we used calcium imaging to characterize the role of mitochondria in buffering calcium levels in taste cells. We discovered that mitochondria make important contributions to the maintenance of resting calcium levels in taste cells by routinely buffering a constitutive calcium influx across the plasma membrane. This is unusual because in other cell types, mitochondrial calcium buffering primarily affects large evoked calcium responses. We also found that the amount of calcium that is buffered by mitochondria varies with the signaling pathways used by the taste cells. A transient receptor potential (TRP) channel, likely TRPV1 or a taste variant of TRPV1, contributes to the constitutive calcium influx.

  13. Widespread expression of the Supv3L1 mitochondrial RNA helicase in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Erin; Kielbasinski, Marissa; Sedivy, John M.; Murga-Zamalloa, Carlos; Khanna, Hemant; Klysik, Jan E.

    2009-01-01

    Supv3L1 is an evolutionarily conserved helicase that plays a critical role in the mitochondrial RNA surveillance and degradation machinery. Conditional ablation of Supv3L1 in adult mice leads to premature aging phenotypes including loss of muscle mass and adipose tissue and severe skin abnormalities. To get insights into the spatial and temporal expression of Supv3L1 in the mouse, we generated knock-in and transgenic strains in which an EGFP reporter was placed under control of the Supv3L1 native promoter. During development, expression of Supv3L1 begins at the blastocyst stage, becomes widespread and strong in all fetal tissues and cell types, and continues during postnatal growth. In mature animals reporter expression is only slightly diminished in most tissues and continues to be highly expressed in the brain, peripheral sensory organs, and testis. Together, these data confirm that Supv3L1 is an important developmentally regulated gene, which continues to be expressed in all mature tissues, particularly the rapidly proliferating cells of testes, but also in the brain and sensory organs. The transgenic mice and cell lines derived from them constitute a valuable tool for the examination of the spatial and temporal aspects of Supv3L1 promoter activity, and should facilitate future screens for small molecules that regulate Supv3L1 expression. PMID:19937380

  14. Mass spectrometrical analysis of the mitochondrial carrier Aralar1 from mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Heo, Seok; Kang, Sung Ung; Oehler, Rudolf; Pollak, Arnold; Lubec, Gert

    2010-06-01

    Aralar1 is a mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier and a key component of the malate-aspartate NADH shuttle system. An analytical approach to obtain high sequence coverage is important to predict conformation, identify splice variants and binding partners or generate specific antibodies. Moreover, a method allowing determination of Aralar1 from brain samples is a prerequisite for evaluating a biological role. Sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation was applied to enrich native membrane protein fractions and these were run on blue-native PAGE, followed by multidimensional gel electrophoresis. Spots from the third-dimensional gel electrophoresis were in-gel digested with trypsin, chymotrypsin and subtilisin. Subsequently, peptides were analyzed by nano-ESI-LC-MS/MS using collision-induced dissociation and electron transfer dissociation modes. Modiro v1.1 along with Mascot v2.2 software was used for data handling. Aralar1 could be clearly separated, unambiguously identified and characterized from protein extracts of mouse hippocampus by the use of the multidimensional gel electrophoretic steps. The combined sequence coverage of Aralar1 from trypsin, chymotrypsin and subtilisin digestions was 99.85%. The results provide the basis for future studies of Aralar1 at the protein chemical rather than at the immunochemical level in the brain and thus challenge and enable determination of Aralar1 levels required for understanding biological functions in health and disease.

  15. Fetal calcium regulates branching morphogenesis in the developing human and mouse lung: involvement of voltage-gated calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Sarah C; Finney, Brenda A; Lazarou, Maria; Rosser, Anne E; Scherf, Caroline; Adriaensen, Dirk; Kemp, Paul J; Riccardi, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Airway branching morphogenesis in utero is essential for optimal postnatal lung function. In the fetus, branching morphogenesis occurs during the pseudoglandular stage (weeks 9-17 of human gestation, embryonic days (E)11.5-16.5 in mouse) in a hypercalcaemic environment (~1.7 in the fetus vs. ~1.1-1.3 mM for an adult). Previously we have shown that fetal hypercalcemia exerts an inhibitory brake on branching morphogenesis via the calcium-sensing receptor. In addition, earlier studies have shown that nifedipine, a selective blocker of L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCC), inhibits fetal lung growth, suggesting a role for VGCC in lung development. The aim of this work was to investigate the expression of VGCC in the pseudoglandular human and mouse lung, and their role in branching morphogenesis. Expression of L-type (CaV1.2 and CaV1.3), P/Q type (CaV2.1), N-type (CaV2.2), R-type (CaV2.3), and T-type (CaV3.2 and CaV3.3) VGCC was investigated in paraffin sections from week 9 human fetal lungs and E12.5 mouse embryos. Here we show, for the first time, that Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 are expressed in both the smooth muscle and epithelium of the developing human and mouse lung. Additionally, Cav2.3 was expressed in the lung epithelium of both species. Incubating E12.5 mouse lung rudiments in the presence of nifedipine doubled the amount of branching, an effect which was partly mimicked by the Cav2.3 inhibitor, SNX-482. Direct measurements of changes in epithelial cell membrane potential, using the voltage-sensitive fluorescent dye DiSBAC2(3), demonstrated that cyclic depolarisations occur within the developing epithelium and coincide with rhythmic occlusions of the lumen, driven by the naturally occurring airway peristalsis. We conclude that VGCC are expressed and functional in the fetal human and mouse lung, where they play a role in branching morphogenesis. Furthermore, rhythmic epithelial depolarisations evoked by airway peristalsis would allow for branching to match

  16. Extracellular Mitochondria and Mitochondrial Components Act as Damage-Associated Molecular Pattern Molecules in the Mouse Brain.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Heather M; Koppel, Scott J; Weidling, Ian W; Roy, Nairita; Ryan, Lauren N; Stanford, John A; Swerdlow, Russell H

    2016-12-01

    Mitochondria and mitochondrial debris are found in the brain's extracellular space, and extracellular mitochondrial components can act as damage associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecules. To characterize the effects of potential mitochondrial DAMP molecules on neuroinflammation, we injected either isolated mitochondria or mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) into hippocampi of C57BL/6 mice and seven days later measured markers of inflammation. Brains injected with whole mitochondria showed increased Tnfα and decreased Trem2 mRNA, increased GFAP protein, and increased NFκB phosphorylation. Some of these effects were also observed in brains injected with mtDNA (decreased Trem2 mRNA, increased GFAP protein, and increased NFκB phosphorylation), and mtDNA injection also caused several unique changes including increased CSF1R protein and AKT phosphorylation. To further establish the potential relevance of this response to Alzheimer's disease (AD), a brain disorder characterized by neurodegeneration, mitochondrial dysfunction, and neuroinflammation we also measured App mRNA, APP protein, and Aβ1-42 levels. We found mitochondria (but not mtDNA) injections increased these parameters. Our data show that in the mouse brain extracellular mitochondria and its components can induce neuroinflammation, extracellular mtDNA or mtDNA-associated proteins can contribute to this effect, and mitochondria derived-DAMP molecules can influence AD-associated biomarkers.

  17. Disrupted mitochondrial function in the Opa3L122P mouse model for Costeff Syndrome impairs skeletal integrity

    PubMed Central

    Navein, Alice E.; Cooke, Esther J.; Davies, Jennifer R.; Smith, Terence G.; Wells, Lois H. M.; Ohazama, Atsushi; Healy, Christopher; Sharpe, Paul T.; Evans, Sam L.; Evans, Bronwen A. J.; Votruba, Marcela; Wells, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction connects metabolic disturbance with numerous pathologies, but the significance of mitochondrial activity in bone remains unclear. We have, therefore, characterized the skeletal phenotype in the Opa3L122P mouse model for Costeff syndrome, in which a missense mutation of the mitochondrial membrane protein, Opa3, impairs mitochondrial activity resulting in visual and metabolic dysfunction. Although widely expressed in the developing normal mouse head, Opa3 expression was restricted after E14.5 to the retina, brain, teeth and mandibular bone. Opa3 was also expressed in adult tibiae, including at the trabecular surfaces and in cortical osteocytes, epiphyseal chondrocytes, marrow adipocytes and mesenchymal stem cell rosettes. Opa3L122P mice displayed craniofacial abnormalities, including undergrowth of the lower mandible, accompanied in some individuals by cranial asymmetry and incisor malocclusion. Opa3L122P mice showed an 8-fold elevation in tibial marrow adiposity, due largely to increased adipogenesis. In addition, femoral length and cortical diameter and wall thickness were reduced, the weakening of the calcified tissue and the geometric component of strength reducing overall cortical strength in Opa3L122P mice by 65%. In lumbar vertebrae reduced vertebral body area and wall thickness were accompanied by a proportionate reduction in marrow adiposity. Although the total biomechanical strength of lumbar vertebrae was reduced by 35%, the strength of the calcified tissue (σmax) was proportionate to a 38% increase in trabecular number. Thus, mitochondrial function is important for the development and maintenance of skeletal integrity, impaired bone growth and strength, particularly in limb bones, representing a significant new feature of the Costeff syndrome phenotype. PMID:27106103

  18. Expression Profiling of Mitochondrial Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel-1 Associated Genes Predicts Recurrence-Free Survival in Human Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Inja; Zhou, Tong; Bang, Hyoweon

    2014-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs) play a key role in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Both in vivo and in vitro evidences indicate that VDACs are actively involved in tumor progression. Specifically, VDAC-1, one member of the VDAC family, was thought to be a potential anti-cancer therapeutic target. Our previous study demonstrated that the human gene VDAC1 (encoding the VDAC-1 isoform) was significantly up-regulated in lung tumor tissue compared with normal tissue. Also, we found a significant positive correlation between the gene expression of VDAC1 and histological grade in breast cancer. However, the prognostic power of VDAC1 and its associated genes in human cancers is largely unknown. Methods We systematically analyzed the expression pattern of VDAC1 and its interacting genes in breast, colon, liver, lung, pancreatic, and thyroid cancers. The genes differentially expressed between normal and tumor tissues in human carcinomas were identified. Results The expression level of VDAC1 was uniformly up-regulated in tumor tissue compared with normal tissue in breast, colon, liver, lung, pancreatic, and thyroid cancers. Forty-four VDAC1 interacting genes were identified as being commonly differentially expressed between normal and tumor tissues in human carcinomas. We designated VDAC1 and the 44 dysregulated interacting genes as the VDAC1 associated gene signature (VAG). We demonstrate that the VAG signature is a robust prognostic biomarker to predict recurrence-free survival in breast, colon, and lung cancers, and is independent of standard clinical and pathological prognostic factors. Conclusions VAG represents a promising prognostic biomarker in human cancers, which may enhance prediction accuracy in identifying patients at higher risk for recurrence. Future therapies aimed specifically at VDAC1 associated genes may lead to novel agents in the treatment of cancer. PMID:25333947

  19. Osthol is a use-dependent blocker of voltage-gated Na+ channels in mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells.

    PubMed

    Leung, Yuk-Man; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Chao, Chia-Chia; Tsou, Yi-Huan; Chou, Chun-Hsiao; Lin, Chia-Huei; Wong, Kar-Lok

    2010-01-01

    Osthol, a Chinese herbal compound, has been shown to possess vasorelaxant and neuroprotective properties. Not much is known about the effects of osthol on ionic channels, activities of which are implicated in vasorelaxation and neuroprotection. In this work we report that osthol could inhibit voltage-gated Na (+) currents with state-dependence in mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells (IC (50) = 12.3 microM and 31.5 microM at holding potentials of - 70 mV and - 100 mV, respectively). Current blockade was equally effective in both extracellular and intracellular application of osthol. Osthol (18 microM) did not significantly affect the kinetics and voltage-dependence of Na (+) channel activation, but left-shifted the steady-state inactivation curve (V (1/2) = - 60.5 mV and - 78.7 mV in the absence and presence of osthol, respectively). Osthol also mildly but significantly retarded channel recovery from inactivation (recovery time constant = 19.9 ms and 35.6 ms in the absence and presence of osthol, respectively). In addition, osthol blocked Na (+) currents in a frequency-dependent fashion: blockades of 17 %, 34 % and 49 % when currents were triggered at 0.33 Hz, 1 Hz and 3.33 Hz, respectively. Taken together, our results therefore suggest that osthol blocked voltage-gated Na (+) channels intracellularly with state- and frequency-dependence.

  20. Striatal Dysfunctions Associated with Mitochondrial DNA Damage in Dopaminergic Neurons in a Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pickrell, Alicia M.; Pinto, Milena; Hida, Aline; Moraes, Carlos T.

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most common progressive neurodegenerative disorders, characterized by resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability. These symptoms are associated with massive loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) causing an estimated 70–80% depletion of dopamine (DA) in the striatum, where their projections are located. Although the etiology of PD is unknown, mitochondrial dysfunctions have been associated with the disease pathophysiology. We used a mouse model expressing a mitochondria-targeted restriction enzyme, PstI or mito-PstI, to damage mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in dopaminergic neurons. The expression of mito-PstI induces double-strand breaks in the mtDNA, leading to an oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, mostly due to mtDNA depletion. Taking advantage of a dopamine transporter (DAT) promoter-driven tetracycline transactivator protein (tTA), we expressed mito-PstI exclusively in dopaminergic neurons, creating a novel PD transgenic mouse model (PD-mito-PstI mouse). These mice recapitulate most of the major features of PD: they have a motor phenotype that is reversible with l-DOPA treatment, a progressive neurodegeneration of the SN dopaminergic population, and striatal DA depletion. Our results also showed that behavioral phenotypes in PD-mito-PstI mice were associated with striatal dysfunctions preceding SN loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons and that other neurotransmitter systems [noradrenaline (NE) and serotonin (5-HT)] were increased after the disruption of DA neurons, potentially as a compensatory mechanism. This transgenic mouse model provides a novel model to study the role of mitochondrial defects in the axonal projections of the striatum in the pathophysiology of PD. PMID:22131425

  1. Expression of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channel α2δ4 Subunits in the Mouse and Rat Retina

    PubMed Central

    De Sevilla Müller, Luis Pérez; Liu, Janelle; Solomon, Alexander; Rodriguez, Allen; Brecha, Nicholas C.

    2013-01-01

    High-voltage activated Ca channels participate in multiple cellular functions, including transmitter release, excitation, and gene transcription. Ca channels are heteromeric proteins consisting of a pore-forming α1 subunit and auxiliary α2δ and β subunits. Although there are reports of α2δ4 subunit mRNA in the mouse retina and localization of the α2δ4 subunit immunoreactivity to salamander photoreceptor terminals, there is a limited overall understanding of its expression and localization in the retina. α2δ4 subunit expression and distribution in the mouse and rat retina were evaluated by using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and immunohistochemistry with specific primers and a well-characterized antibody to the α2δ4 subunit. α2δ4 subunit mRNA and protein are present in mouse and rat retina, brain, and liver homogenates. Immunostaining for the α2δ4 subunit is mainly localized to Müller cell processes and endfeet, photoreceptor terminals, and photoreceptor outer segments. This subunit is also expressed in a few displaced ganglion cells and bipolar cell dendrites. These findings suggest that the α2δ4 subunit participates in the modulation of L-type Ca2+ current regulating neurotransmitter release from photoreceptor terminals and Ca2+-dependent signaling pathways in bipolar and Müller cells. PMID:23296739

  2. Metabolic dysfunction and altered mitochondrial dynamics in the utrophin-dystrophin deficient mouse model of duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Pant, Meghna; Sopariwala, Danesh H; Bal, Naresh C; Lowe, Jeovanna; Delfín, Dawn A; Rafael-Fortney, Jill; Periasamy, Muthu

    2015-01-01

    The utrophin-dystrophin deficient (DKO) mouse model has been widely used to understand the progression of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). However, it is unclear as to what extent muscle pathology affects metabolism. Therefore, the present study was focused on understanding energy expenditure in the whole animal and in isolated extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle and to determine changes in metabolic enzymes. Our results show that the 8 week-old DKO mice consume higher oxygen relative to activity levels. Interestingly the EDL muscle from DKO mouse consumes higher oxygen per unit integral force, generates less force and performs better in the presence of pyruvate thus mimicking a slow twitch muscle. We also found that the expression of hexokinase 1 and pyruvate kinase M2 was upregulated several fold suggesting increased glycolytic flux. Additionally, there is a dramatic increase in dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp 1) and mitofusin 2 protein levels suggesting increased mitochondrial fission and fusion, a feature associated with increased energy demand and altered mitochondrial dynamics. Collectively our studies point out that the dystrophic disease has caused significant changes in muscle metabolism. To meet the increased energetic demand, upregulation of metabolic enzymes and regulators of mitochondrial fusion and fission is observed in the dystrophic muscle. A better understanding of the metabolic demands and the accompanied alterations in the dystrophic muscle can help us design improved intervention therapies along with existing drug treatments for the DMD patients.

  3. Overexpression of the mitochondrial methyltransferase TFB1M in the mouse does not impact mitoribosomal methylation status or hearing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungmin; Rose, Simon; Metodiev, Metodi D; Becker, Lore; Vernaleken, Alexandra; Klopstock, Thomas; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Fuchs, Helmut; Hrabě De Angelis, Martin; Douthwaite, Stephen; Larsson, Nils-Göran

    2015-12-20

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a well-established cause of sensorineural deafness, but the pathophysiological events are poorly understood. Non-syndromic deafness and predisposition to aminoglycoside-induced deafness can be caused by specific mutations in the 12S rRNA gene of mtDNA and are thus maternally inherited traits. The pathophysiology induced by mtDNA mutations has traditionally been attributed to deficient oxidative phosphorylation, which causes energy crisis with functional impairment of multiple cellular processes. In contrast, it was recently reported that signaling induced by 'hypermethylation' of two conserved adenosines of 12S rRNA in the mitoribosome is of key pathophysiological importance in sensorineural deafness. In support for this concept, it was reported that overexpression of the essential mitochondrial methyltransferase TFB1M in the mouse was sufficient to induce mitoribosomal hypermethylation and deafness. At variance with this model, we show here that 12S rRNA is near fully methylated in vivo in the mouse and thus cannot be further methylated to any significant extent. Furthermore, bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mice overexpressing TFB1M have no increase of 12S rRNA methylation levels and hear normally. We thus conclude that therapies directed against mitoribosomal methylation are unlikely to be beneficial to patients with sensorineural hearing loss or other types of mitochondrial disease. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Mitochondrial base excision repair in mouse synaptosomes during normal aging and in a model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Gredilla, Ricardo; Weissman, Lior; Yang, Jenq-Lin; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Stevnsner, Tinna

    2012-04-01

    Brain aging is associated with synaptic decline and synaptic function is highly dependent on mitochondria. Increased levels of oxidative DNA base damage and accumulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations or deletions lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, playing an important role in the aging process and the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases. Here we have investigated the repair of oxidative base damage, in synaptosomes of mouse brain during normal aging and in an AD model. During normal aging, a reduction in the base excision repair (BER) capacity was observed in the synaptosomal fraction, which was associated with a decrease in the level of BER proteins. However, we did not observe changes between the synaptosomal BER activities of presymptomatic and symptomatic AD mice harboring mutated amyolid precursor protein (APP), Tau, and presinilin-1 (PS1) (3xTgAD). Our findings suggest that the age-related reduction in BER capacity in the synaptosomal fraction might contribute to mitochondrial and synaptic dysfunction during aging. The development of AD-like pathology in the 3xTgAD mouse model was, however, not associated with deficiencies of the BER mechanisms in the synaptosomal fraction when the whole brain was analyzed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Overexpression of the mitochondrial methyltransferase TFB1M in the mouse does not impact mitoribosomal methylation status or hearing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seungmin; Rose, Simon; Metodiev, Metodi D.; Becker, Lore; Vernaleken, Alexandra; Klopstock, Thomas; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Fuchs, Helmut; Hrabě De Angelis, Martin; Douthwaite, Stephen; Larsson, Nils-Göran

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a well-established cause of sensorineural deafness, but the pathophysiological events are poorly understood. Non-syndromic deafness and predisposition to aminoglycoside-induced deafness can be caused by specific mutations in the 12S rRNA gene of mtDNA and are thus maternally inherited traits. The pathophysiology induced by mtDNA mutations has traditionally been attributed to deficient oxidative phosphorylation, which causes energy crisis with functional impairment of multiple cellular processes. In contrast, it was recently reported that signaling induced by ‘hypermethylation’ of two conserved adenosines of 12S rRNA in the mitoribosome is of key pathophysiological importance in sensorineural deafness. In support for this concept, it was reported that overexpression of the essential mitochondrial methyltransferase TFB1M in the mouse was sufficient to induce mitoribosomal hypermethylation and deafness. At variance with this model, we show here that 12S rRNA is near fully methylated in vivo in the mouse and thus cannot be further methylated to any significant extent. Furthermore, bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mice overexpressing TFB1M have no increase of 12S rRNA methylation levels and hear normally. We thus conclude that therapies directed against mitoribosomal methylation are unlikely to be beneficial to patients with sensorineural hearing loss or other types of mitochondrial disease. PMID:26464487

  6. A unique role for Kv3 voltage-gated potassium channels in starburst amacrine cell signaling in mouse retina.

    PubMed

    Ozaita, Ander; Petit-Jacques, Jerome; Völgyi, Béla; Ho, Chi Shun; Joho, Rolf H; Bloomfield, Stewart A; Rudy, Bernardo

    2004-08-18

    Direction-selective retinal ganglion cells show an increased activity evoked by light stimuli moving in the preferred direction. This selectivity is governed by direction-selective inhibition from starburst amacrine cells occurring during stimulus movement in the opposite or null direction. To understand the intrinsic membrane properties of starburst cells responsible for direction-selective GABA release, we performed whole-cell recordings from starburst cells in mouse retina. Voltage-clamp recordings revealed prominent voltage-dependent K(+) currents. The currents were mostly blocked by 1 mm TEA, activated rapidly at voltages more positive than -20 mV, and deactivated quickly, properties reminiscent of the currents carried by the Kv3 subfamily of K+ channels. Immunoblots confirmed the presence of Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 proteins in retina and immunohistochemistry revealed their expression in starburst cell somata and dendrites. The Kv3-like current in starburst cells was absent in Kv3.1-Kv3.2 knock-out mice. Current-clamp recordings showed that the fast activation of the Kv3 channels provides a voltage-dependent shunt that limits depolarization of the soma to potentials more positive than -20 mV. This provides a mechanism likely to contribute to the electrical isolation of individual starburst cell dendrites, a property thought essential for direction selectivity. This function of Kv3 channels differs from that in other neurons where they facilitate high-frequency repetitive firing. Moreover, we found a gradient in the intensity of Kv3.1b immunolabeling favoring proximal regions of starburst cells. We hypothesize that this Kv3 channel gradient contributes to the preference for centrifugal signal flow in dendrites underlying direction-selective GABA release from starburst amacrine cells

  7. Impaired mitochondrial functions contribute to 3-bromopyruvate toxicity in primary rat and mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Sobotka, Ondřej; Endlicher, René; Drahota, Zdeněk; Kučera, Otto; Rychtrmoc, David; Raad, Marjan; Hakeem, Khurum; Červinková, Zuzana

    2016-08-01

    A compound with promising anticancer properties, 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) is a synthetic derivative of a pyruvate molecule; however, its toxicity in non-malignant cells has not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, we elected to study the effects of 3-BP on primary hepatocytes in monolayer cultures, permeabilized hepatocytes and isolated mitochondria. After a 1-h treatment with 100 μM 3-BP cell viability of rat hepatocytes was decreased by 30 % as measured by the WST-1 test (p < 0.001); after 3-h exposure to ≥200 μM 3-BP lactate dehydrogenase leakage was increased (p < 0.001). Reactive oxygen species production was increased in the cell cultures after a 1-h treatment at concentrations ≥100 μmol/l (p < 0.01), and caspase 3 activity was increased after a 20-h incubation with 150 μM and 200 μM 3-BP (p < 0.001). This toxic effect of 3-BP was also proved using primary mouse hepatocytes. In isolated mitochondria, 3-BP induced a dose- and time-dependent decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential during a 10-min incubation both with Complex I substrates glutamate + malate or Complex II substrate succinate, although this decrease was more pronounced with the latter. We also measured the effect of 3-BP on respiration of isolated mitochondria. ADP-activated respiration was inhibited by 20 μM 3-BP within 10 min. Similar effects were also found in permeabilized hepatocytes of both species.

  8. Methionine sulfoxide reductase A affects β-amyloid solubility and mitochondrial function in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Du, Fang; Bowman, Connor F.; Yan, Shirley S.

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of oxidized proteins, and especially β-amyloid (Aβ), is thought to be one of the common causes of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The current studies determine the effect of an in vivo methionine sulfoxidation of Aβ through ablation of the methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA) in a mouse model of AD, a mouse that overexpresses amyloid precursor protein (APP) and Aβ in neurons. Lack of MsrA fosters the formation of methionine sulfoxide in proteins, and thus its ablation in the AD-mouse model will increase the formation of methionine sulfoxide in Aβ. Indeed, the novel MsrA-deficient APP mice (APP+/MsrAKO) exhibited higher levels of soluble Aβ in brain compared with APP+ mice. Furthermore, mitochondrial respiration and the activity of cytochrome c oxidase were compromised in the APP+/MsrAKO compared with control mice. These results suggest that lower MsrA activity modifies Aβ solubility properties and causes mitochondrial dysfunction, and augmenting its activity may be beneficial in delaying AD progression. PMID:26786779

  9. Lycopene Protects against Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Induced Apoptosis by Preventing Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Primary Neonatal Mouse Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Rongchuan; Hu, Houxiang; Yiu, Kai Hang; Luo, Tao; Zhou, Zhou; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Shuang; Li, Ke; Yu, Zhengping

    2012-01-01

    Background Hypoxia/reoxygenation(H/R)-induced apoptosis of cardiomyocytes plays an important role in myocardial injury. Lycopene is a potent antioxidant carotenoid that has been shown to have protective properties on cardiovascular system. The aim of the present study is to investigate the potential for lycopene to protect the cardiomyocytes exposed to H/R. Moreover, the effect on mitochondrial function upon lycopene exposure was assessed. Methods and Findings Primary cardiomyocytes were isolated from neonatal mouse and established an in vitro model of H/R which resembles ischemia/reperfusion in vivo. The pretreatment of cardiomyocytes with 5 µM lycopene significantly reduced the extent of apoptosis detected by TUNEL assays. To further study the mechanism underlying the benefits of lycopene, interactions between lycopene and the process of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis were examined. Lycopene pretreatment of cardiomyocytes suppressed the activation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) by reducing the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and inhibiting the increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels caused by H/R. Moreover, the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, a decline in cellular ATP levels, a reduction in the amount of cytochrome c translocated to the cytoplasm and caspase-3 activation were observed in lycopene-treated cultures. Conclusion The present results suggested that lycopene possesses great pharmacological potential in protecting against H/R-induced apoptosis. Importantly, the protective effects of lycopene may be attributed to its roles in improving mitochondrial function in H/R-treated cardiomyocytes. PMID:23226382

  10. Loss of STAT3 in Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts Reveals Its Janus-Like Actions on Mitochondrial Function and Cell Viability

    PubMed Central

    Zouein, Fouad A.; Duhé, Roy J.; Arany, Istvan; Shirey, Kristin; Hosler, Jonathan P.; Liu, Huiling; Saad, Iman; Kurdi, Mazen; Booz, George W.

    2014-01-01

    STAT3 has been implicated in mitochondrial function; however, the physiological relevance of this action is not established. Here we studied the importance of STAT3 to the cellular response to stimuli, TNFα and serum deprivation, which increase mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Experiments were performed using wild type (WT) and STAT3 knockout (KO) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF). Both WT and STAT3 KO MEF expressed similar levels of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) and exhibited comparable IκBα degradation with TNFα. However, in the absence of STAT3 nuclear accumulation of NFκB p65 with TNFα was attenuated and induction of the survival protein c-FLIPL was eliminated. Nonetheless, WT MEF were more sensitive to TNFα-induced death which was attributed to necrosis. Deletion of STAT3 decreased ROS formation induced by TNFα and serum deprivation. STAT3 deletion was associated with lower levels of complex I and rates of respiration. Relative to WT cells, mitochondria of STAT3 KO cells released significantly more cytochrome c in response to oxidative stress and had greater caspase 3 cleavage due to serum deprivation. Our findings are consistent with STAT3 being important for mitochondrial function and cell viability by ensuring mitochondrial integrity and the expression of pro-survival genes. PMID:24548419

  11. Loss of STAT3 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts reveals its Janus-like actions on mitochondrial function and cell viability.

    PubMed

    Zouein, Fouad A; Duhé, Roy J; Arany, Istvan; Shirey, Kristin; Hosler, Jonathan P; Liu, Huiling; Saad, Iman; Kurdi, Mazen; Booz, George W

    2014-03-01

    STAT3 has been implicated in mitochondrial function; however, the physiological relevance of this action is not established. Here we studied the importance of STAT3 to the cellular response to stimuli, TNFα and serum deprivation, which increase mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Experiments were performed using wild type (WT) and STAT3 knockout (KO) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF). Both WT and STAT3 KO MEF expressed similar levels of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) and exhibited comparable IκBα degradation with TNFα. However, in the absence of STAT3 nuclear accumulation of NFκB p65 with TNFα was attenuated and induction of the survival protein c-FLIPL was eliminated. Nonetheless, WT MEF were more sensitive to TNFα-induced death which was attributed to necrosis. Deletion of STAT3 decreased ROS formation induced by TNFα and serum deprivation. STAT3 deletion was associated with lower levels of complex I and rates of respiration. Relative to WT cells, mitochondria of STAT3 KO cells released significantly more cytochrome c in response to oxidative stress and had greater caspase 3 cleavage due to serum deprivation. Our findings are consistent with STAT3 being important for mitochondrial function and cell viability by ensuring mitochondrial integrity and the expression of pro-survival genes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mitochondrial calcium uniporter inhibition attenuates mouse bone marrow-derived mast cell degranulation induced by beta-1,3-glucan

    PubMed Central

    Cuong, Dang Van; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Marquez, Jubert; Kim, Nari; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo

    2016-01-01

    Mast cells are primary mediators of allergic inflammation. Beta-1,3-glucan (BG) protects against infection and shock by activating immune cells. Activation of the BG receptor induces an increase in intracellular Ca2+, which may induce exocytosis. However, little is known about the precise mechanisms underlying BG activation of immune cells and the possible role of mitochondria in this process. The present study examined whether BG induced mast cell degranulation, and evaluated the role of calcium transients during mast cell activation. Our investigation focused on the role of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) in BG-induced degranulation. Black mouse (C57) bone marrow-derived mast cells were stimulated with 0.5 µg/ml BG, 100 µg/ml peptidoglycan (PGN), or 10 µM A23187 (calcium ionophore), and dynamic changes in cytosolic and mitochondrial calcium and membrane potential were monitored. BG-induced mast cell degranulation occurred in a time-dependent manner, and was significantly reduced under calcium-free conditions. Ruthenium red, a mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter blocker, significantly reduced mast cell degranulation induced by BG, PGN, and A23187. These results suggest that the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter has an important regulatory role in BG-induced mast cell degranulation. PMID:26937218

  13. Application of capillary isotachophoresis-based multidimensional separations coupled with electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry for characterization of mouse brain mitochondrial proteome

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xueping; Wang, Weijie; Yang, Li; Chandrasekaran, Krish; Kristian, Tibor; Balgley, Brian M.; Lee, Cheng S.

    2017-01-01

    By employing a capillary ITP (CITP)/CZE-based proteomic technology, a total of 1795 distinct mouse Swiss-Prot protein entries (or 1705 nonredundant proteins) are identified from synaptic mitochondria isolated from mouse brain. The ultrahigh resolving power of CITP/CZE is evidenced by the large number of distinct peptide identifications measured from each CITP fraction together with the low peptide fraction overlapping among identified peptides. The degree of peptide overlapping among CITP fractions is even lower than that achieved using combined CIEF/nano-RP LC separations for the analysis of the same mitochondrial sample. When evaluating the protein sequence coverage by the number of distinct peptides mapping to each mitochondrial protein identification, CITP/CZE similarly achieves superior performance with 1041 proteins (58%) having 3 or more distinct peptides, 233 (13%) having 2 distinct peptides, and 521 (29%) having a single distinct peptide. The reproducibility of protein identifications is found to be around 86% by comparing proteins identified from repeated runs of the same mitochondrial sample. The analysis of the mouse mitochondrial proteome by two CITP/CZE runs results in the detection of 2095 distinct mouse Swiss-Prot protein entries (or 1992 nonredundant proteins), corresponding to 59% coverage of the updated Maestro mitochondrial reference set. The collective analysis from combined CITP/CZE and CIEF-based proteomic studies yields the identification of 2191 distinct mitochondrial protein entries (or 2082 nonredundant proteins), corresponding to 76% coverage of the MitoP2-database reference set. PMID:18425750

  14. Carbon monoxide improves cardiac function and mitochondrial population quality in a mouse model of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lancel, Steve; Montaigne, David; Marechal, Xavier; Marciniak, Camille; Hassoun, Sidi Mohamed; Decoster, Brigitte; Ballot, Caroline; Blazejewski, Caroline; Corseaux, Delphine; Lescure, Bernadette; Motterlini, Roberto; Neviere, Remi

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome induces cardiac dysfunction associated with mitochondria abnormalities. As low levels of carbon monoxide (CO) may improve myocardial and mitochondrial activities, we tested whether a CO-releasing molecule (CORM-3) reverses metabolic syndrome-induced cardiac alteration through changes in mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics and autophagy. Mice were fed with normal diet (ND) or high-fat diet (HFD) for twelve weeks. Then, mice received two intraperitoneal injections of CORM-3 (10 mg x kg(-1)), with the second one given 16 hours after the first. Contractile function in isolated hearts and mitochondrial parameters were evaluated 24 hours after the last injection. Mitochondrial population was explored by electron microscopy. Changes in mitochondrial dynamics, biogenesis and autophagy were assessed by western-blot and RT-qPCR. Left ventricular developed pressure was reduced in HFD hearts. Mitochondria from HFD hearts presented reduced membrane potential and diminished ADP-coupled respiration. CORM-3 restored both cardiac and mitochondrial functions. Size and number of mitochondria increased in the HFD hearts but not in the CORM-3-treated HFD group. CORM-3 modulated HFD-activated mitochondrial fusion and biogenesis signalling. While autophagy was not activated in the HFD group, CORM-3 increased the autophagy marker LC3-II. Finally, ex vivo experiments demonstrated that autophagy inhibition by 3-methyladenine abolished the cardioprotective effects of CORM-3. CORM-3 may modulate pathways controlling mitochondrial quality, thus leading to improvements of mitochondrial efficiency and HFD-induced cardiac dysfunction.

  15. Carbon Monoxide Improves Cardiac Function and Mitochondrial Population Quality in a Mouse Model of Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lancel, Steve; Montaigne, David; Marechal, Xavier; Marciniak, Camille; Hassoun, Sidi Mohamed; Decoster, Brigitte; Ballot, Caroline; Blazejewski, Caroline; Corseaux, Delphine; Lescure, Bernadette; Motterlini, Roberto; Neviere, Remi

    2012-01-01

    Aims Metabolic syndrome induces cardiac dysfunction associated with mitochondria abnormalities. As low levels of carbon monoxide (CO) may improve myocardial and mitochondrial activities, we tested whether a CO-releasing molecule (CORM-3) reverses metabolic syndrome-induced cardiac alteration through changes in mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics and autophagy. Methods and Results Mice were fed with normal diet (ND) or high-fat diet (HFD) for twelve weeks. Then, mice received two intraperitoneal injections of CORM-3 (10 mg.kg−1), with the second one given 16 hours after the first. Contractile function in isolated hearts and mitochondrial parameters were evaluated 24 hours after the last injection. Mitochondrial population was explored by electron microscopy. Changes in mitochondrial dynamics, biogenesis and autophagy were assessed by western-blot and RT-qPCR. Left ventricular developed pressure was reduced in HFD hearts. Mitochondria from HFD hearts presented reduced membrane potential and diminished ADP-coupled respiration. CORM-3 restored both cardiac and mitochondrial functions. Size and number of mitochondria increased in the HFD hearts but not in the CORM-3–treated HFD group. CORM-3 modulated HFD-activated mitochondrial fusion and biogenesis signalling. While autophagy was not activated in the HFD group, CORM-3 increased the autophagy marker LC3-II. Finally, ex vivo experiments demonstrated that autophagy inhibition by 3-methyladenine abolished the cardioprotective effects of CORM-3. Conclusion CORM-3 may modulate pathways controlling mitochondrial quality, thus leading to improvements of mitochondrial efficiency and HFD-induced cardiac dysfunction. PMID:22870253

  16. Direct modulation of the outer mitochondrial membrane channel, voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) by cannabidiol: a novel mechanism for cannabinoid-induced cell death

    PubMed Central

    Rimmerman, N; Ben-Hail, D; Porat, Z; Juknat, A; Kozela, E; Daniels, M P; Connelly, P S; Leishman, E; Bradshaw, H B; Shoshan-Barmatz, V; Vogel, Z

    2013-01-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive plant cannabinoid that inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell death of cancer cells and activated immune cells. It is not an agonist of the classical CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptors and the mechanism by which it functions is unknown. Here, we studied the effects of CBD on various mitochondrial functions in BV-2 microglial cells. Our findings indicate that CBD treatment leads to a biphasic increase in intracellular calcium levels and to changes in mitochondrial function and morphology leading to cell death. Density gradient fractionation analysis by mass spectrometry and western blotting showed colocalization of CBD with protein markers of mitochondria. Single-channel recordings of the outer-mitochondrial membrane protein, the voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) functioning in cell energy, metabolic homeostasis and apoptosis revealed that CBD markedly decreases channel conductance. Finally, using microscale thermophoresis, we showed a direct interaction between purified fluorescently labeled VDAC1 and CBD. Thus, VDAC1 seems to serve as a novel mitochondrial target for CBD. The inhibition of VDAC1 by CBD may be responsible for the immunosuppressive and anticancer effects of CBD. PMID:24309936

  17. Direct modulation of the outer mitochondrial membrane channel, voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) by cannabidiol: a novel mechanism for cannabinoid-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Rimmerman, N; Ben-Hail, D; Porat, Z; Juknat, A; Kozela, E; Daniels, M P; Connelly, P S; Leishman, E; Bradshaw, H B; Shoshan-Barmatz, V; Vogel, Z

    2013-12-05

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive plant cannabinoid that inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell death of cancer cells and activated immune cells. It is not an agonist of the classical CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptors and the mechanism by which it functions is unknown. Here, we studied the effects of CBD on various mitochondrial functions in BV-2 microglial cells. Our findings indicate that CBD treatment leads to a biphasic increase in intracellular calcium levels and to changes in mitochondrial function and morphology leading to cell death. Density gradient fractionation analysis by mass spectrometry and western blotting showed colocalization of CBD with protein markers of mitochondria. Single-channel recordings of the outer-mitochondrial membrane protein, the voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) functioning in cell energy, metabolic homeostasis and apoptosis revealed that CBD markedly decreases channel conductance. Finally, using microscale thermophoresis, we showed a direct interaction between purified fluorescently labeled VDAC1 and CBD. Thus, VDAC1 seems to serve as a novel mitochondrial target for CBD. The inhibition of VDAC1 by CBD may be responsible for the immunosuppressive and anticancer effects of CBD.

  18. α-Synuclein Shows High Affinity Interaction with Voltage-dependent Anion Channel, Suggesting Mechanisms of Mitochondrial Regulation and Toxicity in Parkinson Disease.

    PubMed

    Rostovtseva, Tatiana K; Gurnev, Philip A; Protchenko, Olga; Hoogerheide, David P; Yap, Thai Leong; Philpott, Caroline C; Lee, Jennifer C; Bezrukov, Sergey M

    2015-07-24

    Participation of the small, intrinsically disordered protein α-synuclein (α-syn) in Parkinson disease (PD) pathogenesis has been well documented. Although recent research demonstrates the involvement of α-syn in mitochondrial dysfunction in neurodegeneration and suggests direct interaction of α-syn with mitochondria, the molecular mechanism(s) of α-syn toxicity and its effect on neuronal mitochondria remain vague. Here we report that at nanomolar concentrations, α-syn reversibly blocks the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), the major channel of the mitochondrial outer membrane that controls most of the metabolite fluxes in and out of the mitochondria. Detailed analysis of the blockage kinetics of VDAC reconstituted into planar lipid membranes suggests that α-syn is able to translocate through the channel and thus target complexes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Supporting our in vitro experiments, a yeast model of PD shows that α-syn toxicity in yeast depends on VDAC. The functional interactions between VDAC and α-syn, revealed by the present study, point toward the long sought after physiological and pathophysiological roles for monomeric α-syn in PD and in other α-synucleinopathies.

  19. IL-15Rα deficiency leads to mitochondrial and myofiber differences in fast mouse muscles.

    PubMed

    Pistilli, Emidio E; Guo, Ge; Stauber, William T

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine mitochondrial changes in fast muscles from interleukin-15 receptor alpha knockout (IL-15RαKO) mice. We tested the hypothesis that fast muscles from IL-15RαKO mice would have a greater mitochondrial density and altered internal structure compared to muscles from control mice. In fast muscles from IL-15RαKO mice, mitochondrial density was 48% greater with a corresponding increase in mitochondrial DNA content. Although there were no differences in the relative size of isolated mitochondria, internal complexity was lower in mitochondria from IL-15RαKO mice. These data support an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis and provide direct evidence for a greater density and altered internal structure of mitochondria in EDL muscles deficient in IL-15Rα.

  20. IL-15Rα deficiency leads to mitochondrial and myofiber differences in fast mouse muscles

    PubMed Central

    Pistilli, Emidio E.; Guo, Ge; Stauber, William T.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine mitochondrial changes in fast muscles from interleukin-15 receptor alpha knockout (IL-15RαKO) mice. We tested the hypothesis that fast muscles from IL-15RαKO mice would have a greater mitochondrial density and altered internal structure compared to muscles from control mice. In fast muscles from IL-15RαKO mice, mitochondrial density was 48% greater with a corresponding increase in mitochondrial DNA content. Although there were no differences in the relative size of isolated mitochondria, internal complexity was lower in mitochondria from IL-15RαKO mice. These data support an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis and provide direct evidence for a greater density and altered internal structure of mitochondria in EDL muscles deficient in IL-15Rα. PMID:23116661

  1. Voltage-activated calcium currents in octopus cells of the mouse cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Bal, Ramazan; Oertel, Donata

    2007-12-01

    Octopus cells, neurons in the most posterior and dorsal part of the mammalian ventral cochlear nucleus, convey the timing of synchronous firing of auditory nerve fibers to targets in the contralateral superior paraolivary nucleus and ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus. The low input resistances and short time constants at rest that arise from the partial activation of a large, low-voltage-activated K(+) conductance (g(KL)) and a large mixed-cation, hyperpolarization-activated conductance (g(h)) enable octopus cells to detect coincident firing of auditory nerve fibers with exceptional temporal precision. Octopus cells fire conventional, Na(+) action potentials but a voltage-sensitive Ca(2+) conductance was also detected. In this study, we explore the nature of that calcium conductance under voltage-clamp. Currents, carried by Ca(2+) or Ba(2+) and blocked by 0.4 mM Cd(2+), were activated by depolarizations positive to -50 mV and peaked at -23 mV. At -23 mV they reached 1.1 +/- 0.1 nA in the presence of 5 mM Ca(2+) and 1.6 +/- 0.1 nA in 5 mM Ba(2+). Ten micromolar BAY K 8644, an agonist of high-voltage-activated L-type channels, enhanced I(Ba) by 63 +/- 11% (n = 8) and 150 microM nifedipine, an antagonist of L-type channels, reduced the I(Ba) by 65 +/- 5% (n = 5). Meanwhile, 0.5 microM omega-Agatoxin IVA, an antagonist of P/Q-type channels, or 1 microM omega-conotoxin GVIA, an antagonist of N-type channels, suppressed I(Ba) by 15 +/- 4% (n = 5) and 9 +/- 4% (n = 5), respectively. On average 16% of the current remained in the presence of the cocktail of blockers, indicative of the presence of R-type channels. Together these experiments show that octopus cells have a depolarization-sensitive g(Ca) that is largely formed from L-type Ca(2+) channels and that P/Q-, N-, and R-type channels are expressed at lower levels in octopus cells.

  2. Voltage-activated Calcium Currents in Octopus Cells of the Mouse Cochlear Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Bal, Ramazan

    2007-01-01

    Octopus cells, neurons in the most posterior and dorsal part of the mammalian ventral cochlear nucleus, convey the timing of synchronous firing of auditory nerve fibers to targets in the contralateral superior paraolivary nucleus and ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus. The low input resistances and short time constants at rest that arise from the partial activation of a large, low-voltage-activated K+ conductance (gKL) and a large mixed-cation, hyperpolarization-activated conductance (gh) enable octopus cells to detect coincident firing of auditory nerve fibers with exceptional temporal precision. Octopus cells fire conventional, Na+ action potentials but a voltage-sensitive Ca2+ conductance was also detected. In this study, we explore the nature of that calcium conductance under voltage-clamp. Currents, carried by Ca2+ or Ba2+ and blocked by 0.4 mM Cd2+, were activated by depolarizations positive to −50 mV and peaked at −23 mV. At −23 mV they reached 1.1 ± 0.1 nA in the presence of 5 mM Ca2+ and 1.6 ± 0.1 nA in 5 mM Ba2+. Ten micromolar BAY K 8644, an agonist of high-voltage-activated L-type channels, enhanced IBa by 63 ± 11% (n = 8) and 150 μM nifedipine, an antagonist of L-type channels, reduced the IBa by 65 ± 5% (n = 5). Meanwhile, 0.5 μM ω-Agatoxin IVA, an antagonist of P/Q-type channels, or 1 μM ω-conotoxin GVIA, an antagonist of N-type channels, suppressed IBa by 15 ± 4% (n = 5) and 9 ± 4% (n = 5), respectively. On average 16% of the current remained in the presence of the cocktail of blockers, indicative of the presence of R-type channels. Together these experiments show that octopus cells have a depolarization-sensitive gCa that is largely formed from L-type Ca2+ channels and that P/Q-, N-, and R-type channels are expressed at lower levels in octopus cells. PMID:17710492

  3. Developmental acquisition of voltage-dependent conductances and sensory signaling in hair cells of the embryonic mouse inner ear.

    PubMed

    Géléoc, Gwenaëlle S G; Risner, Jessica R; Holt, Jeffrey R

    2004-12-08

    How and when sensory hair cells acquire the remarkable ability to detect and transmit mechanical information carried by sound and head movements has not been illuminated. Previously, we defined the onset of mechanotransduction in embryonic hair cells of mouse vestibular organs to be at approximately embryonic day 16 (E16). Here we examine the functional maturation of hair cells in intact sensory epithelia excised from the inner ears of embryonic mice. Hair cells were studied at stages between E14 and postnatal day 2 using the whole-cell, tight-seal recording technique. We tracked the developmental acquisition of four voltage-dependent conductances. We found a delayed rectifier potassium conductance that appeared as early as E14 and grew in amplitude over the subsequent prenatal week. Interestingly, we also found a low-voltage-activated potassium conductance present at E18, approximately 1 week earlier than reported previously. An inward rectifier conductance appeared at approximately E15 and doubled in size over the next few days. We also noted transient expression of a voltage-gated sodium conductance that peaked between E16 and E18 and then declined to near zero at birth. We propose that hair cells undergo a stereotyped developmental pattern of ion channel acquisition and that the precise pattern may underlie other developmental processes such as synaptogenesis and functional differentiation into type I and type II hair cells. In addition, we find that the developmental acquisition of basolateral conductances shapes the hair cell receptor potential and therefore comprises an important step in the signal cascade from mechanotransduction to neurotransmission.

  4. Mitochondrial dysfunction in an Opa1Q285STOP mouse model of dominant optic atrophy results from Opa1 haploinsufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kushnareva, Y; Seong, Y; Andreyev, A Y; Kuwana, T; Kiosses, W B; Votruba, M; Newmeyer, D D

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the opa1 (optic atrophy 1) gene lead to autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA), a hereditary eye disease. This gene encodes the Opa1 protein, a mitochondrial dynamin-related GTPase required for mitochondrial fusion and the maintenance of normal crista structure. The majority of opa1 mutations encode truncated forms of the protein, lacking a complete GTPase domain. It is unclear whether the phenotype results from haploinsufficiency or rather a deleterious effect of truncated Opa1 protein. We studied a heterozygous Opa1 mutant mouse carrying a defective allele with a stop codon in the beginning of the GTPase domain at residue 285, a mutation that mimics human pathological mutations. Using an antibody raised against an N-terminal portion of Opa1, we found that the level of wild-type protein was decreased in the mutant mice, as predicted. However, no truncated Opa1 protein was expressed. In embryonic fibroblasts isolated from the mutant mice, this partial loss of Opa1 caused mitochondrial respiratory deficiency and a selective loss of respiratory Complex IV subunits. Furthermore, partial Opa1 deficiency resulted in a substantial resistance to endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced death. On the other hand, the enforced expression of truncated Opa1 protein in cells containing normal levels of wild-type protein did not cause mitochondrial defects. Moreover, cells expressing the truncated Opa1 protein showed reduced Bax activation in response to apoptotic stimuli. Taken together, our results exclude deleterious dominant-negative or gain-of-function mechanisms for this type of Opa1 mutation and affirm haploinsufficiency as the mechanism underlying mitochondrial dysfunction in ADOA. PMID:27468686

  5. Mitochondrial Bioenergetic Alterations in Mouse Neuroblastoma Cells Infected with Sindbis Virus: Implications to Viral Replication and Neuronal Death

    PubMed Central

    Silva da Costa, Leandro; Pereira da Silva, Ana Paula; Da Poian, Andrea T.; El-Bacha, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic resources crucial for viral replication are provided by the host. Details of the mechanisms by which viruses interact with host metabolism, altering and recruiting high free-energy molecules for their own replication, remain unknown. Sindbis virus, the prototype of and most widespread alphavirus, causes outbreaks of arthritis in humans and serves as a model for the study of the pathogenesis of neurological diseases induced by alphaviruses in mice. In this work, respirometric analysis was used to evaluate the effects of Sindbis virus infection on mitochondrial bioenergetics of a mouse neuroblastoma cell lineage, Neuro 2a. The modulation of mitochondrial functions affected cellular ATP content and this was synchronous with Sindbis virus replication cycle and cell death. At 15 h, irrespective of effects on cell viability, viral replication induced a decrease in oxygen consumption uncoupled to ATP synthesis and a 36% decrease in maximum uncoupled respiration, which led to an increase of 30% in the fraction of oxygen consumption used for ATP synthesis. Decreased proton leak associated to complex I respiration contributed to the apparent improvement of mitochondrial function. Cellular ATP content was not affected by infection. After 24 h, mitochondria dysfunction was clearly observed as maximum uncoupled respiration reduced 65%, along with a decrease in the fraction of oxygen consumption used for ATP synthesis. Suppressed respiration driven by complexes I- and II-related substrates seemed to play a role in mitochondrial dysfunction. Despite the increase in glucose uptake and glycolytic flux, these changes were followed by a 30% decrease in ATP content and neuronal death. Taken together, mitochondrial bioenergetics is modulated during Sindbis virus infection in such a way as to favor ATP synthesis required to support active viral replication. These early changes in metabolism of Neuro 2a cells may form the molecular basis of neuronal dysfunction and Sindbis

  6. Mitochondrial dysfunction and decrease in body weight of a transgenic knock-in mouse model for TDP-43.

    PubMed

    Stribl, Carola; Samara, Aladin; Trümbach, Dietrich; Peis, Regina; Neumann, Manuela; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Rathkolb, Birgit; Wolf, Eckhard; Beckers, Johannes; Horsch, Marion; Neff, Frauke; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Koob, Sebastian; Reichert, Andreas S; Hans, Wolfgang; Rozman, Jan; Klingenspor, Martin; Aichler, Michaela; Walch, Axel Karl; Becker, Lore; Klopstock, Thomas; Glasl, Lisa; Hölter, Sabine M; Wurst, Wolfgang; Floss, Thomas

    2014-04-11

    The majority of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases as well as many patients suffering from frontotemporal lobar dementia (FTLD) with ubiquitinated inclusion bodies show TDP-43 pathology, the protein encoded by the TAR DNA-binding protein (Tardbp) gene. We used recombinase-mediated cassette exchange to introduce an ALS patient cDNA into the mouse Tdp-43 locus. Expression levels of human A315T TDP-43 protein were 300% elevated in heterozygotes, whereas the endogenous mouse Tdp-43 was decreased to 20% of wild type levels as a result of disturbed feedback regulation. Heterozygous TDP-43(A315TKi) mutants lost 10% of their body weight and developed insoluble TDP-43 protein starting as early as 3 months after birth, a pathology that was exacerbated with age. We analyzed the splicing patterns of known Tdp-43 target genes as well as genome-wide gene expression levels in different tissues that indicated mitochondrial dysfunction. In heterozygous mutant animals, we observed a relative decrease in expression of Parkin (Park2) and the fatty acid transporter CD36 along with an increase in fatty acids, HDL cholesterol, and glucose in the blood. As seen in transmission electron microscopy, neuronal cells in motor cortices of TDP-43(A315TKi) animals had abnormal neuronal mitochondrial cristae formation. Motor neurons were reduced to 90%, but only slight motoric impairment was detected. The observed phenotype was interpreted as a predisease model, which might be valuable for the identification of further environmental or genetic triggers of neurodegeneration.

