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Sample records for mouse neural precursor

  1. Intraspinal transplantation of mouse and human neural precursor cells

    PubMed Central

    Weinger, Jason G.; Chen, Lu; Coleman, Ronald; Leang, Ronika; Plaisted, Warren C.; Loring, Jeanne F.; Lane, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    This unit describes the preparation and transplantation of human neural precursor cells (hNPCs) and mouse neural precursor cells (mNPCs) into the thoracic region of the mouse spinal cord. The techniques in this unit also describe how to prepare the mouse for surgery by performing a laminectomy to expose the spinal cord for transplantation. Here we show NPCs genetically labeled with eGFP transplanted into the spinal cord of a mouse following viralmediated demyelination can efficiently be detected via eGFP expression. Transplantation of these cells into the spinal cord is an efficacious way to determine their effects in neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and spinal cord injury. PMID:24510791

  2. Nucleotide precursors prevent folic acid-resistant neural tube defects in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Leung, Kit-Yi; De Castro, Sandra C P; Savery, Dawn; Copp, Andrew J; Greene, Nicholas D E

    2013-09-01

    Closure of the neural tube during embryogenesis is a crucial step in development of the central nervous system. Failure of this process results in neural tube defects, including spina bifida and anencephaly, which are among the most common birth defects worldwide. Maternal use of folic acid supplements reduces risk of neural tube defects but a proportion of cases are not preventable. Folic acid is thought to act through folate one-carbon metabolism, which transfers one-carbon units for methylation reactions and nucleotide biosynthesis. Hence suboptimal performance of the intervening reactions could limit the efficacy of folic acid. We hypothesized that direct supplementation with nucleotides, downstream of folate metabolism, has the potential to support neural tube closure. Therefore, in a mouse model that exhibits folic acid-resistant neural tube defects, we tested the effect of specific combinations of pyrimidine and purine nucleotide precursors and observed a significant protective effect. Labelling in whole embryo culture showed that nucleotides are taken up by the neurulating embryo and incorporated into genomic DNA. Furthermore, the mitotic index was elevated in neural folds and hindgut of treated embryos, consistent with a proposed mechanism of neural tube defect prevention through stimulation of cellular proliferation. These findings may provide an impetus for future investigations of supplemental nucleotides as a means to prevent a greater proportion of human neural tube defects than can be achieved by folic acid alone.

  3. Nucleotide precursors prevent folic acid-resistant neural tube defects in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Leung, Kit-Yi; De Castro, Sandra C P; Savery, Dawn; Copp, Andrew J; Greene, Nicholas D E

    2013-09-01

    Closure of the neural tube during embryogenesis is a crucial step in development of the central nervous system. Failure of this process results in neural tube defects, including spina bifida and anencephaly, which are among the most common birth defects worldwide. Maternal use of folic acid supplements reduces risk of neural tube defects but a proportion of cases are not preventable. Folic acid is thought to act through folate one-carbon metabolism, which transfers one-carbon units for methylation reactions and nucleotide biosynthesis. Hence suboptimal performance of the intervening reactions could limit the efficacy of folic acid. We hypothesized that direct supplementation with nucleotides, downstream of folate metabolism, has the potential to support neural tube closure. Therefore, in a mouse model that exhibits folic acid-resistant neural tube defects, we tested the effect of specific combinations of pyrimidine and purine nucleotide precursors and observed a significant protective effect. Labelling in whole embryo culture showed that nucleotides are taken up by the neurulating embryo and incorporated into genomic DNA. Furthermore, the mitotic index was elevated in neural folds and hindgut of treated embryos, consistent with a proposed mechanism of neural tube defect prevention through stimulation of cellular proliferation. These findings may provide an impetus for future investigations of supplemental nucleotides as a means to prevent a greater proportion of human neural tube defects than can be achieved by folic acid alone. PMID:23935126

  4. Purification of neural precursor cells reveals the presence of distinct, stimulus-specific subpopulations of quiescent precursors in the adult mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Jhaveri, Dhanisha J; O'Keeffe, Imogen; Robinson, Gregory J; Zhao, Qiong-Yi; Zhang, Zong Hong; Nink, Virginia; Narayanan, Ramesh K; Osborne, Geoffrey W; Wray, Naomi R; Bartlett, Perry F

    2015-05-27

    The activity of neural precursor cells in the adult hippocampus is regulated by various stimuli; however, whether these stimuli regulate the same or different precursor populations remains unknown. Here, we developed a novel cell-sorting protocol that allows the purification to homogeneity of neurosphere-forming neural precursors from the adult mouse hippocampus and examined the responsiveness of individual precursors to various stimuli using a clonal assay. We show that within the Hes5-GFP(+)/Nestin-GFP(+)/EGFR(+) cell population, which comprises the majority of neurosphere-forming precursors, there are two distinct subpopulations of quiescent precursor cells, one directly activated by high-KCl depolarization, and the other activated by norepinephrine (NE). We then demonstrate that these two populations are differentially distributed along the septotemporal axis of the hippocampus, and show that the NE-responsive precursors are selectively regulated by GABA, whereas the KCl-responsive precursors are selectively modulated by corticosterone. Finally, based on RNAseq analysis by deep sequencing, we show that the progeny generated by activating NE-responsive versus KCl-responsive quiescent precursors are molecularly different. These results demonstrate that the adult hippocampus contains phenotypically similar but stimulus-specific populations of quiescent precursors, which may give rise to neural progeny with different functional capacity.

  5. PPARβ/δ and PPARγ maintain undifferentiated phenotypes of mouse adult neural precursor cells from the subventricular zone

    PubMed Central

    Bernal, Carolina; Araya, Claudia; Palma, Verónica; Bronfman, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    The subventricular zone (SVZ) is one of the main niches of neural stem cells in the adult mammalian brain. Stem and precursor cells in this region are the source for neurogenesis and oligodendrogesis, mainly in the olfactory bulb and corpus callosum, respectively. The identification of the molecular components regulating the decision of these cells to differentiate or maintain an undifferentiated state is important in order to understand the modulation of neurogenic processes in physiological and pathological conditions. PPARs are a group of transcription factors, activated by lipid ligands, with important functions in cellular differentiation and proliferation in several tissues. In this work, we demonstrate that mouse adult neural precursor cells (NPCs), in situ and in vitro, express PPARβ/δ and PPARγ. Pharmacological activation of both PPARs isoforms induces proliferation and maintenance of the undifferentiated phenotype. Congruently, inhibition of PPARβ/δ and PPARγ results in a decrease of proliferation and loss of the undifferentiated phenotype. Interestingly, PPARγ regulates the level of EGFR in adult NPCs, concurrent with it is function described in embryonic NPCs. Furthermore, we describe for the first time that PPARβ/δ regulates SOX2 level in adult NPCs, probably through a direct transcriptional regulation, as we identified two putative PPAR response elements in the promoter region of Sox2. EGFR and SOX2 are key players in neural stem/precursor cells self-renewal. Finally, rosiglitazone, a PPARγ ligand, increases PPARβ/δ level, suggesting a possible cooperation between these two PPARs in the control of cell fate behavior. Our work contributes to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated to neural cell fate decision and places PPARβ/δ and PPARγ as interesting new targets of modulation of mammalian brain homeostasis. PMID:25852474

  6. PPARβ/δ and PPARγ maintain undifferentiated phenotypes of mouse adult neural precursor cells from the subventricular zone.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Carolina; Araya, Claudia; Palma, Verónica; Bronfman, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    The subventricular zone (SVZ) is one of the main niches of neural stem cells in the adult mammalian brain. Stem and precursor cells in this region are the source for neurogenesis and oligodendrogesis, mainly in the olfactory bulb and corpus callosum, respectively. The identification of the molecular components regulating the decision of these cells to differentiate or maintain an undifferentiated state is important in order to understand the modulation of neurogenic processes in physiological and pathological conditions. PPARs are a group of transcription factors, activated by lipid ligands, with important functions in cellular differentiation and proliferation in several tissues. In this work, we demonstrate that mouse adult neural precursor cells (NPCs), in situ and in vitro, express PPARβ/δ and PPARγ. Pharmacological activation of both PPARs isoforms induces proliferation and maintenance of the undifferentiated phenotype. Congruently, inhibition of PPARβ/δ and PPARγ results in a decrease of proliferation and loss of the undifferentiated phenotype. Interestingly, PPARγ regulates the level of EGFR in adult NPCs, concurrent with it is function described in embryonic NPCs. Furthermore, we describe for the first time that PPARβ/δ regulates SOX2 level in adult NPCs, probably through a direct transcriptional regulation, as we identified two putative PPAR response elements in the promoter region of Sox2. EGFR and SOX2 are key players in neural stem/precursor cells self-renewal. Finally, rosiglitazone, a PPARγ ligand, increases PPARβ/δ level, suggesting a possible cooperation between these two PPARs in the control of cell fate behavior. Our work contributes to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated to neural cell fate decision and places PPARβ/δ and PPARγ as interesting new targets of modulation of mammalian brain homeostasis. PMID:25852474

  7. PPARβ/δ and PPARγ maintain undifferentiated phenotypes of mouse adult neural precursor cells from the subventricular zone.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Carolina; Araya, Claudia; Palma, Verónica; Bronfman, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    The subventricular zone (SVZ) is one of the main niches of neural stem cells in the adult mammalian brain. Stem and precursor cells in this region are the source for neurogenesis and oligodendrogesis, mainly in the olfactory bulb and corpus callosum, respectively. The identification of the molecular components regulating the decision of these cells to differentiate or maintain an undifferentiated state is important in order to understand the modulation of neurogenic processes in physiological and pathological conditions. PPARs are a group of transcription factors, activated by lipid ligands, with important functions in cellular differentiation and proliferation in several tissues. In this work, we demonstrate that mouse adult neural precursor cells (NPCs), in situ and in vitro, express PPARβ/δ and PPARγ. Pharmacological activation of both PPARs isoforms induces proliferation and maintenance of the undifferentiated phenotype. Congruently, inhibition of PPARβ/δ and PPARγ results in a decrease of proliferation and loss of the undifferentiated phenotype. Interestingly, PPARγ regulates the level of EGFR in adult NPCs, concurrent with it is function described in embryonic NPCs. Furthermore, we describe for the first time that PPARβ/δ regulates SOX2 level in adult NPCs, probably through a direct transcriptional regulation, as we identified two putative PPAR response elements in the promoter region of Sox2. EGFR and SOX2 are key players in neural stem/precursor cells self-renewal. Finally, rosiglitazone, a PPARγ ligand, increases PPARβ/δ level, suggesting a possible cooperation between these two PPARs in the control of cell fate behavior. Our work contributes to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated to neural cell fate decision and places PPARβ/δ and PPARγ as interesting new targets of modulation of mammalian brain homeostasis.

  8. Mechanisms of Mouse Neural Precursor Expansion after Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Buono, Krista D.; Goodus, Matthew T.; Guardia Clausi, Mariano; Jiang, Yuhui; Loporchio, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (H-I) is the leading cause of brain damage resulting from birth complications. Studies in neonatal rats have shown that H-I acutely expands the numbers of neural precursors (NPs) within the subventricular zone (SVZ). The aim of these studies was to establish which NPs expand after H-I and to determine how leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) insufficiency affects their response. During recovery from H-I, the number of Ki67+ cells in the medial SVZ of the injured hemisphere increased. Similarly, the number and size of primary neurospheres produced from the injured SVZ increased approximately twofold versus controls, and, upon differentiation, more than twice as many neurospheres from the damaged brain were tripotential, suggesting an increase in neural stem cells (NSCs). However, multimarker flow cytometry for CD133/LeX/NG2/CD140a combined with EdU incorporation revealed that NSC frequency diminished after H-I, whereas that of two multipotential progenitors and three unique glial-restricted precursors expanded, attributable to changes in their proliferation. By quantitative PCR, interleukin-6, LIF, and CNTF mRNA increased but with significantly different time courses, with LIF expression correlating best with NP expansion. Therefore, we evaluated the NP response to H-I in LIF-haplodeficient mice. Flow cytometry revealed that one subset of multipotential and bipotential intermediate progenitors did not increase after H-I, whereas another subset was amplified. Altogether, our studies demonstrate that neonatal H-I alters the composition of the SVZ and that LIF is a key regulator for a subset of intermediate progenitors that expand during acute recovery from neonatal H-I. PMID:26063918

  9. The potential of mouse skin-derived precursors to differentiate into mesenchymal and neural lineages and their application to osteogenic induction in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun Ki; Min, Seung-Ki; Jung, Sung Youn; Jung, Kyoungsuk; Jang, Da Hyun; Kim, O Bok; Chun, Gae-Sig; Lee, Zang Hee; Min, Byung-Moo

    2011-12-01

    Although previous studies indicate that skin-derived precursors (SKPs) are multipotent dermal precursors that share similarities with neural crest stem cells (NCSCs), a shared ability for multilineage differentiation toward neural crest lineages between SKPs and NCSCs has not been fully demonstrated. Here, we report the derivation of SKPs from adult mouse skin and their directed multilineage differentiation toward neural crest lineages. Under controlled in vitro conditions, mouse SKPs were propagated and directed toward peripheral nervous system lineages such as peripheral neurons and Schwann cells, and mesenchymal lineages, such as osteogenic, chondrogenic, adipogenic, and smooth muscle cells. To ask if SKPs could generate these same lineages in vivo, a mixture of SKP-derived mesenchymal stem cells and hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate was transplanted into the rat calvarial defects. Over the ensuing 4 weeks, we observed formation of osteogenic structure in the calvarial defect without any evidence of teratomas. These findings demonstrate the multipotency of adult mouse SKPs to differentiate into neural crest lineages. In addition, SKP-derived mesenchymal stem cells represent an accessible, potentially autologous source of precursor cells for tissue-engineered bone repair. PMID:21879252

  10. Roles of lipid rafts in integrin-dependent adhesion and gp130 signalling pathway in mouse embryonic neural precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Makoto; Nakamura, Kazuo; Taga, Tetsuya

    2004-09-01

    Neuronal and glial cells organizing the central nervous system are generated from common neural precursor cells present in the neuroepithelium during development. We tried to clarify functions of a cell surface microdomain, lipid raft, in neuroepithelial cells (NECs). NECs are suggested to adhere to fibronectin substratum dependently on integrin molecules. We found that beta1 integrin, a component of fibronectin receptors, was distributed in lipid rafts. Methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MBCD), an inhibitor of lipid raft formation, inhibited the integrin-fibronectin interaction-dependent adhesion of NECs. However, inhibition of synthesis of glycosphingolipids (GSL), components of lipid rafts, did not affect NEC adhesion. Leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF), an interleukin 6 type cytokine, induces astrocyte differentiation of NECs via activation of a transcription factor STAT3. We detected gp130, JAK1 and Ras but not STAT3 and ERK2 molecules in lipid rafts of NECs. Disruption of lipid rafts by MBCD inhibited LIF-induced ERK activation but not STAT3 activation. It is thus suggested that LIF-downstream molecules have differential lipid raft-dependency in terms of activation upon LIF-stimulation. In this study, we found functions of lipid rafts in cell adhesion and signal transduction in NECs. This is the first report that characterized functions of lipid rafts in embryonic neural precursor cells.

  11. S100A6 (calcyclin) is a novel marker of neural stem cells and astrocyte precursors in the subgranular zone of the adult mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Jun; Jinno, Shozo

    2014-01-01

    S100A6 (calcyclin), an EF-hand calcium binding protein, is considered to play various roles in the brain, for example, cell proliferation and differentiation, calcium homeostasis, and neuronal degeneration. In addition to some limbic nuclei, S100A6 is distributed in the rostral migratory stream, one of the major neurogenic niches of the adult brain. However, the potential involvement of S100A6 in adult neurogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the role of S100A6 in the other major neurogenic niche, the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the adult mouse hippocampus. Immunofluorescent multiple labeling showed that S100A6 was highly expressed in neural stem cells labeled by sex determining region Y-box 2, brain lipid-binding protein protein and glial fibrillary acidic protein. S100A6+ cells often extended a long process typical of radial glial morphology. In addition, S100A6 was found in some S100β+ astrocyte lineage cells. Interestingly, proliferating cell nuclear antigen was detected in a fraction of S100A6+/S100β+ cells. These cells were considered to be lineage-restricted astrocyte precursors maintaining mitotic potential. On the other hand, S100A6 was rarely seen in neural lineage cells labeled by T-box brain protein 2, doublecortin, calretinin and calbindin D28K. Cell fate-tracing experiment using BrdU showed that the majority of newly generated immature astrocytes were immunoreactive for S100A6, while mature astrocytes lacked S100A6 immunoreactivity. Administration of S100 protein inhibitor, trifluoperazine, caused a reduction in production of S100β+ astrocyte lineage cells, but had no impact on neurogenesis. Overall, our data provide the first evidence that S100A6 is a specific marker of neural stem cells and astrocyte precursors, and may be especially important for generation of astrocytes in the adult hippocampus.

  12. Selective apoptosis of pluripotent mouse and human stem cells by novel ceramide analogues prevents teratoma formation and enriches for neural precursors in ES cell–derived neural transplants

    PubMed Central

    Bieberich, Erhard; Silva, Jeane; Wang, Guanghu; Krishnamurthy, Kannan; Condie, Brian G.

    2004-01-01

    The formation of stem cell–derived tumors (teratomas) is observed when engrafting undifferentiated embryonic stem (ES) cells, embryoid body–derived cells (EBCs), or mammalian embryos and is a significant obstacle to stem cell therapy. We show that in tumors formed after engraftment of EBCs into mouse brain, expression of the pluripotency marker Oct-4 colocalized with that of prostate apoptosis response-4 (PAR-4), a protein mediating ceramide-induced apoptosis during neural differentiation of ES cells. We tested the ability of the novel ceramide analogue N-oleoyl serinol (S18) to eliminate mouse and human Oct-4(+)/PAR-4(+) cells and to increase the proportion of nestin(+) neuroprogenitors in EBC-derived cell cultures and grafts. S18-treated EBCs persisted in the hippocampal area and showed neuronal lineage differentiation as indicated by the expression of β-tubulin III. However, untreated cells formed numerous teratomas that contained derivatives of endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. Our results show for the first time that ceramide-induced apoptosis eliminates residual, pluripotent EBCs, prevents teratoma formation, and enriches the EBCs for cells that undergo neural differentiation after transplantation. PMID:15545317

  13. Systemic Central Nervous System (CNS)-targeted Delivery of Neuropeptide Y (NPY) Reduces Neurodegeneration and Increases Neural Precursor Cell Proliferation in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer Disease.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Brian; Potkar, Rewati; Metcalf, Jeff; Thrin, Ivy; Adame, Anthony; Rockenstein, Edward; Masliah, Eliezer

    2016-01-22

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is one of the most abundant protein transmitters in the central nervous system with roles in a variety of biological functions including: food intake, cardiovascular regulation, cognition, seizure activity, circadian rhythms, and neurogenesis. Reduced NPY and NPY receptor expression is associated with numerous neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer disease (AD). To determine whether replacement of NPY could ameliorate some of the neurodegenerative and behavioral pathology associated with AD, we generated a lentiviral vector expressing NPY fused to a brain transport peptide (apoB) for widespread CNS delivery in an APP-transgenic (tg) mouse model of AD. The recombinant NPY-apoB effectively reversed neurodegenerative pathology and behavioral deficits although it had no effect on accumulation of Aβ. The subgranular zone of the hippocampus showed a significant increase in proliferation of neural precursor cells without further differentiation into neurons. The neuroprotective and neurogenic effects of NPY-apoB appeared to involve signaling via ERK and Akt through the NPY R1 and NPY R2 receptors. Thus, widespread CNS-targeted delivery of NPY appears to be effective at reversing the neuronal and glial pathology associated with Aβ accumulation while also increasing NPC proliferation. Overall, increased delivery of NPY to the CNS for AD might be an effective therapy especially if combined with an anti-Aβ therapeutic.

  14. Proliferative and transcriptional identity of distinct classes of neural precursors in the mammalian olfactory epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Eric S.; Lehtinen, Maria K.; Maynard, Tom; Zirlinger, Mariela; Dulac, Catherine; Rawson, Nancy; Pevny, Larysa; LaMantia, Anthony-Samuel

    2010-01-01

    Neural precursors in the developing olfactory epithelium (OE) give rise to three major neuronal classes – olfactory receptor (ORNs), vomeronasal (VRNs) and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. Nevertheless, the molecular and proliferative identities of these precursors are largely unknown. We characterized two precursor classes in the olfactory epithelium (OE) shortly after it becomes a distinct tissue at midgestation in the mouse: slowly dividing self-renewing precursors that express Meis1/2 at high levels, and rapidly dividing neurogenic precursors that express high levels of Sox2 and Ascl1. Precursors expressing high levels of Meis genes primarily reside in the lateral OE, whereas precursors expressing high levels of Sox2 and Ascl1 primarily reside in the medial OE. Fgf8 maintains these expression signatures and proliferative identities. Using electroporation in the wild-type embryonic OE in vitro as well as Fgf8, Sox2 and Ascl1 mutant mice in vivo, we found that Sox2 dose and Meis1 – independent of Pbx co-factors – regulate Ascl1 expression and the transition from lateral to medial precursor state. Thus, we have identified proliferative characteristics and a dose-dependent transcriptional network that define distinct OE precursors: medial precursors that are most probably transit amplifying neurogenic progenitors for ORNs, VRNs and GnRH neurons, and lateral precursors that include multi-potent self-renewing OE neural stem cells. PMID:20573694

  15. Non-Viral Generation of Neural Precursor-like Cells from Adult Human Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Maucksch, C; Firmin, E; Butler-Munro, C; Montgomery, JM; Dottori, M; Connor, B

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have reported direct reprogramming of human fibroblasts to mature neurons by the introduction of defined neural genes. This technology has potential use in the areas of neurological disease modeling and drug development. However, use of induced neurons for large-scale drug screening and cell-based replacement strategies is limited due to their inability to expand once reprogrammed. We propose it would be more desirable to induce expandable neural precursor cells directly from human fibroblasts. To date several pluripotent and neural transcription factors have been shown to be capable of converting mouse fibroblasts to neural stem/precursor-like cells when delivered by viral vectors. Here we extend these findings and demonstrate that transient ectopic insertion of the transcription factors SOX2 and PAX6 to adult human fibroblasts through use of non-viral plasmid transfection or protein transduction allows the generation of induced neural precursor (iNP) colonies expressing a range of neural stem and pro-neural genes. Upon differentiation, iNP cells give rise to neurons exhibiting typical neuronal morphologies and expressing multiple neuronal markers including tyrosine hydroxylase and GAD65/67. Importantly, iNP-derived neurons demonstrate electrophysiological properties of functionally mature neurons with the capacity to generate action potentials. In addition, iNP cells are capable of differentiating into glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-expressing astrocytes. This study represents a novel virusfree approach for direct reprogramming of human fibroblasts to a neural precursor fate. PMID:24693194

  16. Transplanted neural stem/precursor cells instruct phagocytes and reduce secondary tissue damage in the injured spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Cusimano, Melania; Biziato, Daniela; Brambilla, Elena; Donegà, Matteo; Alfaro-Cervello, Clara; Snider, Silvia; Salani, Giuliana; Pucci, Ferdinando; Comi, Giancarlo; Garcia-Verdugo, Jose Manuel; De Palma, Michele; Martino, Gianvito; Pluchino, Stefano

    2012-02-01

    Transplanted neural stem/precursor cells possess peculiar therapeutic plasticity and can simultaneously instruct several therapeutic mechanisms in addition to cell replacement. Here, we interrogated the therapeutic plasticity of neural stem/precursor cells after their focal implantation in the severely contused spinal cord. We injected syngeneic neural stem/precursor cells at the proximal and distal ends of the contused mouse spinal cord and analysed locomotor functions and relevant secondary pathological events in the mice, cell fate of transplanted neural stem/precursor cells, and gene expression and inflammatory cell infiltration at the injured site. We used two different doses of neural stem/precursor cells and two treatment schedules, either subacute (7 days) or early chronic (21 days) neural stem/precursor cell transplantation after the induction of experimental thoracic severe spinal cord injury. Only the subacute transplant of neural stem/precursor cells enhanced the recovery of locomotor functions of mice with spinal cord injury. Transplanted neural stem/precursor cells survived undifferentiated at the level of the peri-lesion environment and established contacts with endogenous phagocytes via cellular-junctional coupling. This was associated with significant modulation of the expression levels of important inflammatory cell transcripts in vivo. Transplanted neural stem/precursor cells skewed the inflammatory cell infiltrate at the injured site by reducing the proportion of 'classically-activated' (M1-like) macrophages, while promoting the healing of the injured cord. We here identify a precise window of opportunity for the treatment of complex spinal cord injuries with therapeutically plastic somatic stem cells, and suggest that neural stem/precursor cells have the ability to re-programme the local inflammatory cell microenvironment from a 'hostile' to an 'instructive' role, thus facilitating the healing or regeneration past the lesion.

  17. Functional activity of mitochondria in cultured neural precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Plotnikov, E Yu; Marei, M V; Podgornyi, O V; Aleksandrova, M A; Zorov, D B; Sukhikh, G T

    2006-01-01

    We studied mitochondrial transmembrane potential of neural precursor cells forming neurospheres in culture. Uneven energization of mitochondria in neurosphere cells was detected. Heterogeneity of cells by the mitochondrial potential increased with neurosphere enlargement during culturing. Decrease in the mitochondrial potential in the central cells in large spheres, presumably caused by insufficient diffusion of oxygen and nutrients, can provoke their damage and death. Population of cells with high mitochondrial potential responded to addition of the nuclear dye by a decrease in mitochondrial potential, which can indicate functioning of ABCG2 complex in these cells, characteristic of undifferentiated stem cells. These data will help to create optimum conditions for culturing of neural stem cells for the maintenance of their maximum functional and proliferative activity. PMID:16929986

  18. Restriction of neural precursor ability to respond to Nurr1 by early regional specification.

    PubMed

    Soldati, Chiara; Cacci, Emanuele; Biagioni, Stefano; Carucci, Nicoletta; Lupo, Giuseppe; Perrone-Capano, Carla; Saggio, Isabella; Augusti-Tocco, Gabriella

    2012-01-01

    During neural development, spatially regulated expression of specific transcription factors is crucial for central nervous system (CNS) regionalization, generation of neural precursors (NPs) and subsequent differentiation of specific cell types within defined regions. A critical role in dopaminergic differentiation in the midbrain (MB) has been assigned to the transcription factor Nurr1. Nurr1 controls the expression of key genes involved in dopamine (DA) neurotransmission, e.g. tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and the DA transporter (DAT), and promotes the dopaminergic phenotype in embryonic stem cells. We investigated whether cells derived from different areas of the mouse CNS could be directed to differentiate into dopaminergic neurons in vitro by forced expression of the transcription factor Nurr1. We show that Nurr1 overexpression can promote dopaminergic cell fate specification only in NPs obtained from E13.5 ganglionic eminence (GE) and MB, but not in NPs isolated from E13.5 cortex (CTX) and spinal cord (SC) or from the adult subventricular zone (SVZ). Confirming previous studies, we also show that Nurr1 overexpression can increase the generation of TH-positive neurons in mouse embryonic stem cells. These data show that Nurr1 ability to induce a dopaminergic phenotype becomes restricted during CNS development and is critically dependent on the region of NPs derivation. Our results suggest that the plasticity of NPs and their ability to activate a dopaminergic differentiation program in response to Nurr1 is regulated during early stages of neurogenesis, possibly through mechanisms controlling CNS regionalization. PMID:23240065

  19. Restriction of Neural Precursor Ability to Respond to Nurr1 by Early Regional Specification

    PubMed Central

    Soldati, Chiara; Cacci, Emanuele; Biagioni, Stefano; Carucci, Nicoletta; Lupo, Giuseppe; Perrone-Capano, Carla; Saggio, Isabella; Augusti-Tocco, Gabriella

    2012-01-01

    During neural development, spatially regulated expression of specific transcription factors is crucial for central nervous system (CNS) regionalization, generation of neural precursors (NPs) and subsequent differentiation of specific cell types within defined regions. A critical role in dopaminergic differentiation in the midbrain (MB) has been assigned to the transcription factor Nurr1. Nurr1 controls the expression of key genes involved in dopamine (DA) neurotransmission, e.g. tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and the DA transporter (DAT), and promotes the dopaminergic phenotype in embryonic stem cells. We investigated whether cells derived from different areas of the mouse CNS could be directed to differentiate into dopaminergic neurons in vitro by forced expression of the transcription factor Nurr1. We show that Nurr1 overexpression can promote dopaminergic cell fate specification only in NPs obtained from E13.5 ganglionic eminence (GE) and MB, but not in NPs isolated from E13.5 cortex (CTX) and spinal cord (SC) or from the adult subventricular zone (SVZ). Confirming previous studies, we also show that Nurr1 overexpression can increase the generation of TH-positive neurons in mouse embryonic stem cells. These data show that Nurr1 ability to induce a dopaminergic phenotype becomes restricted during CNS development and is critically dependent on the region of NPs derivation. Our results suggest that the plasticity of NPs and their ability to activate a dopaminergic differentiation program in response to Nurr1 is regulated during early stages of neurogenesis, possibly through mechanisms controlling CNS regionalization. PMID:23240065

  20. Telencephalic neural precursor cells show transient competence to interpret the dopaminergic niche of the embryonic midbrain.

    PubMed

    Baizabal, José-Manuel; Valencia, Concepción; Guerrero-Flores, Gilda; Covarrubias, Luis

    2011-01-15

    Neural Precursor Cells (NPCs) generate complex stereotypic arrays of neuronal subtypes in the brain. This process involves the integration of patterning cues that progressively restrict the fate of specific NPCs. Yet the capacity of NPCs to interpret foreign microenvironments during development remains poorly defined. The aim of this work was to test the competence of mouse telencephalic NPCs to respond to the dopaminergic niche of the mesencephalon. Telencephalic NPCs isolated from midgestation mouse embryos (E10.5) and transplanted to age-matched mesencephalic explants efficiently differentiated into neurons but were largely unable to produce midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons. Instead, E10.5 telencephalic NPCs behaved as restricted gabaergic progenitors that maintained ectopic expression of Foxg1 and Pax6. In contrast, E8.5 telencephalic NPCs were able to differentiate into Lmx1a(+)/Foxa2(+)/TH(+) neurons in the dopaminergic niche of the mesencephalic explants. In addition, these early telencephalic NPCs showed region-dependent expression of Nkx6.1, Nkx2.2 and site-specific differentiation into gabaergic neurons within the mesencephalic tissue. Significant dopaminergic differentiation of E8.5 telencephalic NPCs was not observed after transplantation to E12.5 mesencephalic explants, suggesting that inductive signals in the dopaminergic niche rapidly decay after midgestation. Moreover, we employed transplantation of embryonic stem cells-derived precursors to demonstrate that extinction of inductive signals within the telencephalon lags behind the commitment of residing NPCs. Our data indicate that the plasticity to interpret multiple instructive niches is an early and ephemeral feature of the telencephalic neural lineage.

  1. Generation of Dopamine Neurons from Rodent Fibroblasts through the Expandable Neural Precursor Cell Stage*

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Mi-Sun; Chang, Mi-Yoon; Kim, Sang-Mi; Yi, Sang-Hoon; Suh-Kim, Haeyoung; Jung, Sung Jun; Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Jin Hyuk; Lee, Yong-Sung; Lee, Soo Young; Kim, Dong-Wook; Lee, Sang-Hun; Park, Chang-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Recent groundbreaking work has demonstrated that combined expression of the transcription factors Brn2, Ascl1, and Myt1L (BAM; also known as Wernig factors) convert mouse fibroblasts into postmitotic neuronal cells. However, questions remain regarding whether trans-conversion is achieved directly or involves an intermediary precursor stage. Trans-conversion toward expandable neural precursor cells (NPCs) is more useful than direct one-step neuron formation with respect to yielding a sufficient number of cells and the feasibility of manipulating NPC differentiation toward certain neuron subtypes. Here, we show that co-expression of Wernig factors and Bcl-xL induces fibroblast conversion into NPCs (induced NPCs (iNPCs)) that are highly expandable for >100 passages. Gene expression analyses showed that the iNPCs exhibited high expression of common NPC genes but not genes specific to defined embryonic brain regions. This finding indicated that a regional identity of iNPCs was not established. Upon induction, iNPCs predominantly differentiated into astrocytes. However, the differentiation potential was not fixed and could be efficiently manipulated into general or specific subtypes of neurons by expression of additional genes. Specifically, overexpression of Nurr1 and Foxa2, transcription factors specific for midbrain dopamine neuron development, drove iNPCs to yield mature midbrain dopamine neurons equipped with presynaptic DA neuronal functions. We further assessed the therapeutic potential of iNPCs in Parkinson disease model rats. PMID:26023233

  2. Sox2-mediated regulation of adult neural crest precursors and skin repair.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Adam P W; Naska, Sibel; Jones, Karen; Jinno, Hiroyuki; Kaplan, David R; Miller, Freda D

    2013-01-01

    Nerve-derived neural crest cells are essential for regeneration in certain animals, such as newts. Here, we asked whether they play a similar role during mammalian tissue repair, focusing on Sox2-positive neural crest precursors in skin. In adult skin, Sox2 was expressed in nerve-terminal-associated neural crest precursor cells (NCPCs) around the hair follicle bulge, and following injury was induced in nerve-derived cells, likely dedifferentiated Schwann cell precursors. At later times postinjury, Sox2-positive cells were scattered throughout the regenerating dermis, and lineage tracing showed that these were all neural-crest-derived NCPCs. These Sox2-positive NCPCs were functionally important, since acute deletion of Sox2 prior to injury caused a decrease of NCPCs in the wound and aberrant skin repair. These data demonstrate that Sox2 regulates skin repair, likely by controlling NCPCs, and raise the possibility that nerve-derived NCPCs may play a general role in mammalian tissue repair.

  3. Skin-derived neural precursors competitively generate functional myelin in adult demyelinated mice.

    PubMed

    Mozafari, Sabah; Laterza, Cecilia; Roussel, Delphine; Bachelin, Corinne; Marteyn, Antoine; Deboux, Cyrille; Martino, Gianvito; Baron-Van Evercooren, Anne

    2015-09-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived (iPS-derived) neural precursor cells may represent the ideal autologous cell source for cell-based therapy to promote remyelination and neuroprotection in myelin diseases. So far, the therapeutic potential of reprogrammed cells has been evaluated in neonatal demyelinating models. However, the repair efficacy and safety of these cells has not been well addressed in the demyelinated adult CNS, which has decreased cell plasticity and scarring. Moreover, it is not clear if these induced pluripotent-derived cells have the same reparative capacity as physiologically committed CNS-derived precursors. Here, we performed a side-by-side comparison of CNS-derived and skin-derived neural precursors in culture and following engraftment in murine models of adult spinal cord demyelination. Grafted induced neural precursors exhibited a high capacity for survival, safe integration, migration, and timely differentiation into mature bona fide oligodendrocytes. Moreover, grafted skin-derived neural precursors generated compact myelin around host axons and restored nodes of Ranvier and conduction velocity as efficiently as CNS-derived precursors while outcompeting endogenous cells. Together, these results provide important insights into the biology of reprogrammed cells in adult demyelinating conditions and support use of these cells for regenerative biomedicine of myelin diseases that affect the adult CNS.

  4. Fat1 interacts with Fat4 to regulate neural tube closure, neural progenitor proliferation and apical constriction during mouse brain development.

    PubMed

    Badouel, Caroline; Zander, Mark A; Liscio, Nicole; Bagherie-Lachidan, Mazdak; Sopko, Richelle; Coyaud, Etienne; Raught, Brian; Miller, Freda D; McNeill, Helen

    2015-08-15

    Mammalian brain development requires coordination between neural precursor proliferation, differentiation and cellular organization to create the intricate neuronal networks of the adult brain. Here, we examined the role of the atypical cadherins Fat1 and Fat4 in this process. We show that mutation of Fat1 in mouse embryos causes defects in cranial neural tube closure, accompanied by an increase in the proliferation of cortical precursors and altered apical junctions, with perturbations in apical constriction and actin accumulation. Similarly, knockdown of Fat1 in cortical precursors by in utero electroporation leads to overproliferation of radial glial precursors. Fat1 interacts genetically with the related cadherin Fat4 to regulate these processes. Proteomic analysis reveals that Fat1 and Fat4 bind different sets of actin-regulating and junctional proteins. In vitro data suggest that Fat1 and Fat4 form cis-heterodimers, providing a mechanism for bringing together their diverse interactors. We propose a model in which Fat1 and Fat4 binding coordinates distinct pathways at apical junctions to regulate neural progenitor proliferation, neural tube closure and apical constriction.

  5. Fat1 interacts with Fat4 to regulate neural tube closure, neural progenitor proliferation and apical constriction during mouse brain development

    PubMed Central

    Badouel, Caroline; Zander, Mark A.; Liscio, Nicole; Bagherie-Lachidan, Mazdak; Sopko, Richelle; Coyaud, Etienne; Raught, Brian; Miller, Freda D.; McNeill, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian brain development requires coordination between neural precursor proliferation, differentiation and cellular organization to create the intricate neuronal networks of the adult brain. Here, we examined the role of the atypical cadherins Fat1 and Fat4 in this process. We show that mutation of Fat1 in mouse embryos causes defects in cranial neural tube closure, accompanied by an increase in the proliferation of cortical precursors and altered apical junctions, with perturbations in apical constriction and actin accumulation. Similarly, knockdown of Fat1 in cortical precursors by in utero electroporation leads to overproliferation of radial glial precursors. Fat1 interacts genetically with the related cadherin Fat4 to regulate these processes. Proteomic analysis reveals that Fat1 and Fat4 bind different sets of actin-regulating and junctional proteins. In vitro data suggest that Fat1 and Fat4 form cis-heterodimers, providing a mechanism for bringing together their diverse interactors. We propose a model in which Fat1 and Fat4 binding coordinates distinct pathways at apical junctions to regulate neural progenitor proliferation, neural tube closure and apical constriction. PMID:26209645

  6. Adult neurogenesis and cellular brain repair with neural progenitors, precursors and stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Shivraj Sohur, U; Emsley, Jason G; Mitchell, Bartley D; Macklis, Jeffrey D

    2006-01-01

    Recent work in neuroscience has shown that the adult central nervous system (CNS) contains neural progenitors, precursors and stem cells that are capable of generating new neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. While challenging the previous dogma that no new neurons are born in the adult mammalian CNS, these findings bring with them the future possibilities for development of novel neural repair strategies. The purpose of this review is to present the current knowledge about constitutively occurring adult mammalian neurogenesis, highlight the critical differences between ‘neurogenic’ and ‘non-neurogenic’ regions in the adult brain, and describe the cardinal features of two well-described neurogenic regions—the subventricular zone/olfactory bulb system and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. We also provide an overview of presently used models for studying neural precursors in vitro, mention some precursor transplantation models and emphasize that, in this rapidly growing field of neuroscience, one must be cautious with respect to a variety of methodological considerations for studying neural precursor cells both in vitro and in vivo. The possibility of repairing neural circuitry by manipulating neurogenesis is an intriguing one, and, therefore, we also review recent efforts to understand the conditions under which neurogenesis can be induced in non-neurogenic regions of the adult CNS. This work aims towards molecular and cellular manipulation of endogenous neural precursors in situ, without transplantation. We conclude this review with a discussion of what might be the function of newly generated neurons in the adult brain, and provide a summary of present thinking about the consequences of disturbed adult neurogenesis and the reaction of neurogenic regions to disease. PMID:16939970

  7. Neural Growth Factor Stimulates Proliferation of Spinal Cord Derived-Neural Precursor/Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Han, Youngmin

    2016-01-01

    Objective Recently, regenerative therapies have been used in clinical trials (heart, cartilage, skeletal). We don't make use of these treatments to spinal cord injury (SCI) patients yet, but regenerative therapies are rising interest in recent study about SCI. Neural precursor/stem cell (NPSC) proliferation is a significant event in functional recovery of the central nervous system (CNS). However, brain NPSCs and spinal cord NPSCs (SC-NPSCs) have many differences including gene expression and proliferation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of neural growth factor (NGF) on the proliferation of SC-NPSCs. Methods NPSCs (2×104) were suspended in 100 µL of neurobasal medium containing NGF-7S (Sigma-Aldrich) and cultured in a 96-well plate for 12 days. NPSC proliferation was analyzed five times for either concentration of NGF (0.02 and 2 ng/mL). Sixteen rats after SCI were randomly allocated into two groups. In group 1 (SCI-vehicle group, n=8), animals received 1.0 mL of the saline vehicle solution. In group 2 (SCI-NGF group, n=8), the animals received single doses of NGF (Sigma-Aldrich). A dose of 0.02 ng/mL of NGF or normal saline as a vehicle control was intra-thecally injected daily at 24 hour intervals for 7 days. For Immunohistochemistry analysis, rats were sacrificed after one week and the spinal cords were obtained. Results The elevation of cell proliferation with 0.02 ng/mL NGF was significant (p<0.05) but was not significant for 2 ng/mL NGF. The optical density was increased in the NGF 0.02 ng/mL group compared to the control group and NGF 2 ng/mL groups. The density of nestin in the SCI-NGF group was significantly increased over the SCI-vehicle group (p<0.05). High power microscopy revealed that the density of nestin in the SCI-NGF group was significantly increased over the SCI-vehicle group. Conclusion SC-NPSC proliferation is an important pathway in the functional recovery of SCI. NGF enhances SC-NPSC proliferation in vitro and in

  8. Neural Growth Factor Stimulates Proliferation of Spinal Cord Derived-Neural Precursor/Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Han, Youngmin

    2016-01-01

    Objective Recently, regenerative therapies have been used in clinical trials (heart, cartilage, skeletal). We don't make use of these treatments to spinal cord injury (SCI) patients yet, but regenerative therapies are rising interest in recent study about SCI. Neural precursor/stem cell (NPSC) proliferation is a significant event in functional recovery of the central nervous system (CNS). However, brain NPSCs and spinal cord NPSCs (SC-NPSCs) have many differences including gene expression and proliferation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of neural growth factor (NGF) on the proliferation of SC-NPSCs. Methods NPSCs (2×104) were suspended in 100 µL of neurobasal medium containing NGF-7S (Sigma-Aldrich) and cultured in a 96-well plate for 12 days. NPSC proliferation was analyzed five times for either concentration of NGF (0.02 and 2 ng/mL). Sixteen rats after SCI were randomly allocated into two groups. In group 1 (SCI-vehicle group, n=8), animals received 1.0 mL of the saline vehicle solution. In group 2 (SCI-NGF group, n=8), the animals received single doses of NGF (Sigma-Aldrich). A dose of 0.02 ng/mL of NGF or normal saline as a vehicle control was intra-thecally injected daily at 24 hour intervals for 7 days. For Immunohistochemistry analysis, rats were sacrificed after one week and the spinal cords were obtained. Results The elevation of cell proliferation with 0.02 ng/mL NGF was significant (p<0.05) but was not significant for 2 ng/mL NGF. The optical density was increased in the NGF 0.02 ng/mL group compared to the control group and NGF 2 ng/mL groups. The density of nestin in the SCI-NGF group was significantly increased over the SCI-vehicle group (p<0.05). High power microscopy revealed that the density of nestin in the SCI-NGF group was significantly increased over the SCI-vehicle group. Conclusion SC-NPSC proliferation is an important pathway in the functional recovery of SCI. NGF enhances SC-NPSC proliferation in vitro and in

  9. Glycosphingolipid synthesis inhibitor represses cytokine-induced activation of the Ras-MAPK pathway in embryonic neural precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Makoto; Nakamura, Kazuo; Taga, Tetsuya

    2005-09-01

    Neuronal and glial cells in the central nervous system are generated from common neural precursor cells during development. To evaluate the functions of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) in neural precursor cells, neuroepithelial cells (NECs) were prepared from mouse embryos (E14.5), and the effects of an inhibitor of glucosylceramide synthesis, D-threo-1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol (PDMP), on NECs was investigated. In PDMP-treated NECs, the expression of GD3, a major ganglioside of NECs, disappeared. We found that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-induced proliferation and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation were repressed in PDMP-treated NECs. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF)-induced ERK activation was also abolished in PDMP-treated NECs, suggesting that PDMP specifically represses the Ras-MAPK pathway. bFGF-induced activation of the Ras-MAPK pathway in NECs is dependent on GSL-enriched microdomains, lipid rafts. The organization of lipid rafts and the distribution of Ras and Grb2-SOS in the microdomains were not affected. However, Ras activation was repressed in PDMP-treated NECs. In PDMP-treated NECs, some neuronal genes were up-regulated and glial genes were down-regulated. These results suggest that GSLs might be involved in the proliferation, survival, signal transduction and differentiation of NECs.

  10. Glutathione peroxidase 4 prevents necroptosis in mouse erythroid precursors

    PubMed Central

    Canli, Özge; Alankuş, Yasemin B.; Grootjans, Sasker; Vegi, Naidu; Hültner, Lothar; Hoppe, Philipp S.; Schroeder, Timm; Vandenabeele, Peter; Bornkamm, Georg W.

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining cellular redox balance is vital for cell survival and tissue homoeostasis because imbalanced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may lead to oxidative stress and cell death. The antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4) is a key regulator of oxidative stress–induced cell death. We show that mice with deletion of Gpx4 in hematopoietic cells develop anemia and that Gpx4 is essential for preventing receptor-interacting protein 3 (RIP3)-dependent necroptosis in erythroid precursor cells. Absence of Gpx4 leads to functional inactivation of caspase 8 by glutathionylation, resulting in necroptosis, which occurs independently of tumor necrosis factor α activation. Although genetic ablation of Rip3 normalizes reticulocyte maturation and prevents anemia, ROS accumulation and lipid peroxidation in Gpx4-deficient cells remain high. Our results demonstrate that ROS and lipid hydroperoxides function as not-yet-recognized unconventional upstream signaling activators of RIP3-dependent necroptosis. PMID:26463424

  11. Neural Networks of the Mouse Neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Zingg, Brian; Hintiryan, Houri; Gou, Lin; Song, Monica Y.; Bay, Maxwell; Bienkowski, Michael S.; Foster, Nicholas N.; Yamashita, Seita; Bowman, Ian; Toga, Arthur W.; Dong, Hong-Wei

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Numerous studies have examined the neuronal inputs and/or outputs of many areas of the brain cortex, but how these areas organize into broader communication networks across the cortex is unclear. Over 600 labeled neuronal pathways acquired from tracer injections placed across the entire mouse neocortex enabled us to generate a cortical connectivity atlas. 240 intracortical connections were manually reconstructed within a common neuroanatomic framework, forming a cortico-cortical connectivity map that facilitates comparison of connections from different cortical targets. Connectivity matrices were generated to provide an overview of all intracortical connections and subnetwork clusterings. The connectivity matrices and cortical map revealed that the entire cortex is organized into four somatic sensorimotor, two medial, and two lateral subnetworks that display unique topologies and can interact through select cortical areas. Together, these data provide a resource that can be used to further investigate cortical networks and their corresponding functions. PMID:24581503

  12. Neural Tube Closure in Mouse Whole Embryo Culture

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Jason; Ross, M. Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Genetic mouse models are an important tool in the study of mammalian neural tube closure (Gray & Ross, 2009; Ross, 2010). However, the study of mouse embryos in utero is limited by our inability to directly pharmacologically manipulate the embryos in isolation from the effects of maternal metabolism on the reagent of interest. Whether using a small molecule, recombinant protein, or siRNA, delivery of these substances to the mother, through the diet or by injection will subject these unstable compounds to a variety of bodily defenses that could prevent them from reaching the embryo. Investigations in cultures of whole embryos can be used to separate maternal from intrinsic fetal effects on development. Here, we present a method for culturing mouse embryos using highly enriched media in a roller incubator apparatus that allows for normal neural tube closure after dissection (Crockett, 1990). Once in culture, embryos can be manipulated using conventional in vitro techniques that would not otherwise be possible if the embryos were still in utero. Embryo siblings can be collected at various time points to study different aspects of neurulation, occurring from E7-7.5 (neural plate formation, just prior to the initiation of neurulation) to E9.5-10 (at the conclusion of cranial fold and caudal neuropore closure, Kaufman, 1992). In this protocol, we demonstrate our method for dissecting embryos at timepoints that are optimal for the study of cranial neurulation. Embryos will be dissected at E8.5 (approx. 10-12 somities), after the initiation of neural tube closure but prior to embryo turning and cranial neural fold closure, and maintained in culture till E10 (26-28 somities), when cranial neurulation should be complete. PMID:22042150

  13. Meninges harbor cells expressing neural precursor markers during development and adulthood.

    PubMed

    Bifari, Francesco; Berton, Valeria; Pino, Annachiara; Kusalo, Marijana; Malpeli, Giorgio; Di Chio, Marzia; Bersan, Emanuela; Amato, Eliana; Scarpa, Aldo; Krampera, Mauro; Fumagalli, Guido; Decimo, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Brain and skull developments are tightly synchronized, allowing the cranial bones to dynamically adapt to the brain shape. At the brain-skull interface, meninges produce the trophic signals necessary for normal corticogenesis and bone development. Meninges harbor different cell populations, including cells forming the endosteum of the cranial vault. Recently, we and other groups have described the presence in meninges of a cell population endowed with neural differentiation potential in vitro and, after transplantation, in vivo. However, whether meninges may be a niche for neural progenitor cells during embryonic development and in adulthood remains to be determined. In this work we provide the first description of the distribution of neural precursor markers in rat meninges during development up to adulthood. We conclude that meninges share common properties with the classical neural stem cell niche, as they: (i) are a highly proliferating tissue; (ii) host cells expressing neural precursor markers such as nestin, vimentin, Sox2 and doublecortin; and (iii) are enriched in extracellular matrix components (e.g., fractones) known to bind and concentrate growth factors. This study underlines the importance of meninges as a potential niche for endogenous precursor cells during development and in adulthood.

  14. Neural Mechanisms Contributing to Dysphagia in Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    Hinkel, Cameron J; Sharma, Rishi; Thakkar, Mahesh M; Takahashi, Kazutaka; Hopewell, Bridget L; Lever, Teresa E

    2016-08-01

    Investigative research into curative treatments for dysphagia is hindered by our incomplete understanding of the neural mechanisms of swallowing in health and disease. Development of translational research models is essential to bridge this knowledge gap by fostering innovative methodology. Toward this goal, our laboratory has developed a translational research assessment tool to investigate the neural mechanistic control of swallowing in unrestrained, self-feeding mice. Here we describe our initial development of synchronous brainstem neural recordings with a videofluoroscopic swallow study assay in healthy mice across the life span. Refinement of this combined methodology is currently underway. Ultimately, we envision that this assessment tool will permit systematic analysis of therapeutic interventions for dysphagia in preclinical trials with numerous mouse models of human conditions that cause dysphagia, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, stroke, and advanced aging.

  15. Alcohol-Induced Molecular Dysregulation in Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neural Precursor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yi Young; Roubal, Ivan; Lee, Youn Soo; Kim, Jin Seok; Hoang, Michael; Mathiyakom, Nathan; Kim, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Adverse effect of alcohol on neural function has been well documented. Especially, the teratogenic effect of alcohol on neurodevelopment during embryogenesis has been demonstrated in various models, which could be a pathologic basis for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). While the developmental defects from alcohol abuse during gestation have been described, the specific mechanisms by which alcohol mediates these injuries have yet to be determined. Recent studies have shown that alcohol has significant effect on molecular and cellular regulatory mechanisms in embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation including genes involved in neural development. To test our hypothesis that alcohol induces molecular alterations during neural differentiation we have derived neural precursor cells from pluripotent human ESCs in the presence or absence of ethanol treatment. Genome-wide transcriptomic profiling identified molecular alterations induced by ethanol exposure during neural differentiation of hESCs into neural rosettes and neural precursor cell populations. The Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) functional analysis on significantly altered genes showed potential ethanol’s effect on JAK-STAT signaling pathway, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and regulation of autophagy. We have further quantitatively verified ethanol-induced alterations of selected candidate genes. Among verified genes we further examined the expression of P2RX3, which is associated with nociception, a peripheral pain response. We found ethanol significantly reduced the level of P2RX3 in undifferentiated hESCs, but induced the level of P2RX3 mRNA and protein in hESC-derived NPCs. Our result suggests ethanol-induced dysregulation of P2RX3 along with alterations in molecules involved in neural activity such as neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction may be a molecular event

  16. Ibuprofen slows migration and inhibits bowel colonization by enteric nervous system precursors in zebrafish, chick and mouse.

    PubMed

    Schill, Ellen Merrick; Lake, Jonathan I; Tusheva, Olga A; Nagy, Nandor; Bery, Saya K; Foster, Lynne; Avetisyan, Marina; Johnson, Stephen L; Stenson, William F; Goldstein, Allan M; Heuckeroth, Robert O

    2016-01-15

    Hirschsprung Disease (HSCR) is a potentially deadly birth defect characterized by the absence of the enteric nervous system (ENS) in distal bowel. Although HSCR has clear genetic causes, no HSCR-associated mutation is 100% penetrant, suggesting gene-gene and gene-environment interactions determine HSCR occurrence. To test the hypothesis that certain medicines might alter HSCR risk we treated zebrafish with medications commonly used during early human pregnancy and discovered that ibuprofen caused HSCR-like absence of enteric neurons in distal bowel. Using fetal CF-1 mouse gut slice cultures, we found that ibuprofen treated enteric neural crest-derived cells (ENCDC) had reduced migration, fewer lamellipodia and lower levels of active RAC1/CDC42. Additionally, inhibiting ROCK, a RHOA effector and known RAC1 antagonist, reversed ibuprofen effects on migrating mouse ENCDC in culture. Ibuprofen also inhibited colonization of Ret+/- mouse bowel by ENCDC in vivo and dramatically reduced bowel colonization by chick ENCDC in culture. Interestingly, ibuprofen did not affect ENCDC migration until after at least three hours of exposure. Furthermore, mice deficient in Ptgs1 (COX 1) and Ptgs2 (COX 2) had normal bowel colonization by ENCDC and normal ENCDC migration in vitro suggesting COX-independent effects. Consistent with selective and strain specific effects on ENCDC, ibuprofen did not affect migration of gut mesenchymal cells, NIH3T3, or WT C57BL/6 ENCDC, and did not affect dorsal root ganglion cell precursor migration in zebrafish. Thus, ibuprofen inhibits ENCDC migration in vitro and bowel colonization by ENCDC in vivo in zebrafish, mouse and chick, but there are cell type and strain specific responses. These data raise concern that ibuprofen may increase Hirschsprung disease risk in some genetically susceptible children. PMID:26586201

  17. Ibuprofen slows migration and inhibits bowel colonization by enteric nervous system precursors in zebrafish, chick and mouse.

    PubMed

    Schill, Ellen Merrick; Lake, Jonathan I; Tusheva, Olga A; Nagy, Nandor; Bery, Saya K; Foster, Lynne; Avetisyan, Marina; Johnson, Stephen L; Stenson, William F; Goldstein, Allan M; Heuckeroth, Robert O

    2016-01-15

    Hirschsprung Disease (HSCR) is a potentially deadly birth defect characterized by the absence of the enteric nervous system (ENS) in distal bowel. Although HSCR has clear genetic causes, no HSCR-associated mutation is 100% penetrant, suggesting gene-gene and gene-environment interactions determine HSCR occurrence. To test the hypothesis that certain medicines might alter HSCR risk we treated zebrafish with medications commonly used during early human pregnancy and discovered that ibuprofen caused HSCR-like absence of enteric neurons in distal bowel. Using fetal CF-1 mouse gut slice cultures, we found that ibuprofen treated enteric neural crest-derived cells (ENCDC) had reduced migration, fewer lamellipodia and lower levels of active RAC1/CDC42. Additionally, inhibiting ROCK, a RHOA effector and known RAC1 antagonist, reversed ibuprofen effects on migrating mouse ENCDC in culture. Ibuprofen also inhibited colonization of Ret+/- mouse bowel by ENCDC in vivo and dramatically reduced bowel colonization by chick ENCDC in culture. Interestingly, ibuprofen did not affect ENCDC migration until after at least three hours of exposure. Furthermore, mice deficient in Ptgs1 (COX 1) and Ptgs2 (COX 2) had normal bowel colonization by ENCDC and normal ENCDC migration in vitro suggesting COX-independent effects. Consistent with selective and strain specific effects on ENCDC, ibuprofen did not affect migration of gut mesenchymal cells, NIH3T3, or WT C57BL/6 ENCDC, and did not affect dorsal root ganglion cell precursor migration in zebrafish. Thus, ibuprofen inhibits ENCDC migration in vitro and bowel colonization by ENCDC in vivo in zebrafish, mouse and chick, but there are cell type and strain specific responses. These data raise concern that ibuprofen may increase Hirschsprung disease risk in some genetically susceptible children.

  18. Precursors predicted by artificial neural networks for mass balance calculations: Quantifying hydrothermal alteration in volcanic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trépanier, Sylvain; Mathieu, Lucie; Daigneault, Réal; Faure, Stéphane

    2016-04-01

    This study proposes an artificial neural networks-based method for predicting the unaltered (precursor) chemical compositions of hydrothermally altered volcanic rock. The method aims at predicting precursor's major components contents (SiO2, FeOT, MgO, CaO, Na2O, and K2O). The prediction is based on ratios of elements generally immobile during alteration processes; i.e. Zr, TiO2, Al2O3, Y, Nb, Th, and Cr, which are provided as inputs to the neural networks. Multi-layer perceptron neural networks were trained on a large dataset of least-altered volcanic rock samples that document a wide range of volcanic rock types, tectonic settings and ages. The precursors thus predicted are then used to perform mass balance calculations. Various statistics were calculated to validate the predictions of precursors' major components, which indicate that, overall, the predictions are precise and accurate. For example, rank-based correlation coefficients were calculated to compare predicted and analysed values from a least-altered test dataset that had not been used to train the networks. Coefficients over 0.87 were obtained for all components, except for Na2O (0.77), indicating that predictions for alkali might be less performant. Also, predictions are performant for most volcanic rock compositions, except for ultra-K rocks. The proposed method provides an easy and rapid solution to the often difficult task of determining appropriate volcanic precursor compositions to rocks modified by hydrothermal alteration. It is intended for large volcanic rock databases and is most useful, for example, to mineral exploration performed in complex or poorly known volcanic settings. The method is implemented as a simple C++ console program.

  19. Long-term culture and differentiation of CNS precursors derived from anterior human neural rosettes following exposure to ventralizing factors

    SciTech Connect

    Colleoni, Silvia; Giannelli, Serena G.; Armentero, Marie-Therese; Blandini, Fabio; Broccoli, Vania; Lazzari, Giovanna

    2010-04-15

    In this study we demonstrated that neural rosettes derived from human ES cells can give rise either to neural crest precursors, following expansion in presence of bFGF and EGF, or to dopaminergic precursors after exposure to ventralizing factors Shh and FGF8. Both regionalised precursors are capable of extensive proliferation and differentiation towards the corresponding terminally differentiated cell types. In particular, peripheral neurons, cartilage, bone, smooth muscle cells and also pigmented cells were obtained from neural crest precursors while tyrosine hydroxylase and Nurr1 positive dopaminergic neurons were derived from FGF8 and Shh primed rosette cells. Gene expression and immunocytochemistry analyses confirmed the expression of dorsal and neural crest genes such as Sox10, Slug, p75, FoxD3, Pax7 in neural precursors from bFGF-EGF exposed rosettes. By contrast, priming of rosettes with FGF8 and Shh induced the expression of dopaminergic markers Engrailed1, Pax2, Pitx3, floor plate marker FoxA2 and radial glia markers Blbp and Glast, the latter in agreement with the origin of dopaminergic precursors from floor plate radial glia. Moreover, in vivo transplant of proliferating Shh/FGF8 primed precursors in parkinsonian rats demonstrated engraftment and terminal dopaminergic differentiation. In conclusion, we demonstrated the derivation of long-term self-renewing precursors of selected regional identity as potential cell reservoirs for cell therapy applications, such as CNS degenerative diseases, or for the development of toxicological tests.

  20. Blockade of microglial KATP -channel abrogates suppression of inflammatory-mediated inhibition of neural precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Francisco J; Vukovic, Jana; Rodríguez, Manuel J; Bartlett, Perry F

    2014-02-01

    Microglia positively affect neural progenitor cell physiology through the release of inflammatory mediators or trophic factors. We demonstrated previously that reactive microglia foster K(ATP) -channel expression and that blocking this channel using glibenclamide administration enhances striatal neurogenesis after stroke. In this study, we investigated whether the microglial K(ATP) -channel directly influences the activation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) from the subventricular zone using transgenic Csf1r-GFP mice. In vitro exposure of NPCs to lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma resulted in a significant decrease in precursor cell number. The complete removal of microglia from the culture or exposure to enriched microglia culture also decreased the precursor cell number. The addition of glibenclamide rescued the negative effects of enriched microglia on neurosphere formation and promoted a ∼20% improvement in precursor cell number. Similar results were found using microglial-conditioned media from isolated microglia. Using primary mixed glial and pure microglial cultures, glibenclamide specifically targeted reactive microglia to restore neurogenesis and increased the microglial production of the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). These findings provide the first direct evidence that the microglial K(ATP) -channel is a regulator of the proliferation of NPCs under inflammatory conditions.

  1. Cytoplasmic p53 and Activated Bax Regulate p53-dependent, Transcription-independent Neural Precursor Cell Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Ying; Walls, K.C.; Ghosh, Arindam P.; Akhtar, Rizwan S.; Klocke, Barbara J.; Roth, Kevin A.

    2010-01-01

    The prodeath effects of p53 are typically mediated via its transcriptional upregulation of proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members, including PUMA, Noxa, and/or Bax. We previously reported that staurosporine (STS), a broad-spectrum kinase inhibitor and prototypical apoptosis-inducing agent, produced p53-dependent, Bax-dependent, neural precursor cell (NPC) apoptosis, but that this effect occurred independently of new gene transcription and PUMA expression. To further characterize the mechanism by which p53 regulates NPC death, we used primary cerebellar NPCs derived from wild-type, p53-deficient, and Bax-deficient neonatal mice and the mouse cerebellar neural stem cell line, C17.2. We found that STS rapidly increased p53 cytoplasmic immunoreactivity in neuritic-like processes in C17.2 cells, which preceded Bax activation and caspase-3 cleavage. Confocal microscopy analysis of STS-treated cells revealed partial colocalization of p53 with the mitochondrial marker pyruvate dehydrogenase as well as with conformationally altered “activated” Bax, suggesting an interaction between these proapoptotic molecules in triggering apoptotic death. Nucleophosmin (NPM), a CRM1-dependent nuclear chaperone, also exhibited partial colocalization with both activated Bax and p53 following STS treatment. These observations suggest that cytoplasmic p53 can trigger transcription-independent NPC apoptosis through its potential interaction with NPM and activated Bax. (J Histochem Cytochem 58:265–275, 2010) PMID:19901272

  2. Activating Receptor NKG2D Targets RAE-1-Expressing Allogeneic Neural Precursor Cells in a Viral Model of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Weinger, Jason G.; Plaisted, Warren C.; Maciejewski, Sonia M.; Lanier, Lewis L.; Walsh, Craig M.; Lane, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Transplantation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched mouse neural precursor cells (NPCs) into mice persistently infected with the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV) results in rapid rejection that is mediated, in part, by T cells. However, the contribution of the innate immune response to allograft rejection in a model of viral-induced neurological disease has not been well defined. Herein, we demonstrate that the natural killer (NK) cell-expressing activating receptor NKG2D participates in transplanted allogeneic NPC rejection in mice persistently infected with JHMV. Cultured NPCs derived from C57BL/6 (H-2b) mice express the NKG2D ligand retinoic acid early precursor transcript (RAE)-1 but expression was dramatically reduced upon differentiation into either glia or neurons. RAE-1+ NPCs were susceptible to NK cell-mediated killing whereas RAE-1- cells were resistant to lysis. Transplantation of C57BL/6-derived NPCs into JHMV-infected BALB/c (H-2d) mice resulted in infiltration of NKG2D+CD49b+ NK cells and treatment with blocking antibody specific for NKG2D increased survival of allogeneic NPCs. Further, transplantation of differentiated RAE-1- allogeneic NPCs into JHMV-infected BALB/c mice resulted in enhanced survival, highlighting a role for the NKG2D:RAE-1 signaling axis in allograft rejection. We also demonstrate that transplantation of allogeneic NPCs into JHMV-infected mice resulted in infection of the transplanted cells suggesting that these cells may be targets for infection. Viral infection of cultured cells increased RAE-1 expression, resulting in enhanced NK cell-mediated killing through NKG2D recognition. Collectively, these results show that in a viral-induced demyelination model, NK cells contribute to rejection of allogeneic NPCs through an NKG2D signaling pathway. PMID:24898518

  3. IL-1β differently stimulates proliferation and multinucleation of distinct mouse bone marrow osteoclast precursor subsets.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yixuan; Jansen, Ineke D C; Sprangers, Sara; Stap, Jan; Leenen, Pieter J M; Everts, Vincent; de Vries, Teun J

    2016-09-01

    Osteoclasts are bone-resorbing cells and targets for treating bone diseases. Previously, we reported that distinct murine osteoclast precursor subsets, such as early blasts (CD31(hi) Ly-6C(-)), myeloid blasts (CD31(+) Ly-6C(+)), and monocytes (CD31(-) Ly-6C(hi)), respond differently to the osteoclastogenesis-inducing cytokines, macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and receptor activator for nuclear factor κB ligand. It is unknown, however, how these cell types respond to the osteoclast-stimulating inflammatory cytokine interleukin 1β. This study aims to investigate the effect of interleukin 1β on osteoclastogenesis derived from different mouse bone marrow precursors. Early blasts, myeloid blasts, and monocytes were sorted from mouse bone marrow cells using flow cytometry. Cells were cultured on plastic or on bone slices in the presence of macrophage colony-stimulating factor and receptor activator for nuclear factor κB ligand, without or with interleukin 1β (0.1-10 ng/ml). We found that interleukin 1β stimulated multinucleation and bone resorption of osteoclasts derived from the 3 precursors at different rates. The most large osteoclasts (>20 nuclei) and highest level of bone resorption (16.3%) was by myeloid blast-derived osteoclasts. Interleukin 1β particularly accelerated proliferation of early blasts and the most small osteoclasts (3-5 nuclei) formed on plastic. Life span varied among osteoclasts derived from different precursors: large osteoclasts (>2400 µm(2)) formed most rapidly (75 h) from myeloid blasts but had a short life span (30 h). Monocytes needed the longest time (95 h) for the generation of such large osteoclasts, but these cells had a longer life span (50 h). Our results indicate that the different bone marrow osteoclast precursors are differently stimulated by interleukin 1β with respect to proliferation, multinucleation, life span, and bone resorption. PMID:26957213

  4. Decoding Ventromedial Hypothalamic Neural Activity during Male Mouse Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Dollar, Piotr; Perona, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    The ventromedial hypothalamus, ventrolateral area (VMHvl) was identified recently as a critical locus for inter-male aggression. Optogenetic stimulation of VMHvl in male mice evokes attack toward conspecifics and inactivation of the region inhibits natural aggression, yet very little is known about its underlying neural activity. To understand its role in promoting aggression, we recorded and analyzed neural activity in the VMHvl in response to a wide range of social and nonsocial stimuli. Although response profiles of VMHvl neurons are complex and heterogeneous, we identified a subpopulation of neurons that respond maximally during investigation and attack of male conspecific mice and during investigation of a source of male mouse urine. These “male responsive” neurons in the VMHvl are tuned to both the inter-male distance and the animal's velocity during attack. Additionally, VMHvl activity predicts several parameters of future aggressive action, including the latency and duration of the next attack. Linear regression analysis further demonstrates that aggression-specific parameters, such as distance, movement velocity, and attack latency, can model ongoing VMHvl activity fluctuation during inter-male encounters. These results represent the first effort to understand the hypothalamic neural activity during social behaviors using quantitative tools and suggest an important role for the VMHvl in encoding movement, sensory, and motivation-related signals. PMID:24760856

  5. Bitter Taste Stimuli Induce Differential Neural Codes in Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, David M.; Boughter, John D.; Lemon, Christian H.

    2012-01-01

    A growing literature suggests taste stimuli commonly classified as “bitter” induce heterogeneous neural and perceptual responses. Here, the central processing of bitter stimuli was studied in mice with genetically controlled bitter taste profiles. Using these mice removed genetic heterogeneity as a factor influencing gustatory neural codes for bitter stimuli. Electrophysiological activity (spikes) was recorded from single neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius during oral delivery of taste solutions (26 total), including concentration series of the bitter tastants quinine, denatonium benzoate, cycloheximide, and sucrose octaacetate (SOA), presented to the whole mouth for 5 s. Seventy-nine neurons were sampled; in many cases multiple cells (2 to 5) were recorded from a mouse. Results showed bitter stimuli induced variable gustatory activity. For example, although some neurons responded robustly to quinine and cycloheximide, others displayed concentration-dependent activity (p<0.05) to quinine but not cycloheximide. Differential activity to bitter stimuli was observed across multiple neurons recorded from one animal in several mice. Across all cells, quinine and denatonium induced correlated spatial responses that differed (p<0.05) from those to cycloheximide and SOA. Modeling spatiotemporal neural ensemble activity revealed responses to quinine/denatonium and cycloheximide/SOA diverged during only an early, at least 1 s wide period of the taste response. Our findings highlight how temporal features of sensory processing contribute differences among bitter taste codes and build on data suggesting heterogeneity among “bitter” stimuli, data that challenge a strict monoguesia model for the bitter quality. PMID:22844505

  6. Her4-positive population in the tectum opticum is proliferating neural precursors in the adult zebrafish brain.

    PubMed

    Jung, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Ryu, Jae-Ho; Gwak, Jung-Woo; Bae, Young-Ki; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Yeo, Sang-Yeob

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that Notch signaling not only regulates the number of early differentiating neurons, but also maintains proliferating neural precursors in the neural tube. Although it is well known that Notch signaling is closely related to the differentiation of adult neural stem cells, none of transgenic zebrafish provides a tool to figure out the relationship between Notch signaling and the differentiation of neural precursors. The goal of this study was to characterize Her4-positive cells by comparing the expression of a fluorescent Her4 reporter in Tg[her4-dRFP] animals with a GFAP reporter in Tg[gfap-GFP] adult zebrafish. BrdU incorporation indicated that dRFP-positive cells were proliferating and a double labeling assay revealed that a significant fraction of the Her4-dRFP positive population was also GFAP-GFP positive. Our observations suggest that a reporter line with Notch-dependent gene expression can provide a tool to examine proliferating neural precursors and/or neuronal/glial precursors in the development of the adult nervous system to examine the model in which Notch signaling maintains proliferating neural precursors in the neural tube.

  7. Derivation of Neural Precursor Cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells for DNA Methylomic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Roubal, Ivan; Park, Sun Joo; Kim, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells are self-renewing pluripotent cells with competency to differentiate into all three-germ lineages. Many studies have demonstrated the importance of genetic and epigenetic molecular mechanisms in the maintenance of self-renewal and pluripotency. Stem cells are under unique molecular and cellular regulations different from somatic cells. Proper regulation should be ensured to maintain their unique self-renewal and undifferentiated characteristics. Understanding key mechanisms in stem cell biology will be important for the successful application of stem cells for regenerative therapeutic medicine. More importantly practical use of stem cells will require our knowledge on how to properly direct and differentiate stem cells into the necessary type of cells. Embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells have been used as study models to unveil molecular and cellular mechanisms in various signaling pathways. They are especially beneficial to developmental studies where in vivo molecular/cellular study models are not available. We have derived neural stem cells from human embryonic stem cells as a model to study the effect of teratogen in neural development. We have tested commercial neural differentiation system and successfully derived neural precursor cells exhibiting key molecular features of neural stem cells, which will be useful for experimental application.

  8. Early Divergence of Central and Peripheral Neural Retina Precursors During Vertebrate Eye Development

    PubMed Central

    Venters, Sara J.; Mikawa, Takashi; Hyer, Jeanette

    2015-01-01

    During development of the vertebrate eye, optic tissue is progressively compartmentalized into functionally distinct tissues. From the central to the peripheral optic cup, the original optic neuroepithelial tissue compartmentalizes, forming retina, ciliary body and iris. The retina can be further sub-divided into peripheral and central compartments, where the central domain is specialized for higher visual acuity, having a higher ratio and density of cone photoreceptors in most species. Classically, models depict a segregation of the early optic cup into only two domains, neural and non-neural. Recent studies, however, uncovered discrete precursors for central and peripheral retina in the optic vesicle, indicating that the neural retina cannot be considered as a single unit with homogeneous specification and development. Instead, central and peripheral retina may be subject to distinct developmental pathways that underlie their specialization. This review focuses on lineage relationships in the retina and revisits the historical context for segregation of central and peripheral retina precursors before overt eye morphogenesis. PMID:25329498

  9. Expression of human epidermal growth factor precursor cDNA in transfected mouse NIH 3T3 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Mroczkowski, B; Reich, M; Whittaker, J; Bell, G I; Cohen, S

    1988-01-01

    Stable cell lines expressing the human epidermal growth factor (EGF) precursor have been prepared by transfection of mouse NIH 3T3 cells with a bovine papillomavirus-based vector in which the human kidney EGF precursor cDNA has been placed under the control of the inducible mouse metallothionein I promoter. Synthesis of the EGF precursor can be induced by culturing the cells in 5 mM butyric acid or 100 microM ZnCl2. The EGF precursor synthesized by these cells appears to be membrane associated; none is detectable in the cytoplasm. The size of the EGF precursor expressed by these cells is approximately 150-180 kDa, which is larger than expected from its amino acid sequence, suggesting that it is posttranslationally modified, presumably by glycosylation. The EGF precursor was also detected in the conditioned medium from these cells, indicating that some fraction of the EGF precursor synthesized by these transfected cells may be secreted. Preliminary data suggest that this soluble form of the EGF precursor may compete with 125I-labeled EGF for binding to the EGF receptor. These cell lines should be useful for studying the processing of the EGF precursor to EGF as well as determining the properties and possible functions of the EGF precursor itself. Images PMID:3257563

  10. Astrocyte-Secreted Factors Selectively Alter Neural Stem and Progenitor Cell Proliferation in the Fragile X Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Sourial, Mary; Doering, Laurie C.

    2016-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence indicates that astrocytes contribute to the governance and fine tuning of stem and progenitor cell production during brain development. The effect of astrocyte function in cell production in neurodevelopmental disorders is unknown. We used the Neural Colony Forming Cell assay to determine the effect of astrocyte conditioned media (ACM) on the generation of neurospheres originating from either progenitor cells or functional stem cells in the knock out (KO) Fragile X mouse model. ACM from both normal and Fmr1-KO mice generated higher percentages of smaller neurospheres indicative of restricted proliferation of the progenitor cell population in Fmr1-KO brains. Wild type (WT) neurospheres, but not KO neurospheres, showed enhanced responses to ACM from the Fmr1-KO mice. In particular, Fmr1-KO ACM increased the percentage of large neurospheres generated, representative of spheres produced from neural stem cells. We also used 2D DIGE to initiate identification of the astrocyte-secreted proteins with differential expression between Fmr1-KO and WT cortices and hippocampi. The results further support the critical role of astrocytes in governing neural cell production in brain development and point to significant alterations in neural cell proliferation due to astrocyte secreted factors from the Fragile X brain. Highlights: • We studied the proliferation of neural stem and progenitor cells in Fragile X. • We examined the role of astrocyte-secreted factors in neural precursor cell biology. • Astrocyte-secreted factors with differential expression in Fragile X identified. PMID:27242437

  11. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 enhances the differentiation and reduces the proliferation of adult human olfactory epithelium neural precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Manceur, Aziza P.; Tseng, Michael; Holowacz, Tamara; Witterick, Ian; Weksberg, Rosanna; McCurdy, Richard D.; Warsh, Jerry J.; Audet, Julie

    2011-09-10

    The olfactory epithelium (OE) contains neural precursor cells which can be easily harvested from a minimally invasive nasal biopsy, making them a valuable cell source to study human neural cell lineages in health and disease. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) has been implicated in the etiology and treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders and also in the regulation of murine neural precursor cell fate in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we examined the impact of decreased GSK-3 activity on the fate of adult human OE neural precursors in vitro. GSK-3 inhibition was achieved using ATP-competitive (6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime and CHIR99021) or substrate-competitive (TAT-eIF2B) inhibitors to eliminate potential confounding effects on cell fate due to off-target kinase inhibition. GSK-3 inhibitors decreased the number of neural precursor cells in OE cell cultures through a reduction in proliferation. Decreased proliferation was not associated with a reduction in cell survival but was accompanied by a reduction in nestin expression and a substantial increase in the expression of the neuronal differentiation markers MAP1B and neurofilament (NF-M) after 10 days in culture. Taken together, these results suggest that GSK-3 inhibition promotes the early stages of neuronal differentiation in cultures of adult human neural precursors and provide insights into the mechanisms by which alterations in GSK-3 signaling affect adult human neurogenesis, a cellular process strongly suspected to play a role in the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  12. A study on precursors leading to geomagnetic storms using artificial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Gaurav; Singh, A. K.

    2016-07-01

    Space weather prediction involves advance forecasting of the magnitude and onset time of major geomagnetic storms on Earth. In this paper, we discuss the development of an artificial neural network-based model to study the precursor leading to intense and moderate geomagnetic storms, following halo coronal mass ejection (CME) and related interplanetary (IP) events. IP inputs were considered within a 5-day time window after the commencement of storm. The artificial neural network (ANN) model training, testing and validation datasets were constructed based on 110 halo CMEs (both full and partial halo and their properties) observed during the ascending phase of the 24th solar cycle between 2009 and 2014. The geomagnetic storm occurrence rate from halo CMEs is estimated at a probability of 79%, by this model.

  13. ETOH inhibits embryonic neural stem/precursor cell proliferation via PLD signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Yuko; Hiroyama, Masami; Sanbe, Atsushi Yamauchi, Junji; Murase, Shoko; Tanoue, Akito

    2008-05-23

    While a mother's excessive alcohol consumption during pregnancy is known to have adverse effects on fetal neural development, little is known about the underlying mechanism of these effects. In order to investigate these mechanisms, we investigated the toxic effect of ethanol (ETOH) on neural stem/precursor cell (NSC) proliferation. In cultures of NSCs, phospholipase D (PLD) is activated following stimulation with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2). Exposure of NSCs to ETOH suppresses cell proliferation, while it has no effect on cell death. Phosphatidic acid (PA), which is a signaling messenger produced by PLD, reverses ETOH inhibition of NSC proliferation. Blocking the PLD signal by 1-butanol suppresses the proliferation. ETOH-induced suppression of NSC proliferation and the protective effect of PA for ETOH-induced suppression are mediated through extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling. These results indicate that exposure to ETOH impairs NSC proliferation by altering the PLD signaling pathway.