  7. Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Decrease in Body Weight of a Transgenic Knock-in Mouse Model for TDP-43*

    PubMed Central

    Stribl, Carola; Samara, Aladin; Trümbach, Dietrich; Peis, Regina; Neumann, Manuela; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Rathkolb, Birgit; Wolf, Eckhard; Beckers, Johannes; Horsch, Marion; Neff, Frauke; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Koob, Sebastian; Reichert, Andreas S.; Hans, Wolfgang; Rozman, Jan; Klingenspor, Martin; Aichler, Michaela; Walch, Axel Karl; Becker, Lore; Klopstock, Thomas; Glasl, Lisa; Hölter, Sabine M.; Wurst, Wolfgang; Floss, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The majority of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases as well as many patients suffering from frontotemporal lobar dementia (FTLD) with ubiquitinated inclusion bodies show TDP-43 pathology, the protein encoded by the TAR DNA-binding protein (Tardbp) gene. We used recombinase-mediated cassette exchange to introduce an ALS patient cDNA into the mouse Tdp-43 locus. Expression levels of human A315T TDP-43 protein were 300% elevated in heterozygotes, whereas the endogenous mouse Tdp-43 was decreased to 20% of wild type levels as a result of disturbed feedback regulation. Heterozygous TDP-43A315TKi mutants lost 10% of their body weight and developed insoluble TDP-43 protein starting as early as 3 months after birth, a pathology that was exacerbated with age. We analyzed the splicing patterns of known Tdp-43 target genes as well as genome-wide gene expression levels in different tissues that indicated mitochondrial dysfunction. In heterozygous mutant animals, we observed a relative decrease in expression of Parkin (Park2) and the fatty acid transporter CD36 along with an increase in fatty acids, HDL cholesterol, and glucose in the blood. As seen in transmission electron microscopy, neuronal cells in motor cortices of TDP-43A315TKi animals had abnormal neuronal mitochondrial cristae formation. Motor neurons were reduced to 90%, but only slight motoric impairment was detected. The observed phenotype was interpreted as a predisease model, which might be valuable for the identification of further environmental or genetic triggers of neurodegeneration. PMID:24515116

  8. Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore Component Cyclophilin D Distinguishes Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic Death Paradigms in the MPTP Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Rebecca; Starkova, Natalia N.; Zhang, Steven F.; Calingasan, Noel Y.; Yang, Lichuan; Wille, Elizabeth; Lorenzo, Beverly J.; Ho, Daniel J.; Beal, M. Flint

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Mitochondrial damage due to Ca2+ overload-induced opening of permeability transition pores (PTP) is believed to play a role in selective degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Genetic ablation of mitochondrial matrix protein cyclophilin D (CYPD) has been shown to increase Ca2+ threshold of PTP in vitro and to prevent cell death in several in vivo disease models. We investigated the role of CYPD in a mouse model of MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine)-induced PD. Results: We demonstrate that in vitro, brain mitochondria isolated from CYPD knockout mice were less sensitive to MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium ion)-induced membrane depolarization, and free radical generation compared to wild-type mice. CYPD knockout mitochondria isolated from ventral midbrain of mice treated with MPTP in vivo exhibited less damage as judged from respiratory chain Complex I activity, State 3 respiration rate, and respiratory control index than wild-type mice, whereas assessment of apoptotic markers showed no differences between the two genotypes. However, CYPD knockout mice were significantly resistant only to an acute regimen of MPTP neurotoxicity in contrast to the subacute and chronic MPTP paradigms. Innovation: Inactivation of CYPD is beneficial in preserving mitochondrial functions only in an acute insult model of MPTP-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Conclusion: Our results suggest that CYPD deficiency distinguishes the modes of dopaminergic neurodegeneration in various regimens of MPTP-neurotoxicity. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 16, 855–868. PMID:21529244

  9. Mitochondrial permeability transition pore component cyclophilin D distinguishes nigrostriatal dopaminergic death paradigms in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Bobby; Banerjee, Rebecca; Starkova, Natalia N; Zhang, Steven F; Calingasan, Noel Y; Yang, Lichuan; Wille, Elizabeth; Lorenzo, Beverly J; Ho, Daniel J; Beal, M Flint; Starkov, Anatoly

    2012-05-01

    Mitochondrial damage due to Ca(2+) overload-induced opening of permeability transition pores (PTP) is believed to play a role in selective degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Genetic ablation of mitochondrial matrix protein cyclophilin D (CYPD) has been shown to increase Ca(2+) threshold of PTP in vitro and to prevent cell death in several in vivo disease models. We investigated the role of CYPD in a mouse model of MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine)-induced PD. We demonstrate that in vitro, brain mitochondria isolated from CYPD knockout mice were less sensitive to MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium ion)-induced membrane depolarization, and free radical generation compared to wild-type mice. CYPD knockout mitochondria isolated from ventral midbrain of mice treated with MPTP in vivo exhibited less damage as judged from respiratory chain Complex I activity, State 3 respiration rate, and respiratory control index than wild-type mice, whereas assessment of apoptotic markers showed no differences between the two genotypes. However, CYPD knockout mice were significantly resistant only to an acute regimen of MPTP neurotoxicity in contrast to the subacute and chronic MPTP paradigms. Inactivation of CYPD is beneficial in preserving mitochondrial functions only in an acute insult model of MPTP-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Our results suggest that CYPD deficiency distinguishes the modes of dopaminergic neurodegeneration in various regimens of MPTP-neurotoxicity.

  10. Mouse Tmem135 mutation reveals a mechanism involving mitochondrial dynamics that leads to age-dependent retinal pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wei-Hua; Higuchi, Hitoshi; Ikeda, Sakae; Macke, Erica L; Takimoto, Tetsuya; Pattnaik, Bikash R; Liu, Che; Chu, Li-Fang; Siepka, Sandra M; Krentz, Kathleen J; Rubinstein, C Dustin; Kalejta, Robert F; Thomson, James A; Mullins, Robert F; Takahashi, Joseph S; Pinto, Lawrence H; Ikeda, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    While the aging process is central to the pathogenesis of age-dependent diseases, it is poorly understood at the molecular level. We identified a mouse mutant with accelerated aging in the retina as well as pathologies observed in age-dependent retinal diseases, suggesting that the responsible gene regulates retinal aging, and its impairment results in age-dependent disease. We determined that a mutation in the transmembrane 135 (Tmem135) is responsible for these phenotypes. We observed localization of TMEM135 on mitochondria, and imbalance of mitochondrial fission and fusion in mutant Tmem135 as well as Tmem135 overexpressing cells, indicating that TMEM135 is involved in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics. Additionally, mutant retina showed higher sensitivity to oxidative stress. These results suggest that the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics through TMEM135 is critical for protection from environmental stress and controlling the progression of retinal aging. Our study identified TMEM135 as a critical link between aging and age-dependent diseases. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19264.001 PMID:27863209

  11. Increased neuronal PreP activity reduces Aβ accumulation, attenuates neuroinflammation and improves mitochondrial and synaptic function in Alzheimer disease's mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Du; Wang, Yongfu; Zhang, Zhihua; Du, Heng; Yan, Shiqiang; Sun, Qinru; Zhong, Changjia; Wu, Long; Vangavaragu, Jhansi Rani; Yan, Shijun; Hu, Gang; Guo, Lan; Rabinowitz, Molly; Glaser, Elzbieta; Arancio, Ottavio; Sosunov, Alexander A.; McKhann, Guy M.; Chen, John Xi; Yan, Shirley ShiDu

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) in synaptic mitochondria is associated with mitochondrial and synaptic injury. The underlying mechanisms and strategies to eliminate Aβ and rescue mitochondrial and synaptic defects remain elusive. Presequence protease (PreP), a mitochondrial peptidasome, is a novel mitochondrial Aβ degrading enzyme. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that increased expression of active human PreP in cortical neurons attenuates Alzheimer disease's (AD)-like mitochondrial amyloid pathology and synaptic mitochondrial dysfunction, and suppresses mitochondrial oxidative stress. Notably, PreP-overexpressed AD mice show significant reduction in the production of proinflammatory mediators. Accordingly, increased neuronal PreP expression improves learning and memory and synaptic function in vivo AD mice, and alleviates Aβ-mediated reduction of long-term potentiation (LTP). Our results provide in vivo evidence that PreP may play an important role in maintaining mitochondrial integrity and function by clearance and degradation of mitochondrial Aβ along with the improvement in synaptic and behavioral function in AD mouse model. Thus, enhancing PreP activity/expression may be a new therapeutic avenue for treatment of AD. PMID:26123488

  12. Lipocalin 2 deficiency inhibits cell proliferation, autophagy, and mitochondrial biogenesis in mouse embryonic cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, Daozhong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Xiaoli

    2011-05-01

    Lipocalin 2 (LCN2) has been recently implicated as a critical player in multiple cancer tumorigeneses. However, the molecular mechanisms for its tumorigenic role are poorly understood. Herein, we investigated the effects of LCN2 on cell proliferation, autophagy, and mitochondrial biogenesis in MEF cells. We observed that LCN2 deficiency significantly inhibited cell proliferation and autophagy in MEF cells. Furthermore, mitochondrial DNA content, mRNA expression levels of mitochondrial-encoded gene cytochrome oxidase 2 and PGC-1α were all markedly reduced in LCN2⁻/⁻ MEF cells. Additionally, when compared with wild-type MEF cells, LCN2⁻/⁻ MEF cells expressed significantly higher levels of IRS-1, and displayed more potent TNFα-stimulated NF-κB activation. These findings demonstrate that LCN2 is a critical regulator of cell proliferation, autophagy, and mitochondrial biogenesis.

  13. Enhanced Mitochondrial Superoxide Scavenging Does Not Improve Muscle Insulin Action in the High Fat-Fed Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Lark, Daniel S.; Kang, Li; Lustig, Mary E.; Bonner, Jeffrey S.; James, Freyja D.; Neufer, P. Darrell; Wasserman, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Improving mitochondrial oxidant scavenging may be a viable strategy for the treatment of insulin resistance and diabetes. Mice overexpressing the mitochondrial matrix isoform of superoxide dismutase (sod2tg mice) and/or transgenically expressing catalase within the mitochondrial matrix (mcattg mice) have increased scavenging of O2˙ˉ and H2O2, respectively. Furthermore, muscle insulin action is partially preserved in high fat (HF)-fed mcattg mice. The goal of the current study was to test the hypothesis that increased O2˙ˉ scavenging alone or in combination with increased H2O2 scavenging (mtAO mice) enhances in vivo muscle insulin action in the HF-fed mouse. Insulin action was examined in conscious, unrestrained and unstressed wild type (WT), sod2tg, mcattg and mtAO mice using hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps (insulin clamps) combined with radioactive glucose tracers following sixteen weeks of normal chow or HF (60% calories from fat) feeding. Glucose infusion rates, whole body glucose disappearance, and muscle glucose uptake during the insulin clamp were similar in chow- and HF-fed WT and sod2tg mice. Consistent with our previous work, HF-fed mcattg mice had improved muscle insulin action, however, an additive effect was not seen in mtAO mice. Insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in muscle from clamped mice was consistent with glucose flux measurements. These results demonstrate that increased O2˙ˉ scavenging does not improve muscle insulin action in the HF-fed mouse alone or when coupled to increased H2O2 scavenging. PMID:25992608

  14. Enhanced mitochondrial superoxide scavenging does not improve muscle insulin action in the high fat-fed mouse.

    PubMed

    Lark, Daniel S; Kang, Li; Lustig, Mary E; Bonner, Jeffrey S; James, Freyja D; Neufer, P Darrell; Wasserman, David H

    2015-01-01

    Improving mitochondrial oxidant scavenging may be a viable strategy for the treatment of insulin resistance and diabetes. Mice overexpressing the mitochondrial matrix isoform of superoxide dismutase (sod2(tg) mice) and/or transgenically expressing catalase within the mitochondrial matrix (mcat(tg) mice) have increased scavenging of O2(˙-) and H2O2, respectively. Furthermore, muscle insulin action is partially preserved in high fat (HF)-fed mcat(tg) mice. The goal of the current study was to test the hypothesis that increased O2(˙-) scavenging alone or in combination with increased H2O2 scavenging (mtAO mice) enhances in vivo muscle insulin action in the HF-fed mouse. Insulin action was examined in conscious, unrestrained and unstressed wild type (WT), sod2(tg), mcat(tg) and mtAO mice using hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps (insulin clamps) combined with radioactive glucose tracers following sixteen weeks of normal chow or HF (60% calories from fat) feeding. Glucose infusion rates, whole body glucose disappearance, and muscle glucose uptake during the insulin clamp were similar in chow- and HF-fed WT and sod2(tg) mice. Consistent with our previous work, HF-fed mcat(tg) mice had improved muscle insulin action, however, an additive effect was not seen in mtAO mice. Insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in muscle from clamped mice was consistent with glucose flux measurements. These results demonstrate that increased O2(˙-) scavenging does not improve muscle insulin action in the HF-fed mouse alone or when coupled to increased H2O2 scavenging.

  15. Mitochondrial base excision repair in mouse synaptosomes during normal aging and in a model of Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Gredilla, Ricardo; Weissman, Lior; Yang, Jenq-Lin; Bohr, Vilhelm A.; Stevnsner, Tinna

    2010-01-01

    Brain aging is associated with synaptic decline and cognitive impairment. Increased levels of oxidative DNA base damage and accumulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations or deletions lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, playing an important role in the aging process and the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In mitochondria, base excision repair (BER) is the main DNA repair pathway for base modifications such as deamination and oxidation, and constitutes an important mechanism to avoid accumulation of mtDNA mutations. Synaptic function is highly dependent on mitochondria, and in the current study we have investigated BER in synaptosomes of mouse brain during normal aging and in an AD model. Synaptosomes are isolated synapses in membranous structures produced by subcellular fractionation of brain tissue. They include the whole presynaptic terminal as well as portions of the postsynaptic terminal. Synaptosomes contain the molecular machinery necessary for uptake, storage, and release of neurotransmitters, including synaptic vesicles and mitochondria. BER activities were measured in synaptosomal fractions from young and old mice and from pre-symptomatic and symptomatic AD mice harboring mutated APP, Tau and PS1 (3xTgAD). During normal aging, a reduction in the BER capacity was observed in the synaptosomal fraction, which was associated with a decrease in the level of BER proteins. However, we did not observe changes between the synaptosomal BER activities of pre-symptomatic and symptomatic AD mice. Our findings suggest that the age-related reduction in BER capacity in the synaptosomal fraction might contribute to mitochondrial and synaptic dysfunction during aging. The development of AD-like pathology in the 3xTgAD mouse model was, however, not associated with deficiencies of the BER mechanisms in the synaptosomal fraction when the whole brain was analyzed. PMID:20708822

  16. Mouse mitochondrial lipid composition is defined by age in brain and muscle

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Amelia K.; Ortori, Catharine A.; Stöger, Reinhard; Barrett, David A.; Chakrabarti, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Functionality of the lipid rich mitochondrial organelle declines with increased age. Recent advances in lipidomic technologies allowed us to perform a global characterisation of lipid composition in two different tissue types and age ranges. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry was used to establish and compare mitochondrial lipidomes of brain and skeletal muscle from young (4-11 weeks old) and middle age (78 weeks old) healthy mice. In middle age the brain mitochondria had reduced levels of fatty acids, particularly polyunsaturated fatty acids, while skeletal muscle mitochondria had a decreased abundance of phosphatidylethanolamine, but a pronounced increase of triglyceride levels. Reduced levels of phosphatidylethanolamines are known to decrease mitochondrial membrane fluidity and are connected with accelerated ageing. In mitochondria from skeletal muscle we propose that increased age causes a metabolic shift in the conversion of diacylglycerol so that triglycerides predominate compared with phosphatidylethanolamines. This is the first time mitochondrial lipid content in normal healthy mammalian ageing brain and muscle has been catalogued in such detail across all lipid classes. We identify distinct mitochondrial lipid signatures that change with age, revealing tissue-specific lipid pathways as possible targets to ameliorate ageing-related mitochondrial decline. PMID:28325886

  17. Rosiglitazone Causes Cardiotoxicity via Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ-Independent Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress in Mouse Hearts

    PubMed Central

    He, Huamei; Xiong, Hui; Duan, Sheng Zhong; McGowan, Francis X.; Mortensen, Richard M.; Balschi, James A.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to test the hypothesis that thiazolidinedione rosiglitazone (RSG), a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonist, causes cardiotoxicity independently of PPARγ. Energy metabolism and mitochondrial function were measured in perfused hearts isolated from C57BL/6, cardiomyocyte-specific PPARγ-deficient mice, and their littermates. Cardiac function and mitochondrial oxidative stress were measured in both in vitro and in vivo settings. Treatment of isolated hearts with RSG at the supratherapeutic concentrations of 10 and 30μM caused myocardial energy deficiency as evidenced by the decreases in [PCr], [ATP], ATP/ADP ratio, energy charge with a concomitant cardiac dysfunction as indicated by the decreases in left ventricular systolic pressure, rates of tension development and relaxation, and by an increase in end-diastolic pressure. When incubated with tissue homogenate or isolated mitochondria at these same concentrations, RSG caused mitochondrial dysfunction as evidenced by the decreases in respiration rate, substrate oxidation rates, and activities of complexes I and IV. RSG also increased complexes I- and III-dependent O2− production, decreased glutathione content, inhibited superoxide dismutase, and increased the levels of malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine in mitochondria, consistent with oxidative stress. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) 20mM prevented RSG-induced above toxicity at those in vitro settings. Cardiomyocyte-specific PPARγ deletion and PPARγ antagonist GW9662 did not prevent the observed cardiotoxicity. Intravenous injection of 10 mg/kg RSG also caused cardiac dysfunction and oxidative stress, 600 mg/kg NAC antagonized these adverse effects. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that RSG at supratherapeutic concentrations causes cardiotoxicity via a PPARγ-independent mechanism involving oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in mouse hearts. PMID:24449420

  18. Loss of laforin or malin results in increased Drp1 level and concomitant mitochondrial fragmentation in Lafora disease mouse models.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Mamta; Agarwal, Saloni; Bhadauriya, Pratibha; Ganesh, Subramaniam

    2017-04-01

    Lafora disease (LD) is an autosomal recessive form of a fatal disorder characterized by the myoclonus epilepsy, ataxia, psychosis, dementia, and dysarthria. A hallmark of LD is the presence of abnormal glycogen inclusions called Lafora bodies in the affected tissues including the neurons. LD can be caused by defects either in the laforin phosphatase coded by the EPM2A gene or in the malin E3 ubiquitin ligase coded by the NHLRC1 gene. The mouse models of LD, created by the targeted disruption of the LD genes, display several neurodegenerative changes. Prominent among them are the autophagic defects, abnormally large lysosomes, neurofibrillary tangles, amyloid beta deposits, and abnormal mitochondria. However, whether or not such neurodegenerative changes are a direct effect of the loss of laforin/malin was not unequivocally established. Here, we show that laforin- or malin-deficient neurons and fibroblasts display a significantly higher number of fragmented mitochondria. Loss of laforin or malin resulted in increased levels of the mitochondrial fission GTPase Drp1, its enhanced mitochondrial targeting, and increased intracellular calcium levels. Intriguingly, laforin and malin display opposite effects on the cellular level of parkin, an ubiquitin ligase of Drp1; loss of laforin led to reduced levels of parkin while the loss of malin resulted in increased parkin levels. Laforin and malin, however, interact with and positively regulate the activity of parkin, thus explaining the molecular basis of increased Drp1 levels in LD tissues. Our results suggest that laforin and malin are novel regulators of mitochondrial quality control pathway and that the mitochondrial dysfunction resulting from the increased Drp1 levels could underlie neuropathology in LD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Rosiglitazone causes cardiotoxicity via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-independent mitochondrial oxidative stress in mouse hearts.

    PubMed

    He, Huamei; Tao, Hai; Xiong, Hui; Duan, Sheng Zhong; McGowan, Francis X; Mortensen, Richard M; Balschi, James A

    2014-04-01

    This study aims to test the hypothesis that thiazolidinedione rosiglitazone (RSG), a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonist, causes cardiotoxicity independently of PPARγ. Energy metabolism and mitochondrial function were measured in perfused hearts isolated from C57BL/6, cardiomyocyte-specific PPARγ-deficient mice, and their littermates. Cardiac function and mitochondrial oxidative stress were measured in both in vitro and in vivo settings. Treatment of isolated hearts with RSG at the supratherapeutic concentrations of 10 and 30 μM caused myocardial energy deficiency as evidenced by the decreases in [PCr], [ATP], ATP/ADP ratio, energy charge with a concomitant cardiac dysfunction as indicated by the decreases in left ventricular systolic pressure, rates of tension development and relaxation, and by an increase in end-diastolic pressure. When incubated with tissue homogenate or isolated mitochondria at these same concentrations, RSG caused mitochondrial dysfunction as evidenced by the decreases in respiration rate, substrate oxidation rates, and activities of complexes I and IV. RSG also increased complexes I- and III-dependent O₂⁻ production, decreased glutathione content, inhibited superoxide dismutase, and increased the levels of malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine in mitochondria, consistent with oxidative stress. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) 20 mM prevented RSG-induced above toxicity at those in vitro settings. Cardiomyocyte-specific PPARγ deletion and PPARγ antagonist GW9662 did not prevent the observed cardiotoxicity. Intravenous injection of 10 mg/kg RSG also caused cardiac dysfunction and oxidative stress, 600 mg/kg NAC antagonized these adverse effects. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that RSG at supratherapeutic concentrations causes cardiotoxicity via a PPARγ-independent mechanism involving oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in mouse hearts.

  20. Mitochondrial free radical overproduction due to respiratory chain impairment in the brain of a mouse model of Rett syndrome: protective effect of CNF1.

    PubMed

    De Filippis, Bianca; Valenti, Daniela; de Bari, Lidia; De Rasmo, Domenico; Musto, Mattia; Fabbri, Alessia; Ricceri, Laura; Fiorentini, Carla; Laviola, Giovanni; Vacca, Rosa Anna

    2015-06-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder mainly caused by mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene associated with severe intellectual disability, movement disorders, and autistic-like behaviors. Its pathogenesis remains mostly not understood and no effective therapy is available. High circulating levels of oxidative stress markers in patients and the occurrence of oxidative brain damage in MeCP2-deficient mouse models suggest the involvement of oxidative stress in RTT pathogenesis. However, the molecular mechanism and the origin of the oxidative stress have not been elucidated. Here we demonstrate that a redox imbalance arises from aberrant mitochondrial functionality in the brain of MeCP2-308 heterozygous female mice, a condition that more closely recapitulates that of RTT patients. The marked increase in the rate of hydrogen peroxide generation in the brain of RTT mice seems mainly produced by the dysfunctional complex II of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. In addition, both membrane potential generation and mitochondrial ATP synthesis are decreased in RTT mouse brains when succinate, the complex II respiratory substrate, is used as an energy source. Respiratory chain impairment is brain area specific, owing to a decrease in either cAMP-dependent phosphorylation or protein levels of specific complex subunits. Further, we investigated whether the treatment of RTT mice with the bacterial protein CNF1, previously reported to ameliorate the neurobehavioral phenotype and brain bioenergetic markers in an RTT mouse model, exerts specific effects on brain mitochondrial function and consequently on hydrogen peroxide production. In RTT brains treated with CNF1, we observed the reactivation of respiratory chain complexes, the rescue of mitochondrial functionality, and the prevention of brain hydrogen peroxide overproduction. These results provide definitive evidence of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species overproduction in RTT mouse brain and

  1. Acetylcholine induces voltage-independent increase of cytosolic calcium in mouse myotubes.

    PubMed Central

    Giovannelli, A; Grassi, F; Mattei, E; Mileo, A M; Eusebi, F; Giovanelli, A

    1991-01-01

    Electrophysiological, biochemical, and Ca2+ imaging studies of cultured mouse myotubes were used to investigate whether the neurotransmitter acetylcholine causes an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) through activation of a second messenger system. Bath applications of acetylcholine to myotubes (i) elicited a significant membrane current even in a Na(+)-free Ca2+ medium, when the current was carried mainly by calcium ions; (ii) caused a rapid and transient cytosolic accumulation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate; (iii) evoked a conspicuous alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive long-lasting [Ca2+]i enhancement even in the presence of Cd2+; and (iv) transiently increased [Ca2+]i when cells were equilibrated in a Ca(2+)-free atropine-containing medium. We propose that, in addition to opening ion channels, the nicotinic action of acetylcholine on the muscle cell membrane increases [Ca2+]i through activation of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate second messenger system and mobilization of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Images PMID:1946425

  2. The inhibitory effects of nifedipine on outward voltage-gated potassium currents in mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xiao-Yue; Li, Kai; Li, Xiao-Qing; Li, Xian-Tao

    2016-06-01

    Voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels have a pivotal role in tuning the action potential duration and excitability in neuronal cells. Although Ca(2+) channel antagonist nifedipine exhibited an inhibitory effect on cardiac Kv currents, a possible action of nifedipine on neuronal Kv currents has not been fully investigated. The effects of nifedipine on elicited Kv currents were characterized using whole-cell recording in mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells. Exposure to nifedipine induced a dose-dependent inhibition of Kv currents with an IC50 value of 22.3±4.2μM and prolonged the time course of activation. The half-maximum activation potential was 1.6±1.7mV in control conditions and became 13.5±1.5mV in 50μM nifedipine. In addition, the decay rate of Kv currents was substantially accelerated by 39.5% at +60mV. For the voltage-dependent inactivation, the half-maximum inactivation potential was -13.8±0.8mV and strongly shifted to the left following treatment with 50μM nifedipine. Treatment with nifedipine exerted a strong influence on the activation and inactivation rate of Kv currents as well as an obvious leftward shift in the inactivation curve. These data indicated that nifedipine exerted an inhibitory effect on Kv currents in N2A cells. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  3. Voltage-dependent ionic channels in differentiating neural precursor cells collected from adult mouse brains six hours post-mortem.

    PubMed

    Bellardita, Carmelo; Bolzoni, Francesco; Sorosina, Melissa; Marfia, Giovanni; Carelli, Stephana; Gorio, Alfredo; Formenti, Alessandro

    2012-04-01

    A novel type of adult neural precursor cells (NPCs) has been isolated from the subventricular zone of the mouse 6 hr after animal death (T6-NPCs). This condition is supposed to select hypoxia-resistant cells of scientific and clinical interest. Ionic channels are ultimately the expression of the functional maturation of neurons, so the aim of this research was to characterize the pattern of the main voltage-dependent ionic channels in T6-NPCs differentiating to a neuronal phenotype, comparing it with NPCs isolated soon after death (T0-NPCs). T6- and T0-NPCs grow in medium containing epidermal growth factor (EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Differentiation was performed in small wells without the addition of growth factors, in the presence of adhesion molecules, fetal bovine serum, and leukemia inhibitory factor. Ionic currents, recorded by means of whole-cell patch-clamp, namely, I(Ca2+) HVA, both L- and non-L-type, I(K+) delayed rectifying, I(K+) inward rectifier, transient I(K+A) , and TTX-sensitive I(Na+) have been found, although Na(+) currents were found in only a small percentage of cells and after the fifth week of differentiation. No significant differences in current types, density, orcell capacitance were observed between T6-NPCs and T0-NPCs. The sequence in which the markers appear in new neural cells is not necessarily a fixed program, but the discrepancies in morphological, biochemical, and electrophysiological maturation of mouse NPCs to neurons, possibly different in vivo, suggest that the various steps of the differentiation are independently regulated. Therefore, in addition to morphological and biochemical data, functional tests should be considered for characterizing the maturation of neurons.

  4. Oestrogen regulates mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme transcription in the mouse spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Johann, S; Dahm, M; Kipp, M; Beyer, C; Arnold, S

    2010-08-01

    The regulation of mitochondrial energy metabolism is not only important for normal functioning of neurones, but also appears to be essential during acute damage and neurodegeneration in the central nervous system. This makes mitochondria an interesting regulatory target for therapeutic approaches. Oestrogen is well-recognised as a protective hormone in the central nervous system under pathological threats. In the present study, we analysed the influence of oestrogen on the expression of mitochondria-encoded genes and mitochondrial activity in spinal cord cells both in vitro and vivo. Hormone application increased the transcription of mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes (MRCE). This effect was observed in cultured spinal cord neurones, where it was inhibited by a nuclear oestrogen receptor (ER) antagonist and mainly mediated by the activation of ERbeta. No effect of oestrogen was observed in cultured spinal cord astroglia. In addition, the mitochondrial transcription factor A and nuclear respiratory factor 1 were up-regulated by oestrogen in a similar way as MRCE in vitro, and ATP levels were elevated after the application of the specific ERbeta agonist 2,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile in cultured spinal cord nerve cells. The exposure of young male mice to oestrogen yielded increased levels of MRCE transcripts in the spinal cord. These data clearly show that systemic application of oestrogen stimulates MRCE expression in the spinal cord and predominantly in neurones. Further studies are required to demonstrate the potency of oestrogen to counteract pathological damage by stabilising mitochondrial performance.

  5. Hypoxia-up-regulated mitochondrial movement regulator does not contribute to the APP/PS1 double transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yan; Li, Yu; Yu, Weihua; Du, Yingshi; Shi, Rui; Zhang, Man; Duan, Jingxi; Deng, Yongtao; Tu, Qi; Dai, Rong; Lü, Yang

    2013-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD); meanwhile, hypoxia-up-regulated mitochondrial movement regulator (HUMMR) plays an important role in regulating mitochondrial function. The present study aimed to confirm the association between HUMMR and mitochondrial function in AD. We detected the expression of HUMMR at transcriptional and translational levels in APP/PS1 double transgenic mice using real-time quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting. Age- and gender-matched wild-type (WT) littermates were used as controls. Mitochondrial morphology was observed in the hippocampus and cortex of APP/PS1 double transgenic mice using transmission electron microscopy. Damage to mitochondrial morphology in the hippocampus and cortex of APP/PS1 double transgenic mice was found, including swelling and cavitations. Our analysis showed no statistical differences in the expression of HUMMR between APP/PS1 double transgenic mice and WT littermates (p > 0.05). These results showed that there was no association between HUMMR and mitochondrial dysfunction in APP/PS1 transgenic mice. These results indicate that HUMMR does not play a key role in mitochondrial dysfunction in the APP/PS1 double transgenic AD mouse. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Disruption of CR6-interacting factor-1 (CRIF1) in mouse islet beta cells leads to mitochondrial diabetes with progressive beta cell failure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Kyung; Joung, Kyong Hye; Ryu, Min Jeong; Kim, Soung Jung; Kim, Hyeongseok; Chung, Hyo Kyun; Lee, Min Hee; Lee, Seong Eun; Choi, Min Jeong; Chang, Joon Young; Hong, Hyun Jung; Kim, Koon Soon; Lee, Sang-Hee; Kweon, Gi Ryang; Kim, Hail; Lee, Chul-Ho; Kim, Hyun Jin; Shong, Minho

    2015-04-01

    Although mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) dysfunction is believed to be responsible for beta cell dysfunction in insulin resistance and mitochondrial diabetes, the mechanisms underlying progressive beta cell failure caused by defective mitochondrial OxPhos are largely unknown. We examined the in vivo phenotypes of beta cell dysfunction in beta cell-specific Crif1 (also known as Gadd45gip1)-deficient mice. CR6-interacting factor-1 (CRIF1) is a mitochondrial protein essential for the synthesis and formation of the OxPhos complex in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Crif1(beta-/-) mice exhibited impaired glucose tolerance with defective insulin secretion as early as 4 weeks of age without defects in islet structure. At 11 weeks of age, Crif1(beta-/-) mice displayed characteristic ultrastructural mitochondrial abnormalities as well as severe glucose intolerance. Furthermore, islet area and insulin content was decreased by approximately 50% compared with wild-type mice. Treatment with the glucoregulatory drug exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonist, was not sufficient to preserve beta cell function in Crif1(beta-/-) mice. Our results indicate that mitochondrial OxPhos dysfunction triggers progressive beta cell failure that is not halted by treatment with a GLP-1 agonist. The Crif1(beta-/-) mouse is a useful model for the study of beta cell failure caused by mitochondrial OxPhos dysfunction.

  7. The CaV2.3 R-Type Voltage-Gated Ca2+ Channel in Mouse Sleep Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Siwek, Magdalena Elisabeth; Müller, Ralf; Henseler, Christina; Broich, Karl; Papazoglou, Anna; Weiergräber, Marco

    2014-01-01

    loop and extra-thalamocortical circuitries substantially regulate rodent sleep architecture thus representing a novel potential target for pharmacological treatment of sleep disorders in the future. Citation: Siwek ME, Müller R, Henseler C, Broich K, Papazoglou A, Weiergräber M. The CaV2.3 R-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channel in mouse sleep architecture. SLEEP 2014;37(5):881-892. PMID:24790266

  8. Cardiac contractile function and mitochondrial respiration in diabetes-related mouse models.

    PubMed

    Marciniak, Camille; Marechal, Xavier; Montaigne, David; Neviere, Remi; Lancel, Steve

    2014-08-21

    Pathophysiological processes underlying diabetic-related cardiomyopathies are complex. Mitochondria dysfunction is often described as a cause of cardiac impairment but its extent may depend on the type of experimental diabetes. Here we proposed to compare drug- or diet-induced models of diabetes in terms of metabolic features, cardiac and mitochondrial functions. Mice were fed with regular chow or fat-enriched diet. After three weeks, they received either citrate or streptozotocin injections for five consecutive days. Metabolic parameters, myocardial contractile function and mitochondrial respiration were measured after three more weeks. Fat mass volumes were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Oral glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test, triglyceride and adipocytokine quantification were evaluated to establish metabolic profiles. Cardiac function was assessed ex vivo onto a Langendorff column. Isolated cardiac mitochondria respiration was obtained using high-resolution oxygraphy. Mice fed with the fat-enriched regimen presented abdominal obesity, increased blood glucose, elevated leptin level, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance. Mice treated with streptozotocin, independently of the regimen, lost their capacity to release insulin in response to glucose ingestion. Mice fed with regular chow diet and injected with streptozotocin developed cardiac dysfunction without mitochondrial respiration defect. However, both groups of high-fat diet fed mice developed cardiac alterations associated with reduction in mitochondrial oxygen consumption, despite an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis signalling. We explored three animal models mimicking type 1 and 2 diabetes. While cardiac dysfunction was present in the three groups of mice, mitochondrial respiration impairment was only obvious in models reproducing features of type 2 diabetes.

  9. Hypoxic increase in nitric oxide generation of rat sensory neurons requires activation of mitochondrial complex II and voltage-gated calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Henrich, M; Paddenberg, R; Haberberger, R V; Scholz, A; Gruss, M; Hempelmann, G; Kummer, W

    2004-01-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated that sensory neurons of rat lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG) respond to hypoxia with an activation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) resulting in enhanced NO production associated with mitochondria which contributes to resistance against hypoxia. Extracellular calcium is essential to this effect. In the present study on rat DRG slices, we set out to determine what types of calcium channels operate under hypoxia, and which upstream events contribute to their activation, thereby focusing upon mitochondrial complex II. Both the metallic ions Cd2+ and Ni2+, known to inhibit voltage-gated calcium channels and T-type channels, respectively, and verapamil and nifedipine, typical blocker of L-type calcium channels completely prevented the hypoxic neuronal NO generation. Inhibition of complex II by thenoyltrifluoroacetone at the ubiquinon binding site or by 3-nitropropionic acid at the substrate binding site largely diminished hypoxic-induced NO production while having an opposite effect under normoxia. An additional blockade of voltage-gated calcium channels entirely abolished the hypoxic response. The complex II inhibitor malonate inhibited both normoxic and hypoxic NO generation. These data show that complex II activity is required for increased hypoxic NO production. Since succinate dehydrogenase activity of complex II decreased at hypoxia, as measured by histochemistry and densitometry, we propose a hypoxia-induced functional switch of complex II from succinate dehydrogenase to fumarate reductase, which subsequently leads to activation of voltage-gated calcium channels resulting in increased NO production by eNOS.

  10. Mechanisms of stress resistance in Snell dwarf mouse fibroblasts: enhanced antioxidant and DNA base excision repair capacity, but no differences in mitochondrial metabolism.

    PubMed

    Page, Melissa M; Salmon, Adam B; Leiser, Scott F; Robb, Ellen L; Brown, Melanie F; Miller, Richard A; Stuart, Jeffrey A

    2009-04-15

    Dermal fibroblasts from long-lived Snell dwarf mice can withstand a variety of oxidative and non-oxidative stressors compared to normal littermate controls. Here, we report differences in the levels and activities of intracellular antioxidant and DNA repair enzymes between normal and Snell dwarf mice fibroblasts cultured under a variety of conditions, including: 3% and 20% ambient O(2); the presence and absence of serum; and the addition of an exogenous oxidative stress. The only significant difference between normal and dwarf cells cultured in complete medium, at 20% O(2), was an approximately 40% elevation of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in the mutant cells. Serum deprivation elicited increases in GPx in both genotypes, but these activities remained higher in dwarf mouse cells. Dwarf mouse cells deprived of serum and challenged with exposure to paraquat or hydrogen peroxide showed a generally greater upregulation of catalase and DNA base excision repair enzymes. As these toxins can interact with mitochondria to increase mitochondrial ROS production, we explored whether there were differences in mitochondrial metabolism between normal and dwarf mouse cells. However, neither mitochondrial content nor the apparent mitochondrial membrane potential differed between genotypes. Overall, the results suggest that superior hydrogen peroxide metabolism and a marginally greater DNA base excision repair capacity contribute to the stress resistance phenotype of Snell dwarf mouse fibroblasts.

  11. Role of dynamin-related protein 1-mediated mitochondrial fission in resistance of mouse C2C12 myoblasts to heat injury.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tianzheng; Deuster, Patricia; Chen, Yifan

    2016-12-15

    Understanding how skeletal muscles respond to high temperatures may help develop strategies for improving exercise tolerance and preventing heat injury. Mitochondria regulate cell survival by constantly changing their morphology through fusion and fission in response to environmental stimuli. Little is known about the involvement of mitochondrial dynamics in tolerance of skeletal muscle against heat stress. Mild heat acclimation and moderate heat shock appear to have different effects on the mitochondrial morphology and fission protein Drp1 in skeletal muscle cells. Mitochondrial integrity plays a key role in cell survival under heat stress. The regulation of mitochondrial morphology is closely coupled to cell survival during stress. We examined changes in the mitochondrial morphology of mouse C2C12 skeletal muscle cells in response to heat acclimation and heat shock exposure. Acclimated cells showed a greater survival rate during heat shock exposure than non-acclimated cells, and were characterized by long interconnected mitochondria and reduced expression of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) for their mitochondrial fractions. Exposure of C2C12 muscle cells to heat shock led to apoptotic death featuring activation of caspase 3/7, release of cytochrome c and loss of cell membrane integrity. Heat shock also caused excessive mitochondrial fragmentation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and production of reactive oxygen species in C2C12 cells. Western blot and immunofluorescence image analysis revealed translocation of Drp1 to mitochondria from the cytosol in C2C12 cells exposed to heat shock. Mitochondrial division inhibitor 1 or Drp1 gene silencer reduced mitochondrial fragmentation and increased cell viability during exposure to heat shock. These results suggest that Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fission may regulate susceptibility to heat-induced apoptosis in muscle cells and that Drp1 may serve as a target for the prevention of heat-related injury

  12. cDNA cloning and characterization of mouse nifS-like protein, m-Nfs1: mitochondrial localization of eukaryotic NifS-like proteins.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Y; Yoshihara, Y; Hayashi, H; Kagamiyama, H

    1998-08-14

    We have isolated a mouse cDNA which shows significant sequence similarity to the yeast nifS-like gene (y-NFS1), and termed it m-Nfs1. The deduced protein sequence (459 amino acids long) has several characteristic features common to those of bacterial NifS proteins, but distinct from them by its amino-terminal extension which contains a typical mitochondrial targeting presequence. m-Nfs1 was found to be a soluble 47-kDa protein in the matrix fraction of mouse liver mitochondria. The m-Nfs1 gene was ubiquitously expressed in most tissues, suggesting its housekeeping function in vivo. We also found that the gamma-NFS1 protein was localized in the mitochondrial matrix in yeast cells. These results suggest that both eukaryotic NifS-like proteins may play some roles in mitochondrial functions.

  13. Screen for abnormal mitochondrial phenotypes in mouse embryonic stem cells identifies a model for succinyl-CoA ligase deficiency and mtDNA depletion

    PubMed Central

    Donti, Taraka R.; Stromberger, Carmen; Ge, Ming; Eldin, Karen W.; Craigen, William J.; Graham, Brett H.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mutations in subunits of succinyl-CoA synthetase/ligase (SCS), a component of the citric acid cycle, are associated with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, elevation of methylmalonic acid (MMA), and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion. A FACS-based retroviral-mediated gene trap mutagenesis screen in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells for abnormal mitochondrial phenotypes identified a gene trap allele of Sucla2 (Sucla2SAβgeo), which was used to generate transgenic mice. Sucla2 encodes the ADP-specific β-subunit isoform of SCS. Sucla2SAβgeo homozygotes exhibited recessive lethality, with most mutants dying late in gestation (e18.5). Mutant placenta and embryonic (e17.5) brain, heart and muscle showed varying degrees of mtDNA depletion (20–60%). However, there was no mtDNA depletion in mutant liver, where the gene is not normally expressed. Elevated levels of MMA were observed in embryonic brain. SCS-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) demonstrated a 50% reduction in mtDNA content compared with wild-type MEFs. The mtDNA depletion resulted in reduced steady state levels of mtDNA encoded proteins and multiple respiratory chain deficiencies. mtDNA content could be restored by reintroduction of Sucla2. This mouse model of SCS deficiency and mtDNA depletion promises to provide insights into the pathogenesis of mitochondrial diseases with mtDNA depletion and into the biology of mtDNA maintenance. In addition, this report demonstrates the power of a genetic screen that combines gene trap mutagenesis and FACS analysis in mouse ES cells to identify mitochondrial phenotypes and to develop animal models of mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:24271779

  14. Mitochondrial Toxicity of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lei-Lei; Wang, Jia-Dan; Xu, Ting-Ting; Zhao, Zhe; Zheng, Jia-Jie; Ge, Ren-Shan; Zhu, Dan-Yan

    2017-03-10

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent organic contaminant that may cause cardiotoxicity in animals and humans. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism by which it affects the organelle toxicity in cardiomyocytes during the cardiogenesis. Our previous proteomic study showed that differences of protein expression mainly existed in mitochondria of cardiomyocytes differentiated from embryonic stem (ES) cells after exposure to PFOS. Here, we focused on mitochondrial toxicity of PFOS in ES cell-derived cardiomyocytes. The cardiomyogenesis from ES cells in vitro was inhibited, and the expression of L-type Ca(2+) channel (LTCC) was decreased to interrupt [Ca(2+)]c transient amplitude in cardiomyocytes after PFOS treatment. Transmission electron microscope revealed that swollen mitochondrion with vacuole in PFOS-treated cells. Meanwhile, mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔYm) was declined and ATP production was lowered. These changes were related to the increased EGFR phosphorylation, activated Rictor signaling, then mediated HK2 binding to mitochondrial membrane. Furthermore, PFOS reduced the interaction of IP3R-Grp75-VDAC and accumulated intracellular fatty acids by activating Rictor, thereby attenuating PGC-1a and Mfn2 expressions, then destroying mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membrane (MAM), which resulted in the decrease of [Ca(2+)]mito transient amplitude triggered by ATP. In conclusion, mitochondrial structure damages and abnormal Ca(2+) shuttle were the important aspects in PFOS-induced cardiomyocytes toxicity from ES cells by activating Rictor signaling pathway.

  15. Automatic quantification of mitochondrial fragmentation from two-photon microscope images of mouse brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Lihavainen, E; Kislin, M; Toptunov, D; Khiroug, L; Ribeiro, A S

    2015-12-01

    The morphology of mitochondria can inform about their functional state and, thus, about cell vitality. For example, fragmentation of the mitochondrial network is associated with many diseases. Recent advances in neuronal imaging have enabled the observation of mitochondria in live brains for long periods of time, enabling the study of their dynamics in animal models of diseases. To aid these studies, we developed an automatic method, based on supervised learning, for quantifying the degree of mitochondrial fragmentation in tissue images acquired via two-photon microscopy from transgenic mice, which exclusively express Enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP) under Thy1 promoter, targeted to the mitochondrial matrix in subpopulations of neurons. We tested the method on images prior to and after cardiac arrest, and found it to be sensitive to significant changes in mitochondrial morphology because of the arrest. We conclude that the method is useful in detecting morphological abnormalities in mitochondria and, likely, in other subcellular structures as well. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  16. Analysis of tumor metabolism reveals mitochondrial glucose oxidation in genetically diverse, human glioblastomas in the mouse brain in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Marin-Valencia, Isaac; Yang, Chendong; Mashimo, Tomoyuki; Cho, Steve; Baek, Hyeonman; Yang, Xiao-Li; Rajagopalan, Kartik N.; Maddie, Melissa; Vemireddy, Vamsidhara; Zhao, Zhenze; Cai, Ling; Good, Levi; Tu, Benjamin P.; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J.; Mickey, Bruce E.; Matés, José M.; Pascual, Juan M.; Maher, Elizabeth A.; Malloy, Craig R.; DeBerardinis, Ralph J.; Bachoo, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Dysregulated metabolism is a hallmark of cancer cell lines, but little is known about the fate of glucose and other nutrients in tumors growing in their native microenvironment. To study tumor metabolism in vivo, we used an orthotopic mouse model of primary human glioblastoma (GBM). We infused 13C-labeled nutrients into mice bearing three independent GBM lines, each with a distinct set of mutations. All three lines displayed glycolysis, as expected for aggressive tumors. They also displayed unexpected metabolic complexity, oxidizing glucose via pyruvate dehydrogenase and the citric acid cycle, and using glucose to supply anaplerosis and other biosynthetic activities. Comparing the tumors to surrounding brain revealed obvious metabolic differences, notably the accumulation of a large glutamine pool within the tumors. Many of these same activities were conserved in cells cultured ex vivo from the tumors. Thus GBM cells utilize mitochondrial glucose oxidation during aggressive tumor growth in vivo. PMID:22682223

  17. Two deeply divergent mitochondrial clades in the wild mouse Mus macedonicus reveal multiple glacial refuges south of Caucasus.

    PubMed

    Orth, A; Auffray, J-C; Bonhomme, F

    2002-11-01

    A survey of 77 individuals covering the range of Mus macedonicus from Georgia in the East to Greece and Bulgaria in the West and Israel in the South has shown the existence of two deeply divergent mitochondrial clades. The southern clade was until now undetected and characterises mice from Israel. Nuclear genes also show some amount of regional differentiation tending to separate the southern M. macedonicus from the northern ones. These results point towards the fact that the eastern Mediterranean short-tailed mouse, which was seen as a fairly homogeneous monotypic species, has in fact a more complex phylogeographic history than has been suspected, and that it warrants the existence of two subspecies. The reasons for this non-uniformity probably ought to be looked for in the history of faunal movements linked to glacial periods, underlining the possible existence of at least two refugia south of the Caucasus.

  18. Alternative Oxidase Expression in the Mouse Enables Bypassing Cytochrome c Oxidase Blockade and Limits Mitochondrial ROS Overproduction

    PubMed Central

    El-Khoury, Riyad; Dufour, Eric; Rak, Malgorzata; Ramanantsoa, Nelina; Grandchamp, Nicolas; Csaba, Zsolt; Duvillié, Bertrand; Bénit, Paule; Gallego, Jorge; Gressens, Pierre; Sarkis, Chamsy; Jacobs, Howard T.; Rustin, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Cyanide-resistant non-phosphorylating respiration is known in mitochondria from plants, fungi, and microorganisms but is absent in mammals. It results from the activity of an alternative oxidase (AOX) that conveys electrons directly from the respiratory chain (RC) ubiquinol pool to oxygen. AOX thus provides a bypath that releases constraints on the cytochrome pathway and prevents the over-reduction of the ubiquinone pool, a major source of superoxide. RC dysfunctions and deleterious superoxide overproduction are recurrent themes in human pathologies, ranging from neurodegenerative diseases to cancer, and may be instrumental in ageing. Thus, preventing RC blockade and excess superoxide production by means of AOX should be of considerable interest. However, because of its energy-dissipating properties, AOX might produce deleterious effects of its own in mammals. Here we show that AOX can be safely expressed in the mouse (MitAOX), with major physiological parameters being unaffected. It neither disrupted the activity of other RC components nor decreased oxidative phosphorylation in isolated mitochondria. It conferred cyanide-resistance to mitochondrial substrate oxidation and decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production upon RC blockade. Accordingly, AOX expression was able to support cyanide-resistant respiration by intact organs and to afford prolonged protection against a lethal concentration of gaseous cyanide in whole animals. Taken together, these results indicate that AOX expression in the mouse is innocuous and permits to overcome a RC blockade, while reducing associated oxidative insult. Therefore, the MitAOX mice represent a valuable tool in order to investigate the ability of AOX to counteract the panoply of mitochondrial-inherited diseases originating from oxidative phosphorylation defects. PMID:23300486

  19. Effects of Oxidative Alcohol Metabolism on the Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore and Necrosis in a Mouse Model of Alcoholic Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    SHALBUEVA, NATALIA; MARENINOVA, OLGA A.; GERLOFF, ANDREAS; YUAN, JINGZHEN; WALDRON, RICHARD T.; PANDOL, STEPHEN J.; GUKOVSKAYA, ANNA S.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) causes loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and, ultimately, adenosine triphosphate depletion and necrosis. Cells deficient in cyclophilin D (CypD), a component of the MPTP, are resistant to MPTP opening, loss of ΔΨm, and necrosis. Alcohol abuse is a major risk factor for pancreatitis and is believed to sensitize the pancreas to stressors, by poorly understood mechanisms. We investigated the effects of ethanol on the pancreatic MPTP, the mechanisms of these effects, and their role in pancreatitis. METHODS We measured ΔΨm in mouse pancreatic acinar cells incubated with ethanol alone and in combination with physiologic and pathologic concentrations of cholecystokinin-8 (CCK). To examine the role of MPTP, we used ex vivo and in vivo models of pancreatitis, induced in wild-type and CypD−/− mice by a combination of ethanol and CCK. RESULTS Ethanol reduced basal ΔΨm and converted a transient depolarization, induced by physiologic concentrations of CCK, into a sustained decrease in ΔΨm, resulting in reduced cellular adenosine triphosphate and increased necrosis. The effects of ethanol and CCK were mediated by MPTP because they were not observed in CypD−/− acinar cells. Ethanol and CCK activated MPTP through different mechanisms— ethanol by reducing the ratio of oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide to reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, as a result of oxidative metabolism, and CCK by increasing cytosolic Ca2+. CypD−/− mice developed a less-severe form of pancreatitis after administration of ethanol and CCK. CONCLUSIONS Oxidative metabolism of ethanol sensitizes pancreatic mitochondria to activate MPTP, leading to mitochondrial failure; this makes the pancreas susceptible to necrotizing pancreatitis. PMID:23103769

  20. Mitochondrial Abnormalities and Synaptic Loss Underlie Memory Deficits Seen in Mouse Models of Obesity and Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Isaura V.A.; Rivers-Auty, Jack; Allan, Stuart M.; Lawrence, Catherine B.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is associated with impaired memory in humans, and obesity induced by high-fat diets leads to cognitive deficits in rodents and in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, it remains unclear how high-fat diets contribute to memory impairment. Therefore, we tested the effect of a high-fat diet on memory in male and female control non-transgenic (Non-Tg) and triple-transgenic AD (3xTgAD) mice and determined if a high-fat diet caused similar ultrastructural abnormalities to those observed in AD. Behavior was assessed in mice on control or high-fat diet at 4, 8, or 14 months of age and ultrastructural analysis at 8 months of age. A high-fat diet increased body weight, fat weight, and insulin levels with some differences in these metabolic responses observed between Non-Tg and 3xTgAD mice. In both sexes, high-fat feeding caused memory impairments in Non-Tg mice and accelerated memory deficits in 3xTgAD mice. In 3xTgAD mice, changes in hippocampal mitochondrial morphology were observed in capillaries and brain neuropil that were accompanied by a reduction in synapse number. A high-fat diet also caused mitochondria abnormalities and a reduction in synapse number in Non-Tg mice, but did not exacerbate the changes seen in 3xTgAD mice. Our data demonstrate that a high-fat diet affected memory in Non-Tg mice and produced similar impairments in mitochondrial morphology and synapse number comparable to those seen in AD mice, suggesting that the detrimental effects of a high-fat diet on memory might be due to changes in mitochondrial morphology leading to a reduction in synaptic number. PMID:27802235

  1. Lysosomal iron mobilization and induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition in acetaminophen-induced toxicity to mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kon, Kazuyoshi; Kim, Jae-Sung; Uchiyama, Akira; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Lemasters, John J

    2010-09-01

    Acetaminophen induces the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) in hepatocytes. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) trigger the MPT and play an important role in AAP-induced hepatocellular injury. Because iron is a catalyst for ROS formation, our aim was to investigate the role of chelatable iron in MPT-dependent acetaminophen toxicity to mouse hepatocytes. Hepatocytes were isolated from fasted male C3Heb/FeJ mice. Necrotic cell killing was determined by propidium iodide fluorometry. Mitochondrial membrane potential was visualized by confocal microscopy of tetramethylrhodamine methylester. Chelatable ferrous ion was monitored by calcein quenching, and 70 kDa rhodamine-dextran was used to visualize lysosomes. Cell killing after acetaminophen (10mM) was delayed and decreased by more than half after 6 h by 1mM desferal or 1mM starch-desferal. In a cell-free system, ferrous but not ferric iron quenched calcein fluorescence, an effect reversed by dipyridyl, a membrane-permeable iron chelator. In hepatocytes loaded with calcein, intracellular calcein fluorescence decreased progressively beginning about 4 h after acetaminophen. Mitochondria then depolarized after about 6 h. Dipyridyl (20mM) dequenched calcein fluorescence. Desferal and starch-desferal conjugate prevented acetaminophen-induced calcein quenching and mitochondrial depolarization. As calcein fluorescence became quenched, lysosomes disappeared, consistent with release of iron from ruptured lysosomes. In conclusion, an increase of cytosolic chelatable ferrous iron occurs during acetaminophen hepatotoxicity, which triggers the MPT and cell killing. Disrupted lysosomes are the likely source of iron, and chelation of this iron decreases acetaminophen toxicity to hepatocytes.

  2. Transcranial laser therapy alters amyloid precursor protein processing and improves mitochondrial function in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Thomas; Yu, Jin; El-Amouri, Salim; Gattoni-Celli, Sebastiano; Richieri, Steve; De Taboada, Luis; Streeter, Jackson; Kindy, Mark S.

    2011-03-01

    Transcranial laser therapy (TLT) using a near-infrared energy laser system was tested in the 2x Tg amyloid precursor protein (APP) mouse model of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). TLT was administered 3 times/week at escalating doses, starting at 3 months of age, and was compared to a control group which received no laser treatment. Treatment sessions were continued for a total of six months. The brains were examined for amyloid plaque burden, Aβ peptides (Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 ), APP cleavage products (sAPPα, CTFβ) and mitochondrial activity. Administration of TLT was associated with a significant, dose-dependent reduction in amyloid load as indicated by the numbers of Aβ plaques. Levels of Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 levels were likewise reduced in a dose-dependent fashion. All TLT doses produced an increase in brain sAPPα and a decrease in CTFβ levels consistent with an increase in α-secretase activity and a decrease in β-secretase activity. In addition, TLT increased ATP levels and oxygen utilization in treated animals suggesting improved mitochondrial function. These studies suggest that TLT is a potential candidate for treatment of AD.

  3. Molecular phylogenetics and phylogeographic structure of Sumichrast's harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys sumichrasti: Cricetidae) based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Daniel K; González-Cózatl, Francisco X; Arellano, Elizabeth; Rogers, Duke S

    2013-08-01

    Sumichrast's harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys sumichrasti) is a montane rodent species widely distributed through the Mesoamerican highlands. We used sequence data from one mitochondrial (cytochrome b) and two nuclear (β-fibrinogen and acid phosphatase type V) genes for a total of 1962 base pairs to estimate genealogical relationships and assess population genetic structure across the range of this taxon. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches using cytochrome b resolved several major clades, revealing considerably more genetic diversity than observed in previous studies. The basal split in the tree topologies corresponded to the geographical separation among samples on either side of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in México. We estimated an early Pleistocene or late Pliocene divergence between these two groups. We also recovered a well-supported clade south of the Nicaraguan Depression in Central America that we consider a separate biological species. The 12 networks generated using statistical parsimony (TCS) for cytochrome b sequence data were largely concordant with the phylogenetic analyses and we document the co-occurrence of two of these networks in central Veracurz. Phylogenies derived from β-fibrinogen and acid phosphatase type V gene segments revealed less phylogenetic signal and did not separate samples of R. sumichrasti east and west of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. The phylogeny estimated by combining the mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data was essentially identical to the cytochrome b gene tree. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Metabolic depression during warm torpor in the Golden spiny mouse (Acomys russatus) does not affect mitochondrial respiration and hydrogen peroxide release.

    PubMed

    Grimpo, Kirsten; Kutschke, Maria; Kastl, Anja; Meyer, Carola W; Heldmaier, Gerhard; Exner, Cornelia; Jastroch, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Small mammals actively decrease metabolism during daily torpor and hibernation to save energy. Recently, depression of mitochondrial substrate oxidation in isolated liver mitochondria was observed and associated to hypothermic/hypometabolic states in Djungarian hamsters, mice and hibernators. We aimed to clarify whether hypothermia or hypometabolism causes mitochondrial depression during torpor by studying the Golden spiny mouse (Acomys russatus), a desert rodent which performs daily torpor at high ambient temperatures of 32°C. Notably, metabolic rate but not body temperature is significantly decreased under these conditions. In isolated liver, heart, skeletal muscle or kidney mitochondria we found no depression of respiration. Moderate cold exposure lowered torpor body temperature but had minor effects on minimal metabolic rate in torpor. Neither decreased body temperature nor metabolic rate impacted mitochondrial respiration. Measurements of mitochondrial proton leak kinetics and determination of P/O ratio revealed no differences in mitochondrial efficiency. Hydrogen peroxide release from mitochondria was not affected. We conclude that interspecies differences of mitochondrial depression during torpor do not support a general relationship between mitochondrial respiration, body temperature and metabolic rate. In Golden spiny mice, reduction of metabolic rate at mild temperatures is not triggered by depression of substrate oxidation as found in liver mitochondria from other cold-exposed rodents.

  5. Mitochondrial alterations and oxidative stress in an acute transient mouse model of muscle degeneration: implications for muscular dystrophy and related muscle pathologies.

    PubMed

    Ramadasan-Nair, Renjini; Gayathri, Narayanappa; Mishra, Sudha; Sunitha, Balaraju; Mythri, Rajeswara Babu; Nalini, Atchayaram; Subbannayya, Yashwanth; Harsha, Hindalahalli Chandregowda; Kolthur-Seetharam, Ullas; Srinivas Bharath, Muchukunte Mukunda

    2014-01-03

    Muscular dystrophies (MDs) and inflammatory myopathies (IMs) are debilitating skeletal muscle disorders characterized by common pathological events including myodegeneration and inflammation. However, an experimental model representing both muscle pathologies and displaying most of the distinctive markers has not been characterized. We investigated the cardiotoxin (CTX)-mediated transient acute mouse model of muscle degeneration and compared the cardinal features with human MDs and IMs. The CTX model displayed degeneration, apoptosis, inflammation, loss of sarcolemmal complexes, sarcolemmal disruption, and ultrastructural changes characteristic of human MDs and IMs. Cell death caused by CTX involved calcium influx and mitochondrial damage both in murine C2C12 muscle cells and in mice. Mitochondrial proteomic analysis at the initial phase of degeneration in the model detected lowered expression of 80 mitochondrial proteins including subunits of respiratory complexes, ATP machinery, fatty acid metabolism, and Krebs cycle, which further decreased in expression during the peak degenerative phase. The mass spectrometry (MS) data were supported by enzyme assays, Western blot, and histochemistry. The CTX model also displayed markers of oxidative stress and a lowered glutathione reduced/oxidized ratio (GSH/GSSG) similar to MDs, human myopathies, and neurogenic atrophies. MS analysis identified 6 unique oxidized proteins from Duchenne muscular dystrophy samples (n = 6) (versus controls; n = 6), including two mitochondrial proteins. Interestingly, these mitochondrial proteins were down-regulated in the CTX model thereby linking oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. We conclude that mitochondrial alterations and oxidative damage significantly contribute to CTX-mediated muscle pathology with implications for human muscle diseases.

  6. Membrane voltage, resistance, and channel switching in isolated mouse fibroblasts (L cells): a patch-electrode analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Hosoi, S; Slayman, C L

    1985-01-01

    The whole-cell patch-electrode technique of Fenwick, Marty & Neher (1982) has been applied to single suspension-cultured mouse fibroblasts. Seals in the range of 10-50 G omega were obtained without special cleaning of the cell membranes. Rupture of the membrane patch inside the electrode was accompanied by a shift of measured potential into the range -10 to -25 mV, but in most cases with little change in the recorded resistance. The latter fact implied that the absolute resistance of the cell membrane must be in the same range as the seal resistance and the recorded potential is a poor measure of actual cell membrane potential. Steady-state current-voltage curves (range -160 mV to +80 mV) were generated before and after rupture of the membrane patch, and the difference between these gave (zero-current) membrane potentials of -50 to -75 mV, which represents a leak-corrected estimate of the true cell-membrane potential. The associated slope conductivity of the cell membrane was 5-15 microS/cm2 (assumed smooth-sphere geometry, cells 13-15 microns in diameter) and was K+-dominated. With 0.1 mM (or more) free Ca2+ filling the patch electrode, membrane potentials in the range -60 to -85 mV were observed following patch rupture, with associated slope conductivities of 200-400 microS/cm2, also K+-dominated. Similar voltages and conductivities were observed at the peak of pulse-induced 'hyperpolarizing activation' (Nelson, Peacock, & Minna, 1972), and the two phenomena probably reflect the behaviour of Ca2+-activated K+ channels. Both the pulse-induced conductance and the Ca2+-activated conductance spontaneously decayed, the latter over periods of 5-15 min following patch rupture. Sr2+, Ba2+, and Co2+ could also activate the putative K+ channels, but only Sr2+ really mimicked Ca2+. Co2+ and Ba2+ activated with a delay of several minutes following patch rupture, and deactivated quickly with a small decrease of conductance and a large decrease of membrane potential. Evidently

  7. Novel remodeling of the mouse heart mitochondrial proteome in response to acute insulin stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Brian A; Yazdi, Puya G; Taylor, Jared F; Khattab, Omar S; Chen, Yu-Han; Chen, Yumay; Wang, Ping H

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the pathophysiology of diabetic cardiomyopathy. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute changes in the mitochondrial proteome in response to insulin stimulation. Cardiac mitochondria from C57BL/6 mice after insulin stimulation were analyzed using two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis. MALDI-TOF MS/MS was utilized to identify differences. Two enzymes involved in metabolism and four structural proteins were identified. Succinyl-CoA ligase [ADP forming] subunit beta was identified as one of the differentially regulated proteins. Upon insulin stimulation, a relatively more acidic isoform of this protein was increased by 53% and its functional activity was decreased by ∼32%. This proteomic remodeling in response to insulin stimulation may play an important role in the normal and diabetic heart. PMID:26610654

  8. Magnesium regulates neural stem cell proliferation in the mouse hippocampus by altering mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Jia, Shanshan; Mou, Chengzhi; Ma, Yihe; Han, Ruijie; Li, Xue

    2016-04-01

    In the adult brain, neural stem cells from the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the cortex progress through the following five developmental stages: radial glia-like cells, neural progenitor cells, neuroblasts, immature neurons, and mature neurons. These developmental stages are linked to both neuronal microenvironments and energy metabolism. Neurogenesis is restricted and has been demonstrated to arise from tissue microenvironments. We determined that magnesium, a key nutrient in cellular energy metabolism, affects neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation in cells derived from the embryonic hippocampus by influencing mitochondrial function. Densities of proliferating cells and NSCs both showed their highest values at 0.8 mM [Mg(2+) ]o , whereas lower proliferation rates were observed at 0.4 and 1.4 mM [Mg(2+) ]o . The numbers and sizes of the neurospheres reached the maximum at 0.8 mM [Mg(2+) ]o and were weaker under both low (0.4 mM) and high (1.4 mM) concentrations of magnesium. In vitro experimental evidence demonstrates that extracellular magnesium regulates the number of cultured hippocampal NSCs, affecting both magnesium homeostasis and mitochondrial function. Our findings indicate that the effect of [Mg(2+) ]o on NSC proliferation may lie downstream of alterations in mitochondrial function because mitochondrial membrane potential was highest in the NSCs in the moderate [Mg(2+) ]o (0.8 mM) group and lower in both the low (0.4 mM) and high (1.4 mM) [Mg(2+) ]o groups. Overall, these findings demonstrate a new function for magnesium in the brain in the regulation of hippocampal neural stem cells: affecting their cellular energy metabolism. © 2015 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  9. Apolipoprotein O expression in mouse liver enhances hepatic lipid accumulation by impairing mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Tian, Feng; Wu, Chen-Lu; Yu, Bi-Lian; Liu, Ling; Hu, Jia-Rui

    2017-09-09

    Apolipoprotein O (ApoO) was recently observed in the cellular mitochondrial inner membrane, which plays a role in mitochondrial function and is associated with myocardiopathy. Empirical information on the physiological functions of apoO is therefore limited. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the effect of apoO on hepatic fatty acid metabolism. An adenoviral vector expressing hApoO was constructed and introduced into chow diet and high-fat diet induced mice and the L02 human hepatoma cell line. High levels of hApoO mRNA and protein were detected in the liver, and the expression of lipid metabolism genes was significantly altered compared with negative controls. The liver function indices (serum ALT and AST) were clearly elevated, and the ultrastructure of cellular mitochondria was distinctly altered in the liver after apoO overexpression. Further, mitochondrial membrane potential decreased with hApoO treatment in L02 cells. These results establish a link between apoO and lipid accumulation and could suggest a new pathway for regulating non-alcoholic fatty liver disease progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantitative Proteomics of Sleep-Deprived Mouse Brains Reveals Global Changes in Mitochondrial Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tie-Mei; Zhang, Ju-en; Lin, Rui; Chen, She; Luo, Minmin; Dong, Meng-Qiu

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is a ubiquitous, tightly regulated, and evolutionarily conserved behavior observed in almost all animals. Prolonged sleep deprivation can be fatal, indicating that sleep is a physiological necessity. However, little is known about its core function. To gain insight into this mystery, we used advanced quantitative proteomics technology to survey the global changes in brain protein abundance. Aiming to gain a comprehensive profile, our proteomics workflow included filter-aided sample preparation (FASP), which increased the coverage of membrane proteins; tandem mass tag (TMT) labeling, for relative quantitation; and high resolution, high mass accuracy, high throughput mass spectrometry (MS). In total, we obtained the relative abundance ratios of 9888 proteins encoded by 6070 genes. Interestingly, we observed significant enrichment for mitochondrial proteins among the differentially expressed proteins. This finding suggests that sleep deprivation strongly affects signaling pathways that govern either energy metabolism or responses to mitochondrial stress. Additionally, the differentially-expressed proteins are enriched in pathways implicated in age-dependent neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s, Huntington’s, and Alzheimer’s, hinting at possible connections between sleep loss, mitochondrial stress, and neurodegeneration. PMID:27684481

  11. Restricted ADP movement in cardiomyocytes: Cytosolic diffusion obstacles are complemented with a small number of open mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channels.

    PubMed

    Simson, Päivo; Jepihhina, Natalja; Laasmaa, Martin; Peterson, Pearu; Birkedal, Rikke; Vendelin, Marko

    2016-08-01

    Adequate intracellular energy transfer is crucial for proper cardiac function. In energy starved failing hearts, partial restoration of energy transfer can rescue mechanical performance. There are two types of diffusion obstacles that interfere with energy transfer from mitochondria to ATPases: mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) with voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) permeable to small hydrophilic molecules and cytoplasmatic diffusion barriers grouping ATP-producers and -consumers. So far, there is no method developed to clearly distinguish the contributions of cytoplasmatic barriers and MOM to the overall diffusion restriction. Furthermore, the number of open VDACs in vivo remains unknown. The aim of this work was to establish the partitioning of intracellular diffusion obstacles in cardiomyocytes. We studied the response of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation of permeabilized rat cardiomyocytes to changes in extracellular ADP by recording 3D image stacks of NADH autofluorescence. Using cell-specific mathematical models, we determined the permeability of MOM and cytoplasmatic barriers. We found that only ~2% of VDACs are accessible to cytosolic ADP and cytoplasmatic diffusion barriers reduce the apparent diffusion coefficient by 6-10×. In cardiomyocytes, diffusion barriers in the cytoplasm and by the MOM restrict ADP/ATP diffusion to similar extents suggesting a major role of both barriers in energy transfer and other intracellular processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. MicroRNA-761 regulates mitochondrial biogenesis in mouse skeletal muscle in response to exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yanli; Zhao, Chaoxian; Sun, Xuewen; Liu, Zhijun; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2015-11-06

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been suggested to play critical roles in skeletal muscle in response to exercise. Previous study has shown that miR-761 was involved in a novel model regulating the mitochondrial network. However, its role in mitochondrial biogenesis remains poorly understood. Therefore, the current study was aimed to examine the effect of miR-761 on mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis demonstrated that aberrantly expressed miR-761 is involved in exercise activity and miR-761 is decreased by exercise training compared with the sedentary control mice. miR-761 suppresses mitochondrial biogenesis of C{sub 2}C{sub 12} myocytes by targeting the 3′-UTR of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) coactivator-1 (PGC-1α). Overexpression of miR-761 was capable of inhibiting the protein expression levels of PGC-1α. Moreover, miR-761 overexpression suppressed the p38 MAPK signaling pathway and down-regulated the expression of phosphorylated MAPK-activated protein kinase-2 (P-MK2), a downstream kinase of p38 MAPK. The phosphorylation of activating transcription factors 2 (ATF2) that plays a functional role in linking the activation of the p38 MAPK pathway to enhanced transcription of the PGC-1α was also inhibited by the overexpression of miR-761. These findings revealed a novel regulation mechanism for miR-761 in skeletal myocytes, and contributed to a better understanding of the modulation of skeletal muscle in response to exercise. - Highlights: • Endurance exercise decreases miR-761 expression in skeletal muscle. • MiR-761 suppresses mitochondrial biogenesis in C{sub 2}C{sub 12} myocytes. • MiR-761 directly targeted PGC-1α expression. • MiR-761 suppresses p38 MAPK signaling pathways in C{sub 2}C{sub 12} myocytes. • A novel mechanism for miR-761 in skeletal myocytes is demonstrated.

  13. Phosphorylation of rat brain purified mitochondrial Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel by c-Jun N-terminal kinase-3 modifies open-channel noise.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rajeev

    2017-09-02

    The drift kinetic energy of ionic flow through single ion channels cause vibrations of the pore walls which are observed as open-state current fluctuations (open-channel noise) during single-channel recordings. Vibration of the pore wall leads to transitions among different conformational sub-states of the channel protein in the open-state. Open-channel noise analysis can provide important information about the different conformational sub-state transitions and how biochemical modifications of ion channels would affect their transport properties. It has been shown that c-Jun N-terminal kinase-3 (JNK3) becomes activated by phosphorylation in various neurodegenerative diseases and phosphorylates outer mitochondrion associated proteins leading to neuronal apoptosis. In our earlier work, JNK3 has been reported to phosphorylate purified rat brain mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) in vitro and modify its conductance and opening probability. In this article we have compared the open-state noise profile of the native and the JNK3 phosphorylated VDAC using Power Spectral Density vs frequency plots. Power spectral density analysis of open-state noise indicated power law with average slope value α ≈1 for native VDAC at both positive and negative voltage whereas average α value < 0.5 for JNK3 phosphorylated VDAC at both positive and negative voltage. It is proposed that 1/f(1) power law in native VDAC open-state noise arises due to coupling of ionic transport and conformational sub-states transitions in open-state and this coupling is perturbed as a result of channel phosphorylation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A disulfide bond in the TIM23 complex is crucial for voltage gating and mitochondrial protein import.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Ajay; Peleh, Valentina; Martinez-Caballero, Sonia; Wollweber, Florian; Sommer, Frederik; van der Laan, Martin; Schroda, Michael; Alexander, R Todd; Campo, María Luisa; Herrmann, Johannes M

    2016-08-15

    Tim17 is a central, membrane-embedded subunit of the mitochondrial protein import machinery. In this study, we show that Tim17 contains a pair of highly conserved cysteine residues that form a structural disulfide bond exposed to the intermembrane space (IMS). This disulfide bond is critical for efficient protein translocation through the TIM23 complex and for dynamic gating of its preprotein-conducting channel. The disulfide bond in Tim17 is formed during insertion of the protein into the inner membrane. Whereas the import of Tim17 depends on the binding to the IMS protein Mia40, the oxidoreductase activity of Mia40 is surprisingly dispensable for Tim17 oxidation. Our observations suggest that Tim17 can be directly oxidized by the sulfhydryl oxidase Erv1. Thus, import and oxidation of Tim17 are mediated by the mitochondrial disulfide relay, though the mechanism by which the disulfide bond in Tim17 is formed differs considerably from that of soluble IMS proteins.

  15. A disulfide bond in the TIM23 complex is crucial for voltage gating and mitochondrial protein import

    PubMed Central

    Peleh, Valentina; Martinez-Caballero, Sonia; Sommer, Frederik; van der Laan, Martin; Schroda, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Tim17 is a central, membrane-embedded subunit of the mitochondrial protein import machinery. In this study, we show that Tim17 contains a pair of highly conserved cysteine residues that form a structural disulfide bond exposed to the intermembrane space (IMS). This disulfide bond is critical for efficient protein translocation through the TIM23 complex and for dynamic gating of its preprotein-conducting channel. The disulfide bond in Tim17 is formed during insertion of the protein into the inner membrane. Whereas the import of Tim17 depends on the binding to the IMS protein Mia40, the oxidoreductase activity of Mia40 is surprisingly dispensable for Tim17 oxidation. Our observations suggest that Tim17 can be directly oxidized by the sulfhydryl oxidase Erv1. Thus, import and oxidation of Tim17 are mediated by the mitochondrial disulfide relay, though the mechanism by which the disulfide bond in Tim17 is formed differs considerably from that of soluble IMS proteins. PMID:27502485

  16. Estradiol and tamoxifen regulate NRF-1 and mitochondrial function in mouse mammary gland and uterus

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Margarita M.; Radde, Brandie N.; Son, Jieun; Mehta, Fabiola F.; Chung, Sang-Hyuk; Klinge, Carolyn M.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1) stimulates the transcription of nuclear-encoded genes that regulate mitochondrial genome transcription and biogenesis. We reported that estradiol (E2) and 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) stimulate NRF-1 transcription in an estrogen receptor α- and β- (ERα, ERβ) dependent manner in human breast cancer cells. The aim of this study was to determine if E2 and 4-OHT increase NRF-1 in vivo. Here we report that E2 and 4-OHT increase NRF-1 expression in mammary gland and uterus of ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice in a time-dependent manner. E2 increased NRF-1 protein in the uterus and mammary gland; however, in mammary gland, 4-OHT increased Nrf1 mRNA but not protein. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays revealed increased in vivo recruitment of ERα to the Nrf1 promoter and intron 3 in mammary gland and uterus 6 h after E2 and 4-OHT treatment, commensurate with increased NRF-1 expression. E2 and 4-OHT- induced increases in NRF-1 and its target genes Tfam, Tfb1m, and Tfb2m were coordinated in mammary gland but not uterus, due to uterine-selective inhibition of the expression of the NRF-1 coactivators Ppargc1a and Ppargc1b by E2 and 4-OHT. E2 transiently increased NRF-1 and PGC-1α nuclear staining while reducing PGC-1α in uterus. E2, not 4-OHT, activates mitochondrial biogenesis in mammary gland and uterus in a time-dependent manner. E2 increased mitochondrial outer membrane Tom40 protein levels in mammary gland and uterus whereas 4-OHT increased Tom40 only in uterus. These data support the hypothesis of tissue-selective regulation of NRF-1 and its downstream targets by E2 and 4-OHT in vivo. PMID:23892277

  17. Lethal mitochondrial cardiomyopathy in a hypomorphic Med30 mouse mutant is ameliorated by ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Philippe; Fan, Weiwei; Chen, Yen-Hui; Tobita, Kimimasa; Downes, Michael R; Wood, Malcolm R; Sun, Lei; Li, Xiaohong; Xia, Yu; Ding, Ning; Spaeth, Jason M; Moresco, Eva Marie Y; Boyer, Thomas G; Lo, Cecilia Wen Ya; Yen, Jeffrey; Evans, Ronald M; Beutler, Bruce

    2011-12-06

    Deficiencies of subunits of the transcriptional regulatory complex Mediator generally result in embryonic lethality, precluding study of its physiological function. Here we describe a missense mutation in Med30 causing progressive cardiomyopathy in homozygous mice that, although viable during lactation, show precipitous lethality 2-3 wk after weaning. Expression profiling reveals pleiotropic changes in transcription of cardiac genes required for oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial integrity. Weaning mice to a ketogenic diet extends viability to 8.5 wk. Thus, we establish a mechanistic connection between Mediator and induction of a metabolic program for oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid oxidation, in which lethal cardiomyopathy is mitigated by dietary intervention.

  18. Inhibition of Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission improves mitochondrial dynamics and bioenergetics stimulating neurogenesis in hippocampal progenitor cells from a Down syndrome mouse model.

    PubMed

    Valenti, Daniela; Rossi, Leonardo; Marzulli, Domenico; Bellomo, Francesco; De Rasmo, Domenico; Signorile, Anna; Vacca, Rosa Anna

    2017-09-19

    Functional and structural damages to mitochondria have been critically associated with the pathogenesis of Down syndrome (DS), a human multifactorial disease caused by trisomy of chromosome 21 and associated with neurodevelopmental delay, intellectual disability and early neurodegeneration. Recently, we demonstrated in neural progenitor cells (NPCs) isolated from the hippocampus of Ts65Dn mice -a widely used model of DS - a severe impairment of mitochondrial bioenergetics and biogenesis and reduced NPC proliferation. Here we further investigated the origin of mitochondrial dysfunction in DS and explored a possible mechanistic link among alteration of mitochondrial dynamics, mitochondrial dysfunctions and defective neurogenesis in DS. We first analyzed mitochondrial network and structure by both confocal and transmission electron microscopy as well as by evaluating the levels of key proteins involved in the fission and fusion machinery. We found a fragmentation of mitochondria due to an increase in mitochondrial fission associated with an up-regulation of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), and a decrease in mitochondrial fusion associated with a down-regulation of mitofusin 2 (Mnf2) and increased proteolysis of optic atrophy 1 (Opa1). Next, using the well-known neuroprotective agent mitochondrial division inhibitor 1 (Mdivi-1), we assessed whether the inhibition of mitochondrial fission might reverse alteration of mitochondrial dynamics and mitochondrial dysfunctions in DS neural progenitors cells. We demonstrate here for the first time, that Mdivi-1 restores mitochondrial network organization, mitochondrial energy production and ultimately improves proliferation and neuronal differentiation of NPCs. This research paves the way for the discovery of new therapeutic tools in managing some DS-associated clinical manifestations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Torin 1 partially corrects vigabatrin-induced mitochondrial increase in mouse

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Kara R; Ainslie, Garrett R; Jansen, Erwin E W; Salomons, Gajja S; Gibson, K Michael

    2015-01-01

    Recent findings in mice with targeted deletion of the GABA-metabolic enzyme succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase revealed a new role for supraphysiological GABA (4-aminobutyric acid) in the activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) that results in disruption of endogenous mitophagy. Employing biochemical and electron microscopic methodology, we examined the hypothesis that similar outcomes would be observed during intervention with vigabatrin, whose antiepileptic capacity hinges on central nervous system GABA elevation. Vigabatrin intervention was associated with significantly enhanced mitochondrial numbers and areas in normal mice that could be selectively normalized with the rapalog and mechanistic target of rapamycin inhibitor, Torin 1. Moreover, short-term administration of vigabatrin induced apoptosis and enhanced phosphorylation of mechanistic target of rapamycin Ser 2448 in liver. Our results provide new insight into adverse outcomes associated with vigabatrin intervention, and the first evidence that its administration is associated with increased mitochondrial number in central and peripheral tissues that may associate with mechanistic target of rapamycin function and enhanced cell death. PMID:26125044

  20. Arsenite Effects on Mitochondrial Bioenergetics in Human and Mouse Primary Hepatocytes Follow a Nonlinear Dose Response

    PubMed Central

    Christudoss, Pamela; Mickey, Kristen; Tessman, Robert; Ni, Hong-min; Swerdlow, Russell

    2017-01-01

    Arsenite is a known carcinogen and its exposure has been implicated in a variety of noncarcinogenic health concerns. Increased oxidative stress is thought to be the primary cause of arsenite toxicity and the toxic effect is thought to be linear with detrimental effects reported at all concentrations of arsenite. But the paradigm of linear dose response in arsenite toxicity is shifting. In the present study we demonstrate that arsenite effects on mitochondrial respiration in primary hepatocytes follow a nonlinear dose response. In vitro exposure of primary hepatocytes to an environmentally relevant, moderate level of arsenite results in increased oxidant production that appears to arise from changes in the expression and activity of respiratory Complex I of the mitochondrial proton circuit. In primary hepatocytes the excess oxidant production appears to elicit adaptive responses that promote resistance to oxidative stress and a propensity to increased proliferation. Taken together, these results suggest a nonlinear dose-response characteristic of arsenite with low-dose arsenite promoting adaptive responses in a process known as mitohormesis, with transient increase in ROS levels acting as transducers of arsenite-induced mitohormesis. PMID:28163822

  1. Torin 1 partially corrects vigabatrin-induced mitochondrial increase in mouse.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Kara R; Ainslie, Garrett R; Jansen, Erwin E W; Salomons, Gajja S; Gibson, K Michael

    2015-06-01

    Recent findings in mice with targeted deletion of the GABA-metabolic enzyme succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase revealed a new role for supraphysiological GABA (4-aminobutyric acid) in the activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) that results in disruption of endogenous mitophagy. Employing biochemical and electron microscopic methodology, we examined the hypothesis that similar outcomes would be observed during intervention with vigabatrin, whose antiepileptic capacity hinges on central nervous system GABA elevation. Vigabatrin intervention was associated with significantly enhanced mitochondrial numbers and areas in normal mice that could be selectively normalized with the rapalog and mechanistic target of rapamycin inhibitor, Torin 1. Moreover, short-term administration of vigabatrin induced apoptosis and enhanced phosphorylation of mechanistic target of rapamycin Ser 2448 in liver. Our results provide new insight into adverse outcomes associated with vigabatrin intervention, and the first evidence that its administration is associated with increased mitochondrial number in central and peripheral tissues that may associate with mechanistic target of rapamycin function and enhanced cell death.

  2. A new HDV mouse model identifies mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) as a key player in IFN-β induction.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Amarán, Lester; Usai, Carla; Di Scala, Marianna; Godoy, Cristina; Ni, Yi; Hommel, Mirja; Palomo, Laura; Segura, Víctor; Olagüe, Cristina; Vales, Africa; Ruiz-Ripa, Alicia; Buti, Maria; Salido, Eduardo; Prieto, Jesús; Urban, Stephan; Rodríguez-Frias, Francisco; Aldabe, Rafael; González-Aseguinolaza, Gloria

    2017-10-01

    Studying hepatitis delta virus (HDV) and developing new treatments is hampered by the limited availability of small animal models. Herein, a description of a robust mouse model of HDV infection that mimics several important characteristics of the human disease is presented. HDV and hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication competent genomes were delivered to the mouse liver using adeno-associated viruses (AAV; AAV-HDV and AAV-HBV). Viral load, antigen expression and genomes were quantified at different time points after AAV injection. Furthermore, liver pathology, genome editing, and the activation of the innate immune response were evaluated. AAV-HDV infection initiated HDV replication in mouse hepatocytes. Genome editing was confirmed by the presence of small and large HDV antigens and sequencing. Viral replication was detected for 45days, even after the AAV-HDV vector had almost disappeared. In the presence of HBV, HDV infectious particles were detected in serum. Furthermore, as observed in patients, co-infection was associated with the reduction of HBV antigen expression and the onset of liver damage that included the alteration of genes involved in the development of liver pathologies. HDV replication induced a sustained type I interferon response, which was significantly reduced in immunodeficient mice and almost absent in mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS)-deficient mice. The animal model described here reproduces important characteristics of human HDV infection and provides a valuable tool for characterizing the viral infection and for developing new treatments. Furthermore, MAVS was identified as a main player in HDV detection and adaptive immunity was found to be involved in the amplification of the innate immune response. Lay summary: Co-infection with hepatitis B and D virus (HBV and HDV, respectively) often causes a more severe disease condition than HBV alone. Gaining more insight into HDV and developing new treatments is hampered by limited

  3. A somatic T15091C mutation in the Cytb gene of mouse mitochondrial DNA dominantly induces respiration defects.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Chisato; Takibuchi, Gaku; Shimizu, Akinori; Mito, Takayuki; Ishikawa, Kaori; Nakada, Kazuto; Hayashi, Jun-Ichi

    2015-08-07

    Our previous studies provided evidence that mammalian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations that cause mitochondrial respiration defects behave in a recessive manner, because the induction of respiration defects could be prevented with the help of a small proportion (10%-20%) of mtDNA without the mutations. However, subsequent studies found the induction of respiration defects by the accelerated accumulation of a small proportion of mtDNA with various somatic mutations, indicating the presence of mtDNA mutations that behave in a dominant manner. Here, to provide the evidence for the presence of dominant mutations in mtDNA, we used mouse lung carcinoma P29 cells and examined whether some mtDNA molecules possess somatic mutations that dominantly induce respiration defects. Cloning and sequence analysis of 40-48 mtDNA molecules from P29 cells was carried out to screen for somatic mutations in protein-coding genes, because mutations in these genes could dominantly regulate respiration defects by formation of abnormal polypeptides. We found 108 missense mutations existing in one or more of 40-48 mtDNA molecules. Of these missense mutations, a T15091C mutation in the Cytb gene was expected to be pathogenic due to the presence of its orthologous mutation in mtDNA from a patient with cardiomyopathy. After isolation of many subclones from parental P29 cells, we obtained subclones with various proportions of T15091C mtDNA, and showed that the respiration defects were induced in a subclone with only 49% T15091C mtDNA. Because the induction of respiration defects could not be prevented with the help of the remaining 51% mtDNA without the T15091C mutation, the results indicate that the T15091C mutation in mtDNA dominantly induced the respiration defects.

  4. Long title: Translational potential of long-term decreases in mitochondrial lipids in a mouse model of Gulf War Illness.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Laila; Evans, James E; Joshi, Utsav; Crynen, Gogce; Reed, John; Mouzon, Benoit; Baumann, Stephan; Montague, Hannah; Zakirova, Zuchra; Emmerich, Tanja; Bachmeier, Corbin; Klimas, Nancy; Sullivan, Kimberly; Mullan, Michael; Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Crawford, Fiona

    2016-10-29

    Gulf War Illness (GWI) affects 25% of veterans from the 1990-1991 Gulf War (GW) and is accompanied by damage to the brain regions involved in memory processing. After twenty-five years, the chronic pathobiology of GWI is still unexplained. To address this problem, we examined the long-term consequences of GW exposures in an established GWI mouse model to identify biological processes that are relevant to the chronic symptoms of GWI. Three-month old male C57BL6 mice were exposed for 10days to GW agents (pyridostigmine bromide and permethrin). Barnes Maze testing conducted at 15- and 16-months post-exposure revealed learning and memory impairment. Immunohistochemical analyses showed astroglia and microglia activation in the hippocampi of exposed mice. Proteomic studies identified perturbation of mitochondria function and metabolomics data showed decreases in the Krebs cycle compounds, lactate, β-hydroxybutyrate and glycerol-3 phosphate in the brains of exposed mice. Lipidomics data showed decreases in fatty acids, acylcarnitines and phospholipids, including cardiolipins in the brains of exposed mice. Pilot biomarker studies showed that plasma from exposed mice and veterans with GWI had increases in odd-chain, and decreases in long-chain, acylcarnitines compared to their respective controls. Very long-chain acylcarnitines were decreased in veterans with GWI compared to controls. These studies suggest that mitochondrial lipid disturbances might be associated with GWI and that further investigation is required to determine its role in the pathophysiology of this illness. Targeting mitochondrial function may provide effective therapies for GWI, and that lipid abnormalities could serve as biomarkers of GWI.

  5. Translational potential of long-term decreases in mitochondrial lipids in a mouse model of Gulf War Illness.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Laila; Evans, James E; Joshi, Utsav; Crynen, Gogce; Reed, Jon; Mouzon, Benoit; Baumann, Stephan; Montague, Hannah; Zakirova, Zuchra; Emmerich, Tanja; Bachmeier, Corbin; Klimas, Nancy; Sullivan, Kimberly; Mullan, Michael; Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Crawford, Fiona

    2016-11-30

    Gulf War Illness (GWI) affects 25% of veterans from the 1990-1991 Gulf War (GW) and is accompanied by damage to the brain regions involved in memory processing. After twenty-five years, the chronic pathobiology of GWI is still unexplained. To address this problem, we examined the long-term consequences of GW exposures in an established GWI mouse model to identify biological processes that are relevant to the chronic symptoms of GWI. Three-month old male C57BL6 mice were exposed for 10days to GW agents (pyridostigmine bromide and permethrin). Barnes Maze testing conducted at 15- and 16-months post-exposure revealed learning and memory impairment. Immunohistochemical analyses showed astroglia and microglia activation in the hippocampi of exposed mice. Proteomic studies identified perturbation of mitochondria function and metabolomics data showed decreases in the Krebs cycle compounds, lactate, β-hydroxybutyrate and glycerol-3 phosphate in the brains of exposed mice. Lipidomics data showed decreases in fatty acids, acylcarnitines and phospholipids, including cardiolipins in the brains of exposed mice. Pilot biomarker studies showed that plasma from exposed mice and veterans with GWI had increases in odd-chain, and decreases in long-chain, acylcarnitines compared to their respective controls. Very long-chain acylcarnitines were decreased in veterans with GWI compared to controls. These studies suggest that mitochondrial lipid disturbances might be associated with GWI and that further investigation is required to determine its role in the pathophysiology of this illness. Targeting mitochondrial function may provide effective therapies for GWI, and that lipid abnormalities could serve as biomarkers of GWI.

  6. Expression pattern of neuronal and skeletal muscle voltage-gated Na+ channels in the developing mouse heart

    PubMed Central

    Haufe, Volker; Camacho, Juan A; Dumaine, Robert; Günther, Bernd; Bollensdorff, Christian; von Banchet, Gisela Segond; Benndorf, Klaus; Zimmer, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In the mammalian heart, a variety of voltage-gated Na+ channel transcripts and proteins have been detected. However, little quantitative information is available on the abundance of each transcript during development, or the contribution of TTX-sensitive Na+ channels to the cardiac sodium current (INa). Using competitive and real-time RT-PCR we investigated the transcription of six Na+ channels (Nav1.1–Nav1.6) and the β1 subunit during mouse heart development. Nav1.5 was predominantly expressed in the adult heart, whereas the splice variant Nav1.5a was the major Na+ channel isoform in embryonic hearts. The TTX-resistant Na+ channel transcripts (Nav1.5 and Nav1.5a) increased 1.7-fold during postnatal development. Transcripts encoding TTX-sensitive Na+ channels (Nav1.1–Nav1.4) and the β1 subunit gradually increased up to fourfold from postnatal day (P)1 to P126, while the Nav1.6 transcript level remained low and constant over the same period. In adults, TTX-sensitive channel mRNA accounted for 30–40% of the channel pool in whole-heart preparations (Nav1.3 > Nav1.4 > Nav1.2 ≫ Nav1.1 ∼ Nav1.6), and 16% in mRNA from isolated cardiomyocytes (Nav1.4 > Nav1.3 > Nav1.2 > Nav1.1 > Nav1.6). Confocal immunofluorescence on ventricular myocytes suggested that Nav1.1 and Nav1.2 were localized at the intercalated disks and in the t tubules. Nav1.3 labelling predominantly produced a diffuse but strong intracellular signal. Nav1.6 fluorescence was detected only along the Z lines. Electrophysiological recordings showed that TTX-sensitive and TTX-resistant Na+ channels, respectively, accounted for 8% and 92% of the INa in adult ventricular cardiomyocytes. Our data suggest that neuronal and skeletal muscle Na+ channels contribute to the action potential of cardiomyocytes in the adult mammalian heart. PMID:15746173

  7. Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency disrupts endocytosis, neuritogenesis, and mitochondrial protein pathways in the mouse hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    English, Jane A.; Harauma, Akiko; Föcking, Melanie; Wynne, Kieran; Scaife, Caitriona; Cagney, Gerard; Moriguchi, Toru; Cotter, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) deficiency is an environmental risk factor for schizophrenia, yet characterization of the consequences of deficiency at the protein level in the brain is limited. We aimed to identify the protein pathways disrupted as a consequence of chronic n-3 deficiency in the hippocampus of mice. Fatty acid analysis of the hippocampus following chronic dietary deficiency revealed a 3-fold decrease (p < 0.001) in n-3 FA levels. Label free LC-MS/MS analysis identified and profiled 1008 proteins, of which 114 were observed to be differentially expressed between n-3 deficient and control groups (n = 8 per group). The cellular processes that were most implicated were neuritogenesis, endocytosis, and exocytosis, while specific protein pathways that were most significantly dysregulated were mitochondrial dysfunction and clathrin mediated endocytosis (CME). In order to characterize whether these processes and pathways are ones influenced by antipsychotic medication, we used LC-MS/MS to test the differential expression of these 114 proteins in the hippocampus of mice chronically treated with the antipsychotic agent haloperidol. We observed 23 of the 114 proteins to be differentially expressed, 17 of which were altered in the opposite direction to that observed following n-3 deficiency. Overall, our findings point to disturbed synaptic function, neuritogenesis, and mitochondrial function as a consequence of dietary deficiency in n-3 FA. This study greatly aids our understanding of the molecular mechanism by which n-3 deficiency impairs normal brain function, and provides clues as to how n-3 FA exert their therapeutic effect in early psychosis. PMID:24194745

  8. Mitochondrial delivery of Coenzyme Q10 via systemic administration using a MITO-Porter prevents ischemia/reperfusion injury in the mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yuma; Nakamura, Kohei; Abe, Jiro; Hyodo, Mamoru; Haga, Sanae; Ozaki, Michitaka; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2015-09-10

    We herein report on a mitochondrial therapeutic effect based on the delivery of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), an anti-oxidant, to in vivo mitochondria using a MITO-Porter, a liposome-based mitochondrial delivery system that functions via membrane fusion. To evaluate the effects, we used a mouse liver ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R injury) model, in which mitochondrial reactive oxygen species are overexpressed. We packaged CoQ10 in the lipid phase of a MITO-Porter and optimized the mitochondrial fusogenic activities to produce the CoQ10-MITO-Porter. A histological observation of the carriers in the liver by confocal laser scanning microscopy was done and the accumulation of the carrier labeled with a radio isotope in the liver confirmed that the CoQ10-MITO-Porter was delivered to liver mitochondria via systemic injection. These analytical results permitted us to optimize the compositions of the CoQ10-MITO-Porter so as to permit it to efficiently accumulate in mouse liver mitochondria. Finally, we applied the optimized CoQ10-MITO-Porter to mice via tail vein injection, and hepatic I/R injury was then induced, followed by measuring serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, a marker of liver injury. We confirmed that the use of the CoQ10-MITO-Porter resulted in a significant decrease in serum ALT levels, indicating that in vivo mitochondrial delivery of the CoQ10 via MITO-Porter prevents I/R injury in mice livers. This provides a demonstration of the potential use of such a delivery system in mitochondrial therapies.

  9. Synergistic exacerbation of mitochondrial and synaptic dysfunction and resultant learning and memory deficit in a mouse model of diabetic Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongfu; Wu, Long; Li, Jianping; Fang, Du; Zhong, Changjia; Chen, John Xi; Yan, Shirley ShiDu

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is considered to be a risk factor in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Although recent evidence indicates that diabetes exaggerates pathologic features of AD, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. To determine whether mitochondrial perturbation is associated with the contribution of diabetes to AD progression, we characterized mouse models of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetes and transgenic AD mouse models with diabetes. Brains from mice with STZ-induced diabetes revealed a significant increase of cyclophilin D (CypD) expression, reduced respiratory function, and decreased hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP); these animals had impaired spatial learning and memory. Hyperglycemia exacerbated the upregulation of CypD, mitochondrial defects, synaptic injury, and cognitive dysfunction in the brains of transgenic AD mice overexpressing amyloid-β as shown by decreased mitochondrial respiratory complex I and IV enzyme activity and greatly decreased mitochondrial respiratory rate. Concomitantly, hippocampal LTP reduction and spatial learning and memory decline, two early pathologic indicators of AD, were enhanced in the brains of diabetic AD mice. Our results suggest that the synergistic interaction between effects of diabetes and AD on mitochondria may be responsible for brain dysfunction that is in common in both diabetes and AD.

  10. Synergistic Exacerbation of Mitochondrial and Synaptic Dysfunction and Resultant Learning and Memory Deficit in a Mouse Model of Diabetic Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongfu; Wu, Long; Li, Jianping; Fang, Du; Zhong, Changjia; Chen, John Xi; Yan, Shirley ShiDu

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is considered to be a risk factor in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis. Although recent evidence indicates that diabetes exaggerates pathologic features of AD, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. To determine whether mitochondrial perturbation is associated with the contribution of diabetes to AD progression, we characterized mouse models of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetes and transgenic AD mouse models with diabetes. Brains from mice with STZ-induced diabetes revealed a significant increase of cyclophilin D (CypD) expression, reduced respiratory function, and decreased hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP); these animals had impaired spatial learning and memory. Hyperglycemia exacerbated the upregulation of CypD, mitochondrial defects, synaptic injury, and cognitive dysfunction in the brains of transgenic AD mice overexpressing amyloid-β as shown by decreased mitochondrial respiratory complex I and IV enzyme activity and greatly decreased mitochondrial respiratory rate. Concomitantly, hippocampal LTP reduction and spatial learning and memory decline, two early pathologic indicators of AD, were enhanced in the brains of diabetic AD mice. Our results suggest that the synergistic interaction between effects of diabetes and AD on mitochondria may be responsible for brain dysfunction that is in common in both diabetes and AD. PMID:25096625

  11. The human and mouse SLC25A29 mitochondrial transporters rescue the deficient ornithine metabolism in fibroblasts of patients with the hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Camacho, José A; Rioseco-Camacho, Natalia

    2009-07-01

    The hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome is a disorder of the urea cycle (UCD) and ornithine degradation pathway caused by mutations in the mitochondrial ornithine transporter (ORNT1). Unlike other UCDs, HHH syndrome is characterized by a less severe and variable phenotype that we believe may, in part, be due to genes with redundant function to ORNT1, such as the previously characterized ORNT2 gene. We reasoned that SLC25A29, a member of the same subfamily of mitochondrial carrier proteins as ORNT1 and ORNT2, might also have overlapping function with ORNT1. Here, we report that both the human and mouse SLC25A29, previously identified as mitochondrial carnitine/acyl-carnitine transporter-like, when overexpressed transiently also rescues the impaired ornithine transport in cultured HHH fibroblasts. Moreover, we observed that, in the mouse, the Slc25a29 message is more significantly expressed in the CNS and cultured astrocytes when compared with the liver and kidney. These results suggest a potential physiologic role for the SLC25A29 transporter in the oxidation of fatty acids, ornithine degradation pathway, and possibly the urea cycle. Our results show that SLC25A29 is the third human mitochondrial ornithine transporter, designated as ORNT3, which may contribute to the milder and variable phenotype seen in patients with HHH syndrome.

  12. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant mitotempo protects mitochondrial function against amyloid beta toxicity in primary cultured mouse neurons.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongtao; Li, Mo

    2016-09-09

    Mitochondrial defects including excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and compromised ATP generation are featured pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Amyloid beta (Aβ)-mediated mitochondrial ROS overproduction disrupts intra-neuronal Redox balance, in turn exacerbating mitochondrial dysfunction leading to neuronal injury. Previous studies have found the beneficial effects of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants in preventing mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal injury in AD animal and cell models, suggesting that mitochondrial ROS scavengers hold promise for the treatment of this neurological disorder. In this study, we have determined that mitotempo, a novel mitochondria-targeted antioxidant protects mitochondrial function from the toxicity of Aβ in primary cultured neurons. Our results showed that Aβ-promoted mitochondrial superoxide production and neuronal lipid oxidation were significantly suppressed by the application of mitotempo. Moreover, mitotempo also demonstrated protective effects on mitochondrial bioenergetics evidenced by preserved mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c oxidase activity as well as ATP production. In addition, the Aβ-induced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion and decreased expression levels of mtDNA replication-related DNA polymerase gamma (DNA pol γ) and Twinkle were substantially mitigated by mitotempo. Therefore, our study suggests that elimination of excess mitochondrial ROS rescues mitochondrial function in Aβ-insulted neruons; and mitotempo has the potential to be a promising therapeutic agent to protect mitochondrial and neuronal function in AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The N-Terminal Peptides of the Three Human Isoforms of the Mitochondrial Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel Have Different Helical Propensities.

    PubMed

    Guardiani, Carlo; Scorciapino, Mariano Andrea; Amodeo, Giuseppe Federico; Grdadolnik, Joze; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; De Pinto, Vito; Ceccarelli, Matteo; Casu, Mariano

    2015-09-15

    The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) is the main mitochondrial porin allowing the exchange of ions and metabolites between the cytosol and the mitochondrion. In addition, VDAC was found to actively interact with proteins playing a fundamental role in the regulation of apoptosis and being of central interest in cancer research. VDAC is a large transmembrane β-barrel channel, whose N-terminal helical fragment adheres to the channel interior, partially closing the pore. This fragment is considered to play a key role in protein stability and function as well as in the interaction with apoptosis-related proteins. Three VDAC isoforms are differently expressed in higher eukaryotes, for which distinct and complementary roles are proposed. In this work, the folding propensity of their N-terminal fragments has been compared. By using multiple spectroscopic techniques, and complementing the experimental results with theoretical computer-assisted approaches, we have characterized their conformational equilibrium. Significant differences were found in the intrinsic helical propensity of the three peptides, decreasing in the following order: hVDAC2 > hVDAC3 > hVDAC1. In light of the models proposed in the literature to explain voltage gating, selectivity, and permeability, as well as interactions with functionally related proteins, our results suggest that the different chemicophysical properties of the N-terminal domain are possibly correlated to different functions for the three isoforms. The overall emerging picture is that a similar transmembrane water accessible conduit has been equipped with not identical domains, whose differences can modulate the functional roles of the three VDAC isoforms.

  14. Metallothionein transfers zinc to mitochondrial aconitase through a direct interaction in mouse hearts.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wenke; Cai, Jian; Pierce, William M; Franklin, Renty B; Maret, Wolfgang; Benz, Frederick W; Kang, Y James

    2005-07-08

    Previous studies have shown that in a cell-free system, metallothionein (MT) releases zinc when the environment becomes oxidized and the released zinc is transferred to a zinc-binding protein if such a protein is present. However, it is unknown whether and how zinc transfers from MT to other proteins in vivo. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that if zinc transfer from MT to other proteins occurs in vivo, the transfer would proceed through a direct interaction between MT and a specific group of proteins. The heart extract obtained from MT-null mice was incubated with 65Zn-MT or 65ZnCl2 and the proteins receiving 65Zn were separated by blue-native PAGE (BN-PAGE) or sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE (SDS-PAGE), and detected by autoradiography. A unique 65Zn-binding band was observed from the 65Zn-MT-incubated, but not the 65ZnCl2-incubated preparation. The analysis using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry revealed that mitochondrial aconitase (m-aconitase) was among the proteins accepting Zn directly from Zn-MT. The m-aconitase, not the cytosolic aconitase (c-aconitase), was co-immunoprecipitated with MT. This study demonstrates that MT transfers zinc to m-aconitase through a direct interaction.

  15. The TDH-GCN5L1-Fbxo15-KBP axis limits mitochondrial biogenesis in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Donato, Valerio; Bonora, Massimo; Simoneschi, Daniele; Sartini, Davide; Kudo, Yasusei; Saraf, Anita; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P; Stadtfeld, Matthias; Pinton, Paolo; Pagano, Michele

    2017-03-20

    Self-renewing naive mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) contain few mitochondria, which increase in number and volume at the onset of differentiation. KBP (encoded by Kif1bp) is an interactor of the mitochondrial-associated kinesin Kif1Bα. We found that TDH, responsible for mitochondrial production of acetyl-CoA in mESCs, and the acetyltransferase GCN5L1 cooperate to acetylate Lys501 in KBP, allowing its recognition by and degradation via Fbxo15, an F-box protein transcriptionally controlled by the pluripotency core factors and repressed following differentiation. Defects in KBP degradation in mESCs result in an unscheduled increase in mitochondrial biogenesis, enhanced respiration and ROS production, and inhibition of cell proliferation. Silencing of Kif1Bα reverts the aberrant increase in mitochondria induced by KBP stabilization. Notably, following differentiation, Kif1bp(-/-) mESCs display impaired expansion of the mitochondrial mass and form smaller embryoid bodies. Thus, KBP proteolysis limits the accumulation of mitochondria in mESCs to preserve their optimal fitness, whereas KBP accumulation promotes mitochondrial biogenesis in differentiating cells.

  16. Oligomerization of the mitochondrial protein voltage-dependent anion channel is coupled to the induction of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Keinan, Nurit; Tyomkin, Dalia; Shoshan-Barmatz, Varda

    2010-12-01

    Accumulating evidence implicates that the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) functions in mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis and as a critical player in the release of apoptogenic proteins, such as cytochrome c, triggering caspase activation and apoptosis. The mechanisms regulating cytochrome c release and the molecular architecture of the cytochrome c-conducting channel remain unknown. Here the relationship between VDAC oligomerization and the induction of apoptosis was examined. We demonstrated that apoptosis induction by various stimuli was accompanied by highly increased VDAC oligomerization, as revealed by cross-linking and directly monitored in living cells using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer technology. VDAC oligomerization was induced in all cell types and with all apoptosis inducers used, including staurosporine, curcumin, As(2)O(3), etoposide, cisplatin, selenite, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), H(2)O(2), and UV irradiation, all acting through different mechanisms yet all involving mitochondria. Moreover, correlation between the levels of VDAC oligomerization and apoptosis was observed. Furthermore, the apoptosis inhibitor 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) inhibited VDAC oligomerization. Finally, a caspase inhibitor had no effect on VDAC oligomerization and cytochrome c release. We propose that VDAC oligomerization is involved in mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis and may represent a general mechanism common to numerous apoptogens acting via different initiating cascades. Thus, targeting the oligomeric status of VDAC, and hence apoptosis, offers a therapeutic strategy for combating cancers and neurodegenerative diseases.