  14. Rejuvenation of MPTP-induced human neural precursor cell senescence by activating autophagy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Liang; Dong, Chuanming; Sun, Chenxi; Ma, Rongjie; Yang, Danjing; Zhu, Hongwen; Xu, Jun

    2015-08-21

    Aging of neural stem cell, which can affect brain homeostasis, may be caused by many cellular mechanisms. Autophagy dysfunction was found in aged and neurodegenerative brains. However, little is known about the relationship between autophagy and human neural stem cell (hNSC) aging. The present study used 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) to treat neural precursor cells (NPCs) derived from human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line H9 and investigate related molecular mechanisms involved in this process. MPTP-treated NPCs were found to undergo premature senescence [determined by increased senescence-associated-β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity, elevated intracellular reactive oxygen species level, and decreased proliferation] and were associated with impaired autophagy. Additionally, the cellular senescence phenotypes were manifested at the molecular level by a significant increase in p21 and p53 expression, a decrease in SOD2 expression, and a decrease in expression of some key autophagy-related genes such as Atg5, Atg7, Atg12, and Beclin 1. Furthermore, we found that the senescence-like phenotype of MPTP-treated hNPCs was rejuvenated through treatment with a well-known autophagy enhancer rapamycin, which was blocked by suppression of essential autophagy gene Beclin 1. Taken together, these findings reveal the critical role of autophagy in the process of hNSC aging, and this process can be reversed by activating autophagy. - Highlights: • We successfully establish hESC-derived neural precursor cells. • MPTP treatment induced senescence-like state in hESC-derived NPCs. • MPTP treatment induced impaired autophagy of hESC-derived NPCs. • MPTP-induced hESC-derived NPC senescence was rejuvenated by activating autophagy.

  15. Coculture with endothelial cells reduces the population of cycling LeX neural precursors but increases that of quiescent cells with a side population phenotype

    SciTech Connect

    Mathieu, Celine . E-mail: marc-andre.mouthon@cea.fr

    2006-04-01

    Neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation are regulated by external cues from their microenvironment. As endothelial cells are closely associated with neural stem cell in brain germinal zones, we investigated whether endothelial cells may interfere with neurogenesis. Neural precursor cells (NPC) from telencephalon of EGFP mouse embryos were cocultured in direct contact with endothelial cells. Endothelial cells did not modify the overall proliferation and apoptosis of neural cells, albeit they transiently delayed spontaneous apoptosis. These effects appeared to be specific to endothelial cells since a decrease in proliferation and a raise in apoptosis were observed in cocultures with fibroblasts. Endothelial cells stimulated the differentiation of NPC into astrocytes and into neurons, whereas they reduced differentiation into oligodendrocytes in comparison to adherent cultures on polyornithine. Determination of NPC clonogenicity and quantification of LeX expression, a marker for NPC, showed that endothelial cells decreased the number of cycling NPC. On the other hand, the presence of endothelial cells increased the number of neural cells having 'side population' phenotype, another marker reported on NPC, which we have shown to contain quiescent cells. Thus, we show that endothelial cells may regulate neurogenesis by acting at different level of NPC differentiation, proliferation and quiescence.

  16. Pulsed DC Electric Field–Induced Differentiation of Cortical Neural Precursor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hui-Fang; Lee, Ying-Shan; Tang, Tang K.; Cheng, Ji-Yen

    2016-01-01

    We report the differentiation of neural stem and progenitor cells solely induced by direct current (DC) pulses stimulation. Neural stem and progenitor cells in the adult mammalian brain are promising candidates for the development of therapeutic neuroregeneration strategies. The differentiation of neural stem and progenitor cells depends on various in vivo environmental factors, such as nerve growth factor and endogenous EF. In this study, we demonstrated that the morphologic and phenotypic changes of mouse neural stem and progenitor cells (mNPCs) could be induced solely by exposure to square-wave DC pulses (magnitude 300 mV/mm at frequency of 100-Hz). The DC pulse stimulation was conducted for 48 h, and the morphologic changes of mNPCs were monitored continuously. The length of primary processes and the amount of branching significantly increased after stimulation by DC pulses for 48 h. After DC pulse treatment, the mNPCs differentiated into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes simultaneously in stem cell maintenance medium. Our results suggest that simple DC pulse treatment could control the fate of NPCs. With further studies, DC pulses may be applied to manipulate NPC differentiation and may be used for the development of therapeutic strategies that employ NPCs to treat nervous system disorders. PMID:27352251

  17. Epidermal growth factor precursor in mouse lactating mammary gland alveolar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.F.; Teng, C.T.; Pentecost, B.T.; DiAugustine, R.P. )

    1989-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that high levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF) occur in human and rodent milk and that oral administration of this polypeptide stimulates rodent gastrointestinal development. It is not known whether EGF in milk originates from cells of the lactating mammary gland or is sequestered from an extramammary source. In the present study, prepro-EGF mRNA (approximately 4.7 kilobases) was detected in the CD-1 mouse mammary gland throughout the period of lactation; by comparison, negligible levels of this EGF transcript were found in the gland during pregnancy. Low levels of EGF immunoreactivity (4-5 ng/g wet wt tissue) were extracted from lactating (day 18) mammary glands with dilute acetic acid. Immunolocalization was evident with antisera to either EGF or two other regions of the EGF precursor in essentially all alveolar cells of the lactating gland. The most prominent staining with antiserum to EGF was observed along the luminal borders of cells; this pattern of cellular staining required proteolytic pretreatment of tissue sections. Western blot analyses of cell membranes isolated from the day 16 lactating mammary gland revealed an EGF-immunoreactive band at about 145K, which was equivalent in size to the EGF precursor found in mouse kidney cell membranes. Despite these findings, labeling of lactating mammary gland mince with L-(35S)methionine and cysteine for up to 4 h did not reveal any specific bands in immunoprecipitates. These cumulative findings suggest that the precursor form of EGF occurs in alveolar cells of lactating mammary gland and that this protein is translocated to the cell membrane.

  18. Rejuvenation of MPTP-induced human neural precursor cell senescence by activating autophagy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liang; Dong, Chuanming; Sun, Chenxi; Ma, Rongjie; Yang, Danjing; Zhu, Hongwen; Xu, Jun

    2015-08-21

    Aging of neural stem cell, which can affect brain homeostasis, may be caused by many cellular mechanisms. Autophagy dysfunction was found in aged and neurodegenerative brains. However, little is known about the relationship between autophagy and human neural stem cell (hNSC) aging. The present study used 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) to treat neural precursor cells (NPCs) derived from human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line H9 and investigate related molecular mechanisms involved in this process. MPTP-treated NPCs were found to undergo premature senescence [determined by increased senescence-associated-β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity, elevated intracellular reactive oxygen species level, and decreased proliferation] and were associated with impaired autophagy. Additionally, the cellular senescence phenotypes were manifested at the molecular level by a significant increase in p21 and p53 expression, a decrease in SOD2 expression, and a decrease in expression of some key autophagy-related genes such as Atg5, Atg7, Atg12, and Beclin 1. Furthermore, we found that the senescence-like phenotype of MPTP-treated hNPCs was rejuvenated through treatment with a well-known autophagy enhancer rapamycin, which was blocked by suppression of essential autophagy gene Beclin 1. Taken together, these findings reveal the critical role of autophagy in the process of hNSC aging, and this process can be reversed by activating autophagy. PMID:26159917

  19. The capsaicin receptor TRPV1 as a novel modulator of neural precursor cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Stock, Kristin; Garthe, Alexander; de Almeida Sassi, Felipe; Glass, Rainer; Wolf, Susanne A; Kettenmann, Helmut

    2014-12-01

    The capsaicin receptor (TRPV1, transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1) was first discovered in the peripheral nervous system as a detector of noxious chemical and thermal stimuli including the irritant chili pepper. Recently, there has been increasing evidence of TRPV1 expression in the central nervous system. Here, we show that TRPV1 is expressed in neural precursor cells (NPCs) during postnatal development, but not in the adult. However, expression of TRPV1 is induced in the adult in paradigms linked to an increase in neurogenesis, such as spatial learning in the Morris water maze or voluntary exercise. Loss of TRPV1 expression in knockout mice leads to an increase in NPC proliferation. Functional TRPV1 expression has been confirmed in cultured NPCs. Our results indicate that TRPV1 expression influences both postnatal and activity-induced neurogenesis in adulthood. PMID:25092424

  20. NFAT transcription factors regulate survival, proliferation, migration, and differentiation of neural precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Pérez, María C; Fernández, Miriam; Neria, Fernando; Berjón-Otero, Mónica; Doncel-Pérez, Ernesto; Cano, Eva; Tranque, Pedro

    2015-06-01

    The study of factors that regulate the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) is essential to understand neural development as well as brain regeneration. The Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells (NFAT) is a family of transcription factors that can affect these processes besides playing key roles during development, such as stimulating axonal growth in neurons, maturation of immune system cells, heart valve formation, and differentiation of skeletal muscle and bone. Interestingly, NFAT signaling can also promote cell differentiation in adults, participating in tissue regeneration. The goal of the present study is to evaluate the expression of NFAT isoforms in NPCs, and to investigate its possible role in NPC survival, proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Our findings indicate that NFAT proteins are active not only in neurogenic brain regions such as hippocampus and subventricular zone (SVZ), but also in cultured NPCs. The inhibition of NFAT activation with the peptide VIVIT reduced neurosphere size and cell density in NPC cultures by decreasing proliferation and increasing cell death. VIVIT also decreased NPC migration and differentiation of astrocytes and neurons from NPCs. In addition, we identified NFATc3 as a predominant NFAT isoform in NPC cultures, finding that a constitutively-active form of NFATc3 expressed by adenoviral infection reduces NPC proliferation, stimulates migration, and is a potent inducer of NPC differentiation into astrocytes and neurons. In summary, our work uncovers active roles for NFAT signaling in NPC survival, proliferation and differentiation, and highlights its therapeutic potential for tissue regeneration.

  1. Learning-induced synaptic potentiation in implanted neural precursor cell-derived neurons

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyungjoon; Heo, Hwon; Han, Ma Eum; Choi, Kyuhyun; Yi, Jee Hyun; Kang, Shin Jung; Kwon, Yunhee Kim; Shin, Ki Soon

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal loss caused by neurodegenerative diseases, traumatic brain injury and stroke results in cognitive dysfunctioning. Implantation of neural stem/precursor cells (NPCs) can improve the brain function by replacing lost neurons. Proper synaptic integration following neuronal differentiation of implanted cells is believed to be a prerequisite for the functional recovery. In the present study, we characterized the functional properties of immortalized neural progenitor HiB5 cells implanted into the rat hippocampus with chemically induced lesion. The implanted HiB5 cells migrated toward CA1 pyramidal layer and differentiated into vGluT1-positive glutamatergic neurons with morphological and electrophysiological properties of endogenous CA1 pyramidal cells. Functional synaptic integration of HiB5 cell-derived neurons was also evidenced by immunohistochemical and electrophysiological data. Lesion-caused memory deficit was significantly recovered after the implantation when assessed by inhibitory avoidance (IA) learning. Remarkably, IA learning preferentially produced long-term potentiation (LTP) at the synapses onto HiB5 cell-derived neurons, which occluded paring protocol-induced LTP ex vivo. We conclude that the implanted HiB5 cell-derived neurons actively participate in learning process through LTP formation, thereby counteracting lesion-mediated memory impairment. PMID:26634434

  2. Learning-induced synaptic potentiation in implanted neural precursor cell-derived neurons.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyungjoon; Heo, Hwon; Han, Ma Eum; Choi, Kyuhyun; Yi, Jee Hyun; Kang, Shin Jung; Kwon, Yunhee Kim; Shin, Ki Soon

    2015-12-04

    Neuronal loss caused by neurodegenerative diseases, traumatic brain injury and stroke results in cognitive dysfunctioning. Implantation of neural stem/precursor cells (NPCs) can improve the brain function by replacing lost neurons. Proper synaptic integration following neuronal differentiation of implanted cells is believed to be a prerequisite for the functional recovery. In the present study, we characterized the functional properties of immortalized neural progenitor HiB5 cells implanted into the rat hippocampus with chemically induced lesion. The implanted HiB5 cells migrated toward CA1 pyramidal layer and differentiated into vGluT1-positive glutamatergic neurons with morphological and electrophysiological properties of endogenous CA1 pyramidal cells. Functional synaptic integration of HiB5 cell-derived neurons was also evidenced by immunohistochemical and electrophysiological data. Lesion-caused memory deficit was significantly recovered after the implantation when assessed by inhibitory avoidance (IA) learning. Remarkably, IA learning preferentially produced long-term potentiation (LTP) at the synapses onto HiB5 cell-derived neurons, which occluded paring protocol-induced LTP ex vivo. We conclude that the implanted HiB5 cell-derived neurons actively participate in learning process through LTP formation, thereby counteracting lesion-mediated memory impairment.

  3. Neuroglobins, pivotal proteins associated with emerging neural systems and precursors of metazoan globin diversity.

    PubMed

    Lechauve, Christophe; Jager, Muriel; Laguerre, Laurent; Kiger, Laurent; Correc, Gaëlle; Leroux, Cédric; Vinogradov, Serge; Czjzek, Mirjam; Marden, Michael C; Bailly, Xavier

    2013-03-01

    Neuroglobins, previously thought to be restricted to vertebrate neurons, were detected in the brain of a photosymbiotic acoel, Symsagittifera roscoffensis, and in neurosensory cells of the jellyfish Clytia hemisphaerica. For the neuroglobin of S. roscoffensis, a member of a lineage that originated either at the base of the bilateria or of the deuterostome clade, we report the ligand binding properties, crystal structure at 2.3 Å, and brain immunocytochemical pattern. We also describe in situ hybridizations of two neuroglobins specifically expressed in differentiating nematocytes (neurosensory cells) and in statocytes (ciliated mechanosensory cells) of C. hemisphaerica, a member of the early branching animal phylum cnidaria. In silico searches using these neuroglobins as queries revealed the presence of previously unidentified neuroglobin-like sequences in most metazoan lineages. Because neural systems are almost ubiquitous in metazoa, the constitutive expression of neuroglobin-like proteins strongly supports the notion of an intimate association of neuroglobins with the evolution of animal neural systems and hints at the preservation of a vitally important function. Neuroglobins were probably recruited in the first protoneurons in early metazoans from globin precursors. Neuroglobins were identified in choanoflagellates, sponges, and placozoans and were conserved during nervous system evolution. Because the origin of neuroglobins predates the other metazoan globins, it is likely that neuroglobin gene duplication followed by co-option and subfunctionalization led to the emergence of globin families in protostomes and deuterostomes (i.e. convergent evolution).

  4. Induced neural stem/precursor cells for fundamental studies and potential application in neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ting; Pu, Jiali; Zheng, Tingting; Zhang, Baorong

    2015-10-01

    Recent research has shown that defined sets of exogenous factors are sufficient to convert rodent and human somatic cells directly into induced neural stem cells or neural precursor cells (iNSCs/iNPCs). The process of transdifferentiation bypasses the step of a pluripotent state and reduces the risk of tumorigenesis and genetic instability while retaining the self-renewing capacity. This iNSC/iNPC technology has fueled much excitement in regenerative medicine, as these cells can be differentiated into target cells for re placement therapy for neurodegenerative diseases. Patients' somatic cell-derived iNSCs/iNPCs have also been proposed to serve as disease models with potential value in both fundamental studies and clinical applications. This review focuses on the mechanisms, techniques, and app lications of iNSCs/iNPCs from a series of related studies, as well as further efforts in designing novel strategies using iNSC/iNPC technology and its potential applications in neurodegenerative diseases.

  5. GDNF facilitates differentiation of the adult dentate gyrus-derived neural precursor cells into astrocytes via STAT3

    SciTech Connect

    Boku, Shuken; Nakagawa, Shin; Takamura, Naoki; Kato, Akiko; Takebayashi, Minoru; Hisaoka-Nakashima, Kazue; Omiya, Yuki; Inoue, Takeshi; Kusumi, Ichiro

    2013-05-17

    Highlights: •GDNF has no effect on ADP proliferation and apoptosis. •GDNF increases ADP differentiation into astrocyte. •A specific inhibitor of STAT3 decreases the astrogliogenic effect of GDNF. •STAT3 knockdown by lentiviral shRNA vector also decreases the astrogliogenic effect of GDNF. •GDNF increases the phosphorylation of STAT3. -- Abstract: While the pro-neurogenic actions of antidepressants in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) are thought to be one of the mechanisms through which antidepressants exert their therapeutic actions, antidepressants do not increase proliferation of neural precursor cells derived from the adult DG. Because previous studies showed that antidepressants increase the expression and secretion of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in C6 glioma cells derived from rat astrocytes and GDNF increases neurogenesis in adult DG in vivo, we investigated the effects of GDNF on the proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of cultured neural precursor cells derived from the adult DG. Data showed that GDNF facilitated the differentiation of neural precursor cells into astrocytes but had no effect on their proliferation or apoptosis. Moreover, GDNF increased the phosphorylation of STAT3, and both a specific inhibitor of STAT3 and lentiviral shRNA for STAT3 decreased their differentiation into astrocytes. Taken together, our findings suggest that GDNF facilitates astrogliogenesis from neural precursor cells in adult DG through activating STAT3 and that this action might indirectly affect neurogenesis.

  6. Precursors to morality in development as a complex interplay between neural, socioenvironmental, and behavioral facets

    PubMed Central

    Cowell, Jason M.; Decety, Jean

    2015-01-01

    The nature and underpinnings of infants’ seemingly complex, third-party, social evaluations remain highly contentious. Theoretical perspectives oscillate between rich and lean interpretations of the same expressed preferences. Although some argue that infants and toddlers possess a “moral sense” based on core knowledge of the social world, others suggest that social evaluations are hierarchical in nature and the product of an integration of rudimentary general processes such as attention allocation and approach and avoidance. Moreover, these biologically prepared minds interact in social environments that include significant variation, which are likely to impact early social evaluations and behavior. The present study examined the neural underpinnings of and precursors to moral sensitivity in infants and toddlers (n = 73, ages 12–24 mo) through a series of interwoven measures, combining multiple levels of analysis including electrophysiological, eye-tracking, behavioral, and socioenvironmental. Continuous EEG and time-locked event-related potentials (ERPs) and gaze fixation were recorded while children watched characters engaging in prosocial and antisocial actions in two different tasks. All children demonstrated a neural differentiation in both spectral EEG power density modulations and time-locked ERPs when perceiving prosocial or antisocial agents. Time-locked neural differences predicted children’s preference for prosocial characters and were influenced by parental values regarding justice and fairness. Overall, this investigation casts light on the fundamental nature of moral cognition, including its underpinnings in general processes such as attention and approach–withdrawal, providing plausible mechanisms of early change and a foundation for forward movement in the field of developmental social neuroscience. PMID:26324885

  7. An intrinsic neural oscillator in the degenerating mouse retina.

    PubMed

    Borowska, Joanna; Trenholm, Stuart; Awatramani, Gautam B

    2011-03-30

    The loss of photoreceptors during retinal degeneration (RD) is known to lead to an increase in basal activity in remnant neural networks. To identify the source of activity, we combined two-photon imaging with patch-clamp techniques to examine the physiological properties of morphologically identified retinal neurons in a mouse model of RD (rd1). Analysis of activity in rd1 ganglion cells revealed sustained oscillatory (∼10 Hz) synaptic activity in ∼30% of all classes of cells. Oscillatory activity persisted after putative inputs from residual photoreceptor, rod bipolar cell, and inhibitory amacrine cell synapses were pharmacologically blocked, suggesting that presynaptic cone bipolar cells were intrinsically active. Examination of presynaptic rd1 ON and OFF bipolar cells indicated that they rested at relatively negative potentials (less than -50 mV). However, in approximately half the cone bipolar cells, low-amplitude membrane oscillation (∼5 mV, ∼10 Hz) were apparent. Such oscillations were also observed in AII amacrine cells. Oscillations in ON cone bipolar and AII amacrine cells exhibited a weak apparent voltage dependence and were resistant to blockade of synaptic receptors, suggesting that, as in wild-type retina, they form an electrically coupled network. In addition, oscillations were insensitive to blockers of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (0.5 mm Cd(2+) and 0.5 mm Ni(2+)), ruling out known mechanisms that underlie oscillatory behavior in bipolar cells. Together, these results indicate that an electrically coupled network of ON cone bipolar/AII amacrine cells constitutes an intrinsic oscillator in the rd1 retina that is likely to drive synaptic activity in downstream circuits.

  8. Microglia-derived TNFα induces apoptosis in neural precursor cells via transcriptional activation of the Bcl-2 family member Puma.

    PubMed

    Guadagno, J; Xu, X; Karajgikar, M; Brown, A; Cregan, S P

    2013-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is a common feature of acute neurological conditions such as stroke and spinal cord injury, as well as neurodegenerative conditions such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Previous studies have demonstrated that acute neuroinflammation can adversely affect the survival of neural precursor cells (NPCs) and thereby limit the capacity for regeneration and repair. However, the mechanisms by which neuroinflammatory processes induce NPC death remain unclear. Microglia are key mediators of neuroinflammation and when activated to induce a pro-inflammatory state produce a number of factors that could affect NPC survival. Importantly, in the present study we demonstrate that tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) produced by lipopolysaccharide-activated microglia is necessary and sufficient to trigger apoptosis in mouse NPCs in vitro. Furthermore, we demonstrate that microglia-derived TNFα induces NPC apoptosis via a mitochondrial pathway regulated by the Bcl-2 family protein Bax. BH3-only proteins are known to play a key role in regulating Bax activation and we demonstrate that microglia-derived TNFα induces the expression of the BH3-only family member Puma in NPCs via an NF-κB-dependent mechanism. Specifically, we show that NF-κB is activated in NPCs treated with conditioned media from activated microglia and that Puma induction and NPC apoptosis is blocked by the NF-κB inhibitor BAY-117082. Importantly, we have determined that NPC apoptosis induced by activated microglia-derived TNFα is attenuated in Puma-deficient NPCs, indicating that Puma induction is required for NPC death. Consistent with this, we demonstrate that Puma-deficient NPCs exhibit an ∼13-fold increase in survival as compared with wild-type NPCs following transplantation into the inflammatory environment of the injured spinal cord in vivo. In summary, we have identified a key signaling pathway that regulates neuroinflammation induced apoptosis

  9. Microglia-derived TNFα induces apoptosis in neural precursor cells via transcriptional activation of the Bcl-2 family member Puma.

    PubMed

    Guadagno, J; Xu, X; Karajgikar, M; Brown, A; Cregan, S P

    2013-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is a common feature of acute neurological conditions such as stroke and spinal cord injury, as well as neurodegenerative conditions such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Previous studies have demonstrated that acute neuroinflammation can adversely affect the survival of neural precursor cells (NPCs) and thereby limit the capacity for regeneration and repair. However, the mechanisms by which neuroinflammatory processes induce NPC death remain unclear. Microglia are key mediators of neuroinflammation and when activated to induce a pro-inflammatory state produce a number of factors that could affect NPC survival. Importantly, in the present study we demonstrate that tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) produced by lipopolysaccharide-activated microglia is necessary and sufficient to trigger apoptosis in mouse NPCs in vitro. Furthermore, we demonstrate that microglia-derived TNFα induces NPC apoptosis via a mitochondrial pathway regulated by the Bcl-2 family protein Bax. BH3-only proteins are known to play a key role in regulating Bax activation and we demonstrate that microglia-derived TNFα induces the expression of the BH3-only family member Puma in NPCs via an NF-κB-dependent mechanism. Specifically, we show that NF-κB is activated in NPCs treated with conditioned media from activated microglia and that Puma induction and NPC apoptosis is blocked by the NF-κB inhibitor BAY-117082. Importantly, we have determined that NPC apoptosis induced by activated microglia-derived TNFα is attenuated in Puma-deficient NPCs, indicating that Puma induction is required for NPC death. Consistent with this, we demonstrate that Puma-deficient NPCs exhibit an ∼13-fold increase in survival as compared with wild-type NPCs following transplantation into the inflammatory environment of the injured spinal cord in vivo. In summary, we have identified a key signaling pathway that regulates neuroinflammation induced apoptosis

  10. Microglia-derived TNFα induces apoptosis in neural precursor cells via transcriptional activation of the Bcl-2 family member Puma

    PubMed Central

    Guadagno, J; Xu, X; Karajgikar, M; Brown, A; Cregan, S P

    2013-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is a common feature of acute neurological conditions such as stroke and spinal cord injury, as well as neurodegenerative conditions such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Previous studies have demonstrated that acute neuroinflammation can adversely affect the survival of neural precursor cells (NPCs) and thereby limit the capacity for regeneration and repair. However, the mechanisms by which neuroinflammatory processes induce NPC death remain unclear. Microglia are key mediators of neuroinflammation and when activated to induce a pro-inflammatory state produce a number of factors that could affect NPC survival. Importantly, in the present study we demonstrate that tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) produced by lipopolysaccharide-activated microglia is necessary and sufficient to trigger apoptosis in mouse NPCs in vitro. Furthermore, we demonstrate that microglia-derived TNFα induces NPC apoptosis via a mitochondrial pathway regulated by the Bcl-2 family protein Bax. BH3-only proteins are known to play a key role in regulating Bax activation and we demonstrate that microglia-derived TNFα induces the expression of the BH3-only family member Puma in NPCs via an NF-κB-dependent mechanism. Specifically, we show that NF-κB is activated in NPCs treated with conditioned media from activated microglia and that Puma induction and NPC apoptosis is blocked by the NF-κB inhibitor BAY-117082. Importantly, we have determined that NPC apoptosis induced by activated microglia-derived TNFα is attenuated in Puma-deficient NPCs, indicating that Puma induction is required for NPC death. Consistent with this, we demonstrate that Puma-deficient NPCs exhibit an ∼13-fold increase in survival as compared with wild-type NPCs following transplantation into the inflammatory environment of the injured spinal cord in vivo. In summary, we have identified a key signaling pathway that regulates neuroinflammation induced apoptosis

  11. Tripartite containing motif 32 modulates proliferation of human neural precursor cells in HIV-1 neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Fatima, M; Kumari, R; Schwamborn, J C; Mahadevan, A; Shankar, S K; Raja, R; Seth, P

    2016-01-01

    In addition to glial cells, HIV-1 infection occurs in multipotent human neural precursor cells (hNPCs) and induces quiescence in NPCs. HIV-1 infection of the brain alters hNPC stemness, leading to perturbed endogenous neurorestoration of the CNS following brain damage by HIV-1, compounding the severity of dementia in adult neuroAIDS cases. In pediatric neuroAIDS cases, HIV-1 infection of neural stem cell can lead to delayed developmental milestones and impaired cognition. Using primary cultures of human fetal brain-derived hNPCs, we gained novel insights into the role of a neural stem cell determinant, tripartite containing motif 32 (TRIM32), in HIV-1 Tat-induced quiescence of NPCs. Acute HIV-1 Tat treatment of hNPCs resulted in proliferation arrest but did not induce differentiation. Cellular localization and levels of TRIM32 are critical regulators of stemness of NPCs. HIV-1 Tat exposure increased nuclear localization and levels of TRIM32 in hNPCs. The in vitro findings were validated by studying TRIM32 localization and levels in frontal cortex of HIV-1-seropositive adult patients collected at post mortem as well as by infection of hNPCs by HIV-1. We observed increased percentage of cells with nuclear localization of TRIM32 in the subventricular zone (SVZ) as compared with age-matched controls. Our quest for probing into the mechanisms revealed that TRIM32 is targeted by miR-155 as downregulation of miR-155 by HIV-1 Tat resulted in upregulation of TRIM32 levels. Furthermore, miR-155 or siRNA against TRIM32 rescued HIV-1 Tat-induced quiescence in NPCs. Our findings suggest a novel molecular cascade involving miR-155 and TRIM32 leading to HIV-1 Tat-induced attenuated proliferation of hNPCs. The study also uncovered an unidentified role for miR-155 in modulating human neural stem cell proliferation, helping in better understanding of hNPCs and diseased brain. PMID:26586575

  12. Biochemical and functional characterization of transiently expressed in neural precursor (TENP) protein in emu egg white.

    PubMed

    Maehashi, Kenji; Ueda, Megumi; Matano, Mami; Takeuchi, Junko; Uchino, Masataka; Kashiwagi, Yutaka; Watanabe, Toshihiro

    2014-06-01

    A protein transiently expressed in the neural precursors of developing tissues (TENP) was found to be present in emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) egg white as one of the major proteins. Nucleotide analysis of its encoding cDNA revealed a sequence of 452 amino acids including a 19 amino acid peptide signal. Phylogenetic analysis determined that emu TENP was clustered within the bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) superfamily together with other avian TENPs. RT-PCR analysis revealed that the emu TENP gene was highly expressed in the magnum of the oviduct, indicating that TENP is a major egg white component. Emu TENP was purified by anion exchange chromatography and ammonium sulfate fractionation. Unlike BPI, emu TENP exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus subtilis, but not against Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium. The results suggest that emu TENP is a potent novel antibacterial protein with a spectrum distinct from that of BPI. PMID:24820544

  13. Tricyclic Antidepressant Amitriptyline Indirectly Increases the Proliferation of Adult Dentate Gyrus-Derived Neural Precursors: An Involvement of Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Boku, Shuken; Hisaoka-Nakashima, Kazue; Nakagawa, Shin; Kato, Akiko; Kajitani, Naoto; Inoue, Takeshi; Kusumi, Ichiro; Takebayashi, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    Antidepressants increase the proliferation of neural precursors in adult dentate gyrus (DG), which is considered to be involved in the therapeutic action of antidepressants. However, the mechanism underlying it remains unclear. By using cultured adult rat DG-derived neural precursors (ADP), we have already shown that antidepressants have no direct effects on ADP. Therefore, antidepressants may increase the proliferation of neural precursors in adult DG via unknown indirect mechanism. We have also shown that amitriptyline (AMI), a tricyclic antidepressant, induces the expressions of GDNF, BDNF, FGF2 and VEGF, common neurogenic factors, in primary cultured astrocytes (PCA). These suggest that AMI-induced factors in astrocytes may increase the proliferation of neural precursors in adult DG. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of AMI-induced factors and conditioned medium (CM) from PCA treated with AMI on ADP proliferation. The effects of CM and factors on ADP proliferation were examined with BrdU immunocytochemistry. AMI had no effect on ADP proliferation, but AMI-treated CM increased it. The receptors of GDNF, BDNF and FGF2, but not VEGF, were expressed in ADP. FGF2 significantly increased ADP proliferation, but not BDNF and GDNF. In addition, both of a specific inhibitor of FGF receptors and anti-FGF2 antibody significantly counteracted the increasing effect of CM on ADP proliferation. In addition, FGF2 in brain is mainly derived from astrocytes that are key components of the neurogenic niches in adult DG. These suggest that AMI may increase ADP proliferation indirectly via PCA and that FGF2 may a potential candidate to mediate such an indirect effect of AMI on ADP proliferation via astrocytes. PMID:24260208

  14. Derivation of Neural Stem Cells from Mouse Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Karanfil, Işıl; Bagci-Onder, Tugba

    2016-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells offer therapeutic tools for neurodegenerative diseases. This review focuses on embryoid body (EB)-mediated stem cell culture techniques used to derive NSCs from mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Generation of healthy and stable NSCs from iPSCs heavily depends on standardized in vitro cell culture systems that mimic the embryonic environments utilized during neural development. Specifically, the neural induction and expansion methods after EB formation are described in this review.

  15. Colonization of the murine hindgut by sacral crest-derived neural precursors: experimental support for an evolutionarily conserved model.

    PubMed

    Kapur, R P

    2000-11-01

    Enteric ganglia in the hindgut are derived from separate vagal and sacral neural crest populations. Two conflicting models, based primarily on avian data, have been proposed to describe the contribution of sacral neural crest cells. One hypothesizes early colonization of the hindgut shortly after neurulation, and the other states that sacral crest cells reside transiently in the extraenteric ganglion of Remak and colonize the hindgut much later, after vagal crest-derived neural precursors arrive. In this study, I show that Wnt1-lacZ-transgene expression, an "early" marker of murine neural crest cells, is inconsistent with the "early-colonization" model. Although Wnt1-lacZ-positive sacral crest cells populate pelvic ganglia in the mesenchyme surrounding the hindgut, they are not found in the gut prior to the arrival of vagal crest cells. Similarly, segments of murine hindgut harvested prior to the arrival of vagal crest cells and grafted under the renal capsule fail to develop enteric neurons, unless adjacent pelvic mesenchyme is included in the graft. When pelvic mesenchyme from DbetaH-nlacZ transgenic embryos is apposed with nontransgenic hindgut, neural precursors from the mesenchyme colonize the hindgut and form intramural ganglion cells that express the transgenic marker. Contribution of sacral crest-derived cells to the enteric nervous system is not affected by cocolonization of grafts by vagal crest-derived neuroglial precursors. The findings complement recent studies of avian chimeras and support an evolutionarily conserved model in which sacral crest cells first colonize the extramural ganglion and secondarily enter the hindgut mesenchyme.

  16. Two-photon imaging of remyelination of spinal cord axons by engrafted neural precursor cells in a viral model of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Milton L; Weinger, Jason G; Matheu, Melanie P; Carbajal, Kevin S; Parker, Ian; Macklin, Wendy B; Lane, Thomas E; Cahalan, Michael D

    2014-06-01

    Neural precursor cells (NPCs) offer a promising approach for treating demyelinating diseases. However, the cellular dynamics that underlie transplanted NPC-mediated remyelination have not been described. Using two-photon imaging of a newly developed ventral spinal cord preparation and a viral model of demyelination, we describe the motility and intercellular interactions of transplanted mouse NPCs expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) with damaged axons expressing yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). Our findings reveal focal axonal degeneration that occurs in the ventral side of the spinal cord within 1 wk following intracranial instillation with the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV). Axonal damage precedes extensive demyelination and is characterized by swelling along the length of the axon, loss of YFP signal, and transected appearance. NPCs engrafted into spinal cords of JHMV-infected mice exhibited diminished migration velocities and increased proliferation compared with transplanted cells in noninfected mice. NPCs preferentially accumulated within areas of axonal damage, initiated direct contact with axons, and subsequently expressed the myelin proteolipid protein gene, initiating remyelination. These findings indicate that NPCs transplanted into an inflammatory demyelinating microenvironment participate directly in therapeutic outcome through the wrapping of myelin around damaged neurons.

  17. HALOACETIC ACIDS AND KINASE INHIBITORS PERTURB MOUSE NEURAL CREST CELLS IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    HUNTER, E.S.1, J. SMITH2, J. ANDREWS1. 1 Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, US EPA, Research Triangle Park and 2 Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, UNC-CH, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Haloacetic acids and kinase inhibitors perturb mouse neural crest cells in vi...

  18. OXIDATIVE STRESS INDUCES CELL DEATH IN CD-1 MOUSE CRANIAL NEURAL CREST CELLS IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    OXIDATIVE STRESS INDUCES CELL DEATH IN CD-1 MOUSE CRANIAL NEURAL CREST CELLS IN VITRO. J.B. Smith, K.K. Sulik, E.S. Hunter III. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599.
    The induction of craniofacial defects by ethanol exposure is mediated in part by...

  19. Phosphorylation Regulates Id2 Degradation and Mediates the Proliferation of Neural Precursor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Jaclyn M.; Havrda, Matthew C.; Kettenbach, Arminja N.; Paolella, Brenton R.; Zhang, Zhonghua; Gerber, Scott A.; Israel, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitor of DNA binding proteins (Id1-Id4) function to inhibit differentiation and promote proliferation of many different cell types. Among the Id family members, Id2 has been most extensively studied in the central nervous system (CNS). Id2 contributes to cultured neural precursor cell (NPC) proliferation as well as to the proliferation of CNS tumors such as glioblastoma that are likely to arise from NPC-like cells. We identified three phosphorylation sites near the N-terminus of Id2 in NPCs. To interrogate the importance of Id2 phosphorylation, Id2−/− NPCs were modified to express wild type (WT) Id2 or an Id2 mutant protein that could not be phosphorylated at the identified sites. We observed that NPCs expressing this mutant lacking phosphorylation near the N-terminus had higher steady-state levels of Id2 when compared to NPCs expressing WT Id2. This elevated level was the result of a longer half-life and reduced proteasome-mediated degradation. Moreover, NPCs expressing constitutively de-phosphorylated Id2 proliferated more rapidly than NPCs expressing WT Id2, a finding consistent with the well-characterized function of Id2 in driving proliferation. Observing that phosphorylation of Id2 modulates the degradation of this important cell-cycle regulator, we sought to identify a phosphatase that would stabilize Id2 enhancing its activity in NPCs and extended our analysis to include human glioblastoma-derived stem cells (GSCs). We found that expression of the phosphatase PP2A altered Id2 levels. Our findings suggest that inhibition of PP2A may be a novel strategy to regulate the proliferation of normal NPCs and malignant GSCs by decreasing Id2 levels. PMID:26756672

  20. Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Effects on Neural Precursor Cell Proliferation and Angiogenesis in the Foetal Subventricular Zone.

    PubMed

    Tolcos, Mary; Markwick, Rachel; O'Dowd, Rachael; Martin, Veronica; Turnley, Ann; Rees, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to adverse prenatal factors can result in abnormal brain development, contributing to the aetiology of several neurological disorders. Intrauterine insults could occur during neurogenesis and gliogenesis, disrupting these events. Here we investigate the effects of chronic placental insufficiency (CPI) on cell proliferation and the microenvironment in the subventricular zone (SVZ). At 30 days of gestation (DG; term ∼67 DG), CPI was induced in pregnant guinea pigs via unilateral uterine artery ligation to produce growth-restricted (GR) foetuses (n = 7); controls (n = 6) were from the unoperated horn. At 60 DG, foetal brains were stained immunohistochemically to identify proliferating cells (Ki67), immature neurons (polysialylated neuronal cell adhesion molecule), astrocytes (glial fibrillary acidic protein), microglia (ionised calcium-binding adaptor molecule-1, Iba-1) and the microvasculature (von Willebrand factor) in the SVZ. There was no overall difference (p > 0.05) in the total number of Ki67-immunoreactive (IR) cells, the percentage of SVZ occupied by blood vessels or the density of Iba-1-IR microglia in control versus GR foetuses. However, regression analysis across both groups revealed that both the number of Ki67-IR cells and the percentage of SVZ occupied by blood vessels in the ventral SVZ were negatively correlated (p < 0.05) with brain weight. Furthermore, in the SVZ (dorsal and ventral) the density of blood vessels positively correlated (p < 0.05) with the number of Ki67-IR cells. Double-labelling immunofluorescence suggested that the majority of proliferating cells were likely to be neural precursor cells. Thus, we have demonstrated an association between angiogenesis and neurogenesis in the foetal neurogenic niche and have identified a window of opportunity for the administration of trophic support to enhance a neuroregenerative response.

  1. Cytotoxicity of Gold Nanorods and Nanowires on Cultivated Neural Precursor Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Jung; Yoo, Chan-Jong; Lee, Uhn; Yoo, Young-Mi

    2015-08-01

    Given the emergence of nanotherapeutics and nanodiagnostics as key tools in today's medicine, it has become of critical importance to define the interactions of nanomaterials with biological systems. The biomedical applications of nanoparticles (NPs) in chemical sensing, biological imaging, drug delivery, photothermal therapy and cancer treatment have been demonstrated. Gold NPs as new biomedical tools are the focus of research due to their ease of synthesis, chemical stability and unique optical properties. Therefore, there is a need to establish the toxicity, side effects and safety of gold NPs for human applications. To study the in vitro cytotoxicity of gold NPs, we performed MTT assay using two types of gold NPs such as gold nanorods (GNRs) and gold nanowires (GNWs). The percentage cytotoxicity of damaged neural precursor cells (NPCs) that were treated with 100 mg GNRs was 97.5±3.9%; and proportion of damaged NPCs following the administration of the same dose of GNWs was 98.8±0.3%. The cytotoxicity of 10 mg GNRs in NPCs was 54.4±8.3%, whereas it was 98.7±0.6% for the same dose of GNWs. Then, to verify that gold NPs induced apoptotic cell death in NPCs, the LIVE/DEAD Viability/Cytotoxicity assay was performed. We observed that cell death of NPCs increased with an increase in quantity of both types of gold NPs. Cell viability assessed the overall dose-dependent toxicity of NPs in cultured cells. As the results suggest, this study demonstrated that treatment with gold NPs resulted in cellular toxicity in a dose-dependent manner in cultured NPCs.

  2. Intravenous Administration of Human ES-derived Neural Precursor Cells Attenuates Cuprizone-induced CNS Demyelination

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, Stephen J.; Bajpai, Ruchi; Moore, Craig S.; Frausto, Ricardo F.; Brown, Graham D.; Pagarigan, Roberto R.; Whitton, J. Lindsay; Terskikh, Alexey V.

    2011-01-01

    Aims Previous studies have demonstrated the therapeutic potential for human embryonic stem cell-derived neural precursor cells (hES-NPCs) in autoimmune and genetic animal models of demyelinating diseases. Herein, we tested whether intravenous (i.v) administration of hES-NPCs would impact central nervous system (CNS) demyelination in a cuprizone model of demyelination. Methods C57Bl/6 mice were fed cuprizone (0.2%) for two weeks and then separated into two groups that either received an i.v. injection of hES-NPCs or i.v. administration of media without these cells. After an additional two weeks of dietary cuprizone treatment, CNS tissues were analyzed for detection of transplanted cells and differences in myelination in the region of the corpus callosum (CC). Results Cuprizone-induced demyelination in the CC was significantly reduced in mice treated with hES-NPCs compared with cuprizone-treated controls that did not receive stem cells. hES-NPCs were identified within the brain tissues of treated mice and revealed migration of transplanted cells into the CNS. A limited number of human cells were found to express the mature oligodendrocyte marker, O1, or the astrocyte marker, GFAP. Reduced apoptosis and attenuated microglial and astrocytic responses were also observed in the CC of hES-NPC-treated mice. Conclusions These findings indicated that systemically-administered hES-NPCs migrated from circulation into a demyelinated lesion within the CNS and effectively reduced demyelination. Observed reductions in astrocyte and microglial responses, and (c) the benefit of hES-NPC treatment in this model of myelin injury was not obviously accountable to tissue replacement by exogenously administered cells. PMID:21276029

  3. High mobility group nucleosome-binding family proteins promote astrocyte differentiation of neural precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Motoshi; Lanjakornsiripan, Darin; Itoh, Yasuhiro; Kishi, Yusuke; Ogata, Toru; Gotoh, Yukiko

    2014-11-01

    Astrocytes are the most abundant cell type in the mammalian brain and are important for the functions of the central nervous system. Although previous studies have shown that the STAT signaling pathway or its regulators promote the generation of astrocytes from multipotent neural precursor cells (NPCs) in the developing mammalian brain, the molecular mechanisms that regulate the astrocytic fate decision have still remained largely unclear. Here, we show that the high mobility group nucleosome-binding (HMGN) family proteins, HMGN1, 2, and 3, promote astrocyte differentiation of NPCs during brain development. HMGN proteins were expressed in NPCs, Sox9(+) glial progenitors, and GFAP(+) astrocytes in perinatal and adult brains. Forced expression of either HMGN1, 2, or 3 in NPCs in cultures or in the late embryonic neocortex increased the generation of astrocytes at the expense of neurons. Conversely, knockdown of either HMGN1, 2, or 3 in NPCs suppressed astrocyte differentiation and promoted neuronal differentiation. Importantly, overexpression of HMGN proteins did not induce the phosphorylation of STAT3 or activate STAT reporter genes. In addition, HMGN family proteins did not enhance DNA demethylation and acetylation of histone H3 around the STAT-binding site of the gfap promoter. Moreover, knockdown of HMGN family proteins significantly reduced astrocyte differentiation induced by gliogenic signal ciliary neurotrophic factor, which activates the JAK-STAT pathway. Therefore, we propose that HMGN family proteins are novel chromatin regulatory factors that control astrocyte fate decision/differentiation in parallel with or downstream of the JAK-STAT pathway through modulation of the responsiveness to gliogenic signals. PMID:25069414

  4. Neural differentiation of pluripotent mouse embryonal carcinoma cells by retinoic acid: inhibitory effect of serum.

    PubMed

    Pacherník, J; Bryja, V; Esner, M; Kubala, L; Dvorák, P; Hampl, A

    2005-01-01

    In both embryonal carcinoma (EC) and embryonic stem (ES) cells, the differentiation pathway entered after treatment with retinoic acid (RA) varies as it is based upon different conditions of culture. This study employs mouse EC cells P19 to investigate the effects of serum on RA-induced neural differentiation occurring in a simplified monolayer culture. Cell morphology and expression of lineage-specific molecular markers document that, while non-neural cell types arise after treatment with RA under serum-containing conditions, in chemically defined serum-free media RA induces massive neural differentiation in concentrations of 10(-9) M and higher. Moreover, not only neural (Mash-1) and neuroectodermal (Pax-6), but also endodermal (GATA-4, alpha-fetoprotein) genes are expressed at early stages of differentiation driven by RA under serum-free conditions. Furthermore, as determined by the luciferase reporter assay, the presence or absence of the serum does not affect the activity of the retinoic acid response element (RARE). Thus, mouse EC cells are able to produce neural cells upon exposure to RA even without culture in three-dimensional embryoid bodies (EBs). However, in contrast to standard EBs-involving protocol(s), neural differentiation in monolayer only takes place when complex signaling from serum factors is avoided. This simple and efficient strategy is proposed to serve as a basis for neurodifferentiation studies in vitro. PMID:15717849

  5. Embryonic Nkx2.1-expressing neural precursor cells contribute to the regional heterogeneity of adult V-SVZ neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Ryan N; Lim, Daniel A

    2015-11-15

    The adult ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) of the lateral ventricle produces several subtypes of olfactory bulb (OB) interneurons throughout life. Neural stem cells (NSCs) within this zone are heterogeneous, with NSCs located in different regions of the lateral ventricle wall generating distinct OB interneuron subtypes. The regional expression of specific transcription factors appears to correspond to such geographical differences in the developmental potential of V-SVZ NSCs. However, the transcriptional definition and developmental origin of V-SVZ NSC regional identity are not well understood. In this study, we found that a population of NSCs in the ventral region of the V-SVZ expresses the transcription factor Nkx2.1 and is derived from Nkx2.1-expressing (Nkx2.1+) embryonic precursors. To follow the fate of Nkx2.1+ cells and their progeny in vivo, we used mice with an Nkx2.1-CreER "knock-in" allele. Nkx2.1+ V-SVZ NSCs labeled in adult mice generated interneurons for the deep granule cell layer of the OB. Embryonic brain Nkx2.1+ precursors labeled at embryonic day 12.5 gave rise to Nkx2.1+ NSCs of the ventral V-SVZ in postnatal and adult mice. Thus, embryonic Nkx2.1+ neural precursors give rise to a population of Nkx2.1+ NSCs in the ventral V-SVZ where they contribute to the regional heterogeneity of V-SVZ NSCs.

  6. Neuralization of mouse embryonic stem cells in alginate hydrogels under retinoic acid and SAG treatment.

    PubMed

    Delivopoulos, Evangelos; Shakesheff, Kevin M; Peto, Heather

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the differentiation of a mouse embryonic stem cell line (CGR8) into neurons, under retinoic acid (RA) and smoothened agonist (SAG) treatment. When stem cells underwent through an embryoid body (EB) formation stage, dissociation and seeding on glass coverslips, immunofluorescent labelling for neuronal markers (Nestin, b-Tubulin III, MAP2) revealed the presence of both immature neural progenitors and mature neurons. Undifferentiated CGR8 were also encapsulated in tubular, alginate-gelatin hydrogels and incubated in differentiation media containing retinoic acid (RA) and smoothened agonist (SAG). Cryo-sections of the hydrogel tubes were positive for Nestin, Pax6 and b-Tubulin III, verifying the presence of neurons and neural progenitors. Provided neural induction can be more precisely directed in the tubular hydrogels, these scaffolds will become a powerful model of neural tube development in embryos and will highlight potential strategies for spinal cord regeneration. PMID:26737053

  7. Kinesin Light Chain 1 Suppression Impairs Human Embryonic Stem Cell Neural Differentiation and Amyloid Precursor Protein Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Killian, Rhiannon L.; Flippin, Jessica D.; Herrera, Cheryl M.; Almenar-Queralt, Angels; Goldstein, Lawrence S. B.

    2012-01-01

    The etiology of sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD) is largely unknown, although evidence implicates the pathological hallmark molecules amyloid beta (Aβ) and phosphorylated Tau. Work in animal models suggests that altered axonal transport caused by Kinesin-1 dysfunction perturbs levels of both Aβ and phosphorylated Tau in neural tissues, but the relevance of Kinesin-1 dependent functions to the human disease is unknown. To begin to address this issue, we generated human embryonic stem cells (hESC) expressing reduced levels of the kinesin light chain 1 (KLC1) Kinesin-1 subunit to use as a source of human neural cultures. Despite reduction of KLC1, undifferentiated hESC exhibited apparently normal colony morphology and pluripotency marker expression. Differentiated neural cultures derived from KLC1-suppressed hESC contained neural rosettes but further differentiation revealed obvious morphological changes along with reduced levels of microtubule-associated neural proteins, including Tau and less secreted Aβ, supporting the previously established connection between KLC1, Tau and Aβ. Intriguingly, KLC1-suppressed neural precursors (NPs), isolated using a cell surface marker signature known to identify cells that give rise to neurons and glia, unlike control cells, failed to proliferate. We suggest that KLC1 is required for normal human neural differentiation, ensuring proper metabolism of AD-associated molecules APP and Tau and for proliferation of NPs. Because impaired APP metabolism is linked to AD, this human cell culture model system will not only be a useful tool for understanding the role of KLC1 in regulating the production, transport and turnover of APP and Tau in neurons, but also in defining the essential function(s) of KLC1 in NPs and their progeny. This knowledge should have important implications for human neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:22272245

  8. Genetic dissection of GABAergic neural circuits in mouse neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    Diverse and flexible cortical functions rely on the ability of neural circuits to perform multiple types of neuronal computations. GABAergic inhibitory interneurons significantly contribute to this task by regulating the balance of activity, synaptic integration, spiking, synchrony, and oscillation in a neural ensemble. GABAergic interneurons display a high degree of cellular diversity in morphology, physiology, connectivity, and gene expression. A considerable number of subtypes of GABAergic interneurons diversify modes of cortical inhibition, enabling various types of information processing in the cortex. Thus, comprehensively understanding fate specification, circuit assembly, and physiological function of GABAergic interneurons is a key to elucidate the principles of cortical wiring and function. Recent advances in genetically encoded molecular tools have made a breakthrough to systematically study cortical circuitry at the molecular, cellular, circuit, and whole animal levels. However, the biggest obstacle to fully applying the power of these to analysis of GABAergic circuits was that there were no efficient and reliable methods to express them in subtypes of GABAergic interneurons. Here, I first summarize cortical interneuron diversity and current understanding of mechanisms, by which distinct classes of GABAergic interneurons are generated. I then review recent development in genetically encoded molecular tools for neural circuit research, and genetic targeting of GABAergic interneuron subtypes, particularly focusing on our recent effort to develop and characterize Cre/CreER knockin lines. Finally, I highlight recent success in genetic targeting of chandelier cells, the most unique and distinct GABAergic interneuron subtype, and discuss what kind of questions need to be addressed to understand development and function of cortical inhibitory circuits. PMID:24478631

  9. The protocol for the isolation and cryopreservation of osteoclast precursors from mouse bone marrow and spleen.

    PubMed

    Boraschi-Diaz, Iris; Komarova, Svetlana V

    2016-01-01

    Osteoclasts are responsible for physiological bone remodeling as well as pathological bone destruction in osteoporosis, periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis, and thus represent a pharmacological target for drug development. We aimed to characterize and compare the cytokine-induced osteoclastogenesis of bone marrow and spleen precursors. Established protocols used to generate osteoclasts from bone marrow were modified to examine osteoclastogenesis of the spleen cells of healthy mice. Osteoclast formation was successfully induced from spleen precursors using receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (50 ng/ml) and macrophage colony stimulating factor (50 ng/ml). Compared to bone marrow cultures, differentiation from spleen required a longer cultivation time (9 days for spleen, as compared to 5 days for marrow cultures) and a higher plating density of non-adherent cells (75,000/cm(2) for spleen, as compared to 50,000/cm(2) for bone marrow). Osteoclasts generated from spleen precursors expressed osteoclast marker genes calcitonin receptor, cathepsin K and matrix metalloproteinase 9 and were capable of resorbing hydroxyapatite. The differentiation capacity of spleen and bone marrow precursors was comparable for BALB/c, C57BL/6 and FVB mice. We also developed and tested a cryopreservation protocol for the osteoclast precursors. While 70-80 % of cells were lost during the first week of freezing, during the subsequent 5 weeks the losses were within 2-5 % per week. Osteoclastogenesis from the recovered bone marrow precursors was successful up to 5 weeks after freezing. Spleen precursors retained their osteoclastogenic capacity for 1 week after freezing, but not thereafter. The described protocol is useful for the studies of genetically modified animals as well as for screening new osteoclast-targeting therapeutics.

  10. Precursor cells of mouse endocrine pancreas coexpress insulin, glucagon and the neuronal proteins tyrosine hydroxylase and neuropeptide Y, but not pancreatic polypeptide.

    PubMed

    Teitelman, G; Alpert, S; Polak, J M; Martinez, A; Hanahan, D

    1993-08-01

    The early progenitor cells to the pancreatic islets in the mouse have been characterized so as to re-examine their possible lineage relationships to the four islet cell types found in mature islets. Insulin and glucagon were both first expressed at embryonic day 9.5, and many cells coexpressed these two markers, as shown by light and electron microscopic analysis using double-label immunohistochemistry. Incubation of embryonic pancreas with 1% glutaraldehyde, a fixative commonly used by electron microscopists, abolished this reactivity, thereby explaining reported difficulties in detecting these precursor cells. Using antisera specific for neuropeptide Y (NPY) a peptide with considerable homology to pancreatic polypeptide (PP), we show that NPY first appears with insulin and glucagon immunoreactivity at E9.5, and is co-expressed with glucagon in a majority of adult alpha cells. As we have previously reported, PP itself is first detectable immunocytochemically at postnatal day 1 with PP-specific antibodies. However, antibodies raised against bovine PP are shown by dot blotting to recognize NPY with comparable avidity, indicating that a recent report of islet progenitor cells containing PP at E9.5 (Herrera, P. L., Huarte, J., Sanvito, F., Meda, P., Orci, L. and Vassalli, J. D. (1991) Development 113, 1257-1265), actually represents cross-reactivity to NPY. The data support a model in which early precursor cells to the endocrine pancreas co-activate and co-express a set of islet cell hormone and neural genes, whose expression is both selectively increased and extinguished as development proceeds, concomitant with a restriction to the patterns of expression characteristic of mature islet cell types.

  11. Differential transgene expression patterns in Alzheimer mouse models revealed by novel human amyloid precursor protein-specific antibodies.

    PubMed

    Höfling, Corinna; Morawski, Markus; Zeitschel, Ulrike; Zanier, Elisa R; Moschke, Katrin; Serdaroglu, Alperen; Canneva, Fabio; von Hörsten, Stephan; De Simoni, Maria-Grazia; Forloni, Gianluigi; Jäger, Carsten; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Roßner, Steffen; Lichtenthaler, Stefan F; Kuhn, Peer-Hendrik

    2016-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is histopathologically characterized by neurodegeneration, the formation of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and extracellular Aβ deposits that derive from proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). As rodents do not normally develop Aβ pathology, various transgenic animal models of AD were designed to overexpress human APP with mutations favouring its amyloidogenic processing. However, these mouse models display tremendous differences in the spatial and temporal appearance of Aβ deposits, synaptic dysfunction, neurodegeneration and the manifestation of learning deficits which may be caused by age-related and brain region-specific differences in APP transgene levels. Consequentially, a comparative temporal and regional analysis of the pathological effects of Aβ in mouse brains is difficult complicating the validation of therapeutic AD treatment strategies in different mouse models. To date, no antibodies are available that properly discriminate endogenous rodent and transgenic human APP in brains of APP-transgenic animals. Here, we developed and characterized rat monoclonal antibodies by immunohistochemistry and Western blot that detect human but not murine APP in brains of three APP-transgenic mouse and one APP-transgenic rat model. We observed remarkable differences in expression levels and brain region-specific expression of human APP among the investigated transgenic mouse lines. This may explain the differences between APP-transgenic models mentioned above. Furthermore, we provide compelling evidence that our new antibodies specifically detect endogenous human APP in immunocytochemistry, FACS and immunoprecipitation. Hence, we propose these antibodies as standard tool for monitoring expression of endogenous or transfected APP in human cells and APP expression in transgenic animals. PMID:27470171

  12. Characterization of oligodendrocyte lineage precursor cells in the mouse cerebral cortex: a confocal microscopy approach to demyelinating diseases.

    PubMed

    Girolamo, Francesco; Strippoli, Maurizio; Errede, Mariella; Benagiano, Vincenzo; Roncali, Luisa; Ambrosi, Glauco; Virgintino, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    The identification of stem cells resident in the adult central nervous system has redirected the focus of research into demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, mainly affecting the brain white matter. This immunocytochemical and morphometrical study was carried out by confocal microscopy in the adult mouse cerebral cortex, with the aim of analysing, in the brain grey matter, the characteristics of the oligodendrocyte lineage cells, whose capability to remyelinate is still controversial. The observations demonstrated the presence in all the cortex layers of glial restricted progenitors, reactive to A2B5 marker, oligodendrocyte precursor cells, expressing the NG2 proteoglycan, and pre-oligodendrocytes and pre-myelinating oligodendrocytes, reactive to the specific marker O4. NG2 expressing cells constitute the major immature population of the cortex, since not only oligodendrocyte precursor cells and pre-oligodendrocytes but also a part of the glial restrict progenitors express the NG2 proteoglycan. Together with the population of these immature cells, a larger population of mature oligodendrocytes was revealed by the classical oligodendrocyte and myelin markers, 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase, myelin basic protein and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein. The results indicate that oligodendrocyte precursors committed to differentiate into myelin forming oligodendrocytes are present through all layers of the adult cortex and that their phenotypic features exactly recall those of the oligodendroglial lineage cells during development.

  13. Distinct apical and basolateral mechanisms drive PCP-dependent convergent extension of the mouse neural plate

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Margot; Yen, Weiwei; Lu, Xiaowei; Sutherland, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Summary The mechanisms of tissue convergence and extension (CE) driving axial elongation in mammalian embryos, and in particular, the cellular behaviors underlying CE in the epithelial neural tissue, have not been identified. Here we show that mouse neural cells undergo mediolaterally biased cell intercalation and exhibit both apical boundary rearrangement and polarized basolateral protrusive activity. Planar polarization and coordination of these two cell behaviors is essential for neural CE, as shown by failure of mediolateral intercalation in embryos mutant for two proteins associated with planar cell polarity signaling: Vangl2 and Ptk7. Embryos with mutations in Ptk7 fail to polarize cell behaviors within the plane of the tissue, while Vangl2 mutant embryos maintain tissue polarity and basal protrusive activity, but are deficient in apical neighbor exchange. Neuroepithelial cells in both mutants fail to apically constrict, leading to craniorachischisis. These results reveal a cooperative mechanism for cell rearrangement during epithelial morphogenesis. PMID:24703875

  14. Novel Mode of Defective Neural Tube Closure in the Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) Mouse Strain.

    PubMed

    Salbaum, J Michael; Kruger, Claudia; MacGowan, Jacalyn; Herion, Nils J; Burk, David; Kappen, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Failure to close the neural tube results in birth defects, with severity ranging from spina bifida to lethal anencephaly. Few genetic risk factors for neural tube defects are known in humans, highlighting the critical role of environmental risk factors, such as maternal diabetes. Yet, it is not well understood how altered maternal metabolism interferes with embryonic development, and with neurulation in particular. We present evidence from two independent mouse models of diabetic pregnancy that identifies impaired migration of nascent mesodermal cells in the primitive streak as the morphogenetic basis underlying the pathogenesis of neural tube defects. We conclude that perturbed gastrulation not only explains the neurulation defects, but also provides a unifying etiology for the broad spectrum of congenital malformations in diabetic pregnancies. PMID:26593875

  15. Novel Mode of Defective Neural Tube Closure in the Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) Mouse Strain

    PubMed Central

    Salbaum, J. Michael; Kruger, Claudia; MacGowan, Jacalyn; Herion, Nils J.; Burk, David; Kappen, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Failure to close the neural tube results in birth defects, with severity ranging from spina bifida to lethal anencephaly. Few genetic risk factors for neural tube defects are known in humans, highlighting the critical role of environmental risk factors, such as maternal diabetes. Yet, it is not well understood how altered maternal metabolism interferes with embryonic development, and with neurulation in particular. We present evidence from two independent mouse models of diabetic pregnancy that identifies impaired migration of nascent mesodermal cells in the primitive streak as the morphogenetic basis underlying the pathogenesis of neural tube defects. We conclude that perturbed gastrulation not only explains the neurulation defects, but also provides a unifying etiology for the broad spectrum of congenital malformations in diabetic pregnancies. PMID:26593875

  16. Physical exercise counteracts MPTP-induced changes in neural precursor cell proliferation in the hippocampus and restores spatial learning but not memory performance in the water maze.

    PubMed

    Klein, C; Rasińska, J; Empl, L; Sparenberg, M; Poshtiban, A; Hain, E G; Iggena, D; Rivalan, M; Winter, Y; Steiner, B

    2016-07-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by a continuous loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, which not only leads to characteristic motor symptoms but also to cognitive impairments. Physical exercise has been shown to improve hippocampus-dependent cognitive functions in PD patients. Animal studies have demonstrated the involvement of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in exercise-induced improvements of visuo-spatial learning and memory. Here, we investigated the direct impact of voluntary wheel running on hippocampal neurogenesis and spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze (MWM) using the1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD. We also analyzed striatal and hippocampal dopamine transmission and mRNA expression levels of dopamine receptors. We show that MPTP-induced spatial learning deficits were alleviated by short-term physical exercise but not MPTP-induced spatial memory impairments in either exercise intervention group. Neural precursor proliferation was transiently altered in MPTP-treated mice, while the cell survival was increased by exercise. Dopamine was progressively depleted by MPTP and its turnover altered by exercise. In addition, gene expression of dopamine receptor D1/D5 was transiently upregulated following MPTP treatment but not affected by physical exercise. Our findings suggest that physical exercise benefits spatial learning but not memory performance in the MWM after MPTP-induced dopamine depletion by restoring precursor cell proliferation in the hippocampus and influencing dopamine transmission. This adds to the understanding of cognitive decline and mechanisms for potential improvements by physical exercise in PD patients.

  17. Physical exercise counteracts MPTP-induced changes in neural precursor cell proliferation in the hippocampus and restores spatial learning but not memory performance in the water maze.

    PubMed

    Klein, C; Rasińska, J; Empl, L; Sparenberg, M; Poshtiban, A; Hain, E G; Iggena, D; Rivalan, M; Winter, Y; Steiner, B

    2016-07-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by a continuous loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, which not only leads to characteristic motor symptoms but also to cognitive impairments. Physical exercise has been shown to improve hippocampus-dependent cognitive functions in PD patients. Animal studies have demonstrated the involvement of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in exercise-induced improvements of visuo-spatial learning and memory. Here, we investigated the direct impact of voluntary wheel running on hippocampal neurogenesis and spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze (MWM) using the1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD. We also analyzed striatal and hippocampal dopamine transmission and mRNA expression levels of dopamine receptors. We show that MPTP-induced spatial learning deficits were alleviated by short-term physical exercise but not MPTP-induced spatial memory impairments in either exercise intervention group. Neural precursor proliferation was transiently altered in MPTP-treated mice, while the cell survival was increased by exercise. Dopamine was progressively depleted by MPTP and its turnover altered by exercise. In addition, gene expression of dopamine receptor D1/D5 was transiently upregulated following MPTP treatment but not affected by physical exercise. Our findings suggest that physical exercise benefits spatial learning but not memory performance in the MWM after MPTP-induced dopamine depletion by restoring precursor cell proliferation in the hippocampus and influencing dopamine transmission. This adds to the understanding of cognitive decline and mechanisms for potential improvements by physical exercise in PD patients. PMID:27012392

  18. Cellular basis of neuroepithelial bending during mouse spinal neural tube closure

    PubMed Central

    McShane, Suzanne G.; Molè, Matteo A.; Savery, Dawn; Greene, Nicholas D. E; Tam, Patrick P.L.; Copp, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Bending of the neural plate at paired dorsolateral hinge points (DLHPs) is required for neural tube closure in the spinal region of the mouse embryo. As a step towards understanding the morphogenetic mechanism of DLHP development, we examined variations in neural plate cellular architecture and proliferation during closure. Neuroepithelial cells within the median hinge point (MHP) contain nuclei that are mainly basally located and undergo relatively slow proliferation, with a 7 h cell cycle length. In contrast, cells in the dorsolateral neuroepithelium, including the DLHP, exhibit nuclei distributed throughout the apico-basal axis and undergo rapid proliferation, with a 4 h cell cycle length. As the neural folds elevate, cell numbers increase to a greater extent in the dorsolateral neural plate that contacts the surface ectoderm, compared with the more ventromedial neural plate where cells contact paraxial mesoderm and notochord. This marked increase in dorsolateral cell number cannot be accounted for solely on the basis of enhanced cell proliferation in this region. We hypothesised that neuroepithelial cells may translocate in a ventral-to-dorsal direction as DLHP formation occurs, and this was confirmed by vital cell labelling in cultured embryos. The translocation of cells into the neural fold, together with its more rapid cell proliferation, leads to an increase in cell density dorsolaterally compared with the more ventromedial neural plate. These findings suggest a model in which DLHP formation may proceed through ‘buckling’ of the neuroepithelium at a dorso-ventral boundary marked by a change in cell-packing density. PMID:26079577

  19. Investigation of Frizzled-5 during embryonic neural development in mouse

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Carole J.; Zhang, Jianmin; Brown, Erinn C.; Van Bibber, Alyssa M.; Van Es, Johan; Clevers, Hans; Ishikawa, Tomo-o; Taketo, M. Mark; Vetter, Monica L.; Fuhrmann, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies revealed that the Wnt receptor Frizzled-5 (Fzd5) is required for eye and retina development in zebrafish and Xenopus, however, its role during mammalian eye development is unknown. In the mouse embryo, Fzd5 is prominently expressed in the pituitary, distal optic vesicle and optic stalk, then later in the progenitor zone of the developing retina. To elucidate the role of Fzd5 during eye development, we analyzed embryos with a germline disruption of the Fzd5 gene at E10.25, just before embryos die due to defects in yolk sac angiogenesis. We observed severe defects in optic cup morphogenesis and lens development. However, in embryos with conditional inactivation of Fzd5 using Six3-Cre we observed no obvious early eye defects. Analysis of Axin2 mRNA expression and TCF/LEF-responsive reporter activation demonstrate that Fzd5 does not regulate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in the eye. Thus, the function of Fzd5 during eye development appears to be species-dependent. PMID:18489003

  20. Different Mechanisms Must Be Considered to Explain the Increase in Hippocampal Neural Precursor Cell Proliferation by Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Overall, Rupert W.; Walker, Tara L.; Fischer, Tim J.; Brandt, Moritz D.; Kempermann, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    The number of proliferating neural precursor cells in the adult hippocampus is strongly increased by physical activity. The mechanisms through which this behavioral stimulus induces cell proliferation, however, are not yet understood. In fact, even the mode of proliferation of the stem and progenitor cells is not exactly known. Evidence exists for several mechanisms including cell cycle shortening, reduced cell death and stem cell recruitment, but as yet no model can account for all observations. An appreciation of how the cells proliferate, however, is crucial to our ability to model the neurogenic process and predict its behavior in response to pro-neurogenic stimuli. In a recent study, we addressed modulation of the cell cycle length as one possible mode of regulation of precursor cell proliferation in running mice. Our results indicated that the observed increase in number of proliferating cells could not be explained through a shortening of the cell cycle. We must therefore consider other mechanisms by which physical activity leads to enhanced precursor cell proliferation. Here we review the evidence for and against several different hypotheses and discuss the implications for future research in the field. PMID:27536215

  1. A galvanotaxis assay for analysis of neural precursor cell migration kinetics in an externally applied direct current electric field.

    PubMed

    Babona-Pilipos, Robart; Popovic, Milos R; Morshead, Cindi M

    2012-10-13

    The discovery of neural stem and progenitor cells (collectively termed neural precursor cells) (NPCs) in the adult mammalian brain has led to a body of research aimed at utilizing the multipotent and proliferative properties of these cells for the development of neuroregenerative strategies. A critical step for the success of such strategies is the mobilization of NPCs toward a lesion site following exogenous transplantation or to enhance the response of the endogenous precursors that are found in the periventricular region of the CNS. Accordingly, it is essential to understand the mechanisms that promote, guide, and enhance NPC migration. Our work focuses on the utilization of direct current electric fields (dcEFs) to promote and direct NPC migration - a phenomenon known as galvanotaxis. Endogenous physiological electric fields function as critical cues for cell migration during normal development and wound repair. Pharmacological disruption of the trans-neural tube potential in axolotl embryos causes severe developmental malformations(1). In the context of wound healing, the rate of repair of wounded cornea is directly correlated with the magnitude of the epithelial wound potential that arises after injury, as shown by pharmacological enhancement or disruption of this dcEF(2-3). We have demonstrated that adult subependymal NPCs undergo rapid and directed cathodal migration in vitro when exposed to an externally applied dcEF. In this protocol we describe our lab's techniques for creating a simple and effective galvanotaxis assay for high-resolution, long-term observation of directed cell body translocation (migration) on a single-cell level. This assay would be suitable for investigating the mechanisms that regulate dcEF transduction into cellular motility through the use of transgenic or knockout mice, short interfering RNA, or specific receptor agonists/antagonists.

  2. Dynamic expression of LIM cofactors in the developing mouse neural tube.

    PubMed

    Ostendorff, Heather P; Tursun, Baris; Cornils, Kerstin; Schlüter, Anne; Drung, Alexander; Güngör, Cenap; Bach, Ingolf

    2006-03-01

    The developmental regulation of LIM homeodomain transcription factors (LIM-HD) by the LIM domain-binding cofactors CLIM/Ldb/NLI and RLIM has been demonstrated. Whereas CLIM cofactors are thought to be required for at least some of the in vivo functions of LIM-HD proteins, the ubiquitin ligase RLIM functions as a negative regulator by its ability to target CLIM cofactors for proteasomal degradation. In this report, we have investigated and compared the protein expression of both factors in the developing mouse neural tube. We co-localize both proteins in many tissues and, although widely expressed, we detect high levels of both cofactors in specific neural tube regions, e.g., in the ventral neural tube, where motor neurons reside. The mostly ubiquitous distribution of RLIM- and CLIM-encoding mRNA differs from the more specific expression of both cofactors at the protein level, indicating post-transcriptional regulation. Furthermore, we show that both cofactors not only co-localize with each other but also with Isl and Lhx3 LIM-HD proteins in developing ventral neural tube neurons. Our results demonstrate the dynamic expression of cofactors participating in the regulation of LIM-HD proteins during the development of the neural tube in mice and suggest additional post-transcriptional regulation in the nuclear LIM-HD protein network.

  3. Chromosomal locations of the human and mouse genes for precursors of epidermal growth factor and the. beta. subunit of nerve growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Zabel, B.U.; Eddy, R.L.; Lalley, P.A.; Scott, J.; Bell, G.I.; Shows, T.B.

    1985-01-01

    DNA probes for pre-pro-epidermal growth factor (EGF) and the precursor of the ..beta.. subunit of nerve growth factor (NGF) were used to chromosomally map human and mouse EGF and NGF genes in panels of human-mouse and mouse-Chinese hamster somatic cell hybrids. The EGF and NGF genes were mapped to human chromosomes 4 and 1, respectively, by using human-mouse cell hybrids. A combination of regional mapping using a chromosome 1 translocation and comparative gene mapping suggests that the human NGF gene is in the p21-p22.1 region of chromosome 1. In mouse-Chinese hamster cell hybrids, both genes were assigned to mouse chromosome 3. A knowledge of the chromosomal assignment of these genes should help in our understanding of their regulation and role in development and disease.

  4. Neural stem cell transplantation enhances mitochondrial biogenesis in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease-like pathology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Gu, Guo-Jun; Shen, Xing; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Gang-Min; Wang, Pei-Jun

    2015-03-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction, especially a defect in mitochondrial biogenesis, is an early and prominent feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies demonstrated that the number of mitochondria is significantly reduced in susceptible hippocampal neurons from AD patients. Neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation in AD-like mice can compensate for the neuronal loss resulting from amyloid-beta protein deposition. The effects of NSC transplantation on mitochondrial biogenesis and cognitive function in AD-like mice, however, are poorly understood. In this study, we injected NSCs or vehicle into 12-month-old amyloid precursor protein (APP)/PS1 transgenic mice, a mouse model of AD-like pathology. The effects of NSC transplantation on cognitive function, the amount of mitochondrial DNA, the expression of mitochondrial biogenesis factors and mitochondria-related proteins, and mitochondrial morphology were investigated. Our results show that in NSC-injected APP/PS1 (Tg-NSC) mice, the cognitive function, number of mitochondria, and expression of mitochondria-related proteins, specifically the mitochondrial fission factors (dynamin-related protein 1 [Drp1] and fission 1 [Fis1]) and the mitochondrial fusion factor optic atrophy 1 (OPA1), were significantly increased compared with those in age-matched vehicle-injected APP/PS1 (Tg-Veh) mice, whereas the expression of mitochondrial fusion factors mitofusion 1 (Mfn1) and Mfn2 was significantly decreased. These data indicate that NSC transplantation may enhance mitochondria biogenesis and further rescue cognitive deficits in AD-like mice. PMID:25582749

  5. Neural stem cell transplantation enhances mitochondrial biogenesis in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease-like pathology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Gu, Guo-Jun; Shen, Xing; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Gang-Min; Wang, Pei-Jun

    2015-03-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction, especially a defect in mitochondrial biogenesis, is an early and prominent feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies demonstrated that the number of mitochondria is significantly reduced in susceptible hippocampal neurons from AD patients. Neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation in AD-like mice can compensate for the neuronal loss resulting from amyloid-beta protein deposition. The effects of NSC transplantation on mitochondrial biogenesis and cognitive function in AD-like mice, however, are poorly understood. In this study, we injected NSCs or vehicle into 12-month-old amyloid precursor protein (APP)/PS1 transgenic mice, a mouse model of AD-like pathology. The effects of NSC transplantation on cognitive function, the amount of mitochondrial DNA, the expression of mitochondrial biogenesis factors and mitochondria-related proteins, and mitochondrial morphology were investigated. Our results show that in NSC-injected APP/PS1 (Tg-NSC) mice, the cognitive function, number of mitochondria, and expression of mitochondria-related proteins, specifically the mitochondrial fission factors (dynamin-related protein 1 [Drp1] and fission 1 [Fis1]) and the mitochondrial fusion factor optic atrophy 1 (OPA1), were significantly increased compared with those in age-matched vehicle-injected APP/PS1 (Tg-Veh) mice, whereas the expression of mitochondrial fusion factors mitofusion 1 (Mfn1) and Mfn2 was significantly decreased. These data indicate that NSC transplantation may enhance mitochondria biogenesis and further rescue cognitive deficits in AD-like mice.

  6. Stroke Increases Neural Stem Cells and Angiogenesis in the Neurogenic Niche of the Adult Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui Lan; Chopp, Michael; Roberts, Cynthia; Liu, Xianshuang; Wei, Min; Nejad-Davarani, Siamak P.; Wang, Xinli; Zhang, Zheng Gang

    2014-01-01

    The unique cellular and vascular architecture of the adult ventricular-subventricular zone (V/SVZ) neurogenic niche plays an important role in regulating neural stem cell function. However, the in vivo identification of neural stem cells and their relationship to blood vessels within this niche in response to stroke remain largely unknown. Using whole-mount preparation of the lateral ventricle wall, we examined the architecture of neural stem cells and blood vessels in the V/SVZ of adult mouse over the course of 3 months after onset of focal cerebral ischemia. Stroke substantially increased the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) positive neural stem cells that are in contact with the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) via their apical processes at the center of pinwheel structures formed by ependymal cells residing in the lateral ventricle. Long basal processes of these cells extended to blood vessels beneath the ependymal layer. Moreover, stroke increased V/SVZ endothelial cell proliferation from 2% in non-ischemic mice to 12 and 15% at 7 and 14 days after stroke, respectively. Vascular volume in the V/SVZ was augmented from 3% of the total volume prior to stroke to 6% at 90 days after stroke. Stroke-increased angiogenesis was closely associated with neuroblasts that expanded to nearly encompass the entire lateral ventricular wall in the V/SVZ. These data indicate that stroke induces long-term alterations of the neural stem cell and vascular architecture of the adult V/SVZ neurogenic niche. These post-stroke structural changes may provide insight into neural stem cell mediation of stroke-induced neurogenesis through the interaction of neural stem cells with proteins in the CSF and their sub-ependymal neurovascular interaction. PMID:25437857

  7. Mouse vision as a gateway for understanding how experience shapes neural circuits

    PubMed Central

    Priebe, Nicholas J.; McGee, Aaron W.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic programs controlling ontogeny drive many of the essential connectivity patterns within the brain. Yet it is activity, derived from the experience of interacting with the world, that sculpts the precise circuitry of the central nervous system. Such experience-dependent plasticity has been observed throughout the brain but has been most extensively studied in the neocortex. A prime example of this refinement of neural circuitry is found in primary visual cortex (V1), where functional connectivity changes have been observed both during development and in adulthood. The mouse visual system has become a predominant model for investigating the principles that underlie experience-dependent plasticity, given the general conservation of visual neural circuitry across mammals as well as the powerful tools and techniques recently developed for use in rodent. The genetic tractability of mice has permitted the identification of signaling pathways that translate experience-driven activity patterns into changes in circuitry. Further, the accessibility of visual cortex has allowed neural activity to be manipulated with optogenetics and observed with genetically-encoded calcium sensors. Consequently, mouse visual cortex has become one of the dominant platforms to study experience-dependent plasticity. PMID:25324730

  8. Protective effects of ferulic acid in amyloid precursor protein plus presenilin-1 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ji-Jing; Jung, Jun-Sub; Kim, Taek-Keun; Hasan, Ashraful; Hong, Chang-Won; Nam, Ju-Suk; Song, Dong-Keun

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported the protective effects of long-term administration of ferulic acid against the in vivo toxicity of β-amyloid peptide administered intracerebroventricularly in mice. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ferulic acid in transgenic amyloid precursor protein (APP)swe/presenilin 1 (PS1)dE9 (APP/PS1) mouse model of Alzheimer disease (AD). Chronic (for 6 months from the age of 6 to 12 months) oral administration of ferulic acid at a dose of 5.3 mg/kg/day significantly enhanced the performance in novel-object recognition task, and reduced amyloid deposition and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) levels in the frontal cortex. These results suggest that ferulic acid at a certain dosage could be useful for prevention and treatment of AD.