  17. Oligomerization of the Mitochondrial Protein Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel Is Coupled to the Induction of Apoptosis ▿

    PubMed Central

    Keinan, Nurit; Tyomkin, Dalia; Shoshan-Barmatz, Varda

    2010-01-01

    Accumulating evidence implicates that the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) functions in mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis and as a critical player in the release of apoptogenic proteins, such as cytochrome c, triggering caspase activation and apoptosis. The mechanisms regulating cytochrome c release and the molecular architecture of the cytochrome c-conducting channel remain unknown. Here the relationship between VDAC oligomerization and the induction of apoptosis was examined. We demonstrated that apoptosis induction by various stimuli was accompanied by highly increased VDAC oligomerization, as revealed by cross-linking and directly monitored in living cells using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer technology. VDAC oligomerization was induced in all cell types and with all apoptosis inducers used, including staurosporine, curcumin, As2O3, etoposide, cisplatin, selenite, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), H2O2, and UV irradiation, all acting through different mechanisms yet all involving mitochondria. Moreover, correlation between the levels of VDAC oligomerization and apoptosis was observed. Furthermore, the apoptosis inhibitor 4,4′-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid (DIDS) inhibited VDAC oligomerization. Finally, a caspase inhibitor had no effect on VDAC oligomerization and cytochrome c release. We propose that VDAC oligomerization is involved in mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis and may represent a general mechanism common to numerous apoptogens acting via different initiating cascades. Thus, targeting the oligomeric status of VDAC, and hence apoptosis, offers a therapeutic strategy for combating cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:20937774

  18. Mitochondrial antioxidative capacity regulates muscle glucose uptake in the conscious mouse: effect of exercise and diet

    PubMed Central

    Lustig, Mary E.; Bonner, Jeffrey S.; Lee-Young, Robert S.; Mayes, Wesley H.; James, Freyja D.; Lin, Chien-Te; Perry, Christopher G. R.; Anderson, Ethan J.; Neufer, P. Darrell; Wasserman, David H.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that exercise-stimulated muscle glucose uptake (MGU) is augmented by increasing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) scavenging capacity. This hypothesis was tested in genetically altered mice fed chow or a high-fat (HF) diet that accelerates mtROS formation. Mice overexpressing SOD2 (sod2Tg), mitochondria-targeted catalase (mcatTg), and combined SOD2 and mCAT (mtAO) were used to increase mtROS scavenging. mtROS was assessed by the H2O2 emitting potential (JH2O2) in muscle fibers. sod2Tg did not decrease JH2O2 in chow-fed mice, but decreased JH2O2 in HF-fed mice. mcatTg and mtAO decreased JH2O2 in both chow- and HF-fed mice. In parallel, the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) was unaltered in sod2Tg in chow-fed mice, but was increased in HF-fed sod2Tg and both chow- and HF-fed mcatTg and mtAO. Nitrotyrosine, a marker of NO-dependent, reactive nitrogen species (RNS)-induced nitrative stress, was decreased in both chow- and HF-fed sod2Tg, mcatTg, and mtAO mice. This effect was not changed with exercise. Kg, an index of MGU was assessed using 2-[14C]-deoxyglucose during exercise. In chow-fed mice, sod2Tg, mcatTg, and mtAO increased exercise Kg compared with wild types. Exercise Kg was also augmented in HF-fed sod2Tg and mcatTg mice but unchanged in HF-fed mtAO mice. In conclusion, mtROS scavenging is a key regulator of exercise-mediated MGU and this regulation depends on nutritional state. PMID:22653994

  19. Mitochondrial antioxidative capacity regulates muscle glucose uptake in the conscious mouse: effect of exercise and diet.

    PubMed

    Kang, Li; Lustig, Mary E; Bonner, Jeffrey S; Lee-Young, Robert S; Mayes, Wesley H; James, Freyja D; Lin, Chien-Te; Perry, Christopher G R; Anderson, Ethan J; Neufer, P Darrell; Wasserman, David H

    2012-10-15

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that exercise-stimulated muscle glucose uptake (MGU) is augmented by increasing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) scavenging capacity. This hypothesis was tested in genetically altered mice fed chow or a high-fat (HF) diet that accelerates mtROS formation. Mice overexpressing SOD2 (sod2(Tg)), mitochondria-targeted catalase (mcat(Tg)), and combined SOD2 and mCAT (mtAO) were used to increase mtROS scavenging. mtROS was assessed by the H(2)O(2) emitting potential (JH(2)O(2)) in muscle fibers. sod2(Tg) did not decrease JH(2)O(2) in chow-fed mice, but decreased JH(2)O(2) in HF-fed mice. mcat(Tg) and mtAO decreased JH(2)O(2) in both chow- and HF-fed mice. In parallel, the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) was unaltered in sod2(Tg) in chow-fed mice, but was increased in HF-fed sod2(Tg) and both chow- and HF-fed mcat(Tg) and mtAO. Nitrotyrosine, a marker of NO-dependent, reactive nitrogen species (RNS)-induced nitrative stress, was decreased in both chow- and HF-fed sod2(Tg), mcat(Tg), and mtAO mice. This effect was not changed with exercise. Kg, an index of MGU was assessed using 2-[(14)C]-deoxyglucose during exercise. In chow-fed mice, sod2(Tg), mcat(Tg), and mtAO increased exercise Kg compared with wild types. Exercise Kg was also augmented in HF-fed sod2(Tg) and mcat(Tg) mice but unchanged in HF-fed mtAO mice. In conclusion, mtROS scavenging is a key regulator of exercise-mediated MGU and this regulation depends on nutritional state.

  20. Estradiol and tamoxifen regulate NRF-1 and mitochondrial function in mouse mammary gland and uterus.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Margarita M; Radde, Brandie N; Son, Jieun; Mehta, Fabiola F; Chung, Sang-Hyuk; Klinge, Carolyn M

    2013-10-01

    Nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1) stimulates the transcription of nuclear-encoded genes that regulate mitochondrial (mt) genome transcription and biogenesis. We reported that estradiol (E2) and 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) stimulate NRF-1 transcription in an estrogen receptor α (ERα)- and ERβ-dependent manner in human breast cancer cells. The aim of this study was to determine whether E2 and 4-OHT increase NRF-1 in vivo. Here, we report that E2 and 4-OHT increase NRF-1 expression in mammary gland (MG) and uterus of ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice in a time-dependent manner. E2 increased NRF-1 protein in the uterus and MG; however, in MG, 4-OHT increased Nrf1 mRNA but not protein. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed increased in vivo recruitment of ERα to the Nrf1 promoter and intron 3 in MG and uterus 6 h after E2 and 4-OHT treatment, commensurate with increased NRF-1 expression. E2- and 4-OHT-induced increases in NRF-1 and its target genes Tfam, Tfb1m, and Tfb2m were coordinated in MG but not in uterus due to uterine-selective inhibition of the expression of the NRF-1 coactivators Ppargc1a and Ppargc1b by E2 and 4-OHT. E2 transiently increased NRF-1 and PGC-1α nuclear staining while reducing PGC-1α in uterus. E2, not 4-OHT, activates mt biogenesis in MG and uterus in a time-dependent manner. E2 increased mt outer membrane Tomm40 protein levels in MG and uterus whereas 4-OHT increased Tomm40 only in uterus. These data support the hypothesis of tissue-selective regulation of NRF-1 and its downstream targets by E2 and 4-OHT in vivo.

  1. Real-Time PCR Quantification of Heteroplasmy in a Mouse Model with Mitochondrial DNA of C57BL/6 and NZB/BINJ Strains.

    PubMed

    Machado, Thiago Simões; Macabelli, Carolina Habermann; Sangalli, Juliano Rodrigues; Rodrigues, Thiago Bittencourt; Smith, Lawrence Charles; Meirelles, Flávio Vieira; Chiaratti, Marcos Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Mouse models are widely employed to study mitochondrial inheritance, which have implications to several human diseases caused by mutations in the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA). These mouse models take advantage of polymorphisms between the mtDNA of the NZB/BINJ and the mtDNA of common inbred laboratory (i.e., C57BL/6) strains to generate mice with two mtDNA haplotypes (heteroplasmy). Based on PCR followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), these studies determine the level of heteroplasmy across generations and in different cell types aiming to understand the mechanisms underlying mitochondrial inheritance. However, PCR-RFLP is a time-consuming method of low sensitivity and accuracy that dependents on the use of restriction enzyme digestions. A more robust method to measure heteroplasmy has been provided by the use of real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) based on allelic refractory mutation detection system (ARMS-qPCR). Herein, we report an ARMS-qPCR assay for quantification of heteroplasmy using heteroplasmic mice with mtDNA of NZB/BINJ and C57BL/6 origin. Heteroplasmy and mtDNA copy number were estimated in germline and somatic tissues, providing evidence of the reliability of the approach. Furthermore, it enabled single-step quantification of heteroplasmy, with sensitivity to detect as low as 0.1% of either NZB/BINJ or C57BL/6 mtDNA. These findings are relevant as the ARMS-qPCR assay reported here is fully compatible with similar heteroplasmic mouse models used to study mitochondrial inheritance in mammals.

  2. Real-Time PCR Quantification of Heteroplasmy in a Mouse Model with Mitochondrial DNA of C57BL/6 and NZB/BINJ Strains

    PubMed Central

    Sangalli, Juliano Rodrigues; Rodrigues, Thiago Bittencourt; Smith, Lawrence Charles; Meirelles, Flávio Vieira; Chiaratti, Marcos Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Mouse models are widely employed to study mitochondrial inheritance, which have implications to several human diseases caused by mutations in the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA). These mouse models take advantage of polymorphisms between the mtDNA of the NZB/BINJ and the mtDNA of common inbred laboratory (i.e., C57BL/6) strains to generate mice with two mtDNA haplotypes (heteroplasmy). Based on PCR followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), these studies determine the level of heteroplasmy across generations and in different cell types aiming to understand the mechanisms underlying mitochondrial inheritance. However, PCR-RFLP is a time-consuming method of low sensitivity and accuracy that dependents on the use of restriction enzyme digestions. A more robust method to measure heteroplasmy has been provided by the use of real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) based on allelic refractory mutation detection system (ARMS-qPCR). Herein, we report an ARMS-qPCR assay for quantification of heteroplasmy using heteroplasmic mice with mtDNA of NZB/BINJ and C57BL/6 origin. Heteroplasmy and mtDNA copy number were estimated in germline and somatic tissues, providing evidence of the reliability of the approach. Furthermore, it enabled single-step quantification of heteroplasmy, with sensitivity to detect as low as 0.1% of either NZB/BINJ or C57BL/6 mtDNA. These findings are relevant as the ARMS-qPCR assay reported here is fully compatible with similar heteroplasmic mouse models used to study mitochondrial inheritance in mammals. PMID:26274500

  3. Full-length PGC-1α salvages the phenotype of a mouse model of human neuropathy through mitochondrial proliferation.

    PubMed

    Rona-Voros, Krisztina; Eschbach, Judith; Vernay, Aurélia; Wiesner, Diana; Schwalenstocker, Birgit; Geniquet, Pauline; Mousson De Camaret, Bénédicte; Echaniz-Laguna, Andoni; Loeffler, Jean-Philippe; Ludolph, Albert C; Weydt, Patrick; Dupuis, Luc

    2013-12-20

    Increased mitochondrial mass, commonly termed mitochondrial proliferation, is frequently observed in many human diseases directly or indirectly involving mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial proliferation is thought to counterbalance a compromised energy metabolism, yet it might also be detrimental through alterations of mitochondrial regulatory functions such as apoptosis, calcium metabolism or oxidative stress. Here, we show that prominent mitochondrial proliferation occurs in Cramping mice, a model of hereditary neuropathy caused by a mutation in the dynein heavy chain gene Dync1h1. The mitochondrial proliferation correlates with post-prandial induction of full-length (FL) and N-terminal truncated (NT) isoforms of the transcriptional co-activator PGC-1α. The selective knock-out of FL-PGC-1α isoform, preserving expression and function of NT-PGC-1α, led to a complete reversal of mitochondrial proliferation. Moreover, FL-PGC-1α ablation potently exacerbated the mitochondrial dysfunction and led to severe weight loss. Finally, FL-PGC-1α ablation triggered pronounced locomotor dysfunction, tremors and inability to rear in Cramping mice. In summary, endogenous FL-PGC-1α activates mitochondrial proliferation and salvages neurological and metabolic health upon disease. NT-PGC-1α cannot fulfil this protective action. Activation of this endogenous salvage pathway might thus be a valuable therapeutic target for diseases involving mitochondrial dysfunction.

  4. Developmental expression, intracellular localization, and selenium content of the cysteine-rich protein associated with the mitochondrial capsules of mouse sperm.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, L; Baig, K; Oko, R; Mastrangelo, M A; Kleene, K C

    1996-11-01

    The outer membranes of mitochondria of mammalian sperm are encased in a keratinous structure known as the mitochondrial capsule. The experiments in the present study were designed to resolve a controversy surrounding the intracellular localization, developmental expression, and selenium-content of a cysteine-rich 17-20 kD protein that has been reported to constitute the major structural protein in the mitochondrial capsule of mammals. An antibody to a synthetic oligopeptide based on the predicted sequence of mouse cysteinerich protein recognizes a 24 kD protein in epididymal sperm tails of mice. The 24 kD protein does not appear to be a selenoprotein because: (1) it is not labeled with 75Se-selenite in seminiferous tubule culture; (2) cleavage with cyanogen bromide and translation of T7 RNA polymerase transcripts in vitro indicate that the translation start site is located downstream of potential UGA selenocysteine codons in the mouse cysteine-rich mRNA; (3) the reading frame encoding the cysteine-rich protein in rat lacks inphase UGA selenocysteine codons. Light and electron microscopy immunocytochemistry detects the cysteine-rich protein first during step 11 of spermiogenesis in the mouse demonstrating that the cysteine-rich protein mRNA is under temporal translational control. Electron microscope immunocytochemistry reveals that the cysteine-rich protein is evenly distributed in the cytoplasm in spermatids in steps 11 through early step 16 in mouse, and that it is associated with the outer mitochondrial membranes of spermatids in late step 16 and epididymal spermatozoa.

  5. High glucose-induced mitochondrial respiration and reactive oxygen species in mouse cerebral pericytes is reversed by pharmacological inhibition of mitochondrial carbonic anhydrases: Implications for cerebral microvascular disease in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Shah, Gul N; Morofuji, Yoichi; Banks, William A; Price, Tulin O

    2013-10-18

    Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress leads to diabetes-associated damage to the microvasculature of the brain. Pericytes in close proximity to endothelial cells in the brain microvessels are vital to the integrity of the blood-brain barrier and are especially susceptible to oxidative stress. According to our recently published results, streptozotocin-diabetic mouse brain exhibits oxidative stress and loose pericytes by twelve weeks of diabetes, and cerebral pericytes cultured in high glucose media suffer intracellular oxidative stress and apoptosis. Oxidative stress in diabetes is hypothesized to be caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced during hyperglycemia-induced enhanced oxidative metabolism of glucose (respiration). To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of high glucose on respiration rate and ROS production in mouse cerebral pericytes. Previously, we showed that pharmacological inhibition of mitochondrial carbonic anhydrases protects the brain from oxidative stress and pericyte loss. The high glucose-induced intracellular oxidative stress and apoptosis of pericytes in culture were also reversed by inhibition of mitochondrial carbonic anhydrases. Therefore, we extended our current study to determine the effect of these inhibitors on high glucose-induced increases in pericyte respiration and ROS. We now report that both the respiration and ROS are significantly increased in pericytes challenged with high glucose. Furthermore, inhibition of mitochondrial carbonic anhydrases significantly slowed down both the rate of respiration and ROS production. These data provide new evidence that pharmacological inhibitors of mitochondrial carbonic anhydrases, already in clinical use, may prove beneficial in protecting the brain from oxidative stress caused by ROS produced as a consequence of hyperglycemia-induced enhanced respiration.

  6. High Glucose-Induced Mitochondrial Respiration and Reactive Oxygen Species in Mouse Cerebral Pericytes is Reversed by Pharmacological Inhibition of Mitochondrial Carbonic Anhydrases: Implications for Cerebral Microvascular Disease in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Gul N.; Morofuji, Yoichi; Banks, William A.; Price, Tulin O.

    2013-01-01

    Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress leads to diabetes-associated damage to the microvasculature of the brain. Pericytes in close proximity to endothelial cells in the brain microvessels are vital to the integrity of the blood-brain barrier and are especially susceptible to oxidative stress. According to our recently published results, streptozotocin-diabetic mouse brain exhibits oxidative stress and loose pericytes by twelve weeks of diabetes, and cerebral pericytes cultured in high glucose media suffer intracellular oxidative stress and apoptosis. Oxidative stress in diabetes is hypothesized to be caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced during hyperglycemia-induced enhanced oxidative metabolism of glucose (respiration). To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of high glucose on respiration rate and ROS production in mouse cerebral pericytes. Previously, we showed that pharmacological inhibition of mitochondrial carbonic anhydrases protects the brain from oxidative stress and pericyte loss. The high glucose-induced intracellular oxidative stress and apoptosis of pericytes in culture were also reversed by inhibition of mitochondrial carbonic anhydrases. Therefore, we extended our current study to determine the effect of these inhibitors on high glucose-induced increases in pericyte respiration and ROS. We now report that both the respiration and ROS are significantly increased in pericytes challenged with high glucose. Furthermore, inhibition of mitochondrial carbonic anhydrases significantly slowed down both the rate of respiration and ROS production. These data provide new evidence that pharmacological inhibitors of mitochondrial carbonic anhydrases, already in clinical use, may prove beneficial in protecting the brain from oxidative stress caused by ROS produced as a consequence of hyperglycemia-induced enhanced respiration. PMID:24076121

  7. Diphenyl diselenide administration enhances cortical mitochondrial number and activity by increasing hemeoxygenase type 1 content in a methylmercury-induced neurotoxicity mouse model.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Viviane; Martins, Roberta de Paula; Vieira, Ana Julia Hoffmann; Oliveira, Eliana de Medeiros; Straliotto, Marcos Raniel; Mukdsi, Jorge Humberto; Torres, Alicia Inés; de Bem, Andreza Fabro; Farina, Marcelo; da Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; De Paul, Ana Lucia; Latini, Alexandra

    2014-05-01

    Interest in biochemistry of organoselenium compound has increased in the last decades, mainly due to their chemical and biological activities. Here, we investigated the protective effect of diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2 (5 μmol/kg), in a mouse model of methylmercury (MeHg)-induced brain toxicity. Swiss male mice were divided into four experimental groups: control, (PhSe)2 (5 μmol/kg, subcutaneous administration), MeHg (40 mg/L, in tap water), and MeHg + (PhSe)2. After the treatment (21 days), the animals were killed and the cerebral cortex was analyzed. Electron microscopy indicated an enlarged and fused mitochondria leading to a reduced number of organelles, in the MeHg-exposed mice. Furthermore, cortical creatine kinase activity, a sensitive mitochondrial oxidative stress sensor, was almost abolished by MeHg. Subcutaneous (PhSe)2 co-treatment rescued from MeHg-induced mitochondrial alterations. (PhSe)2 also behaved as an enhancer of mitochondrial biogenesis, by increasing cortical mitochondria content in mouse-receiving (PhSe)2 alone. Mechanistically, (PhSe)2 (1 μM; 24 h) would trigger the cytoprotective Nrf-2 pathway for activating target genes, since astroglial cells exposed to the chalcogen showed increased content of hemeoxygenase type 1, a sensitive marker of the activation of this via. Thus, it is proposed that the (PhSe)2-neuroprotective effect might be linked to its mitoprotective activity.

  8. DRP1 inhibition rescues retinal ganglion cells and their axons by preserving mitochondrial integrity in a mouse model of glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, K-Y; Perkins, G A; Shim, M S; Bushong, E; Alcasid, N; Ju, S; Ellisman, M H; Weinreb, R N; Ju, W-K

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness and is characterized by slow and progressive degeneration of the optic nerve head axons and retinal ganglion cell (RGC), leading to loss of visual function. Although oxidative stress and/or alteration of mitochondrial (mt) dynamics induced by elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) are associated with this neurodegenerative disease, the mechanisms that regulate mt dysfunction-mediated glaucomatous neurodegeneration are poorly understood. Using a mouse model of glaucoma, DBA/2J (D2), which spontaneously develops elevated IOP, as well as an in vitro RGC culture system, we show here that oxidative stress, as evidenced by increasing superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and mt transcription factor A (Tfam) protein expression, triggers mt fission and loss by increasing dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) in the retina of glaucomatous D2 mice as well as in cultured RGCs exposed to elevated hydrostatic pressure in vitro. DRP1 inhibition by overexpressing DRP1 K38A mutant blocks mt fission and triggers a subsequent reduction of oxidative stress, as evidenced by decreasing SOD2 and Tfam protein expression. DRP1 inhibition promotes RGC survival by increasing phosphorylation of Bad at serine 112 in the retina and preserves RGC axons by maintaining mt integrity in the glial lamina of glaucomatous D2 mice. These findings demonstrate an important vicious cycle involved in glaucomatous neurodegeneration that starts with elevated IOP producing oxidative stress; the oxidative stress then leads to mt fission and a specific form of mt dysfunction that generates further oxidative stress, thus perpetuating the cycle. Our findings suggest that DRP1 is a potential therapeutic target for ameliorating oxidative stress-mediated mt fission and dysfunction in RGC and its axons during glaucomatous neurodegeneration. Thus, DRP1 inhibition may provide a new therapeutic strategy for protecting both RGCs and their axons in glaucoma and other optic

  9. Direct regulation of complex I by mitochondrial MEF2D is disrupted in a mouse model of Parkinson disease and in human patients

    PubMed Central

    She, Hua; Yang, Qian; Shepherd, Kennie; Smith, Yoland; Miller, Gary; Testa, Claudia; Mao, Zixu

    2011-01-01

    The transcription factors in the myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) family play important roles in cell survival by regulating nuclear gene expression. Here, we report that MEF2D is present in rodent neuronal mitochondria, where it can regulate the expression of a gene encoded within mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Immunocytochemical, immunoelectron microscopic, and biochemical analyses of rodent neuronal cells showed that a portion of MEF2D was targeted to mitochondria via an N-terminal motif and the chaperone protein mitochondrial heat shock protein 70 (mtHsp70). MEF2D bound to a MEF2 consensus site in the region of the mtDNA that contained the gene NADH dehydrogenase 6 (ND6), which encodes an essential component of the complex I enzyme of the oxidative phosphorylation system; MEF2D binding induced ND6 transcription. Blocking MEF2D function specifically in mitochondria decreased complex I activity, increased cellular H2O2 level, reduced ATP production, and sensitized neurons to stress-induced death. Toxins known to affect complex I preferentially disrupted MEF2D function in a mouse model of Parkinson disease (PD). In addition, mitochondrial MEF2D and ND6 levels were decreased in postmortem brain samples of patients with PD compared with age-matched controls. Thus, direct regulation of complex I by mitochondrial MEF2D underlies its neuroprotective effects, and dysregulation of this pathway may contribute to PD. PMID:21393861

  10. Behavioral stress causes mitochondrial dysfunction via ABAD up-regulation and aggravates plaque pathology in the brain of a mouse model of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Seo, Ji-Seon; Lee, Kang-Woo; Kim, Tae-Kyung; Baek, In-Sun; Im, Joo-Young; Han, Pyung-Lim

    2011-06-01

    Basic and clinical studies have reported that behavioral stress worsens the pathology of Alzheimer disease (AD), but the underlying mechanism has not been clearly understood. In this study, we determined the mechanism by which behavioral stress affects the pathogenesis of AD using Tg-APPswe/PS1dE9 mice, a murine model of AD. Tg-APPswe/PS1dE9 mice that were restrained for 2h daily for 16 consecutive days (2-h/16-day stress) from 6.5months of age had significantly increased Aβ(1-42) levels and plaque deposition in the brain. The 2-h/16-day stress increased oxidative stress and induced mitochondrial dysfunction in the brain. Treatment with glucocorticoid (corticosterone) and Aβ in SH-SY5Y cells increased the expression of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (ABAD), mitochondrial dysfunction, and levels of ROS, whereas blockade of ABAD expression by siRNA-ABAD in SH-SY5Y cells suppressed glucocorticoid-enhanced mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS accumulation. The 2-h/16-day stress up-regulated ABAD expression in mitochondria in the brain of Tg-APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. Moreover, all visible Aβ plaques were costained with anti-ABAD in the brains of Tg-APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. Together, these results suggest that behavioral stress aggravates plaque pathology and mitochondrial dysfunction via up-regulation of ABAD in the brain of a mouse model of AD.

  11. Preservation of Cognitive Function by Lepidium meyenii (Maca) Is Associated with Improvement of Mitochondrial Activity and Upregulation of Autophagy-Related Proteins in Middle-Aged Mouse Cortex.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shan-Shan; Gao, Xiao-Fang; Gu, Yan-Rong; Wan, Zhong-Xiao; Lu, A-Ming; Qin, Zheng-Hong; Luo, Li

    2016-01-01

    Maca has been used as a foodstuff and a traditional medicine in the Andean region for over 2,000 years. Recently the neuroprotective effects of maca also arouse interest of researchers. Decrease in mitochondrial function and decline in autophagy signaling may participate in the process of age-related cognitive decline. This study aimed to investigate if maca could improve cognitive function of middle-aged mice and if this effect was associated with improvement of mitochondrial activity and modulation of autophagy signaling in mouse cortex. Fourteen-month-old male ICR mice received maca powder administered by gavage for five weeks. Maca improved cognitive function, motor coordination, and endurance capacity in middle-aged mice, accompanied by increased mitochondrial respiratory function and upregulation of autophagy-related proteins in cortex. Our findings suggest that maca is a newly defined nutritional plant which can improve mitochondrial function and upregulate autophagy-related proteins and may be an effective functional food for slowing down age-related cognitive decline.

  12. Preservation of Cognitive Function by Lepidium meyenii (Maca) Is Associated with Improvement of Mitochondrial Activity and Upregulation of Autophagy-Related Proteins in Middle-Aged Mouse Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shan-Shan; Gao, Xiao-Fang; Gu, Yan-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Maca has been used as a foodstuff and a traditional medicine in the Andean region for over 2,000 years. Recently the neuroprotective effects of maca also arouse interest of researchers. Decrease in mitochondrial function and decline in autophagy signaling may participate in the process of age-related cognitive decline. This study aimed to investigate if maca could improve cognitive function of middle-aged mice and if this effect was associated with improvement of mitochondrial activity and modulation of autophagy signaling in mouse cortex. Fourteen-month-old male ICR mice received maca powder administered by gavage for five weeks. Maca improved cognitive function, motor coordination, and endurance capacity in middle-aged mice, accompanied by increased mitochondrial respiratory function and upregulation of autophagy-related proteins in cortex. Our findings suggest that maca is a newly defined nutritional plant which can improve mitochondrial function and upregulate autophagy-related proteins and may be an effective functional food for slowing down age-related cognitive decline. PMID:27648102

  13. PGC-1α plays a functional role in exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis and angiogenesis but not fiber-type transformation in mouse skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Tuoyu; Li, Ping; Okutsu, Mitsuharu; Yin, Xinhe; Kwek, Jyeyi; Zhang, Mei

    2010-01-01

    Endurance exercise stimulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) expression in skeletal muscle, and forced expression of PGC-1α changes muscle metabolism and exercise capacity in mice. However, it is unclear if PGC-1α is indispensible for endurance exercise-induced metabolic and contractile adaptations in skeletal muscle. In this study, we showed that endurance exercise-induced expression of mitochondrial enzymes (cytochrome oxidase IV and cytochrome c) and increases of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1, CD31)-positive endothelial cells in skeletal muscle, but not IIb-to-IIa fiber-type transformation, were significantly attenuated in muscle-specific Pgc-1α knockout mice. Interestingly, voluntary running effectively restored the compromised mitochondrial integrity and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) protein expression in skeletal muscle in Pgc-1α knockout mice. Thus, PGC-1α plays a functional role in endurance exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis and angiogenesis, but not IIb-to-IIa fiber-type transformation in mouse skeletal muscle, and the improvement of mitochondrial morphology and antioxidant defense in response to endurance exercise may occur independently of PGC-1α function. We conclude that PGC-1α is required for complete skeletal muscle adaptations induced by endurance exercise in mice. PMID:20032509

  14. PGC-1alpha plays a functional role in exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis and angiogenesis but not fiber-type transformation in mouse skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Geng, Tuoyu; Li, Ping; Okutsu, Mitsuharu; Yin, Xinhe; Kwek, Jyeyi; Zhang, Mei; Yan, Zhen

    2010-03-01

    Endurance exercise stimulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) expression in skeletal muscle, and forced expression of PGC-1alpha changes muscle metabolism and exercise capacity in mice. However, it is unclear if PGC-1alpha is indispensible for endurance exercise-induced metabolic and contractile adaptations in skeletal muscle. In this study, we showed that endurance exercise-induced expression of mitochondrial enzymes (cytochrome oxidase IV and cytochrome c) and increases of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1, CD31)-positive endothelial cells in skeletal muscle, but not IIb-to-IIa fiber-type transformation, were significantly attenuated in muscle-specific Pgc-1alpha knockout mice. Interestingly, voluntary running effectively restored the compromised mitochondrial integrity and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) protein expression in skeletal muscle in Pgc-1alpha knockout mice. Thus, PGC-1alpha plays a functional role in endurance exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis and angiogenesis, but not IIb-to-IIa fiber-type transformation in mouse skeletal muscle, and the improvement of mitochondrial morphology and antioxidant defense in response to endurance exercise may occur independently of PGC-1alpha function. We conclude that PGC-1alpha is required for complete skeletal muscle adaptations induced by endurance exercise in mice.

  15. Analysis of the mouse mutant Cloth-ears shows a role for the voltage-gated sodium channel Scn8a in peripheral neural hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, F E; Parker, A; Parkinson, N J; Oliver, P L; Brooker, D; Underhill, P; Lukashkina, V A; Lukashkin, A N; Holmes, C; Brown, S D M

    2009-01-01

    Deafness is the most common sensory disorder in humans and the aetiology of genetic deafness is complex. Mouse mutants have been crucial in identifying genes involved in hearing. However, many deafness genes remain unidentified. Using N-ethyl N−nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis to generate new mouse models of deafness, we identified a novel semi-dominant mouse mutant, Cloth-ears (Clth). Cloth-ears mice show reduced acoustic startle response and mild hearing loss from ∼30 days old. Auditory-evoked brainstem response (ABR) and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) analyses indicate that the peripheral neural auditory pathway is impaired in Cloth-ears mice, but that cochlear function is normal. In addition, both Clth/Clth and Clth/+ mice display paroxysmal tremor episodes with behavioural arrest. Clth/Clth mice also show a milder continuous tremor during movement and rest. Longitudinal phenotypic analysis showed that Clth/+ and Clth/Clth mice also have complex defects in behaviour, growth, neurological and motor function. Positional cloning of Cloth-ears identified a point mutation in the neuronal voltage-gated sodium channel α-subunit gene, Scn8a, causing an aspartic acid to valine (D981V) change six amino acids downstream of the sixth transmembrane segment of the second domain (D2S6). Complementation testing with a known Scn8a mouse mutant confirmed that this mutation is responsible for the Cloth-ears phenotype. Our findings suggest a novel role for Scn8a in peripheral neural hearing loss and paroxysmal motor dysfunction. PMID:19737145

  16. Analysis of the mouse mutant Cloth-ears shows a role for the voltage-gated sodium channel Scn8a in peripheral neural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, F E; Parker, A; Parkinson, N J; Oliver, P L; Brooker, D; Underhill, P; Lukashkina, V A; Lukashkin, A N; Holmes, C; Brown, S D M

    2009-10-01

    Deafness is the most common sensory disorder in humans and the aetiology of genetic deafness is complex. Mouse mutants have been crucial in identifying genes involved in hearing. However, many deafness genes remain unidentified. Using N-ethyl N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis to generate new mouse models of deafness, we identified a novel semi-dominant mouse mutant, Cloth-ears (Clth). Cloth-ears mice show reduced acoustic startle response and mild hearing loss from approximately 30 days old. Auditory-evoked brainstem response (ABR) and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) analyses indicate that the peripheral neural auditory pathway is impaired in Cloth-ears mice, but that cochlear function is normal. In addition, both Clth/Clth and Clth/+ mice display paroxysmal tremor episodes with behavioural arrest. Clth/Clth mice also show a milder continuous tremor during movement and rest. Longitudinal phenotypic analysis showed that Clth/+ and Clth/Clth mice also have complex defects in behaviour, growth, neurological and motor function. Positional cloning of Cloth-ears identified a point mutation in the neuronal voltage-gated sodium channel alpha-subunit gene, Scn8a, causing an aspartic acid to valine (D981V) change six amino acids downstream of the sixth transmembrane segment of the second domain (D2S6). Complementation testing with a known Scn8a mouse mutant confirmed that this mutation is responsible for the Cloth-ears phenotype. Our findings suggest a novel role for Scn8a in peripheral neural hearing loss and paroxysmal motor dysfunction.

  17. Developmental regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and function in the mouse mammary gland during a prolonged lactation cycle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and function in the lactating mammary cell is poorly understood. The goal of this study was to use proteomics to relate temporal changes in mammary cell mitochondrial function during lactation to changes in the proteins that make up this organelle. The hypo...

  18. 8-Oxoguanine accumulation in mitochondrial DNA causes mitochondrial dysfunction and impairs neuritogenesis in cultured adult mouse cortical neurons under oxidative conditions

    PubMed Central

    Leon, Julio; Sakumi, Kunihiko; Castillo, Erika; Sheng, Zijing; Oka, Sugako; Nakabeppu, Yusaku

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are implicated in aging-related neurodegenerative disorders. 8-Oxoguanine (8-oxoG), a common oxidised base lesion, is often highly accumulated in brains from patients with neurodegenerative disorders. MTH1 hydrolyses 8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine triphosphate (8-oxo-dGTP) to 8-oxo-dGMP and pyrophosphate in nucleotide pools, while OGG1 excises 8-oxoG paired with cytosine in DNA, thereby minimising the accumulation of 8-oxoG in DNA. Mth1/Ogg1-double knockout (TO-DKO) mice are highly susceptible to neurodegeneration under oxidative conditions and show increased accumulation of 8-oxoG in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in neurons, suggesting that 8-oxoG accumulation in mtDNA causes mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we evaluated the contribution of MTH1 and OGG1 to the prevention of mitochondrial dysfunction during neuritogenesis in vitro. We isolated cortical neurons from adult wild-type and TO-DKO mice and maintained them with or without antioxidants for 2 to 5 days and then examined neuritogenesis. In the presence of antioxidants, both TO-DKO and wild-type neurons exhibited efficient neurite extension and arborisation. However, in the absence of antioxidants, the accumulation of 8-oxoG in mtDNA of TO-DKO neurons was increased resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction. Cells also exhibited poor neurite outgrowth with decreased complexity of neuritic arborisation, indicating that MTH1 and OGG1 are essential for neuritogenesis under oxidative conditions. PMID:26912170

  19. Mouse somatic mutation orthologous to MELAS A3302G mutation in the mitochondrial tRNA(Leu(UUR)) gene confers respiration defects.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Akinori; Enoki, Shunkei; Ishikawa, Kaori; Mito, Takayuki; Obata, Kanae; Nagashima, Ruriko; Yonekawa, Hiromichi; Nakada, Kazuto; Hayashi, Jun-Ichi

    2015-11-27

    We searched for mtDNA harboring somatic mutations in mouse B82 cells, and found an A2748G mutation orthologous to the A3302G mutation in tRNA(Leu(UUR)) gene reported in a patient with MELAS, the most prevalent mitochondrial disease. We isolated subclones of B82 cells until we obtained one subclone harboring >95% A2748G mtDNA. Cytoplasmic transfer of A2748G mtDNA resulted in cotransfer of A2748G mtDNA and respiration defects into mouse ES cells. Thus, A2748G mtDNA is responsible for respiration defects, and the ES cells harboring A2748G mtDNA may be useful for generation of transmitochondrial mice harboring A2748G mtDNA as potential disease models of MELAS.

  20. Lack of GDAP1 Induces Neuronal Calcium and Mitochondrial Defects in a Knockout Mouse Model of Charcot-Marie-Tooth Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Civera-Tregón, Azahara; Yndriago, Laura; Pla-Martin, David; Zenker, Jennifer; Cuevas-Martín, Carmen; Estela, Anna; Sánchez-Aragó, María; Forteza-Vila, Jerónimo; Cuezva, José M.; Chrast, Roman; Palau, Francesc

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in GDAP1, which encodes protein located in the mitochondrial outer membrane, cause axonal recessive (AR-CMT2), axonal dominant (CMT2K) and demyelinating recessive (CMT4A) forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) neuropathy. Loss of function recessive mutations in GDAP1 are associated with decreased mitochondrial fission activity, while dominant mutations result in impairment of mitochondrial fusion with increased production of reactive oxygen species and susceptibility to apoptotic stimuli. GDAP1 silencing in vitro reduces Ca2+ inflow through store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) upon mobilization of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+, likely in association with an abnormal distribution of the mitochondrial network. To investigate the functional consequences of lack of GDAP1 in vivo, we generated a Gdap1 knockout mouse. The affected animals presented abnormal motor behavior starting at the age of 3 months. Electrophysiological and biochemical studies confirmed the axonal nature of the neuropathy whereas histopathological studies over time showed progressive loss of motor neurons (MNs) in the anterior horn of the spinal cord and defects in neuromuscular junctions. Analyses of cultured embryonic MNs and adult dorsal root ganglia neurons from affected animals demonstrated large and defective mitochondria, changes in the ER cisternae, reduced acetylation of cytoskeletal α-tubulin and increased autophagy vesicles. Importantly, MNs showed reduced cytosolic calcium and SOCE response. The development and characterization of the GDAP1 neuropathy mice model thus revealed that some of the pathophysiological changes present in axonal recessive form of the GDAP1-related CMT might be the consequence of changes in the mitochondrial network biology and mitochondria–endoplasmic reticulum interaction leading to abnormalities in calcium homeostasis. PMID:25860513

  1. TGF-β1 stimulates mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and generation of reactive oxygen species in cultured mouse podocytes, mediated in part by the mTOR pathway.

    PubMed

    Abe, Yoshifusa; Sakairi, Toru; Beeson, Craig; Kopp, Jeffrey B

    2013-11-15

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β has been associated with podocyte injury; we have examined its effect on podocyte bioenergetics. We studied transformed mouse podocytes, exposed to TGF-β1, using a label-free assay system, Seahorse XF24, which measures oxygen consumption rates (OCR) and extracellular acidification rates (ECAR). Both basal OCR and ATP generation-coupled OCR were significantly higher in podocytes exposed to 0.3-10 ng/ml of TGF-β1 for 24, 48, and 72 h. TGF-β1 (3 ng/ml) increased oxidative capacity 75%, and 96% relative to control after 48 and 72 h, respectively. ATP content was increased 19% and 30% relative to control after a 48- and 72-h exposure, respectively. Under conditions of maximal mitochondrial function, TGF-β1 increased palmitate-driven OCR by 49%. Thus, TGF-β1 increases mitochondrial oxygen consumption and ATP generation in the presence of diverse energy substrates. TGF-β1 did not increase cell number or mitochondrial DNA copy number but did increase mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), which could explain the OCR increase. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased by 32% after TGF-β1 exposure for 48 h. TGF-β activated the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, and rapamycin reduced the TGF-β1-stimulated increases in OCR, ECAR, ATP generation, cellular metabolic activity, and protein generation. Our data suggest that TGF-β1, acting, in part, via mTOR, increases mitochondrial MMP and OCR, resulting in increased ROS generation and that this may contribute to podocyte injury.

  2. Lack of GDAP1 induces neuronal calcium and mitochondrial defects in a knockout mouse model of charcot-marie-tooth neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Barneo-Muñoz, Manuela; Juárez, Paula; Civera-Tregón, Azahara; Yndriago, Laura; Pla-Martin, David; Zenker, Jennifer; Cuevas-Martín, Carmen; Estela, Anna; Sánchez-Aragó, María; Forteza-Vila, Jerónimo; Cuezva, José M; Chrast, Roman; Palau, Francesc

    2015-04-01

    Mutations in GDAP1, which encodes protein located in the mitochondrial outer membrane, cause axonal recessive (AR-CMT2), axonal dominant (CMT2K) and demyelinating recessive (CMT4A) forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) neuropathy. Loss of function recessive mutations in GDAP1 are associated with decreased mitochondrial fission activity, while dominant mutations result in impairment of mitochondrial fusion with increased production of reactive oxygen species and susceptibility to apoptotic stimuli. GDAP1 silencing in vitro reduces Ca2+ inflow through store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) upon mobilization of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+, likely in association with an abnormal distribution of the mitochondrial network. To investigate the functional consequences of lack of GDAP1 in vivo, we generated a Gdap1 knockout mouse. The affected animals presented abnormal motor behavior starting at the age of 3 months. Electrophysiological and biochemical studies confirmed the axonal nature of the neuropathy whereas histopathological studies over time showed progressive loss of motor neurons (MNs) in the anterior horn of the spinal cord and defects in neuromuscular junctions. Analyses of cultured embryonic MNs and adult dorsal root ganglia neurons from affected animals demonstrated large and defective mitochondria, changes in the ER cisternae, reduced acetylation of cytoskeletal α-tubulin and increased autophagy vesicles. Importantly, MNs showed reduced cytosolic calcium and SOCE response. The development and characterization of the GDAP1 neuropathy mice model thus revealed that some of the pathophysiological changes present in axonal recessive form of the GDAP1-related CMT might be the consequence of changes in the mitochondrial network biology and mitochondria-endoplasmic reticulum interaction leading to abnormalities in calcium homeostasis.

  3. Decreased ovarian reserve, dysregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, and increased lipid peroxidation in female mouse offspring exposed to an obesogenic maternal diet.

    PubMed

    Aiken, Catherine E; Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Penfold, Naomi C; Dearden, Laura; Ozanne, Susan E

    2016-04-01

    Maternal diet during pregnancy influences the later life reproductive potential of female offspring. We investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the depletion of ovarian follicular reserve in young adult females following exposure to obesogenic diet in early life. Furthermore, we explore the interaction between adverse maternal diet and postweaning diet in generating reduced ovarian reserve. Female mice were exposed to either maternal obesogenic (high fat/high sugar) or maternal control dietin uteroand during lactation, then weaned onto either obesogenic or control diet. At 12 wk of age, the offspring ovarian reserve was depleted following exposure to maternal obesogenic diet (P< 0.05), but not postweaning obesogenic diet. Maternal obesogenic diet was associated with increased mitochondrial DNA biogenesis (copy numberP< 0.05; transcription factor A, mitochondrial expressionP< 0.05), increased mitochondrial antioxidant defenses [manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD)P< 0.05; copper/zinc superoxide dismutaseP< 0.05; glutathione peroxidase 4P< 0.01] and increased lipoxygenase expression (arachidonate 12-lipoxygenaseP< 0.05; arachidonate 15-lipoxygenaseP< 0.05) in the ovary. There was also significantly increased expression of the transcriptional regulator NF-κB (P< 0.05). There was no effect of postweaning diet on any measured ovarian parameters. Maternal diet thus plays a central role in determining follicular reserve in adult female offspring. Our observations suggest that lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis are the key intracellular pathways involved in programming of ovarian reserve.-Aiken, C. E., Tarry-Adkins, J. L., Penfold, N. C., Dearden, L., Ozanne, S. E. Decreased ovarian reserve, dysregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, and increased lipid peroxidation in female mouse offspring exposed to an obesogenic maternal diet.

  4. Analysis of voltage-gated and synaptic conductances contributing to network excitability defects in the mutant mouse tottering.

    PubMed

    Helekar, S A; Noebels, J L

    1994-01-01

    1. Intracellular current- and voltage-clamp recordings were carried out in CA3 pyramidal neurons from hippocampal slices of adult tg/tg mice and their coisogenic C57BL/6J (+/+) controls with the use of the single-electrode switch-clamp technique. The principal aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms responsible for the tg gene-linked prolongation (mean 60%) of a giant synaptic response, the potassium-induced paroxysmal depolarizing shift (PDS) at depolarized membrane potentials (Vm -47 to -54 mV) during synchronous network bursting induced by 10 mM potassium ([K+]o). 2. To examine the role of intrinsic voltage-dependent conductances underlying the mutant PDS prolongation, neurons were voltage clamped by the use of microelectrodes filled with 100 mM QX-314 or QX-222 chloride (voltage-gated sodium channel blockers) and 2 M cesium sulphate (potassium channel blocker). The whole-cell currents active during the PDS showed a significantly prolonged duration (mean 34%) at depolarized Vms in tg/tg compared with +/+ cells, indicating that a defect in voltage-dependent conductances is unlikely to completely account for the mutant phenotype. 3. Bath application of 40 microM (DL)-2-aminophosphonovalerate (DL-APV) produced a 30% reduction in PDS duration in both genotypes but failed to significantly alter the tg gene-linked prolongation compared with the wild type. These data indicate that the mutant PDS abnormality does not result from a selective increase of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated excitatory synaptic component. 4. Blockade of gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) transmission with picrotoxin (50 microM) or bicuculline (1-5 microM) completely eliminated the difference in PDS duration between the genotypes. Furthermore, although both GABAA receptor antagonists increased the mean PDS duration in +/+ neurons, they did not significantly alter it in tg/tg neurons. These findings are consistent with a reduction in GABAA receptor-mediated synaptic

  5. Novel mouse models of oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) reveal early onset mitochondrial defects and suggest loss of PABPN1 may contribute to pathology.

    PubMed

    Vest, Katherine E; Phillips, Brittany L; Banerjee, Ayan; Apponi, Luciano H; Dammer, Eric B; Xu, Weiting; Zheng, Dinghai; Yu, Julia; Tian, Bin; Pavlath, Grace K; Corbett, Anita H

    2017-09-01

    Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is a late onset disease caused by polyalanine expansion in the poly(A) binding protein nuclear 1 (PABPN1). Several mouse models have been generated to study OPMD; however, most of these models have employed transgenic overexpression of alanine-expanded PABPN1. These models do not recapitulate the OPMD patient genotype and PABPN1 overexpression could confound molecular phenotypes. We have developed a knock-in mouse model of OPMD (Pabpn1+/A17) that contains one alanine-expanded Pabpn1 allele under the control of the native promoter and one wild-type Pabpn1 allele. This mouse is the closest available genocopy of OPMD patients. We show that Pabpn1+/A17 mice have a mild myopathic phenotype in adult and aged animals. We examined early molecular and biochemical phenotypes associated with expressing native levels of A17-PABPN1 and detected shorter poly(A) tails, modest changes in poly(A) signal (PAS) usage, and evidence of mitochondrial damage in these mice. Recent studies have suggested that a loss of PABPN1 function could contribute to muscle pathology in OPMD. To investigate a loss of function model of pathology, we generated a heterozygous Pabpn1 knock-out mouse model (Pabpn1+/Δ). Like the Pabpn1+/A17 mice, Pabpn1+/Δ mice have mild histologic defects, shorter poly(A) tails, and evidence of mitochondrial damage. However, the phenotypes detected in Pabpn1+/Δ mice only partially overlap with those detected in Pabpn1+/A17 mice. These results suggest that loss of PABPN1 function could contribute to but may not completely explain the pathology detected in Pabpn1+/A17 mice. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Hydrogen Sulfide Epigenetically Attenuates Homocysteine-Induced Mitochondrial Toxicity Mediated Through NMDA Receptor in Mouse Brain Endothelial (bEnd3) Cells.

    PubMed

    Kamat, Pradip K; Kalani, Anuradha; Tyagi, Suresh C; Tyagi, Neetu

    2015-02-01

    Previously we have shown that homocysteine (Hcy) caused oxidative stress and altered mitochondrial function. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has potent anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-apoptotic effects. Therefore, in the present study we examined whether H2S ameliorates Hcy-induced mitochondrial toxicity which led to endothelial dysfunction in part, by epigenetic alterations in mouse brain endothelial cells (bEnd3). The bEnd3 cells were exposed to 100 μM Hcy treatment in the presence or absence of 30 μM NaHS (donor of H2S) for 24 h. Hcy-activate NMDA receptor and induced mitochondrial toxicity by increased levels of Ca(2+), NADPH-oxidase-4 (NOX-4) expression, mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity and decreased the level of nitrate, superoxide dismutase (SOD-2) expression, mitochondria membrane potentials, ATP production. To confirm the role of epigenetic, 5'-azacitidine (an epigenetic modulator) treatment was given to the cells. Pretreatment with NaHS (30 μM) attenuated the Hcy-induced increased expression of DNMT1, DNMT3a, Ca(2+), and decreased expression of DNMT3b in bEND3 cells. Furthermore, NaHS treatment also mitigated mitochondrial oxidative stress (NOX4, ROS, and NO) and restored ATP that indicates its protective effects against mitochondrial toxicity. Additional, NaHS significantly alleviated Hcy-induced LC3-I/II, CSE, Atg3/7, and low p62 expression which confirm its effect on mitophagy. Likewise, NaHS also restored level of eNOS, CD31, VE-cadherin and ET-1 and maintains endothelial function in Hcy treated cells. Molecular inhibition of NMDA receptor by using small interfering RNA showed protective effect whereas inhibition of H2S production by propargylglycine (PG) (inhibitor of enzyme CSE) showed mitotoxic effect. Taken together, results demonstrate that, administration of H2S protected the cells from HHcy-induced mitochondrial toxicity and endothelial dysfunction.

  7. Hydrogen sulfide epigenetically attenuates homocysteine-induced mitochondrial toxicity mediated through NMDA receptor in mouse brain endothelial (bEnd3) cells†

    PubMed Central

    Kamat, Pradip K.; Kalani, Anuradha; Tyagi, Suresh C.; Tyagi, Neetu

    2014-01-01

    Previously we have showed that homocysteine (Hcy) caused oxidative stress and altered mitochondrial function. Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) has potent anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic effects. Therefore, in the present study we examined whether H2S ameliorates Hcy-induced mitochondrial toxicity which led to endothelial dysfunction in part, by epigenetic alterations in mouse brain endothelial cells (bEnd3). The bEnd3 cells were exposed to 100μM Hcy treatment in the presence or absence of 30μM NaHS (donor of H2S) for 24hrs. Hcy-activate NMDA receptor and induced mitochondrial toxicity by increased levels of Ca2+, NADPH-oxidase-4 (NOX-4) expression, mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity and decreased the level of nitrate, superoxide dismutase (SOD-2) expression, mitochondria membrane potentials, ATP production. To confirm the role of epigenetic, 5′-azacitidine (an epigenetic modulator) treatment was given to the cells. Pretreatment with NaHS (30μM) attenuated the Hcy-induced increased expression of DNMT1, DNMT3a, Ca2+ and decreased expression of DNMT3b in bEND3 cells. Furthermore, NaHS treatment also enhanced mitochondrial oxidative stress (NOX4, ROS, and NO) and restored ATP that indicates its protective effects against mitochondrial toxicity. Additional, NaHS significantly alleviated Hcy-induced LC3-I/II, CSE, Atg3/7 and low p62 expression which confirm its effect on mitophagy. Likewise, NaHS also restored level of eNOS, CD31, VE-Cadherin and ET-1 and maintains endothelial function in Hcy treated cells. Molecular inhibition of NMDA receptor by using small interfering RNA showed protective effect whereas inhibition of H2S production by propargylglycine (PG) (inhibitor of enzyme CSE) showed mitotoxic effect. Taken together, results demonstrate that, administration of H2S protected the cells from HHcy-induced mitochondrial toxicity and endothelial dysfunction. PMID:25056869

  8. Effect of angiotensin II-induced arterial hypertension on the voltage-dependent contractions of mouse arteries.

    PubMed

    Fransen, Paul; Van Hove, Cor E; Leloup, Arthur J A; Schrijvers, Dorien M; De Meyer, Guido R Y; De Keulenaer, Gilles W

    2016-02-01

    Arterial hypertension (AHT) affects the voltage dependency of L-type Ca(2+) channels in cardiomyocytes. We analyzed the effect of angiotensin II (AngII)-induced AHT on L-type Ca(2+) channel-mediated isometric contractions in conduit arteries. AHT was induced in C57Bl6 mice with AngII-filled osmotic mini-pumps (4 weeks). Normotensive mice treated with saline-filled osmotic mini-pumps were used for comparison. Voltage-dependent contractions mediated by L-type Ca(2+) channels were studied in vaso-reactive studies in vitro in isolated aortic and femoral arteries by using extracellular K(+) concentration-response (KDR) experiments. In aortic segments, AngII-induced AHT significantly sensitized isometric contractions induced by elevated extracellular K(+) and depolarization. This sensitization was partly prevented by normalizing blood pressure with hydralazine, suggesting that it was caused by AHT rather than by direct AngII effects on aortic smooth muscle cells. The EC50 for extracellular K(+) obtained in vitro correlated significantly with the rise in arterial blood pressure induced by AngII in vivo. The AHT-induced sensitization persisted when aortic segments were exposed to levcromakalim or to inhibitors of basal nitric oxide release. Consistent with these observations, AngII-treatment also sensitized the vaso-relaxing effects of the L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker diltiazem during K(+)-induced contractions. Unlike aorta, AngII-treatment desensitized the isometric contractions to depolarization in femoral arteries pointing to vascular bed specific responses of arteries to hypertension. AHT affects the voltage-dependent L-type Ca(2+) channel-mediated contraction of conduit arteries. This effect may contribute to the decreased vascular compliance in AHT and explain the efficacy of Ca(2+) channel blockers to reduce vascular stiffness and central blood pressure in AHT.