  9. Adult retinal pigment epithelium cells express neural progenitor properties and the neuronal precursor protein doublecortin.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, Maren; Bogdahn, Ulrich; Aigner, Ludwig

    2005-04-01

    The adult mammalian retina is devoid of any detectable neurogenesis. However, different cell types have been suggested to potentially act as neural progenitors in the adult mammalian retina in vitro, such as ciliary body (CB), Muller glia, and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. In rodents and humans, strong evidence for neural stem or progenitor properties exists only for CB-derived cells, but not for other retinal cell types. Here, we provide a comparative analysis of adult rat CB- and RPE-derived cells suggesting that the two cell types share certain neural progenitor properties in vitro. CB and RPE cells expressed neural progenitor markers such as Nestin, Flk-1, Hes1, and Musashi. They proliferated under adherent and neurosphere conditions and showed limited self-renewal. Moreover, they differentiated into neuronal and glial cells based on the expression of differentiation markers such as the young neuronal marker beta-III tubulin and the glial and progenitor markers GFAP and NG2. Expression of beta-III tubulin was found in cells with neuronal and non-neuronal morphology. A subpopulation of RPE- and CB-derived progenitor cells expressed the neurogenesis-specific protein doublecortin (DCX). Interestingly, DCX expression defined a beta-III tubulin-positive CB and RPE fraction with a distinct neuronal morphology. In summary, the data suggest that RPE cells share with CB cells the potential to de-differentiate into a cell type with neural progenitor-like identity. In addition, DCX expression might define the neuronal-differentiating RPE- and CB-derived progenitor population. PMID:15804431

  10. Neural precursor cell cultures from GM2 gangliosidosis animal models recapitulate the biochemical and molecular hallmarks of the brain pathology.

    PubMed

    Martino, Sabata; di Girolamo, Ilaria; Cavazzin, Chiara; Tiribuzi, Roberto; Galli, Rossella; Rivaroli, Anna; Valsecchi, Manuela; Sandhoff, Konrad; Sonnino, Sandro; Vescovi, Angelo; Gritti, Angela; Orlacchio, Aldo

    2009-04-01

    In this work we showed that genotype-related patterns of hexosaminidase activity, isoenzyme composition, gene expression and ganglioside metabolism observed during embryonic and postnatal brain development are recapitulated during the progressive stages of neural precursor cell (NPC) differentiation to mature glia and neurons in vitro. Further, by comparing NPCs and their differentiated progeny established from Tay-Sachs (TS) and Sandhoff (SD) animal models with the wild-type counterparts, we studied the events linking the accumulation of undegraded substrates to hexosaminidase activity. We showed that similarly to what observed in brain tissues in TS NPCs and progeny, the stored GM2 was partially converted by sialidase to GA2, which can be then degraded in the lysosomes to its components. The latter can be used in a salvage pathway for the formation of GM3. Interestingly, results obtained from ganglioside feeding assays and from measurement of lysosomal sialidase activity suggest that a similar pathway might work also in the SD model.

  11. Mitochondrial dysfunction in a transgenic mouse model expressing human amyloid precursor protein (APP) with the Arctic mutation.

    PubMed

    Rönnbäck, Annica; Pavlov, Pavel F; Mansory, Mansorah; Gonze, Prisca; Marlière, Nicolas; Winblad, Bengt; Graff, Caroline; Behbahani, Homira

    2016-02-01

    Accumulation of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) in the brain is an important event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. We have used a transgenic mouse model expressing human amyloid precursor protein (APP) with the Arctic mutation to investigate whether Aβ deposition is correlated with mitochondrial functions in these animals. We found evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction (i.e., decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, increased production of reactive oxygen species and oxidative DNA damage) at 6 months of age, when the mice showed very mild Aβ deposition. More pronounced mitochondrial abnormalities were present in 24-month-old TgAPParc mice with more extensive Aβ pathology. This study demonstrates for the first time mitochondrial dysfunction in transgenic mice with a mutation within the Aβ peptide (the Arctic APP mutation), and confirms previous studies suggesting that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress is an early event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. This study demonstrates mitochondrial dysfunction in transgenic mice with a mutation within the amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide (the Arctic amyloid precursor protein (APP) mutation). We found evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction (i.e. decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative DNA damage) at 6 months of age, when very mild Aβ deposition is present in the mice. Also, the cytochrome c (COX) activity was significantly decreased in mitochondria from transgenic mice at 24 months of age.

  12. Neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells studied by FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanthanuch, Waraporn; Thumanu, Kanjana; Lorthongpanich, Chanchao; Parnpai, Rangsun; Heraud, Philip

    2010-04-01

    Embryonic Stem-derived Neural Cells (ESNCs) hold potential as a source of neurons for a cell-based therapy for the treatment of brain tumors, and other neurological diseases and disorders in the future. The sorting of neural cell types is envisaged to be one of the most important processed for clinical application of these cells in cell-based therapies of the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, laboratory-based FTIR and Synchrotron-FTIR (SR-FTIR) microspectroscopy were used to identify FTIR marker for distinguishing different neural cell types derived from the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Unsupervised Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (UHCA) were shown to be able to distinguish the developmental stage of mESCs into three cell types: embryoid bodies (EBs), neural progenitor cells (NPCs), and ESNCs. Moreover, PCA provided the mean for identifying potential FTIR "marker bands" that underwent dramatic changes during stem cell differentiation along neural lineages. These appeared to be associated with changes in lipids (bands from CH 2 and CH 3 stretching vibrations at ˜2959, 2923 and 2852 cm -1) and proteins (changes in the amide I band at ˜1659 and 1637 cm -1). The results suggested that lipid content of cells increased significantly over the time of differentiation, suggesting increased expression of glycerophospholipids. Changes in the amide I profile, suggested concomitant increases in α-helix rich proteins as mESCs differentiated towards ESNCs, with a corresponding decrease in β-sheet rich proteins, corresponding with changes in cytoskeleton protein which may have been taking place involved with the establishment of neural structure and function.

  13. In vitro culture and characterization of enteric neural precursor cells from human gut biopsy specimens using polymer scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamohan, Janardhanam; Senthilnathan, Venugopal S; Vaikundaraman, Tirunelveli Muthiah; Srinivasan, Thangavelu; Balamurugan, Madasamy; Iwasaki, Masaru; Preethy, Senthilkumar; Abraham, Samuel JK

    2013-01-01

    Summary In vitro expansion and characterization of neural precursor cells from human gut biopsy specimens with or without Hirschsprung's disease using a novel thermoreversible gelation polymer (TGP) is reported aiming at a possible future treatment. Gut biopsy samples were obtained from five patients undergoing gut resection for Hirschsprung's disease (n = 1) or gastrointestinal disorders (n = 4). Cells isolated from the smooth muscle layer and the myenteric plexus were cultured in two groups for 18 to 28 days; Group I: conventional culture as earlier reported and Group II: using TGP scaffold. Neurosphere like bodies (NLBs) were observed in the cultures between 8th to 12th day and H & E staining was positive for neural cells in both groups including aganglionic gut portion from the Hirschsprung's disease patient. Immunohistochemistry using S-100 and neuron specific enolase (NSE) was positive in both groups but the TGP group (Group II) showed more number of cells with intense cytoplasmic granular positivity for both NSE and S-100 compared to Group I. TGP supports the in vitro expansion of human gut derived neuronal cells with seemingly better quality NLBs. Animal Studies can be tried to validate their functional outcome by transplanting the NLBs with TGP scaffolds to see whether this can enhance the outcome of cell based therapies for Hirschsprung's disease. PMID:25343111

  14. Mouse neuroblastoma cell based model and the effect of epileptic events on calcium oscillations and neural spikes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Suhwan; Baek, Juyeong; Jung, Unsang; Lee, Sangwon; Jung, Woonggyu; Kim, Jeehyun; Kang, Shinwon

    2013-05-01

    Recently, Mouse neuroblastoma cells are considered as an attractive model for the study of human neurological and prion diseases, and intensively used as a model system in different areas. Among those areas, differentiation of neuro2a (N2A) cells, receptor mediated ion current, and glutamate induced physiological response are actively investigated. The reason for the interest to mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells is that they have a fast growing rate than other cells in neural origin with a few another advantages. This study evaluated the calcium oscillations and neural spikes recording of mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells in an epileptic condition. Based on our observation of neural spikes in mouse N2A cell with our proposed imaging modality, we report that mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells can be an important model related to epileptic activity studies. It is concluded that the mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells produce the epileptic spikes in vitro in the same way as produced by the neurons or the astrocytes. This evidence advocates the increased and strong level of neurotransmitters release by enhancement in free calcium using the 4-aminopyridine which causes the mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells to produce the epileptic spikes and calcium oscillation.

  15. Adaptive peripheral immune response increases proliferation of neural precursor cells in the adult hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Susanne A; Steiner, Barbara; Wengner, Antje; Lipp, Martin; Kammertoens, Thomas; Kempermann, Gerd

    2009-09-01

    To understand the link between peripheral immune activation and neuronal precursor biology, we investigated the effect of T-cell activation on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in female C57Bl/6 mice. A peripheral adaptive immune response triggered by adjuvant-induced rheumatoid arthritis (2 microg/microl methylated BSA) or staphylococcus enterotoxin B (EC(50) of 0.25 microg/ml per 20 g body weight) was associated with a transient increase in hippocampal precursor cell proliferation and neurogenesis as assessed by immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. Both treatments were paralleled by an increase in corticosterone levels in the hippocampus 1- to 2-fold over the physiological amount measured by quantitative radioimmunoassay. In contrast, intraperitoneal administration of the innate immune response activator lipopolysaccaride (EC(50) of 0.5 microg/ml per 20 g body weight) led to a chronic 5-fold increase of hippocampal glucocorticoid levels and a decrease of adult neurogenesis. In vitro exposure of murine neuronal progenitor cells to corticosterone triggered either cell death at high (1.5 nM) or proliferation at low (0.25 nM) concentrations. This effect could be blocked using a viral vector system expressing a transdomain of the glucocorticoid receptor. We suggest an evolutionary relevant communication route for the brain to respond to environmental stressors like inflammation mediated by glucocorticoid levels in the hippocampus.

  16. A Rap GTPase interactor, RADIL, mediates migration of neural crest precursors.

    PubMed

    Smolen, Gromoslaw A; Schott, Benjamin J; Stewart, Rodney A; Diederichs, Sven; Muir, Beth; Provencher, Heather L; Look, A Thomas; Sgroi, Dennis C; Peterson, Randall T; Haber, Daniel A

    2007-09-01

    The neural crest (NC) is a highly motile cell population that gives rise to multiple tissue lineages during vertebrate embryogenesis. Here, we identify a novel effector of the small GTPase Rap, called RADIL, and show that it is required for cell adhesion and migration. Knockdown of radil in the zebrafish model results in multiple defects in NC-derived lineages such as cartilage, pigment cells, and enteric neurons. We specifically show that these defects are primarily due to the diminished migratory capacity of NC cells. The identification of RADIL as a regulator of NC migration defines a role for the Rap pathway in this process.

  17. Cutting Edge: Developmental Regulation of IFN-γ Production by Mouse Neutrophil Precursor Cells.

    PubMed

    Sturge, Carolyn R; Burger, Elise; Raetz, Megan; Hooper, Lora V; Yarovinsky, Felix

    2015-07-01

    Neutrophils are an emerging cellular source of IFN-γ, a key cytokine that mediates host defense to intracellular pathogens. Production of IFN-γ by neutrophils, in contrast to lymphoid cells, is TLR- and IL-12-independent and the events associated with IFN-γ production by neutrophils are not understood. In this study, we show that mouse neutrophils express IFN-γ during their lineage development in the bone marrow niche at the promyelocyte stage independently of microbes. IFN-γ accumulates in primary neutrophilic granules and is released upon induction of degranulation. The developmental mechanism of IFN-γ production in neutrophils arms the innate immune cells prior to infection and assures the potential for rapid release of IFN-γ upon neutrophil activation, the first step during responses to many microbial infections. PMID:26026057

  18. A post-transcriptional mechanism pacing expression of neural genes with precursor cell differentiation status

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Weijun; Li, Wencheng; Hoque, Mainul; Li, Zhuyun; Tian, Bin; Makeyev, Eugene V.

    2015-01-01

    Nervous system (NS) development relies on coherent upregulation of extensive sets of genes in a precise spatiotemporal manner. How such transcriptome-wide effects are orchestrated at the molecular level remains an open question. Here we show that 3′-untranslated regions (3′ UTRs) of multiple neural transcripts contain AU-rich cis-elements (AREs) recognized by tristetraprolin (TTP/Zfp36), an RNA-binding protein previously implicated in regulation of mRNA stability. We further demonstrate that the efficiency of ARE-dependent mRNA degradation declines in the neural lineage because of a decrease in the TTP protein expression mediated by the NS-enriched microRNA miR-9. Importantly, TTP downregulation in this context is essential for proper neuronal differentiation. On the other hand, inactivation of TTP in non-neuronal cells leads to dramatic upregulation of multiple NS-specific genes. We conclude that the newly identified miR-9/TTP circuitry limits unscheduled accumulation of neuronal mRNAs in non-neuronal cells and ensures coordinated upregulation of these transcripts in neurons. PMID:26144867

  19. Morphogenesis of the mouse neural plate depends on distinct roles of cofilin 1 in apical and basal epithelial domains

    PubMed Central

    Grego-Bessa, Joaquim; Hildebrand, Jeffrey; Anderson, Kathryn V.

    2015-01-01

    The genetic control of mammalian epithelial polarity and dynamics can be studied in vivo at cellular resolution during morphogenesis of the mouse neural tube. The mouse neural plate is a simple epithelium that is transformed into a columnar pseudostratified tube over the course of ∼24 h. Apical F-actin is known to be important for neural tube closure, but the precise roles of actin dynamics in the neural epithelium are not known. To determine how the organization of the neural epithelium and neural tube closure are affected when actin dynamics are blocked, we examined the cellular basis of the neural tube closure defect in mouse mutants that lack the actin-severing protein cofilin 1 (CFL1). Although apical localization of the adherens junctions, the Par complex, the Crumbs complex and SHROOM3 is normal in the mutants, CFL1 has at least two distinct functions in the apical and basal domains of the neural plate. Apically, in the absence of CFL1 myosin light chain does not become phosphorylated, indicating that CFL1 is required for the activation of apical actomyosin required for neural tube closure. On the basal side of the neural plate, loss of CFL1 has the opposite effect on myosin: excess F-actin and myosin accumulate and the ectopic myosin light chain is phosphorylated. The basal accumulation of F-actin is associated with the assembly of ectopic basal tight junctions and focal disruptions of the basement membrane, which eventually lead to a breakdown of epithelial organization. PMID:25742799

  20. Remyelination Is Correlated with Regulatory T Cell Induction Following Human Embryoid Body-Derived Neural Precursor Cell Transplantation in a Viral Model of Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Plaisted, Warren C; Zavala, Angel; Hingco, Edna; Tran, Ha; Coleman, Ronald; Lane, Thomas E; Loring, Jeanne F; Walsh, Craig M

    2016-01-01

    We have recently described sustained clinical recovery associated with dampened neuroinflammation and remyelination following transplantation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in a viral model of the human demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis. The hNPCs used in that study were derived by a novel direct differentiation method (direct differentiation, DD-NPCs) that resulted in a unique gene expression pattern when compared to hNPCs derived by conventional methods. Since the therapeutic potential of human NPCs may differ greatly depending on the method of derivation and culture, we wanted to determine whether NPCs differentiated using conventional methods would be similarly effective in improving clinical outcome under neuroinflammatory demyelinating conditions. For the current study, we utilized hNPCs differentiated from a human induced pluripotent cell line via an embryoid body intermediate stage (EB-NPCs). Intraspinal transplantation of EB-NPCs into mice infected with the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV) resulted in decreased accumulation of CD4+ T cells in the central nervous system that was concomitant with reduced demyelination at the site of injection. Dampened neuroinflammation and remyelination was correlated with a transient increase in CD4+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) concentrated within the peripheral lymphatics. However, compared to our earlier study, pathological improvements were modest and did not result in significant clinical recovery. We conclude that the genetic signature of NPCs is critical to their effectiveness in this model of viral-induced neurologic disease. These comparisons will be useful for understanding what factors are critical for the sustained clinical improvement. PMID:27310015

  1. Remyelination Is Correlated with Regulatory T Cell Induction Following Human Embryoid Body-Derived Neural Precursor Cell Transplantation in a Viral Model of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Plaisted, Warren C.; Zavala, Angel; Hingco, Edna; Tran, Ha; Coleman, Ronald; Lane, Thomas E.; Loring, Jeanne F.; Walsh, Craig M.

    2016-01-01

    We have recently described sustained clinical recovery associated with dampened neuroinflammation and remyelination following transplantation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in a viral model of the human demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis. The hNPCs used in that study were derived by a novel direct differentiation method (direct differentiation, DD-NPCs) that resulted in a unique gene expression pattern when compared to hNPCs derived by conventional methods. Since the therapeutic potential of human NPCs may differ greatly depending on the method of derivation and culture, we wanted to determine whether NPCs differentiated using conventional methods would be similarly effective in improving clinical outcome under neuroinflammatory demyelinating conditions. For the current study, we utilized hNPCs differentiated from a human induced pluripotent cell line via an embryoid body intermediate stage (EB-NPCs). Intraspinal transplantation of EB-NPCs into mice infected with the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV) resulted in decreased accumulation of CD4+ T cells in the central nervous system that was concomitant with reduced demyelination at the site of injection. Dampened neuroinflammation and remyelination was correlated with a transient increase in CD4+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) concentrated within the peripheral lymphatics. However, compared to our earlier study, pathological improvements were modest and did not result in significant clinical recovery. We conclude that the genetic signature of NPCs is critical to their effectiveness in this model of viral-induced neurologic disease. These comparisons will be useful for understanding what factors are critical for the sustained clinical improvement. PMID:27310015

  2. Direct Reprogramming of Mouse Fibroblasts to Neural Stem Cells by Small Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yan-Chuang; Lim, Yoon; Duffieldl, Michael D.; Li, Hua; Liu, Jia; Abdul Manaph, Nimshitha Pavathuparambil; Yang, Miao; Keating, Damien J.; Zhou, Xin-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Although it is possible to generate neural stem cells (NSC) from somatic cells by reprogramming technologies with transcription factors, clinical utilization of patient-specific NSC for the treatment of human diseases remains elusive. The risk hurdles are associated with viral transduction vectors induced mutagenesis, tumor formation from undifferentiated stem cells, and transcription factors-induced genomic instability. Here we describe a viral vector-free and more efficient method to induce mouse fibroblasts into NSC using small molecules. The small molecule-induced neural stem (SMINS) cells closely resemble NSC in morphology, gene expression patterns, self-renewal, excitability, and multipotency. Furthermore, the SMINS cells are able to differentiate into astrocytes, functional neurons, and oligodendrocytes in vitro and in vivo. Thus, we have established a novel way to efficiently induce neural stem cells (iNSC) from fibroblasts using only small molecules without altering the genome. Such chemical induction removes the risks associated with current techniques such as the use of viral vectors or the induction of oncogenic factors. This technique may, therefore, enable NSC to be utilized in various applications within clinical medicine. PMID:26788068

  3. Bone marrow origin of decidual cell precursors in the pseudopregnant mouse uterus

    SciTech Connect

    Kearns, M.; Lala, P.K.

    1982-05-01

    Decidual cells are considered to be the endproduct of a hormonally induced transformation of endometrial stromal cells of the uterus. However, the source of these precursors remains unknown. This study of evaluated the possibility of their bone marrow origin by an examination of the H-2 phenotype of decidual cells in pseudopregnant bone marrow chimeras. These chimeras were produced by repopulating lethally irradiated CBA/J female (H-2k) mice with bone marrow from (CBA/J x C57BL/6J) F1 female (H-2kb) mice. Pseudopregnancy was produced with a hormonal regimen followed by an oil-induced decidual stimulus. Chimerism was evaluated radioautographically by an identification of the donor-specific Kb phenotype on cells with an immunolabeling technique with monospecific anti-H-2 serum followed by radioiodinated protein A. The extent of chimerism as indicated by the degree of Kb labeling on decidual cells as well as macrophages contained within the decidual nodules was quantitatively compared with that seen on splenic lymphocytes. Fair to good chimerism, as reflected by labeling for the donor-specific marker (Kb), was seen on splenic lymphocytes and macrophages within the decidual nodules in 6 out of 11 animals. A similar level of chimerism was detected on decidual cells in all but one of these six, in which case this was low. One animal showed low chimerism in the spleen but good chimerism on the decidual cells. The remaining four mice were nonchimeric for all three cell types. These results indicate that decidual cells and macrophages appearing within the decidual nodules of pseudopregnant mice are ultimate descendants of bone marrow cells.

  4. The effect of interferon-{beta} on mouse neural progenitor cell survival and differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, Marek; Knight, Julia; Tobita, Mari; Soltys, John; Panitch, Hillel; Mao-Draayer, Yang

    2009-10-16

    Interferon-{beta} (IFN-{beta}) is a mainstay therapy for relapse-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the direct effects of IFN-{beta} on the central nervous system (CNS) are not well understood. To determine whether IFN-{beta} has direct neuroprotective effects on CNS cells, we treated adult mouse neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in vitro with IFN-{beta} and examined the effects on proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation. We found that mouse NPCs express high levels of IFN{alpha}/{beta} receptor (IFNAR). In response to IFN-{beta} treatment, no effect was observed on differentiation or proliferation. However, IFN-{beta} treated mouse NPCs demonstrated decreased apoptosis upon growth factor withdrawal. Pathway-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) arrays demonstrated that IFN-{beta} treatment upregulated the STAT 1 and 2 signaling pathway, as well as GFRA2, NOD1, Caspases 1 and 12, and TNFSF10. These results suggest that IFN-{beta} can directly affect NPC survival, possibly playing a neuroprotective role in the CNS by modulating neurotrophic factors.

  5. Rhomboid Enhancer Activity Defines a Subset of Drosophila Neural Precursors Required for Proper Feeding, Growth and Viability.

    PubMed

    Gresser, Amy L; Gutzwiller, Lisa M; Gauck, Mackenzie K; Hartenstein, Volker; Cook, Tiffany A; Gebelein, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Organismal growth regulation requires the interaction of multiple metabolic, hormonal and neuronal pathways. While the molecular basis for many of these are well characterized, less is known about the developmental origins of growth regulatory structures and the mechanisms governing control of feeding and satiety. For these reasons, new tools and approaches are needed to link the specification and maturation of discrete cell populations with their subsequent regulatory roles. In this study, we characterize a rhomboid enhancer element that selectively labels four Drosophila embryonic neural precursors. These precursors give rise to the hypopharyngeal sensory organ of the peripheral nervous system and a subset of neurons in the deutocerebral region of the embryonic central nervous system. Post embryogenesis, the rhomboid enhancer is active in a subset of cells within the larval pharyngeal epithelium. Enhancer-targeted toxin expression alters the morphology of the sense organ and results in impaired larval growth, developmental delay, defective anterior spiracle eversion and lethality. Limiting the duration of toxin expression reveals differences in the critical periods for these effects. Embryonic expression causes developmental defects and partially penetrant pre-pupal lethality. Survivors of embryonic expression, however, ultimately become viable adults. In contrast, post-embryonic toxin expression results in fully penetrant lethality. To better define the larval growth defect, we used a variety of assays to demonstrate that toxin-targeted larvae are capable of locating, ingesting and clearing food and they exhibit normal food search behaviors. Strikingly, however, following food exposure these larvae show a rapid decrease in consumption suggesting a satiety-like phenomenon that correlates with the period of impaired larval growth. Together, these data suggest a critical role for these enhancer-defined lineages in regulating feeding, growth and viability.

  6. Rhomboid Enhancer Activity Defines a Subset of Drosophila Neural Precursors Required for Proper Feeding, Growth and Viability.

    PubMed

    Gresser, Amy L; Gutzwiller, Lisa M; Gauck, Mackenzie K; Hartenstein, Volker; Cook, Tiffany A; Gebelein, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Organismal growth regulation requires the interaction of multiple metabolic, hormonal and neuronal pathways. While the molecular basis for many of these are well characterized, less is known about the developmental origins of growth regulatory structures and the mechanisms governing control of feeding and satiety. For these reasons, new tools and approaches are needed to link the specification and maturation of discrete cell populations with their subsequent regulatory roles. In this study, we characterize a rhomboid enhancer element that selectively labels four Drosophila embryonic neural precursors. These precursors give rise to the hypopharyngeal sensory organ of the peripheral nervous system and a subset of neurons in the deutocerebral region of the embryonic central nervous system. Post embryogenesis, the rhomboid enhancer is active in a subset of cells within the larval pharyngeal epithelium. Enhancer-targeted toxin expression alters the morphology of the sense organ and results in impaired larval growth, developmental delay, defective anterior spiracle eversion and lethality. Limiting the duration of toxin expression reveals differences in the critical periods for these effects. Embryonic expression causes developmental defects and partially penetrant pre-pupal lethality. Survivors of embryonic expression, however, ultimately become viable adults. In contrast, post-embryonic toxin expression results in fully penetrant lethality. To better define the larval growth defect, we used a variety of assays to demonstrate that toxin-targeted larvae are capable of locating, ingesting and clearing food and they exhibit normal food search behaviors. Strikingly, however, following food exposure these larvae show a rapid decrease in consumption suggesting a satiety-like phenomenon that correlates with the period of impaired larval growth. Together, these data suggest a critical role for these enhancer-defined lineages in regulating feeding, growth and viability. PMID

  7. Nanofiber Matrices Promote the Neuronal Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neural Precursors In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Shawn H.; Christopherson, Gregory T.; Xu, Leyan; Nasonkin, Igor; Yu, Christopher; Mao, Hai-Quan; Koliatsos, Vassilis E.

    2011-01-01

    The potential of human embryonic stem (ES) cells as experimental therapies for neuronal replacement has recently received considerable attention. In view of the organization of the mature nervous system into distinct neural circuits, key challenges of such therapies are the directed differentiation of human ES cell-derived neural precursors (NPs) into specific neuronal types and the directional growth of axons along specified trajectories. In the present study, we cultured human NPs derived from the NIH-approved ES line BGO1 on polycaprolactone fiber matrices of different diameter (i.e., nanofibers and microfibers) and orientation (i.e., aligned and random); fibers were coated with poly-L-ornithine/laminin to mimic the extracellular matrix and support the adhesion, viability, and differentiation of NPs. On aligned fibrous meshes, human NPs adopt polarized cell morphology with processes extending along the axis of the fiber, whereas NPs on plain tissue culture surfaces or random fiber substrates form nonpolarized neurite networks. Under differentiation conditions, human NPs cultured on aligned fibrous substrates show a higher rate of neuronal differentiation than other matrices; 62% and 86% of NPs become TUJ1 (+) early neurons on aligned micro- and nanofibers, respectively, whereas only 32% and 27% of NPs acquire the same fate on random micro- and nanofibers. Metabolic cell activity/viability studies reveal that fiber alignment and diameter also have an effect on NP viability, but only in the presence of mitogens. Our findings demonstrate that fibrous substrates serve as an artificial extracellular matrix and provide a microenviroment that influences key aspects of the neuronal differentiation of ES-derived NPs. PMID:20973749

  8. Therapeutic activities of engrafted neural stem/precursor cells are not dormant in the chronically injured spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Kumamaru, Hiromi; Saiwai, Hirokazu; Kubota, Kensuke; Kobayakawa, Kazu; Yokota, Kazuya; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Shiba, Keiichiro; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Okada, Seiji

    2013-08-01

    The transplantation of neural stem/precursor cells (NSPCs) is a promising therapeutic strategy for many neurodegenerative disorders including spinal cord injury (SCI) because it provides for neural replacement or trophic support. This strategy is now being extended to the treatment of chronic SCI patients. However, understanding of biological properties of chronically transplanted NSPCs and their surrounding environments is limited. Here, we performed temporal analysis of injured spinal cords and demonstrated their multiphasic cellular and molecular responses. In particular, chronically injured spinal cords were growth factor-enriched environments, whereas acutely injured spinal cords were enriched by neurotrophic and inflammatory factors. To determine how these environmental differences affect engrafted cells, NSPCs transplanted into acutely, subacutely, and chronically injured spinal cords were selectively isolated by flow cytometry, and their whole transcriptomes were compared by RNA sequencing. This analysis revealed that NSPCs produced many regenerative/neurotrophic molecules irrespective of transplantation timing, and these activities were prominent in chronically transplanted NSPCs. Furthermore, chronically injured spinal cords permitted engrafted NSPCs to differentiate into neurons/oligodendrocytes and provided more neurogenic environment for NSPCs than other environments. Despite these results demonstrate that transplanted NSPCs have adequate capacity in generating neurons/oligodendrocytes and producing therapeutic molecules in chronic SCI microenvironments, they did not improve locomotor function. Our results indicate that failure in chronic transplantation is not due to the lack of therapeutic activities of engrafted NSPCs but the refractory state of chronically injured spinal cords. Environmental modulation, rather modification of transplanting cells, will be significant for successful translation of stem cell-based therapies into chronic SCI patients.

  9. Effects of skin-derived precursors on wound healing of denervated skin in a nude mouse model.

    PubMed

    Shu, Bin; Xie, Ju-Lin; Xu, Ying-Bin; Lai, Wen; Huang, Yong; Mao, Ren-Xiang; Liu, Xu-Sheng; Qi, Shao-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Denervated skin could result in impaired healing of wounds, such as decubitus ulcers and diabetic foot ulcers. Other studies indicated that cutaneous fiber density is reduced after inner nerve transection and that neuropeptide level depletes after denervation, leading to reduced cell proliferation around the wound and thus wound healing problems. Recent studies have revealed that skin-derived precursors (SKPs), which form a neural crest-related stem cell population in the dermis of skin, participate in cutaneous nerve regeneration. We hypothesized that injecting SKPs into denervated wound promotes healing. A bilateral denervation wound model was established followed by SKP transplantation. The wound healing rate was determined at 7, 14, and 21 d after injury. Cell proliferation activity during wound healing was analyzed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry (IHC). Nerve fiber density was measured by S-100 IHC. The contents of nerve growth factor, substance P, and calcitonin gene-related peptide were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The rate of epithelization in the SKP-treated group was faster than that in the control group. Wound cell proliferation and nerve fiber density were obviously higher in the SKP-treated group than in the control group. In addition, the content of neuropeptides was higher in the SKP-treated group than in the control group during wound healing. In conclusion, SKPs can promote denervated wound healing through cell proliferation and nerve fiber regeneration, and can facilitate the release of neuropeptides.

  10. Effects of skin-derived precursors on wound healing of denervated skin in a nude mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Bin; Xie, Ju-Lin; Xu, Ying-Bin; Lai, Wen; Huang, Yong; Mao, Ren-Xiang; Liu, Xu-Sheng; Qi, Shao-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Denervated skin could result in impaired healing of wounds, such as decubitus ulcers and diabetic foot ulcers. Other studies indicated that cutaneous fiber density is reduced after inner nerve transection and that neuropeptide level depletes after denervation, leading to reduced cell proliferation around the wound and thus wound healing problems. Recent studies have revealed that skin-derived precursors (SKPs), which form a neural crest-related stem cell population in the dermis of skin, participate in cutaneous nerve regeneration. We hypothesized that injecting SKPs into denervated wound promotes healing. A bilateral denervation wound model was established followed by SKP transplantation. The wound healing rate was determined at 7, 14, and 21 d after injury. Cell proliferation activity during wound healing was analyzed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry (IHC). Nerve fiber density was measured by S-100 IHC. The contents of nerve growth factor, substance P, and calcitonin gene-related peptide were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The rate of epithelization in the SKP-treated group was faster than that in the control group. Wound cell proliferation and nerve fiber density were obviously higher in the SKP-treated group than in the control group. In addition, the content of neuropeptides was higher in the SKP-treated group than in the control group during wound healing. In conclusion, SKPs can promote denervated wound healing through cell proliferation and nerve fiber regeneration, and can facilitate the release of neuropeptides. PMID:26045771

  11. Genetic selection of sox1GFP-expressing neural precursors removes residual tumorigenic pluripotent stem cells and attenuates tumor formation after transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Chung, S.; Shin, B.-S.; Hedlund, E.; Pruszak, J.; Ferree, A.; Kang, Un Jung; Isacson, Ole; Kim, Kwang-Soo

    2008-01-01

    Because of their ability to proliferate and to differentiate into diverse cell types, embryonic stem (ES) cells are a potential source of cells for transplantation therapy of various diseases, including Parkinson’s disease. A critical issue for this potential therapy is the elimination of undifferentiated cells that, even in low numbers, could result in teratoma formation in the host brain. We hypothesize that an efficient solution would consist of purifying the desired cell types, such as neural precursors, prior to transplantation. To test this hypothesis, we differentiated sox1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) knock-in ES cells in vitro, purified neural precursor cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), and characterized the purified cells in vitro as well as in vivo. Immunocytofluorescence and RT-PCR analyses showed that this genetic purification procedure efficiently removed undifferentiated pluripotent stem cells. Furthermore, when differentiated into mature neurons in vitro, the purified GFP+ cell population generated enriched neuronal populations, whereas the GFP− population generated much fewer neurons. When treated with dopaminergic inducing signals such as sonic hedgehog (SHH) and fibroblast growth factor-8 (FGF8), FACS-purified neural precursor cells responded to these molecules and generated dopaminergic neurons as well as other neural subtypes. When transplanted, the GFP+ cell population generated well contained grafts containing dopaminergic neurons, whereas the GFP− population generated significantly larger grafts (about 20-fold) and frequent tumor-related deaths in the transplanted animals. Taken together, our results demonstrate that genetic purification of neural precursor cells using FACS isolation can effectively remove unwanted proliferating cell types and avoid tumor formation after transplantation. PMID:16696855

  12. The noradrenaline precursor L-DOPS reduces pathology in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Kalinin, Sergey; Polak, Paul E.; Lin, Shao Xia; Sakharkar, Amul J.; Pandey, Subhash C.; Feinstein, Douglas L.

    2013-01-01

    Damage to noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC) is a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and may contribute to disease progression. In 5xFAD transgenic mice, which accumulate amyloid burden at early ages, the LC undergoes stress as evidenced by increased astrocyte activation, neuronal hypertrophy, reduced levels of LC-enriched messenger RNAs (mRNAs), and increased inflammatory gene expression. Central nervous system (CNS) noradrenaline (NA) levels in 5-month-old male 5xFAD mice were increased using the NA precursor L-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine (L-DOPS). After 1 month, L-DOPS treatment improved learning in the Morris water maze test compared with vehicle-treated mice. L-DOPS increased CNS NA levels, and average latency times in the water maze test were inversely correlated to NA levels. L-DOPS reduced astrocyte activation and Thioflavin-S staining; increased mRNA levels of neprilysin and insulin degrading enzyme, and of several neurotrophins; and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein levels. These data demonstrate the presence of LC stress in a robust mouse model of AD, and suggest that raising CNS NA levels could provide benefit in AD. PMID:21705113

  13. Transcranial laser therapy alters amyloid precursor protein processing and improves mitochondrial function in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Thomas; Yu, Jin; El-Amouri, Salim; Gattoni-Celli, Sebastiano; Richieri, Steve; De Taboada, Luis; Streeter, Jackson; Kindy, Mark S.

    2011-03-01

    Transcranial laser therapy (TLT) using a near-infrared energy laser system was tested in the 2x Tg amyloid precursor protein (APP) mouse model of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). TLT was administered 3 times/week at escalating doses, starting at 3 months of age, and was compared to a control group which received no laser treatment. Treatment sessions were continued for a total of six months. The brains were examined for amyloid plaque burden, Aβ peptides (Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 ), APP cleavage products (sAPPα, CTFβ) and mitochondrial activity. Administration of TLT was associated with a significant, dose-dependent reduction in amyloid load as indicated by the numbers of Aβ plaques. Levels of Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 levels were likewise reduced in a dose-dependent fashion. All TLT doses produced an increase in brain sAPPα and a decrease in CTFβ levels consistent with an increase in α-secretase activity and a decrease in β-secretase activity. In addition, TLT increased ATP levels and oxygen utilization in treated animals suggesting improved mitochondrial function. These studies suggest that TLT is a potential candidate for treatment of AD.

  14. Neural stem cells transplanted in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease differentiate to neuronal phenotypes and reduce rotational deficit.

    PubMed

    Ziavra, Despina; Makri, Georgia; Giompres, Panagiotis; Taraviras, Stavros; Thomaidou, Dimitra; Matsas, Rebecca; Mitsacos, Ada; Kouvelas, Elias D

    2012-11-01

    The most prominent pathological feature in Parkinson's disease (PD) is the progressive and selective loss of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons of the nigrostriatal tract. The present study was conducted in order to investigate whether naive and or genetically modified neural stem/precursor cells (NPCs) can survive, differentiate and functionally integrate in the lesioned striatum. To this end, stereotaxic injections of 6-OHDA in the right ascending nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway of mice and subsequent NPC transplantations were performed, followed by apomorphine-induced rotations and double-immunofluorescence experiments. Our results demonstrate that transplanted embryonic NPCs derived from the cortical ventricular zone of E14.5 transgenic mouse embryos expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) under control of the beta-actin promoter and cultured as neurospheres can survive in the host striatum for at least three weeks after transplantation. The percentage of surviving GFP-positive cells in the host striatum ranges from 0.2% to 0.6% of the total transplanted NPCs. Grafted cells functionally integrate in the striatum, as indicated by the statistically significant decrease of contralateral rotations after apomorphine treatment. Furthermore, we show that within the striatal environment GFP-positive cells differentiate into beta-III tubulin-expressing neurons, but not glial cells. Most importantly, GFP-positive cells further differentiate to dopaminergic (TH-positive) and medium size spiny (DARPP-32- positive) neuronal phenotypes. Over-expression of the cell cycle exit and neuronal differentiation protein Cend1 in NPCs enhances the generation of GABAergic, but not dopaminergic, neuronal phenotypes after grafting in the lesioned striatum. Our results encourage the development of strategies involving NPC transplantation for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  15. Pro-gliogenic effect of IL-1alpha in the differentiation of embryonic neural precursor cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ajmone-Cat, Maria Antonietta; Cacci, Emanuele; Ragazzoni, Ylenia; Minghetti, Luisa; Biagioni, Stefano

    2010-05-01

    Inflammation is regarded as a main obstacle to brain regeneration. Major detrimental effects are attributed to microglial/macrophagic products, such as TNF-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6. The role of cytokines of the IL-1 family, particularly of IL-1alpha, in the modulation of neural precursor cell (NPC) properties is less characterized. IL-1alpha is one of the most abundant cytokines released upon acute stimulation of microglia with lipopolysaccharide and is down-regulated upon chronic stimulation. As we recently demonstrated, acutely activated microglia reduces NPC survival, prevent neuronal differentiation and promote glial differentiation. Chronically activated microglia are instead permissive to NPC survival and neuronal differentiation, and less effective in promoting astrocytic differentiation. We thus investigated whether IL-1alpha could contribute to the effects of acutely activated microglia on NPC. We found that NPC express functional IL-1 receptors and that exposure to recombinant IL-1alpha strongly enhances NPC differentiation into astrocytes, without affecting cell viability and neuronal differentiation. In the same conditions, recombinant IL-1beta has pro-gliogenic effects at concentrations 10-fold higher than those found in activated microglial conditioned media. Interestingly, immunodepletion of IL-1alpha in activated microglial conditioned media fails to revert microglial pro-gliogenic action and slightly enhances neuronal differentiation, revealing that other microglial-derived factors contribute to the modulation of NPC properties. PMID:20236219

  16. Decreased demand for olfactory periglomerular cells impacts on neural precursor cell viability in the rostral migratory stream.

    PubMed

    Langenfurth, Anika; Gu, Song; Bautze, Verena; Zhang, Caiyi; Neumann, Julia E; Schüller, Ulrich; Stock, Kristin; Wolf, Susanne A; Maier, Anna-Maria; Mastrella, Giorgia; Pak, Andrew; Cheng, Hongwei; Kälin, Roland E; Holmbeck, Kenn; Strotmann, Jörg; Kettenmann, Helmut; Glass, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    The subventricular zone (SVZ) provides a constant supply of new neurons to the olfactory bulb (OB). Different studies have investigated the role of olfactory sensory input to neural precursor cell (NPC) turnover in the SVZ but it was not addressed if a reduced demand specifically for periglomerular neurons impacts on NPC-traits in the rostral migratory stream (RMS). We here report that membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) deficient mice have reduced complexity of the nasal turbinates, decreased sensory innervation of the OB, reduced numbers of olfactory glomeruli and reduced OB-size without alterations in SVZ neurogenesis. Large parts of the RMS were fully preserved in MT1-MMP-deficient mice, but we detected an increase in cell death-levels and a decrease in SVZ-derived neuroblasts in the distal RMS, as compared to controls. BrdU-tracking experiments showed that homing of NPCs specifically to the glomerular layer was reduced in MT1-MMP-deficient mice in contrast to controls while numbers of tracked cells remained equal in other OB-layers throughout all experimental groups. Altogether, our data show the demand for olfactory interneurons in the glomerular layer modulates cell turnover in the RMS, but has no impact on subventricular neurogenesis. PMID:27573347

  17. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha impairs neuronal differentiation but not proliferation of hippocampal neural precursor cells: Role of Hes1.

    PubMed

    Keohane, Aoife; Ryan, Sinead; Maloney, Eimer; Sullivan, Aideen M; Nolan, Yvonne M

    2010-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine, which influences neuronal survival and function yet there is limited information available on its effects on hippocampal neural precursor cells (NPCs). We show that TNFalpha treatment during proliferation had no effect on the percentage of proliferating cells prepared from embryonic rat hippocampal neurosphere cultures, nor did it affect cell fate towards either an astrocytic or neuronal lineage when cells were then allowed to differentiate. However, when cells were differentiated in the presence of TNFalpha, significantly reduced percentages of newly born and post-mitotic neurons, significantly increased percentages of astrocytes and increased expression of TNFalpha receptors, TNF-R1 and TNF-R2, as well as expression of the anti-neurogenic Hes1 gene, were observed. These data indicate that exposure of hippocampal NPCs to TNFalpha when they are undergoing differentiation but not proliferation has a detrimental effect on their neuronal lineage fate, which may be mediated through increased expression of Hes1.

  18. Decreased demand for olfactory periglomerular cells impacts on neural precursor cell viability in the rostral migratory stream

    PubMed Central

    Langenfurth, Anika; Gu, Song; Bautze, Verena; Zhang, Caiyi; Neumann, Julia E.; Schüller, Ulrich; Stock, Kristin; Wolf, Susanne A.; Maier, Anna-Maria; Mastrella, Giorgia; Pak, Andrew; Cheng, Hongwei; Kälin, Roland E.; Holmbeck, Kenn; Strotmann, Jörg; Kettenmann, Helmut; Glass, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    The subventricular zone (SVZ) provides a constant supply of new neurons to the olfactory bulb (OB). Different studies have investigated the role of olfactory sensory input to neural precursor cell (NPC) turnover in the SVZ but it was not addressed if a reduced demand specifically for periglomerular neurons impacts on NPC-traits in the rostral migratory stream (RMS). We here report that membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) deficient mice have reduced complexity of the nasal turbinates, decreased sensory innervation of the OB, reduced numbers of olfactory glomeruli and reduced OB-size without alterations in SVZ neurogenesis. Large parts of the RMS were fully preserved in MT1-MMP-deficient mice, but we detected an increase in cell death-levels and a decrease in SVZ-derived neuroblasts in the distal RMS, as compared to controls. BrdU-tracking experiments showed that homing of NPCs specifically to the glomerular layer was reduced in MT1-MMP-deficient mice in contrast to controls while numbers of tracked cells remained equal in other OB-layers throughout all experimental groups. Altogether, our data show the demand for olfactory interneurons in the glomerular layer modulates cell turnover in the RMS, but has no impact on subventricular neurogenesis. PMID:27573347

  19. Proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells induced from rat embryonic neural precursor cells followed by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Lü, He-Zuo; Wang, Yan-Xia; Li, Ying; Fu, Sai-Li; Hang, Qin; Lu, Pei-Hua

    2008-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that a cell-intrinsic timer might determine when oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) isolated from the central nervous system (CNS) stop dividing and initiate differentiation in a defined environment. In this report, the proliferation and differentiation of OPCs induced from neural precursor cells (NPCs) were analyzed by flow cytometry combined with carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester labeling and propidium iodide staining, respectively. When OPCs were cultured in OPC-medium, more than 30% of cells were in S- and G2/M-phases, and continuously self-renewed without differentiation. After exposure to thyroid hormone, there was an obvious decrease in the fraction of cells in both S- and G2/M-phases (<10%). Furthermore, the OPCs no longer proliferated, but differentiated into oligodendrocytes. The dynamic proliferation and differentiation characteristics of OPCs induced from NPCs and analyzed by flow cytometry were similar to those of OPCs isolated from the CNS and analyzed by other methods. These studies indicated that the proliferation and differentiation of OPCs can be followed simply and rapidly by flow cytometry. PMID:18473382

  20. Skin-derived precursor cells promote angiogenesis and stimulate proliferation of endogenous neural stem cells after cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Mao, Duo; Yao, Xinpeng; Feng, Guowei; Yang, Xiaoqing; Mao, Lina; Wang, Xiaomin; Ke, Tingyu; Che, Yongzhe; Kong, Deling

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is one of the most common diseases that caused high mortality and has become burden to the health care systems. Stem cell transplantation has shown therapeutic effect in ameliorating ischemic damage after cerebral artery occlusion mainly due to their neurogenesis, immune regulation, or effects on the plasticity, proliferation, and survival of host cells. Recent studies demonstrated that skin-derived precursor cells (SKPs) could promote central nervous system regeneration in spinal cord injury model or the neonatal peripheral neuron. Here, we investigated the therapeutic potential of SKPs in a rat model of cerebral ischemia. SKPs were isolated, expanded, and transplanted into rat cortex and striatum after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Our results revealed that SKPs transplantation could improve the behavioral measures of neurological deficit. Moreover, immunohistology confirmed that SKPs could secrete basic FGF and VEGF in the ischemic region and further markedly increase the proliferation of endogenous nestin(+) and βIII-tubulin(+) neural stem cells. Furthermore, increased angiogenesis induced by SKPs was observed by vWF and α-SMA staining. These data suggest that SKPs induced endogenous neurogenesis and angiogenesis and protected neuron from hypoxic-ischemic environment. In conclusion, SKPs transplantation may be a promising approach in treatment of stroke.

  1. Neuroprotective effects of human spinal cord-derived neural precursor cells after transplantation to the injured spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Emgård, Mia; Piao, Jinghua; Aineskog, Helena; Liu, Jia; Calzarossa, Cinzia; Odeberg, Jenny; Holmberg, Lena; Samuelsson, Eva-Britt; Bezubik, Bartosz; Vincent, Per Henrik; Falci, Scott P; Seiger, Åke; Åkesson, Elisabet; Sundström, Erik

    2014-03-01

    To validate human neural precursor cells (NPCs) as potential donor cells for transplantation therapy after spinal cord injury (SCI), we investigated the effect of NPCs, transplanted as neurospheres, in two different rat SCI models. Human spinal cord-derived NPCs (SC-NPCs) transplanted 9 days after spinal contusion injury enhanced hindlimb recovery, assessed by the BBB locomotor test. In spinal compression injuries, SC-NPCs transplanted immediately or after 1 week, but not 7 weeks after injury, significantly improved hindlimb recovery compared to controls. We could not detect signs of mechanical allodynia in transplanted rats. Four months after transplantation, we found more human cells in the host spinal cord than were transplanted, irrespective of the time of transplantation. There was no focal tumor growth. In all groups the vast majority of NPCs differentiated into astrocytes. Importantly, the number of surviving rat spinal cord neurons was highest in groups transplanted acutely and subacutely, which also showed the best hindlimb function. This suggests that transplanted SC-NPCs improve the functional outcome by a neuroprotective effect. We conclude that SC-NPCs reliably enhance the functional outcome after SCI if transplanted acutely or subacutely, without causing allodynia. This therapeutic effect is mainly the consequence of a neuroprotective effect of the SC-NPCs.

  2. Peptidergic influences on proliferation, migration, and placement of neural progenitors in the adult mouse forebrain.

    PubMed

    Stanic, Davor; Paratcha, Gustavo; Ledda, Fernanda; Herzog, Herbert; Kopin, Alan S; Hökfelt, Tomas

    2008-03-01

    Neural progenitor proliferation, differentiation, and migration are continually ongoing processes in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and rostral migratory stream (RMS) of the adult brain. There is evidence that peptidergic systems may be involved in the molecular cascades regulating these neurogenic processes, and we examined a possible influence of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cholecystokinin (CCK) systems in cell proliferation and neuroblast formation in the SVZ and RMS and generation of interneurons in the olfactory bulb (OB). We show that NPY and the Y1 and Y2 receptor (R) proteins are expressed in and surrounding the SVZ and RMS and that Y1R is located on neuroblasts in the anterior RMS. Mice deficient in Y1Rs or Y2Rs have fewer Ki-67-immunoreactive (ir) proliferating precursor cells and doublecortin-ir neuroblasts in the SVZ and RMS than WT mice, and less calbindin-, calretinin-, and tyrosine hydroxylase-ir interneurons in the OB. Mice lacking CCK1Rs have fewer proliferating cells and neuroblasts than normal and a shortage of interneurons in the OB. These findings suggest that both NPY and CCK through their receptors help to regulate the proliferation of precursor cells, the amount of neuroblast cells in the SVZ and RMS, and influence the differentiation of OB interneurons.

  3. Mouse neuroblastoma cell-based model and the effect of epileptic events on calcium oscillations and neural spikes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Suhwan; Jung, Unsang; Baek, Juyoung; Lee, Sangwon; Jung, Woonggyu; Kim, Jeehyun; Kang, Shinwon

    2013-01-01

    Recently, mouse neuroblastoma cells have been considered as an attractive model for the study of human neurological and prion diseases, and they have been intensively used as a model system in different areas. For example, the differentiation of neuro2a (N2A) cells, receptor-mediated ion current, and glutamate-induced physiological responses have been actively investigated with these cells. These mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells are of interest because they grow faster than other cells of neural origin and have a number of other advantages. The calcium oscillations and neural spikes of mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells in epileptic conditions are evaluated. Based on our observations of neural spikes in these cells with our proposed imaging modality, we reported that they can be an important model in epileptic activity studies. We concluded that mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells produce epileptic spikes in vitro in the same way as those produced by neurons or astrocytes. This evidence suggests that increased levels of neurotransmitter release due to the enhancement of free calcium from 4-aminopyridine causes the mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells to produce epileptic spikes and calcium oscillations.

  4. Induction of neural stem cell-like cells (NSCLCs) from mouse astrocytes by Bmi1

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Jai-Hee; Yoon, Byung Sun; Kim, Bona; Park, Gyuman; Jung, Hye-Youn; Maeng, Isaac; Jun, Eun Kyoung; Yoo, Seung Jun; Kim, Aeree; Oh, Sejong; Whang, Kwang Youn; Kim, Hyunggee; Kim, Dong-Wook; Kim, Ki Dong; You, Seungkwon

    2008-06-27

    Recently, Bmi1 was shown to control the proliferation and self-renewal of neural stem cells (NSCs). In this study, we demonstrated the induction of NSC-like cells (NSCLCs) from mouse astrocytes by Bmi1 under NSC culture conditions. These NSCLCs exhibited the morphology and growth properties of NSCs, and expressed NSC marker genes, including nestin, CD133, and Sox2. In vitro differentiation of NSCLCs resulted in differentiated cell populations containing astrocytes, neurons, and oligodendrocytes. Following treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors (trichostatin A and valproic acid), the potential of NSCLCs for proliferation, dedifferentiation, and self-renewal was significantly inhibited. Our data indicate that multipotent NSCLCs can be generated directly from astrocytes by the addition of Bmi1.

  5. Neural stem/progenitor cell properties of glial cells in the adult mouse auditory nerve

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Hainan; Xing, Yazhi; Brown, LaShardai N.; Samuvel, Devadoss J.; Panganiban, Clarisse H.; Havens, Luke T.; Balasubramanian, Sundaravadivel; Wegner, Michael; Krug, Edward L.; Barth, Jeremy L.

    2015-01-01

    The auditory nerve is the primary conveyor of hearing information from sensory hair cells to the brain. It has been believed that loss of the auditory nerve is irreversible in the adult mammalian ear, resulting in sensorineural hearing loss. We examined the regenerative potential of the auditory nerve in a mouse model of auditory neuropathy. Following neuronal degeneration, quiescent glial cells converted to an activated state showing a decrease in nuclear chromatin condensation, altered histone deacetylase expression and up-regulation of numerous genes associated with neurogenesis or development. Neurosphere formation assays showed that adult auditory nerves contain neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPs) that were within a Sox2-positive glial population. Production of neurospheres from auditory nerve cells was stimulated by acute neuronal injury and hypoxic conditioning. These results demonstrate that a subset of glial cells in the adult auditory nerve exhibit several characteristics of NSPs and are therefore potential targets for promoting auditory nerve regeneration. PMID:26307538

  6. Ginkgo Biloba Extract Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in Mouse Cochlear Neural Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Congpin; Wang, Bin

    2016-05-01

    In the organ or Corti, oxidative stress could result in damage to the hearing, and neural stem cells (NSCs) hold great therapeutic potential in treating hearing loss. Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) has been widely shown to exhibit anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic effects in treatments of neural damage and disorder. Using hydrogen peroxide to induced oxidative stress as a model, we investigated the anti-oxidative role of GBE in isolated mouse cochlear NSCs. GBE treatment was found to significantly promote viability of NSCs, by markedly attenuating hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative stress. In addition, this anti-oxidative function of GBE was also able to prevent mitochondrial depolarization and subsequent apoptosis. Moreover, the anti-apoptotic role of GBE was mediated by antagonizing the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, where GBE could reverse the changes in key intrinsic apoptosis pathway factors including Bcl-2, Bax, and Caspase-3. Our data provided the first report on the beneficial role of GBE in protecting cochlear NSCs, by attenuating oxidative stress triggered intrinsic apoptosis, therefore supporting the potential therapeutic value of GBE in preventing oxidative stress-related hearing loss. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Effects of heat shock on survival, proliferation and differentiation of mouse neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Omori, Hiroyuki; Otsu, Masahiro; Suzuki, Asami; Nakayama, Takashi; Akama, Kuniko; Watanabe, Masaru; Inoue, Nobuo

    2014-02-01

    Hyperthermia during pregnancy is a significant cause of reproductive problems ranging from abortion to congenital defects of the central nervous system (CNS), including neural tube defects and microcephaly. Neural stem cells (NSCs) can proliferate and differentiate into neurons and glia, playing a key role in the formation of the CNS. Here, we examined the effects of heat shock on homogeneous proliferating NSCs derived from mouse embryonic stem cells. After heat shock at 42 °C for 20 min, the proliferating NSCs continued to proliferate, although subtle changes were observed in gene expression and cell survival and proliferation. In contrast, heat shock at 43 °C caused a variety of responses: the up-regulation of genes encoding heat shock proteins (HSP), induction of apoptosis, temporal inhibition of cell proliferation and retardation of differentiation. Finally, effects of heat shock at 44 °C were severe, with almost all cells disappearing and the remaining cells losing the capacity to proliferate and differentiate. These temperature-dependent effects of heat shock on NSCs may be valuable in elucidating the mechanisms by which hyperthermia during pregnancy causes various reproductive problems.

  8. In vivo Importance of Homologous Recombination DNA Repair for Mouse Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rousseau, Laure; Etienne, Olivier; Roque, Telma; Desmaze, Chantal; Haton, Céline; Mouthon, Marc-André; Bernardino-Sgherri, Jacqueline; Essers, Jeroen; Kanaar, Roland; Boussin, François D.

    2012-01-01

    We characterized the in vivo importance of the homologous recombination factor RAD54 for the developing mouse brain cortex in normal conditions or after ionizing radiation exposure. Contrary to numerous homologous recombination genes, Rad54 disruption did not impact the cortical development without exogenous stress, but it dramatically enhanced the radiation sensitivity of neural stem and progenitor cells. This resulted in the death of all cells irradiated during S or G2, whereas the viability of cells irradiated in G1 or G0 was not affected by Rad54 disruption. Apoptosis occurred after long arrests at intra-S and G2/M checkpoints. This concerned every type of neural stem and progenitor cells, showing that the importance of Rad54 for radiation response was linked to the cell cycle phase at the time of irradiation and not to the differentiation state. In the developing brain, RAD54-dependent homologous recombination appeared absolutely required for the repair of damages induced by ionizing radiation during S and G2 phases, but not for the repair of endogenous damages in normal conditions. Altogether our data support the existence of RAD54-dependent and -independent homologous recombination pathways. PMID:22666344

  9. 3D culture of murine neural stem cells on decellularized mouse brain sections.

    PubMed

    De Waele, Jorrit; Reekmans, Kristien; Daans, Jasmijn; Goossens, Herman; Berneman, Zwi; Ponsaerts, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Transplantation of neural stem cells (NSC) in diseased or injured brain tissue is widely studied as a potential treatment for various neurological pathologies. However, effective cell replacement therapy relies on the intrinsic capacity of cellular grafts to overcome hypoxic and/or immunological barriers after transplantation. In this context, it is hypothesized that structural support for grafted NSC will be of utmost importance. With this study, we present a novel decellularization protocol for 1.5 mm thick mouse brain sections, resulting in the generation of acellular three-dimensional (3D) brain sections. Next, the obtained 3D brain sections were seeded with murine NSC expressing both the eGFP and luciferase reporter proteins (NSC-eGFP/Luc). Using real-time bioluminescence imaging, the survival and growth of seeded NSC-eGFP/Luc cells was longitudinally monitored for 1-7 weeks in culture, indicating the ability of the acellular brain sections to support sustained ex vivo growth of NSC. Next, the organization of a 3D maze-like cellular structure was examined using confocal microscopy. Moreover, under mitogenic stimuli (EGF and hFGF-2), most cells in this 3D culture retained their NSC phenotype. Concluding, we here present a novel protocol for decellularization of mouse brain sections, which subsequently support long-term 3D culture of undifferentiated NSC.

  10. Designer Self-Assembling Peptide Nanofiber Scaffolds for Adult Mouse Neural Stem Cell 3-Dimensional Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Gelain, Fabrizio; Bottai, Daniele; Vescovi, Angleo; Zhang, Shuguang

    2006-01-01

    Biomedical researchers have become increasingly aware of the limitations of conventional 2-dimensional tissue cell culture systems, including coated Petri dishes, multi-well plates and slides, to fully address many critical issues in cell biology, cancer biology and neurobiology, such as the 3-D microenvironment, 3-D gradient diffusion, 3-D cell migration and 3-D cell-cell contact interactions. In order to fully understand how cells behave in the 3-D body, it is important to develop a well-controlled 3-D cell culture system where every single ingredient is known. Here we report the development of a 3-D cell culture system using a designer peptide nanofiber scaffold with mouse adult neural stem cells. We attached several functional motifs, including cell adhesion, differentiation and bone marrow homing motifs, to a self-assembling peptide RADA16 (Ac-RADARADARADARADA-COHN2). These functionalized peptides undergo self-assembly into a nanofiber structure similar to Matrigel. During cell culture, the cells were fully embedded in the 3-D environment of the scaffold. Two of the peptide scaffolds containing bone marrow homing motifs significantly enhanced the neural cell survival without extra soluble growth and neurotrophic factors to the routine cell culture media. In these designer scaffolds, the cell populations with β-Tubulin+, GFAP+ and Nestin+ markers are similar to those found in cell populations cultured on Matrigel. The gene expression profiling array experiments showed selective gene expression, possibly involved in neural stem cell adhesion and differentiation. Because the synthetic peptides are intrinsically pure and a number of desired function cellular motifs are easy to incorporate, these designer peptide nanofiber scaffolds provide a promising controlled 3-D culture system for diverse tissue cells, and are useful as well for general molecular and cell biology. PMID:17205123

  11. Developmental regulation of cryptdin, a corticostatin/defensin precursor mRNA in mouse small intestinal crypt epithelium

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Cryptdin mRNA codes for the apparent precursor to a corticostatin/defensin-related peptide that accumulates to high levels in mouse intestinal crypt epithelium during postnatal development. The primary structure, intestinal cell distribution, and developmental appearance of cryptdin mRNA have been determined. Cryptdin mRNA is 450- 480 nucleotides long. Translation of the partial cryptdin cDNA sequence reveals a 70-amino acid open reading frame that includes 32 carboxy- terminal residues that align with those in the consensus sequence, C.CR...C....ER..G.C....CCR, which is a common feature of leukocyte defensins and lung corticostatins (Selsted, M. E., D. M. Brown, R. J. DeLange, S. S. L. Harwig, and R. I. Lehrer. 1985. J. Biol. Chem. 260:4579-4584; Zhu, Q., J. Hu, S. Mulay, F. Esch, S. Shimasaki, and S. Solomon. 1988. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 85:592-596). In situ hybridization of cryptdin cDNA to paraformaldehyde-fixed, frozen sections of adult jejunum and ileum showed intense and specific labeling of epithelial cells in the base of all crypts. Analysis of sections from suckling mice showed that cryptdin mRNA is detectable in 10-20% of crypts in 10-d-old mice, in approximately 80% of crypts in 16- d-old mice, and in all crypts of mice 20 d and older. During the fourth week, the sequence accumulates in crypts to the maximal adult level. Cryptdin mRNA content in adult small intestine is independent both of T cell involvement and luminal bacteria. The role of cryptdin in small bowel physiology remains to be determined: cryptdin may inhibit bacterial translocation, modulate intestinal hormone synthesis, influence hormonal sensitivity of the intestinal epithelium, or exhibit a multiplicity of related activities. PMID:2715173

  12. Akhirin regulates the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in intact and injured mouse spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Abdulhaleem, Felemban Athary M; Song, Xiaohong; Kawano, Rie; Uezono, Naohiro; Ito, Ayako; Ahmed, Giasuddin; Hossain, Mahmud; Nakashima, Kinichi; Tanaka, Hideaki; Ohta, Kunimasa

    2015-05-01

    Although the central nervous system is considered a comparatively static tissue with limited cell turnover, cells with stem cell properties have been isolated from most neural tissues. The spinal cord ependymal cells show neural stem cell potential in vitro and in vivo in injured spinal cord. However, very little is known regarding the ependymal niche in the mouse spinal cord. We previously reported that a secreted factor, chick Akhirin, is expressed in the ciliary marginal zone of the eye, where it works as a heterophilic cell-adhesion molecule. Here, we describe a new crucial function for mouse Akhirin (M-AKH) in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of progenitors in the mouse spinal cord. During embryonic spinal cord development, M-AKH is transiently expressed in the central canal ependymal cells, which possess latent neural stem cell properties. Targeted inactivation of the AKH gene in mice causes a reduction in the size of the spinal cord and decreases BrdU incorporation in the spinal cord. Remarkably, the expression patterns of ependymal niche molecules in AKH knockout (AKH-/-) mice are different from those of AKH+/+, both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we provide evidence that AKH expression in the central canal is rapidly upregulated in the injured spinal cord. Taken together, these results indicate that M-AKH plays a crucial role in mouse spinal cord formation by regulating the ependymal niche in the central canal.

  13. Synergetic use of neural precursor cells and self-assembling peptides in experimental cervical spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Zweckberger, Klaus; Liu, Yang; Wang, Jian; Forgione, Nicole; Fehlings, Michael G

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injuries (SCI) cause serious neurological impairment and psychological, economic, and social consequences for patients and their families. Clinically, more than 50% of SCI affect the cervical spine. As a consequence of the primary injury, a cascade of secondary mechanisms including inflammation, apoptosis, and demyelination occur finally leading to tissue scarring and development of intramedullary cavities. Both represent physical and chemical barriers to cell transplantation, integration, and regeneration. Therefore, shaping the inhibitory environment and bridging cavities to create a supportive milieu for cell transplantation and regeneration is a promising therapeutic target. Here, a contusion/compression model of cervical SCI using an aneurysm clip is described. This model is more clinically relevant than other experimental models, since complete transection or ruptures of the cord are rare. Also in comparison to the weight drop model, which in particular damage the dorsum columns, circumferential compression of the spinal cord appears advantageous. Clip closing force and duration can be adjusted to achieve different injury severity. A ring spring facilitates precise calibration and constancy of clip force. Under physiological conditions, synthetic self-assembling peptides (SAP) self-assemble into nanofibers and thus, are appealing for application in SCI. They can be injected directly into the lesion minimizing damage to the cord. SAPs are biocompatible structures erecting scaffolds to bridge intramedullary cavities and thus, equip the damaged cord for regenerative treatments. K2(QL)6K2 (QL6) is a novel SAP introduced by Dong et al. In comparison to other peptides, QL6 self-assembles into β-sheets at neutral pH. 14 days after SCI, after the acute stage, SAPs are injected into the center of the lesion and neural precursor cells (NPC) are injected into adjacent dorsal columns. In order to support cell survival, transplantation is combined with

  14. Synergetic use of neural precursor cells and self-assembling peptides in experimental cervical spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Zweckberger, Klaus; Liu, Yang; Wang, Jian; Forgione, Nicole; Fehlings, Michael G

    2015-02-23

    Spinal cord injuries (SCI) cause serious neurological impairment and psychological, economic, and social consequences for patients and their families. Clinically, more than 50% of SCI affect the cervical spine. As a consequence of the primary injury, a cascade of secondary mechanisms including inflammation, apoptosis, and demyelination occur finally leading to tissue scarring and development of intramedullary cavities. Both represent physical and chemical barriers to cell transplantation, integration, and regeneration. Therefore, shaping the inhibitory environment and bridging cavities to create a supportive milieu for cell transplantation and regeneration is a promising therapeutic target. Here, a contusion/compression model of cervical SCI using an aneurysm clip is described. This model is more clinically relevant than other experimental models, since complete transection or ruptures of the cord are rare. Also in comparison to the weight drop model, which in particular damage the dorsum columns, circumferential compression of the spinal cord appears advantageous. Clip closing force and duration can be adjusted to achieve different injury severity. A ring spring facilitates precise calibration and constancy of clip force. Under physiological conditions, synthetic self-assembling peptides (SAP) self-assemble into nanofibers and thus, are appealing for application in SCI. They can be injected directly into the lesion minimizing damage to the cord. SAPs are biocompatible structures erecting scaffolds to bridge intramedullary cavities and thus, equip the damaged cord for regenerative treatments. K2(QL)6K2 (QL6) is a novel SAP introduced by Dong et al. In comparison to other peptides, QL6 self-assembles into β-sheets at neutral pH. 14 days after SCI, after the acute stage, SAPs are injected into the center of the lesion and neural precursor cells (NPC) are injected into adjacent dorsal columns. In order to support cell survival, transplantation is combined with

  15. Beneficial Effect of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neural Precursors in Spinal Cord Injury Repair.

    PubMed

    Romanyuk, Nataliya; Amemori, Takashi; Turnovcova, Karolina; Prochazka, Pavel; Onteniente, Brigitte; Sykova, Eva; Jendelova, Pavla

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in our understanding and research of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), their use in clinical practice is still limited due to lack of preclinical experiments. Neural precursors (NPs) derived from a clone of human iPSCs (IMR90) were used to treat a rat spinal cord lesion 1 week after induction. Functional recovery was evaluated using the BBB, beam walking, rotarod, and plantar tests. Lesion morphology, endogenous axonal sprouting, graft survival, and iPSC-NP differentiation were analyzed immunohistochemically. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to evaluate the effect of transplanted iPSC-NPs on endogenous regenerative processes and also to monitor their behavior after transplantation. Human iPSC-NPs robustly survived in the lesion, migrated, and partially filled the lesion cavity during the entire period of observation. Transplanted animals displayed significant motor improvement already from the second week after the transplantation of iPSC-NPs. qPCR revealed the increased expression of human neurotrophins 8 weeks after transplantation. Simultaneously, the white and gray matter were spared in the host tissue. The grafted cells were immunohistochemically positive for doublecortin, MAP2, βIII-tubulin, GFAP, and CNPase 8 weeks after transplantation. Human iPSC-NPs further matured, and 17 weeks after transplantation differentiated toward interneurons, dopaminergic neurons, serotoninergic neurons, and ChAT-positive motoneurons. Human iPSC-NPs possess neurotrophic properties that are associated with significant early functional improvement and the sparing of spinal cord tissue. Their ability to differentiate into tissue-specific neurons leads to the long-term restoration of the lesioned tissue, making the cells a promising candidate for future cell-based therapy of SCI. PMID:25259685

  16. Reprogramming of microRNAs by adenosine-to-inosine editing and the selective elimination of edited microRNA precursors in mouse oocytes and preimplantation embryos.

    PubMed

    García-López, Jesús; Hourcade, Juan de Dios; Del Mazo, Jesús

    2013-05-01

    Adenosine deaminases-acting-on-RNA (ADAR) proteins induce adenosine-to-inosine editing in double-stranded RNA molecules. This editing generates RNA diversity at the post-transcriptional level, and it has been implicated in the control of cell differentiation and development. The editing of microRNA (miRNA) precursors, along with Tudor-SN (Snd1) activity, could lead to the elimination of selected miRNAs and reprogram miRNA activity. Here, we report the dynamics of adenosine-to-inosine editing in miRNA precursors and their selected elimination during mouse preimplantation development. Adar1p110 and Snd1 were found to be strongly but differentially expressed in oocytes and zygotes with respect to later pre-implantation stages. When the biogenesis of miR-151 was assessed, the majority of miR-151 precursors was edited and subsequently eliminated during early development. Deep sequencing of this and other miRNAs confirmed that, in general, edited precursors were selectively eliminated at early post-zygotic stages. Moreover, in oocytes and throughout the zygote-to-blastocyst stages, Tudor-SN accumulated in newly discovered aggregates termed 'T bodies'. These results provide new insight into how editing and Tudor-SN-mediated elimination of miRNA precursors is regulated during early development.

  17. Olfactory regulation of the sexual behavior and reproductive physiology of the laboratory mouse: effects and neural mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kelliher, Kevin R; Wersinger, Scott R

    2009-01-01

    In many species, chemical compounds emitted by conspecifics exert profound effects on reproductive physiology and sexual behavior. This is particularly true in the mouse, where such cues advance and delay puberty, suppress and facilitate estrous cycles, and cause the early termination of pregnancy. They also facilitate sexual behavior and inform mate selection. The mouse has a rich and complex repertoire of social behaviors. The technologies of molecular genetics are well developed in the mouse. Gene expression can be experimentally manipulated in the mouse relatively easily and in a time- and tissue-specific manner. Thus, the mouse is an excellent model in which to investigate the genetic, neural, and hormonal bases by which chemical compounds released by other mice affect physiology and behavior. These chemical cues are detected and processed by the olfactory system and other specialized but less well characterized sensory organs. The sensory information reaches brain regions that regulate hormone levels as well as those that are involved in behavior and alters the function of these brain regions. The effects of these chemical compounds have important implications for the laboratory animal facility as well as for researchers. We begin with an overview of the basic structure and function of the olfactory system and of the connections among brain regions that receive olfactory stimuli. We discuss the effects of chemosensory cues on the behavior and physiology of the organism along with what is known about the neural and hormonal mechanisms underlying these effects. We also describe some of the implications for the laboratory animal facility.

  18. Retinoic acid inhibits migration of cranial neural crest cells in the cultured mouse embryo.

    PubMed

    Pratt, R M; Goulding, E H; Abbott, B D

    1987-01-01

    Clinical observations have demonstrated that isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoic acid; cis-RA) is a human teratogen causing primarily heart and craniofacial malformations. Isotretinoin exposure to the early postimplantation mouse embryo in culture results in specific defects in craniofacial development that may be due to an interference in the early migration of cranial neural crest (CNC) cells [Goulding and Pratt, 1986]. The present study was designed to test this hypothesis by examining the migration of these cells in whole embryo culture. Day 8 CD-1 mouse embryos were cultured for 6-48 hr in the presence or absence of cis-RA at 2 X 10(-6) to 2 X 10(-5) M. Embryos either were fixed for light microscopy using Nichols' method for localization of CNC cells or were processed for scanning and transmission electron microscopy. At the light microscopic level, CNC cells in the mid-brain region of control embryos had migrated to the region of the first and second visceral arches after 6 hr in culture. Cis-RA interfered with this migration; CNC cells in treated embryos either did not leave the neuroepithelium (NE) or were aggregated near the NE. Autoradiographic studies indicated that cis-RA did not affect the overall viability or DNA synthesis of the CNC cells. However, at the TEM level, there was a dramatic increase in the number of cellular blebs in the CNC cells. Our results demonstrate a direct effect of 13-cis-RA on the CNC cells and suggest that this effect is due to alterations in the cell surface.

  19. Altered behavior and neural activity in conspecific cagemates co-housed with mouse models of brain disorders.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyunwoo; Jung, Seungmoon; Seo, Jinsoo; Khalid, Arshi; Yoo, Jung-Seok; Park, Jihyun; Kim, Soyun; Moon, Jangsup; Lee, Soon-Tae; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Chu, Kon; Lee, Sang Kun; Jeon, Daejong

    2016-09-01

    The psychosocial environment is one of the major contributors of social stress. Family members or caregivers who consistently communicate with individuals with brain disorders are considered at risk for physical and mental health deterioration, possibly leading to mental disorders. However, the underlying neural mechanisms of this phenomenon remain poorly understood. To address this, we developed a social stress paradigm in which a mouse model of epilepsy or depression was housed long-term (>4weeks) with normal conspecifics. We characterized the behavioral phenotypes and electrophysiologically investigated the neural activity of conspecific cagemate mice. The cagemates exhibited deficits in behavioral tasks assessing anxiety, locomotion, learning/memory, and depression-like behavior. Furthermore, they showed severe social impairment in social behavioral tasks involving social interaction or aggression. Strikingly, behavioral dysfunction remained in the cagemates 4weeks following co-housing cessation with the mouse models. In an electrophysiological study, the cagemates showed an increased number of spikes in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) neurons. Our results demonstrate that conspecifics co-housed with mouse models of brain disorders develop chronic behavioral dysfunctions, and suggest a possible association between abnormal mPFC neural activity and their behavioral pathogenesis. These findings contribute to the understanding of the psychosocial and psychiatric symptoms frequently present in families or caregivers of patients with brain disorders. PMID:27211331

  20. Expression profiles of Wnt genes during neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Nordin, Norshariza; Li, Meng; Mason, John O

    2008-03-01

    The Wnt family of secreted signaling proteins regulates many aspects of animal development and the behavior of several types of stem cells, including embryonic stem (ES) cells. Activation of canonical Wnt signaling has been shown to either inhibit or promote the differentiation of ES cells into neurons, depending on the stage of differentiation. Here, we describe the expression of all 19 mouse Wnt genes during this process. Using the well-established retinoic acid induction protocol we found that all Wnt genes except Wnt8b are expressed as ES cells differentiate into neurons, many of them in dynamic patterns. The expression pattern of 12 Wnt genes was analyzed quantitatively at 2-day intervals throughout neural differentiation, showing that multiple Wnt genes are expressed at each stage. A large proportion of these, including both canonical and noncanonical Wnts, are expressed at highest levels during later stages of differentiation. The complexity of the patterns observed indicates that disentangling specific roles for individual Wnt genes in the differentiation process will be a significant challenge.

  1. Live imaging of apoptosis in a novel transgenic mouse highlights its role in neural tube closure

    PubMed Central

    Shinotsuka, Naomi; Nonomura, Keiko; Takemoto, Kiwamu; Kuida, Keisuke; Yosida, Hiroki

    2011-01-01

    Many cells die during development, tissue homeostasis, and disease. Dysregulation of apoptosis leads to cranial neural tube closure (NTC) defects like exencephaly, although the mechanism is unclear. Observing cells undergoing apoptosis in a living context could help elucidate their origin, behavior, and influence on surrounding tissues, but few tools are available for this purpose, especially in mammals. In this paper, we used insulator sequences to generate a transgenic mouse that stably expressed a genetically encoded fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)–based fluorescent reporter for caspase activation and performed simultaneous time-lapse imaging of apoptosis and morphogenesis in living embryos. Live FRET imaging with a fast-scanning confocal microscope revealed that cells containing activated caspases showed typical and nontypical apoptotic behavior in a region-specific manner during NTC. Inhibiting caspase activation perturbed and delayed the smooth progression of cranial NTC, which might increase the risk of exencephaly. Our results suggest that caspase-mediated cell removal facilitates NTC completion within a limited developmental window. PMID:22162136

  2. miR-124 promotes the neuronal differentiation of mouse inner ear neural stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Di; Du, Jintao; Zhang, Xuemei; Zhou, Wei; Zong, Lin; Dong, Chang; Chen, Kaitian; Chen, Yu; Chen, Xihui; Jiang, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) act as key regulators in neuronal development, synaptic morphogenesis and plasticity. However, their role in the neuronal differentiation of inner ear neural stem cells (NSCs) remains unclear. In this study, 6 miRNAs were selected and their expression patterns during the neuronal differentiation of inner ear NSCs were examined by RT-qPCR. We demonstrated that the culture of spiral ganglion stem cells present in the inner ears of newborn mice gave rise to neurons in vitro. The expression patterns of miR-124, miR-132, miR-134, miR-20a, miR-17-5p and miR-30a-5p were examined during a 14-day neuronal differentiation period. We found that miR-124 promoted the neuronal differentiation of and neurite outgrowth in mouse inner ear NSCs, and that the changes in the expression of tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) and cell division control protein 42 homolog (Cdc42) during inner ear NSC differentiation were associated with miR-124 expression. Our findings indicate that miR-124 plays a role in the neuronal differentiation of inner ear NSCs. This finding may lead to the development of novel strategies for restoring hearing in neurodegenerative diseases.

  3. Thin-film assembly of diethanolamine-based lipidic material as potential gene carrier in mouse embryonic neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kusumoto, Ken-Ichi; Yamashita, Satoko; Nagata, Takahiro; Ido, Takeshi; Hamachi, Itaru; Akao, Tetsuyuki

    2009-10-01

    Understanding of lipidic materials used for gene delivery system is essential for the effective design and development of potential applications in basic and therapeutic research. This study aimed to evaluate the biological activity of totally synthesized ditetradecylacetyldiethanolaminetrimethylammonium (TMA-C2-DEA-C14) as gene carriers for neural stem cells. The transfer abilities were estimated by expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) in mouse embryonic neural stem cells. Here, we demonstrate that lipidic assembly of TMA-C2-DEA-C14, which was self-organized by incubation in water for a month at 25 degrees C, can provide an efficient gene delivery with low cytotoxicity ( approximately 40% of GFP-expressed neural stem cells). However, when dispersed by ultrasonication, TMA-C2-DEA-C14 showed low effect ( approximately 4%). Moreover, electron microscopic analysis showed that TMA-C2-DEA-C14 assembly is characterized by thin-film structures with polygonal shapes ( approximately 2.7 mum), and after association with DNA, their structures dramatically changes to form liposome complexes that can effectively deliver DNA into the cellular cytoplasm of neural stem cells. Thus, TMA-C2-DEA-C14 assembly identified in this study was determined to have an effective activity as gene carriers for primary neural stem cells. Our findings suggest that this approach can serve as a novel model for the development of lipidic materials on nonviral gene delivery system.