  9. The CaV2.3 R-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channel in mouse sleep architecture.

    PubMed

    Siwek, Magdalena Elisabeth; Müller, Ralf; Henseler, Christina; Broich, Karl; Papazoglou, Anna; Weiergräber, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs) are key elements in mediating thalamocortical rhythmicity. Low-voltage activated (LVA) CaV 3 T-type Ca(2+) channels have been related to thalamic rebound burst firing and to generation of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. High-voltage activated (HVA) CaV 1 L-type Ca(2+) channels, on the opposite, favor the tonic mode of action associated with higher levels of vigilance. However, the role of the HVA Non-L-type CaV2.3 Ca(2+) channels, which are predominantly expressed in the reticular thalamic nucleus (RTN), still remains unclear. Recently, CaV2.3(-/-) mice were reported to exhibit altered spike-wave discharge (SWD)/absence seizure susceptibility supported by the observation that CaV2.3 mediated Ca(2+) influx into RTN neurons can trigger small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+)-channel type 2 (SK2) currents capable of maintaining thalamic burst activity. Based on these studies we investigated the role of CaV2.3 R-type Ca(2+) channels in rodent sleep. The role of CaV2.3 Ca(2+) channels was analyzed in CaV2.3(-/-) mice and controls in both spontaneous and artificial urethane-induced sleep, using implantable video-EEG radiotelemetry. Data were analyzed for alterations in sleep architecture using sleep staging software and time-frequency analysis. CaV2.3 deficient mice exhibited reduced wake duration and increased slow-wave sleep (SWS). Whereas mean sleep stage durations remained unchanged, the total number of SWS epochs was increased in CaV2.3(-/-) mice. Additional changes were observed for sleep stage transitions and EEG amplitudes. Furthermore, urethane-induced SWS mimicked spontaneous sleep results obtained from CaV2.3 deficient mice. Quantitative Real-time PCR did not reveal changes in thalamic CaV3 T-type Ca(2+) channel expression. The detailed mechanisms of SWS increase in CaV2.3(-/-) mice remain to be determined. Low-voltage activated CaV2.3 R-type Ca(2+) channels in the thalamocortical loop and extra

  10. Molecular mechanisms of regulation of fast-inactivating voltage-dependent transient outward K+ current in mouse heart by cell volume changes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guan-Lei; Wang, Ge-Xin; Yamamoto, Shintaro; Ye, Linda; Baxter, Heather; Hume, Joseph R; Duan, Dayue

    2005-01-01

    The Kv4.2/4.3 channels are the primary subunits that contribute to the fast-inactivating, voltage-dependent transient outward K+ current (Ito,fast) in the heart. Ito,fast is the critical determinant of the early repolarization of the cardiac action potential and plays an important role in the adaptive remodelling of cardiac myocytes, which usually causes cell volume changes, during myocardial ischaemia, hypertrophy and heart failure. It is not known, however, whether Ito,fast is regulated by cell volume changes. In this study we investigated the molecular mechanism for cell volume regulation of Ito,fast in native mouse left ventricular myocytes. Hyposmotic cell swelling caused a marked increase in densities of the peak Ito,fast and a significant shortening in phase 1 repolarization of the action potential duration. The voltage-dependent gating properties of Ito,fast were, however, not altered by changes in cell volume. In the presence of either protein kinase C (PKC) activator (12,13-dibutyrate) or phosphatase inhibitors (calyculin A and okadaic acid), hyposmotic cell swelling failed to further up-regulate Ito,fast. When expressed in NIH/3T3 cells, both Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 channels were also strongly regulated by cell volume in the same voltage-independent but PKC- and phosphatase-dependent manner as seen in Ito,fast in the native cardiac myocytes. We conclude that Kv4.2/4.3 channels in the heart are regulated by cell volume through a phosphorylation/dephosphorylation pathway mediated by PKC and serine/threonine phosphatase(s). These findings suggest a novel role of Kv4.2/4.3 channels in the adaptive electrical and structural remodelling of cardiac myocytes in response to myocardial hypertrophy, ischaemia and reperfusion. PMID:16081489

  11. Resurgent-like currents in mouse vas deferens myocytes are mediated by NaV1.6 voltage-gated sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Teramoto, Noriyoshi; Zhu, Hai-Lei; Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari; Inai, Tetsuichiro; Cunnane, Thomas C

    2012-11-01

    Patch-clamp experiments were performed to investigate the molecular properties of resurgent-like currents in single smooth muscle cells dispersed from mouse vas deferens, utilizing both Na(V)1.6-null mice (Na(V)1.6(-/-)), lacking the expression of the Scn8a Na(+) channel gene, and their wild-type littermates (Na(V)1.6(+/+)). Na(V)1.6 immunoreactivity was clearly visible in dispersed smooth muscle cells obtained from Na(V)1.6(+/+), but not Na(V)1.6(-/-), vas deferens. Following a depolarization to +30 mV from a holding potential of -70 mV (to produce maximal inactivation of the Na(+) current), repolarization to voltages between -60 and +20 mV elicited a tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive inward current in Na(V)1.6(+/+), but not Na(V)1.6(-/-), vas deferens myocytes. The resurgent-like current in Na(V)1.6(+/+) vas deferens myocytes peaked at approximately -20 mV in the current-voltage relationship. The peak amplitude of the resurgent-like current remained at a constant level when the membrane potential was repolarized to -20 mV following the application of depolarizing rectangular pulses to more positive potentials than +20 mV. 4,9-Anhydrotetrodotoxin (4,9-anhydroTTX), a selective Na(V)1.6 blocking toxin, purified from a crude mixture of TTX analogues by LC-FLD techniques, reversibly suppressed the resurgent-like currents. β-Pompilidotoxin, a voltage-gated Na(+) channel activator, evoked sustained resurgent-like currents in Na(V)1.6(+/+) but not Na(V)1.6(-/-) murine vas deferens myocytes. These results strongly indicate that, primarily, resurgent-like currents are generated as a result of Na(V)1.6 channel activity.

  12. Spontaneous depolarization wave in the mouse embryo: origin and large-scale propagation over the CNS identified with voltage-sensitive dye imaging.

    PubMed

    Momose-Sato, Yoko; Nakamori, Tomoharu; Sato, Katsushige

    2012-04-01

    Spontaneous embryonic movements, called embryonic motility, are produced by correlated spontaneous activity in the cranial and spinal nerves, which is driven by brainstem and spinal networks. Using optical imaging with a voltage-sensitive dye, we have revealed previously that this correlated activity is a widely propagating wave of neural depolarization, which we termed the depolarization wave. We have observed in the chick and rat embryos that the activity spread over an extensive region of the CNS, including the spinal cord, hindbrain, cerebellum, midbrain and forebrain. One important consideration is whether a depolarization wave with similar characteristics occurs in other species, especially in different mammals. Here, we provide evidence for the existence of the depolarization wave in the mouse embryo by showing that the widely propagating wave appeared independently of the localized spontaneous activity detected previously with Ca(2+) imaging. Furthermore, we mapped the origin of the depolarization wave and revealed that the wave generator moved from the rostral spinal cord to the caudal cord as development proceeded, and was later replaced with mature rhythmogenerators. The present study, together with an accompanying paper that describes pharmacological properties of the mouse depolarization wave, shows that a synchronized wave with common characteristics is expressed in different species, suggesting fundamental roles in neural development. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Computer prediction of peptide maps: assignment of polypeptides to human and mouse mitochondrial DNA genes by analysis of two-dimensional-proteolytic digest gels.

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, D C; Yang, J H; Ye, J H; Lott, M T; Oliver, N A; McCarthy, J

    1986-01-01

    We have prepared a computer program that predicts complete and partial peptide maps from amino acid sequences. The program fragments amino acid sequences at designated cleavage sites and calculates the molecular weight and relative labeling of each peptide. These data are graphed as log molecular weight of the original protein (X-axis) vs. log molecular weight of the component peptides (Y-axis). The program is interactive, permitting adjustment of a number of graphic parameters and alteration of the position of proteins in the first dimension to accommodate aberrations in protein mobility. The program has been used to predict the V8 protease peptide maps of the 13 open reading frames (ORFs) identified in the human and the mouse mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences. The results were compared to the V8 protease peptide maps obtained for mouse and human mitochondrially synthesized proteins by two-dimensional proteolytic digest gels. A high correlation was observed between the predicted and observed peptide maps. These results suggest the assignment of several proteins to mtDNA genes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:3518425

  14. Diallyl disulfide attenuated carbon ion irradiation-induced apoptosis in mouse testis through changing the ratio of Tap73/ΔNp73 via mitochondrial pathway

    PubMed Central

    Di, Cui-xia; Han, Lu; Zhang, Hong; Xu, Shuai; Mao, Ai-hong; Sun, Chao; Liu, Yang; Si, Jing; Li, Hong-yan; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Bing; Miao, Guo-ying

    2015-01-01

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS), a major organosulfur compound derived from garlic, has various biological properties, including anti-cancer effects. However, the protective mechanism of DADS against radiation-induced mouse testis cell apoptosis has not been elucidated. In this study, the magnitude of radiation effects evoked by carbon ion irradiation was marked by morphology changes, significant rise in apoptotic cells, activation expression of p53, up regulation the ratio of pro-apoptotic Tap73/anti-apoptotic ΔNp73, as well as alterations of crucial mediator of the mitochondrial pathway. Interestingly, pretreatment with DADS attenuated carbon ion irradiation-induced morphology damages and apoptotic cells. Additionally, DADS elevated radiation-induced p53 and p21 expression, suggesting that p53 might be involved in the inhibition of cell cycle progression through up regulation of p21. Furthermore, administration with DADS prevented radiation-induced Tap73/ΔNp73 expression and consequently down regulated Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 expression, indicating that the balance between Tap73 and ΔNp73 had potential to activate p53 responsive genes. Thus, our results showed that radio protection effect of DADS on mouse testis is mediated by blocking apoptosis through changing the ratio of Tap73/ΔNp73 via mitochondrial pathway, suggesting that DADS could be used as a potential radio protection agent for the testis against heavy-ion radiation. PMID:26526304

  15. Diallyl disulfide attenuated carbon ion irradiation-induced apoptosis in mouse testis through changing the ratio of Tap73/ΔNp73 via mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Di, Cui-xia; Han, Lu; Zhang, Hong; Xu, Shuai; Mao, Ai-hong; Sun, Chao; Liu, Yang; Si, Jing; Li, Hong-yan; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Bing; Miao, Guo-ying

    2015-11-03

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS), a major organosulfur compound derived from garlic, has various biological properties, including anti-cancer effects. However, the protective mechanism of DADS against radiation-induced mouse testis cell apoptosis has not been elucidated. In this study, the magnitude of radiation effects evoked by carbon ion irradiation was marked by morphology changes, significant rise in apoptotic cells, activation expression of p53, up regulation the ratio of pro-apoptotic Tap73/anti-apoptotic ΔNp73, as well as alterations of crucial mediator of the mitochondrial pathway. Interestingly, pretreatment with DADS attenuated carbon ion irradiation-induced morphology damages and apoptotic cells. Additionally, DADS elevated radiation-induced p53 and p21 expression, suggesting that p53 might be involved in the inhibition of cell cycle progression through up regulation of p21. Furthermore, administration with DADS prevented radiation-induced Tap73/ΔNp73 expression and consequently down regulated Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 expression, indicating that the balance between Tap73 and ΔNp73 had potential to activate p53 responsive genes. Thus, our results showed that radio protection effect of DADS on mouse testis is mediated by blocking apoptosis through changing the ratio of Tap73/ΔNp73 via mitochondrial pathway, suggesting that DADS could be used as a potential radio protection agent for the testis against heavy-ion radiation.

  16. Effect of superoxide derived from lucifer yellow CH on voltage-gated currents of mouse taste bud cells.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Keita; Yoshii, Kiyonori

    2008-06-01

    Lucifer yellow CH (LY), a fluorescent membrane-impermeable cell marker dye, has been routinely loaded into cells through recording electrodes to visualize these cells after electrophysiological investigation, without considering its pharmacological effect. Recently, we showed that the exposure of cells loaded with LY to light for microscopy produced unidentified radical species that retarded the inactivation of voltage-gated Na+ currents irreversibly (Higure Y et al. 2003). Here, we show that superoxide dismutase, an enzyme that decomposes superoxide, reverses the retardation effect, which assures that superoxide is the unidentified radical species. The estimated mean lifetime of superoxide in recording electrodes (in the absence of cytoplasm) is approximately 6 min, and hence, the Na+ currents are retarded even in the dark, when LY is exposed to light before being loaded into the cell. Superoxide has no effect on voltage-gated Cl- currents. These results show that superoxide action on ion channels is rather selective. The breakdown of superoxide inside cells and the effect of endogenous superoxide on the superoxide-susceptible channels are discussed.

  17. Pretreatment with Bacopa monnieri extract offsets 3-nitropropionic acid induced mitochondrial oxidative stress and dysfunctions in the striatum of prepubertal mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Shinomol, George K; Bharath, M M Srinivas; Muralidhara

    2012-05-01

    The present investigation was designed to determine the efficacy of Bacopa monnieri (Brahmi; BM) to offset 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NPA) induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in dopaminergic (N27) cells and prepubertal mouse brain. Pretreatment of N27 cells with BM ethanolic extract (BME) significantly attenuated 3-NPA-induced cytotoxicity. Further, we determined the degree of oxidative stress induction, redox status, enzymic antioxidants, and protein oxidation in the striatal mitochondria of mice given BME prophylaxis followed by 3-NPA challenge. While 3-NPA-induced marked oxidative stress in the mitochondria of the striatum, BME prophylaxis markedly prevented 3-NPA-induced oxidative dysfunctions and depletion of reduced glutathione and thiol levels. The activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, thioredoxin reductase), Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, and citric acid cycle enzymes in the striatum discernible among 3-NPA mice were significantly restored with BME prophylaxis. Interestingly, BME offered protection against 3-NPA-induced mitochondrial dysfunctions as evidenced by the restoration of the activities of ETC enzymes (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, NADH:cytochrome c reductase, succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase, and cytochrome c oxidase) and mitochondrial viability. We hypothesize that the neuroprotective effects of BME may be wholly or in part related to its propensity to scavenge free radicals, maintain redox status, and upregulate antioxidant machinery in striatal mitochondria.

  18. The voltage-dependent Cl− channel ClC-5 and plasma membrane Cl− conductances of mouse renal collecting duct cells (mIMCD-3)

    PubMed Central

    Sayer, J A; Stewart, G S; Boese, S H; Gray, M A; Pearce, S H S; Goodship, T H J; Simmons, N L

    2001-01-01

    We have tested the hypothesis that the voltage-dependent Cl− channel, ClC-5 functions as a plasma membrane Cl− conductance in renal inner medullary collecting duct cells. Full-length mouse kidney ClC-5 (mClC-5) was cloned and transiently expressed in CHO-K1 cells. Fast whole-cell patch-clamp recordings confirmed that mClC-5 expression produces a voltage-dependent, strongly outwardly rectifying Cl− conductance that was unaffected by external DIDS. Slow whole-cell recordings, using nystatin-perforated patches from transfected CHO-K1 cells, also produced voltage-dependent Cl− currents consistent with ClC-5 expression. However, under this recording configuration an endogenous DIDS-sensitive Ca2+-activated Cl− conductance was also evident, which appeared to be activated by green fluorescent protein (GFP) transfection. A mClC-5-GFP fusion protein was transiently expressed in CHO-K1 cells; confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) showed localization at the plasma membrane, consistent with patch-clamp experiments. Endogenous expression of mClC-5 was demonstrated in mouse renal collecting duct cells (mIMCD-3) by RT-PCR and by immunocytochemistry. Using slow whole-cell current recordings, mIMCD-3 cells displayed three biophysically distinct Cl−-selective currents, which were all inhibited by DIDS. However, no cells exhibited whole-cell currents that had mClC-5 characteristics. Transient transfection of mIMCD-3 cells with antisense mClC-5 had no effect on the endogenous Cl− conductances. Transient transfection with sense mClC-5 failed to induce the Cl− conductance seen in CHO-K1 cells but stimulated levels of the endogenous Ca2+-activated Cl− conductance 24 h post-transfection. Confocal laser scanning microscopy of mIMCD-3 cells transfected with mClC-5-GFP showed that the protein was absent from the plasma membrane and was instead localized to acidic endosomal compartments. These data discount a major role for ClC-5 as a plasma membrane Cl− conductance in

  19. Differential Gene Expression Reveals Mitochondrial Dysfunction in an Imprinting Center Deletion Mouse Model of Prader–Willi Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yazdi, Puya G.; Su, Hailing; Ghimbovschi, Svetlana; Fan, Weiwei; Coskun, Pinar E.; Nalbandian, Angèle; Knoblach, Susan; Resnick, James L.; Hoffman, Eric; Wallace, Douglas C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder caused by deficiency of imprinted gene expression from the paternal chromosome 15q11–15q13 and clinically characterized by neonatal hypotonia, short stature, cognitive impairment, hypogonadism, hyperphagia, morbid obesity, and diabetes. Previous clinical studies suggest that a defect in energy metabolism may be involved in the pathogenesis of PWS. We focused our attention on the genes associated with energy metabolism and found that there were 95 and 66 mitochondrial genes differentially expressed in PWS muscle and brain, respectively. Assessment of enzyme activities of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation complexes in the brain, heart, liver, and muscle were assessed. We found the enzyme activities of the cardiac mitochondrial complexes II‫III were up‐regulated in the PWS imprinting center deletion mice compared to the wild‐type littermates. These studies suggest that differential gene expression, especially of the mitochondrial genes may contribute to the pathophysiology of PWS. PMID:24127921

  20. Molecular mechanisms underlying protective effects of quercetin against mitochondrial dysfunction and progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration in cell culture and MitoPark transgenic mouse models of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Ay, Muhammet; Luo, Jie; Langley, Monica; Jin, Huajun; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G

    2017-06-01

    Quercetin, one of the major flavonoids in plants, has been recently reported to have neuroprotective effects against neurodegenerative processes. However, since the molecular signaling mechanisms governing these effects are not well clarified, we evaluated quercetin's effect on the neuroprotective signaling events in dopaminergic neuronal models and further tested its efficacy in the MitoPark transgenic mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Western blot analysis revealed that quercetin significantly induced the activation of two major cell survival kinases, protein kinase D1 (PKD1) and Akt in MN9D dopaminergic neuronal cells. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition or siRNA knockdown of PKD1 blocked the activation of Akt, suggesting that PKD1 acts as an upstream regulator of Akt in quercetin-mediated neuroprotective signaling. Quercetin also enhanced cAMP response-element binding protein phosphorylation and expression of the cAMP response-element binding protein target gene brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Results from qRT-PCR, Western blot analysis, mtDNA content analysis, and MitoTracker assay experiments revealed that quercetin augmented mitochondrial biogenesis. Quercetin also increased mitochondrial bioenergetics capacity and protected MN9D cells against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity. To further evaluate the neuroprotective efficacy of quercetin against the mitochondrial dysfunction underlying PD, we used the progressive dopaminergic neurodegenerative MitoPark transgenic mouse model of PD. Oral administration of quercetin significantly reversed behavioral deficits, striatal dopamine depletion, and TH neuronal cell loss in MitoPark mice. Together, our findings demonstrate that quercetin activates the PKD1-Akt cell survival signaling axis and suggest that further exploration of quercetin as a promising neuroprotective agent for treating PD may offer clinical benefits. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  1. Arsenic Induces Insulin Resistance in Mouse Adipocytes and Myotubes Via Oxidative Stress-Regulated Mitochondrial Sirt3-FOXO3a Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Padmaja Divya, Sasidharan; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Son, Young-Ok; Vinod Roy, Ram; Andrew Hitron, John; Kim, Donghern; Dai, Jin; Wang, Lei; Asha, Padmaja; Huang, Bin; Xu, Mei; Luo, Jia; Zhang, Zhuo

    2015-08-01

    Chronic exposure to arsenic via drinking water is associated with an increased risk for development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study investigates the role of mitochondrial oxidative stress protein Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3) and its targeting proteins in chronic arsenic-induced T2DM in mouse adipocytes and myotubes. The results show that chronic arsenic exposure significantly decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (ISGU) in correlation with reduced expression of insulin-regulated glucose transporter type 4 (Glut4). Expression of Sirt3, a mitochondrial deacetylase, was dramatically decreased along with its associated transcription factor, forkhead box O3 (FOXO3a) upon arsenic exposure. A decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) was observed in both 3T3L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes treated by arsenic. Reduced FOXO3a activity by arsenic exhibited a decreased binding affinity to the promoters of both manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator (PGC)-1α, a broad and powerful regulator of reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism. Forced expression of Sirt3 or MnSOD in mouse myotubes elevated Δψm and restored ISGU inhibited by arsenic exposure. Our results suggest that Sirt3/FOXO3a/MnSOD signaling plays a significant role in the inhibition of ISGU induced by chronic arsenic exposure. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Dynamic regulation of genes involved in mitochondrial DNA replication and transcription during mouse brown fat cell differentiation and recruitment.

    PubMed

    Murholm, Maria; Dixen, Karen; Qvortrup, Klaus; Hansen, Lillian H L; Amri, Ez-Zoubir; Madsen, Lise; Barbatelli, Giorgio; Quistorff, Bjørn; Hansen, Jacob B

    2009-12-24

    Brown adipocytes are specialised in dissipating energy through adaptive thermogenesis, whereas white adipocytes are specialised in energy storage. These essentially opposite functions are possible for two reasons relating to mitochondria, namely expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and a remarkably higher mitochondrial abundance in brown adipocytes. Here we report a comprehensive characterisation of gene expression linked to mitochondrial DNA replication, transcription and function during white and brown fat cell differentiation in vitro as well as in white and brown fat, brown adipose tissue fractions and in selected adipose tissues during cold exposure. We find a massive induction of the majority of such genes during brown adipocyte differentiation and recruitment, e.g. of the mitochondrial transcription factors A (Tfam) and B2 (Tfb2m), whereas only a subset of the same genes were induced during white adipose conversion. In addition, PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16) was found to be expressed at substantially higher levels in brown compared to white pre-adipocytes and adipocytes. We demonstrate that forced expression of Tfam but not Tfb2m in brown adipocyte precursor cells promotes mitochondrial DNA replication, and that silencing of PRDM16 expression during brown fat cell differentiation blunts mitochondrial biogenesis and expression of brown fat cell markers. Using both in vitro and in vivo model systems of white and brown fat cell differentiation, we report a detailed characterisation of gene expression linked to mitochondrial biogenesis and function. We find significant differences in differentiating white and brown adipocytes, which might explain the notable increase in mitochondrial content observed during brown adipose conversion. In addition, our data support a key role of PRDM16 in triggering brown adipocyte differentiation, including mitochondrial biogenesis and expression of UCP1.

  3. Mössbauer Spectra of Mouse Hearts Reveal Age-dependent Changes in Mitochondrial and Ferritin Iron Levels.

    PubMed

    Wofford, Joshua D; Chakrabarti, Mrinmoy; Lindahl, Paul A

    2017-03-31

    Cardiac function requires continuous high levels of energy, and so iron, a critical player in mitochondrial respiration, is an important component of the heart. Hearts from (57)Fe-enriched mice were evaluated by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Spectra consisted of a sextet and two quadrupole doublets. One doublet was due to residual blood, whereas the other was due to [Fe4S4](2+) clusters and low-spin Fe(II) hemes, most of which were associated with mitochondrial respiration. The sextet was due to ferritin; there was no evidence of hemosiderin, a ferritin decomposition product. Iron from ferritin was nearly absent in young hearts, but increased steadily with age. EPR spectra exhibited signals similar to those of brain, liver, and human cells. No age-dependent EPR trends were apparent. Hearts from HFE(-/-) mice with hemochromatosis contained slightly more iron overall than controls, including more ferritin and less mitochondrial iron; these differences typify slightly older hearts, perhaps reflecting the burden due to this disease. HFE(-/-) livers were overloaded with ferritin but had low mitochondrial iron levels. IRP2(-/-) hearts contained less ferritin than controls but normal levels of mitochondrial iron. Hearts of young mice born to an iron-deficient mother contained normal levels of mitochondrial iron and no ferritin; the heart from the mother contained low ferritin and normal levels of mitochondrial iron. High-spin Fe(II) ions were nearly undetectable in heart samples; these were evident in brains, livers, and human cells. Previous Mössbauer spectra of unenriched diseased human hearts lacked mitochondrial and blood doublets and included hemosiderin features. This suggests degradation of iron-containing species during sample preparation. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Postexercise whole body heat stress additively enhances endurance training-induced mitochondrial adaptations in mouse skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Yuki; Matsunaga, Yutaka; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Yumiko; Takahashi, Yuki; Terada, Shin; Hoshino, Daisuke; Hatta, Hideo

    2014-10-01

    A recent study demonstrated that heat stress induces mitochondrial biogenesis in C2C12 myotubes, thereby implying that heat stress may be an effective treatment to enhance endurance training-induced mitochondrial adaptations in skeletal muscle. However, whether heat stress actually induces mitochondrial adaptations in skeletal muscle in vivo is unclear. In the present study, we report the novel findings that 1) whole body heat stress produced by exposure of ICR mice to a hot environment (40°C, 30 min/day, 5 days/wk, 3 wk) induced mitochondrial adaptations such as increased mitochondrial enzyme activity (citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase) and respiratory chain protein content (complexes I-V) in skeletal muscle in vivo and 2) postexercise whole body heat stress additively enhanced endurance training-induced mitochondrial adaptations (treadmill running, 25 m/min, 30 min/day, 5 days/wk, 3 wk). Moreover, to determine the candidate mechanisms underlying mitochondrial adaptations, we investigated the acute effects of postexercise whole body heat stress on the phosphorylation status of cellular signaling cascades that subsequently induce mitochondrial gene transcription. We found that whole body heat stress boosted the endurance exercise-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, increased the phosphorylation status of p70S6K, a biomarker of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 activity, and unexpectedly dephosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase and its downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase in skeletal muscle. Our present observations suggest that heat stress can act as an effective postexercise treatment. Heat stress treatment appeared to be clinically beneficial for people who have difficulty participating in sufficient exercise training, such as the elderly, injured athletes, and patients. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Developmental regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and function in the mouse mammary gland during a prolonged lactation cycle.

    PubMed

    Hadsell, Darryl L; Olea, Walter; Wei, Jerry; Fiorotto, Marta L; Matsunami, Risë K; Engler, David A; Collier, Robert J

    2011-03-29

    The regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and function in the lactating mammary cell is poorly understood. The goal of this study was to use proteomics to relate temporal changes in mammary cell mitochondrial function during lactation to changes in the proteins that make up this organelle. The hypothesis tested was that changes in mammary cell mitochondrial biogenesis and function during lactation would be accounted for by coordinated changes in the proteins of the electron transport chain and that some of these proteins might be linked by their expression patterns to PPARGC1α and AMP kinase. The mitochondrial proteome was studied along with markers of mitochondrial biogenesis and function in mammary tissue collected from mice over the course of a single prolonged lactation cycle. Mammary tissue concentrations of AMP and ADP were increased (P < 0.05) during early lactation and then declined with prolonged lactation. Similar changes were also observed for mitochondrial ATP synthesis activity, mitochondrial mass and DNA copy number. Analysis of the mammary cell mitochondrial proteome identified 244 unique proteins. Of these, only two proteins of the electron transport chain were found to increase during early lactation. In contrast, coordinated changes in numerous electron transport chain proteins were observed both during mid- and late lactation. There were six proteins that could be directly linked to PPARGC1α through network analysis. Abundance of PPARGC-1α and phosphorylation of AMP kinase was highest on day 2 postpartum. The results suggest that the increases in mammary mitochondria ATP synthesis activity during early lactation results from changes in only a limited number proteins. In addition, decreases in a handful of proteins linked to lipid oxidation could be temporally linked to decreases in PPARGC1α and phospho-AMP kinase suggesting potential roles for these proteins in coordinating mammary gland metabolism during early lactation.

  6. Down-regulation of OPA1 alters mouse mitochondrial morphology, PTP function, and cardiac adaptation to pressure overload

    PubMed Central

    Piquereau, Jerome; Caffin, Fanny; Novotova, Marta; Prola, Alexandre; Garnier, Anne; Mateo, Philippe; Fortin, Dominique; Huynh, Le Ha; Nicolas, Valérie; Alavi, Marcel V.; Brenner, Catherine; Ventura-Clapier, Renée; Veksler, Vladimir; Joubert, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    Aims The optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) protein is an essential protein involved in the fusion of the mitochondrial inner membrane. Despite its high level of expression, the role of OPA1 in the heart is largely unknown. We investigated the role of this protein in Opa1+/− mice, having a 50% reduction in OPA1 protein expression in cardiac tissue. Methods and Results In mutant mice, cardiac function assessed by echocardiography was not significantly different from that of the Opa1+/+. Electron and fluorescence microscopy revealed altered morphology of the Opa1+/− mitochondrial network; unexpectedly, mitochondria were larger with the presence of clusters of fused mitochondria and altered cristae. In permeabilized mutant ventricular fibers, mitochondrial functional properties were maintained, but direct energy channeling between mitochondria and myofilaments was weakened. Importantly, the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP) opening in isolated permeabilized cardiomyocytes and in isolated mitochondria was significantly less sensitive to mitochondrial calcium accumulation. Finally, 6 weeks after transversal aortic constriction (TAC), Opa1+/− hearts demonstrated hypertrophy almost two-fold higher (p<0.01) than in wild type mice with altered ejection fraction (decrease of 43% versus 22% in Opa1+/+ mice, p<0.05). Conclusions These results suggest that, in adult cardiomyocytes, OPA1 plays an important role in mitochondrial morphology and PTP functioning. These properties may be critical for cardiac function under conditions of chronic pressure overload. PMID:22406748

  7. SOD1 targeted to the mitochondrial intermembrane space prevents motor neuropathy in the Sod1 knockout mouse.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Lindsey R; Igoudjil, Anissa; Magrané, Jordi; Li, Yingjie; Hansen, Jason M; Manfredi, Giovanni; Glass, Jonathan D

    2011-01-01

    Motor axon degeneration is a critical but poorly understood event leading to weakness and muscle atrophy in motor neuron diseases. Here, we investigated oxidative stress-mediated axonal degeneration in mice lacking the antioxidant enzyme, Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). We demonstrate a progressive motor axonopathy in these mice and show that Sod1(-/-) primary motor neurons extend short axons in vitro with reduced mitochondrial density. Sod1(-/-) neurons also show oxidation of mitochondrial--but not cytosolic--thioredoxin, suggesting that loss of SOD1 causes preferential oxidative stress in mitochondria, a primary source of superoxide in cells. SOD1 is widely regarded as the cytosolic isoform of superoxide dismutase, but is also found in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. The functional significance of SOD1 in the intermembrane space is unknown. We used a transgenic approach to express SOD1 exclusively in the intermembrane space and found that mitochondrial SOD1 is sufficient to prevent biochemical and morphological defects in the Sod1(-/-) model, and to rescue the motor phenotype of these mice when followed to 12 months of age. These results suggest that SOD1 in the mitochondrial intermembrane space is fundamental for motor axon maintenance, and implicate oxidative damage initiated at mitochondrial sites in the pathogenesis of motor axon degeneration.

  8. Cytoplasmic calcium transients due to single action potentials and voltage-clamp depolarizations in mouse pancreatic B-cells.

    PubMed Central

    Rorsman, P; Ammälä, C; Berggren, P O; Bokvist, K; Larsson, O

    1992-01-01

    Changes in the cytoplasmic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in pancreatic B-cells play an important role in the regulation of insulin secretion. We have recorded [Ca2+]i transients evoked by single action potentials and voltage-clamp Ca2+ currents in isolated B-cells by the combination of dual wavelength emission spectrofluorimetry and the patch-clamp technique. A 500-1000 ms depolarization of the B-cell from -70 to -10 mV evoked a transient rise in [Ca2+]i from a resting value of approximately 100 nM to a peak concentration of 550 nM. Similar [Ca2+]i changes were associated with individual action potentials. The depolarization-induced [Ca2+]i transients were abolished by application of nifedipine, a blocker of L-type Ca2+ channels, indicating their dependence on influx of extracellular Ca2+. Following the voltage-clamp step, [Ca2+]i decayed with a time constant of approximately 2.5 s and summation of [Ca2+]i occurred whenever depolarizations were applied with an interval of less than 2 s. The importance of the Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange for B-cell [Ca2+]i maintenance was evidenced by the demonstration that basal [Ca2+]i rose to 200 nM and the magnitude of the depolarization-evoked [Ca2+]i transients was markedly increased after omission of extracellular Na+. However, the rate by which [Ca2+]i returned to basal was not affected, suggesting the existence of additional [Ca2+]i buffering processes. PMID:1639061

  9. HMJ-53A accelerates slow inactivation gating of voltage-gated K+ channels in mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells.

    PubMed

    Chao, Chia-Chia; Shieh, Jeffrey; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Wu, Bor-Tsang; Hour, Mann-Jen; Leung, Yuk-Man

    2008-06-01

    Voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels are important in repolarization of excitable cells such as neurons and endocrine cells. Kv channel gating exhibits slow inactivation (slow current decay) during continuous depolarization. The molecular mechanism involved in such slow inactivation is not completely understood, but evidence has suggested that it involves a restriction of the outer channel pore surrounding the selectivity filter. Pharmacological tools probing this slow inactivation process are scarce. In this work we reported that bath application of HMJ-53A (30 microM), a novel compound, could drastically speed up the slow decay (decay tau=1677+/-120 ms and 85.6+/-7.7 ms, respectively, in the absence and presence of HMJ-53A) of Kv currents in neuroblastoma N2A cells. HMJ-53A also significantly left-shifted the steady-state inactivation curve by 12 mV. HMJ-53A, however, did not affect voltage-dependence of activation and the kinetics of channel activation. Intracellular application of this drug through patch pipette dialysis was ineffective at all in accelerating the slow current decay, suggesting that HMJ-53A acted extracellularly. Blockade of currents by HMJ-53A did not require an open state of channels. In addition, the inactivation time constants and percentage block of Kv currents in the presence of HMJ-53A were independent of the (i) degree of depolarization and (ii) intracellular K(+) concentration. Therefore, this drug did not appear to directly occlude the outer channel pore during stimulation (depolarization). Taken together, our results suggest that HMJ-53A selectively affected (accelerated) the slow inactivation gating process of Kv channels, and could thus be a selective and novel probe for the inactivation gate.

  10. Administration of CoQ10 analogue ameliorates dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain in a mouse model of Angelman syndrome.

    PubMed

    Llewellyn, Katrina J; Nalbandian, Angèle; Gomez, Arianna; Wei, Don; Walker, Naomi; Kimonis, Virginia E

    2015-04-01

    Genetic defects in the UBE3A gene, which encodes for the imprinted E6-AP ubiquitin E3 ligase (UBE3A), is responsible for the occurrence of Angelman syndrome (AS), a neurodegenerative disorder which arises in 1 out of every 12,000-20,000 births. Classical symptoms of AS include delayed development, impaired speech, and epileptic seizures with characteristic electroencephalography (EEG) readings. We have previously reported impaired mitochondrial structure and reduced complex III in the hippocampus and cerebellum in the Ube3a(m-/p+) mice. CoQ10 supplementation restores the electron flow to the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) to ultimately increase mitochondrial antioxidant capacity. A number of recent studies with CoQ10 analogues seem promising in providing therapeutic benefit to patients with a variety of disorders. CoQ10 therapy has been reported to be safe and relatively well-tolerated at doses as high as 3000mg/day in patients with disorders of CoQ10 biosynthesis and MRC disorders. Herein, we report administration of idebenone, a potent CoQ10 analogue, to the Ube3a(m-/p+) mouse model corrects motor coordination and anxiety levels, and also improves the expression of complexes III and IV in hippocampus CA1 and CA2 neurons and cerebellum in these Ube3a(m-/p+) mice. However, treatment with idebenone illustrated no beneficial effects in the reduction of oxidative stress. To our knowledge, this is the first study to suggest an improvement in mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction via bioenergetics modulation with a CoQ10 analogue. These findings may further elucidate possible cellular and molecular mechanism(s) and ultimately a clinical therapeutic approach/benefit for patients with Angelman syndrome.

  11. Of mice and the 'Age of Discovery': the complex history of colonization of the Azorean archipelago by the house mouse (Mus musculus) as revealed by mitochondrial DNA variation.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, S I; Mathias, M L; Searle, J B

    2015-01-01

    Humans have introduced many species onto remote oceanic islands. The house mouse (Mus musculus) is a human commensal and has consequently been transported to oceanic islands around the globe as an accidental stowaway. The history of these introductions can tell us not only about the mice themselves but also about the people that transported them. Following a phylogeographic approach, we used mitochondrial D-loop sequence variation (within an 849- to 864-bp fragment) to study house mouse colonization of the Azores. A total of 239 sequences were obtained from all nine islands, and interpretation was helped by previously published Iberian sequences and 66 newly generated Spanish sequences. A Bayesian analysis revealed presence in the Azores of most of the D-loop clades previously described in the domesticus subspecies of the house mouse, suggesting a complex colonization history of the archipelago as a whole from multiple geographical origins, but much less heterogeneity (often single colonization?) within islands. The expected historical link with mainland Portugal was reflected in the pattern of D-loop variation of some of the islands but not all. A more unexpected association with a distant North European source area was also detected in three islands, possibly reflecting human contact with the Azores prior to the 15th century discovery by Portuguese mariners. Widening the scope to colonization of the Macaronesian islands as a whole, human linkages between the Azores, Madeira, the Canaries, Portugal and Spain were revealed through the sharing of mouse sequences between these areas. From these and other data, we suggest mouse studies may help resolve historical uncertainties relating to the 'Age of Discovery'.

  12. Underlying mitochondrial dysfunction triggers flutamide-induced oxidative liver injury in a mouse model of idiosyncratic drug toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Kashimshetty, Rohini; Desai, Varsha G.; Kale, Vijay M.; Lee, Taewon; Moland, Carrie L.; Branham, William S.; New, Lee S.; Chan, Eric C.Y.; Younis, Husam; Boelsterli, Urs A.

    2009-07-15

    Flutamide, a widely used nonsteroidal anti-androgen, but not its bioisostere bicalutamide, has been associated with idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury. Although the susceptibility factors are unknown, mitochondrial injury has emerged as a putative hazard of flutamide. To explore the role of mitochondrial sensitization in flutamide hepatotoxicity, we determined the effects of superimposed drug stress in a murine model of underlying mitochondrial abnormalities. Male wild-type or heterozygous Sod2{sup +/-} mice were injected intraperitoneously with flutamide (0, 30 or 100 mg/kg/day) for 28 days. A kinetic pilot study revealed that flutamide (100 mg/kg/day) caused approximately 10-fold greater exposure than the reported therapeutic mean plasma levels. Mutant (5/10), but not wild-type, mice in the high-dose group exhibited small foci of hepatocellular necrosis and an increased number of apoptotic hepatocytes. Hepatic GSSG/GSH, protein carbonyl levels, and serum lactate levels were significantly increased, suggesting oxidant stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Measurement of mitochondrial superoxide in cultured hepatocytes demonstrated that mitochondria were a significant source of flutamide-enhanced oxidant stress. Indeed, mitochondria isolated from flutamide-treated Sod2{sup +/-} mice exhibited decreased aconitase activity as compared to vehicle controls. A transcriptomics analysis using MitoChips revealed that flutamide-treated Sod2{sup +/-} mice exhibited a selective decrease in the expression of all complexes I and III subunits encoded by mitochondrial DNA. In contrast, Sod2{sup +/-} mice receiving bicalutamide (50 mg/kg/day) did not reveal any hepatic changes. These results are compatible with our concept that flutamide targets hepatic mitochondria and exerts oxidant stress that can lead to overt hepatic injury in the presence of an underlying mitochondrial abnormality.

  13. Mitochondrial dysfunction in the APP/PSEN1 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease and a novel protective role for ascorbate.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Shilpy; Fessel, Joshua P; Harrison, Fiona E

    2017-08-31

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is elevated in very early stages of Alzheimer's disease and exacerbates oxidative stress, which contributes to disease pathology. Mitochondria were isolated from 4-month-old wild-type mice, transgenic mice carrying the APPSWE and PSEN1dE9 mutations, mice with decreased brain and mitochondrial ascorbate (vitamin C) via heterozygous knockout of the sodium dependent vitamin C transporter (SVCT2(+/-)) and transgenic APP/PSEN1 mice with heterozygous SVCT2 expression. Mitochondrial isolates from SVCT2(+/-) mice were observed to consume less oxygen using high-resolution respirometry, and also exhibited decreased mitochondrial membrane potential compared to wild type isolates. Conversely, isolates from young (4 months) APP/PSEN1 mice consumed more oxygen, and exhibited an increase in mitochondrial membrane potential, but had a significantly lower ATP/ADP ratio compared to wild type isolates. Greater levels of reactive oxygen species were also produced in mitochondria isolated from both APP/PSEN1 and SVCT2(+/-) mice compared to wild type isolates. Acute administration of ascorbate to mitochondria isolated from wild-type mice increased oxygen consumption compared with untreated mitochondria suggesting ascorbate may support energy production. This study suggests that both presence of amyloid and ascorbate deficiency can contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction, even at an early, prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease, although occurring via different pathways. Ascorbate may, therefore, provide a useful preventative strategy against neurodegenerative disease, particularly in populations most at risk for Alzheimer's disease in which stores are often depleted through mitochondrial dysfunction and elevated oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Unchanged mitochondrial organization and compartmentation of high-energy phosphates in creatine-deficient GAMT-/- mouse hearts.

    PubMed

    Branovets, Jelena; Sepp, Mervi; Kotlyarova, Svetlana; Jepihhina, Natalja; Sokolova, Niina; Aksentijevic, Dunja; Lygate, Craig A; Neubauer, Stefan; Vendelin, Marko; Birkedal, Rikke

    2013-08-15

    Disruption of the creatine kinase (CK) system in hearts of CK-deficient mice leads to changes in the ultrastructure and regulation of mitochondrial respiration. We expected to see similar changes in creatine-deficient mice, which lack the enzyme guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) to produce creatine. The aim of this study was to characterize the changes in cardiomyocyte mitochondrial organization, regulation of respiration, and intracellular compartmentation associated with GAMT deficiency. Three-dimensional mitochondrial organization was assessed by confocal microscopy. On populations of permeabilized cardiomyocytes, we recorded ADP and ATP kinetics of respiration, competition between mitochondria and pyruvate kinase for ADP produced by ATPases, ADP kinetics of endogenous pyruvate kinase, and ATP kinetics of ATPases. These data were analyzed by mathematical models to estimate intracellular compartmentation. Quantitative analysis of morphological and kinetic data as well as derived model fits showed no difference between GAMT-deficient and wild-type mice. We conclude that inactivation of the CK system by GAMT deficiency does not alter mitochondrial organization and intracellular compartmentation in relaxed cardiomyocytes. Thus, our results suggest that the healthy heart is able to preserve cardiac function at a basal level in the absence of CK-facilitated energy transfer without compromising intracellular organization and the regulation of mitochondrial energy homeostasis. This raises questions on the importance of the CK system as a spatial energy buffer in unstressed cardiomyocytes.

  15. Unchanged mitochondrial organization and compartmentation of high-energy phosphates in creatine-deficient GAMT−/− mouse hearts

    PubMed Central

    Branovets, Jelena; Sepp, Mervi; Kotlyarova, Svetlana; Jepihhina, Natalja; Sokolova, Niina; Aksentijevic, Dunja; Lygate, Craig A.; Neubauer, Stefan; Birkedal, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    Disruption of the creatine kinase (CK) system in hearts of CK-deficient mice leads to changes in the ultrastructure and regulation of mitochondrial respiration. We expected to see similar changes in creatine-deficient mice, which lack the enzyme guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) to produce creatine. The aim of this study was to characterize the changes in cardiomyocyte mitochondrial organization, regulation of respiration, and intracellular compartmentation associated with GAMT deficiency. Three-dimensional mitochondrial organization was assessed by confocal microscopy. On populations of permeabilized cardiomyocytes, we recorded ADP and ATP kinetics of respiration, competition between mitochondria and pyruvate kinase for ADP produced by ATPases, ADP kinetics of endogenous pyruvate kinase, and ATP kinetics of ATPases. These data were analyzed by mathematical models to estimate intracellular compartmentation. Quantitative analysis of morphological and kinetic data as well as derived model fits showed no difference between GAMT-deficient and wild-type mice. We conclude that inactivation of the CK system by GAMT deficiency does not alter mitochondrial organization and intracellular compartmentation in relaxed cardiomyocytes. Thus, our results suggest that the healthy heart is able to preserve cardiac function at a basal level in the absence of CK-facilitated energy transfer without compromising intracellular organization and the regulation of mitochondrial energy homeostasis. This raises questions on the importance of the CK system as a spatial energy buffer in unstressed cardiomyocytes. PMID:23792673

  16. G7731A mutation in mouse mitochondrial tRNALys regulates late-onset disorders in transmitochondrial mice.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Akinori; Mito, Takayuki; Hashizume, Osamu; Yonekawa, Hiromichi; Ishikawa, Kaori; Nakada, Kazuto; Hayashi, Jun-Ichi

    2015-03-27

    We previously generated mito-mice-tRNA(Lys7731) as a model for primary prevention of mitochondrial diseases. These mice harbour a G7731A mtDNA mutation in the tRNA(Lys) gene, but express only muscle weakness and short body length by four months. Here, we examined the effects of their aging on metabolic and histologic features. Unlike young mito-mice-tRNA(Lys7731), aged mito-mice-tRNA(Lys7731) developed muscle atrophy, renal failures, and various metabolic abnormalities, such as lactic acidosis and anemia, characteristic of patients with mitochondrial diseases. These observations provide convincing evidence that the respiration defects induced by high G7731A mtDNA levels cause these late-onset disorders that are relevant to mitochondrial diseases.

  17. Effects of decreased lactate accumulation after dichloroacetate administration on exercise training–induced mitochondrial adaptations in mouse skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Hoshino, Daisuke; Tamura, Yuki; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Matsunaga, Yutaka; Hatta, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggested that lactate accumulation can be a signal for mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. We investigated whether reductions in lactate concentrations in response to dichloroacetate (DCA), an activator of pyruvate dehydrogenase, attenuate mitochondrial adaptations after exercise training in mice. We first confirmed that DCA administration (200 mg/kg BW by i.p. injection) 10 min before exercise decreased muscle and blood lactate concentrations after high-intensity interval exercise (10 bouts of 1 min treadmill running at 40 m/min with a 1 min rest). At the same time, exercise-induced signal cascades did not change by pre-exercise DCA administration. These results suggested that DCA administration affected only lactate concentrations after exercise. We next examined the effects of acute DCA administration on mRNA expressions involved with mitochondrial biogenesis after same high-intensity interval exercise and the effects of chronic DCA administration on mitochondrial adaptations after high-intensity interval training (increasing intensity from 38 to 43 m/min by the end of training period). Acute DCA administration did not change most of the exercise-induced mRNA upregulation. These data suggest that lactate reductions by DCA administration did not affect transcriptional activation after high-intensity interval exercise. However, chronic DCA administration attenuated, in part, mitochondrial adaptations such as training-induced increasing rates of citrate synthase (P = 0.06), β-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase activity (P < 0.05), cytochrome c oxidase IV (P < 0.05) and a fatty acid transporter, fatty acid translocase/CD36 (P < 0.05), proteins after exercise training. These results suggest that lactate accumulation during high-intensity interval exercise may be associated with mitochondrial adaptations after chronic exercise training. PMID:26416973

  18. Dietary fat and fiber interactively modulate apoptosis and mitochondrial bioenergetic profiles in mouse colon in a site-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yang-Yi; Vaz, Frederic M; Chapkin, Robert S

    2016-05-10

    We have demonstrated that the combination of bioactive components generated by fish oil (containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) and fermentable fiber (leading to butyrate production) act coordinately to protect against colon cancer. This is, in part, the result of an enhancement of apoptosis at the base of the crypt across all stages (initiation, promotion, and progression) of colon tumorigenesis. As mitochondria are key organelles capable of regulating the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and mediating programmed cell death, we investigated the effects of diet on mitochondrial function by measuring mucosal cardiolipin composition, mitochondrial respiratory parameters, and apoptosis in isolated crypts from the proximal and distal colon. C57BL/6 mice (n=15/treatment) were fed one of two dietary fats (corn oil and fish oil) and two fibers (pectin and cellulose) for 4 weeks in a 2×2 factorial design. In general, diet modulated apoptosis and the mucosal bioenergetic profiles in a site-specific manner. The fish/pectin diet promoted a more proapoptotic phenotype - for example, increased proton leak (Pinteraction=0.002) - compared with corn/cellulose (control) only in the proximal colon. With respect to the composition of cardiolipin, a unique phospholipid localized to the mitochondrial inner membrane where it mediates energy metabolism, fish oil feeding indirectly influenced its molecular species with a combined carbon number of C68 or greater, suggesting compensatory regulation. These data indicate that dietary fat and fiber can interactively modulate the mitochondrial metabolic profile and thereby potentially modulate apoptosis and subsequent colon cancer risk.

  19. Phylogenetic relationships of intraspecific forms of the house mouse Mus musculus: Analysis of variability of the control region (D-loop) of mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Maltsev, A N; Stakheev, V V; Bogdanov, A S; Fomina, E S; Kotenkova, E V

    2015-11-01

    Analysis of the control region of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or D-loop of 96 house mice (Mus musculus) from Russia, Moldova, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan has been used to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships and phylogeographic patterns of intraspecific forms. New data on the phylogenetic structure of the house mouse are presented. Three phylogroups can be reliably distinguished in the eastern part of the M. musculus species range, the first one mainly comprising the haplotypes of mice from Transcaucasia (Armenia); the second one, the haplotypes of mice from Kazakhstan; and the third one, the haplotypes of mice from Siberia and some other regions. The morphological subspecies M. m. wagneri and M. m. gansuensis have proved to be genetically heterogeneous and did not form discrete phylogroups in the phylogenetic tree.

  20. Exocytosis elicited by action potentials and voltage-clamp calcium currents in individual mouse pancreatic B-cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ammälä, C; Eliasson, L; Bokvist, K; Larsson, O; Ashcroft, F M; Rorsman, P

    1993-01-01

    1. Measurements of membrane capacitance, as an indicator of exocytosis, and intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) were used to determine the Ca2+ dependence of secretion in single pancreatic B-cells. 2. Exocytosis was dependent on a rise in [Ca2+]i and could be evoked by activation of voltage-dependent Ca2+ currents. The threshold for depolarization-induced release was 0.5 microM [Ca2+]i. Once the [Ca2+]i threshold was exceeded, exocytosis was rapidly (< 50 ms) initiated. When individual pulses were applied, exocytosis stopped immediately upon repolarization and the Ca2+ channels closed, although [Ca2+]i remained elevated for several seconds. 3. During repetitive stimulation (1 Hz), when [Ca2+]i attained micromolar levels, exocytosis also took place during the interpulse intervals albeit at a slower rate than during the depolarizations. 4. Exocytosis could be initiated by simulated action potentials. Whereas a single action potential only produced a small capacitance increase, and in some cells even failed to stimulate release, larger and more consistent responses were obtained with > or = four action potentials. 5. Comparison of the rates of exocytosis measured in response to depolarization, mobilization of Ca2+ from intracellular stores or infusion of Ca2+ through the patch pipette suggests that [Ca2+]i at the secretory sites attains a concentration of several micromolar. This is much higher than the average [Ca2+]i detected by microfluorimetry suggesting the existence of steep spatial gradients of [Ca2+]i within the B-cell. 6. Inclusion of inhibitors of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in the intracellular solution reduced the depolarization-induced exocytotic responses suggesting this enzyme may be involved in the coupling between elevation of [Ca2+]i to stimulation of the secretory machinery. 7. The size of the unitary exocytotic event was 2 fF, corresponding to a secretory granule diameter of 250 nm. 8. Over short periods, exocytosis may be

  1. N-Acetylcysteine improves mitochondrial function and ameliorates behavioral deficits in the R6/1 mouse model of Huntington's disease

    PubMed Central

    Wright, D J; Renoir, T; Smith, Z M; Frazier, A E; Francis, P S; Thorburn, D R; McGee, S L; Hannan, A J; Gray, L J

    2015-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, involving psychiatric, cognitive and motor symptoms, caused by a CAG-repeat expansion encoding an extended polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin protein. Oxidative stress and excitotoxicity have previously been implicated in the pathogenesis of HD. We hypothesized that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may reduce both excitotoxicity and oxidative stress through its actions on glutamate reuptake and antioxidant capacity. The R6/1 transgenic mouse model of HD was used to investigate the effects of NAC on HD pathology. It was found that chronic NAC administration delayed the onset and progression of motor deficits in R6/1 mice, while having an antidepressant-like effect on both R6/1 and wild-type mice. A deficit in the astrocytic glutamate transporter protein, GLT-1, was found in R6/1 mice. However, this deficit was not ameliorated by NAC, implying that the therapeutic effect of NAC is not due to rescue of the GLT-1 deficit and associated glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. Assessment of mitochondrial function in the striatum and cortex revealed that R6/1 mice show reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity specific to the striatum. This deficit was rescued by chronic treatment with NAC. There was a selective increase in markers of oxidative damage in mitochondria, which was rescued by NAC. In conclusion, NAC is able to delay the onset of motor deficits in the R6/1 model of Huntington's disease and it may do so by ameliorating mitochondrial dysfunction. Thus, NAC shows promise as a potential therapeutic agent in HD. Furthermore, our data suggest that NAC may also have broader antidepressant efficacy. PMID:25562842

  2. Opa3, a novel regulator of mitochondrial function, controls thermogenesis and abdominal fat mass in a mouse model for Costeff syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wells, Timothy; Davies, Jennifer R; Guschina, Irina A; Ball, Daniel J; Davies, Jeffrey S; Davies, Vanessa J; Evans, Bronwen A J; Votruba, Marcela

    2012-11-15

    The interrelationship between brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT) is emerging as an important factor in obesity, but the effect of impairing non-shivering thermogenesis in BAT on lipid storage in WAT remains unclear. To address this, we have characterized the metabolic phenotype of a mouse model for Costeff syndrome, in which a point mutation in the mitochondrial membrane protein Opa3 impairs mitochondrial activity. Opa3(L122P) mice displayed an 80% reduction in insulin-like growth factor 1, postnatal growth retardation and hepatic steatosis. A 90% reduction in uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in interscapular BAT was accompanied by a marked reduction in surface body temperature, with a 2.5-fold elevation in interscapular BAT mass and lipid storage. The sequestration of circulating lipid into BAT resulted in profound reductions in epididymal and retroperitoneal WAT mass, without affecting subcutaneous WAT. The histological appearance and intense mitochondrial staining in intra-abdominal WAT suggest significant 'browning', but with UCP1 expression in WAT of Opa3(L122P) mice only 62% of that in wild-type littermates, any precursor differentiation does not appear to result in thermogenically active beige adipocytes. Thus, we have identified Opa3 as a novel regulator of lipid metabolism, coupling lipid uptake with lipid processing in liver and with thermogenesis in BAT. These findings indicate that skeletal and metabolic impairment in Costeff syndrome may be more significant than previously thought and that uncoupling lipid uptake from lipid metabolism in BAT may represent a novel approach to controlling WAT mass in obesity.