  4. Identification of a mouse brain cDNA that encodes a protein related to the Alzheimer disease-associated amyloid beta protein precursor.

    PubMed Central

    Wasco, W; Bupp, K; Magendantz, M; Gusella, J F; Tanzi, R E; Solomon, F

    1992-01-01

    We have isolated a cDNA from a mouse brain library that encodes a protein whose predicted amino acid sequence is 42% identical and 64% similar to that of the amyloid beta protein precursor (APP). This 653-amino acid protein, which we have termed the amyloid precursor-like protein (APLP), appears to be similar to APP in overall structure as well as amino acid sequence. The amino acid homologies are concentrated within three distinct regions of the two proteins where the identities are 47%, 54%, and 56%. The APLP cDNA hybridizes to two messages of approximately 2.4 and 1.6 kilobases that are present in mouse brain and neuroblastoma cells. Polyclonal antibodies raised against a peptide derived from the C terminus of APLP stain the cytoplasm in a pattern reminiscent of Golgi staining. In addition to APP, APLP also displays significant homology to the Drosophila APP-like protein APPL and a rat testes APP-like protein. These data indicate that the APP gene is a member of a strongly conserved gene family. Studies aimed at determining the functions of the proteins encoded by this gene family should provide valuable clues to their potential role in Alzheimer disease neuropathology. Images PMID:1279693

  5. Significant expansion of the REST/NRSF cistrome in human versus mouse embryonic stem cells: potential implications for neural development.

    PubMed

    Rockowitz, Shira; Zheng, Deyou

    2015-07-13

    Recent studies have employed cross-species comparisons of transcription factor binding, reporting significant regulatory network 'rewiring' between species. Here, we address how a transcriptional repressor targets and regulates neural genes differentially between human and mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We find that the transcription factor, Repressor Element 1 Silencing Transcription factor (REST; also called neuron restrictive silencer factor) binds to a core group of ∼1200 syntenic genomic regions in both species, with these conserved sites highly enriched with co-factors, selective histone modifications and DNA hypomethylation. Genes with conserved REST binding are enriched with neural functions and more likely to be upregulated upon REST depletion. Interestingly, we identified twice as many REST peaks in human ESCs compared to mouse ESCs. Human REST cistrome expansion involves additional peaks in genes targeted by REST in both species and human-specific gene targets. Genes with expanded REST occupancy in humans are enriched for learning or memory functions. Analysis of neurological disorder associated genes reveals that Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and oxidative stress genes are particularly enriched with human-specific REST binding. Overall, our results demonstrate that there is substantial rewiring of human and mouse REST cistromes, and that REST may have human-specific roles in brain development and functions. PMID:25990720

  6. Significant expansion of the REST/NRSF cistrome in human versus mouse embryonic stem cells: potential implications for neural development

    PubMed Central

    Rockowitz, Shira; Zheng, Deyou

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have employed cross-species comparisons of transcription factor binding, reporting significant regulatory network ‘rewiring’ between species. Here, we address how a transcriptional repressor targets and regulates neural genes differentially between human and mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We find that the transcription factor, Repressor Element 1 Silencing Transcription factor (REST; also called neuron restrictive silencer factor) binds to a core group of ∼1200 syntenic genomic regions in both species, with these conserved sites highly enriched with co-factors, selective histone modifications and DNA hypomethylation. Genes with conserved REST binding are enriched with neural functions and more likely to be upregulated upon REST depletion. Interestingly, we identified twice as many REST peaks in human ESCs compared to mouse ESCs. Human REST cistrome expansion involves additional peaks in genes targeted by REST in both species and human-specific gene targets. Genes with expanded REST occupancy in humans are enriched for learning or memory functions. Analysis of neurological disorder associated genes reveals that Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and oxidative stress genes are particularly enriched with human-specific REST binding. Overall, our results demonstrate that there is substantial rewiring of human and mouse REST cistromes, and that REST may have human-specific roles in brain development and functions. PMID:25990720

  7. Human neural crest cells contribute to coat pigmentation in interspecies chimeras after in utero injection into mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Malkiel A; Wert, Katherine J; Goldmann, Johanna; Markoulaki, Styliani; Buganim, Yosef; Fu, Dongdong; Jaenisch, Rudolf

    2016-02-01

    The neural crest (NC) represents multipotent cells that arise at the interphase between ectoderm and prospective epidermis of the neurulating embryo. The NC has major clinical relevance because it is involved in both inherited and acquired developmental abnormalities. The aim of this study was to establish an experimental platform that would allow for the integration of human NC cells (hNCCs) into the gastrulating mouse embryo. NCCs were derived from pluripotent mouse, rat, and human cells and microinjected into embryonic-day-8.5 embryos. To facilitate integration of the NCCs, we used recipient embryos that carried a c-Kit mutation (W(sh)/W(sh)), which leads to a loss of melanoblasts and thus eliminates competition from the endogenous host cells. The donor NCCs migrated along the dorsolateral migration routes in the recipient embryos. Postnatal mice derived from injected embryos displayed pigmented hair, demonstrating differentiation of the NCCs into functional melanocytes. Although the contribution of human cells to pigmentation in the host was lower than that of mouse or rat donor cells, our results indicate that hNCCs, injected in utero, can integrate into the embryo and form mature functional cells in the animal. This mouse-human chimeric platform allows for a new approach to study NC development and diseases.

  8. Human neural crest cells contribute to coat pigmentation in interspecies chimeras after in utero injection into mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Malkiel A; Wert, Katherine J; Goldmann, Johanna; Markoulaki, Styliani; Buganim, Yosef; Fu, Dongdong; Jaenisch, Rudolf

    2016-02-01

    The neural crest (NC) represents multipotent cells that arise at the interphase between ectoderm and prospective epidermis of the neurulating embryo. The NC has major clinical relevance because it is involved in both inherited and acquired developmental abnormalities. The aim of this study was to establish an experimental platform that would allow for the integration of human NC cells (hNCCs) into the gastrulating mouse embryo. NCCs were derived from pluripotent mouse, rat, and human cells and microinjected into embryonic-day-8.5 embryos. To facilitate integration of the NCCs, we used recipient embryos that carried a c-Kit mutation (W(sh)/W(sh)), which leads to a loss of melanoblasts and thus eliminates competition from the endogenous host cells. The donor NCCs migrated along the dorsolateral migration routes in the recipient embryos. Postnatal mice derived from injected embryos displayed pigmented hair, demonstrating differentiation of the NCCs into functional melanocytes. Although the contribution of human cells to pigmentation in the host was lower than that of mouse or rat donor cells, our results indicate that hNCCs, injected in utero, can integrate into the embryo and form mature functional cells in the animal. This mouse-human chimeric platform allows for a new approach to study NC development and diseases. PMID:26811475

  9. Midline craniofacial malformations with a lipomatous cephalocele are associated with insufficient closure of the neural tube in the tuft mouse

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Keith S. K.; Adachi, Dana A. T.; Chang, Shaun B.; Lozanoff, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variations affecting neural tube closure along the head result in malformations to the face and brain, posing a significant impact on health care costs and the quality of life. We have established a mouse line from a mutation that arose spontaneously in our wildtype colony that we called tuft. Tuft mice have heritable midline craniofacial defects featuring an anterior lipomatous cephalocele. Whole mount skeletal stains indicated that affected newborns had a broader interfrontal suture where the cephalocele emerged between the frontal bones. Mice with a cephalocele positioned near the rostrum also presented craniofacial malformations such as ocular hypertelorism and midfacial cleft of the nose. Gross and histological examination revealed that the lipomatous cephalocele originated as a fluid filled cyst no earlier than E14.5 while embryos with a midfacial cleft was evident during craniofacial development at E11.5. Histological sections of embryos with a midfacial cleft revealed the cephalic neuroectoderm remained proximal or fused to the frontonasal ectoderm about the closure site of the anterior neuropore, indicating a defect to neural tube closure. We found the neural folds along the rostrum of E9-10.5 embryos curled inward and failed to close as well as embryos with exencephaly and anencephaly at later stages. Whole mount in situ hybridization of anterior markers Fgf8 and Shh indicated closure of the rostral site was compromised in severe cases. We present a model demonstrating how anterior cranial cephaloceles are generated following a defect to neural tube closure and relevance to subsequent craniofacial morphogenesis in the tuft mouse. PMID:24931720

  10. In Vivo Transplantation of Enteric Neural Crest Cells into Mouse Gut; Engraftment, Functional Integration and Long-Term Safety

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Julie E.; McCann, Conor J.; Natarajan, Dipa; Choudhury, Shanas; Boesmans, Werend; Delalande, Jean-Marie; Vanden Berghe, Pieter; Burns, Alan J.; Thapar, Nikhil

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Enteric neuropathies are severe gastrointestinal disorders with unsatisfactory outcomes. We aimed to investigate the potential of enteric neural stem cell therapy approaches for such disorders by transplanting mouse enteric neural crest cells (ENCCs) into ganglionic and aganglionic mouse gut in vivo and analysing functional integration and long-term safety. Design Neurospheres generated from yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) expressing ENCCs selected from postnatal Wnt1-cre;R26R-YFP/YFP murine gut were transplanted into ganglionic hindgut of wild-type littermates or aganglionic hindgut of Ednrbtm1Ywa mice (lacking functional endothelin receptor type-B). Intestines were then assessed for ENCC integration and differentiation using immunohistochemistry, cell function using calcium imaging, and long-term safety using PCR to detect off-target YFP expression. Results YFP+ ENCCs engrafted, proliferated and differentiated into enteric neurons and glia within recipient ganglionic gut. Transplanted cells and their projections spread along the endogenous myenteric plexus to form branching networks. Electrical point stimulation of endogenous nerve fibres resulted in calcium transients (F/F0 = 1.16±0.01;43 cells, n = 6) in YFP+ transplanted ENCCs (abolished with TTX). Long-term follow-up (24 months) showed transplanted ENCCs did not give rise to tumours or spread to other organs (PCR negative in extraintestinal sites). In aganglionic gut ENCCs similarly spread and differentiated to form neuronal and glial networks with projections closely associated with endogenous neural networks of the transition zone. Conclusions Transplanted ENCCs successfully engrafted into recipient ganglionic and aganglionic gut showing appropriate spread, localisation and, importantly, functional integration without any long-term safety issues. This study provides key support for the development and use of enteric neural stem cell therapies. PMID:26824433

  11. Tumourigenicity and Immunogenicity of Induced Neural Stem Cell Grafts Versus Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Grafts in Syngeneic Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Mou; Yao, Hui; Dong, Qin; Zhang, Hongtian; Yang, Zhijun; Yang, Yang; Zhu, Jianwei; Xu, Minhui; Xu, Ruxiang

    2016-01-01

    Along with the development of stem cell-based therapies for central nervous system (CNS) disease, the safety of stem cell grafts in the CNS, such as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and induced neural stem cells (iNSCs), should be of primary concern. To provide scientific basis for evaluating the safety of these stem cells, we determined their tumourigenicity and immunogenicity in syngeneic mouse brain. Both iPSCs and embryonic stem cells (ESCs) were able to form tumours in the mouse brain, leading to tissue destruction along with immune cell infiltration. In contrast, no evidence of tumour formation, brain injury or immune rejection was observed with iNSCs, neural stem cells (NSCs) or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). With the help of gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis, we detected significantly elevated levels of chemokines in the brain tissue and serum of mice that developed tumours after ESC or iPSC transplantation. Moreover, we also investigated the interactions between chemokines and NF-κB signalling and found that NF-κB activation was positively correlated with the constantly rising levels of chemokines, and vice versa. In short, iNSC grafts, which lacked any resulting tumourigenicity or immunogenicity, are safer than iPSC grafts. PMID:27417157

  12. Electrospun Fibrous Scaffolds of Poly(glycerol-dodecanedioate) for Engineering Neural Tissues From Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xizi; Huang, Yen-Chih

    2014-01-01

    For tissue engineering applications, the preparation of biodegradable and biocompatible scaffolds is the most desirable but challenging task.  Among the various fabrication methods, electrospinning is the most attractive one due to its simplicity and versatility. Additionally, electrospun nanofibers mimic the size of natural extracellular matrix ensuring additional support for cell survival and growth. This study showed the viability of the fabrication of long fibers spanning a larger deposit area for a novel biodegradable and biocompatible polymer named poly(glycerol-dodecanoate) (PGD)1 by using a newly designed collector for electrospinning. PGD exhibits unique elastic properties with similar mechanical properties to nerve tissues, thus it is suitable for neural tissue engineering applications. The synthesis and fabrication set-up for making fibrous scaffolding materials was simple, highly reproducible, and inexpensive. In biocompatibility testing, cells derived from mouse embryonic stem cells could adhere to and grow on the electrospun PGD fibers. In summary, this protocol provided a versatile fabrication method for making PGD electrospun fibers to support the growth of mouse embryonic stem cell derived neural lineage cells. PMID:24961272

  13. Tumourigenicity and Immunogenicity of Induced Neural Stem Cell Grafts Versus Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Grafts in Syngeneic Mouse Brain.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mou; Yao, Hui; Dong, Qin; Zhang, Hongtian; Yang, Zhijun; Yang, Yang; Zhu, Jianwei; Xu, Minhui; Xu, Ruxiang

    2016-01-01

    Along with the development of stem cell-based therapies for central nervous system (CNS) disease, the safety of stem cell grafts in the CNS, such as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and induced neural stem cells (iNSCs), should be of primary concern. To provide scientific basis for evaluating the safety of these stem cells, we determined their tumourigenicity and immunogenicity in syngeneic mouse brain. Both iPSCs and embryonic stem cells (ESCs) were able to form tumours in the mouse brain, leading to tissue destruction along with immune cell infiltration. In contrast, no evidence of tumour formation, brain injury or immune rejection was observed with iNSCs, neural stem cells (NSCs) or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). With the help of gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis, we detected significantly elevated levels of chemokines in the brain tissue and serum of mice that developed tumours after ESC or iPSC transplantation. Moreover, we also investigated the interactions between chemokines and NF-κB signalling and found that NF-κB activation was positively correlated with the constantly rising levels of chemokines, and vice versa. In short, iNSC grafts, which lacked any resulting tumourigenicity or immunogenicity, are safer than iPSC grafts. PMID:27417157

  14. Electrospun fibrous scaffolds of Poly(glycerol-dodecanedioate) for engineering neural tissues from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xizi; Huang, Yen-Chih

    2014-01-01

    For tissue engineering applications, the preparation of biodegradable and biocompatible scaffolds is the most desirable but challenging task.  Among the various fabrication methods, electrospinning is the most attractive one due to its simplicity and versatility. Additionally, electrospun nanofibers mimic the size of natural extracellular matrix ensuring additional support for cell survival and growth. This study showed the viability of the fabrication of long fibers spanning a larger deposit area for a novel biodegradable and biocompatible polymer named poly(glycerol-dodecanoate) (PGD)(1) by using a newly designed collector for electrospinning. PGD exhibits unique elastic properties with similar mechanical properties to nerve tissues, thus it is suitable for neural tissue engineering applications. The synthesis and fabrication set-up for making fibrous scaffolding materials was simple, highly reproducible, and inexpensive. In biocompatibility testing, cells derived from mouse embryonic stem cells could adhere to and grow on the electrospun PGD fibers. In summary, this protocol provided a versatile fabrication method for making PGD electrospun fibers to support the growth of mouse embryonic stem cell derived neural lineage cells.

  15. Nop2 is expressed during proliferation of neural stem cells and in adult mouse and human brain.

    PubMed

    Kosi, Nina; Alić, Ivan; Kolačević, Matea; Vrsaljko, Nina; Jovanov Milošević, Nataša; Sobol, Margarita; Philimonenko, Anatoly; Hozák, Pavel; Gajović, Srećko; Pochet, Roland; Mitrečić, Dinko

    2015-02-01

    The nucleolar protein 2 gene encodes a protein specific for the nucleolus. It is assumed that it plays a role in the synthesis of ribosomes and regulation of the cell cycle. Due to its link to cell proliferation, higher expression of Nop2 indicates a worse tumor prognosis. In this work we used Nop2(gt1gaj) gene trap mouse strain. While lethality of homozygous animals suggested a vital role of this gene, heterozygous animals allowed the detection of expression of Nop2 in various tissues, including mouse brain. Histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy techniques, applied to a mature mouse brain, human brain and on mouse neural stem cells revealed expression of Nop2 in differentiating cells, including astrocytes, as well as in mature neurons. Nop2 was detected in various regions of mouse and human brain, mostly in large pyramidal neurons. In the human, Nop2 was strongly expressed in supragranular and infragranular layers of the somatosensory cortex and in layer III of the cingulate cortex. Also, Nop2 was detected in CA1 and the subiculum of the hippocampus. Subcellular analyses revealed predominant location of Nop2 within the dense fibrillar component of the nucleolus. To test if Nop2 expression correlates to cell proliferation occurring during tissue regeneration, we induced strokes in mice by middle cerebral artery occlusion. Two weeks after stroke, the number of Nop2/nestin double positive cells in the region affected by ischemia and the periventricular zone substantially increased. Our findings suggest a newly discovered role of Nop2 in both mature neurons and in cells possibly involved in the regeneration of nervous tissue.

  16. Bumetanide promotes neural precursor cell regeneration and dendritic development in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in the chronic stage of cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wang-shu; Sun, Xuan; Song, Cheng-guang; Mu, Xiao-peng; Ma, Wen-ping; Zhang, Xing-hu; Zhao, Chuan-sheng

    2016-01-01

    Bumetanide has been shown to lessen cerebral edema and reduce the infarct area in the acute stage of cerebral ischemia. Few studies focus on the effects of bumetanide on neuroprotection and neurogenesis in the chronic stage of cerebral ischemia. We established a rat model of cerebral ischemia by injecting endothelin-1 in the left cortical motor area and left corpus striatum. Seven days later, bumetanide 200 µg/kg/day was injected into the lateral ventricle for 21 consecutive days with a mini-osmotic pump. Results demonstrated that the number of neuroblasts cells and the total length of dendrites increased, escape latency reduced, and the number of platform crossings increased in the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus in the chronic stage of cerebral ischemia. These findings suggest that bumetanide promoted neural precursor cell regeneration, dendritic development and the recovery of cognitive function, and protected brain tissue in the chronic stage of ischemia. PMID:27335557

  17. Adenosine A(1), A(2a), A(2b), and A(3) receptors in hematopoiesis. 1. Expression of receptor mRNA in four mouse hematopoietic precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Streitová, D; Sefc, L; Savvulidi, F; Pospísil, M; Holá, J; Hofer, M

    2010-01-01

    Four mouse bone marrow or thymus cell populations, namely granulopoietic/monocytopoietic, erythropoietic, B-lymphopoietic, and T-lymphopoietic precursor cells have been assayed by RT-PCR technique for the presence and relative amounts of adenosine A(1), A(2a), A(2b), and A(3) receptor mRNA. It has been found that (i) all four populations studied express all four adenosine receptor subtypes, (ii) the A(1), receptor is the least expressed in all populations studied, (iii) the A(3) receptor is markedly expressed in the populations of granulopoietic/monocytopoietic and erythropoietic cells, (iv) the A(2a) receptor is markedly expressed in the populations of B-lymphopoietic and T-lymphopoietic cells, and v) the A(2b) receptor does not predominate in any of the precursor cells studied. Our data offer a new possibility for the assessment of the readiness of these cells to respond, by receptor-mediated mechanisms, to adenosine or its analogs present in the tissues as a result of endogenous processes and/or following their administration.

  18. Insights into prevention of human neural tube defects by folic acid arising from consideration of mouse mutants.

    PubMed

    Harris, Muriel J

    2009-04-01

    Almost 30 years after the initial study by Richard W. Smithells and coworkers, it is still unknown how maternal periconceptional folic acid supplementation prevents human neural tube defects (NTDs). In this article, questions about human NTD prevention are considered in relation to three groups of mouse models: NTD mutants that respond to folate, NTD mutants and strains that do not respond to folate, and mutants involving folate-pathway genes. Of the 200 mouse NTD mutants, only a few have been tested with folate; half respond and half do not. Among responsive mutants, folic acid supplementation reduces exencephaly and/or spina bifida aperta frequency in the Sp(2H), Sp, Cd, Cited2, Cart1, and Gcn5 mutants. Prevention ranges from 35 to 85%. The responsive Sp(2H) (Pax3) mutant has abnormal folate metabolism, but the responsive Cited2 mutant does not. Neither folic nor folinic acid reduces NTD frequency in Axd, Grhl3, Fkbp8, Map3k4, or Nog mutants or in the curly tail or SELH/Bc strains. Spina bifida frequency is reduced in Axd by methionine and in curly tail by inositol. Exencephaly frequency is reduced in SELH/Bc by an alternative commercial ration. Mutations in folate-pathway genes do not cause NTDs, except for 30% exencephaly in folate-treated Folr1. Among folate-pathway mutants, neural tube closure is normal in Cbs, Folr2, Mthfd1, Mthfd2, Mthfr, and Shmt1 mutants. Embryos die by midgestation in Folr1, Mtr, Mtrr, and RFC1 mutants. The mouse models point to genetic heterogeneity in the ability to respond to folic acid and also to heterogeneity in genetic cause of NTDs that can be prevented by folic acid.

  19. Y1 receptors are critical for the proliferation of adult mouse precursor cells in the olfactory neuroepithelium.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Kharen L; Karl, Tim; Hort, Yvonne; Duffy, Liesl; Shine, John; Herzog, Herbert

    2008-05-01

    While the regenerative capacity of the olfactory neuroepithelium has been well studied less is known about the molecular events controlling precursor cell activity. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is expressed at high levels in the olfactory system, and NPY has been shown to play a role in neuroregeneration of the brain. In this study, we show that the numbers of olfactory neurospheres derived from NPY, NPY/peptide YY, and Y1 receptor knockout mice are decreased compared with wild type (WT) controls. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis of isolated horizontal basal cells, globose basal cells, and glandular cells showed that only glandular cells derived from WT mice, but not from NPY and Y1 receptor knockout mice, formed secondary neurospheres suggesting a critical role for NPY signaling in this process. Interestingly, olfactory function tests revealed that olfaction in Y1 knockout mice is impaired compared with those of WT mice, probably because of the reduced number of olfactory neurons formed. Together these results indicate that NPY and the Y1 receptor are required for the normal proliferation of adult olfactory precursors and olfactory function.

  20. Comparative Analysis Between Flaviviruses Reveals Specific Neural Stem Cell Tropism for Zika Virus in the Mouse Developing Neocortex.

    PubMed

    Brault, Jean-Baptiste; Khou, Cécile; Basset, Justine; Coquand, Laure; Fraisier, Vincent; Frenkiel, Marie-Pascale; Goud, Bruno; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Pardigon, Nathalie; Baffet, Alexandre D

    2016-08-01

    The recent Zika outbreak in South America and French Polynesia was associated with an epidemic of microcephaly, a disease characterized by a reduced size of the cerebral cortex. Other members of the Flavivirus genus, including West Nile virus (WNV), can cause encephalitis but were not demonstrated to cause microcephaly. It remains unclear whether Zika virus (ZIKV) and other flaviviruses may infect different cell populations in the developing neocortex and lead to distinct developmental defects. Here, we describe an assay to infect mouse E15 embryonic brain slices with ZIKV, WNV and dengue virus serotype 4 (DENV-4). We show that this tissue is able to support viral replication of ZIKV and WNV, but not DENV-4. Cell fate analysis reveals a remarkable tropism of ZIKV infection for neural stem cells. Closely related WNV displays a very different tropism of infection, with a bias towards neurons. We further show that ZIKV infection, but not WNV infection, impairs cell cycle progression of neural stem cells. Both viruses inhibited apoptosis at early stages of infection. This work establishes a powerful comparative approach to identify ZIKV-specific alterations in the developing neocortex and reveals specific preferential infection of neural stem cells by ZIKV. PMID:27453325

  1. Comparative Analysis Between Flaviviruses Reveals Specific Neural Stem Cell Tropism for Zika Virus in the Mouse Developing Neocortex.

    PubMed

    Brault, Jean-Baptiste; Khou, Cécile; Basset, Justine; Coquand, Laure; Fraisier, Vincent; Frenkiel, Marie-Pascale; Goud, Bruno; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Pardigon, Nathalie; Baffet, Alexandre D

    2016-08-01

    The recent Zika outbreak in South America and French Polynesia was associated with an epidemic of microcephaly, a disease characterized by a reduced size of the cerebral cortex. Other members of the Flavivirus genus, including West Nile virus (WNV), can cause encephalitis but were not demonstrated to cause microcephaly. It remains unclear whether Zika virus (ZIKV) and other flaviviruses may infect different cell populations in the developing neocortex and lead to distinct developmental defects. Here, we describe an assay to infect mouse E15 embryonic brain slices with ZIKV, WNV and dengue virus serotype 4 (DENV-4). We show that this tissue is able to support viral replication of ZIKV and WNV, but not DENV-4. Cell fate analysis reveals a remarkable tropism of ZIKV infection for neural stem cells. Closely related WNV displays a very different tropism of infection, with a bias towards neurons. We further show that ZIKV infection, but not WNV infection, impairs cell cycle progression of neural stem cells. Both viruses inhibited apoptosis at early stages of infection. This work establishes a powerful comparative approach to identify ZIKV-specific alterations in the developing neocortex and reveals specific preferential infection of neural stem cells by ZIKV.

  2. Induced neural stem cells achieve long-term survival and functional integration in the adult mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Hemmer, Kathrin; Zhang, Mingyue; van Wüllen, Thea; Sakalem, Marna; Tapia, Natalia; Baumuratov, Aidos; Kaltschmidt, Christian; Kaltschmidt, Barbara; Schöler, Hans R; Zhang, Weiqi; Schwamborn, Jens C

    2014-09-01

    Differentiated cells can be converted directly into multipotent neural stem cells (i.e., induced neural stem cells [iNSCs]). iNSCs offer an attractive alternative to induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology with regard to regenerative therapies. Here, we show an in vivo long-term analysis of transplanted iNSCs in the adult mouse brain. iNSCs showed sound in vivo long-term survival rates without graft overgrowths. The cells displayed a neural multilineage potential with a clear bias toward astrocytes and a permanent downregulation of progenitor and cell-cycle markers, indicating that iNSCs are not predisposed to tumor formation. Furthermore, the formation of synaptic connections as well as neuronal and glial electrophysiological properties demonstrated that differentiated iNSCs migrated, functionally integrated, and interacted with the existing neuronal circuitry. We conclude that iNSC long-term transplantation is a safe procedure; moreover, it might represent an interesting tool for future personalized regenerative applications. PMID:25241741

  3. Neural progenitor cells regulate microglia functions and activity.

    PubMed

    Mosher, Kira I; Andres, Robert H; Fukuhara, Takeshi; Bieri, Gregor; Hasegawa-Moriyama, Maiko; He, Yingbo; Guzman, Raphael; Wyss-Coray, Tony

    2012-11-01

    We found mouse neural progenitor cells (NPCs) to have a secretory protein profile distinct from other brain cells and to modulate microglial activation, proliferation and phagocytosis. NPC-derived vascular endothelial growth factor was necessary and sufficient to exert at least some of these effects in mice. Thus, neural precursor cells may not only be shaped by microglia, but also regulate microglia functions and activity.

  4. Human neural crest cells contribute to coat pigmentation in interspecies chimeras after in utero injection into mouse embryos

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Malkiel A.; Wert, Katherine J.; Goldmann, Johanna; Markoulaki, Styliani; Buganim, Yosef; Fu, Dongdong; Jaenisch, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    The neural crest (NC) represents multipotent cells that arise at the interphase between ectoderm and prospective epidermis of the neurulating embryo. The NC has major clinical relevance because it is involved in both inherited and acquired developmental abnormalities. The aim of this study was to establish an experimental platform that would allow for the integration of human NC cells (hNCCs) into the gastrulating mouse embryo. NCCs were derived from pluripotent mouse, rat, and human cells and microinjected into embryonic-day-8.5 embryos. To facilitate integration of the NCCs, we used recipient embryos that carried a c-Kit mutation (Wsh/Wsh), which leads to a loss of melanoblasts and thus eliminates competition from the endogenous host cells. The donor NCCs migrated along the dorsolateral migration routes in the recipient embryos. Postnatal mice derived from injected embryos displayed pigmented hair, demonstrating differentiation of the NCCs into functional melanocytes. Although the contribution of human cells to pigmentation in the host was lower than that of mouse or rat donor cells, our results indicate that hNCCs, injected in utero, can integrate into the embryo and form mature functional cells in the animal. This mouse–human chimeric platform allows for a new approach to study NC development and diseases. PMID:26811475

  5. Lead decreases cell survival, proliferation, and neuronal differentiation of primary cultured adult neural precursor cells through activation of the JNK and p38 MAP kinases.

    PubMed

    Engstrom, Anna; Wang, Hao; Xia, Zhengui

    2015-08-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is the process whereby adult neural precursor cells (aNPCs) in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG) generate adult-born, functional neurons in the hippocampus. This process is modulated by various extracellular and intracellular stimuli, and the adult-born neurons have been implicated in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. However, studies on how neurotoxic agents affect this process and the underlying mechanisms are limited. The goal of this study was to determine whether lead, a heavy metal, directly impairs critical processes in adult neurogenesis and to characterize the underlying signaling pathways using primary cultured SGZ-aNPCs isolated from adult mice. We report here that lead significantly increases apoptosis and inhibits proliferation in SGZ-aNPCs. In addition, lead significantly impairs spontaneous neuronal differentiation and maturation. Furthermore, we found that activation of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathways are important for lead cytotoxicity. Our data suggest that lead can directly act on adult neural stem cells and impair critical processes in adult hippocampal neurogenesis, which may contribute to its neurotoxicity and adverse effects on cognition in adults.

  6. Single-Cell Expression Profiling Reveals a Dynamic State of Cardiac Precursor Cells in the Early Mouse Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Kokkinopoulos, Ioannis; Ishida, Hidekazu; Saba, Rie; Ruchaya, Prashant; Cabrera, Claudia; Struebig, Monika; Barnes, Michael; Terry, Anna; Kaneko, Masahiro; Shintani, Yasunori; Coppen, Steven; Shiratori, Hidetaka; Ameen, Torath; Mein, Charles; Hamada, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Ken; Yashiro, Kenta

    2015-01-01

    In the early vertebrate embryo, cardiac progenitor/precursor cells (CPs) give rise to cardiac structures. Better understanding their biological character is critical to understand the heart development and to apply CPs for the clinical arena. However, our knowledge remains incomplete. With the use of single-cell expression profiling, we have now revealed rapid and dynamic changes in gene expression profiles of the embryonic CPs during the early phase after their segregation from the cardiac mesoderm. Progressively, the nascent mesodermal gene Mesp1 terminated, and Nkx2-5+/Tbx5+ population rapidly replaced the Tbx5low+ population as the expression of the cardiac genes Tbx5 and Nkx2-5 increased. At the Early Headfold stage, Tbx5-expressing CPs gradually showed a unique molecular signature with signs of cardiomyocyte differentiation. Lineage-tracing revealed a developmentally distinct characteristic of this population. They underwent progressive differentiation only towards the cardiomyocyte lineage corresponding to the first heart field rather than being maintained as a progenitor pool. More importantly, Tbx5 likely plays an important role in a transcriptional network to regulate the distinct character of the FHF via a positive feedback loop to activate the robust expression of Tbx5 in CPs. These data expands our knowledge on the behavior of CPs during the early phase of cardiac development, subsequently providing a platform for further study. PMID:26469858

  7. Single-Cell Expression Profiling Reveals a Dynamic State of Cardiac Precursor Cells in the Early Mouse Embryo.

    PubMed

    Kokkinopoulos, Ioannis; Ishida, Hidekazu; Saba, Rie; Ruchaya, Prashant; Cabrera, Claudia; Struebig, Monika; Barnes, Michael; Terry, Anna; Kaneko, Masahiro; Shintani, Yasunori; Coppen, Steven; Shiratori, Hidetaka; Ameen, Torath; Mein, Charles; Hamada, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Ken; Yashiro, Kenta

    2015-01-01

    In the early vertebrate embryo, cardiac progenitor/precursor cells (CPs) give rise to cardiac structures. Better understanding their biological character is critical to understand the heart development and to apply CPs for the clinical arena. However, our knowledge remains incomplete. With the use of single-cell expression profiling, we have now revealed rapid and dynamic changes in gene expression profiles of the embryonic CPs during the early phase after their segregation from the cardiac mesoderm. Progressively, the nascent mesodermal gene Mesp1 terminated, and Nkx2-5+/Tbx5+ population rapidly replaced the Tbx5low+ population as the expression of the cardiac genes Tbx5 and Nkx2-5 increased. At the Early Headfold stage, Tbx5-expressing CPs gradually showed a unique molecular signature with signs of cardiomyocyte differentiation. Lineage-tracing revealed a developmentally distinct characteristic of this population. They underwent progressive differentiation only towards the cardiomyocyte lineage corresponding to the first heart field rather than being maintained as a progenitor pool. More importantly, Tbx5 likely plays an important role in a transcriptional network to regulate the distinct character of the FHF via a positive feedback loop to activate the robust expression of Tbx5 in CPs. These data expands our knowledge on the behavior of CPs during the early phase of cardiac development, subsequently providing a platform for further study.

  8. Amyloid precursor protein transgenic mouse models and Alzheimer’s disease: Understanding the paradigms, limitations and contributions

    PubMed Central

    Kokjohn, Tyler A.; Roher, Alex E.

    2009-01-01

    Transgenic (Tg) mice overexpressing mutant familial Alzheimer’s disease (AD) amyloid precursor protein (APP) genes have contributed to the understanding of dementia pathology and support the amyloid cascade hypothesis. Although many sophisticated mice APP models exist, none recapitulates AD cellular and behavioral pathology. The morphological resemblance to AD amyloidosis is impressive, but fundamental biophysical and biochemical properties of the APP/Aβ produced in Tg mice differ substantially from those of humans. The greater resilience of Tg mice to substantial Aβ burdens suggests the levels and forms that are deleterious to human neurons are not as noxious in these models. Tg mice have been widely used for testing AD therapeutic agents and demonstrated promising results. Unfortunately, clinical trials resulted in unforeseen adverse events or negative therapeutic outcomes. The disparity between success and failure is in part due to differences in brain environment that separate man and rodent. These observations suggest that the pathogenesis of AD is by far much more intricate than the straightforward accumulation of Aβ. PMID:19560104

  9. tek, a novel tyrosine kinase gene located on mouse chromosome 4, is expressed in endothelial cells and their presumptive precursors.

    PubMed

    Dumont, D J; Yamaguchi, T P; Conlon, R A; Rossant, J; Breitman, M L

    1992-08-01

    A search for protein tyrosine kinases expressed during murine cardiogenesis resulted in the isolation of a novel tyrosine kinase, designated tek, which maps to mouse chromosome 4 between the brown and pmv-23 loci. The deduced amino acid sequence of tek predicts that it encodes a putative receptor tyrosine kinase that contains a 21 amino acid kinase insert and which is most closely related in its catalytic domains to FGFR1 and the product of the ret proto-oncogene. In situ hybridization analysis of adult tissues, as well as sectioned and whole-mount embryos, showed that tek is specifically expressed in the endocardium, the leptomeninges and the endothelial lining of the vasculature from the earliest stages of their development. Moreover, examination of the morphology of tek-expressing cells, and staging of tek expression relative to that of the endothelial cell marker von Willebrand factor, revealed that tek is expressed prior to von Willebrand factor and appears to mark the embryonic progenitors of mature endothelial cells. tek encodes a novel putative receptor tyrosine kinase that may be critically involved in the determination and/or maintenance of cells of the endothelial lineage.

  10. Cocaine-and Amphetamine Regulated Transcript (CART) Peptide Is Expressed in Precursor Cells and Somatotropes of the Mouse Pituitary Gland

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Amanda H.

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine-and Amphetamine Regulated Transcript (CART) peptide is expressed in the brain, endocrine and neuroendocrine systems and secreted into the serum. It is thought to play a role in regulation of hypothalamic pituitary functions. Here we report a spatial and temporal analysis of Cart expression in the pituitaries of adult and developing normal and mutant mice with hypopituitarism. We found that Prop1 is not necessary for initiation of Cart expression in the fetal pituitary at e14.5, but it is required indirectly for maintenance of Cart expression in the postnatal anterior pituitary gland. Pou1f1 deficiency has no effect on Cart expression before or after birth. There is no 1:1 correspondence between CART and any particular cell type. In neonates, CART is detected primarily in non-proliferating, POU1F1-positive cells. CART is also found in some cells that express TSH and GH suggesting a correspondence with committed progenitors of the POU1F1 lineage. In summary, we have characterized the normal temporal and cell specific expression of CART in mouse development and demonstrate that postnatal CART expression in the pituitary gland requires PROP1. PMID:27685990

  11. A role for interleukin-1β in determining the lineage fate of embryonic rat hippocampal neural precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Green, Holly F; Treacy, Eimear; Keohane, Aoife K; Sullivan, Aideen M; O'Keeffe, Gerard W; Nolan, Yvonne M

    2012-03-01

    Neurogenesis occurs in the hippocampus of the developing and adult brain due to the presence of multipotent stem cells and restricted precursor cells at different stages of differentiation. It has been proposed that they may be of potential benefit for use in cell transplantation approaches for neurodegenerative disorders and trauma. Prolonged release of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) from activated microglia has a deleterious effect on hippocampal neurons and is implicated in the impaired neurogenesis and cognitive dysfunction associated with aging, Alzheimer's disease and depression. This study assessed the effect of IL-1β on the proliferation and differentiation of embryonic rat hippocampal NPCs in vitro. We show that IL-1R1 is expressed on proliferating NPCs and that IL-1β treatment decreases cell proliferation and neurosphere growth. When NPCs were differentiated in the presence of IL-1β, a significant reduction in the percentages of newly-born neurons and post-mitotic neurons and a significant increase in the percentage of astrocytes was observed in these cultures. These effects were attenuated by IL-1 receptor antagonist. These data reveal that IL-1β exerts an anti-proliferative, anti-neurogenic and pro-gliogenic effect on embryonic hippocampal NPCs, which is mediated by IL-1R1. The present results emphasise the consequences of an inflammatory environment during NPC development, and indicate that strategies to inhibit IL-1β signalling may be necessary to facilitate effective cell transplantation approaches or in conditions where endogenous hippocampal neurogenesis is impaired.

  12. HETEROTOPICALLY TRANSPLANTED CVO NEURAL STEM CELLS GENERATE NEURONS AND MIGRATE WITH SVZ CELLS IN THE ADULT MOUSE BRAIN

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Lori B.; Cai, Jingli; Enikolopov, Grigori; Iacovitti, Lorraine

    2010-01-01

    Production of new neurons throughout adulthood has been well characterized in two brain regions, the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the anterolateral ventricle and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus. The neurons produced from these regions arise from neural stem cells (NSCs) found in highly regulated stem cell niches. We recently showed that midline structures called circumventricular organs (CVOs) also contain NSCs capable of neurogenesis and/or astrogliogenesis in vitro and in situ [3]. The present study demonstrates that NSCs derived from two astrogliogenic CVOs, the median eminence and organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis of the Nestin-GFP mouse, possess the potential to integrate into the SVZ and differentiate into cells with a neuronal phenotype. These NSCs, following expansion and BrdU-labeling in culture and heterotopic transplantation into a region proximal to the SVZ in adult mice, migrate caudally to the SVZ and express early neuronal markers (TUC-4, PSA-NCAM) as they migrate along the rostral migratory stream. CVO-derived BrdU+ cells ultimately reach the olfactory bulb where they express early (PSA-NCAM) and mature (NeuN) neuronal markers. Collectively, these data suggest that although NSCs derived from the ME and OVLT CVOs are astrogliogenic in situ, they produce cells phenotypic of neurons in vivo when placed in a neurogenic environment. These findings may have implications for neural repair in the adult brain. PMID:20298755

  13. Pluripotent stem cells induced from mouse neural stem cells and small intestinal epithelial cells by small molecule compounds.

    PubMed

    Ye, Junqing; Ge, Jian; Zhang, Xu; Cheng, Lin; Zhang, Zhengyuan; He, Shan; Wang, Yuping; Lin, Hua; Yang, Weifeng; Liu, Junfang; Zhao, Yang; Deng, Hongkui

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we reported a chemical approach to generate pluripotent stem cells from mouse fibroblasts. However, whether chemically induced pluripotent stem cells (CiPSCs) can be derived from other cell types remains to be demonstrated. Here, using lineage tracing, we first verify the generation of CiPSCs from fibroblasts. Next, we demonstrate that neural stem cells (NSCs) from the ectoderm and small intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) from the endoderm can be chemically reprogrammed into pluripotent stem cells. CiPSCs derived from NSCs and IECs resemble mouse embryonic stem cells in proliferation rate, global gene expression profile, epigenetic status, self-renewal and differentiation capacity, and germline transmission competency. Interestingly, the pluripotency gene Sall4 is expressed at the initial stage in the chemical reprogramming process from different cell types, and the same core small molecules are required for the reprogramming, suggesting conservation in the molecular mechanism underlying chemical reprogramming from these diverse cell types. Our analysis also shows that the use of these small molecules should be fine-tuned to meet the requirement of reprogramming from different cell types. Together, these findings demonstrate that full chemical reprogramming approach can be applied in cells of different tissue origins and suggest that chemical reprogramming is a promising strategy with the potential to be extended to more initial types. PMID:26704449

  14. Effects of Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury and Hypothermic Neuroprotection on Neural Progenitor Cells in the Mouse Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Minhye; Lim, Sanghee; Kang, Eunchai; Furmanski, Orion; Song, Hongjun; Ryu, Yun Kyoung; Mintz, C David

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic injury (HI) results in widespread cerebral encephalopathy and affects structures that are essential for neurocognitive function, such as the hippocampus. The dentate gyrus contains a reservoir of neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs) that are critical for postnatal development and normal adult function of the hippocampus, and may also facilitate the recovery of function after injury. Using a neonatal mouse model of mild-to-moderate HI and immunohistochemical analysis of NSPC development markers, we asked whether these cells are vulnerable to HI and how they respond to both injury and hypothermic therapy. We found that cleaved caspase-3 labeling in the subgranular zone, where NSPCs are located, is increased by more than 30-fold after HI. The population of cells positive for both proliferating cell nuclear antigen and nestin (PCNA+Nes+), which represent primarily actively proliferating NSPCs, are acutely decreased by 68% after HI. The NSPC population expressing NeuroD1, a marker for NSPCs transitioning to become fate-committed neural progenitors, was decreased by 47%. One week after HI, there was a decrease in neuroblasts and immature neurons in the dentate gyrus, as measured by doublecortin (DCX) immunolabeling, and at the same time PCNA+Nes+ cell density was increased by 71%. NSPCs expressing Tbr2, which identifies a highly proliferative intermediate neural progenitor population, increased by 107%. Hypothermia treatment after HI partially rescues both the acute decrease in PCNA+Nes+ cell density at 1 day after injury and the chronic loss of DCX immunoreactivity and reduction in NeuroD1 cell density measured at 1 week after injury. Thus, we conclude that HI causes an acute loss of dentate gyrus NSPCs, and that hypothermia partially protects NSPCs from HI. PMID:26087836

  15. MiRNA-128 regulates the proliferation and neurogenesis of neural precursors by targeting PCM1 in the developing cortex

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Kim, Paul Jong; Chen, Zhongcan; Lokman, Hidayat; Qiu, Lifeng; Zhang, Ke; Rozen, Steven George; Tan, Eng King; Je, Hyunsoo Shawn; Zeng, Li

    2016-01-01

    During the development, tight regulation of the expansion of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and their differentiation into neurons is crucial for normal cortical formation and function. In this study, we demonstrate that microRNA (miR)-128 regulates the proliferation and differentiation of NPCs by repressing pericentriolar material 1 (PCM1). Specifically, overexpression of miR-128 reduced NPC proliferation but promoted NPC differentiation into neurons both in vivo and in vitro. In contrast, the reduction of endogenous miR-128 elicited the opposite effects. Overexpression of miR-128 suppressed the translation of PCM1, and knockdown of endogenous PCM1 phenocopied the observed effects of miR-128 overexpression. Furthermore, concomitant overexpression of PCM1 and miR-128 in NPCs rescued the phenotype associated with miR-128 overexpression, enhancing neurogenesis but inhibiting proliferation, both in vitro and in utero. Taken together, these results demonstrate a novel mechanism by which miR-128 regulates the proliferation and differentiation of NPCs in the developing neocortex. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11324.001 PMID:26883496

  16. BarTeL, a Genetically Versatile, Bioluminescent and Granule Neuron Precursor-Targeted Mouse Model for Medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Shackleford, Gregory M; Shi, Xiang-He; Swanson, Kimberly S; Mahdi, Min Y; Gonzalez-Gomez, Ignacio; Asgharzadeh, Shahab; D'Apuzzo, Massimo; Erdreich-Epstein, Anat; Moats, Rex A

    2016-01-01

    Medulloblastomas are the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor and have been divided into four major molecular subgroups. Animal models that mimic the principal molecular aberrations of these subgroups will be important tools for preclinical studies and allow greater understanding of medulloblastoma biology. We report a new transgenic model of medulloblastoma that possesses a unique combination of desirable characteristics including, among others, the ability to incorporate multiple and variable genes of choice and to produce bioluminescent tumors from a limited number of somatic cells within a normal cellular environment. This model, termed BarTeL, utilizes a Barhl1 homeobox gene promoter to target expression of a bicistronic transgene encoding both the avian retroviral receptor TVA and an eGFP-Luciferase fusion protein to neonatal cerebellar granule neuron precursor (cGNP) cells, which are cells of origin for the sonic hedgehog (SHH) subgroup of human medulloblastomas. The Barhl1 promoter-driven transgene is expressed strongly in mammalian cGNPs and weakly or not at all in mature granule neurons. We efficiently induced bioluminescent medulloblastomas expressing eGFP-luciferase in BarTeL mice by infection of a limited number of somatic cGNPs with avian retroviral vectors encoding the active N-terminal fragment of SHH and a stabilized MYCN mutant. Detection and quantification of the increasing bioluminescence of growing tumors in young BarTeL mice was facilitated by the declining bioluminescence of their uninfected maturing cGNPs. Inclusion of eGFP in the transgene allowed enriched sorting of cGNPs from neonatal cerebella. Use of a single bicistronic avian vector simultaneously expressing both Shh and Mycn oncogenes increased the medulloblastoma incidence and aggressiveness compared to mixed virus infections. Bioluminescent tumors could also be produced by ex vivo transduction of neonatal BarTeL cerebellar cells by avian retroviruses and subsequent

  17. BarTeL, a Genetically Versatile, Bioluminescent and Granule Neuron Precursor-Targeted Mouse Model for Medulloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Mahdi, Min Y.; Gonzalez-Gomez, Ignacio; Asgharzadeh, Shahab; D’Apuzzo, Massimo; Erdreich-Epstein, Anat; Moats, Rex A.

    2016-01-01

    Medulloblastomas are the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor and have been divided into four major molecular subgroups. Animal models that mimic the principal molecular aberrations of these subgroups will be important tools for preclinical studies and allow greater understanding of medulloblastoma biology. We report a new transgenic model of medulloblastoma that possesses a unique combination of desirable characteristics including, among others, the ability to incorporate multiple and variable genes of choice and to produce bioluminescent tumors from a limited number of somatic cells within a normal cellular environment. This model, termed BarTeL, utilizes a Barhl1 homeobox gene promoter to target expression of a bicistronic transgene encoding both the avian retroviral receptor TVA and an eGFP-Luciferase fusion protein to neonatal cerebellar granule neuron precursor (cGNP) cells, which are cells of origin for the sonic hedgehog (SHH) subgroup of human medulloblastomas. The Barhl1 promoter-driven transgene is expressed strongly in mammalian cGNPs and weakly or not at all in mature granule neurons. We efficiently induced bioluminescent medulloblastomas expressing eGFP-luciferase in BarTeL mice by infection of a limited number of somatic cGNPs with avian retroviral vectors encoding the active N-terminal fragment of SHH and a stabilized MYCN mutant. Detection and quantification of the increasing bioluminescence of growing tumors in young BarTeL mice was facilitated by the declining bioluminescence of their uninfected maturing cGNPs. Inclusion of eGFP in the transgene allowed enriched sorting of cGNPs from neonatal cerebella. Use of a single bicistronic avian vector simultaneously expressing both Shh and Mycn oncogenes increased the medulloblastoma incidence and aggressiveness compared to mixed virus infections. Bioluminescent tumors could also be produced by ex vivo transduction of neonatal BarTeL cerebellar cells by avian retroviruses and subsequent

  18. Neuronal Store-Operated Calcium Entry and Mushroom Spine Loss in Amyloid Precursor Protein Knock-In Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Wu, Lili; Pchitskaya, Ekaterina; Zakharova, Olga; Saito, Takashi; Saido, Takaomi; Bezprozvanny, Ilya

    2015-09-30

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common reason for elderly dementia in the world. We proposed that memory loss in AD is related to destabilization of mushroom postsynaptic spines involved in long-term memory storage. We demonstrated previously that stromal interaction molecule 2 (STIM2)-regulated neuronal store-operated calcium entry (nSOC) in postsynaptic spines play a key role in stability of mushroom spines by maintaining activity of synaptic Ca(2+)/calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII). Furthermore, we demonstrated previously that the STIM2-nSOC-CaMKII pathway is downregulated in presenilin 1 M146V knock-in (PS1-M146V KI) mouse model of AD, leading to loss of hippocampal mushroom spines in this model. In the present study, we demonstrate that hippocampal mushroom postsynaptic spines are also lost in amyloid precursor protein knock-in (APPKI) mouse model of AD. We demonstrated that loss of mushroom spines occurs as a result of accumulation of extracellular β-amyloid 42 in APPKI culture media. Our results indicate that extracellular Aβ42 acts by overactivating mGluR5 receptor in APPKI neurons, leading to elevated Ca(2+) levels in endoplasmic reticulum, compensatory downregulation of STIM2 expression, impaired synaptic nSOC, and reduced CaMKII activity. Pharmacological inhibition of mGluR5 or overexpression of STIM2 rescued synaptic nSOC and prevented mushroom spine loss in APPKI hippocampal neurons. Our results indicate that downregulation of synaptic STIM2-nSOC-CaMKII pathway causes loss of mushroom synaptic spines in both presenilin and APPKI mouse models of AD. We propose that modulators/activators of this pathway may have a potential therapeutic value for treatment of memory loss in AD. Significance statement: A direct connection between amyloid-induced synaptic mushroom spine loss and neuronal store-operated calcium entry pathway is shown. These results provide strong support for the calcium hypothesis of neurodegeneration and further validate the synaptic

  19. Amelioration of sodium valproate-induced neural tube defects in mouse fetuses by maternal folic acid supplementation during gestation.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, R; Shafiullah, M Mohamed

    2003-03-01

    Infants of epileptic women treated with valproic acid (VPA) during pregnancy have a higher risk of developing spina bifida than those of the general population. VPA induces exencephaly in experimental animal embryos. But the pathogenetic mechanism remains rather elusive. Antiepileptic drugs (AED) in general accentuate pregnancy-imposed fall in maternal folate levels. Periconceptional folic acid supplementation is reported to protect embryos from developing neural tube defects (NTD). Conflicting results have been reported by experimental studies that attempted to alleviate VPA-induced NTD by folic acid. Our objectives were to determine the critical developmental stages and an effective dose of folic acid for the prevention of VPA-induced exencephaly in mouse fetuses. A single teratogenic dose of 400 mg/kg of VPA was administered to TO mice on gestation day (GD) 7 or 8. It was followed by (1) a single dose of 12 mg/kg of FA (folinic acid) or (2) 3 doses of FA 4 mg/kg each. In experiment (3), FA (4 mg/kg) was administered thrice daily starting on GD 5 and continued through GD 10. These animals received VPA on GD 7 or 8. VPA and B12 concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay. The single heavy dose of FA had no rescue effect on NTD. Three divided doses of FA on GD 7 and continuous dosing of FA from GD 5 through GD 10 substantially reduced the VPA-induced exencephaly in the fetuses. In the later experiments, the neural folds elevated faster than the non-supplemented group. VPA considerably reduced maternal plasma folate and B12 concentrations. The heavy dose of FA only moderately improved vitamin levels. Three divided doses of FA elevated the vitamin levels slightly better but it was the prolonged dosing of FA that was associated with sustained elevation of plasma levels higher than the control levels and acceleration of neural tube closure thus accounting for the pronounced protection against VPA-induced NTD development. These data suggest that plasma levels of

  20. Data on amyloid precursor protein accumulation, spontaneous physical activity, and motor learning after traumatic brain injury in the triple-transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer׳s disease.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Yasushi; Shishido, Hajime; Sawanishi, Mayumi; Toyota, Yasunori; Ueno, Masaki; Kubota, Takashi; Kirino, Yutaka; Tamiya, Takashi; Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2016-12-01

    This data article contains supporting information regarding the research article entitled "Traumatic brain injury accelerates amyloid-β deposition and impairs spatial learning in the triple-transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer׳s disease" (H. Shishido, Y. Kishimoto, N. Kawai, Y. Toyota, M. Ueno, T. Kubota, Y. Kirino, T. Tamiya, 2016) [1]. Triple-transgenic (3×Tg)-Alzheimer׳s disease (AD) model mice exhibited significantly poorer spatial learning than sham-treated 3×Tg-AD mice 28 days after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Correspondingly, amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition within the hippocampus was significantly greater in 3×Tg-AD mice 28 days after TBI. However, data regarding the short-term and long-term influences of TBI on amyloid precursor protein (APP) accumulation in AD model mice remain limited. Furthermore, there is little data showing whether physical activity and motor learning are affected by TBI in AD model mice. Here, we provide immunocytochemistry data confirming that TBI induces significant increases in APP accumulation in 3×Tg-AD mice at both 7 days and 28 days after TBI. Furthermore, 3×Tg-AD model mice exhibit a reduced ability to acquire conditioned responses (CRs) during delay eyeblink conditioning compared to sham-treated 3×Tg-AD model mice 28 days after TBI. However, physical activity and motor performance are not significantly changed in TBI-treated 3×Tg-AD model mice. PMID:27656663

  1. Data on amyloid precursor protein accumulation, spontaneous physical activity, and motor learning after traumatic brain injury in the triple-transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer׳s disease.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Yasushi; Shishido, Hajime; Sawanishi, Mayumi; Toyota, Yasunori; Ueno, Masaki; Kubota, Takashi; Kirino, Yutaka; Tamiya, Takashi; Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2016-12-01

    This data article contains supporting information regarding the research article entitled "Traumatic brain injury accelerates amyloid-β deposition and impairs spatial learning in the triple-transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer׳s disease" (H. Shishido, Y. Kishimoto, N. Kawai, Y. Toyota, M. Ueno, T. Kubota, Y. Kirino, T. Tamiya, 2016) [1]. Triple-transgenic (3×Tg)-Alzheimer׳s disease (AD) model mice exhibited significantly poorer spatial learning than sham-treated 3×Tg-AD mice 28 days after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Correspondingly, amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition within the hippocampus was significantly greater in 3×Tg-AD mice 28 days after TBI. However, data regarding the short-term and long-term influences of TBI on amyloid precursor protein (APP) accumulation in AD model mice remain limited. Furthermore, there is little data showing whether physical activity and motor learning are affected by TBI in AD model mice. Here, we provide immunocytochemistry data confirming that TBI induces significant increases in APP accumulation in 3×Tg-AD mice at both 7 days and 28 days after TBI. Furthermore, 3×Tg-AD model mice exhibit a reduced ability to acquire conditioned responses (CRs) during delay eyeblink conditioning compared to sham-treated 3×Tg-AD model mice 28 days after TBI. However, physical activity and motor performance are not significantly changed in TBI-treated 3×Tg-AD model mice.

  2. Severe neural tube defects in the loop-tail mouse result from mutation of Lpp1, a novel gene involved in floor plate specification.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, J N; Doudney, K; Paternotte, C; Copp, A J; Stanier, P

    2001-10-15

    Neural tube defects (NTD) are clinically important congenital malformations whose molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. The loop-tail (Lp) mutant mouse provides a model for the most severe NTD, craniorachischisis, in which the brain and spinal cord remain open. During a positional cloning approach, we have identified a mutation in a novel gene, Lpp1, in the Lp mouse, providing a strong candidate for the genetic causation of craniorachischisis in LP: Lpp1 encodes a protein of 521 amino acids, with four transmembrane domains related to the Drosophila protein strabismus/van gogh (vang). The human orthologue, LPP1, shares 89% identity with the mouse gene at the nucleotide level and 99% identity at the amino acid level. Lpp1 is expressed in the ventral part of the developing neural tube, but is excluded from the floor plate where Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is expressed. Embryos lacking Shh express Lpp1 throughout the ventral neural tube, suggesting negative regulation of Lpp1 by SHH: Our findings suggest that the mutual interaction between Lpp1 and Shh may define the lateral boundary of floor plate differentiation. Loss of Lpp1 function disrupts neurulation by permitting more extensive floor plate induction by Shh, thereby inhibiting midline bending of the neural plate during initiation of neurulation.

  3. Understanding the causes and prevention of neural tube defects: Insights from the splotch mouse model.

    PubMed

    Greene, Nicholas D E; Massa, Valentina; Copp, Andrew J

    2009-04-01

    Splotch mutant mice develop neural tube defects (NTDs), comprising exencephaly and/or spina bifida, as well as neural crest-related defects and abnormalities of limb musculature. Defects in splotch mice result from mutations in Pax3, and some human NTDs may also result from mutations in the human PAX3 gene. Pax3 encodes a transcription factor whose function may influence expression of multiple downstream genes associated with a variety of cellular properties (including apoptosis, adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation), that could be important for neural tube closure. The frequency of NTDs varies between mutant alleles and is also influenced by genetic background and environmental factors. Notably, splotch provides a model for folic acid-preventable NTDs, and conversely, dietary folate deficiency exacerbates NTDs. Understanding the molecular and cellular basis of splotch NTDs, as well as the mechanisms by which the frequency of defects is influenced by genetic and environmental factors (such as sub-optimal folate status), may provide insight into the causation of these severe congenital malformations in humans.

  4. Taurine Induces Proliferation of Neural Stem Cells and Synapse Development in the Developing Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Shivaraj, Mattu Chetana; Marcy, Guillaume; Low, Guoliang; Ryu, Jae Ryun; Zhao, Xianfeng; Rosales, Francisco J.; Goh, Eyleen L. K.

    2012-01-01

    Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid present in high concentrations in mammalian tissues. It has been implicated in several processes involving brain development and neurotransmission. However, the role of taurine in hippocampal neurogenesis during brain development is still unknown. Here we show that taurine regulates neural progenitor cell (NPC) proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the developing brain as well as in cultured early postnatal (P5) hippocampal progenitor cells and hippocampal slices derived from P5 mice brains. Taurine increased cell proliferation without having a significant effect on neural differentiation both in cultured P5 NPCs as well as cultured hippocampal slices and in vivo. Expression level analysis of synaptic proteins revealed that taurine increases the expression of Synapsin 1 and PSD 95. We also found that taurine stimulates the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 indicating a possible role of the ERK pathway in mediating the changes that we observed, especially in proliferation. Taken together, our results demonstrate a role for taurine in neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation in developing brain and suggest the involvement of the ERK1/2 pathways in mediating these actions. Our study also shows that taurine influences the levels of proteins associated with synapse development. This is the first evidence showing the effect of taurine on early postnatal neuronal development using a combination of in vitro, ex-vivo and in vivo systems. PMID:22916184

  5. Transplantation of GABAergic cells derived from bioreactor-expanded human neural precursor cells restores motor and cognitive behavioral deficits in a rodent model of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Marcus C; Kobayashi, Nao R; Sen, Arindom; Baghbaderani, Behnam A; Sadi, Damaso; Ulalia, Ruperto; Behie, Leo A; Mendez, Ivar

    2013-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by progressive dementia, choreiform involuntary movements, and emotional deterioration. Neuropathological features include the progressive degeneration of striatal γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons. New therapeutic approaches, such as the transplantation of human neural precursor cells (hNPCs) to replace damaged or degenerated cells, are currently being investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential for utilizing telencephalic hNPCs expanded in suspension bioreactors for cell restorative therapy in a rodent model of HD. hNPCs were expanded in a hydrodynamically controlled and homogeneous environment under serum-free conditions. In vitro analysis revealed that the bioreactor-expanded telencephalic (BET)-hNPCs could be differentiated into a highly enriched population of GABAergic neurons. Behavioral assessments of unilateral striatal quinolinic acid-lesioned rodents revealed a significant improvement in motor and memory deficits following transplantation with GABAergic cells differentiated from BET-hNPCs. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that transplanted BET-hNPCs retained a GABAergic neuronal phenotype without aberrant transdifferentiation or tumor formation, indicating that BET-hNPCs are a safe source of cells for transplantation. This preclinical study has important implications as the transplantation of GABAergic cells derived from predifferentiated BET-hNPCs may be a safe and feasible cell replacement strategy to promote behavioral recovery in HD.

  6. Neural stem cell transplantation improves spatial learning and memory via neuronal regeneration in amyloid-β precursor protein/presenilin 1/tau triple transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuang-Qing; Cai, Qing; Shen, Yu-Ying; Wang, Pei-Yun; Li, Ming-Hua; Teng, Gao-Yun

    2014-03-01

    Neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation has recently become a main research target for Alzheimer's disease (AD) treatment. In the present study, we transplanted NSCs from C57BL/6 mice into the hippocampus in the 12-month-old triple transgenic model of AD (3 × Tg) and determined whether NSC transplantation can alleviate impairments in spatial learning and memory via neuronal regeneration in AD mice. Two months after transplantation, Morris water maze tests suggested that spatial learning and memory in the 3 × Tg mice receiving NSCs was significantly improved compared to 3 × Tg mice not receiving NSCs. Furthermore, quantification of Nissl staining revealed that the number of neurons in the hippocampus of 3 × Tg mice receiving NSCs was significantly greater than that in 3 × Tg mice not receiving NSCs, indicating that new neurons were generated. These results may demonstrate that NSC transplantation can improve spatial learning and memory via neuronal regeneration in amyloid-β precursor protein/presenilin 1/tau 3 × Tg mice.

  7. BDNF Increases Survival and Neuronal Differentiation of Human Neural Precursor Cells Cotransplanted with a Nanofiber Gel to the Auditory Nerve in a Rat Model of Neuronal Damage

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Yu; Palmgren, Björn; Novozhilova, Ekaterina; Englund Johansson, Ulrica; Spieles-Engemann, Anne L.; Kale, Ajay; Stupp, Samuel I.; Olivius, Petri

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To study possible nerve regeneration of a damaged auditory nerve by the use of stem cell transplantation. Methods. We transplanted HNPCs to the rat AN trunk by the internal auditory meatus (IAM). Furthermore, we studied if addition of BDNF affects survival and phenotypic differentiation of the grafted HNPCs. A bioactive nanofiber gel (PA gel), in selected groups mixed with BDNF, was applied close to the implanted cells. Before transplantation, all rats had been deafened by a round window niche application of β-bungarotoxin. This neurotoxin causes a selective toxic destruction of the AN while keeping the hair cells intact. Results. Overall, HNPCs survived well for up to six weeks in all groups. However, transplants receiving the BDNF-containing PA gel demonstrated significantly higher numbers of HNPCs and neuronal differentiation. At six weeks, a majority of the HNPCs had migrated into the brain stem and differentiated. Differentiated human cells as well as neurites were observed in the vicinity of the cochlear nucleus. Conclusion. Our results indicate that human neural precursor cells (HNPC) integration with host tissue benefits from additional brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) treatment and that these cells appear to be good candidates for further regenerative studies on the auditory nerve (AN). PMID:25243135

  8. Modulation of the Innate Immune Response by Human Neural Precursors Prevails over Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Remyelination to Rescue a Severe Model of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease.

    PubMed

    Marteyn, Antoine; Sarrazin, Nadège; Yan, Jun; Bachelin, Corinne; Deboux, Cyrille; Santin, Mathieu D; Gressens, Pierre; Zujovic, Violetta; Baron-Van Evercooren, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) results from an X-linked misexpression of proteolipid protein 1 (PLP1). This leukodystrophy causes severe hypomyelination with progressive inflammation, leading to neurological dysfunctions and shortened life expectancy. While no cure exists for PMD, experimental cell-based therapy in the dysmyelinated shiverer model suggested that human oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (hOPCs) or human neural precursor cells (hNPCs) are promising candidates to treat myelinopathies. However, the fate and restorative advantages of human NPCs/OPCs in a relevant model of PMD has not yet been addressed. Using a model of Plp1 overexpression, resulting in demyelination with progressive inflammation, we compared side-by-side the therapeutic benefits of intracerebrally grafted hNPCs and hOPCs. Our findings reveal equal integration of the donor cells within presumptive white matter tracks. While the onset of exogenous remyelination was earlier in hOPCs-grafted mice than in hNPC-grafted mice, extended lifespan occurred only in hNPCs-grafted animals. This improved survival was correlated with reduced neuroinflammation (microglial and astrocytosis loads) and microglia polarization toward M2-like phenotype followed by remyelination. Thus modulation of neuroinflammation combined with myelin restoration is crucial to prevent PMD pathology progression and ensure successful rescue of PMD mice. These findings should help to design novel therapeutic strategies combining immunomodulation and stem/progenitor cell-based therapy for disorders associating hypomyelination with inflammation as observed in PMD.

  9. Ltap, a mammalian homolog of Drosophila Strabismus/Van Gogh, is altered in the mouse neural tube mutant Loop-tail.

    PubMed

    Kibar, Z; Vogan, K J; Groulx, N; Justice, M J; Underhill, D A; Gros, P

    2001-07-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) such as spina bifida and anencephaly are common congenital malformations in humans (1/1,000 births) that result from failure of the neural tube to close during embryogenesis. The etiology of NTDs is complex, with both genetic and environmental contributions; the genetic component has been extensively studied with mouse models. Loop-tail (Lp) is a semidominant mutation on mouse chromosome 1 (ref. 4). In the two known Lp alleles (Lp, Lpm1Jus), heterozygous mice exhibit a characteristic looped tail, and homozygous embryos show a completely open neural tube in the hindbrain and spinal region, a condition similar to the severe craniorachischisis defect in humans. Morphological and neural patterning studies indicate a role for the Lp gene product in controlling early morphogenesis and patterning of both axial midline structures and the developing neural plate. The 0.6-cM/0.7-megabase (Mb) Lp interval is delineated proximally by D1Mit113/Apoa2/Fcer1g and distally by Fcer1a/D1Mit149/Spna1 and contains a minimum of 17 transcription units. One of these genes, Ltap, encodes a homolog of Drosophila Strabismus/Van Gogh (Stbm/Vang), a component of the frizzled/dishevelled tissue polarity pathway. Ltap is expressed broadly in the neuroectoderm throughout early neurogenesis and is altered in two independent Lp alleles, identifying this gene as a strong candidate for Lp.

  10. Mouse embryos and chimera cloned from neural cells in the postnatal cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Makino, Hatsune; Yamazaki, Yukiko; Hirabayashi, Takahiro; Kaneko, Ryosuke; Hamada, Shun; Kawamura, Yoshimi; Osada, Tomoharu; Yanagimachi, Ryuzo; Yagi, Takeshi

    2005-01-01

    Cloning of mice has been achieved by transferring nuclei of various types of somatic cell nuclei into enucleated oocytes. However, all attempts to produce live cloned offspring using the nuclei of neurons from adult cerebral cortex have failed. Previously we obtained cloned mice using the nuclei of neural cells collected from fetal cerebral cortex. Here, we attempted to generate cloned mice using differentiated neurons from the cerebral cortex of postnatal (day 0-4) mice. Although we were unable to obtain live cloned pups, many fetuses reached day 10.5 days of development. These fetuses showed various abnormalities such as spherical omission of the neuroepithelium, collapsed lumen of neural tube, and aberrant expressions of marker proteins of neurons. We produced chimeric mice in which some hair cells and kidney cells were originated from differentiated neurons. In chimeric fetuses, LacZ-positive donor cells were in all three germ cell layers. However, chimeras with large contribution of donor-derived cells were not obtained. These results indicate that nuclei of differentiated neurons have lost their developmental totipotency. In other words, the conventional nuclear transfer technique does not allow nuclei of differentiated neurons to undergo complete genomic reprogramming required for normal embryonic development.

  11. The ciliary proteins Meckelin and Jouberin are required for retinoic acid-dependent neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Romani, Sveva; Illi, Barbara; De Mori, Roberta; Savino, Mauro; Gleeson, Joseph G; Valente, Enza Maria

    2014-01-01

    The dysfunction of the primary cilium, a complex, evolutionarily conserved, organelle playing an important role in sensing and transducing cell signals, is the unifying pathogenetic mechanism of a growing number of diseases collectively termed "ciliopathies", typically characterized by multiorgan involvement. Developmental defects of the central nervous system (CNS) characterize a subset of ciliopathies showing clinical and genetic overlap, such as Joubert syndrome (JS) and Meckel syndrome (MS). Although several knock-out mice lacking a variety of ciliary proteins have shown the importance of primary cilia in the development of the brain and CNS-derived structures, developmental in vitro studies, extremely useful to unravel the role of primary cilia along the course of neural differentiation, are still missing. Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) have been recently proven to mimic brain development, giving the unique opportunity to dissect the CNS differentiation process along its sequential steps. In the present study we show that mESCs express the ciliary proteins Meckelin and Jouberin in a developmentally-regulated manner, and that these proteins co-localize with acetylated tubulin labeled cilia located at the outer embryonic layer. Further, mESCs differentiating along the neuronal lineage activate the cilia-dependent sonic hedgehog signaling machinery, which is impaired in Meckelin knock-out cells but results unaffected in Jouberin-deficient mESCs. However, both lose the ability to acquire a neuronal phenotype. Altogether, these results demonstrate a pivotal role of Meckelin and Jouberin during embryonic neural specification and indicate mESCs as a suitable tool to investigate the developmental impact of ciliary proteins dysfunction.

  12. Scutellarin Alleviates Behavioral Deficits in a Mouse Model of Multiple Sclerosis, Possibly Through Protecting Neural Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Wei; Lu, Lin; Bao, Tian-Hao; Zhang, Hong-Miao; Yuan, Jing; Miao, Wei; Wang, Shu-Fen; Xiao, Zhi-Cheng

    2016-02-01

    Scutellarin, a flavonoid extracted from an herbal medication (Erigeron breviscapus Hand-Mazz), has been shown to protect neurons against damage and to promote neurogenesis, and thus has therapeutic potential in the treatment of a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Since neural stem cells (NSCs) could differentiate into myelin-producing oligodendrocytes, we speculate that scutellarin could also be used to treat multiple sclerosis (MS). In the current study, we examined potential effects of scutellarin using a mouse model of MS. Briefly, adult C57BL/6 mice exposed to cuprizone (8 mg/day through diet, for 6 consecutive weeks) randomly received scutellarin (50 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for 10 consecutive days. In the scutellarin-treated group, rotarod testing at the end of the treatment showed significant improvement of motor function (increased time to fall); myelin basic protein (MBP) staining of the corpus callosum revealed decreased demyelination; TUNEL staining followed by Nestin or Sox2 staining revealed increased number of NSCs and decreased rate of NSC apoptosis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles (LV). In a series of experiments using cultured NSCs subjected to cuprizone injury, we confirmed the protective effects of scutellarin. At 30 μM, scutellarin increased the commitment of NSCs to the oligodendrocyte and neuronal lineages, as evidenced by NG2 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (NG2) and doublecortin (DCX) staining. Differentiation into astrocytes (as revealed by glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) staining) was decreased. Maturation of the NSCs committed to the oligodendrocyte lineage, as evidenced by oligodendrocyte marker O4 antibody (O4) staining and MBP staining, was also promoted by scutellarin. Further analysis revealed that scutellarin might suppress the phosphorylation of p38 in cuprizone-induced NSCs. In summary, scutellarin could alleviate motor deficits in a mouse model for MS, possibly by inhibiting NSC apoptosis and

  13. Scutellarin Alleviates Behavioral Deficits in a Mouse Model of Multiple Sclerosis, Possibly Through Protecting Neural Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Wei; Lu, Lin; Bao, Tian-Hao; Zhang, Hong-Miao; Yuan, Jing; Miao, Wei; Wang, Shu-Fen; Xiao, Zhi-Cheng

    2016-02-01

    Scutellarin, a flavonoid extracted from an herbal medication (Erigeron breviscapus Hand-Mazz), has been shown to protect neurons against damage and to promote neurogenesis, and thus has therapeutic potential in the treatment of a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Since neural stem cells (NSCs) could differentiate into myelin-producing oligodendrocytes, we speculate that scutellarin could also be used to treat multiple sclerosis (MS). In the current study, we examined potential effects of scutellarin using a mouse model of MS. Briefly, adult C57BL/6 mice exposed to cuprizone (8 mg/day through diet, for 6 consecutive weeks) randomly received scutellarin (50 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for 10 consecutive days. In the scutellarin-treated group, rotarod testing at the end of the treatment showed significant improvement of motor function (increased time to fall); myelin basic protein (MBP) staining of the corpus callosum revealed decreased demyelination; TUNEL staining followed by Nestin or Sox2 staining revealed increased number of NSCs and decreased rate of NSC apoptosis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles (LV). In a series of experiments using cultured NSCs subjected to cuprizone injury, we confirmed the protective effects of scutellarin. At 30 μM, scutellarin increased the commitment of NSCs to the oligodendrocyte and neuronal lineages, as evidenced by NG2 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (NG2) and doublecortin (DCX) staining. Differentiation into astrocytes (as revealed by glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) staining) was decreased. Maturation of the NSCs committed to the oligodendrocyte lineage, as evidenced by oligodendrocyte marker O4 antibody (O4) staining and MBP staining, was also promoted by scutellarin. Further analysis revealed that scutellarin might suppress the phosphorylation of p38 in cuprizone-induced NSCs. In summary, scutellarin could alleviate motor deficits in a mouse model for MS, possibly by inhibiting NSC apoptosis and

  14. Coronavirus-induced demyelination of neural pathways triggers neurogenic bladder overactivity in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, Matthew T.; Pan, Xiao-Qing; Smith, Ariana L.; Newman, Diane K.; Weiss, Susan R.; Ruggieri, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to determine whether mice with coronavirus-induced encephalomyelitis (CIE) develop neurogenic bladder dysfunction that is comparable with the neurogenic detrusor overactivity observed in patients with multiple sclerosis. Adult mice (C57BL/6J, 8 wk of age, n = 146) were inoculated with a neurotropic strain of mouse hepatitis virus (A59 strain) and followed for 4 wk. Inoculation with the virus caused a significant neural deficit in mice with an average clinical symptom score of 2.6 ± 0.5 at 2 wk. These changes were accompanied by 25 ± 5% weight loss at 1 and 2 wk postinoculation (P ≤ 0.001 vs. baseline) followed by a recovery phase. Histological analysis of spinal cord sections revealed multifocal sites of demyelinated lesions. Assessment of micturition patterns by filter paper assay determined an increase in the number of small and large urine spots in CIE mice starting from the second week after inoculation. Cystometric recordings in unrestrained awake animals confirmed neurogenic bladder overactivity at 4 wk postinoculation. One week after inoculation with the A59 strain of mouse hepatitis virus, mice became increasingly sensitive to von Frey filament testing with responses enhanced by 45% (n = 8, P ≤ 0.05 vs. baseline at 4 g); however, this initial increase in sensitivity was followed by gradual and significant diminution of abdominal sensitivity to mechanical stimulation by 4 wk postinoculation. Our results provide direct evidence showing that coronavirus-induced demyelination of the central nervous system causes the development of a neurogenic bladder that is comparable with neurogenic detrusor overactivity observed in patients with multiple sclerosis. PMID:25007876

  15. Effect of trichostatin A on gelsolin levels, proteolysis of amyloid precursor protein, and amyloid beta-protein load in the brain of transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenzhong; Chauhan, Abha; Wegiel, Jerzy; Kuchna, Izabela; Gu, Feng; Chauhan, Ved

    2014-01-01

    In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that gelsolin is an anti-amyloidogenic protein. Trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, promotes the expression of gelsolin. Fibrillized amyoid beta-protein (Aβ) is a key constituent of amyloid plaques in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We studied the effects of TSA on the levels of gelsolin; amyloid precursor protein (APP); proteolytic enzymes (γ-secretase and β-secretase) responsible for the production of Aβ; Aβ-cleaving enzymes, i.e., neprilysin (NEP) and insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE); and amyloid load in the double transgenic (Tg) APPswe/PS1(δE9) mouse model of AD. Intraperitoneal injection of TSA for two months (9-11 months of age) resulted in decreased activity of HDAC, and increased levels of gelsolin in the hippocampus and cortex of the brain in AD Tg mice as compared to vehicle-treated mice. TSA also increased the levels of γ-secretase and β-secretase activity in the brain. However, TSA did not show any effect on the activities or the expression levels of NEP and IDE in the brain. Furthermore, TSA treatment of AD Tg mice showed no change in the amyloid load (percent of examined area occupied by amyloid plaques) in the hippocampus and cortex, suggesting that TSA treatment did not result in the reduction of amyloid load. Interestingly, TSA prevented the formation of new amyloid deposits but increased the size of existing plaques. TSA treatment did not cause any apoptosis in the brain. These results suggest that TSA increases gelsolin expression in the brain, but the pleiotropic effects of TSA negate the anti-amyloidogenic effect of gelsolin in AD Tg mice.

  16. E mu/S mu transposition into Myc is sometimes a precursor for T(12;15) translocation in mouse B cells.

    PubMed

    Kovalchuk, Alexander L; Kim, Joong Su; Janz, Siegfried

    2003-05-01

    Misguided immunoglobulin (Ig) class switch recombination (CSR) has been implicated in the origin of Myc-activating chromosomal translocations, T(12;15), in BALB/c mouse plasmacytomas (PCTs). CSR has also been involved in the progression of T(12;15); for example, the approximation of Myc to the 3'-C alpha enhancer. This study provides evidence for an additional mechanism by which aberrant CSR may facilitate T(12;15): transposition of Ig heavy-chain (IgH) sequences to Myc. Five IgH transposons containing the intronic heavy-chain enhancer, E mu, and a truncated switch mu region, S mu, were found in the first intron of Myc in lymph node cells of IL-6 transgenic BALB/c mice. In two cases E mu/S mu transposition primed Myc to get involved in apparent trans-chromosomal CSR to C gamma 1, presumably leading to T(12;15). Translocations preceded by E mu/S mu transposition can sometimes be distinguished from de novo translocations by molecular fingerprints in translocation breakpoint regions (Ig switch region [S] inversions and unusual gene orders in composite S regions). The presence of such fingerprints in some PCTs suggests that the tumors sometimes evolve from transposition-bearing precursors. We propose that E mu/S mu transposition to Myc may facilitate plasmacytomagenesis by sensitizing Myc to undergo T(12;15) translocation. T(12;15), in turn, juxtaposes Myc to the 3'-C alpha enhancer, which appears to be required for deregulating Myc in a manner that is conducive to PCT development.

  17. Transplantation of enteric neural stem/progenitor cells into the irradiated young mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Osman, Ahmed M; Zhou, Kai; Zhu, Changlian; Blomgren, Klas

    2014-01-01

    Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for brain tumors but often results in cognitive deficits in survivors. Transplantation of embryonic or brain-derived neural stem/progenitor cells (BNSPCs) ameliorated cognitive impairment after irradiation (IR) in animal models. However, such an approach in patients requires a clinically relevant source of cells. We show for the first time the utilization of enteric neural stem/progenitor cells (ENSPCs) from the postnatal intestinal wall as a source of autologous cells for brain repair after injury caused by IR. Cells were isolated from the intestinal wall and propagated in vitro for 1 week. Differentiation assays showed that ENSPCs are multipotent and generated neurons, astrocytes, and myofibroblasts. To investigate whether ENSPCs can be used in vivo, postnatal day 9 mice were subjected to a single moderate irradiation dose (6 or 8 Gy). Twelve days later, mice received an intrahippocampal injection of syngeneic ENSPCs. Four weeks after transplantation, 0.5% and 1% of grafted ENSPCs were detected in the dentate gyrus of sham and irradiated animals, respectively, and only 0.1% was detected after 16 weeks. Grafted ENSPCs remained undifferentiated but failed to restore IR-induced loss of BNSPCs and the subsequent impaired growth of the dentate gyrus. We observed microglia activation, astrogliosis, and loss of granule neurons associated with grafted ENSPC clusters. Transplantation of ENSPCs did not ameliorate IR-induced impaired learning and memory. In summary, while autologous ENSPC grafting to the brain worked technically, even in the absence of immunosuppression, the protocols need to be modified to improve survival and integration.

  18. Return to quiescence of mouse neural stem cells by degradation of a proactivation protein.

    PubMed

    Urbán, Noelia; van den Berg, Debbie L C; Forget, Antoine; Andersen, Jimena; Demmers, Jeroen A A; Hunt, Charles; Ayrault, Olivier; Guillemot, François

    2016-07-15

    Quiescence is essential for long-term maintenance of adult stem cells. Niche signals regulate the transit of stem cells from dormant to activated states. Here, we show that the E3-ubiquitin ligase Huwe1 (HECT, UBA, and WWE domain-containing 1) is required for proliferating stem cells of the adult mouse hippocampus to return to quiescence. Huwe1 destabilizes proactivation protein Ascl1 (achaete-scute family bHLH transcription factor 1) in proliferating hippocampal stem cells, which prevents accumulation of cyclin Ds and promotes the return to a resting state. When stem cells fail to return to quiescence, the proliferative stem cell pool becomes depleted. Thus, long-term maintenance of hippocampal neurogenesis depends on the return of stem cells to a transient quiescent state through the rapid degradation of a key proactivation factor. PMID:27418510

  19. Intrinsic expression of transcortin in neural cells of the mouse brain: a histochemical and molecular study.

    PubMed

    Sivukhina, Elena; Helbling, Jean-Christophe; Minni, Amandine M; Schäfer, H Hendrik; Pallet, Véronique; Jirikowski, Gustav F; Moisan, Marie-Pierre

    2013-01-15

    Corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG, transcortin) has been shown to be expressed in the brain of rat and human species. In this study, we examined the CBG brain expression and cDNA structure in mice, comparing wild-type (Cbg(+/+)) and Cbg knockout mice (Cbg(-/-), obtained by genetic disruption of the SerpinA6 alias Cbg gene). We used double immunofluorescence labeling with specific neuronal and glial markers to analyze the cellular localization of CBG in various regions of the mouse brain. In wild-type (Cbg(+/+)) mice, we found CBG immunoreactivity in neuronal perikarya of the magnocellular hypothalamic nuclei, amygdala, hippocampus, cerebral cortex, cerebellum and pituitary. A portion of glial cells (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes) contained CBG immunoreactivity, including some of the ependymal cells and choroid plexus cells. No CBG immunoreactivity was detected in Cbg(-/-) brain tissues. Using RT-PCR, we showed that the full-length Cbg mRNA is present in those regions, indicating an intrinsic expression of the steroid-binding globulin. Furthermore, sequencing analysis showed that Cbg cDNA obtained from the mouse hypothalamus was homologous to Cbg cDNA obtained from the liver. Finally, we have evaluated the relative levels of CBG expression in various brain regions and in the liver by quantitative PCR. We found that brain levels of Cbg mRNA are low compared with the liver but significantly higher than in CBG-deficient mice. Although derived from the same gene as liver CBG, brain CBG protein may play a specific or complementary role that requires the production and analysis of brain-specific Cbg knockout models. PMID:22996440

  20. OTX2 exhibits cell-context-dependent effects on cellular and molecular properties of human embryonic neural precursors and medulloblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Ravinder; Aiken, Christopher; Morrison, Ludivine Coudière; Rao, Radhika; Del Bigio, Marc R.; Rampalli, Shravanti; Werbowetski-Ogilvie, Tamra

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant primary pediatric brain tumor and is currently divided into four subtypes based on different genomic alterations, gene expression profiles and response to treatment: WNT, Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), Group 3 and Group 4. This extensive heterogeneity has made it difficult to assess the functional relevance of genes to malignant progression. For example, expression of the transcription factor Orthodenticle homeobox2 (OTX2) is frequently dysregulated in multiple MB variants; however, its role may be subtype specific. We recently demonstrated that neural precursors derived from transformed human embryonic stem cells (trans-hENs), but not their normal counterparts (hENs), resemble Groups 3 and 4 MB in vitro and in vivo. Here, we tested the utility of this model system as a means of dissecting the role of OTX2 in MB using gain- and loss-of-function studies in hENs and trans-hENs, respectively. Parallel experiments with MB cells revealed that OTX2 exerts inhibitory effects on hEN and SHH MB cells by regulating growth, self-renewal and migration in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. This was accompanied by decreased expression of pluripotent genes, such as SOX2, and was supported by overexpression of SOX2 in OTX2+ SHH MB and hENs that resulted in significant rescue of self-renewal and cell migration. By contrast, OTX2 is oncogenic and promotes self-renewal of trans-hENs and Groups 3 and 4 MB independent of pluripotent gene expression. Our results demonstrate a novel role for OTX2 in self-renewal and migration of hENs and MB cells and reveal a cell-context-dependent link between OTX2 and pluripotent genes. Our study underscores the value of human embryonic stem cell derivatives as alternatives to cell lines and heterogeneous patient samples for investigating the contribution of key developmental regulators to MB progression. PMID:26398939

  1. A Cre-lox approach for transient transgene expression in neural precursor cells and long-term tracking of their progeny in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Geoffroy, Cédric G; Raineteau, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    Background Neural precursor cells (NPCs) can be isolated from various regions of the postnatal central nervous system (CNS). Manipulation of gene expression in these cells offers a promising strategy to manipulate their fate both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we developed a technique that allows the transient manipulation of single/multiple gene expression in NPCs in vitro, and the long-term tracking of their progeny both in vitro and in vivo. Results In order to combine the advantages of transient transfection with the long-term tracking of the transfected cells progeny, we developed a new approach based on the cre-lox technology. We first established a fast and reliable protocol to isolate and culture NPCs as monolayer, from the spinal cord of neonatal transgenic Rosa26-YFP cre-reporter mice. These cells could be reliably transfected with single/multiple plasmids by nucleofection. Nucleofection with mono- or bicistronic plasmids containing the Cre recombinase gene resulted in efficient recombination and the long-term expression of the YFP-reporter gene. The transient cre-expression was non-toxic for the transfected cells and did not alter their intrinsic properties. Finally, we demonstrated that cre-transfected cells could be transplanted into the adult brain, where they maintained YFP expression permitting long-term tracking of their migration and differentiation. Conclusion This approach allows single/multiple genes to be manipulated in NPCs, while at the same time allowing long-term tracking of the transfected cells progeny to be analyzed both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:17504531

  2. Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans Negatively Modulate Spinal Cord Neural Precursor Cells by Signaling Through LAR and RPTPσ and Modulation of the Rho/ROCK Pathway.

    PubMed

    Dyck, Scott M; Alizadeh, Arsalan; Santhosh, Kallivalappil T; Proulx, Evan H; Wu, Chia-Lun; Karimi-Abdolrezaee, Soheila

    2015-08-01

    Multipotent adult neural precursor cells (NPCs) have tremendous intrinsic potential to repair the damaged spinal cord. However, evidence shows that the regenerative capabilities of endogenous and transplanted NPCs are limited in the microenvironment of spinal cord injury (SCI). We previously demonstrated that injury-induced upregulation of matrix chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) restricts the survival, migration, integration, and differentiation of NPCs following SCI. CSPGs are long-lasting components of the astroglial scar that are formed around the lesion. Our recent in vivo studies demonstrated that removing CSPGs from the SCI environment enhances the potential of transplanted and endogenous adult NPCs for spinal cord repair; however, the mechanisms by which CSPGs regulate NPCs remain unclear. In this study, using in vitro models recapitulating the extracellular matrix of SCI, we investigated the direct role of CSPGs in modulating the properties of adult spinal cord NPCs. We show that CSPGs significantly decrease NPCs growth, attachment, survival, proliferation, and oligodendrocytes differentiation. Moreover, using genetic models, we show that CSPGs regulate NPCs by signaling on receptor protein tyrosine phosphate sigma (RPTPσ) and leukocyte common antigen-related phosphatase (LAR). Intracellularly, CSPGs inhibitory effects are mediated through Rho/ROCK pathway and inhibition of Akt and Erk1/2 phosphorylation. Downregulation of RPTPσ and LAR and blockade of ROCK in NPCs attenuates the inhibitory effects of CSPGS. Our work provide novel evidence uncovering how upregulation of CSPGs challenges the response of NPCs in their post-SCI niche and identifies new therapeutic targets for enhancing NPC-based therapies for SCI repair.

  3. A combination therapy of neural and glial restricted precursor cells and chronic quipazine treatment paired with passive cycling promotes quipazine-induced stepping in adult spinalized rats

    PubMed Central

    Shumsky, Jed S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In order to develop optimal treatments to promote recovery from complete spinal cord injury (SCI), we examined the combination of: (1) a cellular graft of neural and glial restricted precursor (NRP/GRP) cells, (2) passive exercise, and (3) chronic quipazine treatment on behavioral outcomes and compared them with the individual treatment elements. NRP/GRP cells were transplanted at the time of spinalization. Methods Daily passive exercise began 1 week after injury to give sufficient time for the animals to recover. Chronic quipazine administration began 2 weeks after spinalization to allow for sufficient receptor upregulation permitting the expression of its behavioral effects. Behavioral measures consisted of the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor score and percent of weight-supported steps and hops on a treadmill. Results Rats displayed an increased response to quipazine (BBB ≥ 9) beginning at 8 weeks post-injury in all the animals that received the combination therapy. This increase in BBB score was persistent through the end of the study (12 weeks post-injury). Conclusion Unlike the individual treatment groups which never achieved weight support, the combination therapy animals were able to perform uncoordinated weight-supported stepping without a body weight support system while on a moving treadmill (6.5 m per minute) and were capable of supporting their own weight in stance during open field locomotion testing. No regeneration of descending serotonergic projections into and through the lesion cavity was observed. Furthermore, these results are a testament to the capacity of the lumbar spinal cord, when properly stimulated, to sustain functioning locomotor circuitry following complete SCI. PMID:25329574

  4. Changes in expression of the long non-coding RNA FMR4 associate with altered gene expression during differentiation of human neural precursor cells

    PubMed Central

    Peschansky, Veronica J.; Pastori, Chiara; Zeier, Zane; Motti, Dario; Wentzel, Katya; Velmeshev, Dmitry; Magistri, Marco; Bixby, John L.; Lemmon, Vance P.; Silva, José P.; Wahlestedt, Claes

    2015-01-01

    CGG repeat expansions in the Fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene are responsible for a family of associated disorders characterized by either intellectual disability and autism Fragile X Syndrome (FXS), or adult-onset neurodegeneration Fragile X-associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome. However, the FMR1 locus is complex and encodes several long non-coding RNAs, whose expression is altered by repeat expansion mutations. The role of these lncRNAs is thus far unknown; therefore we investigated the functionality of FMR4, which we previously identified. “Full”-length expansions of the FMR1 triplet repeat cause silencing of both FMR1 and FMR4, thus we are interested in potential loss-of-function that may add to phenotypic manifestation of FXS. Since the two transcripts do not exhibit cis-regulation of one another, we examined the potential for FMR4 to regulate target genes at distal genomic loci using gene expression microarrays. We identified FMR4-responsive genes, including the methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 4 (MBD4). Furthermore, we found that in differentiating human neural precursor cells, FMR4 expression is developmentally regulated in opposition to expression of both FMR1 (which is expected to share a bidirectional promoter with FMR4) and MBD4. We therefore propose that FMR4’s function is as a gene-regulatory lncRNA and that this transcript may function in normal development. Closer examination of FMR4 increases our understanding of the role of regulatory lncRNA and the consequences of FMR1 repeat expansions. PMID:26322075

  5. Intrahippocampal transplantation of transgenic neural precursor cells overexpressing interleukin-1 receptor antagonist blocks chronic isolation-induced impairment in memory and neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ben Menachem-Zidon, Ofra; Goshen, Inbal; Kreisel, Tirzah; Ben Menahem, Yair; Reinhartz, Etti; Ben Hur, Tamir; Yirmiya, Raz

    2008-08-01

    The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) within the brain is critically involved in mediating the memory impairment induced by acute inflammatory challenges and psychological stress. However, the role of IL-1 in memory impairment and suppressed neurogenesis induced by chronic stress exposure has not been investigated before now. We report here that mice that were isolated for 4 weeks displayed a significant elevation in hippocampal IL-1beta levels concomitantly with body weight loss, specific impairment in hippocampal-dependent memory, and decreased hippocampal neurogenesis. To examine the causal role of IL-1 in these effects, we developed a novel approach for long-term delivery of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) into the brain, using transplantation of neural precursor cells (NPCs), obtained from neonatal mice with transgenic overexpression of IL-1ra (IL-1raTG) under the glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter. Four weeks following intrahippocampal transplantation of IL-1raTG NPCs labeled with PKH-26, the transplanted cells were incorporated within the dentate gyrus and expressed mainly astrocytic markers. IL-1ra levels were markedly elevated in the hippocampus, but not in other brain regions, by 10 days and for at least 4 weeks post-transplantation. Transplantation of IL-1raTG NPCs completely rescued the chronic isolation-induced body weight loss, memory impairment, and suppressed hippocampal neurogenesis, compared with isolated mice transplanted with WT cells or sham operated. The transplantation had no effect in group-housed mice. These findings elucidate the role of IL-1 in the pathophysiology of chronic isolation and suggest that transplantation of IL-1raTG NPCs may provide a useful therapeutic procedure for IL-1-mediated memory disturbances in chronic inflammatory and neurological conditions. PMID:17987063

  6. OTX2 exhibits cell-context-dependent effects on cellular and molecular properties of human embryonic neural precursors and medulloblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Ravinder; Aiken, Christopher; Morrison, Ludivine Coudière; Rao, Radhika; Del Bigio, Marc R; Rampalli, Shravanti; Werbowetski-Ogilvie, Tamra

    2015-10-01

    Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant primary pediatric brain tumor and is currently divided into four subtypes based on different genomic alterations, gene expression profiles and response to treatment: WNT, Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), Group 3 and Group 4. This extensive heterogeneity has made it difficult to assess the functional relevance of genes to malignant progression. For example, expression of the transcription factor Orthodenticle homeobox2 (OTX2) is frequently dysregulated in multiple MB variants; however, its role may be subtype specific. We recently demonstrated that neural precursors derived from transformed human embryonic stem cells (trans-hENs), but not their normal counterparts (hENs), resemble Groups 3 and 4 MB in vitro and in vivo. Here, we tested the utility of this model system as a means of dissecting the role of OTX2 in MB using gain- and loss-of-function studies in hENs and trans-hENs, respectively. Parallel experiments with MB cells revealed that OTX2 exerts inhibitory effects on hEN and SHH MB cells by regulating growth, self-renewal and migration in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. This was accompanied by decreased expression of pluripotent genes, such as SOX2, and was supported by overexpression of SOX2 in OTX2+ SHH MB and hENs that resulted in significant rescue of self-renewal and cell migration. By contrast, OTX2 is oncogenic and promotes self-renewal of trans-hENs and Groups 3 and 4 MB independent of pluripotent gene expression. Our results demonstrate a novel role for OTX2 in self-renewal and migration of hENs and MB cells and reveal a cell-context-dependent link between OTX2 and pluripotent genes. Our study underscores the value of human embryonic stem cell derivatives as alternatives to cell lines and heterogeneous patient samples for investigating the contribution of key developmental regulators to MB progression. PMID:26398939

  7. Insulin-Like Growth Factor Receptor Signaling is Necessary for Epidermal Growth Factor Mediated Proliferation of SVZ Neural Precursors in vitro Following Neonatal Hypoxia–Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Alagappan, Dhivyaa; Ziegler, Amber N.; Chidambaram, Shravanthi; Min, Jungsoo; Wood, Teresa L.; Levison, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we assessed the importance of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor co-signaling for rat neural precursor (NP) cell proliferation and self-renewal in the context of a developmental brain injury that is associated with cerebral palsy. Consistent with previous studies, we found that there is an increase in the in vitro growth of subventricular zone NPs isolated acutely after cerebral hypoxia–ischemia; however, when cultured in medium that is insufficient to stimulate the IGF type 1 receptor, neurosphere formation and the proliferative capacity of those NPs was severely curtailed. This reduced growth capacity could not be attributed simply to failure to survive. The growth and self-renewal of the NPs could be restored by addition of both IGF-I and IGF-II. Since the size of the neurosphere is predominantly due to cell proliferation we hypothesized that the IGFs were regulating progression through the cell cycle. Analyses of cell cycle progression revealed that IGF-1R activation together with EGFR co-signaling decreased the percentage of cells in G1 and enhanced cell progression into S and G2. This was accompanied by increases in expression of cyclin D1, phosphorylated histone 3, and phosphorylated Rb. Based on these data, we conclude that coordinate signaling between the EGF receptor and the IGF type 1 receptor is necessary for the normal proliferation of NPs as well as for their reactive expansion after injury. These data indicate that manipulations that maintain or amplify IGF signaling in the brain during recovery from developmental brain injuries will enhance the production of new brain cells to improve neurological function in children who are at risk for developing cerebral palsy. PMID:24904523

  8. States of developmental commitment of a mouse embryonal carcinoma cell line differentiating along a neural pathway

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    The embryonal carcinoma cell line PCC7-S-AzaR1 (clone 1009) has been shown to differentiate in the presence of all-trans retinoic acid and dibutyryl cAMP into cells of predominantly neural properties (Paulin, D., H. Jakob, F. Jacob, K. Weber, and M. Osborn. 1982. Differentiation. 22:90-99). By analyzing the marker expression of derivatives in further detail, we characterized the two major cell phenotypes as neuron- and fibroblast-like and the two minor ones as astroglia- and endothelial- like. The stability of developmental commitment of clone 1009 was tested by recloning. The isolated subclones exhibited different patterns of chemically induced derivatives, with some of them (denoted N-clones) producing only a single (neuronal) cell type. As shown by long-term cultures in the absence of retinoic acid, the properties of isolated subclones remained essentially stable. In contrast to the clones producing neuron-like and other derivatives upon induced differentiation, the (exclusively neuronal) derivatives of N-clones detached and died within a few days in culture. If maintained in the presence of other neural cell types, however, their survival was dramatically extended indicating a requirement for specific interactions with other cells of the same tissue. The patterns of derivatives obtained from N-clones depended on the chemical nature of the substrate on which they were grown. Thus, when seeded on laminin- coated surfaces before induced differentiation, N-clones developed not only to neuron-like derivatives but rather to the same four derivatives observed with the original cell pool. These and further results suggest a common cell lineage of the identified phenotypes. The isolated subclones of uninduced cells probably represent different states of commitment within the same developmental pathway. Their stability offers the opportunity to analyze the nature of cellular commitment on the cellular, molecular, and genetic levels. This makes the family of clones

  9. A mutation in the tuft mouse disrupts TET1 activity and alters the expression of genes that are crucial for neural tube closure.

    PubMed

    Fong, Keith S K; Hufnagel, Robert B; Khadka, Vedbar S; Corley, Michael J; Maunakea, Alika K; Fogelgren, Ben; Ahmed, Zubair M; Lozanoff, Scott

    2016-05-01

    Genetic variations affecting neural tube closure along the head result in malformations of the face and brain. Neural tube defects (NTDs) are among the most common birth defects in humans. We previously reported a mouse mutant called tuft that arose spontaneously in our wild-type 3H1 colony. Adult tuft mice present midline craniofacial malformations with or without an anterior cephalocele. In addition, affected embryos presented neural tube closure defects resulting in insufficient closure of the anterior neuropore or exencephaly. Here, through whole-genome sequencing, we identified a nonsense mutation in the Tet1 gene, which encodes a methylcytosine dioxygenase (TET1), co-segregating with the tuft phenotype. This mutation resulted in premature termination that disrupts the catalytic domain that is involved in the demethylation of cytosine. We detected a significant loss of TET enzyme activity in the heads of tuft embryos that were homozygous for the mutation and had NTDs. RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis indicated that multiple gene pathways associated with neural tube closure were dysregulated in tuft embryo heads. Among them, the expressions of Cecr2, Epha7 and Grhl2 were significantly reduced in some embryos presenting neural tube closure defects, whereas one or more components of the non-canonical WNT signaling pathway mediating planar cell polarity and convergent extension were affected in others. We further show that the recombinant mutant TET1 protein was capable of entering the nucleus and affected the expression of endogenous Grhl2 in IMCD-3 (inner medullary collecting duct) cells. These results indicate that TET1 is an epigenetic determinant for regulating genes that are crucial to closure of the anterior neural tube and its mutation has implications to craniofacial development, as presented by the tuft mouse. PMID:26989192

  10. A mutation in the tuft mouse disrupts TET1 activity and alters the expression of genes that are crucial for neural tube closure

    PubMed Central

    Khadka, Vedbar S.; Corley, Michael J.; Maunakea, Alika K.; Fogelgren, Ben; Ahmed, Zubair M.; Lozanoff, Scott

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genetic variations affecting neural tube closure along the head result in malformations of the face and brain. Neural tube defects (NTDs) are among the most common birth defects in humans. We previously reported a mouse mutant called tuft that arose spontaneously in our wild-type 3H1 colony. Adult tuft mice present midline craniofacial malformations with or without an anterior cephalocele. In addition, affected embryos presented neural tube closure defects resulting in insufficient closure of the anterior neuropore or exencephaly. Here, through whole-genome sequencing, we identified a nonsense mutation in the Tet1 gene, which encodes a methylcytosine dioxygenase (TET1), co-segregating with the tuft phenotype. This mutation resulted in premature termination that disrupts the catalytic domain that is involved in the demethylation of cytosine. We detected a significant loss of TET enzyme activity in the heads of tuft embryos that were homozygous for the mutation and had NTDs. RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis indicated that multiple gene pathways associated with neural tube closure were dysregulated in tuft embryo heads. Among them, the expressions of Cecr2, Epha7 and Grhl2 were significantly reduced in some embryos presenting neural tube closure defects, whereas one or more components of the non-canonical WNT signaling pathway mediating planar cell polarity and convergent extension were affected in others. We further show that the recombinant mutant TET1 protein was capable of entering the nucleus and affected the expression of endogenous Grhl2 in IMCD-3 (inner medullary collecting duct) cells. These results indicate that TET1 is an epigenetic determinant for regulating genes that are crucial to closure of the anterior neural tube and its mutation has implications to craniofacial development, as presented by the tuft mouse. PMID:26989192

  11. Elimination of the geomagnetic field stimulates the proliferation of mouse neural progenitor and stem cells.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jing-Peng; Mo, Wei-Chuan; Liu, Ying; Bartlett, Perry F; He, Rong-Qiao

    2016-09-01

    Living organisms are exposed to the geomagnetic field (GMF) throughout their lifespan. Elimination of the GMF, resulting in a hypogeomagnetic field (HMF), leads to central nervous system dysfunction and abnormal development in animals. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying these effects have not been identified so far. Here, we show that exposure to an HMF (<200 nT), produced by a magnetic field shielding chamber, promotes the proliferation of neural progenitor/stem cells (NPCs/NSCs) from C57BL/6 mice. Following seven-day HMF-exposure, the primary neurospheres (NSs) were significantly larger in size, and twice more NPCs/NSCs were harvested from neonatal NSs, when compared to the GMF controls. The self-renewal capacity and multipotency of the NSs were maintained, as HMF-exposed NSs were positive for NSC markers (Nestin and Sox2), and could differentiate into neurons and astrocyte/glial cells and be passaged continuously. In addition, adult mice exposed to the HMF for one month were observed to have a greater number of proliferative cells in the subventricular zone. These findings indicate that continuous HMF-exposure increases the proliferation of NPCs/NSCs, in vitro and in vivo. HMF-disturbed NPCs/NSCs production probably affects brain development and function, which provides a novel clue for elucidating the cellular mechanisms of the bio-HMF response. PMID:27484904

  12. Hypoxic preconditioning involves system Xc- regulation in mouse neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sims, Brian; Clarke, Melinda; Francillion, Ludwig; Kindred, Elijah; Hopkins, Elana Shuford; Sontheimer, Harald

    2012-03-01

    In animals, hypoxic preconditioning has been used as a form of neuroprotection. The exact mechanism involved in neuroprotective hypoxic preconditioning has not been described, yet could be valuable for possible neuroprotective strategies. The overexpression of the cystine-glutamate exchanger, system Xc-, has been demonstrated as being neuroprotective (Shih, Erb et al. 2006). Here, using immunohistochemistry, we demonstrate that C57BL/6 mice exposed to hypoxia showed an increase in system Xc- expression, with the highest level of intensity in the hippocampus. Western Blot analysis also showed an almost 2-fold increase in system Xc- protein in hypoxia-exposed versus control mice. The mRNA for the regulatory subunit of system Xc-, xCT, and the xCT/actin ratio were also increased under hypoxic conditions. Experiments using hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α) siRNA showed a statistically significant decrease in HIF-1α and system Xc- expression. Under hypoxic conditions, system Xc- activity, as determined by cystine uptake, increased 2-fold. Importantly, hypoxic preconditioning was attenuated in neural stem cells by pharmacological inhibition of system Xc- activity with S4-carboxyphenylglycine. These data provide the first evidence of hypoxic regulation of the cystine glutamate exchanger system Xc-.

  13. [Macrophages promote the migration of neural stem cells into mouse spinal cord injury site].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhijian; Zhu, Wen; Li, Haopeng; He, Xijing

    2016-09-01

    Objective To explore the role of macrophages in the migration of neural stem cells (NSCs) in vivo and in vitro . Methods NSCs with green fluorescent protein (GFP) were isolated from GFP transgenic mice and the immunofluorescence cytochemical staining of nestin was used to identify NSCs. After spinal cord injury was induced, the tissue level of macrophage chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) mRNA was detected using quantitative real time PCR. The migration of GFP-NSCs was investigated 1 week after GFP-NSCs were injected into both sides of the damaged area. The effect of macrophage on the migration of NSCs in vitro was tested by Transwell(TM) system and the content of MCP-1 was detected by ELISA. Results NSCs highly expressed nestin. Compared with the control group, the level of MCP-1 mRNA significantly increased in the spinal cord injury group. The NSCs which were injected into the spinal cord migrated into the center of the injured site where F4/80 was highly expressed. Macrophages significantly increased the number of migrating NSCs in vitro and the secretion of MCP-1. Conclusion Macrophages induce NSC migrating into the spinal cord injury site possibly through promoting the secretion of MCP-1. PMID:27609570

  14. A Neural Circuit That Controls Cortical State, Plasticity, and the Gain of Sensory Responses in Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Stryker, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Neurons in the visual cortex were first found to be exquisitely selective for particular properties of visual stimuli in anesthetized animals, including mice. Studies of alert mice in an apparatus that allowed them to stand or run revealed that locomotion causes a change in cortical state that dramatically increases the magnitude of responses in neurons of the visual cortex without altering selectivity, effectively changing the gain of sensory responses. Locomotion also dramatically enhances adult plasticity in the recovery from long-term visual deprivation. We have studied the elements and operation of the neural circuit responsible for the enhancement of activity and shown that it enhances plasticity even in mice not free to run. The circuit consists of projections ascending from the midbrain locomotor region (MLR) to the basal forebrain, activating cholinergic and perhaps other projections to excite inhibitory interneurons expressing vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in the visual cortex. VIP cells activated by locomotion inhibit interneurons that express somatostatin (SST), thereby disinhibiting the excitatory principal neurons and allowing them to respond more strongly to effective visual stimuli. These findings reveal in alert animals how the ascending reticular activating system described in anesthetized animals 50 years ago operates to control cortical state. PMID:25948638

  15. Corticofugal Modulation of Initial Neural Processing of Sound Information from the Ipsilateral Ear in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiuping; Yan, Yuchu; Wang, Yalong; Yan, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Background Cortical neurons implement a high frequency-specific modulation of subcortical nuclei that includes the cochlear nucleus. Anatomical studies show that corticofugal fibers terminating in the auditory thalamus and midbrain are mostly ipsilateral. Differently, corticofugal fibers terminating in the cochlear nucleus are bilateral, which fits to the needs of binaural hearing that improves hearing quality. This leads to our hypothesis that corticofugal modulation of initial neural processing of sound information from the contralateral and ipsilateral ears could be equivalent or coordinated at the first sound processing level. Methodology/Principal Findings With the focal electrical stimulation of the auditory cortex and single unit recording, this study examined corticofugal modulation of the ipsilateral cochlear nucleus. The same methods and procedures as described in our previous study of corticofugal modulation of contralateral cochlear nucleus were employed simply for comparison. We found that focal electrical stimulation of cortical neurons induced substantial changes in the response magnitude, response latency and receptive field of ipsilateral cochlear nucleus neurons. Cortical stimulation facilitated auditory response and shortened the response latency of physiologically matched neurons whereas it inhibited auditory response and lengthened the response latency of unmatched neurons. Finally, cortical stimulation shifted the best frequencies of cochlear neurons towards those of stimulated cortical neurons. Conclusion Our data suggest that cortical neurons enable a high frequency-specific remodelling of sound information processing in the ipsilateral cochlear nucleus in the same manner as that in the contralateral cochlear nucleus. PMID:21124980

  16. Soa genotype selectively affects mouse gustatory neural responses to sucrose octaacetate

    PubMed Central

    INOUE, MASASHI; LI, XIA; McCAUGHEY, STUART A.; BEAUCHAMP, GARY K.; BACHMANOV, ALEXANDER A.

    2013-01-01

    In mice, behavioral acceptance of the bitter compound sucrose octaacetate (SOA) depends on allelic variation of a single gene, Soa. The SW.B6-Soab congenic mouse strain has the genetic background of an “SOA taster” SWR/J strain and an Soa-containing donor chromosome fragment from an “SOA nontaster” C57BL/6J strain. Using microsatellite markers polymorphic between the two parental strains, we determined that the donor fragment spans 5–10 cM of distal chromosome 6. The SWR/J mice avoided SOA in two-bottle tests with water and had strong responses to SOA in two gustatory nerves, the chorda tympani (CT) and glossopharyngeal (GL). In contrast, the SW.B6-Soab mice were indifferent to SOA in two-bottle tests and had very weak responses to SOA in both of these nerves. The SWR/J and SW.B6-Soab mice did not differ in responses of either nerve to sucrose, NaCl, HCl, or the bitter-tasting stimuli quinine, denatonium, strychnine, 6-n-propylthiouracil, phenylthiocarbamide, and MgSO4. Thus the effect of the Soa genotype on SOA avoidance is mediated by peripheral taste responsiveness to SOA, involving taste receptor cells innervated by both the CT and GL nerves. PMID:11328963

  17. Neuroprotective effect of the endogenous neural peptide apelin in cultured mouse cortical neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Xiang Jun; Yu, Shan Ping; Zhang, Like; Wei, Ling

    2010-07-01

    The adipocytokine apelin and its G protein-coupled APJ receptor were initially isolated from a bovine stomach and have been detected in the brain and cardiovascular system. Recent studies suggest that apelin can protect cardiomyocytes from ischemic injury. Here, we investigated the effect of apelin on apoptosis in mouse primary cultures of cortical neurons. Exposure of the cortical cultures to a serum-free medium for 24 h induced nuclear fragmentation and apoptotic death; apelin-13 (1.0-5.0 nM) markedly prevented the neuronal apoptosis. Apelin neuroprotective effects were mediated by multiple mechanisms. Apelin-13 reduced serum deprivation (SD)-induced ROS generation, mitochondria depolarization, cytochrome c release and activation of caspase-3. Apelin-13 prevented SD-induced changes in phosphorylation status of Akt and ERK1/2. In addition, apelin-13 attenuated NMDA-induced intracellular Ca{sup 2+} accumulation. These results indicate that apelin is an endogenous neuroprotective adipocytokine that may block apoptosis and excitotoxic death via cellular and molecular mechanisms. It is suggested that apelins may be further explored as a potential neuroprotective reagent for ischemia-induced brain damage.

  18. RNA sequencing from neural ensembles activated during fear conditioning in the mouse temporal association cortex.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jin-Hyung; Huang, Ben S; Gray, Jesse M

    2016-01-01

    The stable formation of remote fear memories is thought to require neuronal gene induction in cortical ensembles that are activated during learning. However, the set of genes expressed specifically in these activated ensembles is not known; knowledge of such transcriptional profiles may offer insights into the molecular program underlying stable memory formation. Here we use RNA-Seq to identify genes whose expression is enriched in activated cortical ensembles labeled during associative fear learning. We first establish that mouse temporal association cortex (TeA) is required for remote recall of auditory fear memories. We then perform RNA-Seq in TeA neurons that are labeled by the activity reporter Arc-dVenus during learning. We identify 944 genes with enriched expression in Arc-dVenus+ neurons. These genes include markers of L2/3, L5b, and L6 excitatory neurons but not glial or inhibitory markers, confirming Arc-dVenus to be an excitatory neuron-specific but non-layer-specific activity reporter. Cross comparisons to other transcriptional profiles show that 125 of the enriched genes are also activity-regulated in vitro or induced by visual stimulus in the visual cortex, suggesting that they may be induced generally in the cortex in an experience-dependent fashion. Prominent among the enriched genes are those encoding potassium channels that down-regulate neuronal activity, suggesting the possibility that part of the molecular program induced by fear conditioning may initiate homeostatic plasticity. PMID:27557751

  19. RNA sequencing from neural ensembles activated during fear conditioning in the mouse temporal association cortex

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jin-Hyung; Huang, Ben S.; Gray, Jesse M.

    2016-01-01

    The stable formation of remote fear memories is thought to require neuronal gene induction in cortical ensembles that are activated during learning. However, the set of genes expressed specifically in these activated ensembles is not known; knowledge of such transcriptional profiles may offer insights into the molecular program underlying stable memory formation. Here we use RNA-Seq to identify genes whose expression is enriched in activated cortical ensembles labeled during associative fear learning. We first establish that mouse temporal association cortex (TeA) is required for remote recall of auditory fear memories. We then perform RNA-Seq in TeA neurons that are labeled by the activity reporter Arc-dVenus during learning. We identify 944 genes with enriched expression in Arc-dVenus+ neurons. These genes include markers of L2/3, L5b, and L6 excitatory neurons but not glial or inhibitory markers, confirming Arc-dVenus to be an excitatory neuron-specific but non-layer-specific activity reporter. Cross comparisons to other transcriptional profiles show that 125 of the enriched genes are also activity-regulated in vitro or induced by visual stimulus in the visual cortex, suggesting that they may be induced generally in the cortex in an experience-dependent fashion. Prominent among the enriched genes are those encoding potassium channels that down-regulate neuronal activity, suggesting the possibility that part of the molecular program induced by fear conditioning may initiate homeostatic plasticity. PMID:27557751

  20. Arsenate-induced maternal glucose intolerance and neural tube defects in a mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Denise S.; Wlodarczyk, Bogdan J.; Mitchell, Laura E.; Finnell, Richard H.

    2009-08-15

    Background: Epidemiological studies have linked environmental arsenic (As) exposure to increased type 2 diabetes risk. Periconceptional hyperglycemia is a significant risk factor for neural tube defects (NTDs), the second most common structural birth defect. A suspected teratogen, arsenic (As) induces NTDs in laboratory animals. Objectives: We investigated whether maternal glucose homeostasis disruption was responsible for arsenate-induced NTDs in a well-established dosing regimen used in studies of arsenic's teratogenicity in early neurodevelopment. Methods: We evaluated maternal intraperitoneal (IP) exposure to As 9.6 mg/kg (as sodium arsenate) in LM/Bc/Fnn mice for teratogenicity and disruption of maternal plasma glucose and insulin levels. Selected compounds (insulin pellet, sodium selenate (SS), N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), L-methionine (L-Met), N-tert-Butyl-{alpha}-phenylnitrone (PBN)) were investigated for their potential to mitigate arsenate's effects. Results: Arsenate caused significant glucose elevation during an IP glucose tolerance test (IPGTT). Insulin levels were not different between arsenate and control dams before (arsenate, 0.55 ng/dl; control, 0.48 ng/dl) or after glucose challenge (arsenate, 1.09 ng/dl; control, 0.81 ng/dl). HOMA-IR index was higher for arsenate (3.9) vs control (2.5) dams (p = 0.0260). Arsenate caused NTDs (100%, p < 0.0001). Insulin pellet and NAC were the most successful rescue agents, reducing NTD rates to 45% and 35%. Conclusions: IPGTT, insulin assay, and HOMA-IR results suggest a modest failure of glucose stimulated insulin secretion and insulin resistance characteristic of glucose intolerance. Insulin's success in preventing arsenate-induced NTDs provides evidence that these arsenate-induced NTDs are secondary to elevated maternal glucose. The NAC rescue, which did not restore maternal glucose or insulin levels, suggests oxidative disruption plays a role.

  1. [Effects of Low and Sublethal Doses of γ-Radiation on Mesenchymal and Neural Stem Cells from Mouse Brain].

    PubMed

    Posypanova, G A; Moskaleva, E Yu; Rodina, A V; Semochkina, Yu P; Ratushnjak, M G; Perevozchikova, V G

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) exist in the brain in addition to the neural stem cells (NSC). The aim of this work was to investigate the sensitivity of mouse brain MSC (MSC(BR)) to sublethal doses of γ-radiation in comparison with the sensitivity of bone marrow MSC (MSC(BM)) and NSC and to study the effects of γ-irradiation at low doses on these cells. Cells were exposed to γ-radiation (137Cs) at the doses of 10 to 200 mGy at a dose rate of 10 mGy/min; higher doses were achieved at the dose rates of 200 and 500 mGy/min (60Co). The survival of cells was assessed by counting living cells after staining with trypan blue in the Goryaev's chamber or using the MTT test for NSC growing as neurospheres. SP fraction was measured using flow cytometry after incubation with rhodamine-123. Exposure to the doses in the range of 10 to 500 mGy stimulated cell proliferation. The maximum decrease in the cells number was seen on the seventh day after irradiation and it was practically the same for the MSC(BR) and MSC(BM). NCS were more radiosensitive than MSC. Exposure to the doses of 100 to 500 mGy stimulated cells proliferation of all SCs except of MSC(BM). It was shown that the size of SP fraction of MSC(BR) was diminished after γ-irradiation at low doses. Thus, the stimulation of cell proliferation after γ-irradiation at low doses is accompanied by the redistribution of distinct cell subpopulations: the decrease in the SP fraction and the increase in the general population of cells were observed.

  2. Expression of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) during second- and third-molar development in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Obara, N; Takeda, M

    1993-07-01

    Distribution of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) during the development of the mandibular second- and third-molars of the mouse was studied by indirect immunofluorescence techniques. At the initial stage, NCAM was intensely expressed by the mesenchymal cells surrounding the dental lamina, and by the cap stage NCAM expression by the mesenchymal cells became restricted to the dental follicle. After that, in addition to the follicular mesenchyme, some cells in the basal part of the dental papilla showed NCAM-immunoreactivity for a while after the hard tissue formation had started. During root formation, the follicular cells lost NCAM first from the level of the cervical root and later from the coronal part, while an additional NCAM positive area appeared deep in the dental papilla. Even after the teeth had erupted, NCAM was expressed in the tissue surrounding the apical root and in the pulp core. During the initial and bud stages, the pattern of NCAM expression in the second and third molars was different from that in the first molar, where NCAM was found only after the late bud stage; while from the cap stage onward, it changed in the same sequence as in the first molar. The different pattern of NCAM expression implies that there is a difference in developmental events between the early stages of the first and the other two molars. On the other hand, the common sequence of NCAM expression in the tooth germs later than the cap stage suggests that NCAM plays an essential role in the formation of the basic structure of the teeth and periodontal tissues. PMID:8214621

  3. [Effects of Low and Sublethal Doses of γ-Radiation on Mesenchymal and Neural Stem Cells from Mouse Brain].

    PubMed

    Posypanova, G A; Moskaleva, E Yu; Rodina, A V; Semochkina, Yu P; Ratushnjak, M G; Perevozchikova, V G

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) exist in the brain in addition to the neural stem cells (NSC). The aim of this work was to investigate the sensitivity of mouse brain MSC (MSC(BR)) to sublethal doses of γ-radiation in comparison with the sensitivity of bone marrow MSC (MSC(BM)) and NSC and to study the effects of γ-irradiation at low doses on these cells. Cells were exposed to γ-radiation (137Cs) at the doses of 10 to 200 mGy at a dose rate of 10 mGy/min; higher doses were achieved at the dose rates of 200 and 500 mGy/min (60Co). The survival of cells was assessed by counting living cells after staining with trypan blue in the Goryaev's chamber or using the MTT test for NSC growing as neurospheres. SP fraction was measured using flow cytometry after incubation with rhodamine-123. Exposure to the doses in the range of 10 to 500 mGy stimulated cell proliferation. The maximum decrease in the cells number was seen on the seventh day after irradiation and it was practically the same for the MSC(BR) and MSC(BM). NCS were more radiosensitive than MSC. Exposure to the doses of 100 to 500 mGy stimulated cells proliferation of all SCs except of MSC(BM). It was shown that the size of SP fraction of MSC(BR) was diminished after γ-irradiation at low doses. Thus, the stimulation of cell proliferation after γ-irradiation at low doses is accompanied by the redistribution of distinct cell subpopulations: the decrease in the SP fraction and the increase in the general population of cells were observed. PMID:27245003

  4. Synergistic effects of sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, on increase of neurogenesis induced by pyridoxine and increase of neural proliferation in the mouse dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Dae Young; Kim, Woosuk; Nam, Sung Min; Kim, Dae Won; Chung, Jin Young; Choi, Soo Young; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Won, Moo-Ho; Hwang, In Koo

    2011-10-01

    We previously observed that pyridoxine (vitamin B(6)) significantly increased cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation without any neuronal damage in the hippocampus. In this study, we investigated the effects of sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor which serves as an epigenetic regulator of gene expression, on pyridoxine-induced neural proliferation and neurogenesis induced by the increase of neural proliferation in the mouse dentate gyrus. Sodium butyrate (300 mg/kg, subcutaneously), pyridoxine (350 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), or combination with sodium butyrate were administered to 8-week-old mice twice a day and once a day, respectively, for 14 days. The administration of sodium butyrate significantly increased acetyl-histone H3 levels in the dentate gyrus. Sodium butyrate alone did not show the significant increase of cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus. But, pyridoxine alone significantly increased cell proliferation. Sodium butyrate in combination with pyridoxine robustly enhanced cell proliferation and neurogenesis induced by the increase of neural proliferation in the dentate gyrus, showing that sodium butyrate treatment distinctively enhanced development of neuroblast dendrites. These results indicate that an inhibition of HDAC synergistically promotes neurogenesis induced by a pyridoxine and increase of neural proliferation.

  5. Brca1 is required for embryonic development of the mouse cerebral cortex to normal size by preventing apoptosis of early neural progenitors.

    PubMed

    Pulvers, Jeremy N; Huttner, Wieland B

    2009-06-01

    The extent of apoptosis of neural progenitors is known to influence the size of the cerebral cortex. Mouse embryos lacking Brca1, the ortholog of the human breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1, show apoptosis in the neural tube, but the consequences of this for brain development have not been studied. Here we investigated the role of Brca1 during mouse embryonic cortical development by deleting floxed Brca1 using Emx1-Cre, which leads to conditional gene ablation specifically in the dorsal telencephalon after embryonic day (E) 9.5. The postnatal Brca1-ablated cerebral cortex was substantially reduced in size with regard to both cortical thickness and surface area. Remarkably, although the thickness of the cortical layers (except for the upper-most layer) was decreased, cortical layering as such was essentially unperturbed. High levels of apoptosis were found at E11.5 and E13.5, but dropped to near-control levels by E16.5. The apoptosis at the early stage of neurogenesis occurred in both BrdU pulse-labeled neural progenitors and the neurons derived therefrom. No changes were observed in the mitotic index of apical (neuroepithelial, radial glial) progenitors and basal (intermediate) progenitors, indicating that Brca1 ablation did not affect cell cycle progression. Brca1 ablation did, however, result in the nuclear translocation of p53 in neural progenitors, suggesting that their apoptosis involved activation of the p53 pathway. Our results show that Brca1 is required for the cerebral cortex to develop to normal size by preventing the apoptosis of early cortical progenitors and their immediate progeny. PMID:19403657

  6. Analysis of the mouse mutant Cloth-ears shows a role for the voltage-gated sodium channel Scn8a in peripheral neural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, F E; Parker, A; Parkinson, N J; Oliver, P L; Brooker, D; Underhill, P; Lukashkina, V A; Lukashkin, A N; Holmes, C; Brown, S D M

    2009-10-01

    Deafness is the most common sensory disorder in humans and the aetiology of genetic deafness is complex. Mouse mutants have been crucial in identifying genes involved in hearing. However, many deafness genes remain unidentified. Using N-ethyl N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis to generate new mouse models of deafness, we identified a novel semi-dominant mouse mutant, Cloth-ears (Clth). Cloth-ears mice show reduced acoustic startle response and mild hearing loss from approximately 30 days old. Auditory-evoked brainstem response (ABR) and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) analyses indicate that the peripheral neural auditory pathway is impaired in Cloth-ears mice, but that cochlear function is normal. In addition, both Clth/Clth and Clth/+ mice display paroxysmal tremor episodes with behavioural arrest. Clth/Clth mice also show a milder continuous tremor during movement and rest. Longitudinal phenotypic analysis showed that Clth/+ and Clth/Clth mice also have complex defects in behaviour, growth, neurological and motor function. Positional cloning of Cloth-ears identified a point mutation in the neuronal voltage-gated sodium channel alpha-subunit gene, Scn8a, causing an aspartic acid to valine (D981V) change six amino acids downstream of the sixth transmembrane segment of the second domain (D2S6). Complementation testing with a known Scn8a mouse mutant confirmed that this mutation is responsible for the Cloth-ears phenotype. Our findings suggest a novel role for Scn8a in peripheral neural hearing loss and paroxysmal motor dysfunction. PMID:19737145

  7. Notch signaling differentially regulates the cell fate of early endocrine precursor cells and their maturing descendants in the mouse pancreas and intestine.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui Joyce; Kapoor, Archana; Giel-Moloney, Maryann; Rindi, Guido; Leiter, Andrew B

    2012-11-15

    Notch signaling inhibits differentiation of endocrine cells in the pancreas and intestine. In a number of cases, the observed inhibition occurred with Notch activation in multipotential cells, prior to the initiation of endocrine differentiation. It has not been established how direct activation of Notch in endocrine precursor cells affects their subsequent cell fate. Using conditional activation of Notch in cells expressing Neurogenin3 or NeuroD1, we examined the effects of Notch in both organs, on cell fate of early endocrine precursors and maturing endocrine-restricted cells, respectively. Notch did not preclude the differentiation of a limited number of endocrine cells in either organ when activated in Ngn3(+) precursor cells. In addition, in the pancreas most Ngn3(+) cells adopted a duct but not acinar cell fate; whereas in intestinal Ngn3(+) cells, Notch favored enterocyte and goblet cell fates, while selecting against endocrine and Paneth cell differentiation. A small fraction of NeuroD1(+) cells in the pancreas retain plasticity to respond to Notch, giving rise to intraislet ductules as well as cells with no detectable pancreatic lineage markers that appear to have limited ultrastructural features of both endocrine and duct cells. These results suggest that Notch directly regulates cell fate decisions in multipotential early endocrine precursor cells. Some maturing endocrine-restricted NeuroD1(+) cells in the pancreas switch to the duct lineage in response to Notch, indicating previously unappreciated plasticity at such a late stage of endocrine differentiation.

  8. The long-term survival of in vitro engineered nervous tissue derived from the specific neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Dubois-Dauphin, Michel L; Toni, Nicolas; Julien, Stéphanie D; Charvet, Igor; Sundstrom, Lars E; Stoppini, Luc

    2010-09-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) offer attractive prospective as potential source of neurons for cell replacement therapy in human neurodegenerative diseases. Besides, ESCs neural differentiation enables in vitro tissue engineering for fundamental research and drug discovery aimed at the nervous system. We have established stable and long-term three-dimensional (3D) culture conditions which can be used to model long latency and complex neurodegenerative diseases. Mouse ESCs-derived neural progenitor cells generated by MS5 stromal cells induction, result in strictly neural 3D cultures of about 120-mum thick, whose cells expressed mature neuronal, astrocytes and myelin markers. Neurons were from the glutamatergic and gabaergic lineages. This nervous tissue was spatially organized in specific layers resembling brain sub-ependymal (SE) nervous tissue, and was maintained in vitro for at least 3.5 months with great stability. Electron microscopy showed the presence of mature synapses and myelinated axons, suggesting functional maturation. Electrophysiological activity revealed biological signals involving action potential propagation along neuronal fibres and synaptic-like release of neurotransmitters. The rapid development and stabilization of this 3D cultures model result in an abundant and long-lasting production that is compatible with multiple and productive investigations for neurodegenerative diseases modeling, drug and toxicology screening, stress and aging research.

  9. Progression of amyloid pathology to Alzheimer's disease pathology in an amyloid precursor protein transgenic mouse model by removal of nitric oxide synthase 2.

    PubMed

    Wilcock, Donna M; Lewis, Matthew R; Van Nostrand, William E; Davis, Judianne; Previti, Mary Lou; Gharkholonarehe, Nastaran; Vitek, Michael P; Colton, Carol A

    2008-02-13

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by three primary pathologies in the brain: amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuron loss. Mouse models have been useful for studying components of AD but are limited in their ability to fully recapitulate all pathologies. We crossed the APPSwDI transgenic mouse, which develops amyloid beta (Abeta)-protein deposits only, with a nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) knock-out mouse, which develops no AD-like pathology. APPSwDI/NOS2(-/-) mice displayed impaired spatial memory compared with the APPSwDI mice, yet they have unaltered levels of Abeta. APPSwDI mice do not show tau pathology, whereas APPSwDI/NOS2(-/-) mice displayed extensive tau pathology associated with regions of dense microvascular amyloid deposition. Also, APPSwDI mice do not have any neuron loss, whereas the APPSwDI/NOS2(-/-) mice have significant neuron loss in the hippocampus and subiculum. Neuropeptide Y neurons have been shown to be particularly vulnerable in AD. These neurons appear to be particularly vulnerable in the APPSwDI/NOS2(-/-) mice as we observe a dramatic reduction in the number of NPY neurons in the hippocampus and subiculum. These data show that removal of NOS2 from an APP transgenic mouse results in development of a much greater spectrum of AD-like pathology and behavioral impairments.

  10. MiR-125b protects against ethanol-induced apoptosis in neural crest cells and mouse embryos by targeting Bak 1 and PUMA

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaopan; Liu, Jie; Feng, Wen-ke; Wu, Xiaoyang; Chen, Shao-yu

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that have been implicated in regulation of a broad range of cellular and physiologic processes, including apoptosis. The objective of this study is to elucidate the roles of miR-125b in modulating ethanol-induced apoptosis in neural crest cells (NCCs) and mouse embryos. We found that treatment with ethanol resulted in a significant decrease in miR-125b expression in NCCs and in mouse embryos. We also validated that Bcl-2 antagonist killer 1 (Bak1) and p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) are the direct targets of miR-125b in NCCs. In addition, over-expression of miR-125b significantly reduced ethanol-induced increase in Bak1 and PUMA protein expression, caspase-3 activation and apoptosis in NCCs, indicating that miR-125b can modulate ethanol-induced apoptosis by the regulation of Bcl-2 and p53 pathways. Furthermore, microinjection of miR-125b mimic resulted in a significant increase in miR-125b expression and a decrease in the protein expression of Bak1 and PUMA in ethanol-exposed mouse embryos. Up-regulation of miR-125b also significantly reduced ethanol-induced caspase-3 activation and diminished ethanol-induced growth retardation in mouse embryos. This is the first demonstration that miR-125b can prevent ethanol-induced apoptosis and that microinjection of miRNA mimic can prevent ethanol-induced embryotoxicity. PMID:26024858

  11. MiR-125b protects against ethanol-induced apoptosis in neural crest cells and mouse embryos by targeting Bak 1 and PUMA.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaopan; Liu, Jie; Feng, Wen-ke; Wu, Xiaoyang; Chen, Shao-yu

    2015-09-01

    MicroRNAs are a class of small noncoding RNAs that have been implicated in regulation of a broad range of cellular and physiologic processes, including apoptosis. The objective of this study is to elucidate the roles of miR-125b in modulating ethanol-induced apoptosis in neural crest cells (NCCs) and mouse embryos. We found that treatment with ethanol resulted in a significant decrease in miR-125b expression in NCCs and in mouse embryos. We also validated that Bcl-2 antagonist killer 1 (Bak1) and p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) are the direct targets of miR-125b in NCCs. In addition, over-expression of miR-125b significantly reduced ethanol-induced increase in Bak1 and PUMA protein expression, caspase-3 activation, and apoptosis in NCCs, indicating that miR-125b can modulate ethanol-induced apoptosis by the regulation of Bcl-2 and p53 pathways. Furthermore, microinjection of miR-125b mimic resulted in a significant increase in miR-125b expression and a decrease in the protein expression of Bak1 and PUMA in ethanol-exposed mouse embryos. Up-regulation of miR-125b also significantly reduced ethanol-induced caspase-3 activation and diminished ethanol-induced growth retardation in mouse embryos. This is the first demonstration that miR-125b can prevent ethanol-induced apoptosis and that microinjection of miRNA mimic can prevent ethanol-induced embryotoxicity.

  12. The role of fetal epithelial tissues in the maturation/differentiation of bone marrow-derived precursors into dendritic epidermal T cells (DETC) of the mouse.

    PubMed

    Stingl, G; Elbe, A; Paer, E; Kilgus, O; Strohal, R; Schreiber, S

    1991-01-01

    Our attempts to clarify the contribution of the thymic vs. the cutaneous microenvironment in the maturation of dendritic epidermal T cell (DETC) precursors into DETC gave diverse results. In one series of experiments, we found that i.v. injection of fetal thymocytes (containing a TCR V gamma 3-expressing subpopulation), but not of adult thymocytes (containing no TCR V gamma 3+ cells) results in the appearance of CD3/TCR V gamma 3+ dendritic epidermal cells (=DETC). In other experiments, we have obtained evidence that transplantation of day 16 fetal skin onto a Thy-1-disparate recipient results in the appearance of donor-type DETC. Our further observation that the transplanted skin contains CD45+/Thy-1+/CD3- lymphocytes, but no mature T cells, therefore implies that fetal skin can provide stimuli promoting the expression of CD3/TCR genes in immature (CD3-) DETC precursors. It remains to be seen whether both or only one of these maturational pathways are (is) followed under physiological conditions.

  13. RE1 silencing transcription factor/neuron-restrictive silencing factor regulates expansion of adult mouse subventricular zone-derived neural stem/progenitor cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Soldati, Chiara; Caramanica, Pasquale; Burney, Matthew J; Toselli, Camilla; Bithell, Angela; Augusti-Tocco, Gabriella; Stanton, Lawrence W; Biagioni, Stefano; Buckley, Noel J; Cacci, Emanuele

    2015-08-01

    Adult neural stem cell (aNSC) activity is tuned by external stimuli through the recruitment of transcription factors. This study examines the RE1 silencing transcription factor (REST) in neural stem/progenitor cells isolated from the subventricular zone of adult mouse brain and provides the first extensive characterization of REST-mediated control of the cellular and molecular properties. This study shows that REST knockdown affects the capacity of progenitor cells to generate neurospheres, reduces cell proliferation, and triggers cell differentiation despite the presence of growth factors. Genome- and transcriptome-wide analyses show that REST binding sites are significantly enriched in genes associated with synaptic transmission and nervous system development and function. Seeking candidate regulators of aNSC function, this study identifies a member of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family, BMP6, the mRNA and protein of which increased after REST knockdown. The results of this study extend previous findings, demonstrating a reciprocal control of REST expression by BMPs. Administration of exogenous BMP6 inhibits aNSC proliferation and induces the expression of the astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein, highlighting its antimitogenic and prodifferentiative effects. This study suggests that BMP6 produced in a REST-regulated manner together with other signals can contribute to regulation of NSC maintenance and fate. PMID:25691247

  14. A Perturbed MicroRNA Expression Pattern Characterizes Embryonic Neural Stem Cells Derived from a Severe Mouse Model of Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA).

    PubMed

    Luchetti, Andrea; Ciafrè, Silvia Anna; Murdocca, Michela; Malgieri, Arianna; Masotti, Andrea; Sanchez, Massimo; Farace, Maria Giulia; Novelli, Giuseppe; Sangiuolo, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an inherited neuromuscular disorder and the leading genetic cause of death in infants. Despite the disease-causing gene, survival motor neuron (SMN1), encodes a ubiquitous protein, SMN1 deficiency preferentially affects spinal motor neurons (MNs), leaving the basis of this selective cell damage still unexplained. As neural stem cells (NSCs) are multipotent self-renewing cells that can differentiate into neurons, they represent an in vitro model for elucidating the pathogenetic mechanism of neurodegenerative diseases such as SMA. Here we characterize for the first time neural stem cells (NSCs) derived from embryonic spinal cords of a severe SMNΔ7 SMA mouse model. SMNΔ7 NSCs behave as their wild type (WT) counterparts, when we consider neurosphere formation ability and the expression levels of specific regional and self-renewal markers. However, they show a perturbed cell cycle phase distribution and an increased proliferation rate compared to wild type cells. Moreover, SMNΔ7 NSCs are characterized by the differential expression of a limited number of miRNAs, among which miR-335-5p and miR-100-5p, reduced in SMNΔ7 NSCs compared to WT cells. We suggest that such miRNAs may be related to the proliferation differences characterizing SMNΔ7 NSCs, and may be potentially involved in the molecular mechanisms of SMA. PMID:26258776

  15. A Perturbed MicroRNA Expression Pattern Characterizes Embryonic Neural Stem Cells Derived from a Severe Mouse Model of Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA).

    PubMed

    Luchetti, Andrea; Ciafrè, Silvia Anna; Murdocca, Michela; Malgieri, Arianna; Masotti, Andrea; Sanchez, Massimo; Farace, Maria Giulia; Novelli, Giuseppe; Sangiuolo, Federica

    2015-08-06

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an inherited neuromuscular disorder and the leading genetic cause of death in infants. Despite the disease-causing gene, survival motor neuron (SMN1), encodes a ubiquitous protein, SMN1 deficiency preferentially affects spinal motor neurons (MNs), leaving the basis of this selective cell damage still unexplained. As neural stem cells (NSCs) are multipotent self-renewing cells that can differentiate into neurons, they represent an in vitro model for elucidating the pathogenetic mechanism of neurodegenerative diseases such as SMA. Here we characterize for the first time neural stem cells (NSCs) derived from embryonic spinal cords of a severe SMNΔ7 SMA mouse model. SMNΔ7 NSCs behave as their wild type (WT) counterparts, when we consider neurosphere formation ability and the expression levels of specific regional and self-renewal markers. However, they show a perturbed cell cycle phase distribution and an increased proliferation rate compared to wild type cells. Moreover, SMNΔ7 NSCs are characterized by the differential expression of a limited number of miRNAs, among which miR-335-5p and miR-100-5p, reduced in SMNΔ7 NSCs compared to WT cells. We suggest that such miRNAs may be related to the proliferation differences characterizing SMNΔ7 NSCs, and may be potentially involved in the molecular mechanisms of SMA.

  16. A Perturbed MicroRNA Expression Pattern Characterizes Embryonic Neural Stem Cells Derived from a Severe Mouse Model of Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA)

    PubMed Central

    Luchetti, Andrea; Ciafrè, Silvia Anna; Murdocca, Michela; Malgieri, Arianna; Masotti, Andrea; Sanchez, Massimo; Farace, Maria Giulia; Novelli, Giuseppe; Sangiuolo, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an inherited neuromuscular disorder and the leading genetic cause of death in infants. Despite the disease-causing gene, survival motor neuron (SMN1), encodes a ubiquitous protein, SMN1 deficiency preferentially affects spinal motor neurons (MNs), leaving the basis of this selective cell damage still unexplained. As neural stem cells (NSCs) are multipotent self-renewing cells that can differentiate into neurons, they represent an in vitro model for elucidating the pathogenetic mechanism of neurodegenerative diseases such as SMA. Here we characterize for the first time neural stem cells (NSCs) derived from embryonic spinal cords of a severe SMNΔ7 SMA mouse model. SMNΔ7 NSCs behave as their wild type (WT) counterparts, when we consider neurosphere formation ability and the expression levels of specific regional and self-renewal markers. However, they show a perturbed cell cycle phase distribution and an increased proliferation rate compared to wild type cells. Moreover, SMNΔ7 NSCs are characterized by the differential expression of a limited number of miRNAs, among which miR-335-5p and miR-100-5p, reduced in SMNΔ7 NSCs compared to WT cells. We suggest that such miRNAs may be related to the proliferation differences characterizing SMNΔ7 NSCs, and may be potentially involved in the molecular mechanisms of SMA. PMID:26258776

  17. RE1 silencing transcription factor/neuron-restrictive silencing factor regulates expansion of adult mouse subventricular zone-derived neural stem/progenitor cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Soldati, Chiara; Caramanica, Pasquale; Burney, Matthew J; Toselli, Camilla; Bithell, Angela; Augusti-Tocco, Gabriella; Stanton, Lawrence W; Biagioni, Stefano; Buckley, Noel J; Cacci, Emanuele

    2015-08-01

    Adult neural stem cell (aNSC) activity is tuned by external stimuli through the recruitment of transcription factors. This study examines the RE1 silencing transcription factor (REST) in neural stem/progenitor cells isolated from the subventricular zone of adult mouse brain and provides the first extensive characterization of REST-mediated control of the cellular and molecular properties. This study shows that REST knockdown affects the capacity of progenitor cells to generate neurospheres, reduces cell proliferation, and triggers cell differentiation despite the presence of growth factors. Genome- and transcriptome-wide analyses show that REST binding sites are significantly enriched in genes associated with synaptic transmission and nervous system development and function. Seeking candidate regulators of aNSC function, this study identifies a member of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family, BMP6, the mRNA and protein of which increased after REST knockdown. The results of this study extend previous findings, demonstrating a reciprocal control of REST expression by BMPs. Administration of exogenous BMP6 inhibits aNSC proliferation and induces the expression of the astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein, highlighting its antimitogenic and prodifferentiative effects. This study suggests that BMP6 produced in a REST-regulated manner together with other signals can contribute to regulation of NSC maintenance and fate.

  18. Comparison of gene expression regulation in mouse- and human embryonic stem cell assays during neural differentiation and in response to valproic acid exposure.

    PubMed

    Schulpen, Sjors H W; Theunissen, Peter T; Pennings, Jeroen L A; Piersma, Aldert H

    2015-08-15

    Embryonic stem cell tests (EST) are considered promising alternative assays for developmental toxicity testing. Classical mouse derived assays (mEST) are being replaced by human derived assays (hEST), in view of their relevance for human hazard assessment. We have compared mouse and human neural ESTn assays for neurodevelopmental toxicity as to regulation of gene expression during cell differentiation in both assays. Commonalities were observed in a range of neurodevelopmental genes and gene ontology (GO) terms. The mESTn showed a higher specificity in neurodevelopment than the hESTn, which may in part be caused by necessary differences in test protocols. Moreover, gene expression responses to the anticonvulsant and human teratogen valproic acid were compared. Both assays detected pharmacological and neurodevelopmental gene sets regulated by valproic acid. Common significant expression changes were observed in a subset of homologous neurodevelopmental genes. We suggest that these genes and related GO terms may provide good candidates for robust biomarkers of neurodevelopmental toxicity in hESTn.

  19. Direct visualization of cell movement in the embryonic olfactory bulb using green fluorescent protein transgenic mice: evidence for rapid tangential migration of neural cell precursors.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Okabe, Shigeo

    2005-02-01

    We analyzed motile behavior of neuronal precursor cells in the intact olfactory bulbs (OBs) using transgenic mice expressing GFP under the control of T alpha 1 tubulin promoter. In the olfactory bulbs at the embryonic days 12.5-14.5, a large number of immature neurons expressed GFP in this transgenic line. Embryonic OBs were maintained in an organ culture system and the migratory behavior of GFP-positive cells was analyzed by time-lapse confocal microscopy. We observed rapid tangential movement of GFP-positive cells in the ventral olfactory bulb. In contrast to the typical bipolar morphology of translocating immature neurons within the developing cortex, the motile cells had neither leading nor trailing processes and changed their overall shape frequently. Comparison of the behavior of cells expressing GFP under the control of T alpha 1 tubulin or nestin promoter revealed that rapid motility was specific to cells in the neuronal lineage. The rapid movement was sensitive to an actin perturbing reagent and also dependent on the calcium influx through L-type calcium channels. These results indicate the presence of a specific form of precursor cell migration in the embryonic olfactory bulb.

  20. p73 deficiency results in impaired self renewal and premature neuronal differentiation of mouse neural progenitors independently of p53

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Cano, L; Herreros-Villanueva, M; Fernandez-Alonso, R; Ayuso-Sacido, A; Meyer, G; Garcia-Verdugo, J M; Silva, A; Marques, M M; Marin, M C

    2010-01-01

    The question of how neural progenitor cells maintain its self-renewal throughout life is a fundamental problem in cell biology with implications in cancer, aging and neurodegenerative diseases. In this work, we have analyzed the p73 function in embryonic neural progenitor cell biology using the neurosphere (NS)-assay and showed that p73-loss has a significant role in the maintenance of neurosphere-forming cells in the embryonic brain. A comparative study of NS from Trp73−/−, p53KO, p53KO;Trp73−/− and their wild-type counterparts demonstrated that p73 deficiency results in two independent, but related, phenotypes: a smaller NS size (related to the proliferation and survival of the neural-progenitors) and a decreased capacity to form NS (self-renewal). The former seems to be the result of p53 compensatory activity, whereas the latter is p53 independent. We also demonstrate that p73 deficiency increases the population of neuronal progenitors ready to differentiate into neurons at the expense of depleting the pool of undifferentiated neurosphere-forming cells. Analysis of the neurogenic niches demonstrated that p73-loss depletes the number of neural-progenitor cells, rendering deficient niches in the adult mice. Altogether, our study identifies TP73 as a positive regulator of self-renewal with a role in the maintenance of the neurogenic capacity. Thus, proposing p73 as an important player in the development of neurodegenerative diseases and a potential therapeutic target. PMID:21368881

  1. Analyses of copy number variation reveal putative susceptibility loci in MTX-induced mouse neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianhua; Wang, Xiuwei; Guan, Tao; Xiang, Qian; Wang, Mingsheng; Zhang, Zhi; Guan, Zhen; Wang, Guoliang; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Xie, Qiu; Li, Guannan; Guo, Jin; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Zhengguo; Niu, Bo; Zhang, Ting

    2014-09-01

    Copy number variations (CNVs) are thought to act as an important genetic mechanism underlying phenotypic heterogeneity. Impaired folate metabolism can result in neural tube defects (NTDs). However, the precise nature of the relationship between low folate status and NTDs remains unclear. Using an array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) assay, we investigated whether CNVs could be detected in the NTD embryonic neural tissues of methotrexate (MTX)-induced folate dysmetabolism pregnant C57BL/6 mice and confirmed the findings with quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The CNVs were then comprehensively investigated using bioinformatics methods to prioritize candidate genes. We measured dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) activity and concentrations of folate and relevant metabolites in maternal serum using enzymologic method and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Three high confidence CNVs on XqA1.1, XqA1.1-qA2, and XqE3 were found in the NTD embryonic neural tissues. Twelve putative genes and three microRNAs were identified as potential susceptibility candidates in MTX-induced NTDs and possible roles in NTD pathogenesis. DHFR activity and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MeTHF), 5-formyltetrahydrofolate (5-FoTHF), and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) concentrations of maternal serum decreased significantly after MTX injection. These findings suggest that CNVs caused by defects in folate metabolism lead to NTD, and further support the hypothesis that folate dysmetabolism is a direct cause for CNVs in MTX-induced NTDs.

  2. High-resolution imaging of normal anatomy, and neural and adrenal malformations in mouse embryos using magnetic resonance microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Jürgen E; Bamforth, Simon D; Farthing, Cassandra R; Clarke, Kieran; Neubauer, Stefan; Bhattacharya, Shoumo

    2003-01-01

    An efficient investigation of the effects of genetic or environmental manipulation on mouse development relies on the rapid and accurate screening of a substantial number of embryos for congenital malformations. Here we demonstrate that it is possible to examine normal organ development and identify malformations in mouse embryos by magnetic resonance microscopy in a substantially shorter time than by conventional histology. We imaged embryos in overnight runs of under 9 h, with an operator time of less than 1 h. In normal embryos we visualized the brain, spinal cord, ganglia, eyes, inner ear, pituitary, thyroid, thymus, trachea, bronchi, lungs, heart, kidneys, gonads, adrenals, oesophagus, stomach, intestines, spleen, liver and pancreas. Examination of the brain in embryos lacking the transcriptional coactivator Cited2 showed cerebellar and midbrain roof agenesis, in addition to exencephaly. In these embryos we were also able to detect agenesis of the adrenal gland. We confirmed all malformations by histological sectioning. Thus magnetic resonance microscopy can be used to rapidly identify developmental and organ malformations in mutant mouse embryos generated by transgenic techniques, in high-throughput mutagenesis screens, or in screens to identify teratogenic compounds and environmental factors contributing to developmental malformations. PMID:12647873

  3. EGF–FGF{sub 2} stimulates the proliferation and improves the neuronal commitment of mouse epidermal neural crest stem cells (EPI-NCSCs)

    SciTech Connect

    Bressan, Raul Bardini; Melo, Fernanda Rosene; Almeida, Patricia Alves; Bittencourt, Denise Avani; Visoni, Silvia; Jeremias, Talita Silva; Costa, Ana Paula; Leal, Rodrigo Bainy; Trentin, Andrea Gonçalves

    2014-09-10

    Epidermal neural crest stem cells (EPI-NCSCs), which reside in the bulge of hair follicles, are attractive candidates for several applications in cell therapy, drug screening and tissue engineering. As suggested remnants of the embryonic neural crest (NC) in an adult location, EPI-NCSCs are able to generate a wide variety of cell types and are readily accessible by a minimally invasive procedure. Since the combination of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblast growth factor type 2 (FGF{sub 2}) is mitogenic and promotes the neuronal commitment of various stem cell populations, we examined its effects in the proliferation and neuronal potential of mouse EPI-NCSCs. By using a recognized culture protocol of bulge whiskers follicles, we were able to isolate a population of EPI-NCSCs, characterized by the migratory potential, cell morphology and expression of phenotypic markers of NC cells. EPI-NCSCs expressed neuronal, glial and smooth muscle markers and exhibited the NC-like fibroblastic morphology. The treatment with the combination EGF and FGF{sub 2}, however, increased their proliferation rate and promoted the acquisition of a neuronal-like morphology accompanied by reorganization of neural cytoskeletal proteins βIII-tubulin and nestin, as well as upregulation of the pan neuronal marker βIII-tubulin and down regulation of the undifferentiated NC, glial and smooth muscle cell markers. Moreover, the treatment enhanced the response of EPI-NCSCs to neurogenic stimulation, as evidenced by induction of GAP43, and increased expression of Mash-1 in neuron-like cell, both neuronal-specific proteins. Together, the results suggest that the combination of EGF–FGF2 stimulates the proliferation and improves the neuronal potential of EPI-NCSCs similarly to embryonic NC cells, ES cells and neural progenitor/stem cells of the central nervous system and highlights the advantage of using EGF–FGF{sub 2} in neuronal differentiation protocols. - Highlights: • EPI

  4. Convergent genesis of an adult neural crest-like dermal stem cell from distinct developmental origins.

    PubMed

    Jinno, Hiroyuki; Morozova, Olena; Jones, Karen L; Biernaskie, Jeffrey A; Paris, Maryline; Hosokawa, Ryoichi; Rudnicki, Michael A; Chai, Yang; Rossi, Fabio; Marra, Marco A; Miller, Freda D

    2010-11-01

    Skin-derived precursors (SKPs) are multipotent dermal stem cells that reside within a hair follicle niche and that share properties with embryonic neural crest precursors. Here, we have asked whether SKPs and their endogenous dermal precursors originate from the neural crest or whether, like the dermis itself, they originate from multiple developmental origins. To do this, we used two different mouse Cre lines that allow us to perform lineage tracing: Wnt1-cre, which targets cells deriving from the neural crest, and Myf5-cre, which targets cells of a somite origin. By crossing these Cre lines to reporter mice, we show that the endogenous follicle-associated dermal precursors in the face derive from the neural crest, and those in the dorsal trunk derive from the somites, as do the SKPs they generate. Despite these different developmental origins, SKPs from these two locations are functionally similar, even with regard to their ability to differentiate into Schwann cells, a cell type only thought to be generated from the neural crest. Analysis of global gene expression using microarrays confirmed that facial and dorsal SKPs exhibit a very high degree of similarity, and that they are also very similar to SKPs derived from ventral dermis, which has a lateral plate origin. However, these developmentally distinct SKPs also retain differential expression of a small number of genes that reflect their developmental origins. Thus, an adult neural crest-like dermal precursor can be generated from a non-neural crest origin, a finding with broad implications for the many neuroendocrine cells in the body.

  5. Baicalein reduces β-amyloid and promotes nonamyloidogenic amyloid precursor protein processing in an Alzheimer’s disease transgenic mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, She-Qing; Obregon, Demian; Ehrhart, Jared; Deng, Juan; Tian, Jun; Hou, Huayan; Giunta, Brian; Sawmiller, Darrell; Tan, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Baicalein, a flavonoid isolated from the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis, is known to modulate γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptors. Given prior reports demonstrating benefits of GABAA modulation for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) treatment, we wished to determine whether this agent might be beneficial for AD. CHO cells engineered to overexpress wild-type amyloid precursor protein (APP), primary culture neuronal cells from AD mice (Tg2576) and AD mice were treated with baicalein. In the cell cultures, baicalein significantly reduced the production of β-amyloid (Aβ) by increasing APP α-processing. These effects were blocked by the GABAA antagonist bicuculline. Likewise, AD mice treated daily with i.p. baicalein for 8 weeks showed enhanced APP α-secretase processing, reduced Aβ production, and reduced AD-like pathology together with improved cognitive performance. Our findings suggest that baicalein promotes nonamyloidogenic processing of APP, thereby reducing Aβ production and improving cognitive performance, by activating GABAA receptors. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23686791

  6. Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase Regulates the Activation of Gene Rearrangements at the λ Light Chain Locus in Precursor B Cells in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Dingjan, Gemma M.; Middendorp, Sabine; Dahlenborg, Katarina; Maas, Alex; Grosveld, Frank; Hendriks, Rudolf W.

    2001-01-01

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) is a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase involved in precursor B (pre-B) cell receptor signaling. Here we demonstrate that Btk-deficient mice have an ∼50% reduction in the frequency of immunoglobulin (Ig) λ light chain expression, already at the immature B cell stage in the bone marrow. Conversely, transgenic mice expressing the activated mutant BtkE41K showed increased λ usage. As the κ/λ ratio is dependent on (a) the level and kinetics of κ and λ locus activation, (b) the life span of pre-B cells, and (c) the extent of receptor editing, we analyzed the role of Btk in these processes. Enforced expression of the Bcl-2 apoptosis inhibitor did not alter the Btk dependence of λ usage. Crossing 3-83μδ autoantibody transgenic mice into Btk-deficient mice showed that Btk is not essential for receptor editing. Also, Btk-deficient surface Ig+ B cells that were generated in vitro in interleukin 7-driven bone marrow cultures manifested reduced λ usage. An intrinsic defect in λ locus recombination was further supported by the finding in Btk-deficient mice of reduced λ usage in the fraction of pre-B cells that express light chains in their cytoplasm. These results implicate Btk in the regulation of the activation of the λ locus for V(D)J recombination in pre-B cells. PMID:11369788

  7. Myelin repair and functional recovery mediated by neural cell transplantation in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Lianhua; Hecker, Jordan; Kerstetter, Amber; Miller, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Cellular therapies are becoming a major focus for the treatment of demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), therefore it is important to identify the most effective cell types that promote myelin repair. Several components contribute to the relative benefits of specific cell types including the overall efficacy of the cell therapy, the reproducibility of treatment, the mechanisms of action of distinct cell types and the ease of isolation and generation of therapeutic populations. A range of distinct cell populations promote functional recovery in animal models of MS including neural stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells derived from different tissues. Each of these cell populations has advantages and disadvantages and likely works through distinct mechanisms. The relevance of such mechanisms to myelin repair in the adult central nervous system is unclear since the therapeutic cells are generally derived from developing animals. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of a population of neural cells from the adult spinal cord that are characterized by the expression of the cell surface glycoprotein NG2. In functional studies, injection of adult NG2+ cells into mice with ongoing MOG35-55-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) enhanced remyelination in the CNS while the number of CD3+ T cells in areas of spinal cord demyelination was reduced approximately three-fold. In vivo studies indicated that in EAE, NG2+ cells stimulated endogenous repair while in vitro they responded to signals in areas of induced inflammation by differentiating into oligodendrocytes. These results suggested that adult NG2+ cells represent a useful cell population for promoting neural repair in a variety of different conditions including demyelinating diseases such as MS. PMID:23471865

  8. Frequency analysis of simian virus 40-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursors in the high responder C57BL/6 mouse strain.