  3. P2Y1R-initiated, IP3R-dependent stimulation of astrocyte mitochondrial metabolism reduces and partially reverses ischemic neuronal damage in mouse

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wei; Talley Watts, Lora; Holstein, Deborah M; Wewer, Jimmy; Lechleiter, James D

    2013-01-01

    Glia-based neuroprotection strategies are emerging as promising new avenues to treat brain damage. We previously reported that activation of the glial-specific purinergic receptor, P2Y1R, reduces both astrocyte swelling and brain infarcts in a photothrombotic mouse model of stroke. These restorative effects were dependent on astrocyte mitochondrial metabolism. Here, we extend these findings and report that P2Y1R stimulation with the purinergic ligand 2-methylthioladenosine 5′ diphosphate (2MeSADP) reduces and partially reverses neuronal damage induced by photothrombosis. In vivo neuronal morphology was confocally imaged in transgenic mice expressing yellow fluorescent protein under the control of the Thy1 promoter. Astrocyte mitochondrial membrane potentials, monitored with the potential sensitive dye tetra-methyl rhodamine methyl ester, were depolarized after photothrombosis and subsequently repolarized when P2Y1Rs were stimulated. Mice deficient in the astrocyte-specific type 2 inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate (IP3) receptor exhibited aggravated ischemic dendritic damage after photothrombosis. Treatment of these mice with 2MeSADP did not invoke an intracellular Ca2+ response, did not repolarize astrocyte mitochondria, and did not reduce or partially reverse neuronal lesions induced by photothrombotic stroke. These results demonstrate that IP3-Ca2+ signaling in astrocytes is not only critical for P2Y1R-enhanced protection, but suggest that IP3-Ca2+ signaling is also a key component of endogenous neuroprotection. PMID:23321785

  4. Remodeling pathway control of mitochondrial respiratory capacity by temperature in mouse heart: electron flow through the Q-junction in permeabilized fibers.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, Hélène; Blier, Pierre U; Gnaiger, Erich

    2017-06-06

    Fuel substrate supply and oxidative phosphorylation are key determinants of muscle performance. Numerous studies of mammalian mitochondria are carried out (i) with substrate supply that limits electron flow, and (ii) far below physiological temperature. To analyze potentially implicated biases, we studied mitochondrial respiratory control in permeabilized mouse myocardial fibers using high-resolution respirometry. The capacity of oxidative phosphorylation at 37 °C was nearly two-fold higher when fueled by physiological substrate combinations reconstituting tricarboxylic acid cycle function, compared with electron flow measured separately through NADH to Complex I or succinate to Complex II. The relative contribution of the NADH pathway to physiological respiratory capacity increased with a decrease in temperature from 37 to 25 °C. The apparent excess capacity of cytochrome c oxidase above physiological pathway capacity increased sharply under hypothermia due to limitation by NADH-linked dehydrogenases. This mechanism of mitochondrial respiratory control in the hypothermic mammalian heart is comparable to the pattern in ectotherm species, pointing towards NADH-linked mt-matrix dehydrogenases and the phosphorylation system rather than electron transfer complexes as the primary drivers of thermal sensitivity at low temperature. Delineating the link between stress and remodeling of oxidative phosphorylation is important for understanding metabolic perturbations in disease evolution and cardiac protection.

  5. Increased Mitochondrial Mass and Cytosolic Redox Imbalance in Hippocampal Astrocytes of a Mouse Model of Rett Syndrome: Subcellular Changes Revealed by Ratiometric Imaging of JC-1 and roGFP1 Fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Bebensee, Dörthe F.

    2017-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with mutations in the MECP2 gene. Mostly girls are affected, and an apparently normal development is followed by cognitive impairment, motor dysfunction, epilepsy, and irregular breathing. Various indications suggest mitochondrial dysfunction. In Rett mice, brain ATP levels are reduced, mitochondria are leaking protons, and respiratory complexes are dysregulated. Furthermore, we found in MeCP2-deficient mouse (Mecp2−/y) hippocampus an intensified mitochondrial metabolism and ROS generation. We now used emission ratiometric 2-photon imaging to assess mitochondrial morphology, mass, and membrane potential (ΔΨm) in Mecp2−/y hippocampal astrocytes. Cultured astrocytes were labeled with the ΔΨm marker JC-1, and semiautomated analyses yielded the number of mitochondria per cell, their morphology, and ΔΨm. Mecp2−/y astrocytes contained more mitochondria than wild-type (WT) cells and were more oxidized. Mitochondrial size, ΔΨm, and vulnerability to pharmacological challenge did not differ. The antioxidant Trolox opposed the oxidative burden and decreased the mitochondrial mass, thereby dampening the differences among WT and Mecp2−/y astrocytes; mitochondrial size and ΔΨm were not markedly affected. In conclusion, mitochondrial alterations and redox imbalance in RTT also involve astrocytes. Mitochondria are more numerous in Mecp2−/y than in WT astrocytes. As this genotypic difference is abolished by Trolox, it seems linked to the oxidative stress in RTT. PMID:28894505

  6. Reduction of apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway by the administration of acetyl-L-carnitine to mouse fibroblasts in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Pillich, Rudolf Tito; Scarsella, Gianfranco; Risuleo, Gianfranco . E-mail: gianfranco.risuleo@uniroma1.it

    2005-05-15

    It is shown in literature that stress, such as deprivation of trophic factors and hypoxia, induces apoptosis in cultured cells and in tissues. In light of these results, we explored the possibility of protecting cells from programmed death by improving the metabolism of the mitochondrion. To this end, acetyl-L-carnitine was administered at various concentrations under conditions of serum deprivation. The choice of this drug was based on the accepted notion that acetyl-L-carnitine is able to stabilize mitochondrial membranes and to increase the supply of energy to the organelle. The results presented here indicate that the drug protects cells from apoptotic death: this is demonstrated by a lower positivity to the TUNEL reaction and by a strong reduction of the apoptotic DNA ladder in serum-deprived cells. The involvement of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway was assessed by cytochrome C release and immunoreactivity to caspase 3. Moreover, acetyl-L-carnitine stimulates cell proliferation.

  7. Radiation–Induced Signaling Results in Mitochondrial Impairment in Mouse Heart at 4 Weeks after Exposure to X-Rays

    PubMed Central

    Barjaktarovic, Zarko; Schmaltz, Dominik; Shyla, Alena; Azimzadeh, Omid; Schulz, Sabine; Haagen, Julia; Dörr, Wolfgang; Sarioglu, Hakan; Schäfer, Alexander; Atkinson, Michael J.; Zischka, Hans; Tapio, Soile

    2011-01-01

    Backround Radiation therapy treatment of breast cancer, Hodgkin's disease or childhood cancers expose the heart to high local radiation doses, causing an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in the survivors decades after the treatment. The mechanisms that underlie the radiation damage remain poorly understood so far. Previous data show that impairment of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism is directly linked to the development of cardiovascular disease. Methodology/Principal findings In this study, the radiation-induced in vivo effects on cardiac mitochondrial proteome and function were investigated. C57BL/6N mice were exposed to local irradiation of the heart with doses of 0.2 Gy or 2 Gy (X-ray, 200 kV) at the age of eight weeks, the control mice were sham-irradiated. After four weeks the cardiac mitochondria were isolated and tested for proteomic and functional alterations. Two complementary proteomics approaches using both peptide and protein quantification strategies showed radiation-induced deregulation of 25 proteins in total. Three main biological categories were affected: the oxidative phophorylation, the pyruvate metabolism, and the cytoskeletal structure. The mitochondria exposed to high-dose irradiation showed functional impairment reflected as partial deactivation of Complex I (32%) and Complex III (11%), decreased succinate-driven respiratory capacity (13%), increased level of reactive oxygen species and enhanced oxidation of mitochondrial proteins. The changes in the pyruvate metabolism and structural proteins were seen with both low and high radiation doses. Conclusion/Significance This is the first study showing the biological alterations in the murine heart mitochondria several weeks after the exposure to low- and high-dose of ionizing radiation. Our results show that doses, equivalent to a single dose in radiotherapy, cause long-lasting changes in mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and mitochondria-associated cytoskeleton. This prompts us to

  8. Radiation-induced signaling results in mitochondrial impairment in mouse heart at 4 weeks after exposure to X-rays.

    PubMed

    Barjaktarovic, Zarko; Schmaltz, Dominik; Shyla, Alena; Azimzadeh, Omid; Schulz, Sabine; Haagen, Julia; Dörr, Wolfgang; Sarioglu, Hakan; Schäfer, Alexander; Atkinson, Michael J; Zischka, Hans; Tapio, Soile

    2011-01-01

    Radiation therapy treatment of breast cancer, Hodgkin's disease or childhood cancers expose the heart to high local radiation doses, causing an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in the survivors decades after the treatment. The mechanisms that underlie the radiation damage remain poorly understood so far. Previous data show that impairment of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism is directly linked to the development of cardiovascular disease. In this study, the radiation-induced in vivo effects on cardiac mitochondrial proteome and function were investigated. C57BL/6N mice were exposed to local irradiation of the heart with doses of 0.2 Gy or 2 Gy (X-ray, 200 kV) at the age of eight weeks, the control mice were sham-irradiated. After four weeks the cardiac mitochondria were isolated and tested for proteomic and functional alterations. Two complementary proteomics approaches using both peptide and protein quantification strategies showed radiation-induced deregulation of 25 proteins in total. Three main biological categories were affected: the oxidative phophorylation, the pyruvate metabolism, and the cytoskeletal structure. The mitochondria exposed to high-dose irradiation showed functional impairment reflected as partial deactivation of Complex I (32%) and Complex III (11%), decreased succinate-driven respiratory capacity (13%), increased level of reactive oxygen species and enhanced oxidation of mitochondrial proteins. The changes in the pyruvate metabolism and structural proteins were seen with both low and high radiation doses. This is the first study showing the biological alterations in the murine heart mitochondria several weeks after the exposure to low- and high-dose of ionizing radiation. Our results show that doses, equivalent to a single dose in radiotherapy, cause long-lasting changes in mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and mitochondria-associated cytoskeleton. This prompts us to propose that these first pathological changes lead to an increased

  9. Galangin prevents aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity by decreasing mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species in mouse cochlear cultures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ye-Ri; Kim, Min-A; Cho, Hyun-Ju; Oh, Se-Kyung; Lee, In-Kyu; Kim, Un-Kyung; Lee, Kyu-Yup

    2016-03-14

    Amikacin is a semi-synthetic aminoglycoside widely used to treat infections caused by gentamicin-resistant gram-negative organisms and nontuberculous mycobacteria. However, the use of this agent often results in ototoxicity due to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Galangin, a natural flavonoid, has been shown to play a protective role against mitochondrial dysfunction by reducing mitochondrial ROS production. In this study, the effect of galangin on amikacin-induced ototoxicity was examined using cultures of cochlear explants. Immunofluorescent staining showed that treatment of inner hair cells (IHCs) and outer hair cells (OHCs) with galangin significantly decreased damage induced by amikacin. Moreover, pretreatment with galangin resulted in decreased amikacin-provoked increase in ROS production in both types of hair cells by MitoSOX-red staining. Attenuation of apoptotic cell death was assessed immunohistochemically using active caspase-3 antibody and with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, compared to explants exposed to amikacin alone (P<0.05). These results indicate that galangin protects hair cells in the organ of Corti from amikacin-induced toxicity by reducing the production of mitochondrial ROS. The results of this study suggest that galangin can potentially be used as an antioxidant and antiapoptotic agent to prevent hearing loss caused by aminoglycoside induced-oxidative stress.

  10. Mitochondrial malic enzyme (ME2) in pancreatic islets of the human, rat and mouse and clonal insulinoma cells.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Michael J; Longacre, Melissa J; Kendrick, Mindy A

    2009-08-15

    Despite interest in malic enzyme(ME)s in insulin cells, mitochondrial malic enzyme (ME2) has only been studied with estimates of mRNA or with mRNA knockdown. Because an mRNA's level does not necessarily reflect the level of its cognate enzyme, we designed a simple spectrophotometric enzyme assay to measure ME2 activity of insulin cells by utilizing the distinct kinetic properties of ME2. Mitochondrial ME2 uses either NAD or NADP as a cofactor, has a high Km for malate and is allosterically activated by fumarate and inhibited by ATP. Cytosolic ME (ME1) and the other mitochondrial ME (ME3) use only NADP as a cofactor and have lower Kms for malate. The assay easily showed for the first time that substantial ME2 activity is present in pancreatic islets of humans, rats and mice and INS-1 832/13 cells. ME2's presence was confirmed with immunoblotting. There was no evidence that ME3 is present in these tissues.

  11. Pyrroloquinoline quinone nutritional status alters lysine metabolism and modulates mitochondrial DNA content in the mouse and rat.

    PubMed

    Bauerly, K A; Storms, D H; Harris, C B; Hajizadeh, S; Sun, M Y; Cheung, C P; Satre, M A; Fascetti, A J; Tchaparian, E; Rucker, R B

    2006-11-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) added to purified diets devoid of PQQ improves indices of perinatal development in rats and mice. Herein, PQQ nutritional status and lysine metabolism are described, prompted by a report that PQQ functions as a vitamin-like enzymatic cofactor important in lysine metabolism (Nature 422 [2003] 832). Alternatively, we propose that PQQ influences lysine metabolism, but by mechanisms that more likely involve changes in mitochondrial content. PQQ deprivation in both rats and mice resulted in a decrease in mitochondrial content. In rats, alpha-aminoadipic acid (alphaAA), which is derived from alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde (alphaAAS) and made from lysine in mitochondria, and the plasma levels of amino acids known to be oxidized in mitochondria (e.g., Thr, Ser, and Gly) were correlated with changes in the liver mitochondrial content of PQQ-deprived rats, but not PQQ-supplemented rats. In contrast, the levels of NAD dependent alpha-aminoadipate-delta-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (AASDH), a cytosolic enzyme important to alphaAA production from alphaAAS, was not influenced by PQQ dietary status. Moreover, the levels of U26 mRNA were not significantly changed even when diets differed markedly in PQQ and dietary lysine content. U26 mRNA levels were measured, because of U26's proposed, albeit questionable role as a PQQ-dependent enzyme involved in alphaAA formation.

  12. Schisandrin B protects against carbon tetrachloride toxicity by enhancing the mitochondrial glutathione redox status in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Ip, S P; Poon, M K; Che, C T; Ng, K H; Kong, Y C; Ko, K M

    1996-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have demonstrated the effect of Schisandrin B (Sch B),an active ingredient of the fruit of Schisandra chinensis, on enhancing the hepatic glutathione antioxidant system in mice, as evidenced by the hepatoprotection against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) toxicity. In the present study, the mechanism involved in the hepatoprotection afforded by Sch B treatment was investigated. Treating female Balb/c mice with 1, 3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea, an inhibitor of glutathione reductase (GRD), at a dose of 2 mmol/kg (i.p.) did not abrogate the hepatoprotective action of Sch B in CCl4-treated mice. The result indicates that the increased activity of hepatic GRD is not ascribable to the hepatoprotective action of Sch B. In control mice, the same Sch B treatment regimen caused an enhancement in hepatic mitochondrial glutathione redox status, as indicated by the significant increase and decrease in reduced and oxidized glutathione levels, respectively. While the CCl4 intoxication greatly impaired mitochondrial glutathione redox status, the beneficial effect of Sch B treatment became more evident after CCl4 challenge. Our results strongly suggest that the mechanism of hepatoprotection afforded by Sch B treatment may involve the enhancement of mitochondrial glutathione redox status.

  13. (-)-Epicatechin improves mitochondrial-related protein levels and ameliorates oxidative stress in dystrophic δ-sarcoglycan null mouse striated muscle.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Sanchez, Israel; De los Santos, Sergio; Gonzalez-Basurto, Silvia; Canto, Patricia; Mendoza-Lorenzo, Patricia; Palma-Flores, Carlos; Ceballos-Reyes, Guillermo; Villarreal, Francisco; Zentella-Dehesa, Alejandro; Coral-Vazquez, Ramon

    2014-12-01

    Muscular dystrophies (MDs) are a group of heterogeneous genetic disorders characterized by progressive striated muscle wasting and degeneration. Although the genetic basis for many of these disorders has been identified, the exact mechanism of disease pathogenesis remains unclear. The presence of oxidative stress (OS) is known to contribute to the pathophysiology and severity of the MD. Mitochondrial dysfunction is observed in MD, and probably represents an important determinant of increased OS. Experimental antioxidant therapies have been implemented with the aim of protecting against disease progression, but results from clinical trials have been disappointing. In this study, we explored the capacity of the cacao flavonoid (-)-epicatechin (Epi) to mitigate OS by acting as a positive regulator of mitochondrial structure/function endpoints and redox balance control systems in skeletal and cardiac muscles of dystrophic, δ-sarcoglycan (δ-SG) null mice. Wild-type or δ-SG null 2.5-month-old male mice were treated via oral gavage with either water (controls) or Epi (1 mg·kg(-1) , twice daily) for 2 weeks. The results showed significant normalization of total protein carbonylation, recovery of the glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio and enhanced superoxide dismutase 2, catalase and citrate synthase activities with Epi treatment. These effects were accompanied by increases in the protein levels of thioredoxin, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase 2, catalase, and mitochondrial endpoints. Furthermore, we found decreases in heart and skeletal muscle fibrosis, accompanied by an improvement in skeletal muscle function, with treatment. These results warrant further investigation of Epi as a potential therapeutic agent to mitigate MD-associated muscle degeneration. © 2014 FEBS.

  14. (−)-EPICATECHIN IMPROVES MITOCHONDRIAL RELATED PROTEIN LEVELS AND AMELIORATES OXIDATIVE STRESS IN DYSTROPHIC DELTA SARCOGLYCAN NULL MOUSE STRIATED MUSCLE

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Sanchez, Israel; De los Santos, Sergio; Gonzalez-Basurto, Silvia; Canto, Patricia; Mendoza-Lorenzo, Patricia; Palma-Flores, Carlos; Ceballos-Reyes, Guillermo; Villarreal, Francisco; Zentella-Dehesa, Alejandro; Coral-Vazquez, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Muscular dystrophies (MD) are a group of heterogeneous genetic disorders characterized by progressive striated muscle wasting and degeneration. Although the genetic basis for many of these disorders has been identified, the exact mechanism for disease pathogenesis remains unclear. The presence of oxidative stress (OS) is known to contribute to the pathophysiology and severity of the MD. Mitochondrial dysfunction is observed in MD and likely represents an important determinant of increased OS. Experimental antioxidant therapies have been implemented with the aim of protecting against disease progression, but results from clinical trials have been disappointing. In this study, we explored the capacity of the cacao flavonoid (−)-epicatechin (Epi) to mitigate OS by acting as a positive regulator of mitochondrial structure/function endpoints and redox balance control systems in skeletal and cardiac muscles of dystrophic, δ-sarcoglycan (δ-SG) null mice. Wild type or δ-SG null 2.5 month old male mice were treated via oral gavage with either water (control animals) or Epi (1 mg/kg, twice/day) for 2 weeks. Results evidence a significant normalization of total protein carbonylation, recovery of reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG ratio) and enhanced superoxide dismutase 2, catalase and citrate synthase activities with Epi treatment. These effects were accompanied by increases in protein levels for thiolredoxin, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase 2, catalase and mitochondrial endpoints. Furthermore, we evidence decreases in heart and skeletal muscle fibrosis, accompanied with an improvement in skeletal muscle function with treatment. These results warrant the further investigation of Epi as a potential therapeutic agent to mitigate MD associated muscle degeneration. PMID:25284161

  15. Apolipoprotein A1 regulates coenzyme Q10 absorption, mitochondrial function, and infarct size in a mouse model of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Dadabayev, Alisher R; Yin, Guotian; Latchoumycandane, Calivarathan; McIntyre, Thomas M; Lesnefsky, Edward J; Penn, Marc S

    2014-07-01

    HDL and apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) concentrations inversely correlate with risk of death from ischemic heart disease; however, the role of apoA1 in the myocardial response to ischemia has not been well defined. To test whether apoA1, the primary HDL apolipoprotein, has an acute anti-inflammatory role in ischemic heart disease, we induced myocardial infarction via direct left anterior descending coronary artery ligation in apoA1 null (apoA1(-/-)) and apoA1 heterozygous (apoA1(+/-)) mice. We observed that apoA1(+/-) and apoA1(-/-) mice had a 52% and 125% increase in infarct size as a percentage of area at risk, respectively, compared with wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice. Mitochondrial oxidation contributes to tissue damage in ischemia-reperfusion injury. A substantial defect was present at baseline in the electron transport chain of cardiac myocytes from apoA1(-/-) mice localized to the coenzyme Q (CoQ) pool with impaired electron transfer (67% decrease) from complex II to complex III. Administration of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) to apoA1 null mice normalized the cardiac mitochondrial CoQ pool and reduced infarct size to that observed in WT mice. CoQ10 administration did not significantly alter infarct size in WT mice. These data identify CoQ pool content leading to impaired mitochondrial function as major contributors to infarct size in the setting of low HDL/apoA1. These data suggest a previously unappreciated mechanism for myocardial stunning, cardiac dysfunction, and muscle pain associated with low HDL and low apoA1 concentrations that can be corrected by CoQ10 supplementation and suggest populations of patients that may benefit particularly from CoQ10 supplementation.

  16. Coenzyme Q10 Inhibits Glutamate Excitotoxicity and Oxidative Stress–Mediated Mitochondrial Alteration in a Mouse Model of Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dongwook; Shim, Myoung Sup; Kim, Keun-Young; Noh, You Hyun; Kim, Heemin; Kim, Sang Yeop; Weinreb, Robert N.; Ju, Won-Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To test whether a diet supplemented with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) ameliorates glutamate excitotoxicity and oxidative stress–mediated retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration by preventing mitochondrial alterations in the retina of glaucomatous DBA/2J mice. Methods. Preglaucomatous DBA/2J and age-matched control DBA/2J-Gpnmb+ mice were fed with CoQ10 (1%) or a control diet daily for 6 months. The RGC survival and axon preservation were measured by Brn3a and neurofilament immunohistochemistry and by conventional transmission electron microscopy. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), superoxide dismutase-2 (SOD2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO1), N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NR) 1 and 2A, and Bax and phosphorylated Bad (pBad) protein expression was measured by Western blot analysis. Apoptotic cell death was assessed by TUNEL staining. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam)/oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complex IV protein expression were measured by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. Results. Coenzyme Q10 promoted RGC survival by approximately 29% and preserved the axons in the optic nerve head (ONH), as well as inhibited astroglial activation by decreasing GFAP expression in the retina and ONH of glaucomatous DBA/2J mice. Intriguingly, CoQ10 significantly blocked the upregulation of NR1 and NR2A, as well as of SOD2 and HO1 protein expression in the retina of glaucomatous DBA/2J mice. In addition, CoQ10 significantly prevented apoptotic cell death by decreasing Bax protein expression or by increasing pBad protein expression. More importantly, CoQ10 preserved mtDNA content and Tfam/OXPHOS complex IV protein expression in the retina of glaucomatous DBA/2J mice. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that CoQ10 may be a promising therapeutic strategy for ameliorating glutamate excitotoxicity and oxidative stress in glaucomatous neurodegeneration. PMID:24458150

  17. Pioglitazone alleviates the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and mito-oxidative damage in the d-galactose-induced mouse model.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Atish; Kumar, Anil

    2013-09-01

    Chronic injection of d-galactose can cause gradual deterioration in learning and memory capacity, and activates oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptotic cell death in the brain of mice. Thus, it serves as an animal model of ageing. Recent evidence has shown that mild cognitive impairment in humans might be alleviated by treatment with piogliatzone (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists). To continue exploring the effects of piogliatzone in this model, we focused on behavioural alteration, oxidative damage, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in d-galactose-induced mice. The ageing model was established by administration of d-galactose (100 mg/kg) for 6 weeks. Pioglitazone (10 and 30 mg/kg) and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (15 mg/kg) were given daily to d-galactose-induced senescent mice. The cognitive behaviour of mice was monitored using the Morris water maze. The anti-oxidant status and apoptotic activity in the ageing mice was measured by determining mito-oxidative parameters and caspase-3 activity in brain tissue. Systemic administration of d-galactose significantly increased behavioural alterations, biochemical parameters, mitochondrial enzymes, and activations of caspase-3 and acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity as compared with the control group. Piogliatzone treatment significantly improved behavioural abnormalities, biochemical, cellular alterations, and attenuated the caspase-3 and acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity as compared with the control. Furthermore, pretreatment of BADGE (PPARγ antagonist) with pioglitazone reversed the protective effect of pioglitazone in d-galactose-induced mice. The present study highlights the protective effects of pioglitzone against d-galactose-induced memory dysfunction, mito-oxidative damage and apoptosis through activation of PPARγ receptors. These findings suggest that pioglitazone might be helpful for the prevention or alleviation of ageing.

  18. How mitochondrial dynamism orchestrates mitophagy

    PubMed Central

    Shirihai, Orian; Song, Moshi; Dorn, Gerald W

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are highly dynamic, except in adult cardiomyocytes. Yet, the fission and fusion-promoting proteins that mediate mitochondrial dynamism are highly expressed in, and essential to the normal functioning of, hearts. Here, we review accumulating evidence supporting important roles for mitochondrial fission and fusion in cardiac mitochondrial quality control, focusing on the PINK1-Parkin mitophagy pathway.Based in part on recent findings from in vivo mouse models in which mitofusin-mediated mitochondrial fusion or Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission were conditionally interrupted in cardiac myocytes, we propose several new concepts that may provide insight into the cardiac mitochondrial dynamism-mitophagy interactome. PMID:25999423

  19. Reduced availability of voltage-gated sodium channels by depolarization or blockade by tetrodotoxin boosts burst firing and catecholamine release in mouse chromaffin cells

    PubMed Central

    Vandael, David H F; Ottaviani, Matteo M; Legros, Christian; Lefort, Claudie; Guérineau, Nathalie C; Allio, Arianna; Carabelli, Valentina; Carbone, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Action potential (AP) firing in mouse chromaffin cells (MCCs) is mainly sustained by Cav1.3 L-type channels that drive BK and SK currents and regulate the pacemaking cycle. As secretory units, CCs optimally recruit Ca2+ channels when stimulated, a process potentially dependent on the modulation of the AP waveform. Our previous work has shown that a critical determinant of AP shape is voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav) channel availability. Here, we studied the contribution of Nav channels to firing patterns and AP shapes at rest (−50 mV) and upon stimulation (−40 mV). Using quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting, we show that MCCs mainly express tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive, fast-inactivating Nav1.3 and Nav1.7 channels that carry little or no Na+ current during slow ramp depolarizations. Time constants and the percentage of recovery from fast inactivation and slow entry into closed-state inactivation are similar to that of brain Nav1.3 and Nav1.7 channels. The fraction of available Nav channels is reduced by half after 10 mV depolarization from −50 to −40 mV. This leads to low amplitude spikes and a reduction in repolarizing K+ currents inverting the net current from outward to inward during the after-hyperpolarization. When Nav channel availability is reduced by up to 20% of total, either by TTX block or steady depolarization, a switch from tonic to burst firing is observed. The spontaneous occurrence of high frequency bursts is rare under control conditions (14% of cells) but leads to major Ca2+-entry and increased catecholamine release. Thus, Nav1.3/Nav1.7 channel availability sets the AP shape, burst-firing initiation and regulates catecholamine secretion in MCCs. Nav channel inactivation becomes important during periods of high activity, mimicking stress responses. PMID:25620605

  20. In Vivo Voltage-Sensitive Dye Study of Lateral Spreading of Cortical Activity in Mouse Primary Visual Cortex Induced by a Current Impulse

    PubMed Central

    Fehérvári, Tamás Dávid; Sawai, Hajime; Yagi, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    In the mammalian primary visual cortex (V1), lateral spreading of excitatory potentials is believed to be involved in spatial integrative functions, but the underlying cortical mechanism is not well understood. Visually-evoked population-level responses have been shown to propagate beyond the V1 initial activation site in mouse, similar to higher mammals. Visually-evoked responses are, however, affected by neuronal circuits prior to V1 (retina, LGN), making the separate analysis of V1 difficult. Intracortical stimulation eliminates these initial processing steps. We used in vivo RH1691 voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) imaging and intracortical microstimulation in adult C57BL/6 mice to elucidate the spatiotemporal properties of population-level signal spreading in V1 cortical circuits. The evoked response was qualitatively similar to that measured in single-cell electrophysiological experiments in rodents: a fast transient fluorescence peak followed by a fast and a slow decrease or hyperpolarization, similar to EPSP and fast and slow IPSPs in single cells. The early cortical response expanded at speeds commensurate with long horizontal projections (at 5% of the peak maximum, 0.08–0.15 m/s) however, the bulk of the VSD signal propagated slowly (at half-peak maximum, 0.05–0.08 m/s) suggesting an important role of regenerative multisynaptic transmission through short horizontal connections in V1 spatial integrative functions. We also found a tendency for a widespread and fast cortical response suppression in V1, which was eliminated by GABAA-antagonists gabazine and bicuculline methiodide. Our results help understand the neuronal circuitry involved in lateral spreading in V1. PMID:26230520

  1. N- and L-Type Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels Mediate Fast Calcium Transients in Axonal Shafts of Mouse Peripheral Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Barzan, Ruxandra; Pfeiffer, Friederike; Kukley, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In the peripheral nervous system (PNS) a vast number of axons are accommodated within fiber bundles that constitute peripheral nerves. A major function of peripheral axons is to propagate action potentials along their length, and hence they are equipped with Na+ and K+ channels, which ensure successful generation, conduction and termination of each action potential. However little is known about Ca2+ ion channels expressed along peripheral axons and their possible functional significance. The goal of the present study was to test whether voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs) are present along peripheral nerve axons in situ and mediate rapid activity-dependent Ca2+ elevations under physiological circumstances. To address this question we used mouse sciatic nerve slices, Ca2+ indicator Oregon Green BAPTA-1, and 2-photon Ca2+ imaging in fast line scan mode (500 Hz). We report that transient increases in intra-axonal Ca2+ concentration take place along peripheral nerve axons in situ when axons are stimulated electrically with single pulses. Furthermore, we show for the first time that Ca2+ transients in peripheral nerves are fast, i.e., occur in a millisecond time-domain. Combining Ca2+ imaging and pharmacology with specific blockers of different VGCCs subtypes we demonstrate that Ca2+ transients in peripheral nerves are mediated mainly by N-type and L-type VGCCs. Discovery of fast Ca2+ entry into the axonal shafts through VGCCs in peripheral nerves suggests that Ca2+ may be involved in regulation of action potential propagation and/or properties in this system, or mediate neurotransmitter release along peripheral axons as it occurs in the optic nerve and white matter of the central nervous system (CNS). PMID:27313508

  2. Age-associated oxidative modifications of mitochondrial α-subunit of F1 ATP synthase from mouse skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Das, N; Jana, C K

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the pattern of age-associated oxidative post-translational modifications in the skeletal muscles of a mammalian species and to address whether the modifications result in the loss of function of the oxidatively modified protein(s). Accordingly, proteins in the mitochondrial matrix of the hind limb of C57BL/6Nnia mice were examined for modifications by carbonylation--an established marker of oxidative post-translational modifications--by Western blotting using anti-2,4-dinitrophenyl antibodies and tritiated sodium borohydride methods. An age-associated increase in carbonylation of mitochondrial matrix proteins was observed, but not all proteins were equally susceptible. A 55 kDa protein, identified as the α-subunit of the F1 complex of ATP synthase (ATP phosphohydrolase [H(+)-transporting]), had approximately 17% and 27% higher levels of protein carbonyls in adult and old animals, respectively, in comparison to the young controls as estimated using tritiated sodium borohydride. In addition, an age-associated decline in its activity was observed, with approximately 9% and 28% decrease in the activity in the adult and old animals, respectively, in comparison to young controls. It may be concluded that such oxidative post-translational modifications and the resultant attenuation of the protein activity may contribute to the age-related energy loss and muscular degeneracy.

  3. Chronic alcohol exposure affects pancreatic acinar mitochondrial thiamin pyrophosphate uptake: studies with mouse 266-6 cell line and primary cells

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Padmanabhan; Nabokina, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Thiamin is essential for normal metabolic activity of all mammalian cells, including those of the pancreas. Cells obtain thiamin from their surroundings and enzymatically convert it into thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) in the cytoplasm; TPP is then taken up by mitochondria via a specific carrier the mitochondrial TPP transporter (MTPPT; product of the SLC25A19 gene). Chronic alcohol exposure negatively impacts the health of pancreatic acinar cells (PAC), but its effect on physiological/molecular parameters of MTPPT is not known. We addressed this issue using mouse pancreatic acinar tumor cell line 266-6 and primary PAC of wild-type and transgenic mice carrying the SLC25A19 promoter that were fed alcohol chronically. Chronic alcohol exposure of 266-6 cells (but not to its nonoxidative metabolites ethyl palmitate and ethyl oleate) led to a significant inhibition in mitochondrial TPP uptake, which was associated with a decreased expression of MTPPT protein, mRNA, and activity of the SLC25A19 promoter. Similarly, chronic alcohol feeding of mice led to a significant inhibition in expression of MTPPT protein, mRNA, heterogeneous nuclear RNA, as well as in activity of SLC25A19 promoter in PAC. While chronic alcohol exposure did not affect DNA methylation of the Slc25a19 promoter, a significant decrease in histone H3 euchromatin markers and an increase in H3 heterochromatin marker were observed. These findings show, for the first time, that chronic alcohol exposure negatively impacts pancreatic MTPPT, and that this effect is exerted, at least in part, at the level of Slc25a19 transcription and appears to involve epigenetic mechanism(s). PMID:26316591

  4. Effect of every other day feeding on mitochondrial free radical production and oxidative stress in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Caro, Pilar; Gómez, José; López-Torres, Mónica; Sánchez, Inés; Naudi, Alba; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Pamplona, Reinald; Barja, Gustavo

    2008-06-01

    It is known that dietary restriction (DR) increases maximum longevity in rodents, but the mechanisms involved remain unknown. Among the possible mechanisms, several lines of evidence support the idea that decreases in mitochondrial oxidative stress and in insulin signaling are involved but it is not known if they are interconnected. It has been reported that when C57BL/6 mice are maintained on an every other day (EOD) feeding their overall food intake is only slightly decreased and plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 is even somewhat increased. In spite of this, their maximum longevity is increased, analogously to what occurs in classic DR. Thus, this model dissociates the increase in longevity from the decrease in IGF-1 observed in classic DR. Based on these facts, we have studied the effect of EOD DR on the rate of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, oxygen consumption, and the percent free radical leak (FRL) of well-coupled liver mitochondria, the marker of mtDNA oxidative damage 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), the content of complexes I to IV of the respiratory chain, the apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), PGC1-alpha, UCP2, five different markers of oxidative damage to proteins and the full fatty acid composition on C57BL/6 mice liver. It was found that EOD DR decreased ROS production in complex I but not in complex III without changes in oxygen consumption. As a result, FRL was decreased in complex I. Oxidative damage to mtDNA (8-oxodG) and protein oxidation, glycoxidation and lipoxidation were also lower in the EOD restricted group in comparison with the control one while the degree of fatty acid unsaturation was held constant. The EOD group also showed decreases in AIF, PGC1-alpha, and UCP2. These results support the possibility that EOD DR increases maximum life span at least in part through decreases in mitochondrial oxidative stress which are independent from insulin/IGF-1-like signaling.

  5. Autoradiographic localization of voltage-dependent sodium channels on the mouse neuromuscular junction using /sup 125/I-alpha scorpion toxin. I. Preferential labeling of glial cells on the presynaptic side

    SciTech Connect

    Boudier, J.L.; Jover, E.; Cau, P.

    1988-05-01

    Alpha-scorpion toxins bind specifically to the voltage-sensitive sodium channel in excitable membranes, and binding is potential-dependent. The radioiodinated toxin II from the scorpion Androctonus australis Hector (alpha ScTx) was used to localize voltage-sensitive sodium channels on the presynaptic side of mouse neuromuscular junctions (NMJ) by autoradiography using both light and electron microscopy. Silver grain localization was analyzed by the cross-fire method. At the light-microscopic level, grain density over NMJ appeared 6-8x higher than over nonjunctional muscle membrane. The specificity of labeling was verified by competition/displacement with an excess of native alpha ScTx. Labeling was also inhibited by incubation in depolarizing conditions, showing its potential-dependence. At the electron-microscopic level, analysis showed that voltage-sensitive sodium channels labeled with alpha ScTx were almost exclusively localized on membranes, as expected. Due to washout after incubation, appreciable numbers of binding sites were not found on the postsynaptic membranes. However, on the presynaptic side, alpha ScTx-labeled voltage-sensitive sodium channels were localized on the membrane of non-myelin-forming Schwann cells covering NMJ. The axonal presynaptic membrane was not labeled. These results show that voltage-sensitive sodium channels are present on glial cells in vivo, as already demonstrated in vitro. It is proposed that these glial channels could be indirectly involved in the ionic homeostasis of the axonal environment.

  6. 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose Treatment Induces Ketogenesis, Sustains Mitochondrial Function, and Reduces Pathology in Female Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jia; Chen, Shuhua; Mao, Zisu; Cadenas, Enrique; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2011-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that mitochondrial bioenergetic deficits preceded Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology in the female triple-transgenic AD (3xTgAD) mouse model. In parallel, 3xTgAD mice exhibited elevated expression of ketogenic markers, indicating a compensatory mechanism for energy production in brain. This compensatory response to generate an alternative fuel source was temporary and diminished with disease progression. To determine whether this compensatory alternative fuel system could be sustained, we investigated the impact of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), a compound known to induce ketogenesis, on bioenergetic function and AD pathology burden in brain. 6-month-old female 3xTgAD mice were fed either a regular diet (AIN-93G) or a diet containing 0.04% 2-DG for 7 weeks. 2-DG diet significantly increased serum ketone body level and brain expression of enzymes required for ketone body metabolism. The 2-DG-induced maintenance of mitochondrial bioenergetics was paralleled by simultaneous reduction in oxidative stress. Further, 2-DG treated mice exhibited a significant reduction of both amyloid precursor protein (APP) and amyloid beta (Aβ) oligomers, which was paralleled by significantly increased α-secretase and decreased γ-secretase expression, indicating that 2-DG induced a shift towards a non-amyloidogenic pathway. In addition, 2-DG increased expression of genes involved in Aβ clearance pathways, degradation, sequestering, and transport. Concomitant with increased bioenergetic capacity and reduced β-amyloid burden, 2-DG significantly increased expression of neurotrophic growth factors, BDNF and NGF. Results of these analyses demonstrate that dietary 2-DG treatment increased ketogenesis and ketone metabolism, enhanced mitochondrial bioenergetic capacity, reduced β-amyloid generation and increased mechanisms of β-amyloid clearance. Further, these data link bioenergetic capacity with β-amyloid generation and demonstrate that β-amyloid burden was

  7. Mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and apoptosis revealed by proteomic and transcriptomic analyses of the striata in two mouse models of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Chin, Mark H; Qian, Wei-Jun; Wang, Haixing; Petyuk, Vladislav A; Bloom, Joshua S; Sforza, Daniel M; Laćan, Goran; Liu, Dahai; Khan, Arshad H; Cantor, Rita M; Bigelow, Diana J; Melega, William P; Camp, David G; Smith, Richard D; Smith, Desmond J

    2008-02-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the changes in the nigrostriatal pathway in Parkinson's disease (PD) are not completely understood. Here, we use mass spectrometry and microarrays to study the proteomic and transcriptomic changes in the striatum of two mouse models of PD, induced by the distinct neurotoxins 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and methamphetamine (METH). Proteomic analyses resulted in the identification and relative quantification of 912 proteins with two or more unique peptides and 86 proteins with significant abundance changes following neurotoxin treatment. Similarly, microarray analyses revealed 181 genes with significant changes in mRNA, following neurotoxin treatment. The combined protein and gene list provides a clearer picture of the potential mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration observed in PD. Functional analysis of this combined list revealed a number of significant categories, including mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress response, and apoptosis. These results constitute one of the largest descriptive data sets integrating protein and transcript changes for these neurotoxin models with many similar end point phenotypes but distinct mechanisms.

  8. Mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and apoptosis revealed by proteomic and transcriptomic analyses of the striata in two mouse models of Parkinson’s disease

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, Mark H.; Qian, Weijun; Wang, Haixing; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Sforza, Daniel M.; Lacan, Goran; Liu, Dahai; Khan, Arshad H.; Cantor, Rita M.; Bigelow, Diana J.; Melega, William P.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Smith, Desmond J.

    2008-02-10

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the changes in the nigrostriatal pathway in Parkinson disease (PD) are not completely understood. Here we use mass spectrometry and microarrays to study the proteomic and transcriptomic changes in the striatum of two mouse models of PD, induced by the distinct neurotoxins 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and methamphetamine (METH). Proteomic analyses resulted in the identification and relative quantification of 912 proteins with two or more unique peptides and 85 proteins with significant abundance changes following neurotoxin treatment. Similarly, microarray analyses revealed 181 genes with significant changes in mRNA following neurotoxin treatment. The combined protein and gene list provides a clearer picture of the potential mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration observed in PD. Functional analysis of this combined list revealed a number of significant categories, including mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress response and apoptosis. Additionally, codon usage and miRNAs may play an important role in translational control in the striatum. These results constitute one of the largest datasets integrating protein and transcript changes for these neurotoxin models with many similar endpoint phenotypes but distinct mechanisms.

  9. Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress, and Apoptosis Revealed by Proteomic and Transcriptomic Analyses of the Striata in Two Mouse Models of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Mark H.; Qian, Wei-Jun; Wang, Haixing; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Sforza, Daniel M.; Laćan, Goran; Liu, Dahai; Khan, Arshad H.; Cantor, Rita M.; Bigelow, Diana J.; Melega, William P.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Smith, Desmond J.

    2012-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the changes in the nigrostriatal pathway in Parkinson’s disease (PD) are not completely understood. Here, we use mass spectrometry and microarrays to study the proteomic and transcriptomic changes in the striatum of two mouse models of PD, induced by the distinct neurotoxins 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and methamphetamine (METH). Proteomic analyses resulted in the identification and relative quantification of 912 proteins with two or more unique peptides and 86 proteins with significant abundance changes following neurotoxin treatment. Similarly, microarray analyses revealed 181 genes with significant changes in mRNA, following neurotoxin treatment. The combined protein and gene list provides a clearer picture of the potential mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration observed in PD. Functional analysis of this combined list revealed a number of significant categories, including mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress response, and apoptosis. These results constitute one of the largest descriptive data sets integrating protein and transcript changes for these neurotoxin models with many similar end point phenotypes but distinct mechanisms. PMID:18173235

  10. Differential hepatic protein tyrosine nitration of mouse due to aging - effect on mitochondrial energy metabolism, quality control machinery of the endoplasmic reticulum and metabolism of drugs.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Adrienne; Lutfeali, Reshma; Raval, Alpan; Chakravarti, Deb N; Chakravarti, Bulbul

    2013-01-04

    Aging is the inevitable fate of life which leads to the gradual loss of functions of different organs and organelles of all living organisms. The liver is no exception. Oxidative damage to proteins and other macromolecules is widely believed to be the primary cause of aging. One form of oxidative damage is tyrosine nitration of proteins, resulting in the potential loss of their functions. In this study, the effect of age on the nitration of tyrosine in mouse liver proteins was examined. Liver proteins from young (19-22 weeks) and old (24 months) C57/BL6 male mice were separated using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and electroblotted onto nitrocellulose membranes. Proteins undergoing tyrosine nitration were identified using anti-nitrotyrosine antibody. Three different protein bands were found to contain significantly increased levels of nitrotyrosine in old mice (Wilconxon rank-sum test, p<0.05). Electrospray ionization liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-LC-MS/MS) was used to identify the proteins in these bands, which included aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, Aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1, subfamily A1, ATP synthase, H(+) transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, β subunit, selenium-binding protein 2, and protein disulfide-isomerase precursor. The possible impairment of their functions can lead to altered hepatic activity and have been discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Demethyleneberberine, a natural mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, inhibits mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and steatosis in alcoholic liver disease mouse model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengcheng; Qiang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Miao; Ma, Dongshen; Zhao, Zheng; Zhou, Cuisong; Liu, Xie; Li, Ruiyan; Chen, Huan; Zhang, Yubin

    2015-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption induces oxidative stress and lipid accumulation in the liver. Mitochondria have long been recognized as the key target for alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Recently, the artificial mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ has been used to treat ALD effectively in mice. Here, we introduce the natural mitochondria-targeted antioxidant demethyleneberberine (DMB), which has been found in Chinese herb Cortex Phellodendri chinensis. The protective effect of DMB on ALD was evaluated with HepG2 cells and acutely/chronically ethanol-fed mice, mimicking two common patterns of drinking in human. The results showed that DMB, which is composed of a potential antioxidant structure, could penetrate the membrane of mitochondria and accumulate in mitochondria either in vitro or in vivo. Consequently, the acute drinking-caused oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction were significantly ameliorated by DMB. Moreover, we also found that DMB suppressed CYP2E1, hypoxia inducible factor α, and inducible nitric oxide synthase, which contributed to oxidative stress and restored sirtuin 1/AMP-activated protein kinase/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α pathway-associated fatty acid oxidation in chronic ethanol-fed mice, which in turn ameliorated lipid peroxidation and macrosteatosis in the liver. Taking these findings together, DMB could serve as a novel and potential therapy for ALD in human beings.

  12. Near infrared (NIr) light increases expression of a marker of mitochondrial function in the mouse vestibular sensory epithelium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lucy; Tung, Victoria W K; Mathews, Miranda; Camp, Aaron J

    2015-03-14

    Strategies for attenuating decline in balance function with increasing age are predominantly focused on physical therapies including balance tasks and exercise. However, these approaches do not address the underlying causes of balance decline. Using mice, the impact of near infrared light (NIr) on the metabolism of cells in the vestibular sensory epithelium was assessed. Data collected shows that this simple and safe intervention may protect these vulnerable cells from the deleterious effects of natural aging. mRNA was extracted from the isolated peripheral vestibular sensory epithelium (crista ampullaris and utricular macula) and subsequently transcribed into a cDNA library. This library was then probed for the expression of ubiquitous antioxidant (SOD-1). Antioxidant gene expression was then used to quantify cellular metabolism. Using transcranial delivery of NIr in young (4 weeks) and older (8-9 months) mice, and a brief treatment regime (90 sec/day for 5 days), this work suggests NIr alone may be sufficient to improve mitochondrial function in the vestibular sensory epithelium. Since there are currently no available, affordable, non-invasive methods of therapy to improve vestibular hair cell function, the application of external NIr radiation provides a potential strategy to counteract the impact of aging on cellular metabolism inthe vestibular sensory epithelium.

  13. Near Infrared (NIr) Light Increases Expression of a Marker of Mitochondrial Function in the Mouse Vestibular Sensory Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lucy; Tung, Victoria W. K.; Mathews, Miranda; Camp, Aaron J.

    2015-01-01

    Strategies for attenuating decline in balance function with increasing age are predominantly focused on physical therapies including balance tasks and exercise. However, these approaches do not address the underlying causes of balance decline. Using mice, the impact of near infrared light (NIr) on the metabolism of cells in the vestibular sensory epithelium was assessed. Data collected shows that this simple and safe intervention may protect these vulnerable cells from the deleterious effects of natural aging. mRNA was extracted from the isolated peripheral vestibular sensory epithelium (crista ampullaris and utricular macula) and subsequently transcribed into a cDNA library. This library was then probed for the expression of ubiquitous antioxidant (SOD-1). Antioxidant gene expression was then used to quantify cellular metabolism. Using transcranial delivery of NIr in young (4 weeks) and older (8 - 9 months) mice, and a brief treatment regime (90 sec/day for 5 days), this work suggests NIr alone may be sufficient to improve mitochondrial function in the vestibular sensory epithelium. Since there are currently no available, affordable, non-invasive methods of therapy to improve vestibular hair cell function, the application of external NIr radiation provides a potential strategy to counteract the impact of aging on cellular metabolism inthe vestibular sensory epithelium. PMID:25868009

  14. Mitochondrial-targeted catalase is good for the old mouse proteome, but not for the young: 'reverse' antagonistic pleiotropy?

    PubMed

    Basisty, Nathan; Dai, Dao-Fu; Gagnidze, Arni; Gitari, Lemuel; Fredrickson, Jeanne; Maina, Yvonne; Beyer, Richard P; Emond, Mary J; Hsieh, Edward J; MacCoss, Michael J; Martin, George M; Rabinovitch, Peter S

    2016-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are highly reactive oxygen-containing molecules associated with aging and a broad spectrum of pathologies. We have previously shown that transgenic expression of the antioxidant enzyme catalase targeted to the mitochondria (mCAT) in mice reduces ROS, attenuates age-related disease, and increases lifespan. However, it has been increasingly recognized that ROS also has beneficial roles in signaling, hormesis, stress response, and immunity. We therefore hypothesized that mCAT might be beneficial only when ROS approaches pathological levels in older age and might not be advantageous at a younger age when basal ROS is low. We analyzed abundance and turnover of the global proteome in hearts and livers of young (4 month) and old (20 month) mCAT and wild-type (WT) mice. In old hearts and livers of WT mice, protein half-lives were reduced compared to young, while in mCAT mice the reverse was observed; the longest half-lives were seen in old mCAT mice and the shortest in young mCAT. Protein abundance of old mCAT hearts recapitulated a more youthful proteomic expression profile (P-value < 0.01). However, young mCAT mice partially phenocopied the older wild-type proteome (P-value < 0.01). Age strongly interacts with mCAT, consistent with antagonistic pleiotropy in the reverse of the typical direction. These findings underscore the contrasting roles of ROS in young vs. old mice and indicate the need for better understanding of the interaction between dose and age in assessing the efficacy of therapeutic interventions in aging, including mitochondrial antioxidants. © 2016 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Novel Role of Mitochondrial Manganese Superoxide Dismutase in STAT3 Dependent Pluripotency of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sheshadri, Preethi; Ashwini, Ashwathnarayan; Jahnavi, Sowmya; Bhonde, Ramesh; Prasanna, Jyothi; Kumar, Anujith

    2015-01-01

    Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF)/Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway maintains the stemness and pluripotency of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Detailed knowledge on key intermediates in this pathway as well as any parallel pathways is largely missing. We initiated our study by investigating the effect of small molecule Curcumin on various signalling pathways essential for self-renewal. Curcumin sustained the LIF independent self-renewal of mESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (miPSCs) in a STAT3 activity dependent manner. Gene expression analysis showed LIF/STAT3 and redox signaling components to be majorly modulated. Amongst ROS genes, expression of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase (MnSOD) specifically relied on STAT3 signaling as evidenced by STAT3 inhibition and reporter assay. The silencing of MnSOD, but not Cu-ZnSOD expression, resulted in the loss of mESC pluripotency in presence of LIF, and the overexpression of MnSOD is sufficient for maintaining the expression of pluripotent genes in the absence of STAT3 signaling. Finally, we demonstrate MnSOD to stabilize the turnover of pluripotent proteins at the post-translational level by modulating proteasomal activity. In conclusion, our findings unravel a novel role of STAT3 mediated MnSOD in the self-renewal of mESCs. PMID:25822711

  16. Alterations in Cytosolic and Mitochondrial [U-13C]Glucose Metabolism in a Chronic Epilepsy Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco-Pozo, Catalina

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Temporal lobe epilepsy is a common form of adult epilepsy and shows high resistance to treatment. Increasing evidence has suggested that metabolic dysfunction contributes to the development of seizures, with previous studies indicating impairments in brain glucose metabolism. Here we aim to elucidate which pathways involved in glucose metabolism are impaired, by tracing the hippocampal metabolism of injected [U-13C]glucose (i.p.) during the chronic stage of the pilocarpine-status epilepticus mouse model of epilepsy. The enrichment of 13C in the intermediates of glycolysis and the TCA cycle were quantified in hippocampal extracts using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectroscopy, along with the measurement of the activities of enzymes in each pathway. We show that there is reduced incorporation of 13C in the intermediates of glycolysis, with the percentage enrichment of all downstream intermediates being highly correlated with those of glucose 6-phosphate. Furthermore, the activities of all enzymes in this pathway including hexokinase and phosphofructokinase were unaltered, suggesting that glucose uptake is reduced in this model without further impairments in glycolysis itself. The key findings were 33% and 55% losses in the activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, respectively, along with reduced 13C enrichment in TCA cycle intermediates. This lower 13C enrichment is best explained in part by the reduced enrichment in glycolytic intermediates, whereas the reduction of key TCA cycle enzyme activity indicates that TCA cycling is also impaired in the hippocampal formation. Together, these data suggest that multitarget approaches may be necessary to restore metabolism in the epileptic brain. PMID:28303258

  17. Alterations in Cytosolic and Mitochondrial [U-(13)C]Glucose Metabolism in a Chronic Epilepsy Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Tanya S; Carrasco-Pozo, Catalina; Hodson, Mark P; Borges, Karin

    2017-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is a common form of adult epilepsy and shows high resistance to treatment. Increasing evidence has suggested that metabolic dysfunction contributes to the development of seizures, with previous studies indicating impairments in brain glucose metabolism. Here we aim to elucidate which pathways involved in glucose metabolism are impaired, by tracing the hippocampal metabolism of injected [U-(13)C]glucose (i.p.) during the chronic stage of the pilocarpine-status epilepticus mouse model of epilepsy. The enrichment of (13)C in the intermediates of glycolysis and the TCA cycle were quantified in hippocampal extracts using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy, along with the measurement of the activities of enzymes in each pathway. We show that there is reduced incorporation of (13)C in the intermediates of glycolysis, with the percentage enrichment of all downstream intermediates being highly correlated with those of glucose 6-phosphate. Furthermore, the activities of all enzymes in this pathway including hexokinase and phosphofructokinase were unaltered, suggesting that glucose uptake is reduced in this model without further impairments in glycolysis itself. The key findings were 33% and 55% losses in the activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, respectively, along with reduced (13)C enrichment in TCA cycle intermediates. This lower (13)C enrichment is best explained in part by the reduced enrichment in glycolytic intermediates, whereas the reduction of key TCA cycle enzyme activity indicates that TCA cycling is also impaired in the hippocampal formation. Together, these data suggest that multitarget approaches may be necessary to restore metabolism in the epileptic brain.