    PubMed

    Jennings, S R; Fresa, K L; Lippe, P A; Milici, J E; Tevethia, S S

    1988-10-01

    Studies in this laboratory have shown that long term simian virus 40 (SV40)-specific cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) cultures established from the spleens of high responder C57BL/6 (B6; H-2b) mice exhibit a preference for the selection of H-2Db-restricted CTL clones. In this study, we have investigated the basis for this selection. Limiting dilution cultures were established using responder cells from the popliteal lymph nodes and the spleens of B6 mice immunized subcutaneously in the hind footpads or via the intraperitoneal route, respectively, with syngeneic SV40-transformed cells expressing a full length (1 to 708 amino acid residues) SV40 large T antigen. The relative frequency of CTL precursors (CTLp) able to expand in vitro in the presence of SV40-transformed stimulator cells and interleukin 2 and exhibit lytic activity against H-2b cells expressing full length T antigen ranged from 1/1900 to 1/15,000 in the popliteal lymph node and from 1/8000 to 1/55,000 in the spleen. In these two experimental systems, CTLp restricted to H-2Kb were apparently present at higher frequency than H-2Db-restricted CTLp. Furthermore, CTLp recognizing determinants within the amino-terminal or carboxy-terminal halves of T antigen were generated in approximately equal numbers. The relative affinity of SV40-specific CTL, assessed by inhibition with anti-Lyt 2 monoclonal antibody, indicated that CTL restricted to H-2Db interacted with their target with greater affinity than CTL restricted to H-2Kb. These data suggest that the predominance of isolation of H-2Db-restricted CTL clones from long term in vitro cultures may be a function of the relative affinity of this population as a whole, rather than due to the immunodominance of this subpopulation during the in vivo response to SV40 T antigen. PMID:2459302

  9. beta. -Amyloid precursor protein of Alzheimer disease occurs as 110- to 135-kilodalton membrane-associated proteins in neural and nonneural tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Selkoe, D.J.; Podlisny, M.B.; Joachim, C.L.; Vickers, E.A.; Lee, G.; Fritz, L.C.; Oltersdorf, T. )

    1988-10-01

    Progressive cerebral deposition of extracellular filaments composed of the {beta}-amyloid protein ({beta}AP) is a constant feature of Alzheimer disease (AD). Since the gene on chromosome 21 encoding the {beta}AP precursor ({beta}APP) is not known to be altered in AD, transcriptional or posttranslational changes may underlie accelerated {beta}AP deposition. Using two antibodies to the predicted carboxyl terminus of {beta}APP, the authors have identified the native {beta}APP in brain and nonneural human tissues as a 110- to 135-kDa protein complex that is insoluble in buffer and found in various membrane-rich subcellular fractions. These proteins are relatively uniformly distributed in adult brain, abundant in fetal brain, and detected in nonneural tissues that contain {beta}APP mRNA. Similarly sized proteins occur in rat, cow, and monkey brain and in cultured human HL-60 and HeLa cells; the precise patterns in the 110- to 135-kDa range are heterogeneous among various tissues and cell lines. They conclude that the highly conserved {beta}APP molecule occurs in mammalian tissues as a heterogeneous group of membrane-associated proteins of {approx} 120 kDa. Detection of the nonamyloidogenic carboxyl terminus within plaques suggests that proteolytic processing of the {beta}APP into insoluble filaments occurs locally in cortical regions that develop {beta}-amyloid deposits with age.

  10. Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) induces high occurrence of neural tube defects in embryonic mouse brain during neurulation.

    PubMed

    Quan, Hongyu; Ma, Teng; Zhao, Xianxian; Zhao, Baixiong; Liu, Yunlai; Li, Hongli

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the direct embryonic teratogenicity of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM), especially the toxic effects on the early development of the nervous system and its underlying mechanisms. Pregnant mice at embryonic day 6.5 (E6.5) were injected with different doses of VCM (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg) and embryos were harvested at E10.5. Our results showed that doses higher than 400 mg/kg of VCM increased the incidence of malformed embryos, especially the neural tube defects (NTDs). In addition, high-dose of VCM decreased mitotic figure counts in the neuroepithelium and enhanced the percentage of cells in G0/G1 phase, while they were reduced in S phase. The more VCM was injected into mice, the fewer positive PCNA cells were seen and the more positive TUNEL cells were observed in the neuroepithelium. Moreover, significant increases in the levels of caspase-3 protein were observed in NTD embryos. Our results demonstrate that during early pregnancy, exposure to doses higher than 400 mg/kg of VCM increases the incidence of malformations and particularly the rate of NTDs. High-dose of VCM inhibits the proliferation of neural cells and induces cell apoptosis, leading to an imbalance in the ratio of proliferation and apoptosis. Meanwhile, the apoptosis of neuroepithelial cells might be accelerated by the activation of the caspase-3 pathway, and it might be a reason for NTDs.

  11. Effects of neural stem cells on synaptic proteins and memory in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Wang, G M; Wang, P J; Zhang, Q; Sha, S H

    2014-02-01

    Transplanting neural stem cells (NSC) to the damaged brain has been regarded as a potential treatment for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), a condition characterized by memory loss. We hypothesized that transplantation of NSC into the hippocampal regions of APP + PS1 transgenic (Tg) mice, a well-established model of AD, would enhance the expression of synaptic proteins, which may be helpful for improving cognitive function. Our results showed that NSC transplantation significantly improved spatial learning and memory function in Tg mice. The results obtained by real-time RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, and Western blot analyses demonstrated that the expression of synaptophysin (SYN) and that of growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) in Tg-NSC mice, 8 weeks after transplantation, were significantly improved compared with what was observed in Tg-Veh (control) mice. This finding was confirmed by the increase in the number of synapses in Tg-NSC mice as observed via electron microscopy. Our results suggest that NSC-induced changes can recover memory loss in APP + PS1 transgenic mice, possibly by establishing new neural circuits resulting from the engrafted NSC.

  12. Amyloid precursor protein mutation disrupts reproductive experience-enhanced normal cognitive development in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jie; Jothishankar, Balaji; He, Ping; Staufenbiel, Matthias; Shen, Yong; Li, Rena

    2013-01-01

    Women experience dramatic changes in hormones, mood and cognition through different periods of their reproductive lives, particularly during pregnancy and giving birth. While limited human studies of early pregnancy and motherhood showed alteration of cognitive functions in later life, researches on rodents showed a persistent improvement of learning and memory performance in females with history of giving birth compared to virgin controls. Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most common dementia in elderly, is more prevalent in women than in men. One of the risk factors is related to the sharp reduction of estrogen in aged women. It is unknown whether the history of fertility activity plays any roles in altering risk of AD in females, such as altering cognitive function. Would reproductive experience alter the risk of AD in females? If so, what might be the mechanisms of the change? In this study, we examined the effects of reproductive experience on cognitive function in an AD transgenic mouse model (APP23) and age-matched wild-type non-transgenic control mice (WT). Our data showed an age-dependent effect of reproductive experience on learning and memory activity between breeders (had 1 or more litters) and non-breeders (virgins). More importantly, our data, for the first time, demonstrated a genotype-dependent effect of parity on cognitive function between APP23 and WT mice. At the age of 12 months, WT breeders outperform non-breeders in spatial working and reference memory while APP23 breeders performed worse in spatial learning and memory than age-matched APP23 non-breeders. These genotype- and age-dependent effects of reproductive activity on cognitions are significantly associated with changes of neuropathology of AD in the APP23 mice, expression of proteins related to synaptic plasticity and cognitive functions in the brain. PMID:23853041

  13. Heptanoate as a neural fuel: energetic and neurotransmitter precursors in normal and glucose transporter I-deficient (G1D) brain

    PubMed Central

    Marin-Valencia, Isaac; Good, Levi B; Ma, Qian; Malloy, Craig R; Pascual, Juan M

    2013-01-01

    It has been postulated that triheptanoin can ameliorate seizures by supplying the tricarboxylic acid cycle with both acetyl-CoA for energy production and propionyl-CoA to replenish cycle intermediates. These potential effects may also be important in other disorders associated with impaired glucose metabolism because glucose supplies, in addition to acetyl-CoA, pyruvate, which fulfills biosynthetic demands via carboxylation. In patients with glucose transporter type I deficiency (G1D), ketogenic diet fat (a source only of acetyl-CoA) reduces seizures, but other symptoms persist, providing the motivation for studying heptanoate metabolism. In this work, metabolism of infused [5,6,7-13C3]heptanoate was examined in the normal mouse brain and in G1D by 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). In both groups, plasma glucose was enriched in 13C, confirming gluconeogenesis from heptanoate. Acetyl-CoA and glutamine levels became significantly higher in the brain of G1D mice relative to normal mice. In addition, brain glutamine concentration and 13C enrichment were also greater when compared with glutamate in both animal groups, suggesting that heptanoate and/or C5 ketones are primarily metabolized by glia. These results enlighten the mechanism of heptanoate metabolism in the normal and glucose-deficient brain and encourage further studies to elucidate its potential antiepileptic effects in disorders of energy metabolism. PMID:23072752

  14. Immunoelectron microscopic localization of the neural cell adhesion molecules L1 and N-CAM during postnatal development of the mouse cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    The cellular and subcellular localization of the neural cell adhesion molecules L1 and N-CAM was studied by pre- and postembedding immunoelectron microscopic labeling procedures in the developing mouse cerebellar cortex. The salient features of the study are: L1 displays a previously unrecognized restricted expression by particular neuronal cell types (i.e., it is expressed by granule cells but not by stellate and basket cells) and by particular subcellular compartments (i.e., it is expressed on axons but not on dendrites or cell bodies of Purkinje cells). L1 is always expressed on fasciculating axons and on postmitotic, premigratory, and migrating granule cells at sites of neuron-neuron contact, but never at contact sites between neuron and glia, thus strengthening the view that L1 is not involved in granule cell migration as a neuron-glia adhesion molecule. While N-CAM antibodies reacting with the three major components of N-CAM (180, 140, and 120 kD) show a rather uniform labeling of all cell types, antibodies to the 180-kD component (N-CAM180) stain only the postmigratory granule cell bodies supporting the notion that N-CAM180, the N-CAM component with the longest cytoplasmic domain, is not expressed before stable cell contacts are formed. Furthermore, N-CAM180 is only transiently expressed on Purkinje cell dendrites. N-CAM is present in synapses on both pre- and post-synaptic membranes. L1 is expressed only preterminally and not in the subsynaptic membranes. These observations indicate an exquisite degree of fine tuning in adhesion molecule expression during neural development and suggest a rich combinatorial repertoire in the specification of cell surface contacts. PMID:3301870

  15. Conditional ablation of the neural cell adhesion molecule reduces precision of spatial learning, long-term potentiation, and depression in the CA1 subfield of mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Bukalo, Olena; Fentrop, Nikolas; Lee, Alan Y W; Salmen, Benedikt; Law, Janice W S; Wotjak, Carsten T; Schweizer, Michaela; Dityatev, Alexander; Schachner, Melitta

    2004-02-18

    NCAM, a neural cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is involved in neuronal migration and differentiation, axon outgrowth and fasciculation, and synaptic plasticity. To dissociate the functional roles of NCAM in the adult brain from developmental abnormalities, we generated a mutant in which the NCAM gene is inactivated by cre-recombinase under the control of the calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinase II promoter, resulting in reduction of NCAM expression predominantly in the hippocampus. This mutant (NCAMff+) did not show the overt morphological and behavioral abnormalities previously observed in constitutive NCAM-deficient (NCAM-/-) mice. However, similar to the NCAM-/- mouse, a reduction in long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region of the hippocampus was revealed. Long-term depression was also abolished in NCAMff+ mice. The deficit in LTP could be rescued by elevation of extracellular Ca2+ concentrations from 1.5 or 2.0 to 2.5 mm, suggesting an involvement of NCAM in regulation of Ca2+-dependent signaling during LTP. Contrary to the NCAM-/- mouse, LTP in the CA3 region was normal, consistent with normal mossy fiber lamination in NCAMff+ as opposed to abnormal lamination in NCAM-/- mice. NCAMff+ mutants did not show general deficits in short- and long-term memory in global landmark navigation in the water maze but were delayed in the acquisition of precise spatial orientation, a deficit that could be overcome by training. Thus, mice conditionally deficient in hippocampal NCAM expression in the adult share certain abnormalities characteristic of NCAM-/- mice, highlighting the role of NCAM in the regulation of synaptic plasticity in the CA1 region.

  16. In vivo visualization and monitoring of viable neural stem cells using noninvasive bioluminescence imaging in the 6-hydroxydopamine-induced mouse model of Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Im, Hyung-Jun; Hwang, Do Won; Lee, Han Kyu; Jang, Jaeho; Lee, Song; Youn, Hyewon; Jin, Yeona; Kim, Seung U; Kim, E Edmund; Kim, Yong Sik; Lee, Dong Soo

    2013-06-01

    Transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) has been proposed as a treatment for Parkinson disease (PD). The aim of this study was to monitor the viability of transplanted NSCs expressing the enhanced luciferase gene in a mouse model of PD in vivo. The PD animal model was induced by unilateral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). The behavioral test using apomorphine-induced rotation and positron emission tomography with [18F]N-(3-fluoropropyl)-2'-carbomethoxy-3'-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane ([18F]FP-CIT) were conducted. HB1.F3 cells transduced with an enhanced firefly luciferase retroviral vector (F3-effLuc cells) were transplanted into the right striatum. In vivo bioluminescence imaging was repeated for 2 weeks. Four weeks after transplantation, [18F]FP-CIT PET and the rotation test were repeated. All 6-OHDA-injected mice showed markedly decreased [18F]FP-CIT uptake in the right striatum. Transplanted F3-effLuc cells were visualized on the right side of the brain in all mice by bioluminescence imaging. The bioluminescence intensity of the transplanted F3-effLuc cells gradually decreased until it was undetectable by 10 days. The behavioral test showed that stem cell transplantation attenuated the motor symptoms of PD. No significant change was found in [18F]FP-CIT imaging after cell transplantation. We successfully established an in vivo bioluminescence imaging system for the detection of transplanted NSCs in a mouse model of PD. NSC transplantation induced behavioral improvement in PD model mice.

  17. Contribution of the neural cell recognition molecule NB-3 to synapse formation between parallel fibers and Purkinje cells in mouse.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Kunie; Toyoshima, Manabu; Ueda, Hidehiro; Matsubara, Kota; Takeda, Yasuo; Karagogeos, Domna; Shimoda, Yasushi; Watanabe, Kazutada

    2009-10-01

    The neural cell recognition molecule NB-3, also referred to as contactin-6, is expressed prominently in the developing nervous system after birth and its deficiency has been shown to cause impairment in motor coordination. Here, we investigated the contribution of NB-3 to cerebellar development, focusing on lobule 3 where NB-3 was expressed in granule cells but not in Purkinje cells. In the developing molecular layer, the neural cell recognition molecules TAG-1, L1, and NB-3 formed distinct expression zones from the external granule cell layer to the internal granule cell layer (IGL), respectively. The NB-3-immunoreactive zone did not overlap with TAG-1-immunoreactive zone. By contrast, the L1-immunoreactive zone overlapped with both the TAG-1- and NB-3-immunoreactive zones. NB-3-positive puncta overlapped with vesicular glutamate transporter 1, a presynaptic marker and were apposed close to metabotropic glutamate receptor 1A, a postsynaptic marker, indicating that NB-3 is localized presynaptically at glutamatergic synapses between parallel fibers and Purkinje cells. In NB-3 knockout mice, L1 immunoreactive signals were increased in the IGL at postnatal day (P) 5, suggesting the increase in the number of immature granule cells of the IGL. In addition, the density of parallel fiber synaptic terminals was reduced in NB-3 knockout mice relative to wild-type mice at P5 to P10. In parallel with these findings, caspase-dependent cell death was significantly increased in the NB- 3-deficient cerebellum at P15. Collectively, our results indicate that NB-3 deficiency affects synapse formation during postnatal cerebellar development.

  18. Dynamic Re-wiring of Neural Circuits in the Motor Cortex in Mouse Models of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lalchandani, Rupa R.; Cui, Yuting; Shu, Yu; Xu, Tonghui; Ding, Jun B.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Dynamic adaptations in synaptic plasticity are critical for learning new motor skills and maintaining memory throughout life, which rapidly decline with Parkinson's disease (PD). Plasticity in the motor cortex is important for acquisition and maintenance of novel motor skills, but how the loss of dopamine in PD leads to disrupted structural and functional plasticity in the motor cortex is not well understood. Here, we utilized mouse models of PD and 2-photon imaging to show that dopamine depletion resulted in structural changes in the motor cortex. We further discovered that dopamine D1 and D2 receptor signaling were linked to selectively and distinctly regulating these aberrant changes in structural and functional plasticity. Our findings suggest that both D1 and D2 receptor signaling regulate motor cortex plasticity, and loss of dopamine results in atypical synaptic adaptations that may contribute to the impairment of motor performance and motor memory observed in PD. PMID:26237365

  19. Molecular stages of rapid and uniform neuralization of human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, R; Coppola, G; Kaul, M; Talantova, M; Cimadamore, F; Nilbratt, M; Geschwind, D H; Lipton, S A; Terskikh, A V

    2009-06-01

    Insights into early human development are fundamental for our understanding of human biology. Efficient differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into neural precursor cells is critical for future cell-based therapies. Here, using defined conditions, we characterized a new method for rapid and uniform differentiation of hESCs into committed neural precursor cells (designated C-NPCs). Dynamic gene expression analysis identified several distinct stages of ESC neuralization and revealed functional modules of coregulated genes and pathways. The first wave of gene expression changes, likely corresponding to the transition through primitive ectoderm, started at day 3, preceding the formation of columnar neuroepithelial rosettes. The second wave started at day 5, coinciding with the formation of rosettes. The majority of C-NPCs were positive for both anterior and posterior markers of developing neuroepithelium. In culture, C-NPCs became electrophysiologically functional neurons; on transplantation into neonatal mouse brains, C-NPCs integrated into the cortex and olfactory bulb, acquiring appropriate neuronal morphologies and markers. Compared to rosette-NPCs,(1) C-NPCs exhibited limited in vitro expansion capacity and did not express potent oncogenes such as PLAG1 or RSPO3. Concordantly, we never detected tumors or excessive neural proliferation after transplantation of C-NPCs into mouse brains. In conclusion, our study provides a framework for future analysis of molecular signaling during ESC neuralization.

  20. Molecular stages of rapid and uniform neuralization of human embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, R; Coppola, G; Kaul, M; Talantova, M; Cimadamore, F; Nilbratt, M; Geschwind, DH; Lipton, SA; Terskikh, AV

    2009-01-01

    Insights into early human development are fundamental for our understanding of human biology. Efficient differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into neural precursor cells is critical for future cell-based therapies. Here, using defined conditions, we characterized a new method for rapid and uniform differentiation of hESCs into committed neural precursor cells (designated C-NPCs). Dynamic gene expression analysis identified several distinct stages of ESC neuralization and revealed functional modules of coregulated genes and pathways. The first wave of gene expression changes, likely corresponding to the transition through primitive ectoderm, started at day 3, preceding the formation of columnar neuroepithelial rosettes. The second wave started at day 5, coinciding with the formation of rosettes. The majority of C-NPCs were positive for both anterior and posterior markers of developing neuroepithelium. In culture, C-NPCs became electrophysiologically functional neurons; on transplantation into neonatal mouse brains, C-NPCs integrated into the cortex and olfactory bulb, acquiring appropriate neuronal morphologies and markers. Compared to rosette-NPCs,1 C-NPCs exhibited limited in vitro expansion capacity and did not express potent oncogenes such as PLAG1 or RSPO3. Concordantly, we never detected tumors or excessive neural proliferation after transplantation of C-NPCs into mouse brains. In conclusion, our study provides a framework for future analysis of molecular signaling during ESC neuralization. PMID:19282867

  1. Enhanced expression of FNDC5 in human embryonic stem cell-derived neural cells along with relevant embryonic neural tissues.

    PubMed

    Ghahrizjani, Fatemeh Ahmadi; Ghaedi, Kamran; Salamian, Ahmad; Tanhaei, Somayeh; Nejati, Alireza Shoaraye; Salehi, Hossein; Nabiuni, Mohammad; Baharvand, Hossein; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-02-25

    Availability of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) has enhanced the capability of basic and clinical research in the context of human neural differentiation. Derivation of neural progenitor (NP) cells from hESCs facilitates the process of human embryonic development through the generation of neuronal subtypes. We have recently indicated that fibronectin type III domain containing 5 protein (FNDC5) expression is required for appropriate neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Bioinformatics analyses have shown the presence of three isoforms for human FNDC5 mRNA. To differentiate which isoform of FNDC5 is involved in the process of human neural differentiation, we have used hESCs as an in vitro model for neural differentiation by retinoic acid (RA) induction. The hESC line, Royan H5, was differentiated into a neural lineage in defined adherent culture treated by RA and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). We collected all cell types that included hESCs, rosette structures, and neural cells in an attempt to assess the expression of FNDC5 isoforms. There was a contiguous increase in all three FNDC5 isoforms during the neural differentiation process. Furthermore, the highest level of expression of the isoforms was significantly observed in neural cells compared to hESCs and the rosette structures known as neural precursor cells (NPCs). High expression levels of FNDC5 in human fetal brain and spinal cord tissues have suggested the involvement of this gene in neural tube development. Additional research is necessary to determine the major function of FDNC5 in this process.

  2. Functional N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in O-2A glial precursor cells: a critical role in regulating polysialic acid-neural cell adhesion molecule expression and cell migration

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The capacity for long-distance migration of the oligodendrocyte precursor cell, oligodendrocyte-type 2 astrocyte (O-2A), is essential for myelin formation. To study the molecular mechanisms that control this process, we used an in vitro migration assay that uses neurohypophysial explants. We provide evidence that O-2A cells in these preparations express functional N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, most likely as homomeric complexes of the NR1 subunit. We show that NMDA evokes an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ that can be blocked by the NMDA receptor antagonist AP-5 and by Mg2+. Blocking the activity of these receptors dramatically diminished O-2A cell migration from explants. We also show that NMDA receptor activity is necessary for the expression by O-2A cells of the highly sialylated polysialic acid- neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) that is required for their migration. Thus, glutamate or glutamate receptor ligands may regulate O- 2A cell migration by modulating expression of PSA-NCAM. These studies demonstrate how interactions between ionotropic receptors, intracellular signaling, and cell adhesion molecule expression influence cell surface properties, which in turn are critical determinants of cell migration. PMID:8978823

  3. Gene signatures associated with mouse postnatal hindbrain neural stem cells and medulloblastoma cancer stem cells identify novel molecular mediators and predict human medulloblastoma molecular classification.

    PubMed

    Corno, Daniela; Daniela, Corno; Pala, Mauro; Cominelli, Manuela; Cipelletti, Barbara; Leto, Ketty; Croci, Laura; Barili, Valeria; Brandalise, Federico; Melzi, Raffaella; Di Gregorio, Alessandra; Sergi, Lucia Sergi; Politi, Letterio Salvatore; Piemonti, Lorenzo; Bulfone, Alessandro; Rossi, Paola; Rossi, Ferdinando; Consalez, Gian Giacomo; Poliani, Pietro Luigi; Galli, Rossella

    2012-06-01

    Medulloblastoma arises from mutations occurring in stem/progenitor cells located in restricted hindbrain territories. Here we report that the mouse postnatal ventricular zone lining the IV ventricle also harbors bona fide stem cells that, remarkably, share the same molecular profile with cerebellar white matter-derived neural stem cells (NSC). To identify novel molecular mediators involved in medulloblastomagenesis, we compared these distinct postnatal hindbrain-derived NSC populations, which are potentially tumor initiating, with murine compound Ptch/p53 mutant medulloblastoma cancer stem cells (CSC) that faithfully phenocopy the different variants of human medulloblastoma in vivo. Transcriptome analysis of both hindbrain NSCs and medulloblastoma CSCs resulted in the generation of well-defined gene signatures, each reminiscent of a specific human medulloblastoma molecular subclass. Most interestingly, medulloblastoma CSCs upregulated developmentally related genes, such as Ebfs, that were shown to be highly expressed in human medulloblastomas and play a pivotal role in experimental medullo-blastomagenesis. These data indicate that gene expression analysis of medulloblastoma CSCs holds great promise not only for understanding functional differences between distinct CSC populations but also for identifying meaningful signatures that might stratify medulloblastoma patients beyond histopathologic staging.

  4. Foxg1-Cre Mediated Lrp2 Inactivation in the Developing Mouse Neural Retina, Ciliary and Retinal Pigment Epithelia Models Congenital High Myopia

    PubMed Central

    Obry, Antoine; Santin, Mathieu D.; Ben-Yacoub, Sirine; Pâques, Michel; Amsellem-Levera, Sabine; Bribian, Ana; Simonutti, Manuel; Augustin, Sébastien; Debeir, Thomas; Sahel, José Alain; Christ, Annabel; de Castro, Fernando; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Cosette, Pascal; Kozyraki, Renata

    2015-01-01

    Myopia is a common ocular disorder generally due to increased axial length of the eye-globe. Its extreme form high myopia (HM) is a multifactorial disease leading to retinal and scleral damage, visual impairment or loss and is an important health issue. Mutations in the endocytic receptor LRP2 gene result in Donnai-Barrow (DBS) and Stickler syndromes, both characterized by HM. To clearly establish the link between Lrp2 and congenital HM we inactivated Lrp2 in the mouse forebrain including the neural retina and the retinal and ciliary pigment epithelia. High resolution in vivo MRI imaging and ophthalmological analyses showed that the adult Lrp2-deficient eyes were 40% longer than the control ones mainly due to an excessive elongation of the vitreal chamber. They had an apparently normal intraocular pressure and developed chorioretinal atrophy and posterior scleral staphyloma features reminiscent of human myopic retinopathy. Immunomorphological and ultrastructural analyses showed that increased eye lengthening was first observed by post-natal day 5 (P5) and that it was accompanied by a rapid decrease of the bipolar, photoreceptor and retinal ganglion cells, and eventually the optic nerve axons. It was followed by scleral thinning and collagen fiber disorganization, essentially in the posterior pole. We conclude that the function of LRP2 in the ocular tissues is necessary for normal eye growth and that the Lrp2-deficient eyes provide a unique tool to further study human HM. PMID:26107939

  5. Polysialic acid enters the cell nucleus attached to a fragment of the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM to regulate the circadian rhythm in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Westphal, Nina; Kleene, Ralf; Lutz, David; Theis, Thomas; Schachner, Melitta

    2016-07-01

    In the mammalian nervous system, the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM is the major carrier of the glycan polymer polysialic acid (PSA) which confers important functions to NCAM's protein backbone. PSA attached to NCAM contributes not only to cell migration, neuritogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and behavior, but also to regulation of the circadian rhythm by yet unknown molecular mechanisms. Here, we show that a PSA-carrying transmembrane NCAM fragment enters the nucleus after stimulation of cultured neurons with surrogate NCAM ligands, a phenomenon that depends on the circadian rhythm. Enhanced nuclear import of the PSA-carrying NCAM fragment is associated with altered expression of clock-related genes, as shown by analysis of cultured neuronal cells deprived of PSA by specific enzymatic removal. In vivo, levels of nuclear PSA in different mouse brain regions depend on the circadian rhythm and clock-related gene expression in suprachiasmatic nucleus and cerebellum is affected by the presence of PSA-carrying NCAM in the cell nucleus. Our conceptually novel observations reveal that PSA attached to a transmembrane proteolytic NCAM fragment containing part of the extracellular domain enters the cell nucleus, where PSA-carrying NCAM contributes to the regulation of clock-related gene expression and of the circadian rhythm.

  6. An in vivo and in vitro H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of mdx mouse brain: abnormal development or neural necrosis?

    PubMed

    Tracey, I; Dunn, J F; Parkes, H G; Radda, G K

    1996-09-15

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked genetic disorder primarily affecting young boys, often causing mental retardation in addition to the well-known progressive muscular weakness. Normal dystrophin expression is lacking in skeletal muscle and the central nervous system (CNS) of both DMD children and the mdx mouse model. The underlying biochemical lesion causing mental impairment in DMD is unknown. 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) detects choline-containing compounds, creatine and N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) in vivo. NAA is commonly used as a chemical marker for neurons, and a decline in NAA is thought to correlate with neuronal loss. Control mice were compared to mdx using a combination of in vivo and in vitro 1H-MRS methods to determine whether neural necrosis or developmental abnormalities occur in dystrophic brain. NAA levels were normal in mdx brain compared to controls suggesting minor, if any, neuronal necrosis in dystrophic brain. In contrast, choline compounds and myo-inositol levels were increased, indicative of gliosis or developmental abnormalities in dystrophic brain. PMID:8880686

  7. Neural Stem Cell Gene Therapy Ameliorates Pathology and Function in a Mouse Model of Globoid Cell Leukodystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Neri, Margherita; Ricca, Alessandra; di Girolamo, Ilaria; Alcala'-Franco, Beatriz; Cavazzin, Chiara; Orlacchio, Aldo; Martino, Sabata; Naldini, Luigi; Gritti, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Murine neural stem cells (mNSCs), either naive or genetically modified to express supranormal levels of β-galactocerebrosidase (GALC), were transplanted into the brain of Twitcher mice, a murine model of globoid cell leukodystrophy, a severe sphingolipidosis. Cells engrafted long-term into the host cytoarchitecture, producing functional GALC. Levels of enzyme activity in brain and spinal cord tissues were enhanced when GALC-overexpressing NSC were used. Enzymatic correction correlated with reduced tissue storage, decreased activation of astroglia and microglia, delayed onset of symptoms, and longer lifespan. Mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effect of mNSC included widespread enzyme distribution, cross-correction of host cells, anti-inflammatory activity, and neuroprotection. Similar cell engraftment and metabolic correction were reproduced using human NSC. Thus, NSC gene therapy rapidly reconstitutes sustained and long-lasting enzyme activity in central nervous system tissues. Combining this approach with treatments targeting the systemic disease associated with leukodystrophies may provide significant therapeutic benefit. Stem Cells 2011;29:1559–1571 PMID:21809420

  8. Neural stem cell transplantation at critical period improves learning and memory through restoring synaptic impairment in Alzheimer's disease mouse model.

    PubMed

    Kim, J A; Ha, S; Shin, K Y; Kim, S; Lee, K J; Chong, Y H; Chang, K-A; Suh, Y-H

    2015-06-18

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by neuronal loss in several regions of the brain. Recent studies have suggested that stem cell transplantation could serve as a potential therapeutic strategy to halt or ameliorate the inexorable disease progression. However, the optimal stage of the disease for stem cell transplantation to have a therapeutic effect has yet to be determined. Here, we demonstrated that transplantation of neural stem cells into 12-month-old Tg2576 brains markedly improved both cognitive impairments and neuropathological features by reducing β-amyloid processing and upregulating clearance of β-amyloid, secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines, endogenous neurogenesis, as well as synapse formation. In contrast, the stem cell transplantation did not recover cognitive dysfunction and β-amyloid neuropathology in Tg2576 mice aged 15 months when the memory loss is manifest. Overall, this study underscores that stem cell therapy at optimal time frame is crucial to obtain maximal therapeutic effects that can restore functional deficits or stop the progression of AD.

  9. Noise-induced precursors of state transitions in the stochastic Wilson-cowan model.

    PubMed

    Negahbani, Ehsan; Steyn-Ross, D Alistair; Steyn-Ross, Moira L; Wilson, Marcus T; Sleigh, Jamie W

    2015-01-01

    The Wilson-Cowan neural field equations describe the dynamical behavior of a 1-D continuum of excitatory and inhibitory cortical neural aggregates, using a pair of coupled integro-differential equations. Here we use bifurcation theory and small-noise linear stochastics to study the range of a phase transitions-sudden qualitative changes in the state of a dynamical system emerging from a bifurcation-accessible to the Wilson-Cowan network. Specifically, we examine saddle-node, Hopf, Turing, and Turing-Hopf instabilities. We introduce stochasticity by adding small-amplitude spatio-temporal white noise, and analyze the resulting subthreshold fluctuations using an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck linearization. This analysis predicts divergent changes in correlation and spectral characteristics of neural activity during close approach to bifurcation from below. We validate these theoretical predictions using numerical simulations. The results demonstrate the role of noise in the emergence of critically slowed precursors in both space and time, and suggest that these early-warning signals are a universal feature of a neural system close to bifurcation. In particular, these precursor signals are likely to have neurobiological significance as early warnings of impending state change in the cortex. We support this claim with an analysis of the in vitro local field potentials recorded from slices of mouse-brain tissue. We show that in the period leading up to emergence of spontaneous seizure-like events, the mouse field potentials show a characteristic spectral focusing toward lower frequencies concomitant with a growth in fluctuation variance, consistent with critical slowing near a bifurcation point. This observation of biological criticality has clear implications regarding the feasibility of seizure prediction. PMID:25859420

  10. A novel role for neural cell adhesion molecule in modulating insulin signaling and adipocyte differentiation of mouse mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hai Jie; Xia, Yin Yan; Wang, Lei; Liu, Rui; Goh, Kim Jee; Ju, Pei Jun; Feng, Zhi Wei

    2011-08-01

    Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) has recently been found on adult stem cells, but its biological significance remains largely unknown. In this study, we used bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from wild-type and NCAM knockout mice to investigate the role of NCAM in adipocyte differentiation. It was demonstrated that NCAM isoforms 180 and 140 but not NCAM-120 are expressed on almost all wild-type MSCs. Upon adipogenic induction, Ncam(-/-) MSCs exhibited a marked decrease in adipocyte differentiation compared with wild-type cells. The role of NCAM in adipocyte differentiation was also confirmed in NCAM-silenced preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells, which also had a phenotype with reduced adipogenic potential. In addition, we found that Ncam(-/-) MSCs appeared to be insulin resistant, as shown by their impaired insulin signaling cascade, such as the activation of the insulin-IGF-1 receptor, PI3K-Akt and CREB pathways. The PI3K-Akt inhibitor, LY294002, completely blocked adipocyte differentiation of MSCs, unveiling that the reduced adipogenic potential of Ncam(-/-) MSCs is due to insulin resistance as a result of loss of NCAM function. Furthermore, insulin resistance of Ncam(-/-) MSCs was shown to be associated with induction of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), a key mediator of insulin resistance. Finally, we demonstrated that re-expression of NCAM-180, but not NCAM-140, inhibits induction of TNF-α and thereby improves insulin resistance and adipogenic potential of Ncam(-/-) MSCs. Our results suggest a novel role of NCAM in promoting insulin signaling and adipocyte differentiation of adult stem cells. These findings raise the possibility of using NCAM intervention to improve insulin resistance.

  11. Increased age of transformed mouse neural progenitor/stem cells recapitulates age-dependent clinical features of human glioma malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Mikheev, Andrei M.; Ramakrishna, Rohan; Stoll, Elizabeth A.; Mikheeva, Svetlana A.; Beyer, Richard P.; Plotnik, David A.; Schwartz, Jeffrey L.; Rockhill, Jason K.; Silber, John R.; Born, Donald E.; Kosai, Yoshito; Horner, Philip J.; Rostomily, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing age is the most robust predictor of greater malignancy and treatment resistance in human gliomas. However, the adverse association of clinical course with aging is rarely considered in animal glioma models, impeding delineation of the relative importance of organismal versus progenitor cell aging in the genesis of glioma malignancy. To address this limitation, we implanted transformed neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs), the presumed cells of glioma origin, from 3 and 18month old mice into 3 and 20-month host animals. Transplantation with progenitors from older animals resulted in significantly shorter (p ≤ 0.0001) median survival in both 3month (37.5 vs 83 days) and 20-month (38 vs 67 days) hosts, indicating that age-dependent changes intrinsic to NSPCs rather than host animal age accounted for greater malignancy. Subsequent analyses revealed that increased invasiveness, genomic instability, resistance to therapeutic agents and tolerance to hypoxic stress accompanied aging in transformed NSPCs. Greater tolerance to hypoxia in older progenitor cells, as evidenced by elevated HIF-1 promoter reporter activity and hypoxia response gene (HRG) expression, mirror the upregulation of HRGs in cohorts of older vs younger glioma patients revealed by analysis of gene expression databases, suggesting that differential response to hypoxic stress may underlie age-dependent differences in invasion, genomic instability and treatment resistance. Our study provides strong evidence that progenitor cell aging is responsible for promoting the hallmarks of age-dependent glioma malignancy and that consideration of progenitor aging will facilitate development of physiologically and clinically relevant animal models of human gliomas. PMID:22958206

  12. A 3.7 kb fragment of the mouse Scn10a gene promoter directs neural crest but not placodal lineage EGFP expression in a transgenic animal.

    PubMed

    Lu, Van B; Ikeda, Stephen R; Puhl, Henry L

    2015-05-20

    Under physiological conditions, the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.8 is expressed almost exclusively in primary sensory neurons. The mechanism restricting Nav1.8 expression is not entirely clear, but we have previously described a 3.7 kb fragment of the Scn10a promoter capable of recapitulating the tissue-specific expression of Nav1.8 in transfected neurons and cell lines (Puhl and Ikeda, 2008). To validate these studies in vivo, a transgenic mouse encoding EGFP under the control of this putative sensory neuron specific promoter was generated and characterized in this study. Approximately 45% of dorsal root ganglion neurons of transgenic mice were EGFP-positive (mean diameter = 26.5 μm). The majority of EGFP-positive neurons bound isolectin B4, although a small percentage (∼10%) colabeled with markers of A-fiber neurons. EGFP expression correlated well with the presence of Nav1.8 transcript (95%), Nav1.8-immunoreactivity (70%), and TTX-R INa (100%), although not all Nav1.8-expressing neurons expressed EGFP. Several cranial sensory ganglia originating from neurogenic placodes, such as the nodose ganglion, failed to express EGFP, suggesting that additional regulatory elements dictate Scn10a expression in placodal-derived sensory neurons. EGFP was also detected in discrete brain regions of transgenic mice. Quantitative PCR and Nav1.8-immunoreactivity confirmed Nav1.8 expression in the amygdala, brainstem, globus pallidus, lateral and paraventricular hypothalamus, and olfactory tubercle. TTX-R INa recorded from EGFP-positive hypothalamic neurons demonstrate the usefulness of this transgenic line to study novel roles of Nav1.8 beyond sensory neurons. Overall, Scn10a-EGFP transgenic mice recapitulate the majority of the Nav1.8 expression pattern in neural crest-derived sensory neurons. PMID:25995484

  13. A newly identified mouse hypothalamic area having bidirectional neural connections with the lateral septum: the perifornical area of the anterior hypothalamus rich in chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans.

    PubMed

    Horii-Hayashi, Noriko; Sasagawa, Takayo; Hashimoto, Takashi; Kaneko, Takeshi; Takeuchi, Kosei; Nishi, Mayumi

    2015-09-01

    While previous studies and brain atlases divide the hypothalamus into many nuclei and areas, uncharacterised regions remain. Here, we report a new region in the mouse anterior hypothalamus (AH), a triangular-shaped perifornical area of the anterior hypothalamus (PeFAH) between the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus and fornix, that abundantly expresses chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). The PeFAH strongly stained with markers for chondroitin sulfate/CSPGs such as Wisteria floribunda agglutinin and antibodies against aggrecan and chondroitin 6 sulfate. Nissl-stained sections of the PeFAH clearly distinguished it as a region of comparatively low density compared to neighboring regions, the paraventricular nucleus and central division of the anterior hypothalamic area. Immunohistochemical and DNA microarray analyses suggested that PeFAH contains sparsely distributed calretinin-positive neurons and a compact cluster of enkephalinergic neurons. Neuronal tract tracing revealed that both enkephalin- and calretinin-positive neurons project to the lateral septum (LS), while the PeFAH receives input from calbindin-positive LS neurons. These results suggest bidirectional connections between the PeFAH and LS. Considering neuronal subtype and projection, part of PeFAH that includes a cluster of enkephalinergic neurons is similar to the rat perifornical nucleus and guinea pig magnocellular dorsal nucleus. Finally, we examined c-Fos expression after several types of stimuli and found that PeFAH neuronal activity was increased by psychological but not homeostatic stressors. These findings suggest that the PeFAH is a source of enkephalin peptides in the LS and indicate that bidirectional neural connections between these regions may participate in controlling responses to psychological stressors.

  14. A 3.7 kb Fragment of the Mouse Scn10a Gene Promoter Directs Neural Crest But Not Placodal Lineage EGFP Expression in a Transgenic Animal

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Van B.; Ikeda, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.8 is expressed almost exclusively in primary sensory neurons. The mechanism restricting Nav1.8 expression is not entirely clear, but we have previously described a 3.7 kb fragment of the Scn10a promoter capable of recapitulating the tissue-specific expression of Nav1.8 in transfected neurons and cell lines (Puhl and Ikeda, 2008). To validate these studies in vivo, a transgenic mouse encoding EGFP under the control of this putative sensory neuron specific promoter was generated and characterized in this study. Approximately 45% of dorsal root ganglion neurons of transgenic mice were EGFP-positive (mean diameter = 26.5 μm). The majority of EGFP-positive neurons bound isolectin B4, although a small percentage (∼10%) colabeled with markers of A-fiber neurons. EGFP expression correlated well with the presence of Nav1.8 transcript (95%), Nav1.8-immunoreactivity (70%), and TTX-R INa (100%), although not all Nav1.8-expressing neurons expressed EGFP. Several cranial sensory ganglia originating from neurogenic placodes, such as the nodose ganglion, failed to express EGFP, suggesting that additional regulatory elements dictate Scn10a expression in placodal-derived sensory neurons. EGFP was also detected in discrete brain regions of transgenic mice. Quantitative PCR and Nav1.8-immunoreactivity confirmed Nav1.8 expression in the amygdala, brainstem, globus pallidus, lateral and paraventricular hypothalamus, and olfactory tubercle. TTX-R INa recorded from EGFP-positive hypothalamic neurons demonstrate the usefulness of this transgenic line to study novel roles of Nav1.8 beyond sensory neurons. Overall, Scn10a-EGFP transgenic mice recapitulate the majority of the Nav1.8 expression pattern in neural crest-derived sensory neurons. PMID:25995484

  15. 15-Deoxy-delta 12,14-prostaglandin J2 biphasically regulates the proliferation of mouse hippocampal neural progenitor cells by modulating the redox state.

    PubMed

    Katura, Takashi; Moriya, Takahiro; Nakahata, Norimichi

    2010-04-01

    The activity of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) is regulated by various humoral factors. Although prostaglandin (PG) D(2) is known to mediate various physiological brain functions such as sleep, its actions on NPCs have not been fully understood. In the process of investigating the effects of PGD(2) on NPCs, we found that 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)), an endogenous metabolite of PGD(2), exhibits a novel regulation of the proliferation of NPCs derived from mouse hippocampus. 15d-PGJ(2) showed biphasic effects on epidermal growth factor-induced proliferation of NPCs; facilitation at low concentrations ( approximately 0.3 muM) and suppression at higher concentrations (0.5-10 microM) in vitro. 2-Chloro-5-nitrobenzanilide (GW9662), an inhibitor of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, known to be a molecular target for 15d-PGJ(2), failed to abolish the effects of 15d-PGJ(2). 9,10-dihydro-15d-PGJ(2) (CAY10410), a structural analog of 15d-PGJ(2) lacking the electrophilic carbon in the cyclopentenone ring, did not show 15d-PGJ(2)-like actions. Treatment with 15d-PGJ(2) increased the levels of reactive oxygen species and decreased endogenous GSH levels. Furthermore, supplementation with a membrane-permeable analog of glutathione, GSH ethyl ester (2 mM), diminished the biphasic effects of 15d-PGJ(2). Finally, cell division in the dentate gyrus of postnatal mice was increased by injection of low-dose (1 ng i.c.v.) 15d-PGJ(2) and suppressed by high-dose (30 ng) 15d-PGJ(2). These results suggest that 15d-PGJ(2) regulates the proliferation of NPCs via its electrophilic nature, which enables covalent binding to molecules such as GSH. PMID:20086036

  16. Novel mutations in Lrp6 orthologs in mouse and human neural tube defects affect a highly dosage-sensitive Wnt non-canonical planar cell polarity pathway

    PubMed Central

    Allache, Redouane; Lachance, Stéphanie; Guyot, Marie Claude; De Marco, Patrizia; Merello, Elisa; Justice, Monica J.; Capra, Valeria; Kibar, Zoha

    2014-01-01

    Wnt signaling has been classified as canonical Wnt/β-catenin-dependent or non-canonical planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway. Misregulation of either pathway is linked mainly to cancer or neural tube defects (NTDs), respectively. Both pathways seem to antagonize each other, and recent studies have implicated a number of molecular switches that activate one pathway while simultaneously inhibiting the other thereby partially mediating this antagonism. The lipoprotein receptor–related protein Lrp6 is crucial for the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, but its function in Wnt/PCP signaling remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigate the role of Lrp6 as a molecular switch between both Wnt pathways in a novel ENU mouse mutant of Lrp6 (Skax26m1Jus) and in human NTDs. We demonstrate that Skax26m1Jus represents a hypermorphic allele of Lrp6 with increased Wnt canonical and abolished PCP-induced JNK activities. We also show that Lrp6Skax26-Jus genetically interacts with a PCP mutant (Vangl2Lp) where double heterozygotes showed an increased frequency of NTDs and defects in cochlear hair cells’ polarity. Importantly, our study also demonstrates the association of rare and novel missense mutations in LRP6 that is an inhibitor rather than an activator of the PCP pathway with human NTDs. We show that three LRP6 mutations in NTDs led to a reduced Wnt canonical activity and enhanced PCP signaling. Our data confirm an inhibitory role of Lrp6 in PCP signaling in neurulation and indicate the importance of a tightly regulated and highly dosage-sensitive antagonism between both Wnt pathways in this process. PMID:24203697

  17. Molecular clock regulates daily α1-2-fucosylation of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) within mouse secondary olfactory neurons.

    PubMed

    Kondoh, Daisuke; Tateno, Hiroaki; Hirabayashi, Jun; Yasumoto, Yuki; Nakao, Reiko; Oishi, Katsutaka

    2014-12-26

    The circadian clock regulates various behavioral and physiological rhythms in mammals. Circadian changes in olfactory functions such as neuronal firing in the olfactory bulb (OB) and olfactory sensitivity have recently been identified, although the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. We analyzed the temporal profiles of glycan structures in the mouse OB using a high-density microarray that includes 96 lectins, because glycoconjugates play important roles in the nervous system such as neurite outgrowth and synaptogenesis. Sixteen lectin signals significantly fluctuated in the OB, and the intensity of all three that had high affinity for α1-2-fucose (α1-2Fuc) glycan in the microarray was higher during the nighttime. Histochemical analysis revealed that α1-2Fuc glycan is located in a diurnal manner in the lateral olfactory tract that comprises axon bundles of secondary olfactory neurons. The amount of α1-2Fuc glycan associated with the major target glycoprotein neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) varied in a diurnal fashion, although the mRNA and protein expression of Ncam1 did not. The mRNA and protein expression of Fut1, a α1-2-specific fucosyltransferase gene, was diurnal in the OB. Daily fluctuation of the α1-2Fuc glycan was obviously damped in homozygous Clock mutant mice with disrupted diurnal Fut1 expression, suggesting that the molecular clock governs rhythmic α1-2-fucosylation in secondary olfactory neurons. These findings suggest the possibility that the molecular clock is involved in the diurnal regulation of olfaction via α1-2-fucosylation in the olfactory system.

  18. Confetti clarifies controversy: neural crest stem cells are multipotent.

    PubMed

    Bronner, Marianne

    2015-03-01

    Neural crest precursors generate diverse cell lineages during development, which have been proposed to arise either from multipotent precursor cells or pools of heterogeneous, restricted progenitors. Now in Cell Stem Cell, Baggiolini et al. (2015) perform rigorous in vivo lineage tracing to show that individual neural crest precursors are multipotent. PMID:25748927

  19. The anti-inflammatory glycoprotein, CD200, restores neurogenesis and enhances amyloid phagocytosis in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Varnum, Megan M; Kiyota, Tomomi; Ingraham, Kaitlin L; Ikezu, Seiko; Ikezu, Tsuneya

    2015-11-01

    Cluster of Differentiation-200 (CD200) is an anti-inflammatory glycoprotein expressed in neurons, T cells, and B cells, and its receptor is expressed on glia. Both Alzheimer's disease patients and mouse models display age-related or amyloid-β peptide (Aβ)-induced reductions in CD200. The goal of this study was to determine if neuronal CD200 expression restores hippocampal neurogenesis and reduces Aβ in the amyloid precursor protein mouse model. Amyloid precursor protein and wild-type mice were injected at 6 months of age with an adeno-associated virus expressing CD200 into the hippocampus and sacrificed at 12 months. CD200 expression restored neural progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation in the subgranular and granular cell layers of the dentate gyrus and reduced diffuse but not thioflavin-S(+) plaques in the hippocampus. In vitro studies demonstrated that CD200-stimulated microglia increased neural differentiation of neural stem cells and enhanced axon elongation and dendrite number. CD200 also enhanced Aβ uptake by microglia. These data indicate that CD200 is capable of enhancing microglia-mediated Aβ clearance and neural differentiation and has potential as a therapeutic for Alzheimer's disease.

  20. Ionizing Radiation Induces Altered Neuronal Differentiation by mGluR1 through PI3K-STAT3 Signaling in C17.2 Mouse Neural Stem-Like Cells.

    PubMed

    Eom, Hyeon Soo; Park, Hae Ran; Jo, Sung Kee; Kim, Young Sang; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Sung-Ho; Jung, Uhee

    2016-01-01

    Most studies of IR effects on neural cells and tissues in the brain are still focused on loss of neural stem cells. On the other hand, the effects of IR on neuronal differentiation and its implication in IR-induced brain damage are not well defined. To investigate the effects of IR on C17.2 mouse neural stem-like cells and mouse primary neural stem cells, neurite outgrowth and expression of neuronal markers and neuronal function-related genes were examined. To understand this process, the signaling pathways including PI3K, STAT3, metabotrophic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) and p53 were investigated. In C17.2 cells, irradiation significantly increased the neurite outgrowth, a morphological hallmark of neuronal differentiation, in a dose-dependent manner. Also, the expression levels of neuronal marker proteins, β-III tubulin were increased by IR. To investigate whether IR-induced differentiation is normal, the expression of neuronal function-related genes including synaptophysin, a synaptic vesicle forming proteins, synaptotagmin1, a calcium ion sensor, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors and glutamate receptors, excitatory neurotransmitter receptors was examined and compared to that of neurotrophin-stimulated differentiation. IR increased the expression of synaptophysin, synaptotagmin1 and GABA receptors mRNA similarly to normal differentiation by stimulation of neurotrophin. Interestingly, the overall expression of glutamate receptors was significantly higher in irradiated group than normal differentiation group, suggesting that the IR-induced neuronal differentiation may cause altered neuronal function in C17.2 cells. Next, the molecular mechanism of the altered neuronal differentiation induced by IR was studied by investigating signaling pathways including p53, mGluR1, STAT3 and PI3K. Increases of neurite outgrowth, neuronal marker and neuronal function-related gene expressions by IR were abolished by inhibition of p53, m

  1. Ionizing Radiation Induces Altered Neuronal Differentiation by mGluR1 through PI3K-STAT3 Signaling in C17.2 Mouse Neural Stem-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Hyeon Soo; Park, Hae Ran; Jo, Sung Kee; Kim, Young Sang; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Sung-Ho; Jung, Uhee

    2016-01-01

    Most studies of IR effects on neural cells and tissues in the brain are still focused on loss of neural stem cells. On the other hand, the effects of IR on neuronal differentiation and its implication in IR-induced brain damage are not well defined. To investigate the effects of IR on C17.2 mouse neural stem-like cells and mouse primary neural stem cells, neurite outgrowth and expression of neuronal markers and neuronal function-related genes were examined. To understand this process, the signaling pathways including PI3K, STAT3, metabotrophic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) and p53 were investigated. In C17.2 cells, irradiation significantly increased the neurite outgrowth, a morphological hallmark of neuronal differentiation, in a dose-dependent manner. Also, the expression levels of neuronal marker proteins, β-III tubulin were increased by IR. To investigate whether IR-induced differentiation is normal, the expression of neuronal function-related genes including synaptophysin, a synaptic vesicle forming proteins, synaptotagmin1, a calcium ion sensor, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors and glutamate receptors, excitatory neurotransmitter receptors was examined and compared to that of neurotrophin-stimulated differentiation. IR increased the expression of synaptophysin, synaptotagmin1 and GABA receptors mRNA similarly to normal differentiation by stimulation of neurotrophin. Interestingly, the overall expression of glutamate receptors was significantly higher in irradiated group than normal differentiation group, suggesting that the IR-induced neuronal differentiation may cause altered neuronal function in C17.2 cells. Next, the molecular mechanism of the altered neuronal differentiation induced by IR was studied by investigating signaling pathways including p53, mGluR1, STAT3 and PI3K. Increases of neurite outgrowth, neuronal marker and neuronal function-related gene expressions by IR were abolished by inhibition of p53, m

  2. Cell proliferation and neurogenesis in adult mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Bordiuk, Olivia L; Smith, Karen; Morin, Peter J; Semënov, Mikhail V

    2014-01-01

    Neurogenesis, the formation of new neurons, can be observed in the adult brain of many mammalian species, including humans. Despite significant progress in our understanding of adult neurogenesis, we are still missing data about the extent and location of production of neural precursors in the adult mammalian brain. We used 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) to map the location of proliferating cells throughout the entire adult mouse brain and found that neurogenesis occurs at two locations in the mouse brain. The larger one we define as the main proliferative zone (MPZ), and the smaller one corresponds to the subgranular zone of the hippocampus. The MPZ can be divided into three parts. The caudate migratory stream (CMS) occupies the middle part of the MPZ. The cable of proliferating cells emanating from the most anterior part of the CMS toward the olfactory bulbs forms the rostral migratory stream. The thin layer of proliferating cells extending posteriorly from the CMS forms the midlayer. We have not found any additional aggregations of proliferating cells in the adult mouse brain that could suggest the existence of other major neurogenic zones in the adult mouse brain.

  3. Cell proliferation and neurogenesis in adult mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Bordiuk, Olivia L; Smith, Karen; Morin, Peter J; Semënov, Mikhail V

    2014-01-01

    Neurogenesis, the formation of new neurons, can be observed in the adult brain of many mammalian species, including humans. Despite significant progress in our understanding of adult neurogenesis, we are still missing data about the extent and location of production of neural precursors in the adult mammalian brain. We used 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) to map the location of proliferating cells throughout the entire adult mouse brain and found that neurogenesis occurs at two locations in the mouse brain. The larger one we define as the main proliferative zone (MPZ), and the smaller one corresponds to the subgranular zone of the hippocampus. The MPZ can be divided into three parts. The caudate migratory stream (CMS) occupies the middle part of the MPZ. The cable of proliferating cells emanating from the most anterior part of the CMS toward the olfactory bulbs forms the rostral migratory stream. The thin layer of proliferating cells extending posteriorly from the CMS forms the midlayer. We have not found any additional aggregations of proliferating cells in the adult mouse brain that could suggest the existence of other major neurogenic zones in the adult mouse brain. PMID:25375658

  4. Elevated Nuclear and Cytoplasmic FTY720-Phosphate in Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts Suggests the Potential for Multiple Mechanisms in FTY720-Induced Neural Tube Defects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    FTY720 (fingolimod) is an FDA-approved drug to treat relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. FTY720 treatment in pregnant inbred LM/Bc mice results in approximately 60% of embryos having a neural tube defect (NTD). Sphingosine kinases (Sphk1, Sphk2) phosphorylate FTY720 in vivo to form the bioactive...

  5. Trans-Activation between EphA and FGFR Regulates Self-Renewal and Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells via Differential Activation of FRS2α

    PubMed Central

    Furushima, Kenryo; Chen, Qingfa; Kawakami, Kazuki; Yokote, Hideyuki; Miyajima, Masayasu; Sakaguchi, Kazushige

    2015-01-01

    Ephs and FGFRs belong to a superfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases, playing important roles in stem cell biology. We previously reported that EphA4 and FGFR form a heterodimer following stimulation with ligands, trans-activating each other and signaling through a docking protein, FRS2α, that binds to both receptors. Here, we investigated whether the interaction between EphA4 and FGFRs can be generalized to other Ephs and FGFRs, and, in addition, examined the downstream signal mediating their function in embryonic neural stem/progenitor cells. We revealed that various Ephs and FGFRs interact with each other through similar molecular domains. When neural stem/progenitor cells were stimulated with FGF2 and ephrin-A1, the signal transduced from the EphA4/FGFR/FRS2α complex enhanced self-renewal, while stimulation with ephrin-A1 alone induced neuronal differentiation. The downstream signal required for neuronal differentiation appears to be MAP kinase mainly linked to the Ras family of G proteins. MAP kinase activation was delayed and sustained, distinct from the transient activation induced by FGF2. Interestingly, this effect on neuronal differentiation required the presence of FGFRs. Specific FGFR inhibitor almost completely abolished the function of ephrin-A1 stimulation. These findings suggest that the ternary complex of EphA, FGFR and FRS2α formed by ligand stimulation regulates self-renewal and differentiation of mouse embryonic neural stem/progenitor cells by ligand-specific fine tuning of the downstream signal via FRS2α. PMID:26024354

  6. Polyimide Precursor Solid Residuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Echigo, Yoshiaki (Inventor); Kaneshiro, Hisayasu (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A polyimide precursor solid residuum is an admixture of an aromatic dianhydride or derivative thereof and an aromatic diamine or derivative thereof plus a complexing agent, which is complexed with the admixture by hydrogen bonding. The polyimide precursor solid residuum is effectively employed in the preparation of polyimide foam and the fabrication of polyimide foam structures.

  7. Neurotoxic effects of ochratoxin A on the subventricular zone of adult mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Paradells, Sara; Rocamonde, Brenda; Llinares, Cristina; Herranz-Pérez, Vicente; Jimenez, Misericordia; Garcia-Verdugo, Jose Manuel; Zipancic, Ivan; Soria, Jose Miguel; Garcia-Esparza, Ma Angeles

    2015-07-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA), a mycotoxin that was discovered as a secondary metabolite of the fungal species Aspergillus and Penicillium, is a common contaminant in food and animal feed. This mycotoxin has been described as teratogenic, carcinogenic, genotoxic, immunotoxic and has been proven a potent neurotoxin. Other authors have previously reported the effects of OTA in different structures of the central nervous system as well as in some neurogenic regions. However, the impact of OTA exposure in the subventricular zone (SVZ) has not been assessed yet. To elucidate whether OTA affects neural precursors of the mouse SVZ we investigated, in vitro and in vivo, the effects of OTA exposure on the SVZ and on the neural precursors obtained from this neurogenic niche. In this work, we prove the cumulative effect of OTA exposure on proliferation, differentiation and depletion of neural stem cells cultured from the SVZ. In addition, we corroborated these results in vivo by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. As a result, we found a significant alteration in the proliferation process, which was evidenced by a decrease in the number of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine-positive cells and glial cells, as well as, a significant decrease in the number of neuroblasts in the SVZ. To summarize, in this study we demonstrate how OTA could be a threat to the developing and the adult SVZ through its impact in cell viability, proliferation and differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:25256750

  8. Neurotoxic effects of ochratoxin A on the subventricular zone of adult mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Paradells, Sara; Rocamonde, Brenda; Llinares, Cristina; Herranz-Pérez, Vicente; Jimenez, Misericordia; Garcia-Verdugo, Jose Manuel; Zipancic, Ivan; Soria, Jose Miguel; Garcia-Esparza, Ma Angeles

    2015-07-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA), a mycotoxin that was discovered as a secondary metabolite of the fungal species Aspergillus and Penicillium, is a common contaminant in food and animal feed. This mycotoxin has been described as teratogenic, carcinogenic, genotoxic, immunotoxic and has been proven a potent neurotoxin. Other authors have previously reported the effects of OTA in different structures of the central nervous system as well as in some neurogenic regions. However, the impact of OTA exposure in the subventricular zone (SVZ) has not been assessed yet. To elucidate whether OTA affects neural precursors of the mouse SVZ we investigated, in vitro and in vivo, the effects of OTA exposure on the SVZ and on the neural precursors obtained from this neurogenic niche. In this work, we prove the cumulative effect of OTA exposure on proliferation, differentiation and depletion of neural stem cells cultured from the SVZ. In addition, we corroborated these results in vivo by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. As a result, we found a significant alteration in the proliferation process, which was evidenced by a decrease in the number of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine-positive cells and glial cells, as well as, a significant decrease in the number of neuroblasts in the SVZ. To summarize, in this study we demonstrate how OTA could be a threat to the developing and the adult SVZ through its impact in cell viability, proliferation and differentiation in a dose-dependent manner.

  9. Isolation of Radial Glia-Like Neural Stem Cells from Fetal and Adult Mouse Forebrain via Selective Adhesion to a Novel Adhesive Peptide-Conjugate

    PubMed Central

    Markó, Károly; Kőhidi, Tímea; Hádinger, Nóra; Jelitai, Márta; Mező, Gábor; Madarász, Emília

    2011-01-01

    Preferential adhesion of neural stem cells to surfaces covered with a novel synthetic adhesive polypeptide (AK-cyclo[RGDfC]) provided a unique, rapid procedure for isolating radial glia-like cells from both fetal and adult rodent brain. Radial glia-like (RGl) neural stem/progenitor cells grew readily on the peptide-covered surfaces under serum-free culture conditions in the presence of EGF as the only growth factor supplement. Proliferating cells derived either from fetal (E 14.5) forebrain or from different regions of the adult brain maintained several radial glia-specific features including nestin, RC2 immunoreactivity and Pax6, Sox2, Blbp, Glast gene expression. Proliferating RGl cells were obtained also from non-neurogenic zones including the parenchyma of the adult cerebral cortex and dorsal midbrain. Continuous proliferation allowed isolating one-cell derived clones of radial glia-like cells. All clones generated neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes under appropriate inducing conditions. Electrophysiological characterization indicated that passive conductance with large delayed rectifying potassium current might be a uniform feature of non-induced radial glia-like cells. Upon induction, all clones gave rise to GABAergic neurons. Significant differences were found, however, among the clones in the generation of glutamatergic and cathecolamine-synthesizing neurons and in the production of oligodendrocytes. PMID:22163310

  10. Earthquakes: hydrogeochemical precursors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Manga, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake prediction is a long-sought goal. Changes in groundwater chemistry before earthquakes in Iceland highlight a potential hydrogeochemical precursor, but such signals must be evaluated in the context of long-term, multiparametric data sets.

  11. Neuregulin-1/ErbB4 signaling controls the migration of oligodendrocyte precursor cells during development.

    PubMed

    Ortega, M Cristina; Bribián, Ana; Peregrín, Sandra; Gil, M Trinidad; Marín, Oscar; de Castro, Fernando

    2012-06-01

    During embryonic development, the oligodendrocyte precursors (OPCs) are generated in specific oligodendrogliogenic sites within the neural tube and migrate to colonize the entire CNS. Different factors have been shown to influence the OPC migration and differentiation, including morphogens, growth factors, chemotropic molecules, and extracellular matrix proteins. Neuregulins have been shown to influence the migration of neuronal precursors as well as the movement and differentiation of Schwann cells for peripheral myelination, but their role in the motility of OPCs has not been explored. In the present study, we have used the optic nerve as an experimental model to examine the function of Nrg1 and its ErbB4 receptor in the migration of OPCs in the developing embryo. In vitro experiments revealed that Nrg1 is a potent chemoattractant for the first wave of OPCs, and that this effect is mediated via ErbB4 receptor. In contrast, OPCs colonizing the optic nerve at postnatal stages (PDGFRα(+)-OPCs) does not respond to Nrg1-chemoattraction. We also found that mouse embryos lacking ErbB4 display deficits in early OPC migration away from different oligodendrogliogenic regions in vivo. The present findings reveal a new role for Nrg1/ErbB4 signaling in regulating OPC migration selectively during early stages of CNS development.

  12. Msx genes define a population of mural cell precursors required for head blood vessel maturation.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Miguel; Goupille, Olivier; Saint Cloment, Cécile; Lallemand, Yvan; Cumano, Ana; Robert, Benoît

    2011-07-01

    Vessels are primarily formed from an inner endothelial layer that is secondarily covered by mural cells, namely vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in arteries and veins and pericytes in capillaries and veinules. We previously showed that, in the mouse embryo, Msx1(lacZ) and Msx2(lacZ) are expressed in mural cells and in a few endothelial cells. To unravel the role of Msx genes in vascular development, we have inactivated the two Msx genes specifically in mural cells by combining the Msx1(lacZ), Msx2(lox) and Sm22α-Cre alleles. Optical projection tomography demonstrated abnormal branching of the cephalic vessels in E11.5 mutant embryos. The carotid and vertebral arteries showed an increase in caliber that was related to reduced vascular smooth muscle coverage. Taking advantage of a newly constructed Msx1(CreERT2) allele, we demonstrated by lineage tracing that the primary defect lies in a population of VSMC precursors. The abnormal phenotype that ensues is a consequence of impaired BMP signaling in the VSMC precursors that leads to downregulation of the metalloprotease 2 (Mmp2) and Mmp9 genes, which are essential for cell migration and integration into the mural layer. Improper coverage by VSMCs secondarily leads to incomplete maturation of the endothelial layer. Our results demonstrate that both Msx1 and Msx2 are required for the recruitment of a population of neural crest-derived VSMCs.

  13. Isoflurane suppresses the self-renewal of normal mouse neural stem cells in a p53-dependent manner by activating the Lkb1-p53-p21 signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Hou, Lengchen; Liu, Te; Wang, Jian

    2015-11-01

    Isoflurane is widely used in anaesthesia for surgical operations. However, whether it elicits unwanted side effects, particularly in neuronal cells, remains to be fully elucidated. The Lkb1-p53-p21 signalling pathway is able to modulate neuronal self‑renewal and proliferation. Furthermore, the suppression of Lkb1‑dependent p21 induction leads to apoptosis. In the present study, whether Lkb1‑p53‑p21 signalling is involved in the response to isoflurane was investigated. A comparison of mouse primary, wild‑type neural stem cells (WT NSCs) with the p53‑/‑ NSC cell line, NE‑4C, revealed that isoflurane inhibited proliferation in a dose‑, a time‑ and a p53‑dependent manner. However, flow cytometric analysis revealed that the concentration of isoflurane which caused 50% inhibition (the IC50 value) induced cell cycle arrest in WT NSCs. Furthermore, the protein expression levels of LKB1, p53 and p21 were increased, although those of nestin and survivin decreased, following treatment of WT NSCs with isoflurane. On the other hand, isoflurane induced the phosphorylation of Ser15 in p53 in WT NSCs, which was associated with p53 binding to the p21 promoter, and consequentially, the transcriptional activation of p21. All these events were abrogated in NE‑4C cells. Taken together, the present study has demonstrated that isoflurane suppresses the self-renewal of normal mouse NSCs by activating the Lkb1-p53-p21 signalling pathway.

  14. Directed neuronal differentiation of mouse embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells and their gene expression profiles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuesong; Gu, Qi; Wang, Xiang; Ma, Qingwen; Tang, Huixiang; Yan, Xiaoshuang; Guo, Xinbing; Yan, Hao; Hao, Jie; Zeng, Fanyi

    2013-07-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) may be useful as a therapeutic source of cells for the production of healthy tissue; however, they are associated with certain challenges including immunorejection as well as ethical issues. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a promising substitute since a patient's own adult cells would serve as tissue precursors. Ethical concerns prevent a full evaluation of the developmental potency of human ESCs and iPSCs, therefore, mouse iPSC models are required for protocol development and safety assessments. We used a modified culturing protocol to differentiate pluripotent cells from a mouse iPS cell line and two mouse ES cell lines into neurons. Our results indicated that all three pluripotent stem cell lines underwent nearly the same differentiation process when induced to form neurons in vitro. Genomic expression microarray profiling and single-cell RT-qPCR were used to analyze the neural lineage differentiation process, and more than one thousand differentially expressed genes involved in multiple molecular processes relevant to neural development were identified.

  15. Ex vivo Culture of Mouse Embryonic Skin and Live-imaging of Melanoblast Migration

    PubMed Central

    Mort, Richard L.; Keighren, Margaret; Hay, Leonard; Jackson, Ian J.

    2014-01-01

    Melanoblasts are the neural crest derived precursors of melanocytes; the cells responsible for producing the pigment in skin and hair. Melanoblasts migrate through the epidermis of the embryo where they subsequently colonize the developing hair follicles1,2. Neural crest cell migration is extensively studied in vitro but in vivo methods are still not well developed, especially in mammalian systems. One alternative is to use ex vivo organotypic culture3-6. Culture of mouse embryonic skin requires the maintenance of an air-liquid interface (ALI) across the surface of the tissue3,6. High resolution live-imaging of mouse embryonic skin has been hampered by the lack of a good method that not only maintains this ALI but also allows the culture to be inverted and therefore compatible with short working distance objective lenses and most confocal microscopes. This article describes recent improvements to a method that uses a gas permeable membrane to overcome these problems and allow high-resolution confocal imaging of embryonic skin in ex vivo culture6. By using a melanoblast specific Cre-recombinase expressing mouse line combined with the R26YFPR reporter line we are able to fluorescently label the melanoblast population within these skin cultures. The technique allows live-imaging of melanoblasts and observation of their behavior and interactions with the tissue in which they develop. Representative results are included to demonstrate the capability to live-image 6 cultures in parallel. PMID:24894489

  16. Genetic identification of GnRH receptor neurons: a new model for studying neural circuits underlying reproductive physiology in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Wen, Shuping; Götze, Iris N; Mai, Oliver; Schauer, Christian; Leinders-Zufall, Trese; Boehm, Ulrich

    2011-04-01

    GnRH signaling regulates reproductive physiology in vertebrates via the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. In addition, GnRH signaling has been postulated to act on the brain. However, elucidating its functional role in the central nervous system has been hampered because of the difficulty in identifying direct GnRH signaling targets in live brain tissue. Here we used a binary genetic strategy to visualize GnRH receptor (GnRHR) neurons in the mouse brain and started to characterize these cells. First, we expressed different fluorescent proteins in GnRHR neurons and mapped their precise distribution throughout the brain. Remarkably, neuronal GnRHR expression was only initiated after postnatal day 16, suggesting peri- and postpubertal functions of GnRH signaling in this organ. GnRHR neurons were found in different brain areas. Many GnRHR neurons were identified in areas influencing sexual behaviors. Furthermore, GnRHR neurons were detected in brain areas that process olfactory and pheromonal cues, revealing one efferent pathway by which the neuroendocrine hypothalamus may influence the sensitivity towards chemosensory cues. Using confocal Ca(2+) imaging in brain slices, we show that GnRHR neurons respond reproducibly to extracellular application of GnRH or its analog [D-TRP(6)]-LH-RH, indicating that these neurons express functional GnRHR. Interestingly, the duration and shape of the Ca(2+) responses were similar within and different between brain areas, suggesting that GnRH signaling may differentially influence brain functions to affect reproductive success. Our new mouse model sets the stage to analyze the next level of GnRH signaling in reproductive physiology and behavior.

  17. Identification of Desirable Precursor Properties for Solution Precursor Plasma Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muoto, Chigozie K.; Jordan, Eric H.; Gell, Maurice; Aindow, Mark

    2011-06-01

    In solution precursor plasma spray chemical precursor solutions are injected into a standard plasma torch and the final material is formed and deposited in a single step. This process has several attractive features, including the ability to rapidly explore new compositions and to form amorphous and metastable phases from molecularly mixed precursors. Challenges include: (a) moderate deposition rates due to the need to evaporate the precursor solvent, (b) dealing on a case by case basis with precursor characteristics that influence the spray process (viscosity, endothermic and exothermic reactions, the sequence of physical states through which the precursor passes before attaining the final state, etc.). Desirable precursor properties were identified by comparing an effective precursor for yttria-stabilized zirconia with four less effective candidate precursors for MgO:Y2O3. The critical parameters identified were a lack of major endothermic events during precursor decomposition and highly dense resultant particles.

  18. Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) Promotes the Differentiation of Mouse Cochlear Neural Progenitors via the Math1–Brn3.1 Signaling pathway in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaohua; Huang, Jianmin; Feng, Ling; Fukudome, Shinji; Hamajima, Yuki; Lin, Jizhen

    2009-01-01

    Sonic hedgehog (SHH) is essential for the development of the cochlear duct that harbors the organ of Corti. However, little is known about the molecular signaling pathway through which SHH promotes the development of the organ of Corti, especially cochlear sensory epithelial cells. In this study, we demonstrated that SHH contributes to the differentiation of cochlear neural progenitors (CNPs), which are derived from the postnatal day 1 organ of Corti in mice. Addition of SHH to CNPs increased the formation of epithelial cell islands, simultaneously activated the expression of Math1 that is a transcription factor for the initial differentiation of auditory hair cells. The increased expression of Math1 then regulated the promoter activity of Brn3.1, another transcription factor that controls the further differentiation and survival of auditory hair cells. Taken together, our data suggest that SHH plays an important role in the promotion of auditory hair cell differentiation via the Math1-Brn3.1 signaling pathway. PMID:19908278

  19. A Fab fragment directed against the neural cell adhesion molecule L1 enhances functional recovery after injury of the adult mouse spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Loers, Gabriele; Cui, Yi-Fang; Neumaier, Irmgard; Schachner, Melitta; Skerra, Arne

    2014-06-15

    Lack of permissive mechanisms and abundance of inhibitory molecules in the lesioned central nervous system of adult mammals contribute to the failure of functional recovery, which leads to severe disabilities in motor functions or pain. Previous studies have indicated that the neural cell adhesion molecule L1 constitutes a viable target to promote regeneration. In the present study, we describe the cloning, functional expression in Escherichia coli cells and purification of a recombinant αL1 Fab fragment that binds to L1 with comparable activity as the function-triggering monoclonal antibody 557.B6 and induces neurite outgrowth and neuronal survival in cultured neurons, despite its monovalent function. Infusion of αL1 Fab into the lesioned spinal cord of mice enhanced functional recovery after thoracic spinal cord compression injury. αL1 Fab treatment resulted in reduced scar volume, enhanced number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive axons and increased linear density of VGLUT1 (vesicular glutamate transporter 1) on motoneurons. Furthermore, the number and soma size of ChAT (choline acetyltransferase)-positive motoneurons and the linear density of ChAT-positive boutons on motoneurons as well as parvalbumin-positive interneurons in the lumbar spinal cord were elevated. Stimulation of endogenous L1 by application of the αL1 Fab opens new avenues for recombinant antibody technology, offering prospects for therapeutic applications after traumatic nervous system lesions.

  20. A Fab fragment directed against the neural cell adhesion molecule L1 enhances functional recovery after injury of the adult mouse spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Loers, Gabriele; Cui, Yi-Fang; Neumaier, Irmgard; Schachner, Melitta; Skerra, Arne

    2014-06-15

    Lack of permissive mechanisms and abundance of inhibitory molecules in the lesioned central nervous system of adult mammals contribute to the failure of functional recovery, which leads to severe disabilities in motor functions or pain. Previous studies have indicated that the neural cell adhesion molecule L1 constitutes a viable target to promote regeneration. In the present study, we describe the cloning, functional expression in Escherichia coli cells and purification of a recombinant αL1 Fab fragment that binds to L1 with comparable activity as the function-triggering monoclonal antibody 557.B6 and induces neurite outgrowth and neuronal survival in cultured neurons, despite its monovalent function. Infusion of αL1 Fab into the lesioned spinal cord of mice enhanced functional recovery after thoracic spinal cord compression injury. αL1 Fab treatment resulted in reduced scar volume, enhanced number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive axons and increased linear density of VGLUT1 (vesicular glutamate transporter 1) on motoneurons. Furthermore, the number and soma size of ChAT (choline acetyltransferase)-positive motoneurons and the linear density of ChAT-positive boutons on motoneurons as well as parvalbumin-positive interneurons in the lumbar spinal cord were elevated. Stimulation of endogenous L1 by application of the αL1 Fab opens new avenues for recombinant antibody technology, offering prospects for therapeutic applications after traumatic nervous system lesions. PMID:24673421

  1. Cell Sorting of Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells from the Adult Mouse Subventricular Zone and Live-imaging of their Cell Cycle Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Daynac, Mathieu; Morizur, Lise; Kortulewski, Thierry; Gauthier, Laurent R; Ruat, Martial; Mouthon, Marc-André; Boussin, François D

    2015-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles (SVZ) sustain olfactory neurogenesis throughout life in the mammalian brain. They successively generate transit amplifying cells (TACs) and neuroblasts that differentiate into neurons once they integrate the olfactory bulbs. Emerging fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS) techniques have allowed the isolation of NSCs as well as their progeny and have started to shed light on gene regulatory networks in adult neurogenic niches. We report here a cell sorting technique that allows to follow and distinguish the cell cycle dynamics of the above-mentioned cell populations from the adult SVZ with a LeX/EGFR/CD24 triple staining. Isolated cells are then plated as adherent cells to explore in details their cell cycle progression by time-lapse video microscopy. To this end, we use transgenic Fluorescence Ubiquitination Cell Cycle Indicator (FUCCI) mice in which cells are red-fluorescent during G1 phase due to a G1 specific red-Cdt1 reporter. This method has recently revealed that proliferating NSCs progressively lengthen their G1 phase during aging, leading to neurogenesis impairment. This method is easily transposable to other systems and could be of great interest for the study of the cell cycle dynamics of brain cells in the context of brain pathologies. PMID:26436641

  2. Dual-energy precursor and nuclear erythroid-related factor 2 activator treatment additively improve redox glutathione levels and neuron survival in aging and Alzheimer mouse neurons upstream of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Debolina; LeVault, Kelsey R; Brewer, Gregory J

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether glutathione (GSH) loss or increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) are more important to neuron loss, aging, and Alzheimer's disease (AD), we stressed or boosted GSH levels in neurons isolated from aging 3xTg-AD neurons compared with those from age-matched nontransgenic (non-Tg) neurons. Here, using titrating with buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase (GCL), we observed that GSH depletion increased neuronal death of 3xTg-AD cultured neurons at increasing rates across the age span, whereas non-Tg neurons were resistant to GSH depletion until old age. Remarkably, the rate of neuron loss with ROS did not increase in old age and was the same for both genotypes, which indicates that cognitive deficits in the AD model were not caused by ROS. Therefore, we targeted for neuroprotection activation of the redox sensitive transcription factor, nuclear erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2) by 18 alpha glycyrrhetinic acid to stimulate GSH synthesis through GCL. This balanced stimulation of a number of redox enzymes restored the lower levels of Nrf2 and GCL seen in 3xTg-AD neurons compared with those of non-Tg neurons and promoted translocation of Nrf2 to the nucleus. By combining the Nrf2 activator together with the NADH precursor, nicotinamide, we increased neuron survival against amyloid beta stress in an additive manner. These stress tests and neuroprotective treatments suggest that the redox environment is more important for neuron survival than ROS. The dual neuroprotective treatment with nicotinamide and an Nrf2 inducer indicates that these age-related and AD-related changes are reversible.

  3. Shifts in the Vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegf) isoforms result in transcriptome changes correlated with early neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation in mouse forebrain

    PubMed Central

    Cain, Jacob T.; Berosik, Matthew A.; Snyder, Stephanie D.; Crawford, Natalie F.; Nour, Shirin I.; Schaubhut, Geoffrey J.; Darland, Diane C.

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of neural stem cell (NSC) fate decisions is critical during the transition from a multicellular mammalian forebrain neuroepithelium to the multi-layered neocortex. Forebrain development requires coordinated vascular investment alongside NSC differentiation. Vascular endothelial growth factor A (Vegf) has proven to be a pleiotrophic gene whose multiple protein isoforms regulate a broad range of effects in neurovascular systems. To test the hypothesis that the Vegf isoforms (120, 164, and 188) are required for normal forebrain development, we analyzed the forebrain transcriptome of mice expressing specific Vegf isoforms, Vegf120, VegfF188, or a combination of Vegf120/188. Transcriptome analysis identified differentially expressed genes in embryonic day (E) 9.5 forebrain, a time point preceding dramatic neuroepithelial expansion and vascular investment in the telencephalon. Meta-analysis identified gene pathways linked to chromosome-level modifications, cell fate regulation, and neurogenesis that were altered in Vegf isoform mice. Based on these gene network shifts, we predicted that NSC populations would be affected in later stages of forebrain development. In the E11.5 telencephalon, we quantified mitotic cells [Phospho-Histone H3 (pHH3)-positive] and intermediate progenitor cells (Tbr2/Eomes-positive), observing quantitative and qualitative shifts in these populations. We observed qualitative shifts in cortical layering at P0, particularly with Ctip2-positive cells in layer V. The results identify a suite of genes and functional gene networks that can be used to further dissect the role of Vegf in regulating NSC differentiation and downstream consequences for NSC fate decisions. PMID:24124161

  4. Conditional deletion of AP-2β in mouse cranial neural crest results in anterior segment dysgenesis and early-onset glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Martino, Vanessa B.; Sabljic, Thomas; Deschamps, Paula; Green, Rebecca M.; Akula, Monica; Peacock, Erica; Ball, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD) encompasses a group of developmental disorders in which a closed angle phenotype in the anterior chamber of the eye can occur and 50% of patients develop glaucoma. Many ASDs are thought to involve an inappropriate patterning and migration of the periocular mesenchyme (POM), which is derived from cranial neural crest cells (NCCs) and mesoderm. Although, the mechanism of this disruption is not well understood, a number of transcriptional regulatory molecules have previously been implicated in ASDs. Here, we investigate the function of the transcription factor AP-2β, encoded by Tfap2b, which is expressed in NCCs and their derivatives. Wnt1-Cre-mediated conditional deletion of Tfap2b in NCCs resulted in post-natal ocular defects typified by opacity. Histological data revealed that the conditional AP-2β NCC knockout (KO) mutants exhibited dysgenesis of multiple structures in the anterior segment of the eye including defects in the corneal endothelium, corneal stroma, ciliary body and disruption in the iridocorneal angle with adherence of the iris to the cornea. We further show that this phenotype leads to a significant increase in intraocular pressure and a subsequent loss of retinal ganglion cells and optic nerve degeneration, features indicative of glaucoma. Overall, our findings demonstrate that AP-2β is required in the POM for normal development of the anterior segment of the eye and that the AP-2β NCC KO mice might serve as a new and exciting model of ASD and glaucoma that is fully penetrant and with early post-natal onset. PMID:27483349

  5. Conditional deletion of AP-2β in mouse cranial neural crest results in anterior segment dysgenesis and early-onset glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Martino, Vanessa B; Sabljic, Thomas; Deschamps, Paula; Green, Rebecca M; Akula, Monica; Peacock, Erica; Ball, Alexander; Williams, Trevor; West-Mays, Judith A

    2016-08-01

    Anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD) encompasses a group of developmental disorders in which a closed angle phenotype in the anterior chamber of the eye can occur and 50% of patients develop glaucoma. Many ASDs are thought to involve an inappropriate patterning and migration of the periocular mesenchyme (POM), which is derived from cranial neural crest cells (NCCs) and mesoderm. Although, the mechanism of this disruption is not well understood, a number of transcriptional regulatory molecules have previously been implicated in ASDs. Here, we investigate the function of the transcription factor AP-2β, encoded by Tfap2b, which is expressed in NCCs and their derivatives. Wnt1-Cre-mediated conditional deletion of Tfap2b in NCCs resulted in post-natal ocular defects typified by opacity. Histological data revealed that the conditional AP-2β NCC knockout (KO) mutants exhibited dysgenesis of multiple structures in the anterior segment of the eye including defects in the corneal endothelium, corneal stroma, ciliary body and disruption in the iridocorneal angle with adherence of the iris to the cornea. We further show that this phenotype leads to a significant increase in intraocular pressure and a subsequent loss of retinal ganglion cells and optic nerve degeneration, features indicative of glaucoma. Overall, our findings demonstrate that AP-2β is required in the POM for normal development of the anterior segment of the eye and that the AP-2β NCC KO mice might serve as a new and exciting model of ASD and glaucoma that is fully penetrant and with early post-natal onset. PMID:27483349

  6. Neural progenitor cell survival in mouse brain can be improved by co-transplantation of helper cells expressing bFGF under doxycycline control.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yajie; Ågren, Louise; Lyczek, Agatha; Walczak, Piotr; Bulte, Jeff W M

    2013-09-01

    Cell-based therapy of neurological disorders is hampered by poor survival of grafted neural progenitor cells (NPCs). We hypothesized that it is possible to enhance the survival of human NPCs (ReNcells) by co-transplantation of helper cells expressing basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) under control of doxycycline (Dox). 293 cells or C17.2 cells were transduced with a lentiviral vector encoding the fluorescent reporter mCherry and bFGF under tetracycline-regulated transgene expression (Tet-ON). The bFGF secretion level in the engineered helper cells was positively correlated with the dose of Dox (Pearson correlation test; r=0.95 and 0.99 for 293 and C17.2 cells, respectively). Using bioluminescence imaging (BLI) as readout for firefly luciferase-transduced NPC survival, the addition of both 293-bFGF and C17.2-bFGF helper cells was found to significantly improve cell survival up to 6-fold in vitro, while wild-type (WT, non-transduced) helper cells had no effect. Following co-transplantation of 293-bFGF or C17.2-bFGF cells in the striatum of Rag2(-/-) immunodeficient mice, in vivo human NPC survival could be significantly improved as compared to no helper cells or co-transplantation of WT cells for the first two days after co-transplantation. This enhancement of survival in C17.2-bFGF group was not achieved without Dox administration, indicating that the neuroprotective effect was specific for bFGF. The present results warrant further studies on the use of engineered helper cells, including those expressing other growth factors injected as mixed cell populations.

  7. Conserved expression of mouse Six1 in the pre-placodal region (PPR) and identification of an enhancer for the rostral PPR.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shigeru; Ikeda, Keiko; Shioi, Go; Ochi, Haruki; Ogino, Hajime; Yajima, Hiroshi; Kawakami, Kiyoshi

    2010-08-01

    All cranial sensory organs and sensory neurons of vertebrates develop from cranial placodes. In chick, amphibians and zebrafish, all placodes originate from a common precursor domain, the pre-placodal region (PPR), marked by the expression of Six1/4 and Eya1/2. However, the PPR has never been described in mammals and the mechanism involved in the formation of PPR is poorly defined. Here, we report the expression of Six1 in the horseshoe-shaped mouse ectoderm surrounding the anterior neural plate in a pattern broadly similar to that of non-mammalian vertebrates. To elucidate the identity of Six1-positive mouse ectoderm, we searched for enhancers responsible for Six1 expression by in vivo enhancer assays. One conserved non-coding sequence, Six1-14, showed specific enhancer activity in the rostral PPR of chick and Xenopus and in the mouse ectoderm. These results strongly suggest the presence of PPR in mouse and that it is conserved in vertebrates. Moreover, we show the importance of the homeodomain protein-binding sites of Six1-14, the Six1 rostral PPR enhancer, for enhancer activity, and that Dlx5, Msx1 and Pax7 are candidate binding factors that regulate the level and area of Six1 expression, and thereby the location of the PPR. Our findings provide critical information and tools to elucidate the molecular mechanism of early sensory development and have implications for the development of sensory precursor/stem cells.

  8. Application of a fuzzy neural network model in predicting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-mediated perturbations of the Cyp1b1 transcriptional regulatory network in mouse skin

    SciTech Connect

    Larkin, Andrew; Siddens, Lisbeth K.; Krueger, Sharon K.; Tilton, Susan C.; Waters, Katrina M.; Williams, David E.; Baird, William M.

    2013-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in the environment as complex mixtures with components that have diverse carcinogenic potencies and mostly unknown interactive effects. Non-additive PAH interactions have been observed in regulation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) gene expression in the CYP1 family. To better understand and predict biological effects of complex mixtures, such as environmental PAHs, an 11 gene input-1 gene output fuzzy neural network (FNN) was developed for predicting PAH-mediated perturbations of dermal Cyp1b1 transcription in mice. Input values were generalized using fuzzy logic into low, medium, and high fuzzy subsets, and sorted using k-means clustering to create Mamdani logic functions for predicting Cyp1b1 mRNA expression. Model testing was performed with data from microarray analysis of skin samples from FVB/N mice treated with toluene (vehicle control), dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), or 1 of 3 combinations of diesel particulate extract (DPE), coal tar extract (CTE) and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) using leave-one-out cross-validation. Predictions were within 1 log{sub 2} fold change unit of microarray data, with the exception of the DBC treatment group, where the unexpected down-regulation of Cyp1b1 expression was predicted but did not reach statistical significance on the microarrays. Adding CTE to DPE was predicted to increase Cyp1b1 expression, whereas adding CSC to CTE and DPE was predicted to have no effect, in agreement with microarray results. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (Ahrr) was determined to be the most significant input variable for model predictions using back-propagation and normalization of FNN weights. - Highlights: ► Tested a model to predict PAH mixture-mediated changes in Cyp1b1 expression ► Quantitative predictions in agreement with microarrays for Cyp1b1 induction ► Unexpected difference in expression between DBC and other treatments predicted ► Model predictions

  9. The mouse F3/contactin glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Bizzoca, Antonella; Corsi, Patrizia

    2009-01-01

    F3/Contactin is an immunoglobulin superfamily component expressed in the nervous tissue of several species. Here we focus on the structural and functional properties of its mouse relative, on the mechanisms driving its regulated expression and on its developmental role. F3/Contactin is differentially expressed in distinct populations of central and peripheral neurons and in some non-neuronal cells. Accordingly, the regulatory region of the underlying gene includes promoter elements undergoing differential activation, associated with an intricate splicing profile, indicating that transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms contribute to its expression. Transgenic models allowed to follow F3/Contactin promoter activation in vivo and to modify F3/Contactin gene expression under a heterologous promoter, which resulted in morphological and functional phenotypes. Besides axonal growth and pathfinding, these concerned earlier events, including precursor proliferation and commitment. This wide role in neural ontogenesis is consistent with the recognized interaction of F3/Contactin with developmental control genes belonging to the Notch pathway. PMID:19372728

  10. Multimodal imaging of subventricular zone neural stem/progenitor cells in the cuprizone mouse model reveals increased neurogenic potential for the olfactory bulb pathway, but no contribution to remyelination of the corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Guglielmetti, Caroline; Praet, Jelle; Rangarajan, Janaki Raman; Vreys, Ruth; De Vocht, Nathalie; Maes, Frederik; Verhoye, Marleen; Ponsaerts, Peter; Van der Linden, Annemie

    2014-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a devastating demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in which endogenous remyelination, and thus recovery, often fails. Although the cuprizone mouse model allowed elucidation of many molecular factors governing remyelination, currently very little is known about the spatial origin of the oligodendrocyte progenitor cells that initiate remyelination in this model. Therefore, we here investigated in this model whether subventricular zone (SVZ) neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) contribute to remyelination of the splenium following cuprizone-induced demyelination. Experimentally, from the day of in situ NSPC labeling, C57BL/6J mice were fed a 0.2% cuprizone diet during a 4-week period and then left to recover on a normal diet for 8weeks. Two in situ labeling strategies were employed: (i) NSPCs were labeled by intraventricular injection of micron-sized iron oxide particles and then followed up longitudinally by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and (ii) SVZ NSPCs were transduced with a lentiviral vector encoding the eGFP and Luciferase reporter proteins for longitudinal monitoring by means of in vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI). In contrast to preceding suggestions, no migration of SVZ NSPC towards the demyelinated splenium was observed using both MRI and BLI, and further validated by histological analysis, thereby demonstrating that SVZ NSPCs are unable to contribute directly to remyelination of the splenium in the cuprizone model. Interestingly, using longitudinal BLI analysis and confirmed by histological analysis, an increased migration of SVZ NSPC-derived neuroblasts towards the olfactory bulb was observed following cuprizone treatment, indicative for a potential link between CNS inflammation and increased neurogenesis.

  11. Regulation of endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells for neural repair-factors that promote neurogenesis and gliogenesis in the normal and damaged brain.

    PubMed

    Christie, Kimberly J; Turnley, Ann M

    2012-01-01

    Neural stem/precursor cells in the adult brain reside in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus. These cells primarily generate neuroblasts that normally migrate to the olfactory bulb (OB) and the dentate granule cell layer respectively. Following brain damage, such as traumatic brain injury, ischemic stroke or in degenerative disease models, neural precursor cells from the SVZ in particular, can migrate from their normal route along the rostral migratory stream (RMS) to the site of neural damage. This neural precursor cell response to neural damage is mediated by release of endogenous factors, including cytokines and chemokines produced by the inflammatory response at the injury site, and by the production of growth and neurotrophic factors. Endogenous hippocampal neurogenesis is frequently also directly or indirectly affected by neural damage. Administration of a variety of factors that regulate different aspects of neural stem/precursor biology often leads to improved functional motor and/or behavioral outcomes. Such factors can target neural stem/precursor proliferation, survival, migration and differentiation into appropriate neuronal or glial lineages. Newborn cells also need to subsequently survive and functionally integrate into extant neural circuitry, which may be the major bottleneck to the current therapeutic potential of neural stem/precursor cells. This review will cover the effects of a range of intrinsic and extrinsic factors that regulate neural stem/precursor cell functions. In particular it focuses on factors that may be harnessed to enhance the endogenous neural stem/precursor cell response to neural damage, highlighting those that have already shown evidence of preclinical effectiveness and discussing others that warrant further preclinical investigation. PMID:23346046

  12. The EM Earthquake Precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, K. B., II; Saxton, P. T.

    2013-12-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, American earthquake investigators predetermined magnetometer use and a minimum earthquake magnitude necessary for EM detection. This action was set in motion, due to the extensive damage incurred and public outrage concerning earthquake forecasting; however, the magnetometers employed, grounded or buried, are completely subject to static and electric fields and have yet to correlate to an identifiable precursor. Secondly, there is neither a networked array for finding any epicentral locations, nor have there been any attempts to find even one. This methodology needs dismissal, because it is overly complicated, subject to continuous change, and provides no response time. As for the minimum magnitude threshold, which was set at M5, this is simply higher than what modern technological advances have gained. Detection can now be achieved at approximately M1, which greatly improves forecasting chances. A propagating precursor has now been detected in both the field and laboratory. Field antenna testing conducted outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013, detected three strong EM sources along with numerous weaker signals. The antenna had mobility, and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. Next, two

  13. Fingolimod induces neurogenesis in adult mouse hippocampus and improves contextual fear memory.

    PubMed

    Efstathopoulos, P; Kourgiantaki, A; Karali, K; Sidiropoulou, K; Margioris, A N; Gravanis, A; Charalampopoulos, I

    2015-11-24

    Fingolimod (FTY720) was the first per os administered disease-modifying agent approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. It is thought that fingolimod modulates the immune response by activating sphingosine-1 phosphate receptor type 1 (S1P1) on lymphocytes following its in vivo phosphorylation. In addition to its immune-related effects, there is evidence that fingolimod exerts several other effects in the central nervous system, including regulation of the proliferation, survival and differentiation of various cell types and their precursors. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of fingolimod on the production of new neurons in the adult mouse hippocampus and the association of this effect with the ability for pattern separation, an established adult neurogenesis-dependent memory function. Immunofluorescence analysis after chronic administration of a physiologic dose of fingolimod (0.3 mg kg(-1)) revealed a significant increase in both the proliferation and the survival of neural progenitors in the area of dentate gyrus of hippocampus, compared with control animals. These effects were replicated in vitro, in cultures of murine hippocampal neural stem/precursor cells that express S1P1 receptor, suggesting cell-autonomous actions. The effects of fingolimod on neurogenesis were correlated to enhanced ability for context discrimination after fear conditioning. Since impairment of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and memory is a common feature of many neuropsychiatric conditions, fingolimod treatment may be beneficial in therapeutic armamentarium of these disorders.

  14. NKCC1-Deficiency Results in Abnormal Proliferation of Neural Progenitor Cells of the Lateral Ganglionic Eminence

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Ana Cathia; Rivera, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The proliferative pool of neural progenitor cells is maintained by exquisitely controlled mechanisms for cell cycle regulation. The Na-K-Cl cotransporter (NKCC1) is important for regulating cell volume and the proliferation of different cell types in vitro. NKCC1 is expressed in ventral telencephalon of embryonic brains suggesting a potential role in neural development of this region. The ventral telencephalon is a major source for both interneuron and oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Whether NKCC1 is involved in the proliferation of these cell populations remains unknown. In order to assess this question, we monitored several markers for neural, neuronal, and proliferating cells in wild-type (WT) and NKCC1 knockout (KO) mouse brains. We found that NKCC1 was expressed in neural progenitor cells from the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) at E12.5. Mice lacking NKCC1 expression displayed reduced phospho-Histone H3 (PH3)-labeled mitotic cells in the ventricular zone (VZ) and reduced cell cycle reentry. Accordingly, we found a significant reduction of Sp8-labeled immature interneurons migrating from the dorsal LGE in NKCC1-deficient mice at a later developmental stage. Interestingly, at E14.5, NKCC1 regulated also the formation of Olig2-labeled oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Collectively, these findings show that NKCC1 serves in vivo as a modulator of the cell cycle decision in the developing ventral telencephalon at the early stage of neurogenesis. These results present a novel mechanistic avenue to be considered in the recent proposed involvement of chloride transporters in a number of developmentally related diseases, such as epilepsy, autism, and schizophrenia. PMID:27582690

  15. NKCC1-Deficiency Results in Abnormal Proliferation of Neural Progenitor Cells of the Lateral Ganglionic Eminence.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Ana Cathia; Rivera, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The proliferative pool of neural progenitor cells is maintained by exquisitely controlled mechanisms for cell cycle regulation. The Na-K-Cl cotransporter (NKCC1) is important for regulating cell volume and the proliferation of different cell types in vitro. NKCC1 is expressed in ventral telencephalon of embryonic brains suggesting a potential role in neural development of this region. The ventral telencephalon is a major source for both interneuron and oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Whether NKCC1 is involved in the proliferation of these cell populations remains unknown. In order to assess this question, we monitored several markers for neural, neuronal, and proliferating cells in wild-type (WT) and NKCC1 knockout (KO) mouse brains. We found that NKCC1 was expressed in neural progenitor cells from the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) at E12.5. Mice lacking NKCC1 expression displayed reduced phospho-Histone H3 (PH3)-labeled mitotic cells in the ventricular zone (VZ) and reduced cell cycle reentry. Accordingly, we found a significant reduction of Sp8-labeled immature interneurons migrating from the dorsal LGE in NKCC1-deficient mice at a later developmental stage. Interestingly, at E14.5, NKCC1 regulated also the formation of Olig2-labeled oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Collectively, these findings show that NKCC1 serves in vivo as a modulator of the cell cycle decision in the developing ventral telencephalon at the early stage of neurogenesis. These results present a novel mechanistic avenue to be considered in the recent proposed involvement of chloride transporters in a number of developmentally related diseases, such as epilepsy, autism, and schizophrenia. PMID:27582690

  16. A conserved role for non-neural ectoderm cells in early neural development.

    PubMed

    Cajal, Marieke; Creuzet, Sophie E; Papanayotou, Costis; Sabéran-Djoneidi, Délara; Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Susana M; Zwijsen, An; Collignon, Jérôme; Camus, Anne

    2014-11-01

    During the early steps of head development, ectodermal patterning leads to the emergence of distinct non-neural and neural progenitor cells. The induction of the preplacodal ectoderm and the neural crest depends on well-studied signalling interactions between the non-neural ectoderm fated to become epidermis and the prospective neural plate. By contrast, the involvement of the non-neural ectoderm in the morphogenetic events leading to the development and patterning of the central nervous system has been studied less extensively. Here, we show that the removal of the rostral non-neural ectoderm abutting the prospective neural plate at late gastrulation stage leads, in mouse and chick embryos, to morphological defects in forebrain and craniofacial tissues. In particular, this ablation compromises the development of the telencephalon without affecting that of the diencephalon. Further investigations of ablated mouse embryos established that signalling centres crucial for forebrain regionalization, namely the axial mesendoderm and the anterior neural ridge, form normally. Moreover, changes in cell death or cell proliferation could not explain the specific loss of telencephalic tissue. Finally, we provide evidence that the removal of rostral tissues triggers misregulation of the BMP, WNT and FGF signalling pathways that may affect telencephalon development. This study opens new perspectives on the role of the neural/non-neural interface and reveals its functional relevance across higher vertebrates.

  17. Genetic Dissection of Neural Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Liqun; Callaway, Edward M.; Svoboda, Karel

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the principles of information processing in neural circuits requires systematic characterization of the participating cell types and their connections, and the ability to measure and perturb their activity. Genetic approaches promise to bring experimental access to complex neural systems, including genetic stalwarts such as the fly and mouse, but also to nongenetic systems such as primates. Together with anatomical and physiological methods, cell-type-specific expression of protein markers and sensors and transducers will be critical to construct circuit diagrams and to measure the activity of genetically defined neurons. Inactivation and activation of genetically defined cell types will establish causal relationships between activity in specific groups of neurons, circuit function, and animal behavior. Genetic analysis thus promises to reveal the logic of the neural circuits in complex brains that guide behaviors. Here we review progress in the genetic analysis of neural circuits and discuss directions for future research and development. PMID:18341986

  18. Precursors of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Bostwick, David G; Cheng, Liang

    2012-01-01

    High-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) is the only accepted precursor of prostatic adenocarcinoma, according to numerous studies of animal models and man; other proposed precursors include atrophy and malignancy-associated changes (with no morphologic changes). PIN is characterized by progressive abnormalities of phenotype and genotype that are intermediate between benign prostatic epithelium and cancer, indicating impairment of cell differentiation and regulatory control with advancing stages of prostatic carcinogenesis. The only method of detection of PIN is biopsy because it does not significantly elevate serum prostate-specific antigen concentration and cannot be detected by ultrasonography. The mean incidence of PIN in biopsies is 9% (range, 4%-16%), representing about 115,000 new cases of isolated PIN diagnosed each year in the United States. The clinical importance of PIN is its high predictive value as a marker for adenocarcinoma, and its identification warrants repeat biopsy for concurrent or subsequent carcinoma, especially when multifocal or observed in association with atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP). Carcinoma develops in most patients with PIN within 10 years. Androgen deprivation therapy and radiation therapy decrease the prevalence and extent of PIN, suggesting that these forms of treatment may play a role in prevention of subsequent cancer. Multiple clinical trials to date of men with PIN have had modest success in delaying or preventing subsequent cancer. PMID:22212075

  19. Analysis of mRNA Translation Rate in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Rahim, Anisa B; Vardy, Leah A

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of gene expression is essential to enable embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to either self-renew or to differentiate. Translational regulation of mRNA plays a major role in regulating gene expression and has been shown to be important for ESC differentiation. Sucrose gradients can be used to separate mRNAs based on the number of associated ribosomes and this can be used as a readout of the rate of translation. Following centrifugation through a sucrose gradient, mRNAs can be recovered, purified, and analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to determine their ribosomal load in different cell states. Here, we describe how to differentiate mouse ESCs to Neural Precursor Cells (NPCs) and analyze the rate of translation of individual mRNAs by qRT-PCR following polysome fractionation.

  20. Zika Virus Disrupts Neural Progenitor Development and Leads to Microcephaly in Mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Cui; Xu, Dan; Ye, Qing; Hong, Shuai; Jiang, Yisheng; Liu, Xinyi; Zhang, Nana; Shi, Lei; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Xu, Zhiheng

    2016-07-01

    The link between Zika virus (ZIKV) infection and microcephaly has raised urgent global alarm. The historical African ZIKV MR766 was recently shown to infect cultured human neural precursor cells (NPCs), but unlike the contemporary ZIKV strains, it is not believed to cause microcephaly. Here we investigated whether the Asian ZIKV strain SZ01 could infect NPCs in vivo and affect brain development. We found that SZ01 replicates efficiently in embryonic mouse brain by directly targeting different neuronal linages. ZIKV infection leads to cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis, and inhibition of NPC differentiation, resulting in cortical thinning and microcephaly. Global gene expression analysis of infected brains reveals upregulation of candidate flavirus entry receptors and dysregulation of genes associated with immune response, apoptosis, and microcephaly. Our model provides evidence for a direct link between Zika virus infection and microcephaly, with potential for further exploration of the underlying mechanisms and management of ZIKV-related pathological effects during brain development.

  1. FolR1: a novel cell surface marker for isolating midbrain dopamine neural progenitors and nascent dopamine neurons

    PubMed Central

    Gennet, Nicole; Tamburini, Claudia; Nan, Xinsheng; Li, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Cell type-specific surface markers offer a powerful tool for purifying defined cell types for restorative therapies and drug screenings. Midbrain dopaminergic neurons (mesDA) are the nerve cells preferentially lost in the brains of Parkinson’s disease patients. Clinical trials of transplantation of fetal neural precursors suggest that cell therapy may offer a cure for this devastating neurological disease. Many lines of preclinical studies demonstrate that neural progenitors committed to dopaminergic fate survive and integrate better than postmitotic DA neurons. We show that the folate-receptor 1 (FolR1), a GPI-anchored cell surface molecule, specifically marks mesDA neural progenitors and immature mesDA neurons. FolR1 expression superimposes with Lmx1a, a bona-fide mesDA lineage marker, during the active phase of mesDA neurogenesis from E9.5 to E14.5 during mouse development, as well as in ESC-derived mesDA lineage. FolR1+ neural progenitors can be isolated by FACS or magnetic sorting (MAC) which give rise to dopamine neurons expressing TH and Pitx3, whilst FolR1 negative cells generate non-dopaminergic neurons and glia cells. This study identifies FolR1 as a new cell surface marker selectively expressed in mesDA progenitors in vivo and in vitro and that can be used to enrich in vitro differentiated TH neurons. PMID:27580818

  2. Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting of EGFP-Labeled Neural Crest Cells From Murine Embryonic Craniofacial Tissue

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    During the early stages of embryogenesis, pluripotent neural crest cells (NCC) are known to migrate from the neural folds to populate multiple target sites in the embryo where they differentiate into various derivatives, including cartilage, bone, connective tissue, melanocytes, glia, and neurons of the peripheral nervous system. The ability to obtain pure NCC populations is essential to enable molecular analyses of neural crest induction, migration, and/or differentiation. Crossing Wnt1-Cre and Z/EG transgenic mouse lines resulted in offspring in which the Wnt1-Cre transgene activated permanent EGFP expression only in NCC. The present report demonstrates a flow cytometric method to sort and isolate populations of EGFP-labeled NCC. The identity of the sorted neural crest cells was confirmed by assaying expression of known marker genes by TaqMan Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (QRT-PCR). The molecular strategy described in this report provides a means to extract intact RNA from a pure population of NCC thus enabling analysis of gene expression in a defined population of embryonic precursor cells critical to development. PMID:16192680

  3. FolR1: a novel cell surface marker for isolating midbrain dopamine neural progenitors and nascent dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Gennet, Nicole; Tamburini, Claudia; Nan, Xinsheng; Li, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Cell type-specific surface markers offer a powerful tool for purifying defined cell types for restorative therapies and drug screenings. Midbrain dopaminergic neurons (mesDA) are the nerve cells preferentially lost in the brains of Parkinson's disease patients. Clinical trials of transplantation of fetal neural precursors suggest that cell therapy may offer a cure for this devastating neurological disease. Many lines of preclinical studies demonstrate that neural progenitors committed to dopaminergic fate survive and integrate better than postmitotic DA neurons. We show that the folate-receptor 1 (FolR1), a GPI-anchored cell surface molecule, specifically marks mesDA neural progenitors and immature mesDA neurons. FolR1 expression superimposes with Lmx1a, a bona-fide mesDA lineage marker, during the active phase of mesDA neurogenesis from E9.5 to E14.5 during mouse development, as well as in ESC-derived mesDA lineage. FolR1(+) neural progenitors can be isolated by FACS or magnetic sorting (MAC) which give rise to dopamine neurons expressing TH and Pitx3, whilst FolR1 negative cells generate non-dopaminergic neurons and glia cells. This study identifies FolR1 as a new cell surface marker selectively expressed in mesDA progenitors in vivo and in vitro and that can be used to enrich in vitro differentiated TH neurons. PMID:27580818

  4. An interstellar precursor mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.; Ivie, C.; Lewis, J. C.; Lipes, R. G.; Norton, H. N.; Stearns, J. W.; Stimpson, L.; Weissman, P.

    1977-01-01

    A mission out of the planetary system, with launch about the year 2000, could provide valuable scientific data as well as test some of the technology for a later mission to another star. Primary scientific objectives for the precursor mission concern characteristics of the heliopause, the interstellar medium, stellar distances (by parallax measurements), low energy cosmic rays, interplanetary gas distribution, and mass of the solar system. Secondary objectives include investigation of Pluto. Candidate science instruments are suggested. Individual spacecraft systems for the mission were considered, technology requirements and problem areas noted, and a number of recommendations made for technology study and advanced development. The most critical technology needs include attainment of 50-yr spacecraft lifetime and development of a long-life NEP system.

  5. Identified EM Earthquake Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Kenneth, II; Saxton, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After a number of custom rock experiments, two hypotheses were formed which could answer the EM wave model. The first hypothesis concerned a sufficient and continuous electron movement either by surface or penetrative flow, and the second regarded a novel approach to radio transmission. Electron flow along fracture surfaces was determined to be inadequate in creating strong EM fields, because rock has a very high electrical resistance making it a high quality insulator. Penetrative flow could not be corroborated as well, because it was discovered that rock was absorbing and confining electrons to a very thin skin depth. Radio wave transmission and detection worked with every single test administered. This hypothesis was reviewed for propagating, long-wave generation with sufficient amplitude, and the capability of penetrating solid rock. Additionally, fracture spaces, either air or ion-filled, can facilitate this concept from great depths and allow for surficial detection. A few propagating precursor signals have been detected in the field occurring with associated phases using custom-built loop antennae. Field testing was conducted in Southern California from 2006-2011, and outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013. The antennae have mobility and observations were noted for

  6. NOTCH activation interferes with cell fate specification in the gastrulating mouse embryo.

    PubMed

    Souilhol, Céline; Perea-Gomez, Aitana; Camus, Anne; Beck-Cormier, Sarah; Vandormael-Pournin, Sandrine; Escande, Marie; Collignon, Jérôme; Cohen-Tannoudji, Michel

    2015-11-01

    NOTCH signalling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway involved in intercellular communication essential for cell fate choices during development. Although dispensable for early aspects of mouse development, canonical RBPJ-dependent NOTCH signalling has been shown to influence lineage commitment during embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation. NOTCH activation in ESCs promotes the acquisition of a neural fate, whereas its suppression favours their differentiation into cardiomyocytes. This suggests that NOTCH signalling is implicated in the acquisition of distinct embryonic fates at early stages of mammalian development. In order to investigate in vivo such a role for NOTCH signalling in shaping cell fate specification, we use genetic approaches to constitutively activate the NOTCH pathway in the mouse embryo. Early embryonic development, including the establishment of anterior-posterior polarity, is not perturbed by forced NOTCH activation. By contrast, widespread NOTCH activity in the epiblast triggers dramatic gastrulation defects. These are fully rescued in a RBPJ-deficient background. Epiblast-specific NOTCH activation induces acquisition of neurectoderm identity and disrupts the formation of specific mesodermal precursors including the derivatives of the anterior primitive streak, the mouse organiser. In addition, we show that forced NOTCH activation results in misregulation of NODAL signalling, a major determinant of early embryonic patterning. Our study reveals a previously unidentified role for canonical NOTCH signalling during mammalian gastrulation. It also exemplifies how in vivo studies can shed light on the mechanisms underlying cell fate specification during in vitro directed differentiation.

  7. Left-right patterning in the mouse requires Epb4.1l5-dependent morphogenesis of the node and midline

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeffrey D.; Migeotte, Isabelle; Anderson, Kathryn V.

    2011-01-01

    The mouse node is a transient early embryonic structure that is required for left-right asymmetry and for generation of the axial midline, which patterns neural and mesodermal tissues. The node is a shallow teardrop-shaped pit that sits at the distal tip of the early headfold (e7.75) embryo. The shape of the node is believed to be important for generation of the coherent leftward fluid flow required for initiation of left-right asymmetry, but little is known about the morphogenesis of the node. Here we show that the FERM domain protein Lulu/Epb4.1l5 is required for left-right asymmetry in the early mouse embryo. Unlike other genes previously shown to be required for left-right asymmetry in the mouse, lulu is not required for specification of node cell identity, for Nodal signaling in the node or for ciliogenesis. Instead, lulu is required for proper morphogenesis of the node and midline. The precursors of the wild-type node undergo a series of rapid morphological transitions. First, node precursors arise from an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition at the anterior primitive streak. While in the mesenchymal layer, the node precursors form several ciliated rosette-like clusters; they then rapidly undergo a mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition to insert into the outer, endodermal layer of the embryo. In lulu mutants, node precursor cells are specified and form clusters, but those clusters fail to coalesce to make a single continuous node epithelium. The data suggest that the assembly of the contiguous node epithelium from mesenchymal clusters requires a rapid reorganization of apical-basal polarity that depends on Lulu/Epb4.1l5. PMID:20678497

  8. Distinct Wnt-driven primitive streak-like populations reflect in vivo lineage precursors

    PubMed Central

    Tsakiridis, Anestis; Huang, Yali; Blin, Guillaume; Skylaki, Stavroula; Wymeersch, Filip; Osorno, Rodrigo; Economou, Costas; Karagianni, Eleni; Zhao, Suling; Lowell, Sally; Wilson, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    During gastrulation, epiblast cells are pluripotent and their fate is thought to be constrained principally by their position. Cell fate is progressively restricted by localised signalling cues from areas including the primitive streak. However, it is unknown whether this restriction accompanies, at the individual cell level, a reduction in potency. Investigation of these early transition events in vitro is possible via the use of epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs), self-renewing pluripotent cell lines equivalent to the postimplantation epiblast. Strikingly, mouse EpiSCs express gastrulation stage regional markers in self-renewing conditions. Here, we examined the differentiation potential of cells expressing such lineage markers. We show that undifferentiated EpiSC cultures contain a major subfraction of cells with reversible early primitive streak characteristics, which is mutually exclusive to a neural-like fraction. Using in vitro differentiation assays and embryo grafting we demonstrate that primitive streak-like EpiSCs are biased towards mesoderm and endoderm fates while retaining pluripotency. The acquisition of primitive streak characteristics by self-renewing EpiSCs is mediated by endogenous Wnt signalling. Elevation of Wnt activity promotes restriction towards primitive streak-associated lineages with mesendodermal and neuromesodermal characteristics. Collectively, our data suggest that EpiSC pluripotency encompasses a range of reversible lineage-biased states reflecting the birth of pioneer lineage precursors from a pool of uncommitted EpiSCs similar to the earliest cell fate restriction events taking place in the gastrula stage epiblast. PMID:24595287

  9. Intraspinal transplantation of neurogenin-expressing stem cells generates spinal cord neural progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Lunn, J. Simon; Pacut, Crystal; Stern, Emily; Sakowski, Stacey A.; Velkey, J. Matthew; O’Shea, Sue; Feldman, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells and their derivatives are an important resource for developing novel cellular therapies for disease. Controlling proliferation and lineage selection, however, are essential to circumvent the possibility of tumor formation and facilitate the safe translation of ES-based therapies to man. Expression of appropriate transcription factors is one approach to direct the differentiation of ES cells towards a specific lineage and stop proliferation. Neural differentiation can be initiated in ES cells by expression of Neurogenin1 (Ngn1). In this study we investigate the effects of controlled Ngn1 expression on mouse ES (mES) cell differentiation in vitro and following grafting into the rat spinal cord. In vitro, Ngn1 expression in mES cells leads to rapid and specific neural differentiation, and a concurrent decrease in proliferation. Similarly transplantation of Ngn1-expressing mES cells into the spinal cord lead to in situ differentiation and spinal precursor formation. These data demonstrate that Ngn1 expression in mES cells is sufficient promote neural differentiation and inhibit proliferation, thus establishing an approach to safely graft ES cells into the spinal cord. PMID:22245661

  10. Generation of Nonlinear Vortex Precursors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue-Yue; Feng, Xun-Li; Liu, Chengpu

    2016-07-01

    We numerically study the propagation of a few-cycle pulse carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) through a dense atomic system. Nonlinear precursors consisting of high-order vortex harmonics are generated in the transmitted field due to carrier effects associated with ultrafast Bloch oscillation. The nonlinear precursors survive to propagation effects and are well separated with the main pulse, which provides a straightforward way to measure precursors. By virtue of carrying high-order OAM, the obtained vortex precursors as information carriers have potential applications in optical information and communication fields where controllable loss, large information-carrying capacity, and high speed communication are required.

  11. Generation of Nonlinear Vortex Precursors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue-Yue; Feng, Xun-Li; Liu, Chengpu

    2016-07-01

    We numerically study the propagation of a few-cycle pulse carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) through a dense atomic system. Nonlinear precursors consisting of high-order vortex harmonics are generated in the transmitted field due to carrier effects associated with ultrafast Bloch oscillation. The nonlinear precursors survive to propagation effects and are well separated with the main pulse, which provides a straightforward way to measure precursors. By virtue of carrying high-order OAM, the obtained vortex precursors as information carriers have potential applications in optical information and communication fields where controllable loss, large information-carrying capacity, and high speed communication are required. PMID:27447507

  12. CHO cells synthesize amidated neuropeptide Y from a C-peptide deleted form of the precursor.

    PubMed

    Johansen, T E; O'Hare, M M; Wulff, B S; Schwartz, T W

    1991-07-01

    Post-translational processing of peptide precursors producing amidated, biologically active peptides is generally believed to occur only in specially differentiated endocrine or neural cells. Previously it has been shown that endoproteolytic processing of peptide precursors is very inefficient in non-endocrine cells like CHO cells. We have studied the processing of a C-peptide-deleted precursor of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in which the precursor terminates in the sequence Gly-Lys-Arg and does not require any dibasic specific endoproteolytic processing. Following transfection of CHO cells with an expression plasmid encoding this mutated NPY precursor, between 50 and 80 percent of the synthesized NPY was secreted from stable transfectants as authentic amidated NPY as assessed by both a C-terminal amide specific radioimmunoassay and by isoelectric focusing. It is concluded that amidated peptides can be produced in non-endocrine cells provided they are presented with a precursor which does not have to be endoproteolytically processed.

  13. The amyloid precursor protein: beyond amyloid

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hui; Koo, Edward H

    2006-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) takes a central position in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis: APP processing generates the β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides, which are deposited as the amyloid plaques in brains of AD individuals; Point mutations and duplications of APP are causal for a subset of early onset of familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD). Not surprisingly, the production and pathogenic effect of Aβ has been the central focus in AD field. Nevertheless, the biological properties of APP have also been the subject of intense investigation since its identification nearly 20 years ago as it demonstrates a number of interesting putative physiological roles. Several attractive models of APP function have been put forward recently based on in vitro biochemical studies. Genetic analyses of gain- and loss-of-function mutants in Drosophila and mouse have also revealed important insights into its biological activities in vivo. This article will review the current understanding of APP physiological functions. PMID:16930452

  14. Insulin-like Growth Factor-II (IGF-II) and IGF-II Analogs with Enhanced Insulin Receptor-a Binding Affinity Promote Neural Stem Cell Expansion*

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Amber N.; Chidambaram, Shravanthi; Forbes, Briony E.; Wood, Teresa L.; Levison, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to employ genetically engineered IGF-II analogs to establish which receptor(s) mediate the stemness promoting actions of IGF-II on mouse subventricular zone neural precursors. Neural precursors from the subventricular zone were propagated in vitro in culture medium supplemented with IGF-II analogs. Cell growth and identity were analyzed using sphere generation and further analyzed by flow cytometry. F19A, an analog of IGF-II that does not bind the IGF-2R, stimulated an increase in the proportion of neural stem cells (NSCs) while decreasing the proportion of the later stage progenitors at a lower concentration than IGF-II. V43M, which binds to the IGF-2R with high affinity but which has low binding affinity to the IGF-1R and to the A isoform of the insulin receptor (IR-A) failed to promote NSC growth. The positive effects of F19A on NSC growth were unaltered by the addition of a functional blocking antibody to the IGF-1R. Altogether, these data lead to the conclusion that IGF-II promotes stemness of NSCs via the IR-A and not through activation of either the IGF-1R or the IGF-2R. PMID:24398690

  15. Expression Profiles of the Nuclear Receptors and Their Transcriptional Coregulators During Differentiation of Neural Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Androutsellis-Theotokis, A.; Chrousos, G. P.; McKay, R. D.; DeCherney, A. H.; Kino, T.

    2013-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are pluripotent precursors with the ability to proliferate and differentiate into 3 neural cell lineages, neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Elucidation of the mechanisms underlying these biologic processes is essential for understanding both physiologic and pathologic neural development and regeneration after injury. Nuclear hormone receptors (NRs) and their transcriptional coregulators also play crucial roles in neural development, functions and fate. To identify key NRs and their transcriptional regulators in NSC differentiation, we examined mRNA expression of 49 NRs and many of their coregulators during differentiation (0–5 days) of mouse embryonic NSCs induced by withdrawal of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2). 37 out of 49 NRs were expressed in NSCs before induction of differentiation, while receptors known to play major roles in neural development, such as THRα, RXRs, RORs, TRs, and COUPTFs, were highly expressed. CAR, which plays important roles in xenobiotic metabolism, was also highly expressed. FGF2 withdrawal induced mRNA expression of RORγ, RXRγ, and MR by over 20-fold. Most of the transcriptional coregulators examined were expressed basally and throughout differentiation without major changes, while FGF2 withdrawal strongly induced mRNA expression of several histone deacetylases (HDACs), including HDAC11. Dexamethasone and aldosterone, respectively a synthetic glucocorticoid and natural mineralocorticoid, increased NSC numbers and induced differentiation into neurons and astrocytes. These results indicate that the NRs and their coregulators are present and/or change their expression during NSC differentiation, suggesting that they may influence development of the central nervous system in the absence or presence of their ligands. PMID:22990992

  16. Generalized Potential of Adult Neural Stem Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Diana L.; Johansson, Clas B.; Wilbertz, Johannes; Veress, Biborka; Nilsson, Erik; Karlström, Helena; Lendahl, Urban; Frisén, Jonas

    2000-06-01

    The differentiation potential of stem cells in tissues of the adult has been thought to be limited to cell lineages present in the organ from which they were derived, but there is evidence that some stem cells may have a broader differentiation repertoire. We show here that neural stem cells from the adult mouse brain can contribute to the formation of chimeric chick and mouse embryos and give rise to cells of all germ layers. This demonstrates that an adult neural stem cell has a very broad developmental capacity and may potentially be used to generate a variety of cell types for transplantation in different diseases.

  17. Workshop on neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Uhrig, R.E.; Emrich, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    The topics covered in this report are: Learning, Memory, and Artificial Neural Systems; Emerging Neural Network Technology; Neural Networks; Digital Signal Processing and Neural Networks; Application of Neural Networks to In-Core Fuel Management; Neural Networks in Process Control; Neural Network Applications in Image Processing; Neural Networks for Multi-Sensor Information Fusion; Neural Network Research in Instruments Controls Division; Neural Networks Research in the ORNL Engineering Physics and Mathematics Division; Neural Network Applications for Linear Programming; Neural Network Applications to Signal Processing and Diagnostics; Neural Networks in Filtering and Control; Neural Network Research at Tennessee Technological University; and Global Minima within the Hopfield Hypercube.

  18. An interstellar precursor mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.; Ivie, C.; Lewis, J. C.; Lipes, R.; Norton, H. N.; Stearns, J. W.; Stimpson, L. D.; Weissman, P.

    1980-01-01

    A mission out of the planetary system, launched about the year 2000, could provide valuable scientific data as well as test some of the technology for a later mission to another star. Primary scientific objectives for the precursor mission concern characteristics of the heliopause, the interstellar medium, stellar distances (by parallax measurements), low-energy cosmic rays, interplanetary gas distribution, and the mass of the solar system. Secondary objectives include investigation of Pluto. The mission should extend to 400-1000 AU from the sun. A heliocentric hyperbolic escape velocity of 50-100 km/sec or more is needed to attain this distance within a reasonable mission duration (20-50 years). The trajectory should be toward the incoming interstellar gas. For a year 2000 launch, a Pluto encounter and orbiter can be included. A second mission targeted parallel to the solar axis would also be worthwhile. The mission duration is 20 years, with an extended mission to a total of 50 years. A system using one or two stages of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) was selected as a possible baseline. The most promising alternatives are ultralight solar sails or laser sailing, with the lasers in earth orbit, for example. The NEP baseline design allows the option of carrying a Pluto orbiter as a daughter spacecraft.

  19. PRECURSOR FLARES IN OJ 287

    SciTech Connect

    Pihajoki, P.; Berdyugin, A.; Lindfors, E.; Reinthal, R.; Sillanpaeae, A.; Takalo, L.; Valtonen, M.; Nilsson, K.; Zola, S.; Koziel-Wierzbowska, D.; Liakos, A.; Drozdz, M.; Winiarski, M.; Ogloza, W.; Provencal, J.; Santangelo, M. M. M.; Salo, H.; Chandra, S.; Ganesh, S.; Baliyan, K. S.; and others

    2013-02-10

    We have studied three most recent precursor flares in the light curve of the blazar OJ 287 while invoking the presence of a precessing binary black hole in the system to explain the nature of these flares. Precursor flare timings from the historical light curves are compared with theoretical predictions from our model that incorporate effects of an accretion disk and post-Newtonian description for the binary black hole orbit. We find that the precursor flares coincide with the secondary black hole descending toward the accretion disk of the primary black hole from the observed side, with a mean z-component of approximately z{sub c} = 4000 AU. We use this model of precursor flares to predict that precursor flare of similar nature should happen around 2020.96 before the next major outburst in 2022.

  20. Contribution of Underlying Connective Tissue Cells to Taste Buds in Mouse Tongue and Soft Palate

    PubMed Central

    Mederacke, Ingmar; Komatsu, Yoshihiro; Stice, Steve; Schwabe, Robert F.; Mistretta, Charlotte M.; Mishina, Yuji; Liu, Hong-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Taste buds, the sensory organs for taste, have been described as arising solely from the surrounding epithelium, which is in distinction from other sensory receptors that are known to originate from neural precursors, i.e., neural ectoderm that includes neural crest (NC). Our previous study suggested a potential contribution of NC derived cells to early immature fungiform taste buds in late embryonic (E18.5) and young postnatal (P1-10) mice. In the present study we demonstrated the contribution of the underlying connective tissue (CT) to mature taste buds in mouse tongue and soft palate. Three independent mouse models were used for fate mapping of NC and NC derived connective tissue cells: (1) P0-Cre/R26-tdTomato (RFP) to label NC, NC derived Schwann cells and derivatives; (2) Dermo1-Cre/RFP to label mesenchymal cells and derivatives; and (3) Vimentin-CreER/mGFP to label Vimentin-expressing CT cells and derivatives upon tamoxifen treatment. Both P0-Cre/RFP and Dermo1-Cre/RFP labeled cells were abundant in mature taste buds in lingual taste papillae and soft palate, but not in the surrounding epithelial cells. Concurrently, labeled cells were extensively distributed in the underlying CT. RFP signals were seen in the majority of taste buds and all three types (I, II, III) of differentiated taste bud cells, with the neuronal-like type III cells labeled at a greater proportion. Further, Vimentin-CreER labeled cells were found in the taste buds of 3-month-old mice whereas Vimentin immunoreactivity was only seen in the CT. Taken together, our data demonstrate a previously unrecognized origin of taste bud cells from the underlying CT, a conceptually new finding in our knowledge of taste bud cell derivation, i.e., from both the surrounding epithelium and the underlying CT that is primarily derived from NC. PMID:26741369

  1. Pharmacological disruption of the outer limiting membrane leads to increased retinal integration of transplanted photoreceptor precursors

    PubMed Central

    West, E.L.; Pearson, R.A.; Tschernutter, M.; Sowden, J.C.; MacLaren, R.E.; Ali, R.R.

    2008-01-01

    Retinal degeneration is the leading cause of untreatable blindness in the developed world. Cell transplantation strategies provide a novel therapeutic approach to repair the retina and restore sight. Previously, we have shown that photoreceptor precursor cells can integrate and form functional photoreceptors after transplantation into the subretinal space of the adult mouse. In a clinical setting, however, it is likely that far greater numbers of integrated photoreceptors would be required to restore visual function. We therefore sought to assess whether the outer limiting membrane (OLM), a natural barrier between the subretinal space and the outer nuclear layer (ONL), could be reversibly disrupted and if disruption of this barrier could lead to enhanced numbers of transplanted photoreceptors integrating into the ONL. Transient chemical disruption of the OLM was induced in adult mice using the glial toxin, dl-alpha-aminoadipic acid (AAA). Dissociated early post-natal neural retinal cells were transplanted via subretinal injection at various time-points after AAA administration. At 3 weeks post-injection, the number of integrated, differentiated photoreceptor cells was assessed and compared with those found in the PBS-treated contralateral eye. We demonstrate for the first time that the OLM can be reversibly disrupted in adult mice, using a specific dose of AAA administered by intravitreal injection. In this model, OLM disruption is maximal at 72 h, and recovers by 2 weeks. When combined with cell transplantation, disruption of the OLM leads to a significant increase in the number of photoreceptors integrated within the ONL compared with PBS-treated controls. This effect was only seen in animals in which AAA had been administered 72 h prior to transplantation, i.e. when precursor cells were delivered into the subretinal space at a time coincident with maximal OLM disruption. These findings suggest that the OLM presents a physical barrier to photoreceptor

  2. Tcf7l1 protects the anterior neural fold from adopting the neural crest fate.

    PubMed

    Mašek, Jan; Machoň, Ondřej; Kořínek, Vladimír; Taketo, M Mark; Kozmik, Zbyněk

    2016-06-15

    The neural crest (NC) is crucial for the evolutionary diversification of vertebrates. NC cells are induced at the neural plate border by the coordinated action of several signaling pathways, including Wnt/β-catenin. NC cells are normally generated in the posterior neural plate border, whereas the anterior neural fold is devoid of NC cells. Using the mouse model, we show here that active repression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling is required for maintenance of neuroepithelial identity in the anterior neural fold and for inhibition of NC induction. Conditional inactivation of Tcf7l1, a transcriptional repressor of Wnt target genes, leads to aberrant activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the anterior neuroectoderm and its conversion into NC. This reduces the developing prosencephalon without affecting the anterior-posterior neural character. Thus, Tcf7l1 defines the border between the NC and the prospective forebrain via restriction of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling gradient. PMID:27302397

  3. Evolvable synthetic neural system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Steven A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An evolvable synthetic neural system includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to at least one neural basis function. Each neural basis function includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to a heuristic neural system to perform high-level functions and an autonomic neural system to perform low-level functions. In some embodiments, the evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy.

  4. Neural Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Patrick I.

    2003-09-23

    Physicists use large detectors to measure particles created in high-energy collisions at particle accelerators. These detectors typically produce signals indicating either where ionization occurs along the path of the particle, or where energy is deposited by the particle. The data produced by these signals is fed into pattern recognition programs to try to identify what particles were produced, and to measure the energy and direction of these particles. Ideally, there are many techniques used in this pattern recognition software. One technique, neural networks, is particularly suitable for identifying what type of particle caused by a set of energy deposits. Neural networks can derive meaning from complicated or imprecise data, extract patterns, and detect trends that are too complex to be noticed by either humans or other computer related processes. To assist in the advancement of this technology, Physicists use a tool kit to experiment with several neural network techniques. The goal of this research is interface a neural network tool kit into Java Analysis Studio (JAS3), an application that allows data to be analyzed from any experiment. As the final result, a physicist will have the ability to train, test, and implement a neural network with the desired output while using JAS3 to analyze the results or output. Before an implementation of a neural network can take place, a firm understanding of what a neural network is and how it works is beneficial. A neural network is an artificial representation of the human brain that tries to simulate the learning process [5]. It is also important to think of the word artificial in that definition as computer programs that use calculations during the learning process. In short, a neural network learns by representative examples. Perhaps the easiest way to describe the way neural networks learn is to explain how the human brain functions. The human brain contains billions of neural cells that are responsible for processing

  5. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, Raghunath

    1998-01-01

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic and/or reduced particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of all metals in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products.

  6. Recombinant human epidermal growth factor precursor is a glycosylated membrane protein with biological activity.

    PubMed Central

    Mroczkowski, B; Reich, M; Chen, K; Bell, G I; Cohen, S

    1989-01-01

    NIH 3T3 cells were transfected with cDNA corresponding to human kidney prepro-epidermal growth factor (preproEGF) under control of the inducible mouse metallothionein promoter. The synthesis of recombinant human EGF precursor by these cells has provided us with a model system for analysis of the structure and activity of this precursor. In transfected cells, the precursor was present as an intrinsic 170-kilodalton membrane protein as well as a soluble protein in the extracellular medium; both forms were N glycosylated. Glycosylation of the EGF precursor was determined by (i) the direct incorporation of [3H]mannose and [3H]glucosamine, (ii) metabolic labeling in the presence or absence of glycosylation inhibitors, (iii) enzymatic cleavage of the precursor by N-glycanase or endoglycosidase II, and (iv) lectin chromatography. Recombinant human preproEGF was purified by affinity chromatography, using wheat germ lectin and antibodies to human EGF. The intact precursor was biologically active. Purified preparations of preproEGF (i) competed with 125I-labeled EGF for binding to the EGF receptor in intact fibroblast cells, (ii) activated the intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity of the EGF receptor in membrane preparations, and (iii) sustained the growth of a mouse keratinocyte cell line that is dependent on EGF for growth. These results suggest that proteolytic processing of the precursor may not be essential for its biological function. Images PMID:2789334

  7. In vivo optical modulation of neural signals using monolithically integrated two-dimensional neural probe arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Yoojin; Jenny Lee, Hyunjoo; Kim, Jeongyeon; Shin, Hyogeun; Choi, Nakwon; Justin Lee, C.; Yoon, Eui-Sung; Yoon, Euisik; Wise, Kensall D.; Geun Kim, Tae; Cho, Il-Joo

    2015-10-01

    Integration of stimulation modalities (e.g. electrical, optical, and chemical) on a large array of neural probes can enable an investigation of important underlying mechanisms of brain disorders that is not possible through neural recordings alone. Furthermore, it is important to achieve this integration of multiple functionalities in a compact structure to utilize a large number of the mouse models. Here we present a successful optical modulation of in vivo neural signals of a transgenic mouse through our compact 2D MEMS neural array (optrodes). Using a novel fabrication method that embeds a lower cladding layer in a silicon substrate, we achieved a thin silicon 2D optrode array that is capable of delivering light to multiple sites using SU-8 as a waveguide core. Without additional modification to the microelectrodes, the measured impedance of the multiple microelectrodes was below 1 MΩ at 1 kHz. In addition, with a low background noise level (±25 μV), neural spikes from different individual neurons were recorded on each microelectrode. Lastly, we successfully used our optrodes to modulate the neural activity of a transgenic mouse through optical stimulation. These results demonstrate the functionality of the 2D optrode array and its potential as a next-generation tool for optogenetic applications.

  8. Maintenance of neural stem cell regional identity in culture.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Ryan N; Lu, Changqing; Lim, Daniel A

    2016-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are distributed throughout the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) in the adult mouse brain. NSCs located in spatially distinct regions of the V-SVZ generate different types of olfactory bulb (OB) neurons, and the regional expression of specific transcription factors correlates with these differences in NSC developmental potential. In a recent article, we show that Nkx2.1-expressing embryonic precursors give rise to NKX2.1+ NSCs located in the ventral V-SVZ of adult mice. Here we characterize a V-SVZ monolayer culture system that retains regional gene expression and neurogenic potential of NSCs from the dorsal and ventral V-SVZ. In particular, we find that Nkx2.1-lineage V-SVZ NSCs maintain Nkx2.1 expression through serial passage and can generate new neurons in vitro. Thus, V-SVZ NSCs retain key aspects of their in vivo regional identity in culture, providing new experimental opportunities for understanding how such developmental patterns are established and maintained during development. PMID:27606338

  9. Brillouin precursors in Debye media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macke, Bruno; Ségard, Bernard

    2015-05-01

    We theoretically study the formation of Brillouin precursors in Debye media. We point out that the precursors are visible only at propagation distances such that the impulse response of the medium is essentially determined by the frequency dependence of its absorption and is practically Gaussian. By simple convolution, we then obtain explicit analytical expressions of the transmitted waves generated by reference incident waves, distinguishing precursor and main signal by a simple examination of the long-time behavior of the overall signal. These expressions are in good agreement with the signals obtained in numerical or real experiments performed on water in the radio-frequency domain and explain in particular some observed shapes of the precursor. Results are obtained for other remarkable incident waves. In addition, we show quite generally that the shape of the Brillouin precursor appearing alone at sufficiently large propagation distance and the law giving its amplitude as a function of this distance do not depend on the precise form of the incident wave but only on its integral properties. The incidence of a static conductivity of the medium is also examined and explicit analytical results are again given in the limit of weak and strong conductivities.

  10. Glial cells in the mouse enteric nervous system can undergo neurogenesis in response to injury

    PubMed Central

    Laranjeira, Catia; Sandgren, Katarina; Kessaris, Nicoletta; Richardson, William; Potocnik, Alexandre; Vanden Berghe, Pieter; Pachnis, Vassilis

    2011-01-01

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) in mammals forms from neural crest cells during embryogenesis and early postnatal life. Nevertheless, multipotent progenitors of the ENS can be identified in the adult intestine using clonal cultures and in vivo transplantation assays. The identity of these neurogenic precursors in the adult gut and their relationship to the embryonic progenitors of the ENS are currently unknown. Using genetic fate mapping, we here demonstrate that mouse neural crest cells marked by SRY box–containing gene 10 (Sox10) generate the neuronal and glial lineages of enteric ganglia. Most neurons originated from progenitors residing in the gut during mid-gestation. Afterward, enteric neurogenesis was reduced, and it ceased between 1 and 3 months of postnatal life. Sox10-expressing cells present in the myenteric plexus of adult mice expressed glial markers, and we found no evidence that these cells participated in neurogenesis under steady-state conditions. However, they retained neurogenic potential, as they were capable of generating neurons with characteristics of enteric neurons in culture. Furthermore, enteric glia gave rise to neurons in vivo in response to chemical injury to the enteric ganglia. Our results indicate that despite the absence of constitutive neurogenesis in the adult gut, enteric glia maintain limited neurogenic potential, which can be activated by tissue dissociation or injury. PMID:21865647

  11. Embryonic Gut Anomalies in a Mouse Model of Retinoic Acid-Induced Caudal Regression Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pitera, Jolanta E.; Smith, Virpi V.; Woolf, Adrian S.; Milla, Peter J.

    2001-01-01

    Vitamin A and its derivatives such as retinoic acid (RA) are important signaling molecules for morphogenesis of vertebrate embryos. Little is known, however, about morphogenetic factors controlling the development of the gastrointestinal tract and RA is likely to be involved. In the mouse, teratogenic doses of RA cause truncation of the embryonic caudal body axis that parallel the caudal regression syndrome as described in humans. These changes are often associated with anomalies of the lower digestive tract. Overlapping spatiotemporal expression of retinoic acid receptor-β (RARβ) and cellular retinol-binding protein I, CRBPI, with Hoxb5 and c-ret in the gut mesoderm imply possible cooperation required for proper neuromuscular development. To determine susceptibility and responsiveness of the developing gut and its neuromusculature to exogenous retinoids we used a mouse model of RA-induced caudal regression syndrome. The results showed that stage-specific RA treatment both in vivo and in vitro affected gut looping/rotation morphogenesis and growth of asymmetrical structures such as the cecum together with delayed differentiation of the gut mesoderm and colonization of the postcecal gut by neural crest-derived enteric neuronal precursors. These observations demonstrate that RA has a direct effect on gut morphogenesis and innervation. PMID:11733381

  12. Neuroprotective efficacy of aminopropyl carbazoles in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Tesla, Rachel; Wolf, Hamilton Parker; Xu, Pin; Drawbridge, Jordan; Estill, Sandi Jo; Huntington, Paula; McDaniel, Latisha; Knobbe, Whitney; Burket, Aaron; Tran, Stephanie; Starwalt, Ruth; Morlock, Lorraine; Naidoo, Jacinth; Williams, Noelle S; Ready, Joseph M; McKnight, Steven L; Pieper, Andrew A

    2012-10-16

    We previously reported the discovery of P7C3, an aminopropyl carbazole having proneurogenic and neuroprotective properties in newborn neural precursor cells of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. We have further found that chemicals having efficacy in this in vivo screening assay also protect dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra following exposure to the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, a mouse model of Parkinson disease. Here, we provide evidence that an active analog of P7C3, known as P7C3A20, protects ventral horn spinal cord motor neurons from cell death in the G93A-SOD1 mutant mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). P7C3A20 is efficacious in this model when administered at disease onset, and protection from cell death correlates with preservation of motor function in assays of walking gait and in the accelerating rotarod test. The prototypical member of this series, P7C3, delays disease progression in G93A-SOD1 mice when administration is initiated substantially earlier than the expected time of symptom onset. Dimebon, an antihistaminergic drug with significantly weaker proneurogenic and neuroprotective efficacy than P7C3, confers no protection in this ALS model. We propose that the chemical scaffold represented by P7C3 and P7C3A20 may provide a basis for the discovery and optimization of pharmacologic agents for the treatment of ALS.

  13. Neuroprotective efficacy of aminopropyl carbazoles in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Tesla, Rachel; Wolf, Hamilton Parker; Xu, Pin; Drawbridge, Jordan; Estill, Sandi Jo; Huntington, Paula; McDaniel, LaTisha; Knobbe, Whitney; Burket, Aaron; Tran, Stephanie; Starwalt, Ruth; Morlock, Lorraine; Naidoo, Jacinth; Williams, Noelle S.; Ready, Joseph M.; McKnight, Steven L.; Pieper, Andrew A.

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported the discovery of P7C3, an aminopropyl carbazole having proneurogenic and neuroprotective properties in newborn neural precursor cells of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. We have further found that chemicals having efficacy in this in vivo screening assay also protect dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra following exposure to the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, a mouse model of Parkinson disease. Here, we provide evidence that an active analog of P7C3, known as P7C3A20, protects ventral horn spinal cord motor neurons from cell death in the G93A-SOD1 mutant mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). P7C3A20 is efficacious in this model when administered at disease onset, and protection from cell death correlates with preservation of motor function in assays of walking gait and in the accelerating rotarod test. The prototypical member of this series, P7C3, delays disease progression in G93A-SOD1 mice when administration is initiated substantially earlier than the expected time of symptom onset. Dimebon, an antihistaminergic drug with significantly weaker proneurogenic and neuroprotective efficacy than P7C3, confers no protection in this ALS model. We propose that the chemical scaffold represented by P7C3 and P7C3A20 may provide a basis for the discovery and optimization of pharmacologic agents for the treatment of ALS. PMID:23027932

  14. Neural differentiation and synaptogenesis in retinal development

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Wen-juan; Li, Xue; Yao, Huan-ling; Deng, Jie-xin; Liu, Hong-liang; Cui, Zhan-jun; Wang, Qiang; Wu, Ping; Deng, Jin-bo

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the pattern of neural differentiation and synaptogenesis in the mouse retina, immunolabeling, BrdU assay and transmission electron microscopy were used. We show that the neuroblastic cell layer is the germinal zone for neural differentiation and retinal lamination. Ganglion cells differentiated initially at embryonic day 13 (E13), and at E18 horizontal cells appeared in the neuroblastic cell layer. Neural stem cells in the outer neuroblastic cell layer differentiated into photoreceptor cells as early as postnatal day 0 (P0), and neural stem cells in the inner neuroblastic cell layer differentiated into bipolar cells at P7. Synapses in the retina were mainly located in the outer and inner plexiform layers. At P7, synaptophysin immunostaining appeared in presynaptic terminals in the outer and inner plexiform layers with button-like structures. After P14, presynaptic buttons were concentrated in outer and inner plexiform layers with strong staining. These data indicate that neural differentiation and synaptogenesis in the retina play important roles in the formation of retinal neural circuitry. Our study showed that the period before P14, especially between P0 and P14, represents a critical period during retinal development. Mouse eye opening occurs during that period, suggesting that cell differentiation and synaptic formation lead to the attainment of visual function. PMID:27073386

  15. Id2 Mediates Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cell Maturation Arrest and Is Tumorigenic in a PDGF-Rich Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Havrda, Matthew C.; Paolella, Brenton R.; Ran, Cong; Jering, Karola S.; Wray, Christina M.; Sullivan, Jaclyn M.; Nailor, Audrey; Hitoshi, Yasuyuki; Israel, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Maturation defects occurring in adult tissue progenitor cells have the potential to contribute to tumor development; however, there is little experimental evidence implicating this cellular mechanism in the pathogenesis of solid tumors. Inhibitor of DNA-binding 2 (Id2) is a transcription factor known to regulate the proliferation and differentiation of primitive stem and progenitor cells. Id2 is derepressed in adult tissue neural stem cells (NSC) lacking the tumor suppressor Tp53 and modulates their proliferation. Constitutive expression of Id2 in differentiating NSCs resulted in maturation-resistant oligodendroglial precursor cells (OPC), a cell population implicated in the initiation of glioma. Mechanistically, Id2 overexpression was associated with inhibition of the Notch effector Hey1, a bHLH transcription factor that we here characterize as a direct transcriptional repressor of the oligodendroglial lineage determinant Olig2. Orthotopic inoculation of NSCs with enhanced Id2 expression into brains of mice engineered to express platelet-derived growth factor in the central nervous system resulted in glioma. These data implicate a mechanism of altered NSC differentiation in glioma development and characterize a novel mouse model that reflects key characteristics of the recently described proneural subtype of glioblastoma multiforme. Such findings support the emerging concept that the cellular and molecular characteristics of tumor cells are linked to the transformation of distinct subsets of adult tissue progenitors. PMID:24425046

  16. Age and gene overexpression interact to abolish nesting behavior in Tg2576 amyloid precursor protein (APP) mice.

    PubMed

    Wesson, Daniel W; Wilson, Donald A

    2011-01-01

    Elucidating the modulators of social behavioral is important in understanding the neural basis of behavior and in developing methods to enhance behavior in cases of disorder. The work here stems from the observation that the Alzheimer's disease mouse model Tg2576, overexpressing human mutations of the amyloid-β precursor protein (APP), fails to construct nests when supplied paper towels in their home cages. Experiments using commercially available cotton nesting material found similar results. Additional experiments revealed that the genotype effect is progressively modulated by age in APP mice but not their WT counterparts. There was no effect of sex on nesting behavior in any group. Finally, this effect was independent of ambient temperature - even when subjected to a cold environment, APP mice fail to build nests whereas WT mice do. These results suggest that the APP gene plays a role in affiliative behaviors and are discussed in relation to disorders characteristic of mutations in the APP gene and in affective dysfunction, including Alzheimer's disease. PMID:20804789

  17. The Survival of Engrafted Neural Stem Cells Within Hyaluronic Acid Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yajie; Walczak, Piotr; Bulte, Jeff W.M.

    2013-01-01

    Successful cell-based therapy of neurological disorders is highly dependent on the survival of transplanted stem cells, with the overall graft survival of naked, unprotected cells in general remaining poor. We investigated the use of an injectable hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel for enhancement of survival of transplanted mouse C17.2 cells, human neural progenitor cells (ReNcells), and human glial-restricted precursors (GRPs). The gelation properties of the HA hydrogel were first characterized and optimized for intracerebral injection, resulting in a 25 min delayed-injection after mixing of the hydrogel components. Using bioluminescence imaging (BLI) as a non-invasive readout of cell survival, we found that the hydrogel can protect xenografted cells as evidenced by the prolonged survival of C17.2 cells implanted in immunocompetent rats (p<0.01 at day 12). The survival of human ReNcells and human GRPs implanted in the brain of immunocompetent or immunodeficient mice was also significantly improved after hydrogel scaffolding (ReNcells, p<0.05 at day 5; GRPs, p<0.05 at day 7). However, an inflammatory response could be noted two weeks after injection of hydrogel into immunocompetent mice brains. We conclude that hydrogel scaffolding increases the survival of engrafted neural stem cells, justifying further optimization of hydrogel compositions. PMID:23623429

  18. Hyaluronan is organized into fiber-like structures along migratory pathways in the developing mouse cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Baier, Claudia; Baader, Stephan L; Jankowski, Jakob; Gieselmann, Volkmar; Schilling, Karl; Rauch, Uwe; Kappler, Joachim

    2007-06-01

    Hyaluronan is a free glycosaminoglycan which is abundant in the extracellular matrix of the developing brain. Although not covalently linked to any protein it can act as a backbone molecule forming aggregates with chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans of the lectican family and link proteins. Using neurocan-GFP as a direct histochemical probe we analyzed the distribution and organization of hyaluronan in the developing mouse cerebellum, and related its fine structure to cell types of specified developmental stages. We observed a high affinity of this probe to fiber-like structures in the prospective white matter which are preferentially oriented parallel to the cerebellar cortex during postnatal development suggesting a specially organized form of hyaluronan. In other layers of the cerebellar cortex, the hyaluronan organization seemed to be more diffuse. During the second postnatal week, the overall staining intensity of hyaluronan in the white matter declined but fiber-like structures were still present at the adult stage. This type of hyaluronan organization is different from perineuronal nets e.g. found in deep cerebellar nuclei. Double staining experiments with cell type specific markers indicated that these fiber-like structures are predominantly situated in regions where motile cells such as Pax2-positive inhibitory interneuron precursors and MBP-positive oligodendroglial cells are located. In contrast, more stationary cells such as mature granule cells and Purkinje cells are associated with lower levels of hyaluronan in their environment. Thus, hyaluronan-rich fibers are concentrated at sites where specific neural precursor cell types migrate, and the anisotropic orientation of these fibers suggests that they may support guided neural migration during brain development.

  19. Neuroprotective efficacy of aminopropyl carbazoles in a mouse model of Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    De Jesús-Cortés, Héctor; Xu, Pin; Drawbridge, Jordan; Estill, Sandi Jo; Huntington, Paula; Tran, Stephanie; Britt, Jeremiah; Tesla, Rachel; Morlock, Lorraine; Naidoo, Jacinth; Melito, Lisa M.; Wang, Gelin; Williams, Noelle S.; Ready, Joseph M.; McKnight, Steven L.; Pieper, Andrew A.

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported the discovery of P7C3, an aminopropyl carbazole having proneurogenic and neuroprotective properties in newborn neural precursor cells of the dentate gyrus. Here, we provide evidence that P7C3 also protects mature neurons in brain regions outside of the hippocampus. P7C3 blocks 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-mediated cell death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of adult mice, a model of Parkinson disease (PD). Dose–response studies show that the P7C3 analog P7C3A20 blocks cell death with even greater potency and efficacy, which parallels the relative potency and efficacy of these agents in blocking apoptosis of newborn neural precursor cells of the dentate gyrus. P7C3 and P7C3A20 display similar relative effects in blocking 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-mediated death of dopaminergic neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans, as well as in preserving C. elegans mobility following MPP+ exposure. Dimebon, an antihistaminergic drug that is weakly proneurogenic and neuroprotective in the dentate gyrus, confers no protection in either the mouse or the worm models of PD. We further demonstrate that the hippocampal proneurogenic efficacy of eight additional analogs of P7C3 correlates with their protective efficacy in MPTP-mediated neurotoxicity. In vivo screening of P7C3 analogs for proneurogenic efficacy in the hippocampus may thus provide a reliable means of predicting neuroprotective efficacy. We propose that the chemical scaffold represented by P7C3 and P7C3A20 provides a basis for optimizing and advancing pharmacologic agents for the treatment of patients with PD. PMID:23027934

  20. Neuroprotective efficacy of aminopropyl carbazoles in a mouse model of Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    De Jesús-Cortés, Héctor; Xu, Pin; Drawbridge, Jordan; Estill, Sandi Jo; Huntington, Paula; Tran, Stephanie; Britt, Jeremiah; Tesla, Rachel; Morlock, Lorraine; Naidoo, Jacinth; Melito, Lisa M; Wang, Gelin; Williams, Noelle S; Ready, Joseph M; McKnight, Steven L; Pieper, Andrew A

    2012-10-16

    We previously reported the discovery of P7C3, an aminopropyl carbazole having proneurogenic and neuroprotective properties in newborn neural precursor cells of the dentate gyrus. Here, we provide evidence that P7C3 also protects mature neurons in brain regions outside of the hippocampus. P7C3 blocks 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-mediated cell death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of adult mice, a model of Parkinson disease (PD). Dose-response studies show that the P7C3 analog P7C3A20 blocks cell death with even greater potency and efficacy, which parallels the relative potency and efficacy of these agents in blocking apoptosis of newborn neural precursor cells of the dentate gyrus. P7C3 and P7C3A20 display similar relative effects in blocking 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))-mediated death of dopaminergic neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans, as well as in preserving C. elegans mobility following MPP(+) exposure. Dimebon, an antihistaminergic drug that is weakly proneurogenic and neuroprotective in the dentate gyrus, confers no protection in either the mouse or the worm models of PD. We further demonstrate that the hippocampal proneurogenic efficacy of eight additional analogs of P7C3 correlates with their protective efficacy in MPTP-mediated neurotoxicity. In vivo screening of P7C3 analogs for proneurogenic efficacy in the hippocampus may thus provide a reliable means of predicting neuroprotective efficacy. We propose that the chemical scaffold represented by P7C3 and P7C3A20 provides a basis for optimizing and advancing pharmacologic agents for the treatment of patients with PD.

  1. Redox changes induced in hippocampal precursor cells by heavy ion irradiation.

    PubMed

    Limoli, C L; Giedzinski, E; Baure, J; Rola, R; Fike, J R

    2007-06-01

    Hippocampal precursors retain the capacity to proliferate and differentiate throughout life, and their progeny, immature neurons, can undergo neurogenesis, a process believed to be important in maintaining the cognitive health of an organism. A variety of stresses including irradiation have been shown to deplete neural precursor cells, an effect that inhibits neurogenesis and is associated with the onset of cognitive impairments. Our past work has shown that neural precursor cells exposed to X-rays or protons exhibit a prolonged increase in oxidative stress, a factor we hypothesize to be critical in regulating the function of these cells after irradiation and other stresses. Here we report that irradiation of hippocampal precursor cells with high-linear energy transfer (LET) 1 GeV/nucleon 56Fe ions leads to significantly higher levels of oxidative stress when compared to lower LET radiations (X-rays, protons). Irradiation with 1 Gy of 56Fe ions elicits twofold to fivefold higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) compared to unirradiated controls, and at lower doses (neural precursors exhibit a linear dose response 6 h after heavy ion exposure. The use of the antioxidant lipoic acid (LA) was able to reduce ROS levels below background levels when added before or after 56Fe ion irradiation. These results conclusively show that low doses of 56Fe ions can elicit significant levels of oxidative stress in neural precursor cells. Given the prevalence of heavy ions in space and the duration of interplanetary travel, these data suggest that astronauts are at risk for developing cognitive decrements. However, our results also indicate that antioxidants delivered before as radioprotective agents or after as mitigating agents hold promise as effective countermeasures for ameliorating certain adverse effects of heavy ion exposure to the CNS.

  2. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, R.

    1998-08-04

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic and/or reduced particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of all metals in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products. 7 figs.

  3. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, Raghunath; Blaugher, Richard D.

    1995-01-01

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals, such as nitrate salts of thallium, barium, calcium, and copper, which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of thallium in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products.

  4. Characterization of the Murine Myeloid Precursor Cell Line MuMac-E8

    PubMed Central

    Fricke, Stephan; Riemschneider, Sina; Kohlschmidt, Janine; Hilger, Nadja; Fueldner, Christiane; Knauer, Jens; Sack, Ulrich; Emmrich, Frank; Lehmann, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Starting point for the present work was the assumption that the cell line MuMac-E8 represents a murine cell population with stem cell properties. Preliminary studies already pointed to the expression of stem-cell associated markers and a self-regenerative potential of the cells. The cell line MuMac-E8 should be examined for their differential stage within stem cell hierarchy. MuMac-E8 cells were derived from a chimeric mouse model of arthritis. It could be shown that MuMac-E8 cells express mRNA of some genes associated with pluripotent stem cells (Nanog, Nucleostemin), of genes for hematopoietic markers (EPCR, Sca-1, CD11b, CD45), for the mesenchymal marker CD105 and of genes for the neural markers Pax-6 and Ezrin. In methylcellulose and May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining, hematopoietic colonies were obtained but the hematopoietic system of lethally irradiated mice could not be rescued. Osteogenic differentiation was not detectable. Thus, it became evident that MuMac-E8 represents not a stem cell line. However, MuMac-E8 cells expressed several myeloid surface markers (i.e. CD11b, F4/80, CD14, CD64), showed phagocytosis and is capable of producing nitric oxide. Thus, this cell line seems to be arrested an advanced stage of myeloid differentiation. Adherence data measured by impedance-based real-time cell analysis together with cell morphology data suggested that MuMac-E8 represents a new macrophage precursor cell line exhibiting weak adherence. This cell line is suitable as an in-vitro model for testing of macrophage functions. Moreover, it might be also useful for differentiation or reprogramming studies. PMID:25546418

  5. Characterization of the murine myeloid precursor cell line MuMac-E8.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Stephan; Pfefferkorn, Cathleen; Wolf, Doris; Riemschneider, Sina; Kohlschmidt, Janine; Hilger, Nadja; Fueldner, Christiane; Knauer, Jens; Sack, Ulrich; Emmrich, Frank; Lehmann, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Starting point for the present work was the assumption that the cell line MuMac-E8 represents a murine cell population with stem cell properties. Preliminary studies already pointed to the expression of stem-cell associated markers and a self-regenerative potential of the cells. The cell line MuMac-E8 should be examined for their differential stage within stem cell hierarchy. MuMac-E8 cells were derived from a chimeric mouse model of arthritis. It could be shown that MuMac-E8 cells express mRNA of some genes associated with pluripotent stem cells (Nanog, Nucleostemin), of genes for hematopoietic markers (EPCR, Sca-1, CD11b, CD45), for the mesenchymal marker CD105 and of genes for the neural markers Pax-6 and Ezrin. In methylcellulose and May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining, hematopoietic colonies were obtained but the hematopoietic system of lethally irradiated mice could not be rescued. Osteogenic differentiation was not detectable. Thus, it became evident that MuMac-E8 represents not a stem cell line. However, MuMac-E8 cells expressed several myeloid surface markers (i.e. CD11b, F4/80, CD14, CD64), showed phagocytosis and is capable of producing nitric oxide. Thus, this cell line seems to be arrested an advanced stage of myeloid differentiation. Adherence data measured by impedance-based real-time cell analysis together with cell morphology data suggested that MuMac-E8 represents a new macrophage precursor cell line exhibiting weak adherence. This cell line is suitable as an in-vitro model for testing of macrophage functions. Moreover, it might be also useful for differentiation or reprogramming studies.