  18. Low Dose Acetaminophen Induces Reversible Mitochondrial Dysfunction Associated with Transient c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Activation in Mouse Liver.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiangting; Ramshesh, Venkat K; McGill, Mitchell R; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Lemasters, John J

    2016-03-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose causes hepatotoxicity involving mitochondrial dysfunction and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. Because the safe limit of APAP dosing is controversial, our aim was to evaluate the role of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) and JNK in mitochondrial dysfunction after APAP dosing considered nontoxic by criteria of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) release and histological necrosis in vivo. C57BL/6 mice were given APAP with and without the MPT inhibitor, N-methyl-4-isoleucine cyclosporin (NIM811), or the JNK inhibitor, SP600125. Fat droplet formation, cell viability, and mitochondrial function in vivo were monitored by intravital multiphoton microscopy. Serum ALT, liver histology, total JNK, and activated phospho(p)JNK were also assessed. High APAP (300 mg/kg) caused ALT release, necrosis, irreversible mitochondrial dysfunction, and hepatocellular death. By contrast, lower APAP (150 mg/kg) caused reversible mitochondrial dysfunction and fat droplet formation in hepatocytes without ALT release or necrosis. Mitochondrial protein N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine adducts correlated with early JNK activation, but irreversible mitochondrial depolarization and necrosis at high dose were associated with sustained JNK activation and translocation to mitochondria. NIM811 prevented cell death and/or mitochondrial depolarization after both high and low dose APAP. After low dose, SP600125 decreased mitochondrial depolarization. In conclusion, low dose APAP produces reversible MPT-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction and steatosis in hepatocytes without causing ALT release or necrosis, whereas high dose leads to irreversible mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death associated with sustained JNK activation. Thus, nontoxic APAP has the potential to cause transient mitochondrial dysfunction that may synergize with other stresses to promote liver damage and steatosis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on

  19. Low Dose Acetaminophen Induces Reversible Mitochondrial Dysfunction Associated with Transient c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Activation in Mouse Liver

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jiangting; Ramshesh, Venkat K.; McGill, Mitchell R.; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Lemasters, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose causes hepatotoxicity involving mitochondrial dysfunction and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. Because the safe limit of APAP dosing is controversial, our aim was to evaluate the role of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) and JNK in mitochondrial dysfunction after APAP dosing considered nontoxic by criteria of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) release and histological necrosis in vivo. C57BL/6 mice were given APAP with and without the MPT inhibitor, N-methyl-4-isoleucine cyclosporin (NIM811), or the JNK inhibitor, SP600125. Fat droplet formation, cell viability, and mitochondrial function in vivo were monitored by intravital multiphoton microscopy. Serum ALT, liver histology, total JNK, and activated phospho(p)JNK were also assessed. High APAP (300 mg/kg) caused ALT release, necrosis, irreversible mitochondrial dysfunction, and hepatocellular death. By contrast, lower APAP (150 mg/kg) caused reversible mitochondrial dysfunction and fat droplet formation in hepatocytes without ALT release or necrosis. Mitochondrial protein N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine adducts correlated with early JNK activation, but irreversible mitochondrial depolarization and necrosis at high dose were associated with sustained JNK activation and translocation to mitochondria. NIM811 prevented cell death and/or mitochondrial depolarization after both high and low dose APAP. After low dose, SP600125 decreased mitochondrial depolarization. In conclusion, low dose APAP produces reversible MPT-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction and steatosis in hepatocytes without causing ALT release or necrosis, whereas high dose leads to irreversible mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death associated with sustained JNK activation. Thus, nontoxic APAP has the potential to cause transient mitochondrial dysfunction that may synergize with other stresses to promote liver damage and steatosis. PMID:26721299

  20. Long-term rates of mitochondrial protein synthesis are increased in mouse skeletal muscle with high fat feeding regardless of insulin sensitizing treatment.

    PubMed

    Newsom, Sean A; Miller, Benjamin F; Hamilton, Karyn L; Ehrlicher, Sarah E; Stierwalt, Harrison D; Robinson, Matthew M

    2017-07-11

    Skeletal muscle mitochondrial protein synthesis is regulated in part by insulin. The development of insulin resistance with diet-induced obesity may therefore contribute to impairments to protein synthesis and decreased mitochondrial respiration. Yet, the impact of diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance on mitochondrial energetics is controversial with reports varying from decreases to increases in mitochondrial respiration. We investigated the impact of changes in insulin sensitivity on long-term rates of mitochondrial protein synthesis as a mechanism for changes to mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle. Insulin resistance was induced in C57BL/6J mice using 4 weeks of high-fat compared with low-fat diet. For 8 additional weeks, diets were enriched in pioglitazone to restore insulin sensitivity as compared with non-enriched control low-fat or high-fat diet. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial protein synthesis was measured using deuterium oxide labeling during weeks 10 to 12. High-resolution respirometry was performed using palmitoyl-L-carnitine, glutamate+malate and glutamate+malate+succinate as substrates for mitochondria isolated from quadriceps. Mitochondrial protein synthesis and palmitoyl-L-carnitine oxidation were increased in mice consuming high-fat diet, regardless of differences in insulin sensitivity with pioglitazone treatment. There was no effect of diet or pioglitazone treatment on ADP-stimulated respiration or H2O2 emission using glutamate+malate or glutamate+malate+succinate. The results demonstrate no impairments to mitochondrial protein synthesis or respiration following induction of insulin resistance. Instead, mitochondrial protein synthesis was increased with high-fat diet and may contribute to remodeling of the mitochondria to increase lipid oxidation capacity. Mitochondrial adaptations with high-fat diet appear driven by nutrient availability, not intrinsic defects that contribute to insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017, American

  1. VOLTAGE REGULATOR

    DOEpatents

    Von Eschen, R.L.; Scheele, P.F.

    1962-04-24

    A transistorized voltage regulator which provides very close voitage regulation up to about 180 deg F is described. A diode in the positive line provides a constant voltage drop from the input to a regulating transistor emitter. An amplifier is coupled to the positive line through a resistor and is connected between a difference circuit and the regulating transistor base which is negative due to the difference in voltage drop across thc diode and the resistor so that a change in the regulator output causes the amplifier to increase or decrease the base voltage and current and incrcase or decrease the transistor impedance to return the regulator output to normal. (AEC)

  2. A Conditional Mouse Mutant in the Tumor Suppressor SdhD Gene Unveils a Link between p21WAF1/Cip1 Induction and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Millán-Uclés, África; Díaz-Castro, Blanca; García-Flores, Paula; Báez, Alicia; Pérez-Simón, José Antonio; López-Barneo, José; Piruat, José I.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in mitochondrial complex II (MCII; succinate dehydrogenase, Sdh) genes cause familiar pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma tumors. Several mechanisms have been proposed to account for Sdh-mutation-induced tumorigenesis, the most accepted of which is based on the constitutive expression of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (Hif1α) at normal oxygen tension, a theory referred to as “pseudo-hypoxic drive”. Other molecular processes, such as oxidative stress, apoptosis, or chromatin remodeling have been also proposed to play a causative role. Nevertheless, the actual contribution of each of these mechanisms has not been definitively established. Moreover, the biological factors that determine the tissue-specificity of these tumors have not been identified. In this work, we made use of the inducible SDHD-ESR mouse, a conditional mutant in the SdhD gene, which encodes the small subunit of MCII, and that acts as a tumor suppressor gene in humans. The analysis of the Hif1α pathway in SDHD-ESR tissues and in two newly derived cell lines after complete SdhD loss -a requirement for hereditary paraganglioma type-1 tumor formation in humans- partially recapitulated the “pseudo-hypoxic” response and rendered inconsistent results. Therefore, we performed microarray analysis of adrenal medulla and kidney in order to identify other early gene expression changes elicited by SdhD deletion. Our results revealed that each mutant tissue displayed different variations in their gene expression profiles affecting to different biological processes. However, we found that the Cdkn1a gene was up-regulated in both tissues. This gene encodes the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1/Cip1, a factor implicated in cell cycle, senescence, and cancer. The two SDHD-ESR cell lines also showed accumulation of this protein. This new and unprecedented evidence for a link between SdhD dysfunction and p21WAF1/Cip1 will open new avenues for the study of the mechanisms that cause tumors in

  3. Bioregion heterogeneity correlates with extensive mitochondrial DNA diversity in the Namaqua rock mouse, Micaelamys namaquensis (Rodentia: Muridae) from southern Africa - evidence for a species complex

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Intraspecific variation within the diverse southern African murine rodents has not been extensively investigated, yet cryptic diversity is evident in several taxa studied to date. The Namaqua rock mouse, Micaelamys namaquensis Smith, 1834 is a widespread endemic murine rodent from the subregion. Currently, a single species with four subspecies is recognised, but in the past up to 16 subspecies were described. Thus, this species is a good candidate for the investigation of patterns and processes of diversification in a diverse but under-studied mammalian subfamily and geographic region. Here, we report genetic differentiation based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b (cyt b) sequences among samples collected over an extensive coverage of the species' range. Results Cytochrome b sequences of 360 widely sampled individuals identified 137 unique maternal alleles. Gene tree and phylogeographic analyses of these alleles suggest the presence of at least eight lineages or haplogroups (A-H), with varying degrees of intra-lineage diversity. This differentiation is in contrast with the most recent taxonomic treatment based on cranial morphometrics which only recognised four subspecies. The mtDNA diversity strongly supports earlier views that this taxon may represent a species complex. We further show statistical support for the association of several of these lineages with particular vegetation biomes of southern Africa. The time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) dates to the Pliocene (~5 Mya) whereas coalescent-based divergence time estimates between lineages vary between 813 Kya [0.22 - 1.36] and 4.06 Mya [1.21 - 4.47]. The major diversification within lineages occurred during the Pleistocene. The identification of several regions of sympatry of distinct lineages offers future opportunities for the elucidation of the underlying speciation processes in the suggested species complex. Conclusions Similar to other African murine rodents, M. namaquensis

  4. Stimulation-induced mitochondrial [Ca2+] elevations in mouse motor terminals: comparison of wild-type with SOD1-G93A.

    PubMed

    Vila, Lizette; Barrett, Ellen F; Barrett, John N

    2003-06-15

    Changes in mitochondrial matrix [Ca2+] evoked by trains of action potentials were studied in levator auris longus motor terminals using Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent indicator dyes (rhod-2, rhod-5F). During a 2500 impulse 50 Hz train, mitochondrial [Ca2+] in most wild-type terminals increased within 5-10 s to a plateau level that was sustained until stimulation ended. This plateau was not due to dye saturation, but rather reflects a powerful buffering system within the mitochondrial matrix. The amplitude of this plateau was similar for stimulation frequencies in the range 15-100 Hz. Plateau amplitude was sensitive to temperature, with no detectable stimulation-induced increase in fluorescence at temperatures below 17 degrees C, and increasing magnitudes as temperature was increased to near-physiological levels (38 degrees C). When stimulation ended, mitochondrial [Ca2+] decayed slowly back to prestimulation levels over a time course of hundreds of seconds. Similar measurements were also made in motor terminals of mice expressing the G93A mutation of human superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1-G93A). In mice > 100 days old, all of whom exhibited hindlimb paralysis, some terminals continued to show wild-type mitochondrial [Ca2+] responses, but in other terminals mitochondrial [Ca2+] did not plateau, but rather continued to increase throughout most of the stimulus train. Thus mechanism(s) that limit stimulation-induced increases in mitochondrial [Ca2+] may be compromised in some SOD1-G93A terminals.

  5. MicroRNA-7 Regulates the Function of Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore by Targeting VDAC1 Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Amrita Datta; Choi, Doo Chul; Kabaria, Savan; Tran, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the major contributors to neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson disease. The mitochondrial permeability transition pore is a protein complex located on the mitochondrial membrane. Under cellular stress, the pore opens, increasing the release of pro-apoptotic proteins, and ultimately resulting in cell death. MicroRNA-7 (miR-7) is a small non-coding RNA that has been found to exhibit a protective role in the cellular models of Parkinson disease. In the present study, miR-7 was predicted to regulate the function of mitochondria, according to gene ontology analysis of proteins that are down-regulated by miR-7. Indeed, miR-7 overexpression inhibited mitochondrial fragmentation, mitochondrial depolarization, cytochrome c release, reactive oxygen species generation, and release of mitochondrial calcium in response to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. In addition, several of these findings were confirmed in mouse primary neurons. Among the mitochondrial proteins identified by gene ontology analysis, the expression of voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1), a constituent of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, was down-regulated by miR-7 through targeting 3′-untranslated region of VDAC1 mRNA. Similar to miR-7 overexpression, knockdown of VDAC1 also led to a decrease in intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and subsequent cellular protection against MPP+. Notably, overexpression of VDAC1 without the 3′-UTR significantly abolished the protective effects of miR-7 against MPP+-induced cytotoxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction, suggesting that the protective effect of miR-7 is partly exerted through promoting mitochondrial function by targeting VDAC1 expression. These findings point to a novel mechanism by which miR-7 accomplishes neuroprotection by improving mitochondrial health. PMID:26801612

  6. Imidazol-1-ylethylindazole Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Ligands Are Neuroprotective during Optic Neuritis in a Mouse Model of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A series of imidazol-1-ylethylindazole sodium channel ligands were developed and optimized for sodium channel inhibition and in vitro neuroprotective activity. The molecules exhibited displacement of a radiolabeled sodium channel ligand and selectivity for blockade of the inactivated state of cloned neuronal Nav channels. Metabolically stable analogue 6 was able to protect retinal ganglion cells during optic neuritis in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. PMID:24601592

  7. Reduction of Mitochondrial Function by FCCP During Mouse Cleavage Stage Embryo Culture Reduces Birth Weight and Impairs the Metabolic Health of Offspring.

    PubMed

    Zander-Fox, Deirdre L; Fullston, Tod; McPherson, Nicole O; Sandeman, Lauren; Kang, Wan Xian; Good, Suzanne B; Spillane, Marni; Lane, Michelle

    2015-05-01

    The periconceptual environment represents a critical window for programming fetal growth trajectories and susceptibility to disease; however, the underlying mechanism responsible for programming remains elusive. This study demonstrates a causal link between reduction of precompaction embryonic mitochondrial function and perturbed offspring growth trajectories and subsequent metabolic dysfunction. Incubation of embryos with carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone (FCCP), which uncouples mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, significantly reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production in 8-cell embryos and the number of inner cell mass cells within blastocysts; however, blastocyst development was unchanged. This perturbed embryonic mitochondrial function was concomitant with reduced birth weight in female offspring following embryo transfer, which persisted until weaning. FCCP-treated females also exhibited increased adiposity at 4 wk, increased adiposity gain between 4 and 14 wk, glucose intolerance at 8 wk, and insulin resistance at 14 wk. Although FCCP-treated males also exhibited reduced glucose tolerance, but their insulin sensitivity and adiposity gain between 4 and 14 wk was unchanged. To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies to demonstrate that reducing mitochondrial function and, thus, decreasing ATP output in the precompacting embryo can influence offspring phenotype. This is of great significance as a large proportion of patients requiring assisted reproductive technologies are of advanced maternal age or have a high body mass index, both of which have been independently linked with perturbed early embryonic mitochondrial function.

  8. Rufinamide attenuates mechanical allodynia in a model of neuropathic pain in the mouse and stabilizes voltage-gated sodium channel inactivated state.

    PubMed

    Suter, Marc R; Kirschmann, Guylène; Laedermann, Cedric J; Abriel, Hugues; Decosterd, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels dysregulation is important for hyperexcitability leading to pain persistence. Sodium channel blockers currently used to treat neuropathic pain are poorly tolerated. Getting new molecules to clinical use is laborious. We here propose a drug already marketed as anticonvulsant, rufinamide. We compared the behavioral effect of rufinamide to amitriptyline using the Spared Nerve Injury neuropathic pain model in mice. We compared the effect of rufinamide on sodium currents using in vitro patch clamp in cells expressing the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7 isoform and on dissociated dorsal root ganglion neurons to amitriptyline and mexiletine. In naive mice, amitriptyline (20 mg/kg) increased withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimulation from 1.3 (0.6-1.9) (median [95% CI]) to 2.3 g (2.2-2.5) and latency of withdrawal to heat stimulation from 13.1 (10.4-15.5) to 30.0 s (21.8-31.9), whereas rufinamide had no effect. Rufinamide and amitriptyline alleviated injury-induced mechanical allodynia for 4 h (maximal effect: 0.10 ± 0.03 g (mean ± SD) to 1.99 ± 0.26 g for rufinamide and 0.25 ± 0.22 g to 1.92 ± 0.85 g for amitriptyline). All drugs reduced peak current and stabilized the inactivated state of voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7, with similar effects in dorsal root ganglion neurons. At doses alleviating neuropathic pain, amitriptyline showed alteration of behavioral response possibly related to either alteration of basal pain sensitivity or sedative effect or both. Side-effects and drug tolerance/compliance are major problems with drugs such as amitriptyline. Rufinamide seems to have a better tolerability profile and could be a new alternative to explore for the treatment of neuropathic pain.

  9. Co-localization of L-type voltage dependent calcium channel alpha 1D subunit (Ca(v)1.3) and calbindin (CB) in the mouse central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie Hua; Yang, Zhen Bang; Wang, Hui; Tang, Feng-Ru

    2014-02-21

    Previous study has shown that the co-localization of calbindin (CB) with L-type voltage dependent Ca(2+) channel (VDCC) alpha 1C subunit (Ca(v)1.2) in the rat insulinoma 1046-38 (RIN) beta cells may play an important regulatory role in Ca(2+) influx and exocytosis of insulin granules. In the present study, L-type voltage dependent Ca(2+) channel (VDCC) and calbindin (CB) were demonstrated in different regions of the mouse central nervous system (CNS). Double labeling immunofluorescence staining showed a co-localization of Ca(v)1.3 and CB. The co-localization of Ca(v)1.3 and CB in certain brain regions such as the hippocampus suggests their important roles in neuroplasticity. The relative high percentages of co-localization of Ca(v)1.3 with CB in the laminae II of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord indicate that the regulation mechanism of nociceptive transmission may be related with both VDCC and Ca(2+) binding protein.

  10. Acute blockage of voltage-gated K⁺ currents by 17β-estradiol in mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoqing; Hao, Xuran; Cheng, Bo; Li, Xiantao

    2014-05-28

    In this study, whole-cell recording was carried out to explore the effects of 17β-estradiol on voltage-gated K⁺ (Kv) currents in N2A cells. The acute exposure to 17β-estradiol, in a concentration-dependent manner, significantly inhibited the peak and steady-state currents through Kv channels, showing IC50 values of 3.6 and 3.8 μM, respectively. The reduction in both the amplitude and the decay rate of Kv currents, with an increase in depolarization, suggested that it was a voltage-dependent block. The activation and inactivation experiments were conducted to determine the exact causes of the inhibitory effects. The half-maximum activation potential (V₁/₂) was +8.1 mV in control and remained stable after exposure to 10 μM 17β-estradiol. For steady-state inactivation, the half-maximum inactivation potential (V₁/₂) was -45.0 mV and shifted right to -39.7 mV without a statistical difference, and the time constants of recovery from inactivation were not altered by 17β-estradiol, suggesting that the depression was not correlated with the inactivation gate.

  11. Voltage-gated K+ channels play a role in cAMP-stimulated neuritogenesis in mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells.

    PubMed

    Leung, Yuk-Man; Huang, Chien-Fang; Chao, Chia-Chia; Lu, Dah-Yuu; Kuo, Chang-Shin; Cheng, Tzu-Hurng; Chang, Li-Yun; Chou, Chun-Hsiao

    2011-04-01

    Neuritogenesis is essential in establishing the neuronal circuitry. An important intracellular signal causing neuritogenesis is cAMP. In this report, we showed that an increase in intracellular cAMP stimulated neuritogenesis in neuroblastoma N2A cells via a PKA-dependent pathway. Two voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channel blockers, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and tetraethylammonium (TEA), inhibited cAMP-stimulated neuritogenesis in N2A cells in a concentration-dependent manner that remarkably matched their ability to inhibit Kv currents in these cells. Consistently, siRNA knock down of Kv1.1, Kv1.4, and Kv2.1 expression reduced Kv currents and inhibited cAMP-stimulated neuritogenesis. Kv1.1, Kv1.4, and Kv2.1 channels were expressed in the cell bodies and neurites as shown by immunohistochemistry. Microfluorimetric imaging of intracellular [K(+)] demonstrated that [K(+)] in neurites was lower than that in the cell body. We also showed that cAMP-stimulated neuritogenesis may not involve voltage-gated Ca(2+) or Na(+) channels. Taken together, the results suggest a role of Kv channels and enhanced K(+) efflux in cAMP/PKA-stimulated neuritogenesis in N2A cells.

  12. D-galactose induces a mitochondrial complex I deficiency in mouse skeletal muscle: potential benefits of nutrient combination in ameliorating muscle impairment.

    PubMed

    Chang, Liao; Liu, Xin; Liu, Jing; Li, Hua; Yang, Yanshen; Liu, Jia; Guo, Zihao; Xiao, Ke; Zhang, Chen; Liu, Jiankang; Zhao-Wilson, Xi; Long, Jiangang

    2014-03-01

    Accumulating research has shown that chronic D-galactose (D-gal) exposure induces symptoms similar to natural aging in animals. Therefore, rodents chronically exposed to D-gal are increasingly used as a model for aging and delay-of-aging pharmacological research. Mitochondrial dysfunction is thought to play a vital role in aging and age-related diseases; however, whether mitochondrial dysfunction plays a significant role in mice exposed to D-gal remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated cognitive dysfunction, locomotor activity, and mitochondrial dysfunction involved in D-gal exposure in mice. We found that D-gal exposure (125 mg/kg/day, 8 weeks) resulted in a serious impairment in grip strength in mice, whereas spatial memory and locomotor coordination remained intact. Interestingly, muscular mitochondrial complex I deficiency occurred in the skeletal muscle of mice exposed to D-gal. Mitochondrial ultrastructure abnormality was implicated as a contributing factor in D-gal-induced muscular impairment. Moreover, three combinations (A, B, and C) of nutrients applied in this study effectively reversed D-gal-induced muscular impairment. Nutrient formulas B and C were especially effective in reversing complex I dysfunction in both skeletal muscle and heart muscle. These findings suggest the following: (1) chronic exposure to D-gal first results in specific muscular impairment in mice, rather than causing general, premature aging; (2) poor skeletal muscle strength induced by D-gal might be due to the mitochondrial dysfunction caused by complex I deficiency; and (3) the nutrient complexes applied in the study attenuated the skeletal muscle impairment, most likely by improving mitochondrial function.

  13. Mitochondrial dynamics changes with age in an APPsw/PS1dE9 mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lin-Lin; Shen, Yang; Wang, Xiao; Wei, Li-Fei; Wang, Ping; Yang, Hui; Wang, Cun-Fu; Xie, Zhao-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Increasing research suggests that mitochondrial defects play a major role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis. We aimed to better understand changes in mitochondria with the development and progression of AD. We compared APPsw/PS1dE9 transgenic mice at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months old as an animal model of AD and age-matched C57BL/6 mice as controls. The learning ability and spatial memory ability of APPsw/PS1dE9 mice showed significant differences compared with controls until 9 and 12 months. Mitochondrial morphology was altered in hippocampus tissue of APPsw/PS1dE9 mice beginning from the third month. ‘Medullary corpuscle’, which is formed by the accumulation of a large amount of degenerative and fragmented mitochondria in neuropils, may be the characteristic change observed on electron microscopy at a late stage of AD. Moreover, levels of mitochondrial fusion proteins (optic atrophy 1 and mitofusin 2) and fission proteins (dynamin-related protein 1 and fission 1) were altered in transgenic mice compared with controls with progression of AD. We found increased levels of fission and fusion proteins in APP/PS1 mice at 3 months, indicating that the presence of abnormal mitochondrial dynamics may be events in early AD progression. Changes in mitochondrial preceded the onset of memory decline as measured by the modified Morris water maze test. Abnormal mitochondrial dynamics could be a marker for early diagnosis of AD and monitoring disease progression. Further research is needed to study the signaling pathways that govern mitochondrial fission/fusion in AD. PMID:28118288

  14. Acetyl-L-carnitine and lipoic acid improve mitochondrial abnormalities and serum levels of liver enzymes in a mouse model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Kathirvel, Elango; Morgan, Kengathevy; French, Samuel W; Morgan, Timothy R

    2013-11-01

    Mitochondrial abnormalities are suggested to be associated with the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver. Liver mitochondrial content and function have been shown to improve in oral feeding of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) to rodents. Carnitine is involved in the transport of acyl-coenzyme A across the mitochondrial membrane to be used in mitochondrial β-oxidation. We hypothesized that oral administration ALC with the antioxidant lipoic acid (ALC + LA) would benefit nonalcoholic fatty liver. To test our hypothesis, we fed Balb/C mice a standard diet (SF) or SF with ALC + LA or high-fat diet (HF) or HF with ALC + LA for 6 months. Acetyl-L-carnitine and LA were dissolved at 0.2:0.1% (wt/vol) in drinking water, and mice were allowed free access to food and water. Along with physical parameters, insulin resistance (blood glucose, insulin, glucose tolerance), liver function (alanine transaminase [ALT], aspartate transaminase [AST]), liver histology (hematoxylin and eosin), oxidative stress (malondialdehyde), and mitochondrial abnormalities (carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 and electron microscopy) were done. Compared with SF, HF had higher body, liver, liver-to-body weight ratio, white adipose tissue, ALT, AST, liver fat, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance. Coadministration of ALC + LA to HF animals significantly improved the mitochondrial marker carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 and the size of the mitochondria in liver. Alanine transaminase and AST levels were decreased. In a nonalcoholic fatty liver mice model, ALC + LA combination improved liver mitochondrial content, size, serum ALT, and AST without significant changes in oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and liver fat accumulation.

  15. NLRP3 Deficiency Attenuates Renal Fibrosis and Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunction in a Mouse Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction Model of Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Honglei; Bi, Xiao; Zhou, Ping; Zhu, Shijian

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims. The nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing PYD-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, its exact role in glomerular injury and tubulointerstitial fibrosis is still undefined. The present study was performed to identify the function of NLRP3 in modulating renal injury and fibrosis and the potential involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in the murine unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model of CKD. Methods. Employing wild-type (WT) and NLRP3−/− mice with or without UUO, we evaluated renal structure, tissue injury, and mitochondrial ultrastructure, as well as expression of some vital molecules involved in the progression of fibrosis, apoptosis, inflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Results. The severe glomerular injury and tubulointerstitial fibrosis induced in WT mice by UUO was markedly attenuated in NLRP3−/− mice as evidenced by blockade of extracellular matrix deposition, decreased cell apoptosis, and phenotypic alterations. Moreover, NLRP3 deletion reversed UUO-induced impairment of mitochondrial morphology and function. Conclusions. NLRP3 deletion ameliorates mitochondrial dysfunction and alleviates renal fibrosis in a murine UUO model of CKD. PMID:28348462

  16. Blockade by ifenprodil of high voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat and mouse cultured hippocampal pyramidal neurones: comparison with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist actions.

    PubMed Central

    Church, J; Fletcher, E J; Baxter, K; MacDonald, J F

    1994-01-01

    1. The block by ifenprodil of voltage-activated Ca2+ channels was investigated in intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) evoked by 50 mM K+ (high-[K+]o) in Fura-2-loaded rat hippocampal pyramidal neurones in culture and on currents carried by Ba2+ ions (IBa) through Ca2+ channels in mouse cultured hippocampal neurones under whole-cell voltage-clamp. The effects of ifenprodil on voltage-activated Ca2+ channels were compared with its antagonist actions on N-methyl-D-aspartate- (NMDA) evoked responses in the same neuronal preparations. 2. Rises in [Ca2+]i evoked by transient exposure to high-[K+]o in our preparation of rat cultured hippocampal pyramidal neurones are mediated predominantly by Ca2+ flux through nifedipine-sensitive Ca2+ channels, with smaller contributions from nifedipine-resistant, omega-conotoxin GVIA-sensitive Ca2+ channels and Ca2+ channels sensitive to crude funnel-web spider venom (Church et al., 1994). Ifenprodil (0.1-200 microM) reversibly attenuated high-[K+]o-evoked rises in [Ca2+]i with an IC50 value of 17 +/- 3 microM, compared with an IC50 value of 0.7 +/- 0.1 microM for the reduction of rises in [Ca2+]i evoked by 20 microM NMDA. Tested in the presence of nifedipine 10 microM, ifenprodil (1-50 microM) produced a concentration-dependent reduction of the dihydropyridine-resistant high-[K+]o-evoked rise in [Ca2+]i with an IC50 value of 13 +/- 4 microM. The results suggest that ifenprodil blocks Ca2+ flux through multiple subtypes of high voltage-activated Ca2+ channels. 3. Application of the polyamine, spermine (0.25-5 mM), produced a concentration-dependent reduction of rises in [Ca2+]i evoked by high-[K+]o.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7834201

  17. Mitochondrial division inhibitor 1 (Mdivi-1) offers neuroprotection through diminishing cell death and improving functional outcome in a mouse model of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiong; Xia, Shui-Xiu; Li, Qian-Qian; Gao, Yuan; Shen, Xi; Ma, Lu; Zhang, Ming-Yang; Wang, Tao; Li, Yong-Sheng; Wang, Zu-Feng; Luo, Cheng-Liang; Tao, Lu-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria dysfunction, an enormous potential crisis, has attracted increasing attention. Disturbed regulation of mitochondrial dynamics, the balance of mitochondrial fusion and fission, has been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson׳s disease and cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. However the role of mitochondrial dynamics in traumatic brain injury (TBI) has not been illuminated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of Mdivi-1, a small molecule inhibitor of a key mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), in TBI-induced cell death and functional outcome deficits. Protein expression of Drp1 was first investigated. Outcome parameters consist of motor test, Morris water maze, brain edema and lesion volume. Cell death was detected by propidium iodide (PI) labeling, and mitochondrial morphology was assessed using transmission electron microscopy. In addition, the expression of apoptosis-related proteins cytochrome c (cyt-c) and caspase-3 was investigated. Our findings showed that up-regulation of Drp1 expression started at 1h post-TBI and peaked at 24 h, but inhibition of Drp1 by Mdivi-1 significantly alleviated TBI-induced behavioral deficits and brain edema, reduced morphological change of mitochondria, and decreased TBI-induced cell death together with lesion volume. Moreover, treatment with Mdivi-1 remarkably inhibited TBI-induced the release of cyt-c from mitochondria to cytoplasm, and activation of caspase-3 at 24 h after TBI. Taken together, these data imply that inhibition of Drp1 may help attenuate TBI-induced functional outcome and cell death through maintaining normal mitochondrial morphology and inhibiting activation of apoptosis.

  18. Cyclosporin A induced toxicity in mouse liver slices is only slightly aggravated by Fxr-deficiency and co-occurs with upregulation of pro-inflammatory genes and downregulation of genes involved in mitochondrial functions.

    PubMed

    Szalowska, Ewa; Pronk, Tessa E; Peijnenburg, Ad Acm

    2015-10-20

    The transcription factor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) governs bile acid and energy homeostasis, is involved in inflammation, and has protective functions in the liver. In the present study we investigated the effect of Fxr deficiency in mouse precision cut liver slices (PCLS) exposed to a model hepatotoxicant cyclosporin A (CsA). It was anticipated that Fxr deficiency could aggravate toxicity of CsA in PCLS and pinpoint to novel genes/processes regulated by FXR. To test this hypothesis, PCLS obtained from livers of wild type mice (WT-PCLS) and Fxr-knockout mice (FXRKO-PCLS) were treated with 40 μM CsA for 24 h and 48 h. ATP and histological assays were applied to assess the viability of PCLS. DNA microarrays combined with bioinformatics analysis were used to identify genes and processes that were affected by CsA in WT-PCLS and/or FXRKO-PCLS. In addition, WT-PCLS and FXRKO-PCLS were exposed to the endogenous FXR ligand chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and subjected to q-PCR to determine whether subsets of known FXR-targets and the identified genes were regulated upon FXR activation in an FXR-dependent manner. No difference in viability was observed between WT-PCLS and FXRKO-PCLS upon CsA treatment. Transcriptomics data analysis revealed that CsA significantly upregulated stress-response and inflammation and significantly downregulated processes involved in lipid and glucose metabolism in WT-PCLS and FXRKO-PCLS. However, only in FXRKO-PCLS, CsA upregulated additional pro-inflammatory genes and downregulated genes related to mitochondrial functions. Furthermore, only in WT-PCLS, CDCA upregulated a subset of known FXR-target genes as well as the regulator of inflammation and mitochondrial functions peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor delta (Ppar delta). Although FXR governs energy metabolism, no major differences in response to CsA could be observed between WT-PCLS and FXRKO-PCLS in regulation of processes involved in lipid and glucose metabolism. This finding

  19. Cholesterol contributes to dopamine-neuronal loss in MPTP mouse model of Parkinson’s disease: Involvement of mitochondrial dysfunctions and oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Giri, Anirudha; Sandhir, Rajat

    2017-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a known contributor to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease while its role in the occurrence of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is only conjecture and far from conclusive. Altered antioxidant homeostasis and mitochondrial functions are the key mechanisms in loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) region of the midbrain in PD. Hypercholesterolemia is reported to cause oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunctions in the cortex and hippocampus regions of the brain in rodents. However, the impact of hypercholesterolemia on the midbrain dopaminergic neurons in animal models of PD remains elusive. We tested the hypothesis that hypercholesterolemia in MPTP model of PD would potentiate dopaminergic neuron loss in SN by disrupting mitochondrial functions and antioxidant homeostasis. It is evident from the present study that hypercholesterolemia in naïve animals caused dopamine neuronal loss in SN with subsequent reduction in striatal dopamine levels producing motor impairment. Moreover, in the MPTP model of PD, hypercholesterolemia exacerbated MPTP-induced reduction of striatal dopamine as well as dopaminergic neurons in SN with motor behavioral depreciation. Activity of mitochondrial complexes, mainly complex-I and III, was impaired severely in the nigrostriatal pathway of hypercholesterolemic animals treated with MPTP. Hypercholesterolemia caused oxidative stress in the nigrostriatal pathway with increased generation of hydroxyl radicals and enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes, which were further aggravated in the hypercholesterolemic mice with Parkinsonism. In conclusion, our findings provide evidence of increased vulnerability of the midbrain dopaminergic neurons in PD with hypercholesterolemia. PMID:28170429

  20. Mitochondrial Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Mitochondrial diseases are a group of metabolic disorders. Mitochondria are ... cells and cause damage. The symptoms of mitochondrial disease can vary. It depends on how many mitochondria ...

  1. Mitochondrial energetics in the kidney.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Pallavi; Schnellmann, Rick G

    2017-10-01

    The kidney requires a large number of mitochondria to remove waste from the blood and regulate fluid and electrolyte balance. Mitochondria provide the energy to drive these important functions and can adapt to different metabolic conditions through a number of signalling pathways (for example, mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathways) that activate the transcriptional co-activator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ co-activator 1α (PGC1α), and by balancing mitochondrial dynamics and energetics to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis. Mitochondrial dysfunction leads to a decrease in ATP production, alterations in cellular functions and structure, and the loss of renal function. Persistent mitochondrial dysfunction has a role in the early stages and progression of renal diseases, such as acute kidney injury (AKI) and diabetic nephropathy, as it disrupts mitochondrial homeostasis and thus normal kidney function. Improving mitochondrial homeostasis and function has the potential to restore renal function, and administering compounds that stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis can restore mitochondrial and renal function in mouse models of AKI and diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, inhibiting the fission protein dynamin 1-like protein (DRP1) might ameliorate ischaemic renal injury by blocking mitochondrial fission.

  2. Determinism and randomness in the evolution of introns and sine inserts in mouse and human mitochondrial solute carrier and cytokine receptor genes.

    PubMed

    Cianciulli, Antonia; Calvello, Rosa; Panaro, Maria A

    2015-04-01

    In the homologous genes studied, the exons and introns alternated in the same order in mouse and human. We studied, in both species: corresponding short segments of introns, whole corresponding introns and complete homologous genes. We considered the total number of nucleotides and the number and orientation of the SINE inserts. Comparisons of mouse and human data series showed that at the level of individual relatively short segments of intronic sequences the stochastic variability prevails in the local structuring, but at higher levels of organization a deterministic component emerges, conserved in mouse and human during the divergent evolution, despite the ample re-editing of the intronic sequences and the fact that processes such as SINE spread had taken place in an independent way in the two species. Intron conservation is negatively correlated with the SINE occupancy, suggesting that virus inserts interfere with the conservation of the sequences inherited from the common ancestor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Blocking mitochondrial calcium release in Schwann cells prevents demyelinating neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Sergio; Berthelot, Jade; Jiner, Jennifer; Perrin-Tricaud, Claire; Fernando, Ruani; Chrast, Roman; Lenaers, Guy; Tricaud, Nicolas

    2016-03-01

    Schwann cells produce myelin sheath around peripheral nerve axons. Myelination is critical for rapid propagation of action potentials, as illustrated by the large number of acquired and hereditary peripheral neuropathies, such as diabetic neuropathy or Charcot-Marie-Tooth diseases, that are commonly associated with a process of demyelination. However, the early molecular events that trigger the demyelination program in these diseases remain unknown. Here, we used virally delivered fluorescent probes and in vivo time-lapse imaging in a mouse model of demyelination to investigate the underlying mechanisms of the demyelination process. We demonstrated that mitochondrial calcium released by voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) after sciatic nerve injury triggers Schwann cell demyelination via ERK1/2, p38, JNK, and c-JUN activation. In diabetic mice, VDAC1 activity was altered, resulting in a mitochondrial calcium leak in Schwann cell cytoplasm, thereby priming the cell for demyelination. Moreover, reduction of mitochondrial calcium release, either by shRNA-mediated VDAC1 silencing or pharmacological inhibition, prevented demyelination, leading to nerve conduction and neuromuscular performance recovery in rodent models of diabetic neuropathy and Charcot-Marie-Tooth diseases. Therefore, this study identifies mitochondria as the early key factor in the molecular mechanism of peripheral demyelination and opens a potential opportunity for the treatment of demyelinating peripheral neuropathies.

  4. Neuroprotective effect of curcumin as evinced by abrogation of rotenone-induced motor deficits, oxidative and mitochondrial dysfunctions in mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Dharmendra K; Juvekar, Archana R

    Curcumin, a natural polyphenolic compound extracted from rhizomes of Curcuma longa (turmeric), a plant in the ginger family (Zingiberaceae) has been used worldwide and extensively in Southeast Asia. Curcumin exhibited numerous biological and pharmacological activities including potent antioxidant, cardiovascular disease, anticancer, anti-inflammatory effects and neurodegenerative disorders in cell cultures and animal models. Hence, the present study was designed in order to explore the possible neuroprotective role of curcumin against rotenone induced cognitive impairment, oxidative and mitochondrial dysfunction in mice. Chronic administration of rotenone (1mg/kg i.p.) for a period of three weeks significantly impaired cognitive function (actophotometer, rotarod and open field test), oxidative defense (increased lipid peroxidation, nitrite concentration and decreased activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione level) and mitochondrial complex (II and III) enzymes activities as compared to normal control group. Three weeks of curcumin (50, 100 and 200mg/kg, p.o.) treatment significantly improved behavioral alterations, oxidative damage and mitochondrial enzyme complex activities as compared to negative control (rotenone treated) group. Curcumin treated mice also mitigated enhanced acetylcholine esterase enzyme level as compared to negative control group. We found that curcumin restored motor deficits and enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes suggesting its antioxidant potential in vivo. The findings of the present study conclude neuroprotective role of curcumin against rotenone induced Parkinson's in mice and offer strong justification for the therapeutic prospective of this compound in the management of PD. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Expression of voltage sensitive calcium channel (VSCC) L-type Cav1.2 (alpha1C) and T-type Cav3.2 (alpha1H) subunits during mouse bone development.

    PubMed

    Shao, Ying; Alicknavitch, Michael; Farach-Carson, Mary C

    2005-09-01

    Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCCs) are key regulators of osteoblast plasma membrane Ca(2+) permeability and are under control of calcitropic hormones. Subtype specific antibodies were used to probe L-type Ca(v)1.2 (alpha(1C)) and T-type Ca(v)3.2 (alpha(1H)) subunit expression during mouse skeletal development. Commencing from E14.5 and continuing through skeletal maturity, immunoreactivity of Ca(v)1.2 (alpha(1C)) subunits was evident in regions of rapid long bone growth, including the perichondrium, periosteum, chondro-osseous junction and trabecular bones. Ca(v)3.2 (alpha(1H)) subunits appeared simultaneously and followed a similar distribution pattern. Both subunits were observed in osteoblasts and chondrocytes under high magnification. Interestingly, Ca(v)3.2 (alpha(1H)) subunits were present, but Ca(v)1.2 (alpha(1C)) subunits were absent from osteocytes. Western Blot and immunohistochemical assessment of in vitro cell culture models of osteogenesis and chondrogenesis confirmed the in vivo observations. We conclude that both L-type Ca(v)1.2 (alpha(1C)) and T-type Ca(v)3.2 (alpha(1H)) VSCCs are dynamically regulated in bones and cartilages during endochondral bone development. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Mitochondrial Cardiomyopathies.

    PubMed

    El-Hattab, Ayman W; Scaglia, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are found in all nucleated human cells and perform various essential functions, including the generation of cellular energy. Mitochondria are under dual genome control. Only a small fraction of their proteins are encoded by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), whereas more than 99% of them are encoded by nuclear DNA (nDNA). Mutations in mtDNA or mitochondria-related nDNA genes result in mitochondrial dysfunction leading to insufficient energy production required to meet the needs for various organs, particularly those with high energy requirements, including the central nervous system, skeletal and cardiac muscles, kidneys, liver, and endocrine system. Because cardiac muscles are one of the high energy demanding tissues, cardiac involvement occurs in mitochondrial diseases with cardiomyopathies being one of the most frequent cardiac manifestations found in these disorders. Cardiomyopathy is estimated to occur in 20-40% of children with mitochondrial diseases. Mitochondrial cardiomyopathies can vary in severity from asymptomatic status to severe manifestations including heart failure, arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most common type; however, mitochondrial cardiomyopathies might also present as dilated, restrictive, left ventricular non-compaction, and histiocytoid cardiomyopathies. Cardiomyopathies are frequent manifestations of mitochondrial diseases associated with defects in electron transport chain complexes subunits and their assembly factors, mitochondrial transfer RNAs, ribosomal RNAs, ribosomal proteins, translation factors, mtDNA maintenance, and coenzyme Q10 synthesis. Other mitochondrial diseases with cardiomyopathies include Barth syndrome, Sengers syndrome, TMEM70-related mitochondrial complex V deficiency, and Friedreich ataxia.

  7. Mitochondrial Cardiomyopathies

    PubMed Central

    El-Hattab, Ayman W.; Scaglia, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are found in all nucleated human cells and perform various essential functions, including the generation of cellular energy. Mitochondria are under dual genome control. Only a small fraction of their proteins are encoded by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), whereas more than 99% of them are encoded by nuclear DNA (nDNA). Mutations in mtDNA or mitochondria-related nDNA genes result in mitochondrial dysfunction leading to insufficient energy production required to meet the needs for various organs, particularly those with high energy requirements, including the central nervous system, skeletal and cardiac muscles, kidneys, liver, and endocrine system. Because cardiac muscles are one of the high energy demanding tissues, cardiac involvement occurs in mitochondrial diseases with cardiomyopathies being one of the most frequent cardiac manifestations found in these disorders. Cardiomyopathy is estimated to occur in 20–40% of children with mitochondrial diseases. Mitochondrial cardiomyopathies can vary in severity from asymptomatic status to severe manifestations including heart failure, arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most common type; however, mitochondrial cardiomyopathies might also present as dilated, restrictive, left ventricular non-compaction, and histiocytoid cardiomyopathies. Cardiomyopathies are frequent manifestations of mitochondrial diseases associated with defects in electron transport chain complexes subunits and their assembly factors, mitochondrial transfer RNAs, ribosomal RNAs, ribosomal proteins, translation factors, mtDNA maintenance, and coenzyme Q10 synthesis. Other mitochondrial diseases with cardiomyopathies include Barth syndrome, Sengers syndrome, TMEM70-related mitochondrial complex V deficiency, and Friedreich ataxia. PMID:27504452

  8. Mitochondrial vasculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Zarrouk-Mahjoub, Sinda

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) are usually multisystem disorders (mitochondrial multiorgan disorder syndrome) either on from onset or starting at a point during the disease course. Most frequently affected tissues are those with a high oxygen demand such as the central nervous system, the muscle, endocrine glands, or the myocardium. Recently, it has been shown that rarely also the arteries may be affected (mitochondrial arteriopathy). This review focuses on the type, diagnosis, and treatment of mitochondrial vasculopathy in MID patients. A literature search using appropriate search terms was carried out. Mitochondrial vasculopathy manifests as either microangiopathy or macroangiopathy. Clinical manifestations of mitochondrial microangiopathy include leukoencephalopathy, migraine-like headache, stroke-like episodes, or peripheral retinopathy. Mitochondrial macroangiopathy manifests as atherosclerosis, ectasia of arteries, aneurysm formation, dissection, or spontaneous rupture of arteries. The diagnosis relies on the documentation and confirmation of the mitochondrial metabolic defect or the genetic cause after exclusion of non-MID causes. Treatment is not at variance compared to treatment of vasculopathy due to non-MID causes. Mitochondrial vasculopathy exists and manifests as micro- or macroangiopathy. Diagnosing mitochondrial vasculopathy is crucial since appropriate treatment may prevent from severe complications. PMID:27231520

  9. Apaf-1-deficient fog mouse cell apoptosis involves hypo-polarization of the mitochondrial inner membrane, ATP depletion and citrate accumulation.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Iyoko; Sato, Shingo; Fukunishi, Nahoko; Yoshida, Hiroki; Imai, Takasuke; Kurata, Shun-Ichi

    2008-12-01

    To explore how the intrinsic apoptosis pathway is controlled in the spontaneous fog (forebrain overgrowth) mutant mice with an Apaf1 splicing deficiency, we examined spleen and bone marrow cells from Apaf1(+/+) (+/+) and Apaf1(fog/fog) (fog/fog) mice for initiator caspase-9 activation by cellular stresses. When the mitochondrial inner membrane potential (Deltapsim) was disrupted by staurosporine, +/+ cells but not fog/fog cells activated caspase-9 to cause apoptosis, indicating the lack of apoptosome (apoptosis protease activating factor 1 (Apaf-1)/cytochrome c/(d)ATP/procaspase-9) function in fog/fog cells. However, when a marginal ( approximately 20%) decrease in Deltapsim was caused by hydrogen peroxide (0.1 mM), peroxynitritedonor 3-morpholinosydnonimine (0.1 mM) and UV-C irradiation (20 J/m(2)), both +/+ and fog/fog cells triggered procaspase-9 auto-processing and its downstream cascade activation. Supporting our previous results, procaspase-9 pre-existing in the mitochondria induced its auto-processing before the cytosolic caspase activation regardless of the genotypes. Cellular ATP concentration significantly decreased under the hypoactive Deltapsim condition. Furthermore, we detected accumulation of citrate, a kosmotrope known to facilitate procaspase-9 dimerization, probably due to a feedback control of the Krebs cycle by the electron transfer system. Thus, mitochondrial in situ caspase-9 activation may be caused by the major metabolic reactions in response to physiological stresses, which may represent a mode of Apaf-1-independent apoptosis hypothesized from recent genetic studies.

  10. Photoacoustic imaging of voltage signals (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Bin; Zhang, Ruiying; Wang, Lihong V.

    2016-03-01

    Optical imaging of brain voltage signals is significantly limited in depth due to optical scattering and the absorptive property of brain tissue. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging promises to break this hard limit by utilizing both ballistic and diffused photons. To demonstrate the feasibility of PA, we used an in vivo mouse model. The brain cortex tissue was stained with dipicrylamine dye, electrically stimulated, and imaged with a customized dual-isosbestic-wavelength PA microscope (DIW-PAM). DIW-PAM separates voltage-induced PA signals from blood-induced PA signals and thereby allows recording the voltage response of mouse cortex tissue without interference from hemoglobin responses. The resting state PA voltage response signal exhibited a noise-like signal in the frequency domain. Upon 3 Hz electrical stimulation, the PA voltage response signal showed frequency peaks of 3.2 Hz and 6.3 Hz (Fig. 1). Although dipicrylamine dye is not fast enough for recording neuron action potentials, it served well for the purpose of this feasibility study. In conclusion, we successfully demonstrated in vivo photoacoustic imaging of mouse brain voltage signals for the first time. If a fast voltage-sensitive dye is available, using photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) instead of PA microscopy could allow acquiring full-field PA action potential images at a speed limited only by the laser pulse repetition rate.

  11. Decreasing mitochondrial fission prevents cholestatic liver injury.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tianzheng; Wang, Li; Lee, Hakjoo; O'Brien, Dawn K; Bronk, Steven F; Gores, Gregory J; Yoon, Yisang

    2014-12-05

    Mitochondria frequently change their shape through fission and fusion in response to physiological stimuli as well as pathological insults. Disrupted mitochondrial morphology has been observed in cholestatic liver disease. However, the role of mitochondrial shape change in cholestasis is not defined. In this study, using in vitro and in vivo models of bile acid-induced liver injury, we investigated the contribution of mitochondrial morphology to the pathogenesis of cholestatic liver disease. We found that the toxic bile salt glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC) rapidly fragmented mitochondria, both in primary mouse hepatocytes and in the bile transporter-expressing hepatic cell line McNtcp.24, leading to a significant increase in cell death. GCDC-induced mitochondrial fragmentation was associated with an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. We found that preventing mitochondrial fragmentation in GCDC by inhibiting mitochondrial fission significantly decreased not only ROS levels but also cell death. We also induced cholestasis in mouse livers via common bile duct ligation. Using a transgenic mouse model inducibly expressing a dominant-negative fission mutant specifically in the liver, we demonstrated that decreasing mitochondrial fission substantially diminished ROS levels, liver injury, and fibrosis under cholestatic conditions. Taken together, our results provide new evidence that controlling mitochondrial fission is an effective strategy for ameliorating cholestatic liver injury. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Mitochondrial biogenesis: pharmacological approaches.