  6. Neural Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Bin

    About the Series: Bioelectric Engineering presents state-of-the-art discussions on modern biomedical engineering with respect to applications of electrical engineering and information technology in biomedicine. This focus affirms Springer's commitment to publishing important reviews of the broadest interest to biomedical engineers, bioengineers, and their colleagues in affiliated disciplines. Recent volumes have covered modeling and imaging of bioelectric activity, neural engineering, biosignal processing, bionanotechnology, among other topics.

  7. Precursor polymer compositions comprising polybenzimidazole

    SciTech Connect

    Klaehn, John R.; Peterson, Eric S.; Orme, Christopher J.

    2015-07-14

    Stable, high performance polymer compositions including polybenzimidazole (PBI) and a melamine-formaldehyde polymer, such as methylated, poly(melamine-co-formaldehyde), for forming structures such as films, fibers and bulky structures. The polymer compositions may be formed by combining polybenzimidazole with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form a precursor. The polybenzimidazole may be reacted and/or intertwined with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form the polymer composition. For example, a stable, free-standing film having a thickness of, for example, between about 5 .mu.m and about 30 .mu.m may be formed from the polymer composition. Such films may be used as gas separation membranes and may be submerged into water for extended periods without crazing and cracking. The polymer composition may also be used as a coating on substrates, such as metal and ceramics, or may be used for spinning fibers. Precursors for forming such polymer compositions are also disclosed.

  8. The Innate Lymphoid Cell Precursor.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Isabel E; Constantinides, Michael G; Gudjonson, Herman; Bendelac, Albert

    2016-05-20

    The discovery of tissue-resident innate lymphoid cell populations effecting different forms of type 1, 2, and 3 immunity; tissue repair; and immune regulation has transformed our understanding of mucosal immunity and allergy. The emerging complexity of these populations along with compounding issues of redundancy and plasticity raise intriguing questions about their precise lineage relationship. Here we review advances in mapping the emergence of these lineages from early lymphoid precursors. We discuss the identification of a common innate lymphoid cell precursor characterized by transient expression of the transcription factor PLZF, and the lineage relationships of innate lymphoid cells with conventional natural killer cells and lymphoid tissue inducer cells. We also review the rapidly growing understanding of the network of transcription factors that direct the development of these lineages.

  9. Neurotransmitter precursors and brain function.

    PubMed

    Conlay, L A; Zeisel, S H

    1982-04-01

    Brain function can be affected by the availability of dietary precursors of neurotransmitters. This occurs because the rate-limiting synthetic enzymes are not "saturated" with substrate under normal circumstances. Tyrosine affects catecholaminergic neurons that fire rapidly, whether in the brain stem to decrease blood pressure in hypertension or in the adrenal gland to increase blood pressure in hypotension, and has been used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and depression. Choline forms acetylcholine and has been used successfully in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia and memory disorders. Tryptophan, which forms serotonin, has been used for chronic pain therapy, sleep disorders, depression, and appetite control. Although these substances may lack the potency of traditionally used agonists, they offer an increase in specificity because the enzymes necessary to convert them to neurotransmitters are found only in neurons. Precursors are also "physiological"; they are consumed as foods and, therefore, should be relatively safe therapeutic agents. PMID:6124895

  10. Chromatin remodelling factor Mll1 is essential for neurogenesis from postnatal neural stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Daniel A.; Huang, Yin-Cheng; Swigut, Tomek; Mirick, Anika L.; Garcia-Verdugo, Jose Manuel; Wysocka, Joanna; Ernst, Patricia; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms that maintain neurogenesis throughout adult life remain poorly understood1. Trithorax group (trxG) and Polycomb group (PcG) gene products are part of an evolutionarily conserved chromatin remodelling system that activate or silence gene expression, respectively2. Although PcG member Bmi1 has been shown to be required for postnatal neural stem cell self-renewal3,4, the role of trxG genes remains unknown. Here we show that the trxG member Mll1 (mixed-lineage leukaemia 1) is required for neurogenesis in the mouse postnatal brain. Mll1-deficient subventricular zone neural stem cells survive, proliferate and efficiently differentiate into glial lineages; however, neuronal differentiation is severely impaired. In Mll1-deficient cells, early proneural Mash1 (also known as Ascl1) and gliogenic Olig2 expression are preserved, but Dlx2, a key downstream regulator of subventricular zone neurogenesis, is not expressed. Over-expression of Dlx2 can rescue neurogenesis in Mll1-deficient cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrates that Dlx2 is a direct target of MLL in subventricular zone cells. In differentiating wild-type subventricular zone cells, Mash1, Olig2 and Dlx2 loci have high levels of histone 3 trimethylated at lysine 4 (H3K4me3), consistent with their transcription. In contrast, in Mll1-deficient subventricular zone cells, chromatin at Dlx2 is bivalently marked by both H3K4me3 and histone 3 trimethylated at lysine 27 (H3K27me3), and the Dlx2 gene fails to properly activate. These data support a model in which Mll1 is required to resolve key silenced bivalent loci in postnatal neural precursors to the actively transcribed state for the induction of neurogenesis, but not for gliogenesis. PMID:19212323

  11. Cardiovascular Development and the Colonizing Cardiac Neural Crest Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Snider, Paige; Olaopa, Michael; Firulli, Anthony B.

    2008-01-01

    Although it is well established that transgenic manipulation of mammalian neural crest-related gene expression and microsurgical removal of premigratory chicken and Xenopus embryonic cardiac neural crest progenitors results in a wide spectrum of both structural and functional congenital heart defects, the actual functional mechanism of the cardiac neural crest cells within the heart is poorly understood. Neural crest cell migration and appropriate colonization of the pharyngeal arches and outflow tract septum is thought to be highly dependent on genes that regulate cell-autonomous polarized movement (i.e., gap junctions, cadherins, and noncanonical Wnt1 pathway regulators). Once the migratory cardiac neural crest subpopulation finally reaches the heart, they have traditionally been thought to participate in septation of the common outflow tract into separate aortic and pulmonary arteries. However, several studies have suggested these colonizing neural crest cells may also play additional unexpected roles during cardiovascular development and may even contribute to a crest-derived stem cell population. Studies in both mice and chick suggest they can also enter the heart from the venous inflow as well as the usual arterial outflow region, and may contribute to the adult semilunar and atrioventricular valves as well as part of the cardiac conduction system. Furthermore, although they are not usually thought to give rise to the cardiomyocyte lineage, neural crest cells in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) can contribute to the myocardium and may have different functions in a species-dependent context. Intriguingly, both ablation of chick and Xenopus premigratory neural crest cells, and a transgenic deletion of mouse neural crest cell migration or disruption of the normal mammalian neural crest gene expression profiles, disrupts ventral myocardial function and/or cardiomyocyte proliferation. Combined, this suggests that either the cardiac neural crest secrete factor/s that

  12. The Expression and Function of the Achaete-Scute Genes in Tribolium castaneum Reveals Conservation and Variation in Neural Pattern Formation and Cell Fate Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Scott R.; Carrico, Michelle L.; Wilson, Beth A.; Brown, Susan J.; Skeath, James B.

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY The study of achaete-scute (ac/sc) genes has recently become a paradigm to understand the evolution and development of the arthropod nervous system. We describe the identification and characterization of the ache genes in the coleopteran insect species Tribolium castaneum. We have identified two Tribolium ache genes - achaete-scute homolog (Tc-ASH) a proneural gene and asense (Tc-ase) a neural precursor gene that reside in a gene complex. Focusing on the embryonic central nervous system we fmd that Tc-ASH is expressed in all neural precursors and the proneural clusters from which they segregate. Through RNAi and misexpression studies we show that Tc-ASH is necessary for neural precursor formation in Triboliurn and sufficient for neural precursor formation in Drosophila. Comparison of the function of the Drosophila and Triboliurn proneural ac/sc genes suggests that in the Drosophila lineage these genes have maintained their ancestral function in neural precursor formation and have acquired a new role in the fate specification of individual neural precursors. Furthermore, we find that Tc-use is expressed in all neural precursors suggesting an important and conserved role for asense genes in insect nervous system development. Our analysis of the Triboliurn ache genes indicates significant plasticity in gene number, expression and function, and implicates these modifications in the evolution of arthropod neural development.

  13. The expression and function of the achaete-scute genes in Tribolium castaneum reveals conservation and variation in neural pattern formation and cell fate specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Scott R.; Carrico, Michelle L.; Wilson, Beth A.; Brown, Susan J.; Skeath, James B.

    2003-01-01

    The study of achaete-scute (ac/sc) genes has recently become a paradigm to understand the evolution and development of the arthropod nervous system. We describe the identification and characterization of the ac/sc genes in the coleopteran insect species Tribolium castaneum. We have identified two Tribolium ac/sc genes - achaete-scute homolog (Tc-ASH) a proneural gene and asense (Tc-ase) a neural precursor gene that reside in a gene complex. Focusing on the embryonic central nervous system we find that Tc-ASH is expressed in all neural precursors and the proneural clusters from which they segregate. Through RNAi and misexpression studies we show that Tc-ASH is necessary for neural precursor formation in Tribolium and sufficient for neural precursor formation in Drosophila. Comparison of the function of the Drosophila and Tribolium proneural ac/sc genes suggests that in the Drosophila lineage these genes have maintained their ancestral function in neural precursor formation and have acquired a new role in the fate specification of individual neural precursors. Furthermore, we find that Tc-ase is expressed in all neural precursors suggesting an important and conserved role for asense genes in insect nervous system development. Our analysis of the Tribolium ac/sc genes indicates significant plasticity in gene number, expression and function, and implicates these modifications in the evolution of arthropod neural development.

  14. A single allele of Hdac2 but not Hdac1 is sufficient for normal mouse brain development in the absence of its paralog

    PubMed Central

    Krahmer, Julia; Leopoldi, Alexandra; Artaker, Matthias; Pusch, Oliver; Zezula, Jürgen; Weissmann, Simon; Xie, Yunli; Schöfer, Christian; Schlederer, Michaela; Brosch, Gerald; Matthias, Patrick; Selfridge, Jim; Lassmann, Hans; Knoblich, Jürgen A.; Seiser, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The histone deacetylases HDAC1 and HDAC2 are crucial regulators of chromatin structure and gene expression, thereby controlling important developmental processes. In the mouse brain, HDAC1 and HDAC2 exhibit different developmental stage- and lineage-specific expression patterns. To examine the individual contribution of these deacetylases during brain development, we deleted different combinations of Hdac1 and Hdac2 alleles in neural cells. Ablation of Hdac1 or Hdac2 by Nestin-Cre had no obvious consequences on brain development and architecture owing to compensation by the paralog. By contrast, combined deletion of Hdac1 and Hdac2 resulted in impaired chromatin structure, DNA damage, apoptosis and embryonic lethality. To dissect the individual roles of HDAC1 and HDAC2, we expressed single alleles of either Hdac1 or Hdac2 in the absence of the respective paralog in neural cells. The DNA-damage phenotype observed in double knockout brains was prevented by expression of a single allele of either Hdac1 or Hdac2. Strikingly, Hdac1−/−Hdac2+/− brains showed normal development and no obvious phenotype, whereas Hdac1+/−Hdac2−/− mice displayed impaired brain development and perinatal lethality. Hdac1+/−Hdac2−/− neural precursor cells showed reduced proliferation and premature differentiation mediated by overexpression of protein kinase C, delta, which is a direct target of HDAC2. Importantly, chemical inhibition or knockdown of protein kinase C delta was sufficient to rescue the phenotype of neural progenitor cells in vitro. Our data indicate that HDAC1 and HDAC2 have a common function in maintaining proper chromatin structures and show that HDAC2 has a unique role by controlling the fate of neural progenitors during normal brain development. PMID:24449838

  15. Migration of neuronal precursors from the telencephalic ventricular zone into the olfactory bulb in adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Norihito; Alfaro-Cervello, Clara; Shimizu, Kohei; Asakawa, Kazuhide; Urasaki, Akihiro; Nonaka, Shigenori; Kawakami, Koichi; Garcia-Verdugo, Jose Manuel; Sawamoto, Kazunobu

    2011-12-01

    In the brain of adult mammals, neuronal precursors are generated in the subventricular zone in the lateral wall of the lateral ventricles and migrate into the olfactory bulbs (OBs) through a well-studied route called the rostral migratory stream (RMS). Recent studies have revealed that a comparable neural stem cell niche is widely conserved at the ventricular wall of adult vertebrates. However, little is known about the migration route of neuronal precursors in nonmammalian adult brains. Here, we show that, in the adult zebrafish, a cluster of neuronal precursors generated in the telencephalic ventricular zone migrates into the OB via a route equivalent to the mammalian RMS. Unlike the mammalian RMS, these neuronal precursors are not surrounded by glial tubes, although radial glial cells with a single cilium lined the telencephalic ventricular wall, much as in embryonic and neonatal mammals. To observe the migrating neuronal precursors in living brain tissue, we established a brain hemisphere culture using a zebrafish line carrying a GFP transgene driven by the neurogenin1 (ngn1) promoter. In these fish, GFP was observed in the neuronal precursors migrating in the RMS, some of which were aligned with blood vessels. Numerous ngn1:gfp-positive cells were observed migrating tangentially in the RMS-like route medial to the OB. Taken together, our results suggest that the RMS in the adult zebrafish telencephalon is a functional migratory pathway. This is the first evidence for the tangential migration of neuronal precursors in a nonmammalian adult telencephalon.

  16. Wittgenstein running: neural mechanisms of collective intentionality and we-mode.

    PubMed

    Becchio, Cristina; Bertone, Cesare

    2004-03-01

    In this paper we discuss the problem of the neural conditions of shared attitudes and intentions: which neural mechanisms underlie "we-mode" processes or serve as precursors to such processes? Neurophysiological and neuropsychological evidence suggests that in different areas of the brain neural representations are shared by several individuals. This situation, on the one hand, creates a potential problem for correct attribution. On the other hand, it may provide the conditions for shared attitudes and intentions.

  17. Modeling neural differentiation on micropatterned substrates coated with neural matrix components

    PubMed Central

    García-Parra, Patricia; Cavaliere, Fabio; Maroto, Marcos; Bilbao, Leire; Obieta, Isabel; López de Munain, Adolfo; Álava, José Iñaki; Izeta, Ander

    2012-01-01

    Topographical and biochemical characteristics of the substrate are critical for neuronal differentiation including axonal outgrowth and regeneration of neural circuits in vivo. Contact stimuli and signaling molecules allow neurons to develop and stabilize synaptic contacts. Here we present the development, characterization and functional validation of a new polymeric support able to induce neuronal differentiation in both PC12 cell line and adult primary skin-derived precursor cells (SKPs) in vitro. By combining a photolithographic technique with use of neural extracellular matrix (ECM) as a substrate, a biocompatible and efficient microenvironment for neuronal differentiation was developed. PMID:22435050

  18. Crucial Role of Rapgef2 and Rapgef6, a Family of Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors for Rap1 Small GTPase, in Formation of Apical Surface Adherens Junctions and Neural Progenitor Development in the Mouse Cerebral Cortex123

    PubMed Central

    Maeta, Kazuhiro; Edamatsu, Hironori; Nishihara, Kaori; Ikutomo, Junji; Bilasy, Shymaa E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cerebral neocortex development in mammals requires highly orchestrated events involving proliferation, differentiation, and migration of neural progenitors and neurons. Rapgef2 and Rapgef6 constitute a unique family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Rap1 small GTPase, which is known to play crucial roles in migration of postmitotic neurons. We previously reported that conditional knockout of Rapgef2 in dorsal telencephalon (Rapgef2-cKO) resulted in the formation of an ectopic cortical mass (ECM) resembling that of subcortical band heterotopia. Here we show that double knockout of Rapgef6 in Rapgef2-cKO mice (Rapgef2/6-dKO) results in marked enlargement of the ECM. While Rapgef2-cKO affects late-born neurons only, Rapgef2/6-dKO affects both early-born and late-born neurons. The Rapgef2-cKO cortex at embryonic day (E) 15.5, and the Rapgef2/6-dKO cortex at E13.5 and E15.5 show disruption of the adherens junctions (AJs) on the apical surface, detachment of radial glial cells (RGCs) from the apical surface and disorganization of the radial glial fiber system, which are accompanied by aberrant distribution of RGCs and intermediate progenitors, normally located in the ventricular zone and the subventricular zone, respectively, over the entire cerebral cortex. Moreover, intrauterine transduction of Cre recombinase into the Rapgef2flox/flox brains also results in the apical surface AJ disruption and the RGC detachment from the apical surface, both of which are effectively suppressed by cotransduction of the constitutively active Rap1 mutant Rap1G12V. These results demonstrate a cell-autonomous role of the Rapgef2/6-Rap1 pathway in maintaining the apical surface AJ structures, which is necessary for the proper development of neural progenitor cells. PMID:27390776

  19. Precursors of Short Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troja, E.; Rosswog, S.; Gehrels, N.

    2010-01-01

    We carried out a systematic search of precursors on the sample of short GRBs observed by Swift. We found that approx. 8-10% of short GRBs display such early episode of emission. One burst (GRB 090510) shows two precursor events, the former approx.13 s and the latter approx. 0.5 s before the GRB. We did not find any substantial difference between the precursor and the main GRB emission, and between short GRBs with and without precursors. We discuss possible mechanisms to reproduce the observed precursor emission within the scenario of compact object mergers. The implications of our results on quantum gravity constraints are also discussed.

  20. Precursor Lesions of Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Higashi, Michiyo; Yamada, Norishige; Goto, Masamichi

    2008-01-01

    This review article describes morphological aspects, gene abnormalities, and mucin expression profiles in precursor lesions such as pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN), intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), and mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN) of the pancreas, as well as their relation to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The gene abnormalities in precursors of PDAC are summarized as follows: (1) KRAS mutation and p16/CDKN2A inactivation are early events whose frequencies increase with the dysplasia grade in both PanIN and IPMN; (2) TP53 mutation and SMAD4/DPC4 inactivation are late events observed in PanIN3 or carcinomatous change of IPMN in both PanIN and IPMN, although the frequency of the TP53 mutation is lower in IPMN than in PDAC; and (3) also in MCN, KRAS mutation is an early event whose frequency increases with the dysplasia grade, whereas TP53 mutation and SMAD4/DPC4 inactivation are evident only in the carcinoma. The mucin expression profiles in precursors of PDAC are summarized as follows: (1) MUC1 expression increases with the PanIN grade, and is high in PDAC; (2) the expression pattern of MUC2 differs markedly between the major subtypes of IPMN with different malignancy potentials (i.e., IPMN-intestinal type with MUC2+ expression and IPMN-gastric type with MUC2- expression); (3) MUC2 is not expressed in any grade of PanINs, which is useful for differentiating PanIN from intestinal-type IPMN; (4) de novo expression of MUC4, which appears to increase with the dysplasia grade; and (5) high de novo expression of MUC5AC in all grades of PanINs, all types of IPMN, MCN, and PDAC. PMID:20485640

  1. Identification and characterization of secondary neural tube-derived embryonic neural stem cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shaker, Mohammed R; Kim, Joo Yeon; Kim, Hyun; Sun, Woong

    2015-05-15

    Secondary neurulation is an embryonic progress that gives rise to the secondary neural tube, the precursor of the lower spinal cord region. The secondary neural tube is derived from aggregated Sox2-expressing neural cells at the dorsal region of the tail bud, which eventually forms rosette or tube-like structures to give rise to neural tissues in the tail bud. We addressed whether the embryonic tail contains neural stem cells (NSCs), namely secondary NSCs (sNSCs), with the potential for self-renewal in vitro. Using in vitro neurosphere assays, neurospheres readily formed at the rosette and neural-tube levels, but less frequently at the tail bud tip level. Furthermore, we identified that sNSC-generated neurospheres were significantly smaller in size compared with cortical neurospheres. Interestingly, various cell cycle analyses revealed that this difference was not due to a reduction in the proliferation rate of NSCs, but rather the neuronal commitment of sNSCs, as sNSC-derived neurospheres contain more committed neuronal progenitor cells, even in the presence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). These results suggest that the higher tendency for sNSCs to spontaneously differentiate into progenitor cells may explain the limited expansion of the secondary neural tube during embryonic development.

  2. Glial versus melanocyte cell fate choice: Schwann cell precursors as a cellular origin of melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Adameyko, Igor; Lallemend, Francois

    2010-09-01

    Melanocytes and Schwann cells are derived from the multipotent population of neural crest cells. Although both cell types were thought to be generated through completely distinct pathways and molecular processes, a recent study has revealed that these different cell types are intimately interconnected far beyond previously postulated limits in that they share a common post-neural crest progenitor, i.e. the Schwann cell precursor. This finding raises interesting questions about the lineage relationships of hitherto unrelated cell types such as melanocytes and Schwann cells, and may provide clinical insights into mechanisms of pigmentation disorders and for cancer involving Schwann cells and melanocytes.

  3. The synergy of earthquake precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulinets, Sergey

    2011-12-01

    The system of geophysical shells (lithosphere, atmosphere, ionosphere) is considered as an open complex nonlinear system with dissipation where earthquake preparation could be regarded as a self-organizing process leading to the critical state of the system. The processes in atmosphere and ionosphere are considered from the point of view of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The intensive ionization of boundary layer of atmosphere (probably provided by radon in occasion of earthquake preparation) gives start to the synergetic sequence of coupling processes where the ionosphere and even magnetosphere are the last links in the chain of interactions. Every anomaly observed in different geophysical fields (surface temperature, latent heat flux, electromagnetic emissions, variations in ionosphere, particle precipitation, etc.) is not considered as an individual process but the part of the self-organizing process, the final goal of which is the reaching of the point of the maximum entropy. Radon anomaly before the Kobe earthquake is considered as a perfect example to satisfy the formal seismological determination of the earthquake precursor. What is genetically connected with radon through the ionization process can also be regarded as a precursor. The problem of co-seismic variations of the discussed parameters of atmosphere and ionosphere is considered as well.

  4. Annealing of aromatic polyimide precursors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakelyn, N. T.

    1975-01-01

    A study has been made of the thermal behavior of polyimide precursors: an isomeric pair of crystals of the complex formed by p-phenylenediamine with the separated isomers of the di-isopropyl ester of pyromellitic acid. Specimens of this material were isothermally annealed in the temperature range 120 C to 170 C for periods of time up to 1 week. Although this temperature range is well below that customarily used for imidizations, the working hypothesis was that it would be more likely that a polymer embodying at least part of the precursor structure could be formed if the molecular motion was minimized to that actually required for the formation of the imide linkage. The progress of the annealing was followed by: infrared spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, and thermal gravimetric analysis. Single crystal X-ray analysis of the meta monomer yields a structure of chains of alternating acid and base and suggests that this monomer is amenable to polymerization with a minimum of geometrical disruption.

  5. Microparticle Shedding from Neural Progenitor Cells and Vascular Compartment Cells Is Increased in Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Suades, Rosa; Crespo, Javier; Peña, Esther; Padró, Teresa; Jiménez-Xarrié, Elena; Martí-Fàbregas, Joan; Badimon, Lina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Ischemic stroke has shown to induce platelet and endothelial microparticle shedding, but whether stroke induces microparticle shedding from additional blood and vascular compartment cells is unclear. Neural precursor cells have been shown to replace dying neurons at sites of brain injury; however, if neural precursor cell activation is associated to microparticle shedding, and whether this activation is maintained at long term and associates to stroke type and severity remains unknown. We analyzed neural precursor cells and blood and vascular compartment cells microparticle shedding after an acute ischemic stroke. Methods Forty-four patients were included in the study within the first 48h after the onset of stroke. The cerebral lesion size was evaluated at 3–7 days of the stroke. Circulating microparticles from neural precursor cells and blood and vascular compartment cells (platelets, endothelial cells, erythrocytes, leukocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes and smooth muscle cells) were analyzed by flow cytometry at the onset of stroke and at 7 and 90 days. Forty-four age-matched high cardiovascular risk subjects without documented vascular disease were used as controls. Results Compared to high cardiovascular risk controls, patients showed higher number of neural precursor cell- and all blood and vascular compartment cell-derived microparticles at the onset of stroke, and after 7 and 90 days. At 90 days, neural precursor cell-derived microparticles decreased and smooth muscle cell-derived microparticles increased compared to levels at the onset of stroke, but only in those patients with the highest stroke-induced cerebral lesions. Conclusions Stroke increases blood and vascular compartment cell and neural precursor cell microparticle shedding, an effect that is chronically maintained up to 90 days after the ischemic event. These results show that stroke induces a generalized blood and vascular cell activation and the initiation of neuronal cell repair process

  6. Independent optical excitation of distinct neural populations.

    PubMed

    Klapoetke, Nathan C; Murata, Yasunobu; Kim, Sung Soo; Pulver, Stefan R; Birdsey-Benson, Amanda; Cho, Yong Ku; Morimoto, Tania K; Chuong, Amy S; Carpenter, Eric J; Tian, Zhijian; Wang, Jun; Xie, Yinlong; Yan, Zhixiang; Zhang, Yong; Chow, Brian Y; Surek, Barbara; Melkonian, Michael; Jayaraman, Vivek; Constantine-Paton, Martha; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Boyden, Edward S

    2014-03-01

    Optogenetic tools enable examination of how specific cell types contribute to brain circuit functions. A long-standing question is whether it is possible to independently activate two distinct neural populations in mammalian brain tissue. Such a capability would enable the study of how different synapses or pathways interact to encode information in the brain. Here we describe two channelrhodopsins, Chronos and Chrimson, discovered through sequencing and physiological characterization of opsins from over 100 species of alga. Chrimson's excitation spectrum is red shifted by 45 nm relative to previous channelrhodopsins and can enable experiments in which red light is preferred. We show minimal visual system-mediated behavioral interference when using Chrimson in neurobehavioral studies in Drosophila melanogaster. Chronos has faster kinetics than previous channelrhodopsins yet is effectively more light sensitive. Together these two reagents enable two-color activation of neural spiking and downstream synaptic transmission in independent neural populations without detectable cross-talk in mouse brain slice.

  7. Independent Optical Excitation of Distinct Neural Populations

    PubMed Central

    Klapoetke, Nathan C; Murata, Yasunobu; Kim, Sung Soo; Pulver, Stefan R.; Birdsey-Benson, Amanda; Cho, Yong Ku; Morimoto, Tania K; Chuong, Amy S; Carpenter, Eric J; Tian, Zhijian; Wang, Jun; Xie, Yinlong; Yan, Zhixiang; Zhang, Yong; Chow, Brian Y; Surek, Barbara; Melkonian, Michael; Jayaraman, Vivek; Constantine-Paton, Martha; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Boyden, Edward S

    2014-01-01

    Optogenetic tools enable the causal examination of how specific cell types contribute to brain circuit functions. A long-standing question is whether it is possible to independently activate two distinct neural populations in mammalian brain tissue. Such a capability would enable the examination of how different synapses or pathways interact to support computation. Here we report two new channelrhodopsins, Chronos and Chrimson, obtained through the de novo sequencing and physiological characterization of opsins from over 100 species of algae. Chrimson is 45 nm red-shifted relative to any previous channelrhodopsin, important for scenarios where red light would be preferred; we show minimal visual system mediated behavioral artifact in optogenetically stimulated Drosophila. Chronos has faster kinetics than any previous channelrhodopsin, yet is effectively more light-sensitive. Together, these two reagents enable crosstalk-free two-color activation of neural spiking and downstream synaptic transmission in independent neural populations in mouse brain slice. PMID:24509633

  8. FoxA4 Favours Notochord Formation by Inhibiting Contiguous Mesodermal Fates and Restricts Anterior Neural Development in Xenopus Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Murgan, Sabrina; Castro Colabianchi, Aitana Manuela; Monti, Renato José; Boyadjián López, Laura Elena; Aguirre, Cecilia E.; Stivala, Ernesto González; López, Silvia L.

    2014-01-01

    In vertebrates, the embryonic dorsal midline is a crucial signalling centre that patterns the surrounding tissues during development. Members of the FoxA subfamily of transcription factors are expressed in the structures that compose this centre. Foxa2 is essential for dorsal midline development in mammals, since knock-out mouse embryos lack a definitive node, notochord and floor plate. The related gene foxA4 is only present in amphibians. Expression begins in the blastula –chordin and –noggin expressing centre (BCNE) and is later restricted to the dorsal midline derivatives of the Spemann's organiser. It was suggested that the early functions of mammalian foxa2 are carried out by foxA4 in frogs, but functional experiments were needed to test this hypothesis. Here, we show that some important dorsal midline functions of mammalian foxa2 are exerted by foxA4 in Xenopus. We provide new evidence that the latter prevents the respecification of dorsal midline precursors towards contiguous fates, inhibiting prechordal and paraxial mesoderm development in favour of the notochord. In addition, we show that foxA4 is required for the correct regionalisation and maintenance of the central nervous system. FoxA4 participates in constraining the prospective rostral forebrain territory during neural specification and is necessary for the correct segregation of the most anterior ectodermal derivatives, such as the cement gland and the pituitary anlagen. Moreover, the early expression of foxA4 in the BCNE (which contains precursors of the whole forebrain and most of the midbrain and hindbrain) is directly required to restrict anterior neural development. PMID:25343614

  9. Purinergic signaling promotes proliferation of adult mouse subventricular zone cells.

    PubMed

    Suyama, Satoshi; Sunabori, Takehiko; Kanki, Hiroaki; Sawamoto, Kazunobu; Gachet, Christian; Koizumi, Schuichi; Okano, Hideyuki

    2012-07-01

    In adult mammalian brains, neural stem cells (NSCs) exist in the subventricular zone (SVZ), where persistent neurogenesis continues throughout life. Those NSCs produce neuroblasts that migrate into the olfactory bulb via formation of transit-amplifying cells, which are committed precursor cells of the neuronal lineage. In this SVZ niche, cell-cell communications conducted by diffusible factors as well as physical cell-cell contacts are important for the regulation of the proliferation and fate determination of NSCs. Previous studies have suggested that extracellular purinergic signaling, which is mediated by purine compounds such as ATP, plays important roles in cell-cell communication in the CNS. Purinergic signaling also promotes the proliferation of adult NSCs in vitro. However, the in vivo roles of purinergic signaling in the neurogenic niche still remain unknown. In this study, ATP infusion into the lateral ventricle of the mouse brain resulted in an increase in the numbers of rapidly dividing cells and Mash1-positive transit-amplifying cells (Type C cells) in the SVZ. Mash1-positive cells express the P2Y1 purinergic signaling receptor and infusion of the P2Y1 receptor-specific antagonist MRS2179 decreased the number of rapidly dividing bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells and Type C cells. Moreover, a 17% reduction of rapidly dividing BrdU-positive cells and a 19% reduction of Mash1-positive cells were observed in P2Y1 knock-out mice. Together, these results suggest that purinergic signaling promotes the proliferation of rapidly dividing cells and transit-amplifying cells, in the SVZ niche through the P2Y1 receptor. PMID:22764232

  10. Retinoic acid-induced caudal regression syndrome in the mouse fetus.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, R

    1998-01-01

    Caudal regression syndrome (CRS) comprises developmental anomalies of the caudal vertebrae, neural tube, urogenital and digestive organs, and hind limbs, the precursors of all of which are derived from the caudal eminence. Although the syndrome is well recognized, the etiology and pathogenetic mechanisms are poorly understood. Genetic and experimental models may provide some important clues to the early events that precede the dysmorphogenesis in CRS. The objectives of this study were to determine the susceptible stages for induction of CRS and to ascertain the early events that precede the development of this syndrome in a mouse model. Single oral doses of 100, 150, or 200 mg/kg retinoic acid (RA) were administered to TO mice on one of Gestation Days (GD) 8 to 12, and fetuses were observed on GD 18. All doses administered on GD 8 or 9 resulted in CRS in a large number of survivors. Agenesis of the tail, caudal vertebral defects, spina bifida occulta/aperta, imperforate anus, rectovesicle or rectourethral fistula, renal malformations, cryptorchidism, gastroschisis, and limb malformations, including the classical mermaid syndrome (sirenomelia), were characteristic features of this animal model. Several craniofacial malformations accompanied CRS in the GD 8 treatment group. Chronologic examination of treated embryos at early stages revealed pronounced cell death in the caudal median axis, hindgut, and neural tube and consequently, failure of development of the tail bud in the high-dose groups. In the 100 mg/kg RA group, patches of hemorrhage occurred initially that subsequently coalesced into large hematomas and the tail progressively regressed. Histologic examination revealed the onset and progression of hemorrhage, edema, and cell death in these embryos. Transillumination and histologic preparations also revealed dilation of the caudal neural tube in the prospective CRS embryos. Thus, a combination of cell death, vascular disruption, and tissue deficiency appears

  11. Electronic Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Anil

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on electronic neural networks for space station are presented. Topics covered include: electronic neural networks; electronic implementations; VLSI/thin film hybrid hardware for neurocomputing; computations with analog parallel processing; features of neuroprocessors; applications of neuroprocessors; neural network hardware for terrain trafficability determination; a dedicated processor for path planning; neural network system interface; neural network for robotic control; error backpropagation algorithm for learning; resource allocation matrix; global optimization neuroprocessor; and electrically programmable read only thin-film synaptic array.

  12. Precursors for Carbon Nitride Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Prashantha, M.; Gopal, E. S. R.; Ramesh, K.

    2011-07-15

    Nano structured carbon nitride films were prepared by pyrolysis assisted chemical vapour deposition. Pyrrole (C{sub 4}H{sub 5}N), Pyrrolidine (C{sub 4}H{sub 9}N), Azabenzimidazole (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}N{sub 3}) and Triazine (C{sub 6}H{sub 15}N{sub 3}) were used as precursors. The vibrational modes observed for C-N and C = N from FTIR spectra confirms the bonding of nitrogen with carbon. XPS core level spectra of C 1s and N 1s also show the formation of bonding between carbon and nitrogen atoms. The nitrogen content in the prepared samples was found to be around 25 atomic %.

  13. Opposite Effect Of Inflammation on SVZ vs. Hippocampal Precursors In Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Covey, Matthew V.; Loporchio, Dean F.; Buono, Krista D.; Levison, Steven W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Inflammation promotes epidermal wound healing but is considered detrimental to recovery from CNS injury. Sick infants have increased levels of cytokines in their CSF that correlate with poor neurological outcome. In this study we investigated the role of neuroinflammation and more specifically, IL-6, in the amplification of subventricular zone (SVZ) and subgranular zone (SGZ) neural precursors after neonatal brain injury. Methods Neonatal hypoxia/ischemia (H/I) was induced in P6 rat pups and IL-6 was quantified with or without Indomethacin administration. Neural precursor responses were evaluated by neurosphere assays as well as by stereological analyses. Studies were performed to determine how IL-6 and LIF affect SVZ cell expansion, proliferation and self-renewal. Results Consistent with earlier studies, SVZ cells expanded after H/I. Contrary to our expectations, Indomethacin significantly decreased both the initial reactive increase in these precursors as well as their ability to self-renew. By contrast, Indomethacin increased proliferation in the SGZ and lateral SVZ. Indomethacin diminished the accumulation of microglia/macrophages and IL-6 production after H/I. In vitro IL-6 enhanced neurosphere growth, self-renewal and tripotentiality and was more effective than LIF in promoting self-renewal. Enhanced precursor self-renewal also was obtained using PGE2, which is downstream of cyclooxygenase-2 and a target of Indomethacin. Interpretation These data implicate neuroinflammation and in particular IL-6 as a positive effector of primitive neural precursor expansion after neonatal brain injury. These findings have important clinical implications, as Indomethacin and other anti-inflammatory agents are administered to premature infants for a variety of reasons. PMID:21710624

  14. Inhibition of neurosphere formation in neural stem/progenitor cells by acrylamide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jong-Hang; Lee, Don-Ching; Chen, Mei-Shu; Ko, Ying-Chin; Chiu, Ing-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies showed that transplantation of cultured neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) could improve functional recovery for various neurological diseases. This study aims to develop a stem cell-based model for predictive toxicology of development in the neurological system after acrylamide exposure. Treatment of mouse (KT98/F1B-GFP) and human (U-1240 MG/F1B-GFP) NSPCs with 0.5 mM acrylamide resulted in the inhibition of neurosphere formation (definition of self-renewal ability in NSPCs), but not inhibition of cell proliferation. Apoptosis and differentiation of KT98 (a precursor of KT98/F1B-GFP) and KT98/F1B-GFP are not observed in acrylamide-treated neurospheres. Analysis of secondary neurosphere formation and differentiation of neurons and glia illustrated that acrylamide-treated KT98 and KT98/F1B-GFP neurospheres retain the NSPC properties, such as self-renewal and differentiation capacity. Correlation of acrylamide-inhibited neurosphere formation with cell-cell adhesion was observed in mouse NSPCs by live cell image analysis and the presence of acrylamide. Protein expression levels of cell adhesion molecules [neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and N-cadherin] and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) in acrylamide-treated KT98/F1B-GFP and U-1240 MG/F1B-GFP neurospheres demonstrated that NCAM decreased and phospho-ERK (pERK) increased, whereas expression of N-cadherin remained unchanged. Analysis of AKT (protein kinase B, PKB)/β-catenin pathway showed decrease in phospho-AKT (p-AKT) and cyclin D1 expression in acrylamide-treated neurospheres of KT98/F1B-GFP. Furthermore, PD98059, an ERK phosphorylation inhibitor, attenuated acrylamide-induced ERK phosphorylation, indicating that pERK contributed to the cell proliferation, but not in neurosphere formation in mouse NSPCs. Coimmunoprecipitation results of KT98/F1B-GFP cell lysates showed that the complex of NCAM and fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) is present in the neurosphere, and the

  15. Neurogenesis and precursor cell differences in the dorsal and ventral adult canine hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Aileen; Dalton, Marshall; Sidhu, Kuldip; Sachdev, Perminder; Reynolds, Brent; Valenzuela, Michael

    2015-04-23

    During evolution a unique anterior-posterior flexure posited the canine dentate gyrus in two distinct dorsal and ventral positions. We therefore sought to explore neurogenesis and neurogenic cell-related difference along the canine hippocampal dorsal-ventral axis. Post mortem histological analysis revealed 49.1% greater doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells and a 158.5% greater percentage of double labeled DCX-positive/neuronal nuclei (NeuN) positive cells in the dorsal subgranular zone compared to the ventral. We then show neural precursor cells isolated from fresh hippocampal tissue are capable of proliferating long term, and after differentiation, express neuronal and glial markers. Dorsal hippocampal isolates produced a 120.0% higher frequency of sphere-forming neural precursor cells compared to ventral hippocampal tissue. Histological DCX and neurosphere assay results were highly correlated. Overall, we provide the first evidence that the dorsal canine hippocampus has a markedly higher rate of adult neurogenesis than the ventral hippocampus, possibly related to a greater frequency of contributory neural precursor cells.

  16. Functional analyses and treatment of precursor behavior.

    PubMed

    Najdowski, Adel C; Wallace, Michele D; Ellsworth, Carrie L; MacAleese, Alicia N; Cleveland, Jackie M

    2008-01-01

    Functional analysis has been demonstrated to be an effective method to identify environmental variables that maintain problem behavior. However, there are cases when conducting functional analyses of severe problem behavior may be contraindicated. The current study applied functional analysis procedures to a class of behavior that preceded severe problem behavior (precursor behavior) and evaluated treatments based on the outcomes of the functional analyses of precursor behavior. Responding for all participants was differentiated during the functional analyses, and individualized treatments eliminated precursor behavior. These results suggest that functional analysis of precursor behavior may offer an alternative, indirect method to assess the operant function of severe problem behavior. PMID:18468282

  17. Functional Analyses and Treatment of Precursor Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Najdowski, Adel C; Wallace, Michele D; Ellsworth, Carrie L; MacAleese, Alicia N; Cleveland, Jackie M

    2008-01-01

    Functional analysis has been demonstrated to be an effective method to identify environmental variables that maintain problem behavior. However, there are cases when conducting functional analyses of severe problem behavior may be contraindicated. The current study applied functional analysis procedures to a class of behavior that preceded severe problem behavior (precursor behavior) and evaluated treatments based on the outcomes of the functional analyses of precursor behavior. Responding for all participants was differentiated during the functional analyses, and individualized treatments eliminated precursor behavior. These results suggest that functional analysis of precursor behavior may offer an alternative, indirect method to assess the operant function of severe problem behavior. PMID:18468282

  18. Loss of T cell precursors after spaceflight and exposure to vector-averaged gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Chris C.; Banks, Krista E.; Gruener, Raphael; DeLuca, Dominick

    2003-01-01

    Using fetal thymus organ culture (FTOC), we examined the effects of spaceflight and vector-averaged gravity on T cell development. Under both conditions, the development of T cells was significantly attenuated. Exposure to spaceflight for 16 days resulted in a loss of precursors for CD4+, CD8+, and CD4+CD8+ T cells in a rat/mouse xenogeneic co-culture. A significant decrease in the same precursor cells, as well as a decrease in CD4-CD8- T cell precursors, was also observed in a murine C57BL/6 FTOC after rotation in a clinostat to produce a vector-averaged microgravity-like environment. The block in T cell development appeared to occur between the pre-T cell and CD4+CD8+ T cell stage. These data indicate that gravity plays a decisive role in the development of T cells.

  19. A case of mistaken identity: CD11c-eYFP(+) cells in the normal mouse brain parenchyma and neural retina display the phenotype of microglia, not dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Dando, Samantha J; Naranjo Golborne, Cecilia; Chinnery, Holly R; Ruitenberg, Marc J; McMenamin, Paul G

    2016-08-01

    Under steady-state conditions the central nervous system (CNS) is traditionally thought to be devoid of antigen presenting cells; however, putative dendritic cells (DCs) expressing enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) are present in the retina and brain parenchyma of CD11c-eYFP mice. We previously showed that these mice carry the Crb1(rd8) mutation, which causes retinal dystrophic lesions; therefore we hypothesized that the presence of CD11c-eYFP(+) cells within the CNS may be due to pathology associated with the Crb1(rd8) mutation. We generated CD11c-eYFP Crb1(wt/wt) mice and compared the distribution and immunophenotype of CD11c-eYFP(+) cells in CD11c-eYFP mice with and without the Crb1(rd8) mutation. The number and distribution of CD11c-eYFP(+) cells in the CNS was similar between CD11c-eYFP Crb1(wt/wt) and CD11c-eYFP Crb1(rd8/rd8) mice. CD11c-eYFP(+) cells were distributed throughout the inner retina, and clustered in brain regions that receive input from the external environment or lack a blood-brain barrier. CD11c-eYFP(+) cells within the retina and cerebral cortex of CD11c-eYFP Crb1(wt/wt) mice expressed CD11b, F4/80, CD115 and Iba-1, but not DC or antigen presentation markers, whereas CD11c-eYFP(+) cells within the choroid plexus and pia mater expressed CD11c, I-A/I-E, CD80, CD86, CD103, DEC205, CD8α and CD135. The immunophenotype of CD11c-eYFP(+) cells and microglia within the CNS was similar between CD11c-eYFP Crb1(wt/wt) and CD11c-eYFP Crb1(rd8/rd8) mice; however, CD11c and I-A/I-E expression was significantly increased in CD11c-eYFP Crb1(rd8/rd8) mice. This study demonstrates that the overwhelming majority of CNS CD11c-eYFP(+) cells do not display the phenotype of DCs or their precursors and are most likely a subpopulation of microglia. GLIA 2016. GLIA 2016;64:1331-1349.

  20. Oligodendrocyte precursors migrate along vasculature in the developing nervous system.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hui-Hsin; Niu, Jianqin; Munji, Roeben; Davalos, Dimitrios; Chang, Junlei; Zhang, Haijing; Tien, An-Chi; Kuo, Calvin J; Chan, Jonah R; Daneman, Richard; Fancy, Stephen P J

    2016-01-22

    Oligodendrocytes myelinate axons in the central nervous system and develop from oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) that must first migrate extensively during brain and spinal cord development. We show that OPCs require the vasculature as a physical substrate for migration. We observed that OPCs of the embryonic mouse brain and spinal cord, as well as the human cortex, emerge from progenitor domains and associate with the abluminal endothelial surface of nearby blood vessels. Migrating OPCs crawl along and jump between vessels. OPC migration in vivo was disrupted in mice with defective vascular architecture but was normal in mice lacking pericytes. Thus, physical interactions with the vascular endothelium are required for OPC migration. We identify Wnt-Cxcr4 (chemokine receptor 4) signaling in regulation of OPC-endothelial interactions and propose that this signaling coordinates OPC migration with differentiation. PMID:26798014

  1. Oligodendrocyte precursors migrate along vasculature in the developing nervous system.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hui-Hsin; Niu, Jianqin; Munji, Roeben; Davalos, Dimitrios; Chang, Junlei; Zhang, Haijing; Tien, An-Chi; Kuo, Calvin J; Chan, Jonah R; Daneman, Richard; Fancy, Stephen P J

    2016-01-22

    Oligodendrocytes myelinate axons in the central nervous system and develop from oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) that must first migrate extensively during brain and spinal cord development. We show that OPCs require the vasculature as a physical substrate for migration. We observed that OPCs of the embryonic mouse brain and spinal cord, as well as the human cortex, emerge from progenitor domains and associate with the abluminal endothelial surface of nearby blood vessels. Migrating OPCs crawl along and jump between vessels. OPC migration in vivo was disrupted in mice with defective vascular architecture but was normal in mice lacking pericytes. Thus, physical interactions with the vascular endothelium are required for OPC migration. We identify Wnt-Cxcr4 (chemokine receptor 4) signaling in regulation of OPC-endothelial interactions and propose that this signaling coordinates OPC migration with differentiation.

  2. Hippocampal neurogenesis in the APP/PS1/nestin-GFP triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Q; Zheng, M; Zhang, T; He, G

    2016-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common causes of dementia. Although the exact mechanisms of AD are not entirely clear, the impairment in adult hippocampal neurogenesis has been reported to play a role in AD. To assess the relationship between AD and neurogenesis, we studied APP/PS1/nestin-green fluorescent protein (GFP) triple transgenic mice, a well-characterized mouse model of AD, which express GFP under the control of the nestin promoter. Different ages of AD mice and their wild-type littermates (WT) were used in our study. Immunofluorescent staining showed that neurogenesis occurred mainly in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG) and subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles (LVs). The expression of neural stem cells (NSCs) (nestin) and neural precursors such as doublecortin (DCX) and GFAP in AD mice were decreased with age, as well as there being a reduction in 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells, when compared to WT. However, the number of maturate neurons (NeuN) was not significantly different between AD mice and wild-type controls, and NeuN changed only slightly with age. By Golgi-Cox staining, the morphologies of dendrites were observed, and significant differences existed between AD mice and wild-type controls. These results suggest that AD has a far-reaching influence on the regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, leading to a gradual decrease in the generation of neural progenitors (NPCs), and inhibition of the differentiation and maturation of neurons.

  3. MicroCT and microMRI imaging of a prenatal mouse model of increased brain size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Elisabeth K. N.; Stock, Stuart R.; Taketo, Makoto M.; Chenn, Anjen; Ravosa, Matthew J.

    2008-08-01

    There are surprisingly few experimental models of neural growth and cranial integration. This and the dearth of information regarding fetal brain development detract from a mechanistic understanding of cranial integration and its relevance to the patterning of skull form, specifically the role of encephalization on basicranial flexion. To address this shortcoming, our research uses transgenic mice expressing a stabilized form of β-catenin to isolate the effects of relative brain size on craniofacial development. These mice develop highly enlarged brains due to an increase in neural precursors, and differences between transgenic and wild-type mice are predicted to result solely from variation in brain size. Comparisons of wild-type and transgenic mice at several prenatal ages were performed using microCT (Scanco Medical MicroCT 40) and microMRI (Avance 600 WB MR spectrometer). Statistical analyses show that the larger brain of the transgenic mice is associated with a larger neurocranium and an altered basicranial morphology. However, body size and postcranial ossification do not seem to be affected by the transgene. Comparisons of the rate of postcranial and cranial ossification using microCT also point to an unexpected effect of neural growth on skull development: increased fetal encephalization may result in a compensatory decrease in the level of cranial ossification. Therefore, if other life history factors are held constant, the ontogeny of a metabolically costly structure such as a brain may occur at the expense of other cranial structures. These analyses indicate the benefits of a multifactorial approach to cranial integration using a mouse model.

  4. Mapping Sub-Second Structure in Mouse Behavior.

    PubMed

    Wiltschko, Alexander B; Johnson, Matthew J; Iurilli, Giuliano; Peterson, Ralph E; Katon, Jesse M; Pashkovski, Stan L; Abraira, Victoria E; Adams, Ryan P; Datta, Sandeep Robert

    2015-12-16

    Complex animal behaviors are likely built from simpler modules, but their systematic identification in mammals remains a significant challenge. Here we use depth imaging to show that 3D mouse pose dynamics are structured at the sub-second timescale. Computational modeling of these fast dynamics effectively describes mouse behavior as a series of reused and stereotyped modules with defined transition probabilities. We demonstrate this combined 3D imaging and machine learning method can be used to unmask potential strategies employed by the brain to adapt to the environment, to capture both predicted and previously hidden phenotypes caused by genetic or neural manipulations, and to systematically expose the global structure of behavior within an experiment. This work reveals that mouse body language is built from identifiable components and is organized in a predictable fashion; deciphering this language establishes an objective framework for characterizing the influence of environmental cues, genes and neural activity on behavior. PMID:26687221

  5. Dynamic expression of TrkB receptor protein on proliferating and maturing cells in the adult mouse dentate gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Michael H.; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Eisch, Amelia J.

    2008-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is implicated in regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, presumably via its primary receptor, TrkB, but controversy exists about how BDNF affects neurogenesis (e.g. proliferation vs. survival/differentiation). This controversy arises, in part, due to the lack of information about if and when TrkB is expressed on adult neural precursors in vivo. Using multiple methods to analyze proliferating and maturing cells in the adult mouse subgranular zone (SGZ), we find that the proportion of proliferating cells that are TrkB-IR is low and it remains low for at least one week following BrdU labeling, but increases as neuroblasts mature. Use of the nestin-GFP transgenic mouse revealed the likelihood of being TrkB-IR increased with presumed maturity of the cell type. Stem-like cells, which rarely divide, were likely to express TrkB. However, early progenitors and late progenitors, which are still in the cell cycle had rare TrkB expression. Immature neuroblasts, however, were more likely to express TrkB, especially as their morphology became more mature. Taken together, these findings emphasize that expression of TrkB protein is closely linked to progression towards neuronal maturity. This provides evidence that maturing cells but not proliferating cells in the adult mouse SGZ have the molecular machinery necessary to respond directly to BDNF. Furthermore, these findings lay critical groundwork for further exploration of the role of BDNF-TrkB signaling in regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. PMID:18240316

  6. Multi-omics profile of the mouse dentate gyrus after kainic acid-induced status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Schouten, Marijn; Bielefeld, Pascal; Fratantoni, Silvina A; Hubens, Chantal J; Piersma, Sander R; Pham, Thang V; Voskuyl, Rob A; Lucassen, Paul J; Jimenez, Connie R; Fitzsimons, Carlos P

    2016-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) can develop from alterations in hippocampal structure and circuit characteristics, and can be modeled in mice by administration of kainic acid (KA). Adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) contributes to hippocampal functions and has been reported to contribute to the development of TLE. Some of the phenotypical changes include neural stem and precursor cells (NPSC) apoptosis, shortly after their birth, before they produce hippocampal neurons. Here we explored these early phenotypical changes in the DG 3 days after a systemic injection of KA inducing status epilepticus (KA-SE), in mice. We performed a multi-omics experimental setup and analyzed DG tissue samples using proteomics, transcriptomics and microRNA profiling techniques, detecting the expression of 2327 proteins, 13401 mRNAs and 311 microRNAs. We here present a description of how these data were obtained and make them available for further analysis and validation. Our data may help to further identify and characterize molecular mechanisms involved in the alterations induced shortly after KA-SE in the mouse DG. PMID:27529540

  7. Deletion of lysophosphatidic acid receptor LPA1 reduces neurogenesis in the mouse dentate gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Matas-Rico, Elisa; García-Diaz, Beatriz; Llebrez-Zayas, Pedro; López-Barroso, Diana; Santín, Luis; Pedraza, Carmen; Smith-Fernández, Anibal; Fernández-Llebrez, Pedro; Tellez, Teresa; Redondo; Chun, Jerold; De Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez; Estivill-Torrús, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Neurogenesis persists in certain regions of the adult brain including the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus wherein its regulation is essential, particularly in relation to learning, stress and modulation of mood. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is an extracellular signaling phospholipid with important neural regulatory properties mediated by specific G protein-coupled receptors, LPA1-5. LPA1 is highly expressed in the developing neurogenic ventricular zone wherein it is required for normal embryonic neurogenesis, and, by extension may play a role in adult neurogenesis as well. By means of the analyses of a variant of the original LPA1-null mutant mouse, termed the Malaga variant or “maLPA1-null,” which has recently been reported to have defective neurogenesis within the embryonic cerebral cortex, we report here a role for LPA1 in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Proliferation, differentiation and survival of newly formed neurons are defective in the absence of LPA1 under normal conditions and following exposure to enriched environment and voluntary exercise. Furthermore, analysis of trophic factors in maLPA1-null mice demonstrated alterations in brain-derived neurotrophic factor and insulin growth factor 1 levels after enrichment and exercise. Morphological analyses of doublecortin positive cells revealed the anomalous prevalence of bipolar cells in the subgranular zone, supporting the operation of LPA1 signaling pathways in normal proliferation, maturation and differentiation of neuronal precursors. PMID:18708146

  8. Multi-omics profile of the mouse dentate gyrus after kainic acid-induced status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Schouten, Marijn; Bielefeld, Pascal; Fratantoni, Silvina A.; Hubens, Chantal J.; Piersma, Sander R.; Pham, Thang V.; Voskuyl, Rob A.; Lucassen, Paul J.; Jimenez, Connie R.; Fitzsimons, Carlos P.

    2016-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) can develop from alterations in hippocampal structure and circuit characteristics, and can be modeled in mice by administration of kainic acid (KA). Adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) contributes to hippocampal functions and has been reported to contribute to the development of TLE. Some of the phenotypical changes include neural stem and precursor cells (NPSC) apoptosis, shortly after their birth, before they produce hippocampal neurons. Here we explored these early phenotypical changes in the DG 3 days after a systemic injection of KA inducing status epilepticus (KA-SE), in mice. We performed a multi-omics experimental setup and analyzed DG tissue samples using proteomics, transcriptomics and microRNA profiling techniques, detecting the expression of 2327 proteins, 13401 mRNAs and 311 microRNAs. We here present a description of how these data were obtained and make them available for further analysis and validation. Our data may help to further identify and characterize molecular mechanisms involved in the alterations induced shortly after KA-SE in the mouse DG. PMID:27529540

  9. Leading time domain seismic precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucouvalas, A. C.; Gkasios, M.; Keskebes, A.; Tselikas, N. T.

    2014-08-01

    The problem of predicting the occurrence of earthquakes is threefold. On one hand it is necessary to predict the date and magnitude of an earthquake, and on the other hand the location of the epicenter. In this work after a brief review of the state of earthquake prediction research, we report on a new leading time precursor for determining time onset of earthquake occurrence. We report the linking between earthquakes of the past with those which happen in the future via Fibonacci, Dual and Lucas numbers (FDL) numbers. We demonstrate it here with two example seed earthquakes at least 100 years old. Using this leading indicator method we can predict significant earthquake events >6.5R, with good accuracy approximately +- 1 day somewhere in the world. From a single seed we produce at least 100 trials simultaneously of which 50% are correct to +- 1day. The indicator is based on Fibonacci, Dual and Lucas numbers (FDL). This result hints that the log periodic FDL numbers are at the root of the understanding of the earthquake mechanism. The theory is based on the assumption that each occurred earthquake discontinuity can be thought of as a generating source of FDL time series. (The mechanism could well be linked to planetary orbits). When future dates are derived from clustering and convergence from previous strong earthquake dates at an FDL time distance, then we have a high probability for an earthquake to occur on that date. We set up a real time system which generates FDL time series from each previous significant earthquake (>7R) and we produce a year to year calendar of high probability earthquake dates. We have tested this over a number of years with considerable success. We have applied this technique for strong (>7R) earthquakes across the globe as well as on a restricted region such as the Greek geographic region where the magnitude is small (>4R-6.5R). In both cases the success of the method is impressive. It is our belief that supplementing this method with

  10. Mouse Curve Biometrics

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, Douglas A.

    2007-10-08

    A biometric system suitable for validating user identity using only mouse movements and no specialized equipment is presented. Mouse curves (mouse movements with little or no pause between them) are individually classied and used to develop classication histograms, which are representative of an individual's typical mouse use. These classication histograms can then be compared to validate identity. This classication approach is suitable for providing continuous identity validation during an entire user session.

  11. Building a Brainier Mouse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsien, Joe Z.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a genetic engineering project to build an intelligent mouse. Cites understanding the molecular basis of learning and memory as a very important step. Concludes that while science will never create a genius mouse that plays the stock market, it can turn a mouse into a quick learner with a better memory. (YDS)

  12. Effect of detergents on streptolysin S precursor.

    PubMed

    Calandra, G B

    1980-08-01

    Group A streptococci which produce streptolysin S contain a cellular precursor to streptolysin S in the membranes and cytoplasm which is activatable by blending in a Vortex mixer with glass beads and ribonucleic acid (RNA)-core (RNA preparation from yeast). Although no activation of precursor occurred when it was mixed with detergents, it was activated when blended with glass beads and detergents such as Tergitol NP-40 and Brij 35. Maximum activation of precursor was achieved in 1 to 2% detergent, in pH 6.5 buffer, and after 8 min of blending. Detergents Tween 20, 40, 60, and 80, Brij 56, and Lubrol WX also activated precursor, but, of all the hemolysin preparations, those with Tween 40 or 60 or Lubrol WX were the most stable. The addition of RNA-core during or after blending of precursor with detergents enhanced the titer and stability of the hemolysin. This was due in part to the association of the hemolytic moiety with RNA-core. Activation of precursor in the membrane was better with a detergent, whereas that in the cytoplasm was better with RNA-core. Therefore, precursor from two different cellular locations can be differentiated by the effects of RNA-core and detergents on precursor titer.

  13. Precursors in gas-liquid mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasenko, V. G.; Gorelik, R. S.; Nakoryakov, V. E.; Timkin, L. S.

    2013-10-01

    Two types of precursors propagating at the speed of sound in a pure liquid have been revealed in the experiments on the evolution of pressure pulses in a gas-liquid mixture; at the same time, the main pressure pulse propagates at a low equilibrium speed of sound and its evolution is described by the Burgers-Korteweg-de Vries equation. The first high-frequency precursor is a complete analog of a classical Sommerfeld precursor, because the resonance dispersion equation for a bubble mixture coincides with that for insulators in the Lorentz model, and oscillates at a frequency close to the "plasma frequency." The second low-frequency precursor has been revealed in this work. The frequency of the low-frequency precursor is close to the resonance frequency of pulsations of bubbles, which is almost an order of magnitude lower than the frequency of the high-frequency precursor. The low-frequency precursor has a much larger amplitude of pulsations and smaller damping and is not described within the homogeneous model of the gas-liquid mixture. The observed phenomenon of low-frequency precursors has been explained within a simple heterogeneous model of a bubble liquid.

  14. The Interrelationships of Mathematical Precursors in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cirino, Paul T.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the interrelations among cognitive precursors across quantitative, linguistic, and spatial attention domains that have been implicated for math achievement in young children. The dimensionality of the quantity precursors was evaluated in 286 kindergarteners via latent variable techniques, and the contribution of precursors…

  15. Parallel architectures and neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Calianiello, E.R. )

    1989-01-01

    This book covers parallel computer architectures and neural networks. Topics include: neural modeling, use of ADA to simulate neural networks, VLSI technology, implementation of Boltzmann machines, and analysis of neural nets.

  16. FGF signaling transforms non-neural ectoderm into neural crest.

    PubMed

    Yardley, Nathan; García-Castro, Martín I

    2012-12-15

    The neural crest arises at the border between the neural plate and the adjacent non-neural ectoderm. It has been suggested that both neural and non-neural ectoderm can contribute to the neural crest. Several studies have examined the molecular mechanisms that regulate neural crest induction in neuralized tissues or the neural plate border. Here, using the chick as a model system, we address the molecular mechanisms by which non-neural ectoderm generates neural crest. We report that in response to FGF the non-neural ectoderm can ectopically express several early neural crest markers (Pax7, Msx1, Dlx5, Sox9, FoxD3, Snail2, and Sox10). Importantly this response to FGF signaling can occur without inducing ectopic mesodermal tissues. Furthermore, the non-neural ectoderm responds to FGF by expressing the prospective neural marker Sox3, but it does not express definitive markers of neural or anterior neural (Sox2 and Otx2) tissues. These results suggest that the non-neural ectoderm can launch the neural crest program in the absence of mesoderm, without acquiring definitive neural character. Finally, we report that prior to the upregulation of these neural crest markers, the non-neural ectoderm upregulates both BMP and Wnt molecules in response to FGF. Our results provide the first effort to understand the molecular events leading to neural crest development via the non-neural ectoderm in amniotes and present a distinct response to FGF signaling. PMID:23000357

  17. Convergent extension analysis in mouse whole embryo culture

    PubMed Central

    Pryor, Sophie E.; Massa, Valentina; Savery, Dawn; Greene, Nicholas D. E.; Copp, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Mutations have been identified in a non-canonical Wnt signalling cascade (the planar cell polarity pathway) in several mouse genetic models of severe neural tube defects. In each of these models, neurulation fails to be initiated at the 3-4 somite stage, leading to an almost entirely open neural tube (termed craniorachischisis). Studies in whole embryo culture have identified a defect in the morphogenetic process of convergent extension during gastrulation, preceding the onset of neural tube closure. The principal defect is a failure of midline extension, both in the neural plate and axial mesoderm. This leads to an abnormally wide neural plate in which the elevating neural folds are too far apart to achieve closure. In this chapter, we provide details of several experimental methods that can be used to evaluate convergent extension in cultured mouse embryos. We describe analytical methods that can reveal the abnormalities that characterise neurulation-stage embryos with defective planar cell polarity signalling, in particular the loop-tail (Lp; Vangl2) mutant. PMID:22218898

  18. Method of texturing a superconductive oxide precursor

    DOEpatents

    DeMoranville, Kenneth L.; Li, Qi; Antaya, Peter D.; Christopherson, Craig J.; Riley, Jr., Gilbert N.; Seuntjens, Jeffrey M.

    1999-01-01

    A method of forming a textured superconductor wire includes constraining an elongated superconductor precursor between two constraining elongated members placed in contact therewith on opposite sides of the superconductor precursor, and passing the superconductor precursor with the two constraining members through flat rolls to form the textured superconductor wire. The method includes selecting desired cross-sectional shape and size constraining members to control the width of the formed superconductor wire. A textured superconductor wire formed by the method of the invention has regular-shaped, curved sides and is free of flashing. A rolling assembly for single-pass rolling of the elongated precursor superconductor includes two rolls, two constraining members, and a fixture for feeding the precursor superconductor and the constraining members between the rolls. In alternate embodiments of the invention, the rolls can have machined regions which will contact only the elongated constraining members and affect the lateral deformation and movement of those members during the rolling process.

  19. Parallel Consensual Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benediktsson, J. A.; Sveinsson, J. R.; Ersoy, O. K.; Swain, P. H.

    1993-01-01

    A new neural network architecture is proposed and applied in classification of remote sensing/geographic data from multiple sources. The new architecture is called the parallel consensual neural network and its relation to hierarchical and ensemble neural networks is discussed. The parallel consensual neural network architecture is based on statistical consensus theory. The input data are transformed several times and the different transformed data are applied as if they were independent inputs and are classified using stage neural networks. Finally, the outputs from the stage networks are then weighted and combined to make a decision. Experimental results based on remote sensing data and geographic data are given. The performance of the consensual neural network architecture is compared to that of a two-layer (one hidden layer) conjugate-gradient backpropagation neural network. The results with the proposed neural network architecture compare favorably in terms of classification accuracy to the backpropagation method.

  20. Neural Tube Defects

    MedlinePlus

    Neural tube defects are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They happen in the first month ... she is pregnant. The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. In spina ...

  1. Electrophysiological precursors of social conformity.

    PubMed

    Shestakova, Anna; Rieskamp, Jörg; Tugin, Sergey; Ossadtchi, Alexey; Krutitskaya, Janina; Klucharev, Vasily

    2013-10-01

    Humans often change their beliefs or behavior due to the behavior or opinions of others. This study explored, with the use of human event-related potentials (ERPs), whether social conformity is based on a general performance-monitoring mechanism. We tested the hypothesis that conflicts with a normative group opinion evoke a feedback-related negativity (FRN) often associated with performance monitoring and subsequent adjustment of behavior. The experimental results show that individual judgments of facial attractiveness were adjusted in line with a normative group opinion. A mismatch between individual and group opinions triggered a frontocentral negative deflection with the maximum at 200 ms, similar to FRN. Overall, a conflict with a normative group opinion triggered a cascade of neuronal responses: from an earlier FRN response reflecting a conflict with the normative opinion to a later ERP component (peaking at 380 ms) reflecting a conforming behavioral adjustment. These results add to the growing literature on neuronal mechanisms of social influence by disentangling the conflict-monitoring signal in response to the perceived violation of social norms and the neural signal of a conforming behavioral adjustment.

  2. Electrophysiological precursors of social conformity.

    PubMed

    Shestakova, Anna; Rieskamp, Jörg; Tugin, Sergey; Ossadtchi, Alexey; Krutitskaya, Janina; Klucharev, Vasily

    2013-10-01

    Humans often change their beliefs or behavior due to the behavior or opinions of others. This study explored, with the use of human event-related potentials (ERPs), whether social conformity is based on a general performance-monitoring mechanism. We tested the hypothesis that conflicts with a normative group opinion evoke a feedback-related negativity (FRN) often associated with performance monitoring and subsequent adjustment of behavior. The experimental results show that individual judgments of facial attractiveness were adjusted in line with a normative group opinion. A mismatch between individual and group opinions triggered a frontocentral negative deflection with the maximum at 200 ms, similar to FRN. Overall, a conflict with a normative group opinion triggered a cascade of neuronal responses: from an earlier FRN response reflecting a conflict with the normative opinion to a later ERP component (peaking at 380 ms) reflecting a conforming behavioral adjustment. These results add to the growing literature on neuronal mechanisms of social influence by disentangling the conflict-monitoring signal in response to the perceived violation of social norms and the neural signal of a conforming behavioral adjustment. PMID:22683703

  3. PPARγ Agonists Promote Oligodendrocyte Differentiation of Neural Stem Cells by Modulating Stemness and Differentiation Genes

    PubMed Central

    Kanakasabai, Saravanan; Pestereva, Ecaterina; Chearwae, Wanida; Gupta, Sushil K.; Ansari, Saif; Bright, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are a small population of resident cells that can grow, migrate and differentiate into neuro-glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a nuclear receptor transcription factor that regulates cell growth and differentiation. In this study we analyzed the influence of PPARγ agonists on neural stem cell growth and differentiation in culture. We found that in vitro culture of mouse NSCs in neurobasal medium with B27 in the presence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) induced their growth and expansion as neurospheres. Addition of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and PPARγ agonist ciglitazone or 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-Prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell viability and proliferation of NSCs in culture. Interestingly, NSCs cultured with PPARγ agonists, but not ATRA, showed significant increase in oligodendrocyte precursor-specific O4 and NG2 reactivity with a reduction in NSC marker nestin, in 3–7 days. In vitro treatment with PPARγ agonists and ATRA also induced modest increase in the expression of neuronal β-III tubulin and astrocyte-specific GFAP in NSCs in 3–7 days. Further analyses showed that PPARγ agonists and ATRA induced significant alterations in the expression of many stemness and differentiation genes associated with neuro-glial differentiation in NSCs. These findings highlight the influence of PPARγ agonists in promoting neuro-glial differentiation of NSCs and its significance in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23185633

  4. Neuronal Representation of Ultraviolet Visual Stimuli in Mouse Primary Visual Cortex.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhongchao; Sun, Wenzhi; Chen, Tsai-Wen; Kim, Douglas; Ji, Na

    2015-01-01

    The mouse has become an important model for understanding the neural basis of visual perception. Although it has long been known that mouse lens transmits ultraviolet (UV) light and mouse opsins have absorption in the UV band, little is known about how UV visual information is processed in the mouse brain. Using a custom UV stimulation system and in vivo calcium imaging, we characterized the feature selectivity of layer 2/3 neurons in mouse primary visual cortex (V1). In adult mice, a comparable percentage of the neuronal population responds to UV and visible stimuli, with similar pattern selectivity and receptive field properties. In young mice, the orientation selectivity for UV stimuli increased steadily during development, but not direction selectivity. Our results suggest that, by expanding the spectral window through which the mouse can acquire visual information, UV sensitivity provides an important component for mouse vision. PMID:26219604

  5. Neuronal Representation of Ultraviolet Visual Stimuli in Mouse Primary Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Zhongchao; Sun, Wenzhi; Chen, Tsai-Wen; Kim, Douglas; Ji, Na

    2015-01-01

    The mouse has become an important model for understanding the neural basis of visual perception. Although it has long been known that mouse lens transmits ultraviolet (UV) light and mouse opsins have absorption in the UV band, little is known about how UV visual information is processed in the mouse brain. Using a custom UV stimulation system and in vivo calcium imaging, we characterized the feature selectivity of layer 2/3 neurons in mouse primary visual cortex (V1). In adult mice, a comparable percentage of the neuronal population responds to UV and visible stimuli, with similar pattern selectivity and receptive field properties. In young mice, the orientation selectivity for UV stimuli increased steadily during development, but not direction selectivity. Our results suggest that, by expanding the spectral window through which the mouse can acquire visual information, UV sensitivity provides an important component for mouse vision. PMID:26219604

  6. Nested Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baram, Yoram

    1992-01-01

    Report presents analysis of nested neural networks, consisting of interconnected subnetworks. Analysis based on simplified mathematical models more appropriate for artificial electronic neural networks, partly applicable to biological neural networks. Nested structure allows for retrieval of individual subpatterns. Requires fewer wires and connection devices than fully connected networks, and allows for local reconstruction of damaged subnetworks without rewiring entire network.

  7. Electronic neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, R.E.; Jackel, L.D.; Graf, H.P.

    1988-02-01

    The use of electronic neural networks to handle some complex computing problems is discussed. A simple neural model is shown and discussed in terms of its computational aspects. The use of electronic neural networks in machine pattern recognition and classification and in machine learning is examined. CMOS programmable networks are discussed. 15 references.

  8. Neural tube closure in Xenopus laevis involves medial migration, directed protrusive activity, cell intercalation and convergent extension.

    PubMed

    Davidson, L A; Keller, R E

    1999-10-01

    We have characterized the cell movements and prospective cell identities as neural folds fuse during neural tube formation in Xenopus laevis. A newly developed whole-mount, two-color fluorescent RNA in situ hybridization method, visualized with confocal microscopy, shows that the dorsal neural tube gene xpax3 and the neural-crest-specific gene xslug are expressed far lateral to the medial site of neural fold fusion and that expression moves medially after fusion. To determine whether cell movements or dynamic changes in gene expression are responsible, we used low-light videomicroscopy followed by fluorescent in situ and confocal microscopy. These methods revealed that populations of prospective neural crest and dorsal neural tube cells near the lateral margin of the neural plate at the start of neurulation move to the dorsal midline using distinctive forms of motility. Before fold fusion, superficial neural cells apically contract, roll the neural plate into a trough and appear to pull the superficial epidermal cell sheet medially. After neural fold fusion, lateral deep neural cells move medially by radially intercalating between other neural cells using two types of motility. The neural crest cells migrate as individual cells toward the dorsal midline using medially directed monopolar protrusions. These movements combine the two lateral populations of neural crest into a single medial population that form the roof of the neural tube. The remaining cells of the dorsal neural tube extend protrusions both medially and laterally bringing about radial intercalation of deep and superficial cells to form a single-cell-layered, pseudostratified neural tube. While ours is the first description of medially directed cell migration during neural fold fusion and re-establishment of the neural tube, these complex cell behaviors may be involved during cavitation of the zebrafish neural keel and secondary neurulation in the posterior axis of chicken and mouse.

  9. Spatial and temporal control of cell aggregation efficiently directs human pluripotent stem cells towards neural commitment.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Cláudia C; Fernandes, Tiago G; Pascoal, Jorge F; Haupt, Simone; Brüstle, Oliver; Cabral, Joaquim M S; Diogo, Maria Margarida

    2015-10-01

    3D suspension culture is generally considered a promising method to achieve efficient expansion and controlled differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). In this work, we focused on developing an integrated culture platform for expansion and neural commitment of hPSCs into neural precursors using 3D suspension conditions and chemically-defined culture media. We evaluated different inoculation methodologies for hPSC expansion as 3D aggregates and characterized the resulting cultures in terms of aggregate size distribution. It was demonstrated that upon single-cell inoculation, after four days of culture, 3D aggregates were composed of homogenous populations of hPSC and were characterized by an average diameter of 139 ± 26 μm, which was determined to be the optimal size to initiate neural commitment. Temporal analysis revealed that upon neural specification it is possible to maximize the percentage of neural precursor cells expressing the neural markers Sox1 and Pax6 after nine days of culture. These results highlight our ability to define a robust method for production of hPSC-derived neural precursors that minimizes processing steps and that constitutes a promising alternative to the traditional planar adherent culture system due to a high potential for scaling-up. PMID:25866360

  10. Neural stem cell transplants improve cognitive function without altering amyloid pathology in an APP/PS1 double transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Pei-Jun; Sha, Hong-ying; Ni, Jiong; Li, Ming-hua; Gu, Guo-jun

    2014-10-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are capable of self-renewal and are multipotent. Transplantation of NSCs may represent a promising approach for treating neurodegenerative disorders associated with cognitive decline, such as Alzheimer disease (AD) characterized by extensive loss of neurons. In this study, we investigated the effect of NSC transplantation on cognitive function in the amyloid precursor protein/presenilin-1 (APP/PS1) transgenic mouse, an AD mouse model with age-dependent cognitive deficits. We found that NSCs bilaterally transplanted into hippocampal regions improved spatial learning and memory function in these mice, but did not alter Aβ pathology. Immunohistochemical analyses determined that NSCs proliferated, migrated, and differentiated into three neuronal cell types. The improvement in cognitive function was correlated with enhanced long-term potentiation (LTP) and an increase in the neuron expression of proteins related to cognitive function: N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) 2B unit, synaptophysin (SYP), protein kinase C ζ subtypes (PKCζ), tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Taken together, our data indicated that injected NSCs can rescue cognitive deficits in APP/PS1 transgenic mice by replacing neuronal cell types expressing multiple cognition-related proteins that enhance LTP.

  11. Yeast secretory expression of insulin precursors.

    PubMed

    Kjeldsen, T

    2000-09-01

    Since the 1980s, recombinant human insulin for the treatment of diabetes mellitus has been produced using either the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae or the prokaryote Escherichia coli. Here, development of the insulin secretory expression system in S. cerevisiae and its subsequent optimisation is described. Expression of proinsulin in S. cerevisiae does not result in efficient secretion of proinsulin or insulin. However, expression of a cDNA encoding a proinsulin-like molecule with deletion of threonine(B30) as a fusion protein with the S. cerevisiae alpha-factor prepro-peptide (leader), followed either by replacement of the human proinsulin C-peptide with a small C-peptide (e.g. AAK), or by direct fusion of lysine(B29) to glycine(A1), results in the efficient secretion of folded single-chain proinsulin-like molecules to the culture supernatant. The secreted single-chain insulin precursor can then be purified and subsequently converted to human insulin by tryptic transpeptidation in organic aqueous medium in the presence of a threonine ester. The leader confers secretory competence to the insulin precursor, and constructed (synthetic) leaders have been developed for efficient secretory expression of the insulin precursor in the yeasts S. cerevisiae and Pichia pastories. The Kex2 endoprotease, specific for dibasic sites, cleaves the leader-insulin precursor fusion protein in the late secretory pathway and the folded insulin precursor is secreted to the culture supernatant. However, the Kex2 endoprotease processing of the pro-peptide-insulin precursor fusion protein is incomplete and a significant part of the pro-peptide-insulin precursor fusion protein is secreted to the culture supernatant in a hyperglycosylated form. A spacer peptide localised between the leader and the insulin precursor has been developed to optimise Kex2 endoprotease processing and insulin precursor fermentation yield. PMID:11030562

  12. Expression of human epidermal growth factor pressures cDNA in transfected mouse NIH 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mroczkowski, B.; Reich, M.; Whittaker, J.; Bell, G.I.; Cohen, S.

    1988-01-01

    Stable cell lines expressing the human epidermal growth factor (EGF) precursor have been prepared by transfection of mouse NIH 3T3 cells with a bovine papillomavirus-based vector in which the human kidney EGF precursor cDNA has been placed under the control of the inducible mouse metallothionein I promoter. Synthesis of the EGF precursor can be induced by culturing the cells in 5 mM butyric acid or 100 ..mu..M ZnCl/sub 2/. The EGF precursor synthesized by these cells appears to be membrane associated; none is detectable in the cytoplasm. The size of the EGF precursor expressed