    PubMed

    Valero, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    neurodevelopmental disorders. In the context of neural differentiation, Martine Uittenbogaard and Anne Chiaramello (Department of Anatomy and Regenerative Biology, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, USA) [7] thoroughly describe the implication of mitochondrial biogenesis on neuronal differentiation, its timing, its regulation by specific signaling pathways and new potential therapeutic strategies. The maintenance of mitochondrial homeostasis is crucial for neuronal development. A mitochondrial dynamic balance is necessary between mitochondrial fusion, fission and quality control systems and mitochondrial biogenesis. Concerning the signaling pathways leading to mitochondrial biogenesis this review highlights the implication of different regulators such as AMPK, SIRT1, PGC-1α, NRF1, NRF2, Tfam, etc. on the specific case of neuronal development, providing examples of diseases in which these pathways are altered and transgenic mouse models lacking these regulators. A common hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases (Huntington´s Disease, Alzheimer´s Disease and Parkinson´s Disease) is the impaired function or expression of PGC-1α, the master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis. Among the promising strategies to ameliorate mitochondrial-based diseases these authors highlight the induction of PGC-1α via activation of PPAR receptors (rosiglitazone, bezafibrate) or modulating its activity by AMPK (AICAR, metformin, resveratrol) or SIRT1 (SRT1720 and several isoflavone-derived compounds). This article also presents a review of the current animal and cellular models useful to study mitochondriogenesis. Although it is known that many neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental diseases are originated in mitochondria, the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis has never been extensively studied. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)

  13. Mechanism for increased hepatic glycerol synthesis in the citrin/mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase double-knockout mouse: Urine glycerol and glycerol 3-phosphate as potential diagnostic markers of human citrin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Mitsuaki; Fujimoto, Yuki; Rikimaru, Shizuka; Ushikai, Miharu; Kuroda, Eishi; Kawabe, Kenji; Takano, Katsura; Asakawa, Akihiro; Inui, Akio; Eto, Kazuhiro; Kadowaki, Takashi; Sinasac, David S; Okano, Yoshiyuki; Yazaki, Masahide; Ikeda, Shu-Ichi; Zhang, Chunhua; Song, Yuan-Zong; Sakamoto, Osamu; Kure, Shigeo; Mitsubuchi, Hiroshi; Endo, Fumio; Horiuchi, Masahisa; Nakamura, Yoichi; Yamamura, Ken-Ichi; Saheki, Takeyori

    2015-09-01

    The mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate carrier isoform 2 (citrin) and mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (mGPD) double-knockout mouse has been a useful model of human citrin deficiency. One of the most prominent findings has been markedly increased hepatic glycerol 3-phosphate (G3P) following oral administration of a sucrose solution. We aimed to investigate whether this change is detectable outside of the liver, and to explore the mechanism underlying the increased hepatic G3P in these mice. We measured G3P and its metabolite glycerol in plasma and urine of the mice under various conditions. Glycerol synthesis from fructose was also studied using the liver perfusion system. The citrin/mGPD double-knockout mice showed increased urine G3P and glycerol under normal, fed conditions. We also found increased plasma glycerol under fasted conditions, while oral administration of different carbohydrates or ethanol led to substantially increased plasma glycerol. Fructose infusion to the perfused liver of the double-knockout mice augmented hepatic glycerol synthesis, and was accompanied by a concomitant increase in the lactate/pyruvate (L/P) ratio. Co-infusion of either pyruvate or phenazine methosulfate, a cytosolic oxidant, with fructose corrected the high L/P ratio, leading to reduced glycerol synthesis. Overall, these findings suggest that hepatic glycerol synthesis is cytosolic NADH/NAD(+) ratio-dependent and reveal a likely regulatory mechanism for hepatic glycerol synthesis following a high carbohydrate load in citrin-deficient patients. Therefore, urine G3P and glycerol may represent potential diagnostic markers for human citrin deficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Glucocorticoid Modulation of Mitochondrial Function in Hepatoma Cells Requires the Mitochondrial Fission Protein Drp1

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Alvarez, María Isabel; Paz, José C.; Sebastián, David; Muñoz, Juan Pablo; Liesa, Marc; Segalés, Jessica; Palacín, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Glucocorticoids, such as dexamethasone, enhance hepatic energy metabolism and gluconeogenesis partly through changes in mitochondrial function. Mitochondrial function is influenced by the balance between mitochondrial fusion and fission events. However, whether glucocorticoids modulate mitochondrial function through the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics is currently unknown. Results: Here, we report that the effects of dexamethasone on mitochondrial function and gluconeogenesis in hepatoma cells are dependent on the mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1). Dexamethasone increased routine oxygen consumption, maximal respiratory capacity, superoxide anion, proton leak, and gluconeogenesis in hepatoma cells. Under these conditions, dexamethasone altered mitochondrial morphology, which was paralleled by a large increase in Drp1 expression, and reduced mitofusin 1 (Mfn1) and Mfn2. In vivo dexamethasone treatment also enhanced Drp1 expression in mouse liver. On the basis of these observations, we analyzed the dependence on the Drp1 function of dexamethasone effects on mitochondrial respiration and gluconeogenesis. We show that the increase in mitochondrial respiration and gluconeogenesis induced by dexamethasone are hampered by the inhibition of Drp1 function. Innovation: Our findings provide the first evidence that the effects of glucocorticoids on hepatic metabolism require the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1. Conclusion: In summary, we demonstrate that the mitochondrial effects of dexamethasone both on mitochondrial respiration and on the gluconeogenic pathway depend on Drp1. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 366–378. PMID:22703557

  15. The ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase gene maps to a conserved region on human chromosome 15q15 and mouse chromosome 2 bands F1-F3

    SciTech Connect

    Steeghs, K.; Wieringa, B.; Merkx, G.

    1994-11-01

    Members of the creatine kinase isoenzyme family (CKs; EC 2.7.3.2) are found in mitochondria and specialized subregions of the cytoplasm and catalyze the reversible exchange of high-energy phosphoryl between ATP and phosphocreatine. At least four functionally active genes, which encode the distinct CK subunits CKB, CKM, CKMT1 (ubiquitous), and CKMT2 (sarcomeric), and a variable number of CKB pseudogenes have been identified. Here, we report the use of a CKMT1 containing phage to map the CKMT1 gene by in situ hybridization on both human and mouse chromosomes.

  16. The ins and outs of mitochondrial calcium.

    PubMed

    Finkel, Toren; Menazza, Sara; Holmström, Kira M; Parks, Randi J; Liu, Julia; Sun, Junhui; Liu, Jie; Pan, Xin; Murphy, Elizabeth

    2015-05-22

    Calcium is thought to play an important role in regulating mitochondrial function. Evidence suggests that an increase in mitochondrial calcium can augment ATP production by altering the activity of calcium-sensitive mitochondrial matrix enzymes. In contrast, the entry of large amounts of mitochondrial calcium in the setting of ischemia-reperfusion injury is thought to be a critical event in triggering cellular necrosis. For many decades, the details of how calcium entered the mitochondria remained a biological mystery. In the past few years, significant progress has been made in identifying the molecular components of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter complex. Here, we review how calcium enters and leaves the mitochondria, the growing insight into the topology, stoichiometry and function of the uniporter complex, and the early lessons learned from some initial mouse models that genetically perturb mitochondrial calcium homeostasis.

  17. Effects of Isolation by Continental Islands in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan, on Genetic Diversity of the Large Japanese Field Mouse, Apodemus speciosus (Rodentia: Muridae), Inferred from the Mitochondrial Dloop Region.

    PubMed

    Sato, Jun J; Tasaka, Yurina; Tasaka, Ryoya; Gunji, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Yuya; Takada, Yasushi; Uematsu, Yasushi; Sakai, Eiichi; Tateishi, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Yasunori

    2017-04-01

    To study the effects of post-glacial isolation by islands on population genetic diversity and differentiation of the large Japanese field mouse, Apodemus speciosus, we examined partial nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial Dloop region (ca. 300 bp) in 231 individuals collected from islands in the Seto Inland Sea and adjacent regions on Honshu and Shikoku Islands in the western part of the Japanese archipelago. Molecular phylogenetic and network analyses showed that haplotypes in each island tended to form monophyletic groups, while those in Honshu and Shikoku (the major Japanese islands) showed scattered relationships and were connected with island haplotypes. These observations suggest that a set of Honshu and Shikoku haplotypes became the ancestral lineages of the island population. No gene flow was detected among island populations, indicating that independent evolution occurred on each island, without the influence of human activities, since the establishment of the islands in the Holocene. Population genetic diversities on each island were lower than those on Honshu and Shikoku. Comparison between genetic diversity and island area size showed positive correlations and supported the suggestion that genetic drift is a major factor that shaped the current haplotype constitution of the islands in the Seto Inland Sea.

  18. Mitochondrial DNA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Russell G.; Bottino, Paul J.

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information for teachers on mitochondrial DNA, pointing out that it may have once been a free-living organism. Includes a ready-to-duplicate exercise titled "Using Microchondrial DNA to Measure Evolutionary Distance." (JN)

  19. Mitochondrial DNA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Russell G.; Bottino, Paul J.

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information for teachers on mitochondrial DNA, pointing out that it may have once been a free-living organism. Includes a ready-to-duplicate exercise titled "Using Microchondrial DNA to Measure Evolutionary Distance." (JN)

  20. CIBZ, a Novel BTB Domain-Containing Protein, Is Involved in Mouse Spinal Cord Injury via Mitochondrial Pathway Independent of p53 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shiyong; Li, Ping; Zhang, Xuan; Liu, Honglin

    2012-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) induces both primary uncontrollable mechanical injury and secondary controllable degeneration, which further results in the activation of cell death cascades that mediate delayed tissue damage. To alleviate its impairments and seek for an effective remedy, mRNA differential display was used to investigate gene mRNA expression profiling in mice following SCI. A specific Zinc finger and BTB domain-containing protein, CIBZ, was discovered to implicate in the SCI process for the first time. Further researches indicated that CIBZ was extensively distributed in various tissues, and the expression level was highest in muscle, followed by spinal cord, large intestine, kidney, spleen, thymus, lung, cerebrum, stomach, ovary and heart, respectively. After injury, the CIBZ expression decreased dramatically and reached the lowest level at 8 h, but it gradually increased to the maximal level at 7 d. Caspase-3 and C-terminal-binding protein (CtBP), two CIBZ-related proteins, showed similar tendency. Interestingly, p53 expression remained constant in all groups. Via flow cytometry (FCM) analysis, it was found that the cell death rate in SCI group markedly increased and reached the highest value 1 d after surgery and the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) at 1 d was the lowest in all groups. Taken together, it is suggested that: (i) in the presence of CtBP, CIBZ gene is involved in secondary injury process and trigger the activation of apoptotic caspase-3 and bax genes independent of p53; (ii) abrupt down-regulation of CtBP at 8 h is a sign of mitochondria dysfunction and the onset of cell death; (iii) it could be used as an inhibitor or target drug of caspase-3 gene to improve spinal cord function. PMID:22427977

  1. Mitochondrial genetics

    PubMed Central

    Chinnery, Patrick Francis; Hudson, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In the last 10 years the field of mitochondrial genetics has widened, shifting the focus from rare sporadic, metabolic disease to the effects of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in a growing spectrum of human disease. The aim of this review is to guide the reader through some key concepts regarding mitochondria before introducing both classic and emerging mitochondrial disorders. Sources of data In this article, a review of the current mitochondrial genetics literature was conducted using PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/). In addition, this review makes use of a growing number of publically available databases including MITOMAP, a human mitochondrial genome database (www.mitomap.org), the Human DNA polymerase Gamma Mutation Database (http://tools.niehs.nih.gov/polg/) and PhyloTree.org (www.phylotree.org), a repository of global mtDNA variation. Areas of agreement The disruption in cellular energy, resulting from defects in mtDNA or defects in the nuclear-encoded genes responsible for mitochondrial maintenance, manifests in a growing number of human diseases. Areas of controversy The exact mechanisms which govern the inheritance of mtDNA are hotly debated. Growing points Although still in the early stages, the development of in vitro genetic manipulation could see an end to the inheritance of the most severe mtDNA disease. PMID:23704099

  2. [Mitochondrial myopathies].

    PubMed

    Finsterer, J

    2009-11-01

    The organ most frequently affected in mitochondrial disorders is the skeletal muscle (mitochondrial myopathy). Mitochondrial myopathies may be part of syndromic as well as non-syndromic mitochondrial disorders. Involvement of the skeletal muscle may remain subclinical, may manifest as isolated elevation of the creatine-kinase, or as weakness and wasting of one or several muscle groups. The course of mitochondrial myopathies is usually slowly progressive and only rarely rapidly progressive leading to restriction of mobility and requirement of a wheel chair or even muscular respiratory insufficiency. Frequently reported symptoms of mitochondrial myopathies are permanent tiredness, easy fatigability, muscle aching at rest or already after moderate exercise, muscle cramps, muscle stiffness, fasciculations and muscle weakness. The diagnosis is based on the history, clinical neurologic examination, blood chemical investigations, lactate stress test, electromyography, magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, muscle biopsy, biochemical investigations of the skeletal muscles, and genetic investigations. Only symptomatic therapy is available and includes physiotherapy and orthopedic supportive devices, diet, symptomatic drug therapy (analgetics, cramp-releasing drugs, antioxidants, lactate-lowering drugs, alternative energy sources, co-factors), avoidance of mitochondrion-toxic drugs, surgery (correction of ptosis or orthopedic problems), and invasive or non-invasive mechanical ventilation. General anesthesia needs to be performed in the same way as in patients with susceptibility for malignant hyperthermia. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.

  3. Increased mitochondrial ATP production capacity in brain of healthy mice and a mouse model of isolated complex I deficiency after isoflurane anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Manjeri, Ganesh R; Rodenburg, Richard J; Blanchet, Lionel; Roelofs, Suzanne; Nijtmans, Leo G; Smeitink, Jan A; Driessen, Jacques J; Koopman, Werner J H; Willems, Peter H

    2016-01-01

    We reported before that the minimal alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane is decreased in complex I-deficient mice lacking the NDUFS4 subunit of the respiratory chain (RC) (1.55 and 0.81% at postnatal (PN) 22-25 days and 1.68 and 0.65% at PN 31-34 days for wildtype (WT) and CI-deficient KO, respectively). A more severe respiratory depression was caused by 1.0 MAC isoflurane in KO mice (respiratory rate values of 86 and 45 at PN 22-25 days and 69 and 29 at PN 31-34 days for anesthetized WT and KO, respectively). Here, we address the idea that isoflurane anesthesia causes a much larger decrease in brain mitochondrial ATP production in KO mice thus explaining their increased sensitivity to this anesthetic. Brains from WT and KO mice of the above study were removed immediately after MAC determination at PN 31-34 days and a mitochondria-enriched fraction was prepared. Aliquots were used for measurement of maximal ATP production in the presence of pyruvate, malate, ADP and creatine and, after freeze-thawing, the maximal activity of the individual RC complexes in the presence of complex-specific substrates. CI activity was dramatically decreased in KO, whereas ATP production was decreased by only 26% (p < 0.05). The activities of CII, CIII, and CIV were the same for WT and KO. Isoflurane anesthesia decreased the activity of CI by 30% (p < 0.001) in WT. In sharp contrast, it increased the activity of CII by 37% (p < 0.001) and 50% (p < 0.001) and that of CIII by 37% (p < 0.001) and 40% (p < 0.001) in WT and KO, respectively, whereas it tended to increase that of CIV in both WT and KO. Isoflurane anesthesia increased ATP production by 52 and 69% in WT (p < 0.05) and KO (p < 0.01), respectively. Together these findings indicate that isoflurane anesthesia interferes positively rather than negatively with the ability of CI-deficient mice brain mitochondria to convert their main substrate pyruvate into ATP.

  4. Epicatechin limits renal injury by mitochondrial protection in cisplatin nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Katsuyuki; Tamura, Yoshifuru; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Miyazaki, Makoto; Suzuki, Norihiko; Sato, Waichi; Maeshima, Yohei; Schreiner, George F; Villarreal, Francisco J; Johnson, Richard J; Nakagawa, Takahiko

    2012-11-01

    Cisplatin nephropathy can be regarded as a mitochondrial disease. Intervention to halt such deleterious injury is under investigation. Recently, the flavanol (-)-epicatechin emerges as a novel compound to protect the cardiovascular system, owing in part to mitochondrial protection. Here, we have hypothesized that epicatechin prevents the progression of cisplatin-induced kidney injury by protecting mitochondria. Epicatechin was administered 8 h after cisplatin injury was induced in the mouse kidney. Cisplatin significantly induced renal dysfunction and tubular injury along with an increase in oxidative stress. Mitochondrial damages were also evident as a decrease in loss of mitochondrial mass with a reduction in the oxidative phosphorylation complexes and low levels of MnSOD. The renal damages and mitochondrial injuries were significantly prevented by epicatechin treatment. Consistent with these observations, an in vitro study using cultured mouse proximal tubular cells demonstrated that cisplatin-induced mitochondrial injury, as revealed by a decrease in mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase activity, an induction of cytochrome c release, mitochondrial fragmentation, and a reduction in complex IV protein, was prevented by epicatechin. Such a protective effect of epicatechin might be attributed to decreased oxidative stress and reduced ERK activity. Finally, we confirmed that epicatechin did not perturb the anticancer effect of cisplatin in HeLa cells. In conclusion, epicatechin exhibits protective effects due in part to its ability to prevent the progression of mitochondrial injury in mouse cisplatin nephropathy. Epicatechin may be a novel option to treat renal disorders associated with mitochondrial dysfunction.

  5. Epicatechin limits renal injury by mitochondrial protection in cisplatin nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, Katsuyuki; Tamura, Yoshifuru; Lanaspa, Miguel A.; Miyazaki, Makoto; Suzuki, Norihiko; Sato, Waichi; Maeshima, Yohei; Schreiner, George F.; Villarreal, Francisco J.; Johnson, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Cisplatin nephropathy can be regarded as a mitochondrial disease. Intervention to halt such deleterious injury is under investigation. Recently, the flavanol (–)-epicatechin emerges as a novel compound to protect the cardiovascular system, owing in part to mitochondrial protection. Here, we have hypothesized that epicatechin prevents the progression of cisplatin-induced kidney injury by protecting mitochondria. Epicatechin was administered 8 h after cisplatin injury was induced in the mouse kidney. Cisplatin significantly induced renal dysfunction and tubular injury along with an increase in oxidative stress. Mitochondrial damages were also evident as a decrease in loss of mitochondrial mass with a reduction in the oxidative phosphorylation complexes and low levels of MnSOD. The renal damages and mitochondrial injuries were significantly prevented by epicatechin treatment. Consistent with these observations, an in vitro study using cultured mouse proximal tubular cells demonstrated that cisplatin-induced mitochondrial injury, as revealed by a decrease in mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase activity, an induction of cytochrome c release, mitochondrial fragmentation, and a reduction in complex IV protein, was prevented by epicatechin. Such a protective effect of epicatechin might be attributed to decreased oxidative stress and reduced ERK activity. Finally, we confirmed that epicatechin did not perturb the anticancer effect of cisplatin in HeLa cells. In conclusion, epicatechin exhibits protective effects due in part to its ability to prevent the progression of mitochondrial injury in mouse cisplatin nephropathy. Epicatechin may be a novel option to treat renal disorders associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:22933302

  6. Nicotinamide riboside restores cognition through an upregulation of proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α regulated β-secretase 1 degradation and mitochondrial gene expression in Alzheimer's mouse models.

    PubMed

    Gong, Bing; Pan, Yong; Vempati, Prashant; Zhao, Wei; Knable, Lindsay; Ho, Lap; Wang, Jun; Sastre, Magdalena; Ono, Kenjiro; Sauve, Anthony A; Pasinetti, Giulio M

    2013-06-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)(+), a coenzyme involved in redox activities in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, has been identified as a key regulator of the lifespan-extending effects, and the activation of NAD(+) expression has been linked with a decrease in beta-amyloid (Aβ) toxicity in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nicotinamide riboside (NR) is a NAD(+) precursor, it promotes peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1 (PGC)-1α expression in the brain. Evidence has shown that PGC-1α is a crucial regulator of Aβ generation because it affects β-secretase (BACE1) degradation. In this study we tested the hypothesis that NR treatment in an AD mouse model could attenuate Aβ toxicity through the activation of PGC-1α-mediated BACE1 degradation. Using the Tg2576 AD mouse model, using in vivo behavioral analyses, biochemistry assays, small hairpin RNA (shRNA) gene silencing and electrophysiological recording, we found (1) dietary treatment of Tg2576 mice with 250 mg/kg/day of NR for 3 months significantly attenuates cognitive deterioration in Tg2576 mice and coincides with an increase in the steady-state levels of NAD(+) in the cerebral cortex; (2) application of NR to hippocampal slices (10 μM) for 4 hours abolishes the deficits in long-term potentiation recorded in the CA1 region of Tg2576 mice; (3) NR treatment promotes PGC-1α expression in the brain coinciding with enhanced degradation of BACE1 and the reduction of Aβ production in Tg2576 mice. Further in vitro studies confirmed that BACE1 protein content is decreased by NR treatment in primary neuronal cultures derived from Tg2576 embryos, in which BACE1 degradation was prevented by PGC-1α-shRNA gene silencing; and (4) NR treatment and PGC-1α overexpression enhance BACE1 ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Our studies suggest that dietary treatment with NR might benefit AD cognitive function and synaptic plasticity, in part by promoting PGC-1α-mediated BACE1

  7. [The antioxidant enzyme activity in mouse liver mitochondria after nanosecond pulsed periodic X-ray exposure].

    PubMed

    Kniazeva, I R; Ivanov, V V; Bol'shakov, M A; Zharkova, L P; Kereia, A V; Kutenkov, O P; Rostov, V V

    2013-01-01

    The effect of repetitive pulsed X-ray (4 ns pulse duration, 300 kV accelerating voltage; 2.5 kA electron beam current) on the antioxidant enzyme activity in mouse liver mitochondria has been investigated. The mitochondrial suspension was exposed to single 4000 pulse X-ray radiation with repetition rates ranging between 10 and 22 pps (pulsed dose was 0.3-1.8 x 10(-6) Gy/pulse, the total absorbed dose following a single exposure was 7.2 x 10(-3) Gy). It was shown that a short-time exposure to X-ray radiation changes the antioxidant enzyme activity in mouse liver mitochondria. The greatest effect was observed in the changes of the activity of the metal-containing enzymes: superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. The effect depends on the pulse repetition frequency and radiation dose.

  8. Protective effects of 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside in the MPTP-induced mouse model of Parkinson's disease: Involvement of reactive oxygen species-mediated JNK, P38 and mitochondrial pathways.

    PubMed

    He, Hong; Wang, Songhai; Tian, Jiyu; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Junjie; Tang, Haifeng; Zhang, Xiaojun; Chen, Jianzong

    2015-11-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the selective death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Oxidative stress-induced neuron loss is thought to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of PD. Previous work from our group suggests that 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG), an active component extracted from a traditional Chinese herb, Polygonum multiflorum thunb, can attenuate 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyridium-induced apoptosis in the neuronal cell line PC12, by inhibiting reactive oxygen species generation and modulating c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) activation. Here, we investigated the protective effects of TSG against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropypridine (MPTP)-induced loss of tyrosine hydroxylase positive cells in mice and the underlying mechanisms. The results showed that MPTP-induced loss of tyrosine hydroxylase positive cells and reactive oxygen species generation were prevented by TSG in a dose-dependent manner. The reactive oxygen species scavenger N-acetylcysteine could also mitigate reactive oxygen species generation. Moreover, JNK and P38 were activated by MPTP, but extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases phosphorylation did not change after MPTP treatment. TSG at different doses blocked the activation of JNK and P38. The protective effect of TSG was also associated with downregulation of the bax/bcl-2 ratio, reversed the release of cytochrome c and smac, and inhibited the activation of caspase-3, -6, and -9 induced by MPTP. In conclusion, our studies demonstrated that the protective effects of TSG in the MPTP-induced mouse model of PD are involved, at least in part, in controlling reactive oxygen species-mediated JNK, P38, and mitochondrial pathways.

  9. Mitochondrial dysfunction in mammalian ageing.

    PubMed

    Terzioglu, Mügen; Larsson, Nils-Göran

    2007-01-01

    Ageing is likely a multifactorial process caused by accumulated damage to a variety of cellular components. Increasing age in mammals correlates with increased levels of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations and deteriorating respiratory chain function. Mosaic respiratory chain deficiency in a subset of cells in various tissues, such as heart, skeletal muscle, colonic crypts and neurons, is typically found in aged humans. Experimental evidence in the mouse has linked increased levels of somatic mtDNA mutations to a variety of ageing phenotypes, such as osteoporosis, hair loss, greying of the hair, weight reduction and decreased fertility. It has been known for a long time that respiratory chain-deficient cells are more prone to undergo apoptosis and increased cell loss is therefore likely of importance in age-associated mitochondrial dysfunction. There is a tendency to automatically link mitochondrial dysfunction to increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the experimental support for this concept is rather weak. Mouse models with respiratory chain deficiency induced by tissue-specific mtDNA depletion or by massive increase of point mutations in mtDNA have very minor or no increase of oxidative stress. Future studies are needed to address the relative importance of mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS in mammalian ageing.

  10. High-Voltage Pulse Voltage Generator,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-21

    the invention: I. I. Kalyatskiy, V. I. Kurets, and V. I. Safronov Well-known are pulse voltage generators which employ the Arkad’yev- Marx principle of...P2, and hereafter the device operates like an ordinary GIN [pulse volt- age generator] according to the Arkad’yev- Marx principle. The Object of the...Invention The high-voltage pulse voltage generator, assembled according to the Arkad’yev- Marx arrangement, each stage of which incorporates reactive

  11. Mitochondrial and Nuclear Genes of Mitochondrial Components in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kirches, E

    2009-01-01

    Although the observation of aerobic glycolysis of tumor cells by Otto v. Warburg had demonstrated abnormalities of mitochondrial energy metabolism in cancer decades ago, there was no clear evidence for a functional role of mutant mitochondrial proteins in cancer development until the early years of the 21st century. In the year 2000, a major breakthrough was achieved by the observation, that several genes coding for subunits of the respiratory chain (ETC) complex II, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) are tumor suppressor genes in heritable paragangliomas, fulfilling Knudson’s classical two-hit hypothesis. A functional inactivation of both alleles by germline mutations and chromosomal losses in the tumor tissue was found in the patients. Later, SDH mutations were also identified in sporadic paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas. Genes of the mitochondrial ATP-synthase and of mitochondrial iron homeostasis have been implicated in cancer development at the level of cell culture and mouse experiments. In contrast to the well established role of some nuclear SDH genes, a functional impact of the mitochondrial genome itself (mtDNA) in cancer development remains unclear. Nevertheless, the extremely high frequency of mtDNA mutations in solid tumors raises the question, whether this small circular genome might be applicable to early cancer detection. This is a meaningful approach, especially in cancers, which tend to spread tumor cells early into bodily fluids or faeces, which can be screened by non-invasive methods. PMID:19949549

  12. TGF-β1-Mediated Differentiation of Fibroblasts Is Associated with Increased Mitochondrial Content and Cellular Respiration

    PubMed Central

    Negmadjanov, Ulugbek; Godic, Zarko; Rizvi, Farhan; Emelyanova, Larisa; Ross, Gracious; Richards, John; Holmuhamedov, Ekhson L.; Jahangir, Arshad

    2015-01-01

    Objectivs Cytokine-dependent activation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, a key event in fibrosis, is accompanied by phenotypic changes with increased secretory and contractile properties dependent on increased energy utilization, yet changes in the energetic profile of these cells are not fully described. We hypothesize that the TGF-β1-mediated transformation of myofibroblasts is associated with an increase in mitochondrial content and function when compared to naive fibroblasts. Methods Cultured NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblasts treated with TGF-β1, a profibrotic cytokine, or vehicle were assessed for transformation to myofibroblasts (appearance of α-smooth muscle actin [α-SMA] stress fibers) and associated changes in mitochondrial content and functions using laser confocal microscopy, Seahorse respirometry, multi-well plate reader and biochemical protocols. Expression of mitochondrial-specific proteins was determined using western blotting, and the mitochondrial DNA quantified using Mitochondrial DNA isolation kit. Results Treatment with TGF-β1 (5 ng/mL) induced transformation of naive fibroblasts into myofibroblasts with a threefold increase in the expression of α-SMA (6.85 ± 0.27 RU) compared to cells not treated with TGF-β1 (2.52 ± 0.11 RU). TGF-β1 exposure increased the number of mitochondria in the cells, as monitored by membrane potential sensitive dye tetramethylrhodamine, and expression of mitochondria-specific proteins; voltage-dependent anion channels (0.54 ± 0.05 vs. 0.23 ± 0.05 RU) and adenine nucleotide transporter (0.61 ± 0.11 vs. 0.22 ± 0.05 RU), as well as mitochondrial DNA content (530 ± 12 μg DNA/106 cells vs. 307 ± 9 μg DNA/106 cells in control). TGF-β1 treatment was associated with an increase in mitochondrial function with a twofold increase in baseline oxygen consumption rate (2.25 ± 0.03 vs. 1.13 ± 0.1 nmol O2/min/106 cells) and FCCP-induced mitochondrial respiration (2.87 ± 0.03 vs. 1.46 ± 0.15 nmol O2/min/106 cells

  13. TGF-β1-mediated differentiation of fibroblasts is associated with increased mitochondrial content and cellular respiration.

    PubMed

    Negmadjanov, Ulugbek; Godic, Zarko; Rizvi, Farhan; Emelyanova, Larisa; Ross, Gracious; Richards, John; Holmuhamedov, Ekhson L; Jahangir, Arshad

    2015-01-01

    Cytokine-dependent activation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, a key event in fibrosis, is accompanied by phenotypic changes with increased secretory and contractile properties dependent on increased energy utilization, yet changes in the energetic profile of these cells are not fully described. We hypothesize that the TGF-β1-mediated transformation of myofibroblasts is associated with an increase in mitochondrial content and function when compared to naive fibroblasts. Cultured NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblasts treated with TGF-β1, a profibrotic cytokine, or vehicle were assessed for transformation to myofibroblasts (appearance of α-smooth muscle actin [α-SMA] stress fibers) and associated changes in mitochondrial content and functions using laser confocal microscopy, Seahorse respirometry, multi-well plate reader and biochemical protocols. Expression of mitochondrial-specific proteins was determined using western blotting, and the mitochondrial DNA quantified using Mitochondrial DNA isolation kit. Treatment with TGF-β1 (5 ng/mL) induced transformation of naive fibroblasts into myofibroblasts with a threefold increase in the expression of α-SMA (6.85 ± 0.27 RU) compared to cells not treated with TGF-β1 (2.52 ± 0.11 RU). TGF-β1 exposure increased the number of mitochondria in the cells, as monitored by membrane potential sensitive dye tetramethylrhodamine, and expression of mitochondria-specific proteins; voltage-dependent anion channels (0.54 ± 0.05 vs. 0.23 ± 0.05 RU) and adenine nucleotide transporter (0.61 ± 0.11 vs. 0.22 ± 0.05 RU), as well as mitochondrial DNA content (530 ± 12 μg DNA/106 cells vs. 307 ± 9 μg DNA/106 cells in control). TGF-β1 treatment was associated with an increase in mitochondrial function with a twofold increase in baseline oxygen consumption rate (2.25 ± 0.03 vs. 1.13 ± 0.1 nmol O2/min/106 cells) and FCCP-induced mitochondrial respiration (2.87 ± 0.03 vs. 1.46 ± 0.15 nmol O2/min/106 cells). TGF-β1 induced differentiation

  14. Batteries: Widening voltage windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-10-01

    The energy output of aqueous batteries is largely limited by the narrow voltage window of their electrolytes. Now, a hydrate melt consisting of lithium salts is shown to expand such voltage windows, leading to a high-energy aqueous battery.

  15. Parkin suppresses Drp1-independent mitochondrial division.

    PubMed

    Roy, Madhuparna; Itoh, Kie; Iijima, Miho; Sesaki, Hiromi

    2016-07-01

    The cycle of mitochondrial division and fusion disconnect and reconnect individual mitochondria in cells to remodel this energy-producing organelle. Although dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) plays a major role in mitochondrial division in cells, a reduced level of mitochondrial division still persists even in the absence of Drp1. It is unknown how much Drp1-mediated mitochondrial division accounts for the connectivity of mitochondria. The role of a Parkinson's disease-associated protein-parkin, which biochemically and genetically interacts with Drp1-in mitochondrial connectivity also remains poorly understood. Here, we quantified the number and connectivity of mitochondria using mitochondria-targeted photoactivatable GFP in cells. We show that the loss of Drp1 increases the connectivity of mitochondria by 15-fold in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). While a single loss of parkin does not affect the connectivity of mitochondria, the connectivity of mitochondria significantly decreased compared with a single loss of Drp1 when parkin was lost in the absence of Drp1. Furthermore, the loss of parkin decreased the frequency of depolarization of the mitochondrial inner membrane that is caused by increased mitochondrial connectivity in Drp1-knockout MEFs. Therefore, our data suggest that parkin negatively regulates Drp1-indendent mitochondrial division.

  16. Automatic voltage imbalance detector

    DOEpatents

    Bobbett, Ronald E.; McCormick, J. Byron; Kerwin, William J.

    1984-01-01

    A device for indicating and preventing damage to voltage cells such as galvanic cells and fuel cells connected in series by detecting sequential voltages and comparing these voltages to adjacent voltage cells. The device is implemented by using operational amplifiers and switching circuitry is provided by transistors. The device can be utilized in battery powered electric vehicles to prevent galvanic cell damage and also in series connected fuel cells to prevent fuel cell damage.

  17. Effects of supplementation on food intake, body weight and hepatic metabolites in the citrin/mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase double-knockout mouse model of human citrin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Saheki, Takeyori; Inoue, Kanako; Ono, Hiromi; Katsura, Natsumi; Yokogawa, Mana; Yoshidumi, Yukari; Furuie, Sumie; Kuroda, Eishi; Ushikai, Miharu; Asakawa, Akihiro; Inui, Akio; Eto, Kazuhiro; Kadowaki, Takashi; Sinasac, David S; Yamamura, Ken-Ichi; Kobayashi, Keiko

    2012-11-01

    The C57BL/6:Slc23a13(-/-);Gpd2(-/-) double-knockout (a.k.a., citrin/mitochondrial glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase double knockout or Ctrn/mGPD-KO) mouse displays phenotypic attributes of both neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis (NICCD) and adult-onset type II citrullinemia (CTLN2), making it a suitable model of human citrin deficiency. In the present study, we show that when mature Ctrn/mGPD-KO mice are switched from a standard chow diet (CE-2) to a purified maintenance diet (AIN-93M), this resulted in a significant loss of body weight as a result of reduced food intake compared to littermate mGPD-KO mice. However, supplementation of the purified maintenance diet with additional protein (from 14% to 22%; and concomitant reduction or corn starch), or with specific supplementation with alanine, sodium glutamate, sodium pyruvate or medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), led to increased food intake and body weight gain near or back to that on chow diet. No such effect was observed when supplementing the diet with other sources of fat that contain long-chain fatty acids. Furthermore, when these supplements were added to a sucrose solution administered enterally to the mice, which has been shown previously to lead to elevated blood ammonia as well as altered hepatic metabolite levels in Ctrn/mGPP-KO mice, this led to metabolic correction. The elevated hepatic glycerol 3-phosphate and citrulline levels after sucrose administration were suppressed by the administration of sodium pyruvate, alanine, sodium glutamate and MCT, although the effect of MCT was relatively small. Low hepatic citrate and increased lysine levels were only found to be corrected by sodium pyruvate, while alanine and sodium glutamate both corrected hepatic glutamate and aspartate levels. Overall, these results suggest that dietary factors including increased protein content, supplementation of specific amino acids like alanine and sodium glutamate, as well as sodium pyruvate and MCT all show beneficial

  18. Mixed voltage VLSI design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panwar, Ramesh; Rennels, David; Alkalaj, Leon

    1993-01-01

    A technique for minimizing the power dissipated in a Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) chip by lowering the operating voltage without any significant penalty in the chip throughput even though low voltage operation results in slower circuits. Since the overall throughput of a VLSI chip depends on the speed of the critical path(s) in the chip, it may be possible to sustain the throughput rates attained at higher voltages by operating the circuits in the critical path(s) with a high voltage while operating the other circuits with a lower voltage to minimize the power dissipation. The interface between the gates which operate at different voltages is crucial for low power dissipation since the interface may possibly have high static current dissipation thus negating the gains of the low voltage operation. The design of a voltage level translator which does the interface between the low voltage and high voltage circuits without any significant static dissipation is presented. Then, the results of the mixed voltage design using a greedy algorithm on three chips for various operating voltages are presented.

  19. Mitochondrial metabolites extend lifespan.

    PubMed

    Mishur, Robert J; Khan, Maruf; Munkácsy, Erin; Sharma, Lokendra; Bokov, Alex; Beam, Haley; Radetskaya, Oxana; Borror, Megan; Lane, Rebecca; Bai, Yidong; Rea, Shane L

    2016-04-01

    Disruption of mitochondrial respiration in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans can extend lifespan. We previously showed that long-lived respiratory mutants generate elevated amounts of α-ketoacids. These compounds are structurally related to α-ketoglutarate, suggesting they may be biologically relevant. Here, we show that provision of several such metabolites to wild-type worms is sufficient to extend their life. At least one mode of action is through stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). We also find that an α-ketoglutarate mimetic, 2,4-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (2,4-PDA), is alone sufficient to increase the lifespan of wild-type worms and this effect is blocked by removal of HIF-1. HIF-1 is constitutively active in isp-1(qm150) Mit mutants, and accordingly, 2,4-PDA does not further increase their lifespan. Incubation of mouse 3T3-L1 fibroblasts with life-prolonging α-ketoacids also results in HIF-1α stabilization. We propose that metabolites that build up following mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction form a novel mode of cell signaling that acts to regulate lifespan. © 2016 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Metformin restores the mitochondrial network and reverses mitochondrial dysfunction in Down syndrome cells.

    PubMed

    Izzo, Antonella; Nitti, Maria; Mollo, Nunzia; Paladino, Simona; Procaccini, Claudio; Faicchia, Deriggio; Calì, Gaetano; Genesio, Rita; Bonfiglio, Ferdinando; Cicatiello, Rita; Polishchuk, Elena; Polishchuk, Roman; Pinton, Paolo; Matarese, Giuseppe; Conti, Anna; Nitsch, Lucio

    2017-01-13

    Alterations in mitochondrial activity and morphology have been demonstrated in human cells and tissues from individuals with Down syndrome (DS), as well as in DS mouse models. An impaired activity of the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α/PPARGC1Adue to the overexpression of chromosome 21 genes, such as NRIP1/RIP140, has emerged as an underlying cause of mitochondrial dysfunction in DS. We tested the hypothesis that the activation of the PGC-1α pathway might indeed reverse this mitochondrial dysfunction.

  1. Voltage monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canicatti, C. L. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a system for monitoring the voltage at a remote location and determining when the voltage exceeds upper and lower levels. The system includes transmission lines for transmitting the voltage back to a central station and applying such to an amplifier having a pair of outputs. One of the outputs of the amplifier is applied to an oscillograph. The other output is fed through an isolation transformer, a full wave rectifier, to a pair of unijunctional transistor circuits for producing pulses when the voltage exceeds or drops below a predetermined level. These pulses, in turn, energize a relay which turns on the oscillograph for recording the voltages being monitored.

  2. High Voltage SPT Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzella, David; Jacobson, David; Jankovsky, Robert

    2001-01-01

    A 2.3 kW stationary plasma thruster designed to operate at high voltage was tested at discharge voltages between 300 and 1250 V. Discharge specific impulses between 1600 and 3700 sec were demonstrated with thrust between 40 and 145 mN. Test data indicated that discharge voltage can be optimized for maximum discharge efficiency. The optimum discharge voltage was between 500 and 700 V for the various anode mass flow rates considered. The effect of operating voltage on optimal magnet field strength was investigated. The effect of cathode flow rate on thruster efficiency was considered for an 800 V discharge.

  3. Salvaging hope: Is increasing NAD(+) a key to treating mitochondrial myopathy?

    PubMed

    Lightowlers, Robert N; Chrzanowska-Lightowlers, Zofia M A

    2014-06-01

    Mitochondrial diseases can arise from mutations either in mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear DNA encoding mitochondrially destined proteins. Currently, there is no cure for these diseases although treatments to ameliorate a subset of the symptoms are being developed. In this issue of EMBO Molecular Medicine, Khan et al (2014) use a mouse model to test the efficacy of a simple dietary supplement of nicotinamide riboside to treat and prevent mitochondrial myopathies.

  4. What Is Mitochondrial DNA?

    MedlinePlus

    ... DNA What is mitochondrial DNA? What is mitochondrial DNA? Although most DNA is packaged in chromosomes within ... proteins. For more information about mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA: Molecular Expressions, a web site from the Florida ...

  5. Comparison of mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal ribonucleic acid from different species.

    PubMed

    Mitra, R S; Bartoov, B; Monahan, J; Freeman, K B

    1972-08-01

    Mitochondrial ribosomal RNA species from mouse L cells, rat liver, rat hepatoma, hamster BHK-21 cells and human KB cells were examined by electrophoresis on polyacrylamide-agarose gels and sedimentation in sucrose density gradients. The S(E) (electrophoretic mobility) and S values of mitochondrial rRNA of all species were highly dependent on temperature and ionic strength of the medium; the S(E) values increased and the S values decreased with an increase in temperature at a low ionic strength. At an ionic strength of 0.3 at 23-25 degrees C or an ionic strength of 0.01 at 3-4 degrees C the S and S(E) values were almost the same being about 16.2-18.0 and 12.3-13.6 for human and mouse mitochondrial rRNA. The molecular weights under these conditions were calculated to be 3.8x10(5)-4.3x10(5) and 5.9x10(5)-6.8x10(5), depending on the technique used. At 25 degrees C in buffers of low ionic strength mouse mitochondrial rRNA species had a lower electrophoretic mobility than those of human and hamster. Under these conditions the smaller mitochondrial rRNA species of hamster had a lower electrophoretic mobility than that of human but the larger component had an identical mobility. Mouse and rat mitochondrial rRNA species had identical electrophoretic mobilities. Complex differences between human and mouse mitochondrial rRNA species were observed on sedimentation in sucrose density gradients under various conditions of temperature and ionic strength. Mouse L-cell mitochondrial rRNA was eluted after cytoplasmic rRNA on a column of methylated albumin-kieselguhr.

  6. Dynamics of Mitochondrial Transport in Axons

    PubMed Central

    Niescier, Robert F.; Kwak, Sang Kyu; Joo, Se Hun; Chang, Karen T.; Min, Kyung-Tai

    2016-01-01

    The polarized structure and long neurites of neurons pose a unique challenge for proper mitochondrial distribution. It is widely accepted that mitochondria move from the cell body to axon ends and vice versa; however, we have found that mitochondria originating from the axon ends moving in the retrograde direction never reach to the cell body, and only a limited number of mitochondria moving in the anterograde direction from the cell body arrive at the axon ends of mouse hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, we have derived a mathematical formula using the Fokker-Planck equation to characterize features of mitochondrial transport, and the equation could determine altered mitochondrial transport in axons overexpressing parkin. Our analysis will provide new insights into the dynamics of mitochondrial transport in axons of normal and unhealthy neurons. PMID:27242435

  7. Hypoxia as a Therapy for Mitochondrial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Isha H.; Zazzeron, Luca; Goli, Rahul; Alexa, Kristen; Schatzman-Bone, Stephanie; Dhillon, Harveen; Goldberger, Olga; Peng, Jun; Shalem, Ophir; Sanjana, Neville E.; Zhang, Feng; Goessling, Wolfram; Zapol, Warren M.; Mootha, Vamsi K.

    2016-01-01

    Defects in the mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) underlie a spectrum of human conditions, ranging from devastating inborn errors of metabolism to aging. We performed a genome-wide, Cas9-mediated screen to identify factors that are protective during RC inhibition. Our results highlight the hypoxia response, an endogenous program evolved to adapt to limiting oxygen availability. Genetic or small molecule activation of the hypoxia response is protective against mitochondrial toxicity in cultured cells and zebrafish models. Chronic hypoxia leads to a marked improvement in survival, body weight, body temperature, behavior, neuropathology and disease biomarkers in a genetic mouse model of Leigh syndrome, the most common pediatric manifestation of mitochondrial disease. Further preclinical studies are required to assess whether hypoxic exposure can be developed into a safe and effective treatment for human diseases associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:26917594

  8. MLN64 induces mitochondrial dysfunction associated with increased mitochondrial cholesterol content.

    PubMed

    Balboa, Elisa; Castro, Juan; Pinochet, María-José; Cancino, Gonzalo I; Matías, Nuria; José Sáez, Pablo; Martínez, Alexis; Álvarez, Alejandra R; Garcia-Ruiz, Carmen; Fernandez-Checa, José C; Zanlungo, Silvana

    2017-08-01

    MLN64 is a late endosomal cholesterol-binding membrane protein that has been implicated in cholesterol transport from endosomal membranes to the plasma membrane and/or mitochondria, in toxin-induced resistance, and in mitochondrial dysfunction. Down-regulation of MLN64 in Niemann-Pick C1 deficient cells decreased mitochondrial cholesterol content, suggesting that MLN64 functions independently of NPC1. However, the role of MLN64 in the maintenance of endosomal cholesterol flow and intracellular cholesterol homeostasis remains unclear. We have previously described that hepatic MLN64 overexpression increases liver cholesterol content and induces liver damage. Here, we studied the function of MLN64 in normal and NPC1-deficient cells and we evaluated whether MLN64 overexpressing cells exhibit alterations in mitochondrial function. We used recombinant-adenovirus-mediated MLN64 gene transfer to overexpress MLN64 in mouse liver and hepatic cells; and RNA interference to down-regulate MLN64 in NPC1-deficient cells. In MLN64-overexpressing cells, we found increased mitochondrial cholesterol content and decreased glutathione (GSH) levels and ATPase activity. Furthermore, we found decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial fragmentation and increased mitochondrial superoxide levels in MLN64-overexpressing cells and in NPC1-deficient cells. Consequently, MLN64 expression was increased in NPC1-deficient cells and reduction of its expression restore mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial superoxide levels. Our findings suggest that MLN64 overexpression induces an increase in mitochondrial cholesterol content and consequently a decrease in mitochondrial GSH content leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, we demonstrate that MLN64 expression is increased in NPC cells and plays a key role in cholesterol transport into the mitochondria. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Drp1-Dependent Mitochondrial Autophagy Plays a Protective Role Against Pressure-Overload-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Shirakabe, Akihiro; Zhai, Peiyong; Ikeda, Yoshiyuki; Saito, Toshiro; Maejima, Yasuhiro; Hsu, Chiao-Po; Nomura, Masatoshi; Egashira, Kensuke; Levine, Beth; Sadoshima, Junichi

    2016-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial autophagy is an important mediator of mitochondrial quality control in cardiomyocytes. The occurrence of mitochondrial autophagy and its significance during cardiac hypertrophy are not well understood. Methods and Results Mice were subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and observed at multiple time points up to 30 days. Cardiac hypertrophy developed after 5 days, the ejection fraction was reduced after 14 days, and heart failure (HF) was observed 30 days after TAC. General autophagy was upregulated between 1 and 12 hours after TAC but was downregulated below physiological levels 5 days after TAC. Mitochondrial autophagy, evaluated by electron microscopy, mitochondrial content, and Mito-Keima, was transiently activated around 3–7 days post-TAC, coinciding with mitochondrial translocation of Drp1. However, it was downregulated thereafter, followed by mitochondrial dysfunction. Haploinsufficiency of Drp1 abolished mitochondrial autophagy and exacerbated the development of both mitochondrial dysfunction and HF after TAC. Injection of Tat-Beclin 1, a potent inducer of autophagy, but not control peptide, on Day 7 after TAC partially rescued mitochondrial autophagy, and attenuated mitochondrial dysfunction and HF induced by pressure overload (PO). Haploinsufficiency of either drp1 or beclin 1 prevented the rescue by Tat-Beclin 1, suggesting that its effect is mediated in part through autophagy, including mitochondrial autophagy. Conclusions Mitochondrial autophagy is transiently activated and then downregulated in the mouse heart in response to PO. Downregulation of mitochondrial autophagy plays an important role in mediating the development of mitochondrial dysfunction and HF, whereas restoration of mitochondrial autophagy attenuates dysfunction in the heart during PO. PMID:26915633

  10. [What we don't know about mitochondrial potassium channels?

    PubMed

    Augustynek, Bartłomiej; Wrzosek, Antoni; Koprowski, Piotr; Kiełbasa, Agnieszka; Bednarczyk, Piotr; Łukasiak, Agnieszka; Dołowy, Krzysztof; Szewczyk, Adam

    2016-01-01

    In the current work the authors present the most interesting, yet not fully understood issues regarding origin, function and pharmacology of the mitochondrial potassium channels. There are eight potassium channels known to contribute to the potassium permeability of the inner mitochondrial membrane: ATP-regulated channel, calcium-regulated channels of large, intermediate and small conductance, voltage-regulated Kv1.3 and Kv7.4 channels, two-pore-domain TASK-3 channel and SLO2 channel. The primary function of the mitochondrial potassium channels is regulation of the mitochondrial membrane potential. Additionally, mitochondrial potassium channels alter cellular respiration, regulation of the mitochondrial volume and ROS synthesis. However, mechanisms underlying these processes are not fully understood yet. In this work, the authors not only present available knowledge about this topic, but also put certain hypotheses that may set the direction for the future research on these proteins.

  11. Mitochondrial biosensors.

    PubMed

    De Michele, Roberto; Carimi, Francesco; Frommer, Wolf B

    2014-03-01

    Biosensors offer an innovative tool for measuring the dynamics of a wide range of metabolites in living organisms. Biosensors are genetically encoded, and thus can be specifically targeted to specific compartments of organelles by fusion to proteins or targeting sequences. Mitochondria are central to eukaryotic cell metabolism and present a complex structure with multiple compartments. Over the past decade, genetically encoded sensors for molecules involved in energy production, reactive oxygen species and secondary messengers have helped to unravel key aspects of mitochondrial physiology. To date, sensors for ATP, NADH, pH, hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion, redox state, cAMP, calcium and zinc have been used in the matrix, intermembrane space and in the outer membrane region of mitochondria of animal and plant cells. This review summarizes the different types of sensors employed in mitochondria and their main limits and advantages, and it provides an outlook for the future application of biosensor technology in studying mitochondrial biology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mitochondrial ataxias.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef

    2009-09-01

    Mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) are an increasingly recognized condition. The second most frequently affected organ in MIDs is the central nervous system. One of the most prevalent clinical CNS manifestations of MIDs is ataxia. Ataxia may be even the dominant manifestation of a MID. This is why certain MIDs should be included in the classification of heredoataxias or at least considered as differentials of classical heredoataxias. MIDs due to mutations of the mitochondrial DNA, which develop ataxia include the MERRF, NARP, MILS, or KSS syndrome. More rarely, ataxia may be a feature of MELAS, LHON, PS, MIDD, or MSL. MIDs due to mutations of the nuclear DNA, which develop ataxia include LS, SANDO, SCAE, AHS, XSLA/A, IOSCA, MIRAS, MEMSA, or LBSL syndrome. More rarely ataxia can be found in AD-CPEO, AR-CPEO, MNGIE, DIDMOAD, CoQ-deficiency, ADOAD, DCMA, or PDC-deficiency. MIDs most frequently associated with ataxia are the non-syndromic MIDs. Syndromic and non-syndromic MIDs with ataxia should be delineated from classical heredoataxias to initiate appropriate symptomatic or supportive treatment.

  13. Mitochondrial fusion, fission, and mitochondrial toxicity.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Joel N; Leuthner, Tess C; Luz, Anthony L

    2017-08-05

    Mitochondrial dynamics are regulated by two sets of opposed processes: mitochondrial fusion and fission, and mitochondrial biogenesis and degradation (including mitophagy), as well as processes such as intracellular transport. These processes maintain mitochondrial homeostasis, regulate mitochondrial form, volume and function, and are increasingly understood to be critical components of the cellular stress response. Mitochondrial dynamics vary based on developmental stage and age, cell type, environmental factors, and genetic background. Indeed, many mitochondrial homeostasis genes are human disease genes. Emerging evidence indicates that deficiencies in these genes often sensitize to environmental exposures, yet can also be protective under certain circumstances. Inhibition of mitochondrial dynamics also affects elimination of irreparable mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and transmission of mtDNA mutations. We briefly review the basic biology of mitodynamic processes with a focus on mitochondrial fusion and fission, discuss what is known and unknown regarding how these processes respond to chemical and other stressors, and review the literature on interactions between mitochondrial toxicity and genetic variation in mitochondrial fusion and fission genes. Finally, we suggest areas for future research, including elucidating the full range of mitodynamic responses from low to high-level exposures, and from acute to chronic exposures; detailed examination of the physiological consequences of mitodynamic alterations in different cell types; mechanism-based testing of mitotoxicant interactions with interindividual variability in mitodynamics processes; and incorporating other environmental variables that affect mitochondria, such as diet and exercise. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mitochondrial calcium uptake regulates rapid calcium transients in skeletal muscle during excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jianxun; Ma, Changling; Li, Yan; Weisleder, Noah; Ríos, Eduardo; Ma, Jianjie; Zhou, Jingsong

    2011-09-16

    Defective coupling between sarcoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria during control of intracellular Ca(2+) signaling has been implicated in the progression of neuromuscular diseases. Our previous study showed that skeletal muscles derived from an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mouse model displayed segmental loss of mitochondrial function that was coupled with elevated and uncontrolled sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release activity. The localized mitochondrial defect in the ALS muscle allows for examination of the mitochondrial contribution to Ca(2+) removal during excitation-contraction coupling by comparing Ca(2+) transients in regions with normal and defective mitochondria in the same muscle fiber. Here we show that Ca(2+) transients elicited by membrane depolarization in fiber segments with defective mitochondria display an ~10% increased amplitude. These regional differences in Ca(2+) transients were abolished by the application of 1,2-bis(O-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, a fast Ca(2+) chelator that reduces mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake. Using a mitochondria-targeted Ca(2+) biosensor (mt11-YC3.6) expressed in ALS muscle fibers, we monitored the dynamic change of mitochondrial Ca(2+) levels during voltage-induced Ca(2+) release and detected a reduced Ca(2+) uptake by mitochondria in the fiber segment with defective mitochondria, which mirrored the elevated Ca(2+) transients in the cytosol. Our study constitutes a direct demonstration of the importance of mitochondria in shaping the cytosolic Ca(2+) signaling in skeletal muscle during excitation-contraction coupling and establishes that malfunction of this mechanism may contribute to neuromuscular degeneration in ALS.

  15. Mitochondrial translocation and interaction of cofilin and Drp1 are required for erucin-induced mitochondrial fission and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Guobing; Zhou, Jing; Budhraja, Amit; Hu, Xiaoye; Chen, Yibiao; Cheng, Qi; Liu, Lei; Zhou, Ting; Li, Ping; Liu, Ehu; Gao, Ning

    2015-01-30

    Cofilin is a member of the actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF) family protein, which plays an essential role in regulation of the mitochondrial apoptosis. It remains unclear how cofilin regulates the mitochondrial apoptosis. Here, we report for the first time that natural compound 4-methylthiobutyl isothiocyanate (erucin) found in consumable cruciferous vegetables induces mitochondrial fission and apoptosis in human breast cancer cells through the mitochondrial translocation of cofilin. Importantly, cofilin regulates erucin-induced mitochondrial fission by interacting with dynamin-related protein (Drp1). Knockdown of cofilin or Drp1 markedly reduced erucin-mediated mitochondrial translocation and interaction of cofilin and Drp1, mitochondrial fission, and apoptosis. Only dephosphorylated cofilin (Ser 3) and Drp1 (Ser 637) are translocated to the mitochondria. Cofilin S3E and Drp1 S637D mutants, which mimick the phosphorylated forms, suppressed mitochondrial translocation, fission, and apoptosis. Moreover, both dephosphorylation and mitochondrial translocation of cofilin and Drp1 are dependent on ROCK1 activation. In vivo findings confirmed that erucin-